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Sample records for accreting pulsar igr

  1. NuSTAR Discovery of a Cyclotron Line in the Accreting X-Ray Pulsar IGR J16393-4643

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodaghee, Arash; Tomsick, John A.; Fornasini, Francesca M.; Krivonos, Roman; Stern, Daniel; Mori, Kaya; Rahoui, Farid; Boggs, Steven E.; Christensen, Finn E.; Craig, William W.; Hailey, Charles J.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Zhang, William W.

    2016-06-01

    The high-mass X-ray binary and accreting X-ray pulsar IGR J16393-4643 was observed by the Nuclear Spectroscope Telescope Array in the 3-79 keV energy band for a net exposure time of 50 ks. We present the results of this observation which enabled the discovery of a cyclotron resonant scattering feature with a centroid energy of {29.3}-1.3+1.1 keV. This allowed us to measure the magnetic field strength of the neutron star for the first time: B = (2.5 ± 0.1) × 1012 G. The known pulsation period is now observed at 904.0 ± 0.1 s. Since 2006, the neutron star has undergone a long-term spin-up trend at a rate of \\dot{P}=-2× {10}-8 s s-1 (-0.6 s per year, or a frequency derivative of \\dot{ν }=3× {10}-14 Hz s-1). In the power density spectrum, a break appears at the pulse frequency which separates the zero slope at low frequency from the steeper slope at high frequency. This addition of angular momentum to the neutron star could be due to the accretion of a quasi-spherical wind, or it could be caused by the transient appearance of a prograde accretion disk that is nearly in corotation with the neutron star whose magnetospheric radius is around 2 × 108 cm.

  2. X-RAY AND NEAR-INFRARED OBSERVATIONS OF THE OBSCURED ACCRETING PULSAR IGR J18179-1621

    SciTech Connect

    Nowak, M. A.; Paizis, A.; Rodriguez, J.; Chaty, S.; Grinberg, V.; Wilms, J.; Chini, R. E-mail: ada@iasf-milano.inaf.it

    2012-10-01

    IGR J18179-1621 is an obscured accreting X-ray pulsar discovered by INTEGRAL on 2012 February 29. We report on our 20 ks Chandra-High Energy Transmission Gratings Spectrometer observation of the source performed on 2012 March 17, on two short contemporaneous Swift observations, and on our two near-infrared (K{sub s} , H{sub n} , and J{sub n} ) observations performed on 2012 March 13 and 26. We determine the most accurate X-ray position of IGR J18179-1621, {alpha}{sub J2000} = 18{sup h}17{sup m}52.{sup s}18, {delta}{sub J2000} = -16 Degree-Sign 21'31.''68 (90% uncertainty of 0.''6). A strong periodic variability at 11.82 s is clearly detected in the Chandra data, confirming the pulsating nature of the source, with the light-curve softening at the pulse peak. The quasi-simultaneous Chandra-Swift spectra of IGR J18179-1621 can be well fit by a heavily absorbed hard power law (N{sub H} = 2.2 {+-} 0.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 23} cm{sup -2} and photon index {Gamma} = 0.4 {+-} 0.1) with an average absorbed 2-8 keV flux of 1.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -11} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. At the Chandra-based position, a source is detected in our near-infrared (NIR) maps with K{sub s} 13.14 {+-} 0.04 mag, H{sub n} = 16 {+-} 0.1 mag, and no J{sub n} -band counterpart down to {approx}18 mag. The NIR source, compatible with 2MASS J18175218-1621316, shows no variability between 2012 March 13 and 26. Searches of the UKIDSS database show similar NIR flux levels at epochs six months prior to and after a 2007 February 11 archival Chandra observation where the source's X-ray flux was at least 87 times fainter. In many ways IGR J18179-1621 is unusual: its combination of a several week long outburst (without evidence of repeated outbursts in the historical record), high absorption column (a large fraction of which is likely local to the system), and 11.82 s period does not fit neatly into existing X-ray binary categories.

  3. IMPLICATIONS OF BURST OSCILLATIONS FROM THE SLOWLY ROTATING ACCRETING PULSAR IGR J17480-2446 IN THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER TERZAN 5

    SciTech Connect

    Cavecchi, Y.; Patruno, A.; Haskell, B.; Watts, A. L.; Altamirano, D.; Wijnands, R.; Van der Klis, M.; Levin, Y.; Linares, M.

    2011-10-10

    The recently discovered accreting X-ray pulsar IGR J17480-2446 spins at a frequency of {approx}11 Hz. We show that Type I X-ray bursts from this source display oscillations at the same frequency as the stellar spin. IGR J17480-2446 is the first secure case of a slowly rotating neutron star (NS) which shows Type I burst oscillations (BOs), all other sources featuring such oscillations spin at hundreds of Hertz. This means that we can test BO models in a completely different regime. We explore the origin of Type I BOs in IGR J17480-2446 and conclude that they are not caused by global modes in the NS ocean. We also show that the Coriolis force is not able to confine an oscillation-producing hot spot on the stellar surface. The most likely scenario is that the BOs are produced by a hot spot confined by hydromagnetic stresses.

  4. Thermonuclear X-ray bursts from the 401-Hz accreting pulsar IGR J17498-2921: indication of burning in confined regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Manoneeta; Bhattacharyya, Sudip

    2012-05-01

    We use the 2011 Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) Proportional Counter Array (PCA) data of the 401-Hz accreting pulsar and burster IGR J17498-2921 to perform timing analysis and time-resolved spectroscopy of 12 thermonuclear X-ray bursts. We confirm previously reported burst oscillations from this source with a much higher significance (8.8σ). We note that the bursts can be divided into three groups: big photospheric radius expansion (PRE) bursts are about 10 times more luminous than medium bursts, while the latter are about 10 times more luminous than small bursts. The PCA field of view of these observations contains several known bursters, and hence some of the observed bursts might not be from IGR J17498-2921. The oscillations during big bursts at the known pulsar frequency show that these bursts were definitely from IGR J17498-2921. We find that at least several of the other bursts were also likely originated from IGR J17498-2921. Spectral analysis reveals that the luminosity differences among various bursts are primarily due to differences in normalizations, and not temperatures, even when we consider the effects of colour factor. This shows burning on a fraction of the stellar surface for those small and medium bursts, which originated from IGR J17498-2921. The low values of the upper limits of burst oscillation amplitude for these bursts suggest a small angle between the spin axis and the magnetic axis. We find indications of the PRE nature of a medium burst, which likely originated from IGR J17498-2921. If true, then, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that two PRE bursts with a peak count rate ratio of as high as ≈12 have been detected from the same source.

  5. Possible Twin kHz Quasi-periodic Oscillations in the Accreting Millisecond X-ray Pulsar IGR J17511-3057

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalamkar, Maithili; Altamirano, Diego; van der Klis, M.

    2011-03-01

    We report on the aperiodic X-ray timing and color behavior of the accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar (AMXP) IGR J17511-3057, using all the pointed observations obtained with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array since the source's discovery on 2009 September 12. The source can be classified as an atoll source on the basis of the color and timing characteristics. It was in the hard state during the entire outburst. In the beginning and at the end of the outburst, the source exhibited what appear to be twin kHz quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs). The separation Δν between the twin QPOs is ~120 Hz. Contrary to expectations for slow rotators, instead of being close to the 244.8 Hz spin frequency, it is close to half the spin frequency. However, identification of the QPOs is not certain as the source does not fit perfectly in the existing scheme of correlations of aperiodic variability frequencies seen in neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries (NS LMXBs), nor can a single shift factor make it fit as has been reported for other AMXPs. These results indicate that IGR J17511-3057 is a unique source differing from other AMXPs and could play a key role in advancing our understanding of not only AMXPs, but also of NS LMXBs in general.

  6. NuSTAR discovers a cyclotron line and reveals the spinning up of the accreting X-ray pulsar IGR J16393-4643

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodaghee, Arash; Tomsick, John; Fornasini, Francesca; Krivonos, Roman; Stern, Daniel; Mori, Kaya; Rahoui, Farid; Boggs, Steven E.; Christensen, Finn; Craig, William W.; Hailey, Charles James; Harrison, Fiona; Zhang, William

    2016-04-01

    After several misclassifications, IGR J16393-4643 is now known to be a high-mass X-ray binary consisting of a heavily-absorbed pulsar that is likely paired with a massive and distant B star. It was observed for 50-ks by NuSTAR in the 3--79 keV energy band, complemented by a contemporaneous 2-ks observation with Swift-XRT. These observations enabled the discovery of a cyclotron resonant scattering feature with a centroid energy of 29.3(+1.1/-1.3) keV. This allowed us to measure the magnetic field strength of the neutron star for the first time: B = (2.5±0.1)×1012 G. The known pulsation period is now observed at 904.0±0.1 s. Since 2006, the neutron star has undergone a long-term spin-up trend at a rate of dP/dt = -2×10-8 s s-1 (-0.6 s per year, or a frequency derivative of dν/dt = 3×10-14 Hz s-1). In the power density spectrum, a break appears at the pulse frequency which separates the zero slope at low frequency from the steeper slope at high frequency. This addition of angular momentum to the neutron star could be due to the accretion of a quasi-spherical wind, or it could be caused by the transient appearance of a prograde accretion disk that is nearly in corotation with the neutron star whose magnetospheric radius is around 2×108 cm.

  7. Classical Accreting Pulsars with NICER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.

    2014-01-01

    Soft excesses are very common center dot Lx > 1038 erg/s - reprocessing by optically thick material at the inner edge of the accretion disk center dot Lx < 1036 erg/s - photoionized or collisionally heated diffuse gas or thermal emission from the NS surface center dot Lx 1037 erg/s - either or both types of emission center dot NICER observations of soft excesses in bright X-ray pulsars combined with reflection modeling will constrain the ionization state, metalicity and dynamics of the inner edge of the magnetically truncated accretion disk Reflection models of an accretion disk for a hard power law - Strong soft excess below 3 keV from hot X-ray heated disk - For weakly ionized case: strong recombination lines - Are we seeing changes in the disk ionization in 4U1626-26? 13 years of weekly monitoring with RXTE PCA center dot Revealed an unexpectedly large population of Be/X-ray binaries compared to the Milky Way center dot Plotted luminosities are typical of "normal" outbursts (once per orbit) center dot The SMC provides an excellent opportunity to study a homogenous population of HMXBs with low interstellar absorption for accretion disk studies. Monitoring with NICER will enable studies of accretion disk physics in X-ray pulsars center dot The SMC provides a potential homogeneous low-absorption population for this study center dot NICER monitoring and TOO observations will also provide measurements of spinfrequencies, QPOs, pulsed fluxes, and energy spectra.

  8. A CHANDRA OBSERVATION OF THE BURSTING MILLISECOND X-RAY PULSAR IGR J17511-3057

    SciTech Connect

    Paizis, A.; Nowak, M. A.; Rodriguez, J.; Chaty, S.; Del Santo, M.; Ubertini, P. E-mail: mnowak@space.mit.edu

    2012-08-10

    IGR J17511-3057 is a low-mass X-ray binary hosting a neutron star and is one of the few accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars with X-ray bursts. We report on a 20 ks Chandra grating observation of IGR J17511-3057, performed on 2009 September 22. We determine the most accurate X-ray position of IGR J17511-3057, {alpha}{sub J2000} = 17{sup h}51{sup m}08.{sup s}66, {delta}{sub J2000} = -30 Degree-Sign 57'41.''0 (90% uncertainty of 0.''6). During the observation, a {approx}54 s long type-I X-ray burst is detected. The persistent (non-burst) emission has an absorbed 0.5-8 keV luminosity of 1.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 36} erg s{sup -1} (at 6.9 kpc) and can be well described by a thermal Comptonization model of soft, {approx}0.6 keV, seed photons upscattered by a hot corona. The type-I X-ray burst spectrum, with average luminosity over the 54 s duration L{sub 0.5-8{sub keV}} = 1.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 37} erg s{sup -1}, can be well described by a blackbody with kT{sub bb} {approx} 1.6 keV and R{sub bb} {approx} 5 km. While an evolution in temperature of the blackbody can be appreciated throughout the burst (average peak kT{sub bb} = 2.5{sup +0.8}{sub -0.4} keV to tail kT{sub bb} = 1.3{sup +0.2}{sub -0.1} keV), the relative emitting surface shows no evolution. The overall persistent and type-I burst properties observed during the Chandra observation are consistent with what was previously reported during the 2009 outburst of IGR J17511-3057.

  9. A DOUBLE OUTBURST FROM IGR J00291+5934: IMPLICATIONS FOR ACCRETION DISK INSTABILITY THEORY

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, Jacob M.; Galloway, Duncan K.; Chakrabarty, Deepto

    2011-01-01

    The accretion-powered millisecond pulsar IGR J00291+5934 underwent two {approx}10 day long outbursts during 2008, separated by 30 days in quiescence. Such a short quiescent period between outbursts has never been seen before from a neutron star X-ray transient. X-ray pulsations at the 599 Hz spin frequency are detected throughout both outbursts. For the first time, we derive a pulse phase model that connects two outbursts, providing a long baseline for spin frequency measurement. Comparison with the frequency measured during the 2004 outburst of this source gives a spin-down during quiescence of -(4 {+-} 1) x 10{sup -15} Hz s{sup -1}, approximately an order of magnitude larger than the long-term spin-down observed in the 401 Hz accretion-powered pulsar SAX J1808.4-3658. If this spin-down is due to magnetic dipole radiation, it requires a 2 x 10{sup 8} G field strength, and its high spin-down luminosity may be detectable with the Fermi Large Area Telescope. Alternatively, this large spin-down could be produced by gravitational wave emission from a fractional mass quadrupole moment of Q/I = 1 x 10{sup -9}. The rapid succession of the outbursts also provides a unique test of models for accretion in low-mass X-ray binaries. Disk instability models generally predict that an outburst will leave the accretion disk too depleted to fuel a second outburst after such a brief quiescence. We suggest a modification in which the outburst is shut off by the onset of a propeller effect before the disk is depleted. This model can explain the short quiescence and the unusually slow rise of the light curve of the second 2008 outburst.

  10. Electromagnetic Spindown of a Transient Accreting Millisecond Pulsar During Quiescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melatos, A.; Mastrano, A.

    2016-02-01

    The measured spindown rates in quiescence of the transient accreting millisecond pulsars IGR J00291+5934, XTE J1751-305, SAX J1808.4-3658, and Swift J1756.9-2508 have been used to estimate the magnetic moments of these objects assuming standard magnetic dipole braking. It is shown that this approach leads to an overestimate if the amount of residual accretion is enough to distort the magnetosphere away from a force-free configuration through magnetospheric mass loading or crushing, so that the lever arm of the braking torque migrates inside the light cylinder. We derive an alternative spindown formula and calculate the residual accretion rates where the formula is applicable. As a demonstration we apply the alternative spindown formula to produce updated magnetic moment estimates for the four objects above. We note that based on current uncertain observations of quiescent accretion rates, magnetospheric mass loading and crushing are neither firmly indicated nor ruled out in these four objects. Because quiescent accretion rates are not measured directly (only upper limits are placed), without more data it is impossible to be confident about whether the thresholds for magnetospheric mass loading or crushing are reached or not.

  11. Accreting X-ray Pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation describes the behavior of matter in environments with extreme magnetic and gravitational fields, explains the instability/stability of accretion disks in certain systems, and discusses how emergent radiation affects accretion flow. Magnetic field measurements are obtained by measuring the lowest cyclotron absorption line energy, observing the cutoff of accretion due to centrifugal inhibition and measuring the spin-up rate at high luminosity.

  12. Orbit Solution for the Millisecond Pulsar IGR J00291+5934

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markwardt, C. B.; Galloway, D. K.; Chakrabarty, D.; Morgan, E. H.; Strohmayer, T. E.

    2004-12-01

    The INTEGRAL Transient IGR J00291+5934 (ATEL #352), now known to be a 1.67 millisecond X-ray pulsar (ATEL #353), was observed by the RXTE PCA on Dec 5 and 6. The source has decayed to approximately 27 mCrab (2-10 keV). The data were barycentered using the Fox & Kulkarni optical counterpart position (ATEL #354). Pulsations with a sinusoidal frequency modulation are clearly detected in each observation.

  13. IS IGR J11014-6103 A PULSAR WITH THE HIGHEST KNOWN KICK VELOCITY?

    SciTech Connect

    Tomsick, John A.; Bodaghee, Arash; Fornasini, Francesca; Rodriguez, Jerome; Chaty, Sylvain; Rahoui, Farid

    2012-05-10

    We report on Chandra X-ray and Parkes radio observations of IGR J11014-6103, which is a possible pulsar wind nebula with a complex X-ray morphology and a likely radio counterpart. With the superb angular resolution of Chandra, we find evidence that a portion of the extended emission may be related to a bow shock due to the putative pulsar moving through the interstellar medium. The inferred direction of motion is consistent with IGR J11014-6103 having been born in the event that produced the supernova remnant (SNR) MSH 11-61A. If this association is correct, then previous constraints on the expansion of MSH 11-61A imply a transverse velocity for IGR J11014-6103 of 2400-2900 km s{sup -1}, depending on the SNR model used. This would surpass the kick velocities of any known pulsars and rival or surpass the velocities of any compact objects that are associated with SNRs. While it is important to confirm the nature of the source, our radio pulsation search did not yield a detection.

  14. A FAST X-RAY DISK WIND IN THE TRANSIENT PULSAR IGR J17480-2446 IN TERZAN 5

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Jon M.; Maitra, Dipankar; Cackett, Edward M.; Bhattacharyya, Sudip; Strohmayer, Tod E.

    2011-04-10

    Accretion disk winds are revealed in Chandra gratings spectra of black holes. The winds are hot and highly ionized (typically composed of He-like and H-like charge states) and show modest blueshifts. Similar line spectra are sometimes seen in 'dipping' low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), which are likely viewed edge-on; however, that absorption is tied to structures in the outer disk, and blueshifts are not typically observed. Here, we report the detection of blueshifted He-like Fe XXV (3100 {+-} 400 km s{sup -1}) and H-like Fe XXVI (1000 {+-} 200 km s{sup -1}) absorption lines in a Chandra/HETG spectrum of the transient pulsar and LMXB IGR J17480-2446 in Terzan 5. These features indicate a disk wind with at least superficial similarities to those observed in stellar-mass black holes. The wind does not vary strongly with numerous weak X-ray bursts or flares. A broad Fe K emission line is detected in the spectrum, and fits with different line models suggest that the inner accretion disk in this system may be truncated. If the stellar magnetic field truncates the disk, a field strength of B= (0.7-4.0)x10{sup 9} G is implied, which is in line with estimates based on X-ray timing techniques. We discuss our findings in the context of accretion flows onto neutron stars and stellar-mass black holes.

  15. Cyclotron Resonance in Accreting Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Dipankar

    2016-07-01

    Cyclotron Resonance Absorption/Scattering features provide direct measurement of magnetic field strength in the line forming region. This has enabled the estimation of magnetic field strengths of nearly two dozen neutron stars in accreting high mass binary systems. With improved spectroscopic sensitivity, new X-ray observatories such as NuSTAR, Astrosat and Hitomi are opening the doors to studying detailed features such as the line shape and phase dependence with high significance. Such studies will help understand the nature of matter accumulation in, and outflow from, the magnetically confined accretion column on the neutron star. This talk will describe the results of MHD simulations of the matter flow in such systems, the diagnostics of such flows using cyclotron lines, and comparison with recent observations from NuSTAR and Astrosat.

  16. INTEGRAL and XMM-Newton Observations of the X-Ray Pulsar IGR J16320-4751/AX J1691.9-4752

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez, J.; Bodaghee, A.; Kaaret, P.; Tomsick, J. A.; Kuulkers, E.; Malaguti, G.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Cabanac, C.; Chernyakova, M.; Corbel, S.; Deluit, S.; DiCocco, G.; Ebisawa, K.; Goldwurm, A.; Henri, G.; Lebrun, F.; Paizis, A.; Walter, R.; Foschini, L.

    2006-01-01

    We report on observations of the X-ray pulsar IGR J16320-4751 (also known as AX J1631.9-4752) performed simultaneously with International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) and XMM-Newton. We refine the source position and identify the most likely infrared counterpart. Our simultaneous coverage allows us to confirm the presence of X-ray pulsations at approximately 1300 s, that we detect above 20 keV with INTEGRAL for the first time. The pulse fraction is consistent with being constant with energy, which is compatible with a model of polar accretion by a pulsar. We study the spectral properties of IGR J16320-4751 during two major periods occurring during the simultaneous coverage with both satellites, namely a flare and a non-flare period. We detect the presence of a narrow 6.4 keV iron line in both periods. The presence of such a feature is typical of supergiant wind accretors such as Vela X-1 or GX 301-2. We inspect the spectral variations with respect to the pulse phase during the non-flare period, and show that the pulse is solely due to variations of the X-ray flux emitted by the source and not due to variations of the spectral parameters. Our results are therefore compatible with the source being a pulsar in a High Mass X-ray Binary. We detect a soft excess appearing in the spectra as a blackbody with a temperature of approximately 0.07 keV. We discuss the origin of the X-ray emission in IGR J16320-4751: while the hard X-rays are likely the result of Compton emission produced in the close vicinity of the pulsar, based on energy argument we suggest that the soft excess is likely the emission by a collisionally energized cloud in which the compact object is embedded.

  17. IGR J17361-4441: a possible new accreting X-ray binary in NGC 6388

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozzo, E.; Ferrigno, C.; Stevens, J.; Belloni, T. M.; Rodriguez, J.; den Hartog, P. R.; Papitto, A.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Fontani, F.; Gibaud, L.

    2011-11-01

    IGR J17361-4441 is a newly discovered INTEGRAL hard X-ray transient, located in the globular cluster NGC 6388. We report here the results of the X-ray and radio observations performed with Swift, INTEGRAL, RXTE, and the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) after the discovery of the source on 2011 August 11. In the X-ray domain, IGR J17361-4441 showed virtually constant flux and spectral parameters up to 18 days from the onset of the outburst. The broad-band (0.5-100 keV) spectrum of the source could be reasonably well described by using an absorbed power-law component with a high energy cut-off (NH ≃ 0.8 × 1022 cm-2, Γ ≃ 0.7-1.0, and Ecut ≃ 25 keV) and displayed some evidence of a soft component below ~2 keV. No coherent timing features were found in the RXTE data. The ATCA observation did not detect significant radio emission from IGR J17361-4441, and provided the most stringent upper limit (rms 14.1 μJy at 5.5 GHz) to date on the presence of any radio source close to the NGC 6388 center of gravity. The improved position of IGR J17361-4441 in outburst determined from a recent target of opportunity observation with Chandra, together with the X-ray flux and radio upper limits measured in the direction of the source, argue against its association with the putative intermediate-mass black hole residing in the globular cluster and with the general hypothesis that the INTEGRAL source is a black hole candidate. IGR J17361-4441 might be more likely a new X-ray binary hosting an accreting neutron star. The ATCA radio non-detection also permits us to derive an upper limit to the mass of the suspected intermediate massive black hole in NGC 6388 of ≲ 600 M⊙. This is a factor of 2.5 lower than the limit reported previously.

  18. Observations of Accreting Pulsars with the FERMI-GBM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen

    2012-01-01

    The Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on-board Fermi comprises 12 NaI detectors spanning the 8-1000 keV band and 2 BGO detectors spanning the 100 keV to 40 MeV band. These detectors view the entire unocculted sky, providing long (approximately 40 ks/day) observations of accreting pulsars daily, which allow long-term monitoring of spin-frequencies and pulsed uxes via epoch-folded searches plus daily blind searches for new pulsars. Phase averaged uxes can be measured using the Earth occultation technique. In this talk I will present highlights of GBM accretion-powered pulsar monitoring such as the discovery of a torque reversal in 4U1626-67, a high-energy QPO in A0535+26, and evidence for a stable accretion disk in OAO 1657-415.

  19. Analyzing the Spectra of Accreting X-Ray Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, Michael

    This proposal seeks funding for the analysis of accretion-powered X-ray pulsar spectra from NASA/ HEASARC archived X-ray data. Spectral modeling of accreting X-ray pulsars can tell us a great deal about the physical conditions in and near high mass X-ray binary systems. Such systems have accretion flows where plasma is initially channeled from an accretion disk by the strong neutron star magnetic field, eventually falling onto the magnetic polar cap of the neutron star compact object. Many of these accreting X-ray pulsars have X-ray spectra that consist of broad power-law continua with superposed cyclotron resonant scattering features indicating magnetic field strengths above 10^12 G. The energies of these cyclotron line features have recently been shown to vary with X-ray luminosity in a number of sources such as Her X-1 and V 0332+53, a phenomenon not well understood. Another recent development is the relatively new analytic model for the spectral continuum formation in accretion-powered pulsar systems developed by Becker & Wolff. In their formalism the accretion flows are assumed to go through radiation- dominated radiative shocks and settle onto the neutron star surface. The radiation field consists of strongly Comptonized bremsstrahlung emission from the entire plasma, Comptonized cyclotron emission from the de-excitations of Landau-excited electrons in the neutron star magnetic field, and Comptonized black-body emission from a thermal mound near the neutron star surface. We seek to develop the data analysis tools to apply this model framework to the X-ray data from a wide set of sources to make progress characterizing the basic accretion properties (e.g., magnetic field strength, plasma temperatures, polar cap size, accretion rate per unit area, dominance of bulk vs. thermal Comptonization) as well as understanding the variations of the cyclotron line energies with X-ray luminosity. The three major goals of our proposed work are as follows: In the first year

  20. Quasispherical subsonic accretion in X-ray pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakura, Nikolai I.; Postnov, Konstantin A.; Kochetkova, A. Yu; Hjalmarsdotter, L.

    2013-04-01

    A theoretical model is considered for quasispherical subsonic accretion onto slowly rotating magnetized neutron stars. In this regime, the accreting matter settles down subsonically onto the rotating magnetosphere, forming an extended quasistatic shell. Angular momentum transfer in the shell occurs via large-scale convective motions resulting, for observed pulsars, in an almost iso-angular-momentum \\omega \\sim 1/R^2 rotation law inside the shell. The accretion rate through the shell is determined by the ability of the plasma to enter the magnetosphere due to Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities, with allowance for cooling. A settling accretion regime is possible for moderate accretion rates \\dot M \\lesssim \\dot M_* \\simeq 4\\times 10^{16} g s ^{-1}. At higher accretion rates, a free-fall gap above the neutron star magnetosphere appears due to rapid Compton cooling, and the accretion becomes highly nonstationary. Observations of spin-up/spin-down rates of quasispherically wind accreting equilibrium X-ray pulsars with known orbital periods (e.g., GX 301-2 and Vela X-1) enable us to determine the main dimensionless parameters of the model, as well as to estimate surface magnetic field of the neutron star. For equilibrium pulsars, the independent measurements of the neutron star magnetic field allow for an estimate of the stellar wind velocity of the optical companion without using complicated spectroscopic measurements. For nonequilibrium pulsars, a maximum value is shown to exist for the spin-down rate of the accreting neutron star. From observations of the spin-down rate and the X-ray luminosity in such pulsars (e.g., GX 1+4, SXP 1062, and 4U 2206+54), a lower limit can be put on the neutron star magnetic field, which in all cases turns out to be close to the standard value and which agrees with cyclotron line measurements. Furthermore, both explains the spin-up/spin-down of the pulsar frequency on large time-scales and also accounts for the irregular short

  1. THE PECULIAR EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY OF IGR J17480-2446 IN TERZAN 5

    SciTech Connect

    Patruno, Alessandro; Alpar, M. Ali; Van der Klis, Michiel; Van den Heuvel, Ed P. J.

    2012-06-10

    The low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) IGR J17480-2446 in the globular cluster Terzan 5 harbors an 11 Hz accreting pulsar. This is the first object discovered in a globular cluster with a pulsar spinning at such low rate. The accreting pulsar is anomalous because its characteristics are very different from the other five known slow accreting pulsars in galactic LMXBs. Many features of the 11 Hz pulsar are instead very similar to those of accreting millisecond pulsars, spinning at frequencies >100 Hz. Understanding this anomaly is valuable because IGR J17480-2446 could be the only accreting pulsar discovered so far which is in the process of becoming an accreting millisecond pulsar. We first verify that the neutron star (NS) in IGR J17480-2446 is indeed spinning up by carefully analyzing X-ray data with coherent timing techniques that account for the presence of timing noise. We then study the present Roche lobe overflow epoch and the two previous spin-down epochs dominated by magneto-dipole radiation and stellar wind accretion. We find that IGR J17480-2446 is very likely a mildly recycled pulsar and suggest that it has started a spin-up phase in an exceptionally recent time, which has lasted less than a few 10{sup 7} yr. We also find that the total age of the binary is surprisingly low ({approx}< 10{sup 8} yr) when considering typical parameters for the newborn NS and propose different scenarios to explain this anomaly.

  2. Self consistent modeling of accretion columns in accretion powered pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falkner, Sebastian; Schwarm, Fritz-Walter; Wolff, Michael Thomas; Becker, Peter A.; Wilms, Joern

    2016-04-01

    We combine three physical models to self-consistently derive the observed flux and pulse profiles of neutron stars' accretion columns. From the thermal and bulk Comptonization model by Becker & Wolff (2006) we obtain seed photon continua produced in the dense inner regions of the accretion column. In a thin outer layer these seed continua are imprinted with cyclotron resonant scattering features calculated using Monte Carlo simulations. The observed phase and energy dependent flux corresponding to these emission profiles is then calculated, taking relativistic light bending into account. We present simulated pulse profiles and the predicted dependency of the observable X-ray spectrum as a function of pulse phase.

  3. Multiwavelength study of accretion-powered pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nespoli, Elisa

    2010-11-01

    of systems. In this way I followed both a model-independent (CD/HID) and model-dependent approach (spectral fits) to investigate the rapid aperiodic variability as a function of spectral sates in HMXBs. I obtained lightcurves, energy and power spectra for a total number of 320 observations. From X-ray colors, spectral and timing fitting, I clearly identified in all the four systems two different spectral states, i.e. the Diagonal Branch (DB) and Horizontal Branch (HB). The HB corresponds to a lower-flux state, with larger rms than the DB. Also, the power-law photon index decreases with flux in the HB, while stays constant or increases in the DB. The HB shows lower characteristic frequencies of the noise components than in the DB. The cyclotron resonant scattering features are generally associated with the DB, while absent or weaker during the DB. We showed how the transition between the two states may correspond to the transition from the standing shock emission to the thermal mound emission due to the turning point from super-Eddington luminosity regime (DB) to sub-Eddington luminosity regime (HB). From color, spectral and timing point of view, differences among systems easily distinguishes two subgroups, with the slower pulsars, KS 1947+300 and EXO2030+375, on one side, and the faster ones, 4U 0115+63 and V 0332+53, on the other. The first group is characterized by softer spectra in the HB compared with the other systems. Hysteresis is not observed in the slower pulsars, while it is evident in V 0332+53 and 4U 0115+63. Cyclotron resonant scattering features are crucial in the spectral shape of V 0332+53 and 4U 0115+63, where also a harmonic is observed in the 3-30 keV energy range. They are instead absent or very weak in the first group. According to timing features, a strong difference between the two groups is the presence of QPOs in the faster pulsars.

  4. Low-frequency Quasi-periodic Oscillation from the 11 Hz Accreting Pulsar in Terzan 5: Not Frame Dragging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altamirano, D.; Ingram, A.; van der Klis, M.; Wijnands, R.; Linares, M.; Homan, J.

    2012-11-01

    We report on six RXTE observations taken during the 2010 outburst of the 11 Hz accreting pulsar IGR J17480-2446 located in the globular cluster Terzan 5. During these observations we find power spectra which resemble those seen in Z-type high-luminosity neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries, with a quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) in the 35-50 Hz range simultaneous with a kHz QPO and broadband noise. Using well-known frequency-frequency correlations, we identify the 35-50 Hz QPOs as the horizontal branch oscillations, which were previously suggested to be due to Lense-Thirring (LT) precession. As IGR J17480-2446 spins more than an order of magnitude more slowly than any of the other neutron stars where these QPOs were found, this QPO cannot be explained by frame dragging. By extension, this casts doubt on the LT precession model for other low-frequency QPOs in neutron stars and perhaps even black hole systems.

  5. LOW-FREQUENCY QUASI-PERIODIC OSCILLATION FROM THE 11 Hz ACCRETING PULSAR IN TERZAN 5: NOT FRAME DRAGGING

    SciTech Connect

    Altamirano, D.; Van der Klis, M.; Wijnands, R.; Ingram, A.; Linares, M.; Homan, J.

    2012-11-01

    We report on six RXTE observations taken during the 2010 outburst of the 11 Hz accreting pulsar IGR J17480-2446 located in the globular cluster Terzan 5. During these observations we find power spectra which resemble those seen in Z-type high-luminosity neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries, with a quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) in the 35-50 Hz range simultaneous with a kHz QPO and broadband noise. Using well-known frequency-frequency correlations, we identify the 35-50 Hz QPOs as the horizontal branch oscillations, which were previously suggested to be due to Lense-Thirring (LT) precession. As IGR J17480-2446 spins more than an order of magnitude more slowly than any of the other neutron stars where these QPOs were found, this QPO cannot be explained by frame dragging. By extension, this casts doubt on the LT precession model for other low-frequency QPOs in neutron stars and perhaps even black hole systems.

  6. Measuring the stellar wind parameters in IGR J17544-2619 and Vela X-1 constrains the accretion physics in supergiant fast X-ray transient and classical supergiant X-ray binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giménez-García, A.; Shenar, T.; Torrejón, J. M.; Oskinova, L.; Martínez-Núñez, S.; Hamann, W.-R.; Rodes-Roca, J. J.; González-Galán, A.; Alonso-Santiago, J.; González-Fernández, C.; Bernabeu, G.; Sander, A.

    2016-06-01

    two stars is their terminal velocities (ν∞ = 1500 km s-1 in IGR J17544-2619 and ν∞ = 700 km s-1 in Vela X-1), which have important consequences on the X-ray luminosity of these sources. Conclusions: The donors of IGR J17544-2619 and Vela X-1 have similar spectral types as well as similar parameters that physically characterize them and their spectra. In addition, the orbital parameters of the systems are similar too, with a nearly circular orbit and short orbital period. However, they show moderate differences in their stellar wind velocity and the spin period of their neutron star which has a strong impact on the X-ray luminosity of the sources. This specific combination of wind speed and pulsar spin favors an accretion regime with a persistently high luminosity in Vela X-1, while it favors an inhibiting accretion mechanism in IGR J17544-2619. Our study demonstrates that the relative wind velocity is critical in class determination for the HMXBs hosting a supergiant donor, given that it may shift the accretion mechanism from direct accretion to propeller regimes when combined with other parameters.

  7. Durability of the accretion disk of millisecond pulsars.

    PubMed

    Michel, F C; Dessler, A J

    1985-05-24

    Pulsars with pulsation periods in the millisecond range are thought to be neutron stars that have acquired an extraordinarily short spin period through the accretion of stellar material spiraling down onto the neutron star from a nearby companion. Nearly all the angular momentum and most of the mass of the companion star is transferred to the neutron star. During this process, wherein the neutron star consumes its companion, it is required that a disk of stellar material be formed around the neutron star. In conventional models it is supposed that the disk is somehow lost when the accretion phase is finished, so that only the rapidly spinning neutron star remains. However, it is possible that, after the accretion phase, a residual disk remains in stable orbit around the neutron star. The end result of such an accretion process is an object that looks much like a miniature (about 100 kilometers), heavy version of Saturn: a central object (the neutron star) surrounded by a durable disk. PMID:17797665

  8. Partial accretion in the propeller stage of accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gungor, Can; Gogus, Ersin; Eksi, Kazim Yavuz; Guver, Tolga

    2016-07-01

    Accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars (AMXPs) are very important objects for studying the stages of disk - magnetosphere interaction as these objects may show different stages in an observable duration. A typical X-ray light curve of an outburst of AMXP has a fast rise and an exponential decay phases. Most of the outbursts have a knee where the flux goes from the slow decay stage to the rapid decay stage. This knee may be linked to the transition from accretion to propeller stage. Since, after the knee, the X-ray luminosity of the source is still higher than its quiescent level, the accretion from inner disc must be continuing in the propeller stage with a lower fraction than in the accretion stage. The X-ray does not only come from accretion onto the poles but the inner parts of the disk may also contribute to the total X-ray luminosity. To infer what fraction (f) of the inflowing matter accretes onto the star the light curve in the propeller stage, one should first separate the emission originating from the disk and obtain a light curve of X-ray emission only from the magnetic poles. We provide a new method to infer from the observational data the fraction of accreting matter onto the neutron star pole to the mass transferring from outer layers of the disc to the inner disc (f), as a function of the fastness parameter (ω_{*}), assuming the knee is due to the transition from accretion to the propeller stage. We transform X-ray luminosities to the mass fraction, f, and the time scale of outburst to fastness parameter, ω_*. It allows us to compare different types of outbursts of an AMXP in f - ω_* space which is universal for a unique system. We analysed the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer/Proportional Counter Array (RXTE/PCA) observations of the 2000 and the 2011 outbursts and the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Mission/X-ray Telescope (SWIFT/XRT) data of the 2013 outburst of the most known AMXP, Aql X-1 using a combination of blackbody representing hot spot, disk blackbody

  9. Swings between rotation and accretion power in a binary millisecond pulsar.

    PubMed

    Papitto, A; Ferrigno, C; Bozzo, E; Rea, N; Pavan, L; Burderi, L; Burgay, M; Campana, S; Di Salvo, T; Falanga, M; Filipović, M D; Freire, P C C; Hessels, J W T; Possenti, A; Ransom, S M; Riggio, A; Romano, P; Sarkissian, J M; Stairs, I H; Stella, L; Torres, D F; Wieringa, M H; Wong, G F

    2013-09-26

    It is thought that neutron stars in low-mass binary systems can accrete matter and angular momentum from the companion star and be spun-up to millisecond rotational periods. During the accretion stage, the system is called a low-mass X-ray binary, and bright X-ray emission is observed. When the rate of mass transfer decreases in the later evolutionary stages, these binaries host a radio millisecond pulsar whose emission is powered by the neutron star's rotating magnetic field. This evolutionary model is supported by the detection of millisecond X-ray pulsations from several accreting neutron stars and also by the evidence for a past accretion disc in a rotation-powered millisecond pulsar. It has been proposed that a rotation-powered pulsar may temporarily switch on during periods of low mass inflow in some such systems. Only indirect evidence for this transition has hitherto been observed. Here we report observations of accretion-powered, millisecond X-ray pulsations from a neutron star previously seen as a rotation-powered radio pulsar. Within a few days after a month-long X-ray outburst, radio pulses were again detected. This not only shows the evolutionary link between accretion and rotation-powered millisecond pulsars, but also that some systems can swing between the two states on very short timescales.

  10. Swings between rotation and accretion power in a binary millisecond pulsar.

    PubMed

    Papitto, A; Ferrigno, C; Bozzo, E; Rea, N; Pavan, L; Burderi, L; Burgay, M; Campana, S; Di Salvo, T; Falanga, M; Filipović, M D; Freire, P C C; Hessels, J W T; Possenti, A; Ransom, S M; Riggio, A; Romano, P; Sarkissian, J M; Stairs, I H; Stella, L; Torres, D F; Wieringa, M H; Wong, G F

    2013-09-26

    It is thought that neutron stars in low-mass binary systems can accrete matter and angular momentum from the companion star and be spun-up to millisecond rotational periods. During the accretion stage, the system is called a low-mass X-ray binary, and bright X-ray emission is observed. When the rate of mass transfer decreases in the later evolutionary stages, these binaries host a radio millisecond pulsar whose emission is powered by the neutron star's rotating magnetic field. This evolutionary model is supported by the detection of millisecond X-ray pulsations from several accreting neutron stars and also by the evidence for a past accretion disc in a rotation-powered millisecond pulsar. It has been proposed that a rotation-powered pulsar may temporarily switch on during periods of low mass inflow in some such systems. Only indirect evidence for this transition has hitherto been observed. Here we report observations of accretion-powered, millisecond X-ray pulsations from a neutron star previously seen as a rotation-powered radio pulsar. Within a few days after a month-long X-ray outburst, radio pulses were again detected. This not only shows the evolutionary link between accretion and rotation-powered millisecond pulsars, but also that some systems can swing between the two states on very short timescales. PMID:24067710

  11. The spin period formation of millisecond pulsar by the torques of accretion and gravitational wave emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Y. Q.; Zhang, C. M.; Pan, Y. Y.

    2016-11-01

    We investigated the spin period evolution of the accreting neutron star (NS) in binary systems, based on the accretion-induced magnetic decay model, while both the accretion spin-up torque and the gravitational wave (GW) emission induced spin-down torque are taken into account. We found that the spin period of millisecond pulsar (MSP) can stop at the value of several milliseconds, if the accretion spin-up torque balances the spin-down torque by the GW radiation. Furthermore, we obtained the minimum spin period of MSP and its relation to the deformation ellipticity of NS that accounts for the NS mass quadrupole moment. The comparisons between the pulsar observations and the model results are discussed in the diagram of magnetic field versus spin period, and the consistency can be obtained.

  12. Signs of magnetic accretion in the young Be/X-ray pulsar SXP 1062

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikhsanov, N. R.

    2012-07-01

    The spin behaviour of the neutron star in the newly discovered young Be/X-ray long-period pulsar SXP 1062 is discussed. The star is observed to rotate with the period of 1062 s, and spin down at the rate ˜-2.6 × 10-12 Hz s-1. I show that all of the conventional accretion scenarios encounter major difficulties in explaining the rapid spin-down of the pulsar. These difficulties can be, however, avoided within the magnetic accretion scenario in which the neutron star is assumed to accrete from a magnetized wind. The spin-down rate of the pulsar can be explained within this scenario provided the surface magnetic field of the neutron star is B*˜ 4 × 1013 G. I show that the age of the pulsar in this case lies in the range (2-4) × 104 yr, which is consistent with observations. The spin evolution of the pulsar is briefly discussed.

  13. Discovery of an Energetic 38.5 ms Pulsar Powering the Gamma-ray Source IGR J18490-0000/HESS J1849-000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gotthelf, E. V.; Halpern, J. P.; Terrier, R.; Mattana, F.

    2011-03-01

    We report the discovery of a 38.5 ms X-ray pulsar in observations of the soft γ-ray source IGR J18490-0000 with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). PSR J1849-0001 is spinning down rapidly with period derivative 1.42 × 10-14 s s-1, yielding a spin-down luminosity \\dot{E} = 9.8 × 1036 erg s-1, characteristic age τ_c ≡ P/2\\dot{P} = 42.9 kyr, and surface dipole magnetic field strength Bs = 7.5 × 1011 G. Within the INTEGRAL/IBIS error circle lies a point-like XMM-Newton and Chandra X-ray source that shows evidence of faint extended emission consistent with a pulsar wind nebula (PWN). The XMM-Newton spectrum of the point source is well fitted by an absorbed power-law model with photon index ΓPSR = 1.1 ± 0.2, N H = (4.3 ± 0.6) × 1022 cm-2, and F PSR(2-10 keV) = (3.8 ± 0.3) × 10-12 erg cm-2 s-1, while the spectral parameters of the extended emission are roughly ΓPWN ≈ 2.1 and F PWN(2-10 keV) ≈ 9 × 10-13 erg cm-2 s-1. IGR J18490-0000 is also coincident with the compact TeV source HESS J1849-000. For an assumed distance of 7 kpc in the Scutum arm tangent region, the 0.35-10 TeV luminosity of HESS J1849-000 is 0.13% of the pulsar's spin-down energy, while the ratio F(0.35-10 TeV)/F PWN(2-10 keV) ≈ 2. These properties are consistent with leptonic models of TeV emission from PWNe, with PSR J1849-0001 in a stage of transition from a synchrotron X-ray source to an inverse Compton γ-ray source.

  14. Application of a physical continuum model to recent X-ray observations of accreting pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcu-Cheatham, Diana Monica; Pottschmidt, Katja; Wolff, Michael Thomas; Becker, Peter A.; Wood, Kent S.; Wilms, Joern; Britton Hemphill, Paul; Gottlieb, Amy; Fuerst, Felix; Schwarm, Fritz-Walter; Ballhausen, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    We present a uniform spectral analysis in the 0.5-50 keV energy range of a sample of accreting pulsars by applying an empirical broad-band continuum cut-off power-law model. We also apply the newly implemented physical continuum model developed by Becker and Wolff (2007, ApJ 654, 435) to a number of high-luminosity sources. The X-ray spectral formation process in this model consists of the Comptonization of bremsstrahlung, cyclotron, and black body photons emitted by the hot, magnetically channeled, accreting plasma near the neutron star surface. This model describes the spectral formation in high-luminosity accreting pulsars, where the dominant deceleration mechanism is via a radiation-dominated radiative shock. The resulting spectra depend on five physical parameters: the mass accretion rate, the radius of the accretion column, the electron temperature and electron scattering cross-sections inside the column, and the magnetic field strength. The empirical model is fitted to Suzaku data of a sample of high-mass X-ray binaries covering a broad luminosity range (0.3-5 x 10 37 erg/s). The physical model is fitted to Suzaku data from luminous sources: LMC X-4, Cen X-3, GX 304-1. We compare the results of the two types of modeling and summarize how they can provide new insight into the process of accretion onto magnetized neutron stars.

  15. Neutron stars and millisecond pulsars from accretion-induced collapse in globular clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailyn, Charles D.; Grindlay, Jonathan E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the limits on the number of millisecond pulsars which could be formed in globular clusters by the generally accepted scenario (in which a neutron star is created by the supernova of an initially massive star and subsequently captures a companion to form a low-mass X-ray binary which eventually becomes a millisecond pulsar). It is found that, while the number of observed low-mass X-ray binaries can be adequately explained in this way, the reasonable assumption that the pulsar luminosity function in clusters extends below the current observational limits down to the luminosity of the faintest millisecond pulsars in the field suggests a cluster population of millisecond pulsars which is substantially larger than the standard model can produce. Alleviating this problem by postulating much shorter lifetimes for the X-ray binaries requires massive star populations sufficiently large that the mass loss resulting from their evolution would be likely to unbind the cluster. It is argued that neutron star formation in globular clusters by accretion-induced collapse of white dwarfs may resolve the discrepancy in birthrates.

  16. Multi-wavelength properties of IGR J05007-7047 (LXP 38.55) and identification as a Be X-ray binary pulsar in the LMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilopoulos, G.; Haberl, F.; Delvaux, C.; Sturm, R.; Udalski, A.

    2016-09-01

    We report on the results of a ˜40-d multi-wavelength monitoring of the Be X-ray binary system IGR J05007-7047 (LXP 38.55). During that period the system was monitored in the X-rays using the Swift telescope and in the optical with multiple instruments. When the X-ray luminosity exceeded 1036 erg s-1 we triggered an XMM-Newton ToO observation. Timing analysis of the photon events collected during the XMM-Newton observation reveals coherent X-ray pulsations with a period of 38.551(3) s (1σ), making it the 17th known high-mass X-ray binary pulsar in the LMC. During the outburst, the X-ray spectrum is fitted best with a model composed of an absorbed power law (Γ = 0.63) plus a high-temperature blackbody (kT ˜2 keV) component. By analysing ˜12 yr of available OGLE optical data we derived a 30.776(5) d optical period, confirming the previously reported X-ray period of the system as its orbital period. During our X-ray monitoring the system showed limited optical variability while its IR flux varied in phase with the X-ray luminosity, which implies the presence of a disc-like component adding cooler light to the spectral energy distribution of the system.

  17. A new model for the X-ray continuum of the magnetized accreting pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farinelli, Ruben; Ferrigno, Carlo; Bozzo, Enrico; Becker, Peter A.

    2016-06-01

    Context. Accreting highly magnetized pulsars in binary systems are among the brightest X-ray emitters in our Galaxy. Although a number of high-quality broad-band (0.1-100 keV) X-ray observations are available, the spectral energy distribution of these sources is usually investigated by adopting pure phenomenological models rather than models linked to the physics of accretion. Aims: In this paper, a detailed spectral study of the X-ray emission recorded from the high-mass X-ray binary pulsars Cen X-3, 4U 0115+63, and Her X-1 is carried out by using BeppoSAX and joined Suzaku +NuStar data, together with an advanced version of the compmag model, which provides a physical description of the high-energy emission from accreting pulsars, including the thermal and bulk Comptonization of cyclotron and bremsstrahlung seed photons along the neutron star accretion column. Methods: The compmag model is based on an iterative method for solving second-order partial differential equations, whose convergence algorithm has been improved and consolidated during the preparation of this paper. Results: Our analysis shows that the broad-band X-ray continuum of all considered sources can be self-consistently described by the compmag model. The cyclotron absorption features (not included in the model) can be accounted for by using Gaussian components. From the fits of the compmag model to the data we inferred the physical properties of the accretion columns in all sources, finding values reasonably close to those theoretically expected according to our current understanding of accretion in highly magnetized neutron stars. Conclusions: The updated version of the compmag model has been tailored to the physical processes that are known to occur in the columns of highly magnetized accreting neutron stars and it can thus provide a better understanding of the high-energy radiation from these sources. The availability of broad-band high-quality X-ray data, such as those provided by BeppoSAX in

  18. ON THE FORMATION OF THE PECULIAR LOW-MASS X-RAY BINARY IGR J17480-2446 IN TERZAN 5

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Long; Li Xiangdong

    2013-07-20

    IGR J17480-2446 is an accreting X-ray pulsar in a low-mass X-ray binary harbored in the Galactic globular cluster Terzan 5. Compared with other accreting millisecond pulsars, IGR J17480-2446 is peculiar for its low spin frequency (11 Hz), which suggests that it might be a mildly recycled neutron star at the very early phase of mass transfer. However, this model seems to be in contrast with the low field strength deduced from the kilo-Hertz quasi-periodic oscillations observed in IGR J17480-2446. Here, we suggest an alternative interpretation, assuming that the current binary system was formed during an exchange encounter either between a binary (which contains a recycled neutron star) and the current donor, or between a binary and an isolated, recycled neutron star. In the resulting binary, the spin axis of the neutron star could be parallel or anti-parallel with the orbital axis. In the latter case, the abnormally low frequency of IGR J17480-2446 may result from the spin-down to spin-up evolution of the neutron star. We also briefly discuss the possible observational implications of the pulsar in this scenario.

  19. Spectral Modeling of the Comptonized Continua of Accreting X-Ray Pulsars: Recent Progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, Michael T.; Becker, P. A.; Marcu, D.; Pottschmidt, K.; Wilms, J.; Wood, K. S.

    2014-01-01

    We are undertaking a program to analyze the X-ray spectra of the accretion flows onto strongly magnetic neutron stars in high mass binary systems such as Her X-1, Cen X-3, and LMC X-4. These accreting pulsars typically have X-ray spectra consisting of broad Comptonized cutoff power-laws. Current theory suggests these X-ray spectra result from the impact of the high-velocity magnetically channeled plasma accretion flows onto the surfaces of the neutron stars. The flows have such high energy density that shocks developing in the plasmas can be radiation-dominated. These X-ray pulsars often, but not always, show cyclotron resonant scattering features implying neutron star surface magnetic field strengths above 10^12 G. Over the past few years a number of studies have reported both positive and negative correlations of the cyclotron line energy centroids with X-ray luminosity in a number of pulsars. However, the detailed analysis of the cyclotron line centroids suffers from the lack of a robust model for the Comptonized X-ray continuum upon which the cyclotron lines are superposed. We discuss in this presentation our progress in developing tools for the analysis of the X-ray spectra formed in these systems. The range of parameter conditions presented by the many known real accreting pulsar systems substantially exceeds that of the limited set of pulsars on which the original analytic model of Becker and Wolff (2007) was validated. In the high temperature optically thick plasmas, the processes of bremsstrahlung emission from the hot plasma, black body emission from a thermal mound near the neutron star surface, and cyclotron emission from electrons in the first Landau excited state, all contribute to the total local photon population in the shock structure. We discuss our strategy for numerically accounting for the relative contribution to the full X-ray spectrum made by each of these physical processes. Solving for the integrated spectrum involves numerical

  20. Accretion X-ray ms pulsar as a probe of NS EOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shu; Ji, Long

    2016-07-01

    Equation state of NS is one of the core sciences for future mission. Regarding to the possible probes, apart from the bursting ms pulsars for which the relation between the spinning light curve and the mass/radius of NS is well established theoretically, the accretion X-ray ms pulsars are the potential alternatives. However, the emission mechanism of the latter is more complicated since one has to account for the corona on top of the NS surface which provides Comptonizations that mix/distort the black body underneath. Thus disentangling the model components between the black body and the Comptonization becomes a big challenge in case of relating the spinning light curve to the mass/radius of NS. This problem is hard to be handled even with a powerful telescope owning a very large detection area. X-ray polarimetry shows us a new insight on model discrimination, and we take the accretion X-ray ms pulsar XTEJ1751-305 as an example to show how this issue could be addressed with a polarization telescope.

  1. A New Model for Spectral Formation in Accretion-Powered X-Ray Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, Michael T.; Becker, P. A.; Wolfram, K. D.

    2006-09-01

    Accretion-powered X-ray pulsars are among the most luminous X-ray sources in the Galaxy yet no satisfactory model for the formation of their observed X-ray spectra has emerged. We report on a self-consistent calculation of the spectrum emerging from a magnetically funneled pulsar accretion flow that includes a treatment of the bulk and thermal Comptonization occurring in a radiation-dominated shock. Using a rigorous eigenfunction expansion method, we obtain a closed-form expression for the Green's function describing the upscattering of monochromatic radiation injected into the flow. The Green's function is convolved with bremsstrahlung, cyclotron, and blackbody source terms to calculate the emergent photon spectrum. We show that energization of photons in the shock naturally produces a X-ray spectrum with a relatively flat continuum and a high-energy exponential cutoff. Finally, we demonstrate the good agreement of our model with the spectra of bright pulsars such as Her X-1 and Cen X-3. This research was funded by NASA and the Office of Naval Research.

  2. 1 Hz FLARING IN THE ACCRETING MILLISECOND PULSAR NGC 6440 X-2: DISK TRAPPING AND ACCRETION CYCLES

    SciTech Connect

    Patruno, Alessandro; D'Angelo, Caroline

    2013-07-10

    The dynamics of the plasma in the inner regions of an accretion disk around accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars (AMXPs) is controlled by the magnetic field of the neutron star. The interaction between an accretion disk and a strong magnetic field is not well understood, particularly at low accretion rates (the so-called propeller regime). This is due in part to the lack of clear observational diagnostics to constrain the physics of the disk-field interaction. Here, we associate the strong {approx}1 Hz modulation seen in the AMXP NGC 6440 X-2 with an instability that arises when the inner edge of the accretion disk is close to the corotation radius (where the stellar rotation rate matches the Keplerian speed in the disk). A similar modulation has previously been observed in another AMXP (SAX J1808.4-3658) and we suggest that the two phenomena are related and that this may be a common phenomenon among other magnetized systems. Detailed comparisons with theoretical models suggest that when the instability is observed, the interaction region between the disk and the field is very narrow-of the order of 1 km. Modeling further suggests that there is a transition region ({approx}1-10 km) around the corotation radius where the disk-field torque changes sign from spin-up to spin-down. This is the first time that a direct observational constraint has been placed on the width of the disk-magnetosphere interaction region, in the frame of the trapped-disk instability model.

  3. Discovery of a Second Millesecond Accreting Pulsar: XTE J1751-305

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markwardt, C. B.; Swank, J. H.; Strohmayer, T. E.; intZand, J. J. M.; Marshall, F. E.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We report the discovery by the RXTE PCA of a second transient accreting millisecond pulsar, XTE J1751-305, during regular monitoring observations of the galactic bulge region. The pulsar has a spin frequency of 435 Hz, making it one of the fastest pulsars. The pulsations contain the signature of orbital Doppler modulation, which implies an orbital period of 42 minutes, the shortest orbital period of any known radio or X-ray millisecond pulsar. The mass function, f(sub x) = (1.278 +/- 0.003) x 10 (exp -6) solar mass, yields a minimum mass for the companion of between 0.013 and 0.0017 solar mass depending on the mass of the neutron star. No eclipses were detected. A previous X-ray outburst in June, 1998, was discovered in archival All-Sky Monitor data. Assuming mass transfer in this binary system is driven by gravitational radiation, we constrain the orbital inclination to be in the range 30 deg-85 deg and the companion mass to be 0.013-0.035 solar mass. The companion is most likely a heated helium dwarf. We also present results from the Chandra HRC-S observations which provide the best known position of XTE J1751-305.

  4. Spectral Modeling of the Comptonized Continua of Accreting X-Ray Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, Michael Thomas; Pottschmidt, Katja; Becker, Peter A.; Marcu, Diana; Wilms, Jörn; Wood, Kent S.

    2015-01-01

    We are undertaking a program to analyze the X-ray spectra of the accretion flows onto strongly magnetic neutron stars in high mass binary systems such as Cen X-3, and XTE J1946+274. These accreting pulsars typically have X-ray spectra consisting of broad Comptonized cutoff power-laws. Current theory suggests these X-ray spectra result from radiation-dominated shocks that develop in the high-velocity magnetically channeled plasma accretion flows onto the surfaces of the neutron stars. These X-ray pulsars often, but not always, show cyclotron resonant scattering features implying neutron star surface magnetic field strengths above 1012 G. Proper fitting of cyclotron line centroids (for example, to investigate how the line centroid varies with X-ray luminosity) requires a robust model for the Comptonized X-ray continuum upon which the cyclotron lines are superposed, and this can be provided by a continuum model based on the physics of the accretion column.We discuss in this presentation our ongoing program for the analysis of the X-ray spectra formed in these systems. Our program consists of two parts. First, we are modeling the X-ray spectra from the Suzaku X-ray satellite of accreting X-ray pulsars Cen X-3 and XTE J1946+274 utilizing the best currently existing empirical models. The second part of our program is building a new analysis tool based on the analytical model of Becker and Wolff (2007). In the high temperature optically thick plasma flows, the processes of bremsstrahlung emission from the hot plasma, black body emission from a thermal mound near the neutron star surface, and cyclotron emission from electrons in the first Landau excited state, all contribute to the total observed X-ray spectrum. We show recent results from our new implementation and its comparison with the Suzaku data for these X-ray pulsars.This research is supported by the NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program.

  5. a Search for Cyclotron Resonance Scattering Features in Transient Accreting X-Ray Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heindl, William

    We propose to renew our Cycle 4-7 ToO program to search for and study cyclotron lines in transient accreting X-ray pulsars. By discovering and studying cyclotron lines, we will directly measure neutron star magnetic fields and investigate the emission mechanism. While some of the transient pulsars have been observed in previous cycles, we make observations optimized for cyclotron line studies. In particular, observations made for other purposes may not be long enough to provide the high statistics necessary to detect shallow, broad lines like in Cen X-3 (discovered with RXTE), or high energy lines and harmonics which appear on the steeply falling part of the spectrum. In cycle 4, our strategy succeeded in discovering 3rd-5th harmonic cyclotron lines in 4U 0115+63.

  6. a Search for Cyclotron Resonance Scattering Features in Transient Accreting X-Ray Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coburn, Wayne

    We propose to renew our cycle 4-9 TOO program to search for and study cyclotron lines in transient accreting x-ray pulsars. By discovering and studying cyclotron lines, we will directly measure neutron star magnetic fields and investigate the emission mechanism. While some of the transient pulsars have been observed in previous cycles, we make observations optimized for cyclotron line studies. In particular, observations made for other purposes may not be long enough to provide the high statistics necessary to detect shallow, broad lines like in Cen X-3 (discovered with RXTE), or high energy lines and harmonics which appear on the steeply falling part of the spectrum. In cycle 4, our strategy succeeded in discovering the 3rd-5th harmonic cyclotron lines in 4U 0115+63.

  7. a Search for Cyclotron Resonance Scattering Features in Transient Accreting X-Ray Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pottschmidt, Katja

    We propose to renew our Cycle 4-11 TOO program to search for and study cyclotron lines in transient accreting X-ray pulsars. By discovering cyclotron lines and studying cyclotron lines, we will directly measure neutron star magnetic fields and investigate the emission mechanism. While most of the transient pulsars have been awarded in previous cycles, we make observations optimized for cyclotron line studies. In particular, observations made for other purposes may not be long enough to provide the high statistics necessary to detect shallow, broad lines or high energy lines and harmonics which appear on the steeply falling part of the spectrum. In cycle 4, our strategy succeeded in discovering 3rd-5th harmonic cyclotron lines in 4U 0115+63.

  8. a Search for Cyclotron Resonance Scattering Features in Transient Accreting X-Ray Pulsars (core Program)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    We propose to renew our Cycle 4-11 TOO program to search for and study cyclotron lines in transient accreting X-ray pulsars. By discovering cyclotron lines and studying cyclotron lines, we will directly measure neutron star magnetic fields and investigate the emission mechanism. While most of the transient pulsars have been awarded in previous cycles, we make observations optimized for cyclotron line studies. In particular, observations made for other purposes may not be long enough to provide the high statistics necessary to detect shallow, broad lines or high energy lines and harmonics which appear on the steeply falling part of the spectrum. In cycle 4, our strategy succeeded in discovering 3rd-5th harmonic cyclotron lines in 4U 0115+63.

  9. a Search for Cyclotron Resonance Scattering Features in Transient Accreting X-Ray Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heindl, William

    We propose to renew our Cycle 4-8 ToO program to search for and study cyclotron lines in transient accreting X-ray pulsars. By discovering and studying cyclotron lines, we will directly measure neutron star magnetic fields and investigate the emission mechanism. While some of the transient pulsars have been observed in previous cycles, we make observations optimized for cyclotron line studies. In particular, observations made for other purposes may not be long enough to provide the high statistics necessary to detect shallow, broad lines like in Cen X-3 (discovered with RXTE), or high energy lines and harmonics which appear on the steeply falling part of the spectrum. In cycle 4, our strategy succeeded in discovering 3rd-5th harmonic cyclotron lines in 4U 0115+63.

  10. a Search for Cyclotron Resonance Scattering Features in Transient Accreting X-Ray Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coburn, Wayne

    We propose to renew our cycle 4-10 TOO program to search for and study cyclotron lines in transient accreting x-ray pulsars. By discovering and studying cyclotron lines, we will directly measure neutron star magnetic fields and investigate the emission mechanism. While some of the transient pulsars have been observed in previous cycles, we make observations optimized for cyclotron line studies. In particular, observations made for other purposes may not be long enough to provide the high statistics necessary to detect shallow, broad lines, or high energy lines and harmonics which appear on the steeply falling part of the spectrum. In cycle 4, our strategy succeeded in discovering the 3rd-5th harmonic cyclotron lines in 4U 0115+63.

  11. Magnetic fields generated by r-modes in accreting millisecond pulsars

    SciTech Connect

    Cuofano, Carmine; Drago, Alessandro

    2010-10-15

    In rotating neutron stars the existence of the Coriolis force allows the presence of the so-called Rossby oscillations (r-modes) which are known to be unstable to emission of gravitational waves. Here, for the first time, we introduce the magnetic damping rate in the evolution equations of r-modes. We show that r-modes can generate very strong toroidal fields in the core of accreting millisecond pulsars by inducing differential rotation. We shortly discuss the instabilities of the generated magnetic field and its long time-scale evolution in order to clarify how the generated magnetic field can stabilize the star.

  12. A radiation-hydrodynamics model of accretion columns for ultra-luminous X-ray pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawashima, Tomohisa; Mineshige, Shin; Ohsuga, Ken; Ogawa, Takumi

    2016-10-01

    Prompted by the recent discovery of pulsed emission from an ultra-luminous X-ray source, M 82 X-2 ("ULX-pulsar"), we perform a two-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamics simulation of a supercritical accretion flow onto a neutron star through a narrow accretion column. We set an accretion column with a cone shape filled with tenuous gas with the density of 10-4 g cm-3 above a neutron star and solve the two-dimensional gas motion and radiative transfer within the column. The side boundaries are set such that radiation can freely escape, but gas cannot. Since the initial gas layer is not in a hydrostatic balance, the column gas falls onto the neutron-star surface, and thereby a shock is generated. As a result, the accretion column is composed of two regions: an upper, nearly free-fall region and a lower settling region, as noted by Basko and Sunyaev (1976, MNRAS, 175, 395). The average accretion rate is very high; dot{M}˜ 10^{2{-}3} L_E/c2 (with LE being the Eddington luminosity), and so radiation energy dominates over gas internal energy entirely within the column. Despite the high accretion rate, the radiation flux in the laboratory frame is kept barely below LE/(4πr2) at a distance r in the settling region so that matter can slowly accrete. This adjustment is made possible, since a large amount of photons produced via dissipation of kinetic energy of matter can escape through the side boundaries. The total luminosity can greatly exceed LE by several orders of magnitude, whereas the apparent luminosity observed from the top of the column is much less. Due to such highly anisotropic radiation fields, the observed flux should exhibit periodic variations with the rotation period, provided that the rotation and magnetic axes are misaligned.

  13. A radiation-hydrodynamics model of accretion columns for ultra-luminous X-ray pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawashima, Tomohisa; Mineshige, Shin; Ohsuga, Ken; Ogawa, Takumi

    2016-09-01

    Prompted by the recent discovery of pulsed emission from an ultra-luminous X-ray source, M 82 X-2 ("ULX-pulsar"), we perform a two-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamics simulation of a supercritical accretion flow onto a neutron star through a narrow accretion column. We set an accretion column with a cone shape filled with tenuous gas with the density of 10-4 g cm-3 above a neutron star and solve the two-dimensional gas motion and radiative transfer within the column. The side boundaries are set such that radiation can freely escape, but gas cannot. Since the initial gas layer is not in a hydrostatic balance, the column gas falls onto the neutron-star surface, and thereby a shock is generated. As a result, the accretion column is composed of two regions: an upper, nearly free-fall region and a lower settling region, as noted by Basko and Sunyaev (1976, MNRAS, 175, 395). The average accretion rate is very high; dot{M}}˜ 10^{2-3} L_E/c2 (with LE being the Eddington luminosity), and so radiation energy dominates over gas internal energy entirely within the column. Despite the high accretion rate, the radiation flux in the laboratory frame is kept barely below LE/(4πr2) at a distance r in the settling region so that matter can slowly accrete. This adjustment is made possible, since a large amount of photons produced via dissipation of kinetic energy of matter can escape through the side boundaries. The total luminosity can greatly exceed LE by several orders of magnitude, whereas the apparent luminosity observed from the top of the column is much less. Due to such highly anisotropic radiation fields, the observed flux should exhibit periodic variations with the rotation period, provided that the rotation and magnetic axes are misaligned.

  14. Scanning the Magnetized Accretion Column of X-ray Pulsars with Cyclotron Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schönherr, Gabriele; Wilms, J.; Kretschmar, P.; Pottschmidt, K.; Rothschild, R.; Kreykenbohm, I.; MAGNET Collaboration

    2010-03-01

    The strongly magnetized accretion column of X-ray pulsars is still not understood in many aspects like, e.g., its basic geometry and physical parameters. Cyclotron Resonance Scattering Features (short: cyclotron lines) are now becoming a possible tool to tap this mystery. As they form due to scattering processes of X-ray photons with magnetically quantized electrons in the accreted plasma, a better physical understanding of their formation and shape along with direct comparisons to observational data allows to backtrack the physical parameters and magnetic field structure in the line-forming region. High-resolution spectra with todays’ and future instruments now allow for an in-depth analysis of their shapes, promising exciting progress. We discuss results based on our new modelling attempts, which link theoretical Monte Carlo simulations directly to observational findings.

  15. Pulse-to-pulse variations in accreting X-ray pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kretschmar, Peter; Marcu, Diana; Kühnel, Matthias; Klochkov, Dmitry; Pottschmidt, Katja; Staubert, Rüdiger; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Jenke, Peter A.; Caballero, Isabel; Fürst, Felix

    2014-01-01

    In most accreting X-ray pulsars, the periodic signal is very clear and easily shows up as soon as data covering sufficient pulse periods (a few ten) are available. The mean pulse profile is often quite typical for a given source and with minor variations repeated and recognisable across observations done years or even decades apart. At the time scale of individual pulses, significant pulse-to-pulse variations are commonly observed. While at low energies some of these variations might be explained by absorption, in the hard X-rays they will reflect changes in the accretion and subsequent emission. The amount of these variations appears to be quite different between sources and contains information about the surrounding material as well ass possibly interactions at the magnetosphere. We investigate such variations for a sample of well-known sources.

  16. The binary millisecond pulsar PSR J1023+0038 during its accretion state - I. Optical variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahbaz, T.; Linares, M.; Nevado, S. P.; Rodríguez-Gil, P.; Casares, J.; Dhillon, V. S.; Marsh, T. R.; Littlefair, S.; Leckngam, A.; Poshyachinda, S.

    2015-11-01

    We present time-resolved optical photometry of the binary millisecond `redback' pulsar PSR J1023+0038 (=AY Sex) during its low-mass X-ray binary phase. The light curves taken between 2014 January and April show an underlying sinusoidal modulation due to the irradiated secondary star and accretion disc. We also observe superimposed rapid flaring on time-scales as short as ˜20 s with amplitudes of ˜0.1-0.5 mag and additional large flare events on time-scales of ˜5-60 min with amplitudes of ˜0.5-1.0 mag. The power density spectrum of the optical flare light curves is dominated by a red-noise component, typical of aperiodic activity in X-ray binaries. Simultaneous X-ray and UV observations by the Swift satellite reveal strong correlations that are consistent with X-ray reprocessing of the UV light, most likely in the outer regions of the accretion disc. On some nights we also observe sharp-edged, rectangular, flat-bottomed dips randomly distributed in orbital phase, with a median duration of ˜250 s and a median ingress/egress time of ˜20 s. These rectangular dips are similar to the mode-switching behaviour between disc `active' and `passive' luminosity states, observed in the X-ray light curves of other redback millisecond pulsars. This is the first time that the optical analogue of the X-ray mode-switching has been observed. The properties of the passive- and active-state light curves can be explained in terms of clumpy accretion from a trapped inner accretion disc near the corotation radius, resulting in rectangular, flat-bottomed optical and X-ray light curves.

  17. ACCRETION TORQUES AND MOTION OF THE HOT SPOT ON THE ACCRETING MILLISECOND PULSAR XTE J1807-294

    SciTech Connect

    Patruno, Alessandro; Wijnands, R.; Van der Klis, Michiel; Hartman, Jacob M.; Chakrabarty, Deepto

    2010-07-10

    We present a coherent timing analysis of the 2003 outburst of the accreting millisecond pulsar (AMXP) XTE J1807-294. We find a 95% confidence interval for the pulse frequency derivative of (+0.7, + 4.7) x 10{sup -14} Hz s{sup -1} and (-0.6, + 3.8) x 10{sup -14} Hz s{sup -1} for the fundamental and second harmonics, respectively. The sinusoidal fractional amplitudes of the pulsations are the highest observed among AMXPs and can reach values of up to 27% (2.5-30 keV). The pulse arrival time residuals of the fundamental frequency follow a linear anti-correlation with the fractional amplitudes that suggests hot spot motion both in longitude and latitude over the surface of the neutron star. An anti-correlation between residuals and X-ray flux suggests an influence of the accretion rate on pulse phase and casts doubts on the interpretation of pulse frequency derivatives in terms of changes of spin rates and torques on the neutron star.

  18. The End of Accretion: The X-Ray Binary/Millisecond Pulsar Transition Object PSR J1023+0038

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archibald, Anne

    2015-04-01

    Millisecond radio pulsars (MSRPs), those spinning hundreds of times per second, have long been understood to be old pulsars that have been spun up by the accretion of matter from a companion in a low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) phase. Yet the details of this transformation, particularly the end of the accretion process and the birth of a radio pulsar, remain mysterious. I will describe the discovery and detailed study of the first object known to transition between MSRP and LMXB states, PSR J1023+0038. By dint of a multiwavelength campaign of observations in the RMSP state, we are able to measure all the key system parameters and show the existence of an X-ray shock close to the pulsar-facing side of the companion. Since the discovery of PSR J1023+0038, two more objects (XSS J12270-4859 and M28I) have been found to make the same transition, and the study of these transitioning objects has become an active field of research. Most interestingly, PSR J1023+0038 has transitioned back into an LMXB state, with an active accretion disk and a puzzling increase in gamma-ray flux. Our detailed picture of the system allows us to test models of accretion against the phenomena we observe in PSR J1023+0038, and in fact these observations challenge current models: in spite of the low luminosity of the system (and low inferred accretion rate) some material is penetrating the centrifugal barrier and falling on the neutron-star surface. Key evidence for explaining this puzzling behaviour will come when PSR J1023+0038 returns to an MSRP state and we are able to compare pulsar timing models from after the LMXB state with those we obtained in this work.

  19. Pulsed thermal emission from the accreting pulsar XMMU J054134.7-682550

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manousakis, A.; Walter, R.; Audard, M.; Lanz, T.

    2009-04-01

    Aims: Soft X-ray excesses have been detected in several Be/X-ray binaries and interpreted as the signature of hard X-ray reprocessing in the inner accretion disk. The system XMMU J054134.7-682550, located in the LMC, featured a giant Type II outburst in August 2007. The geometry of this system can be understood by studying the response of the soft excess emission to the hard X-ray pulses. Methods: We have analyzed series of simultaneous observations obtained with XMM-Newton/EPIC-MOS and RXTE/PCA in order to derive spectral and temporal characteristics of the system, before, during and after the giant outburst. Spectral fits were performed and a timing analysis has been carried out. Spectral variability, spin period evolution and energy dependent pulse shapes are analysed. Results: The outburst ({L}_X= 3× 1038 erg/s≈ {L}_EDD) spectrum could be modeled successfully using a cutoff powerlaw, a cold disk emission, a hot blackbody, and a cyclotron absorption line. The magnetic field and magnetospheric radius could be constrained. The thickness of the inner accretion disk is broadened to a width of 75 km. The hot blackbody component features sinusoidal modulations indicating that the bulk of the hard X-ray emission is emitted preferentially along the magnetic equator. The spin period of the pulsar decreased very significantly during the outburst. This is consistent with a variety of neutron star equations of state and indicates a very high accretion rate. Based on observations obtained with XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and NASA.

  20. Multi-wavelength emissions from the millisecond pulsar binary PSR J1023+0038 during an accretion active state

    SciTech Connect

    Takata, J.; Leung, Gene C. K.; Wu, E. M. H.; Cheng, K. S.; Li, K. L.; Kong, A. K. H.; Tam, P. H. T.; Hui, C. Y.; Xing, Yi; Wang, Zhongxiang; Cao, Yi; Tang, Sumin E-mail: akong@phys.nthu.edu.tw

    2014-04-20

    Recent observations strongly suggest that the millisecond pulsar binary PSR J1023+0038 has developed an accretion disk since 2013 June. We present a multi-wavelength analysis of PSR J1023+0038, which reveals that (1) its gamma-rays suddenly brightened within a few days in 2013 June/July and has remained at a high gamma-ray state for several months; (2) both UV and X-ray fluxes have increased by roughly an order of magnitude; and (3) the spectral energy distribution has changed significantly after the gamma-ray sudden flux change. Time variabilities associated with UV and X-rays are on the order of 100-500 s and 50-100 s, respectively. Our model suggests that a newly formed accretion disk, due to the sudden increase of the stellar wind, could explain the changes of all these observed features. The increase of UV is emitted from the disk, and a new component in gamma-rays is produced by inverse Compton scattering between the new UV component and pulsar wind. The increase of X-rays results from the enhancement of injection pulsar wind energy into the intra-binary shock due to the increase of the stellar wind. We also predict that the radio pulses may be blocked by the evaporated winds from the disk, and the pulsar is still powered by rotation.

  1. Contrasting Behaviour from Two Be/X-ray Binary Pulsars: Insights into Differing Neutron Star Accretion Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, L. J.; Drave, S. P.; Hill, A. B.; Coe, M. J.; Corbet, R. H. D.; Bird, A. J.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present the identification of two periodic X-ray signals coming from the direction of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). On detection with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), the 175.4 s and 85.4 s pulsations were considered to originate from new Be/X-ray binary (BeXRB) pulsars with unknown locations. Using rapid follow-up INTEGRAL and XMM-Newton observations, we show the first pulsar (designated SXP175) to be coincident with a candidate high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB) in the northern bar region of the SMC undergoing a small Type II outburst. The orbital period (87d) and spectral class (B0-B0.5IIIe) of this system are determined and presented here for the first time. The second pulsar is shown not to be new at all, but is consistent with being SXP91.1 - a pulsar discovered at the very beginning of the 13 year long RXTE key monitoring programme of the SMC. Whilst it is theoretically possible for accreting neutron stars to change spin period so dramatically over such a short time, the X-ray and optical data available for this source suggest this spin-up is continuous during long phases of X-ray quiescence, where accretion driven spin-up of the neutron star should be minimal.

  2. A study of magnetic fields of accreting X-ray pulsars with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coburn, Wayne

    2001-12-01

    Pulsars are known to be rotating neutron stars that appear to emit regular flashes or radiation. For accretion powered pulsars, the emission is powered by the accretion of material from a normal stellar companion onto the magnetic poles of the neutron star. The conditions in these polar regions, which exhibit extremes in gravitation, temperature, and magnetic field strength, are impossible to recreate in terrestrial laboratories and are possibly unique in nature. Despite two decades of work, no compelling models exist explaining how the infalling material distributes itself across the polar caps, or how the observed X-ray continuum is formed. More fundamentally, these are unanswered questions of how matter acts and reacts in this extreme environment. By studying the X-ray spectra of these sources, we can hope to elucidate some of these questions. Some accreting pulsars exhibit absorption-like X-ray features, or cyclotron lines. The energies of these lines are the only direct measure of the magnetic field of a neutron star, and their detailed line profiles are sensitive to the physical parameters in the formation region. In this work I have used data from NASA's Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer to study the geometry, physical conditions, and dynamical behavior of phenomena in the polar regions of these rotating neutron stars. I present two new cyclotron lines I discovered during the course of the research in the spectra of 4U 0352+309 and XTE J1946+274. I outline a new method for using cyclotron line shapes as a function of neutron star rotation, along with the temporal structure of the X-ray pulses, to self consistently describe the geometry of the emission regions. This type of analysis is a powerful tool for studying the accretion structures that form at the pulsar magnetic poles. I apply the method qualitatively to three sources, and discuss prospects for future work. I find that the characteristic spectral break energy in X-ray continua is correlated with the

  3. AN ACCRETION MODEL FOR THE ANOMALOUS X-RAY PULSAR 4U 0142+61

    SciTech Connect

    Truemper, J. E.; Dennerl, K.; Kylafis, N. D.; Zezas, A.; Ertan, Ue.

    2013-02-10

    We propose that the quiescent emission of anomalous X-ray pulsars/soft gamma-ray repeaters (AXPs/SGRs) is powered by accretion from a fallback disk, requiring magnetic dipole fields in the range 10{sup 12}-10{sup 13} G, and that the luminous hard tails of their X-ray spectra are produced by bulk-motion Comptonization in the radiative shock near the bottom of the accretion column. This radiation escapes as a fan beam, which is partly absorbed by the polar cap photosphere, heating it up to relatively high temperatures. The scattered component and the thermal emission from the polar cap form a polar beam. We test our model on the well-studied AXP 4U 0142+61, whose energy-dependent pulse profiles show double peaks, which we ascribe to the fan and polar beams. The temperature of the photosphere (kT {approx} 0.4 keV) is explained by the heating effect. The scattered part forms a hard component in the polar beam. We suggest that the observed high temperatures of the polar caps of AXPs/SGRs, compared with other young neutron stars, are due to the heating by the fan beam. Using beaming functions for the fan beam and the polar beam and taking gravitational bending into account, we fit the energy-dependent pulse profiles and obtain the inclination angle and the angle between the spin axis and the magnetic dipole axis, as well as the height of the radiative shock above the stellar surface. We do not explain the high-luminosity bursts, which may be produced by the classical magnetar mechanism operating in super-strong multipole fields.

  4. Can the Subsonic Accretion Model Explain the Spin Period Distribution of Wind-fed X-Ray Pulsars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tao; Shao, Yong; Li, Xiang-Dong

    2016-06-01

    Neutron stars in high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs) generally accrete from the wind matter of their massive companion stars. Recently, Shakura et al. suggested a subsonic accretion model for low-luminosity (<4 × 1036 erg s-1), wind-fed X-ray pulsars. To test the feasibility of this model, we investigate the spin period distribution of wind-fed X-ray pulsars with a supergiant companion star, using a population synthesis method. We find that the modeled distribution of supergiant HMXBs in the spin period-orbital period diagram is consistent with observations, provided that the winds from the donor stars have relatively low terminal velocities (≲1000 km s-1). The measured wind velocities in several supergiant HMXBs seem to favor this viewpoint. The predicted number ratio of wind-fed X-ray pulsars with persistent X-ray luminosities that are higher and lower than 4 × 1036 erg s-1 is about 1:10.

  5. Accretion regimes in the X-ray pulsar 4U 1901+03

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reig, P.; Milonaki, F.

    2016-10-01

    Context. The source 4U 1901+03 is a high-mass X-ray pulsar than went into outburst in 2003. Observation performed with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer showed spectral and timing variability, including the detection of flares, quasi-periodic oscillations, complex changes in the pulse profiles, and pulse phase dependent spectral variability. Aims: We re-analysed the data covering the 2003 X-ray outburst and focused on several aspects of the variability that have not been discussed so far. These are the 10 keV feature and the X-ray spectral states and their association with accretion regimes, including the transit to the propeller state at the end of the outburst. Methods: We extracted light curves and spectra using data from the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer. Low time resolution light curves were used to create hardness-intensity diagrams and study daily changes in flux. High time resolution light curves were used to create pulse profiles. An average spectrum per observation allowed us to investigate the evolution of the spectral parameters with time. Results: We find that 4U 1901+03 went through three accretion regimes over the course of the X-ray outburst. At the peak of the outburst and for a very short time, the X-ray flux may have overcome the critical limit that marks the formation of a radiative shock at a certain distance above the neutron star surface. Most of the time, however, the source is in the subcritical regime. Only at the end of the outburst, when the luminosity decreased below ~1036 (d/ 10 kpc)2 erg s-1, did the source enter the propeller regime. Evidence for the existence of these regimes comes from the pulse profiles, the shape of the hardness-intensity diagram, and the correlation of various spectral parameters with the flux. The 10 keV feature appears to strongly depend on the X-ray flux and on the pulse phase, which opens the possibility to interpret this feature as a cyclotron line.

  6. Timing of the accreting millisecond pulsar SAX J1748.9-2021 during its 2015 outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanna, A.; Burderi, L.; Riggio, A.; Pintore, F.; Di Salvo, T.; Gambino, A. F.; Iaria, R.; Matranga, M.; Scarano, F.

    2016-06-01

    We report on the timing analysis of the 2015 outburst of the intermittent accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar SAX J1748.9-2021 observed on March 4 by the X-ray satellite XMM-Newton. By phase connecting the time of arrivals of the observed pulses, we derived the best-fitting orbital solution for the 2015 outburst. We investigated the energy pulse profile dependence finding that the pulse fractional amplitude increases with energy while no significant time lags are detected. Moreover, we investigated the previous outbursts from this source, finding previously undetected pulsations in some intervals during the 2010 outburst of the source. Comparing the updated set of orbital parameters, in particular the value of the time of passage from the ascending node, with the orbital solutions reported from the previous outbursts, we estimated for the first time the orbital period derivative corresponding with dot{P}_{orb}=(1.1± 0.3)× 10^{-10} s s-1. We note that this value is significant at 3.5σ confidence level, because of significant fluctuations with respect to the parabolic trend and more observations are needed in order to confirm the finding. Assuming the reliability of the result, we suggest that the large value of the orbital-period derivative can be explained as a result of a highly non-conservative mass transfer driven by emission of gravitational waves, which implies the ejection of matter from a region close to the inner Lagrangian point. We also discuss possible alternative explanations.

  7. NuSTAR DETECTION OF HARD X-RAY PHASE LAGS FROM THE ACCRETING PULSAR GS 0834–430

    SciTech Connect

    Miyasaka, Hiromasa; Harrison, Fiona A.; Fürst, Felix; Bellm, Eric C.; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Madsen, Kristin K.; Walton, Dominic J.; Bachetti, Matteo; Barret, Didier; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W.; Tomsick, John A.; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Chenevez, Jerome; Christensen, Finn E.; Hailey, Charles J.; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Pottschmidt, Katja; Stern, Daniel; Wilms, Jörn; and others

    2013-09-20

    The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array hard X-ray telescope observed the transient Be/X-ray binary GS 0834–430 during its 2012 outburst—the first active state of this system observed in the past 19 yr. We performed timing and spectral analysis and measured the X-ray spectrum between 3-79 keV with high statistical significance. We find the phase-averaged spectrum to be consistent with that observed in many other magnetized, accreting pulsars. We fail to detect cyclotron resonance scattering features that would allow us to constrain the pulsar's magnetic field in either phase-averaged or phase-resolved spectra. Timing analysis shows a clearly detected pulse period of ∼12.29 s in all energy bands. The pulse profiles show a strong, energy-dependent hard phase lag of up to 0.3 cycles in phase, or about 4 s. Such dramatic energy-dependent lags in the pulse profile have never before been reported in high-mass X-ray binary pulsars. Previously reported lags have been significantly smaller in phase and restricted to low energies (E < 10 keV). We investigate the possible mechanisms that might produce this energy-dependent pulse phase shift. We find the most likely explanation for this effect is a complex beam geometry.

  8. Broad-band spectral analysis of the accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar SAX J1748.9-2021

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pintore, F.; Sanna, A.; Di Salvo, T.; Del Santo, M.; Riggio, A.; D'Aì, A.; Burderi, L.; Scarano, F.; Iaria, R.

    2016-04-01

    We analysed a 115-ks XMM-Newton observation and the stacking of 8 d of INTEGRAL observations, taken during the raise of the 2015 outburst of the accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar SAX J1748.9-2021. The source showed numerous type-I burst episodes during the XMM-Newton observation, and for this reason we studied separately the persistent and burst epochs. We described the persistent emission with a combination of two soft thermal components, a cold thermal Comptonization component (˜2 keV) and an additional hard X-ray emission described by a power law (Γ ˜ 2.3). The continuum components can be associated with an accretion disc, the neutron star (NS) surface and a thermal Comptonization emission coming out of an optically thick plasma region, while the origin of the high-energy tail is still under debate. In addition, a number of broad (σ = 0.1-0.4 keV) emission features likely associated with reflection processes have been observed in the XMM-Newton data. The estimated 1.0-50 keV unabsorbed luminosity of the source is ˜5 × 1037 erg s-1, about 25 per cent of the Eddington limit assuming a 1.4 M⊙ NS. We suggest that the spectral properties of SAX J1748.9-2021 are consistent with a soft state, differently from many other accreting X-ray millisecond pulsars which are usually found in the hard state. Moreover, none of the observed type-I burst reached the Eddington luminosity. Assuming that the burst ignition and emission are produced above the whole NS surface, we estimate an NS radius of ˜7-8 km, consistent with previous results.

  9. Similarilies in accretion dynamics in IGR J17091-3624 and GRS 1915+105 as revealed by the study of Comptonizing Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarathi Pal, Partha; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Variability classes in the enigmatic black hole candidate GRS 1915+105 are known to be correlated with the variation of the Comptonizing Efficiency (CE) which is defined to be the ratio between the number of power-law (hard) photons and seed (soft) photons injected into the Compton cloud. Similarities of light curves of several variability classes of GRS 1915+105 and IGR J17091-3624, some of which are already reported in the literature, motivated us to compute CE for IGR J17091-3624 as well. We find that they are similar to what were reported earlier for GRS 1915+105, even though masses of these objects could be different. The reason is that the both the sizes of the sources of the seed photons and of the Comptonizing corona scale in the same way as the mass of the black hole. This indicates that characterization of variability classes based on CE is likely to be black hole mass independent, in general.

  10. On the maximum accretion luminosity of magnetized neutron stars: connecting X-ray pulsars and ultraluminous X-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mushtukov, Alexander A.; Suleimanov, Valery F.; Tsygankov, Sergey S.; Poutanen, Juri

    2015-12-01

    We study properties of luminous X-ray pulsars using a simplified model of the accretion column. The maximal possible luminosity is calculated as a function of the neutron star (NS) magnetic field and spin period. It is shown that the luminosity can reach values of the order of 1040 erg s-1 for the magnetar-like magnetic field (B ≳ 1014 G) and long spin periods (P ≳ 1.5 s). The relative narrowness of an area of feasible NS parameters which are able to provide higher luminosities leads to the conclusion that L ≃ 1040 erg s-1 is a good estimate for the limiting accretion luminosity of an NS. Because this luminosity coincides with the cut-off observed in the high-mass X-ray binaries luminosity function which otherwise does not show any features at lower luminosities, we can conclude that a substantial part of ultraluminous X-ray sources are accreting neutron stars in binary systems.

  11. PULSE AMPLITUDE DEPENDS ON kHz QPO FREQUENCY IN THE ACCRETING MILLISECOND PULSAR SAX J1808.4-3658

    SciTech Connect

    Bult, Peter; Van der Klis, Michiel

    2015-01-10

    We study the relation between the 300-700 Hz upper kHz quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) and the 401 Hz coherent pulsations across all outbursts of the accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar SAX J1808.4-3658 observed with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer. We find that the pulse amplitude systematically changes by a factor of ∼2 when the upper kHz QPO frequency passes through 401 Hz: it halves when the QPO moves to above the spin frequency and doubles again on the way back. This establishes for the first time the existence of a direct effect of kHz QPOs on the millisecond pulsations and provides a new clue to the origin of the upper kHz QPO. We discuss several scenarios and conclude that while more complex explanations can not formally be excluded, our result strongly suggests that the QPO is produced by azimuthal motion at the inner edge of the accretion disk, most likely orbital motion. Depending on whether this azimuthal motion is faster or slower than the spin, the plasma then interacts differently with the neutron-star magnetic field. The most straightforward interpretation involves magnetospheric centrifugal inhibition of the accretion flow that sets in when the upper kHz QPO becomes slower than the spin.

  12. FORMATION OF BINARY MILLISECOND PULSARS BY ACCRETION-INDUCED COLLAPSE OF WHITE DWARFS UNDER WIND-DRIVEN EVOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Ablimit, Iminhaji; Li, Xiang-Dong

    2015-02-20

    Accretion-induced collapse (AIC) of massive white dwarfs (WDs) has been proposed to be an important channel to form binary millisecond pulsars (MSPs). Recent investigations on thermal timescale mass transfer in WD binaries demonstrate that the resultant MSPs are likely to have relatively wide orbit periods (≳ 10 days). Here we calculate the evolution of WD binaries taking into account the excited wind from the companion star induced by X-ray irradiation of the accreting WD, which may drive rapid mass transfer even when the companion star is less massive than the WD. This scenario can naturally explain the formation of the strong-field neutron star in the low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1822–37. After AIC the mass transfer resumes when the companion star refills its Roche lobe, and the neutron star is recycled owing to mass accretion. A large fraction of the binaries will evolve to become binary MSPs with an He WD companion, with the orbital periods distributed between ≳ 0.1 days and ≲ 30 days, while some of them may follow the cataclysmic variable-like evolution toward very short orbits. If we instead assume that the newborn neutron star appears as an MSP and that part of its rotational energy is used to ablate its companion star, the binaries may also evolve to be the redback-like systems.

  13. SUBARCSECOND LOCATION OF IGR J17480-2446 WITH ROSSI XTE

    SciTech Connect

    Riggio, A.; Burderi, L.; Egron, E.; Di Salvo, T.; D'Ai, A.; Iaria, R.; Robba, N. R.; Papitto, A.; Belloni, T.; Motta, S.; Floris, M.; Testa, V.; Menna, M. T.

    2012-07-20

    On 2010 October 13, the X-ray astronomical satellite Rossi XTE, during the observation of the newly discovered accretion powered X-ray pulsar IGR J17480-2446, detected a lunar occultation of the source. From knowledge of the lunar topography and Earth, Moon, and spacecraft ephemerides at the epoch of the event, we determined the source position with an accuracy of 40 mas (1{sigma} c.l.), which is interesting, given the very poor imaging capabilities of RXTE ({approx}1 Degree-Sign ). For the first time, using a non-imaging X-ray observatory, the position of an X-ray source with a subarcsecond accuracy is derived, demonstrating the neat capabilities of a technique that can be fruitfully applied to current and future X-ray missions.

  14. Analysis of variability in the burst oscillations of the accreting millisecond pulsar XTE J1814-338

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, Anna L.; Strohmayer, Tod E.; Markwardt, Craig B.

    2005-01-01

    The accreting millisecond pulsar XTE J1814-338 exhibits oscillations at the known spin frequency during Type I X-ray bursts. The properties of the burst oscillations reflect the nature of the thermal asymmetry on the stellar surface. We present an analysis of the variability of the burst oscillations of this source, focusing on three characteristics: fractional amplitude, harmonic content and frequency. Fractional amplitude and harmonic content constrain the size, shape and position of the emitting region, whilst variations in frequency indicate motion of the emitting region on the neutron star surface. We examine both long-term variability over the course of the outburst, and short-term variability during the bursts. For most of the bursts, fractional amplitude is consistent with that of the accretion pulsations, implying a low degree of fuel spread. There is however a population of bursts whose fractional amplitudes are substantially lower, implying a higher degree of fuel spread, possibly forced by the explosive burning front of a precursor burst. For the first harmonic, substantial differences between the burst and accretion pulsations suggest that hotspot geometry is not the only mechanism giving rise to harmonic content in the latter. Fractional amplitude variability during the bursts is low; we can only rule out the hypothesis that the fractional amplitude remains constant at the l(sigma) level for bursts that do not exhibit photospheric radius expansion (PRE). There are no significant variations in frequency in any of the bursts except for the one burst that exhibits PRE. This burst exhibits a highly significant but small (= 0.1Hz) drop in frequency in the burst rise. The timescale of the frequency shift is slower than simple burning layer expansion models predict, suggesting that other mechanisms may be at work.

  15. X-ray observations of the accreting Be/X-ray binary pulsar A 0535+26 in outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caballero, I.

    2009-04-01

    the cyclotron line energy with the X-ray luminosity are thought to be related to a change in the height of the accretion column as the mass accretion rate varies. A detailed timing analysis has been performed, and we find for the first time the onset of a spin-up, at a phase close to the periastron passage, during a normal outburst, providing evidence for an accretion disk around the neutron star. Energy-dependent pulse profiles of the source have been studied and compared to historical observations. During the rising part of the outburst a series of flares were observed. RXTE observed one of these flares, and we found during the flare the energy of the fundamental cyclotron line shifted to a significantly higher position compared to the rest of the outburst. Also, the energy-dependent pulse profiles during the flare were found to vary significantly from the rest of the outburst. These differences have been interpreted in terms of a theoretical model, based on the presence of magnetospheric instabilities at the onset of the accretion. We applied a decomposition method to A 0535+26 energy-dependent pulse profiles. Basic assumptions of the method are that the asymmetry observed in the pulse profiles is caused by non-antipodal magnetic poles, and that the emission regions have axisymmetric beam patterns. Using pulse profiles obtained from RXTE observations, the contribution of the two emission regions has been disentangled. Constraints on the geometry of the pulsar and a possible solution of the beam pattern are given. The reconstructed beam pattern is interpreted in terms of a geometrical model that includes relativistic light deflection.

  16. IDENTIFICATION OF THE HIGH-ENERGY GAMMA-RAY SOURCE 3FGL J1544.6–1125 AS A TRANSITIONAL MILLISECOND PULSAR BINARY IN AN ACCRETING STATE

    SciTech Connect

    Bogdanov, Slavko; Halpern, Jules P.

    2015-04-20

    We present X-ray, ultraviolet, and optical observations of 1RXS J154439.4–112820, the most probable counterpart of the unassociated Fermi-LAT source 3FGL J1544.6–1125. The optical data reveal rapid variability, which is a feature of accreting systems. The X-rays exhibit large-amplitude variations in the form of fast switching (within ∼10 s) between two distinct flux levels that differ by a factor of ≈10. The detailed optical and X-ray behavior is virtually identical to that seen in the accretion-disk-dominated states of the transitional millisecond pulsar (MSP) binaries PSR J1023+0038 and XSS J12270–4859, which are also associated with γ-ray sources. Based on the available observational evidence, we conclude that 1RXS J154439.4–112820 and 3FGL J1544.6–1125 are the same object, with the X-rays arising from intermittent low-luminosity accretion onto an MSP and the γ-rays originating from an accretion-driven outflow. 1RXS J154439.4–112820 is only the fourth γ-ray-emitting low-mass X-ray binary system to be identified and is likely to sporadically undergo transformations to a non-accreting rotation-powered pulsar system.

  17. Identification of the High-energy Gamma-Ray Source 3FGL J1544.6-1125 as a Transitional Millisecond Pulsar Binary in an Accreting State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanov, Slavko; Halpern, Jules P.

    2015-04-01

    We present X-ray, ultraviolet, and optical observations of 1RXS J154439.4-112820, the most probable counterpart of the unassociated Fermi-LAT source 3FGL J1544.6-1125. The optical data reveal rapid variability, which is a feature of accreting systems. The X-rays exhibit large-amplitude variations in the form of fast switching (within ˜10 s) between two distinct flux levels that differ by a factor of ≈10. The detailed optical and X-ray behavior is virtually identical to that seen in the accretion-disk-dominated states of the transitional millisecond pulsar (MSP) binaries PSR J1023+0038 and XSS J12270-4859, which are also associated with γ-ray sources. Based on the available observational evidence, we conclude that 1RXS J154439.4-112820 and 3FGL J1544.6-1125 are the same object, with the X-rays arising from intermittent low-luminosity accretion onto an MSP and the γ-rays originating from an accretion-driven outflow. 1RXS J154439.4-112820 is only the fourth γ-ray-emitting low-mass X-ray binary system to be identified and is likely to sporadically undergo transformations to a non-accreting rotation-powered pulsar system.

  18. Modeling the Effect of Kick Velocity during the Accretion Induced Collapse of White Dwarfs on Binary Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taani, Ali

    2016-07-01

    The kick velocity which arises during the binary interaction plays an important role in disruption or surviving the binary systems. This paper attempts to draw an evolutionary connection of the long-period (Porb ≥ 2 d) millisecond pulsars (MSPs) with orbits of low eccentricity (e ≤ 0.2). We propose that a kick velocity caused by dynamical effects of asymmetric collapse imparted to the companion star through an accretion induced collapse (AIC) of white dwarfs-that become unstable once they approach the Chandrasekhar limit-can account for the differences in their orbital period distributions. Furthermore, in some cases, an appropriate kick can disrupt the binary system and result in the birth of isolated MSPs. Otherwise, the binary survives and an eccentric binary MSP is formed. In this case only the binding energy equivalent (0.2M⊙) of mass is lost and the system remains intact in a symmetric collapse. Consequently, the AIC decreases the mass of the neutron star and increases the orbital period leading to orbit circularization. We present the results of our model and discuss the possible implications for the binary MSPs in galactic disk and globular clusters.

  19. A possible 55-d X-ray period of the ultraluminous accreting pulsar M82 X-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Albert K. H.; Hu, Chin-Ping; Lin, Lupin Chun-Che; Li, K. L.; Jin, Ruolan; Liu, C. Y.; Yen, David Chien-Chang

    2016-10-01

    We report on the possible detection of a 55-d X-ray modulation for the ultraluminous accreting pulsar M82 X-2 from archival Chandra observations. Because M82 X-2 is known to have a 2.5-d orbital period, if the 55-d period is real, then it will be the superorbital period of the system. We also investigated variabilities of three other nearby ultraluminous X-ray sources in the central region of M82 with the Chandra data, and we did not find any evidence of periodicities. Furthermore, we re-examined the previously reported 62-d periodicity near the central region of M82 by performing a systematic timing study with all the archival Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer and Swift data. Using various dynamic timing analysis methods, we have confirmed that the 62-d period is not stable, suggesting that it is not the orbital period of M82 X-1; this is in agreement with previous work.

  20. DISCOVERY OF AN ACCRETING MILLISECOND PULSAR IN THE ECLIPSING BINARY SYSTEM SWIFT J1749.4-2807

    SciTech Connect

    Altamirano, D.; Cavecchi, Y.; Patruno, A.; Watts, A.; Degenaar, N.; Kalamkar, M.; Van der Klis, M.; Armas Padilla, M.; Kaur, R.; Yang, Y. J.; Wijnands, R.; Linares, M.; Rea, N.; Casella, P.; Soleri, P.

    2011-01-20

    We report on the discovery and the timing analysis of the first eclipsing accretion-powered millisecond X-ray pulsar (AMXP): SWIFT J1749.4-2807. The neutron star rotates at a frequency of {approx}517.9 Hz and is in a binary system with an orbital period of 8.8 hr and a projected semimajor axis of {approx}1.90 lt-s. Assuming a neutron star between 0.8 and 2.2 M{sub sun} and using the mass function of the system and the eclipse half-angle, we constrain the mass of the companion and the inclination of the system to be in the {approx}0.46-0.81 M{sub sun} and {approx} 74.{sup 0}4-77.{sup 0}3 range, respectively. To date, this is the tightest constraint on the orbital inclination of any AMXP. As in other AMXPs, the pulse profile shows harmonic content up to the third overtone. However, this is the first AMXP to show a first overtone with rms amplitudes between {approx}6% and {approx}23%, which is the strongest ever seen and which can be more than two times stronger than the fundamental. The fact that SWIFT J1749.4-2807 is an eclipsing system that shows uncommonly strong harmonic content suggests that it might be the best source to date to set constraints on neutron star properties including compactness and geometry.

  1. DISCOVERY OF ECLIPSES FROM THE ACCRETING MILLISECOND X-RAY PULSAR SWIFT J1749.4-2807

    SciTech Connect

    Markwardt, C. B.; Strohmayer, T. E.

    2010-07-10

    We report the discovery of X-ray eclipses in the recently discovered accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar SWIFT J1749.4-2807. This is the first detection of X-ray eclipses in a system of this type and should enable a precise neutron star mass measurement once the companion star is identified and studied. We present a combined pulse and eclipse timing solution that enables tight constraints on the orbital parameters and inclination and shows that the companion mass is in the range 0.6-0.8 M{sub sun} for a likely range of neutron star masses, and that it is larger than a main-sequence star of the same mass. We observed two individual eclipse egresses and a single ingress. Our timing model shows that the eclipse features are symmetric about the time of 90{sup 0} longitude from the ascending node, as expected. Our eclipse timing solution gives an eclipse duration (from the mid-points of ingress to egress) of 2172 {+-} 13 s. This represents 6.85% of the 8.82 hr orbital period. This system also presents a potential measurement of 'Shapiro' delay due to general relativity; through this technique alone, we set an upper limit to the companion mass of 2.2 M{sub sun}.

  2. Discovery of Eclipses from the Accreting Millisecond X-Ray Pulsar Swift J1749.4-2807

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markwardt, C. B.; Stromhmayer, T. E.

    2010-01-01

    We report the discovery of X-ray eclipses in the recently discovered accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar SWIFT J1749.4-2807. This is the first detection of X-ray eclipses in a system of this type and should enable a precise neutron star mass measurement once the companion star is identified and studied. We present a combined pulse and eclipse timing solution that enables tight constraints on the orbital parameters and inclination and shows that the companion mass is in the range 0.6-0.8 solar mass for a likely range of neutron star masses, and that it is larger than a main-sequence star of the same mass. We observed two individual eclipse egresses and a single ingress. Our timing model shows that the eclipse features are symmetric about the time of 90 longitude from the ascending node, as expected. Our eclipse timing solution gives an eclipse duration (from the mid-points of ingress to egress) of 2172+/-13 s. This represents 6.85% of the 8.82 hr orbital period. This system also presents a potential measurement of "Shapiro" delay due to general relativity; through this technique alone, we set an upper limit to the companion mass of 2.2 Solar mass .

  3. X-ray coherent pulsations during a sub-luminous accretion disc state of the transitional millisecond pulsar XSS J12270-4859

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papitto, A.; de Martino, D.; Belloni, T. M.; Burgay, M.; Pellizzoni, A.; Possenti, A.; Torres, D. F.

    2015-04-01

    We present the first detection of X-ray coherent pulsations from the transitional millisecond pulsar XSS J12270-4859, while it was in a sub-luminous accretion disc state characterized by a 0.5-10 keV luminosity of 5 × 1033 erg s-1 (assuming a distance of 1.4 kpc). Pulsations were observed by XMM-Newton at an rms amplitude of (7.7 ± 0.5) per cent with a second harmonic stronger than the fundamental frequency, and were detected when the source is neither flaring nor dipping. The most likely interpretation of this detection is that matter from the accretion disc was channelled by the neutron star magnetosphere and accreted on to its polar caps. According to standard disc accretion theory, for pulsations to be observed the mass inflow rate in the disc was likely larger than the amount of plasma actually reaching the neutron star surface; an outflow launched by the fast rotating magnetosphere then probably took place, in agreement with the observed broad-band spectral energy distribution. We also report about the non-detection of X-ray pulsations during a recent observation performed while the source behaved as a rotationally-powered radio pulsar.

  4. How to get the reduced B fields of millisecond pulsars: Flux expulsion by spindown before the LMXB phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpar, Mehmet Ali; Gügercinoǧlu, Erbil

    2016-07-01

    The physical interaction between quantized flux lines of the Type II proton superconductor and the quantized vortex lines of the neutron superfluid is re-visited. Srinivasan et al. (1990) had proposed that this interaction led to reduction of the magnetic field to the B ˜10^9 G range as the flux lines were expelled together with vortex lines during the spindown of the neutron star in an early epoch of binary evolution. The model is discussed with reference to spindown by the wind from the companion prior to the Roche lobe filling LMXB phase. An evolutionary model for the magnetic field and the rotation rate is presented, with application to the 11 Hz accreting pulsar in the LMXB IGR J17480-2446 in Terzan 5 (Patruno et al 2012) as well as 'standard' accreting and radio millisecond pulsar evolution.

  5. INTEGRAL confirms activity in EXO 1722-363 / IGR J17252-3616

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreykenbohm, I.; Kretschmar, P.; Wilms, J.; Grinberg, V.; Kuulkers, E.; Hirsch, M.; Pottschmidt, K.; Rodriguez, J.; Sanchez-Fernandez, C.

    2016-08-01

    INTEGRAL observations taken on 2016 August 23 between MJD 57623.26 and 57623.84 clearly confirm the highly absorbed super-giant high mass X-ray binary pulsar EXO 1722-363 (IGR J17252-3616) to be the source reported as flaring in ATel #9412 by MAXI.

  6. Positive correlation between the cyclotron line energy and luminosity in sub-critical X-ray pulsars: Doppler effect in the accretion channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mushtukov, Alexander A.; Tsygankov, Sergey S.; Serber, Alexander V.; Suleimanov, Valery F.; Poutanen, Juri

    2015-12-01

    Cyclotron resonance scattering features observed in the spectra of some X-ray pulsars show significant changes of the line centroid energy with the pulsar luminosity. Whereas for bright sources above the so-called critical luminosity, these variations are established to be connected with the appearance of the high-accretion column above the neutron star surface, at low, sub-critical luminosities the nature of the variations (but with the opposite sign) has not been discussed widely. We argue here that the cyclotron line is formed when the radiation from a hotspot propagates through the plasma falling with a mildly relativistic velocity on to the neutron star surface. The position of the cyclotron resonance is determined by the Doppler effect. The change of the cyclotron line position in the spectrum with luminosity is caused by variations of the velocity profile in the line-forming region affected by the radiation pressure force. The presented model has several characteristic features: (i) the line centroid energy is positively correlated with the luminosity; (ii) the line width is positively correlated with the luminosity as well; (iii) the position and the width of the cyclotron absorption line are variable over the pulse phase; (iv) the line has a more complicated shape than widely used Lorentzian or Gaussian profiles; (v) the phase-resolved cyclotron line centroid energy and the width are negatively and positively correlated with the pulse intensity, respectively. The predictions of the proposed theory are compared with the variations of the cyclotron line parameters in the X-ray pulsar GX 304-1 over a wide range of sub-critical luminosities as seen by the INTEGRAL observatory.

  7. Recycled pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacoby, Bryan Anthony

    2005-11-01

    In a survey of ~4,150 square degrees, we discovered 26 previously unknown pulsars, including 7 "recycled" millisecond or binary pulsars. The most significant discovery of this survey is PSR J1909-3744, a 2.95 ms pulsar in an extremely circular 1.5 d orbit with a low-mass white dwarf companion. Though this system is a fairly typical low-mass binary pulsar (LMBP) system, it has several exceptional qualities: an extremely narrow pulse profile and stable rotation have enabled the most precise long-term timing ever reported, and a nearly edge-on orbit gives rise to a strong Shapiro delay which has allowed the most precise measurement of the mass of a millisecond pulsar: m p = (1.438 +/- 0.024) [Special characters omitted.] . Our accurate parallax distance measurement, d p = ([Special characters omitted.] ) kpc, combined with the mass of the optically-detected companion, m c = (0.2038 +/- 0.022) [Special characters omitted.] , will provide an important calibration for white dwarf models relevant to other LMBP companions. We have detected optical counterparts for two intermediate mass binary pulsar (IMBP) systems; taken together with optical detections and non-detections of several similar systems, our results indicate that the characteristic age t = c P /2 P consistently overestimates the time since the end of mass accretion in these recycled systems. We have measured orbital decay in the double neutron star system PSR B2127+11C in the globular cluster M15. This has allowed an improved measurement of the mass of the pulsar, m p = (1.3584 +/- 0.0097) [Special characters omitted.] , and companion, m c = (1.3544 +/- 0.0097) [Special characters omitted.] , as well as a test of general relativity at the 3% level. We find that the proper motions of this pulsar as well as PSR B2127+11A and PSR B2127+11B are consistent with each other and with one published measurement of the cluster proper motion. We have discovered three binary millisecond pulsars in the globular cluster M62

  8. The unique opportunity to determine the mass of an accreting neutron star: the eclipsing accretion powered X-ray pulsar SWIFTJ1749.4-2807

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonker, Peter; Eikenberry, Steve; Torres, Manuel; Steeghs, Daniel; Chakrabarty, Deepto

    2014-02-01

    In 2010 it was discovered that the peculiar transient SWIFT J1749.4-2807 exhibits pulsations at 518 Hz. Furthermore, it turned out that the source was eclipsing in a 8.8 hr orbit thereby holding the promise of a model independent neutron star mass determination. Optical or near-infrared dynamical studies offer the best prospects for constraining the neutron star equation of state, as they do not rely on any specific models concerning the neutron star itself. Using Gemini NIRI observations we identified the NIR counterpart to the pulsar. Here, we propose for Gemini near-infrared spectroscopy with FLAMINGOS-2 to obtain spectra over the orbit to measure the radial velocity semi-amplitude of the mass donor star, which will lead to a model independent mass measurement of the neutron star.

  9. CHANDRA OBSERVATIONS OF FIVE INTEGRAL SOURCES: NEW X-RAY POSITIONS FOR IGR J16393-4643 AND IGR J17091-3624

    SciTech Connect

    Bodaghee, A.; Tomsick, J. A.; Rahoui, F.; Rodriguez, J.

    2012-06-01

    The Chandra High Resolution Camera observed the fields of five hard X-ray sources in order to help us obtain X-ray coordinates with subarcsecond precision. These observations provide the most accurate X-ray positions known for IGR J16393-4643 and IGR J17091-3624. The obscured X-ray pulsar IGR J16393-4643 lies at R.A. (J2000) = 16{sup h}39{sup m}05.{sup s}47, and decl. = -46 Degree-Sign 42'13.''0 (error radius of 0.''6 at 90% confidence). This position is incompatible with the previously proposed counterpart 2MASS J16390535-4642137, and it points instead to a new counterpart candidate that is possibly blended with the Two Micron All Sky Survey star. The black hole candidate IGR J17091-3624 was observed during its 2011 outburst providing coordinates of R.A. = 17{sup h}09{sup m}07.{sup s}59, and decl. = -36 Degree-Sign 24'25.''4. This position is compatible with those of the proposed optical/IR and radio counterparts, solidifying the source's status as a microquasar. Three targets, IGR J14043-6148, IGR J16358-4726, and IGR J17597-2201, were not detected. We obtained 3{sigma} upper limits of, respectively, 1.7, 1.8, and 1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -12} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} on their 2-10 keV fluxes.

  10. Possible Detection of an Emission Cyclotron Resonance Scattering Feature from the Accretion-Powered Pulsar 4U 1626-67

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwakiri, W. B.; Terada, Y.; Tashiro, M. S.; Mihara, T.; Angelini, L.; Yamada, S.; Enoto, T.; Makishima, K.; Nakajima, M.; Yoshida, A.

    2012-01-01

    We present analysis of 4U 1626-67, a 7.7 s pulsar in a low-mass X-ray binary system, observed with the hard X-ray detector of the Japanese X-ray satellite Suzaku in 2006 March for a net exposure of 88 ks. The source was detected at an average 10-60 keY flux of approx 4 x 10-10 erg / sq cm/ s. The phase-averaged spectrum is reproduced well by combining a negative and positive power-law times exponential cutoff (NPEX) model modified at approx 37 keY by a cyclotron resonance scattering feature (CRSF). The phase-resolved analysis shows that the spectra at the bright phases are well fit by the NPEX with CRSF model. On the other hand. the spectrum in the dim phase lacks the NPEX high-energy cutoff component, and the CRSF can be reproduced by either an emission or an absorption profile. When fitting the dim phase spectrum with the NPEX plus Gaussian model. we find that the feature is better described in terms of an emission rather than an absorption profile. The statistical significance of this result, evaluated by means of an F test, is between 2.91 x 10(exp -3) and 1.53 x 10(exp -5), taking into account the systematic errors in the background evaluation of HXD-PIN. We find that the emission profile is more feasible than the absorption one for comparing the physical parameters in other phases. Therefore, we have possibly detected an emission line at the cyclotron resonance energy in the dim phase.

  11. Variability study of the High Mass X-ray binary IGR J18027-2016 with Swift -XRT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aftab, Nafisa; Islam, Nazma

    2016-07-01

    We report the results from pulsations and spectral analysis of a large number of observations of the HMXB pulsar IGR J18027-2016 with Swift-XRT,carried out at different orbital phases. We found a significant intensity variations in the system at different orbital phases, higher than the orbital intensity modulation. In some orbital phases, as seen in different XRT observations, the X-ray intensity is found to vary by a large factor, of about ˜50. In all the observations with sufficient number of source X-ray photons, pulsations have been detected around the previously known pulse period of ˜140 sec, consistent with the source being a persistent pulsator. The pulse profiles,however, show a significant change from a double peaked pulse profiles in most cases to a singled peaked pulse profiles in some observations. The nature of the pulse profiles are found to be independent of the X-ray intensity. In some of the observations, a 6.4 keV Fe Kα emission line is detected with a high equivalent width (˜1 keV). The absorption column density is found to be large before and after the eclipse, consistent with most of it being due to the stellar wind of the companion star. Such X-ray intensity variations outside the X-ray eclipse and associated spectral properties indicates a variable accretion onto the neutron star, which could be caused by a clumpy nature of the stellar wind of the companion star.

  12. A Possible Magnetar Nature for IGR J16358-4726

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, S. K.; Zurita, J.; DelSanto, M.; Finger, M.; Kouveliotou, C.; Eichler, D.; Gogus, E.; Ubertini, P.; Walter, R.; Woods, P.; Wilson, C. A.; Wachter, S.; Bazzano, A.

    2007-01-01

    We present detailed spectral and timing analysis of the hard X-ray transient IGR J16358-4726 using multisatellite archival observations. A study of the source flux time history over 6 yr suggests that lower luminosity transient outbursts can be occurring in intervals of at most 1 yr. Joint spectral fits of the higher luminosity outburst using simultaneous Chandra ACIS and INTEGRAL ISGRI data reveal a spectrum well described by an absorbed power-law model with a high-energy cutoff plus an Fe line. We detected the 1.6 hr pulsations initially reported using Chandra ACIS also in the INTEGRAL ISGRI light curve and in subsequent XMM-Newton observations. Using the INTEGRAL data, we identified a spin-up of 94 s (P(sup(.)) = 1.6 x 10(exp -4), which strongly points to a neutron star nature for IGR J16358-4726. Assuming that the spin-up is due to disk accretion, we estimate that the source magnetic field ranges between 10(exp 13) and 10(exp 15) G, depending on its distance, possibly supporting a magnetar nature for IGR J16358-4726.

  13. A Possible Magnetar Nature for IGR J16358-4726

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, S.; Zurita, J.; DelSanto, M.; Finger, M.; Koueliotou, C.; Eichler, D.; Gogus, E.; Ubertini, P.; Walter, R.; Woods, P.

    2006-01-01

    We present detailed spectral and timing analysis of the hard x-ray transient IGR J16358-4726 using multi-satellite archival observations. A study of the source flux time history over 6 years, suggests that this transient outbursts can be occurring in intervals of at most 1 year. Joint spectral fits using simultaneous Chandra/ACIS and INTEGRAL/ISGRI data reveal a spectrum well described by an absorbed cut-off power law model plus an Fe line. We detected the pulsations initially reported using Chandra/ACIS also in the INTEGRAL/ISGRI light curve and in subsequent XMM-Newton observations. Using the INTEGRAL data we identified a pulse spin up of 94 s (P = 1.6 x 10(exp -4), which strongly points to a neutron star nature for IGR J16358-4726. Assuming that the spin up is due to disc accretion, we estimate that the source magnetic field ranges between 10(sup 13) approximately 10(sup 15) depending on its distance, possibly supporting a magnetar nature for IGR J16358-4726.

  14. The Quiescent X-Ray Properties of the Accreting Millisecond X-Ray Pulsar and Eclipsing binary Swift J1749.4-2807

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degenaar, N.; Patruno, A.; Wijnands, R.

    2012-09-01

    Swift J1749.4-2807 is a transient neutron star low-mass X-ray binary that contains an accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar spinning at 518 Hz. It is the first of its kind that displays X-ray eclipses, which holds significant promise to precisely constrain the mass of the neutron star. We report on a ~= 105 ks long XMM-Newton observation performed when Swift J1749.4-2807 was in quiescence. We detect the source at a 0.5-10 keV luminosity of sime1 × 1033(D/6.7 kpc)2 erg s-1. The X-ray light curve displays three eclipses that are consistent in orbital phase and duration with the ephemeris derived during outburst. Unlike most quiescent neutron stars, the X-ray spectrum can be adequately described with a simple power law, while a pure-hydrogen atmosphere model does not fit the data. We place an upper limit on the 0.01-100 keV thermal luminosity of the cooling neutron star of <~ 2 × 1033 erg s-1 and constrain its temperature to be <~ 0.1 keV (for an observer at infinity). Timing analysis does not reveal evidence for X-ray pulsations near the known spin frequency of the neutron star or its first overtone with a fractional rms of <~ 34% and <~ 28%, respectively. We discuss the implications of our findings for dynamical mass measurements, the thermal state of the neutron star, and the origin of the quiescent X-ray emission.

  15. THE QUIESCENT X-RAY PROPERTIES OF THE ACCRETING MILLISECOND X-RAY PULSAR AND ECLIPSING BINARY SWIFT J1749.4-2807

    SciTech Connect

    Degenaar, N.; Patruno, A.; Wijnands, R.

    2012-09-10

    Swift J1749.4-2807 is a transient neutron star low-mass X-ray binary that contains an accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar spinning at 518 Hz. It is the first of its kind that displays X-ray eclipses, which holds significant promise to precisely constrain the mass of the neutron star. We report on a {approx_equal} 105 ks long XMM-Newton observation performed when Swift J1749.4-2807 was in quiescence. We detect the source at a 0.5-10 keV luminosity of {approx_equal}1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 33}(D/6.7 kpc){sup 2} erg s{sup -1}. The X-ray light curve displays three eclipses that are consistent in orbital phase and duration with the ephemeris derived during outburst. Unlike most quiescent neutron stars, the X-ray spectrum can be adequately described with a simple power law, while a pure-hydrogen atmosphere model does not fit the data. We place an upper limit on the 0.01-100 keV thermal luminosity of the cooling neutron star of {approx}< 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 33} erg s{sup -1} and constrain its temperature to be {approx}< 0.1 keV (for an observer at infinity). Timing analysis does not reveal evidence for X-ray pulsations near the known spin frequency of the neutron star or its first overtone with a fractional rms of {approx}< 34% and {approx}< 28%, respectively. We discuss the implications of our findings for dynamical mass measurements, the thermal state of the neutron star, and the origin of the quiescent X-ray emission.

  16. Aperiodic optical variability of intermediate polars - cataclysmic variables with truncated accretion disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revnivtsev, M.; Burenin, R.; Bikmaev, I.; Kniazev, A.; Buckley, D. A. H.; Pretorius, M. L.; Khamitov, I.; Ak, T.; Eker, Z.; Melnikov, S.; Crawford, S.; Pavlinsky, M.

    2010-04-01

    We study the power spectra of the variability of seven intermediate polars containing magnetized asynchronous accreting white dwarfs, XSS J00564+4548, IGR J00234+6141, DO Dra, V1223 Sgr, IGR J15094-6649, IGR J16500-3307 and IGR J17195-4100, in the optical band and demonstrate that their variability can be well described by a model based on fluctuations propagating in a truncated accretion disk. The power spectra have breaks at Fourier frequencies, which we associate with the Keplerian frequency of the disk at the boundary of the white dwarfs' magnetospheres. We propose that the properties of the optical power spectra can be used to deduce the geometry of the inner parts of the accretion disk, in particular: 1) truncation radii of the magnetically disrupted accretion disks in intermediate polars, 2) the truncation radii of the accretion disk in quiescent states of dwarf novae.

  17. The long helical jet of the Lighthouse nebula, IGR J11014-6103

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavan, L.; Bordas, P.; Pühlhofer, G.; Filipović, M. D.; De Horta, A.; O'Brien, A.; Balbo, M.; Walter, R.; Bozzo, E.; Ferrigno, C.; Crawford, E.; Stella, L.

    2014-02-01

    Context. Jets from rotation-powered pulsars so far have only been observed in systems moving subsonically through their ambient medium and/or embedded in their progenitor supernova remnant (SNR). Supersonic runaway pulsars are also expected to produce jets, but they have not been confirmed to so far. Aims: We investigated the nature of the jet-like structure associated with the INTEGRAL source IGR J11014-6103 (the "Lighthouse nebula"). The source is a neutron star escaping its parent SNR MSH 11-61A supersonically at a velocity exceeding 1000 km s-1. Methods: We observed the Lighthouse nebula and its jet-like X-ray structure through dedicated high spatial resolution observations in X-rays (with Chandra) and in the radio band (with ATCA). Results: Our results show that the feature is a true pulsar's jet. It extends highly collimated over ≳11pc, displays a clear precession-like modulation, and propagates nearly perpendicular to the system direction of motion, implying that the neutron star's spin axis in IGR J11014-6103 is almost perpendicular to the direction of the kick received during the supernova explosion. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that jets are common to rotation-powered pulsars, and demonstrate that supernovae can impart high kick velocities to misaligned spinning neutron stars, possibly through distinct, exotic, core-collapse mechanisms.

  18. Suzaku Captures a Possible Eclipse in IGR J16207-5129 and Identifies a Weak-Flaring State in IGR J17391-3021

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodaghee, Arash; Tomsick, John A.; Rodriquez, Jerome; Chaty, Sylvain; Pottschmidt, Katja; Walter, Roland; Romano, Patrizia

    2011-01-01

    We present the results from analyses of Suzaku observations of the supergiant X-ray binaries IGR Jl6207-5129 and IGR Jl7391-3021. For IGR Jl6207-5129, we provide the first broadband (0.5-60 keV) spectrum from which we confirm a large intrinsic column density (N(sub H) = 16 X 10(exp 22)/square cm), and constrain the cutoff energy for the first time (E(sub c) 19 keV). We observed a prolonged (> 30 ks) attenuation of the X-ray flux which we tentatively attribute to an eclipse of the probable neutron star by its massive companion. For IGR Jl739J-3021, we witnessed a transition from quiescence to a low-activity phase punctuated by weak flares whose peak luminosities in the 0.5-10 keV band are only a factor of 5 times that of the pre-flare emission. The weak flaring is accompanied by an increase in the absorbing column which suggests the accretion of obscuring clumps of wind. Placing this observation in the context of the recent Swift monitoring campaign, we now recognize that these low-activity epochs constitute the most common emission phase for this system, and perhaps in other supergiant fast X-ray transients (SFXTs) as well.

  19. Pulsar Electrodynamics: a Time-dependent View

    SciTech Connect

    Spitkovsky, Anatoly; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2006-04-10

    Pulsar spindown forms a reliable yet enigmatic prototype for the energy loss processes in many astrophysical objects including accretion disks and back holes. In this paper we review the physics of pulsar magnetospheres, concentrating on recent developments in force-free modeling of the magnetospheric structure. In particular, we discuss a new method for solving the equations of time-dependent force-free relativistic MHD in application to pulsars. This method allows to dynamically study the formation of the magnetosphere and its response to perturbations, opening a qualitatively new window on pulsar phenomena. Applications of the method to other magnetized rotators, such as magnetars and accretion disks, are also discussed.

  20. Closer view of the IGR J11014-6103 outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavan, L.; Pühlhofer, G.; Bordas, P.; Audard, M.; Balbo, M.; Bozzo, E.; Eckert, D.; Ferrigno, C.; Filipović, M. D.; Verdugo, M.; Walter, R.

    2016-06-01

    IGR J11014-6103 (also known as the Lighthouse Nebula) is composed of a bow-shock pulsar wind nebula (PWN) and large-scale X-ray jet-like features, all powered by PSR J1101-6101. Previous observations suggest that the jet features stem from a ballistic jet of relativistic particles. In order to confirm the nature of the jet and the counter-jet, we obtained a new deep 250 ks Chandra observation of the Lighthouse Nebula. We performed detailed spatial and spectral analysis of all X-ray components of the system. The X-ray PWN is now better resolved and shows a peculiar morphology resembling the shape of an arrow. The overall helical pattern of the main jet is confirmed. However, there are large deviations from a simple helical model at small and large scales. Significant extended emission is now detected, encompassing the main jet all along its length. The presence of an apparent gap along the main jet at ~50″ distance from the pulsar is confirmed; however, the surrounding extended emission prevents conclusions on the coherence at this position of the jet. The counter-jet is now detected at high statistical significance. In addition, we found two small-scale arcs departing from the pulsar towards the jets. We also looked for possible bow-shock emission due to the pulsar motion, with a short VLT/FORS2 H-α observation. No clear emission is found, most likely because of the contamination from a diffuse nebulosity. The results of our X-ray analysis show that both a ballistic jet scenario and an alternative scenario involving the diffusion of particles along pre-existing interstellar magnetic field lines are able to satisfactorily explain some of the observational evidence, but cannot fully reproduce the observations.

  1. CONTINUED NEUTRON STAR CRUST COOLING OF THE 11 Hz X-RAY PULSAR IN TERZAN 5: A CHALLENGE TO HEATING AND COOLING MODELS?

    SciTech Connect

    Degenaar, N.; Miller, J. M.; Wijnands, R.; Altamirano, D.; Fridriksson, J.; Brown, E. F.; Cackett, E. M.; Homan, J.; Heinke, C. O.; Sivakoff, G. R.; Pooley, D.

    2013-09-20

    The transient neutron star low-mass X-ray binary and 11 Hz X-ray pulsar IGR J17480-2446 in the globular cluster Terzan 5 exhibited an 11 week accretion outburst in 2010. Chandra observations performed within five months after the end of the outburst revealed evidence that the crust of the neutron star became substantially heated during the accretion episode and was subsequently cooling in quiescence. This provides the rare opportunity to probe the structure and composition of the crust. Here, we report on new Chandra observations of Terzan 5 that extend the monitoring to ≅2.2 yr into quiescence. We find that the thermal flux and neutron star temperature have continued to decrease, but remain significantly above the values that were measured before the 2010 accretion phase. This suggests that the crust has not thermally relaxed yet, and may continue to cool. Such behavior is difficult to explain within our current understanding of heating and cooling of transiently accreting neutron stars. Alternatively, the quiescent emission may have settled at a higher observed equilibrium level (for the same interior temperature), in which case the neutron star crust may have fully cooled.

  2. Birth of millisecond pulsars in globular clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grindlay, J. E.; Bailyn, C. D.

    1988-01-01

    It is argued here that accretion-induced collapse of white dwarfs in binaries can form millisecond pulsars directly without requiring a precursor low-mass X-ray binary stage. Ablation of the precollapse binary companion by the millisecond pulsar's radiation field, a process invoked to explain some of the characteristics of the recently discovered eclipsing millisecond pulsar, can then yield isolated neutron stars witout requiring an additional stellar encounter.

  3. Spectroscopic observations of the counterpart of IGR J00291+5934

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roelofs, G.; Jonker, P. G.; Steeghs, D.; Torres, M.; Nelemans, G.

    2004-12-01

    Spectroscopic observations of the optical counterpart of the millisecond X-ray pulsar IGR J00291+5934 (Atel #352, 353) reported in an Atel by Fox & Kulkarni were obtained (Dec 5 00:29-01:15 UT) with the ISIS spectrograph mounted on the 4.2m William Herschel Telescope on La Palma. Weather conditions were not optimal with a seeing of ~2" and thin clouds. The spectra show weak evidence for broad emission line features near the HeII line at 4686 Angstrom and near the Halpha line at 6563 Angstrom.

  4. Observations and modeling of the companions of short period binary millisecond pulsars: evidence for high-mass neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, Joshua; Halpern, Jules

    2014-10-01

    We present observations of fields containing eight recently discovered binary millisecond pulsars using the telescopes at MDM Observatory. Optical counterparts to four of these systems are detected, one of which, PSR J2214+3000, is a novel detection. Additionally, we present the fully phase-resolved B, V, and R light curves of the optical counterparts to two objects, PSR J1810+1744 and PSR J2215+5135 for which we employ model fitting using the eclipsing light curve (ELC) model of Orosz and Hauschildt to measure the unknown system parameters. For PSR J1810+1744, we find that the system parameters cannot be fit even assuming that 100% of the spin-down luminosity of the pulsar is irradiating the secondary, and so radial velocity measurements of this object will be required for the complete solution. However, PSR J2215+5135 exhibits light curves that are extremely well constrained using the ELC model and we find that the mass of the neutron star is constrained by these and the radio observations to be M {sub NS} > 1.75 M {sub ☉} at the 3σ level. We also find a discrepancy between the model temperature and the measured colors of this object, which we interpret as possible evidence for an additional high-temperature source such as a quiescent disk. Given this and the fact that PSR J2215+5135 contains a relatively high mass companion (M {sub c} > 0.1 M {sub ☉}), we propose that similar to the binary pulsar systems PSR J1023+0038 and IGR J18245–2452, the pulsar may transition between accretion- and rotation-powered modes.

  5. IGR J17451-3022: constraints on the nature of the donor star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zdziarski, Andrzej A.; Ziółkowski, Janusz; Bozzo, Enrico; Pjanka, Patryk

    2016-10-01

    We constrain the binary parameters and the nature of the donor star of the eclipsing accreting X-ray binary IGR J17451-3022. The donor mass, its radius, and the system inclination angle are computed based on the system orbital period and eclipse duration recently reported. We find that the donor is most likely a main-sequence star with the mass comprised within the range (0.5-0.8) M⊙ and a radius of 0.7 R⊙. Assuming that the accreting compact object in IGR J17451-3022 is a neutron star, the duration of the nearly total rectangular eclipses yields an inclination angle of the system of 71° ≲ i ≲ 76°, compatible with the presence of dips in this system. We rule out the presence of either a brown or white dwarf. However, we find an alternative possibility that the donor star in IGR J17451-3022 could be a partially stripped giant with a very low mass, 0.2 M⊙. This case requires a substantial mass loss prior to the formation of the giant-star He core. According to that solution, the radius would be 0.4 R⊙, at i 80°. We additionally show that the well-known approximate dependence of the giant-star radius exclusively on its core mass, breaks down below 0.3 M⊙.

  6. Pulsar Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    Pulsars are thought to emit relatively narrow radio beams, shown as green in this animation. If these beams don't sweep toward Earth, astronomers cannot detect the radio signals. Pulsar gamma-ray e...

  7. Observing and Modeling the Optical Counterparts of Short-Period Binary Millisecond Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, Joshua

    to the binary pulsar systems PSR J1023+0038 and IGR J18245-2452, the pulsar may transition between accretion- and rotation-powered modes.

  8. Variability study of the High Mass X-ray Binary IGR J18027-2016 with Swift-XRT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aftab, Nafisa; Islam, Nazma; Paul, Biswajit

    2016-08-01

    We report the results from pulsations and spectral analysis of a large number of observations of the HMXB pulsar IGR J18027-2016 with Swift-XRT, carried out at different orbital phases. In some orbital phases, as seen in different XRT observations, the X-ray intensity is found to vary by a large factor, of about ˜50. In all the observations with sufficient number of source X-ray photons, pulsations have been detected around the previously known pulse period of ˜140 sec, When detected, the pulse profiles do not show any significant variation over a flux difference of a factor of ˜3. The absorption column density is found to be large before and after the eclipse. We discuss various possible reasons for intensity and spectral variations in IGR J18027-2016, such as clumpy wind and hydrodynamic instabilities.

  9. Discovery of X-Ray Pulsations from the INTEGRAL Source IGR J11014-6103

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halpern, J. P.; Tomsick, J. A.; Gotthelf, E. V.; Camilo, F.; Ng, C.-Y.; Bodaghee, A.; Rodriguez, J.; Chaty, S.; Rahoui, F.

    2014-11-01

    We report the discovery of PSR J1101-6101, a 62.8 ms pulsar in IGR J11014-6103, a hard X-ray source with a jet and a cometary tail that strongly suggests it is moving away from the center of the supernova remnant (SNR) MSH 11-61A at v > 1000 km s-1. Two XMM-Newton observations were obtained with the EPIC pn in small window mode, resulting in the measurement of its spin-down luminosity \\dot{E}=1.36× 1036 erg s-1, characteristic age τ c = 116 kyr, and surface magnetic field strength Bs = 7.4 × 1011 G. In comparison to τ c , the 10-30 kyr age estimated for MSH 11-61A suggests that the pulsar was born in the SNR with initial period in the range 54 <= P 0 <= 60 ms. PSR J1101-6101 is the least energetic of the 15 rotation-powered pulsars detected by INTEGRAL, and has a high efficiency of hard X-ray radiation and jet power. We examine the shape of the cometary nebula in a Chandra image, which is roughly consistent with a bow shock at the velocity inferred from the SNR age and the pulsar's \\dot{E}. However, its structure differs in detail from the classic bow shock, and we explore possible reasons for this.

  10. IGR J12319-0749: Evidence for Another Extreme Blazar Found with INTEGRAL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bassani, L.; Landi, R.; Marshall, F. E.; Malizia, A.; Bazzano, A.; Bird, A. J.; Gehrels, N.; Ubertini, P.; Masetti, N.

    2012-01-01

    We report on the identification of a new soft gamma-ray source, IGR J12319-0749, detected with the IBIS imager on board the INTEGRAL satellite. The source, which has an observed 20-100 keV flux of approx 8.3 × 10(exp -12) erg/sq. cm/ s, is spatially coincident with an active galactic nucleus (AGN) at redshift z = 3.12. The broad-band continuum, obtained by combining XRT and IBIS data, is flat (Gamma = 1.3) with evidence for a spectral break around 25 keV (100 keV in the source restframe). X-ray observations indicate flux variability, which is also supported by a comparison with a previous ROSAT measurement. IGR J12319-0749 is also a radio-emitting object likely characterised by a flat spectrum and high radio loudness; optically it is a broad-line emitting object with a massive black hole (2.8 × 10(exp 9) solar masses) at its centre. The source spectral energy distribution is similar to another high-redshift blazar, 225155+2217 at z = 3.668: both objects are bright, with a high accretion disk luminosity and a Compton peak located in the hard X-ray/soft gamma-ray band. IGR J12319-0749 is likely the second-most distant blazar detected so far by INTEGRAL.

  11. IGR J12319-0749: Evidence for Another Extreme Blazar Found with INTEGRAL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bassani, L.; Landi, R.; Marshall, F. E.; Malizia, A.; Bazzano, A.; Bird, A. J.; Gehrels, N.; Ubertini, P.; Masetti, N.

    2012-01-01

    We report on the identification of a new soft gamma-ray source, IGR J12319 C0749, detected with the IBIS imager on board the INTEGRAL satellite. The source, which has an observed 20 C100 keV flux of 8.3 10.12 erg cm.2 s.1, is spatially coincident with an AGN at redshift z = 3.12. The broad-band continuum, obtained by combining XRT and IBIS data, is flat ( =1.3) with evidence for a spectral break around 25 keV (100 keV in the source rest frame). X-ray observations indicate flux variability which is further supported by a comparison with a previous ROSAT measurement. IGR J12319 C0749 is also a radio emitting object likely characterized by a flat spectrum and high radio loudness; optically it is a broad-line emitting object with a massive black hole (2.8 109 solar masses) at its center. The source Spectral Energy Distribution is similar to another high redshift blazar, 225155+2217 at z = 3.668: both objects are bright, with a large accretion disk luminosity and a Compton peak located in the hard X-ray/soft gamma-ray band. IGR J12319 C0749 is likely the second most distant blazar detected so far by INTEGRAL.

  12. Exoplanets around pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitiashvili, I.; Gusev, A.

    2003-04-01

    Surprise discovery of thrid planets and cometary body (!?) near the pulsar PSR~B1257+12 (Wolszczan and Frail, 1992) posed the problems of describing their moving around pulsar, their origin and early rotation. At the present time the question whether there exist another three pulsars in the planetary systems is under discussion: PSR 0329+54 (1 planet), PSR B1620--26 (1 planet) and PSR 1828--11 (3 planets, Stairs et al., 2000) . It is known the time scale of pulsars is very stable, then in some cases the periodical fluctuation in time of arrival may be provoked motion of planetary bodies, free precession or concerned with the interior of the neutron star. Discovery exoplanets around PSR~B1257+12 gave strong push for search and investigate planets around neutron stars. Dust disks around stars still retain information about the formation processes of the exoplanetary systems as they are formed by collisions of planetesimals or protoplanets.The conventional explanation for the formation gas giant planets, core accretion, presumes that a gaseous envelope collapses upon a roughly 10 M⊕, solid core that was formed by the collisional accumulation of planetary embryos orbiting in a gaseous disk (Boss, 2002). Small protoplanets torque the disk at the Lindblad and corotation resonances, and the resulting back-torque can propel a planet into the star (Ward, 1997). We investigate the equations of the magneto-rotational instability of the Keplerian disk in linear approximation by qualitative and bifurcation methods. The separation of 3-dimensional parameter space of dynamical system by bifurcation surfaces is obtained. The obtained gallery of more ten phase portraits of disk evolution illustrates the various regimes of the planetary systems evolution. Investigation of a matter around young pulsars will allow us to answer about a possibility of birth of planets after explosion of a supernova star.

  13. Be/X-Ray Pulsar Binary Science with LOFT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.

    2011-01-01

    Accretion disks are ubiquitous in astronomical sources. Accretion powered pulsars are a good test bed for accretion disk physics, because unlike for other objects, the spin of the neutron star is directly observable allowing us to see the effects of angular momentum transfer onto the pulsar. The combination of a sensitive wide-field monitor and the large area detector on LOFT will enable new detailed studies of accretion powered pulsars which I will review. RXTE observations have shown an unusually high number of Be/X-ray pulsar binaries in the SMC. Unlike binaries in the Milky Way, these systems are all at the same distance, allowing detailed population studies using the sensitive LOFT WFM, potentially providing connections to star formation episodes. For Galactic accreting pulsar systems, LOFT will allow measurement of spectral variations within individual pulses, mapping the accretion column in detail for the first time. LOFT will also provide better constraints on magnetic fields in accreting pulsars, allowing measurements of cyclotron features, observations of transitions into the centrifugal inhibition regime, and monitoring of spin-up rate vs flux correlations. Coordinated multi-wavelength observations are crucial to extracting the best science from LOFT from these and numerous other objects.

  14. THE TRANSIENT ACCRETING X-RAY PULSAR XTE J1946+274: STABILITY OF X-RAY PROPERTIES AT LOW FLUX AND UPDATED ORBITAL SOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Marcu-Cheatham, Diana M.; Pottschmidt, Katja; Kühnel, Matthias; Müller, Sebastian; Falkner, Sebastian; Kreykenbohm, Ingo; Caballero, Isabel; Jenke, Peter J.; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Fürst, Felix; Grinberg, Victoria; Hemphill, Paul B.; Rothschild, Richard E.; Klochkov, Dmitry; Terada, Yukikatsu; and others

    2015-12-10

    We present a timing and spectral analysis of the X-ray pulsar XTE J1946+274 observed with Suzaku during an outburst decline in 2010 October and compare with previous results. XTE J1946+274 is a transient X-ray binary consisting of a Be-type star and a neutron star with a 15.75 s pulse period in a 172 days orbit with 2–3 outbursts per orbit during phases of activity. We improve the orbital solution using data from multiple instruments. The X-ray spectrum can be described by an absorbed Fermi–Dirac cut-off power-law model along with a narrow Fe Kα line at 6.4 keV and a weak Cyclotron Resonance Scattering Feature (CRSF) at ∼35 keV. The Suzaku data are consistent with the previously observed continuum flux versus iron line flux correlation expected from fluorescence emission along the line of sight. However, the observed iron line flux is slightly higher, indicating the possibility of a higher iron abundance or the presence of non-uniform material. We argue that the source most likely has only been observed in the subcritical (non-radiation dominated) state since its pulse profile is stable over all observed luminosities and the energy of the CRSF is approximately the same at the highest (∼5 × 10{sup 37} erg s{sup −1}) and lowest (∼5 × 10{sup 36} erg s{sup −1}) observed 3–60 keV luminosities.

  15. Pulsar activation by the interstellar medium?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michel, F. Curtis

    1987-01-01

    Recent work suggests that rotating magnetized neutron stars (i.e., pulsar models) trap plasma instead of emitting it. The trapping arises because nonneutral plasma can be stably trapped within such a magnetosphere provided the overall system charge is nonzero. It has been argued that particles from the interstellar medium would discharge this system, thereby presumably reactivating the system as a pulsar. However, radiation pressure either precludes such discharging (requiring an alternative source of ionization) or pulsar magnetic moments must be almost perfectly aligned with the spin axis (a revolutionary alternative). Indeed, the pulsars for which particles could reach the neutron star are those with periods of at least 3 sec. But those periods are where pulsars become inactive, not active. Conceivably, nulling might represent intermittent accretion of the interstellar medium.

  16. Acceleration by pulsar winds in binary systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Alice K.; Gaisser, T. K.

    1990-01-01

    In the absence of accretion torques, a pulsar in a binary system will spin down due to electromagnetic dipole radiation and the spin-down power will drive a wind of relativistic electron-positron pairs. Winds from pulsars with short periods will prevent any subsequent accretion but may be confined by the companion star atmosphere, wind, or magnetosphere to form a standing shock. The authors investigate the possibility of particle acceleration at such a pulsar wind shock and the production of very high energy (VHE) and ultra high energy (UHE) gamma rays from interactions of accelerated protons in the companion star's wind or atmosphere. They find that in close binaries containing active pulsars, protons will be shock accelerated to a maximum energy dependent on the pulsar spin-down luminosity. If a significant fraction of the spin-down power goes into particle acceleration, these systems should be sources of VHE and possibly UHE gamma rays. The authors discuss the application of the pulsar wind model to binary sources such as Cygnus X-3, as well as the possibility of observing VHE gamma-rays from known binary radio pulsar systems.

  17. Terzan 5 transient IGR J17480-2446: variation of burst and spectral properties with spectral states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Manoneeta; Bhattacharyya, Sudip; Mukherjee, Arunava

    2011-11-01

    We study the spectral-state evolution of the Terzan 5 transient neutron star low-mass X-ray binary IGR J17480-2446, and how the best-fitting spectral parameters and burst properties evolved with these states, using the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer data. As reported by other authors, this is the second source that showed transitions between atoll state and 'Z' state. We find large-scale hysteresis in the almost 'C'-like hardness-intensity track of the source in the atoll state. This discovery is likely to provide a missing piece of the jigsaw puzzle involving various types of hardness-intensity tracks from 'q' shaped for Aquila X-1, 4U 1608-52 and many black holes to 'C' shaped for many atoll sources. Furthermore, the regular pulsations, a diagonal transition between soft and hard states, and the large-scale hysteresis observed from IGR J17480-2446 argue against some of the previous suggestions involving magnetic field about atolls and millisecond pulsars. Our results also suggest that the nature of spectral evolution throughout an outburst does not, at least entirely, depend on the peak luminosity of the outburst. Besides, the source took at least a month to trace the softer banana state, as opposed to a few hours to a day, which is typical for an atoll source. In addition, while the soft colour usually increases with intensity in the softer portion of an atoll source, IGR J17480-2446 showed an opposite behaviour. From the detailed spectral fitting, we conclude that a blackbody+power-law model is the simplest one, which describes the source continuum spectra well throughout the outburst. We find that these two spectral components were plausibly connected to each other, and they worked together to cause the source-state evolution. Spectral parameters smoothly changed as IGR J17480-2446 transitioned between the atoll state and 'Z' state, and thermonuclear bursts disappeared in the softer parts of 'Z' tracks. Finally, based on the burst properties, we suggest that IGR

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: ATNF Pulsar Catalogue (Manchester+, 2005)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manchester, R. N.; Hobbs, G. B.; Teoh, A.; Hobbs, M.

    2016-05-01

    The catalogue is a compilation of the principal observed parameters of pulsars, including positions, timing parameters, pulse widths, flux densities, proper motions, distances, and dispersion, rotation, and scattering measures. It also lists the orbital elements of binary pulsars, and some commonly used parameters derived from the basic measurements. The catalogue includes all published rotation-powered pulsars, including those detected only at high energies. It also includes Anomalous X-ray Pulsars (AXPs) and Soft Gamma-ray Repeaters (SGRs) for which coherent pulsations have been detected. However, it excludes accretion-powered pulsars such as Her X-1 and the recently discovered X-ray millisecond pulsars. (2 data files).

  19. X-ray radiation from accreting, magnetized neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlov, G.G.

    1984-01-01

    A review is given of recent developments in the theory of emission from a magnetized plasma for accreting neutron star conditions. Some observational data on X-ray pulsars are discussed, and present problems are indicated. 26 references.

  20. DISCOVERY OF X-RAY PULSATIONS FROM THE INTEGRAL SOURCE IGR J11014–6103

    SciTech Connect

    Halpern, J. P.; Gotthelf, E. V.; Camilo, F.; Tomsick, J. A.; Ng, C.-Y.; Bodaghee, A.; Rodriguez, J.; Chaty, S.

    2014-11-10

    We report the discovery of PSR J1101–6101, a 62.8 ms pulsar in IGR J11014–6103, a hard X-ray source with a jet and a cometary tail that strongly suggests it is moving away from the center of the supernova remnant (SNR) MSH 11–61A at v > 1000 km s{sup –1}. Two XMM-Newton observations were obtained with the EPIC pn in small window mode, resulting in the measurement of its spin-down luminosity E-dot =1.36×10{sup 36} erg s{sup –1}, characteristic age τ {sub c} = 116 kyr, and surface magnetic field strength B{sub s} = 7.4 × 10{sup 11} G. In comparison to τ {sub c}, the 10-30 kyr age estimated for MSH 11–61A suggests that the pulsar was born in the SNR with initial period in the range 54 ≤ P {sub 0} ≤ 60 ms. PSR J1101–6101 is the least energetic of the 15 rotation-powered pulsars detected by INTEGRAL, and has a high efficiency of hard X-ray radiation and jet power. We examine the shape of the cometary nebula in a Chandra image, which is roughly consistent with a bow shock at the velocity inferred from the SNR age and the pulsar's E-dot . However, its structure differs in detail from the classic bow shock, and we explore possible reasons for this.

  1. Pulsars Magnetospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timokhin, Andrey

    2012-01-01

    Current density determines the plasma flow regime. Cascades are non-stationary. ALWAYS. All flow regimes look different: multiple components (?) Return current regions should have particle accelerating zones in the outer magnetosphere: y-ray pulsars (?) Plasma oscillations in discharges: direct radio emission (?)

  2. Properties of the observed recycle radio pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Simon

    1994-04-01

    Recent searches for pulsars have been highly successful in discovering recycle and binary pulsars, and we now know of approximately 25 recycled pulsars in the Galaxy and approximately 30 in globular cluster systems. These pulsars fall into four classes; those with high-mass stellar companions, with neutron star companions, with low-mass companions, and those whose evolutionary history has been affected by a companion since lost. There are two pulsars known to have high-mass stellar companions. Both systems contain approximately 10 solar mass B-star companions and have high eccentricities (e approximately 0.85). PSR B1259-63 has a spin period of 47 ms and an orbital period in excess of three years. In constrast, PSR J0045-7319 has a spin period close to 1 s and an orbital period of only 50 days. These systems originated from a binary system containing two massive stars. The supernova explosion (SN) creates the pulsar and is also responsible for the observed high eccentricity. There are five pulsars thought to have neutron star companions. All these systems have orbital eccentricities in excess of 0.2, and they fall into two classes. The first class contain the pulsars formed after the first SN, and which have been spun-up to approximately 50 ms periods during the giant phase of their companion star. This also reduces the orbital peirod to 0.3 day and the second SN induces the high eccentricity. The pulsars observed in the second class were born after the second SN and thus have periods more typical of the bulk of pulsars (greater than 250 ms). The bulk of the recycled pulsars have low-mass (probably white dwarf) companions. In general, these pulsars have very fast spin-rates (the 'millisecond' pulsars) and large apparent ages. The observed eccentricities are extremely small (less than 10-5). These pulsars are re-born as millisecond pulsars after accreting matter and angular momentum from their companion stars in their giant phase. The orbit is circularized during

  3. Pulsars for the Beginner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiLavore, Phillip; Wayland, James R.

    1971-01-01

    Presents the history of the discovery of pulsars, observations that have been made on pulsar radiation, and theories that have been presented for its presence and origin. Illustrations using pulsar's properties are presented in mechanics, electromagnetic radiation and thermodynamics. (DS)

  4. X-Ray States of Redback Millisecond Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linares, M.

    2014-11-01

    Compact binary millisecond pulsars with main-sequence donors, often referred to as "redbacks," constitute the long-sought link between low-mass X-ray binaries and millisecond radio pulsars and offer a unique probe of the interaction between pulsar winds and accretion flows. We present a systematic study of eight nearby redbacks, using more than 100 observations obtained with Swift's X-ray Telescope. We distinguish between three main states: pulsar, disk, and outburst states. We find X-ray mode switching in the disk state of PSR J1023+0038 and XSS J12270-4859, similar to what was found in the other redback that showed evidence for accretion: rapid, recurrent changes in X-ray luminosity (0.5-10 keV, L X), between (6-9) × 1032 erg s-1 (disk-passive state) and (3-5) × 1033 erg s-1 (disk-active state). This strongly suggests that mode switching—which has not been observed in quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries—is universal among redback millisecond pulsars in the disk state. We briefly explore the implications for accretion disk truncation and find that the inferred magnetospheric radius in the disk state of PSR J1023+0038 and XSS J12270-4859 lies outside the light cylinder. Finally, we note that all three redbacks that have developed accretion disks have relatively high L X in the pulsar state (>1032 erg s-1).

  5. A Pulsar Eases Off the Brakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-10-01

    In 2006, pulsar PSR 18460258 unexpectedly launched into a series of energetic X-ray outbursts. Now a study has determined that this event may have permanently changed the behavior of this pulsar, raising questions about our understanding of how pulsars evolve.Between CategoriesA pulsar a highly magnetized, rotating neutron star that emits a beam of electromagnetic radiation can be powered by one of three mechanisms:Rotation-powered pulsars transform rotational energy into radiation, gradually slowing down in a predictable way.Accretion-powered pulsars convert the gravitational energy of accreting matter into radiation.Magnetars are powered by the decay of their extremely strong magnetic fields.Astronomical classification often results in one pesky object that doesnt follow the rules. In this case, that object is PSR 18460258, a young pulsar categorized as rotation-powered. But in 2006, PSR 18460258 suddenly emitted a series of short, hard X-ray bursts and underwent a flux increase behavior that is usually only exhibited by magnetars. After this outburst, it returned to normal, rotation-powered-pulsar behavior.Since the discovery of this event, scientists have been attempting to learn more about this strange pulsar that seems to straddle the line between rotation-powered pulsars and magnetars.Unprecedented DropOne way to examine whats going on with PSR 18460258 is to evaluate whats known as its braking index, a measure of how quickly the pulsars rotation slows down. For a rotation-powered pulsar, the braking index should be roughly constant. The pulsar then slows down according to a fixed power law, where the slower it rotates, the slower it slows down.In a recent study, Robert Archibald (McGill University) and collaborators report on 7 years worth of timing observations of PSR 18460258 after its odd magnetar-like outburst. They then compare these observations to 6.5 years of data from before the outburst. The team finds that the braking index for this bizarre

  6. An Extreme X-ray Disk Wind in the Black Hole Candidate IGR J17091-3624

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, A. L.; Miller, J. M.; Raymond, J.; Fabian, A. C.; Reynolds, C. S.; Kallman, T. R.; Maitra, D.; Cackett, E. M.; Rupen, M. P.

    2012-01-01

    Chandra spectroscopy of transient stellar-mass black holes in outburst has clearly revealed accretion disk winds in soft, disk-dominated states, in apparent anti-correlation with relativistic jets in low/hard states. These disk winds are observed to be highly ionized. dense. and to have typical velocities of approx 1000 km/s or less projected along our line of sight. Here. we present an analysis of two Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating spectra of the Galactic black hole candidate IGR J17091-3624 and contemporaneous EVLA radio observations. obtained in 2011. The second Chandra observation reveals an absorption line at 6.91+/-0.01 keV; associating this line with He-like Fe XXV requires a blue-shift of 9300(+500/-400) km/ s (0.03c. or the escape velocity at 1000 R(sub schw)). This projected outflow velocity is an order of magnitude higher than has previously been observed in stellar-mass black holes, and is broadly consistent with some of the fastest winds detected in active galactic nuclei. A potential feature at 7.32 keV, if due to Fe XXVI, would imply a velocity of approx 14600 km/s (0.05c), but this putative feature is marginal. Photoionization modeling suggests that the accretion disk wind in IGR J17091-3624 may originate within 43,300 Schwarzschild radii of the black hole, and may be expelling more gas than accretes. The contemporaneous EVLA observations strongly indicate that jet activity was indeed quenched at the time of our Chandra observations. We discuss the results in the context of disk winds, jets, and basic accretion disk physics in accreting black hole systems

  7. AN EXTREME X-RAY DISK WIND IN THE BLACK HOLE CANDIDATE IGR J17091-3624

    SciTech Connect

    King, A. L.; Miller, J. M.; Maitra, D.; Raymond, J.; Fabian, A. C.; Cackett, E. M.; Reynolds, C. S.; Kallman, T. R.; Rupen, M. P.

    2012-02-20

    Chandra spectroscopy of transient stellar-mass black holes in outburst has clearly revealed accretion disk winds in soft, disk-dominated states, in apparent anti-correlation with relativistic jets in low/hard states. These disk winds are observed to be highly ionized, dense, and to have typical velocities of {approx}1000 km s{sup -1} or less projected along our line of sight. Here, we present an analysis of two Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating spectra of the Galactic black hole candidate IGR J17091-3624 and contemporaneous Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA) radio observations, obtained in 2011. The second Chandra observation reveals an absorption line at 6.91 {+-} 0.01 keV; associating this line with He-like Fe XXV requires a blueshift of 9300{sup +500}{sub -400} km s{sup -1} (0.03c, or the escape velocity at 1000 R{sub Schw}). This projected outflow velocity is an order of magnitude higher than has previously been observed in stellar-mass black holes, and is broadly consistent with some of the fastest winds detected in active galactic nuclei. A potential feature at 7.32 keV, if due to Fe XXVI, would imply a velocity of {approx}14, 600 km s{sup -1} (0.05c), but this putative feature is marginal. Photoionization modeling suggests that the accretion disk wind in IGR J17091-3624 may originate within 43,300 Schwarzschild radii of the black hole and may be expelling more gas than it accretes. The contemporaneous EVLA observations strongly indicate that jet activity was indeed quenched at the time of our Chandra observations. We discuss the results in the context of disk winds, jets, and basic accretion disk physics in accreting black hole systems.

  8. The pulsar planet production process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phinney, E. S.; Hansen, B. M. S.

    1993-01-01

    Most plausible scenarios for the formation of planets around pulsars end with a disk of gas around the pulsar. The supplicant author then points to the solar system to bolster faith in the miraculous transfiguration of gas into planets. We here investigate this process of transfiguration. We derive analytic sequences of quasi-static disks which give good approximations to exact solutions of the disk diffusion equation with realistic opacity tables. These allow quick and efficient surveys of parameter space. We discuss the outward transfer of mass in accretion disks and the resulting timescale constraints, the effects of illumination by the central source on the disk and dust within it, and the effects of the widely different elemental compositions of the disks in the various scenarios, and their extensions to globular clusters. We point out where significant uncertainties exist in the appropriate grain opacities, and in the effect of illumination and winds from the neutron star.

  9. The Mass of a Millisecond Pulsar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacoby, B. A.; Hotan, A. W.; Bailes, M.; Ord, S. M.; Kulkarni, S. R.

    2005-12-01

    We report on two years of timing observations of the low-mass binary millisecond pulsar PSR J1909-3744 with the Caltech-Parkes-Swinburne Recorder II (CPSR2), a new instrument that gives unprecedented timing precision. Daily observations give a weighted rms residual of 74 ns. Since their discovery, the masses of the rapidly rotating millisecond pulsars have remained a mystery, with the recycling hypothesis arguing for heavy objects, and the accretion-induced collapse of a white dwarf more consistent with neutron stars less than the Chandrashkar limit. Our data have allowed the measurement of Shapiro delay in this edge-on system, giving the first precise determination of a millisecond pulsar mass, 1.438 ± 0.024 solar masses. The mass of PSR J1909-3744 is at the upper edge of the range observed in mildly recycled pulsars in double neutron star systems, consistent with the the recycling hypothesis. It appears that the production of millisecond pulsars is possible with the accretion of less than 0.2 solar masses.

  10. Does mass accretion lead to field decay in neutron stars?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shibazaki, N.; Murakami, T.; Shaham, J.; Nomoto, K.

    1989-01-01

    Adopting the hypothesis of accretion-induced magnetic field decay in neutron stars, the consequent evolution of a neutron star's spin and magnetic field are calculated. The results are consistent with observations of binary and millisecond radio pulsars. Thermomagnetic effects could provide a possible physical mechanism for such accretion-induced field decay.

  11. The Nature of the X-Ray Binary IGR J19294+1816 from INTEGRAL, RXTE, and Swift Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez, J.; Tomsick, J. A.; Bodaghee, A.; ZuritaHeras, J.-A.; Chaty, S.; Paizis, A.; Corbel, S.

    2009-01-01

    We report the results of a high-energy multi-instrumental campaign with INTEGRAL, RXTE, and Swift of the recently discovered INTEGRAL source IGR J19294+ 1816. The Swift/XRT data allow us to refine the position of the source to R.A. (J2000) = 19h 29m 55.9s, Decl. (J2000) = +18 deg 18 feet 38 inches . 4 (+/- 3 inches .5), which in turn permits us to identify a candidate infrared counterpart. The Swift and RXTE spectra are well fitted with absorbed power laws with hard (Gamma approx 1) photon indices. During the longest Swift observation, we obtained evidence of absorption in true excess to the Galactic value, which may indicate some intrinsic absorption in this source. We detected a strong (P = 40%) pulsations at 12.43781 (+/- 0.00003) s that we interpret as the spin period of a pulsar. All these results, coupled with the possible 117 day orbital period, point to IGR J19294+ 1816 being an high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB) with a Be companion star. However, while the long-term INTEGRAL/IBIS/ISGRI 18-40 keV light curve shows that the source spends most of its time in an undetectable state, we detect occurrences of short (2000-3000 s) and intense flares that are more typical of supergiant fast X-ray transients. We therefore cannot make firm conclusions on the type of system, and we discuss the possible implication of IGR J19294+1816 being an Supergiant Fast X-ray Transient (SFXT).

  12. Genesis stories for the millisecond pulsar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruderman, M. A.; Shaham, J.

    1983-01-01

    Theoretical models proposed to explain the origin of the millisecond pulsar (MP) PSR 1937+214 are reviewed, examining their ability to explain its low surface dipole magnetic field (B), its low birth temperature (less than 10 to the 8th K), the absence of a companion or remnant, and its low velocity perpendicular to the Galactic plane. The models discussed are a single isolated explosion forming a rapidly spinning neutron star, spin-up of a dead pulsar by accretion from a companion, collapse of an accreting spinning white dwarf, and fusion of a tight binary composed of two old neutron stars. Although all of the models have difficulties in explaining one or more of the MP characteristics, the second model is found to be most probable in the light of present knowledge. The lack of a companion is explained by its tidal disruption after it had fed the accreting pre-pulsar for 1 Gyr or more and its mass had decreased to about 0.01 solar mass. Neutron stars accreting in this way have been observed in Galactic-bulge X-ray sources.

  13. Pulsar searches: From radio to gamma-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, Adam M.

    2003-08-01

    We report the results of four different pulsar searches, covering radio, X-ray, and gamma-ray wavelengths. These searches targeted pulsars in virtually all of their guises: young and old, long-period and short-period, accretion-powered and rotation-powered. Ten new pulsars were discovered. There are very few known gamma-ray pulsars, all of which were found by folding gamma-ray data with a pulse period known from other wavelengths. Some emission models indicate that there may be a large number of gamma-ray pulsars that are undetectable at lower energies. We searched several of the brightest unidentified gamma-ray sources for pulsations. This was the first attempt to identify gamma-ray pulsars by directly searching gamma- ray data. No new identifications resulted; we report upper limits. Even more rare than gamma-ray pulsars are accreting millisecond pulsars. We searched for coherent pulsations from Aql X-1, a low-mass X-ray binary suspected of harboring such an object. No pulsations were detected, and we argue that the quiescent emission of this system has a thermal origin. The two radio searches included here were both designed to detect millisecond pulsars. First, we report the results of a large area survey from Arecibo. Five new slow pulsars were discovered, including an apparent orthogonal rotator and an extremely unusual bursting radio pulsar. No short-period pulsars were discovered and we place some of the first useful observational constraints on the limiting spin period of a neutron star. We also performed pointed searches of several globular clusters using the new Green Bank Telescope. Three new binary millisecond pulsars were found in M62. These were the first new objects found with the GBT, and they bring the total pulsar population in M62 to six. We also discovered two isolated pulsars, one each in NGC 6544 and NGC 6624. Many of the methods we developed will be relevant to future searches. Perhaps the most significant contribution is a dynamic power

  14. Transient phenomena from accreting magnetized neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klochkov, Dmitry

    In this contribution, I will review the recent progress in the research of accreting magnetized neutron stars (observed as X-ray pulsars) based on the study of their variability on different time scales. Specifically, I will focus on the properties of the X-ray emitting region. In recent years, the high-quality observational data accumulated with the new generation of X-ray observatories have triggered a renewed interest in these systems. The new studies are primarily focused on the detailed structure of the two physical regions of the objects: (i) the emitting area above the polar caps of the neutron star and (ii) the magnetospheric boundary, where the infalling matter couples to the accretoŕs magnetic field. The modulation of the matter supply from the binary companion as well as the instabilities in the accretion flow lead to the transient character of the majority of X-ray pulsars. The observations show that the "persistent" pulsars also exhibit numerous types of variabilities over a broad range of time scales (off-states, pulse-to-pulse variability, switches of spectral states, alternation of the pulsar's spin-up/spin-down episodes etc.). Of particular importance are the observed variations of the cyclotron absorption features (cyclotron lines), whose centroid energies are directly proportional to the magnetic field strength at the site of the line formation. The detailed studies of these variabilities have lead to the development of new theoretical models describing the physics in the emitting region and at the magnetospheric boundary. It has been proposed that the configuration and geometry of the two areas may change abruptly when the mass accretion rate reaches certain critical values. Such changes cause transitions between different accretion modes. A particular mode is expected to be characterized by certain variability patterns and can thus be inferred from the observations. I will describe these recent observations and the models which are aimed at

  15. Binary millisecond pulsar discovery via gamma-ray pulsations.

    PubMed

    Pletsch, H J; Guillemot, L; Fehrmann, H; Allen, B; Kramer, M; Aulbert, C; Ackermann, M; Ajello, M; de Angelis, A; Atwood, W B; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D; Bechtol, K; Bellazzini, R; Borgland, A W; Bottacini, E; Brandt, T J; Bregeon, J; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Buehler, R; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Casandjian, J M; Cecchi, C; Çelik, Ö; Charles, E; Chaves, R C G; Cheung, C C; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Conrad, J; Cutini, S; D'Ammando, F; Dermer, C D; Digel, S W; Drell, P S; Drlica-Wagner, A; Dubois, R; Dumora, D; Favuzzi, C; Ferrara, E C; Franckowiak, A; Fukazawa, Y; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gehrels, N; Germani, S; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Giroletti, M; Godfrey, G; Grenier, I A; Grondin, M-H; Grove, J E; Guiriec, S; Hadasch, D; Hanabata, Y; Harding, A K; den Hartog, P R; Hayashida, M; Hays, E; Hill, A B; Hou, X; Hughes, R E; Jóhannesson, G; Jackson, M S; Jogler, T; Johnson, A S; Johnson, W N; Kataoka, J; Kerr, M; Knödlseder, J; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Larsson, S; Latronico, L; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Massaro, F; Mayer, M; Mazziotta, M N; McEnery, J E; Mehault, J; Michelson, P F; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Nakamori, T; Nemmen, R; Nuss, E; Ohno, M; Ohsugi, T; Omodei, N; Orienti, M; Orlando, E; de Palma, F; Paneque, D; Perkins, J S; Piron, F; Pivato, G; Porter, T A; Rainò, S; Rando, R; Ray, P S; Razzano, M; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Reposeur, T; Ritz, S; Romani, R W; Romoli, C; Sanchez, D A; Saz Parkinson, P M; Schulz, A; Sgrò, C; do Couto e Silva, E; Siskind, E J; Smith, D A; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Suson, D J; Takahashi, H; Tanaka, T; Thayer, J B; Thayer, J G; Thompson, D J; Tibaldo, L; Tinivella, M; Troja, E; Usher, T L; Vandenbroucke, J; Vasileiou, V; Vianello, G; Vitale, V; Waite, A P; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Wood, M; Yang, Z; Zimmer, S

    2012-12-01

    Millisecond pulsars, old neutron stars spun up by accreting matter from a companion star, can reach high rotation rates of hundreds of revolutions per second. Until now, all such "recycled" rotation-powered pulsars have been detected by their spin-modulated radio emission. In a computing-intensive blind search of gamma-ray data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (with partial constraints from optical data), we detected a 2.5-millisecond pulsar, PSR J1311-3430. This unambiguously explains a formerly unidentified gamma-ray source that had been a decade-long enigma, confirming previous conjectures. The pulsar is in a circular orbit with an orbital period of only 93 minutes, the shortest of any spin-powered pulsar binary ever found.

  16. Binary millisecond pulsar discovery via gamma-ray pulsations.

    PubMed

    Pletsch, H J; Guillemot, L; Fehrmann, H; Allen, B; Kramer, M; Aulbert, C; Ackermann, M; Ajello, M; de Angelis, A; Atwood, W B; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D; Bechtol, K; Bellazzini, R; Borgland, A W; Bottacini, E; Brandt, T J; Bregeon, J; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Buehler, R; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Casandjian, J M; Cecchi, C; Çelik, Ö; Charles, E; Chaves, R C G; Cheung, C C; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Conrad, J; Cutini, S; D'Ammando, F; Dermer, C D; Digel, S W; Drell, P S; Drlica-Wagner, A; Dubois, R; Dumora, D; Favuzzi, C; Ferrara, E C; Franckowiak, A; Fukazawa, Y; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gehrels, N; Germani, S; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Giroletti, M; Godfrey, G; Grenier, I A; Grondin, M-H; Grove, J E; Guiriec, S; Hadasch, D; Hanabata, Y; Harding, A K; den Hartog, P R; Hayashida, M; Hays, E; Hill, A B; Hou, X; Hughes, R E; Jóhannesson, G; Jackson, M S; Jogler, T; Johnson, A S; Johnson, W N; Kataoka, J; Kerr, M; Knödlseder, J; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Larsson, S; Latronico, L; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Massaro, F; Mayer, M; Mazziotta, M N; McEnery, J E; Mehault, J; Michelson, P F; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Nakamori, T; Nemmen, R; Nuss, E; Ohno, M; Ohsugi, T; Omodei, N; Orienti, M; Orlando, E; de Palma, F; Paneque, D; Perkins, J S; Piron, F; Pivato, G; Porter, T A; Rainò, S; Rando, R; Ray, P S; Razzano, M; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Reposeur, T; Ritz, S; Romani, R W; Romoli, C; Sanchez, D A; Saz Parkinson, P M; Schulz, A; Sgrò, C; do Couto e Silva, E; Siskind, E J; Smith, D A; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Suson, D J; Takahashi, H; Tanaka, T; Thayer, J B; Thayer, J G; Thompson, D J; Tibaldo, L; Tinivella, M; Troja, E; Usher, T L; Vandenbroucke, J; Vasileiou, V; Vianello, G; Vitale, V; Waite, A P; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Wood, M; Yang, Z; Zimmer, S

    2012-12-01

    Millisecond pulsars, old neutron stars spun up by accreting matter from a companion star, can reach high rotation rates of hundreds of revolutions per second. Until now, all such "recycled" rotation-powered pulsars have been detected by their spin-modulated radio emission. In a computing-intensive blind search of gamma-ray data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (with partial constraints from optical data), we detected a 2.5-millisecond pulsar, PSR J1311-3430. This unambiguously explains a formerly unidentified gamma-ray source that had been a decade-long enigma, confirming previous conjectures. The pulsar is in a circular orbit with an orbital period of only 93 minutes, the shortest of any spin-powered pulsar binary ever found. PMID:23112297

  17. New Pulsar Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kebede, Legesse

    2015-08-01

    Standard pulsar theory is based on fields that are conserved from progenitor stars. This has limited the scope of pulsar astronomy to a kind of study very much confined to a limited type of pulsars, so called field pulsars. The large majority of pulsars are technically eliminated from statistical studies because they are either too massive, or are of very high magnetic field with no mechanism yet known which forces them to decay to very low frequency rotators in a matter of a few thousands of years. This is one distinct property of these highly magnetized pulsars. The current presentation focuses on a new source for the generation of pulsar fields namely spinning separated surface charges and it shows that pulsar fields are strictly mass dependent. Massive neutron stars are strongly magnetized ( ≥ 1018 G) and less massive ones are weakly magnetized (1011 - 1013 G). This work therefore dismisses the current belief that there have to be two classes of pulsars (field pulsars and anomalous pulsars). It leads to a decay law that provides results that are consistent with observations from these two so called distinct classes of pulsars. This work also suggests that pulsar fields should be infinitely multi-polar which helps to successfully addresses the longtime issues of pulse shape and promises that the current problem of pulsar radiation could be solvable..

  18. RXTE Observations of the Strongly Absorbed Sources IGR J16318-4848 and IGR J16358-4726

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revnivtsev, M. G.

    2003-10-01

    We analyzed the RXTE observations of two strongly absorbed sources, IGR J16318-4848 and IGR J16358-4726. We were able to obtain the 3-25 keV spectra of the sources by taking into account the contribution of the Galactic diffuse background to the X-ray flux recorded with the RXTE/PCA spectrometer. The spectra of the sources are well described by a power-law decrease of the photon flux with energy with a photon index of 1 and strong photoabsorption. The photoabsorption column density nHL for IGR J16318-4848 derived from the RXTE observation on March 14.1, 2003, is shown to be much higher than its value obtained by the XMM observatory on February 10.7, 2003. This result may suggest that the source has variable absorption that may depend on the orbital phase of the system. We point out that all of the three X-ray sources discovered by the INTEGRAL observatory in the region (l, b) (336, 0) (IGR J16318-4848, IGR J16320-4751, and IGR J16358-4726) have strong intrinsic photoabsorption and may be high-mass binaries. Their proximity to the region where the tangent to the Galactic spiral arm passes, i.e., to the region of enhanced concentration of young high-mass stars, can serve as an indirect confirmation of this assumption. If our assumption about the positions of the sources in the Norma spiral arm is valid, then we can roughly estimate their heliocentric distances: 6-8 kpc.

  19. IGR J17451–3022: a dipping and eclipsing low mass X-ray binary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozzo, E.

    2016-06-01

    We report on the available X-ray data collected by INTEGRAL, Swift, and XMM-Newton during the first outburst of the INTEGRAL transient IGR J17451-3022, discovered in 2014 August. The emission of the source during the 9 months-long outburst was dominated by a thermal component (kT˜1.2 keV), most likely produced by an accretion disk. The XMM-Newton observation carried out during the outburst revealed the presence of multiple absorption features in the soft X-ray emission that could be associated to the presence of an ionized absorber lying above the accretion disk, as observed in many high-inclination low mass X-ray binaries. The XMM-Newton data also revealed the presence of partial and rectangular X-ray eclipses (lasting about 820 s), together with dips. The latter can be associated with increases in the overall absorption column density in the direction of the source. The detection of two consecutive X-ray eclipses in the XMM-Newton data allowed us to estimate the source orbital period at Porb=22620.5(‑1.8,+2.0) s (1σ c.l.).

  20. A Pulsar and a Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-07-01

    V appeared.Hong and collaborators were then left with the task of piecing together this strange behavior into a picture of what was happening with this binary system.The authors proposed model for SXP 214. Here the binary has a ~30-day orbit tilted at 15 to the circumstellar disk. The pulsar passes through the circumstellar disk of its companion once per orbit. The interval marked A (orange line) is suggested as the period of time corresponding to the Chandra observations in this study: just as the neutron star is emerging from the disk after passing through it. [Hong et al. 2016]Passing Through a DiskIn the model the authors propose, the pulsar is on a ~30-day eccentric orbit that takes it through the circumstellar disk of its companion once per orbit.In this picture, the authors Chandra detections must have been made just as the pulsar was emerging from the circumstellar disk. The disk had initially hidden the soft X-ray emission from the pulsar, but as the pulsar emerged, that component became brighter, causing both the overall rise in X-ray counts and the shift in the spectrum to lower energies.Since the pulsars accretion is fueled by material picked up as it passes through the circumstellar disk, the accretion from a recent passage through the disk likely also caused the observed spin-up to the shorter period.If the authors model is correct, this series of observations of the pulsar as it emerges from the disk provides a rare opportunity to examine what happens to X-ray emission during this passage. More observations of this intriguing system can help us learn about the properties of the disk and the emission geometry of the neutron star surface.CitationJaeSub Hong et al 2016 ApJ 826 4. doi:10.3847/0004-637X/826/1/4

  1. Planets around pulsars; Proceedings of the Conference, California Inst. of Technology, Pasadena, Apr. 30-May 1, 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, J. A. (Editor); Thorsett, Steve E. (Editor); Kulkarni, Shri R. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    Topics addressed include planets and pulsar timing; timing noise in pulsars and alternative explanations; orbital dynamics; planet formation scenarios; searches for disks and other planets; and comets, planetesimals, and debris disks. Particular attention is given to PSR 1257+12 and its planetary companions; the detectability of planetary companions to radio pulsars; orbital dynamics of PSR 1257+12 and its two planetary companions; formation and evolution of pulsars; the circumstellar environment of the GG Tau multiple system; IRAS sources near positions of pulsars; and gamma-ray bursts from planetesimal accretion.

  2. Pulsar Astronomy with GLAST

    SciTech Connect

    Thorsett, Stephen

    2005-09-12

    Despite their name, the rotation powered neutron stars called "radio pulsars" are actually most luminous in the hard x-ray and gamma-ray bands. GLAST will be the first high-energy satellite with sufficient sensitivity to detect and study large numbers of these pulsars. I will review GLAST's key science goals in pulsar astrophysics and summarize the extraordinary advances in low-energy pulsar surveys since the days of CGRO.

  3. The Velocity Distribution of Isolated Radio Pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arzoumanian, Z.; Chernoff, D. F.; Cordes, J. M.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    spatially bounded surveys; (3) an important low-velocity population exists that increases the fraction of neutron stars retained by globular clusters and is consistent with the number of old objects that accrete from the interstellar medium; (4) under standard assumptions for supernova remnant expansion and pulsar spin-down, approx. 10% of pulsars younger than 20 kyr will appear to lie outside of their host remnants. Finally, we comment on the ramifications of our birth velocity distribution for binary survival and the population of inspiraling binary neutron stars relevant to some GRB models and potential sources for LIGO.

  4. Ensemble Pulsar Time Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, D. S.; Gao, Y. P.; Zhao, S. H.

    2016-05-01

    Millisecond pulsars can generate another type of time scale that is totally independent of the atomic time scale, because the physical mechanisms of the pulsar time scale and the atomic time scale are quite different from each other. Usually the pulsar timing observational data are not evenly sampled, and the internals between data points range from several hours to more than half a month. What's more, these data sets are sparse. And all these make it difficult to generate an ensemble pulsar time scale. Hence, a new algorithm to calculate the ensemble pulsar time scale is proposed. Firstly, we use cubic spline interpolation to densify the data set, and make the intervals between data points even. Then, we employ the Vondrak filter to smooth the data set, and get rid of high-frequency noise, finally adopt the weighted average method to generate the ensemble pulsar time scale. The pulsar timing residuals represent clock difference between the pulsar time and atomic time, and the high precision pulsar timing data mean the clock difference measurement between the pulsar time and atomic time with a high signal to noise ratio, which is fundamental to generate pulsar time. We use the latest released NANOGRAV (North American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves) 9-year data set to generate the ensemble pulsar time scale. This data set is from the newest NANOGRAV data release, which includes 9-year observational data of 37 millisecond pulsars using the 100-meter Green Bank telescope and 305-meter Arecibo telescope. We find that the algorithm used in this paper can lower the influence caused by noises in timing residuals, and improve long-term stability of pulsar time. Results show that the long-term (> 1 yr) frequency stability of the pulsar time is better than 3.4×10-15.

  5. On the spin modulated circular polarization from the intermediate polars NY Lup and IGR J15094-6649

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, Stephen B.; Romero-Colmenero, Encarni; Kotze, Marissa; Zietsman, Ewald; Butters, O. W.; Pekeur, Nikki; Buckley, David A. H.

    2012-03-01

    We report on high-time-resolution, high-signal-to-noise ratio (S/N), photopolarimetry of the intermediate polars NY Lup and IGR J15094-6649. Our observations confirm the detection and colour dependence of circular polarization from NY Lup and additionally show a clear white dwarf, spin modulated signal. From our new high-S/N photometry, we have unambiguously detected wavelength-dependent spin and beat periods and harmonics thereof. IGR J15094-6649 is also discovered to have a particularly strong spin modulated circularly polarized signal. It appears double peaked through the I filter and single peaked through the B filter, consistent with cyclotron emission from a white dwarf with a relatively strong magnetic field. We discuss the implied accretion geometries in these two systems and any bearing this may have on the possible relationship with the connection between polars and soft X-ray-emitting intermediate polars. The relatively strong magnetic fields are also suggestive of them being polar progenitors.

  6. The Mass of a Millisecond Pulsar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacoby, B. A.; Hotan, A.; Bailes, M.; Ord, S.; Kulkarni, S. R.

    2005-08-01

    We report on nearly 2 years of timing observations of the low-mass binary millisecond pulsar PSR J1909-3744 with the Caltech-Parkes-Swinburne Recorder II, a new instrument that gives unprecedented timing precision. Daily observations give a weighted rms residual of 74 ns, indicating an extremely low level of systematic error. We have greatly improved on the previous parallax and proper motion measurements of PSR J1909-3744, yielding a distance of 1.14+0.04-0.03 kpc and transverse velocity of 200+7-6 km s-1. The system's orbital eccentricity is just (1.35+/-12)×10-7, the smallest yet recorded. Since their discovery, the masses of the rapidly rotating millisecond pulsars have remained a mystery, with the recycling hypothesis arguing for heavy objects, and the accretion-induced collapse of a white dwarf more consistent with neutron stars less than the Chandrashkar limit. Fortuitously, PSR J1909-3744 is an edge-on system, and our data have allowed the measurement of the range and shape of the Shapiro delay to high accuracy, giving the first precise determination of a millisecond pulsar mass to date, mp=1.438+/-0.024 Msolar. The mass of PSR J1909-3744 is at the upper edge of the range observed in mildly recycled pulsars in double neutron star systems, consistent with the recycling hypothesis. It appears that the production of millisecond pulsars is possible with the accretion of <0.2 Msolar.

  7. X-ray states of redback millisecond pulsars

    SciTech Connect

    Linares, M.

    2014-11-01

    Compact binary millisecond pulsars with main-sequence donors, often referred to as 'redbacks', constitute the long-sought link between low-mass X-ray binaries and millisecond radio pulsars and offer a unique probe of the interaction between pulsar winds and accretion flows. We present a systematic study of eight nearby redbacks, using more than 100 observations obtained with Swift's X-ray Telescope. We distinguish between three main states: pulsar, disk, and outburst states. We find X-ray mode switching in the disk state of PSR J1023+0038 and XSS J12270-4859, similar to what was found in the other redback that showed evidence for accretion: rapid, recurrent changes in X-ray luminosity (0.5-10 keV, L {sub X}), between (6-9) × 10{sup 32} erg s{sup –1} (disk-passive state) and (3-5) × 10{sup 33} erg s{sup –1} (disk-active state). This strongly suggests that mode switching—which has not been observed in quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries—is universal among redback millisecond pulsars in the disk state. We briefly explore the implications for accretion disk truncation and find that the inferred magnetospheric radius in the disk state of PSR J1023+0038 and XSS J12270-4859 lies outside the light cylinder. Finally, we note that all three redbacks that have developed accretion disks have relatively high L {sub X} in the pulsar state (>10{sup 32} erg s{sup –1}).

  8. Spin-down of radio millisecond pulsars at genesis.

    PubMed

    Tauris, Thomas M

    2012-02-01

    Millisecond pulsars are old neutron stars that have been spun up to high rotational frequencies via accretion of mass from a binary companion star. An important issue for understanding the physics of the early spin evolution of millisecond pulsars is the impact of the expanding magnetosphere during the terminal stages of the mass-transfer process. Here, I report binary stellar evolution calculations that show that the braking torque acting on a neutron star, when the companion star decouples from its Roche lobe, is able to dissipate >50% of the rotational energy of the pulsar. This effect may explain the apparent difference in observed spin distributions between x-ray and radio millisecond pulsars and help account for the noticeable age discrepancy with their young white dwarf companions. PMID:22301314

  9. Spin-down of radio millisecond pulsars at genesis.

    PubMed

    Tauris, Thomas M

    2012-02-01

    Millisecond pulsars are old neutron stars that have been spun up to high rotational frequencies via accretion of mass from a binary companion star. An important issue for understanding the physics of the early spin evolution of millisecond pulsars is the impact of the expanding magnetosphere during the terminal stages of the mass-transfer process. Here, I report binary stellar evolution calculations that show that the braking torque acting on a neutron star, when the companion star decouples from its Roche lobe, is able to dissipate >50% of the rotational energy of the pulsar. This effect may explain the apparent difference in observed spin distributions between x-ray and radio millisecond pulsars and help account for the noticeable age discrepancy with their young white dwarf companions.

  10. THE OPTICAL COUNTERPART TO THE X-RAY TRANSIENT IGR J1824-24525 IN THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER M28

    SciTech Connect

    Pallanca, C.; Dalessandro, E.; Ferraro, F. R.; Lanzoni, B.

    2013-08-20

    We report on the identification of the optical counterpart to the recently detected INTEGRAL transient IGR J1824-24525 in the Galactic globular cluster M28. From analysis of a multi-epoch Hubble Space Telescope data set, we have identified a strongly variable star positionally coincident with the radio and Chandra X-ray sources associated with the INTEGRAL transient. The star has been detected during both a quiescent and an outburst state. In the former case it appears as a faint, unperturbed main-sequence star, while in the latter state it is about two magnitudes brighter and slightly bluer than main-sequence stars. We also detected H{alpha} excess during the outburst state, suggestive of active accretion processes by the neutron star.

  11. The enigma of the magnetic pulsar SXP1062: a new look with XMM-Newton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oskinova, Lidia

    2012-10-01

    SXP 1062 is an exceptional case of a young neutron star with known age in a wind-fed HMXB. A unique combination of measured spin period, its derivative, luminosity and young age makes this source a key probe for the physics of accretion and neutron star evolution. All current accretion scenarios encounter major difficulties explaining the spin-down rate of this accretion-powered pulsar. This study will allow us to construct a spin period-luminosity relation as a powerful tool for distinguishing between different accretion and evolution scenarios. The XMM-Newton observations of SXP 1062 will thus shed new light on the physics of accreting neutron stars.

  12. A New Decretion Disk Around IGR J06074+2205

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Andrew; Bondar, A. V.; Metlova, N. V.

    2012-06-01

    The IGR J06074+2205 is a NS Be/X-ray binary of B0.5V spectral type. P.Reig et al. (2010, arXiv:1006.4935v1, A&A 522, A107) after five years of the spectral monitoring of IGR J06074+2205 reports about the fact of reversion from emission to absorption of the H-alpha line and hence disappearance of the equatorial disk. We report spectral observations obtained with the 2m Ritchey-Chretein-Coude telescope with Cassegrain Multi Mode Spectrograph (CMMS) (with R = 14000) at Terskol observatory as a part of spectral monitoring of the selected Be/X-ray binaries.

  13. The soft γ-ray pulsar population: a high-energy overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuiper, L.; Hermsen, W.

    2015-06-01

    At high-energy γ-rays (>100 MeV), the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi satellite already detected more than 145 rotation-powered pulsars (RPPs), while the number of pulsars seen at soft γ-rays (20 keV-30 MeV) remained small. We present a catalogue of 18 non-recycled RPPs from which presently non-thermal pulsed emission has been securely detected at soft γ-rays above 20 keV, and characterize their pulse profiles and energy spectra. For 14 of them, we report new results, (re)analysing mainly data from RXTE, INTEGRAL, XMM-Newton and Chandra. The soft γ-pulsars are all fast rotators and on average ˜9.3 times younger and ˜43 times more energetic than the Fermi LAT sample. The majority (11 members) exhibits broad, structured single pulse profiles, and only six have double (or even multiple, Vela) pulses. 15 soft γ-ray pulsar show hard power-law spectra in the hard X-ray band and reach maximum luminosities typically in the MeV range. For only 7 of the 18 soft γ-ray pulsars, pulsed emission has also been detected by the LAT, but 12 have a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) detected at TeV energies. For six pulsars with PWNe, we present also the spectra of the total emissions at hard X-rays, and for IGR J18490-0000, associated with HESS J1849-000 and PSR J1849-0001, we used our Chandra data to resolve and characterize the contributions from the point source and PWN. Finally, we also discuss a sample of 15 pulsars which are candidates for future detection of pulsed soft γ-rays, given their characteristics at other wavelengths.

  14. Revised Pulsar Spindown

    SciTech Connect

    Contopoulos, Ioannis; Spitkovsky, Anatoly; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2005-12-14

    We address the issue of electromagnetic pulsar spindown by combining our experience from the two limiting idealized cases which have been studied in great extent in the past: that of an aligned rotator where ideal MHD conditions apply, and that of a misaligned rotator in vacuum. We construct a spindown formula that takes into account the misalignment of the magnetic and rotation axes, and the magnetospheric particle acceleration gaps. We show that near the death line aligned rotators spin down much slower than orthogonal ones. In order to test this approach, we use a simple Monte Carlo method to simulate the evolution of pulsars and find a good fit to the observed pulsar distribution in the P-{dot P} diagram without invoking magnetic field decay. Our model may also account for individual pulsars spinning down with braking index n < 3, by allowing the corotating part of the magnetosphere to end inside the light cylinder. We discuss the role of magnetic reconnection in determining the pulsar braking index. We show, however, that n {approx} 3 remains a good approximation for the pulsar population as a whole. Moreover, we predict that pulsars near the death line have braking index values n > 3, and that the older pulsar population has preferentially smaller magnetic inclination angles. We discuss possible signatures of such alignment in the existing pulsar data.

  15. Gamma-Ray Pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Alice K.

    2011-01-01

    The Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope has revolutionized the study of pulsar physics with the detection of over 80 gamma-ray pulsars. Several new populations have been discovered, including 24 radio quiet pulsars found through gamma-ray pulsations alone and about 20 millisecond gamma-ray pulsars. The gamma-ray pulsations from millisecond pulsars were discovered by both folding at periods of known radio millisecond pulsars or by detecting them as gamma-ray sources that are followed up by radio pulsar searches. The second method has resulted in a phenomenally successful synergy, with -35 new radio MSPs (to date) having been discovered at Fermi unidentified source locations and the gamma-ray pulsations having then been detected in a number of these using the radio timing solutions. The higher sensitivity and larger energy range of the Fermi Large Area Telescope has produced detailed energy-dependent light curves and phase-resolved spectroscopy on brighter pulsars, that have ruled out polar cap models as the major source of the emission in favor of outer magnetosphere accelerators. The large number of gamma-ray pulsars now allows for the first time meaningful population and sub-population studies that are revealing surprising properties of these fascinating sources.

  16. Superorbital periodic modulation in wind-accretion high-mass X-ray binaries from swift burst alert telescope observations

    SciTech Connect

    Corbet, Robin H. D.; Krimm, Hans A.

    2013-11-20

    We report the discovery using data from the Swift-Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) of superorbital modulation in the wind-accretion supergiant high-mass X-ray binaries 4U 1909+07 (= X 1908+075), IGR J16418–4532, and IGR J16479–4514. Together with already known superorbital periodicities in 2S 0114+650 and IGR J16493–4348, the systems exhibit a monotonic relationship between superorbital and orbital periods. These systems include both supergiant fast X-ray transients and classical supergiant systems, and have a range of inclination angles. This suggests an underlying physical mechanism which is connected to the orbital period. In addition to these sources with clear detections of superorbital periods, IGR J16393–4643 (= AX J16390.4–4642) is identified as a system that may have superorbital modulation due to the coincidence of low-amplitude peaks in power spectra derived from BAT, Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array, and International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory light curves. 1E 1145.1–6141 may also be worthy of further attention due to the amount of low-frequency modulation of its light curve. However, we find that the presence of superorbital modulation is not a universal feature of wind-accretion supergiant X-ray binaries.

  17. Superorbital Periodic Modulation in Wind-Accretion High-Mass X-Ray Binaries from Swift Burst Alert Telescope Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corbet, Robin H. D.; Krimm, Hans A.

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery using data from the Swift-Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) of superorbital modulation in the wind-accretion supergiant high-mass X-ray binaries 4U 1909+07 (= X 1908+075), IGR J16418-4532, and IGR J16479-4514. Together with already known superorbital periodicities in 2S 0114+650 and IGR J16493-4348, the systems exhibit a monotonic relationship between superorbital and orbital periods. These systems include both supergiant fast X-ray transients and classical supergiant systems, and have a range of inclination angles. This suggests an underlying physical mechanism which is connected to the orbital period. In addition to these sources with clear detections of superorbital periods, IGR J16393-4643 (= AX J16390.4-4642) is identified as a system that may have superorbital modulation due to the coincidence of low-amplitude peaks in power spectra derived from BAT, Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array, and International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory light curves. 1E 1145.1-6141 may also be worthy of further attention due to the amount of low-frequency modulation of its light curve. However, we find that the presence of superorbital modulation is not a universal feature of wind-accretion supergiant X-ray binaries.

  18. Spectrum-luminosity dependence of radiation from the polar emitting regions in accreting magnetized neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klochkov, Dmitry

    2016-04-01

    The recent progress in observational techniques allowed one to probe the evolution of the X-ray spectrum in accreting pulsars (especially, of the cyclotron absorption line - the key spectral feature of accreting magnetized neutron stars) in great detail on various timescales, from pulse-to-pulse variability to secular trends. Particularly interesting are the discovered spectrum-luminosity correlations which are being used to infer the structure and physical characteristics of the pulsar's polar emitting region. I will present the latest developments in the modeling of the emitting structure (accretion column/mound/spot) aimed at explaining the observed spectrum-luminosity dependences.

  19. Arecibo Pulsar Highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seymour, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Here we present some of the recent interesting pulsar research that has been conducted from the Arecibo Observatory (AO). Many of these results are only possible because of the unique capabilities of AO's 305 meter telescope. Along with this, we state several possible improvements to AO's capabilities that would aid pulsar studies in the immediate future.

  20. On the nature and evolution of the windy binary pulsar PSR 1744 - 24A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaham, Jacob; Tavani, Marco

    1991-08-01

    It is suggested that the companion of the pulsar PSR 1744 - 24A is an approximately 0.1 solar mass main-sequence star that slightly underfills its Roche lobe and is sending off a cool wind due to excitation by radiation from the pulsar. Unlike in the similarly excited system of pulsar PSR 1957 + 20, pulsar radiation pressure here almost balances wind pressure at the companion distance, leading to vastly fluctuating eclipse patterns and to occasional attempted accretion episodes that are aborted by the propeller effect and result in X-ray bursts. If this picture is correct, multiwavelength continuous observations of PSR 1744 - 24A will give valuable information about the accretion process onto neutron stars rotating with millisecond periods.

  1. Observational properties of pulsars.

    PubMed

    Manchester, R N

    2004-04-23

    Pulsars are remarkable clocklike celestial sources that are believed to be rotating neutron stars formed in supernova explosions. They are valuable tools for investigations into topics such as neutron star interiors, globular cluster dynamics, the structure of the interstellar medium, and gravitational physics. Searches at radio and x-ray wavelengths over the past 5 years have resulted in a large increase in the number of known pulsars and the discovery of new populations of pulsars, posing challenges to theories of binary and stellar evolution. Recent images at radio, optical, and x-ray wavelengths have revealed structures resulting from the interaction of pulsar winds with the surrounding interstellar medium, giving new insights into the physics of pulsars. PMID:15105491

  2. Does mass accretion lead to field decay in neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shibazaki, N.; Murakami, T.; Shaham, Jacob; Nomoto, K.

    1989-01-01

    The recent discovery of cyclotron lines from gamma-ray bursts indicates that the strong magnetic fields of isolated neutron stars might not decay. The possible inverse correlation between the strength of the magnetic field and the mass accreted by the neutron star suggests that mass accretion itself may lead to the decay of the magnetic field. The spin and magnetic field evolution of the neutron star was calculated under the hypothesis of the accretion-induced field decay. It is shown that the calculated results are consistent with the observations of binary and millisecond radio pulsars.

  3. Rotation powered pulsars in the x-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arumugasamy, Prakash

    non-recycled X-ray pulsars, PSR J0108-3430 tauc = 166 Myr and E = 5.8 x 1030 erg s -1. The pulsar's spectrum likely consists of a thermal component, emitted from a hot polar cap, and a non-thermal component, emitted from its magnetosphere. The X-ray pulse profile shows a single, asymmetric peak which could be explained by an axially-asymmetric temperature distribution at the pole or by the non-thermal emission from the outer gap. The three pulsars represent important stages in the evolutionary path that a hypothetical single young pulsar like J2022+3842 might take, as it passes through stages close to gamma-ray emission turn-off (like J1836+5925) and X-ray turn-off (similar to J0108-3430). Pulsars in binaries can follow an alternative path. By accreting matter from their companions they can be 'recycled' to short millisecond periods and emit X-rays and gamma-rays for billions of years. I also present a special class of such recycled pulsars which are believed to be in the process of fatally ablating their companions. I present the X-ray analysis of PSR J1446-4701, an E = 3.6 x 1034 erg s-1 pulsar in a 6.7 hr binary orbit, and PSR J1311-3430, an E = 4.9 x 1034 erg s-1 pulsar in an extreme 1.6 hr binary orbit. PSR J1446-4701 turned out to be a non-eclipser with possibly low (face-on) orbital inclination, with emission from both the pulsar and the intra-binary shock observable throughout the binary orbit. PSR J1311-3430 is a known eclipser, in which hints of spectral variability have been found, between pulsar superior and inferior conjunction phases. I also present a comprehensive comparison of the sample of such extremely low-mass binary pulsars. We reveal the true nature of pulsars, slowly and steadily, usually one target at a time, but eventually we expect useful patterns to emerge that improves our understanding of the population of rotation powered pulsars.

  4. The Unusual Binary Pulsar PSR J1744-3922: Radio Flux Variability, Near-Infrared Observation, and Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breton, R. P.; Roberts, M. S. E.; Ransom, S. M.; Kaspi, V. M.; Durant, M.; Bergeron, P.; Faulkner, A. J.

    2007-06-01

    PSR J1744-3922 is a binary pulsar exhibiting highly variable pulsed radio emission. We report on a statistical multifrequency study of the pulsed radio flux variability which suggests that this phenomenon is extrinsic to the pulsar and possibly tied to the companion, although not strongly correlated with orbital phase. The pulsar has an unusual combination of characteristics compared to typical recycled pulsars: a long spin period (172 ms); a relatively high magnetic field strength (1.7×1010 G); a very circular, compact orbit of 4.6 hr; and a low-mass companion (0.08 Msolar). These spin and orbital properties are likely inconsistent with standard evolutionary models. We find similarities between the properties of the PSR J1744-3922 system and those of several other known binary pulsar systems, motivating the identification of a new class of binary pulsars. We suggest that this new class could result from: a standard accretion scenario of a magnetar or a high magnetic field pulsar; common envelope evolution with a low-mass star and a neutron star, similar to what is expected for ultracompact X-ray binaries; or accretion induced collapse of a white dwarf. We also report the detection of a possible K'=19.30(15) infrared counterpart at the position of the pulsar, which is relatively bright if the companion is a helium white dwarf at the nominal distance, and discuss its implications for the pulsar's companion and evolutionary history.

  5. ASSESSING THE ROLE OF SPIN NOISE IN THE PRECISION TIMING OF MILLISECOND PULSARS

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon, Ryan M.; Cordes, James M. E-mail: cordes@astro.cornell.ed

    2010-12-20

    We investigate rotational spin noise (referred to as timing noise) in non-accreting pulsars: millisecond pulsars, canonical pulsars, and magnetars. Particular attention is placed on quantifying the strength and non-stationarity of timing noise in millisecond pulsars because the long-term stability of these objects is required to detect nanohertz gravitational radiation. We show that a single scaling law is sufficient to characterize timing noise in millisecond and canonical pulsars while the same scaling law underestimates the levels of timing noise in magnetars. The scaling law, along with a detailed study of the millisecond pulsar B1937+21, leads us to conclude that timing noise is latent in most millisecond pulsars and will be measurable in many objects when better arrival time estimates are obtained over long data spans. The sensitivity of a pulsar timing array to gravitational radiation is strongly affected by any timing noise. We conclude that detection of proposed gravitational wave backgrounds will require the analysis of more objects than previously suggested over data spans that depend on the spectra of both the gravitational wave background and of the timing noise. It is imperative to find additional millisecond pulsars in current and future surveys in order to reduce the effects of timing noise.

  6. Radio efficiency of pulsars

    SciTech Connect

    Szary, Andrzej; Melikidze, George I.; Gil, Janusz; Zhang, Bing; Xu, Ren-Xin E-mail: zhang@physics.unlv.edu

    2014-03-20

    We investigate radio emission efficiency, ξ, of pulsars and report a near-linear inverse correlation between ξ and the spin-down power, E-dot , as well as a near-linear correlation between ξ and pulsar age, τ. This is a consequence of very weak, if any, dependences of radio luminosity, L, on pulsar period, P, and the period derivative, P-dot , in contrast to X-ray or γ-ray emission luminosities. The analysis of radio fluxes suggests that these correlations are not due to a selection effect, but are intrinsic to the pulsar radio emission physics. We have found that, although with a large variance, the radio luminosity of pulsars is ≈10{sup 29} erg s{sup –1}, regardless of the position in the P-- P-dot diagram. Within such a picture, a model-independent statement can be made that the death line of radio pulsars corresponds to an upper limit in the efficiency of radio emission. If we introduce the maximum value for radio efficiency into the Monte Carlo-based population syntheses we can reproduce the observed sample using the random luminosity model. Using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test on a synthetic flux distribution reveals a high probability of reproducing the observed distribution. Our results suggest that the plasma responsible for generating radio emission is produced under similar conditions regardless of pulsar age, dipolar magnetic field strength, and spin-down rate. The magnetic fields near the pulsar surface are likely dominated by crust-anchored, magnetic anomalies, which do not significantly differ among pulsars, leading to similar conditions for generating electron-positron pairs necessary to power radio emission.

  7. Neutrinos from binary pulsars. [generated by high energy particles striking companion star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichler, D.

    1978-01-01

    It is shown that binary systems containing moderately young pulsars may emit high-energy neutrinos (between 1 and 100 TeV) at detectable levels. The pulsars are assumed to have total luminosities of the order of 10 to the 38th erg/sec. The neutrinos are produced by high energy particles (e.g. protons) from the pulsar striking the companion. Cyg X3 may be detectable in high-energy neutrinos if it emits greater than about 10 to the 35th erg/sec in high-energy protons. There may be a whole class of objects like Cyg X3, but obscured by thick accretion clouds.

  8. Stellar evolution and pulsars.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, H.-Y.

    1972-01-01

    It has been found that pulsars are rotating magnetic neutron stars, which are created during catastrophic collapses of old stars whose nuclear fuel has long since been used up. The maximum size of pulsars, based on the fastest rotation period of 33 msec, cannot exceed 100 km. The densest star the theory predicts is the neutron star. Its diameter is only 10 km. The processes producing radiation from pulsars are discussed, giving attention to a process similar to that by which a klystron operates and to a process based on a maser mechanism.

  9. XMM-Newton discovery of mHz quasi-periodic oscillations in the high-mass X-ray binary IGR J19140+0951

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidoli, L.; Esposito, P.; Motta, S. E.; Israel, G. L.; Rodríguez Castillo, G. A.

    2016-08-01

    We report on the discovery of mHz quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) from the high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB) IGR J19140+0951, during a 40 ks XMM-Newton observation performed in 2015, which caught the source in its faintest state ever observed. At the start of the observation, IGR J19140+0951 was at a low flux of 2 × 10-12 erg cm-2 s-1 (2-10 keV; LX = 3 × 1033 erg s-1 at 3.6 kpc), then its emission rose reaching a flux ˜10 times higher, in a flare-like activity. The investigation of the power spectrum reveals the presence of QPOs, detected only in the second part of the observation, with a strong peak at a frequency of 1.46 ± 0.07 mHz, together with higher harmonics. The X-ray spectrum is highly absorbed (NH = 1023 cm-2), well fitted by a power law with a photon index in the range 1.2-1.8. The re-analysis of a Chandra archival observation shows a modulation at ˜0.17 ± 0.05 mHz, very likely the neutron-star spin period (although a QPO cannot be excluded). We discuss the origin of the 1.46 mHz QPO in the framework of both disc-fed and wind-fed HMXBs, favouring the quasi-spherical accretion scenario. The low flux observed by XMM-Newton leads to about three orders of magnitude the source dynamic range, overlapping with the one observed from Supergiant Fast X-ray Transients (SFXTs). However, since its duty cycle is not as low as in SFXTs, IGR J19140+0951 is an intermediate system between persistent supergiant HMXBs and SFXTs, suggesting a smooth transition between these two sub-classes.

  10. BROADBAND SUZAKU OBSERVATIONS OF IGR J16207-5129

    SciTech Connect

    Bodaghee, A.; Tomsick, J. A.; Rodriguez, J.; Chaty, S.; Walter, R.

    2010-08-10

    An analysis of IGR J16207-5129 is presented based on observations taken with Suzaku. The data set represents {approx}80 ks of effective exposure time in a broad energy range between 0.5 and 60 keV, including unprecedented spectral sensitivity above 15 keV. The average source spectrum is well described by an absorbed power law in which we measured a large intrinsic absorption of N {sub H} =(16.2{sup +0.9} {sub -1.1}) x 10{sup 22} cm{sup -2}. This confirms that IGR J16207-5129 belongs to the class of absorbed high-mass X-ray binaries. We were able to constrain the cutoff energy at 19{sup +8} {sub -4} keV, which argues in favor of a neutron star as the primary. Our observation includes an epoch in which the source count rate is compatible with no flux suggesting a possible eclipse. We discuss the nature of this source in light of these and of other recent results.

  11. IGR J16318-4848: 7 Years of INTEGRAL Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barragan, Laura; Wilms, Joern; kreykenbohm, Ingo; Hanke, manfred; Fuerst, Felix; Pottschmidt, Katja; Rothschild, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Since the discovery of IGR 116318-4848 in 2003 January, INTEGRAL has accumulated more than 5.8 Ms in IBIS/ISGRI. We present the first extensive analysis of the archival INTEGRAL data (IBIS/ISGRI, and JEM-X when available) for this source, together with the observations carried out by XMM-Newton (twice in 2003, and twice in 2004) and Suzaku (2006). The source is very variable in the long-term, with periods of low activity, where the source is almost not detected, and flares with a luminosity approximately 10 times greater than its average value (5.4 cts/s). IGR 116318-4848 is a HMXB containing a sgB[e] star and a compact object (most probably a neutron star) deeply embedded in the stellar wind of the mass donor. The variability of the source (also in the short-term) can be ascribed to the wind of the optical star being very clumpy. We study the variation of the spectral parameters in time scales of INTEGRAL revolutions. The photoelectric absorption is, with NH around 10(exp 24)/ square cm, unusually high. During brighter phases the strong K-alpha iron line known from XMM-Newton and Suzaku observations is also detectable with the JEM-X instrument.

  12. Pulsars and Extreme Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell-Burnell, Jocelyn

    2004-10-01

    Pulsars were discovered 35 years ago. What do we know about them now, and what have they taught us about the extremes of physics? With an average density comparable to that of the nucleus, magnetic fields around 108 T and speeds close to c these objects have stretched our understanding of the behaviour of matter. They serve as extrememly accurate clocks with which to carry out precision experiments in relativity. Created in cataclysmic explosions, pulsars are a (stellar) form of life after death. After half a billion revolutions most pulsars finally die, but amazingly some are born again to yet another, even weirder, afterlife. Pulsar research continues lively, delivering exciting, startling and almost unbelievable results!

  13. Fermi Pulsar Analysis

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation illustrates how analysis of Fermi data reveals new pulsars. Fermi's LAT records the precise arrival time and approximate direction of the gamma rays it detects, but to identify a pul...

  14. Geriatric Pulsar Still Kicking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-02-01

    The oldest isolated pulsar ever detected in X-rays has been found with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. This very old and exotic object turns out to be surprisingly active. The pulsar, PSR J0108-1431 (J0108 for short) is about 200 million years old. Among isolated pulsars -- ones that have not been spun-up in a binary system -- it is over 10 times older than the previous record holder with an X-ray detection. At a distance of 770 light years, it is one of the nearest pulsars known. Pulsars are born when stars that are much more massive than the Sun collapse in supernova explosions, leaving behind a small, incredibly weighty core, known as a neutron star. At birth, these neutron stars, which contain the densest material known in the Universe, are spinning rapidly, up to a hundred revolutions per second. As the rotating beams of their radiation are seen as pulses by distant observers, similar to a lighthouse beam, astronomers call them "pulsars". Astronomers observe a gradual slowing of the rotation of the pulsars as they radiate energy away. Radio observations of J0108 show it to be one of the oldest and faintest pulsars known, spinning only slightly faster than one revolution per second. The surprise came when a team of astronomers led by George Pavlov of Penn State University observed J0108 in X-rays with Chandra. They found that it glows much brighter in X-rays than was expected for a pulsar of such advanced years. People Who Read This Also Read... Chandra Data Reveal Rapidly Whirling Black Holes Milky Way’s Giant Black Hole Awoke from Slumber 300 Years Ago Erratic Black Hole Regulates Itself Celebrate the International Year of Astronomy Some of the energy that J0108 is losing as it spins more slowly is converted into X-ray radiation. The efficiency of this process for J0108 is found to be higher than for any other known pulsar. "This pulsar is pumping out high-energy radiation much more efficiently than its younger cousins," said Pavlov. "So, although it

  15. Cosmic Ray Positrons from Pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Alice K.

    2010-01-01

    Pulsars are potential Galactic sources of positrons through pair cascades in their magnetospheres. There are, however, many uncertainties in establishing their contribution to the local primary positron flux. Among these are the local density of pulsars, the cascade pair multiplicities that determine the injection rate of positrons from the pulsar, the acceleration of the injected particles by the pulsar wind termination shock, their rate of escape from the pulsar wind nebula, and their propagation through the interstellar medium. I will discuss these issues in the context of what we are learning from the new Fermi pulsar detections and discoveries.

  16. Pulse Portraiture: Pulsar timing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennucci, Timothy T.; Demorest, Paul B.; Ransom, Scott M.

    2016-06-01

    Pulse Portraiture is a wideband pulsar timing code written in python. It uses an extension of the FFTFIT algorithm (Taylor 1992) to simultaneously measure a phase (TOA) and dispersion measure (DM). The code includes a Gaussian-component-based portrait modeling routine. The code uses the python interface to the pulsar data analysis package PSRCHIVE (ascl:1105.014) and also requires the non-linear least-squares minimization package lmfit (ascl:1606.014).

  17. COULD SXP 1062 BE AN ACCRETING MAGNETAR?

    SciTech Connect

    Fu Lei; Li Xiangdong

    2012-10-01

    In this work we explore the possible evolutionary track of the neutron star in the newly discovered Be/X-ray binary SXP 1062, which is believed to be the first X-ray pulsar associated with a supernova remnant. Although no cyclotron feature has been detected to indicate the strength of the neutron star's magnetic field, we show that it may be {approx}> 10{sup 14} G. If so, SXP 1062 may belong to the accreting magnetars in binary systems. We attempt to reconcile the short age and long spin period of the pulsar taking account of different initial parameters and spin-down mechanisms of the neutron star. Our calculated results show that to spin down to a period {approx}1000 s within 10-40 kyr requires efficient propeller mechanisms. In particular, the model for angular momentum loss under energy conservation seems to be ruled out.

  18. Could SXP 1062 be an Accreting Magnetar?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Lei; Li, Xiang-Dong

    2012-10-01

    In this work we explore the possible evolutionary track of the neutron star in the newly discovered Be/X-ray binary SXP 1062, which is believed to be the first X-ray pulsar associated with a supernova remnant. Although no cyclotron feature has been detected to indicate the strength of the neutron star's magnetic field, we show that it may be >~ 1014 G. If so, SXP 1062 may belong to the accreting magnetars in binary systems. We attempt to reconcile the short age and long spin period of the pulsar taking account of different initial parameters and spin-down mechanisms of the neutron star. Our calculated results show that to spin down to a period ~1000 s within 10-40 kyr requires efficient propeller mechanisms. In particular, the model for angular momentum loss under energy conservation seems to be ruled out.

  19. The 1-50 keV spectral and timing analysis of IGR J18027-2016: an eclipsing, high mass X-ray binary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, A. B.; Walter, R.; Knigge, C.; Bazzano, A.; Bélanger, G.; Bird, A. J.; Dean, A. J.; Galache, J. L.; Malizia, A.; Renaud, M.; Stephen, J.; Ubertini, P.

    2005-08-01

    We report the association of the INTEGRAL source IGR J18027-2016 with the BeppoSAX source SAX J1802.7-2017. IGR J18027-2016 is seen to be a weak, persistent source by the IBIS/ISGRI instrument on board INTEGRAL with an average source count rate of 0.58 counts s-1 ( 6.4 mCrab) in the 20-40 keV band. Timing analysis performed on the ISGRI data identifies an orbital period of of 4.5696 ± 0.0009 days and gives an ephemeris of mid-eclipse as, T_mid = 52 931.37 ± 0.04 MJD. Re-analysis of archival BeppoSAX data has provided a mass function for the donor star, f(m) = 16 ± 1 M⊙ and a projected semimajor axis of axsin{i} = 68 ± 1 lt-s. We conclude that the donor is an OB-supergiant with a mass of 18.8-29.3 M⊙ and a radius of 15.0-23.4 R⊙. Spectra obtained by XMM-Newton and ISGRI indicate a high hydrogen column density of NH = 6.8 × 1022 cm-2, which suggests intrinsic absorption. The source appears to be a high mass X-ray binary with the neutron star emitting X-rays through wind-fed accretion while in an eclipsing orbit around an OB-supergiant.

  20. Optical study of pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanwal, Divas

    The Crab Pulsar emits radiation at all wavelengths from radio to extreme γ-rays including the optical. We have performed extremely high time resolution multicolor photometry of the Crab Pulsar at optical wavelengths to constrain the high energy emission models for pulsars. Our observations with 1 microsecond time resolution are a factor of 20 better than the previous best observations. We have completely resolved the peak of the main pulse of the Crab Pulsar in optical passbands. The peaks of the main pulse and the interpulse move smoothly from the rising branch to the falling branch with neither a flat top nor a cusp. We find that the peak of the Crab Pulsar main pulse in the B band arrives 140 microseconds before the peak of the radio pulse. The color of the emission changes across the phase. The maximum variation in the color ratio is about 25%. The bluest color occurs in the bridge region between the main pulse and the interpulse. The Crab Pulsar has faded by 2 +/- 2.8% since the previous observations in 1991 using the same instrument. The statistics of photon arrival times are consistent with atmospheric scintillation causing most of the variations in addition to the mean pulse variations in the shape. However, the autocorrelation function (ACF) of the Crab Pulsar light curve shows extra correlations at very short time scales. We identify two time scales, one at about 20 microseconds and another one at about 1000 microseconds at which we observe a break in the ACF. We conclude that these short timescale correlations are internal to the pulsar. We attribute the extra correlation observed in our data to microstructures. This is the first time evidence for microstructures has been observed outside the radio wavelengths. The upturn in the ACF at short time scales depends on the color. The U band shows about 10% more correlation at short time scales while the R band shows only about 3% change. We have also observed the young X-ray pulsar PSR 0656+14 at optical

  1. Extended Corbet Diagram of HMXBs, LMXBs and radio pulsar binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yan; Ali, Esamdin; Yin, Hongxing

    2010-09-01

    The evolutionary scenario of neutron star binaries is still an essential enigma in both stellar astrophysics and high energy astrophysics. In order to explore the scenario, we include the accumulation of data on the orbits and spins of compact binaries in multi-wavelength ranging from radio to X-ray, such as radio pulsar binaries, HMXBs, and LMXBs, filling them into the so called “Corbet Diagram” which initially investigated the period of orbit ( P orb)˜ the period of spin ( P spin) correlation of HMXBs. We find that the evolutionary scenario comes more clearly and makes strong confirmation of the connection between LMXBs and radio pulsar binaries, predicted by the recycle process. However, the origins of radio pulsar binaries sre still unknown. Accretion Induced Collapse (AIP) process may be a mechanism which can explain the origin of the binary millisecond pulsars with relatively longer orbital periods. A correlation of P {orb/1/3} ˜ P {spin/-1} of LMXBs and radio pulsar binaries may exist.

  2. Pulsar lensing geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Siqi; Pen, Ue-Li; Macquart, J.-P.; Brisken, Walter; Deller, Adam

    2016-05-01

    We test the inclined sheet pulsar scintillation model (Pen & Levin) against archival very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) data on PSR 0834+06 and show that its scintillation properties can be precisely reproduced by a model in which refraction occurs on two distinct lens planes. These data strongly favour a model in which grazing-incidence refraction instead of diffraction off turbulent structures is the primary source of pulsar scattering. This model can reproduce the parameters of the observed diffractive scintillation with an accuracy at the percent level. Comparison with new VLBI proper motion results in a direct measure of the ionized interstellar medium (ISM) screen transverse velocity. The results are consistent with ISM velocities local to the PSR 0834+06 sight-line (through the Galaxy). The simple 1-D structure of the lenses opens up the possibility of using interstellar lenses as precision probes for pulsar lens mapping, precision transverse motions in the ISM, and new opportunities for removing scattering to improve pulsar timing. We describe the parameters and observables of this double screen system. While relative screen distances can in principle be accurately determined, a global conformal distance degeneracy exists that allows a rescaling of the absolute distance scale. For PSR B0834+06, we present VLBI astrometry results that provide (for the first time) a direct measurement of the distance of the pulsar. For most of the recycled millisecond pulsars that are the targets of precision timing observations, the targets where independent distance measurements are not available. The degeneracy presented in the lens modelling could be broken if the pulsar resides in a binary system.

  3. Spectroscopic Evidence for Appearance of a New Decretion Disk Around IGR J06074+2205

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, A.; Bondar, A.; Metlova, N.

    2012-08-01

    We report on a new episode of decretion disk formation in the IGR J06074+2205 system. Our spectroscopic data permit us to measure peak separation in the double-peaked H-alpha line as 408+/-55 km/s and hence to determine the disk radius as 1.6 star's radii. These findings permit us to predict possible new X-ray activity of IGR J06074+2205 in the nearest future.

  4. Geriatric Pulsar Still Kicking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-02-01

    The oldest isolated pulsar ever detected in X-rays has been found with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. This very old and exotic object turns out to be surprisingly active. The pulsar, PSR J0108-1431 (J0108 for short) is about 200 million years old. Among isolated pulsars -- ones that have not been spun-up in a binary system -- it is over 10 times older than the previous record holder with an X-ray detection. At a distance of 770 light years, it is one of the nearest pulsars known. Pulsars are born when stars that are much more massive than the Sun collapse in supernova explosions, leaving behind a small, incredibly weighty core, known as a neutron star. At birth, these neutron stars, which contain the densest material known in the Universe, are spinning rapidly, up to a hundred revolutions per second. As the rotating beams of their radiation are seen as pulses by distant observers, similar to a lighthouse beam, astronomers call them "pulsars". Astronomers observe a gradual slowing of the rotation of the pulsars as they radiate energy away. Radio observations of J0108 show it to be one of the oldest and faintest pulsars known, spinning only slightly faster than one revolution per second. The surprise came when a team of astronomers led by George Pavlov of Penn State University observed J0108 in X-rays with Chandra. They found that it glows much brighter in X-rays than was expected for a pulsar of such advanced years. People Who Read This Also Read... Chandra Data Reveal Rapidly Whirling Black Holes Milky Way’s Giant Black Hole Awoke from Slumber 300 Years Ago Erratic Black Hole Regulates Itself Celebrate the International Year of Astronomy Some of the energy that J0108 is losing as it spins more slowly is converted into X-ray radiation. The efficiency of this process for J0108 is found to be higher than for any other known pulsar. "This pulsar is pumping out high-energy radiation much more efficiently than its younger cousins," said Pavlov. "So, although it

  5. IGR J18293-1213 is an eclipsing cataclysmic variable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clavel, M.; Tomsick, J. A.; Bodaghee, A.; Chiu, J.-L.; Fornasini, F. M.; Hong, J.; Krivonos, R.; Ponti, G.; Rahoui, F.; Stern, D.

    2016-09-01

    Studying the population of faint hard X-ray sources along the plane of the Galaxy is challenging because of high extinction and crowding, which make the identification of individual sources more difficult. IGR J18293-1213 is part of the population of persistent sources which have been discovered by the INTEGRAL satellite. We report on NuSTAR and Swift/XRT observations of this source, performed on 2015 September 11. We detected three eclipsing intervals in the NuSTAR light curve, allowing us to constrain the duration of these eclipses, Δ t= 30.8^{+6.3}_{-0.0} min, and the orbital period of the system, T = 6.92 ± 0.01 h. Even though we only report an upper limit on the amplitude of a putative spin modulation, the orbital period and the hard thermal bremsstrahlung spectrum of IGR J18293-1213 provide strong evidence that this source is a magnetic cataclysmic variable. Our NuSTAR and Swift/XRT joint spectral analysis places strong constraints on the white dwarf mass M_wd = 0.78^{+0.10}_{-0.09} M⊙. Assuming that the mass to radius ratio of the companion star M⋆/R⋆ = 1 (solar units) and using T, Δt, and Mwd, we derived the mass of the companion star M⋆ = 0.82 ± 0.01 M⊙, the orbital separation of the binary system a = 2.14 ± 0.04 R⊙, and its orbital inclination compared to the line of sight i=(72.2°^{+2.4}_{-0.0})± 1.0°.

  6. XSS J00564+4548 and IGR J00234+6141: New cataclysmic variables from the RXTE and INTEGRAL all-sky surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bikmaev, I. F.; Revnivtsev, M. G.; Burenin, R. A.; Sunyaev, R. A.

    2006-09-01

    We present the results of our optical identification of two X-ray sources from the RXTE and INTEGRAL all-sky surveys: XSS J00564+4548 and IGR J00234+6141. Using optical observations with the 1.5-m Russian-Turkish Telescope (RTT150) and publicly accessible X-ray data from the SWIFT Orbital Observatory, we show that these sources are most likely intermediate polars, i.e., binary systems with accreting white dwarfs that possess a moderately strong magnetic field (≲10 MG). We have found periodic optical oscillations with periods of ≈480 and ≈570 s. These periods most likely correspond to the rotation periods of the white dwarfs in these systems. Further optical RTT150 observations of these systems will allow their parameters to be studied in more detail.

  7. Alternancia entre el estado de emisión de Rayos-X y Pulsar en Sistemas Binarios Interactuantes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Vito, M. A.; Benvenuto, O. G.; Horvath, J. E.

    2015-08-01

    Redbacks belong to the family of binary systems in which one of the components is a pulsar. Recent observations show redbacks that have switched their state from pulsar - low mass companion (where the accretion of material over the pulsar has ceased) to low mass X-ray binary system (where emission is produced by the mass accretion on the pulsar), or inversely. The irradiation effect included in our models leads to cyclic mass transfer episodes, which allow close binary systems to switch between one state to other. We apply our results to the case of PSR J1723-2837, and discuss the need to include new ingredients in our code of binary evolution to describe the observed state transitions.

  8. Modelling pulsar glitches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haskell, Brynmor

    2016-07-01

    Pulsar glitches, i.e. sudden jumps in the spin frequency of pulsars, are thought to be due to the presence of large scale superfluid components in neutron star interiors, and offer a unique insight into the physics of matter at high densities and low temperatures. Nevertheless, more than forty years after the first observation, many open questions still exist on the nature of pulsar glitches. In this talk I will review our current theoretical understanding of glitches, of their trigger mechanisms and of the hydrodynamics of superfluid neutron stars. In particular I will focus on 'superfluid vortex avalanches' and recent advances in applying this paradigm to glitch observations, and I will discuss hydrodynamical modelling of the post-glitch recovery.

  9. Are pulsars born with a hidden magnetic field?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Forné, Alejandro; Cerdá-Durán, Pablo; Pons, José A.; Font, José A.

    2016-03-01

    The observation of several neutron stars in the centre of supernova remnants and with significantly lower values of the dipolar magnetic field than the average radio-pulsar population has motivated a lively debate about their formation and origin, with controversial interpretations. A possible explanation requires the slow rotation of the protoneutron star at birth, which is unable to amplify its magnetic field to typical pulsar levels. An alternative possibility, the hidden magnetic field scenario, considers the accretion of the fallback of the supernova debris on to the neutron star as responsible for the submergence (or screening) of the field and its apparently low value. In this paper, we study under which conditions the magnetic field of a neutron star can be buried into the crust due to an accreting, conducting fluid. For this purpose, we consider a spherically symmetric calculation in general relativity to estimate the balance between the incoming accretion flow and the magnetosphere. Our study analyses several models with different specific entropy, composition, and neutron star masses. The main conclusion of our work is that typical magnetic fields of a few times 1012 G can be buried by accreting only 10-3-10-2 M⊙, a relatively modest amount of mass. In view of this result, the central compact object scenario should not be considered unusual, and we predict that anomalously weak magnetic fields should be common in very young (< few kyr) neutron stars.

  10. Formation of redbacks via accretion-induced collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smedley, Sarah L.; Tout, Christopher A.; Ferrario, Lilia; Wickramasinghe, Dayal T.

    2015-01-01

    We examine the growing class of binary millisecond pulsars known as redbacks. In these systems, the pulsar's companion has a mass between 0.1 and about 0.5 M⊙ in an orbital period of less than 1.5 d. All show extended radio eclipses associated with circumbinary material. They do not lie on the period-companion mass relation expected from the canonical intermediate-mass X-ray binary evolution in which the companion filled its Roche lobe as a red giant and has now lost its envelope and cooled as a white dwarf. The redbacks lie closer to, but usually at higher period than, the period-companion mass relation followed by cataclysmic variables and low-mass X-ray binaries. In order to turn on as a pulsar mass accretion on to a neutron star must be sufficiently weak, considerably weaker than expected in systems with low-mass main-sequence companions driven together by magnetic braking or gravitational radiation. If a neutron star is formed by accretion-induced collapse of a white dwarf as it approaches the Chandrasekhar limit some baryonic mass is abruptly lost to its binding energy so that its effective gravitational mass falls. We propose that redbacks form when accretion-induced collapse of a white dwarf takes place during cataclysmic variable binary evolution because the loss of gravitational mass makes the orbit expand suddenly so that the companion no longer fills its Roche lobe. Once activated, the pulsar can ablate its companion and so further expand the orbit and also account for the extended eclipses in the radio emission of the pulsar that are characteristic of these systems. The whole period-companion mass space occupied by the redbacks can be populated in this way.

  11. The XMM-Newton1 and INTEGRAL2 Observations of the Supergiant Fast X-Ray Transient IGR J16328-4726

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiocchi, M.; Bazzano, A.; Natalucci, L.; Ubertini, P.; Sguera, V.; Bird, A. J.; Boon, C. M.; Persi, P.; Piro, L.

    2016-10-01

    The accretion mechanism producing the short flares observed from the Supergiant Fast X-ray Transients (SFXT) is still highly debated and forms a major part in our attempts to place these X-ray binaries in the wider context of the High Mass X-ray Binaries. We report on a 216 ks INTEGRAL observation of the SFXT IGR J16328-4726 (2014 August 24–27) simultaneous with two fixed-time observations with XMM-Newton (33 and 20 ks) performed around the putative periastron passage, in order to investigate the accretion regime and the wind properties during this orbital phase. During these observations, the source has shown luminosity variations, from ∼ 4× {10}34 to ∼ {10}36 {erg} {{{s}}}-1, linked to spectral properties changes. The soft X-ray continuum is well modeled by a power law with a photon index varying from ∼1.2 up to ∼1.7 and with high values of the column density in the range of ∼ 2{--}4× {10}23 {{cm}}-2. We report on the presence of iron lines at ∼6.8–7.1 keV, suggesting that the X-ray flux is produced by the accretion of matter from the companion wind characterized by density and temperature inhomogeneities.

  12. The dynamic of stellar wind accretion and the HMXB zoo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Roland; Manousakis, Antonios

    2016-07-01

    The dynamic of the accretion of stellar wind on the pulsar in Vela X-1 is dominated by unstable hydrodynamical flows. Off-states, 10^{37} erg/s flares, quasi-periodic oscillations and log normal flux distribution can all be reproduced by hydrodynamical simulations and reveal the complex motion of bow shocks moving either towards or away from the neutron star. These behaviors are enlightening the zoo of HMXB and suggest new phenomenology to be detected.

  13. Swift/XRT Monitoring of the Candidate Supergiant Fast X-ray Transient IGR J16418-4532

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romano, P.; Mangano, V.; Ducci, L.; Esposito, P.; Evans, P. A.; Vercellone, S.; Kennea, J. A.; Burrows, D. N.; Gehrels, N.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the Swift monitoring of the candidate supergiant fast X-ray transient (SFXT) IGR J16418.4532, for which both orbital and spin periods are known (approx. 3.7d and approx. 1250 s, respectively). Our observations, for a total of approx. 43 ks, span over three orbital periods and represent the most intense and complete sampling of the light curve of this source with a sensitive X-ray instrument. With this unique set of observations we can address the nature of this transient. By applying the clumpy wind model for blue supergiants to the observed X-ray light curve, and assuming a circular orbit, the X-ray emission from this source can be explained in terms of the accretion from a spherically symmetric clumpy wind, composed of clumps with different masses, ranging from 5 X 10(exp 16) g to 10(exp 21) g. Our data suggest, based on the X-ray behaviour, that this is an intermediate SFXT

  14. Swift-X-Ray Telescope Monitoring of the Candidate Supergiant Fast X-ray Transient IGR J16418-4532

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romano, P.; Mangano, V.; Ducci, L.; Esposito, P.; Evans, P. A.; Vercellone, S.; Kennea, J. A.; Burrows, D. N.; Gehrels, N.

    2012-01-01

    We report on the Swift monitoring of the candidate supergiant fast X-ray transient (SFXT) IGR J16418-4532, for which both orbital and spin periods are known (approx. 3.7 d and approx.1250 s, respectively). Our observations, for a total of approx. 43 ks, span over three orbital periods and represent the most intense and complete sampling of the light curve of this source with a sensitive X-ray instrument. With this unique set of observations, we can address the nature of this transient. By applying the clumpy wind model for blue supergiants to the observed X-ray light curve, and assuming a circular orbit, the X-ray emission from this source can be explained in terms of the accretion from a spherically symmetric clumpy wind, composed of clumps with different masses, ranging from approx. 5 × 10(exp 16) to 10(exp 21) g. Our data suggest, based on the X-ray behaviour, that this is an intermediate SFXT.

  15. Slim accretion disks

    SciTech Connect

    Abramowicz, M.A.; Czerny, B.; Lasota, J.P.; Szuszkiewicz, E.

    1988-09-01

    A new branch of equilibrium solutions for stationary accretion disks around black holes is found. These solutions correspond to moderately super-Eddington accretion rates. The existence of the new branch is a consequence of an additional cooling due to general relativistic Roche lobe overflow and horizontal advection of heat. On an accretion rate versus surface density plane the new branch forms, together with the two standard branches (corresponding to the Shakura-Sunyaev accretion disk models) a characteristically S-shaped curve. This could imply a limit cycle-type behavior for black hole accretion flows with accretion rates close ot the Eddington one. 29 references.

  16. Pulsars and Acceleration Sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Alice

    2008-01-01

    Rotation-powered pulsars are excellent laboratories for the studying particle acceleration as well as fundamental physics of strong gravity, strong magnetic fields and relativity. But even forty years after their discovery, we still do not understand their pulsed emission at any wavelength. I will review both the basic physics of pulsars as well as the latest developments in understanding their high-energy emission. Special and general relativistic effects play important roles in pulsar emission, from inertial frame-dragging near the stellar surface to aberration, time-of-flight and retardation of the magnetic field near the light cylinder. Understanding how these effects determine what we observe at different wavelengths is critical to unraveling the emission physics. Fortunately the Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST), with launch in May 2008 will detect many new gamma-ray pulsars and test the predictions of these models with unprecedented sensitivity and energy resolution for gamma-rays in the range of 30 MeV to 300 GeV.

  17. The Pulsar Search Collaboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, R.; Heatherly, S.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Boyles, J. R.; Wilson, M.; Lorimer, D. R.; Lynch, R.; Ransom, S.

    2010-01-01

    The Pulsar Search Collaboratory (PSC) (NSF #0737641) is a joint project between the National Radio Astronomy Observatory and West Virginia University designed to interest high school students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics related career paths by helping them to conduct authentic scientific research. The 3 year PSC program,…

  18. Mapping the QCD Phase Transition with Accreting Compact Stars

    SciTech Connect

    Blaschke, D.; Poghosyan, G.; Grigorian, H.

    2008-10-29

    We discuss an idea for how accreting millisecond pulsars could contribute to the understanding of the QCD phase transition in the high-density nuclear matter equation of state (EoS). It is based on two ingredients, the first one being a ''phase diagram'' of rapidly rotating compact star configurations in the plane of spin frequency and mass, determined with state-of-the-art hybrid equations of state, allowing for a transition to color superconducting quark matter. The second is the study of spin-up and accretion evolution in this phase diagram. We show that the quark matter phase transition leads to a characteristic line in the {omega}-M plane, the phase border between neutron stars and hybrid stars with a quark matter core. Along this line a drop in the pulsar's moment of inertia entails a waiting point phenomenon in the accreting millisecond pulsar (AMXP) evolution: most of these objects should therefore be found along the phase border in the {omega}-M plane, which may be viewed as the AMXP analog of the main sequence in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram for normal stars. In order to prove the existence of a high-density phase transition in the cores of compact stars we need population statistics for AMXPs with sufficiently accurate determination of their masses, spin frequencies and magnetic fields.

  19. Student Discovers New Pulsar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-01-01

    A West Virginia high-school student has discovered a new pulsar, using data from the giant Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT). Shay Bloxton, 15, a participant in a project in which students analyze data from the radio telescope, spotted evidence of the pulsar on October 15. Bloxton, along with NRAO astronomers observed the object again one month later. The new observation confirmed that the object is a pulsar, a rotating, superdense neutron star. Bloxton is a sophomore at Nicholas County High School in Summersville, West Virginia. "I was very excited when I found out I had actually made a discovery," Bloxton said. She went to Green Bank in November to participate in the follow-up observation. She termed that visit "a great experience." "It also helped me learn a lot about how observations with the GBT are actually done," she added. The project in which she participated, called the Pulsar Search Collaboratory (PSC), is a joint project of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and West Virginia University, funded by a grant from the National Science Foundation. Pulsars are known for their lighthouse-like beams of radio waves that sweep through space as the neutron star rotates, creating a pulse as the beam sweeps by the Earth. First discovered in 1967, pulsars serve as valuable natural "laboratories" for physicists studying exotic states of matter, quantum mechanics and General Relativity. The GBT, dedicated in 2000, has become one of the world's leading tools for discovering and studying pulsars. The PSC, led by NRAO Education Officer Sue Ann Heatherly and Project Director Rachel Rosen, includes training for teachers and student leaders, and provides parcels of data from the GBT to student teams. The project involves teachers and students in helping astronomers analyze data from 1500 hours of observing with the GBT. The 120 terabytes of data were produced by 70,000 individual pointings of the giant, 17-million-pound telescope. Some 300 hours of the

  20. The Lighthouse nebula: a run-away pulsar, its PWN, jets and parent SNR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavan, L.; Bordas, P.; Puhlhofer, G.; et al.

    2016-06-01

    Some 10-20 kyr ago a pulsar was born from a core collapse event, receiving right away a strong kick. Nowadays this pulsar is powering the Lighthouse Nebula (IGR J11014-6103): a complex system of outflows comprising the bow-shock PWN, and two well collimated jets extending perpendicularly to the pulsar's direction of motion. Whereas sharing some clear commonalities with the well known Guitar Nebula, the Lighthouse nebula is the only such system where the parent supernova remnant is well visible and bright in X-rays. I will describe the results from our recent Chandra X-ray campaign, and follow-up optical and radio observations, analyse the properties of the PWN, and possible interpretations on the nature of the long helicoidal jets and of the other outflows that we identified. I will also discuss the link between this system and its parent supernova remnant MSH 11-61A, which could help shedding a light on the processes that give birth to such peculiar systems.

  1. Period clustering of anomalous X-ray pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisnovatyi-Kogan, G. S.; Ikhsanov, N. R.

    2015-06-01

    The question of why the observed periods of anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs) and soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs) cluster in the range 2-12 s is discussed. The possibility that AXPs and SGRs are the descendants of high-mass X-ray binaries that have disintegrated in core-collapse supernova explosions is investigated. The spin periods of neutron stars in high-mass X-ray binaries evolve towards the equilibrium period, which is a few seconds, on average. After the explosion of its massive companion, the neutron star becomes embedded in a dense gaseous envelope, and accretion from this envelope leads to the formation of a residual magnetically levitating disk. It is shown that the expected mass of the disk in this case is 10-7-10-8 M⊙, which is sufficient to support accretion at the rate 1014-1015 g/s over a few thousand years. During this period, the star manifests itself as an isolated X-ray pulsar with a number of parameters similar to those of AXPs and SGRs. The periods of such pulsars can cluster if the lifetime of the residual disk does not exceed the spin-down timescale of the neutron star.

  2. Critical condition for the propeller effect in systems with magnetized neutron stars accreting from geometrically thin accretion disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertan, Unal

    2016-07-01

    The inner disk radius around a magnetized neutron star in the spin-down phase is usually assumed to be close to the radius at which the viscous and magnetic stresses are balanced. With different assumptions, this radius is estimated to be very close the Alfven radius. Furthermore, it is commonly assumed that the propeller mechanism can expel the matter from the system when this radius is found to be greater than the co-rotation radius. In the present work, we have shown with simple analytical calculations from the first principles that a steady-state propeller mechanism cannot be established at the radius where the viscous and the magnetic torques are balanced. We have found that a steady-state propeller phase can be built up with an inner disk radius that is at least ~10 - 30 times smaller than the Alfven radius depending on the current mass-flow rate of the disk, the field strength and the rotational period of the source. This result also indicates that the critical accretion rate for the accretion-propeller transition is orders of magnitude smaller than the rate found by equating the Alfven and the co-rotation radii. Our results are consistent with the properties of recently discovered transitional millisecond pulsars which show transitions between the rotational powered radio pulsar and the accretion powered X-ray pulsar states.

  3. High Mass X-ray Binary Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, Sachindra

    2016-07-01

    High Mass X-ray Binaries (HMXBs) are interesting objects that provide a wide range of observational probes to the nature of the two stellar components, accretion process, stellar wind and orbital parameters of the systems. Most of the transient HMXBs are found to Be/X-ray binaries (~67%), consisting of a compact object (neutron star) in orbit around the companion Be star. The orbit of the compact object around the Be star is wide and highly eccentric. Be/X-ray binaries are generally quiescent in X-ray emission. The transient X-ray outbursts seen in these objects are known to be due to interaction between the compact object and the circumstellar disk surrounding the Be star. In the recent years, another class of transient HMXBs have been found which have supergiant companions and show shorter X-ray outbursts. X-ray, infrared and optical observations of these HMXBs provide vital information regarding these systems. The timing and broad-band X-ray spectral properties of a few HMXB pulsars, mainly Be/X-ray binary pulsars during regular X-ray outbursts will be discussed.

  4. The Optimization of GBT Pulsar Data for the GBNCC Pulsar Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Ashlee Nicole; Green Bank NRAO, GBNCC

    2016-01-01

    The Green Bank Telescope collects data from the Green Bank Northern Celestial Cap (GBNCC) pulsar survey in order to find new pulsars within its sensitivity and also, to confirm previously found pulsars within its sensitivity range. The collected data is then loaded into the CyberSKA website database where astronomers are tasked with rating the data sets based on its potential to be a pulsar from 0(unclassified), 1(class 1 pulsar), 2(class 2 pulsar), 3(class 3 pulsar), 4(radio frequency interference), 5(not a pulsar), 6(know pulsar), 7(harmonic of a known pulsar). This specific research done was to use previously classified pulsars to create a python script that will automatically identify the data set as a pulsar or a non-pulsar. After finding the recurring frequencies of radio frequency interference (RFI), the frequencies were then added to a pipeline to further discern pulsars from RFI.

  5. Catching the rebirth of a radio millisecond pulsar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patruno, Alessandro

    2012-09-01

    On 2013 Dec 10 we have discovered with a Swift/XRT observation, that the low mass X-ray binary (LMXB) XSS J12270-4859 has recently changed state from a quiescent-LMXB into a new anomalous faint state with no signatures of accretion (ATel #5647). An NTT optical observation suggests a transition around December 2012 in the opposite direction to that of the "missing link" PSR J1023+0038 (that switched from a radio millisecond pulsar (MSP), into an LMXB, Stappers et al.2013, Patruno et al. 2013). A MSP may therefore be now active in XSS J12270. We are currently completing the analysis of Parkes data to search for the putative MSP. The Swift/XRT shows a faint source (1e32-1e33 erg/s). We want now to characterize the spectral behaviour with a 30 ks Chandra pointing. If we do not detect radio pulsations Chandra can potentially tell us if the pulsar (and pulsar wind) are on even if the radio pulsar is undetectable (as our preliminary Parkes analysis seems to suggest).

  6. Magneto-Levitation Accretion in High Mass X-ray Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pustilnik, Lev; Beskrovnaya, Nina; Ikhsanov, Nazar; Kim, Vitally; Likh, Yuri

    A wind-fed accretion by a neutron star in a High Mass X-ray Binary is discussed. We show that the structure and physical parameters of the accretion flow onto the neutron star strongly depends on the magnetic field strength in the stellar wind of its massive companion. A neutron star accreting material from a magnetized wind is expected to be surrounded by a dense non-Keplerian disk (magnetic slab) in which the material is confined by the magnetic field of the accretion flow itself. The accretion process in this case is governed by anomalous (Bohm) diffusion. We find that spin evolution and equilibrium period of the pulsar within this magneto-levitation accretion scenario are consistent with the observed values.

  7. Gamma radiation from radio pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruderman, Malvin

    1990-01-01

    The probable magnetospheric location and source of the gamma ray emission from some young radiopulsars is discussed. The suggested evolution of this emission as a function of pulsar period gives a diminished gamma-ray luminosity for a more rapidly spinning pre-Crab pulsar. A greatly enhanced one, similar to that of unidentified Cos B sources, is predicted for a slightly slower post-Vela pulsar, followed by a relatively rapid quenching of the gamma-ray luminosity at still longer periods. Possible anomalous exo-magnetospheric pulsed MeV and TeV-PeV radiation from the Crab pulsar is considered.

  8. Swift, INTEGRAL, RXTE, and Spitzer Reveal IGR J16283-4838

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckmann, V.; Gehrels, N.; Markwardt, C.; Barthelmy S.; Soldi, S.; Paizis, A.; Mowlavi, N.; Kennca, J. A.; Burrows, D. N.; Chester, M.

    2005-01-01

    We present the first combined study of the recently discovered source IGR J16283-4838 with Swift, INTEGRAL, and RXTE. The source, discovered by INTEGRAL on April 7, 2005, shows a highly absorbed (variable N(sub H) = 0.4-1.7 x 10(exp 23) /sq cm) and flat (Gamma approx. 1) spectrum in the Swift/XRT and RXTE/PCA data. No optical counterpart is detectable (V > 20 mag), but a possible infrared counterpart within the Swift/XRT error radius is detected in the 2MASS and Spitzer/GLIMPSE survey. The observations suggest that IGR J16283-4838 is a high mass X-ray binary containing a neutron star embedded in Compton thick material. This makes IGR J16283-4838 a member of the class of highly absorbed HMXBs, discovered by INTEGRAL.

  9. Spectrum and timing phenomena in IGR J17091-3624 2011 outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Qu, J. L.; Gao, H. Q.; Zhou, J. N.

    2013-02-01

    X-ray source IGR J17091-3624 was discovered by INTEGRAL observatory on 2003 April (Kuulkers 2003). A outburst was detected with Swift/Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) in late January 2011 (Krimm 2011). IGR J17091-3624 has a similar timing phenomena to microquasar GRS 1915+105(Belloni 2000; Altamirano 2011). We have analyzed the evolution of temporal and spectral characteristic of IGR J17091-3624 during the 2011 outburst. We find that (1) all the QPOs can be divided into two types, QPO-AB and QPO-C, (2) a small outburst tracks clockwise in the HID, (3) the relationship between hardness and disk color temperature forms a V-shape. Those results will give a strong constraint on the disk radiative process.

  10. "Missing Link" Revealing Fast-Spinning Pulsar Mysteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-05-01

    Astronomers have discovered a unique double-star system that represents a "missing link" stage in what they believe is the birth process of the most rapidly-spinning stars in the Universe -- millisecond pulsars. "We've thought for some time that we knew how these pulsars get 'spun up' to rotate so swiftly, and this system looks like it's showing us the process in action," said Anne Archibald, of McGill University in Montreal, Canada. Pulsar and Companion Neutron star with accretion disk (left) drawing material from companion star (right). CREDIT:Bill Saxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF Animations of this system and its evolution. Pulsars are superdense neutron stars, the remnants left after massive stars have exploded as supernovae. Their powerful magnetic fields generate lighthouse-like beams of light and radio waves that sweep around as the star rotates. Most rotate a few to tens of times a second, slowing down over thousands of years. However, some, dubbed millisecond pulsars, rotate hundreds of times a second. Astronomers believe the fast rotation is caused by a companion star dumping material onto the neutron star and spinning it up. The material from the companion would form a flat, spinning disk around the neutron star, and during this period, the radio waves characteristic of a pulsar would not be seen coming from the system. As the amount of matter falling onto the neutron star decreased and stopped, the radio waves could emerge, and the object would be recognized as a pulsar. This sequence of events is apparently what happened with a binary-star system some 4000 light-years from Earth. The millisecond pulsar in this system, called J1023, was discovered by the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in West Virginia in 2007 in a survey led by astronomers at West Virginia University and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). The astronomers then found that the object had been detected by NSF's Very Large Array (VLA) radio

  11. On neutron star structure and the millisecond pulsar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, A. K.

    1983-01-01

    The millisecond pulsar is the first observed example of a neutron star spinning rapidly enough to approach the Jacobi bifurcation point and thus affords the possibility of constraining neutron star physics. The pulsar must be rotating below the critical frequency at which its equilibrium configuration would become nonaxisymmetric, since the lifetime of this configuration against decay by gravitational radiation is very short. This critical frequency may be used to set a lower limit of 2 x 10 to the 14th g/cu cm on the density of the star. If the mass is 0.5-1.5 solar mass, several of the stiffer neutron star equations of state may be ruled out, and the radius should be less than 16 km. The condition for axisymmetry also imposes an upper limit on the rotation rate to which neutron stars may be spun up by accretion disks in binary systems.

  12. On the progenitors of millisecond pulsars by the recycling evolutionary channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei-Min; Chen, Wen-Cong

    2011-09-01

    The recycling model suggested that low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) could evolve into binary millisecond pulsars (BMSPs). In this work, we attempt to investigate the progenitor properties of BMSPs formed by the recycling evolutionary channel, and if submillisecond pulsars can be produced by this channel. Using Eggleton's stellar evolution code, considering that the dead pulsars can be spun up to a short spin period by the accreting material and angular momentum from the donor star, we have calculated the evolution of close binaries consisting of a neutron star (NS) and a low-mass main-sequence donor star, and the spin evolution of NSs. In the calculation, some physical processes, such as the thermal and viscous instability of an accretion disc, propeller effect and magnetic braking, are included. Our calculated results indicate that all LMXBs with a low-mass donor star of 1.0-2.0 M⊙ and a short orbital period (≲ 3-4 d) can form millisecond pulsars with a spin period less than 10 ms. However, it is difficult to produce submillisecond pulsars by this evolutionary channel. In addition, our evolutionary scenario cannot account for the existence of BMSPs with a long orbital period (Porb≳ 70-80 d).

  13. A state change in the missing link binary pulsar system PSR J1023+0038

    SciTech Connect

    Stappers, B. W.; Lyne, A. G.; Archibald, A. M.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Bassa, C. G.; Janssen, G. H.; Bogdanov, S.; Kaspi, V. M.; Patruno, A.; Tendulkar, S.; Hill, A. B.; Glanzman, T.

    2014-07-20

    We present radio and γ-ray observations, which, along with concurrent X-ray observations, reveal that the binary millisecond pulsar (MSP)/low-mass X-ray binary transition system PSR J1023+0038 has undergone a transformation in state. Whereas until recently the system harbored a bright millisecond radio pulsar, the radio pulsations at frequencies between 300 to 5000 MHz have now become undetectable. Concurrent with this radio disappearance, the γ-ray flux of the system has quintupled. We conclude that, though the radio pulsar is currently not detectable, the pulsar mechanism is still active and the pulsar wind, as well as a newly formed accretion disk, are together providing the necessary conditions to create the γ-ray increase. This system is the first example of a compact, low-mass binary which has shown significant state changes accompanied by large changes in γ-ray flux; it will continue to provide an exceptional test bed for better understanding the formation of MSPs as well as accretion onto neutron stars in general.

  14. The Extended Pulsar Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Constantinos, Kalapotharakos; Demosthenes, Kazanas; Ioannis, Contopoulos

    2012-01-01

    We present the structure of the 3D ideal MHD pulsar magnetosphere to a radius ten times that of the light cylinder, a distance about an order of magnitude larger than any previous such numerical treatment. Its overall structure exhibits a stable, smooth, well-defined undulating current sheet which approaches the kinematic split monopole solution of Bogovalov 1999 only after a careful introduction of diffusivity even in the highest resolution simulations. It also exhibits an intriguing spiral region at the crossing of two zero charge surfaces on the current sheet, which shows a destabilizing behavior more prominent in higher resolution simulations. We discuss the possibility that this region is physically (and not numerically) unstable. Finally, we present the spiral pulsar antenna radiation pattern.

  15. Pulsar extinction. [astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturrock, P. A.; Baker, K.; Turk, J. S.

    1975-01-01

    Radio emission from pulsars, attributed to an instability associated with the creation of electron-positron pairs from gamma rays was investigated. The condition for pair creation therefore lead to an extinction condition. The relevant physical processes were analyzed in the context of a mathematical model, according to which radiation originated at the polar caps and magnetic field lines changed from a closed configuration to an open configuration at the force balance or corotation radius.

  16. Swift/XRT detection of the hard X-ray source IGR J14549-6459

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiocchi, M.; Bazzano, A.; Landi, R.; Bassani, L.; Gehrels, N.; Kennea, J.; Bird, A. J.

    2010-04-01

    We report the result of a short (900 sec) Swift/XRT observation of the field containing IGR J14549-6459, a new INTEGRAL source recently reported in the 4th IBIS catalogue (Bird et al. 2010, ApJS, 186, 1). The XRT data analysis is performed using the standard procedure described in details in Landi et al. 2010 (MNRAS, 403, 945). The XRT observation locates the X-ray counterpart of IGR J14549-6459 at RA(J2000)= 14h 55m 23.9s, Dec(J2000)= -65d 00m 03.2s with an error of 6".

  17. The pulse amplitude variation with QPO frequency in SAX J1808.4-3658: Resonances with the accretion disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caliskan, Sirin; Alpar, Mehmet Ali; Sasmaz Mus, Sinem

    2016-07-01

    SAX J1808.4-3658 is an accreting millisecond pulsar with a spin period of 401 Hz. The pulsed amplitudes of this source vary with its kHz QPO frequencies (Bult & van der Klis 2015). The pulsed amplitude peaks at certain upper kHz QPO frequencies which we associate with boundary layer modes of the viscous accretion disk (Erkut et al. 2008). We model this as peaks in the energy dissipation rate at the accretion caps due to resonances between the accretion column and the driving modes of the boundary layer.

  18. The pulsar spectral index distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, S. D.; Lorimer, D. R.; Verbiest, J. P. W.

    2013-05-01

    The flux-density spectra of radio pulsars are known to be steep and, to first order, described by a power-law relationship of the form Sν ∝ να, where Sν is the flux density at some frequency ν and α is the spectral index. Although measurements of α have been made over the years for several hundred pulsars, a study of the intrinsic distribution of pulsar spectra has not been carried out. From the result of pulsar surveys carried out at three different radio frequencies, we use population synthesis techniques and a likelihood analysis to deduce what underlying spectral index distribution is required to replicate the results of these surveys. We find that in general the results of the surveys can be modelled by a Gaussian distribution of spectral indices with a mean of -1.4 and unit standard deviation. We also consider the impact of the so-called gigahertz-peaked spectrum pulsars proposed by Kijak et al. The fraction of peaked-spectrum sources in the population with any significant turnover at low frequencies appears to be at most 10 per cent. We demonstrate that high-frequency (>2 GHz) surveys preferentially select flatter spectrum pulsars and the converse is true for lower frequency (<1 GHz) surveys. This implies that any correlations between α and other pulsar parameters (for example age or magnetic field) need to carefully account for selection biases in pulsar surveys. We also expect that many known pulsars which have been detected at high frequencies will have shallow, or positive, spectral indices. The majority of pulsars do not have recorded flux density measurements over a wide frequency range, making it impossible to constrain their spectral shapes. We also suggest that such measurements would allow an improved description of any populations of pulsars with `non-standard' spectra. Further refinements to this picture will soon be possible from the results of surveys with the Green Bank Telescope and LOFAR.

  19. Accretion Flows in Magnetic White Dwarf Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imamura, James N.

    2005-01-01

    We received Type A and B funding under the NASA Astrophysics Data Program for the analysis and interpretation of hard x-ray data obtained by the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer and other NASA sponsored missions for Intermediate Polars (IPS) and Polars. For some targets, optical data was available. We reduced and analyzed the X-ray spectra and the X-ray and optical (obtained at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory) timing data using detailed shock models (which we constructed) to place constraints on the properties of the accreting white dwarfs, the high energy emission mechanisms of white dwarfs, and the large-scale accretion flows of Polars and IPS. IPS and Polars are white dwarf mass-transfer binaries, members of the larger class of cata,clysmic variables. They differ from the bulk of the cataclysmic variables in that they contain strongly magnetic white dwarfs; the white dwarfs in Polars have B, = 7 to 230 MG and those in IPS have B, less than 10 MG. The IPS and Polars are both examples of funneled accretion flows in strong magnetic field systems. The IPS are similar to x-ray pulsars in that accretion disks form in the systems which are disrupted by the strong stellar magnetic fields of the white dwarfs near the stellar surface from where the plasma is funneled to the surface of the white dwarf. The localized hot spots formed at the footpoints of the funnels coupled with the rotation of the white dwarf leads to coherent pulsed x-ray emission. The Polars offer an example of a different accretion topology; the magnetic field of the white dwarf controls the accretion flow from near the inner Lagrangian point of the system directly to the stellar surface. Accretion disks do not form. The strong magnetic coupling generally leads to synchronous orbital/rotational motion in the Polars. The physical system in this sense resembles the Io/Jupiter system. In both IPS and Polars, pulsed emission from the infrared to x-rays is produced as the funneled flows merge onto the

  20. Searching for Planets Around Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-09-01

    Did you know that the very first exoplanets ever confirmed were found around a pulsar? The precise timing measurements of pulsar PSR 1257+12 were what made the discovery of its planetary companions possible. Yet surprisingly, though weve discovered thousands of exoplanets since then, only one other planet has ever been confirmed around a pulsar. Now, a team of CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science researchers are trying to figure out why.Formation ChallengesThe lack of detected pulsar planets may simply reflect the fact that getting a pulsar-planet system is challenging! There are three main pathways:The planet formed before the host star became a pulsar which means it somehow survived its star going supernova (yikes!).The planet formed elsewhere and was captured by the pulsar.The planet formed out of the debris of the supernova explosion.The first two options, if even possible, are likely to be rare occurrences but the third option shows some promise. In this scenario, after the supernova explosion, a small fraction of the material falls back toward the stellar remnant and is recaptured, forming what is known as a supernova fallback disk. According to this model, planets could potentially form out of this disk.Disk ImplicationsLed by Matthew Kerr, the CSIRO astronomers set out to systematically look for these potential planets that might have formed in situ around pulsars. They searched a sample of 151 young, energetic pulsars, scouring seven years of pulse time-of-arrival data for periodic variation that could signal the presence of planetary companions. Their methods to mitigate pulsar timing noise and model realistic orbits allowed them to have good sensitivity to low-mass planets.The results? They found no conclusive evidence that any of these pulsars have planets.This outcome carries with it some significant implications. The pulsar sample spans 2 Myr in age, in which planets should have had enough time to form in debris disks. The fact that none were detected

  1. On the magnetic fields of Be/X-ray pulsars in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikhsanov, N. R.; Mereghetti, S.

    2015-12-01

    We explore the possibility of explaining the properties of the Be/X-ray pulsars observed in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) within the magnetic levitation accretion scenario. This implies that their X-ray emission is powered by a wind-fed accretion on to a neutron star (NS) which captures matter from a magnetized stellar wind. The NS in this case is accreting matter from a non-Keplerian magnetically levitating disc which is surrounding its magnetosphere. This allows us to explain the observed periods of the pulsars in terms of spin equilibrium without the need of invoking dipole magnetic fields outside the usual range ˜1011-1013 G inferred from cyclotron features of Galactic high-mass X-ray binaries. We find that the equilibrium period of a NS, under certain conditions, depends strongly on the magnetization of the stellar wind of its massive companion and, correspondingly, on the magnetic field of the massive companion itself. This may help to explain why similar NSs in binaries with similar properties rotate with different periods yielding a large scatter of periods of the accretion-powered pulsar observed in SMC and our galaxy.

  2. Pulsar timing and general relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backer, D. C.; Hellings, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    Techniques are described for accounting for relativistic effects in the analysis of pulsar signals. Design features of instrumentation used to achieve millisecond accuracy in the signal measurements are discussed. The accuracy of the data permits modeling the pulsar physical characteristics from the natural glitches in the emissions. Relativistic corrections are defined for adjusting for differences between the pulsar motion in its spacetime coordinate system relative to the terrestrial coordinate system, the earth's motion, and the gravitational potentials of solar system bodies. Modifications of the model to allow for a binary pulsar system are outlined, including treatment of the system as a point mass. Finally, a quadrupole model is presented for gravitational radiation and techniques are defined for using pulsars in the search for gravitational waves.

  3. Magnetars and white dwarf pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobato, Ronaldo V.; Malheiro, Manuel; Coelho, Jaziel G.

    2016-07-01

    The anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs) and soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs) are a class of pulsars understood as neutron stars (NSs) with super strong surface magnetic fields, namely B ≳ 1014G, and for that reason are known as magnetars. However, in the last years, some SGRs/AXPs with low surface magnetic fields B ˜ (1012-1013)G have been detected, challenging the magnetar description. Moreover, some fast and very magnetic white dwarfs (WDs) have also been observed, and at least one showed X-ray energy emission as an ordinary pulsar. Following this fact, an alternative model based on WDs pulsars has been proposed to explain this special class of pulsars. In this model, AXPs and SGRs as dense and magnetized WDs can have surface magnetic field B ˜ 107-1010 G and rotate very fast with frequencies Ω ˜ 1rad/s, consistent with the observed rotation periods P ˜ (2-12)s.

  4. Rotochemical heating of millisecond and classical pulsars with anisotropic and density-dependent superfluid gap models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Jiménez, Nicolás; Petrovich, Cristobal; Reisenegger, Andreas

    2015-03-01

    When a rotating neutron star loses angular momentum, the progressive reduction of the centrifugal force makes it contract. This perturbs each fluid element, raising the local pressure and originating deviations from beta equilibrium, inducing reactions that release heat (`rotochemical heating'). This effect has previously been studied by Fernández & Reisenegger for non-superfluid neutron stars and by Petrovich & Reisenegger for superfluid millisecond pulsars. Both studies found that pulsars reach a quasi-steady state in which the compression driving the matter out of beta equilibrium is balanced by the reactions trying to restore the equilibrium. We extend previous studies by considering the effect of density-dependence and anisotropy of the superfluid energy gaps, for the case in which the dominant reactions are the modified Urca processes, the protons are non-superconducting, and the neutron superfluidity is parametrized by models proposed in the literature. By comparing our predictions with the surface temperature of the millisecond pulsar PSR J0437-4715 and upper limits for 21 classical pulsars, we find the millisecond pulsar can be only explained by the models with the effectively largest energy gaps (type B models), the classical pulsars require with the gap models that vanish for some angle (type C) and two different envelope compositions. Thus, no single model for neutron superfluidity can simultaneously account for the thermal emission of all available observations of non-accreting neutron stars, possibly due to our neglect of proton superconductivity.

  5. Posible optical counterpart to the x-ray pulsar 1E 2259+586

    SciTech Connect

    Fahlman, G.G.; Hickson, P.; Richer, H.B.; Gregory, P.C.; Middleditch, J.

    1982-10-01

    An optical, intensified CCD observation of the field of the 3.49 s X-ray pulsar lE 2259+586 is discussed. Two stars with B = 22.0 and B = 21.3 are found to lie 4.''9 and 6.''3 away from the nominal X-ray position determined by the High Resolution Imager (HRI) camera of the Einstein Observatory. The fainter star is identified as the optical counterpart to the pulsar on the basis of recently detected pulsations. No other star with B< or approx. =23 is found within an 8'' radius circle around the HRI position. The absence of a bright optical counterpart rules out a massive binary companion for the pulsar. If the pulsar has a binary companion, it must be a low-mass main-sequence dwarf for a degenerate star. The implication of the binary hypothesis is that the neutron star was formed in a Type I supernova explosion which occurred in a preexisting close binary configuration. The possibility that the pulsar is powered by accreting matter from a molecular cloud observed at the western edge of the supernova remnant surrounding the pulsar is briefly discussed.

  6. Torque Enhancement, Spin Equilibrium, and Jet Power from Disk-Induced Opening of Pulsar Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parfrey, Kyle; Spitkovsky, Anatoly; Beloborodov, Andrei M.

    2016-05-01

    The interaction of a rotating star’s magnetic field with a surrounding plasma disk lies at the heart of many questions posed by neutron stars in X-ray binaries. We consider the opening of stellar magnetic flux due to differential rotation along field lines coupling the star and disk, using a simple model for the disk-opened flux, the torques exerted on the star by the magnetosphere, and the power extracted by the electromagnetic wind. We examine the conditions under which the system enters an equilibrium spin state, in which the accretion torque is instantaneously balanced by the pulsar wind torque alone. For magnetic moments, spin frequencies, and accretion rates relevant to accreting millisecond pulsars, the spin-down torque from this enhanced pulsar wind can be substantially larger than that predicted by existing models of the disk-magnetosphere interaction, and is in principle capable of maintaining spin equilibrium at frequencies less than 1 kHz. We speculate that this mechanism may account for the non-detection of frequency increases during outbursts of SAX J1808.4-3658 and XTE J1814-338, and may be generally responsible for preventing spin-up to sub-millisecond periods. If the pulsar wind is collimated by the surrounding environment, the resulting jet can satisfy the power requirements of the highly relativistic outflows from Cir X-1 and Sco X-1. In this framework, the jet power scales relatively weakly with accretion rate, {L}{{j}}\\propto {\\dot{M}}4/7, and would be suppressed at high accretion rates only if the stellar magnetic moment is sufficiently low.

  7. Torque Enhancement, Spin Equilibrium, and Jet Power from Disk-Induced Opening of Pulsar Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parfrey, Kyle; Spitkovsky, Anatoly; Beloborodov, Andrei M.

    2016-05-01

    The interaction of a rotating star’s magnetic field with a surrounding plasma disk lies at the heart of many questions posed by neutron stars in X-ray binaries. We consider the opening of stellar magnetic flux due to differential rotation along field lines coupling the star and disk, using a simple model for the disk-opened flux, the torques exerted on the star by the magnetosphere, and the power extracted by the electromagnetic wind. We examine the conditions under which the system enters an equilibrium spin state, in which the accretion torque is instantaneously balanced by the pulsar wind torque alone. For magnetic moments, spin frequencies, and accretion rates relevant to accreting millisecond pulsars, the spin-down torque from this enhanced pulsar wind can be substantially larger than that predicted by existing models of the disk–magnetosphere interaction, and is in principle capable of maintaining spin equilibrium at frequencies less than 1 kHz. We speculate that this mechanism may account for the non-detection of frequency increases during outbursts of SAX J1808.4-3658 and XTE J1814-338, and may be generally responsible for preventing spin-up to sub-millisecond periods. If the pulsar wind is collimated by the surrounding environment, the resulting jet can satisfy the power requirements of the highly relativistic outflows from Cir X-1 and Sco X-1. In this framework, the jet power scales relatively weakly with accretion rate, {L}{{j}}\\propto {\\dot{M}}4/7, and would be suppressed at high accretion rates only if the stellar magnetic moment is sufficiently low.

  8. MASTER Optical Flare Detection from the Fastes Accretor in Our Galaxy - IGR J00291+5934.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipunov, V.; Rebolo, R.; Serra-Ricart, M.; Lodieu, N.; Israelian, G.; Lipunov, V.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Kornilov, V.; Balanutsa, P.; Tiurina, N.; Kuznetsov, A.; Chazov, V.; Vlasenko, D.; Gorbunov, I.; Buckley, D.; Potter, S.; Kotze, M.; Gress, O.; Budnev, N. M.; Ivanov, K.; Tlatov, A.; Dormidontov, D.; Senik, V.; Parhomenko, A. V.; Krushinski, V.; Zalozhnykh, I.; Sergienko, Yu.; Gabovich, A.; Yurkov, V.

    2015-07-01

    MASTER II robotic telescope (MASTER-Net: http://observ.pereplet.ru, Lipunov et al., Advances in Astronomy, MASTER Global Robotic Net, 2010) located in IAC was pointed to the Swift IGR J00291+5934 (Cummings et al., GCN 18051) 24 sec after notice time and 1103 sec after trigger time at 2015-07-24 05:42:03 UT.

  9. Evolution of vaporizing pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormick, P.

    1994-01-01

    We construct evolutional scenarios for LMXB's using a simplified stellar model. We discuss the origin and evolution of short-period, low mass binary pulsars with evaporating companions. We suggest that these systems descend from low-mass X-ray binaries and that angular momentum loss mainly due to evaporative wind drives their evolution. We derive limits on the energy and angular momentum carried away by the wind based on the observed low eccentricity. In our model the companion remains near contact, and its quasiadiabatic expansion causes the binary to expand. Short-term oscillations of the orbital period may occur if the Roche-lobe overflow forms an evaporating disk.

  10. Suzaku Observations of PSR B1259-63: A New Manifestation of Relativistic Pulsar Wind

    SciTech Connect

    Uchiyama, Yasunobu; Tanaka, Takaaki; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Mori, Koji; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro

    2009-04-27

    We observed PSR B1259-63, a young non-accreting pulsar orbiting around a Be star SS 2883, eight times with the Suzaku satellite from July to September 2007, to characterize the X-ray emission arising from the interaction between a pulsar relativistic wind and Be star outflows. The X-ray spectra showed a featureless continuum in 0.6-10 keV, modeled by a power law with a wide range of photon index 1.3-1.8. When combined with the Suzaku PIN detector which allowed spectral analysis in the hard 15-50 keV band, X-ray spectra do show a break at {approx} 5 keV in a certain epoch. Regarding the PSR B1259-63 system as a compactified pulsar wind nebula, in which e{sup {+-}} pairs are assumed to be accelerated at the inner shock front of the pulsar wind, we attribute the X-ray spectral break to the low-energy cutoff of the synchrotron radiation associated with the Lorentz factor of the relativistic pulsar wind {gamma}{sub 1} {approx} 4 x 10{sup 5}. Our result indicates that Comptonization of stellar photons by the unshocked pulsar wind will be accessible (or tightly constrained) by observations with the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope during the next periastron passage. The PSR B1259-63 system allows us to probe the fundamental properties of the pulsar wind by a direct means, being complementary to the study of large-scale pulsar wind nebulae.

  11. A New Physical Model for Pulsars as Gravitational Shielding and Oscillating Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tianxi

    2014-06-01

    Pulsars are fast rotating neutron stars that synchronously emit periodic Dirac delta shape pulses of radio-frequency radiation and Lorentzian shape oscillations of X-rays. The acceleration of particles near the magnetic poles, which derivate from the rotating axis produces coherent beams of radio emissions that are viewed as pulses of radiation whenever the magnetic poles sweep the viewers. However, the conventional lighthouse model of pulsars is only conceptual. The physical mechanism through which particles are accelerated to produce coherent beams of radio emissions is still poorly understood. The process for periodically oscillating X-rays to emit from hot spots at the inner edge of accretion disks of pulsars is also remained as an unsolved mystery. Recently, a new physical model of pulsars is proposed by the author to quantitatively interpret the emission characteristics of pulsars, in accordance with his well-developed five-dimensional fully covariant Kaluza-Klein gravitational shielding theory and the physics of thermal and accelerating charged particle radiation. The results indicate that with the significant gravitational shielding by scalar field a neutron star nonlinearly oscillates and produces synchronous periodically Dirac delta shape pulse-like radio-frequency radiation (emitted by the oscillating or accelerating charged particles) as well as periodically Lorentzian shape oscillating X-rays (as the thermal radiation of neutron stars that temperature varies due to the oscillation). This physical model of pulsars as gravitational shielding and oscillating neutron stars broadens our understanding of neutron stars and develops an innovative mechanism to disclose the mystery of pulsars. In this presentation, I will show the results obtained from the quantitative studies of this new physical model of pulsars for the oscillations of neutron stars and the powers of radio pulse-like emissions and oscillating X-rays.

  12. Radio pulsar disk electrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Michel, F.C.

    1983-03-01

    We outline the macroscopic physics of a disk close to an isolated, magnetized, rotating neutron star. It seems likely that such systems are formed from time to time in the universe. The neutron star acts as a Faraday disk dynamo, and the disk acts as both a load and a neutral sheet, permitting the polar cap current to return to the neutron star and also splitting a dipolar magnetic field into two monopolar halves. Michel and Dessler have proposed that such systems are radio pulsars. The dominant energy loss is from the stellar wind torque (giving a deceleration index n = 7/3), and the next contribution is dissipation in the ''auroral'' zones, where the current returns to the star in a sheet about 5 cm thick. The latter is comparable to the observed radio luminosities and is in reasonable accord with the data. The disk itself may be a source of visible radiation comparable to that in pulsed radiofrequency emission. As the pulsar ages, the disk expands and narrows into a ring, the plausible consequence of which could be cessation of pulsed emission at periods of a few seconds.

  13. Tempo: Pulsar timing data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manchester, R.; Taylor, J.; Peters, W.; Weisberg, J.; Irwin, A.; Wex, N.; Stairs, I.; Demorest, P.; Nice, D.

    2015-09-01

    Tempo analyzes pulsar timing data. Pulse times of arrival (TOAs), pulsar model parameters, and coded instructions are read from one or more input files. The TOAs are fitted by a pulse timing model incorporating transformation to the solar-system barycenter, pulsar rotation and spin-down and, where necessary, one of several binary models. Program output includes parameter values and uncertainties, residual pulse arrival times, chi-squared statistics, and the covariance matrix of the model. In prediction mode, ephemerides of pulse phase behavior (in the form of polynomial expansions) are calculated from input timing models. Tempo is the basis for the Tempo2 (ascl:1210.015) code.

  14. Transformation of a star into a planet in a millisecond pulsar binary.

    PubMed

    Bailes, M; Bates, S D; Bhalerao, V; Bhat, N D R; Burgay, M; Burke-Spolaor, S; D'Amico, N; Johnston, S; Keith, M J; Kramer, M; Kulkarni, S R; Levin, L; Lyne, A G; Milia, S; Possenti, A; Spitler, L; Stappers, B; van Straten, W

    2011-09-23

    Millisecond pulsars are thought to be neutron stars that have been spun-up by accretion of matter from a binary companion. Although most are in binary systems, some 30% are solitary, and their origin is therefore mysterious. PSR J1719-1438, a 5.7-millisecond pulsar, was detected in a recent survey with the Parkes 64-meter radio telescope. We show that this pulsar is in a binary system with an orbital period of 2.2 hours. The mass of its companion is near that of Jupiter, but its minimum density of 23 grams per cubic centimeter suggests that it may be an ultralow-mass carbon white dwarf. This system may thus have once been an ultracompact low-mass x-ray binary, where the companion narrowly avoided complete destruction. PMID:21868629

  15. Transformation of a star into a planet in a millisecond pulsar binary.

    PubMed

    Bailes, M; Bates, S D; Bhalerao, V; Bhat, N D R; Burgay, M; Burke-Spolaor, S; D'Amico, N; Johnston, S; Keith, M J; Kramer, M; Kulkarni, S R; Levin, L; Lyne, A G; Milia, S; Possenti, A; Spitler, L; Stappers, B; van Straten, W

    2011-09-23

    Millisecond pulsars are thought to be neutron stars that have been spun-up by accretion of matter from a binary companion. Although most are in binary systems, some 30% are solitary, and their origin is therefore mysterious. PSR J1719-1438, a 5.7-millisecond pulsar, was detected in a recent survey with the Parkes 64-meter radio telescope. We show that this pulsar is in a binary system with an orbital period of 2.2 hours. The mass of its companion is near that of Jupiter, but its minimum density of 23 grams per cubic centimeter suggests that it may be an ultralow-mass carbon white dwarf. This system may thus have once been an ultracompact low-mass x-ray binary, where the companion narrowly avoided complete destruction.

  16. Why are millisecond pulsar magnetic fields low and how do their X-rays arise?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Natalie

    2006-10-01

    Binary millisecond pulsars (MSPs) found in the field are thought to be recycled from accreting pulsars. These MSPs have short periods, low spindown rates (Pdot) and consequently low surface magnetic fields (Bs) as Bs is proportional to (Pdot P)^0.5. It is unclear, however, how the MSP surface magnetic field can evolve from the high fields observed in pulsars to the low MSP values. Two models have been proposed to explain this. Also, the origin of the high energy emission is unclear as too few MSP X-ray observations have been made to differentiate between competing models. With these XMM-Newton observations of four MSPs previously unobserved in X-rays, we will discriminate between differing models describing the magnetic field evolution and the high energy emission origin.

  17. Black hole accretion.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Ramesh; Quataert, Eliot

    2005-01-01

    Black holes are most often detected by the radiation produced when they gravitationally pull in surrounding gas, in a process called accretion. The efficiency with which the hot gas radiates its thermal energy strongly influences the geometry and dynamics of the accretion flow. Both radiatively efficient thin disks and radiatively inefficient thick disks are observed. When the accreting gas gets close to the central black hole, the radiation it produces becomes sensitive to the spin of the hole and the presence of an event horizon. Analysis of the luminosities and spectra of accreting black holes has yielded tantalizing evidence for both rotating holes and event horizons. Numerical simulations imply that the relativistic jets often seen from accreting black holes may be powered in part by the spin of the hole. PMID:15637269

  18. MILLISECOND PULSAR AGES: IMPLICATIONS OF BINARY EVOLUTION AND A MAXIMUM SPIN LIMIT

    SciTech Connect

    Kiziltan, Buelent; Thorsett, Stephen E.

    2010-05-20

    In the absence of constraints from the binary companion or supernova remnant, the standard method for estimating pulsar ages is to infer an age from the rate of spin-down. While the generic spin-down age may give realistic estimates for normal pulsars, it can fail for pulsars with very short periods. Details of the spin-up process during the low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) phase pose additional constraints on the period (P) and spin-down rates ( P-dot ) that may consequently affect the age estimate. Here, we propose a new recipe to estimate millisecond pulsar (MSP) ages that parametrically incorporates constraints arising from binary evolution and limiting physics. We show that the standard method can be improved by this approach to achieve age estimates closer to the true age while the standard spin-down age may overestimate or underestimate the age of the pulsar by more than a factor of {approx}10 in the millisecond regime. We use this approach to analyze the population on a broader scale. For instance, in order to understand the dominant energy loss mechanism after the onset of radio emission, we test for a range of plausible braking indices. We find that a braking index of n = 3 is consistent with the observed MSP population. We demonstrate the existence and quantify the potential contributions of two main sources of age corruption: the previously known 'age bias' due to secular acceleration and 'age contamination' driven by sub-Eddington progenitor accretion rates. We explicitly show that descendants of LMXBs that have accreted at very low rates ( m-dot << M-dot{sub Edd}) will exhibit ages that appear older than the age of the Galaxy. We further elaborate on this technique, the implications and potential solutions it offers regarding MSP evolution, the underlying age distribution, and the post-accretion energy loss mechanism.

  19. On neutron star structure and the millisecond pulsar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, A. K.

    1983-01-01

    The recently discovered millisecond pulsar (PSR1937-214) is observed to be rotating close to the limit of dynamical instability for a neutron star. Despite its extremely rapid rotation, measurements of the period derivative put a stringent upper limit on the energy loss from gravitational radiation, thus requiring that the quadrupole moment be quite small. The pulsar must also be rotating below the critical frequency at which its equilibrium configuration would become non-axisymmetric, since the lifetime of this configuration against decay by gravitational radiation is very short. This critical frequency, given by the theory of rotating ellipsoids, imposes a restriction on the rotation rate more severe than the break-up frequency and may be used to set a lower limit, rho 2 x 10 to the 14th power g/cu cm, on the density of the star. If the mass is 0.5 - 1.5 solar mass, several of the stiffer neutron star equations of state may be ruled out, and the radius should be less than 16 km. The condition for axisymmetry also imposes an upper limit on the rotation rate to which neutron stars may be spun up by accretion disks in binary systems, a model recently proposed for the evolution of the millisecond pulsar.

  20. Accretion in supergiant High Mass X-ray Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manousakis, A.; Blondin, J.; Walter, R.

    2013-09-01

    Supergiant High Mass X-ray Binary systems (sgHMXBs) consist of a massive, late type, star and a neutron star. The massive stars exhibit strong, radiatively driven, stellar winds. Wind accretion onto compact object triggers X-ray emission, which alters the stellar wind significantly. Hydrodynamic simulation has been used to study the neutron star - stellar wind interaction it two sgHMXBs: i) A heavily obscured sgHMXB (IGR J17252-3616) discovered by INTEGRAL. To account for observable quantities (i.e., absorbing column density) we have to assume a very slow wind terminal velocity of about 500 km/s and a rather massive neutron star. If confirmed in other obscured systems, this could provide a completely new stellar wind diagnostics. ii) A classical sgHMXB (Vela X-1) has been studied in depth to understand the origin of the off-states observed in this system. Among many models used to account for this observed behavior (clumpy wind, gating mechanism) we propose that self-organized criticality of the accretion stream is the likely reason for the observed behavior. In conclusion, the neutron star, in these two examples, acts very efficiently as a probe to study stellar winds.

  1. Accretion in supergiant High Mass X-ray Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manousakis, Antonios; Walter, Roland; Blondin, John

    2014-01-01

    Supergiant High Mass X-ray Binary systems (sgHMXBs) consist of a massive, late type, star and a neutron star. The massive stars exhibits strong, radiatively driven, stellar winds. Wind accretion onto compact object triggers X-ray emission, which alters the stellar wind significantly. Hydrodynamic simulation has been used to study the neutron star - stellar wind interaction it two sgHMXBs: i) A heavily obscured sgHMXB (IGR J17252-3616) discovered by INTEGRAL. To account for observable quantities (i.e., absorbing column density) we have to assume a very slow wind terminal velocity of about 500 km/s and a rather massive neutron star. If confirmed in other obscured systems, this could provide a completely new stellar wind diagnostics. ii) A classical sgHMXB (Vela X-1) has been studied in depth to understand the origin of the off-states observed in this system. Among many models used to account for this observed behavior (clumpy wind, gating mechanism) we propose that self-organized criticality of the accretion stream is the likely reason for the observed behavior. In conclusion, the neutron star, in these two examples, acts very effciently as a probe to study stellar winds.

  2. On the power spectra of the wind-fed X-ray binary pulsar GX 301 - 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orlandini, Mauro; Morfill, G. E.

    1992-01-01

    A phenomenological model of accretion which is applied to the wind-fed X-ray binary pulsar GX 301 - 2 is developed, assuming that the accretion onto the neutron star does not occur from a continuous flux of plasma, but from blobs of matter which are threaded by the magnetic field lines onto the magnetic polar caps of the neutron star. These 'lumps' are produced at the magnetospheric limit by magnetohydrodynamical instability, introducing a 'noise' in the accretion process, due to the discontinuity in the flux of matter onto the neutron star. This model is able to describe the change of slope observed in the continuum component of the power spectra of the X-ray binary pulsar GX 301 - 2, in the frequency range 0.01 - 0.1 Hz. The physical properties of the infalling blobs derived in the model are in agreement with the constraints imposed by observations.

  3. Comptonization in a radiation-dominated shock, and the spectra of X-ray pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyubarskij, Y. E.; Syunyaev, R. A.

    1982-10-01

    If a neutron star is accreting material at a high rate, much of the accretion energy will be released in a radiation-dominated shock. The radiation will arrest the plasma flow and withdraw energy. As the flow is braked, its electrons will multiply scatter the photons, forming distinctive radiation spectra and causing the electrons to become heated. The hard-photon tail in X-ray pulsar spectra is presumably formed by such a mechanism. These spectra have a small spectral index (alpha in the range between 0 and 1) and an exponential cutoff for (h) x (nu) approximately equal to or greater than 100 keV.

  4. Fermi's New Pulsar Detection Technique

    NASA Video Gallery

    To locate a pulsar in Fermi LAT data requires knowledge of the object’s sky position, its pulse period, and how the pulse rate slows over time. Computers check many different combinations of posi...

  5. Pulsar electrodynamics: an unsolved problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melrose, D. B.; Yuen, R.

    2016-04-01

    > Pulsar electrodynamics is reviewed emphasizing the role of the inductive electric field in an oblique rotator and the incomplete screening of its parallel component by charges, leaving `gaps' with \\Vert \

  6. FSSC Science Tools: Pulsar Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Dave

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the typical pulsar analysis, giving tips for screening of the data, the use of time series analysis, and utility tools. Specific information about analyzing Vela data is reviewed.

  7. FORMATION OF BLACK WIDOWS AND REDBACKS—TWO DISTINCT POPULATIONS OF ECLIPSING BINARY MILLISECOND PULSARS

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Hai-Liang; Chen, Xuefei; Han, Zhanwen; Tauris, Thomas M.

    2013-09-20

    Eclipsing binary millisecond pulsars (MSPs; the so-called black widows and redbacks) can provide important information about accretion history, pulsar irradiation of their companion stars, and the evolutionary link between accreting X-ray pulsars and isolated MSPs. However, the formation of such systems is not well understood, nor the difference in progenitor evolution between the two populations of black widows and redbacks. Whereas both populations have orbital periods between 0.1 and 1.0 days, their companion masses differ by an order of magnitude. In this paper, we investigate the formation of these systems via the evolution of converging low-mass X-ray binaries by employing the MESA stellar evolution code. Our results confirm that one can explain the formation of most of these eclipsing binary MSPs using this scenario. More notably, we find that the determining factor for producing either black widows or redbacks is the efficiency of the irradiation process, such that the redbacks absorb a larger fraction of the emitted spin-down energy of the radio pulsar (resulting in more efficient mass loss via evaporation) compared to that of the black widow systems. We argue that geometric effects (beaming) are responsible for the strong bimodality of these two populations. Finally, we conclude that redback systems do not evolve into black widow systems with time.

  8. Millisecond radio pulsars in globular clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verbunt, Frank; Lewin, Walter H. G.; Van Paradijs, Jan

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that the number of millisecond radio pulsars, in globular clusters, should be larger than 100, applying the standard scenario that all the pulsars descend from low-mass X-ray binaries. Moreover, most of the pulsars are located in a small number of clusters. The prediction that Teran 5 and Liller 1 contain at least about a dozen millisecond radio pulsars each is made. The observations of millisecond radio pulsars in globular clusters to date, in particular the discovery of two millisecond radio pulsars in 47 Tuc, are in agreement with the standard scenario, in which the neutron star is spun up during the mass transfer phase.

  9. Accretional Heating of Asymmetric Supernova Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Christopher

    2000-05-01

    The role of accretion in heating a stalled bounce shock in a core-collapse supernova is investigated. We show that effective accretional heating causes an asymmetric expansion of the shock, sufficient to impart a net impulse of ~300-400 km s-1 to the neutron core. To simplify the analysis, we consider a failed accretion shock. Below such a shock, inward advection is faster than neutrino heating and the usual gain criterion does not suffice to determine a successful explosion. A mechanism that enhances buoyancy and inhibits mixing between hot and cold postshock fluid elements is required to revive the shock. We focus on the response of a magnetic field to the accretion flow. Ram heating and shearing of a low-density, magnetized fluid phase (``M-fluid'') is shown to be faster than neutrino cooling. The long duration of the accretion flow compared with the dynamical time allows for a large amplification of the magnetic energy. We calculate the stability of a spherical shock in the presence of a low-density hydrostatic atmosphere below it and show that below a critical atmospheric density the shock is unstable to a global Rayleigh-Taylor mode. We then calculate the equilibrium structure of this Rayleigh-Taylor plume as it accumulates energy and the critical size beyond which quasi-static expansion is no longer possible and its outer boundary converts to a running shock. Accretion continues while the shock expands, and an energy of ~1051 ergs is a direct consequence of the efficiency of ram heating close to the neutron core. The linear momentum imparted to the core is directly related to the mass profile of the precollapse core and explains the proper motions of (most) radio pulsars. We also estimate the net circulation imparted to the last 0.1-0.2 Msolar of collapsing material, which appears sufficient to torque the core down to a spin period of 1-100 ms. The effect of photodissociation on the shock jump conditions is calculated, and the implications for

  10. CCO Pulsars as Anti-Magnetars: Evidence of Neutron Stars Weakly Magnetized at Birth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gotthelf, E. V.; Halpern, J. P.

    2008-02-01

    Our new study of the two central compact object pulsars, PSR J1210-5226 (P = 424 ms) and PSR J1852+0040 (P = 105 ms), leads us to conclude that a weak natal magnetic field shaped their unique observational properties. In the dipole spin-down formalism, the 2-sigma upper limits on their period derivatives, <2×10-16 for both pulsars, implies surface magnetic field strengths of Bs<3×1011 G and spin periods at birth equal to their present periods to three significant digits. Their X-ray luminosities exceed their respective spin-down luminosities, implying that their thermal spectra are derived from residual cooling and perhaps partly from accretion of supernova debris. For sufficiently weak magnetic fields an accretion disk can penetrate the light cylinder and interact with the magnetosphere while resulting torques on the neutron star remain within the observed limits. We propose the following as the origin of radio-quiet CCOs: the magnetic field, derived from a turbulent dynamo, is weaker if the NS is formed spinning slowly, which enables it to accrete SN debris. Accretion excludes neutron stars born with both Bs<1011 G and P>0.1 s from radio pulsar surveys, where such weak fields are not encountered except among very old (>40 Myr) or recycled pulsars. We predict that these birth properties are common, and may be attributes of the youngest detected neutron star, the CCO in Cassiopeia A, as well as an undetected infant neutron star in the SN 1987A remnant. In view of the far-infrared light echo discovered around Cas A and attributed to an SGR-like outburst, it is especially important to determine via timing whether Cas A hosts a magnetar or not. If not a magnetar, the Cas A NS may instead have undergone a one-time phase transition (corequake) that powered the light echo.

  11. Glancing through the accretion column of EXO 2030+375

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrigno, C.; Pjanka, P.; Bozzo, E.; Klochkov, D.; Ducci, L.; Zdziarski, A.

    2016-06-01

    The current generation of X-ray instruments is revealing more and more details about the complex magnetic field topology and the geometry of the accretion flows in highly magnetized accretion powered pulsars. We took advantage of the large collecting area and timing capabilities of the EPIC cameras to investigate the accretion geometry onto the magnetized neutron star in the high mass X-ray binary EXO 2030+375 during the rise of one of the source outburst. The X-ray luminosity was 2×10^{36} erg/s and the timing analysis revealed the presence of a narrow dip-like feature in its pulse profile that was never reported before. The width of this feature corresponds to about one hundredth of the neutron star spin period. From the results of the phase-resolved spectral analysis we suggest that this feature can be ascribed to the self-obscuration of the accretion stream passing in front of the observer line of sight. We inferred from Suzaku observation carried out in 2007 that the self-obscuration of the accretion stream might produce a significantly wider feature in the neutron star pulsed profile at higher luminosities (>˜2×10^{37} erg/s). The presence of such feature is so far unique among all known high mass X-ray binaries hosting strongly magnetized neutron stars.

  12. IGR combined NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} control technology. Phase 1, volume 1.

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, A.Z.

    1995-10-01

    The objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a new, simple, modular, all solid-state electrochemical technology for the simultaneous removal of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} pollutants from coal-fired combustors, in a cost effective, reliable and practical manner. The work accomplished in this Phase 1 project involved the formulation and testing of proprietary materials for NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} removal under conditions appropriate to coal-fired combustors for electric power production. The Phase 1 work also explored methods for reduction of the operating temperatures of the process, reduction of its power requirements, and increasing the levels of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} removal at higher levels of oxygen. The Phase 1 work has demonstrated the basic technical feasibility of IGR`s NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} removal technology. We have successfully achieved NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} removal in the presence of large concentrations of oxygen (including the range of oxygen levels in coal-fired combustors). We have demonstrated successful operation of IGR`s NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} removal technology at greatly reduced operating temperatures. Significant progress has been made in the reduction of the electrical power requirement of the removal process. In particular, NO{sub x} removal has been accomplished at power consumption levels that are economically feasible. In addition, the ability of this technology to remove SO{sub 2} from a high concentration gas stream (such as that generated from the copper oxide absorption process) has been demonstrated. In summary, the Phase 1 work has served to resolve the basic feasibility questions associated with this technology. The importance of the Phase 1 work is that it has greatly reduced the technical risk associated with IGR`s NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} removal technology, which makes the development of commercially feasible devices highly probable.

  13. A millisecond pulsar timing array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbs, George; Manchester, Dick; Sarkissian, John; Bailes, Matthew; Bhat, Ramesh; Jenet, Rick; van Straten, Willem; Yardley, Daniel Roger Billing; Burke, Sarah; Oslowski, Stefan; Hotan, Aidan; Champion, David

    2010-10-01

    The Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA) project has three primary goals: (a) detection of gravitational waves from astronomical sources, (b) establishment of a pulsar timescale, and (c) improvement of our understanding of Solar-system dynamics. There are many secondary goals, some astrophysical and some instrumental/technique oriented. Achievement of these ambitious primary goals requires frequent observations of at least 20 MSPs at two or preferably three widely spaced frequencies over several years. We wish to continue observing the PPTA sample at intervals of 2-3 weeks using both the 10/50cm and Multibeam receivers. The digital filterbanks (PDFB3, PDFB4) and the baseband system (APSR) are used for data recording. With the new instruments and development of an efficient pipeline processing system, we have achieved the world's best pulsar timing precision, with four pulsars having rms residuals of less than or about 100 ns and 13 less than 1 microsecond. We are collaborating with the European and North American pulsar timing array groups (EPTA and NANOGrav, respectively) to obtain more frequent observations and a larger pulsar sample. Because of the high sensitivity and wide bandwidths required, RFI mitigation is an important part of the project.

  14. A millisecond pulsar timing array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manchester, Dick; Sarkissian, John; Hobbs, George; Bailes, Matthew; Bhat, Ramesh; Jenet, Rick; van Straten, Willem; Yardley, Daniel Roger Billing; Champion, David; Burke, Sarah; Oslowski, Stefan; Hotan, Aidan

    2009-10-01

    The Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA) project has three primary goals: (a) detection of gravitational waves from astronomical sources, (b) establishment of a pulsar timescale, and (c) improvement of our understanding of Solar-system dynamics. There are many secondary goals, some astrophysical and some instrumental/technique oriented. Achievement of these ambitious primary goals requires frequent observations of at least 20 MSPs at two or preferably three widely spaced frequencies over several years. We wish to continue observing the PPTA sample at intervals of 2-3 weeks using both the 10/50cm and Multibeam receivers. The digital filterbanks (PDFB3, PDFB4) and the baseband systems (CPSR2; APSR) are used for data recording. With the new instruments and development of an efficient pipeline processing system, we have achieved the world's best pulsar timing precision, with three pulsars having rms residuals of less than or about 100 ns and more than half less than 1 microsecond. We are collaborating with the European and North American pulsar timing array groups (EPTA and NANOGrav, respectively) to obtain more frequent observations and a larger pulsar sample. Because of the high sensitivity and wide bandwidths required, RFI mitigation is an important part of the project.

  15. A millisecond pulsar timing array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manchester, Dick; Sarkissian, John; Hobbs, George; Bailes, Matthew; Bhat, Ramesh; Hotan, Aidan; Jenet, Rick; van Straten, Willem; Yardley, Daniel Roger Billing; Champion, David; You, Xiaopeng; Burke, Sarah

    2009-04-01

    The Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA) project has three primary goals: (a) detection of gravitational waves from astronomical sources, (b) establishment of a pulsar timescale, and (c) improvement of our understanding of Solar-system dynamics. There are many secondary goals, some astrophysical and some instrumental/technique oriented. Achievement of these ambitious primary goals requires frequent observations of at least 20 MSPs at two or preferably three widely spaced frequencies over several years. We wish to continue observing the PPTA sample at intervals of 2-3 weeks using both the 10/50cm and Multibeam receivers. The digital filterbanks (PDFB3, PDFB4) and the baseband systems (CPSR2; APSR) are used for data recording. With the new instruments and development of an efficient pipeline processing system, we have achieved the world's best pulsar timing precision, with three pulsars having rms residuals of less than or about 100 ns and more than half less than 1 microsecond. We are collaborating with the European and North American pulsar timing array groups (EPTA and NANOGrav, respectively) to obtain more frequent observations and a larger pulsar sample. Because of the high sensitivity and wide bandwidths required, RFI mitigation is an important part of the project.

  16. A millisecond pulsar timing array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manchester, Dick; Verbiest, Joris P. W.; Sarkissian, John; Hobbs, George; Bailes, Matthew; Bhat, Ramesh; Hotan, Aidan; Jenet, Rick; Burke-Spolaor, Sarah; van Straten, Willem; Yardley, Daniel Roger Billing; You, Xiaopeng

    2008-10-01

    The Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA) project has three primary goals: (a) detection of gravitational waves from astronomical sources, (b) establishment of a pulsar timescale, and (c) improvement of our understanding of Solar-system dynamics. There are many secondary goals, some astrophysical and some instrumental/technique oriented. Achievement of these ambitious primary goals requires frequent observations of at least 20 MSPs at two or preferably three widely spaced frequencies over several years. We wish to continue observing the PPTA sample at intervals of 2-3 weeks using both the 10/50cm and Multibeam receivers. The digital filterbanks (PDFB2, PDFB3) and the baseband systems (CPSR2; APSR soon) are used for data recording. With the new instruments and development of an efficient pipeline processing system, we are getting the world's best pulsar timing precision, with four pulsars having rms residuals of less than 200 ns and more than half less than 1 microsecond. We are collaborating with the European and North American pulsar timing array groups (EPTA and NANOGrav, respectively) to obtain more frequent observations and a larger pulsar sample. Because of the high sensitivity and wide bandwidths required, RFI mitigation is an important part of the project.

  17. A millisecond pulsar timing array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manchester, Dick; Sarkissian, John; Hobbs, George; Bailes, Matthew; Bhat, Ramesh; Jenet, Rick; van Straten, Willem; Yardley, Daniel Roger Billing; Burke, Sarah; Oslowski, Stefan; Hotan, Aidan; Champion, David

    2010-04-01

    The Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA) project has three primary goals: (a) detection of gravitational waves from astronomical sources, (b) establishment of a pulsar timescale, and (c) improvement of our understanding of Solar-system dynamics. There are many secondary goals, some astrophysical and some instrumental/technique oriented. Achievement of these ambitious primary goals requires frequent observations of at least 20 MSPs at two or preferably three widely spaced frequencies over several years. We wish to continue observing the PPTA sample at intervals of 2-3 weeks using both the 10/50cm and Multibeam receivers. The digital filterbanks (PDFB3, PDFB4) and the baseband systems (CPSR2; APSR) are used for data recording. With the new instruments and development of an efficient pipeline processing system, we have achieved the world's best pulsar timing precision, with four pulsars having rms residuals of less than or about 100 ns and 13 less than 1 microsecond. We are collaborating with the European and North American pulsar timing array groups (EPTA and NANOGrav, respectively) to obtain more frequent observations and a larger pulsar sample. Because of the high sensitivity and wide bandwidths required, RFI mitigation is an important part of the project.

  18. Pulsar Observatory for Students (POS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Bhal Chandra; Manoharan, P. K.; Gopakumar, A.; Mitra, D.; Bagchi, Joydeep; Saikia, D. J.

    2012-07-01

    A new program, to initiate motivated undergraduate students to the methodology of pulsar astronomy in particular and radio astronomy in general, is being launched at the Ooty Radio Telescope (ORT). The ORT is a 530 m X 30 m cylindrical radio telescope operating at 325 MHz, having an equatorial mount. Its equatorial mount allows modestly trained students to make pulsar observations without any substantial help from the observatory. Due to its large collecting area, it is a sensitive instrument for pulsar astronomy, capable of detecting a large number of pulsars with short observation time. The program consists of biannual workshops that will introduce scores of students to basics of radio-astronomy and pulsars. It will also train them in the use of the ORT as well as expose them to the future prospects and excitements in the field. The second leg of the program involves live ORT observations by these trained students during various academic breaks. There is a possibility for a follow up program of highly motivated students, selected from this program, to pursue projects of their interest from the data obtained in these sensitive observations. The long term aim of the program is to enlarge the pulsar astronomy community in the country. The presentation will highlight the main features of this program and describe the experience drawn from such programs.

  19. Pulsars In The Headlines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Puerto, C.

    1967 was the year of the so-called “war of the six days” or “third Arab Israeli war”, the year of the Che Guevara's death in Bolivia, the year of the military coup in Greece and, in medicine, the year of the first human heart transplant. Moreover, the signing of the international agreement on the use of space with peaceful means and the crash of the Russian shuttle Soyuz-1, with Cosmonaut Vladimir Kamarov on board also happened that year. Likewise, Spanish writer and professor of journalists, José Azorín, passed away. However, here we are interested in 1967 because it was the year of the detection of pulsars, which astronomers initially confused with signals from extraterrestrials or Little Green Men. Nowadays, they are still present in the headlines.

  20. Ion-proton pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, P. B.

    2016-07-01

    Evidence derived with minimal assumptions from existing published observations is presented to show that an ion-proton plasma is the source of radio-frequency emission in millisecond and in normal isolated pulsars. There is no primary involvement of electron-positron pairs. This conclusion has also been reached by studies of the plasma composition based on well-established particle-physics processes in neutron stars with positive polar-cap corotational charge density. This work has been published in a series of papers which are also summarized here. It is now confirmed by simple analyses of the observed radio-frequency characteristics, and its implications for the further study of neutron stars are outlined.

  1. An optical counterpart to the anomalous X-ray pulsar 4U0142+61.

    PubMed

    Hulleman, F; van Kerkwijk, M H; Kulkarni, S R

    2000-12-01

    The energy source of the anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs) is not understood, hence their designation as anomalous. Unlike binary X-ray pulsars, no companions are seen, so the energy cannot be supplied by accretion of matter from a companion star. The loss of rotational energy, which powers radio pulsars, is insufficient to power AXPs. Two models are generally considered: accretion from a large disk left over from the birth process, or decay of a very strong magnetic field (10(15) G) associated with a 'magnetar'. The lack of counterparts at other wavelengths has hampered progress in our understanding of these objects. Here we report deep optical observations of the field around 4U0142+61, which is the brightest AXP in X-rays. The source has no associated supernova remnant, which, together with its spin-down timescale of approximately 10(5) yr (ref. 5), suggests that it may be relatively old. We find an object with peculiar optical colours at the position of the X-ray source, and argue that it is the optical counterpart. The optical emission is too faint to admit the presence of a large accretion disk, but may be consistent with magnetospheric emission from a magnetar.

  2. EVOLUTION OF TRANSIENT LOW-MASS X-RAY BINARIES TO REDBACK MILLISECOND PULSARS

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, Kun; Li, Xiang-Dong

    2015-11-20

    Redback millisecond pulsars (MSPs; hereafter redbacks) are a subpopulation of eclipsing MSPs in close binaries. The formation processes of these systems are not clear. The three pulsars showing transitions between rotation- and accretion-powered states belong to both redbacks and transient low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), suggesting a possible evolutionary link between them. Through binary evolution calculations, we show that the accretion disks in almost all LMXBs are subject to the thermal-viscous instability during certain evolutionary stages, and the parameter space for the disk instability covers the distribution of known redbacks in the orbital period—companion mass plane. We accordingly suggest that the abrupt reduction of the mass accretion rate during quiescence of transient LMXBs provides a plausible way to switch on the pulsar activity, leading to the formation of redbacks, if the neutron star has been spun up to be an energetic MSP. We investigate the evolution of redbacks, taking into account the evaporation feedback, and discuss its possible influence on the formation of black widow MSPs.

  3. Regimes of Pulsar Pair Formation and Particle Energetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Alice K.; Muslimov, Alexander G.; Zhang, Bing; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the conditions required for the production of electron-positron pairs above a pulsar polar cap (PC) and the influence of pair production on the energetics of the primary particle acceleration. Assuming space-charge limited flow acceleration including the inertial frame-dragging effect, we allow both one-photon and two-photon pair production by either curvature radiation (CR) photons or photons resulting from inverse-Compton scattering of thermal photons from the PC by primary electrons. We find that,, while only the younger pulsars can produce pairs through CR, nearly all known radio pulsars are capable of producing pairs through non-resonant inverse-Compton scatterings. The effect of the neutron star equations of state on the pair death lines is explored. We show that pair production is facilitated in more compact stars and more a massive stars. Therefore accretion of mass by pulsars in binary systems may allow pair production in most of the millisecond purser population. We also find that two-photon pair production may be important in millisecond pursers if their surface temperatures are above approx. or equal to three million degrees K. Pursers that produce pairs through CRT wilt have their primary acceleration limited by the effect of screening of the electric field. In this regime, the high-energy luminosity should follow a L(sub HE) proportional to dot-E(sup 1/2, sub rot) dependence. The acceleration voltage drop in pursers that produce pairs only through inverse-Compton emission will not be limited by electric field screening. In this regime, the high-energy luminosity should follow a L(sub HE) proportional to dot-E(sub rot) dependence. Thus, older pursers will have significantly lower gamma-ray luminosity.

  4. A SEARCH FOR RAPIDLY SPINNING PULSARS AND FAST TRANSIENTS IN UNIDENTIFIED RADIO SOURCES WITH THE NRAO 43 METER TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Deborah; Crawford, Fronefield; Gilpin, Claire; Langston, Glen

    2013-04-15

    We have searched 75 unidentified radio sources selected from the NRAO VLA Sky Survey catalog for the presence of rapidly spinning pulsars and short, dispersed radio bursts. The sources are radio bright, have no identifications or optical source coincidences, are more than 5% linearly polarized, and are spatially unresolved in the catalog. If these sources are fast-spinning pulsars (e.g., sub-millisecond pulsars), previous large-scale pulsar surveys may have missed detection due to instrumental and computational limitations, eclipsing effects, or diffractive scintillation. The discovery of a sub-millisecond pulsar would significantly constrain the neutron star equation of state and would have implications for models predicting a rapid slowdown of highly recycled X-ray pulsars to millisecond periods from, e.g., accretion disk decoupling. These same sources were previously searched unsuccessfully for pulsations at 610 MHz with the Lovell Telescope at Jodrell Bank. This new search was conducted at a different epoch with a new 800 MHz backend on the NRAO 43 m Telescope at a center frequency of 1200 MHz. Our search was sensitive to sub-millisecond pulsars in highly accelerated binary systems and to short transient pulses. No periodic or transient signals were detected from any of the target sources. We conclude that diffractive scintillation, dispersive smearing, and binary acceleration are unlikely to have prevented detection of the large majority of the sources if they are pulsars, though we cannot rule out eclipsing, nulling or intermittent emission, or radio interference as possible factors for some non-detections. Other (speculative) possibilities for what these sources might include radio-emitting magnetic cataclysmic variables or older pulsars with aligned magnetic and spin axes.

  5. AN ASTEROID BELT INTERPRETATION FOR THE TIMING VARIATIONS OF THE MILLISECOND PULSAR B1937+21

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon, R. M.; Cordes, J. M.; Metcalfe, T. S.; Lazio, T. J. W.; Jessner, A.; Kramer, M.; Lazaridis, K. E-mail: cordes@astro.cornell.edu

    2013-03-20

    Pulsar timing observations have revealed companions to neutron stars that include other neutron stars, white dwarfs, main-sequence stars, and planets. We demonstrate that the correlated and apparently stochastic residual times of arrival from the millisecond pulsar B1937+21 are consistent with the signature of an asteroid belt having a total mass {approx}< 0.05 M{sub Circled-Plus }. Unlike the solar system's asteroid belt, the best fit pulsar asteroid belt extends over a wide range of radii, consistent with the absence of any shepherding companions. We suggest that any pulsar that has undergone accretion-driven spin-up and subsequently evaporated its companion may harbor orbiting asteroid mass objects. The resulting timing variations may fundamentally limit the timing precision of some of the other millisecond pulsars. Observational tests of the asteroid belt model include identifying periodicities from individual asteroids, which are difficult; testing for statistical stationarity, which becomes possible when observations are conducted over a longer observing span; and searching for reflected radio emission.

  6. ON THE FORMATION OF ECCENTRIC MILLISECOND PULSARS WITH HELIUM WHITE-DWARF COMPANIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Antoniadis, John

    2014-12-20

    Millisecond pulsars (MSPs) orbiting helium white dwarfs (WDs) in eccentric orbits challenge the established binary-evolution paradigm that predicts efficient orbital circularization during the mass-transfer episode that spins up the pulsar. Freire and Tauris recently proposed that these binary MSPs may instead form from the rotationally delayed accretion-induced collapse of a massive WD. However, their hypothesis predicts that eccentric systems preferably host low-mass pulsars and travel with small systemic velocities—in tension with new observational constraints. Here, I show that a substantial growth in eccentricity may alternatively arise from the dynamical interaction of the binary with a circumbinary disk. Such a disk may form from ejected donor material during hydrogen flash episodes, when the neutron star is already an active radio pulsar and tidal forces can no longer circularize the binary. I demonstrate that a short-lived (10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} yr) disk can result in eccentricities of e ≅ 0.01-0.15 for orbital periods between 15 and 50 days. Finally, I propose that, more generally, the disk hypothesis may explain the lack of circular binary pulsars for the aforementioned orbital-period range.

  7. On the Formation of Eccentric Millisecond Pulsars with Helium White-dwarf Companions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoniadis, John

    2014-12-01

    Millisecond pulsars (MSPs) orbiting helium white dwarfs (WDs) in eccentric orbits challenge the established binary-evolution paradigm that predicts efficient orbital circularization during the mass-transfer episode that spins up the pulsar. Freire & Tauris recently proposed that these binary MSPs may instead form from the rotationally delayed accretion-induced collapse of a massive WD. However, their hypothesis predicts that eccentric systems preferably host low-mass pulsars and travel with small systemic velocities—in tension with new observational constraints. Here, I show that a substantial growth in eccentricity may alternatively arise from the dynamical interaction of the binary with a circumbinary disk. Such a disk may form from ejected donor material during hydrogen flash episodes, when the neutron star is already an active radio pulsar and tidal forces can no longer circularize the binary. I demonstrate that a short-lived (104-105 yr) disk can result in eccentricities of e ~= 0.01-0.15 for orbital periods between 15 and 50 days. Finally, I propose that, more generally, the disk hypothesis may explain the lack of circular binary pulsars for the aforementioned orbital-period range.

  8. Millisecond pulsars - Nature's most stable clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Joseph H., Jr.

    1991-07-01

    The author describes the role pulsars might play in time and frequency technology. Millisecond pulsars are rapidly rotating neutron stars: spherical flywheels some 20 km in diameter, 1.4 times as massive as the Sun, and spinning as fast as several thousand radians per second. Radio noise generated in a pulsar's magnetosphere by a highly beamed process is detectable over interstellar distances, as a periodic sequence of pulses similar to the ticks of an excellent clock. High-precision comparisons between pulsar time and terrestrial atomic time show that over intervals of several years, some millisecond pulsars have fractional stabilities comparable to those of the best atomic clocks. The author briefly reviews the physics of pulsars, discusses the techniques of pulsar timing measurements, and summarizes the results of careful studies of pulsar stabilities.

  9. Fermi Finds Youthful Pulsar Among Ancient Stars

    NASA Video Gallery

    In three years, NASA's Fermi has detected more than 100 gamma-ray pulsars, but something new has appeared. Among a type of pulsar with ages typically numbering a billion years or more, Fermi has fo...

  10. An XMM-Newton Monitoring Campaign of the Accretion Flow in IGRJ16318-4848

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor); Nicastro, Fabrizio

    2005-01-01

    This grant is associated to a successful XMM-Newton-AO3 observational proposal to monitor the spectrum of the X-ray loud component of the recently discovered binary system IGR J16138-4848, to study the conditions of the accretion flows (and their evolution) in binary system. All four EPIC-PN and MOS observations of the target have now been performed (the last one of the 4, only 3 months ago). The four observations were logarithmically spaced, so to cover timescales from days to months. Data from all four pointings have now been reduced, using the XMM-Newton data reduction pipeline, and spectra and lightcurves from the target have been extracted. For the first three observations we have already performed the observation-by-observation data analysis, by fitting the single EPIC spectra with spectral models that include an intrinsic continuum power law (reduced at low energy by neutral absorption), a 6.4 keV iron emission line (detected in all spectra with varying intensity) and a Compton-reflection component. A Compton reflection component is also detected in all spectra, although at lower significance. The analysis of the fourth and last observation of our monitoring campaign has just recently begun. Next, we will (1) stack together the four observations of IGR J16138-4848, to obtain high-accuracy estimates of the average spectral parameters of this object; and then (2) proceed to the time-evolving analysis, of the three spectral parameters: (a) Gamma (the slope of the intrinsic continuum), (b) W(FeK), the equivalent width of the 6.4 keV Iron emission line, and (c) R, the relative amount of Compton reflection. Through this time-resolved spectroscopic analysis we hope to constrain (a) the physical state of the accreting matter and its relation with the X-ray output, and (b) the evolution of the accretion flow geometry, distribution and covering factor.

  11. An accretion disk swept up by a powerful thermonuclear X-ray burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degenaar, Nathalie

    Type-I X-ray bursts are thermonuclear explosions occurring in the surface layers of accreting neutron stars. These events are powerful probes of the physics of neutron stars and their surrounding accretion flow. Swift recently caught a very energetic type-I X-ray burst from the neutron star IGR J17062-6143 that displayed exceptional features. Firstly, the light curve of the 18 minute long X-ray burst tail shows an episode of 10 minutes with wild X-ray intensity fluctuations. Secondly, X-ray spectral analysis revealed a highly significant emission line around 1 keV, which can be interpreted as an Fe-L shell line caused by the irradiation of cold gas. Finally, the detection of significant absorption lines and edges in the Fe-K band are strongly suggestive of the presence of hot, highly ionized gas along the line of sight. None of these features are present in the persistent emission of the source. The X-ray burst of IGR J17062-6143 shows the first unambiguous detection of atomic features at CCD resolution. The timescale of the strong intensity variations, the velocity width of the Fe-L emission line, and photo-ionization modeling of the Fe-K absorption features each independently point to swept-up gas at a radius of ~1000 km from the neutron star. The unusual X-ray light curve and spectral properties could have plausibly been caused by a disruption of the accretion disk due to the super-Eddington fluxes reached during the X-ray burst.

  12. THERMAL X-RAY EMISSION FROM THE SHOCKED STELLAR WIND OF PULSAR GAMMA-RAY BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Zabalza, V.; Paredes, J. M.; Bosch-Ramon, V.

    2011-12-10

    Gamma-ray-loud X-ray binaries are binary systems that show non-thermal broadband emission from radio to gamma rays. If the system comprises a massive star and a young non-accreting pulsar, their winds will collide producing broadband non-thermal emission, most likely originated in the shocked pulsar wind. Thermal X-ray emission is expected from the shocked stellar wind, but until now it has neither been detected nor studied in the context of gamma-ray binaries. We present a semi-analytic model of the thermal X-ray emission from the shocked stellar wind in pulsar gamma-ray binaries, and find that the thermal X-ray emission increases monotonically with the pulsar spin-down luminosity, reaching luminosities of the order of 10{sup 33} erg s{sup -1}. The lack of thermal features in the X-ray spectrum of gamma-ray binaries can then be used to constrain the properties of the pulsar and stellar winds. By fitting the observed X-ray spectra of gamma-ray binaries with a source model composed of an absorbed non-thermal power law and the computed thermal X-ray emission, we are able to derive upper limits on the spin-down luminosity of the putative pulsar. We applied this method to LS 5039, the only gamma-ray binary with a radial, powerful wind, and obtain an upper limit on the pulsar spin-down luminosity of {approx}6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 36} erg s{sup -1}. Given the energetic constraints from its high-energy gamma-ray emission, a non-thermal to spin-down luminosity ratio very close to unity may be required.

  13. A New Standard Pulsar Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Contopoulos, Ioannis; Kalapotharakos, Constantinos; Kazanas, Demosthenes

    2014-01-01

    In view of recent efforts to probe the physical conditions in the pulsar current sheet, we revisit the standard solution that describes the main elements of the ideal force-free pulsar magnetosphere. The simple physical requirement that the electric current contained in the current layer consists of the local electric charge moving outward at close to the speed of light yields a new solution for the pulsar magnetosphere everywhere that is ideal force-free except in the current layer. The main elements of the new solution are as follows: (1) the pulsar spindown rate of the aligned rotator is 23% larger than that of the orthogonal vacuum rotator; (2) only 60% of the magnetic flux that crosses the light cylinder opens up to infinity; (3) the electric current closes along the other 40%, which gradually converges to the equator; (4) this transfers 40% of the total pulsar spindown energy flux in the equatorial current sheet, which is then dissipated in the acceleration of particles and in high-energy electromagnetic radiation; and (5) there is no separatrix current layer. Our solution is a minimum free-parameter solution in that the equatorial current layer is electrostatically supported against collapse and thus does not require a thermal particle population. In this respect, it is one more step toward the development of a new standard solution. We discuss the implications for intermittent pulsars and long-duration gamma-ray bursts. We conclude that the physical conditions in the equatorial current layer determine the global structure of the pulsar magnetosphere.

  14. TOWARD A REALISTIC PULSAR MAGNETOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Kalapotharakos, Constantinos; Kazanas, Demosthenes; Harding, Alice

    2012-04-10

    We present the magnetic and electric field structures and the currents and charge densities of pulsar magnetospheres that do not obey the ideal condition, E {center_dot} B = 0. Since the acceleration of particles and the production of radiation require the presence of an electric field component parallel to the magnetic field, E{sub ||}, the structure of non-ideal pulsar magnetospheres is intimately related to the production of pulsar radiation. Therefore, knowledge of the structure of non-ideal pulsar magnetospheres is important because their comparison (including models for the production of radiation) with observations will delineate the physics and the parameters underlying the pulsar radiation problem. We implement a variety of prescriptions that support non-zero values for E{sub ||} and explore their effects on the structure of the resulting magnetospheres. We produce families of solutions that span the entire range between the vacuum and the (ideal) force-free electrodynamic solutions. We also compute the amount of dissipation as a fraction of the Poynting flux for pulsars of different angles between the rotation and magnetic axes and conclude that this is at most 20%-40% (depending on the non-ideal prescription) in the aligned rotator and 10% in the perpendicular one. We present also the limiting solutions with the property J = {rho}c and discuss their possible implication on the determination of the 'on/off' states of the intermittent pulsars. Finally, we find that solutions with values of J greater than those needed to null E{sub ||} locally produce oscillations, potentially observable in the data.

  15. A new standard pulsar magnetosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Contopoulos, Ioannis; Kalapotharakos, Constantinos; Kazanas, Demosthenes

    2014-01-20

    In view of recent efforts to probe the physical conditions in the pulsar current sheet, we revisit the standard solution that describes the main elements of the ideal force-free pulsar magnetosphere. The simple physical requirement that the electric current contained in the current layer consists of the local electric charge moving outward at close to the speed of light yields a new solution for the pulsar magnetosphere everywhere that is ideal force-free except in the current layer. The main elements of the new solution are as follows: (1) the pulsar spindown rate of the aligned rotator is 23% larger than that of the orthogonal vacuum rotator; (2) only 60% of the magnetic flux that crosses the light cylinder opens up to infinity; (3) the electric current closes along the other 40%, which gradually converges to the equator; (4) this transfers 40% of the total pulsar spindown energy flux in the equatorial current sheet, which is then dissipated in the acceleration of particles and in high-energy electromagnetic radiation; and (5) there is no separatrix current layer. Our solution is a minimum free-parameter solution in that the equatorial current layer is electrostatically supported against collapse and thus does not require a thermal particle population. In this respect, it is one more step toward the development of a new standard solution. We discuss the implications for intermittent pulsars and long-duration gamma-ray bursts. We conclude that the physical conditions in the equatorial current layer determine the global structure of the pulsar magnetosphere.

  16. Towards a Realistic Pulsar Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalapotharakos, Constantinos; Kazanas, Demosthenes; Harding, Alice; Contopoulos, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    We present the magnetic and electric field structures as well as the currents ami charge densities of pulsar magnetospberes which do not obey the ideal condition, E(raised dot) B = O. Since the acceleration of particles and the production of radiation requires the presence of an electric field component parallel to the magnetic field, E(sub ll) the structure of non-Ideal pulsar magnetospheres is intimately related to the production of pulsar radiation. Therefore, knowledge of the structure of non-Ideal pulsar maglletospheres is important because their comparison (including models for t he production of radiation) with observations will delineate the physics and the parameters underlying the pulsar radiation problem. We implement a variety of prescriptions that support nonzero values for E(sub ll) and explore their effects on the structure of the resulting magnetospheres. We produce families of solutions that span the entire range between the vacuum and the (ideal) Force-Free Electrodynamic solutions. We also compute the amount of dissipation as a fraction of the Poynting flux for pulsars of different angles between the rotation and magnetic axes and conclude that tltis is at most 20-40% (depending on t he non-ideal prescription) in the aligned rotator and 10% in the perpendicular one. We present also the limiting solutions with the property J = pc and discuss their possible implicatioll on the determination of the "on/ off" states of the intermittent pulsars. Finally, we find that solutions with values of J greater than those needed to null E(sub ll) locally produce oscillations, potentially observable in the data.

  17. Star Cluster Buzzing With Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-01-01

    A dense globular star cluster near the center of our Milky Way Galaxy holds a buzzing beehive of rapidly-spinning millisecond pulsars, according to astronomers who discovered 21 new pulsars in the cluster using the National Science Foundation's 100-meter Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in West Virginia. The cluster, called Terzan 5, now holds the record for pulsars, with 24, including three known before the GBT observations. Pulsar Diagram Pulsar Diagram: Click on image for more detail. "We hit the jackpot when we looked at this cluster," said Scott Ransom, an astronomer at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in Charlottesville, VA. "Not only does this cluster have a lot of pulsars -- and we still expect to find more in it -- but the pulsars in it are very interesting. They include at least 13 in binary systems, two of which are eclipsing, and the four fastest-rotating pulsars known in any globular cluster, with the fastest two rotating nearly 600 times per second, roughly as fast as a household blender," Ransom added. Ransom and his colleagues reported their findings to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in San Diego, CA, and in the online journal Science Express. The star cluster's numerous pulsars are expected to yield a bonanza of new information about not only the pulsars themselves, but also about the dense stellar environment in which they reside and probably even about nuclear physics, according to the scientists. For example, preliminary measurements indicate that two of the pulsars are more massive than some theoretical models would allow. "All these exotic pulsars will keep us busy for years to come," said Jason Hessels, a Ph.D student at McGill University in Montreal. Globular clusters are dense agglomerations of up to millions of stars, all of which formed at about the same time. Pulsars are spinning, superdense neutron stars that whirl "lighthouse beams" of radio waves or light around as they spin. A neutron star is what is

  18. Wideband Observations of Radio Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennucci, Timothy T.

    2015-08-01

    Pulsars are exotic objects which have yielded a bounty of important astrophysical results. As rapidly rotating, highly magnetized neutron stars, pulsars' stable rotation and beamed radio emission enables their use as interstellar laboratory clocks. The extraordinary timing regularity of the millisecond pulsar (MSP) population permits some of the most precise measurements in astronomy. The discovery of MSPs raised the probability of directly detecting gravitational waves for the first time. Ongoing efforts by several pulsar timing array (PTA) collaborations compliment the ground- and space-based efforts of laser interferometers. One such PTA is the North American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves (NANOGrav). NANOGrav has recently employed a new set of wideband instruments to increase the sensitivity of their PTA, and the future of pulsar astronomy is moving towards progressively larger bandwidths. In this dissertation, we address the benefits and issues from adopting the new instrumentation, particularly for the scientific motivations of NANOGrav. We first develop a measurement technique for simultaneously obtaining pulse times-of-arrival (TOAs) and dispersion measures (DMs) using 2D models of evolving Gaussian components. We then apply the methodology broadly to a variety of pulsars, including a bright, test MSP in a globular cluster, the Galactic Center magnetar, and the entire suite of 37 MSPs from the NANOGrav 9-year data set. For a subset of these MSPs, we make targeted observations at specific orbital phases aimed at improving the timing models and constraining the Shapiro delay. With a few exceptions, we find positive or consistent timing results from the implementation of our first generation wideband timing protocol. Some highlights include: improved measurement uncertainties, mitigation of chromatic ISM effects, a reduction in the number of timing parameters and TOAs, signs of chromatic DMs, and at least one new pulsar mass.

  19. What brakes the Crab pulsar?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čadež, A.; Zampieri, L.; Barbieri, C.; Calvani, M.; Naletto, G.; Barbieri, M.; Ponikvar, D.

    2016-03-01

    Context. Optical observations provide convincing evidence that the optical phase of the Crab pulsar follows the radio one closely. Since optical data do not depend on dispersion measure variations, they provide a robust and independent confirmation of the radio timing solution. Aims: The aim of this paper is to find a global mathematical description of Crab pulsar's phase as a function of time for the complete set of published Jodrell Bank radio ephemerides (JBE) in the period 1988-2014. Methods: We apply the mathematical techniques developed for analyzing optical observations to the analysis of JBE. We break the whole period into a series of episodes and express the phase of the pulsar in each episode as the sum of two analytical functions. The first function is the best-fitting local braking index law, and the second function represents small residuals from this law with an amplitude of only a few turns, which rapidly relaxes to the local braking index law. Results: From our analysis, we demonstrate that the power law index undergoes "instantaneous" changes at the time of observed jumps in rotational frequency (glitches). We find that the phase evolution of the Crab pulsar is dominated by a series of constant braking law episodes, with the braking index changing abruptly after each episode in the range of values between 2.1 and 2.6. Deviations from such a regular phase description behave as oscillations triggered by glitches and amount to fewer than 40 turns during the above period, in which the pulsar has made more than 2 × 1010 turns. Conclusions: Our analysis does not favor the explanation that glitches are connected to phenomena occurring in the interior of the pulsar. On the contrary, timing irregularities and changes in slow down rate seem to point to electromagnetic interaction of the pulsar with the surrounding environment.

  20. THE FAINT 'HEARTBEATS' OF IGR J17091-3624: AN EXCEPTIONAL BLACK HOLE CANDIDATE

    SciTech Connect

    Altamirano, D.; Van der Klis, M.; Wijnands, R.; Kalamkar, M.; Belloni, T.; Stiele, H.; Motta, S.; Munoz-Darias, T.; Linares, M.; Curran, P. A.; Krimm, H.

    2011-12-15

    We report on the first 180 days of Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer observations of the outburst of the black hole candidate IGR J17091-3624. This source exhibits a broad variety of complex light curve patterns including periods of strong flares alternating with quiet intervals. Similar patterns in the X-ray light curves have been seen in the (up to now) unique black hole system GRS 1915+105. In the context of the variability classes defined by Belloni et al. for GRS 1915+105, we find that IGR J17091-3624 shows the {nu}, {rho}, {alpha}, {lambda}, {beta}, and {mu} classes as well as quiet periods which resemble the {chi} class, all occurring at 2-60 keV count rate levels which can be 10-50 times lower than observed in GRS 1915+105. The so-called {rho} class 'heartbeats' occur as fast as every few seconds and as slow as {approx}100 s, tracing a loop in the hardness-intensity diagram which resembles that previously seen in GRS 1915+105. However, while GRS 1915+105 traverses this loop clockwise, IGR J17091-3624 does so in the opposite sense. We briefly discuss our findings in the context of the models proposed for GRS 1915+105 and find that either all models requiring near Eddington luminosities for GRS 1915+105-like variability fail, or IGR J17091-3624 lies at a distance well in excess of 20 kpc, or it harbors one of the least massive black holes known (<3 M{sub Sun }).

  1. IGR NO[sub x]/SO[sub x] control technology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-25

    The technical work during this reporting term has principally involved the continued development, optimization and improvement of freezing drying techniques for solid ceramic oxide electrolyte powder preparation, preliminary optimization of the calcining of the ceramic electrolyte freeze dried powders to allow for optimum processing to the IGR composite, and determining (initial) electrochemical properties of the stabilized ceramic solid electrolyte at a variety of temperatures in air.

  2. Rotating Bondi Accretion Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Myeong-Gu; Han, Du-Hwan

    2016-06-01

    The characteristics of accretion flow onto a black hole are determined by the physical condition of gas at large radius. When the gas has no angular momentum and is polytropic, the accretion flow becomes the classic Bondi flow. The mass accretion rate in such case is an eigenvalue and uniquely determined by the density and the temperature of the surrounding gas for a given black hole mass. When the gas has angular momentum above some critical value, the angular momentum of the gas should be removed by viscosity to reach the black hole horizon. We study, within the slim disk approximation, rotating polytropic accretion flow with alpha viscosity as an an extension of the Bondi flow. The characteristics of the accretion flow are now determined by the temperature, density, and angular momentum of the gas at the outer boundary. We explore the effects of the viscosity parameter and the outer boundary radius on the physical characteristic of the flow, especially on the mass accretion rate, and compare the result with previous works of Park (2009) and Narayan & Fabian (2011).

  3. A PROPELLER MODEL FOR THE SUB-LUMINOUS STATE OF THE TRANSITIONAL MILLISECOND PULSAR PSR J1023+0038

    SciTech Connect

    Papitto, A.; Torres, D. F.

    2015-07-01

    The discovery of millisecond pulsars switching between states powered either by the rotation of their magnetic field or by the accretion of matter has recently proved the tight link shared by millisecond radio pulsars and neutron stars in low-mass X-ray binaries. Transitional millisecond pulsars also show an enigmatic intermediate state in which the neutron star is surrounded by an accretion disk and emits coherent X-ray pulsations, but is sub-luminous in X-rays with respect to accreting neutron stars, and is brighter in gamma-rays than millisecond pulsars in the rotation-powered state. Here, we model the X-ray and gamma-ray emission observed from PSR J1023+0038 in such a state based on the assumptions that most of the disk in-flow is propelled away by the rapidly rotating neutron star magnetosphere, and that electrons can be accelerated to energies of a few GeV at the turbulent disk–magnetosphere boundary. We show that the synchrotron and self-synchrotron Compton emission coming from such a region, together with the hard disk emission typical of low states of accreting compact objects, is able to explain the radiation observed in the X-ray and gamma-ray bands. The average emission observed from PSR J1023+0038 is modeled by a disk in-flow with a rate of 1–3 × 10{sup −11} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}, truncated at a radius ranging between 30 and 45 km, compatible with the hypothesis of a propelling magnetosphere. We compare the results we obtained with models that assume that a rotation-powered pulsar is turned on, showing how the spin-down power released in similar scenarios is hardly able to account for the magnitude of the observed emission.

  4. SOURCE IDENTIFICATION IN THE IGR J17448-3232 FIELD: DISCOVERY OF THE SCORPIUS GALAXY CLUSTER

    SciTech Connect

    Barrière, Nicolas M.; Tomsick, John A.; Wik, Daniel R.; Chaty, Sylvain; Rodriguez, Jérome

    2015-01-20

    We use a 43 ks XMM-Newton observation to investigate the nature of sources first distinguished by a follow-up Chandra observation of the field surrounding INTEGRAL source IGR J17448-3232, which includes extended emission and a bright point source previously classified as a blazar. We establish that the extended emission is a heretofore unknown massive galaxy cluster hidden behind the Galactic bulge. The emission-weighted temperature of the cluster within the field of view is 8.8 keV, with parts of the cluster reaching temperatures of up to 12 keV; no cool core is evident. At a redshift of 0.055, the cluster is somewhat under-luminous relative to the X-ray luminosity-temperature relation, which may be attributable to its dynamical state. We present a preliminary analysis of its properties in this paper. We also confirm that the bright point source is a blazar, and we propose that it is either a flat spectrum radio quasar or a low-frequency peaked BL Lac object. We find four other fainter sources in the field, which we study and tentatively identify. Only one, which we propose is a foreground Galactic X-ray binary, is hard enough to contribute to IGR J17448-3232, but it is too faint to be significant. We thus determine that IGR J17448-3232 is in fact the galaxy cluster up to ≈45 keV and the blazar beyond.

  5. On the Near-infrared Identification of the INTEGRAL Source IGR J16328-4726

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persi, P.; Fiocchi, M.; Tapia, M.; Roth, M.; Bazzano, A.; Ubertini, P.; Parisi, P.

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this work is to identify the infrared (IR) counterpart of the Galactic high-mass X-ray binary IGR J16328-4726 discovered by the INTEGRAL satellite, and to derive the extinction and distance to the system. We present new deep sub-arcsecond JHKs imaging and low-resolution near-IR spectroscopy in the 1.5 and 2.4 μm range of IGR J16328-4726. We report the presence of two near-IR stellar sources separated by about 1.″8 at the location of the unresolved 2MASS source J16323791-4723409, previously considered to be the near-IR counterpart of the X-ray source. From the analysis of their near-IR colors and spectra as well as accurate positions, we uniquely identify the true IR counterpart of IGR J16328-4726. Our 1.5-2.4 μm spectrum of this star is consistent with the published classification O8Iafpe. Assuming this, and in combination with new JHKs photometry, a reddening AV = 23.6 ± 0.7 and a distance of 7.2 ± 0.3 kpc from the Sun are derived.

  6. ON THE NEAR-INFRARED IDENTIFICATION OF THE INTEGRAL SOURCE IGR J16328–4726

    SciTech Connect

    Persi, P.; Fiocchi, M.; Bazzano, A.; Ubertini, P.; Parisi, P.; Roth, M.

    2015-07-15

    The aim of this work is to identify the infrared (IR) counterpart of the Galactic high-mass X-ray binary IGR J16328–4726 discovered by the INTEGRAL satellite, and to derive the extinction and distance to the system. We present new deep sub-arcsecond JHK{sub s} imaging and low-resolution near-IR spectroscopy in the 1.5 and 2.4 μm range of IGR J16328–4726. We report the presence of two near-IR stellar sources separated by about 1.″8 at the location of the unresolved 2MASS source J16323791–4723409, previously considered to be the near-IR counterpart of the X-ray source. From the analysis of their near-IR colors and spectra as well as accurate positions, we uniquely identify the true IR counterpart of IGR J16328–4726. Our 1.5–2.4 μm spectrum of this star is consistent with the published classification O8Iafpe. Assuming this, and in combination with new JHK{sub s} photometry, a reddening A{sub V} = 23.6 ± 0.7 and a distance of 7.2 ± 0.3 kpc from the Sun are derived.

  7. Search for Millisecond Pulsars for the Pulsar Timing Array project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milia, S.

    2012-03-01

    Pulsars are rapidly rotating highly magnetised neutron stars (i.e. ultra dense stars, where about one solar mass is concentrated in a sphere with a radius of ~ 10 km), which irradiate radio beams in a fashion similar to a lighthouse. As a consequence, whenever the beams cut our line of sight we perceive a radio pulses, one (or two) per pulsar rotation, with a frequency up to hundred of times a second. Owing to their compact nature, rapid spin and high inertia, pulsars are in general fairly stable rotators, hence the Times of Arrival (TOAs) of the pulses at a radio telescope can be used as the ticks of a clock. This holds true in particular for the sub­class of the millisecond pulsars (MSPs), having a spin period smaller than the conventional limit of 30 ms, whose very rapid rotation and relatively older age provide better rotational stability than the ordinary pulsars. Indeed, some MSPs rotate so regularly that they can rival the best atomic clocks on Earth over timespan of few months or years.This feature allows us to use MSPs as tools in a cosmic laboratory, by exploiting a procedure called timing, which consists in the repeated and regular measurement of the TOAs from a pulsar and then in the search for trends in the series of the TOAs over various timespans, from fraction of seconds to decades.For example the study of pulsars in binary systems has already provided the most stringent tests to date of General Relativity in strong gravitational fields and has unambiguously showed the occurrence of the emission of gravitational waves from a binary system comprising two massive bodies in a close orbit. In last decades a new exciting perspective has been opened, i.e. to use pulsars also for a direct detection of the so far elusive gravitational waves and thereby applying the pulsar timing for cosmological studies. In fact, the gravitational waves (GWs) going across our Galaxy pass over all the Galactic pulsars and the Earth, perturbing the space­time at the

  8. A millisecond pulsar timing array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbs, George; Manchester, Dick; Verbiest, Joris P. W.; Sarkissian, John; Bailes, Matthew; Bhat, Ramesh; Jenet, Rick; Keith, Michael; Burke-Spolaor, Sarah; van Straten, Willem; Yardley, Daniel Roger Billing; Ravi, Vikram; Oslowski, Stefan; Hotan, Aidan; Champion, David; Khoo, Jonathan; Shannon, Ryan; Chaudhary, Ankur

    2012-04-01

    The Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA) project has three primary goals: (a) detection of gravitational waves from astronomical sources, (b) establishment of a pulsar timescale, and (c) improvement of our understanding of Solar-system dynamics. There are many secondary goals, some astrophysical and some instrumental/technique oriented. Achievement of these ambitious primary goals requires frequent observations of at least 20 MSPs at two or preferably three widely spaced frequencies over several years. We wish to continue observing the PPTA sample at intervals of 2-3 weeks using both the 10/50cm and Multibeam receivers. The digital filterbanks (PDFB3, PDFB4) and the baseband systems (CPSR2; APSR) are used for data recording. With the new instruments and development of an efficient pipeline processing system, we have achieved the world's best pulsar timing precision. We are collaborating with the European and North American pulsar timing array groups (EPTA and NANOGrav, respectively) to obtain more frequent observations and a larger pulsar sample. Because of the high sensitivity and wide bandwidths required, RFI mitigation is an important part of the project. We request continuing status for this project.

  9. A millisecond pulsar timing array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbs, George; Manchester, Dick; Sarkissian, John; Bailes, Matthew; Bhat, Ramesh; Keith, Michael; Burke-Spolaor, Sarah; Coles, William; van Straten, Willem; Ravi, Vikram; Oslowski, Stefan; Khoo, Jonathan; Shannon, Ryan; Wang, Jingbo; Levin, Yuri

    2013-10-01

    The Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA) project has three primary goals: (a) detection of gravitational waves from astronomical sources, (b) establishment of a pulsar timescale, and (c) improvement of our understanding of Solar-system dynamics. There are many secondary goals, some astrophysical and some instrumental/technique oriented. Achievement of these ambitious primary goals requires frequent observations of at least 20 MSPs at two or preferably three widely spaced frequencies over several years. We wish to continue observing the PPTA sample at intervals of 2-3 weeks using both the 10/50cm and Multibeam receivers. The digital filterbanks (PDFB3, PDFB4) and the baseband systems (CPSR2; APSR) are used for data recording. With the new instruments and development of an efficient pipeline processing system, we have achieved the world's best pulsar timing precision. We are collaborating with the European and North American pulsar timing array groups (EPTA and NANOGrav, respectively) to obtain more frequent observations and a larger pulsar sample. Because of the high sensitivity and wide bandwidths required, RFI mitigation is an important part of the project. We request continuing status for this project.

  10. A millisecond pulsar timing array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbs, George; Manchester, Dick; Verbiest, Joris P. W.; Sarkissian, John; Bailes, Matthew; Bhat, Ramesh; Jenet, Rick; Keith, Michael; Burke-Spolaor, Sarah; van Straten, Willem; Yardley, Daniel Roger Billing; Ravi, Vikram; Oslowski, Stefan; Hotan, Aidan; Champion, David; Khoo, Jonathan; Shannon, Ryan; Chaudhary, Ankur

    2011-10-01

    The Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA) project has three primary goals: (a) detection of gravitational waves from astronomical sources, (b) establishment of a pulsar timescale, and (c) improvement of our understanding of Solar-system dynamics. There are many secondary goals, some astrophysical and some instrumental/technique oriented. Achievement of these ambitious primary goals requires frequent observations of at least 20 MSPs at two or preferably three widely spaced frequencies over several years. We wish to continue observing the PPTA sample at intervals of 2-3 weeks using both the 10/50cm and Multibeam receivers. The digital filterbanks (PDFB3, PDFB4) and the baseband systems (CPSR2; APSR) are used for data recording. With the new instruments and development of an efficient pipeline processing system, we have achieved the world's best pulsar timing precision. We are collaborating with the European and North American pulsar timing array groups (EPTA and NANOGrav, respectively) to obtain more frequent observations and a larger pulsar sample. Because of the high sensitivity and wide bandwidths required, RFI mitigation is an important part of the project. We request continuing status for this project.

  11. A millisecond pulsar timing array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbs, George; Manchester, Dick; Sarkissian, John; Bailes, Matthew; Bhat, Ramesh; Keith, Michael; Burke-Spolaor, Sarah; Coles, William; van Straten, Willem; Yardley, Daniel Roger Billing; Ravi, Vikram; Oslowski, Stefan; Khoo, Jonathan; Shannon, Ryan; Wang, Jingbo; Levin, Yuri

    2013-04-01

    The Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA) project has three primary goals: (a) detection of gravitational waves from astronomical sources, (b) establishment of a pulsar timescale, and (c) improvement of our understanding of Solar-system dynamics. There are many secondary goals, some astrophysical and some instrumental/technique oriented. Achievement of these ambitious primary goals requires frequent observations of at least 20 MSPs at two or preferably three widely spaced frequencies over several years. We wish to continue observing the PPTA sample at intervals of 2-3 weeks using both the 10/50cm and Multibeam receivers. The digital filterbanks (PDFB3, PDFB4) and the baseband systems (CPSR2; APSR) are used for data recording. With the new instruments and development of an efficient pipeline processing system, we have achieved the world's best pulsar timing precision. We are collaborating with the European and North American pulsar timing array groups (EPTA and NANOGrav, respectively) to obtain more frequent observations and a larger pulsar sample. Because of the high sensitivity and wide bandwidths required, RFI mitigation is an important part of the project. We request continuing status for this project.

  12. A millisecond pulsar timing array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbs, George; Manchester, Dick; Verbiest, Joris P. W.; Sarkissian, John; Bailes, Matthew; Bhat, Ramesh; Jenet, Rick; Keith, Michael; Burke-Spolaor, Sarah; van Straten, Willem; Ravi, Vikram; Oslowski, Stefan; Hotan, Aidan; Champion, David; Khoo, Jonathan; Shannon, Ryan; Chaudhary, Ankur

    2012-10-01

    The Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA) project has three primary goals: (a) detection of gravitational waves from astronomical sources, (b) establishment of a pulsar timescale, and (c) improvement of our understanding of Solar-system dynamics. There are many secondary goals, some astrophysical and some instrumental/technique oriented. Achievement of these ambitious primary goals requires frequent observations of at least 20 MSPs at two or preferably three widely spaced frequencies over several years. We wish to continue observing the PPTA sample at intervals of 2-3 weeks using both the 10/50cm and Multibeam receivers. The digital filterbanks (PDFB3, PDFB4) and the baseband systems (CASPSR; APSR) are used for data recording. With the new instruments and development of an efficient pipeline processing system, we have achieved the world's best pulsar timing precision. We are collaborating with the European and North American pulsar timing array groups (EPTA and NANOGrav, respectively) to obtain more frequent observations and a larger pulsar sample. Because of the high sensitivity and wide bandwidths required, RFI mitigation is an important part of the project. We request continuing status for this project.

  13. A millisecond pulsar timing array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbs, George; Manchester, Dick; Verbiest, Joris P. W.; Sarkissian, John; Bailes, Matthew; Bhat, Ramesh; Jenet, Rick; Keith, Michael; Burke-Spolaor, Sarah; van Straten, Willem; Yardley, Daniel Roger Billing; Oslowski, Stefan; Hotan, Aidan; Champion, David; Khoo, Jonathan; Shannon, Ryan; Chaudhary, Ankur

    2011-04-01

    The Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA) project has three primary goals: (a) detection of gravitational waves from astronomical sources, (b) establishment of a pulsar timescale, and (c) improvement of our understanding of Solar-system dynamics. There are many secondary goals, some astrophysical and some instrumental/technique oriented. Achievement of these ambitious primary goals requires frequent observations of at least 20 MSPs at two or preferably three widely spaced frequencies over several years. We wish to continue observing the PPTA sample at intervals of 2-3 weeks using both the 10/50cm and Multibeam receivers. The digital filterbanks (PDFB3, PDFB4) and the baseband systems (CPSR2; APSR) are used for data recording. With the new instruments and development of an efficient pipeline processing system, we have achieved the world's best pulsar timing precision. We are collaborating with the European and North American pulsar timing array groups (EPTA and NANOGrav, respectively) to obtain more frequent observations and a larger pulsar sample. Because of the high sensitivity and wide bandwidths required, RFI mitigation is an important part of the project. We request continuing status for this project.

  14. Bondi Accretion and the Problem of the Missing Isolated Neutron Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perna, Rosalba; Narayan, Ramesh; Rybicki, George; Stella, Luigi; Treves, Aldo

    2003-01-01

    A large number of neutron stars (NSs), approximately 10(exp 9), populate the Galaxy, but only a tiny fraction of them is observable during the short radio pulsar lifetime. The majority of these isolated NSs, too cold to be detectable by their own thermal emission, should be visible in X-rays as a result of accretion from the interstellar medium. The ROSAT All-Sky Survey has, however, shown that such accreting isolated NSs are very elusive: only a few tentative candidates have been identified, contrary to theoretical predictions that up to several thousand should be seen. We suggest that the fundamental reason for this discrepancy lies in the use of the standard Bondi formula to estimate the accretion rates. We compute the expected source counts using updated estimates of the pulsar velocity distribution, realistic hydrogen atmosphere spectra, and a modified expression for the Bondi accretion rate, as suggested by recent MHD simulations and supported by direct observations in the case of accretion around supermassive black holes in nearby galaxies and in our own. We find that, whereas the inclusion of atmospheric spectra partly compensates for the reduction in the counts due to the higher mean velocities of the new distribution, the modified Bondi formula dramatically suppresses the source counts. The new predictions are consistent with a null detection at the ROSAT sensitivity.

  15. Time-dependent two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics of accreting matter onto highly magnetized neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, R.I. . Dept. of Astronomy Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA ); Arons, J. . Dept. of Astronomy California Univ., Berkeley, CA . Dept. of Physics)

    1990-11-20

    We present for the first time, the self-consistent solution of the two-dimensional, time-dependent equations of radiation-hydrodynamics governing the accretion of matter onto the highly magnetized polar caps of luminous x-ray pulsars. The calculations show a structure in the accretion column very different from previous one-zone uniform models. We have included all the relevant magnetic field corrections to both the hydrodynamics and the radiative transport. We include a new theory for the diffusion and advection of both radiation energy density and photon number density. For initially uniformly accreting models with super-Eddington flows, we have uncovered evidence of strong radiation-driven outflowing optically thin radiation filled regions of the accretion column embedded in optically-thick inflowing plasma. We follow the evolution of these photon bubbles for several dynamical timescales. The development of these photon bubbles'' indicates growth times on the order of a millisecond and show fluctuations on sub-millisecond timescales in agreement with a linear stability analysis. The photon bubbles are a consequence of the effect of radiative heat flux on the internal gravity waves in the strongly magnetized atmosphere and may result in observable fluctuations in the emitted luminosity leading to luminosity dependent changes in the pulse profile. This may provide important new diagnostics for conditions in accreting x-ray pulsars. 19 refs., 13 figs.

  16. Time-dependent two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics of accreting matter onto highly magnetized neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, R.I. . Dept. of Astronomy Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA California Univ., Los Angeles, CA . Inst. of Geophysics and Planetary Physics); Arons, J. . Dept. of Astronomy California Univ., Los Angeles, CA . Inst. of Geophysics and Planetary Physics CEA Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 -

    1989-11-24

    We present for the first time, the self-consistent solution of the two-dimensional, time-dependent equations of radiation-hydrodynamics governing the accretion of matter onto the highly magnetized polar caps of luminous x-ray pulsars. The calculations show a structure in the accretion column very different from previous one-zone uniform models. We have included all the relevant magnetic field corrections to both the hydrodynamics and the radiative transport. We include a new theory for the diffusion and advection of both radiation energy density and photon number density. For initially uniformly accreting models with super-Eddington flows, we have uncovered evidence of strong radiation-driven outflowing optically thin radiation filled regions of the accretion column embedded in optically-thick inflowing plasma. The development of these photon bubbles'' have growth times on the order of a millisecond and show fluctuations on sub-millisecond timescales. The photon bubbles are likely to be a consequence of convective over-stability and may result in observable fluctuations in the emitted luminosity leading to luminosity dependent changes in the pulse profile. This may provide important new diagnostics for conditions in accreting x-ray pulsars. 13 refs., 18 figs.

  17. Pulsar Astrometry with the VLBA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brisken, W.

    2005-12-01

    Many features of the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) contrive to make it the best telescope for pulsar astrometry. The measured proper motions and parallaxes allow distances and transverse velocities to be determined. These in turn provide clues to questions spanning nuclear astrophysics on scales of 10-23 m to the distribution of gas in the Galaxy on scales of 1020 m. Three pulsars are discussed in this paper. Among pulsars, B0950+08 has the most accurate VLBI-determined parallax. B1133+16 has a very high transverse velocity; its radial velocity is discussed. B0656+14 is a thermally detected neutron star. Determination of its distance has allowed its radius to be measured and its association with the Monogem ring supernova remnant (SNR) to be established, allowing a long-standing question in cosmic ray astrophysics to be addressed.

  18. Interplanetary GPS using pulsar signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, W.; Bernhardt, M. G.; Jessner, A.

    2015-11-01

    An external reference system suitable for deep space navigation can be defined by fast spinning and strongly magnetized neutron stars, called pulsars. Their beamed periodic signals have timing stabilities comparable to atomic clocks and provide characteristic temporal signatures that can be used as natural navigation beacons, quite similar to the use of GPS satellites for navigation on Earth. By comparing pulse arrival times measured on-board a spacecraft with predicted pulse arrivals at a reference location, the spacecraft position can be determined autonomously and with high accuracy everywhere in the solar system and beyond. The unique properties of pulsars make clear already today that such a navigation system will have its application in future astronautics. In this paper we describe the basic principle of spacecraft navigation using pulsars and report on the current development status of this novel technology.

  19. String theories and millisecond pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, N.; Signore, M.

    1988-11-01

    We discuss the two ways of connecting string theories (cosmic, fundamental and the connection between them) to the observational reality: (i) radioastronomy observations (millisecond pulsar timing), and (ii) elementary particle phenomenology (compactification schemes). We study the limits imposed on the string parameter Gμ by recent millisecond pulsar timings. Cosmic strings derived from GUTs agree with (i). For cosmic strings derived from fundamental strings themselves there is contradiction between (i) and (ii). One of these scenarios connecting string theory to reality must be revised (or the transition from fundamental into cosmic strings rejected). Meanwhile, millisecond pulsar can select one scenario, or reject both of them. UA 336 Laboratoire Associé au CNRS, Observatoire de Meudon et Ecole Normale Supérieure, 24 rue Lhomond, F-75231 Paris Cedex 05, France.

  20. PINT, a New Pulsar Timing Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jing; Jenet, Fredrick A.; Ransom, Scott M.; Demorest, Paul; Van Haasteren, Rutger; Archibald, Anne

    2015-01-01

    We are presenting a new pulsar timing software PINT. The current pulsar timing group are heavily depending on Tempo/Tempo2, a package for analysis pulsar data. However, for a high accuracy pulsar timing related project, such as pulsar timing for gravitational waves, an alternative software is needed for the purpose of examing the results. We are developing a Tempo independent software with a different structure. Different modules is designed to be more isolated and easier to be expanded. Instead of C, we are using Python as our programming language for the advantage of flexibility and powerful docstring. Here, we are presenting the detailed design and the first result of the software.

  1. The Disturbance of a Millisecond Pulsar Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shannon, R. M.; Lentati, L. T.; Kerr, M.; Bailes, M.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Coles, W. A.; Dai, S.; Dempsey, J.; Hobbs, G.; Keith, M. J.; Lasky, P. D.; Levin, Y.; Manchester, R. N.; Osłowski, S.; Ravi, V.; Reardon, D. J.; Rosado, P. A.; Spiewak, R.; van Straten, W.; Toomey, L.; Wang, J.-B.; Wen, L.; You, X.-P.; Zhu, X.-J.

    2016-09-01

    Pulsar timing has enabled some of the strongest tests of fundamental physics. Central to the technique is the assumption that the detected radio pulses can be used to accurately measure the rotation of the pulsar. Here, we report on a broadband variation in the pulse profile of the millisecond pulsar J1643-1224. A new component of emission suddenly appears in the pulse profile, decays over four months, and results in a permanently modified pulse shape. Profile variations such as these may be the origin of timing noise observed in other millisecond pulsars. The sensitivity of pulsar-timing observations to gravitational radiation can be increased by accounting for this variability.

  2. The Disturbance of a Millisecond Pulsar Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shannon, R. M.; Lentati, L. T.; Kerr, M.; Bailes, M.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Coles, W. A.; Dai, S.; Dempsey, J.; Hobbs, G.; Keith, M. J.; Lasky, P. D.; Levin, Y.; Manchester, R. N.; Osłowski, S.; Ravi, V.; Reardon, D. J.; Rosado, P. A.; Spiewak, R.; van Straten, W.; Toomey, L.; Wang, J.-B.; Wen, L.; You, X.-P.; Zhu, X.-J.

    2016-09-01

    Pulsar timing has enabled some of the strongest tests of fundamental physics. Central to the technique is the assumption that the detected radio pulses can be used to accurately measure the rotation of the pulsar. Here, we report on a broadband variation in the pulse profile of the millisecond pulsar J1643‑1224. A new component of emission suddenly appears in the pulse profile, decays over four months, and results in a permanently modified pulse shape. Profile variations such as these may be the origin of timing noise observed in other millisecond pulsars. The sensitivity of pulsar-timing observations to gravitational radiation can be increased by accounting for this variability.

  3. An in-depth study of a neutron star accreting at low Eddington rate: On the possibility of a truncated disk and an outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degenaar, N.; Pinto, C.; Miller, J. M.; Wijnands, R.; Altamirano, D.; Paerels, F.; Fabian, A. C.; Chakrabarty, D.

    2016-09-01

    Due to observational challenges our knowledge of low-level accretion flows around neutron stars is limited. We present NuSTAR, Swift and Chandra observations of the low-mass X-ray binary IGR J17062-6143, which has been persistently accreting at ≃0.1 per cent of the Eddington limit since 2006. Our simultaneous NuSTAR/Swift observations show that the 0.5-79 keV spectrum can be described by a combination of a power law with a photon index of Γ≃2, a black body with a temperature of kTbb≃0.5 keV (presumably arising from the neutron star surface), and disk reflection. Modeling the reflection spectrum suggests that the inner accretion disk was located at Rin≳100~GM/c2 (≳225 km) from the neutron star. The apparent truncation may be due to evaporation of the inner disk into a radiatively-inefficient accretion flow, or due to the pressure of the neutron star magnetic field. Our Chandra gratings data reveal possible narrow emission lines near 1 keV that can be modeled as reflection or collisionally-ionized gas, and possible low-energy absorption features that could point to the presence of an outflow. We consider a scenario in which this neutron star has been able to sustain its low accretion rate through magnetic inhibition of the accretion flow, which gives some constraints on its magnetic field strength and spin period. In this configuration, IGR J17062-6143 could exhibit a strong radio jet as well as a (propeller-driven) wind-like outflow.

  4. Subhalo Accretion through Filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Roberto E.; Padilla, Nelson D.

    2016-09-01

    We track subhalo orbits of galaxy- and group-sized halos in cosmological simulations. We identify filamentary structures around halos and use these to define a sample of subhalos accreted from filaments, as well as a control sample of subhalos accreted from other directions. We use these samples to study differences in satellite orbits produced by filamentary accretion. Our results depend on host halo mass. We find that for low masses, subhalos accreted from filaments show ∼10% shorter lifetimes compared to the control sample, show a tendency toward more radial orbits, reach halo central regions earlier, and are more likely to merge with the host. For higher-mass halos this lifetime difference dissipates and even reverses for cluster-sized halos. This behavior appears to be connected to the fact that more massive hosts are connected to stronger filaments with higher velocity coherence and density, with slightly more radial subhalo orbits. Because subhalos tend to follow the coherent flow of the filament, it is possible that such thick filaments are enough to shield the subhalo from the effect of dynamical friction at least during their first infall. We also identify subhalo pairs/clumps that merge with one another after accretion. They survive as a clump for only a very short time, which is even shorter for higher subhalo masses, suggesting that the Magellanic Clouds and other Local group satellite associations may have entered the Milky Way virial radius very recently and probably are in their first infall.

  5. Crustal entrainment and pulsar glitches.

    PubMed

    Chamel, N

    2013-01-01

    Large pulsar frequency glitches are generally interpreted as sudden transfers of angular momentum between the neutron superfluid permeating the inner crust and the rest of the star. Despite the absence of viscous drag, the neutron superfluid is strongly coupled to the crust due to nondissipative entrainment effects. These effects are shown to severely limit the maximum amount of angular momentum that can possibly be transferred during glitches. In particular, it is found that the glitches observed in the Vela pulsar require an additional reservoir of angular momentum.

  6. Crustal entrainment and pulsar glitches.

    PubMed

    Chamel, N

    2013-01-01

    Large pulsar frequency glitches are generally interpreted as sudden transfers of angular momentum between the neutron superfluid permeating the inner crust and the rest of the star. Despite the absence of viscous drag, the neutron superfluid is strongly coupled to the crust due to nondissipative entrainment effects. These effects are shown to severely limit the maximum amount of angular momentum that can possibly be transferred during glitches. In particular, it is found that the glitches observed in the Vela pulsar require an additional reservoir of angular momentum. PMID:23383772

  7. INTEGRAL IGR J18135-1751 = HESS J1813-178: A New Cosmic High-Energy Accelerator from keV to TeV Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubertini, P.; Bassani, L.; Malizia, A.; Bazzano, A.; Bird, A. J.; Dean, A. J.; De Rosa, A.; Lebrun, F.; Moran, L.; Renaud, M.; Stephen, J. B.; Terrier, R.; Walter, R.

    2005-08-01

    We report the discovery of a soft gamma-ray source, namely, IGR J18135-1751, detected with IBIS, the Imager on Board the INTEGRAL Satellite. The source is persistent and has a 20-100 keV luminosity of ~5.7× 1034 ergs s-1 (assuming a distance of 4 kpc). This source is coincident with one of the eight unidentified objects recently reported by the HESS collaboration as part of the first TeV survey of the inner part of the Galaxy. Two of these new sources found along the Galactic plane, HESS J1813-178 and HESS J1614-518, have no obvious lower energy counterparts, a fact that motivated the suggestion that they might be dark cosmic ray accelerators. HESS J1813-178 has a strongly absorbed X-ray counterpart, the ASCA source AGPS 273.4-17.8, showing a power-law spectrum with photon index ~1.8 and a total (Galactic plus intrinsic) absorption corresponding to NH~5×1022 cm-2. We hypothesize that the source is a pulsar wind nebula embedded in its supernova remnant. The lack of X-ray or gamma-ray variability, the radio morphology, and the ASCA spectrum are all compatible with this interpretation. In any case we rule out the hypothesis that HESS J1813-178 belongs to a new class of TeV objects or that it is a cosmic ``dark particle'' accelerator. Based on observations with INTEGRAL, an ESA project with instruments and science data center funded by ESA member states (especially the PI countries: Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, Spain), the Czech Republic, and Poland and with the participation of Russia and the US.

  8. White Dwarf Pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Joseph

    1998-01-01

    Work on NAG5-3288 ("White Dwarf Pulsars") has been fully integrated with the identically titled project NAG5-4734. The final report below is the same, since the data analysis and interpretative work are integrated, as are the resulting (previous and in-pipeline) publications. The proposal was designed to study pulse and orbital modulations in candidate DQ Herculis stars. Data on 5 stars were obtained. The best results were obtained on YY Draconis, which exhibited a strongly pulsed hard X-ray flux, and even suggested a transition between one-pole and two-pole emission during the course of the observation. This result is being readied for inclusion in a comprehensive study of YY Draconis. A strong pulsation appeared to be present also in H0857-242, but with a period of - 50 minutes, confusion with the first harmonic of the satellite's orbital frequency is possible. So that result is uncertain and is "on ice". A negative result was obtained on 4UO608-49 (V347 Pup), suggesting either that the X-ray identification is incorrect, or that the source is very transient. Finally, data was obtained on V1432 Aql and WZ Sge, respectively the slowest and fastest of these stars. Combined with the ASCA data, the high-energy data demonstrates the latter to contain a white dwarf rotating with P = 27.87 s (Patterson et al. 1998, PASP, 110, 403). Optical photometry contemporaneous with the X-ray data was obtained of V1432 Aql, in order to study the variations in the eclipse waveform. As anticipated, the width and centroid of the eclipse appeared to vary with the 50-day "supercycle".

  9. Braking Index of Isolated Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamil, Oliver; Stone, Jirina; Urbanec, Martin; Urbancova, Gabriela

    2015-04-01

    Isolated pulsars are rotating neutron stars with accurately measured angular velocities Ω, and their time derivatives which show unambiguously that the pulsars are slowing down. The exact mechanism of the spin-down is a question of debate in detail, but the commonly accepted view is that it arises through emission of magnetic dipole radiation (MDR). The energy loss by a rotating pulsar is proportional to a model dependent power of Ω. This relation leads to the power law Ω˙ = -K Ωn where n is called the braking index, equal to the ratio (ΩΩ̈)/ Ω˙2 . The simple MDR model predicts the value of n = 3, but observations of isolated pulsars provide rather precise values of n, individually accurate to a few percent or better, in the range 1 < n < 2.8, which is consistently less than the predictions of the MDR model. In this work, we study the dynamical limits of the MDR model as a function of angular velocity. The effects of variation in the rest mass, the moment of inertia, and the dependence on a realistic Equation of State of the rotating star are considered. Furthermore, we introduce a simulated superfluid effect by which the angular momentum of the core is eliminated from the calculation.

  10. RESISTIVE SOLUTIONS FOR PULSAR MAGNETOSPHERES

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jason; Spitkovsky, Anatoly; Tchekhovskoy, Alexander

    2012-02-10

    The current state of the art in the modeling of pulsar magnetospheres invokes either the vacuum or force-free limits for the magnetospheric plasma. Neither of these limits can simultaneously account for both the plasma currents and the accelerating electric fields that are needed to explain the morphology and spectra of high-energy emission from pulsars. To better understand the structure of such magnetospheres, we combine accelerating fields and force-free solutions by considering models of magnetospheres filled with resistive plasma. We formulate Ohm's law in the minimal velocity fluid frame and construct a family of resistive solutions that smoothly bridges the gap between the vacuum and the force-free magnetosphere solutions. The spin-down luminosity, open field line potential drop, and the fraction of open field lines all transition between the vacuum and force-free values as the plasma conductivity varies from zero to infinity. For fixed inclination angle, we find that the spin-down luminosity depends linearly on the open field line potential drop. We consider the implications of our resistive solutions for the spin-down of intermittent pulsars and sub-pulse drift phenomena in radio pulsars.

  11. CHANGES IN THE CRAB PULSAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Scientists are learning more about how pulsars work by studying a series of Hubble Space Telescope images of the heart of the Crab Nebula. The images, taken over a period of several months, show that the Crab is a far more dynamic object than previously understood. At the center of the nebula lies the Crab Pulsar. The pulsar is a tiny object by astronomical standards -- only about six miles across -- but has a mass greater than that of the Sun and rotates at a rate of 30 times a second. As the pulsar spins its intense magnetic field whips around, acting like a sling shot, accelerating subatomic particles and sending them hurtling them into space at close to the speed of light. The tiny pulsar and its wind are the powerhouse for the entire Crab Nebula, which is 10 light-years across -- a feat comparable to an object the size of a hydrogen atom illuminating a volume of space a kilometer across. The three pictures shown here, taken from the series of Hubble images, show dramatic changes in the appearance of the central regions of the nebula. These include wisp-like structures that move outward away from the pulsar at half the speed of light, as well as a mysterious 'halo' which remains stationary, but grows brighter then fainter over time. Also seen are the effects of two polar jets that move out along the rotation axis of the pulsar. The most dynamic feature seen -- a small knot that 'dances around' so much that astronomers have been calling it a 'sprite' -- is actually a shock front (where fast-moving material runs into slower-moving material)in one of these polar jets. The telescope captured the images with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 using a filter that passes light of wavelength around 550 nanometers, near the middle of the visible part of the spectrum. The Crab Nebula is located 7,000 light-years away in the constellation Taurus. Credit: Jeff Hester and Paul Scowen (Arizona State University), and NASA

  12. The global return current in a pulsar's magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barzilay, Yudith

    2016-08-01

    An open issue in pulsar's models is the current adjustment between the gap current and the global current that depends on the global structure of the pulsar's magnetosphere. Here I propose a mechanism for the global return current in pulsars.

  13. Swift observes an outburst of the high mass X-ray binary IGR J01572-7259 in the SMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krimm, H. A.; Kennea, J. A.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Cummings, J.; Gehrels, N.; Lien, A. Y.; Markwardt, C. B.; Palmer, D.; Sakamoto, T.; Stamatikos, M.; Ukwatta, T.

    2016-05-01

    The high-mass X-ray binary IGR J01572-7259 (IGR J015712-7259 = SXP 11.6) in the Small Magellanic Cloud is undergoing an outburst. An increase in counts was first detected in the BAT in a 4-day period beginning 15 April 2016 (MJD 57493), when it was detected at 0.0016 +/- 0.0004 ct cm-2 s-1 (~7 mCrab) . The flux peaked on 25 April 2016 (MJD 57503) at 0.0027 +/- 0.0005 ct cm-2 s-1 (~12 mCrab).

  14. The Faint "Heartbeats" of IGR J17091-3624: An Exceptional Black Hole Candidate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altamirano, D.; Belloni, T.; Linares, M.; VanDerKlis, M.; Wunands, R.; Curran, P. A.; Kalamkar, M.; Stiele, H.; Motta, S.; Munoz-Darias, T.; Casella, P.; Krimm, H.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the first 180 days of Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer observations of the outburst of the black hole candidate IGR Jl7091-3624. This source exhibits a broad variety of complex light curve patterns including periods of strong flares alternating with quiet intervals. Similar patterns in the X-ray light curves have been seen in the (up to now) unique black hole system GRS 1915+105. In the context of the variability classes defined by Belloni et al. for GRS 1915+105, we find that JGR J17091-3624 shows the nu, rho, alpha, lambda, Beta, and mu classes as well as quiet periods which resemble the chi class, all occurring at 2-60 keY count rate levels which can be 10-50 times lower than observed in GRS 1915+\\05. The so-called rho class "heartbeats" occur as fast as every few seconds and as slow as approx 100 s, tracing a loop in the hardness-intensity diagram which resembles that previously seen in GRS 1915+\\05. However, while GRS 1915+105 traverses this loop clockwise, IGR Jl7091-3624 does so in the opposite sense. We briefly discuss our findings in the context of the models proposed for GRS 1915+105 and find that either all models requiring near Eddington luminosities for GRS 1915+105-like variability fail, or IGR Il7091-3624 lies at a distance well in excess of 20 kpc, or it harbors one of the least massive black holes known( <3 solar M).

  15. X-ray scattered halo around IGR J17544–2619

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Junjie; Ling, Zhixing; Zhang, Shuang-Nan

    2014-04-10

    X-ray photons coming from an X-ray point source not only arrive at the detector directly, but also can be strongly forward-scattered by the interstellar dust along the line of sight (LOS), leading to a detectable diffuse halo around the X-ray point source. The geometry of small-angle X-ray scattering is straightforward, namely, the scattered photons travel longer paths and thus arrive later than the unscattered ones; thus, the delay time of X-ray scattered halo photons can reveal information of the distances of the interstellar dust and the point source. Here we present a study of the X-ray scattered halo around IGR J17544–2619, which is one of the so-called supergiant fast X-ray transients. IGR J17544–2619 underwent a striking outburst when observed with Chandra on 2004 July 3, providing a near δ-function light curve. We find that the X-ray scattered halo around IGR J17544–2619 is produced by two interstellar dust clouds along the LOS. The one that is closer to the observer gives the X-ray scattered halo at larger observational angles, whereas the farther one, which is in the vicinity of the point source, explains the halo with a smaller angular size. By comparing the observational angle of the scattered halo photons with that predicted by different dust grain models, we are able to determine the normalized dust distance. With the delay times of the scattered halo photons, we can determine the point source distance, given a dust grain model. Alternatively, we can discriminate between the dust grain models, if the point source distance is known independently.

  16. Precision Timing of Two Anomalous X-Ray Pulsars.

    PubMed

    Kaspi; Chakrabarty; Steinberger

    1999-11-01

    We report on long-term X-ray timing of two anomalous X-ray pulsars, 1RXS J170849.0-400910 and 1E 2259+586, using the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer. In monthly observations made over 1.4 and 2.6 yr for the two pulsars, respectively, we have obtained phase-coherent timing solutions which imply that these objects have been rotating with great stability throughout the course of our observations. For 1RXS J170849.0-400910, we find a rotation frequency of 0.0909169331(5) Hz and frequency derivative -15.687&parl0;4&parr0;x10-14 Hz s-1 for epoch MJD 51215.931. For 1E 2259+586, we find a rotation frequency of 0.1432880613(2) Hz and frequency derivative -1.0026&parl0;7&parr0;x10-14 Hz s-1 for epoch MJD 51195.583. The rms phase residuals from these simple models are only approximately 0.01 cycles for both sources. We show that the frequency derivative for 1E 2259+586 is inconsistent with that inferred from incoherent frequency observations made over the last 20 yr. Our observations are consistent with the magnetar hypothesis and make binary accretion scenarios appear unlikely.

  17. Infrared identification of IGR J09026-4812 as a Seyfert 1 galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurita Heras, J. A.; Chaty, S.; Tomsick, J. A.

    2009-08-01

    Context: IGR J09026-4812 was discovered by INTEGRAL in 2006 as a new hard X-ray source. Thereafter, an observation with Chandra pinpointed a single X-ray source within the ISGRI error circle, showing a hard spectrum, and improving its high-energy localisation to a subarcsecond accuracy. Thus, the X-ray source was associated with the infrared counterpart 2MASS J09023731-4813339 whose JHKS photometry indicated a highly reddened source. The high-energy properties and the counterpart photometry suggested a high-mass X-ray binary with a main sequence companion star located 6.3-8.1 kpc away and with a 0.3-10 keV luminosity of 8-1^+13 × 1034 erg s-1. Aims: New optical and infrared observations were needed to confirm the counterpart and to reveal the nature of IGR J09026-4812. Methods: We performed optical and near infrared observations on the counterpart 2MASS J09023731-4813339 with the ESO/NTT telescope on March 2007. We carried out photometry and spectroscopy in near infrared wavelengths and photometry in optical wavelengths. Results: The accurate astrometry at both optical and near infrared wavelengths confirmed 2MASS J09023731-4813339 as the counterpart of IGR J09026-4812. However, the near infrared images show that the source is extended, thus excluding the possibility of a Galactic compact source. The source spectrum shows three main emission lines identified as the HeI λ1.0830~μm line, and the HI Pa β and Pa α lines, typical of galaxies with an active galactic nucleus. The broadness of these lines reached values as large as 4000 km s-1, suggesting a type 1 Seyfert galaxy. The redshift of the source is z = 0.0391 ± 0.0004. Thus, the near infrared photometry and spectroscopy allowed us to classify IGR J09026-4812 as a type 1 Seyfert galaxy. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Observatory under programme ID 078.D-0268(B).

  18. The Seyfert 1 AGN nature of IGR J20450+7530

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parisi, P.; Masetti, N.; Landi, R.; Bassani, L.; Bazzano, A.; Bird, A. J.

    2010-09-01

    We report on an optical spectroscopic observation of object USNO-A2.0 1650-02316572 (RA(J2000) = 20h 44m 34.49s, Dec(J2000) = +75d 31m 58.9s), located in the Swift/XRT error box of the soft X-ray source #2 of Landi et al. (ATel #2830). This object according to these authors, is the likely counterpart of the hard X-ray object IGR J20450+7530 listed in the 4th IBIS Survey Catalog (Bird et al. 2010, ApJS, 186, 1).

  19. Pulse-Timing Studies of X Ray Pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deeter, John E.; Boynton, Paul E.

    1992-01-01

    The pulse-timing projects supported by NASA Grant NAG8-695 were motivated in large part by our long-standing interest in the physics of rotating neutron stars and particularly the variations in rotation due to internal and external fluctuating torques. For accretion-powered pulsars, observed as compact galactic X-ray sources, our work has been motivated by questions regarding the physics of matter accretion, mass transfer, and mass loss in these X-ray binary systems. For rotation-powered pulsars using X-ray, optical, and radio observations, we have examined the internal structure of neutron stars and mechanisms for secular spin-down. These issues are still central to the continuing process of understanding the complex behavior of these fascinating systems. The work supported by this grant is based mainly on Ginga observations of three pulsating X-ray sources. We observed two of these sources (Her X-1 and SMC X-1) within the framework of a NASA-ISAS program for U.S.-Japan collaborations to obtain and analyze Ginga observations. In addition, we joined with members of the Ginga team to apply our pulse-timing methods to PSR 0540-69 data obtained as a collateral benefit of the regular monitoring by Ginga of SN 1987A. In addition to these Ginga observations, there exist other relevant data on all three of these sources. The direction of our investigations has been affected by the necessity of including these supporting data in our analyses, and setting up the necessary collaborations has sometimes entailed extra work that was not anticipated in our proposals. Indeed, we have often taken the initiative in establishing these joint projects.

  20. A massive neutron star in the millisecond pulsar PSR J2215+5135

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahbaz, Tariq

    2016-07-01

    Binary evolution may increase neutron masses via accretion. Hence the most massive neutron stars (NSs) are expected to be located amongst the binary millisecond pulsars (MSPs) spun-up within X-ray binaries. Most MSPs are found with brown dwarf lookalikes or ˜0.2 M stars in systems called "black widows" and "redbacks", respectively, because these companions are ablated by the pulsar wind. These systems offer some advantages over white dwarf-pulsar binaries: they are typically brighter, they present strongly irradiated hemispheres, and they fill significant fractions of their Roche lobes. As a result, their optical light curves exhibit variability due to a combination of their ellipsoidal shape and irradiation, which can be modelled in order to determine orbital parameters such as the mass ratio and inclination. Combining these with optical spectroscopy and/or pulsar timing enables one to determine a reliable NS masses. Here we present the results of our detailed modelling of the optical lightcurves and radial velocity curves of J2215+5135, which allows us to determine various ystem parameters, including the NS mass.

  1. The implications of a companion enhanced wind on millisecond pulsar production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smedley, Sarah L.; Tout, Christopher A.; Ferrario, Lilia; Wickramasinghe, Dayal T.

    2016-09-01

    The most frequently seen binary companions to millisecond pulsars (MSPs) are helium white dwarfs (He WDs). The standard rejuvenation mechanism, in which a low- to intermediate-mass companion to a neutron star fills its Roche lobe between central hydrogen exhaustion and core helium ignition, is the most plausible formation mechanism. We have investigated whether the observed population can realistically be formed via this mechanism. We used the Cambridge STARS code to make models of Case B RLOF with Reimers' mass loss from the donor. We find that the range of initial orbital periods required to produce the currently observed range of orbital periods of MSPs is extremely narrow. To reduce this fine tuning, we introduce a companion enhanced wind (CEW) that strips the donor of its envelope more quickly so that systems can detach at shorter periods. Our models indicate that the fine tuning can be significantly reduced if a CEW is active. Because significant mass is lost owing to a CEW we expect some binary pulsars to accrete less than the 0.1 M_{⊙} needed to spin them up to millisecond periods. This can account for mildly recycled pulsars present along the entire Mc-Porb relation. Systems with P_spin > 30 ms are consistent with this but too few of these mildly recycled pulsars have yet been observed to make a significant comparison.

  2. Magnetar-like X-ray bursts from an anomalous X-ray pulsar.

    PubMed

    Gavriil, F P; Kaspi, V M; Woods, P M

    2002-09-12

    Anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs) are a class of rare X-ray emitting pulsars whose energy source has been perplexing for some 20 years. Unlike other X-ray emitting pulsars, AXPs cannot be powered by rotational energy or by accretion of matter from a binary companion star, hence the designation 'anomalous'. Many of the rotational and radiative properties of the AXPs are strikingly similar to those of another class of exotic objects, the soft-gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs). But the defining property of the SGRs--their low-energy-gamma-ray and X-ray bursts--has not hitherto been observed for AXPs. Soft-gamma-ray repeaters are thought to be 'magnetars', which are young neutron stars whose emission is powered by the decay of an ultra-high magnetic field; the suggestion that AXPs might also be magnetars has been controversial. Here we report two X-ray bursts, with properties similar to those of SGRs, from the direction of the anomalous X-ray pulsar 1E1048.1 - 5937. These events imply a close relationship (perhaps evolutionary) between AXPs and SGRs, with both being magnetars.

  3. GRO J1744-28: an intermediate B-field pulsar in a low-mass X-ray binary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Aì, A.; Di Salvo, T.; Iaria, R.; García, J. A.; Sanna, A.; Pintore, F.; Riggio, A.; Burderi, L.; Bozzo, E.; Dauser, T.; Matranga, M.; Galiano, C. G.; Robba, N. R.

    2015-06-01

    The bursting pulsar, GRO J1744-28, went again in outburst after ˜18 yr of quiescence in 2014 mid-January. We studied the broad-band, persistent, X-ray spectrum using X-ray data from a XMM-Newton observation, performed almost at the peak of the outburst, and from a close INTEGRAL observation, performed 3 d later, thus covering the 1.3-70.0 keV band. The spectrum shows a complex continuum shape that cannot be modelled with standard high-mass X-ray pulsar models, nor by two-components models. We observe broad-band and peaked residuals from 4 to 15 keV, and we propose a self-consistent interpretation of these residuals, assuming they are produced by cyclotron absorption features and by a moderately smeared, highly ionized, reflection component. We identify the cyclotron fundamental at ˜4.7 keV, with hints for two possible harmonics at ˜10.4 and ˜15.8 keV. The position of the cyclotron fundamental allows an estimate for the pulsar magnetic field of (5.27 ± 0.06) × 1011 G, if the feature is produced at its surface. From the dynamical and relativistic smearing of the disc reflected component, we obtain a lower limit estimate for the truncated accretion disc inner radius (≳100 Rg) and for the inclination angle (18°-48°). We also detect the presence of a softer thermal component that we associate with the emission from an accretion disc truncated at a distance from the pulsar of 50-115 Rg. From these estimates, we derive the magnetospheric radius for disc accretion to be ˜0.2 times the classical Alfvén radius for radial accretion.

  4. Gamma-Ray Pulsar Studies With GLAST

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, D.J.; /NASA, Goddard

    2011-11-23

    Some pulsars have their maximum observable energy output in the gamma-ray band, offering the possibility of using these high-energy photons as probes of the particle acceleration and interaction processes in pulsar magnetospheres. After an extended hiatus between satellite missions, the recently-launched AGILE mission and the upcoming Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) Large Area Telescope (LAT) will allow gamma-ray tests of the theoretical models developed based on past discoveries. With its greatly improved sensitivity, better angular resolution, and larger energy reach than older instruments, GLAST LAT should detect dozens to hundreds of new gamma-ray pulsars and measure luminosities, light curves, and phase-resolved spectra with unprecedented resolution. It will also have the potential to find radio-quiet pulsars like Geminga, using blind search techniques. Cooperation with radio and X-ray pulsar astronomers is an important aspect of the LAT team's planning for pulsar studies.

  5. Relativistic spin precession in the double pulsar.

    PubMed

    Breton, Rene P; Kaspi, Victoria M; Kramer, Michael; McLaughlin, Maura A; Lyutikov, Maxim; Ransom, Scott M; Stairs, Ingrid H; Ferdman, Robert D; Camilo, Fernando; Possenti, Andrea

    2008-07-01

    The double pulsar PSR J0737-3039A/B consists of two neutron stars in a highly relativistic orbit that displays a roughly 30-second eclipse when pulsar A passes behind pulsar B. Describing this eclipse of pulsar A as due to absorption occurring in the magnetosphere of pulsar B, we successfully used a simple geometric model to characterize the observed changing eclipse morphology and to measure the relativistic precession of pulsar B's spin axis around the total orbital angular momentum. This provides a test of general relativity and alternative theories of gravity in the strong-field regime. Our measured relativistic spin precession rate of 4.77 degrees (-0 degrees .65)(+0 degrees .66) per year (68% confidence level) is consistent with that predicted by general relativity within an uncertainty of 13%.

  6. Relativistic spin precession in the double pulsar.

    PubMed

    Breton, Rene P; Kaspi, Victoria M; Kramer, Michael; McLaughlin, Maura A; Lyutikov, Maxim; Ransom, Scott M; Stairs, Ingrid H; Ferdman, Robert D; Camilo, Fernando; Possenti, Andrea

    2008-07-01

    The double pulsar PSR J0737-3039A/B consists of two neutron stars in a highly relativistic orbit that displays a roughly 30-second eclipse when pulsar A passes behind pulsar B. Describing this eclipse of pulsar A as due to absorption occurring in the magnetosphere of pulsar B, we successfully used a simple geometric model to characterize the observed changing eclipse morphology and to measure the relativistic precession of pulsar B's spin axis around the total orbital angular momentum. This provides a test of general relativity and alternative theories of gravity in the strong-field regime. Our measured relativistic spin precession rate of 4.77 degrees (-0 degrees .65)(+0 degrees .66) per year (68% confidence level) is consistent with that predicted by general relativity within an uncertainty of 13%. PMID:18599782

  7. Gamma-Ray Pulsar Studies with GLAST

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, D. J.

    2008-02-27

    Some pulsars have their maximum observable energy output in the gamma-ray band, offering the possibility of using these high-energy photons as probes of the particle acceleration and interaction processes in pulsar magnetospheres. After an extended hiatus between satellite missions, the recently-launched AGILE mission and the upcoming Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) Large Area Telescope (LAT) will allow gamma-ray tests of the theoretical models developed based on past discoveries. With its greatly improved sensitivity, better angular resolution, and larger energy reach than older instruments, GLAST LAT should detect dozens to hundreds of new gamma-ray pulsars and measure luminosities, light curves, and phase-resolved spectra with unprecedented resolution. It will also have the potential to find radio-quiet pulsars like Geminga, using blind search techniques. Cooperation with radio and X-ray pulsar astronomers is an important aspect of the LAT team's planning for pulsar studies.

  8. A Suzaku X-ray Observation of One Orbit of the Supergiant Fast X-ray Transient IGR J16479-4514

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidoli, L.; Esposito, P.; Sguera, V.; Bodaghee, A.; Tomsick, J. A.; Pottschmidt, K.; Rodriguez, J.; Ramano, P.; Wilms, J.

    2013-01-01

    We report on a 250 ks long X-ray observation of the supergiant fast X-ray transient (SFXT) IGR J16479-4514 performed with Suzaku in 2012 February. During this observation, about 80% of the short orbital period (P(sub orb) approximates 3.32 days) was covered as continuously as possible for the first time. The source light curve displays variability of more than two orders of magnitude, starting with a very low emission state (10(exp -13) erg / sq cm/s; 1-10 keV) lasting the first 46 ks, consistent with being due to the X-ray eclipse by the supergiant companion. The transition to the uneclipsed X-ray emission is energy dependent. Outside the eclipse, the source spends most of the time at a level of 6-7X10)(exp-12) erg/sq. cm/s) punctuated by two structured faint flares with a duration of about 10 and 15 ks, respectively, reaching a peak flux of 3-4X10(exp -11) erg/sq. cm./S, separated by about 0.2 in orbital phase. Remarkably, the first faint flare occurs at a similar orbital phase of the bright flares previously observed in the system. This indicates the presence of a phase-locked large scale structure in the supergiant wind, driving a higher accretion rate onto the compact object. The average X-ray spectrum is hard and highly absorbed, with a column density, NH, of 10*exp 23)/sq cm, clearly in excess of the interstellar absorption. There is no evidence for variability of the absorbing column density, except that during the eclipse, where a less absorbed X-ray spectrum is observed. A narrow Fe K-alpha emission line at 6.4 keV is viewed along the whole orbit, with an intensity which correlates with the continuum emission above 7 keV. The scattered component visible during the X-ray eclipse allowed us to directly probe the wind density at the orbital separation, resulting in rho(sub w)=7X10(exp -14) g/cubic cm. Assuming a spherical geometry for the supergiant wind, the derived wind density translates into a ratio M(sub w)/v(sub infinity) = 7X10(exp -17) Solar M

  9. High-sensitivity observations of 28 pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisberg, J. M.; Armstrong, B. K.; Backus, P. R.; Cordes, J. M.; Boriakoff, V.

    1986-01-01

    Average 430-MHz pulse profiles and, where possible, modulation indices and pulse-nulling fractions are computed for 28 pulsars. Morphological classifications are determined for most of the pulsars. It is found that core emission components tend to have lower modulation indices than conal components, and that pulsars having only a core component never exhibit pulse pulling. PSR 1612 + 07 is shown to undergo mode changes.

  10. Self-modulational formation of pulsar microstructures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chian, A. C.-L.; Kennel, C. F.

    1987-01-01

    A nonlinear plasma theory for self modulation of pulsar radio pulses is discussed. A nonlinear Schroedinger equation is derived for strong electromagnetic waves propagating in an electron positron plasma. The nonlinearities arising from wave intensity induced particle mass variation may excite the modulational instability of circularly and linearly polarized pulsar radiation. The resulting wave envelopes can take the form of periodic wave trains or solitons. These nonlinear stationary waveforms may account for the formation of pulsar microstructures.

  11. The role of octopamine receptor agonists in the synergistic toxicity of certain insect growth regulators (IGRs) in controlling Dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquito.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Mohamed Ahmed Ibrahim; Vogel, Christoph Franz Adam

    2016-03-01

    The synergistic action of octopamine receptor agonists (OR agonists) on many insecticide classes (e.g., organophosphorus, pyrethroids, and neonicotinoids) on Aedes aegypti L. has been reported recently. An investigation of OR agonist's effect on insect growth regulators (IGRs) was undertaken to provide a better understanding of the mechanism of action. Based on the IGR bioassay, pyriproxyfen was the most potent IGR insecticide tested (EC50=0.0019ng/ml). However, the lethal toxicity results indicate that diafenthiuron was the most potent insecticide (LC50=56ng/cm(2)) on A. aegypti adults after 24h of exposure. The same trend was true after 48 and 72h of exposure. Further, the synergistic effects of OR agonists plus amitraz (AMZ) or chlordimeform (CDM) was significant on adults. Among the tested synergists, AMZ increased the potency of the selected IGRs on adults the greatest. As results, OR agonists were largely synergistic with the selected IGRs. OR agonists enhanced the lethal toxicity of IGRs, which is a valuable new tool in the field of A. aegypti control. However, further field experiments need to be done to understand the unique potential role of OR agonists and their synergistic action on IGRs.

  12. Magnetospheric accretion in EX Lupi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, Peter; Kospal, Agnes; Bouvier, Jerome

    2016-08-01

    We propose to observe EX Lup, the prototype of the EXor class of young eruptive stars, in order to understand how the accretion process works in the quiescent system. Here, we request 2.6 hours of telescope time on Spitzer, to carry out a mid-infrared photometric monitoring, which we will supplement with simultaneous ground-based optical and near-infrared data. The multi-wavelength light curves will allow us to reliably separate the effects of fluctuating accretion rate from the rotation of the star. By analyzing the variations of the accretion rate we will determine whether EX Lup accretes through a few stable accretion columns or several short-lived random accretion streams. With this campaign, EX Lup will become one of the T Tauri systems where the accretion process is best understood.

  13. GLAST Observations of Pulsars and their Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, David J.

    2006-01-01

    Pulsars and pulsar wind nebulae seen at gamma-ray energies offer insight into particle acceleration to very high energies. Pulsed emission provides information about the geometry and interaction processes in the magnetospheres of these rotating neutron stars, while the pulsar wind nebulae yield information high-energy particles interacting with their surroundings. During the next decade, a number of new and expanded gamma-ray facilities will become available for pulsar studies. In particular, the GLAST Large Area Telescope, a successor to EGRET on the Compton Observatory, will provide an excellent complement to H.E.S.S. for the study of the highest-energy emissions powered by neutron stars.

  14. Pulsar discovery by global volunteer computing.

    PubMed

    Knispel, B; Allen, B; Cordes, J M; Deneva, J S; Anderson, D; Aulbert, C; Bhat, N D R; Bock, O; Bogdanov, S; Brazier, A; Camilo, F; Champion, D J; Chatterjee, S; Crawford, F; Demorest, P B; Fehrmann, H; Freire, P C C; Gonzalez, M E; Hammer, D; Hessels, J W T; Jenet, F A; Kasian, L; Kaspi, V M; Kramer, M; Lazarus, P; van Leeuwen, J; Lorimer, D R; Lyne, A G; Machenschalk, B; McLaughlin, M A; Messenger, C; Nice, D J; Papa, M A; Pletsch, H J; Prix, R; Ransom, S M; Siemens, X; Stairs, I H; Stappers, B W; Stovall, K; Venkataraman, A

    2010-09-10

    Einstein@Home aggregates the computer power of hundreds of thousands of volunteers from 192 countries to mine large data sets. It has now found a 40.8-hertz isolated pulsar in radio survey data from the Arecibo Observatory taken in February 2007. Additional timing observations indicate that this pulsar is likely a disrupted recycled pulsar. PSR J2007+2722's pulse profile is remarkably wide with emission over almost the entire spin period; the pulsar likely has closely aligned magnetic and spin axes. The massive computing power provided by volunteers should enable many more such discoveries.

  15. Hot Accretion Disks Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjoernsson, Gunnlaugur; Abramowicz, Marek A.; Chen, Xingming; Lasota, Jean-Pierre

    1996-08-01

    All previous studies of hot (Tp 1010-1012 K), optically thin accretion disks have neglected either the presence of e+ e- pairs or advective cooling. Thus all hot disk models constructed previously have not been self-consistent. In this paper we calculate local disk models including pair physics, relevant radiative processes in the hot plasma, and the effect of advective cooling. We use a modification of the Björnsson & Svensson mapping method. We find that the role of e+ e- pairs in the structure of hot, optically thin accretion disks is far less significant than was previously thought. The improved description of the radiation-matter interactions provided in the present paper modify the previously obtained values of the critical parameters characterizing advectively dominated flows.

  16. Accretion of southern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hillhouse, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Paleomagnetic data from southern Alaska indicate that the Wrangellia and Peninsular terranes collided with central Alaska probably by 65 Ma ago and certainly no later than 55 Ma ago. The accretion of these terranes to the mainland was followed by the arrival of the Ghost Rocks volcanic assemblage at the southern margin of Kodiak Island. Poleward movement of these terranes can be explained by rapid motion of the Kula oceanic plate, mainly from 85 to 43 Ma ago, according to recent reconstructions derived from the hot-spot reference frame. After accretion, much of southwestern Alaska underwent a counterclockwise rotation of about 50 ?? as indicated by paleomagnetic poles from volcanic rocks of Late Cretaceous and Early Tertiary age. Compression between North America and Asia during opening of the North Atlantic (68-44 Ma ago) may account for the rotation. ?? 1987.

  17. Massive star formation by accretion. I. Disc accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haemmerlé, L.; Eggenberger, P.; Meynet, G.; Maeder, A.; Charbonnel, C.

    2016-01-01

    Context. Massive stars likely form by accretion and the evolutionary track of an accreting forming star corresponds to what is called the birthline in the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram. The shape of this birthline is quite sensitive to the evolution of the entropy in the accreting star. Aims: We first study the reasons why some birthlines published in past years present different behaviours for a given accretion rate. We then revisit the question of the accretion rate, which allows us to understand the distribution of the observed pre-main-sequence (pre-MS) stars in the HR diagram. Finally, we identify the conditions needed to obtain a large inflation of the star along its pre-MS evolution that may push the birthline towards the Hayashi line in the upper part of the HR diagram. Methods: We present new pre-MS models including accretion at various rates and for different initial structures of the accreting core. We compare them with previously published equivalent models. From the observed upper envelope of pre-MS stars in the HR diagram, we deduce the accretion law that best matches the accretion history of most of the intermediate-mass stars. Results: In the numerical computation of the time derivative of the entropy, some treatment leads to an artificial loss of entropy and thus reduces the inflation that the accreting star undergoes along the birthline. In the case of cold disc accretion, the existence of a significant swelling during the accretion phase, which leads to radii ≳ 100 R⊙ and brings the star back to the red part of the HR diagram, depends sensitively on the initial conditions. For an accretion rate of 10-3M⊙ yr-1, only models starting from a core with a significant radiative region evolve back to the red part of the HR diagram. We also obtain that, in order to reproduce the observed upper envelope of pre-MS stars in the HR diagram with an accretion law deduced from the observed mass outflows in ultra-compact HII regions, the fraction of the

  18. Accretion of the Earth.

    PubMed

    Canup, Robin M

    2008-11-28

    The origin of the Earth and its Moon has been the focus of an enormous body of research. In this paper I review some of the current models of terrestrial planet accretion, and discuss assumptions common to most works that may require re-examination. Density-wave interactions between growing planets and the gas nebula may help to explain the current near-circular orbits of the Earth and Venus, and may result in large-scale radial migration of proto-planetary embryos. Migration would weaken the link between the present locations of the planets and the original provenance of the material that formed them. Fragmentation can potentially lead to faster accretion and could also damp final planet orbital eccentricities. The Moon-forming impact is believed to be the final major event in the Earth's accretion. Successful simulations of lunar-forming impacts involve a differentiated impactor containing between 0.1 and 0.2 Earth masses, an impact angle near 45 degrees and an impact speed within 10 per cent of the Earth's escape velocity. All successful impacts-with or without pre-impact rotation-imply that the Moon formed primarily from material originating from the impactor rather than from the proto-Earth. This must ultimately be reconciled with compositional similarities between the Earth and the Moon. PMID:18826928

  19. Accretion of the Earth.

    PubMed

    Canup, Robin M

    2008-11-28

    The origin of the Earth and its Moon has been the focus of an enormous body of research. In this paper I review some of the current models of terrestrial planet accretion, and discuss assumptions common to most works that may require re-examination. Density-wave interactions between growing planets and the gas nebula may help to explain the current near-circular orbits of the Earth and Venus, and may result in large-scale radial migration of proto-planetary embryos. Migration would weaken the link between the present locations of the planets and the original provenance of the material that formed them. Fragmentation can potentially lead to faster accretion and could also damp final planet orbital eccentricities. The Moon-forming impact is believed to be the final major event in the Earth's accretion. Successful simulations of lunar-forming impacts involve a differentiated impactor containing between 0.1 and 0.2 Earth masses, an impact angle near 45 degrees and an impact speed within 10 per cent of the Earth's escape velocity. All successful impacts-with or without pre-impact rotation-imply that the Moon formed primarily from material originating from the impactor rather than from the proto-Earth. This must ultimately be reconciled with compositional similarities between the Earth and the Moon.

  20. Accretion disk coronae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, N. E.; Holt, S. S.

    1981-01-01

    Recent observations of partial X-ray eclipses from 4U1822-37 have shown that the central X-ray source in this system is diffused by a large Compton-thick accretion disk corona (ADC). Another binary, 4U2129-47, also displays a partial eclipse and contains an ADC. The possible origin of an ADC is discussed and a simple hydrostatic evaporated ADC model is developed which, when applied to 4U1822-37, 4U2129+47 and Cyg X-3, can explain their temporal and spectral properties. The quasi-sinusoidal modulation of all three sources can be reconciled with the partial occultation of the ADC by a bulge at the edge of the accretion disk which is caused by the inflowing material. The height of this bulge is an order of magnitude larger than the hydrostatic disk height and is the result of turbulence in the outer region of the disk. The spectral properties of all three sources can be understood in terms of Compton scattering of the original source spectrum by the ADC. Spectral variations with epoch in Cyg X-3 are probably caused by changes in the optical depth of the corona. A consequence of our model is that any accreting neutron star X-ray source in a semi-detached binary system which is close to its Eddington limit most likely contains an optically thick ADC.

  1. A 23 hour EXOSAT observation of the X-ray pulsar 1E2259+586 and the associated supernova remnant G109.1-1.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, C. G.; Dennerl, K.; Coe, M. J.; Davies, S. R.

    1987-09-01

    The X-ray pulsar, 1E2259+586, and the associated supernova remnant, G109.1-1.0 were observed with the EXOSAT on 1984 December 1/2. The pulse period at this epoch was 6.978720 + or - 0.000006 (1 sigma) s, indicating that between 1981 and 1984 the pulsar was spinning down with an average secular rate of change of the spin period given by P dot/P = +(3.3 + or - 0.2) x 0.000001/yr. The pulse shape is stable on a time-scale of hours and shows energy dependence. Measured P dot is sufficiently small to exclude the possibility that this source is an isolated pulsar powered by rotational energy losses and so the pulsar is probably powered by accretion from a low mass companion. In the context of theories of accretion disk torques, 1E2259+586 is a fast rotator spinning at close to its equilibrium period. Data are not compatible with the 2300 s binary orbital solution reported by Fahlman and Gregory (1983) and analysis shows that the axsin(i) for this system less than or = to 160 lt-msec (3 sigma upper limit). The pulsed spectrum of 1E2259+586 is softer than that of any other known binary X-ray pulsar. Spectral fits indicate a thermal bremsstrahlung temperature of 1 keV or a power law photon index of 3.5.

  2. Pair-Starved Pulsar Magnetospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muslimov, Alex G.; Harding, Alice K.

    2009-01-01

    We propose a simple analytic model for the innermost (within the light cylinder of canonical radius, approx. c/Omega) structure of open-magnetic-field lines of a rotating neutron star (NS) with relativistic outflow of charged particles (electrons/positrons) and arbitrary angle between the NS spin and magnetic axes. We present the self-consistent solution of Maxwell's equations for the magnetic field and electric current in the pair-starved regime where the density of electron-positron plasma generated above the pulsar polar cap is not sufficient to completely screen the accelerating electric field and thus establish thee E . B = 0 condition above the pair-formation front up to the very high altitudes within the light cylinder. The proposed mode1 may provide a theoretical framework for developing the refined model of the global pair-starved pulsar magnetosphere.

  3. Particle acceleration in pulsar magnetospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, K. B.

    1978-01-01

    The structure of pulsar magnetospheres and the acceleration mechanism for charged particles in the magnetosphere was studied using a pulsar model which required large acceleration of the particles near the surface of the star. A theorem was developed which showed that particle acceleration cannot be expected when the angle between the magnetic field lines and the rotation axis is constant (e.g. radial field lines). If this angle is not constant, however, acceleration must occur. The more realistic model of an axisymmetric neutron star with a strong dipole magnetic field aligned with the rotation axis was investigated. In this case, acceleration occurred at large distances from the surface of the star. The magnitude of the current can be determined using the model presented. In the case of nonaxisymmetric systems, the acceleration is expected to occur nearer to the surface of the star.

  4. The ecological impact of four IGR insecticides in adults of Hyposoter didymator (Hym., Ichneumonidae): pharmacokinetics approach.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Marcela; Smagghe, Guy; Pineda, Samuel; Viñuela, Elisa

    2008-04-01

    Adults of the parasitoid Hyposoter didymator were topically treated with four insect growth regulator (IGR) insecticides at different doses, including their respective maximum field recommended concentrations (MFRCs) [registered in Spain or recommended by manufacturers]. Methoxyfenozide and tebufenozide (100, 500 and 1,000 mg/l) did not affect any life parameter or the first parasitoid's offspring. In contrast, diflubenzuron (100, 500 and 1,000 mg/l) and pyriproxyfen (75, 500 and 1,000 mg/l) caused sublethal effects, decreasing the offspring emergence as a result of the parasitoid mortality during its immature stages inside the host and the life span of female offspring. In a second part, pharmacokinetic studies using a (14)C isotope of each IGR showed similar patterns of penetration through the cuticle, but different absorption and distribution rates inside the insect body. Cuticular penetration of pyriproxyfen reached about 99% in 3 days and those of diflubenzuron, methoxyfenozide and tebufenozide ranged from 82% to 86%. All insecticides were recovered from the reproductive system of insects and eggs. For pyriproxyfen and diflubenzuron absorption in the adult body tissues reach >65%, whereas this was only 40% for tebufenozide and methoxyfenozide. No statistical differences were found between sexes. The current data reflect that several mechanisms are likely to be involved in the selectivity of these products towards this parasitoid.

  5. Space Nuclear Facility test capability at the Baikal-1 and IGR sites Semipalatinsk-21, Kazakhstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, T. J.; Stanley, M. L.; Martinell, J. S.

    1993-01-01

    The International Space Technology Assessment Program was established 1/19/92 to take advantage of the availability of Russian space technology and hardware. DOE had two delegations visit CIS and assess its space nuclear power and propulsion technologies. The visit coincided with the Conference on Nuclear Power Engineering in Space Nuclear Rocket Engines at Semipalatinsk-21 (Kurchatov, Kazakhstan) on Sept. 22-25, 1992. Reactor facilities assessed in Semipalatinski-21 included the IVG-1 reactor (a nuclear furnace, which has been modified and now called IVG-1M), the RA reactor, and the Impulse Graphite Reactor (IGR), the CIS version of TREAT. Although the reactor facilities are being maintained satisfactorily, the support infrastructure appears to be degrading. The group assessment is based on two half-day tours of the Baikals-1 test facility and a brief (2 hr) tour of IGR; because of limited time and the large size of the tour group, it was impossible to obtain answers to all prepared questions. Potential benefit is that CIS fuels and facilities may permit USA to conduct a lower priced space nuclear propulsion program while achieving higher performance capability faster, and immediate access to test facilities that cannot be available in this country for 5 years. Information needs to be obtained about available data acquisition capability, accuracy, frequency response, and number of channels. Potential areas of interest with broad application in the U.S. nuclear industry are listed.

  6. Gamma-Ray Pulsar Revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caraveo, Patrizia A.

    2014-08-01

    Isolated neutron stars (INSs) were the first sources identified in the field of high-energy gamma-ray astronomy. In the 1970s, only two sources had been identified, the Crab and Vela pulsars. However, although few in number, these objects were crucial in establishing the very concept of a gamma-ray source. Moreover, they opened up significant discovery space in both the theoretical and phenomenological fronts. The need to explain the copious gamma-ray emission of these pulsars led to breakthrough developments in understanding the structure and physics of neutron star (NS) magnetospheres. In parallel, the 20-year-long chase to understand the nature of Geminga unveiled the existence of a radio-quiet, gamma-ray-emitting INS, adding a new dimension to the INS family. We are living through an extraordinary time of discovery. The current generation of gamma-ray detectors has vastly increased the population of known gamma-ray-emitting NSs. The 100 mark was crossed in 2011, and we are now over 150. The gamma-ray-emitting NS population exhibits roughly equal numbers of radio-loud and radio-quiet young INSs, plus an astonishing, and unexpected, group of isolated and binary millisecond pulsars (MSPs). The number of MSPs is growing so rapidly that they are on their way to becoming the most numerous members of the family of gamma-ray-emitting NSs. Even as these findings have set the stage for a revolution in our understanding of gamma-ray-emitting NSs, long-term monitoring of the gamma-ray sky has revealed evidence of flux variability in the Crab Nebula as well as in the pulsed emission from PSR J2021+4026, challenging a four-decades-old, constant-emission paradigm. Now we know that both pulsars and their nebulae can, indeed, display variable emission.

  7. Mass Accretion Rate of Rotating Viscous Accretion Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Myeong-Gu

    2009-11-01

    The mass accretion rate of transonic spherical accretion flow onto compact objects such as black holes is known as the Bondi accretion rate, which is determined only by the density and the temperature of gas at the outer boundary. A rotating accretion flow has angular momentum, which modifies the flow profile from the spherical Bondi flow, and hence its mass accretion rate, but most work on disc accretion has taken the mass flux to be given with the relation between that parameter and external conditions left uncertain. Within the framework of a slim α disk, we have constructed global solutions of the rotating, viscous, hot accretion flow in the Paczyński-Wiita potential and determined its mass accretion rate as a function of density, temperature, and angular momentum of gas at the outer boundary. We find that the low angular momentum flow resembles the spherical Bondi flow and its mass accretion rate approaches the Bondi accretion rate for the same density and temperature at the outer boundary. The high angular momentum flow on the other hand is the conventional hot accretion disk with advection, but its mass accretion rate can be significantly smaller than the Bondi accretion rate with the same boundary conditions. We also find that solutions exist only within a limited range of dimensionless mass accretion rate \\dot{m} ≡ \\dot{M}/\\dot{M}_B, where \\dot{M} is the mass accretion rate and \\dot{M}_B is the Bondi accretion rate: when the temperature at the outer boundary is equal to the virial temperature, solutions exist only for 0.05 ≲ \\dot{m} ≤ 1 when α = 0.01. We also find that the dimensionless mass accretion rate is roughly independent of the radius of the outer boundary but inversely proportional to the angular momentum at the outer boundary and proportional to the viscosity parameter, \\dot{m} ≃ 9.0 α λ^{-1} when 0.1 ≲ \\dot{m} ≲ 1, where the dimensionless angular momentum measure λ ≡ l out/lB is the specific angular momentum of gas at

  8. MASS ACCRETION RATE OF ROTATING VISCOUS ACCRETION FLOW

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Myeong-Gu

    2009-11-20

    The mass accretion rate of transonic spherical accretion flow onto compact objects such as black holes is known as the Bondi accretion rate, which is determined only by the density and the temperature of gas at the outer boundary. A rotating accretion flow has angular momentum, which modifies the flow profile from the spherical Bondi flow, and hence its mass accretion rate, but most work on disc accretion has taken the mass flux to be given with the relation between that parameter and external conditions left uncertain. Within the framework of a slim alpha disk, we have constructed global solutions of the rotating, viscous, hot accretion flow in the Paczynski-Wiita potential and determined its mass accretion rate as a function of density, temperature, and angular momentum of gas at the outer boundary. We find that the low angular momentum flow resembles the spherical Bondi flow and its mass accretion rate approaches the Bondi accretion rate for the same density and temperature at the outer boundary. The high angular momentum flow on the other hand is the conventional hot accretion disk with advection, but its mass accretion rate can be significantly smaller than the Bondi accretion rate with the same boundary conditions. We also find that solutions exist only within a limited range of dimensionless mass accretion rate m-dotident toM-dot/M-dot{sub B}, where M-dot is the mass accretion rate and M-dot{sub B} is the Bondi accretion rate: when the temperature at the outer boundary is equal to the virial temperature, solutions exist only for 0.05approxaccretion rate is roughly independent of the radius of the outer boundary but inversely proportional to the angular momentum at the outer boundary and proportional to the viscosity parameter, m-dotapprox =9.0 alphalambda{sup -1} when 0.1 approx

  9. Searching for Pulsars Using Image Pattern Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, W. W.; Berndsen, A.; Madsen, E. C.; Tan, M.; Stairs, I. H.; Brazier, A.; Lazarus, P.; Lynch, R.; Scholz, P.; Stovall, K.; Ransom, S. M.; Banaszak, S.; Biwer, C. M.; Cohen, S.; Dartez, L. P.; Flanigan, J.; Lunsford, G.; Martinez, J. G.; Mata, A.; Rohr, M.; Walker, A.; Allen, B.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Bogdanov, S.; Camilo, F.; Chatterjee, S.; Cordes, J. M.; Crawford, F.; Deneva, J. S.; Desvignes, G.; Ferdman, R. D.; Freire, P. C. C.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Jenet, F. A.; Kaplan, D. L.; Kaspi, V. M.; Knispel, B.; Lee, K. J.; van Leeuwen, J.; Lyne, A. G.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Siemens, X.; Spitler, L. G.; Venkataraman, A.

    2014-02-01

    In the modern era of big data, many fields of astronomy are generating huge volumes of data, the analysis of which can sometimes be the limiting factor in research. Fortunately, computer scientists have developed powerful data-mining techniques that can be applied to various fields. In this paper, we present a novel artificial intelligence (AI) program that identifies pulsars from recent surveys by using image pattern recognition with deep neural nets—the PICS (Pulsar Image-based Classification System) AI. The AI mimics human experts and distinguishes pulsars from noise and interference by looking for patterns from candidate plots. Different from other pulsar selection programs that search for expected patterns, the PICS AI is taught the salient features of different pulsars from a set of human-labeled candidates through machine learning. The training candidates are collected from the Pulsar Arecibo L-band Feed Array (PALFA) survey. The information from each pulsar candidate is synthesized in four diagnostic plots, which consist of image data with up to thousands of pixels. The AI takes these data from each candidate as its input and uses thousands of such candidates to train its ~9000 neurons. The deep neural networks in this AI system grant it superior ability to recognize various types of pulsars as well as their harmonic signals. The trained AI's performance has been validated with a large set of candidates from a different pulsar survey, the Green Bank North Celestial Cap survey. In this completely independent test, the PICS ranked 264 out of 277 pulsar-related candidates, including all 56 previously known pulsars and 208 of their harmonics, in the top 961 (1%) of 90,008 test candidates, missing only 13 harmonics. The first non-pulsar candidate appears at rank 187, following 45 pulsars and 141 harmonics. In other words, 100% of the pulsars were ranked in the top 1% of all candidates, while 80% were ranked higher than any noise or interference. The

  10. Searching for pulsars using image pattern recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, W. W.; Berndsen, A.; Madsen, E. C.; Tan, M.; Stairs, I. H.; Brazier, A.; Lazarus, P.; Lynch, R.; Scholz, P.; Stovall, K.; Cohen, S.; Dartez, L. P.; Lunsford, G.; Martinez, J. G.; Mata, A.; Ransom, S. M.; Banaszak, S.; Biwer, C. M.; Flanigan, J.; Rohr, M. E-mail: berndsen@phas.ubc.ca; and others

    2014-02-01

    In the modern era of big data, many fields of astronomy are generating huge volumes of data, the analysis of which can sometimes be the limiting factor in research. Fortunately, computer scientists have developed powerful data-mining techniques that can be applied to various fields. In this paper, we present a novel artificial intelligence (AI) program that identifies pulsars from recent surveys by using image pattern recognition with deep neural nets—the PICS (Pulsar Image-based Classification System) AI. The AI mimics human experts and distinguishes pulsars from noise and interference by looking for patterns from candidate plots. Different from other pulsar selection programs that search for expected patterns, the PICS AI is taught the salient features of different pulsars from a set of human-labeled candidates through machine learning. The training candidates are collected from the Pulsar Arecibo L-band Feed Array (PALFA) survey. The information from each pulsar candidate is synthesized in four diagnostic plots, which consist of image data with up to thousands of pixels. The AI takes these data from each candidate as its input and uses thousands of such candidates to train its ∼9000 neurons. The deep neural networks in this AI system grant it superior ability to recognize various types of pulsars as well as their harmonic signals. The trained AI's performance has been validated with a large set of candidates from a different pulsar survey, the Green Bank North Celestial Cap survey. In this completely independent test, the PICS ranked 264 out of 277 pulsar-related candidates, including all 56 previously known pulsars and 208 of their harmonics, in the top 961 (1%) of 90,008 test candidates, missing only 13 harmonics. The first non-pulsar candidate appears at rank 187, following 45 pulsars and 141 harmonics. In other words, 100% of the pulsars were ranked in the top 1% of all candidates, while 80% were ranked higher than any noise or interference. The

  11. Pulsars at TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, P.

    1994-04-01

    The atmospheric Cerenkov technique is used to search for emission at energies above several hundred GeV from a variety of objects, including pulsars (see, e.g., reviews by Weekes, 1988, Phys. Rep., 160, 1; Weekes, 1992, Sp. Sci. Rev., 59, 315). Claims for TeV emission (from any source) should be of high significance, show gamma-ray-like properties, and be independently confirmed. By these criteria the Crab nebula is currently the only established pulsar-driven system to be observed at TeV energies (Weekes et al., 1989, Astrophys. J., 342, 379; Vacanti et al., 1991, Astrophys. J., 377, 467; Goret et al., 1993, Astron. Astrophys., 270, 401). The gamma-ray signal is not pulsed at TeV energies, leading to models of synchrotron self-Compton emission from the Crab nebula (e.g., De Jager and Harding, 1992, Astrophys. J., 396, 161), although other models have also been proposed (Kwok et al., 1991, Astrophys. J., 379, 653). While claims exist for TeV emission from, amongst others, the Vela pulsar (e.g., Bhat et al., 1987, Astron. Astrophys., 178, 242, Geminga (Vishwanath et al., 1993, Astron. Astrophys., 267, L5; Bowden et al., 1993, J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys., 19, L29), and PSR 1509-58 (Nel et al., 1992, Astrophys. pulsars have high values of E-dot/d2 (due to their proximity) and are thus potentially observable TeV sources. *The detection of TeV gamma-rays from millisecond pulsars has been considered recently by Smith (1993, Astrophys. -J., 408, 468).

  12. HYPERCRITICAL ACCRETION ONTO A NEWBORN NEUTRON STAR AND MAGNETIC FIELD SUBMERGENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Bernal, Cristian G.; Page, Dany; Lee, William H. E-mail: page@astro.unam.mx

    2013-06-20

    We present magnetohydrodynamic numerical simulations of the late post-supernova hypercritical accretion to understand its effect on the magnetic field of the newborn neutron star. We consider as an example the case of a magnetic field loop protruding from the star's surface. The accreting matter is assumed to be non-magnetized, and, due to the high accretion rate, matter pressure dominates over magnetic pressure. We find that an accretion envelope develops very rapidly, and once it becomes convectively stable, the magnetic field is easily buried and pushed into the newly forming neutron star crust. However, for low enough accretion rates the accretion envelope remains convective for an extended period of time and only partial submergence of the magnetic field occurs due to a residual field that is maintained at the interface between the forming crust and the convective envelope. In this latter case, the outcome should be a weakly magnetized neutron star with a likely complicated field geometry. In our simulations we find the transition from total to partial submergence to occur around M-dot {approx}10 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}. Back-diffusion of the submerged magnetic field toward the surface, and the resulting growth of the dipolar component, may result in a delayed switch-on of a pulsar on timescales of centuries to millennia.

  13. Quasi-spherical accretion in High Mass X-ray Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postnov, Konstantin

    2016-07-01

    Quasi-spherical accreion onto magnetized neutron stars from stellar winds in high-mass X-ray binaries is discussed. Depending on the X-ray luminosity of the neutron star, the accretion can proceed in two regimes (modes): at L_x ≳ 4× 10^{36} erg/s, Compton cooling of accreting matter near magnetosphere leads to a supersonic (Bondi) accretion, while at smaller X-ray luminosity the Compton cooling is ineffective, and subsonic settling accretion regime sets in. In this regime, a hot convective shell is formed around the magnetosphere, and the plasma entry rate into magnetosphere is controlled by less effective radiative plasma cooling. The shell mediates the angular momentum transfer from/to the neutron star magnetosphere. Observational evidences for the different accretion regimes in slowly rotating X-ray pulsars with moderate and low X-ray luminosity, as well as possible manifestations of non-stationary quasi-spherical settling accretion due to the magnetospheric shell instability in Supergiant Fast X-ray Transients will be presented.

  14. Braking index of isolated pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamil, O.; Stone, J. R.; Urbanec, M.; Urbancová, G.

    2015-03-01

    Isolated pulsars are rotating neutron stars with accurately measured angular velocities Ω , and their time derivatives that show unambiguously that the pulsars are slowing down. Although the exact mechanism of the spin-down is a question of detailed debate, the commonly accepted view is that it arises through emission of magnetic dipole radiation (MDR) from a rotating magnetized body. Other processes, including the emission of gravitational radiation, and of relativistic particles (pulsar wind), are also being considered. The calculated energy loss by a rotating pulsar with a constant moment of inertia is assumed proportional to a model dependent power of Ω . This relation leads to the power law Ω ˙ =-K Ωn where n is called the braking index. The MDR model predicts n exactly equal to 3. Selected observations of isolated pulsars provide rather precise values of n , individually accurate to a few percent or better, in the range 1

  15. Launching jets from accretion belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreier, Ron; Soker, Noam

    2016-05-01

    We propose that sub-Keplerian accretion belts around stars might launch jets. The sub-Keplerian inflow does not form a rotationally supported accretion disk, but it rather reaches the accreting object from a wide solid angle. The basic ingredients of the flow are a turbulent region where the accretion belt interacts with the accreting object via a shear layer, and two avoidance regions on the poles where the accretion rate is very low. A dynamo that is developed in the shear layer amplifies magnetic fields to high values. It is likely that the amplified magnetic fields form polar outflows from the avoidance regions. Our speculative belt-launched jets model has implications on a rich variety of astrophysical objects, from the removal of common envelopes to the explosion of core collapse supernovae by jittering jets.

  16. Radio polarimetry of Galactic Centre pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnitzeler, D. H. F. M.; Eatough, R. P.; Ferrière, K.; Kramer, M.; Lee, K. J.; Noutsos, A.; Shannon, R. M.

    2016-07-01

    To study the strength and structure of the magnetic field in the Galactic Centre (GC), we measured Faraday rotation of the radio emission of pulsars which are seen towards the GC. Three of these pulsars have the largest rotation measures (RMs) observed in any Galactic object with the exception of Sgr A⋆. Their large dispersion measures, RMs and the large RM variation between these pulsars and other known objects in the GC implies that the pulsars lie in the GC and are not merely seen in projection towards the GC. The large RMs of these pulsars indicate large line-of-sight magnetic field components between ˜ 16 and 33 μG; combined with recent model predictions for the strength of the magnetic field in the GC this implies that the large-scale magnetic field has a very small inclination angle with respect to the plane of the sky (˜12°). Foreground objects like the Radio Arc or possibly an ablated, ionized halo around the molecular cloud G0.11-0.11 could contribute to the large RMs of two of the pulsars. If these pulsars lie behind the Radio Arc or G0.11-0.11 then this proves that low-scattering corridors with lengths ≳100 pc must exist in the GC. This also suggests that future, sensitive observations will be able to detect additional pulsars in the GC. Finally, we show that the GC component in our most accurate electron density model oversimplifies structure in the GC.

  17. The Binary Pulsar: Gravity Waves Exist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Will, Clifford

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the history of pulsars generally and the 1974 discovery of the binary pulsar by Joe Taylor and Russell Hulse specifically. Details the data collection and analysis used by Taylor and Hulse. Uses this discussion as support for Albert Einstein's theory of gravitational waves. (CW)

  18. Radio-quiet Gamma-ray Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Lupin Chun-Che

    2016-09-01

    A radio-quiet γ-ray pulsar is a neutron star that has significant γ-ray pulsation but without observed radio emission or only limited emission detected by high sensitivity radio surveys. The launch of the Fermi spacecraft in 2008 opened a new epoch to study the population of these pulsars. In the 2nd Fermi Large Area Telescope catalog of γ-ray pulsars, there are 35 (30 % of the 117 pulsars in the catalog) known samples classified as radio-quiet γ-ray pulsars with radio flux density (S1400) of less than 30 μJy. Accompanying the observations obtained in various wavelengths, astronomers not only have the opportunity to study the emitting nature of radio-quiet γ-ray pulsars but also have proposed different models to explain their radiation mechanism. This article will review the history of the discovery, the emission properties, and the previous efforts to study pulsars in this population. Some particular cases known as Geminga-like pulsars (e.g., PSR J0633+1746, PSR J0007+7303, PSR J2021+4026, and so on) are also specified to discuss their common and specific features.

  19. The "Perseus Arm" Multibeam pulsar survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyne, Andrew; Possenti, Andrea; Manchester, Dick; Kramer, Michael; Hobbs, George; McLaughlin, Maura; Burgay, Marta; D'Amico, Nichi; Camilo, Fernando; Stairs, Ingrid; Keith, Michael; Lorimer, Duncan Ross

    2007-04-01

    Given the extremely fruitful results of the completed Parkes Multibeam Pulsar Survey, Parkes Multibeam High Latitude Pulsar Survey, and Parkes Multibeam Intermediate Latitude Swinburne Survey, we have undertaken a new deep search for pulsars, sampling the galactic plane in the direction of the Perseus Arm at galactic coordinates 200 deg pulsar population and in particular improving the knowledge of the poorly known radial distribution of the pulsars in the outer regions of the Galaxy disk. Given the survey parameters and the sky coverage, this search will lead to the discovery of few tens of sources, with a good discovery rate (twice higher than for the two most recent large-scale searches performed at Parkes) and with a favorable ratio of millisecond over longer period pulsars. The requested range of Sidereal Time is complementary to other pulsar projects. We propose to continue this project, concluding the survey observations during this APR07 semester and timing the discovered pulsars.

  20. The "Perseus Arm" Multibeam pulsar survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyne, Andrew; Possenti, Andrea; Manchester, Dick; Kramer, Michael; Hobbs, George; McLaughlin, Maura; Burgay, Marta; D'Amico, Nichi; Camilo, Fernando; Stairs, Ingrid; Lorimer, Duncan Ross

    2006-04-01

    Given the extremely fruitful results of the completed Parkes Multibeam Pulsar Survey, Parkes Multibeam High Latitude Pulsar Survey, and Parkes Multibeam Intermediate Latitude Swinburne Survey, we have undertaken a new deep search for pulsars, sampling the galactic plane in the direction of the Perseus Arm at galactic coordinates 200 deg pulsar population and in particular improving the knowledge of the poorly known radial distribution of the pulsars in the outer regions of the Galaxy disk. Given the survey parameters and the sky coverage, this search will lead to the discovery of few tens of sources, with a good discovery rate (twice higher than for the two most recent large-scale searches performed at Parkes) and with a favorable ratio of millisecond over longer period pulsars. The requested range of Sidereal Time is complementary to other pulsar projects. We propose to continue this project and start the timing observations of the discovered pulsars.

  1. The "Perseus Arm" Multibeam pulsar survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyne, Andrew; Possenti, Andrea; Manchester, Dick; Kramer, Michael; Hobbs, George; McLaughlin, Maura; Burgay, Marta; D'Amico, Nichi; Camilo, Fernando; Stairs, Ingrid; Lorimer, Duncan Ross

    2006-10-01

    Given the extremely fruitful results of the completed Parkes Multibeam Pulsar Survey, Parkes Multibeam High Latitude Pulsar Survey, and Parkes Multibeam Intermediate Latitude Swinburne Survey, we have undertaken a new deep search for pulsars, sampling the galactic plane in the direction of the Perseus Arm at galactic coordinates 200 deg pulsar population and in particular improving the knowledge of the poorly known radial distribution of the pulsars in the outer regions of the Galaxy disk. Given the survey parameters and the sky coverage, this search will lead to the discovery of few tens of sources, with a good discovery rate (twice higher than for the two most recent large-scale searches performed at Parkes) and with a favorable ratio of millisecond over longer period pulsars. The requested range of Sidereal Time is complementary to other pulsar projects. We propose to continue this project and start the timing observations of the discovered pulsars.

  2. The "Perseus Arm" Multibeam pulsar survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyne, Andrew; Possenti, Andrea; Manchester, Dick; Kramer, Michael; Hobbs, George; McLaughlin, Maura; Burgay, Marta; D'Amico, Nichi; Camilo, Fernando; Stairs, Ingrid; Keith, Michael; Lorimer, Duncan Ross

    2007-10-01

    Given the extremely fruitful results of the completed Parkes Multibeam Pulsar Survey, Parkes Multibeam High Latitude Pulsar Survey, and Parkes Multibeam Intermediate Latitude Swinburne Survey, we have undertaken a new deep search for pulsars, sampling the galactic plane in the direction of the Perseus Arm at galactic coordinates 200 deg pulsar population and in particular improving the knowledge of the poorly known radial distribution of the pulsars in the outer regions of the Galaxy disk. Given the survey parameters and the sky coverage, this search will lead to the discovery of few tens of sources, with a good discovery rate (twice higher than for the two most recent large-scale searches performed at Parkes) and with a favorable ratio of millisecond over longer period pulsars. The requested range of Sidereal Time is complementary to other pulsar projects. We propose to continue this project, concluding the survey observations during this OCT07 semester and timing the discovered pulsars.

  3. Neutron Stars and the Discovery of Pulsars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenstein, George

    1985-01-01

    Part one recounted the story of the discovery of pulsars and examined the Crab Nebula, supernovae, and neutron stars. This part (experts from the book "Frozen Star") shows how an understanding of the nature of pulsars allowed astronomers to tie these together. (JN)

  4. Identifying IGR J14091-6108 as a magnetic CV with a massive white dwarf using X-ray and optical observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomsick, John A.; Rahoui, Farid; Krivonos, Roman; Clavel, Maïca; Strader, Jay; Chomiuk, Laura

    2016-07-01

    INTEGRAL Gamma-Ray (IGR) J14091-6108 is a Galactic X-ray source known to have an iron emission line, a hard X-ray spectrum, and an optical counterpart. Here, we report on X-ray observations of the source with XMM-Newton and NuSTAR as well as optical spectroscopy with European Southern Obseratory/Very Large Telescope and National Optical Astronomy Observatory/Southern Astrophysical Research Telescope. In the X-rays, this provides data with much better statistical quality than the previous observations, and this is the first report of the optical spectrum. Timing analysis of the XMM data shows a very significant detection of 576.3 ± 0.6 s period. The signal has a pulsed fraction of 30 ± 3 per cent in the 0.3-12 keV range and shows a strong drop with energy. The optical spectra show strong emission lines with significant variability in the lines and continuum, indicating that they come from an irradiated accretion disc. Based on these measurements, we identify the source as a magnetic cataclysmic variable of intermediate polar (IP) type where the white dwarf spin period is 576.3 s. The X-ray spectrum is consistent with the continuum emission mechanism being due to thermal bremsstrahlung, but partial covering absorption and reflection are also required. In addition, we use the IP mass model, which suggests that the white dwarf in this system has a high mass, possibly approaching the Chandrasekhar limit.

  5. A new look at the origin of the 6.67 hr period X-ray pulsar 1E 161348-5055

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikhsanov, N. R.; Kim, V. Y.; Beskrovnaya, N. G.; Pustil'nik, L. A.

    2013-07-01

    The point X-ray source 1E 161348-5055 is observed to display pulsations with the period 6.67 hr and |dot{P}| ≤1.6 ×10^{-9} s s^{-1}. It is associated with the supernova remnant RCW 103 and is widely believed to be a ˜2000 yr old neutron star. Observations give no evidence for the star to be a member of a binary system. Nevertheless, it resembles an accretion-powered pulsar with the magnetospheric radius ˜3000 km and the mass-accretion rate ˜ 10^{14} g s^{-1}. This situation could be described in terms of accretion from a (residual) fossil disk established from the material falling back towards the star after its birth. However, current fall-back accretion scenarios encounter major difficulties explaining an extremely long spin period of the young neutron star. We show that the problems can be avoided if the accreting material is magnetized. The star in this case is surrounded by a fossil magnetic slab in which the material is confined by the magnetic field of the accretion flow itself. We find that the surface magnetic field of the neutron star within this scenario is ˜1012 G and that a presence of ≳10^{-7} M_{⊙} magnetic slab would be sufficient to explain the origin and current state of the pulsar.

  6. Pulsar prospects for the Cherenkov telescope array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, T.; Bonnefoy, S.; López, M.; Mirabal, N.; Barrio, J. A.; Contreras, J. L.; de los Reyes, R.; Wilhelmi, E. O.; Rudak, B.; CTA Consortium

    2012-12-01

    In the last few years, the Fermi-LAT telescope has discovered over a 100 pulsars at energies above 100 MeV, increasing the number of known gamma-ray pulsars by an order of magnitude. In parallel, imaging Cherenkov telescopes, such as MAGIC and VERITAS, have detected for the first time VHE pulsed gamma-rays from the Crab pulsar. Such detections have revealed that the Crab VHE spectrum follows a power-law up to at least 400 GeV, challenging most theoretical models, and opening wide possibilities of detecting more pulsars from the ground with the future Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). In this contribution, we study the capabilities of CTA for detecting Fermi pulsars. For this, we extrapolate their spectra with "Crab-like" power-law tails in the VHE range, as suggested by the latest MAGIC and VERITAS results.

  7. A radio pulsar spinning at 716 Hz.

    PubMed

    Hessels, Jason W T; Ransom, Scott M; Stairs, Ingrid H; Freire, Paulo C C; Kaspi, Victoria M; Camilo, Fernando

    2006-03-31

    We have discovered a 716-hertz eclipsing binary radio pulsar in the globular cluster Terzan 5 using the Green Bank Telescope. It is the fastest spinning neutron star found to date, breaking the 24-year record held by the 642-hertz pulsar B1937+21. The difficulty in detecting this pulsar, because of its very low flux density and high eclipse fraction (approximately 40% of the orbit), suggests that even faster spinning neutron stars exist. If the pulsar has a mass less than twice the mass of the Sun, then its radius must be constrained by the spin rate to be <16 kilometers. The short period of this pulsar also constrains models that suggest that gravitational radiation, through an r-mode (Rossby wave) instability, limits the maximum spin frequency of neutron stars.

  8. The Parkes Observatory Pulsar Data Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbs, G.; Miller, D.; Manchester, R. N.; Dempsey, J.; Chapman, J. M.; Khoo, J.; Applegate, J.; Bailes, M.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Bridle, R.; Borg, A.; Brown, A.; Burnett, C.; Camilo, F.; Cattalini, C.; Chaudhary, A.; Chen, R.; D'Amico, N.; Kedziora-Chudczer, L.; Cornwell, T.; George, R.; Hampson, G.; Hepburn, M.; Jameson, A.; Keith, M.; Kelly, T.; Kosmynin, A.; Lenc, E.; Lorimer, D.; Love, C.; Lyne, A.; McIntyre, V.; Morrissey, J.; Pienaar, M.; Reynolds, J.; Ryder, G.; Sarkissian, J.; Stevenson, A.; Treloar, A.; van Straten, W.; Whiting, M.; Wilson, G.

    2011-08-01

    The Parkes pulsar data archive currently provides access to 144044 data files obtained from observations carried out at the Parkes observatory since the year 1991. Around 105 files are from surveys of the sky, the remainder are observations of 775 individual pulsars and their corresponding calibration signals. Survey observations are included from the Parkes 70cm and the Swinburne Intermediate Latitude surveys. Individual pulsar observations are included from young pulsar timing projects, the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array and from the PULSE@Parkes outreach program. The data files and access methods are compatible with Virtual Observatory protocols. This paper describes the data currently stored in the archive and presents ways in which these data can be searched and downloaded.

  9. Possible evidence that pulsars are quark stars

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Renxin

    2008-01-10

    It is a pity that the real state of matter in pulsar-like stars is still not determined confidently because of the uncertainty about cold matter at supranuclear density, even 40 years after the discovery of pulsar. Nuclear matter (related to neutron stars) is one of the speculations for the inner constitution of pulsars even from the Landau's time more than 70 years ago, but quark matter (related to quark stars) is an alternative due to the fact of asymptotic freedom of interaction between quarks as the standard model of particle physics develops since 1960s. Therefore, one has to focus on astrophysical observations in order to answer what the nature of pulsars is. In this presentation, I would like to summarize possible observational evidence/hints that pulsar-like stars could be quark stars, and to address achievable clear evidence for quark stars in the future experiments.

  10. A radio pulsar spinning at 716 Hz.

    PubMed

    Hessels, Jason W T; Ransom, Scott M; Stairs, Ingrid H; Freire, Paulo C C; Kaspi, Victoria M; Camilo, Fernando

    2006-03-31

    We have discovered a 716-hertz eclipsing binary radio pulsar in the globular cluster Terzan 5 using the Green Bank Telescope. It is the fastest spinning neutron star found to date, breaking the 24-year record held by the 642-hertz pulsar B1937+21. The difficulty in detecting this pulsar, because of its very low flux density and high eclipse fraction (approximately 40% of the orbit), suggests that even faster spinning neutron stars exist. If the pulsar has a mass less than twice the mass of the Sun, then its radius must be constrained by the spin rate to be <16 kilometers. The short period of this pulsar also constrains models that suggest that gravitational radiation, through an r-mode (Rossby wave) instability, limits the maximum spin frequency of neutron stars. PMID:16410486

  11. Towards solving the pulsar timing sampling problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Haasteren, Rutger; Ellis, Justin; Vallisneri, Michele; Nanograv Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    Bayesian data analysis of Pulsar Timing Array (PTA) has proved to be a computationally challenging problem, with scaling relations that are super-linear in both the number of pulsars and the number of model parameters. Thus far, our best models cannot be used when analyzing full (international) pulsar timing array datasets in the search for gravitational waves, and shortcuts always need to be made. A promising approach in the literature, based on Hamiltonian sampling techniques, has been shown to be infeasible in realistic datasets due to phase transition behavior of the likelihood. We have introduced a coordinate transformation that mitigates this phase transition behavior, and makes Hamiltonian sampling efficient. This makes a full (stochastic) gravitational-wave search in pulsar timing data feasible with our most up-to-date models. This method scales almost linearly with the number of pulsars. Supported by NASA through Einstein fellowship PF3-140116.

  12. Turbulent Distortion of Condensate Accretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hazoume, R.; Orou Chabi, J.; Johnson, J. A., III

    1997-01-01

    When a simple model for the relationship between the density-temperature fluctuation correlation and mean values is used, we determine that the rate of change of turbulent intensity can influence directly the accretion rate of droplets. Considerable interest exists in the accretion rate for condensates in nonequilibrium flow with icing and the potential role which reactant accretion can play in nonequilibrium exothermic reactant processes. Turbulence is thought to play an important role in such flows. It has already been experimentally determined that turbulence influences the sizes of droplets in the heterogeneous nucleation of supersaturated vapors. This paper addresses the issue of the possible influence of turbulence on the accretion rate of droplets.

  13. Birth and Evolution of Isolated Radio Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Kaspi, Victoria M.

    2006-05-01

    We investigate the birth and evolution of Galactic isolated radio pulsars. We begin by estimating their birth space velocity distribution from proper-motion measurements of Brisken and coworkers. We find no evidence for multimodality of the distribution and favor one in which the absolute one-dimensional velocity components are exponentially distributed and with a three-dimensional mean velocity of 380+40-60 km s-1. We then proceed with a Monte Carlo-based population synthesis, modeling the birth properties of the pulsars, their time evolution, and their detection in the Parkes and Swinburne Multibeam surveys. We present a population model that appears generally consistent with the observations. Our results suggest that pulsars are born in the spiral arms, with a galactocentric radial distribution that is well described by the functional form proposed by Yusifov & Küçük, in which the pulsar surface density peaks at radius ~3 kpc. The birth spin period distribution extends to several hundred milliseconds, with no evidence of multimodality. Models that assume the radio luminosities of pulsars to be independent of the spin periods and period derivatives are inadequate, as they lead to the detection of too many old simulated pulsars in our simulations. Dithered radio luminosities proportional to the square root of the spin-down luminosity accommodate the observations well and provide a natural mechanism for the pulsars to dim uniformly as they approach the death line, avoiding an observed pileup on the latter. There is no evidence for significant torque decay (due to magnetic field decay or otherwise) over the lifetime of the pulsars as radio sources (~100 Myr). Finally, we estimate the pulsar birthrate and total number of pulsars in the Galaxy.

  14. EINSTEIN-HOME DISCOVERY OF 24 PULSARS IN THE PARKES MULTI-BEAM PULSAR SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Knispel, B.; Kim, H.; Allen, B.; Aulbert, C.; Bock, O.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Fehrmann, H.; Machenschalk, B.; Eatough, R. P.; Keane, E. F.; Kramer, M.; Anderson, D.; Crawford, F.; Rastawicki, D.; Hammer, D.; Papa, M. A.; Siemens, X.; Lyne, A. G.; Miller, R. B.; Sarkissian, J.; and others

    2013-09-10

    We have conducted a new search for radio pulsars in compact binary systems in the Parkes multi-beam pulsar survey (PMPS) data, employing novel methods to remove the Doppler modulation from binary motion. This has yielded unparalleled sensitivity to pulsars in compact binaries. The required computation time of Almost-Equal-To 17, 000 CPU core years was provided by the distributed volunteer computing project Einstein-Home, which has a sustained computing power of about 1 PFlop s{sup -1}. We discovered 24 new pulsars in our search, 18 of which were isolated pulsars, and 6 were members of binary systems. Despite the wide filterbank channels and relatively slow sampling time of the PMPS data, we found pulsars with very large ratios of dispersion measure (DM) to spin period. Among those is PSR J1748-3009, the millisecond pulsar with the highest known DM ( Almost-Equal-To 420 pc cm{sup -3}). We also discovered PSR J1840-0643, which is in a binary system with an orbital period of 937 days, the fourth largest known. The new pulsar J1750-2536 likely belongs to the rare class of intermediate-mass binary pulsars. Three of the isolated pulsars show long-term nulling or intermittency in their emission, further increasing this growing family. Our discoveries demonstrate the value of distributed volunteer computing for data-driven astronomy and the importance of applying new analysis methods to extensively searched data.

  15. Einstein@Home Discovery of 24 Pulsars in the Parkes Multi-beam Pulsar Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knispel, B.; Eatough, R. P.; Kim, H.; Keane, E. F.; Allen, B.; Anderson, D.; Aulbert, C.; Bock, O.; Crawford, F.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Fehrmann, H.; Hammer, D.; Kramer, M.; Lyne, A. G.; Machenschalk, B.; Miller, R. B.; Papa, M. A.; Rastawicki, D.; Sarkissian, J.; Siemens, X.; Stappers, B. W.

    2013-09-01

    We have conducted a new search for radio pulsars in compact binary systems in the Parkes multi-beam pulsar survey (PMPS) data, employing novel methods to remove the Doppler modulation from binary motion. This has yielded unparalleled sensitivity to pulsars in compact binaries. The required computation time of ≈17, 000 CPU core years was provided by the distributed volunteer computing project Einstein@Home, which has a sustained computing power of about 1 PFlop s-1. We discovered 24 new pulsars in our search, 18 of which were isolated pulsars, and 6 were members of binary systems. Despite the wide filterbank channels and relatively slow sampling time of the PMPS data, we found pulsars with very large ratios of dispersion measure (DM) to spin period. Among those is PSR J1748-3009, the millisecond pulsar with the highest known DM (≈420 pc cm-3). We also discovered PSR J1840-0643, which is in a binary system with an orbital period of 937 days, the fourth largest known. The new pulsar J1750-2536 likely belongs to the rare class of intermediate-mass binary pulsars. Three of the isolated pulsars show long-term nulling or intermittency in their emission, further increasing this growing family. Our discoveries demonstrate the value of distributed volunteer computing for data-driven astronomy and the importance of applying new analysis methods to extensively searched data.

  16. RADIATIVELY EFFICIENT MAGNETIZED BONDI ACCRETION

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, Andrew J.; Klein, Richard I.; McKee, Christopher F.; Krumholz, Mark R.; Teyssier, Romain

    2012-01-10

    We have carried out a numerical study of the effect of large-scale magnetic fields on the rate of accretion from a uniform, isothermal gas onto a resistive, stationary point mass. Only mass, not magnetic flux, accretes onto the point mass. The simulations for this study avoid complications arising from boundary conditions by keeping the boundaries far from the accreting object. Our simulations leverage adaptive refinement methodology to attain high spatial fidelity close to the accreting object. Our results are particularly relevant to the problem of star formation from a magnetized molecular cloud in which thermal energy is radiated away on timescales much shorter than the dynamical timescale. Contrary to the adiabatic case, our simulations show convergence toward a finite accretion rate in the limit in which the radius of the accreting object vanishes, regardless of magnetic field strength. For very weak magnetic fields, the accretion rate first approaches the Bondi value and then drops by a factor of {approx}2 as magnetic flux builds up near the point mass. For strong magnetic fields, the steady-state accretion rate is reduced by a factor of {approx}0.2 {beta}{sup 1/2} compared to the Bondi value, where {beta} is the ratio of the gas pressure to the magnetic pressure. We give a simple expression for the accretion rate as a function of the magnetic field strength. Approximate analytic results are given in the Appendices for both time-dependent accretion in the limit of weak magnetic fields and steady-state accretion for the case of strong magnetic fields.

  17. The evolutionary link between low-mass X-ray binaries and millisecond radio pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degenaar, Nathalie

    2014-10-01

    Low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) and millisecond radio pulsars (MSRPs) are two different manifestations of neutron stars in binary systems. They are thought to be evolutionary linked, but many questions about their connection remain. Recent discoveries have opened up a new vista to investigate the LMXB/MSRP link. The neutron star XSS J12270-4859 was recently observed to switch between the two different manifestations. Here, we propose to exploit the unique UV capabilities of the HST to search for the presence of a quiescent accretion disk and to test if the neutron star is hot. This will give insight into its accretion history and the mechanism driving its metamorphosis, which will have direct implications for our understanding of the LMXB/MSRP evolutionary link.

  18. Be Star Counterpart of X-ray Transient IGR J06074+2205

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halpern, J. P.; Tyagi, S.

    2005-12-01

    We report a probable optical counterpart of the transient X-ray source IGR J06074+2205 (Chenevez et al., ATel #223) discovered by the JEM-X telescopes on INTEGRAL. On 2005 Dec. 27, using the MDM 2.4m telescope to obtain low-resolution spectra of bright stars in the 2' radius X-ray error circle, we find a Be star at R.A. = 06h 07m 26.6s, Decl. = +22d 05' 48". Its magnitudes in the USNO A2.0 and 2MASS catalogs are B=13.3, R=12.1, J=10.49, H=10.19, K=9.96.

  19. Swift/XRT follow-up of the unidentified INTEGRAL source IGR J14043-6148

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landi, R.; Malizia, A.; Bazzano, A.; Fiocchi, M.; Bird, A. J.; Gehrels, N.

    2011-02-01

    We report the results of an X-ray follow-up observation performed with Swift/XRT of the unidentified INTEGRAL source IGR J14043-6148 listed in the 4th IBIS Survey Catalogue (Bird et al. 2010, ApJS, 186, 1). Inside the 90% IBIS error circle, we find an X-ray source detected at 6.5 sigma c.l. (0.3-10 keV), which is still observed at 6.1 sigma c.l. above 3 keV. It is positioned at R.A.(J2000) = 14h 04m 29.63s and Dec.(J2000) = -61d 47m 19.7s (4.5 arcsec uncertainty).

  20. Particles generation and cooling of pulsar magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryvdyk, Volodymyr

    2016-07-01

    The generation of secondary particles (neutrinos, neutrons, electrons, protons, mesons) and gamma-ray photons because of nuclear interactions in magnetospheres of pulsars and magnetars are considered. By means of the nuclear interactions, the primarily accelerated electrons and protons in the pulsar magnetosphere will be generated secondary particles and photons, which will also generate particles and gamma-ray photons by cascading interactions. Namely from these particles and photons, which arise because of multiple interactions, and will consist of the pulsar magnetosphere. It is important that in pulsar magnetosphere will generate the powerful flux of neutral particles (neutrons) and a neutrino that do not interact with the magnetic field and are free to go out with her, bringing out energy and cooling magnetosphere. So, we obtain a powerful new channel cooling pulsar magnetosphere. This is a new result, which shows that cooling of pulsar and magnetars is not only a result of the processes generating neutrinos in the inner core, but also due to the generation of neutrino and neutrons in the pulsar magnetosphere and subsequently their exit in the interstellar environment.

  1. Chaotic and stochastic processes in the accretion flows of the black hole X-ray binaries revealed by recurrence analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suková, Petra; Grzedzielski, Mikolaj; Janiuk, Agnieszka

    2016-02-01

    Aims: Both the well known microquasar GRS 1915+105, as well as its recently discovered analogue, IGR J17091-3624, exhibit variability that is characteristic of a deterministic chaotic system. Their specific kind of quasi-periodic flares that are observed in some states is intrinsically connected with the global structure of the accretion flow, which are governed by the nonlinear hydrodynamics. One plausible mechanism that is proposed to explain this kind of variability is the thermal-viscous instability that operates in the accretion disk. The purely stochastic variability that occurs because of turbulent conditions in the plasma, is quantified by the power density spectra and appears in practically all types of sources and their spectral states. Methods: We pose a question as to whether these two microquasars are one of a kind, or if the traces of deterministic chaos, and hence the accretion disk instability, may also be hidden in the observed variability of other sources. We focus on the black hole X-ray binaries that accrete at a high rate and are, therefore, theoretically prone to the development of radiation pressure-induced instability. To study the nonlinear behaviour of the X-ray sources and distinguish between the chaotic and stochastic nature of their emission, we propose a novel method, which is based on recurrence analysis. Widely known in other fields of physics, this powerful method is used here for the first time in an astrophysical context. We estimate the indications of deterministic chaos quantitatively, such as the Rényi's entropy for the observed time series, and we compare them with surrogate data. Results: Using the observational data collected by the RXTE satellite, we reveal the oscillations pattern and the observable properties of six black hole systems. For five of them, we confirm the signatures of deterministic chaos being the driver of their observed variability. Conclusions: We test the method and confirm the deterministic nature of

  2. Arecibo Pulsar and Transient Surveys Using ALFA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordes, J. M.

    2008-02-01

    A large scale survey for pulsars and transients is being conducted at the Arecibo Observatory using the Arecibo L-band Feed Array (ALFA). Data acquisition so far has been with correlation spectrometers that analyze a 0.1 GHz bandwidth at 1.4 GHz. The 256 frequency channels limit dispersion smearing to 1.2 ms at DMmax = 103 pc cm-3 while the sampling interval of 64 μs equals the dispersion smearing at DM~54 pc cm-3, providing high sensitivity to millisecond pulsars with standard periods out to implied distances of several kpc at low Galactic latitudes. In early 2008, we will use a new set of polyphase filter bank systems that provide the same time and frequency resolutions but over ALFA's full 0.3 GHz bandwidth. Currently the survey covers sky positions within 5° of the Galactic plane that are reachable with Arecibo. Preliminary results are given for some of the discoveries made so far, which include millisecond pulsars, a relativistic binary pulsar, a likely counterpart of a Compton GRO/EGRET gamma-ray source, and transient pulsars (including `RRATs''). We discuss the methodology of the survey, which includes archival of raw survey data at the Cornell Center for Advanced Computing and processing at distributed sites. The survey and follow up observations, which include timing observations, multiwavelength searches for orbital companions in the case of binary pulsars, etc. are organized through the Pulsar-ALFA (PALFA) Consortium. We expect the Galactic plane survey to continue until at least 2010, most likely involving multiple passes on each sky position to optimize detection of variable sources. The ALFA system will also be used to survey intermediate Galactic latitudes for millisecond pulsars, relativistic binaries with large systemic velocities, and runaway pulsars that will escape the Galaxy.

  3. Fluctuating neutron star magnetosphere: braking indices of eight pulsars, frequency second derivatives of 222 pulsars and 15 magnetars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Z. W.; Tong, H.; Kou, F. F.; Ding, G. Q.

    2016-04-01

    Eight pulsars have low braking indices, which challenge the magnetic dipole braking of pulsars. 222 pulsars and 15 magnetars have abnormal distribution of frequency second derivatives, which also make contradiction with classical understanding. How neutron star magnetospheric activities affect these two phenomena are investigated by using the wind braking model of pulsars. It is based on the observational evidence that pulsar timing is correlated with emission and both aspects reflect the magnetospheric activities. Fluctuations are unavoidable for a physical neutron star magnetosphere. Young pulsars have meaningful braking indices, while old pulsars' and magnetars' fluctuation item dominates their frequency second derivatives. It can explain both the braking index and frequency second derivative of pulsars uniformly. The braking indices of eight pulsars are the combined effect of magnetic dipole radiation and particle wind. During the lifetime of a pulsar, its braking index will evolve from three to one. Pulsars with low braking index may put strong constraint on the particle acceleration process in the neutron star magnetosphere. The effect of pulsar death should be considered during the long term rotational evolution of pulsars. An equation like the Langevin equation for Brownian motion was derived for pulsar spin-down. The fluctuation in the neutron star magnetosphere can be either periodic or random, which result in anomalous frequency second derivative and they have similar results. The magnetospheric activities of magnetars are always stronger than those of normal pulsars.

  4. Age Discrepancy Throws Pulsar Theories into Turmoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-03-01

    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope have found a pulsar -- a spinning, superdense neutron star -- that apparently is considerably younger than previously thought. This finding, combined with the discovery in 2000 of a pulsar that was older than previously thought, means that many assumptions astronomers have made about how pulsars are born and age must be reexamined, according to the researchers. Supernova Remnant and Pulsar -- Click on image for larger view Infrared Image of Supernova Remnant; Dashed Line and Arrow Indicate Pulsar's Motion Detected by VLA "We are learning that each individual pulsar is a very complicated object, and we should assume nothing about it," said Bryan Gaensler, of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, MA. "Our work makes it more difficult to put pulsars into neat categories, but ultimately will yield new insights into how pulsars are born," he added. The research is reported in the March 10 edition of the Astrophysical Journal Letters. The astronomers studied a pulsar called B1951+32 and a supernova remnant called CTB 80, both nearly 8,000 light-years from Earth. The supernova remnant is the shell of debris from the explosion of a giant star. The explosion resulted from the giant star's catastrophic collapse into the superdense neutron star. By observing the pulsar and the supernova remnant from 1989 to 2000 with the VLA, the scientists were able to measure the movement of the pulsar, which, they found, is moving directly outward from the center of the shell of explosion debris. "We've always felt that, if you see a pulsar and a supernova remnant close together, the pulsar had been born in an explosion at the center of the supernova remnant, but this is the first time that actual observational measurement shows a pulsar moving away from the center of the supernova remnant. It's nice to finally have such an example," said Joshua Migliazzo of the Center for

  5. Parkes Observations of Globular Cluster Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailes, M.; Zhu, J.; Richter, S.

    2005-07-01

    Follow-up observations of pulsars from the Swinburne intermediate latitude survey with the Parkes radio telescope have caused us to question the association of PSR B1718-19 with the globular cluster NGC 6342 given the proximity of PSR J1721-1939 to the cluster. We have also found that the millisecond pulsar near the core of NGC 6624 has a large period second derivative, which would change the sign of the first derivative in about 6000 years. This is consistent with the pulsar experiencing a large gravitational perturbation from the cluster core.

  6. Limits to the Stability of Pulsar Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petit, Gerard

    1996-01-01

    The regularity of the rotation rate of millisecond pulsars is the underlying hypothesis for using these neutron stars as 'celestial clocks'. Given their remote location in our galaxy and to our lack of precise knowledge on the galactic environment, a number of phenomena effect the apparent rotation rate observed on Earth. This paper reviews these phenomena and estimates the order of magnitude of their effect. It concludes that an ensemble pulsar time based on a number of selected millisecond pulsars should have a fractional frequency stability close to 2 x 10(sup -15) for an averaging time of a few years.

  7. Pulsar reenergization of old supernova remnant shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shull, J. Michael; Fesen, Robert A.; Saken, Jon M.

    1989-01-01

    The morphology of several unusual composite remnants are suggested to be affected by previously unrecognized interactions between high-velocity pulsars and old SNR shells, and the case of CTB 80 is pointed out as a likely example of such interactions. The interactions generate a new class of 'composite remnants' and furnish a novel method for the derivation of kinematic distances and SNR ages; this technique is noted to be especially useful when the pulsar has a measured spindown age or proper motion. It is predicted that a number of pulsars may interact with 80-100 pc radius 'superbubbles' produced by the combined action of winds and supernovae in OB associations.

  8. Pulsar wind model for the spin-down behavior of intermittent pulsars

    SciTech Connect

    Li, L.; Tong, H.; Yan, W. M.; Yuan, J. P.; Wang, N.; Xu, R. X.

    2014-06-10

    Intermittent pulsars are part-time radio pulsars. They have higher slow down rates in the on state (radio-loud) than in the off state (radio-quiet). This gives evidence that particle wind may play an important role in pulsar spindown. The effect of particle acceleration is included in modeling the rotational energy loss rate of the neutron star. Applying the pulsar wind model to the three intermittent pulsars (PSR B1931+24, PSR J1841–0500, and PSR J1832+0029) allows their magnetic fields and inclination angles to be calculated simultaneously. The theoretical braking indices of intermittent pulsars are also given. In the pulsar wind model, the density of the particle wind can always be the Goldreich-Julian density. This may ensure that different on states of intermittent pulsars are stable. The duty cycle of particle wind can be determined from timing observations. It is consistent with the duty cycle of the on state. Inclination angle and braking index observations of intermittent pulsars may help to test different models of particle acceleration. At present, the inverse Compton scattering induced space charge limited flow with field saturation model can be ruled out.

  9. EGRET upper limits to the high-energy gamma-ray emission from the millisecond pulsars in nearby globular clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michelson, P. F.; Bertsch, D. L.; Brazier, K.; Chiang, J.; Dingus, B. L.; Fichtel, C. E.; Fierro, J.; Hartman, R. C.; Hunter, S. D.; Kanbach, G.

    1994-01-01

    We report upper limits to the high-energy gamma-ray emission from the millisecond pulsars (MSPs) in a number of globular clusters. The observations were done as part of an all-sky survey by the energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) during Phase I of the CGRO mission (1991 June to 1992 November). Several theoretical models suggest that MSPs may be sources of high-energy gamma radiation emitted either as primary radiation from the pulsar magnetosphere or as secondary radiation generated by conversion into photons of a substantial part of the relativistic e(+/-) pair wind expected to flow from the pulsar. To date, no high-energy emission has been detected from an individual MSP. However, a large number of MSPs are expected in globular cluster cores where the formation rate of accreting binary systems is high. Model predictions of the total number of pulsars range in the hundreds for some clusters. These expectations have been reinforced by recent discoveries of a substantial number of radio MSPs in several clusters; for example, 11 have been found in 47 Tucanae (Manchester et al.). The EGRET observations have been used to obtain upper limits for the efficiency eta of conversion of MSP spin-down power into hard gamma rays. The upper limits are also compared with the gamma-ray fluxes predicted from theoretical models of pulsar wind emission (Tavani). The EGRET limits put significant constraints on either the emission models or the number of pulsars in the globular clusters.

  10. Advection of magnetic flux by accretion disks around neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores-Tulian, S.; Reisenegger, A.

    The aim of our research is to address why millisecond pulsars have relatively weak surface magnetic fields, of about 10^8 G, with a narrow spread. We propose that the accretion of plasma from the companion star fully screens the original neutron star field, but the accretion disk carries additional magnetic flux from the companion star, or itself can generate field by means of dynamo processes. For a strongly magnetized star, the field prevents the disk from approaching the star. The accretion is along the field lines and deposits the matter on the polar cap. Then, the accreted plasma flows, dragging with itself the magnetic field lines, from the pole to the equator (Payne & Melatos 2004). In a following stage, when the star becomes non-magnetic, because the field has been buried, the disk touches the star. We suggest that some effective mechanism of magnetic flux transport such as that proposed by Spruit & Uzdensky 2005 (or Bisnovatyi-Kogan & Lovelace 2007), operates and necessarily leads to a "strongly magnetized disk''. It becomes laminar because the magneto-rotational instability saturates (it is considered to be responsible for turbulence in the disk), and the magnetic difussivity is negligible. Then, the loss of angular momentum allowing the accretion is only caused by the magneto-centrifugal disk-wind (Blandford & Payne 1982). Meanwhile, the wind-driven transport of the magnetic flux by the disk re-magnetizes the star. This process continues until the Lorentz force due to the star's magnetic field forbids any further accretion of matter and magnetic flux, in the Ideal Magneto-Hydro-Dynamics approach. Additional of material can fall onto the star (but at lower rate) if some instability process sets in, allowing the diffusion of mass through the magnetic field lines (e.g the Interchange Instability, Spruit & Taam 1990). All these processes might lead to an asymptotic magnetic field of 10^8 G,as is inferred from observations. We are developing a self

  11. Glancing through the accretion column of EXO 2030+375

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrigno, Carlo; Pjanka, Patryk; Bozzo, Enrico; Klochkov, Dmitry; Ducci, Lorenzo; Zdziarski, Andrzej A.

    2016-09-01

    Context. The current generation of X-ray instruments progressively reveals more and more details about the complex magnetic field topology and the geometry of the accretion flows in highly magnetized accretion-powered pulsars. Aims: We took advantage of the large collecting area and good timing capabilities of the EPIC cameras onboard XMM-Newton to investigate the accretion geometry onto the magnetized neutron star hosted in the high-mass X-ray binary EXO 2030+375 during the rise of a source type I outburst in 2014. Methods: We carried out a timing and spectral analysis of the XMM-Newton observation as a function of the neutron star spin phase. We used a phenomenological spectral continuum model comprising the required fluorescence emission lines. Two neutral absorption components are present: one covering the source fully, one only partially. The same analysis was also carried out on two Suzaku observations of the source performed during outbursts in 2007 and 2012, to search for possible spectral variations at different luminosities. Results: The XMM-Newton data caught the source at an X-ray luminosity of 2 × 1036 erg s-1 and revealed a narrow dip-like feature in its pulse profile that was never reported before. The width of this feature corresponds to about one hundredth of the neutron star spin period. Based on the results of the phase-resolved spectral analysis we suggest that this feature can be ascribed to the self-obscuration of the accretion stream passing in front of the observer line of sight. We inferred from the Suzaku observation carried out in 2007 that the self-obscuration of the accretion stream might produce a significantly wider feature in the neutron star pulsed profile at higher luminosities (≳2 × 1037 erg s-1). Conclusions: This discovery allowed us to derive additional constraints on the physical properties of the accretion flow in this object at relatively small distances from the neutron star surface. The narrow dip-like feature in the

  12. An origin for pulsar kicks in supernova hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrows, Adam; Hayes, John

    1996-04-01

    It is now believed that pulsars comprise the fastest population of stars in the galaxy. With inferred mean, root-mean-square, and maximum 3-D pulsar speeds of ~300-500 km/s, ~500 km/s, and ~2000 km/s, respectively, the question of the origin of such singular proper motions becomes acute. What mechanism can account for speeds that range from zero to twice the galactic escape velocity? We speculate that a major vector component of a neutron star's proper motion comes from the hydrodynamic recoil of the nascent neutron star during the supernova explosion in which it is born. Recently, theorists have shown that asymmetries and instabilities are a natural aspect of supernova dynamics. In this paper, we highlight two phenomena: 1) the ``Brownian-like'' stochastic motion of the core in response to the convective ``boiling'' of the mantle of the protoneutron star during the post-bounce, pre-explosion accretion phase, and 2) the asymmetrical bounce and explosion of an aspherically collapsing Chandrasekhar core. In principle, either phenomenon can leave the young neutron star with a speed of hundreds of kilometers per second. However, neither has yet been adequately simulated or explored. The two-dimensional radiation/hydrodynamic calculations we present here provide only crude estimates of the potential impulses due to mass motions and neutrino emissions. A comprehensive and credible investigation will require fully three-dimensional numerical simulations not yet possible. Nevertheless, we have in the asymmetric hydrodynamics of supernovae a natural means of imparting respectable kicks to neutron stars at birth, though speeds approaching 1000 km/s are still problematic.

  13. Astronomers Discover Fastest-Spinning Pulsar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-01-01

    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope have discovered the fastest-spinning neutron star ever found, a 20-mile-diameter superdense pulsar whirling faster than the blades of a kitchen blender. Their work yields important new information about the nature of one of the most exotic forms of matter known in the Universe. Pulsar Graphic Pulsars Are Spinning Neutron Stars CREDIT: Bill Saxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF (Click on image for larger version) "We believe that the matter in neutron stars is denser than an atomic nucleus, but it is unclear by how much. Our observations of such a rapidly rotating star set a hard upper limit on its size, and hence on how dense the star can be.," said Jason Hessels, a graduate student at McGill University in Montreal. Hessels and his colleagues presented their findings to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Washington, DC. Pulsars are spinning neutron stars that sling "lighthouse beams" of radio waves or light around as they spin. A neutron star is what is left after a massive star explodes at the end of its "normal" life. With no nuclear fuel left to produce energy to offset the stellar remnant's weight, its material is compressed to extreme densities. The pressure squeezes together most of its protons and electrons to form neutrons; hence, the name "neutron star." "Neutron stars are incredible laboratories for learning about the physics of the fundamental particles of nature, and this pulsar has given us an important new limit," explained Scott Ransom, an astronomer at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory and one of Hessels' collaborators on this work. The scientists discovered the pulsar, named PSR J1748-2446ad, in a globular cluster of stars called Terzan 5, located some 28,000 light-years from Earth in the constellation Sagittarius. The newly-discovered pulsar is spinning 716 times per second, or at 716 Hertz (Hz), readily beating the previous record of 642 Hz from a pulsar

  14. Optical pulsations from the anomalous X-ray pulsar 4U0142+61.

    PubMed

    Kern, B; Martin, C

    2002-05-30

    Anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs) differ from ordinary radio pulsars in that their X-ray luminosity is orders of magnitude greater than their rate of rotational energy loss, and so they require an additional energy source. One possibility is that AXPs are highly magnetized neuron stars or 'magnetars' having surface magnetic fields greater than 10(14) G. This would make them similar to the soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs), but alternative models that do not require extreme magnetic fields also exist. An optical counterpart to the AXP 4U0142+61 was recently discovered, consistent with emission from a magnetar, but also from a magnetized hot white dwarf, or an accreting isolated neutron star. Here we report the detection of optical pulsations from 4U0142+61. The pulsed fraction of optical light (27 per cent) is five to ten times greater than that of soft X-rays, from which we conclude that 4U0142+61 is a magnetar. Although this establishes a direct relationship between AXPs and the soft gamma-ray repeaters, the evolutionary connection between AXPs, SGRs and radio pulsars remains controversial. PMID:12037561

  15. Population synthesis of radio and gamma-ray millisecond pulsars using Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonthier, Peter L.; Koh, Yew-Meng; Kust Harding, Alice

    2016-04-01

    We present preliminary results of a new population synthesis of millisecond pulsars (MSP) from the Galactic disk using Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques to better understand the model parameter space. We include empirical radio and gamma-ray luminosity models that are dependent on the pulsar period and period derivative with freely varying exponents. The magnitudes of the model luminosities are adjusted to reproduce the number of MSPs detected by a group of thirteen radio surveys as well as the MSP birth rate in the Galaxy and the number of MSPs detected by Fermi. We explore various high-energy emission geometries like the slot gap, outer gap, two pole caustic and pair starved polar cap models. The parameters associated with the birth distributions for the mass accretion rate, magnetic field, and period distributions are well constrained. With the set of four free parameters, we employ Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulations to explore the model parameter space. We present preliminary comparisons of the simulated and detected distributions of radio and gamma-ray pulsar characteristics. We estimate the contribution of MSPs to the diffuse gamma-ray background with a special focus on the Galactic Center.We express our gratitude for the generous support of the National Science Foundation (RUI: AST-1009731), Fermi Guest Investigator Program and the NASA Astrophysics Theory and Fundamental Program (NNX09AQ71G).

  16. Optical pulsations from the anomalous X-ray pulsar 4U0142+61.

    PubMed

    Kern, B; Martin, C

    2002-05-30

    Anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs) differ from ordinary radio pulsars in that their X-ray luminosity is orders of magnitude greater than their rate of rotational energy loss, and so they require an additional energy source. One possibility is that AXPs are highly magnetized neuron stars or 'magnetars' having surface magnetic fields greater than 10(14) G. This would make them similar to the soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs), but alternative models that do not require extreme magnetic fields also exist. An optical counterpart to the AXP 4U0142+61 was recently discovered, consistent with emission from a magnetar, but also from a magnetized hot white dwarf, or an accreting isolated neutron star. Here we report the detection of optical pulsations from 4U0142+61. The pulsed fraction of optical light (27 per cent) is five to ten times greater than that of soft X-rays, from which we conclude that 4U0142+61 is a magnetar. Although this establishes a direct relationship between AXPs and the soft gamma-ray repeaters, the evolutionary connection between AXPs, SGRs and radio pulsars remains controversial.

  17. The superslow pulsation X-ray pulsars in high mass X-ray binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei

    2013-03-01

    There exists a special class of X-ray pulsars that exhibit very slow pulsation of P spin > 1000 s in the high mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs). We have studied the temporal and spectral properties of these superslow pulsation neutron star binaries in hard X-ray bands with INTEGRAL observations. Long-term monitoring observations find spin period evolution of two sources: spin-down trend for 4U 2206+54 (P spin ~ 5560 s with Ṗ spin ~ 4.9 × 10-7 s s-1) and long-term spin-up trend for 2S 0114+65 (P spin ~ 9600 s with Ṗ spin ~ -1 × 10-6 s s-1) in the last 20 years. A Be X-ray transient, SXP 1062 (P spin ~ 1062 s), also showed a fast spin-down rate of Ṗ spin ~ 3 × 10-6 s s-1 during an outburst. These superslow pulsation neutron stars cannot be produced in the standard X-ray binary evolution model unless the neutron star has a much stronger surface magnetic field (B > 1014 G). The physical origin of the superslow spin period is still unclear. The possible origin and evolution channels of the superslow pulsation X-ray pulsars are discussed. Superslow pulsation X-ray pulsars could be younger X-ray binary systems, still in the fast evolution phase preceding the final equilibrium state. Alternatively, they could be a new class of neutron star system - accreting magnetars.

  18. ACCRETION OUTBURSTS IN CIRCUMPLANETARY DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Lubow, S. H.; Martin, R. G.

    2012-04-20

    We describe a model for the long-term evolution of a circumplanetary disk that is fed mass from a circumstellar disk and contains regions of low turbulence (dead zones). We show that such disks can be subject to accretion-driven outbursts, analogous to outbursts previously modeled in the context of circumstellar disks to explain FU Ori phenomena. Circumplanetary disks around a proto-Jupiter can undergo outbursts for infall accretion rates onto the disks in the range M-dot{sub infall} approx. 10{sup -9} to 10{sup -7} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, typical of accretion rates in the T Tauri phase. During outbursts, the accretion rate and disk luminosity increases by several orders of magnitude. Most of the planet mass growth during planetary gas accretion may occur via disk outbursts involving gas that is considerably hotter than predicted by steady state models. For low infall accretion rates M-dot{sub infall} {approx}< 10{sup -10} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} that occur in late stages of disk accretion, disk outbursts are unlikely to occur, even if dead zones are present. Such conditions are favorable for the formation of icy satellites.

  19. IGR NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} control technology. Second technical progress report, January 1--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-25

    The technical work during this reporting term has principally involved the continued development, optimization and improvement of freezing drying techniques for solid ceramic oxide electrolyte powder preparation, preliminary optimization of the calcining of the ceramic electrolyte freeze dried powders to allow for optimum processing to the IGR composite, and determining (initial) electrochemical properties of the stabilized ceramic solid electrolyte at a variety of temperatures in air.

  20. A possible WISE blazar counterpart of the faint INTEGRAL active galactic nucleus IGR J02341+0228

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massaro, F.; Paggi, A.; D'Abrusco, R.

    2012-05-01

    Following the Swift-XRT identification of the counterpart for the faint INTEGRAL active galactic nucleus IGR J02341+0228, associated with a new extragalactic source: QSO B0231+022 (ATEL #4102), we searched in the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE; Wright et al. 2010 AJ, 140, 1868) catalog at the position of the QSO B0231+022 source for an infrared counterpart.

  1. Hot Collionsal Plasma Emissions in the Ultra-compact Binary Pulsar 4U 1626-67

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Norbert S.; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Marshall, Herman

    2016-07-01

    4U 1626-67 is an ultra-compact binary pulsar with a pulse period of 7.7 sec and an orbital period of 40 min. Its X-ray spectrum varies distinctively before and after torque reversal episodes. 4U 1626-67 is a peculiar ultra-compact binary in that it not only truncates its accretion disk at the magnetospheric radius, but also emits Ne and O Doppler X-ray lines, The nature of these lines have remained quite mysterious but we can now show that these lines originate from a coronal type plasma with temperatures up to 10 Million degrees located at the magnetospheric radius. The disk line fits constrain the source distance to about 5 kpc. We also observe consistent variations in the disk lines before and after torque reversal. The observed disk lines constrain the angle of inclination to 38 degrees, which is is significantly larger than previously assumed. We discuss these findings in the context of accreting X-ray binaries and binary pulsar properties.

  2. Piccard: Pulsar timing data analysis package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Haasteren, Rutger

    2016-10-01

    Piccard is a Bayesian-inference pipeline for Pulsar Timing Array (PTA) data and interacts with Tempo2 (ascl:1210.015) through libstempo. The code is use mainly for single-pulsar analysis and gravitational-wave detection purposes of full Pulsar Timing Array datasets. Modeling of the data can include correlated signals per frequency or modeled spectrum, with uniform, dipolar, quadrupolar, or anisotropic correlations; multiple error bars and EFACs per pulsar; and white and red noise. Timing models can be numerically included, either by using the design matrix (linear timing model), or by calling libstempo for the full non-linear timing model. Many types of samplers are included. For common-mode mitigation, the signals can be reconstructed mitigating arbitrary signals simultaneously.

  3. Testing Gravity Using Pulsar Scintillation Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Huan; Nishizawa, Atsushi; Pen, Ue-Li

    2016-03-01

    We propose to use pulsar scintillation measurements to test predictions of alternative theories of gravity. Comparing to single-path pulsar timing measurements, the scintillation measurements can achieve a factor of 104 ~105 improvement in timing accuracy, due to the effect of multi-path interference. The self-noise from pulsar also does not affect the interference pattern, where the data acquisition timescale is 103 seconds instead of years. Therefore it has unique advantages in measuring gravitational effect or other mechanisms (at mHz and above frequencies) on light propagation. We illustrate its application in constraining scalar gravitational-wave background and measuring gravitational-wave speed, in which cases the sensitivities are greatly improved with respect to previous limits. We expect much broader applications in testing gravity with existing and future pulsar scintillation observations.

  4. Quasars, pulsars, black holes and HEAO's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doolitte, R. F.; Moritz, K.; Whilden, R. D. C.

    1974-01-01

    Astronomical surveys are discussed by large X-ray, gamma ray, and cosmic ray instruments carried onboard high-energy astronomy observatories. Quasars, pulsars, black holes, and the ultimate benefits of the new astronomy are briefly discussed.

  5. Interactive Database of Pulsar Flux Density Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koralewska, O.; Krzeszowski, K.; Kijak, J.; Lewandowski, W.

    2012-12-01

    The number of astronomical observations is steadily growing, giving rise to the need of cataloguing the obtained results. There are a lot of databases, created to store different types of data and serve a variety of purposes, e. g. databases providing basic data for astronomical objects (SIMBAD Astronomical Database), databases devoted to one type of astronomical object (ATNF Pulsar Database) or to a set of values of the specific parameter (Lorimer 1995 - database of flux density measurements for 280 pulsars on the frequencies up to 1606 MHz), etc. We found that creating an online database of pulsar flux measurements, provided with facilities for plotting diagrams and histograms, calculating mean values for a chosen set of data, filtering parameter values and adding new measurements by the registered users, could be useful in further studies on pulsar spectra.

  6. Outlook for Detecting Gravitational Waves with Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-04-01

    Though the recent discovery of GW150914 is a thrilling success in the field of gravitational-wave astronomy, LIGO is only one tool the scientific community is using to hunt for these elusive signals. After 10 years of unsuccessful searching, how likely is it that pulsar-timing-array projects will make their own first detection soon?Frequency ranges for gravitational waves produced by different astrophysical sources. Pulsar timing arrays such as the EPTA and IPTA are used to detect low-frequency gravitational waves generated by the stochastic background and supermassive black hole binaries. [Christopher Moore, Robert Cole and Christopher Berry]Supermassive BackgroundGround-based laser interferometers like LIGO are ideal for probing ripples in space-time caused by the merger of stellar-mass black holes; these mergers cause chirps in the frequency range of tens to thousands of hertz. But how do we pick up the extremely low-frequency, nanohertz background signal caused by the orbits of pairs of supermassive black holes? For that, we need pulsar timing arrays.Pulsar timing arrays are sets of pulsars whose signals are analyzed to look for correlations in the pulse arrival time. As the space-time between us and a pulsar is stretched and then compressed by a passing gravitational wave, the pulsars pulses should arrive a little late and then a little early. Comparing these timing residuals in an array of pulsars could theoretically allow for the detection of the gravitational waves causing them.Globally, there are currently four pulsar timing array projects actively searching for this signal, with a fifth planned for the future. Now a team of scientists led by Stephen Taylor (NASA-JPL/Caltech) has estimated the likelihood that these projects will successfully detect gravitational waves in the future.Probability for SuccessExpected detection probability of the gravitational-wave background as a function of observing time, for five different pulsar timing arrays. Optimistic

  7. The origin of the Guitar pulsar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tetzlaff, N.; Neuhäuser, R.; Hohle, M. M.

    2009-11-01

    Among a sample of 140 OB associations and clusters, we want to identify probable parent associations for the Guitar pulsar (PSR B2224+65), which would then also constrain its age. For this purpose, we are using an Euler-Cauchy technique, treating the vertical component of the Galactic potential to calculate the trajectories of the pulsar and each association into the past. To include errors, we use Monte Carlo simulations varying the initial parameters within their error intervals. The whole range of possible pulsar radial velocities is taken into account during the simulations. We find that the Guitar pulsar most probably originated from the Cygnus OB3 association ~0.8Myr ago, inferring a current radial velocity of vr ~ -30kms-1, consistent with the inclination of its bow shock.

  8. Gamma radiation from pulsar magnetospheric gaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiang, James; Romani, Roger W.

    1992-01-01

    We investigate the production of gamma rays in two pulsar emission models: the 'polar cap' model and the 'outer cap' model. For the former, we have performed detailed simulations of energetic electrons flowing in the vacuum dipole open field line region. In the outer gap case, we generate light curves for various magnetosphere geometries. Using data from radio and optical observations, we construct models for specific viewing angles appropriate to the Crab and Vela pulsars. Phase-resolved spectra are also computed in the polar cap case and provide signatures for testing the models. The calculations have been extended to include millisecond pulsars, and we have been able to predict fluxes and spectra for populations of recycled pulsars, which are compared to COS B data for globular cluster populations.

  9. VERITAS observations of the Crab pulsar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zitzer, Benjamin; VERITAS Collaboration

    2012-12-01

    The Crab pulsar has been widely studied across the electromagnetic spectrum from radio to gamma-ray energies. The exact nature of the emission processes taking place in the pulsar is a matter of broad debate. Above a few GeV the energy spectrum turns over suddenly. The shape of this cutoff can provide unique insight in to the particle acceleration processes taking place in the pulsar magnetosphere. Here we discuss the detection of pulsed gamma-rays from the Crab Pulsar above 100 GeV with the VERITAS telescopes in the context of measurements made with the Fermi space telescope below 10 GeV. Limits on the level of flux enhancement of emission correlated with giant radio pulses and dispersion due to Lorentz invariance violation effects will also be presented.

  10. Perspectives on Gamma-Ray Pulsar Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baring, Matthew G.

    2011-09-01

    Pulsars are powerful sources of radiation across the electromagnetic spectrum. This paper highlights some theoretical insights into non-thermal, magnetospheric pulsar gamma-ray radiation. These advances have been driven by NASA's Fermi mission, launched in mid-2008. The Large Area Telescope (LAT) instrument on Fermi has afforded the discrimination between polar cap and slot gap/outer gap acceleration zones in young and middle-aged pulsars. Altitude discernment using the highest energy pulsar photons will be addressed, as will spectroscopic interpretation of the primary radiation mechanism in the LAT band, connecting to both polar cap/slot gap and outer gap scenarios. Focuses will mostly be on curvature radiation and magnetic pair creation, including population trends that may afford probes of the magnetospheric accelerating potential.

  11. Exploring the Universe with Pulsar Timing Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke-Spolaor, Sarah

    2016-03-01

    It is an exciting time for pulsar timing arrays, as their upper limits on gravitational radiation are carving into the expected strength of gravitational waves from several source populations in the Universe. Cosmic strings, inflationary gravitational waves, and binary supermassive black holes are all expected contributors to the nanohertz to microhertz band probed by pulsar timing arrays: they might be discovered as bursting sources, as continuously oscillating signals, or as an ensemble population in a stochastic background. This presentation will discuss the predicted intensity and form of these sources, and how the upper limits set by pulsar timing arrays are being used to set unique constraints on source properties, and to measure galaxy evolution in the nearby Universe. Looking to the future, we will explore how pulsar timing arrays can characterize their target source populations, and we will present the prospects for multi-messenger detection.

  12. Gamma rays from pulsar wind shock acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Alice K.

    1990-01-01

    A shock forming in the wind of relativistic electron-positron pairs from a pulsar, as a result of confinement by surrounding material, could convert part of the pulsar spin-down luminosity to high energy particles through first order Fermi acceleration. High energy protons could be produced by this mechanism both in supernova remnants and in binary systems containing pulsars. The pion-decay gamma-rays resulting from interaction of accelerated protons with surrounding target material in such sources might be observable above 70 MeV with EGRET (Energetic Gamma-Ray Experimental Telescope) and above 100 GeV with ground-based detectors. Acceleration of protons and expected gamma-ray fluxes from SN1987A, Cyg X-3 type sources and binary pulsars are discussed.

  13. Dynamics of core accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Andrew F.; Ruffert, Maximilian

    2013-02-01

    We perform three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of gas flowing around a planetary core of mass Mpl = 10M⊕ embedded in a near Keplerian background flow, using a modified shearing box approximation. We assume an ideal gas behaviour following an equation of state with a fixed ratio of the specific heats, γ = 1.42, consistent with the conditions of a moderate-temperature background disc with solar composition. No radiative heating or cooling is included in the models. We employ a nested grid hydrodynamic code implementing the `Piecewise Parabolic Method' with as many as six fixed nested grids, providing spatial resolution on the finest grid comparable to the present-day diameters of Neptune and Uranus. We find that a strongly dynamically active flow develops such that no static envelope can form. The activity is not sensitive to plausible variations in the rotation curve of the underlying disc. It is sensitive to the thermodynamic treatment of the gas, as modelled by prescribed equations of state (either `locally isothermal' or `locally isentropic') and the temperature of the background disc material. The activity is also sensitive to the shape and depth of the core's gravitational potential, through its mass and gravitational softening coefficient. Each of these factors influences the magnitude and character of hydrodynamic feedback of the small-scale flow on the background, and we conclude that accurate modelling of such feedback is critical to a complete understanding of the core accretion process. The varying flow pattern gives rise to large, irregular eruptions of matter from the region around the core which return matter to the background flow: mass in the envelope at one time may not be found in the envelope at any later time. No net mass accretion into the envelope is observed over the course of the simulation and none is expected, due to our neglect of cooling. Except in cases of very rapid cooling however, as defined by locally isothermal or

  14. Dynamics of core accretion

    DOE PAGES

    Nelson, Andrew F.; Ruffert, Maximilian

    2012-12-21

    In this paper, we perform three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of gas flowing around a planetary core of mass Mpl = 10M⊕ embedded in a near Keplerian background flow, using a modified shearing box approximation. We assume an ideal gas behaviour following an equation of state with a fixed ratio of the specific heats, γ = 1.42, consistent with the conditions of a moderate-temperature background disc with solar composition. No radiative heating or cooling is included in the models. We employ a nested grid hydrodynamic code implementing the ‘Piecewise Parabolic Method’ with as many as six fixed nested grids, providing spatial resolutionmore » on the finest grid comparable to the present-day diameters of Neptune and Uranus. We find that a strongly dynamically active flow develops such that no static envelope can form. The activity is not sensitive to plausible variations in the rotation curve of the underlying disc. It is sensitive to the thermodynamic treatment of the gas, as modelled by prescribed equations of state (either ‘locally isothermal’ or ‘locally isentropic’) and the temperature of the background disc material. The activity is also sensitive to the shape and depth of the core's gravitational potential, through its mass and gravitational softening coefficient. Each of these factors influences the magnitude and character of hydrodynamic feedback of the small-scale flow on the background, and we conclude that accurate modelling of such feedback is critical to a complete understanding of the core accretion process. The varying flow pattern gives rise to large, irregular eruptions of matter from the region around the core which return matter to the background flow: mass in the envelope at one time may not be found in the envelope at any later time. No net mass accretion into the envelope is observed over the course of the simulation and none is expected, due to our neglect of cooling. Except in cases of very rapid cooling however, as

  15. Dynamics of core accretion

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Andrew F.; Ruffert, Maximilian

    2012-12-21

    In this paper, we perform three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of gas flowing around a planetary core of mass Mpl = 10M embedded in a near Keplerian background flow, using a modified shearing box approximation. We assume an ideal gas behaviour following an equation of state with a fixed ratio of the specific heats, γ = 1.42, consistent with the conditions of a moderate-temperature background disc with solar composition. No radiative heating or cooling is included in the models. We employ a nested grid hydrodynamic code implementing the ‘Piecewise Parabolic Method’ with as many as six fixed nested grids, providing spatial resolution on the finest grid comparable to the present-day diameters of Neptune and Uranus. We find that a strongly dynamically active flow develops such that no static envelope can form. The activity is not sensitive to plausible variations in the rotation curve of the underlying disc. It is sensitive to the thermodynamic treatment of the gas, as modelled by prescribed equations of state (either ‘locally isothermal’ or ‘locally isentropic’) and the temperature of the background disc material. The activity is also sensitive to the shape and depth of the core's gravitational potential, through its mass and gravitational softening coefficient. Each of these factors influences the magnitude and character of hydrodynamic feedback of the small-scale flow on the background, and we conclude that accurate modelling of such feedback is critical to a complete understanding of the core accretion process. The varying flow pattern gives rise to large, irregular eruptions of matter from the region around the core which return matter to the background flow: mass in the envelope at one time may not be found in the envelope at any later time. No net mass accretion into the envelope is observed over the course of the simulation and none is expected, due to our neglect of cooling. Except in cases of very rapid cooling

  16. Vela Pulsar and Its Synchrotron Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helfand, D. J.; Gotthelf, E. V.; Halpern, J. P.

    2001-07-01

    We present high-resolution Chandra X-ray observations of PSR B0833-45, the 89 ms pulsar associated with the Vela supernova remnant. We have acquired two observations separated by 1 month to search for changes in the pulsar and its environment following an extreme glitch in its rotation frequency. We find a well-resolved nebula with a toroidal morphology remarkably similar to that observed in the Crab Nebula, along with an axial Crab-like jet. Between the two observations, taken ~3×105 s and ~3×106 s after the glitch, the flux from the pulsar is found to be steady to within 0.75% the 3 σ limit on the fractional increase in the pulsar's X-ray flux is <~10-5 of the inferred glitch energy. We use this limit to constrain parameters of glitch models and neutron star structure. We do find a significant increase in the flux of the nebula's outer arc; if associated with the glitch, the inferred propagation velocity is >~0.7c, similar to that seen in the brightening of the Crab Nebula wisps. We propose an explanation for the X-ray structure of the Vela synchrotron nebula based on a model originally developed for the Crab Nebula. In this model, the bright X-ray arcs are the shocked termination of a relativistic equatorial pulsar wind that is contained within the surrounding kidney-bean shaped synchrotron nebula comprising the postshock, but still relativistic, flow. In a departure from the Crab model, the magnetization parameter σ of the Vela pulsar wind is allowed to be of order unity; this is consistent with the simplest MHD transport of magnetic field from the pulsar to the nebula, where B<=4×10-4 G. The inclination angle of the axis of the equatorial torus with respect to the line of sight is identical to that of the rotation axis of the pulsar as previously measured from the polarization of the radio pulse. The projection of the rotation axis on the sky may also be close to the direction of proper motion of the pulsar if previous radio measurements were confused by

  17. The Galactic center pulsar SGR J1745-29

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bower, Geoffrey C.

    2014-05-01

    The discovery of the Galactic center pulsar SGR J1745-29 has provided an important new window into plasma processes in the Galactic center (GC) interstellar medium, the population of compact objects in the GC, and the prospects for probing general relativistic effects through timing of a Sgr A* pulsar companion. We discuss here radio observations of the pulsar and how they are providing fresh insights. In particular, our results show that recent pulsar surveys had the sensitivity to detect many pulsars in the GC region without significant losses due to interstellar scattering. This raise the question of why only this pulsar close to Sgr A* has been detected.

  18. To accrete or not accrete, that is the question

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    von, Huene R.

    1986-01-01

    Along modern convergent margins tectonic processes span a spectrum from accretion to erosion. The process of accretion is generally recognized because it leaves a geologic record, whereas the process of erosion is generally hypothetical because it produces a geologic hiatus. Major conditions that determine the dominance of accretion or erosion at modern convergent margins are: 1) rate and direction of plate convergence, 2) sediment supply and type in the trench, and 3) topography of the subducting ocean floor. Most change in structure has been ascribed to plate motion, but both erosion and accretion are observed along the same convergence margin. Thus sediment supply and topography are probably of equivalent importance to plate motion because both erosion and accretion are observed under constant conditions of plate convergence. The dominance of accretion or erosion at a margin varies with the thickness of trench sediment. In a sediment flooded trench, the proportions of subducted and accreted sediment are commonly established by the position of a decollement along a weak horizon in the sediment section. Thus, the vertical variation of sediment strength and the distribution of horizontal stress are important factors. Once deformation begins, the original sediment strength is decreased by sediment remolding and where sediment thickens rapidly, increases in pore fluid pressure can be pronounced. In sediment-starved trenches, where the relief of the subducting ocean floor is not smoothed over, the front of the margin must respond to the topography subducted as well as that accreted. The hypothesized erosion by the drag of positive features against the underside of the upper plate (a high stress environment) may alternate with erosion due to the collapse of a margin front into voids such as graben (a low stress environment). ?? 1986 Ferdinand Enke Verlag Stuttgart.

  19. A RADIO PULSAR SEARCH OF THE {gamma}-RAY BINARIES LS I +61 303 AND LS 5039

    SciTech Connect

    Virginia McSwain, M.; Ray, Paul S.; Ransom, Scott M.; Roberts, Mallory S. E.; Dougherty, Sean M.; Pooley, Guy G. E-mail: paul.ray@nrl.navy.mil E-mail: malloryr@gmail.com E-mail: guy@mrao.cam.ac.uk

    2011-09-01

    LS I +61 303 and LS 5039 are exceptionally rare examples of high-mass X-ray binaries with MeV-TeV emission, making them two of only five known '{gamma}-ray binaries'. There has been disagreement within the literature over whether these systems are microquasars, with stellar winds accreting onto a compact object to produce high energy emission and relativistic jets, or whether their emission properties might be better explained by a relativistic pulsar wind colliding with the stellar wind. Here we present an attempt to detect radio pulsars in both systems with the Green Bank Telescope. The upper limits of flux density are between 4.1 and 14.5 {mu}Jy, and we discuss the null results of the search. Our spherically symmetric model of the wind of LS 5039 demonstrates that any pulsar emission will be strongly absorbed by the dense wind unless there is an evacuated region formed by a relativistic colliding wind shock. LS I +61 303 contains a rapidly rotating Be star whose wind is concentrated near the stellar equator. As long as the pulsar is not eclipsed by the circumstellar disk or viewed through the densest wind regions, detecting pulsed emission may be possible during part of the orbit.

  20. Accretion characteristics in intermediate polars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Tracey Louise

    This thesis concerns the class of interacting binaries known as intermediate polars (IPs). These are semi-detached magnetic cataclysmic variable systems in which a red dwarf secondary transfers material via Roche lobe overflow onto a white dwarf (WD). The magnetic field of the white dwarf (~10 6 to 10 7 Gauss) plays an important part in determining the type of accretion flow from the secondary. In chapter 1, I discuss binary systems in general, moving on to a more in depth look at Intermediate polars (IPs), their geometry and characteristics, ending with a brief look at all known IPs to date. In the first part of the thesis I present an analysis of the X-ray lightcurves in 16 IPs in order to examine the possible cause of the orbital modulation. I show that X-ray orbital modulation is widespread amongst IN, but not ubiquitous. The orbital modulation is most likely due to photoelectric absorption in material at the edge of the accretion disk. Assuming a random distribution of inclination angles, the fact that such a modulation is seen in seven systems out of sixteen studied (plus two eclipsing systems) implies that modulations are visible at inclination angles in excess of 60°. It is also apparent that these modulations can appear and disappear on timescales of ~years or months in an individual system, which may be evidence for precessing, tilted accretion disks. In the second half of the thesis I use a particle hydrodynamical code known as HyDisc, to investigate the accretion flows in IPs, as a function of parameter space for two dipole models. One where we assume that the density and size scale of the blobs being accreted are constant which we refer to as the n 6 model, and the other where the size scale and density of the accreted blobs are not constant referred to as the n 3 model. I show that the accretion flow can take the form of an accretion disk, accretion stream, propeller accretion and ring accretion for the n 3 model and stream and disk accretion in the

  1. The Vela Pulsar and Its Synchrotron Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helfand, D.; Gotthelf, E.; Halpern, J.

    2000-10-01

    We present high-resolution Chandra X-ray observations of PSR0833-45, the 89 ms pulsar associated with the Vela supernova remnant. We have acquired two observations of the pulsar separated by one month to search for morphological changes in the pulsar and its environment following an extreme glitch in its rotation frequency. We find a well-resolved nebula with a morphology remarkably similar to the torus-like structure observed in the Crab Nebula, along with an axial Crab-like jet. The flux from the pulsar is found to be steady to within 0.75 %; the 3 sigma limit on the fractional increase in the pulsar's X-ray flux is <10-5 of the inferred glitch energy. We use this limit to constrain parameters of glitch models and neutron star structure. We do find a significant increase in the flux of the nebula's outer torus; if associated with the glitch, the inferred propogation velocity is ~0.5c, similar to that seen in the brightening of the Crab Nebula wisps. We propose an explanation for the X-ray structure of the Vela synchrotron nebula based on a model originally developed for the Crab Nebula. In this model, the bright, arc-shaped X-ray wisps are the shocked termination of a relativistic equatorial pulsar wind which is contained within the surrounding kidney-bean shaped synchrotron nebula which comprises the post-shock, but still relativistic, flow. In a departure from the Crab model, the magnetization parameter of the Vela pulsar wind is required to be of order unity; this is consistent with the simplest MHD transport of magnetic field from the pulsar to the nebula, where B ~ 4 x 10-4G.

  2. Birth and Evolution of Isolated Radio Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Kaspi, Victoria M.

    2008-02-01

    We investigate the birth and evolution of isolated radio pulsars using a population synthesis method, modeling the birth properties of the pulsars, their time evolution, and their detection in the Parkes and Swinburne Multibeam (MB) surveys. Together, the Parkes and Swinburne MB surveys [1, 2] have detected nearly 2/3 of the known pulsars and provide a remarkably homogeneous sample to compare with simulations. New proper motion measurements [3, 4] and an improved model of the distribution of free electrons in the interstellar medium, NE2001 [5], also make revisiting these issues particularly worthwhile. We present a simple population model that reproduces the actual observations well, and consider others that fail. We conclude that: pulsars are born in the spiral arms, with the birthrate of 2.8+/-0.5 pulsars/century peaking at a distance ~3 kpc from the Galactic centre, and with mean initial speed of 380-60+40 km s-1 the birth spin period distribution extends to several hundred milliseconds, with no evidence of multimodality, implying that characteristic ages overestimate the true ages of the pulsars by a median factor >2 for true ages <30,000 yr models in which the radio luminosities of the pulsars are random generically fail to reproduce the observed P-Ṗ diagram, suggesting a relation between intrinsic radio luminosity and (P,Ṗ) radio luminosities L~Ė provides a good match to the observed P-Ṗ diagram; for this favored radio luminosity model, we find no evidence for significant magnetic field decay over the lifetime of the pulsars as radio sources (~100 Myr).

  3. On the magnetosphere of an accelerated pulsar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennan, T. Daniel; Gralla, Samuel E.

    2014-05-01

    We report on a remarkable class of exact solutions to force-free electrodynamics that has four-current along the light cones of an arbitrary timelike worldline in flat spacetime. No symmetry is assumed, and the solutions are given in terms of a free function of three variables. The field configuration should describe the outer magnetosphere of a pulsar moving on the worldline. The power radiated is the sum of an acceleration (Larmor-type) term and a pulsar-type term.

  4. Pulsar-aided SETI experimental observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidmann, J.; Biraud, F.; Tarter, J.

    1989-01-01

    The rotational frequencies of pulsars are used to select preferred radio frequencies for SETI. Pulsar rotational frequencies are converted into SETI frequencies in the 1-10 GHz Galactic radio window. Experimental observations using the frequencies are conducted for target stars closer than 25 parsecs, unknown targets in a globular cluster, and unknown targets in the Galaxy closer than 2.5 kpc. The status of these observations is discussed.

  5. He-accreting white dwarfs: accretion regimes and final outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piersanti, L.; Tornambé, A.; Yungelson, L. R.

    2014-12-01

    The behaviour of carbon-oxygen (CO) white dwarfs (WDs) subject to direct helium accretion is extensively studied. We aim to analyse the thermal response of an accreting WD to mass deposition at different timescales. The analysis has been performed for initial WD masses and accretion rates in the range 0.60-1.02 M⊙ and 10-9-10-5 M⊙ yr-1, respectively. Thermal regimes in the parameter space MWD-dot{M}_He leading to formation of red-giant-like structures, steady burning of He, and mild, strong and dynamical flashes have been identified and the transition between these regimes has been studied in detail. In particular, the physical properties of WDs experiencing the He-flash accretion regime have been investigated to determine the mass retention efficiency as a function of the accretor total mass and accretion rate. We also discuss to what extent the building up of a He-rich layer via H burning could be described according to the behaviour of models accreting He-rich matter directly. Polynomial fits to the obtained results are provided for use in binary population synthesis computations. Several applications for close binary systems with He-rich donors and CO WD accretors are considered and the relevance of the results for interpreting He novae is discussed.

  6. Precision Pulsar Timing at the DSN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majid, Walid A.

    2016-01-01

    Millisecond pulsars are a class of radio pulsars with extremely stable rotations. The excellent timing stability of millisecond pulsars can be used to study a wide variety of astrophysical phenomena. In particular, observations of a large sample of these pulsars can be used to detect the presence of low-frequency gravitational waves. We have developed and are now commissioning a precision pulsar timing backend for the Deep Space Network (DSN), which will allow the use of short gaps in tracking schedules to observe and time pulses from an ensemble of millisecond pulsars. The NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) operates clusters of large dish antennas (up to 70-m in diameter), located roughly equi-distant around the Earth, for communication and tracking of deep-space spacecraft. The backend system is capable of removing entirely the dispersive effects of propagation of radio waves through the interstellar medium in real-time. We will describe our development work, initial results, and prospects for future observations scheduled over the next few years.

  7. Pulsar observations with the MAGIC telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fidalgo, David

    2016-07-01

    The vast majority of spectra of gamma-ray pulsars exhibit an exponential cut-off at a few GeV, as seen by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board of the Fermi satellite. Due to this cut-off, current Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) with an energy threshold as low as 30 GeV, struggle to detect pulsars. So far, emission above 50 GeV has been confirmed only for the Crab and Vela pulsars. In the case of the former, the spectrum even extends up to about 1 TeV firmly revealing a second emission component. To further understand the emission mechanism of gamma-ray pulsars, the MAGIC collaboration continues the search of pulsars above 50 GeV. In this talk we report on recent results on the Crab and Geminga Pulsar obtained with the MAGIC telescopes, including the analysis of data taken with a new trigger system lowering the energy threshold of the MAGIC telescopes.

  8. DETECTING GRAVITATIONAL WAVE MEMORY WITH PULSAR TIMING

    SciTech Connect

    Cordes, J. M.; Jenet, F. A. E-mail: merlyn@phys.utb.edu

    2012-06-10

    We compare the detectability of gravitational bursts passing through the solar system with those passing near each millisecond pulsar in an N-pulsar timing array. The sensitivity to Earth-passing bursts can exploit the correlation expected in pulse arrival times while pulsar-passing bursts, though uncorrelated between objects, provide an N-fold increase in overall time baseline that can compensate for the lower sensitivity. Bursts with memory from mergers of supermassive black holes produce step functions in apparent spin frequency that are the easiest to detect in pulsar timing. We show that the burst rate and amplitude distribution, while strongly dependent on inadequately known cosmological evolution, may favor detection in the pulsar terms rather than the Earth timing perturbations. Any contamination of timing data by red spin noise makes burst detection more difficult because both signals grow with the length of the time data span T. Furthermore, the different bursts that could appear in one or more data sets of length T Almost-Equal-To 10 yr also affect the detectability of the gravitational wave stochastic background that, like spin noise, has a red power spectrum. A burst with memory is a worthwhile target in the timing of multiple pulsars in a globular cluster because it should produce a correlated signal with a time delay of less than about 10 years in some cases.

  9. The Swinburne intermediate-latitude pulsar survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, R. T.; Bailes, M.; van Straten, W.; Britton, M. C.

    2001-09-01

    We have conducted a survey of intermediate Galactic latitudes using the 13-beam 21-cm multibeam receiver of the Parkes 64-m radio telescope. The survey covered the region enclosed by 5°<|b|<15° and -100°pulsars in the region with flux densities greater than approximately 0.3-1.1mJy. Offline analysis on the 64-node Swinburne workstation cluster resulted in the detection of 170 pulsars of which 69 were new discoveries. Eight of the new pulsars, by virtue of their small spin periods and period derivatives, may be recycled and have been reported elsewhere. The slow pulsars discovered are typical of those already known in the volume searched, being of intermediate to old age. Several pulsars experience pulse nulling and two display very regular drifting subpulses. We discuss the new discoveries and provide timing parameters for the 48 slow pulsars for which we have a phase-connected solution.

  10. A novel mechanism for creating double pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sigurdsson, Steinn; Hernquist, Lars

    1992-01-01

    Simulations of encounters between pairs of hard binaries, each containing a neutron star and a main-sequence star, reveal a new formation mechanism for double pulsars in dense cores of globular clusters. In many cases, the two normal stars are disrupted to form a common envelope around the pair of neutron stars, both of which will be spun up to become millisecond pulsars. We predict that a new class of pulsars, double millisecond pulsars, will be discovered in the cores of dense globular clusters. The genesis proceeds through a short-lived double-core common envelope phase, with the envelope ejected in a fast wind. It is possible that the progenitor may also undergo a double X-ray binary phase. Any circular, short-period double pulsar found in the galaxy would necessarily come from disrupted disk clusters, unlike Hulse-Taylor class pulsars or low-mass X-ray binaries which may be ejected from clusters or formed in the galaxy.

  11. Polarized curvature radiation in pulsar magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, P. F.; Wang, C.; Han, J. L.

    2014-07-01

    The propagation of polarized emission in pulsar magnetosphere is investigated in this paper. The polarized waves are generated through curvature radiation from the relativistic particles streaming along curved magnetic field lines and corotating with the pulsar magnetosphere. Within the 1/γ emission cone, the waves can be divided into two natural wave-mode components, the ordinary (O) mode and the extraordinary (X) mode, with comparable intensities. Both components propagate separately in magnetosphere, and are aligned within the cone by adiabatic walking. The refraction of O mode makes the two components separated and incoherent. The detectable emission at a given height and a given rotation phase consists of incoherent X-mode and O-mode components coming from discrete emission regions. For four particle-density models in the form of uniformity, cone, core and patches, we calculate the intensities for each mode numerically within the entire pulsar beam. If the corotation of relativistic particles with magnetosphere is not considered, the intensity distributions for the X-mode and O-mode components are quite similar within the pulsar beam, which causes serious depolarization. However, if the corotation of relativistic particles is considered, the intensity distributions of the two modes are very different, and the net polarization of outcoming emission should be significant. Our numerical results are compared with observations, and can naturally explain the orthogonal polarization modes of some pulsars. Strong linear polarizations of some parts of pulsar profile can be reproduced by curvature radiation and subsequent propagation effect.

  12. Precision Pulsar Timing at the DSN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majid, Walid A.

    2015-01-01

    Millisecond pulsars are a class of radio pulsars with extremely stable rotations. The excellent timing stability of millisecond pulsars can be used to study a wide variety of astrophysical phenomena. In particular, observations of a large sample of these pulsars can be used to detect the presence of low-frequency gravitational waves. We have developed a precision pulsar timing backend for the Deep Space Network (DSN), which will allow the use of short gaps in tracking schedules to observe and time pulses from an ensemble of millisecond pulsars. The NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) operates clusters of large dish antennas (up to 70-m in diameter), located roughly equi-distant around the Earth, for communication and tracking of deep-space spacecraft. The backend system will be capable of removing entirely the dispersive effects of propagation of radio waves through the interstellar medium in real-time. We will describe our development work, initial results, and prospects for future observations scheduled later this year.This research was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory,California Institute of Technology, under the Research and TechnologyDevelopment Program, under a contract with the National Aeronautics andSpace Administration.

  13. Timing of a young mildly recycled pulsar with a massive white dwarf companion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarus, P.; Tauris, T. M.; Knispel, B.; Freire, P. C. C.; Deneva, J. S.; Kaspi, V. M.; Allen, B.; Bogdanov, S.; Chatterjee, S.; Stairs, I. H.; Zhu, W. W.

    2014-01-01

    We report on timing observations of the recently discovered binary pulsar PSR J1952+2630 using the Arecibo Observatory. The mildly recycled 20.7-ms pulsar is in a 9.4-h orbit with a massive, MWD > 0.93 M⊙, white dwarf (WD) companion. We present, for the first time, a phase-coherent timing solution, with precise spin, astrometric and Keplerian orbital parameters. This shows that the characteristic age of PSR J1952+2630 is 77 Myr, younger by one order of magnitude than any other recycled pulsar-massive WD system. We derive an upper limit on the true age of the system of 150 Myr. We investigate the formation of PSR J1952+2630 using detailed modelling of the mass-transfer process from a naked helium star on to the neutron star following a common-envelope phase (Case BB Roche lobe overflow). From our modelling of the progenitor system, we constrain the accretion efficiency of the neutron star, which suggests a value between 100 and 300 per cent of the Eddington accretion limit. We present numerical models of the chemical structure of a possible oxygen-neon-magnesium WD companion. Furthermore, we calculate the past and the future spin evolution of PSR J1952+2630, until the system merges in about 3.4 Gyr due to gravitational wave emission. Although we detect no relativistic effects in our timing analysis, we show that several such effects will become measurable with continued observations over the next 10 yr; thus, PSR J1952+2630 has potential as a testbed for gravitational theories.

  14. Accreting neutron stars by QFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shao-Guang

    layer with thickness of 1 km then q = 1 (N1S1), the gravity from N1S1 inside and exterior will be completely shielded. Because of net nuν _{0} flux is the medium to produce and transmit gravity, q obstructed by the shielding layer lie on the density of layer matter and the section of single nucleon to electronic neutrino obtained by nuclear physics experiments is about 1.1*10 ({-) 43} cm (2) . The mass inside N1S1 for exterior has not gravity interaction, it equivalent to has not inertia as the mass vanish. The neutron star is as a empty shell thereby may rapidly rotating and has not upper limit of mass and radii by the gravity accretion of N1S1, which will influence the mechanisms of pulsars, quasars and X-rays generated. At N1S1 interior the mass for exterior has not gravity which is just we searching dark matter. The mass each part will each other shielding and gravity decrease to less than the pressure of the degenerate neutron gas. The neutron star cannot collapse into a singular point with infinite density, i.e., the black hole with infinite gravity cannot be formed or the neutron star is jest the black hole in observational meaning. By the gravity accrete of N1S1 the neutron star may enlarge its shell radii but thickness keep. Only a shell gravity may be not less than any a observed value which to be deemed as black hole. The neutron star has powerful gravity certainly accompany with great surface negative charge and it may rapidly to rotate, so that there is a powerful magnetic field surround it. The accreting neutron star is as a slowly expand empty shell with fixed thickness of 1 km, its spin period depend on its radii or total accretion mass.

  15. Dynamics of continental accretion.

    PubMed

    Moresi, L; Betts, P G; Miller, M S; Cayley, R A

    2014-04-10

    Subduction zones become congested when they try to consume buoyant, exotic crust. The accretionary mountain belts (orogens) that form at these convergent plate margins have been the principal sites of lateral continental growth through Earth's history. Modern examples of accretionary margins are the North American Cordilleras and southwest Pacific subduction zones. The geologic record contains abundant accretionary orogens, such as the Tasmanides, along the eastern margin of the supercontinent Gondwana, and the Altaïdes, which formed on the southern margin of Laurasia. In modern and ancient examples of long-lived accretionary orogens, the overriding plate is subjected to episodes of crustal extension and back-arc basin development, often related to subduction rollback and transient episodes of orogenesis and crustal shortening, coincident with accretion of exotic crust. Here we present three-dimensional dynamic models that show how accretionary margins evolve from the initial collision, through a period of plate margin instability, to re-establishment of a stable convergent margin. The models illustrate how significant curvature of the orogenic system develops, as well as the mechanism for tectonic escape of the back-arc region. The complexity of the morphology and the evolution of the system are caused by lateral rollback of a tightly arcuate trench migrating parallel to the plate boundary and orthogonally to the convergence direction. We find geological and geophysical evidence for this process in the Tasmanides of eastern Australia, and infer that this is a recurrent and global phenomenon.

  16. Young Pulsar Reveals Clues to Supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-09-01

    Astronomers examined the remnants of a stellar explosion with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and discovered one of the youngest known pulsars. The properties of this pulsar, a neutron star rotating 15 times a second, will enable scientists to better understand how neutron stars are formed in the seconds just before a supernova explosion, and how they pump energy into the space around them for thousands of years after the explosion. A team led by Stephen Murray of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, MA studied 3C58, the remains of a supernova observed on Earth in 1181 AD in the constellation Cassiopeia. In addition to a pulsating central source they observed an extended X-ray source surrounding the pulsar thought to be produced by a cloud of high-energy particles about 20 light years across. These results were presented at the "Two Years of Science with Chandra" symposium in Washington, D.C. According to Murray, "Our discovery shows that all pulsars are not born equal. This pulsar is about the same age as the Crab Nebula pulsar, but there is little family resemblance." Murray explained that the 3C58 pulsar, which is now rotating at about half the rate of the Crab pulsar, is rotating almost as fast as it was when it was formed. In contrast, the Crab pulsar was formed spinning much more rapidly and has slowed to about half its initial speed. Conventional theory has assumed that all pulsars were like the Crab, born with rapid rotation and then have spun down considerably. The observations of 3C58, along with Chandra observations by another group of scientists of a pulsar associated with the supernova of 386 AD have cast doubt on that assumption, however. Furthermore, the X-ray power of 3C58 and its surrounding nebula are 20,000 and 1,000 times weaker than the Crab pulsar and its surrounding nebula respectively. One possibility for the low power of 3C58 is that the energy flow from its pulsar is primarily in the form of electromagnetic fields

  17. The imprint of pulsar parameters on the morphology of Pulsar Wind Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bühler, Rolf; Giomi, Matteo

    2016-11-01

    The morphology of young Pulsar Wind Nebulae (PWN) is largely determined by the properties of the wind injected by the pulsar. We have used a recent parametrization of the wind obtained from force-free electrodynamics simulations of pulsar magnetospheres to simulate nebulae for different sets of pulsar parameters. We performed axisymmetric relativistic magnetohydrodynamics simulations to test the morphology dependence of the nebula on the obliquity of the pulsar and on the magnetization of the pulsar wind. We compare these simulations to the morphology of the Vela and Crab PWN. We find that the morphology of Vela can be reproduced qualitatively if the pulsar obliquity angle is α ≈ 45° and the magnetization of the wind is high (σ0 ≈ 3.0). A morphology similar to the one of the Crab nebula is only obtained for low-magnetization simulations with α ≳ 45°. Interestingly, we find that Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities produce small-scale turbulences downstream of the reverse shock of the pulsar wind.

  18. A NuSTAR Observation of the Gamma-ray-emitting X-ray Binary and Transitional Millisecond Pulsar Candidate 1RXS J154439.4–112820

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanov, Slavko

    2016-07-01

    I present a 40 ks Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array observation of the recently identified low-luminosity X-ray binary and transitional millisecond pulsar (tMSP) candidate 1RXS J154439.4‑112820, which is associated with the high-energy γ-ray source 3FGL J1544.6‑1125. The system is detected up to ˜30 keV with an extension of the same power-law spectrum and rapid large-amplitude variability between two flux levels observed in soft X-rays. These findings provide further evidence that 1RXS J154439.4‑112820 belongs to the same class of objects as the nearby bona fide tMSPs PSR J1023+0038 and XSS J12270‑4859 and therefore almost certainly hosts a millisecond pulsar accreting at low luminosity. I also examine the long-term accretion history of 1RXS J154439.4‑112820 based on archival optical, ultraviolet, X-ray, and γ-ray light curves covering approximately the past decade. Throughout this period, the source has maintained similar flux levels at all wavelengths, which is an indication that it has not experienced prolonged episodes of a non-accreting radio pulsar state but may spontaneously undergo such events in the future.

  19. A NuSTAR Observation of the Gamma-ray-emitting X-ray Binary and Transitional Millisecond Pulsar Candidate 1RXS J154439.4-112820

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanov, Slavko

    2016-07-01

    I present a 40 ks Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array observation of the recently identified low-luminosity X-ray binary and transitional millisecond pulsar (tMSP) candidate 1RXS J154439.4-112820, which is associated with the high-energy γ-ray source 3FGL J1544.6-1125. The system is detected up to ˜30 keV with an extension of the same power-law spectrum and rapid large-amplitude variability between two flux levels observed in soft X-rays. These findings provide further evidence that 1RXS J154439.4-112820 belongs to the same class of objects as the nearby bona fide tMSPs PSR J1023+0038 and XSS J12270-4859 and therefore almost certainly hosts a millisecond pulsar accreting at low luminosity. I also examine the long-term accretion history of 1RXS J154439.4-112820 based on archival optical, ultraviolet, X-ray, and γ-ray light curves covering approximately the past decade. Throughout this period, the source has maintained similar flux levels at all wavelengths, which is an indication that it has not experienced prolonged episodes of a non-accreting radio pulsar state but may spontaneously undergo such events in the future.

  20. ACCRETING CIRCUMPLANETARY DISKS: OBSERVATIONAL SIGNATURES

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Zhaohuan

    2015-01-20

    I calculate the spectral energy distributions of accreting circumplanetary disks using atmospheric radiative transfer models. Circumplanetary disks only accreting at 10{sup –10} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} around a 1 M{sub J} planet can be brighter than the planet itself. A moderately accreting circumplanetary disk ( M-dot ∼10{sup −8} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}; enough to form a 10 M{sub J} planet within 1 Myr) around a 1 M{sub J} planet has a maximum temperature of ∼2000 K, and at near-infrared wavelengths (J, H, K bands), this disk is as bright as a late-M-type brown dwarf or a 10 M{sub J} planet with a ''hot start''. To use direct imaging to find the accretion disks around low-mass planets (e.g., 1 M{sub J} ) and distinguish them from brown dwarfs or hot high-mass planets, it is crucial to obtain photometry at mid-infrared bands (L', M, N bands) because the emission from circumplanetary disks falls off more slowly toward longer wavelengths than those of brown dwarfs or planets. If young planets have strong magnetic fields (≳100 G), fields may truncate slowly accreting circumplanetary disks ( M-dot ≲10{sup −9} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}) and lead to magnetospheric accretion, which can provide additional accretion signatures, such as UV/optical excess from the accretion shock and line emission.

  1. Pulsar J0453+1559: A Double Neutron Star System with a Large Mass Asymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, J. G.; Stovall, K.; Freire, P. C. C.; Deneva, J. S.; Jenet, F. A.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Bagchi, M.; Bates, S. D.; Ridolfi, A.

    2015-10-01

    To understand the nature of supernovae and neutron star (NS) formation, as well as binary stellar evolution and their interactions, it is important to probe the distribution of NS masses. Until now, all double NS (DNS) systems have been measured as having a mass ratio close to unity (q ≥ 0.91). Here, we report the measurement of the individual masses of the 4.07-day binary pulsar J0453+1559 from measurements of the rate of advance of periastron and Shapiro delay: the mass of the pulsar is Mp = 1.559 ± 0.005 M⊙ and that of its companion is {M}{{c}}=1.174+/- 0.004 M⊙ q = 0.75. If this companion is also an NS, as indicated by the orbital eccentricity of the system (e = 0.11), then its mass is the smallest precisely measured for any such object. The pulsar has a spin period of 45.7 ms and a spin period derivative of \\dot{{\\text{}}P} = (1.8616±0.0007)×10-19 s s-1 from these, we derive a characteristic age of ˜ 4.1×109 years and a magnetic field of ˜ 2.9×109 G, i.e., this pulsar was mildly recycled by the accretion of matter from the progenitor of the companion star. This suggests that it was formed with (very approximately) its current mass. Thus, NSs form with a wide range of masses, which is important for understanding their formation in supernovae. It is also important for the search for gravitational waves released during an NS-NS merger: it is now evident that we should not assume that all DNS systems are symmetric.

  2. Discovery of Eight Recycled Pulsars --- The Swinburne Intermediate Latitude Pulsar Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Russell T.

    We have conducted a pulsar survey of intermediate Galactic latitudes (15deg < |b| < 5deg) at 20 cm. The survey has been highly successful, discovering 58 new pulsars, eight of which are recycled, in only ~14 days of integration time. One pulsar has a very narrow (2deg FWHM) average profile for the pulsar's period (278 ms). The six new recycled binary systems provide valuable information on the formation of white dwarf pulsar binaries. Two systems have massive white dwarf companions (> 0.57 Mo and > 1.2 Mo), while anotherhas a low mass (~0.2 Mo) companion in a 23.3-d orbit, residing the well-known orbital period ``gap''.

  3. How do accretion discs break?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogan, Suzan

    2016-07-01

    Accretion discs are common in binary systems, and they are often found to be misaligned with respect to the binary orbit. The gravitational torque from a companion induces nodal precession in misaligned disc orbits. In this study, we first calculate whether this precession is strong enough to overcome the internal disc torques communicating angular momentum. We compare the disc precession torque with the disc viscous torque to determine whether the disc should warp or break. For typical parameters precession wins: the disc breaks into distinct planes that precess effectively independently. To check our analytical findings, we perform 3D hydrodynamical numerical simulations using the PHANTOM smoothed particle hydrodynamics code, and confirm that disc breaking is widespread and enhances accretion on to the central object. For some inclinations, the disc goes through strong Kozai cycles. Disc breaking promotes markedly enhanced and variable accretion and potentially produces high-energy particles or radiation through shocks. This would have significant implications for all binary systems: e.g. accretion outbursts in X-ray binaries and fuelling supermassive black hole (SMBH) binaries. The behaviour we have discussed in this work is relevant to a variety of astrophysical systems, for example X-ray binaries, where the disc plane may be tilted by radiation warping, SMBH binaries, where accretion of misaligned gas can create effectively random inclinations and protostellar binaries, where a disc may be misaligned by a variety of effects such as binary capture/exchange, accretion after binary formation.

  4. Fine-Tuning the Accretion Disk Clock in Hercules X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Still, M.; Boyd, P.

    2004-01-01

    RXTE ASM count rates from the X-ray pulsar Her X-1 began falling consistently during the late months of 2003. The source is undergoing another state transition similar to the anomalous low state of 1999. This new event has triggered observations from both space and ground-based observatories. In order to aid data interpretation and telescope scheduling, and to facilitate the phase-connection of cycles before and after the state transition, we have re-calculated the precession ephemeris using cycles over the last 3.5 years. We report that the source has displayed a different precession period since the last anomalous event. Additional archival data from CGRO suggests that each low state is accompanied by a change in precession period and that the subsequent period is correlated with accretion flux. Consequently our analysis reveals long-term accretion disk behaviour which is predicted by theoretical models of radiation-driven warping.

  5. The Nature of the Unidentified EUV Sources: Accreting Isolated Neutron Stars?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madau, Piero

    1999-01-01

    The aims of this project were: (1) to investigate the nature of the EUVE (Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer Satellite) 'NOID' sources, objects detected in the EUV bandpass but with no previous identification at optical or other energies; (2) to study the possible association of NOID sources with nearby, isolated neutron stars among the 1e9 predicted to exist in the Galaxy. These dead radio pulsars have not been detected so far in large numbers, but accretion from the interstellar medium can make them bright at EUV wavelengths; and (3) to use the EUVE data to set constraints on neutron star evolution, accretion physics and population properties. The original objectives of our program remain relevant. Indeed, the level of research in this area has increased substantially since our proposal was submitted as a result of new data from the ROSAT (Roentgen Satellite).

  6. Propeller effect in action in the ultraluminous accreting magnetar M82 X-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsygankov, Sergey S.; Mushtukov, Alexander A.; Suleimanov, Valery F.; Poutanen, Juri

    2016-03-01

    We present here the first convincing observational manifestation of a magnetar-like magnetic field in an accreting neutron star in binary system - the first pulsating ultraluminous X-ray source X-2 in the galaxy M82. Using the Chandra X-ray observatory data, we show that the source exhibit the bimodal distribution of the luminosity with two well-defined peaks separated by a factor of 40. This behaviour can be interpreted as the action of the `propeller regime' of accretion. The onset of the propeller in a 1.37 s pulsar at luminosity of ˜1040 erg s-1 implies the dipole component of the neutron star magnetic field of ˜1014 G.

  7. Pulsar-irradiated stars in dense globular clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tavani, Marco

    1992-01-01

    We discuss the properties of stars irradiated by millisecond pulsars in 'hard' binaries of dense globular clusters. Irradiation by a relativistic pulsar wind as in the case of the eclipsing millisecond pulsar PSR 1957+20 alter both the magnitude and color of the companion star. Some of the blue stragglers (BSs) recently discovered in dense globular clusters can be irradiated stars in binaries containing powerful millisecond pulsars. The discovery of pulsar-driven orbital modulations of BS brightness and color with periods of a few hours together with evidence for radio and/or gamma-ray emission from BS binaries would valuably contribute to the understanding of the evolution of collapsed stars in globular clusters. Pulsar-driven optical modulation of cluster stars might be the only observable effect of a new class of binary pulsars, i.e., hidden millisecond pulsars enshrouded in the evaporated material lifted off from the irradiated companion star.

  8. The counterpart/s of IGR J20159+3713/SWIFT J2015.9+3715: dissecting a complex region with emission from keV to TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassani, L.; Landi, R.; Malizia, A.; Stephen, J. B.; Bazzano, A.; Bird, A. J.; Ubertini, P.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the identification of a new soft gamma-ray source, namely IGR J20159+3713/SWIFT J2015.9+3715, first detected by INTEGRAL/IBIS and then confirmed by Swift/BAT. The source, which has an observed 20-100 keV flux in the range (0.7-1.4) × 10-11 erg cm-2 s-1, encloses a Fermi variable source (2FGL J2015.6+3709) and is spatially close to a TeV emitter (VER J2016+372). Thanks to X-ray follow-up observations performed with the X-ray telescope on board Swift, we have been able to identify the new IBIS/BAT detection with the combined emission of the blazar B2013+370 and the cataclysmic variable RX J2015.6+3711. Both objects show variability in X-rays, with the cataclysmic variable being the most variable of the two. At high energies (above 20 keV) the emission is likely dominated by B2013+370, but the contribution from RX J2015.6+3711 is not negligible, The blazar emits up to GeV frequencies where it is seen by Fermi, while the cataclysmic variable has a bremsstrahlung temperature which is too low to provide any contribution at these high energies. These findings also indicate that the INTEGRAL/Swift source is not associated with the TeV emission, which is most likely due to the supernova remnant (SNR)/pulsar wind nebula (PWN) CTB 87.

  9. Pulsars, supernovae, and ultrahigh energy cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotera, K.; Fang, K.; Olinto, A. V.; Phinney, E. S.

    2012-12-01

    The acceleration of ultrahigh energy nuclei in fast spinning newborn pulsars can explain the observed spectrum of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays and the trend towards heavier nuclei for energies above 10^{19} eV as indicated by air shower studies reported by the Auger Observatory. By assuming a normal distribution of pulsar birth periods centered at 300 ms, we show that the contribution of extragalactic pulsar births to the ultrahigh energy cosmic ray spectrum naturally gives rise to a contribution to very high energy cosmic rays (VHECRs, between 10^{16} and 10^{18} eV) by Galactic pulsar births. The required injected composition to fit the observed spectrum depends on the absolute energy scale, differing considerably between the energy scale used by Auger and that used by the Telescope Array. Depending on the composition of the cosmic rays that escape the supernova remnant and the diffusion behavior of VHECRs in the Galaxy, the contribution of Galactic pulsar births can also bridge the gap between predictions for cosmic ray acceleration in supernova remnants and the observed spectrum below the ankle. Fast spinning newborn pulsars that could produce UHECRs would be born in supernovae that could present interesting specific radiative features, due to the interaction of the pulsar wind with the surrounding ejecta. The resulting supernova lightcurves could present a high luminosity plateau over a few years, and a bright X-ray and gamma-ray peak around one or two years after the onset of the explosion. If such signatures were observed, they could have important implications both for UHECR astrophysics and for the understanding of core-collapse supernovae.

  10. Basic physics and cosmology from pulsar timing data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, J. H.

    1991-01-01

    Radio pulsars provide unparalleled opportunities for making measurements of astrophysically interesting phenomena. The author concentrates on two particular applications of high precision timing observations of pulsars: tests of relativistic gravitation theory using the binary pulsar 1913+16, and tests of cosmological models using timing data from millisecond pulsars. New upper limits are presented for the energy density of a cosmic background of low frequency gravitational radiation.

  11. Chandra Associates Pulsar and Historic Supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-01-01

    SAN DIEGO -- Scientists using NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory have found new evidence that a pulsar in the constellation of Sagittarius was created when a massive star exploded, witnessed by Chinese astronomers in the year 386 AD. If confirmed, this will be only the second pulsar to be clearly associated with a historic event. These results were presented today by Victoria Kaspi and Mallory Roberts of McGill University at the American Astronomical Society meeting. Also participating in the research were Gautum Vasisht from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Eric Gotthelf from Columbia University, Michael Pivovaroff from Therma-Wave, Inc., and Nobuyuki Kawai from the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Japan. The scientists used Chandra to locate the pulsar exactly at the geometric center of the supernova remnant known as G11.2-0.3. This location provides very strong evidence that the pulsar, a neutron star that is rotating 14 times a second, was formed in the supernova of 386 AD, and therefore has an age of 1615 years. "Determining the true ages of astronomical objects is notoriously difficult, and for this reason, historical records of supernovas are of great importance,"said Kaspi."In roughly the past 2,000 years, fewer than 10 reports of probable supernovae have been archived mostly by Asian astronomers. Of those handful, the remnant of 1054 AD, the Crab Nebula, was until now the only pulsar whose birth could be associated with a historic event - and, hence, the only neutron star that has a firm age." Between mid-April and mid-May in the year 386 AD, a young "guest star", presumably a supernova, was recorded by Chinese observers in the direction of the sky now known as the constellation of Sagittarius. In the 1970s, radio astronomers discovered an expanding nebula of gas and high-energy particles, called G11.2-0.3, that is believed to be the remnant of that explosion. In 1997, a team of X-ray astronomers used Japan’s ASCA satellite to discover a pulsar

  12. Unusual flux-distance relationship for pulsars suggested by analysis of the Australia national telescopy facility pulsar catalogue

    SciTech Connect

    Singleton, John; Perez, M R; Singleton, J; Ardavan, H; Ardavan, A

    2009-01-01

    We analyze pulsar fluxes at 1400 MHz (S(1400)) and distances d taken from the Australia National Telescope Facility (ATNF) Pulsar Catalogue. Under the assumption that pulsar populations in different parts of the Galaxy are similar, we find that either (a) pulsar fluxes diminish with distance according to a non-standard power law (we suggest S(1400){proportional_to} 1/d rather than {proportional_to} 1/d{sup 2}) or (b) that there are very significant (i.e. order of magnitude) errors in the distance estimates quoted in the ATNF Catalogue. The former conclusion (a) supports a recent model for pulsar emission that has also successfully explained the frequency spectrum of the Crab pulsar over 16 orders of magnitude of frequency, whilst alternative (b) would necessitate a radical re-evaluation of both the dispersion method for estimating pulsar distances and current ideas about the distribution of pulsars within our Galaxy.

  13. THE PULSAR SEARCH COLLABORATORY: DISCOVERY AND TIMING OF FIVE NEW PULSARS

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, R.; Swiggum, J.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Lorimer, D. R.; Yun, M.; Boyles, J.; Heatherly, S. A.; Scoles, S.; Lynch, R.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Ransom, S. M.; Moniot, M. L.; Thompson, C.; Cottrill, A.; Raycraft, M.; Weaver, M.; Snider, A.; Dudenhoefer, J.; Allphin, L.; Thorley, J.; and others

    2013-05-01

    We present the discovery and timing solutions of five new pulsars by students involved in the Pulsar Search Collaboratory, a NSF-funded joint program between the National Radio Astronomy Observatory and West Virginia University designed to excite and engage high-school students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) and related fields. We encourage students to pursue STEM fields by apprenticing them within a professional scientific community doing cutting edge research, specifically by teaching them to search for pulsars. The students are analyzing 300 hr of drift-scan survey data taken with the Green Bank Telescope at 350 MHz. These data cover 2876 deg{sup 2} of the sky. Over the course of five years, more than 700 students have inspected diagnostic plots through a web-based graphical interface designed for this project. The five pulsars discovered in the data have spin periods ranging from 3.1 ms to 4.8 s. Among the new discoveries are PSR J1926-1314, a long period, nulling pulsar; PSR J1821+0155, an isolated, partially recycled 33 ms pulsar; and PSR J1400-1438, a millisecond pulsar in a 9.5 day orbit whose companion is likely a white dwarf star.

  14. The Pulsar Search Collaboratory: Discovery and Timing of Five New Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, R.; Swiggum, J.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Lorimer, D. R.; Yun, M.; Heatherly, S. A.; Boyles, J.; Lynch, R.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Scoles, S.; Ransom, S. M.; Moniot, M. L.; Cottrill, A.; Weaver, M.; Snider, A.; Thompson, C.; Raycraft, M.; Dudenhoefer, J.; Allphin, L.; Thorley, J.; Meadows, B.; Marchiny, G.; Liska, A.; O'Dwyer, A. M.; Butler, B.; Bloxton, S.; Mabry, H.; Abate, H.; Boothe, J.; Pritt, S.; Alberth, J.; Green, A.; Crowley, R. J.; Agee, A.; Nagley, S.; Sargent, N.; Hinson, E.; Smith, K.; McNeely, R.; Quigley, H.; Pennington, A.; Chen, S.; Maynard, T.; Loope, L.; Bielski, N.; McGough, J. R.; Gural, J. C.; Colvin, S.; Tso, S.; Ewen, Z.; Zhang, M.; Ciccarella, N.; Bukowski, B.; Novotny, C. B.; Gore, J.; Sarver, K.; Johnson, S.; Cunningham, H.; Collins, D.; Gardner, D.; Monteleone, A.; Hall, J.; Schweinhagen, R.; Ayers, J.; Jay, S.; Uosseph, B.; Dunkum, D.; Pal, J.; Dydiw, S.; Sterling, M.; Phan, E.

    2013-05-01

    We present the discovery and timing solutions of five new pulsars by students involved in the Pulsar Search Collaboratory, a NSF-funded joint program between the National Radio Astronomy Observatory and West Virginia University designed to excite and engage high-school students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) and related fields. We encourage students to pursue STEM fields by apprenticing them within a professional scientific community doing cutting edge research, specifically by teaching them to search for pulsars. The students are analyzing 300 hr of drift-scan survey data taken with the Green Bank Telescope at 350 MHz. These data cover 2876 deg2 of the sky. Over the course of five years, more than 700 students have inspected diagnostic plots through a web-based graphical interface designed for this project. The five pulsars discovered in the data have spin periods ranging from 3.1 ms to 4.8 s. Among the new discoveries are PSR J1926-1314, a long period, nulling pulsar; PSR J1821+0155, an isolated, partially recycled 33 ms pulsar; and PSR J1400-1438, a millisecond pulsar in a 9.5 day orbit whose companion is likely a white dwarf star.

  15. Detection and localization of continuous gravitational waves with pulsar timing arrays: the role of pulsar terms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, X.-J.; Wen, L.; Xiong, J.; Xu, Y.; Wang, Y.; Mohanty, S. D.; Hobbs, G.; Manchester, R. N.

    2016-09-01

    A pulsar timing array is a Galactic-scale detector of nanohertz gravitational waves (GWs). Its target signals contain two components: the `Earth term' and the `pulsar term' corresponding to GWs incident on the Earth and pulsar, respectively. In this work we present a Frequentist method for the detection and localization of continuous waves that takes into account the pulsar term and is significantly faster than existing methods. We investigate the role of pulsar terms by comparing a full-signal search with an Earth-term-only search for non-evolving black hole binaries. By applying the method to synthetic data sets, we find that (i) a full-signal search can slightly improve the detection probability (by about five per cent); (ii) sky localization is biased if only Earth terms are searched for and the inclusion of pulsar terms is critical to remove such a bias; (iii) in the case of strong detections (with signal-to-noise ratio ≳30), it may be possible to improve pulsar distance estimation through GW measurements.

  16. Polarization Properties of Rotation Powered Pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding Alice K.

    2009-01-01

    Polarization measurements of rotation-powered pulsars and their nebulae have unique diagnostic potential. The polarization position angle of the pulsar wind nebula, as is know for the Crab pulsar, can tell us the orientation of the spin axis. Phase-resolved polarimetry of pulsars has had enormous diagnostic capability at radio and optical wavelengths and could also be a powerful diagnostic in the X-ray range. Measurement of the polarization properties as a function of pulse phase can therefore provide a multidimensional mapping of the pulsar emission. In the 'rotating vector' model, radiation originating near a magnetic pole is expected to show a characteristic S-shaped swing of the position angle vs. pulse phase. In this case it is possible to determine the magnetic inclination and viewing angles. Radiation originating further from the poles or further above the neutron star surface will have a more complex polarization signature, as a result of relativistic effects of aberration and time-of-flight delays and may also cause depolarization of the signal. I will discuss predicted polarization properties of pulsed emission in polar cap models, where radiation originates near the neutron star surface at the magnetic poles, and in slot gap and outer gap models, where radiation originates over a range of altitudes out to the speed-of-light cylinder.

  17. Thermal properties of three Fermi pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilenko, A.; Karpova, A.; Kirichenko, A.; Shibanov, Y.; Shternin, P.; Zharikov, S.; Zyuzin, D.

    2014-07-01

    We analysed thermal properties of the Fermi pulsars J0357+3205, J1741-2054, and J0633+0632 using data from the XMM-Newton and Chandra archives. The X-ray spectra of all three pulsars can be fitted by sum of thermal and power-law components. For J1741-2054, the thermal component is best described by a blackbody model whose normalization suggests that the thermal emission comes from the bulk of the neutron star surface. The effective temperature of 60 eV, which is rather large for a pulsar as old as J1741-2054, makes it similar to the well-studied pulsar B1055-52, one of ``the three musketeers''. The thermal components of PSRs J0357+3205 and J0633+0632 can be equally well described by blackbody or the hydrogen atmosphere models. In the former case the normalizations suggest hot polar cap as thermal emission origin and only upper limits on the neutron stars surface temperatures can be computed. For the hydrogen atmosphere models, the normalizations are in agreement with emission coming from a substantial part of neutron star surface. Thermal properties of the pulsars are confronted with similar data on other isolated neutron stars and predictions of the neutron star cooling theory.

  18. PULSAR WIND NEBULAE WITH THICK TOROIDAL STRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Chevalier, Roger A.; Reynolds, Stephen P. E-mail: reynolds@ncsu.edu

    2011-10-10

    We investigate a class of pulsar wind nebulae that show synchrotron emission from a thick toroidal structure. The best studied such object is the small radio and X-ray nebula around the Vela pulsar, which can be interpreted as the result of interaction of a mildly supersonic inward flow with the recent pulsar wind. Such a flow near the center of a supernova remnant can be produced in a transient phase when the reverse shock reaches the center of the remnant. Other nebulae with a thick toroidal structure are G106.6+2.9 and G76.9+1.0. Their structure contrasts with young pulsar nebulae like the Crab Nebula and 3C 38, which show a more chaotic, filamentary structure in the synchrotron emission. In both situations, a torus-jet structure is present where the pulsar wind passes through a termination shock, indicating the flow is initially toroidal. We suggest that the difference is due to the Rayleigh-Taylor instability that operates when the outer boundary of the nebula is accelerating into freely expanding supernova ejecta. The instability gives rise to mixing in the Crab and related objects, but is not present in the nebulae with thick toroidal regions.

  19. IS CALVERA A GAMMA-RAY PULSAR?

    SciTech Connect

    Halpern, J. P.

    2011-07-20

    Originally selected as a neutron star (NS) candidate in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey, 1RXS J141256.0+792204 ('Calvera') was discovered to be a 59 ms X-ray pulsar in a pair of XMM-Newton observations by Zane et al. Surprisingly, their claimed detection of this pulsar in Fermi {gamma}-ray data requires no period derivative, severely restricting its dipole magnetic field strength, spin-down luminosity, and distance to small values. This implies that the cooling age of Calvera is much younger than its characteristic spin-down age. If so, it could be a mildly recycled pulsar, or the first 'orphaned' central compact object (CCO). Here we show that the published Fermi ephemeris fails to align the pulse phases of the two X-ray observations with each other, which indicates that the Fermi detection is almost certainly spurious. Analysis of additional Fermi data also does not confirm the {gamma}-ray detection. This leaves the spin-down rate of Calvera less constrained, and its place among the families of NSs uncertain. It could still be either an ordinary pulsar, a mildly recycled pulsar, or an orphaned CCO.

  20. LUMINOSITY EVOLUTION OF GAMMA-RAY PULSARS

    SciTech Connect

    Hirotani, Kouichi

    2013-04-01

    We investigate the electrodynamic structure of a pulsar outer-magnetospheric particle accelerator and the resulting gamma-ray emission. By considering the condition for the accelerator to be self-sustained, we derive how the trans-magnetic-field thickness of the accelerator evolves with the pulsar age. It is found that the thickness is small but increases steadily if the neutron-star envelope is contaminated by sufficient light elements. For such a light element envelope, the gamma-ray luminosity of the accelerator is kept approximately constant as a function of age in the initial 10,000 yr, forming the lower bound of the observed distribution of the gamma-ray luminosity of rotation-powered pulsars. If the envelope consists of only heavy elements, on the other hand, the thickness is greater, but it increases less rapidly than a light element envelope. For such a heavy element envelope, the gamma-ray luminosity decreases relatively rapidly, forming the upper bound of the observed distribution. The gamma-ray luminosity of a general pulsar resides between these two extreme cases, reflecting the envelope composition and the magnetic inclination angle with respect to the rotation axis. The cutoff energy of the primary curvature emission is regulated below several GeV even for young pulsars because the gap thickness, and hence the acceleration electric field, is suppressed by the polarization of the produced pairs.

  1. Probing Microstructure in Interstellar Plasma with Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backer, Donald

    1999-11-01

    Pulsars provide excellent probes of small structure in the interstellar plasma. The list of observable effects includes dispersion, Faraday rotation, diffraction and refraction. Of great interest recently has been episodes of lensing and dual path propagation when the plasma perturbation has just the right focal length for the pulsar-perturber-earth geometry at a given frequency. I will discuss a recent study of the variable dispersion, refraction and diffraction of the millisecond pulsar B1937+21. This is based mainly on daily observations at 327 and 610 MHz with a pulsar monitoring telescope in Green Bank, WV. Further observations at 820 and 1395 MHz allow us to investigate the limits on dispersion measure determination set by diffraction. Length scales in the medium from 10^10 to 10^15 cm are probed. A second study focuses on a rare event in the Crab pulsar where the dispersion measure jumped by 0.1 pc cm-3 within one week and, prior to the jump, a faint and delayed ghost of the pulsed emission was observed. These phenomena can be explained in terms of a plasma wedge crossing the line of sight. The most likely location of this wedge is in the Rayleigh-Taylor unstable interface between the expanding supernova remains and the pre-supernova stellar wind debris.

  2. Pulsar Radio Emission Mechanisms: The Crab Enigmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hankins, Timothy

    2012-03-01

    The Crab pulsar, which resulted from a supernova explosion in year 1054 A. D., has been studied intensely over a wide range of wavelengths, yet it continues to reveal new phenomena that challenge explanation. The emission structures in the radio regime are complex and some may be unique among pulsars. The standard models for pulsar geometry and radio emission physics are reviewed briefly. Their predictions are then compared with observations of the Crab pulsar radio emission and the observations are used to critique the theoretical models from an observer's point of view. The models must explain the extremely short and bright nanopulses (0.4 ns duration implying an equivalent brightness temperature of 10^42 K), the wide bandwidths of radio emission (at least 0.02 to 46 GHz), the regular banded nature of the high frequency interpulse emission, the complex polarization structure, and the phases of pulsar rotation where emission occurs. So far no comprehensive model satisfies all of the observational discriminants.

  3. Characterizing Accreting White Dwarf Pulsators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szkody, Paula; Mukadam, Anjum

    2014-02-01

    Understanding the population, mass distribution, and evolution of accreting white dwarfs impacts the entire realm of binary interaction, including the creation of Type Ia supernovae. We are concentrating on accreting white dwarf pulsators, as the pulsation properties allow us a view of how the accretion affects the interior of the star. Our ground- based photometry on 11 accreting pulsators with corresponding temperatures from HST UV spectra suggest a broad instability strip in the range of 10500 to 16000K. Additionally, tracking a post-outburst heated white dwarf as it cools and crosses the blue edge and resumes pulsation provides an independent method to locate the empirical instability strip. Determining a post-outburst cooling curve yields an estimate of the amount of heating and the accreted mass during the outburst. We request additional photometry of 2 objects that present unique properties: GW Lib which has not yet returned to its pre-outburst pulsation spectrum after 6 yrs, and EQ Lyn which returned to its pre- outburst pulsation after 3 yrs but is now turning on and off without ongoing outbursts. Following the pulsation spectrum changes over stretches of several nights in a row will provide specific knowledge of the stability of the observed modes.

  4. Pulsar Observations Using the First Station of the Long Wavelength Array and the LWA Pulsar Data Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stovall, K.; Ray, P. S.; Blythe, J.; Dowell, J.; Eftekhari, T.; Garcia, A.; Lazio, T. J. W.; McCrackan, M.; Schinzel, F. K.; Taylor, G. B.

    2015-08-01

    We present initial pulsar results from the first station of the Long Wavelength Array (LWA1) obtained during the commissioning period of LWA1 and in early science results. We present detections of periodic emission from 44 previously known pulsars, including 3 millisecond pulsars. The effects of the interstellar medium (ISM) on pulsar emission are significantly enhanced at the low frequencies of the LWA1 band (10–88 MHz), making LWA1 a very sensitive instrument for characterizing changes in the dispersion measure (DM) and other effects from the ISM. Pulsars also often have significant evolution in their pulse profile at low frequency and a break in their spectral index. We report DM measurements for 44 pulsars, mean flux density measurements for 36 pulsars, and multi-frequency component spacing and widths for 15 pulsars with more than one profile component. For 27 pulsars, we report spectral index measurements within our frequency range. We also introduce the LWA1 Pulsar Data Archive, which stores reduced data products from LWA1 pulsar observations. Reduced data products for the observations presented here can be found in the archive. Reduced data products from future LWA1 pulsar observations will also be made available through the archive.

  5. NuSTAR OBSERVATIONS AND BROADBAND SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION MODELING OF THE MILLISECOND PULSAR BINARY PSR J1023+0038

    SciTech Connect

    Li, K. L.; Kong, A. K. H.; Tam, P. H. T.; Jin, Ruolan; Takata, J.; Cheng, K. S.; Hui, C. Y. E-mail: akong@phys.nthu.edu.tw

    2014-12-20

    We report the first hard X-ray (3-79 keV) observations of the millisecond pulsar (MSP) binary PSR J1023+0038 using NuSTAR. This system has been shown transiting between a low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) state and a rotation-powered MSP state. The NuSTAR observations were taken in both LMXB state and rotation-powered state. The source is clearly seen in both states up to ∼79 keV. During the LMXB state, the 3-79 keV flux is about a factor of 10 higher than in the rotation-powered state. The hard X-rays show clear orbital modulation during the X-ray faint rotation-powered state but the X-ray orbital period is not detected in the X-ray bright LMXB state. In addition, the X-ray spectrum changes from a flat power-law spectrum during the rotation-powered state to a steeper power-law spectrum in the LMXB state. We suggest that the hard X-rays are due to the intrabinary shock from the interaction between the pulsar wind and the injected material from the low-mass companion star. During the rotation-powered MSP state, the X-ray orbital modulation is due to Doppler boosting of the shocked pulsar wind. At the LMXB state, the evaporating matter of the accretion disk due to the gamma-ray irradiation from the pulsar stops almost all the pulsar wind, resulting in the disappearance of the X-ray orbital modulation.

  6. Relativistic Lines and Reflection from the Inner Accretion Disks Around Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cackett, Edward M.; Miller, Jon M.; Ballantyne, David R.; Barret, Didier; Bhattacharyya, Sudip; Boutelier, Martin; Miller, M. Coleman; Strohmayer, Tod E.; Wijnands, Rudy

    2010-09-01

    A number of neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) have recently been discovered to show broad, asymmetric Fe K emission lines in their X-ray spectra. These lines are generally thought to be the most prominent part of a reflection spectrum, originating in the inner part of the accretion disk where strong relativistic effects can broaden emission lines. We present a comprehensive, systematic analysis of Suzaku and XMM-Newton spectra of 10 neutron star LMXBs, all of which display broad Fe K emission lines. Of the 10 sources, 4 are Z sources, 4 are atolls, and 2 are accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars (also atolls). The Fe K lines are fit well by a relativistic line model for a Schwarzschild metric, and imply a narrow range of inner disk radii (6-15 GM/c 2) in most cases. This implies that the accretion disk extends close to the neutron star surface over a range of luminosities. Continuum modeling shows that for the majority of observations, a blackbody component (plausibly associated with the boundary layer) dominates the X-ray emission from 8 to 20 keV. Thus it appears likely that this spectral component produces the majority of the ionizing flux that illuminates the accretion disk. Therefore, we also fit the spectra with a blurred reflection model, wherein a blackbody component illuminates the disk. This model fits well in most cases, supporting the idea that the boundary layer illuminates a geometrically thin disk.

  7. RELATIVISTIC LINES AND REFLECTION FROM THE INNER ACCRETION DISKS AROUND NEUTRON STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Cackett, Edward M.; Miller, Jon M.; Ballantyne, David R.; Barret, Didier; Boutelier, Martin; Miller, M. Coleman; Strohmayer, Tod E.

    2010-09-01

    A number of neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) have recently been discovered to show broad, asymmetric Fe K emission lines in their X-ray spectra. These lines are generally thought to be the most prominent part of a reflection spectrum, originating in the inner part of the accretion disk where strong relativistic effects can broaden emission lines. We present a comprehensive, systematic analysis of Suzaku and XMM-Newton spectra of 10 neutron star LMXBs, all of which display broad Fe K emission lines. Of the 10 sources, 4 are Z sources, 4 are atolls, and 2 are accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars (also atolls). The Fe K lines are fit well by a relativistic line model for a Schwarzschild metric, and imply a narrow range of inner disk radii (6-15 GM/c {sup 2}) in most cases. This implies that the accretion disk extends close to the neutron star surface over a range of luminosities. Continuum modeling shows that for the majority of observations, a blackbody component (plausibly associated with the boundary layer) dominates the X-ray emission from 8 to 20 keV. Thus it appears likely that this spectral component produces the majority of the ionizing flux that illuminates the accretion disk. Therefore, we also fit the spectra with a blurred reflection model, wherein a blackbody component illuminates the disk. This model fits well in most cases, supporting the idea that the boundary layer illuminates a geometrically thin disk.

  8. Black hole accretion disc impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pihajoki, P.

    2016-04-01

    We present an analytic model for computing the luminosity and spectral evolution of flares caused by a supermassive black hole impacting the accretion disc of another supermassive black hole. Our model includes photon diffusion, emission from optically thin regions and relativistic corrections to the observed spectrum and time-scales. We test the observability of the impact scenario with a simulated population of quasars hosting supermassive black hole binaries. The results indicate that for a moderate binary mass ratio of 0.3, and impact distances of 100 primary Schwarzschild radii, the accretion disc impacts can be expected to equal or exceed the host quasar in brightness at observed wavelength λ = 510 nm up to z = 0.6. We conclude that accretion disc impacts may function as an independent probe for supermassive black hole binaries. We release the code used for computing the model light curves to the community.

  9. Characteristic Age and True Age of Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Long; Zhang, Cheng-Min; Tanni, Ali; Zhao, Hai-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Age of a pulsar is a useful parameter, but it is difficult to get the age from observation. We can only derive the characteristic age from the observed parameters: spin period (P) and period derivative (Ṗ). In this paper, we discussed the relationship between characteristic age and magnetic field of a pulsar. Monte Carlo simulation is also used to support the idea: it is useless to study the magnetic field evolution using characteristic age. From some observation evidences we get that: the characteristic age cannot be used as true age, especially for millisecond pulsar (MSP). The difference between them is also discussed. From the studying of breaking index and MSP's initial spin period (P0), we get the conclusion that: the problem cannot be resolved using different radiation models.

  10. An approximate model for pulsar navigation simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovanovic, Ilija; Enright, John

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents an approximate model for the simulation of pulsar aided navigation systems. High fidelity simulations of these systems are computationally intensive and impractical for simulating periods of a day or more. Simulation of yearlong missions is done by abstracting navigation errors as periodic Gaussian noise injections. This paper presents an intermediary approximate model to simulate position errors for periods of several weeks, useful for building more accurate Gaussian error models. This is done by abstracting photon detection and binning, replacing it with a simple deterministic process. The approximate model enables faster computation of error injection models, allowing the error model to be inexpensively updated throughout a simulation. Testing of the approximate model revealed an optimistic performance prediction for non-millisecond pulsars with more accurate predictions for pulsars in the millisecond spectrum. This performance gap was attributed to noise which is not present in the approximate model but can be predicted and added to improve accuracy.

  11. EVIDENCE OF AN ASTEROID ENCOUNTERING A PULSAR

    SciTech Connect

    Brook, P. R.; Karastergiou, A.; Buchner, S.; Roberts, S. J.; Keith, M. J.; Johnston, S.; Shannon, R. M.

    2014-01-10

    Debris disks and asteroid belts are expected to form around young pulsars due to fallback material from their original supernova explosions. Disk material may migrate inward and interact with a pulsar's magnetosphere, causing changes in torque and emission. Long-term monitoring of PSR J0738–4042 reveals both effects. The pulse shape changes multiple times between 1988 and 2012. The torque, inferred via the derivative of the rotational period, changes abruptly from 2005 September. This change is accompanied by an emergent radio component that drifts with respect to the rest of the pulse. No known intrinsic pulsar processes can explain these timing and radio emission signatures. The data lead us to postulate that we are witnessing an encounter with an asteroid or in-falling debris from a disk.

  12. Gamma ray emission from radio pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romani, Roger W.

    1994-01-01

    While the proposed research received partial funding under this grant, during the term of support substantial progress was made on the development of a new model for the emission of gamma-rays from isolated rotation-powered pulsars. In phase one of the work, we showed how a modified version of the 'outer gap' model of pulsar emission could reproduce the double peaked profiles seen in CGRO pulsar observations. This work also demonstrated the spectrum of gap radiation varies significantly with position in the magnetosphere, and produced approximate computations of the emission from outer magnetosphere gap zones, including primary curvature radiation, gamma - gamma pair production and synchrotron radiation and inverse Compton scattering by the resulting secondary particles. This work was followed in phase two by a more complete treatment of the geometry of the radiation zone, and improved connections with observations at other wavelengths.

  13. Polarisation properties of pulsars at optical wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignani, Roberto; Marelli, Martino; Shearer, Andrew; Slowikowska, Agnieszka

    2016-07-01

    Polarisation measurements of pulsars offer unique insights into their highly-magnetised relativistic environments and represent a primary test for neutron star magnetosphere models and radiation emission mechanisms. Besides the radio band, optical observations have been, so far, best suited to these goals, with polarisation measurements in the X-rays becoming possible in the near future thanks to missions, such as XIPE and IXPE. In this talk, we review the status of the optical polarisation measurements of pulsars and we foresee possible synergies between X-ray polarimetry observations of selected pulsars with, e.g XIPE and IXPE, and optical observations with the next generation of extremely large telescope, such as the E-ELT.

  14. Gamma-ray pulsars: A gold mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenier, Isabelle A.; Harding, Alice K.

    2015-08-01

    The most energetic neutron stars, powered by their rotation, are capable of producing pulsed radiation from the radio up to γ rays with nearly TeV energies. These pulsars are part of the universe of energetic and powerful particle accelerators, using their uniquely fast rotation and formidable magnetic fields to accelerate particles to ultra-relativistic speed. The extreme properties of these stars provide an excellent testing ground, beyond Earth experience, for nuclear, gravitational, and quantum-electrodynamical physics. A wealth of γ-ray pulsars has recently been discovered with the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. The energetic γ rays enable us to probe the magnetospheres of neutron stars and particle acceleration in this exotic environment. We review the latest developments in this field, beginning with a brief overview of the properties and mysteries of rotation-powered pulsars, and then discussing γ-ray observations and magnetospheric models in more detail. xml:lang="fr"

  15. Target of Opportunity Positioning of Transient X-Ray Pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakrabarty, Deepto

    2003-01-01

    Our program successfully localized three newly-identified transient X-ray pulsars. XTE J1858+034 is a 221 s pulsar (Takeshima et al. 1998, IAUC 6826), XTE J1946+274 is a 15.8 s pulsar (Takeshima and Chakrabarty 1998, IAUC 7016), and XTE J0111.2-7317 is a 31 s pulsar in the Small Magellanic Cloud (Chakrabarty et al. 1998, IAUC 7048). This last pulsar was a particularly interesting source, and our XTE observations enabled prompt follow-up observations with the ASCA mission (Yokogawa et al. 2000, ApJ. 539, 191).

  16. Spectral indices for radio emission of 228 pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jun; Wang, Chen; Xu, Jun; Han, Jin-Lin

    2016-10-01

    We determine spectral indices of 228 pulsars by using Parkes pulsar data observed at 1.4 GHz, among which 200 spectra are newly determined. The indices are distributed in the range from ‑4.84 to ‑0.46. Together with known pulsar spectra from literature, we tried to find clues to the pulsar emission process. The weak correlations between the spectral index, the spin-down energy loss rate E and the potential drop in the polar gap ΔΨ hint that emission properties are related to the particle acceleration process in a pulsar's magnetosphere.

  17. Boundary between stable and unstable regimes of accretion. Ordered and chaotic unstable regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blinova, A. A.; Romanova, M. M.; Lovelace, R. V. E.

    2016-07-01

    We present a new study of the Rayleigh-Taylor unstable regime of accretion on to rotating magnetized stars in a set of high grid resolution three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations performed in low-viscosity discs. We find that the boundary between the stable and unstable regimes is determined almost entirely by the fastness parameter ωs = Ω⋆/ΩK(rm), where Ω⋆ is the angular velocity of the star and ΩK(rm) is the angular velocity of the Keplerian disc at the disc-magnetosphere boundary r = rm. We found that accretion is unstable if ωs ≲ 0.6. Accretion through instabilities is present in stars with different magnetospheric sizes. However, only in stars with relatively small magnetospheres, rm/R⋆ ≲ 7, do the unstable tongues produce chaotic hotspots on the stellar surface and irregular light curves. At even smaller values of the fastness parameter, ωs ≲ 0.45, multiple irregular tongues merge, forming one or two ordered unstable tongues that rotate with the angular frequency of the inner disc. This transition occurs in stars with even smaller magnetospheres, rm/R⋆ ≲ 4.2. Most of our simulations were performed at a small tilt of the dipole magnetosphere, Θ = 5°, and a small viscosity parameter α = 0.02. Test simulations at higher α values show that many more cases become unstable, and the light curves become even more irregular. Test simulations at larger tilts of the dipole Θ show that instability is present, however, accretion in two funnel streams dominates if Θ ≳ 15°. The results of these simulations can be applied to accreting magnetized stars with relatively small magnetospheres: Classical T Tauri stars, accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars, and cataclysmic variables.

  18. A LOFAR census of millisecond pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondratiev, V. I.; Verbiest, J. P. W.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Bilous, A. V.; Stappers, B. W.; Kramer, M.; Keane, E. F.; Noutsos, A.; Osłowski, S.; Breton, R. P.; Hassall, T. E.; Alexov, A.; Cooper, S.; Falcke, H.; Grießmeier, J.-M.; Karastergiou, A.; Kuniyoshi, M.; Pilia, M.; Sobey, C.; ter Veen, S.; van Leeuwen, J.; Weltevrede, P.; Bell, M. E.; Broderick, J. W.; Corbel, S.; Eislöffel, J.; Markoff, S.; Rowlinson, A.; Swinbank, J. D.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Wijnands, R.; Zarka, P.

    2016-01-01

    We report the detection of 48 millisecond pulsars (MSPs) out of 75 observed thus far using the LOw-Frequency ARray (LOFAR) in the frequency range 110-188 MHz. We have also detected three MSPs out of nine observed in the frequency range 38-77 MHz. This is the largest sample of MSPs ever observed at these low frequencies, and half of the detected MSPs were observed for the first time atfrequencies below 200 MHz. We present the average pulse profiles of the detected MSPs, their effective pulse widths, and flux densities and compare these with higher observing frequencies. The flux-calibrated, multifrequency LOFAR pulse profiles are publicly available via the European Pulsar Network Database of Pulsar Profiles. We also present average values of dispersion measures (DM) and discuss DM and profile variations. About 35% of the MSPs show strong narrow profiles, another 25% exhibit scattered profiles, and the rest are only weakly detected. A qualitative comparison of the LOFAR MSP profiles with those at higher radio frequencies shows constant separation between profile components. Similarly, the profile widths are consistent with those observed at higher frequencies, unless scattering dominates at the lowest frequencies. This is very different from what is observed for normal pulsars and suggests a compact emission region in the MSP magnetosphere. The amplitude ratio of the profile components, on the other hand, can dramatically change towards low frequencies, often with the trailing component becoming dominant. As previously demonstrated this can be caused by aberration and retardation. This data set enables high-precision studies of pulse profile evolution with frequency, dispersion, Faraday rotation, and scattering in the interstellar medium. Characterising and correcting these systematic effects may improve pulsar-timing precision at higher observing frequencies, where pulsar timing array projects aim to directly detect gravitational waves.

  19. A survey for Hα pulsar bow shocks

    SciTech Connect

    Brownsberger, Sasha; Romani, Roger W. E-mail: sashab@stanford.edu

    2014-04-01

    We report on a survey for Hα bow shock emission around nearby γ-detected energetic pulsars. This survey adds three Balmer-dominated neutron star bow shocks to the six previously confirmed examples. In addition to the shock around Fermi pulsar PSR J1741–2054, we now report Hα structures around two additional γ-ray pulsars, PSR J2030+4415 and PSR J1509–5850. These are the first known examples of Hα nebulae with pre-ionization halos. With new measurements, we show that a simple analytic model can account for the angular size and flux of the bow shocks' apices. The latter, in particular, provides a new pulsar probe and indicates large moments of inertia and smaller distances than previously assumed in several cases. In particular, we show that the re-measured PSR J0437–4715 shock flux implies I = (1.7 ± 0.2) × 10{sup 45}/(f {sub HI}sin i) g cm{sup 2}. We also derive a distance d ≈ 0.72 kpc for the γ-ray only pulsar PSR J2030+4415 and revised distances for PSRs J1959+2048 (1.4 kpc) and J2555+6535 (∼1 kpc), smaller than the conventional DM-estimated values. Finally, we report upper limits for 94 additional LAT pulsars. An estimate of the survey sensitivity indicates that for a warm neutral medium filling factor φ{sub WNM} ∼ 0.3 there should be a total of approximately nine Hα bow shocks in our LAT-targeted survey; given that seven such objects are now known, a much larger φ{sub WNM} seems problematic.

  20. Pulsar glitches: the crust is not enough.

    PubMed

    Andersson, N; Glampedakis, K; Ho, W C G; Espinoza, C M

    2012-12-14

    Pulsar glitches are traditionally viewed as a manifestation of vortex dynamics associated with a neutron superfluid reservoir confined to the inner crust of the star. In this Letter we show that the nondissipative entrainment coupling between the neutron superfluid and the nuclear lattice leads to a less mobile crust superfluid, effectively reducing the moment of inertia associated with the angular momentum reservoir. Combining the latest observational data for prolific glitching pulsars with theoretical results for the crust entrainment, we find that the required superfluid reservoir exceeds that available in the crust. This challenges our understanding of the glitch phenomenon, and we discuss possible resolutions to the problem.

  1. Pulsar glitches: the crust is not enough.

    PubMed

    Andersson, N; Glampedakis, K; Ho, W C G; Espinoza, C M

    2012-12-14

    Pulsar glitches are traditionally viewed as a manifestation of vortex dynamics associated with a neutron superfluid reservoir confined to the inner crust of the star. In this Letter we show that the nondissipative entrainment coupling between the neutron superfluid and the nuclear lattice leads to a less mobile crust superfluid, effectively reducing the moment of inertia associated with the angular momentum reservoir. Combining the latest observational data for prolific glitching pulsars with theoretical results for the crust entrainment, we find that the required superfluid reservoir exceeds that available in the crust. This challenges our understanding of the glitch phenomenon, and we discuss possible resolutions to the problem. PMID:23368300

  2. PICsar: Particle in cell pulsar magnetosphere simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, Mikhail A.

    2016-07-01

    PICsar simulates the magnetosphere of an aligned axisymmetric pulsar and can be used to simulate other arbitrary electromagnetics problems in axisymmetry. Written in Fortran, this special relativistic, electromagnetic, charge conservative particle in cell code features stretchable body-fitted coordinates that follow the surface of a sphere, simplifying the application of boundary conditions in the case of the aligned pulsar; a radiation absorbing outer boundary, which allows a steady state to be set up dynamically and maintained indefinitely from transient initial conditions; and algorithms for injection of charged particles into the simulation domain. PICsar is parallelized using MPI and has been used on research problems with ~1000 CPUs.

  3. Double Pulsar: A magnetopause in the double-pulsar binary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham-Smith, Francis; McLaughlin, Maura Ann

    2005-02-01

    One of the holy grails of pulsar astronomy was realized last year with the discovery of a double neutron-star binary system in which both stars are visible as radio pulsars. The stars in this highly relativistic system are in a 2.4-hour, mildly eccentric orbit and are separated by only 2.9 light seconds. The wind from one distorts the magnetosphere of the other, forming a comet-like shape similar to the terrestrial magnetosheath. In this article we describe the radio observations of this system, which illuminate the remarkable interactions between the two pulsars. We show how studying these interactions will greatly increase our understanding of pulsar energy budgets, winds and magnetospheric physics.

  4. Numerical Solution of the Radiative Transfer Equation: X-Ray Spectral Formation from Cylindrical Accretion onto a Magnetized Neutron Star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fairnelli, R.; Ceccobello, C.; Romano, P.; Titarchuk, L.

    2011-01-01

    Predicting the emerging X-ray spectra in several astrophysical objects is of great importance, in particular when the observational data are compared with theoretical models. This requires developing numerical routines for the solution of the radiative transfer equation according to the expected physical conditions of the systems under study. Aims. We have developed an algorithm solving the radiative transfer equation in the Fokker-Planck approximation when both thermal and bulk Comptonization take place. The algorithm is essentially a relaxation method, where stable solutions are obtained when the system has reached its steady-state equilibrium. Methods. We obtained the solution of the radiative transfer equation in the two-dimensional domain defined by the photon energy E and optical depth of the system pi using finite-differences for the partial derivatives, and imposing specific boundary conditions for the solutions. We treated the case of cylindrical accretion onto a magnetized neutron star. Results. We considered a blackbody seed spectrum of photons with exponential distribution across the accretion column and for an accretion where the velocity reaches its maximum at the stellar surface and at the top of the accretion column, respectively. In both cases higher values of the electron temperature and of the optical depth pi produce flatter and harder spectra. Other parameters contributing to the spectral formation are the steepness of the vertical velocity profile, the albedo at the star surface, and the radius of the accretion column. The latter parameter modifies the emerging spectra in a specular way for the two assumed accretion profiles. Conclusions. The algorithm has been implemented in the XPEC package for X-ray fitting and is specifically dedicated to the physical framework of accretion at the polar cap of a neutron star with a high magnetic field (approx > 10(exp 12) G). This latter case is expected to be of typical accreting systems such as X

  5. ORIGIN OF INTERMITTENT ACCRETION-POWERED X-RAY OSCILLATIONS IN NEUTRON STARS WITH MILLISECOND SPIN PERIODS

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, Frederick K.; Boutloukos, Stratos; Van Wassenhove, Sandor; Chamberlain, Robert T.; Lo, Ka Ho; Coleman Miller, M.

    2009-11-01

    We have shown previously that many of the properties of persistent accretion-powered millisecond pulsars can be understood if their X-ray emitting areas are near their spin axes and move as the accretion rate and structure of the inner disk vary. Here, we show that this 'nearly aligned moving spot model' may also explain the intermittent accretion-powered pulsations that have been detected in three weakly magnetic accreting neutron stars. We show that movement of the emitting area from very close to the spin axis to approx10 deg. away can increase the fractional rms amplitude from approx<0.5%, which is usually undetectable with current instruments, to a few percent, which is easily detectable. The second harmonic of the spin frequency usually would not be detected, in agreement with observations. The model produces intermittently detectable oscillations for a range of emitting area sizes and beaming patterns, stellar masses and radii, and viewing directions. Intermittent oscillations are more likely in stars that are more compact. In addition to explaining the sudden appearance of accretion-powered millisecond oscillations in some neutron stars with millisecond spin periods, the model explains why accretion-powered millisecond oscillations are relatively rare and predicts that the persistent accretion-powered millisecond oscillations of other stars may become undetectable for brief intervals. It suggests why millisecond oscillations are frequently detected during the X-ray bursts of some neutron stars but not others and suggests mechanisms that could explain the occasional temporal association of intermittent accretion-powered oscillations with thermonuclear X-ray bursts.

  6. PULSAR BINARY BIRTHRATES WITH SPIN-OPENING ANGLE CORRELATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    O'Shaughnessy, Richard; Kim, Chunglee E-mail: ckim@astro.lu.s

    2010-05-20

    One ingredient in an empirical birthrate estimate for pulsar binaries is the fraction of sky subtended by the pulsar beam: the pulsar beaming fraction. This fraction depends on both the pulsar's opening angle and the misalignment angle between its spin and magnetic axes. The current estimates for pulsar binary birthrates are based on an average value of beaming fractions for only two pulsars, i.e., PSRs B1913+16 and B1534+12. In this paper, we revisit the observed pulsar binaries to examine the sensitivity of birthrate predictions to different assumptions regarding opening angle and alignment. Based on empirical estimates for the relative likelihood of different beam half-opening angles and misalignment angles between the pulsar rotation and magnetic axes, we calculate an effective beaming correction factor, f{sub b,eff}, whose reciprocal is equivalent to the average fraction of all randomly selected pulsars that point toward us. For those pulsars without any direct beam geometry constraints, we find that f{sub b,eff} is likely to be smaller than 6, a canonically adopted value when calculating birthrates of Galactic pulsar binaries. We calculate f{sub b,eff} for PSRs J0737-3039A and J1141-6545, applying the currently available constraints for their beam geometry. As in previous estimates of the posterior probability density function P(R) for pulsar binary birthrates R, PSRs J0737-3039A and J1141-6545 still significantly contribute to, if not dominate, the Galactic birthrate of tight pulsar-neutron star (NS) and pulsar-white dwarf (WD) binaries, respectively. Our median posterior present-day birthrate predictions for tight PSR-NS binaries, wide PSR-NS binaries, and tight PSR-WD binaries given a preferred pulsar population model and beaming geometry are 89 Myr{sup -1}, 0.5 Myr{sup -1}, and 34 Myr{sup -1}, respectively. For long-lived PSR-NS binaries, these estimates include a weak (x1.6) correction for slowly decaying star formation in the galactic disk. For pulsars

  7. Constraining Gamma-Ray Pulsar Gap Models with a Simulated Pulsar Population

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierbattista, Marco; Grenier, I. A.; Harding, A. K.; Gonthier, P. L.

    2012-01-01

    With the large sample of young gamma-ray pulsars discovered by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT), population synthesis has become a powerful tool for comparing their collective properties with model predictions. We synthesised a pulsar population based on a radio emission model and four gamma-ray gap models (Polar Cap, Slot Gap, Outer Gap, and One Pole Caustic). Applying gamma-ray and radio visibility criteria, we normalise the simulation to the number of detected radio pulsars by a select group of ten radio surveys. The luminosity and the wide beams from the outer gaps can easily account for the number of Fermi detections in 2 years of observations. The wide slot-gap beam requires an increase by a factor of 10 of the predicted luminosity to produce a reasonable number of gamma-ray pulsars. Such large increases in the luminosity may be accommodated by implementing offset polar caps. The narrow polar-cap beams contribute at most only a handful of LAT pulsars. Using standard distributions in birth location and pulsar spin-down power (E), we skew the initial magnetic field and period distributions in a an attempt to account for the high E Fermi pulsars. While we compromise the agreement between simulated and detected distributions of radio pulsars, the simulations fail to reproduce the LAT findings: all models under-predict the number of LAT pulsars with high E , and they cannot explain the high probability of detecting both the radio and gamma-ray beams at high E. The beaming factor remains close to 1.0 over 4 decades in E evolution for the slot gap whereas it significantly decreases with increasing age for the outer gaps. The evolution of the enhanced slot-gap luminosity with E is compatible with the large dispersion of gamma-ray luminosity seen in the LAT data. The stronger evolution predicted for the outer gap, which is linked to the polar cap heating by the return current, is apparently not supported by the LAT data. The LAT sample of gamma-ray pulsars

  8. HOYLE-LYTTLETON ACCRETION IN THREE DIMENSIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Blondin, John M.; Raymer, Eric

    2012-06-10

    We investigate the stability of gravitational accretion of an ideal gas onto a compact object moving through a uniform medium at Mach 3. Previous three-dimensional simulations have shown that such accretion is not stable, and that strong rotational 'disk-like' flows are generated and accreted on short timescales. We re-address this problem using overset spherical grids that provide a factor of seven improvement in spatial resolution over previous simulations. With our higher spatial resolution we found these three-dimensional accretion flows remained remarkably axisymmetric. We examined two cases of accretion with different sized accretors. The larger accretor produced very steady flow, with the mass accretion rate varying by less than 0.02% over 30 flow times. The smaller accretor exhibited an axisymmetric breathing mode that modulated the mass accretion rate by a constant 20%. Nonetheless, the flow remained highly axisymmetric with only negligible accretion of angular momentum in both cases.

  9. IGR J16328-4726: A NEW CANDIDATE SUPERGIANT FAST X-RAY TRANSIENT

    SciTech Connect

    Fiocchi, M.; Bazzano, A.; Natalucci, L.; Ubertini, P.; Sguera, V.; Bassani, L.; Bird, A. J.

    2010-12-10

    The unidentified source IGR J16328-4726 was covered with INTEGRAL observations for a long period ({approx}9.8 Ms) and was undetectable for most of the time while showing a very recurrent micro-activity with a duration from tens of minutes to several hours. We report the discovery of two strong outbursts started at 53420.65 MJD and 54859.99 MJD, respectively, the first with a duration of {approx}1 hr and the second with a lower limit on the duration of {approx}3.5 hr. Furthermore, the sources have been detected in nine other short pointings with significance between 4{sigma} and 5{sigma} as well as in one of the revolutions (during the exposure {approx}130 ks) at a significance level of {approx}7{sigma}. The stronger outburst spectrum is well described by a power-law model with a photon index of {approx}2.0 and a flux of {approx}3.3 x10{sup -10} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} in the 20-50 keV energy band. The weaker outburst and revolution spectra show the same spectral shape and different fluxes. The combined timing and spectral properties observed during the outburst, the recurrent nature of this transient source, the Galactic plane location, a dynamic range >170 in the 0.3-10 keV band and >165 in the 20-50 keV, and the presence of an IR star in the error circle of a Swift X-ray Telescope pointing are suggesting this source as a member of the class of the supergiant fast X-ray transients.

  10. CHANDRA PHASE-RESOLVED X-RAY SPECTROSCOPY OF THE CRAB PULSAR

    SciTech Connect

    Weisskopf, Martin C.; Tennant, Allyn F.; O'Dell, Stephen L.; Elsner, Ronald F.; Yakovlev, Dmitry G.; Harding, Alice; Zavlin, Vyacheslav E.; Becker, Werner

    2011-12-20

    -blanketing envelope. The observations allow the pulsar, irrespective of the composition of its envelope, to have a neutrino emission rate higher than {approx}0.2 of the standard rate of a non-superfluid star cooling via the modified Urca process. The observations also allow the rate to be lower but now with a limited amount of accreted matter in the envelope.

  11. Chandra Phase-resolved X-Ray Spectroscopy of the Crab Pulsar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.; Tennant, Allyn F.; Yakovlev, Dmitry G.; Harding, Alice; Zavlin, Vyacheslav E.; O'Dell, Stephen L.; Elsner, Ronald F.; Becker, Werner

    2011-12-01

    We present a new study of the X-ray spectral properties of the Crab Pulsar. The superb angular resolution of the Chandra X-Ray Observatory enables distinguishing the pulsar from the surrounding nebulosity. Analysis of the spectrum as a function of pulse phase allows the least-biased measure of interstellar X-ray extinction due primarily to photoelectric absorption and secondarily to scattering by dust grains in the direction of the Crab Nebula. We modify previous findings that the line of sight to the Crab is underabundant in oxygen and provide measurements with improved accuracy and less bias. Using the abundances and cross sections from Wilms et al. we find [O/H] = (5.28 ± 0.28) × 10-4 (4.9 × 10-4 is solar abundance). We also measure for the first time the impact of scattering of flux out of the image by interstellar grains. We find τscat = 0.147 ± 0.043. Analysis of the spectrum as a function of pulse phase also measures the X-ray spectral index even at pulse minimum—albeit with increasing statistical uncertainty. The spectral variations are, by and large, consistent with a sinusoidal variation. The only significant variation from the sinusoid occurs over the same phase range as some rather abrupt behavior in the optical polarization magnitude and position angle. We also compare these spectral variations to those observed in gamma-rays and conclude that our measurements are both a challenge and a guide to future modeling and will thus eventually help us understand pair cascade processes in pulsar magnetospheres. The data are also used to set new, and less biased, upper limits to the surface temperature of the neutron star for different models of the neutron star atmosphere. We discuss how such data are best connected to theoretical models of neutron star cooling and neutron star interiors. The data restrict the neutrino emission rate in the pulsar core and the amount of light elements in the heat-blanketing envelope. The observations allow the pulsar

  12. Perturbation growth in accreting filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, S. D.; Whitworth, A. P.; Hubber, D. A.

    2016-05-01

    We use smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations to investigate the growth of perturbations in infinitely long filaments as they form and grow by accretion. The growth of these perturbations leads to filament fragmentation and the formation of cores. Most previous work on this subject has been confined to the growth and fragmentation of equilibrium filaments and has found that there exists a preferential fragmentation length-scale which is roughly four times the filament's diameter. Our results show a more complicated dispersion relation with a series of peaks linking perturbation wavelength and growth rate. These are due to gravo-acoustic oscillations along the longitudinal axis during the sub-critical phase of growth. The positions of the peaks in growth rate have a strong dependence on both the mass accretion rate onto the filament and the temperature of the gas. When seeded with a multiwavelength density power spectrum, there exists a clear preferred core separation equal to the largest peak in the dispersion relation. Our results allow one to estimate a minimum age for a filament which is breaking up into regularly spaced fragments, as well as an average accretion rate. We apply the model to observations of filaments in Taurus by Tafalla & Hacar and find accretion rates consistent with those estimated by Palmeirim et al.

  13. Do asteroids evaporate near pulsars? Induction heating by pulsar waves revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotera, Kumiko; Mottez, Fabrice; Voisin, Guillaume; Heyvaerts, Jean

    2016-07-01

    Aims: We investigate the evaporation of close-by pulsar companions, such as planets, asteroids, and white dwarfs, by induction heating. Methods: Assuming that the outflow energy is dominated by a Poynting flux (or pulsar wave) at the location of the companions, we calculate their evaporation timescales, by applying the Mie theory. Results: Depending on the size of the companion compared to the incident electromagnetic wavelength, the heating regime varies and can lead to a total evaporation of the companion. In particular, we find that inductive heating is mostly inefficient for small pulsar companions, although it is generally considered the dominant process. Conclusions: Small objects like asteroids can survive induction heating for 104 yr at distances as small as 1 R⊙ from the neutron star. For degenerate companions, induction heating cannot lead to evaporation and another source of heating (likely by kinetic energy of the pulsar wind) has to be considered. It was recently proposed that bodies orbiting pulsars are the cause of fast radio bursts; the present results explain how those bodies can survive in the pulsar's highly energetic environment.

  14. On Thermohaline Mixing in Accreting White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koester, Detlev

    2015-06-01

    We discuss the recent claim that the thermohaline (“fingering”) instability is important in accreting white dwarfs, increasing the derived accretion fluxes potentially by orders of magnitude. We present an alternative view and conclude that at least in the steady state this is not the case and the current method of estimating accretion fluxes is correct.

  15. Pulsar J1823-3021A

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video shows the on and off state of gamma rays from pulsar J1823-3021A as seen by Fermi's Large Area Telescope (LAT). The object pulses 183.8 times a second and has a spin period of 5.44 milli...

  16. On some electrodynamic properties of binary pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sironi, Lorenzo

    2006-07-01

    The main purpose of my thesis is to examine some electrodynamic properties of binary pulsars, trying to understand the peculiar physical processes that can happen in their magnetospheres; the ultimate aim is to discuss if such systems can be the source of the observed flux of cosmic rays between the knee and the ankle, since the mechanisms of acceleration for the cosmic rays in this range of energies are still unknown. Attention around binary pulsars has arisen after the recent discovery (December 2003) of the first double neutron star system in which both the stars are visible as pulsars (PSR J0737-3039); the inspection of the physical features of this binary pulsar has led to some intriguing possibilities up to now unexplored. In this thesis I will first of all review what is already known about the main properties of this binary system. I will describe in particular the possibility to go further in the verification of the predictions of general relativity with the so-called post-Keplerian parameters; I will discuss the possibility of studying the optical properties of the magnetospheres, since the inclination angle of the orbit is nearly 90° and some orbital phases show an eclipse of the light from one pulsar due to absorption by the magnetosphere of the companion; I will rapidly summarize how the discovery of that binary pulsar can enlarge our knowledge about the origin and evolution of double neutron star systems; lastly, I will examine the increase in the estimate of the Galactic double neutron star merger rate due to the discovery of PSR J0737-3039. I will then summarize the current knowledge about the magnetosphere of a single pulsar. After describing the Gold-Pacini model for the energy loss of the oblique rotator (in which the magnetic and rotational axes are not parallel), I will discuss the Goldreich-Julian model for the aligned axisymmetric rotator in the force-free approximation in which the inertial and gravitational forces are neglected with

  17. Observations of the Eclipsing Millisecond Pulsar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bookbinder, Jay

    1990-12-01

    FRUCHTER et al. (1988a) HAVE RECENTLY DISCOVERED a 1.6 MSEC PULSAR (PSR 1957+20) IN A 9.2 HOUR ECLIPSING BINARY SYSTEM. THE UNUSUAL BEHAVIOR OF THE DISPERSION MEASURE AS A FUNCTION OF ORBITAL PHASE, AND THE DISAPPEARANCE OF THE PULSAR SIGNAL FOR 50 MINUTES DURING EACH ORBIT, IMPLIES THAT THE ECLIPSES ARE DUE TO A PULSAR-INDUCED WIND FLOWING OFF OF THE COMPANION. THE OPTICAL COUNTERPART IS A 21ST MAGNITUDE OBJECT WHICH VARIES IN INTENSITY OVER THE BINARY PERIOD; ACCURATE GROUND-BASED OBSERVATIONS ARE PREVENTED BY THE PROXIMITY (0.7") OF A 20TH MAGNITUDE K DWARF. WE PROPOSE TO OBSERVE THE OPTICAL COUNTERPART IN A TWO-PART STUDY. FIRST, THE WF/PC WILL PROVIDE ACCURATE MULTICOLOR PHOTOMETRY, ENABLING US TO DETERMINE UNCONTAMINATED MAGNITUDES AND COLORS BOTH AT MAXIMUM (ANTI-ECLIPSE) AS WELL AS AT MINIMUM (ECLIPSE). SECOND, WE PROPOSE TO OBSERVE THE EXPECTED UV LINE EMISSION WITH FOS, ALLOWING FOR AN INTIAL DETERMINATION OF THE TEMPERATURE AND DENSITY STRUCTURE AND ABUNDANCES OF THE WIND THAT IS BEING ABLATED FROM THE COMPANION. STUDY OF THIS UNIQUE SYSTEM HOLDS ENORMOUS POTENTIAL FOR THE UNDERSTANDING OF THE RADIATION FIELD OF A MILLISECOND PULSAR AND THE EVOLUTION OF LMXRBs AND MSPs IN GENERAL. WE EXPECT THESE OBSERVATIONS TO PLACE VERY SIGNIFICANT CONTRAINTS ON MODELS OF THIS UNIQUE OBJECT.

  18. Pulsars at the Center of the Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majid, Walid

    2016-07-01

    Over the past few years, a number of groups using data from NASA's space-borne Fermi LAT instrument have identified excess gamma-ray flux toward the inner 1º of the Galactic Center (GC), with an even larger significant excess within 0.2º degrees. At present there are two leading candidates for this excess: dark matter annihilation and a population of unresolved millisecond pulsars (MSPs). We are currently developing dedicated instrumentation to carry out a sensitive search for the pulsars in this region of the galaxy using a newly developed front end and receiver on a Deep Space Network large diameter antenna in Australia. In this presentation, we will provide an overview of the challenges encountered with pulsar searches at the GC region and a summary of previous and ongoing efforts to survey this region with radio telescopes. We will also provide preliminary results from our recent observations of the GC region at 2 and 8 GHz and will conclude with prospects for detection of perhaps hundreds of pulsars in this region with new generations of radio telescopes now under construction.

  19. Pulsars at the Center of the Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majid, Walid A.; Prince, Thomas A.

    2016-06-01

    Over the past few years, a number of groups using data from NASA’s space-borne Fermi LAT instrument have identified excess gamma-ray flux toward the inner degree of the Galactic Center (GC), with an even larger significant excess within 0.2 degrees. At present there are two leading candidates for this excess: dark matter annihilation and a population of unresolved millisecond pulsars (MSPs). We are currently developing dedicated instrumentation to carry out a sensitive search for the pulsars in this region of the galaxy using a newly developed front end and receiver on a Deep Space Network large diameter antenna in Australia. In this presentation, we will provide an overview of the challenges encountered with pulsar searches at the GC region and a summary of previous and ongoing efforts to survey this region with radio telescopes. We will also provide preliminary results from our recent observations of the GC region at 2 and 8 GHz and will conclude with prospects for detection of perhaps hundreds of pulsars in this region with new generations of radio telescopes now under construction.

  20. Pulsars at the Center of the Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majid, Walid A.

    2016-04-01

    Over the past few years, a number of groups using data from NASA’s space-borne Fermi LAT instrument have identified excess gamma-ray flux toward the inner few degrees of the Galactic Center (GC), with an even larger significant excess within 1 degree of this region. At present there are two leading candidates for this excess: dark matter annihilation and a population of unresolved millisecond pulsars (MSPs). We are currently developing dedicated instrumentation to carry out a sensitive search for the pulsars in this region of the galaxy using a newly developed front end and receiver on a Deep Space Network large diameter antenna in Australia. In this presentation, we will provide an overview of the challenges encountered with pulsar searches at the GC region and a summary of previous and ongoing efforts to survey this region with radio telescopes. We will also provide preliminary results from our recent observations of the GC region at 2 and 8 GHz and will conclude with prospects for detection of perhaps hundreds of pulsars in this region with new generations of radio telescopes now under construction.