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Sample records for accreting supermassive black

  1. Dynamically important magnetic fields near accreting supermassive black holes.

    PubMed

    Zamaninasab, M; Clausen-Brown, E; Savolainen, T; Tchekhovskoy, A

    2014-06-01

    Accreting supermassive black holes at the centres of active galaxies often produce 'jets'--collimated bipolar outflows of relativistic particles. Magnetic fields probably play a critical role in jet formation and in accretion disk physics. A dynamically important magnetic field was recently found near the Galactic Centre black hole. If this is common and if the field continues to near the black hole event horizon, disk structures will be affected, invalidating assumptions made in standard models. Here we report that jet magnetic field and accretion disk luminosity are tightly correlated over seven orders of magnitude for a sample of 76 radio-loud active galaxies. We conclude that the jet-launching regions of these radio-loud galaxies are threaded by dynamically important fields, which will affect the disk properties. These fields obstruct gas infall, compress the accretion disk vertically, slow down the disk rotation by carrying away its angular momentum in an outflow and determine the directionality of jets.

  2. Cold, clumpy accretion onto an active supermassive black hole.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Grant R; Oonk, J B Raymond; Combes, Françoise; Salomé, Philippe; O'Dea, Christopher P; Baum, Stefi A; Voit, G Mark; Donahue, Megan; McNamara, Brian R; Davis, Timothy A; McDonald, Michael A; Edge, Alastair C; Clarke, Tracy E; Galván-Madrid, Roberto; Bremer, Malcolm N; Edwards, Louise O V; Fabian, Andrew C; Hamer, Stephen; Li, Yuan; Maury, Anaëlle; Russell, Helen R; Quillen, Alice C; Urry, C Megan; Sanders, Jeremy S; Wise, Michael W

    2016-06-01

    Supermassive black holes in galaxy centres can grow by the accretion of gas, liberating energy that might regulate star formation on galaxy-wide scales. The nature of the gaseous fuel reservoirs that power black hole growth is nevertheless largely unconstrained by observations, and is instead routinely simplified as a smooth, spherical inflow of very hot gas. Recent theory and simulations instead predict that accretion can be dominated by a stochastic, clumpy distribution of very cold molecular clouds--a departure from the 'hot mode' accretion model--although unambiguous observational support for this prediction remains elusive. Here we report observations that reveal a cold, clumpy accretion flow towards a supermassive black hole fuel reservoir in the nucleus of the Abell 2597 Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG), a nearby (redshift z = 0.0821) giant elliptical galaxy surrounded by a dense halo of hot plasma. Under the right conditions, thermal instabilities produce a rain of cold clouds that fall towards the galaxy's centre, sustaining star formation amid a kiloparsec-scale molecular nebula that is found at its core. The observations show that these cold clouds also fuel black hole accretion, revealing 'shadows' cast by the molecular clouds as they move inward at about 300 kilometres per second towards the active supermassive black hole, which serves as a bright backlight. Corroborating evidence from prior observations of warmer atomic gas at extremely high spatial resolution, along with simple arguments based on geometry and probability, indicate that these clouds are within the innermost hundred parsecs of the black hole, and falling closer towards it. PMID:27279215

  3. Cold, clumpy accretion onto an active supermassive black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, Grant R.; Oonk, J. B. Raymond; Combes, Françoise; Salomé, Philippe; O'Dea, Christopher P.; Baum, Stefi A.; Voit, G. Mark; Donahue, Megan; McNamara, Brian R.; Davis, Timothy A.; McDonald, Michael A.; Edge, Alastair C.; Clarke, Tracy E.; Galván-Madrid, Roberto; Bremer, Malcolm N.; Edwards, Louise O. V.; Fabian, Andrew C.; Hamer, Stephen; Li, Yuan; Maury, Anaëlle; Russell, Helen R.; Quillen, Alice C.; Urry, C. Megan; Sanders, Jeremy S.; Wise, Michael W.

    2016-06-01

    Supermassive black holes in galaxy centres can grow by the accretion of gas, liberating energy that might regulate star formation on galaxy-wide scales. The nature of the gaseous fuel reservoirs that power black hole growth is nevertheless largely unconstrained by observations, and is instead routinely simplified as a smooth, spherical inflow of very hot gas. Recent theory and simulations instead predict that accretion can be dominated by a stochastic, clumpy distribution of very cold molecular clouds—a departure from the ‘hot mode’ accretion model—although unambiguous observational support for this prediction remains elusive. Here we report observations that reveal a cold, clumpy accretion flow towards a supermassive black hole fuel reservoir in the nucleus of the Abell 2597 Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG), a nearby (redshift z = 0.0821) giant elliptical galaxy surrounded by a dense halo of hot plasma. Under the right conditions, thermal instabilities produce a rain of cold clouds that fall towards the galaxy’s centre, sustaining star formation amid a kiloparsec-scale molecular nebula that is found at its core. The observations show that these cold clouds also fuel black hole accretion, revealing ‘shadows’ cast by the molecular clouds as they move inward at about 300 kilometres per second towards the active supermassive black hole, which serves as a bright backlight. Corroborating evidence from prior observations of warmer atomic gas at extremely high spatial resolution, along with simple arguments based on geometry and probability, indicate that these clouds are within the innermost hundred parsecs of the black hole, and falling closer towards it.

  4. Cold, clumpy accretion onto an active supermassive black hole.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Grant R; Oonk, J B Raymond; Combes, Françoise; Salomé, Philippe; O'Dea, Christopher P; Baum, Stefi A; Voit, G Mark; Donahue, Megan; McNamara, Brian R; Davis, Timothy A; McDonald, Michael A; Edge, Alastair C; Clarke, Tracy E; Galván-Madrid, Roberto; Bremer, Malcolm N; Edwards, Louise O V; Fabian, Andrew C; Hamer, Stephen; Li, Yuan; Maury, Anaëlle; Russell, Helen R; Quillen, Alice C; Urry, C Megan; Sanders, Jeremy S; Wise, Michael W

    2016-06-08

    Supermassive black holes in galaxy centres can grow by the accretion of gas, liberating energy that might regulate star formation on galaxy-wide scales. The nature of the gaseous fuel reservoirs that power black hole growth is nevertheless largely unconstrained by observations, and is instead routinely simplified as a smooth, spherical inflow of very hot gas. Recent theory and simulations instead predict that accretion can be dominated by a stochastic, clumpy distribution of very cold molecular clouds--a departure from the 'hot mode' accretion model--although unambiguous observational support for this prediction remains elusive. Here we report observations that reveal a cold, clumpy accretion flow towards a supermassive black hole fuel reservoir in the nucleus of the Abell 2597 Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG), a nearby (redshift z = 0.0821) giant elliptical galaxy surrounded by a dense halo of hot plasma. Under the right conditions, thermal instabilities produce a rain of cold clouds that fall towards the galaxy's centre, sustaining star formation amid a kiloparsec-scale molecular nebula that is found at its core. The observations show that these cold clouds also fuel black hole accretion, revealing 'shadows' cast by the molecular clouds as they move inward at about 300 kilometres per second towards the active supermassive black hole, which serves as a bright backlight. Corroborating evidence from prior observations of warmer atomic gas at extremely high spatial resolution, along with simple arguments based on geometry and probability, indicate that these clouds are within the innermost hundred parsecs of the black hole, and falling closer towards it.

  5. High-redshift supermassive black holes: accretion through cold flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yu; Di Matteo, Tiziana; Croft, Rupert; Khandai, Nishikanta

    2014-05-01

    We use zoom-in techniques to re-simulate three high-redshift (z ≥ 5.5) haloes which host 109 M⊙ black holes from the ˜Gpc volume, MassiveBlack cosmological hydrodynamic simulation. We examine a number of factors potentially affecting supermassive black hole growth at high redshift in cosmological simulations. We find insignificant differences in the black hole accretion history by (i) varying the region over which feedback energy is deposited directly, (ii) changing mass resolution by factors of up to 64, (iii) changing the black hole seed mass by a factor of 100. Switching from the density-entropy formulation to the pressure-entropy formulation of smoothed particle hydrodynamics slightly increases the accretion rate. In general numerical details/model parameters appear to have small effects on the main fuelling mechanism for black holes at these high redshifts. The insensitivity to simulation technique seems to be a hallmark of the cold flow feeding picture of these high-z supermassive black holes. We show that the gas that participates in critical accretion phases in these massive objects at z > 6-7 is in all cases colder, denser and forms more coherent streams than the average gas in the halo. This is also mostly the case when the black hole accretion is feedback regulated (z < 6), however, the distinction is less prominent. For our resimulated haloes, cold flows appear to be a viable mechanism for forming the most massive black holes in the early universe, occurring naturally in Λ cold dark matter models of structure formation, without requiring fine-tuning of numerical parameters.

  6. Forming supermassive black holes by accreting dark and baryon matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jian; Shen, Yue; Lou, Yu-Qing; Zhang, Shuangnan

    2006-01-01

    Given a large-scale mixture of self-interacting dark matter (SIDM) particles and baryon matter distributed in the early Universe, we advance here a two-phase accretion scenario for forming supermassive black holes (SMBHs) with masses around ~109Msolar at high redshifts z(>~6). The first phase is conceived to involve a rapid quasi-spherical and quasi-steady Bondi accretion of mainly SIDM particles embedded with baryon matter on to seed black holes (BHs) created at redshifts z<~ 30 by the first generation of massive Population III stars; this earlier phase rapidly gives birth to significantly enlarged seed BH masses of during z~ 20-15, where σ0 is the cross-section per unit mass of SIDM particles and Cs is the velocity dispersion in the SIDM halo referred to as an effective `sound speed'. The second phase of BH mass growth is envisaged to proceed primarily via baryon accretion, eventually leading to SMBH masses of MBH~ 109Msolar such SMBHs may form either by z~ 6 for a sustained accretion at the Eddington limit or later at lower z for sub-Eddington mean accretion rates. In between these two phases, there is a transitional yet sustained diffusively limited accretion of SIDM particles which in an eventual steady state would be much lower than the accretion rates of the two main phases. We intend to account for the reported detections of a few SMBHs at early epochs, e.g. Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) 1148+5251 and so forth, without necessarily resorting to either super-Eddington baryon accretion or very frequent BH merging processes. Only extremely massive dark SIDM haloes associated with rare peaks of density fluctuations in the early Universe may harbour such early SMBHs or quasars. Observational consequences are discussed. During the final stage of accumulating a SMBH mass, violent feedback in circumnuclear environs of a galactic nucleus leads to the central bulge formation and gives rise to the familiar empirical MBH-σb correlation inferred for nearby normal

  7. Resolving the Bondi Accretion Flow toward the Supermassive Black Hole of NGC 3115 with Chandra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Ka-Wah; Irwin, J.; Million, E.; Yukita, M.; Mathews, W.; Bregman, J.

    2011-09-01

    Gas undergoing Bondi accretion on to a supermassive black hole (SMBH) becomes hotter toward smaller radii. We searched for this signature with a Chandra observation of the hot gas in NGC 3115, which optical observation show has a very massive SMBH. Our observations show that the gas temperature rises toward the galaxy center as expected in all accretion models in which the black hole is gravitationally capturing the ambient gas. The data support that the Bondi radius is at least about 4-5 arcsec (188-235 pc), suggesting a supermassive blackhole of two billion solar masses that is consistent with the upper end of the optical results. The density profile within the Bondi radius has a power law index of 1.03, and we will discuss the interpretations of the results.

  8. Searching with the Large Binocular Telescope for Accreting Supermassive Black Holes in Bulgeless Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, Jason; Constantin, Anca; Satyapal, Shobita; Rothberg, Barry

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that supermassive black holes are created and evolve in bulgeless galaxies, revealing pathways for merger free, secular growth. Constraints on the fraction of bulgeless galaxies that host an AGN remain, however, extremely limited. Following the recent discovery of a large population of bulgeless galaxies with red mid-infrared colors, that are highly suggestive of heated dust by powerful accreting massive black holes, we have employed the Large Binocular Telescope to investigate the near-IR spectra of six of these systems. We present here the data and measurements of near-infrared hydrogen molecular and recombination lines. We find no evidence for broad components of the Paschen Alpha emission lines, suggesting the AGNs are either too weak or too absorbed to be detected. Based on new estimates of extinction and comparisons with optical measurements we discuss the likelihood of these systems being heavily obscured AGN or galactic nuclei with vigorous, yet dust embedded star formation.

  9. RESOLVING THE BONDI ACCRETION FLOW TOWARD THE SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE OF NGC 3115 WITH CHANDRA

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Ka-Wah; Irwin, Jimmy A.; Yukita, Mihoko; Million, Evan T.; Mathews, William G.

    2011-07-20

    Gas undergoing Bondi accretion onto a supermassive black hole (SMBH) becomes hotter toward smaller radii. We searched for this signature with a Chandra observation of the hot gas in NGC 3115, which optical observations show has a very massive SMBH. Our analysis suggests that we are resolving, for the first time, the accretion flow within the Bondi radius of an SMBH. We show that the temperature is rising toward the galaxy center as expected in all accretion models in which the black hole is gravitationally capturing the ambient gas. There is no hard central point source that could cause such an apparent rise in temperature. The data support that the Bondi radius is at about 4''-5'' (188-235 pc), suggesting an SMBH of 2 x 10{sup 9} M{sub sun} that is consistent with the upper end of the optical results. The density profile within the Bondi radius has a power-law index of 1.03{sup +0.23}{sub -0.21}, which is consistent with gas in transition from the ambient medium and the accretion flow. The accretion rate at the Bondi radius is determined to be M-dot{sub B} = 2.2x10{sup -2} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}. Thus, the accretion luminosity with 10% radiative efficiency at the Bondi radius (10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1}) is about six orders of magnitude higher than the upper limit of the X-ray luminosity of the nucleus.

  10. Do Circumnuclear Dense Gas Disks Drive Mass Accretion onto Supermassive Black Holes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izumi, Takuma; Kawakatu, Nozomu; Kohno, Kotaro

    2016-08-01

    We present a positive correlation between the mass of dense molecular gas ({M}{{dense}}) of ˜100 pc scale circumnuclear disks (CNDs) and the black hole mass accretion rate ({\\dot{M}}{{BH}}) in a total of 10 Seyfert galaxies, based on data compiled from the literature and an archive (median aperture θ med = 220 pc). A typical {M}{{dense}} of CNDs is 107–8 {M}ȯ , estimated from the luminosity of the dense gas tracer, the HCN(1–0) emission line. Because dense molecular gas is the site of star formation, this correlation is virtually equivalent to the one between the nuclear star-formation rate and {\\dot{M}}{{BH}} revealed previously. Moreover, the {M}{{dense}}{--}{\\dot{M}}{{BH}} correlation was tighter for CND-scale gas than for the gas on kiloparsec or larger scales. This indicates that CNDs likely play an important role in fueling black holes, whereas greater than kiloparesec scale gas does not. To demonstrate a possible approach for studying the CND-scale accretion process with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, we used a mass accretion model where angular momentum loss due to supernova explosions is vital. Based on the model prediction, we suggest that only the partial fraction of the mass accreted from the CND ({\\dot{M}}{{acc}}) is consumed as {\\dot{M}}{{BH}}. However, {\\dot{M}}{{acc}} agrees well with the total nuclear mass flow rate (i.e., {\\dot{M}}{{BH}} + outflow rate). Although these results are still tentative with large uncertainties, they support the view that star formation in CNDs can drive mass accretion onto supermassive black holes in Seyfert galaxies.

  11. Do Circumnuclear Dense Gas Disks Drive Mass Accretion onto Supermassive Black Holes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izumi, Takuma; Kawakatu, Nozomu; Kohno, Kotaro

    2016-08-01

    We present a positive correlation between the mass of dense molecular gas ({M}{{dense}}) of ˜100 pc scale circumnuclear disks (CNDs) and the black hole mass accretion rate ({\\dot{M}}{{BH}}) in a total of 10 Seyfert galaxies, based on data compiled from the literature and an archive (median aperture θ med = 220 pc). A typical {M}{{dense}} of CNDs is 107-8 {M}⊙ , estimated from the luminosity of the dense gas tracer, the HCN(1-0) emission line. Because dense molecular gas is the site of star formation, this correlation is virtually equivalent to the one between the nuclear star-formation rate and {\\dot{M}}{{BH}} revealed previously. Moreover, the {M}{{dense}}{--}{\\dot{M}}{{BH}} correlation was tighter for CND-scale gas than for the gas on kiloparsec or larger scales. This indicates that CNDs likely play an important role in fueling black holes, whereas greater than kiloparesec scale gas does not. To demonstrate a possible approach for studying the CND-scale accretion process with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, we used a mass accretion model where angular momentum loss due to supernova explosions is vital. Based on the model prediction, we suggest that only the partial fraction of the mass accreted from the CND ({\\dot{M}}{{acc}}) is consumed as {\\dot{M}}{{BH}}. However, {\\dot{M}}{{acc}} agrees well with the total nuclear mass flow rate (i.e., {\\dot{M}}{{BH}} + outflow rate). Although these results are still tentative with large uncertainties, they support the view that star formation in CNDs can drive mass accretion onto supermassive black holes in Seyfert galaxies.

  12. Megaparsec relativistic jets launched from an accreting supermassive black hole in an extreme spiral galaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Bagchi, Joydeep; Vivek, M.; Srianand, Raghunathan; Gopal-Krishna; Vikram, Vinu; Hota, Ananda; Biju, K. G.; Sirothia, S. K.; Jacob, Joe

    2014-06-20

    The radio galaxy phenomenon is directly connected to mass-accreting, spinning supermassive black holes found in the active galactic nuclei. It is still unclear how the collimated jets of relativistic plasma on hundreds to thousands of kiloparsec scales form and why they are nearly always launched from the nuclei of bulge-dominated elliptical galaxies and not flat spirals. Here we present the discovery of the giant radio source J2345–0449 (z = 0.0755), a clear and extremely rare counterexample where relativistic jets are ejected from a luminous and massive spiral galaxy on a scale of ∼1.6 Mpc, the largest known so far. Extreme physical properties observed for this bulgeless spiral host, such as its high optical and infrared luminosity, large dynamical mass, rapid disk rotation, and episodic jet activity, are possibly the results of its unusual formation history, which has also assembled, via gas accretion from a disk, its central black hole of mass >2 × 10{sup 8} M {sub ☉}. The very high mid-IR luminosity of the galaxy suggests that it is actively forming stars and still building a massive disk. We argue that the launch of these powerful jets is facilitated by an advection-dominated, magnetized accretion flow at a low Eddington rate onto this unusually massive (for a bulgeless disk galaxy) and possibly fast spinning central black hole. Therefore, J2345–0449 is an extremely rare, unusual galactic system whose properties challenge the standard paradigms for black hole growth and the formation of relativistic jets in disk galaxies. Thus, it provides fundamental insight into accretion disk-relativistic jet coupling processes.

  13. Accretion and Orbital Inspiral in Gas-assisted Supermassive Black Hole Binary Mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafikov, Roman R.

    2016-08-01

    Many galaxies are expected to harbor binary supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in their centers. Their interaction with the surrounding gas results in the accretion and exchange of angular momentum via tidal torques, facilitating binary inspiral. Here, we explore the non-trivial coupling between these two processes and analyze how the global properties of externally supplied circumbinary disks depend on the binary accretion rate. By formulating our results in terms of the angular momentum flux driven by internal stresses, we come up with a very simple classification of the possible global disk structures, which differ from the standard constant \\dot{M} accretion disk solution. The suppression of accretion by the binary tides, leading to a significant mass accumulation in the inner disk, accelerates binary inspiral. We show that once the disk region strongly perturbed by the viscously transmitted tidal torque exceeds the binary semimajor axis, the binary can merge in less than its mass-doubling time due to accretion. Thus, unlike the inspirals driven by stellar scattering, the gas-assisted merger can occur even if the binary is embedded in a relatively low-mass disk (lower than its own mass). This is important for resolving the “last parsec” problem for SMBH binaries and understanding powerful gravitational wave sources in the universe. We argue that the enhancement of accretion by the binary found in some recent simulations cannot persist for a long time and should not affect the long-term orbital inspiral. We also review existing simulations of SMBH binary-disk coupling and propose a numerical setup which is particularly well suited to verifying our theoretical predictions.

  14. Accretion and Orbital Inspiral in Gas-assisted Supermassive Black Hole Binary Mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafikov, Roman R.

    2016-08-01

    Many galaxies are expected to harbor binary supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in their centers. Their interaction with the surrounding gas results in the accretion and exchange of angular momentum via tidal torques, facilitating binary inspiral. Here, we explore the non-trivial coupling between these two processes and analyze how the global properties of externally supplied circumbinary disks depend on the binary accretion rate. By formulating our results in terms of the angular momentum flux driven by internal stresses, we come up with a very simple classification of the possible global disk structures, which differ from the standard constant \\dot{M} accretion disk solution. The suppression of accretion by the binary tides, leading to a significant mass accumulation in the inner disk, accelerates binary inspiral. We show that once the disk region strongly perturbed by the viscously transmitted tidal torque exceeds the binary semimajor axis, the binary can merge in less than its mass-doubling time due to accretion. Thus, unlike the inspirals driven by stellar scattering, the gas-assisted merger can occur even if the binary is embedded in a relatively low-mass disk (lower than its own mass). This is important for resolving the “last parsec” problem for SMBH binaries and understanding powerful gravitational wave sources in the universe. We argue that the enhancement of accretion by the binary found in some recent simulations cannot persist for a long time and should not affect the long-term orbital inspiral. We also review existing simulations of SMBH binary–disk coupling and propose a numerical setup which is particularly well suited to verifying our theoretical predictions.

  15. XMM-Newton reveals matter accreting onto the central supermassive black hole of NGC 2617

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giustini, M.

    2016-06-01

    NGC 2617 (z=0.042) underwent a strong broad-band outburst during 2013/14, concurrently switching from being a Seyfert 1.8 to be a Seyfert 1.0 sometimes during the previous 10 years. Thanks to the combination of the large effective area and the good spectral resolution of the EPIC-pn onboard XMM-Newton, striking insights about the very inner accretion flow of this AGN have been revealed. In particular, persistent Fe K absorption redshifted by ˜ 35,000 km/s was solidly detected in two observations spaced by one month: a highly ionised flow of mass toward the central supermassive black hole of NGC 2617 has started to be traced. So far NGC 2617 is a quasi-unique observational example: what are the perspectives of enlarging these studies in the future? Thanks to current large and prolonged optical surveys like the SDSS/BOSS, many "optically changing-look AGN" like NGC 2617 are being discovered month after month: XMM-Newton has the ideal instruments to perform a proper X-ray study of such objects in the near future. I will assess the impact of XMM-Newton on studying the dynamics of the inner accretion flow in AGN in a systematic way and in synergy with near- and mid-future X-ray instruments such as (ASTRO-H)Hitomi and ATHENA.

  16. Infalling clouds on to supermassive black hole binaries - I. Formation of discs, accretion and gas dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goicovic, F. G.; Cuadra, J.; Sesana, A.; Stasyszyn, F.; Amaro-Seoane, P.; Tanaka, T. L.

    2016-01-01

    There is compelling evidence that most - if not all - galaxies harbour a supermassive black hole (SMBH) at their nucleus; hence binaries of these massive objects are an inevitable product of the hierarchical evolution of structures in the Universe, and represent an important but thus-far elusive phase of galaxy evolution. Gas accretion via a circumbinary disc is thought to be important for the dynamical evolution of SMBH binaries, as well as in producing luminous emission that can be used to infer their properties. One plausible source of the gaseous fuel is clumps of gas formed due to turbulence and gravitational instabilities in the interstellar medium, that later fall towards and interact with the binary. In this context, we model numerically the evolution of turbulent clouds in near-radial infall on to equal-mass SMBH binaries, using a modified version of the SPH (smoothed particle hydrodynamics) code GADGET-3. We present a total of 12 simulations that explore different possible pericentre distances and relative inclinations, and show that the formation of circumbinary discs and discs around each SMBH (`mini-discs') depend on those parameters. We also study the dynamics of the formed discs, and the variability of the feeding rate on to the SMBHs in the different configurations.

  17. UNLEASHING POSITIVE FEEDBACK: LINKING THE RATES OF STAR FORMATION, SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE ACCRETION, AND OUTFLOWS IN DISTANT GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Silk, Joseph

    2013-08-01

    Pressure-regulated star formation is a simple variant on the usual supernova-regulated star formation efficiency that controls the global star formation rate as a function of cold gas content in star-forming galaxies, and accounts for the Schmidt-Kennicutt law in both nearby and distant galaxies. Inclusion of active galactic nucleus (AGN) induced pressure, by jets and/or winds that flow back onto a gas-rich disk, can lead, under some circumstances, to significantly enhanced star formation rates, especially at high redshift and most likely followed by the more widely accepted phase of star formation quenching. Simple expressions are derived that relate supermassive black hole growth, star formation, and outflow rates. The ratios of black hole to spheroid mass and of both black hole accretion and outflow rates to star formation rate are predicted as a function of time. I suggest various tests of the AGN-triggered star formation hypothesis.

  18. Magnetohydrodynamic Accretion Around Supermassive Black Holes : Short-Length Disc for Stronger Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Ritabrata

    2016-07-01

    Thin accretion flow, i.e., geometrically thin accretion disc was first studied by Shakura and Sunyaev. Relativistic fluid flows around a black hole produce enormous energy on the cost of permanent lost of the gravitational potential due to the fall into a infinitely sloped gravitational well or to be specific, into a space time singularity. This energy is actually observed in different wavelengths and we specify the source as Active Galactic Nuclei, quasars, Gamma-ray burst sources etc. Eventually, two popular kind of accretion disc models are there. The first one is advection dominated, known as geometrically thin optically thick accretion disc. The other is geometrically thick but optically thin as it does not capture photons inside! The jets formed by accretion phenomena are still not well explained. Size of the accretion disc, power of the jets can be powered by magnetic fields generated by the ionized particles of the accretion flow. We show the exact dependency of the disc size upon the magnetic field present along with the quantity of the central gravitating mass.

  19. Near-infrared flares from accreting gas around the supermassive black hole at the Galactic Centre.

    PubMed

    Genzel, R; Schödel, R; Ott, T; Eckart, A; Alexander, T; Lacombe, F; Rouan, D; Aschenbach, B

    2003-10-30

    Recent measurements of stellar orbits provide compelling evidence that the compact radio source Sagittarius A* (refs 4, 5) at the Galactic Centre is a 3.6-million-solar-mass black hole. Sgr A* is remarkably faint in all wavebands other than the radio region, however, which challenges current theories of matter accretion and radiation surrounding black holes. The black hole's rotation rate is not known, and therefore neither is the structure of space-time around it. Here we report high-resolution infrared observations of Sgr A* that reveal 'quiescent' emission and several flares. The infrared emission originates from within a few milliarcseconds of the black hole, and traces very energetic electrons or moderately hot gas within the innermost accretion region. Two flares exhibit a 17-minute quasi-periodic variability. If the periodicity arises from relativistic modulation of orbiting gas, the emission must come from just outside the event horizon, and the black hole must be rotating at about half of the maximum possible rate.

  20. SUPERMASSIVE SEEDS FOR SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Jarrett L.; Whalen, Daniel J.; Li Hui; Holz, Daniel E.

    2013-07-10

    Recent observations of quasars powered by supermassive black holes (SMBHs) out to z {approx}> 7 constrain both the initial seed masses and the growth of the most massive black holes (BHs) in the early universe. Here we elucidate the implications of the radiative feedback from early generations of stars and from BH accretion for popular models for the formation and growth of seed BHs. We show that by properly accounting for (1) the limited role of mergers in growing seed BHs as inferred from cosmological simulations of early star formation and radiative feedback, (2) the sub-Eddington accretion rates of BHs expected at the earliest times, and (3) the large radiative efficiencies {epsilon} of the most massive BHs inferred from observations of active galactic nuclei at high redshift ({epsilon} {approx}> 0.1), we are led to the conclusion that the initial BH seeds may have been as massive as {approx}> 10{sup 5} M{sub Sun }. This presents a strong challenge to the Population III seed model, which calls for seed masses of {approx}100 M{sub Sun} and, even with constant Eddington-limited accretion, requires {epsilon} {approx}< 0.09 to explain the highest-z SMBHs in today's standard {Lambda}CDM cosmological model. It is, however, consistent with the prediction of the direct collapse scenario of SMBH seed formation, in which a supermassive primordial star forms in a region of the universe with a high molecule-dissociating background radiation field, and collapses directly into a 10{sup 4}-10{sup 6} M{sub Sun} seed BH. These results corroborate recent cosmological simulations and observational campaigns which suggest that these massive BHs were the seeds of a large fraction of the SMBHs residing in the centers of galaxies today.

  1. Accretion of gaseous clumps from the Galactic Centre Mini-spiral onto Milky Way's supermassive black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karas, Vladimir; Kunneriath, Devaky; Czerny, Bozena; Rozanska, Agata; Adhikari, Tek P.

    2016-07-01

    Evidence for reflection of X-rays on molecular clouds in the vicinity of Sagittarius A* super-massive black hole (Sgr A* SMBH) suggests that the center of Galaxy was active in its recent history. We investigate the idea of gaseous Mini-spiral pattern as the origin of material triggering this enhanced activity. Collisions between clumps of gas in the Mini-spiral can reduce their angular momentum and set some of the clumps on a plunging trajectory towards Sgr A* SMBH. It turns out that the amount of material in the Mini-spiral region is sufficient to sustain the required level of luminosity. We examine a possibility of Thermal Instability onset to describe the mechanism for elevated accretion during the past period. Our contribution extends a recent paper by including the effect of the Nuclear Star Cluster, which provides additional important contribution to the energy balance of the inter-stellar medium.

  2. ENHANCED ACCRETION RATES OF STARS ON SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES BY STAR-DISK INTERACTIONS IN GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Just, Andreas; Yurin, Denis; Makukov, Maxim; Berczik, Peter; Omarov, Chingis; Spurzem, Rainer; Vilkoviskij, Emmanuil Y.

    2012-10-10

    We investigate the dynamical interaction of a central star cluster surrounding a supermassive black hole (SMBH) and a central accretion disk (AD). The dissipative force acting on stars in the disk leads to an enhanced mass flow toward the SMBH and to an asymmetry in the phase space distribution due to the rotating AD. The AD is considered as a stationary Keplerian rotating disk, which is vertically extended in order to employ a fully self-consistent treatment of stellar dynamics including the dissipative force originating from star-gas ram pressure effects. The stellar system is treated with a direct high-accuracy N-body integration code. A star-by-star representation, desirable in N-body simulations, cannot be extended to real particle numbers yet. Hence, we carefully discuss the scaling behavior of our model with regard to particle number and tidal accretion radius. The main idea is to find a family of models for which the ratio of two-body relaxation time and dissipation time (for kinetic energy of stellar orbits) is constant, which then allows us to extrapolate our results to real parameters of galactic nuclei. Our model is derived from basic physical principles and as such it provides insight into the role of physical processes in galactic nuclei, but it should be regarded as a first step toward more realistic and more comprehensive simulations. Nevertheless, the following conclusions appear to be robust: the star accretion rate onto the AD and subsequently onto the SMBH is enhanced by a significant factor compared to purely stellar dynamical systems neglecting the disk. This process leads to enhanced fueling of central disks in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and to an enhanced rate of tidal stellar disruptions. Such disruptions may produce electromagnetic counterparts in the form of observable X-ray flares. Our models improve predictions for their rates in quiescent galactic nuclei. We do not yet model direct stellar collisions in the gravitational potential

  3. Supermassive black hole ancestors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petri, A.; Ferrara, A.; Salvaterra, R.

    2012-05-01

    In the attempt to alleviate the difficulties created by their early formation, we study a model in which supermassive black holes (SMBHs) can grow by the combined action of gas accretion on heavy seeds and mergers of both heavy ? and light ? seeds. The former results from the direct collapse of gas in ? K, H2-free haloes; the latter are the end product of a standard H2-based star formation process. The H2-free condition is attained by exposing haloes to a strong (J21≳ 103) Lyman-Werner ultraviolet (UV) background produced by both accreting BHs and stars, thus establishing a self-regulated growth regime. We find that this condition is met already at z˜ 18 in the highly biased regions in which quasars are born. The key parameter allowing the formation of SMBHs by z= 6-7 is the fraction of haloes that can form heavy seeds: the minimum requirement is that fheavy≳ 0.001; SMBH as large as 2 × 1010 M⊙ can be obtained when fheavy approaches unity. Independently of fheavy, the model produces a high-z stellar bulge-BH mass relation which is steeper than the local one, implying that SMBHs formed before their bulge was in place. The formation of heavy seeds, allowed by the Lyman-Werner radiative feedback in the quasar-forming environment, is crucial to achieve a fast growth of the SMBH by merger events in the early phases of its evolution, i.e. z≳ 7. The UV photon production is largely dominated by stars in galaxies, i.e. BH accretion radiation is subdominant. Interestingly, we find that the final mass of light BHs and of the SMBH in the quasar is roughly equal by z= 6; by the same time, only 19 per cent of the initial baryon content has been converted into stars. The SMBH growth is dominated at all epochs z > 7.2 by mergers (exceeding accretion by a factor of 2-50); at later times, accretion becomes by far the most important growth channel. We finally discuss possible shortcomings of the model.

  4. The Final Fates of Accreting Supermassive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umeda, Hideyuki; Hosokawa, Takashi; Omukai, Kazuyuki; Yoshida, Naoki

    2016-10-01

    The formation of supermassive stars (SMSs) via rapid mass accretion and their direct collapse into black holes (BHs) is a promising pathway for sowing seeds of supermassive BHs in the early universe. We calculate the evolution of rapidly accreting SMSs by solving the stellar structure equations including nuclear burning as well as general relativistic (GR) effects up to the onset of the collapse. We find that such SMSs have a less concentrated structure than a fully convective counterpart, which is often postulated for non-accreting ones. This effect stabilizes the stars against GR instability even above the classical upper mass limit ≳105 M ⊙ derived for the fully convective stars. The accreting SMS begins to collapse at the higher mass with the higher accretion rate. The collapse occurs when the nuclear fuel is exhausted only for cases with \\dot{M}≲ 0.1 {M}ȯ {{{yr}}}-1. With \\dot{M}≃ 0.3{--}1 {M}ȯ {{{yr}}}-1, the star becomes GR unstable during the helium-burning stage at M ≃ 2–3.5 × 105 M ⊙. In an extreme case with 10 {M}ȯ {{{yr}}}-1, the star does not collapse until the mass reaches ≃8.0 × 105 M ⊙, where it is still in the hydrogen-burning stage. We expect that BHs with roughly the same mass will be left behind after the collapse in all the cases.

  5. THERMAL AND DYNAMICAL PROPERTIES OF GAS ACCRETING ONTO A SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE IN AN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS

    SciTech Connect

    Moscibrodzka, M.; Proga, D.

    2013-04-20

    We study stability of gas accretion in active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Our grid-based simulations cover a radial range from 0.1 to 200 pc, which may enable linking the galactic/cosmological simulations with small-scale black hole (BH) accretion models within a few hundreds of Schwarzschild radii. Here, as in previous studies by our group, we include gas radiative cooling as well as heating by a sub-Eddington X-ray source near the central supermassive BH of 10{sup 8} M{sub Sun }. Our theoretical estimates and simulations show that for the X-ray luminosity, L{sub X} {approx} 0.008 L{sub Edd}, the gas is thermally and convectively unstable within the computational domain. In the simulations, we observe that very tiny fluctuations in an initially smooth, spherically symmetric, accretion flow, grow first linearly and then nonlinearly. Consequently, an initially one-phase flow relatively quickly transitions into a two-phase/cold-hot accretion flow. For L{sub X} = 0.015 L{sub Edd} or higher, the cold clouds continue to accrete but in some regions of the hot phase, the gas starts to move outward. For L{sub X} < 0.015 L{sub Edd}, the cold phase contribution to the total mass accretion rate only moderately dominates over the hot phase contribution. This result might have some consequences for cosmological simulations of the so-called AGN feedback problem. Our simulations confirm the previous results of Barai et al. who used smoothed particle hydrodynamic (SPH) simulations to tackle the same problem. Here, however, because we use a grid-based code to solve equations in one dimension and two dimensions, we are able to follow the gas dynamics at much higher spacial resolution and for longer time compared with the three-dimensional SPH simulations. One of the new features revealed by our simulations is that the cold condensations in the accretion flow initially form long filaments, but at the later times, those filaments may break into smaller clouds advected outward within the

  6. Constraining the initial conditions and final outcomes of accretion processes around young stars and supermassive black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Jordan M.

    In this thesis I discuss probes of small spatial scales around young stars and protostars and around the supermassive black hole at the galactic center. I begin by describing adaptive optics-fed infrared spectroscopic studies of nascent and newborn binary systems. Binary star formation is a significant mode of star formation that could be responsible for the production of a majority of the galactic stellar population. Better characterization of the binary formation mechanism is important for better understanding many facets of astronomy, from proper estimates of the content of unresolved populations, to stellar evolution and feedback, to planet formation. My work revealed episodic accretion onto the more massive component of the pre-main sequence binary system UY Aur. I also showed changes in the accretion onto the less massive component, revealing contradictory indications of the change in accretion rate when considering disk-based and shock-based tracers. I suggested two scenarios to explain the inconsistency. First, increased accretion should alter the disk structure, puffing it up. This change could obscure the accretion shock onto the central star if the disk is highly inclined. Second, if accretion through the disk is impeded before it makes it all the way onto the central star, then increased disk tracers of accretion would not be accompanied by increased shock tracers. In this case mass must be piling up at some radius in the disk, possibly supplying the material for planet formation or a future burst of accretion. My next project focused on characterizing the atmospheres of very low-mass companions to nearby young stars. Whether these objects form in an extension of the binary-star formation mechanism to very low masses or they form via a different process is an open question. Different accretion histories should result in different atmospheric composition, which can be constrained with spectroscopy. I showed that 3--4mum spectra of a sample of these

  7. Black hole accretion disc impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pihajoki, P.

    2016-04-01

    We present an analytic model for computing the luminosity and spectral evolution of flares caused by a supermassive black hole impacting the accretion disc of another supermassive black hole. Our model includes photon diffusion, emission from optically thin regions and relativistic corrections to the observed spectrum and time-scales. We test the observability of the impact scenario with a simulated population of quasars hosting supermassive black hole binaries. The results indicate that for a moderate binary mass ratio of 0.3, and impact distances of 100 primary Schwarzschild radii, the accretion disc impacts can be expected to equal or exceed the host quasar in brightness at observed wavelength λ = 510 nm up to z = 0.6. We conclude that accretion disc impacts may function as an independent probe for supermassive black hole binaries. We release the code used for computing the model light curves to the community.

  8. THE OBSERVED M-{sigma} RELATIONS IMPLY THAT SUPER-MASSIVE BLACK HOLES GROW BY COLD CHAOTIC ACCRETION

    SciTech Connect

    Nayakshin, Sergei; King, Andrew R.; Power, Chris

    2012-07-01

    We argue that current observations of M-{sigma} relations for galaxies can be used to constrain theories of super-massive black holes (SMBHs) feeding. In particular, assuming that SMBH mass is limited only by the feedback on the gas that feeds it, we show that SMBHs fed via a planar galaxy-scale gas flow, such as a disk or a bar, should be much more massive than their counterparts fed by quasi-spherical inflows. This follows from the relative inefficiency of active galactic nucleus feedback on a flattened inflow. We find that even under the most optimistic conditions for SMBH feedback on flattened inflows, the mass at which the SMBH expels the gas disk and terminates its own growth is a factor of several higher than the one established for quasi-spherical inflows. Any beaming of feedback away from the disk and any disk self-shadowing strengthen this result further. Contrary to this theoretical expectation, recent observations have shown that SMBHs in pseudobulge galaxies (which are associated with barred galaxies) are typically under- rather than overmassive when compared with their classical bulge counterparts at a fixed value of {sigma}. We conclude from this that SMBHs are not fed by large (100 pc to many kpc) scale gas disks or bars, most likely because such planar flows are turned into stars too efficiently to allow any SMBH growth. Based on this and other related observational evidence, we argue that most SMBHs grow by chaotic accretion of gas clouds with a small and nearly randomly distributed direction of angular momentum.

  9. Particle acceleration from an inner accretion disc into compact corona and further out: case of an organised magnetic field near a supermassive black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karas, Vladimir; Kopacek, Ondrej; Kunneriath, Devaky; Kovar, Jiri; Slany, Petr

    2016-04-01

    Upcoming observational techniques in X-rays and millimeter spectral bands will allow to probe the inner corona of accretion discs near supermassive black holes. Size of this region only a few gravitational radii has been inferred from various circumstantial evidence. To populate ithe region with particles, pair-creation in ergosphere and transport of particles via accretion have been invoked.Electromagnetic fields are a likely agent of acceleration in strong gravity of a rotating black hole. We put forward a scenario with an organised component of the magnetic field near a supermassive black hole. An emergent flow of particles may be induced in a preferentially bi-polar direction. Our mechanism does not seem to be capable of producing ultra-high energy cosmic rays but it does expel particles along unbound trajectories.The mentioned concept is relevant also from a purely theoretical viewpoint of dynamical properties of particle motion in General Relativity, namely, the onset of chaos near a black hole. We conclude that the role of black-hole spin in setting the chaos is more complicated than initially thought (based on http://arxiv.org/abs/1408.2452).

  10. Supermassive Black Holes with High Accretion Rates in Active Galactic Nuclei. IV. Hβ Time Lags and Implications for Super-Eddington Accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Pu; Hu, Chen; Lu, Kai-Xing; Huang, Ying-Ke; Cheng, Cheng; Qiu, Jie; Li, Yan-Rong; Zhang, Yang-Wei; Fan, Xu-Liang; Bai, Jin-Ming; Bian, Wei-Hao; Yuan, Ye-Fei; Kaspi, Shai; Ho, Luis C.; Netzer, Hagai; Wang, Jian-Min; SEAMBH Collaboration

    2015-06-01

    We have completed two years of photometric and spectroscopic monitoring of a large number of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with very high accretion rates. In this paper, we report on the result of the second phase of the campaign, during 2013-2014, and the measurements of five new Hβ time lags out of eight monitored AGNs. All five objects were identified as super-Eddington accreting massive black holes (SEAMBHs). The highest measured accretion rates for the objects in this campaign are \\mathscr{\\dot{M}} {\\mkern 1mu} ≳ 200, where \\mathscr{\\dot{M}} {\\mkern 1mu} ={{\\dot{M}}\\bullet }/{{L}Edd}{{c}-2}, {{\\dot{M}}\\bullet } is the mass accretion rates, {{L}Edd} is the Eddington luminosity and c is the speed of light. We find that the Hβ time lags in SEAMBHs are significantly shorter than those measured in sub-Eddington AGNs, and the deviations increase with increasing accretion rates. Thus, the relationship between broad-line region size ({{R}_{Hβ }}) and optical luminosity at 5100 Å, {{R}_{Hβ }}-{{L}5100}, requires accretion rate as an additional parameter. We propose that much of the effect may be due to the strong anisotropy of the emitted slim-disk radiation. Scaling {{R}_{Hβ }} by the gravitational radius of the black hole (BH), we define a new radius-mass parameter (Y) and show that it saturates at a critical accretion rate of \\mathscr{\\dot{M}} {\\mkern 1mu} {{}c}=6˜ 30, indicating a transition from thin to slim accretion disk and a saturated luminosity of the slim disks. The parameter Y is a very useful probe for understanding the various types of accretion onto massive BHs. We briefly comment on implications to the general population of super-Eddington AGNs in the universe and applications to cosmology.

  11. Supermassive Black Holes with High Accretion Rates in Active Galactic Nuclei. I. First Results from a New Reverberation Mapping Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Pu; Hu, Chen; Lu, Kai-Xing; Wang, Fang; Qiu, Jie; Li, Yan-Rong; Bai, Jin-Ming; Kaspi, Shai; Netzer, Hagai; Wang, Jian-Min; SEAMBH Collaboration

    2014-02-01

    We report first results from a large project to measure black hole (BH) mass in high accretion rate active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Such objects may be different from other AGNs in being powered by slim accretion disks and showing saturated accretion luminosities, but both are not yet fully understood. The results are part of a large reverberation mapping (RM) campaign using the 2.4 m Shangri-La telescope at the Yunnan Observatory in China. The goals are to investigate the gas distribution near the BH and the properties of the central accretion disks, to measure BH mass and Eddington ratios, and to test the feasibility of using such objects as a new type of cosmological candles. The paper presents results for three objects, Mrk 335, Mrk 142, and IRAS F12397+3333, with Hβ time lags relative to the 5100 Å continuum of 10.6^{+1.7}_{-2.9}, 6.4^{+0.8}_{-2.2} and 11.4^{+2.9}_{-1.9} days, respectively. The corresponding BH masses are (8.3_{-3.2}^{+2.6})\\times 10^6\\,M_{\\odot }, (3.4_{-1.2}^{+0.5})\\times 10^6\\,M_{\\odot }, and (7.5_{-4.1}^{+4.3})\\times 10^6\\,M_{\\odot }, and the lower limits on the Eddington ratios are 0.6, 2.3, and 4.6 for the minimal radiative efficiency of 0.038. Mrk 142 and IRAS F12397+333 (extinction corrected) clearly deviate from the currently known relation between Hβ lag and continuum luminosity. The three Eddington ratios are beyond the values expected in thin accretion disks and two of them are the largest measured so far among objects with RM-based BH masses. We briefly discuss implications for slim disks, BH growth, and cosmology.

  12. Formation of primordial supermassive stars by rapid mass accretion

    SciTech Connect

    Hosokawa, Takashi; Yoshida, Naoki; Yorke, Harold W.; Inayoshi, Kohei; Omukai, Kazuyuki E-mail: hosokwtk@gmail.com

    2013-12-01

    Supermassive stars (SMSs) forming via very rapid mass accretion ( M-dot {sub ∗}≳0.1 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}) could be precursors of supermassive black holes observed beyond a redshift of about six. Extending our previous work, here we study the evolution of primordial stars growing under such rapid mass accretion until the stellar mass reaches 10{sup 4–5} M {sub ☉}. Our stellar evolution calculations show that a star becomes supermassive while passing through the 'supergiant protostar' stage, whereby the star has a very bloated envelope and a contracting inner core. The stellar radius increases monotonically with the stellar mass until ≅ 100 AU for M {sub *} ≳ 10{sup 4} M {sub ☉}, after which the star begins to slowly contract. Because of the large radius, the effective temperature is always less than 10{sup 4} K during rapid accretion. The accreting material is thus almost completely transparent to the stellar radiation. Only for M {sub *} ≳ 10{sup 5} M {sub ☉} can stellar UV feedback operate and disturb the mass accretion flow. We also examine the pulsation stability of accreting SMSs, showing that the pulsation-driven mass loss does not prevent stellar mass growth. Observational signatures of bloated SMSs should be detectable with future observational facilities such as the James Webb Space Telescope. Our results predict that an inner core of the accreting SMS should suffer from the general relativistic instability soon after the stellar mass exceeds 10{sup 5} M {sub ☉}. An extremely massive black hole should form after the collapse of the inner core.

  13. Hot versus cold: The dichotomy in spherical accretion of cooling flows onto supermassive black holes in elliptical galaxies, galaxy groups, and clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Fulai; Mathews, William G.

    2014-01-10

    Feedback heating from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) has been commonly invoked to suppress cooling flows predicted in hot gas in elliptical galaxies, galaxy groups, and clusters. Previous studies have focused on if and how AGN feedback heats the gas but have little paid attention to its triggering mechanism. Using spherically symmetric simulations, we investigate how large-scale cooling flows are accreted by central supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in eight well-observed systems and find an interesting dichotomy. In massive clusters, the gas develops a central cooling catastrophe within about the cooling time (typically ∼100-300 Myr), resulting in cold-mode accretion onto SMBHs. However, in our four simulated systems on group and galaxy scales at a low metallicity Z = 0.3 Z {sub ☉}, the gas quickly settles into a long-term state that has a cuspy central temperature profile extending to several tens to about 100 pc. At the more realistic solar metallicity, two groups (with R {sub e} ∼ 4 kpc) still host the long-term, hot-mode accretion. Both accretion modes naturally appear in our idealized calculations where only cooling, gas inflow, and compressional heating are considered. The long-term, hot-mode accretion is maintained by the quickly established closeness between the timescales of these processes, preferably in systems with low gas densities, low gas metallicities, and importantly, compact central galaxies, which result in strong gravitational acceleration and compressional heating at the intermediate radii. Our calculations predict that central cuspy temperature profiles appear more often in smaller systems than galaxy clusters, which instead often host significant cold gas and star formation.

  14. Supermassive black holes with high accretion rates in active galactic nuclei. II. The most luminous standard candles in the universe

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jian-Min; Du, Pu; Hu, Chen; Qiu, Jie; Li, Yan-Rong; Netzer, Hagai; Kaspi, Shai; Bai, Jin-Ming; Wang, Fang; Lu, Kai-Xing; Collaboration: SEAMBH collaboration

    2014-10-01

    This is the second in a series of papers reporting on a large reverberation mapping (RM) campaign to measure black hole (BH) mass in high accretion rate active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The goal is to identify super-Eddington accreting massive black holes (SEAMBHs) and to use their unique properties to construct a new method for measuring cosmological distances. Based on theoretical models, the saturated bolometric luminosity of such sources is proportional to the BH mass, which can be used to obtain their distance. Here we report on five new RM measurements and show that in four of the cases, we can measure the BH mass and three of these sources are SEAMBHs. Together with the three sources from our earlier work, we now have six new sources of this type. We use a novel method based on a minimal radiation efficiency to identify nine additional SEAMBHs from earlier RM-based mass measurements. We use a Bayesian analysis to determine the parameters of the new distance expression and the method uncertainties from the observed properties of the objects in the sample. The ratio of the newly measured distances to the standard cosmological ones has a mean scatter of 0.14 dex, indicating that SEAMBHs can be use as cosmological distance probes. With their high luminosity, long period of activity, and large numbers at high redshifts, SEAMBHs have a potential to extend the cosmic distance ladder beyond the range now explored by Type Ia supernovae.

  15. The M {sub BH} versus M {sub G}σ{sup 2} relation and the accretion of supermassive black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Feoli, A.

    2014-03-20

    We propose a possible scenario that can explain the physical processes underlying the relation log{sub 10}(M {sub BH}) = b + mlog{sub 10}(M {sub G}σ{sup 2}/c {sup 2}) between the mass M {sub BH} of supermassive black holes, growing in the center of many galaxies, and the kinetic energy of the corresponding bulges (M {sub G} being the bulge mass and σ the velocity dispersion). In a series of papers, this scaling law proved to be very useful to describe the evolution of galaxies thanks to its close similarity to the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. Studying the relation with different samples of galaxies, we have generally found a slope that can vary between two extremal theoretical possibilities, m = 3/4 and m = 1. We will try to describe a possible scenario compatible with the second one. Finally, we also examine a case of a relation that is linear, not in kinetic energy, but in momentum parameter.

  16. Supermassive black holes with high accretion rates in active galactic nuclei. I. First results from a new reverberation mapping campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Pu; Hu, Chen; Qiu, Jie; Li, Yan-Rong; Wang, Jian-Min; Lu, Kai-Xing; Wang, Fang; Bai, Jin-Ming; Kaspi, Shai; Netzer, Hagai; Collaboration: SEAMBH collaboration

    2014-02-10

    We report first results from a large project to measure black hole (BH) mass in high accretion rate active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Such objects may be different from other AGNs in being powered by slim accretion disks and showing saturated accretion luminosities, but both are not yet fully understood. The results are part of a large reverberation mapping (RM) campaign using the 2.4 m Shangri-La telescope at the Yunnan Observatory in China. The goals are to investigate the gas distribution near the BH and the properties of the central accretion disks, to measure BH mass and Eddington ratios, and to test the feasibility of using such objects as a new type of cosmological candles. The paper presents results for three objects, Mrk 335, Mrk 142, and IRAS F12397+3333, with Hβ time lags relative to the 5100 Å continuum of 10.6{sub −2.9}{sup +1.7}, 6.4{sub −2.2}{sup +0.8} and 11.4{sub −1.9}{sup +2.9} days, respectively. The corresponding BH masses are (8.3{sub −3.2}{sup +2.6})×10{sup 6} M{sub ⊙}, (3.4{sub −1.2}{sup +0.5})×10{sup 6} M{sub ⊙}, and (7.5{sub −4.1}{sup +4.3})×10{sup 6} M{sub ⊙}, and the lower limits on the Eddington ratios are 0.6, 2.3, and 4.6 for the minimal radiative efficiency of 0.038. Mrk 142 and IRAS F12397+333 (extinction corrected) clearly deviate from the currently known relation between Hβ lag and continuum luminosity. The three Eddington ratios are beyond the values expected in thin accretion disks and two of them are the largest measured so far among objects with RM-based BH masses. We briefly discuss implications for slim disks, BH growth, and cosmology.

  17. NuSTAR reveals the extreme properties of the super-Eddington accreting supermassive black hole in PG 1247+267

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzuisi, G.; Perna, M.; Comastri, A.; Cappi, M.; Dadina, M.; Marinucci, A.; Masini, A.; Matt, G.; Vagnetti, F.; Vignali, C.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Brandt, W. N.; Brusa, M.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Fabian, A. C.; Farrah, D.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Luo, B.; Piconcelli, E.; Puccetti, S.; Ricci, C.; Saez, C.; Stern, D.; Walton, D. J.; Zhang, W. W.

    2016-05-01

    PG1247+267 is one of the most luminous known quasars at z ~ 2 and is a strongly super-Eddington accreting supermassive black hole (SMBH) candidate. We obtained NuSTAR data of this intriguing source in December 2014 with the aim of studying its high-energy emission, leveraging the broad band covered by the new NuSTAR and the archival XMM-Newton data. Several measurements are in agreement with the super-Eddington scenario for PG1247+267: the soft power law (Γ = 2.3 ± 0.1); the weak ionized Fe emission line; and a hint of the presence of outflowing ionized gas surrounding the SMBH. The presence of an extreme reflection component is instead at odds with the high accretion rate proposed for this quasar. This can be explained with three different scenarios; all of them are in good agreement with the existing data, but imply very different conclusions: i) a variable primary power law observed in a low state, superimposed on a reflection component echoing a past, higher flux state; ii) a power law continuum obscured by an ionized, Compton thick, partial covering absorber; and iii) a relativistic disk reflector in a lamp-post geometry, with low coronal height and high BH spin. The first model is able to explain the high reflection component in terms of variability. The second does not require any reflection to reproduce the hard emission, while a rather low high-energy cutoff of ~100 keV is detected for the first time in such a high redshift source. The third model require a face-on geometry, which may affect the SMBH mass and Eddington ratio measurements. Deeper X-ray broad-band data are required in order to distinguish between these possibilities.

  18. Precocious Supermassive Black Holes Challenge Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-11-01

    after the Big Bang." There is general agreement among astronomers that X-radiation from the vicinity of supermassive black holes is produced as gas is pulled toward a black hole, and heated to temperatures ranging from millions to billions of degrees. Most of the infalling gas is concentrated in a rapidly rotating disk, the inner part of which has a hot atmosphere or corona where temperatures can climb to billions of degrees. Although the precise geometry and details of the X-ray production are not known, observations of numerous quasars, or supermassive black holes, have shown that many of them have very similar X-ray spectra, especially at high X-ray energies. This suggests that the basic geometry and mechanism are the same for these objects. Chandra X-ray Image of SDSSp J1306 Chandra X-ray Image of SDSSp J1306 The remarkable similarity of the X-ray spectra of the young supermassive black holes to those of much older ones means that the supermassive black holes and their accretion disks, were already in place less than a billion years after the Big Bang. One possibility is that millions of 100 solar mass black holes formed from the collapse of massive stars in the young galaxy, and subsequently built up a billion-solar mass black hole in the center of the galaxy through mergers and accretion of gas. To answer the question of how and when supermassive black holes were formed, astronomers plan to use the very deep Chandra exposures and other surveys to identify and study quasars at even earlier ages. The paper by Schwartz and Virani on SDSSp J1306 was published in the November 1, 2004 issue of The Astrophysical Journal. The paper by Duncan Farrah and colleagues on SDSS J1030 was published in the August 10, 2004 issue of The Astrophysical Journal. Chandra observed J1306 with its Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) instrument for approximately 33 hours in November 2003. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for NASA

  19. Formation of Supermassive Black Hole Seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latif, Muhammad A.; Ferrara, Andrea

    2016-10-01

    The detection of quasars at z > 6 unveils the presence of supermassive black holes of a few billion solar masses. The rapid formation process of these extreme objects remains a fascinating and open issue. Such discovery implies that seed black holes must have formed early on, and grown via either rapid accretion or BH/galaxy mergers. In this theoretical review, we discuss in detail various BH seed formation mechanisms and the physical processes at play during their assembly. We discuss the three most popular BH formation scenarios, involving the (i) core-collapse of massive stars, (ii) dynamical evolution of dense nuclear star clusters, (iii) collapse of a protogalactic metal free gas cloud. This article aims at giving a broad introduction and an overview of the most advanced research in the field.

  20. Observing stellar mass and supermassive black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherepashchuk, A. M.

    2016-07-01

    During the last 50 years, great progress has been made in observing stellar-mass black holes (BHs) in binary systems and supermassive BHs in galactic nuclei. In 1964, Zeldovich and Salpeter showed that in the case of nonspherical accretion of matter onto a BH, huge energy releases occur. The theory of disk accretion of matter onto BHs was developed in 1972-1973 by Shakura and Sunyaev, Pringle and Rees, and Novikov and Thorne. Up to now, 100 years after the creation of Albert Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, which predicts the existence of BHs, the masses of tens of stellar-mass BHs ( M_BH=(4-35) M_ȯ) and many hundreds of supermassive BHs ( M_BH=(10^6-1010) M_ȯ) have been determined. A new field of astrophysics, so-called BH demography, is developing. The recent discovery of gravitational waves from BH mergers in binary systems opens a new era in BH studies.

  1. THE ORIGIN OF DUST IN EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES AND IMPLICATIONS FOR ACCRETION ONTO SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Martini, Paul; Dicken, Daniel; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa

    2013-04-01

    We have conducted an archival Spitzer study of 38 early-type galaxies in order to determine the origin of the dust in approximately half of this population. Our sample galaxies generally have good wavelength coverage from 3.6 {mu}m to 160 {mu}m, as well as visible-wavelength Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images. We use the Spitzer data to estimate dust masses, or establish upper limits, and find that all of the early-type galaxies with dust lanes in the HST data are detected in all of the Spitzer bands and have dust masses of {approx}10{sup 5}-10{sup 6.5} M{sub Sun }, while galaxies without dust lanes are not detected at 70 {mu}m and 160 {mu}m and typically have <10{sup 5} M{sub Sun} of dust. The apparently dust-free galaxies do have 24 {mu}m emission that scales with the shorter-wavelength flux, yet substantially exceeds the expectations of photospheric emission by approximately a factor of three. We conclude this emission is dominated by hot, circumstellar dust around evolved stars that does not survive to form a substantial interstellar component. The order-of-magnitude variations in dust masses between galaxies with similar stellar populations rule out a substantial contribution from continual, internal production in spite of the clear evidence for circumstellar dust. We demonstrate that the interstellar dust is not due to purely external accretion, unless the product of the merger rate of dusty satellites and the dust lifetime is at least an order of magnitude higher than expected. We propose that dust in early-type galaxies is seeded by external accretion, yet the accreted dust is maintained by continued growth in externally accreted cold gas beyond the nominal lifetime of individual grains. The several Gyr depletion time of the cold gas is long enough to reconcile the fraction of dusty early-type galaxies with the merger rate of gas-rich satellites. As the majority of dusty early-type galaxies are also low-luminosity active galactic nuclei and likely fueled

  2. Theory of Black Hole Accretion Discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramowicz, Marek A.; Björnsson, Gunnlaugur; Pringle, James E.

    1999-03-01

    Part I. Observations of Black Holes: 1. Black holes in our Galaxy: observations P. Charles; 2. Black holes in Active Galactic Nuclei: observations G. M. Madejski; Part II. Physics Close to a Black Hole: 3. Physics of black holes I. D. Novikov; 4. Physics of black hole accretion M. A. Abramowicz; Part III. Turbulence, Viscosity: 5. Disc turbulence and viscosity A. Brandenburg; Part IV. Radiative Processes: 6. The role of electron-positron pairs in accretion flows G. Björnsson; 7. Accretion disc-corona models and X/Y-ray spectra of accreting black holes J. Poutanen; 8. Emission lines: signatures of relativistic rotation A. C. Fabian; Part V. Accretion Discs: 9. Spectral tests of models for accretion disks around black holes J. H. Krolik; 10. Advection-dominated accretion around black holes R. Narayan, R. Mahadevan and E. Quataert; 11. Accretion disc instabilities and advection dominated accretion flows J.-P. Lasota; 12. Magnetic field and multi-phase gas in AGN A. Celotti and M. J. Rees; Part V. Discs in Binary Black Holes: 13. Supermassive binary black holes in galaxies P. Artymowicz; Part VI. Stability of Accretion Discs: 14. Large scale perturbation of an accretion disc by a black hole binary companion J. C. B. Papaloizou, C. Terquem and D. N. C. Lin; 15. Stable oscillations of black hole accretion discs M. Nowak and D. Lehr; Part VI. Coherant Structures: 16. Spotted discs A. Bracco, A. Provenzale, E. A. Spiegel and P. Yecko; Self-organized critically in accretion discs P. Wiita and Y. Xiong; Summary: old and new advances in black hole accretion disc theory R. Svensson.

  3. Theory of Black Hole Accretion Discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramowicz, Marek A.; Björnsson, Gunnlaugur; Pringle, James E.

    2010-08-01

    Part I. Observations of Black Holes: 1. Black holes in our Galaxy: observations P. Charles; 2. Black holes in Active Galactic Nuclei: observations G. M. Madejski; Part II. Physics Close to a Black Hole: 3. Physics of black holes I. D. Novikov; 4. Physics of black hole accretion M. A. Abramowicz; Part III. Turbulence, Viscosity: 5. Disc turbulence and viscosity A. Brandenburg; Part IV. Radiative Processes: 6. The role of electron-positron pairs in accretion flows G. Björnsson; 7. Accretion disc-corona models and X/Y-ray spectra of accreting black holes J. Poutanen; 8. Emission lines: signatures of relativistic rotation A. C. Fabian; Part V. Accretion Discs: 9. Spectral tests of models for accretion disks around black holes J. H. Krolik; 10. Advection-dominated accretion around black holes R. Narayan, R. Mahadevan and E. Quataert; 11. Accretion disc instabilities and advection dominated accretion flows J.-P. Lasota; 12. Magnetic field and multi-phase gas in AGN A. Celotti and M. J. Rees; Part V. Discs in Binary Black Holes: 13. Supermassive binary black holes in galaxies P. Artymowicz; Part VI. Stability of Accretion Discs: 14. Large scale perturbation of an accretion disc by a black hole binary companion J. C. B. Papaloizou, C. Terquem and D. N. C. Lin; 15. Stable oscillations of black hole accretion discs M. Nowak and D. Lehr; Part VI. Coherant Structures: 16. Spotted discs A. Bracco, A. Provenzale, E. A. Spiegel and P. Yecko; Self-organized critically in accretion discs P. Wiita and Y. Xiong; Summary: old and new advances in black hole accretion disc theory R. Svensson.

  4. Close supermassive binary black holes.

    PubMed

    Gaskell, C Martin

    2010-01-01

    It has been proposed that when the peaks of the broad emission lines in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are significantly blueshifted or redshifted from the systemic velocity of the host galaxy, this could be a consequence of orbital motion of a supermassive black-hole binary (SMBB). The AGN J1536+0441 ( = SDSS J153636.22+044127.0) has recently been proposed as an example of this phenomenon. It is proposed here instead that J1536+0441 is an example of line emission from a disk. If this is correct, the lack of clear optical spectral evidence for close SMBBs is significant, and argues either that the merging of close SMBBs is much faster than has generally been hitherto thought, or if the approach is slow, that when the separation of the binary is comparable to the size of the torus and broad-line region, the feeding of the black holes is disrupted. PMID:20054358

  5. Supermassive Black Hole Mimics Smaller Cousins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-06-01

    shooting away perpendicularly from the plane of a black hole's accretion disk, moving at 98 percent of the speed of light. In microquasars, radio-emitting features become visible in a jet shortly after X rays from the accretion disk get dimmer -- as if the accretion disk suddenly flushes into the black hole and disappears, fueling the jet. These radio "blobs" then appear to move at faster-than- light speeds, an illusion caused by their ultra-high speeds and their orientation with respect to Earth. Now the team of scientists sees this same phenomenon in 3C120. Roughly every ten months, the X-ray-emitting accretion disk around its supermassive black hole becomes suddenly dim, and a month later the telltale bright spot of radio emission appears in the jet. Over a three-year period, the team observed a series of radio blobs floating along the particle jet like smoke puffs, each time following a dip in the brightness of X rays from the accretion disk. "What we are likely seeing is the inner part of the accretion disk becoming unstable and suddenly plunging into the black hole," said Marscher. "We detect a 'dip' in the X-ray flux as the hot gas in the disk disappears after it passes the event horizon. The remainder of the disk is channeled into the jets, which we see as a knot of radio emission bubbling away from the black hole. Slowly the accretion disk fills with more interstellar gas until about ten months later, when something disturbs the accretion disk orbit, and the whole thing flushes and blows again." Joining Marscher on this observation and analysis are Svetlana Jorstad of Boston University; Jose-Luis Gomez of the Astrophysical Institute of Andalucia in Granada, Spain; Margo Aller of the University of Michigan; Harri Terasranta of the Helsinki University of Technology; Matthew Lister of NRAO; and Alastair Stirling of the University of Central Lancashire, England. The VLBA is a continent-wide radio-telescope system, with one telescope on Hawaii, another on St. Croix in

  6. Spin and mass of the nearest supermassive black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dokuchaev, Vyacheslav I.

    2014-12-01

    Quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) of the hot plasma spots or clumps orbiting an accreting black hole contain information on the black hole mass and spin. The promising observational signatures for the measurement of black hole mass and spin are the latitudinal oscillation frequency of the bright spots in the accretion flow and the frequency of black hole event horizon rotation. Both of these frequencies are independent of the accretion model and defined completely by the properties of the black hole gravitational field. Interpretation of the known QPO data by dint of a signal modulation from the hot spots in the accreting plasma reveals the Kerr metric rotation parameter, , and mass, , of the supermassive black hole in the Galactic center. At the same time, the observed 11.5 min QPO period is identified with a period of the black hole event horizon rotation, and, respectively, the 19 min period is identified with a latitudinal oscillation period of hot spots in the accretion flow. The described approach is applicable to black holes with a low accretion rate, when accreting plasma is transparent up to the event horizon region.

  7. Close supermassive binary black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaskell, C. Martin

    2010-01-01

    It has been proposed that when the peaks of the broad emission lines in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are significantly blueshifted or redshifted from the systemic velocity of the host galaxy, this could be a consequence of orbital motion of a supermassive blackhole binary (SMB). The AGN J1536+0441 (=SDSS J153636.22+044127.0) has recently been proposed as an example of this phenomenon. It is proposed here instead that 1536+044 is an example of line emission from a disc. If this is correct, the lack of clear optical spectral evidence for close SMBs is significant and argues either that the merging of close SMBs is much faster than has generally been hitherto thought, or if the approach is slow, that when the separation of the binary is comparable to the size of the torus and broad-line region, the feeding of the black holes is disrupted.

  8. Formation and coalescence of cosmological supermassive-black-hole binaries in supermassive-star collapse.

    PubMed

    Reisswig, C; Ott, C D; Abdikamalov, E; Haas, R; Mösta, P; Schnetter, E

    2013-10-11

    We study the collapse of rapidly rotating supermassive stars that may have formed in the early Universe. By self-consistently simulating the dynamics from the onset of collapse using three-dimensional general-relativistic hydrodynamics with fully dynamical spacetime evolution, we show that seed perturbations in the progenitor can lead to the formation of a system of two high-spin supermassive black holes, which inspiral and merge under the emission of powerful gravitational radiation that could be observed at redshifts z is approximately equal or > to 10 with the DECIGO or Big Bang Observer gravitational-wave observatories, assuming supermassive stars in the mass range 10(4)-10(6)M[symbol: see text]. The remnant is rapidly spinning with dimensionless spin a*=0.9. The surrounding accretion disk contains ~10% of the initial mass. PMID:24160586

  9. Black hole accretion.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Ramesh; Quataert, Eliot

    2005-01-01

    Black holes are most often detected by the radiation produced when they gravitationally pull in surrounding gas, in a process called accretion. The efficiency with which the hot gas radiates its thermal energy strongly influences the geometry and dynamics of the accretion flow. Both radiatively efficient thin disks and radiatively inefficient thick disks are observed. When the accreting gas gets close to the central black hole, the radiation it produces becomes sensitive to the spin of the hole and the presence of an event horizon. Analysis of the luminosities and spectra of accreting black holes has yielded tantalizing evidence for both rotating holes and event horizons. Numerical simulations imply that the relativistic jets often seen from accreting black holes may be powered in part by the spin of the hole. PMID:15637269

  10. Supermassive Black Holes and Galaxy Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merritt, D.

    2004-01-01

    Supermassive black holes appear to be generic components of galactic nuclei. The formation and growth of black holes is intimately connected with the evolution of galaxies on a wide range of scales. For instance, mergers between galaxies containing nuclear black holes would produce supermassive binaries which eventually coalesce via the emission of gravitational radiation. The formation and decay of these binaries is expected to produce a number of observable signatures in the stellar distribution. Black holes can also affect the large-scale structure of galaxies by perturbing the orbits of stars that pass through the nucleus. Large-scale N-body simulations are beginning to generate testable predictions about these processes which will allow us to draw inferences about the formation history of supermassive black holes.

  11. No supermassive black hole in M33?

    PubMed

    Merritt, D; Ferrarese, L; Joseph, C L

    2001-08-10

    We observed the nucleus of M33, the third-brightest galaxy in the Local Group, with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph at a resolution at least a factor of 10 higher than previously obtained. Rather than the steep rise expected within the radius of gravitational influence of a supermassive black hole, the random stellar velocities showed a decrease within a parsec of the center of the galaxy. The implied upper limit on the mass of the central black hole is only 3000 solar masses, about three orders of magnitude lower than the dynamically inferred mass of any other supermassive black hole. Detecting black holes of only a few thousand solar masses is observationally challenging, but it is critical to establish how supermassive black holes relate to their host galaxies, and which mechanisms influence the formation and evolution of both. PMID:11463879

  12. Observational signatures of binary supermassive black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Roedig, Constanze; Krolik, Julian H.; Miller, M. Coleman

    2014-04-20

    Observations indicate that most massive galaxies contain a supermassive black hole, and theoretical studies suggest that when such galaxies have a major merger, the central black holes will form a binary and eventually coalesce. Here we discuss two spectral signatures of such binaries that may help distinguish them from ordinary active galactic nuclei. These signatures are expected when the mass ratio between the holes is not extreme and the system is fed by a circumbinary disk. One such signature is a notch in the thermal continuum that has been predicted by other authors; we point out that it should be accompanied by a spectral revival at shorter wavelengths and also discuss its dependence on binary properties such as mass, mass ratio, and separation. In particular, we note that the wavelength λ {sub n} at which the notch occurs depends on these three parameters in such a way as to make the number of systems displaying these notches ∝λ{sub n}{sup 16/3}; longer wavelength searches are therefore strongly favored. A second signature, first discussed here, is hard X-ray emission with a Wien-like spectrum at a characteristic temperature ∼100 keV produced by Compton cooling of the shock generated when streams from the circumbinary disk hit the accretion disks around the individual black holes. We investigate the observability of both signatures. The hard X-ray signal may be particularly valuable as it can provide an indicator of black hole merger a few decades in advance of the event.

  13. Possible evolution of supermassive black holes from FRI quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Matthew I.; Christian, Damian J.; Garofalo, David; D'Avanzo, Jaclyn

    2016-08-01

    We explore the question of the rapid buildup of black hole mass in the early universe employing a growing black hole mass-based determination of both jet and disc powers predicted in recent theoretical work on black hole accretion and jet formation. Despite simplified, even artificial assumptions about accretion and mergers, we identify an interesting low probability channel for the growth of one billion solar mass black holes within hundreds of millions of years of the big bang without appealing to super Eddington accretion. This result is made more compelling by the recognition of a connection between this channel and an end product involving active galaxies with FRI radio morphology but weaker jet powers in mildly sub-Eddington accretion regimes. While FRI quasars have already been shown to occupy a small region of the available parameter space for black hole feedback in the paradigm, we further suggest that the observational dearth of FRI quasars is also related to their connection to the most massive black hole growth due to both these FRIs high redshifts and relative weakness. Our results also allow us to construct the AGN (active galactic nucleus) luminosity function at high redshift, that agree with recent studies. In short, we produce a connection between the unexplained paucity of a given family of AGNs and the rapid growth of supermassive black holes, two heretofore seemingly unrelated aspects of the physics of AGNs.

  14. Magnetic fields during the formation of supermassive black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latif, M. A.; Schleicher, D. R. G.; Schmidt, W.

    2014-05-01

    Observations of quasars at z > 6 report the existence of a billion solar mass black holes. Comprehending their formation in such a short time-scale is a matter of ongoing research. One of the most promising scenarios to assemble supermassive black holes is a monolithic collapse of protogalactic gas clouds in atomic cooling haloes with Tvir ≥ 104 K. In this paper, we study the amplification and impact of magnetic fields during the formation of seed black holes in massive primordial haloes. We perform high-resolution cosmological magnetohydrodynamic simulations for four distinct haloes and follow their collapse for a few free-fall times until the simulations reach a peak density of 7 × 10-10 g cm-3. Our findings show that irrespective of the initial seed field, the magnetic field strength reaches a saturated state in the presence of strong accretion shocks. Under such conditions, the growth time becomes very short and amplification occurs rapidly within a small fraction of the free-fall time. We find that the presence of such strong magnetic fields provides additional support against gravity and helps in suppressing fragmentation. Massive clumps of a few hundred solar masses are formed at the end of our simulations and high accretion rates of 1 M⊙ yr-1 are observed. We expect that in the presence of such accretion rates, the clumps will grow to form supermassive stars of ˜105 M⊙. Overall, the role of the magnetic fields seems supportive for the formation of massive black holes.

  15. The Supermassive Black Hole—Galaxy Connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Andrew

    2014-09-01

    The observed scaling relations imply that supermassive black holes (SMBH) and their host galaxies evolve together. Near-Eddington winds from the SMBH accretion discs explain many aspects of this connection. The wind Eddington factor should be in the range ˜1-30. A factor give black hole winds with velocities v˜0.1 c, observable in X-rays, just as seen in the most extreme ultrafast outflows (UFOs). Higher Eddington factors predict slower and less ionized winds, observable in the UV, as in BAL QSOs. In all cases the wind must shock against the host interstellar gas and it is plausible that these shocks should cool efficiently. There is detailed observational evidence for this in some UFOs. The wind sweeps up the interstellar gas into a thin shell and propels it outwards. For SMBH masses below a certain critical ( M- σ) value, all these outflows eventually stall and fall back, as the Eddington thrust of the wind is too weak to drive the gas to large radii. But once the SMBH mass reaches the critical M- σ value the global character of the outflow changes completely. The wind shock is no longer efficiently cooled, and the resulting thermal expansion drives the interstellar gas far from the black hole, which is unlikely to grow significantly further. Simple estimates of the maximum stellar bulge mass M b allowed by self-limited star formation show that the SMBH mass is typically about 10-3 M b at this point, in line with observation. The expansion-driven outflow reaches speeds v out≃1200 km s-1 and drives rates in cool (molecular) gas, giving a typical outflow mechanical energy L mech≃0.05 L Edd, where L Edd is the Eddington luminosity of the central SMBH. This is again in line with observation. These massive outflows may be what makes galaxies become red and dead, and can have several other potentially observable effects. In particular they have the right properties to enrich the intergalactic gas with metals. Our current picture of SMBH-galaxy coevolution is

  16. Supermassive Black Holes with High Accretion Rates in Active Galactic Nuclei. VI. Velocity-resolved Reverberation Mapping of the Hβ Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Pu; Lu, Kai-Xing; Hu, Chen; Qiu, Jie; Li, Yan-Rong; Huang, Ying-Ke; Wang, Fang; Bai, Jin-Ming; Bian, Wei-Hao; Yuan, Ye-Fei; Ho, Luis C.; Wang, Jian-Min; SEAMBH Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    In the sixth of a series of papers reporting on a large reverberation mapping (RM) campaign of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with high accretion rates, we present velocity-resolved time lags of Hβ emission lines for nine objects observed in the campaign during 2012-2013. In order to correct the line broadening caused by seeing and instruments before analyzing the velocity-resolved RM, we adopt the Richardson-Lucy deconvolution to reconstruct their Hβ profiles. The validity and effectiveness of the deconvolution are checked using Monte Carlo simulation. Five among the nine objects show clear dependence of the time delay on velocity. Mrk 335 and Mrk 486 show signatures of gas inflow whereas the clouds in the broad-line regions (BLRs) of Mrk 142 and MCG +06-26-012 tend to be radial outflowing. Mrk 1044 is consistent with having virialized motions. The lags of the remaining four are not velocity-resolvable. The velocity-resolved RM of super-Eddington accreting massive black holes (SEAMBHs) shows that they have diverse kinematics in their BLRs. Comparing with the AGNs with sub-Eddington accretion rates, we do not find significant differences in the BLR kinematics of SEAMBHs.

  17. Supermassive Black Holes with High Accretion Rates in Active Galactic Nuclei. V. A New Size-Luminosity Scaling Relation for the Broad-line Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Pu; Lu, Kai-Xing; Zhang, Zhi-Xiang; Huang, Ying-Ke; Wang, Kai; Hu, Chen; Qiu, Jie; Li, Yan-Rong; Fan, Xu-Liang; Fang, Xiang-Er; Bai, Jin-Ming; Bian, Wei-Hao; Yuan, Ye-Fei; Ho, Luis C.; Wang, Jian-Min; SEAMBH Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    This paper reports results of the third-year campaign of monitoring super-Eddington accreting massive black holes (SEAMBHs) in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) between 2014 and 2015. Ten new targets were selected from the quasar sample of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), which have generally been more luminous than the SEAMBH candidates in the last two years. Hβ lags ({τ }{{H}β }) in five of the 10 quasars have been successfully measured in this monitoring season. We find that the lags are generally shorter, by large factors, than those of objects with same optical luminosity, in light of the well-known R H β-L 5100 relation. The five quasars have dimensionless accretion rates of \\dot{{M}\\quad }=10-103. Combining these with measurements of the previous SEAMBHs, we find that the reduction of Hβ lags depends tightly on accretion rates, {τ }{{H}β }/{τ }R-L\\propto {\\dot{{M}}}-0.42, where {τ }R-L is the Hβ lag from the normal R H β-L 5100 relation. Fitting 63 mapped AGNs, we present a new scaling relation for the broad-line region: {R}{{H}β }={α }1{{\\ell }}44{β 1} {min} [1,{(\\dot{{M}}/{\\dot{{M}}}c)}-{γ 1}], where {{\\ell }}44={L}5100/{10}44 {erg} {{{s}}}-1 is the 5100 Å continuum luminosity, and the coefficients are {α }1={29.6}-2.8+2.7 lt-day, {β }1={0.56}-0.03+0.03, {γ }1={0.52}-0.16+0.33, and {\\dot{{M}}}c={11.19}-6.22+2.29. This relation is applicable to AGNs over a wide range of accretion rates, from 10-3 to 103. Implications of this new relation are briefly discussed.

  18. Supermassive star formation via episodic accretion: protostellar disc instability and radiative feedback efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, Y.; Vorobyov, E. I.; Hosokawa, T.; Yoshida, N.; Omukai, K.; Yorke, H. W.

    2016-06-01

    The formation of supermassive stars (SMSs) is a potential pathway to seed supermassive black holes in the early universe. A critical issue for forming SMSs is stellar UV feedback, which may limit the stellar mass growth via accretion. In this paper, we study the evolution of an accreting SMS and its UV emissivity with realistic variable accretion from a circumstellar disc. First we conduct a 2D hydrodynamical simulation to follow the protostellar accretion until the stellar mass exceeds 104 M⊙. The disc fragments by gravitational instability, creating many clumps that migrate inward to fall on to the star. The resulting accretion history is highly time-dependent: short episodic accretion bursts are followed by longer quiescent phases. We show that the disc for the direct collapse model is more unstable and generates greater variability than normal Pop III cases. Next, we conduct a stellar evolution calculation using the obtained accretion history. Our results show that, regardless of the variable accretion, the stellar radius monotonically increases with almost constant effective temperature at Teff ≃ 5000 K as the stellar mass increases. The resulting UV feedback is too weak to hinder accretion due to the low flux of stellar UV photons. The insensitivity of stellar evolution to variable accretion is attributed to the fact that time-scales of variability, ≲103 yr, are too short to affect the stellar structure. We argue that this evolution will continue until the SMS collapses to produce a black hole by the general relativistic instability after the mass reaches ≳105 M⊙.

  19. Astrophysical phenomena related to supermassive black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pott, Jörg-Uwe

    2006-12-01

    The thesis contains the results of my recent projects in astrophysical research. All projects aim at pushing the limits of our knowledge about the interaction between a galaxy, the fundamental building block of today's universe, and a supermassive black hole (SMBH) at its center. Over the past years a lot of observational evidence has been gathered for the current understanding, that at least a major part of the galaxies with a stellar bulge contain central SMBHs. The typical extragalactic approach consists of searching for the spectroscopic pattern of Keplerian rotation, produced by stars and gas, when orbiting a central dark mass (Kormendy & Richstone 1995). It suggests that a significant fraction of large galaxies host in their very nucleus a SMBH of millions to billions of solar masses (Kormendy & Gebhardt 2001). In the closest case, the center of our Milky Way, the most central stars, which can be imaged, were shown to move on orbits with circulation times of a few decades only, evidencing a mass and compactness of the dark counter part of the Keplerian motion, which can only be explained by a SMBH (Eckart & Genzel 1996; Ghez et al. 2000; Schödel et al. 2002). Having acknowledged the widespread existence of SMBHs the obvious next step is investigating the interaction with their environment. Although the basic property of a SMBH, which is concentrating a huge amount of mass in a ludicrously small volume defined by the Schwarzschild radius, only creates a deep gravitational trough, its existence evokes much more phenomena than simply attracting the surrounding matter. It can trigger or exacerbate star formation via tidal forces (Morris 1993). It shapes the distribution of its surrounding matter to accretion discs, which themselves release gravitational potential energy as radiation, possibly due to magnetic friction (Blandford 1995). The radiation efficiency of such active galactic nuclei (AGN) can become roughly 100 times more efficient than atomic nuclear

  20. Star formation around supermassive black holes.

    PubMed

    Bonnell, I A; Rice, W K M

    2008-08-22

    The presence of young massive stars orbiting on eccentric rings within a few tenths of a parsec of the supermassive black hole in the galactic center is challenging for theories of star formation. The high tidal shear from the black hole should tear apart the molecular clouds that form stars elsewhere in the Galaxy, and transport of stars to the galactic center also appears unlikely during their lifetimes. We conducted numerical simulations of the infall of a giant molecular cloud that interacts with the black hole. The transfer of energy during closest approach allows part of the cloud to become bound to the black hole, forming an eccentric disk that quickly fragments to form stars. Compressional heating due to the black hole raises the temperature of the gas up to several hundred to several thousand kelvin, ensuring that the fragmentation produces relatively high stellar masses. These stars retain the eccentricity of the disk and, for a sufficiently massive initial cloud, produce an extremely top-heavy distribution of stellar masses. This potentially repetitive process may explain the presence of multiple eccentric rings of young stars in the presence of a supermassive black hole.

  1. ALIGNMENT OF SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE BINARY ORBITS AND SPINS

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M. Coleman; Krolik, Julian H.

    2013-09-01

    Recent studies of accretion onto supermassive black hole binaries suggest that much, perhaps most, of the matter eventually accretes onto one hole or the other. If so, then for binaries whose inspiral from {approx}1 pc to {approx}10{sup -3}-10{sup -2} pc is driven by interaction with external gas, both the binary orbital axis and the individual black hole spins can be reoriented by angular momentum exchange with this gas. Here we show that, unless the binary mass ratio is far from unity, the spins of the individual holes align with the binary orbital axis in a time {approx}few-100 times shorter than the binary orbital axis aligns with the angular momentum direction of the incoming circumbinary gas; the spin of the secondary aligns more rapidly than that of the primary by a factor {approx}(m{sub 1}/m{sub 2}){sup 1/2} > 1. Thus the binary acts as a stabilizing agent, so that for gas-driven systems, the black hole spins are highly likely to be aligned (or counteraligned if retrograde accretion is common) with each other and with the binary orbital axis. This alignment can significantly reduce the recoil speed resulting from subsequent black hole merger.

  2. Bright vigorous winds as signposts of supermassive black hole birth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiacconi, Davide; Rossi, Elena M.

    2016-01-01

    The formation of supermassive black holes is still an outstanding question. In the quasi-star scenario, black hole seeds experience an initial super-Eddington growth, that in less than a million years may leave a 104-105 M⊙ black hole at the centre of a protogalaxy at z ˜ 20-10. Super-Eddington accretion, however, may be accompanied by vigorous mass-loss that can limit the amount of mass that reaches the black hole. In this paper, we critically assess the impact of radiative driven winds, launched from the surface of the massive envelopes from which the black hole accretes. Solving the full wind equations coupled with the hydrostatic structure of the envelope, we find mass outflows with rates between a few tens and 104 M⊙ yr-1, mainly powered by advection luminosity within the outflow. We therefore confirm the claim by Dotan et al. that mass losses can severely affect the black hole seed early growth within a quasi-star. In particular, seeds with mass >104 M⊙ can only form within mass reservoirs ≳107 M⊙, unless they are refilled at huge rates (≳100 M⊙ yr-1). This may imply that only very massive haloes (>109 M⊙) at those redshifts can harbour massive seeds. Contrary to previous claims, these winds are expected to be relatively bright (1044-1047 erg s-1), blue (Teff ˜ 8000 K) objects, that while eluding the Hubble Space Telescope, could be observed by the James Webb Space Telescope.

  3. Accretion driven outflows across the black hole mass scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Ashley L.

    2016-04-01

    Pumping highly relativistic particles and radiation into their environment, accreting black holes co-evolve with their surroundings through their powerful outflows. These outflows are divided into highly collimated, relativistic jets and wide-angle winds, and are primarily associated with a particular accretion states. Understanding just how these outflows couple to the accretion flow will enable us to assess the amount of energy and feedback that is injected into the vicinity of a black hole. During this talk, I will discuss our studies of both stellar-mass and supermassive black hole outlfows, and how the similarities of these flows across the mass scale may point to common driving mechanisms.

  4. Migration Traps in Disks around Supermassive Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellovary, Jillian M.; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; McKernan, Barry; Ford, K. E. Saavik

    2016-03-01

    Accretion disks around supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) contain stars, stellar mass black holes, and other stellar remnants, which perturb the disk gas gravitationally. The resulting density perturbations exert torques on the embedded masses causing them to migrate through the disk in a manner analogous to planets in protoplanetary disks. We determine the strength and direction of these torques using an empirical analytic description dependent on local disk gradients, applied to two different analytic, steady-state disk models of SMBH accretion disks. We find that there are radii in such disks where the gas torque changes sign, trapping migrating objects. Our analysis shows that major migration traps generally occur where the disk surface density gradient changes sign from positive to negative, around 20-300Rg, where Rg = 2GM/c2 is the Schwarzschild radius. At these traps, massive objects in the AGN disk can accumulate, collide, scatter, and accrete. Intermediate mass black hole formation is likely in these disk locations, which may lead to preferential gap and cavity creation at these radii. Our model thus has significant implications for SMBH growth as well as gravitational wave source populations.

  5. How to Build a Supermassive Black Hole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wanjek, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    NASA astronomer Kim Weaver has got that sinking feeling. You know, it's that unsettling notion you get when you sift through your X-ray data and, to your surprise, find mid-sized black holes sinking toward the center of a galaxy, where they merge with others to form a single supermassive black hole. Could such a thing be true? These would be the largest mergers since America On Line bought Time-Warner, and perhaps even more violent. The process would turn a starburst galaxy inside out, making it more like a quasar host galaxy. Using the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, Weaver saw a hint of this fantastic process in a relatively nearby starburst galaxy named NGC 253 in the constellation Sculptor. She noticed that starburst galaxies - those gems set aglow in a colorful life cycle of hyperactive star birth, death, and renewal - seem to have a higher concentration of mid-mass black holes compared to other galaxies.

  6. Light or heavy supermassive black hole seeds: the role of internal rotation in the fate of supermassive stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiacconi, Davide; Rossi, Elena M.

    2016-10-01

    Supermassive black holes are a key ingredient of galaxy evolution. However, their origin is still highly debated. In one of the leading formation scenarios, a black hole of ˜100 M⊙ results from the collapse of the inner core of a supermassive star (≳ 104 - 5 M⊙), created by the rapid accumulation (≳ 0.1 M⊙ yr-1) of pristine gas at the centre of newly formed galaxies at z ˜ 15. The subsequent evolution is still speculative: the remaining gas in the supermassive star can either directly plunge into the nascent black hole, or part of it can form a central accretion disc, whose luminosity sustains a surrounding, massive, and nearly hydrostatic envelope (a system called a "quasi-star"). To address this point, we consider the effect of rotation on a quasi-star, as angular momentum is inevitably transported towards the galactic nucleus by the accumulating gas. Using a model for the internal redistribution of angular momentum that qualitative matches results from simulations of rotating convective stellar envelopes, we show that quasi-stars with an envelope mass greater than a few 105 M⊙ × black hole mass/100 M⊙)0.82 have highly sub-keplerian gas motion in their core, preventing gas circularisation outside the black hole's horizon. Less massive quasi-stars could form but last for only ≲ 104 years before the accretion luminosity unbinds the envelope, suppressing the black hole growth. We speculate that this might eventually lead to a dual black hole seed population: (i) massive (>104 M⊙) seeds formed in the most massive (>108 M⊙) and rare haloes; (ii) lighter (˜102 M⊙) seeds to be found in less massive and therefore more common haloes.

  7. Circumnuclear media of quiescent supermassive black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Generozov, Aleksey; Stone, Nicholas C.; Metzger, Brian D.

    2015-10-01

    We calculate steady-state, one-dimensional hydrodynamic profiles of hot gas in slowly accreting (`quiescent') galactic nuclei for a range of central black hole masses M•, parametrized gas heating rates, and observationally motivated stellar density profiles. Mass is supplied to the circumnuclear medium by stellar winds, while energy is injected primarily by stellar winds, supernovae, and black hole feedback. Analytic estimates are derived for the stagnation radius (where the radial velocity of the gas passes through zero) and the large-scale gas inflow rate, dot{M}, as a function of M• and the gas heating efficiency, the latter being related to the star formation history. We assess the conditions under which radiative instabilities develop in the hydrostatic region near the stagnation radius, both in the case of a single burst of star formation and for the average star formation history predicted by cosmological simulations. By combining a sample of measured nuclear X-ray luminosities, LX, of nearby quiescent galactic nuclei with our results for dot{M}(M_{bullet }), we address whether the nuclei are consistent with accreting in a steady state, thermally stable manner for radiative efficiencies predicted for radiatively inefficiency accretion flows. We find thermally stable accretion cannot explain the short average growth times of low-mass black holes in the local Universe, which must instead result from gas being fed in from large radii, due either to gas inflows or thermal instabilities acting on larger, galactic scales. Our results have implications for attempts to constrain the occupation fraction of upermassive black holes in low-mass galaxies using the mean LX-M• correlation, as well as the predicted diversity of the circumnuclear densities encountered by relativistic outflows from tidal disruption events.

  8. Magnetic field strength at the innermost circular orbit in accretion disk of supermassive black hole in active galactic nuclei: comparison with the equipartition value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piotrovich, M. Y.; Buliga, S. D.; Gnedin, Y. N.; Natsvlishvili, T. M.; Silant'ev, N. A.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper we present the results of the determination of the magnetic field strength at the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) of an active galactic nuclei (AGN) derived from the polarimetric data for radiation emerging from broad line regions (BLR). These results are obtained by the radiative transfer method that takes into account the effect of Faraday rotation depolarization. The observed polarization degree allows to estimate the value of the magnetic field in the BLR and then to derive the ISCO magnetic field strength using the standard accretion disk model (Shakura and Sunyaev in Astron. Astrophys. 24:337, 1973). We used the polarimetric data obtained by Smith et al. (Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 335:773, 2002) to calculate the values of relativistic jet kinetic power of AGN from the derived values of the magnetic field strength at the ISCO radius.

  9. Quasars: a supermassive rotating toroidal black hole interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spivey, R. J.

    2000-08-01

    A supermassive rotating toroidal black hole (TBH) is proposed as the fundamental structure of quasars and other jet-producing active galactic nuclei. Rotating protogalaxies gather matter from the central gaseous region leading to the birth of massive toroidal stars, the internal nuclear reactions of which proceed very rapidly. Once the nuclear fuel is spent, gravitational collapse produces a slender ring-shaped TBH remnant. Transitory electron and neutron degeneracy stabilized collapse phases, although possible, are unlikely owing to the large masses involved thus these events are typically the first supernovae of the host galaxies. Given time, the TBH mass increases through continued accretion by several orders of magnitude, the event horizon swells whilst the central aperture shrinks. The difference in angular velocities between the accreting matter and the TBH induces a magnetic field that is strongest in the region of the central aperture and innermost ergoregion. Owing to the presence of negative energy states when such a gravitational vortex is immersed in an electromagnetic field, circumstances are near ideal for energy extraction via non-thermal radiation including the Penrose process and superradiant scattering. This establishes a self-sustaining mechanism whereby the transport of angular momentum away from the quasar by relativistic bi-directional jets reinforces both the modulating magnetic field and the TBH/accretion disc angular velocity differential. Continued mass-capture by the TBH results in contraction of the central aperture until the TBH topology transitions to being spheroidal, extinguishing quasar behaviour. Similar mechanisms may be operating in microquasars, supernovae and sources of repeating gamma-ray bursts when neutron density or black hole tori arise. Long-term TBH stability seems to require either a negative cosmological constant, a non-stationary space-time resulting from the presence of accreting matter or the intervention of quantum

  10. Direct formation of supermassive black holes via multi-scale gas inflows in galaxy mergers.

    PubMed

    Mayer, L; Kazantzidis, S; Escala, A; Callegari, S

    2010-08-26

    Observations of distant quasars indicate that supermassive black holes of billions of solar masses already existed less than a billion years after the Big Bang. Models in which the 'seeds' of such black holes form by the collapse of primordial metal-free stars cannot explain the rapid appearance of these supermassive black holes because gas accretion is not sufficiently efficient. Alternatively, these black holes may form by direct collapse of gas within isolated protogalaxies, but current models require idealized conditions, such as metal-free gas, to prevent cooling and star formation from consuming the gas reservoir. Here we report simulations showing that mergers between massive protogalaxies naturally produce the conditions for direct collapse into a supermassive black hole with no need to suppress cooling and star formation. Merger-driven gas inflows give rise to an unstable, massive nuclear gas disk of a few billion solar masses, which funnels more than 10(8) solar masses of gas to a sub-parsec-scale gas cloud in only 100,000 years. The cloud undergoes gravitational collapse, which eventually leads to the formation of a massive black hole. The black hole can subsequently grow to a billion solar masses on timescales of about 10(8) years by accreting gas from the surrounding disk.

  11. Detection of Gravitational Wave Emission by Supermassive Black Hole Binaries Through Tidal Disruption Flares

    PubMed Central

    Hayasaki, Kimitake; Loeb, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Galaxy mergers produce supermassive black hole binaries, which emit gravitational waves prior to their coalescence. We perform three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations to study the tidal disruption of stars by such a binary in the final centuries of its life. We find that the gas stream of the stellar debris moves chaotically in the binary potential and forms accretion disks around both black holes. The accretion light curve is modulated over the binary orbital period owing to relativistic beaming. This periodic signal allows to detect the decay of the binary orbit due to gravitational wave emission by observing two tidal disruption events that are separated by more than a decade. PMID:27767188

  12. ECCENTRIC EVOLUTION OF SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Iwasawa, Masaki; An, Sangyong; Matsubayashi, Tatsushi; Funato, Yoko; Makino, Junichiro

    2011-04-10

    In recent numerical simulations, it has been found that the eccentricity of supermassive black hole (SMBH)-intermediate black hole (IMBH) binaries grows toward unity through interactions with the stellar background. This increase of eccentricity reduces the merging timescale of the binary through the gravitational radiation to a value well below the Hubble time. It also gives a theoretical explanation of the existence of eccentric binaries such as that in OJ287. In self-consistent N-body simulations, this increase of eccentricity is always observed. On the other hand, the result of the scattering experiment between SMBH binaries and field stars indicated that the eccentricity dose not change significantly. This discrepancy leaves the high eccentricity of the SMBH binaries in N-body simulations unexplained. Here, we present a stellar-dynamical mechanism that drives the increase of the eccentricity of an SMBH binary with a large mass ratio. There are two key processes involved. The first one is the Kozai mechanism under a non-axisymmetric potential, which effectively randomizes the angular momenta of surrounding stars. The other is the selective ejection of stars with prograde orbits. Through these two mechanisms, field stars extract the orbital angular momentum of the SMBH binary. Our proposed mechanism causes the increase in the eccentricity of most of SMBH binaries, resulting in the rapid merger through gravitational wave radiation. Our result has given a definite solution to the 'last-parsec problem'.

  13. THE GROWTH OF THE STELLAR SEEDS OF SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Jarrett L.; Li Hui; Whalen, Daniel J.; Fryer, Chris L.

    2012-05-01

    The collapse of baryons into extremely massive stars with masses {approx}>10{sup 4} M{sub Sun} in a small fraction of protogalaxies at z {approx}> 10 is a promising candidate for the origin of supermassive black holes (SMBHs), some of which grow to a billion solar masses by z {approx} 7. We determine the maximum masses such stars can attain by accreting primordial gas. We find that at relatively low accretion rates the strong ionizing radiation of these stars limits their masses to M{sub *} {approx} 10{sup 3} M{sub Sun} ( M-dot{sub acc}/10{sup -3} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}){sup 8/7}, where M-dot{sub acc} is the rate at which the star gains mass. However, at the higher central infall rates usually found in numerical simulations of protogalactic collapse ({approx}>0.1 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}), the lifetime of the star instead limits its final mass to {approx}10{sup 6} M{sub Sun }. Furthermore, for the spherical accretion rates at which the star can grow, its ionizing radiation is confined deep within the protogalaxy, so the evolution of the star is decoupled from that of its host galaxy. Ly{alpha} emission from the surrounding H II region is trapped in these heavy accretion flows and likely reprocessed into strong Balmer series emission, which may be observable by the James Webb Space Telescope. This, strong He II {lambda}1640, and continuum emission are likely to be the key observational signatures of the progenitors of SMBHs at high redshift.

  14. Spin and Mass of the Supermassive Black Hole in the Galactic Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dokuchaev, V. I.

    2015-03-01

    The promising observational signatures for the measurement of black hole mass and spin are the azimuthal and latitudinal oscillation frequencies of the bright spots in the accretion flow and also the frequency of black hole event horizon rotation. Interpretation of the known quasi-periodic oscillations data by dint of a signal modulation from the hot spots in the accreting plasma reveals the Kerr metric rotation parameter, a = 0.65 ± 0.05, and mass, M = (4.2 ± 0.2)106M⊙, of the supermassive black hole in the Galactic center. The observed first 11.5 min quasi-periodic oscillation period is identified with a period of the black hole event horizon rotation, and, respectively, the second 19 min period is identified with a latitudinal oscillation period of hot spots in the accretion flow.

  15. Spin and mass of the supermassive black hole at the Galactic center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dokuchaev, V. I.

    The promising observational signatures for the measurement of black hole mass and spin are the azimuthal and latitudinal oscillation frequencies of the bright spots in the accretion flow and also the frequency of black hole event horizon rotation. Interpretation of the known quasi-periodic oscillations data by dint of a signal modulation from the hot spots in the accreting plasma reveals the Kerr metric rotation parameter, a = 0.65±0.05, and mass, M = (4.2±0.2)106M⊙, of the supermassive black hole in the Galactic center. The observed first 11.5 min quasi-periodic oscillation period is identified with a period of the black hole event horizon rotation, and, respectively, the second 19 min period is identified with a latitudinal oscillation period of hot spots in the accretion flow.

  16. Chaotic cold accretion on to black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaspari, M.; Ruszkowski, M.; Oh, S. Peng

    2013-07-01

    Bondi theory is often assumed to adequately describe the mode of accretion in astrophysical environments. However, the Bondi flow must be adiabatic, spherically symmetric, steady, unperturbed, with constant boundary conditions. Using 3D adaptive mesh refinement simulations, linking the 50 kpc to the sub-parsec (sub-pc) scales over the course of 40 Myr, we systematically relax the classic assumptions in a typical galaxy hosting a supermassive black hole. In the more realistic scenario, where the hot gas is cooling, while heated and stirred on large scales, the accretion rate is boosted up to two orders of magnitude compared with the Bondi prediction. The cause is the non-linear growth of thermal instabilities, leading to the condensation of cold clouds and filaments when tcool/tff ≲ 10. The clouds decouple from the hot gas, `raining' on to the centre. Subsonic turbulence of just over 100 km s-1 (M > 0.2) induces the formation of thermal instabilities, even in the absence of heating, while in the transonic regime turbulent dissipation inhibits their growth (tturb/tcool ≲ 1). When heating restores global thermodynamic balance, the formation of the multiphase medium is violent, and the mode of accretion is fully cold and chaotic. The recurrent collisions and tidal forces between clouds, filaments and the central clumpy torus promote angular momentum cancellation, hence boosting accretion. On sub-pc scales the clouds are channelled to the very centre via a funnel. In this study, we do not inject a fixed initial angular momentum, though vorticity is later seeded by turbulence. A good approximation to the accretion rate is the cooling rate, which can be used as subgrid model, physically reproducing the boost factor of 100 required by cosmological simulations, while accounting for the frequent fluctuations. Since our modelling is fairly general (turbulence/heating due to AGN feedback, galaxy motions, mergers, stellar evolution), chaotic cold accretion may be common in

  17. Astrophysical phenomena related to supermassive black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pott, Jörg-Uwe

    2006-12-01

    The thesis contains the results of my recent projects in astrophysical research. All projects aim at pushing the limits of our knowledge about the interaction between a galaxy, the fundamental building block of today's universe, and a supermassive black hole (SMBH) at its center. Over the past years a lot of observational evidence has been gathered for the current understanding, that at least a major part of the galaxies with a stellar bulge contain central SMBHs. The typical extragalactic approach consists of searching for the spectroscopic pattern of Keplerian rotation, produced by stars and gas, when orbiting a central dark mass (Kormendy & Richstone 1995). It suggests that a significant fraction of large galaxies host in their very nucleus a SMBH of millions to billions of solar masses (Kormendy & Gebhardt 2001). In the closest case, the center of our Milky Way, the most central stars, which can be imaged, were shown to move on orbits with circulation times of a few decades only, evidencing a mass and compactness of the dark counter part of the Keplerian motion, which can only be explained by a SMBH (Eckart & Genzel 1996; Ghez et al. 2000; Schödel et al. 2002). Having acknowledged the widespread existence of SMBHs the obvious next step is investigating the interaction with their environment. Although the basic property of a SMBH, which is concentrating a huge amount of mass in a ludicrously small volume defined by the Schwarzschild radius, only creates a deep gravitational trough, its existence evokes much more phenomena than simply attracting the surrounding matter. It can trigger or exacerbate star formation via tidal forces (Morris 1993). It shapes the distribution of its surrounding matter to accretion discs, which themselves release gravitational potential energy as radiation, possibly due to magnetic friction (Blandford 1995). The radiation efficiency of such active galactic nuclei (AGN) can become roughly 100 times more efficient than atomic nuclear

  18. Is There a Size Limit for Supermassive Black Holes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-09-01

    Supermassive black holes (SMBHs) lurk in the centers of galaxies, and weve measured their masses to range from hundreds of thousands to ten billion solar masses. But is there a maximum mass that these monsters are limited to?Observed MaximumSince the era when the first SMBHs formed, enough time has passed for them to potentially grow to monstrous size, assuming a sufficient supply of fuel.Instead, however, we observe that SMBHs in the centers of the largest local-universe galaxies max out at a top mass of a few times 1010 solar masses. Even more intriguingly, this limit appears to be redshift-independent: we see the same maximum mass of a few 1010 solar masses for SMBHs fueling the brightest of quasars at redshifts up to z~7.Accretion rate (solid) and star formation rate (dashed) vs. radius in a star-forming accretion disk, for several different values of black-hole mass. Though accretion rates start out very high at large radius, they drop to just a few solar masses per year at small radii, because much of the gas is lost to star formation in the disk. [Inayoshi Haiman 2016]So why dont we see any giants larger than around 10 billion solar masses, regardless of where we look? Two astronomers from Columbia University, Kohei Inayoshi (Simons Fellow) and Zoltn Haiman, suggest that there is a limiting mass for SMBHs thats set by small-scale physical processes, rather than large processes like galaxy evolution, star formation history, or background cosmology.Challenges for AccretionGrowing an SMBH thats more massive than 1010 solar masses requires gas to be quickly funneled from the outer regions of the galaxy (hundreds of light-years out), through the large accretion disk that surrounds the black hole, and into the nuclear region (light-year scales): the gas must be brought in at rates as high as 1,000 solar masses per year.Modeling this process, Inayoshi and Haiman demonstrate that at such high rates, the majority of the gas instead gets stuck in the disk, causing

  19. New observational constraints on the growth of the first supermassive black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Treister, E.; Schawinski, K.; Volonteri, M.; Natarajan, P.

    2013-12-01

    We constrain the total accreted mass density in supermassive black holes at z > 6, inferred via the upper limit derived from the integrated X-ray emission from a sample of photometrically selected galaxy candidates. Studying galaxies obtained from the deepest Hubble Space Telescope images combined with the Chandra 4 Ms observations of the Chandra Deep Field-South, we achieve the most restrictive constraints on total black hole growth in the early universe. We estimate an accreted mass density <1000 M {sub ☉} Mpc{sup –3} at z ∼ 6, significantly lower than the previous predictions from some existing models of early black hole growth and earlier prior observations. These results place interesting constraints on early black hole growth and mass assembly by accretion and imply one or more of the following: (1) only a fraction of the luminous galaxies at this epoch contain active black holes; (2) most black hole growth at early epochs happens in dusty and/or less massive—as yet undetected—host galaxies; (3) there is a significant fraction of low-z interlopers in the galaxy sample; (4) early black hole growth is radiatively inefficient, heavily obscured, and/or due to black hole mergers as opposed to accretion; or (5) the bulk of the black hole growth occurs at late times. All of these possibilities have important implications for our understanding of high-redshift seed formation models.

  20. Shaping the relation between the mass of supermassive black holes and the velocity dispersion of galactic bulges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, M. H.

    2013-05-01

    I use the fact that the radiation emitted by the accretion disk of supermassive black hole can heat up the surrounding gas in the protogalaxy to achieve hydrostatic equilibrium during the galaxy formation. The correlation between the black hole mass M BH and velocity dispersion σ thus naturally arises. The result generally agrees with empirical fittings from observational data, even with M BH ≤106 M ⊙. This model provides a clear picture on how the properties of the galactic supermassive black holes are connected with the kinetic properties of the galactic bulges.

  1. Dynamical Friction around Supermassive Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonini, Fabio; Merritt, David

    2012-01-01

    The density of stars in galactic bulges is often observed to be flat or slowly rising inside the influence radius of the supermassive black hole (SMBH). Attributing the dynamical-friction force to stars moving more slowly than the test body, as is commonly done, is likely to be a poor approximation in such a core since there are no stars moving more slowly than the local circular velocity. We have tested this prediction using large-scale N-body experiments. The rate of orbital decay never drops precisely to zero, because stars moving faster than the test body also contribute to the frictional force. When the contribution from the fast-moving stars is included in the expression for the dynamical-friction force, and the changes induced by the massive body on the stellar distribution are taken into account, Chandrasekhar's theory is found to reproduce the rate of orbital decay remarkably well. However, this rate is still substantially smaller than the rate predicted by Chandrasekhar's formula in its most widely used forms, implying longer timescale for inspiral. Motivated by recent observations that suggest a parsec-scale core around the Galactic center (GC) SMBH, we investigate the evolution of a population of stellar-mass black holes (BHs) as they spiral into the center of the Galaxy. After ~10 Gyr, we find that the density of BHs can remain substantially less than the density in stars at all radii; we conclude that it would be unjustified to assume that the spatial distribution of BHs at the GC is well described by steady-state models. One consequence is that rates of capture of BHs by the SMBH at the Galactic center (extreme-mass-ratio inspirals) may be much lower than in standard models. When capture occurs, inspiraling BHs often reach the gravitational-radiation-dominated regime while on orbits that are still highly eccentric; even after the semimajor axis has decreased to values small enough for detection by space-based interferometers, eccentricities can be

  2. Never Before Seen: Two Supermassive Black Holes in Same Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-11-01

    For the first time, scientists have proof two supermassive black holes exist together in the same galaxy, thanks to data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. These black holes are orbiting each other and will merge several hundred million years from now, to create an even larger black hole resulting in a catastrophic event that will unleash intense radiation and gravitational waves. The Chandra image reveals that the nucleus of an extraordinarily bright galaxy, known as NGC 6240, contains not one, but two giant black holes, actively accreting material from their surroundings. This discovery shows that massive black holes can grow through mergers in the centers of galaxies, and that these enigmatic events will be detectable with future space-borne gravitational wave observatories. "The breakthrough came with Chandra's ability to clearly distinguish the two nuclei, and measure the details of the X-radiation from each nucleus," said Guenther Hasinger, of the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics in Germany, a coauthor of an upcoming Astrophysical Journal Letters paper describing the research. "These cosmic fingerprints revealed features characteristic of supermassive black holes -- an excess of high-energy photons from gas swirling around a black hole, and X-rays from fluorescing iron atoms in gas near black holes," he said. Previous X-ray observatories had shown that the central region produces X-rays, while radio, infrared and optical observations had detected two bright nuclei, but the nature of this region remained a mystery. Astronomers did not know the location of the X-ray source, or the nature of the two bright nuclei. "With Chandra, we hoped to determine which one, if either, of the nuclei was an active supermassive black hole," said Stefanie Komossa, also of the Max Planck Institute, lead author of the paper on NGC 6240. "Much to our surprise, we found that both were active black holes!" At a distance of about 400 million light years, NGC 6240

  3. Lense-Thirring precession around supermassive black holes during tidal disruption events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franchini, Alessia; Lodato, Giuseppe; Facchini, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    A tidal disruption event occurs when a star wanders close enough to a black hole to be disrupted by its tidal force. The debris of a tidally disrupted star are expected to form an accretion disc around the supermassive black hole. The light curves of these events sometimes show a quasi-periodic modulation of the flux that can be associated with the precession of the accretion disc due to the Lense-Thirring (`frame-dragging') effect. Since the initial star orbit is in general inclined with respect to the black hole spin, this misalignment combined with the Lense-Thirring effect leads to a warp in the disc. In this paper, we provide a simple model of the system composed by a thick and narrow accretion disc surrounding a spinning supermassive black hole, with the aim to: (a) compute the expected precession period as a function of the system parameters, (b) discuss the conditions that have to be satisfied in order to have rigid precession, (c) investigate the alignment process, highlighting how different mechanisms play a role leading the disc and the black hole angular momenta into alignment.

  4. Can Direct Collapse Black Holes Launch Gamma-Ray Bursts and Grow to Supermassive Black Holes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Tatsuya; Nakauchi, Daisuke; Ioka, Kunihito; Heger, Alexander; Nakamura, Takashi

    2015-09-01

    The existence of black holes (BHs) of mass ˜ {10}9 {M}⊙ at z≳ 6 is a big puzzle in astrophysics because even optimistic estimates of the accretion time are insufficient for stellar-mass BHs of ˜ 10 {M}⊙ to grow into such supermassive BHs. A resolution of this puzzle might be the direct collapse of supermassive stars with mass M˜ {10}5 {M}⊙ into massive seed BHs. We find that if a jet is launched from the accretion disk around the central BH, the jet can break out of the star because of the structure of the radiation-pressure-dominated envelope. Such ultralong gamma-ray bursts with duration of ˜ {10}4-106 s and flux of 10-11-10-8 erg s-1 cm-2 could be detectable by Swift. We estimate an event rate of ≲ 1 {{yr}}-1. The total explosion energy is ≳1055-{10}56 {erg}. The resulting negative feedback delays the growth of the remnant BH by about 70 {Myr} or evacuates the host galaxy completely.

  5. Supermassive Black Hole Growth During The Peak Of Cosmic Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Nathaniel Robert

    2016-01-01

    Massive galaxies in the nearby universe all show evidence of a central Supermassive Black Hole. The black holes are seen to grow over time by accretion of gas from their host galaxy, a phenomenon referred to as an Active Galactic Nucleus. This process is believed to be fundamental to the observed correlations between black hole mass and properties of the host galaxies. We have a more limited and biased understanding of the growth of supermassive black holes in more 'typical' galaxies at z ˜ 1 -- 2. In this work, we search for Active Galactic Nuclei in a population of star-forming galaxies spanning a mass range of M* ˜ 107 -- 1012 M[special character omitted] at 0.62 < z < 2.39, during the peak of cosmic star formation and massive black hole growth. Our data are drawn from the WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallels (WISP) survey, for which we designed and implemented a suite of data analysis routines for discovering and measuring star-forming galaxies and active galactic nuclei. We find a sample of 50 active galactic nuclei, identified by their strong, rest-frame optical, emission-line ratios. We find that growing supermassive black holes in low-mass galaxies at z [special character omitted] 1 either make up a greater fraction of their galaxies' masses than those in massive galaxies, or perhaps emit a greater fraction of their energy in [O III].

  6. Circularization of tidally disrupted stars around spinning supermassive black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayasaki, Kimitake; Stone, Nicholas; Loeb, Abraham

    2016-10-01

    We study the circularization of tidally disrupted stars on bound orbits around spinning supermassive black holes by performing 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations with post-Newtonian corrections. Our simulations reveal that debris circularization depends sensitively on the efficiency of radiative cooling. There are two stages in debris circularization if radiative cooling is inefficient: first, the stellar debris streams self-intersect due to relativistic apsidal precession; shocks at the intersection points thermalize orbital energy and the debris forms a geometrically thick, ring-like structure around the black hole. The ring rapidly spreads via viscous diffusion, leading to the formation of a geometrically thick accretion disc. In contrast, if radiative cooling is efficient, the stellar debris circularizes due to self-intersection shocks and forms a geometrically thin ring-like structure. In this case, the dissipated energy can be emitted during debris circularization as a precursor to the subsequent tidal disruption flare. The circularization time-scale is remarkably long in the radiatively efficient cooling case, and is also sensitive to black hole spin. Specifically, Lense-Thirring torques cause dynamically important nodal precession, which significantly delays debris circularization. On the other hand, nodal precession is too slow to produce observable signatures in the radiatively inefficient case. Since the stellar debris is optically thick and its photon diffusion time is likely longer than the time-scale of shock heating, our inefficient cooling scenario is more generally applicable in eccentric tidal disruption events (TDEs). However, in parabolic TDEs for MBH ≳ 2 × 106 M⊙, the spin-sensitive behaviour associated with efficient cooling may be realized.

  7. Uncovering Binary Supermassive Black Holes in Merging Galaxy Pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNulty, Paul; Satyapal, Shobita; Ellison, Sara L.; Secrest, Nathan; Gliozzi, Mario; Rothberg, Barry

    2016-01-01

    It is now well known that virtually all galaxies host a central supermassive black hole (SMBH) and that galaxy interactions are ubiquitous. Theory predicts these interactions would funnel gas toward the central regions of galaxies, potentially triggering gas accretion onto the SMBH, causing them to appear as binary active galactic nuclei (AGN). However, despite decades of searching and strong theoretical reasons that they should exist, observationally confirmed cases of binary AGNs are extremely rare, and most have been discovered serendipitously. Since galaxy mergers are likely to be characterized by dusty environments, it is possible that the optical signatures of a significant number of binary AGNs are obscured. Observations from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) may hold the key for increasing the rate of discovery of binary AGN in late-stage mergers. Starting with a sample of ~4,000 galaxy pairs, we searched for mid-IR signatures of binary AGNs. In this poster, we report on the detection frequency of binary AGNs identified through mid-infrared observations and explore its dependence on merger stage.

  8. Toward Precision Supermassive Black Hole Masses Using Megamaser Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Bosch, Remco C. E.; Greene, Jenny E.; Braatz, James A.; Constantin, Anca; Kuo, Cheng-Yu

    2016-03-01

    Megamaser disks provide the most precise and accurate extragalactic supermassive black hole (BH) masses. Here we describe a search for megamasers in nearby galaxies using the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). We focus on galaxies where we believe that we can resolve the gravitational sphere of influence of the BH and derive a stellar or gas dynamical measurement with optical or NIR observations. Since there are only a handful of super massive BHs that have direct BH mass measurements from more than one method, even a single galaxy with a megamaser disk and a stellar dynamical BH mass would provide necessary checks on the stellar dynamical methods. We targeted 87 objects from the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Massive Galaxy Survey, and detected no new maser disks. Most of the targeted objects are elliptical galaxies with typical stellar velocity dispersions of 250 km s-1 and distances within 130 Mpc. We discuss the implications of our non-detections, whether they imply a threshold X-ray luminosity required for masing, or possibly reflect the difficulty of maintaining a masing disk around much more massive (≳ {10}8 {M}⊙ ) BHs at a low Eddington ratio. Given the power of maser disks for probing BH accretion and demographics, we suggest that future maser searches should endeavour to remove remaining sample biases, in order to sort out the importance of these covariant effects.

  9. PHYSICS OF COEVOLUTION OF GALAXIES AND SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Cen Renyue

    2012-08-10

    A new physically based model for coevolution of galaxies and supermassive black holes (SMBHs) is presented. The evolutionary track starts with an event that triggers a significant starburst in the central region of a galaxy. In this model, the main SMBH growth takes place in the post-starburst phase, fueled by recycled gas from inner bulge stars in a self-regulated fashion on a timescale that is substantially longer than 100 Myr and at a diminishing Eddington ratio with time. We argue that the SMBH cannot gorge itself during the starburst phase, despite the abundant supply of cold gas, because star formation (SF) is a preferred mode of gas consumption over accretion to the central SMBH in such an environment. We also show that feedback from SF is at least as strong as that from an active galactic nucleus (AGN); thus, if SF is in need of being quenched, AGN feedback generally does not play the primary role. The predicted relation between SMBH mass and bulge mass/velocity dispersion is consistent with observations. A clear prediction is that early-type galaxy hosts of high-Eddington-rate AGNs are expected to be light blue to green in optical color, gradually evolving to the red sequences with decreasing AGN luminosity. A suite of falsifiable predictions and implications with respect to relationships between various types of galaxies, AGNs, and others are made. For those where comparisons to extant observations are possible, the model appears to be in good standing.

  10. Formation of supermassive black holes through fragmentation of torodial supermassive stars.

    PubMed

    Zink, Burkhard; Stergioulas, Nikolaos; Hawke, Ian; Ott, Christian D; Schnetter, Erik; Müller, Ewald

    2006-04-28

    We investigate new paths to supermassive black hole formation by considering the general relativistic evolution of a differentially rotating polytrope with a toroidal shape. We find that this polytrope is unstable to nonaxisymmetric modes, which leads to a fragmentation into self-gravitating, collapsing components. In the case of one such fragment, we apply a simplified adaptive mesh refinement technique to follow the evolution to the formation of an apparent horizon centered on the fragment. This is the first study of the onset of nonaxisymmetric dynamical instabilities of supermassive stars in full general relativity.

  11. Merging a Pair of Supermassive Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-10-01

    When galaxies merge, the supermassive black holes (SMBHs) at the galaxies centers are thought to coalesce, forming a new, larger black hole. But can this merger process take place on timescales short enough that we could actually observe it? Results from a new simulation suggests that it can!When Galaxies CollideThese stills demonstrate the time evolution of the galaxy merger after the beginning of the authors simulation (starting from z=3.6). The red and blue dots mark the positions of the SMBHs. [Adapted from Khan et al. 2016]At present, its not well understood how the merger of two SMBHs proceeds from the merger of their host galaxies. Whats more, there are concerns about whether the SMBHs can coalesce on reasonable timescales; in many simulations and models, the inspiral of these behemoths stalls out when they are about a parsec apart, in whats known as the final parsec problem.Why are these mergers poorly understood? Modeling them from the initial interactions of the host galaxies all the way down to the final coalescence of their SMBHs in a burst of gravitational waves is notoriously complicated, due to the enormous range of scales and different processes that must be accounted for.But in a recent study, a team of scientists led by Fazeel Khan (Institute of Space Technology in Pakistan) has presented a simulation that successfully manages to track the entire merger making it the first multi-scale simulation to model the complete evolution of an SMBH binary that forms within a cosmological galaxy merger.Stages of aSimulationKhan and collaborators tackled the challenges of this simulation by using a multi-tiered approach.Beginning with the output of a cosmological hydrodynamical simulation, the authors select a merger of two typical massive galaxies at z=3.6 and use this as the starting point for their simulation. They increase the resolution and add in two supermassive black holes, one at the center of each galaxy.They then continue to evolve the galaxies

  12. Binary pairs of supermassive black holes - Formation in merging galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valtaoja, L.; Valtonen, M. J.; Byrd, G. G.

    1989-08-01

    A process in which supermassive binary blackholes are formed in nuclei of supergiant galaxies due to galaxy mergers is examined. There is growing evidence that mergers of galaxies are common and that supermassive black holes in center of galaxies are also common. Consequently, it is expected that binary black holes should arise in connection with galaxy mergers. The merger process in a galaxy modeled after M87 is considered. The capture probability of a companion is derived as a function of its mass. Assuming a correlation between the galaxy mass and the blackholes mass, the expected mass ratio in binary black holes is calculated. The binary black holes formed in this process are long lived, surviving longer than the Hubble time unless they are perturbed by black holes from successive mergers. The properties of these binaries agree with Gaskell's (1988) observational work on quasars and its interpretation in terms of binary black holes.

  13. General Relativistic Simulations of Magnetized Plasmas around Merging Supermassive Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacomazzo, Bruno; Baker, John G.; Miller, M. Coleman; Reynolds, Christopher S.; van Meter, James R.

    2012-06-01

    Coalescing supermassive black hole binaries are produced by the mergers of galaxies and are the most powerful sources of gravitational waves accessible to space-based gravitational observatories. Some such mergers may occur in the presence of matter and magnetic fields and hence generate an electromagnetic counterpart. In this Letter, we present the first general relativistic simulations of magnetized plasma around merging supermassive black holes using the general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic code Whisky. By considering different magnetic field strengths, going from non-magnetically dominated to magnetically dominated regimes, we explore how magnetic fields affect the dynamics of the plasma and the possible emission of electromagnetic signals. In particular, we observe a total amplification of the magnetic field of ~2 orders of magnitude, which is driven by the accretion onto the binary and that leads to much stronger electromagnetic signals, more than a factor of 104 larger than comparable calculations done in the force-free regime where such amplifications are not possible.

  14. Music from the heavens - Gravitational waves from supermassive black hole mergers in the EAGLE simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salcido, Jaime; Bower, Richard G.; Theuns, Tom; McAlpine, Stuart; Schaller, Matthieu; Crain, Robert A.; Schaye, Joop; Regan, John

    2016-08-01

    We estimate the expected event rate of gravitational wave signals from mergers of supermassive black holes that could be resolved by a space-based interferometer, such as the Evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (eLISA), utilising the reference cosmological hydrodynamical simulation from the EAGLE suite. These simulations assume a ΛCDM cosmogony with state-of-the-art subgrid models for radiative cooling, star formation, stellar mass loss, and feedback from stars and accreting black holes. They have been shown to reproduce the observed galaxy population with unprecedented fidelity. We combine the merger rates of supermassive black holes in EAGLE with the latest phenomenological waveform models to calculate the gravitational waves signals from the intrinsic parameters of the merging black holes. The EAGLE models predict ˜2 detections per year by a gravitational wave detector such as eLISA. We find that these signals are largely dominated by mergers between seed mass black holes merging at redshifts between z ˜ 2 and z ˜ 1. In order to investigate the dependence on the assumed black hole seed mass, we introduce an additional model with a black hole seed mass an order of magnitude smaller than in our reference model. We also consider a variation of the reference model where a prescription for the expected delays in the black hole merger timescale has been included after their host galaxies merge. We find that the merger rate is similar in all models, but that the initial black hole seed mass could be distinguished through their detected gravitational waveforms. Hence, the characteristic gravitational wave signals detected by eLISA will provide profound insight into the origin of supermassive black holes and the initial mass distribution of black hole seeds.

  15. Music from the heavens - gravitational waves from supermassive black hole mergers in the EAGLE simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salcido, Jaime; Bower, Richard G.; Theuns, Tom; McAlpine, Stuart; Schaller, Matthieu; Crain, Robert A.; Schaye, Joop; Regan, John

    2016-08-01

    We estimate the expected event rate of gravitational wave signals from mergers of supermassive black holes that could be resolved by a space-based interferometer, such as the Evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (eLISA), utilizing the reference cosmological hydrodynamical simulation from the EAGLE suite. These simulations assume a Lambda cold dark matter cosmogony with state-of-the-art subgrid models for radiative cooling, star formation, stellar mass loss, and feedback from stars and accreting black holes. They have been shown to reproduce the observed galaxy population with unprecedented fidelity. We combine the merger rates of supermassive black holes in EAGLE with the latest phenomenological waveform models to calculate the gravitational waves signals from the intrinsic parameters of the merging black holes. The EAGLE models predict ˜2 detections per year by a gravitational wave detector such as eLISA. We find that these signals are largely dominated by mergers between seed mass black holes merging at redshifts between z ˜ 2 and z ˜ 1. In order to investigate the dependence on the assumed black hole seed mass, we introduce an additional model with a black hole seed mass an order of magnitude smaller than in our reference model. We also consider a variation of the reference model where a prescription for the expected delays in the black hole merger time-scale has been included after their host galaxies merge. We find that the merger rate is similar in all models, but that the initial black hole seed mass could be distinguished through their detected gravitational waveforms. Hence, the characteristic gravitational wave signals detected by eLISA will provide profound insight into the origin of supermassive black holes and the initial mass distribution of black hole seeds.

  16. Higher harmonics increase LISA's mass reach for supermassive black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Arun, K. G.; Iyer, Bala R.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Sinha, Siddhartha

    2007-06-15

    Current expectations on the signal-to-noise ratios and masses of supermassive black holes which the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) can observe are based on using in matched filtering only the dominant harmonic of the inspiral waveform at twice the orbital frequency. Other harmonics will affect the signal-to-noise ratio of systems currently believed to be observable by LISA. More significantly, inclusion of other harmonics in our matched filters would mean that more massive systems that were previously thought to be not visible in LISA should be detectable with reasonable SNRs. Our estimates show that we should be able to significantly increase the mass reach of LISA and observe the more commonly occurring supermassive black holes of masses {approx}10{sup 8}M{sub {center_dot}}. More specifically, with the inclusion of all known harmonics LISA will be able to observe even supermassive black hole coalescences with total mass {approx}10{sup 8}M{sub {center_dot}}(10{sup 9}M{sub {center_dot}}) (and mass ratio 0.1) for a low frequency cutoff of 10{sup -4} Hz (10{sup -5} Hz) with an SNR up to {approx}60 ({approx}30) at a distance of 3 Gpc. This is important from the astrophysical viewpoint since observational evidence for the existence of black holes in this mass range is quite strong and binaries containing such supermassive black holes will be inaccessible to LISA if one uses as detection templates only the dominant harmonic.

  17. Tidal disruptions by supermassive black holes - Hydrodynamic evolution of stars on a Schwarzschild background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laguna, Pablo; Miller, Warner A.; Zurek, Wojciech H.; Davies, Melvyn B.

    1993-01-01

    We present a three-dimensional numerical study of tidal disruption of a main-sequence star by a supermassive black hole. The simulations include general relativistic effects which are important in this regime. We analyze stars in a marginally bound orbit around the black hole with pericentric separation of a few Schwarzschild radii. We show that during a close passage, as a result of relativistic effects analogous to the perihelion shift, the trajectories of the debris of the star fan out into a crescent-like shape centered on the black hole. We also discuss the increase of the central density of the star as it approaches pericentric distance, the fraction of the debris accreted by the hole, its accretion rate, the distribution of debris orbits bound to the hole, and the velocity of unbound ejected material. We compare these results with the disruption of the star by a Newtonian point mass.

  18. A Supermassive Black Hole in a Nearby Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-03-01

    board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) . That close view of the galaxy nucleus revealed a thin gaseous disk of material close to the center, which looked very much like an accretion disk that was feeding material into a central black hole. The HST image prompted further spectroscopic observations to probe the rotation of the disk, and thus to measure the mass of the central object. The ISAAC spectra ESO PR Photo 08b/01 ESO PR Photo 08b/01 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 303 pix - 216k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 606 pix - 572k] [Hires - JPEG: 2274 x 3000 pix - 4.0M] Caption : PR Photo 08b/01 shows two wavelength regions of one of the infrared ISAAC spectra of the center of Centaurus A . The direction of the long spectrograph slit is vertical and the dispersion (wavelength) direction is horizontal; longer wavelengths are towards the right. The two emission lines shown originate in singly ionized Iron ([FeII]; rest wavelength 1256.68 nm) and in Hydrogen (Paschen-Beta; 1281.81 nm) and both are clearly tilted. This is due to the rapid rotation of the accretion disk surrounding the supermassive black hole in the center of the galaxy. The light from the receding edge of the disk is Doppler-shifted towards the red (to the right) and the light from the part of the disk approaching us is shifted to the left. This may be better seen in the inserted enlargements. Therefore the inclined disk shows a tilted spectrum. These motions may be represented in a rotation curve, cf. PR Photo 08c/01 . There are other emitting areas above and below the nucleus, especially in the Paschen-Beta line. Technical information about these photos is available below. ESO PR Photo 08c/01 ESO PR Photo 08c/01 [Preview - JPEG: 341 x 400 pix - 56k] [Normal - JPEG: 682 x 800 pix - 132k] Caption : PR Photo 08c/01 shows the rotation curve (velocity vrs. distance from the centre) of the disk surrounding the black hole at the centre of Centaurus A . From the ISAAC spectrum displayed in PR Photo 08b/01 , the `average' gas

  19. Accretion disks around black holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abramowicz, M. A.

    1994-01-01

    The physics of accretion flow very close to a black hole is dominated by several general relativistic effects. It cannot be described by the standard Shakura Sunyaev model or by its relativistic version developed by Novikov and Thome. The most important of these effects is a dynamical mass loss from the inner edge of the disk (Roche lobe overflow). The relativistic Roche lobe overflow induces a strong advective cooling, which is sufficient to stabilize local, axially symmetric thermal and viscous modes. It also stabilizes the non-axially-symmetric global modes discovered by Papaloizou and Pringle. The Roche lobe overflow, however, destabilizes sufficiently self-gravitating accretion disks with respect to a catastrophic runaway of mass due to minute changes of the gravitational field induced by the changes in the mass and angular momentum of the central black hole. One of the two acoustic modes may become trapped near the inner edge of the disk. All these effects, absent in the standard model, have dramatic implications for time-dependent behavior of the accretion disks around black holes.

  20. Accretion onto the first stellar mass black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez, Marcelo A.; Wise, John H.; Abel, Tom

    2009-08-05

    The first stars, forming at redshifts z > 15 in minihalos with M {approx} 10{sup 5-6} M{sub {circle_dot}} may leave behind remnant black holes, which could conceivably have been the 'seeds' for the supermassive black holes observed at z {approx}< 7. We study remnant black hole growth through accretion, including for the first time the radiation emitted due to accretion, with adaptive mesh refinement cosmological radiation-hydrodynamical simulations. The effects of photo-ionization and heating dramatically affect the large-scale inflow, resulting in negligible mass growth. We compare cases with accretion luminosity included and neglected to show that accretion radiation drastically changes the environment within 100 pc of the black hole, increasing gas temperatures by an order of magnitude. Gas densities are reduced and further star formation in the same minihalo is prevented for the two hundred million years we followed. Without radiative feedback included most seed black holes do not gain mass as efficiently as has been hoped for in previous theories, implying that black hole remnants of Pop III stars in minihalos are not likely to be miniquasars. Most importantly, however, our calculations demonstrate that if these black holes are indeed accreting close to the Bondi-Hoyle rate with ten percent radiative efficiency they have a dramatic local effect in regulating star formation in the first galaxies. This suggests a novel mechanism for massive black hole formation - stellar-mass black holes may have suppressed fragmentation and star formation after falling into halos with virial temperatures {approx} 10{sup 4} K, facilitating intermediate mass black hole formation at their centers.

  1. ACCRETION ONTO THE FIRST STELLAR-MASS BLACK HOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez, Marcelo A.; Abel, Tom Wise, John H

    2009-08-20

    The first stars, forming at redshifts z > 15 in minihalos with M {approx} 10{sup 5-6} M {sub sun} may leave behind remnant black holes, which could conceivably have been the 'seeds' for the supermassive black holes observed at z {approx}< 7. We study remnant black hole growth through accretion, including for the first time the radiation emitted due to accretion, with adaptive mesh refinement cosmological radiation-hydrodynamical simulations. The effects of photoionization and heating dramatically affect the large-scale inflow, resulting in negligible mass growth. We compare cases with accretion luminosity included and neglected to show that accretion radiation drastically changes the environment within 100 pc of the black hole, increasing gas temperatures by an order of magnitude. Gas densities are reduced and further star formation in the same minihalo is prevented for the 200 million years we followed. Without radiative feedback included most seed black holes do not gain mass as efficiently as has been hoped for in previous theories, implying that black hole remnants of population III stars in minihalos are not likely to be miniquasars. Most importantly, however, our calculations demonstrate that if these black holes are indeed accreting close to the Bondi-Hoyle rate with 10% radiative efficiency they have a dramatic local effect in regulating star formation in the first galaxies. This suggests a novel mechanism for massive black hole formation-stellar-mass black holes may have suppressed fragmentation and star formation after falling into halos with virial temperatures {approx}10{sup 4} K, facilitating massive black hole formation at their centers.

  2. Gravitational waves from supermassive stars collapsing to a supermassive black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Masaru; Sekiguchi, Yuichiro; Uchida, Haruki; Umeda, Hideyuki

    2016-07-01

    We derive the gravitational waveform from the collapse of a rapidly rotating supermassive star (SMS) core leading directly to a seed of a supermassive black hole (SMBH) in axisymmetric numerical-relativity simulations. We find that the peak strain amplitude of gravitational waves emitted during the black hole formation is ≈5 ×10-21 at the frequency f ≈5 mHz for an event at the cosmological redshift z =3 , if the collapsing SMS core is in the hydrogen-burning phase. Such gravitational waves will be detectable by space laser interferometric detectors like eLISA with signal-to-noise ratio ≈10 , if the sensitivity is as high as LISA for f =1 - 10 mHz . The detection of the gravitational wave signal will provide a potential opportunity for testing the direct-collapse scenario for the formation of a seed of SMBHs.

  3. Bringing Black Holes Together: How Supermassive Black Hole Binaries Form and Plunge Through the Final Parsec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly

    2016-04-01

    Astronomers now know that supermassive black holes reside in nearly every galaxy.Though these black holes are an observational certainty, nearly every aspect of their evolution -- from their birth, to their fuel source, to their basic dynamics -- is a matter of lively debate. In principle, gas-rich major galaxy mergers can generate the central stockpile of fuel needed for a low mass central black hole seed to grow quickly into a supermassive one. During a galaxy merger, the black holes in each galaxy meet and form a supermassive binary black hole; as the binary orbit shrinks through its final parsec, it becomes the loudest gravitational wave source in the Universe and a powerful agent to sculpt the galactic center. This talk will touch on some current and ongoing work on refining our theories of how supermassive black hole binaries form, evolve within, and alter their galaxy host.

  4. Scaling variability from stellar to supermassive black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Done, Chris; Gierliński, Marek

    2005-11-01

    We investigate the correspondence between the variability seen in the stellar and supermassive black holes. Galactic black hole (GBH) power density spectra (PDS) are generally complex, and dependent on spectral state. In the low/hard state the high-frequency rollover in the PDS moves in a way which is not simply related to luminosity. Hence this feature can only be used as an approximate indicator rather than as an accurate tracer of black hole mass in active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The X-ray spectrum in the high/soft state is dominated by the disc in the GBH, which is rather stable. We show that the PDS of the Comptonized tail in GBHs can be much more variable, and that it is this which should be compared to AGNs due to their much lower disc temperature. This bandpass effect removes a problem in interpreting the (often highly variable) narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxies as the counterparts of the high mass accretion rate GBHs. Additionally, we speculate that some NLS1s (e.g. Akn 564) are counterparts of the very high state. The Comptonized tail in this state is also highly variable, but with PDS which can be roughly described as band-limited noise. This shape is similar to that seen in the low/hard state, so merely seeing such band-limited noise in the power spectrum of an AGN does not necessarily imply low luminosity. We also stress that Cygnus X-1, often used for comparison with AGNs, is not a typical black hole system due to its persistent nature. In particular, the shape of its power spectrum in the high/soft state is markedly different from that of other (transient) GBH systems in this state. The fact that the NLS1s NGC 4051 and MCG -6-30-15 do appear to show a power spectrum similar to that of the high/soft state of Cyg X-1 may lend observational support to theoretical speculation that the hydrogen ionization disc instability does not operate in AGNs.

  5. Mergers of Supermassive Black Hole Binaries in Gas-rich Environments: Models of Event Rates and Electromagnetic Signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Takamitsu

    2011-12-01

    Supermassive black holes permeate the observable Universe, residing in the nuclei of all or nearly all nearby massive galaxies and powering luminous quasars as far as ten billion light years away. These monstrous objects must grow through a combination of gas accretion and mergers of less massive black holes. The direct detection of the mergers by future gravitational-wave detectors will be a momentous scientific achievement, providing tests of general relativity and revealing the cosmic evolution of supermassive black holes. An additional --- and arguably equally rewarding --- challenge is the concomitant observation of merging supermassive black holes with both gravitational and electromagneticwaves. Such synergistic, "multi-messenger" studies can probe the expansion history of the Universe and shed light on the details of accretion astrophysics. This thesis examines the mergers of supermassive black hole binaries and the observable signatures of these events. First, we consider the formation scenarios for the earliest supermassive black holes. This investigation is motivated by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey observation of a quasar that appears to be powered by a supermassive black hole with a mass of billions of solar masses, already in place one billion years after the Big Bang. Second, we develop semianalytic, time-dependent-models for the thermal emission from circumbinary gas disks around merging black holes. Our calculations corroborate the qualitative conclusion of a previous study that for black hole mergers detectable by a space-based gravitational-wave observatory, a gas disk near the merger remnant may exhibit a dramatic brightening of soft X-rays on timescales of several years. Our results suggest that this "afterglow" may become detectable more quickly after the merger than previously estimated. Third, we investigate whether these afterglow episodes could be observed serendipitously by forthcoming wide-field, high-cadence electromagnetic surveys

  6. Gas squeezing during the merger of a supermassive black hole binary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerioli, Alice; Lodato, Giuseppe; Price, Daniel J.

    2016-03-01

    We study accretion rates during the gravitational wave-driven merger of a binary supermassive black hole embedded in an accretion disc, formed by gas driven to the centre of the galaxy. We use 3D simulations performed with PHANTOM, a smoothed particle hydrodynamics code. Contrary to previous investigations, we show that there is evidence of a `squeezing phenomenon', caused by the compression of the inner disc gas when the secondary black hole spirals towards the primary. This causes an increase in the accretion rates that always exceed the Eddington rate. We have studied the main features of the phenomenon for a mass ratio q = 10-3 between the black holes, including the effects of numerical resolution, the secondary accretion radius and the disc thickness. With our disc model with a low aspect ratio, we show that the mass expelled from the orbit of the secondary is negligible (<5 per cent of the initial disc mass), different to the findings of previous 2D simulations with thicker discs. The increase in the accretion rates in the last stages of the merger leads to an increase in luminosity, making it possible to detect an electromagnetic precursor of the gravitational wave signal emitted by the coalescence.

  7. Quasistationary solutions of scalar fields around accreting black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchis-Gual, Nicolas; Degollado, Juan Carlos; Izquierdo, Paula; Font, José A.; Montero, Pedro J.

    2016-08-01

    Massive scalar fields can form long-lived configurations around black holes. These configurations, dubbed quasibound states, have been studied both in the linear and nonlinear regimes. In this paper, we show that quasibound states can form in a dynamical scenario in which the mass of the black hole grows significantly due to the capture of infalling matter. We solve the Klein-Gordon equation numerically in spherical symmetry, mimicking the evolution of the spacetime through a sequence of analytic Schwarzschild black hole solutions of increasing mass. It is found that the frequency of oscillation of the quasibound states decreases as the mass of the black hole increases. In addition, accretion leads to an increase of the exponential decay of the scalar field energy. We compare the black hole mass growth rates used in our study with estimates from observational surveys and extrapolate our results to values of the scalar field masses consistent with models that propose scalar fields as dark matter in the universe. We show that, even for unrealistically large mass accretion rates, quasibound states around accreting black holes can survive for cosmological time scales. Our results provide further support to the intriguing possibility of the existence of dark matter halos based on (ultralight) scalar fields surrounding supermassive black holes in galactic centers.

  8. Spin evolution of supermassive black holes and galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merritt, David; Vasiliev, Eugene

    2012-11-01

    The spin angular momentum S of a supermassive black hole (SBH) precesses due to torques from orbiting stars, and the stellar orbits precess due to dragging of inertial frames by the spinning hole. We solve the coupled post-Newtonian equations describing the joint evolution of S and the stellar angular momenta Lj, j=1…N in spherical, rotating nuclear star clusters. In the absence of gravitational interactions between the stars, two evolutionary modes are found: (1) nearly uniform precession of S about the total angular momentum vector of the system and (2) damped precession, leading, in less than one precessional period, to alignment of S with the angular momentum of the rotating cluster. Beyond a certain distance from the SBH, the time scale for angular momentum changes due to gravitational encounters between the stars is shorter than spin-orbit precession times. We present a model, based on the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck equation, for the stochastic evolution of star clusters due to gravitational encounters and use it to evaluate the evolution of S in nuclei where changes in the Lj are due to frame dragging close to the SBH and to encounters farther out. Long-term evolution in this case is well described as uniform precession of the SBH about the cluster’s rotational axis, with an increasingly important stochastic contribution when SBH masses are small. Spin precessional periods are predicted to be strongly dependent on nuclear properties, but typical values are ˜107-108yr for low-mass SBHs in dense nuclei, ˜108-1010yr for SBH masses ˜108M⊙, and ˜1010-1011yr for the most massive SBHs. We compare the evolution of SBH spins in stellar nuclei to the case of torquing by an inclined, gaseous accretion disk.

  9. A strong magnetic field around the supermassive black hole at the centre of the Galaxy.

    PubMed

    Eatough, R P; Falcke, H; Karuppusamy, R; Lee, K J; Champion, D J; Keane, E F; Desvignes, G; Schnitzeler, D H F M; Spitler, L G; Kramer, M; Klein, B; Bassa, C; Bower, G C; Brunthaler, A; Cognard, I; Deller, A T; Demorest, P B; Freire, P C C; Kraus, A; Lyne, A G; Noutsos, A; Stappers, B; Wex, N

    2013-09-19

    Earth's nearest candidate supermassive black hole lies at the centre of the Milky Way. Its electromagnetic emission is thought to be powered by radiatively inefficient accretion of gas from its environment, which is a standard mode of energy supply for most galactic nuclei. X-ray measurements have already resolved a tenuous hot gas component from which the black hole can be fed. The magnetization of the gas, however, which is a crucial parameter determining the structure of the accretion flow, remains unknown. Strong magnetic fields can influence the dynamics of accretion, remove angular momentum from the infalling gas, expel matter through relativistic jets and lead to synchrotron emission such as that previously observed. Here we report multi-frequency radio measurements of a newly discovered pulsar close to the Galactic Centre and show that the pulsar's unusually large Faraday rotation (the rotation of the plane of polarization of the emission in the presence of an external magnetic field) indicates that there is a dynamically important magnetic field near the black hole. If this field is accreted down to the event horizon it provides enough magnetic flux to explain the observed emission--from radio to X-ray wavelengths--from the black hole. PMID:23945588

  10. A strong magnetic field around the supermassive black hole at the centre of the Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eatough, R. P.; Falcke, H.; Karuppusamy, R.; Lee, K. J.; Champion, D. J.; Keane, E. F.; Desvignes, G.; Schnitzeler, D. H. F. M.; Spitler, L. G.; Kramer, M.; Klein, B.; Bassa, C.; Bower, G. C.; Brunthaler, A.; Cognard, I.; Deller, A. T.; Demorest, P. B.; Freire, P. C. C.; Kraus, A.; Lyne, A. G.; Noutsos, A.; Stappers, B.; Wex, N.

    2013-09-01

    Earth's nearest candidate supermassive black hole lies at the centre of the Milky Way. Its electromagnetic emission is thought to be powered by radiatively inefficient accretion of gas from its environment, which is a standard mode of energy supply for most galactic nuclei. X-ray measurements have already resolved a tenuous hot gas component from which the black hole can be fed. The magnetization of the gas, however, which is a crucial parameter determining the structure of the accretion flow, remains unknown. Strong magnetic fields can influence the dynamics of accretion, remove angular momentum from the infalling gas, expel matter through relativistic jets and lead to synchrotron emission such as that previously observed. Here we report multi-frequency radio measurements of a newly discovered pulsar close to the Galactic Centre and show that the pulsar's unusually large Faraday rotation (the rotation of the plane of polarization of the emission in the presence of an external magnetic field) indicates that there is a dynamically important magnetic field near the black hole. If this field is accreted down to the event horizon it provides enough magnetic flux to explain the observed emission--from radio to X-ray wavelengths--from the black hole.

  11. A strong magnetic field around the supermassive black hole at the centre of the Galaxy.

    PubMed

    Eatough, R P; Falcke, H; Karuppusamy, R; Lee, K J; Champion, D J; Keane, E F; Desvignes, G; Schnitzeler, D H F M; Spitler, L G; Kramer, M; Klein, B; Bassa, C; Bower, G C; Brunthaler, A; Cognard, I; Deller, A T; Demorest, P B; Freire, P C C; Kraus, A; Lyne, A G; Noutsos, A; Stappers, B; Wex, N

    2013-09-19

    Earth's nearest candidate supermassive black hole lies at the centre of the Milky Way. Its electromagnetic emission is thought to be powered by radiatively inefficient accretion of gas from its environment, which is a standard mode of energy supply for most galactic nuclei. X-ray measurements have already resolved a tenuous hot gas component from which the black hole can be fed. The magnetization of the gas, however, which is a crucial parameter determining the structure of the accretion flow, remains unknown. Strong magnetic fields can influence the dynamics of accretion, remove angular momentum from the infalling gas, expel matter through relativistic jets and lead to synchrotron emission such as that previously observed. Here we report multi-frequency radio measurements of a newly discovered pulsar close to the Galactic Centre and show that the pulsar's unusually large Faraday rotation (the rotation of the plane of polarization of the emission in the presence of an external magnetic field) indicates that there is a dynamically important magnetic field near the black hole. If this field is accreted down to the event horizon it provides enough magnetic flux to explain the observed emission--from radio to X-ray wavelengths--from the black hole.

  12. Astronomers Dissect a Supermassive Black Hole with Natural Magnifying Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-12-01

    moving in the lensing galaxy, the microlensing magnification also changes with time. From Earth, the brightness of the quasar images (four in the case of the Einstein Cross) flickers around a mean value, due to microlensing. The size of the area magnified by the moving stars is a few light-days, i.e., comparable in size to the quasar accretion disc. The microlensing affects various emission regions of the disc in different ways, with smaller regions being more magnified. Because differently sized regions have different colours (or temperatures), the net effect of the microlensing is to produce colour variations in the quasar images, in addition to the brightness variations. By observing these variations in detail for several years, astronomers can measure how matter and energy are distributed about the supermassive black hole that lurks inside the quasar. Astronomers observed the Einstein Cross three times a month over a period of three years using ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT), monitoring all the brightness and colour changes of the four images. "Thanks to this unique dataset, we could show that the most energetic radiation is emitted in the central light-day away from the supermassive black hole and, more importantly, that the energy decreases with distance to the black hole almost exactly in the way predicted by theory," says Alexander Eigenbrod, who completed the analysis of the data. The use of the macro- and microlensing, coupled with the giant eye of the VLT, enabled astronomers to probe regions on scales as small as a millionth of an arcsecond. This corresponds to the size of a one euro coin seen at a distance of five million kilometres, i.e., about 13 times the distance to the Moon! "This is 1000 times better than can be achieved using normal techniques with any existing telescope," adds Courbin. Measuring the way the temperature is distributed around the central black hole is a unique achievement. Various theories exist for the formation and fuelling of

  13. MASSES OF NEARBY SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES WITH VERY LONG BASELINE INTERFEROMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    Johannsen, Tim; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Marrone, Daniel P.; Oezel, Feryal; Gillessen, Stefan; Doeleman, Sheperd S.; Fish, Vincent L.

    2012-10-10

    Dynamical mass measurements to date have allowed determinations of the mass M and the distance D of a number of nearby supermassive black holes. In the case of Sgr A*, these measurements are limited by a strong correlation between the mass and distance scaling roughly as M {approx} D {sup 2}. Future very long baseline interferometric (VLBI) observations will image a bright and narrow ring surrounding the shadow of a supermassive black hole, if its accretion flow is optically thin. In this paper, we explore the prospects of reducing the correlation between mass and distance with the combination of dynamical measurements and VLBI imaging of the ring of Sgr A*. We estimate the signal-to-noise ratio of near-future VLBI arrays that consist of five to six stations, and we simulate measurements of the mass and distance of Sgr A* using the expected size of the ring image and existing stellar ephemerides. We demonstrate that, in this best-case scenario, VLBI observations at 1 mm can improve the error on the mass by a factor of about two compared to the results from the monitoring of stellar orbits alone. We identify the additional sources of uncertainty that such imaging observations have to take into account. In addition, we calculate the angular diameters of the bright rings of other nearby supermassive black holes and identify the optimal targets besides Sgr A* that could be imaged by a ground-based VLBI array or future space-VLBI missions allowing for refined mass measurements.

  14. Dynamical structure of magnetized dissipative accretion flow around black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Biplob; Das, Santabrata

    2016-09-01

    We study the global structure of optically thin, advection dominated, magnetized accretion flow around black holes. We consider the magnetic field to be turbulent in nature and dominated by the toroidal component. With this, we obtain the complete set of accretion solutions for dissipative flows where bremsstrahlung process is regarded as the dominant cooling mechanism. We show that rotating magnetized accretion flow experiences virtual barrier around black hole due to centrifugal repulsion that can trigger the discontinuous transition of the flow variables in the form of shock waves. We examine the properties of the shock waves and find that the dynamics of the post-shock corona (PSC) is controlled by the flow parameters, namely viscosity, cooling rate and strength of the magnetic field, respectively. We separate the effective region of the parameter space for standing shock and observe that shock can form for wide range of flow parameters. We obtain the critical viscosity parameter that allows global accretion solutions including shocks. We estimate the energy dissipation at the PSC from where a part of the accreting matter can deflect as outflows and jets. We compare the maximum energy that could be extracted from the PSC and the observed radio luminosity values for several supermassive black hole sources and the observational implications of our present analysis are discussed.

  15. Event-horizon-scale structure in the supermassive black hole candidate at the Galactic Centre.

    PubMed

    Doeleman, Sheperd S; Weintroub, Jonathan; Rogers, Alan E E; Plambeck, Richard; Freund, Robert; Tilanus, Remo P J; Friberg, Per; Ziurys, Lucy M; Moran, James M; Corey, Brian; Young, Ken H; Smythe, Daniel L; Titus, Michael; Marrone, Daniel P; Cappallo, Roger J; Bock, Douglas C-J; Bower, Geoffrey C; Chamberlin, Richard; Davis, Gary R; Krichbaum, Thomas P; Lamb, James; Maness, Holly; Niell, Arthur E; Roy, Alan; Strittmatter, Peter; Werthimer, Daniel; Whitney, Alan R; Woody, David

    2008-09-01

    The cores of most galaxies are thought to harbour supermassive black holes, which power galactic nuclei by converting the gravitational energy of accreting matter into radiation. Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*), the compact source of radio, infrared and X-ray emission at the centre of the Milky Way, is the closest example of this phenomenon, with an estimated black hole mass that is 4,000,000 times that of the Sun. A long-standing astronomical goal is to resolve structures in the innermost accretion flow surrounding Sgr A*, where strong gravitational fields will distort the appearance of radiation emitted near the black hole. Radio observations at wavelengths of 3.5 mm and 7 mm have detected intrinsic structure in Sgr A*, but the spatial resolution of observations at these wavelengths is limited by interstellar scattering. Here we report observations at a wavelength of 1.3 mm that set a size of 37(+16)(-10) microarcseconds on the intrinsic diameter of Sgr A*. This is less than the expected apparent size of the event horizon of the presumed black hole, suggesting that the bulk of Sgr A* emission may not be centred on the black hole, but arises in the surrounding accretion flow.

  16. A gas cloud on its way towards the supermassive black hole at the Galactic Centre.

    PubMed

    Gillessen, S; Genzel, R; Fritz, T K; Quataert, E; Alig, C; Burkert, A; Cuadra, J; Eisenhauer, F; Pfuhl, O; Dodds-Eden, K; Gammie, C F; Ott, T

    2012-01-01

    Measurements of stellar orbits provide compelling evidence that the compact radio source Sagittarius A* at the Galactic Centre is a black hole four million times the mass of the Sun. With the exception of modest X-ray and infrared flares, Sgr A* is surprisingly faint, suggesting that the accretion rate and radiation efficiency near the event horizon are currently very low. Here we report the presence of a dense gas cloud approximately three times the mass of Earth that is falling into the accretion zone of Sgr A*. Our observations tightly constrain the cloud's orbit to be highly eccentric, with an innermost radius of approach of only ∼3,100 times the event horizon that will be reached in 2013. Over the past three years the cloud has begun to disrupt, probably mainly through tidal shearing arising from the black hole's gravitational force. The cloud's dynamic evolution and radiation in the next few years will probe the properties of the accretion flow and the feeding processes of the supermassive black hole. The kilo-electronvolt X-ray emission of Sgr A* may brighten significantly when the cloud reaches pericentre. There may also be a giant radiation flare several years from now if the cloud breaks up and its fragments feed gas into the central accretion zone. PMID:22170607

  17. ON THE HYDRODYNAMIC INTERPLAY BETWEEN A YOUNG NUCLEAR STARBURST AND A CENTRAL SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE

    SciTech Connect

    Hueyotl-Zahuantitla, Filiberto; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; Silich, Sergiy; Wuensch, Richard; Palous, Jan

    2010-06-10

    We present one-dimensional numerical simulations, which consider the effects of radiative cooling and gravity on the hydrodynamics of the matter reinserted by stellar winds and supernovae within young nuclear starbursts (NSBs) with a central supermassive black hole (SMBH). The simulations confirm our previous semi-analytic results for low-energetic starbursts, evolving in a quasi-adiabatic regime, and extend them to more powerful starbursts evolving in the catastrophic cooling regime. The simulations show a bimodal hydrodynamic solution in all cases. They present a quasi-stationary accretion flow onto the black hole, defined by the matter reinserted by massive stars within the stagnation volume and a stationary starburst wind, driven by the high thermal pressure acquired in the region between the stagnation and the starburst radii. In the catastrophic cooling regime, the stagnation radius rapidly approaches the surface of the starburst region, as one considers more massive starbursts. This leads to larger accretion rates onto the SMBH and concurrently to powerful winds able to inhibit interstellar matter from approaching the NSB. Our self-consistent model thus establishes a direct physical link between the SMBH accretion rate and the nuclear star formation activity of the host galaxy and provides a good upper limit to the accretion rate onto the central black hole.

  18. A gas cloud on its way towards the supermassive black hole at the Galactic Centre.

    PubMed

    Gillessen, S; Genzel, R; Fritz, T K; Quataert, E; Alig, C; Burkert, A; Cuadra, J; Eisenhauer, F; Pfuhl, O; Dodds-Eden, K; Gammie, C F; Ott, T

    2011-12-14

    Measurements of stellar orbits provide compelling evidence that the compact radio source Sagittarius A* at the Galactic Centre is a black hole four million times the mass of the Sun. With the exception of modest X-ray and infrared flares, Sgr A* is surprisingly faint, suggesting that the accretion rate and radiation efficiency near the event horizon are currently very low. Here we report the presence of a dense gas cloud approximately three times the mass of Earth that is falling into the accretion zone of Sgr A*. Our observations tightly constrain the cloud's orbit to be highly eccentric, with an innermost radius of approach of only ∼3,100 times the event horizon that will be reached in 2013. Over the past three years the cloud has begun to disrupt, probably mainly through tidal shearing arising from the black hole's gravitational force. The cloud's dynamic evolution and radiation in the next few years will probe the properties of the accretion flow and the feeding processes of the supermassive black hole. The kilo-electronvolt X-ray emission of Sgr A* may brighten significantly when the cloud reaches pericentre. There may also be a giant radiation flare several years from now if the cloud breaks up and its fragments feed gas into the central accretion zone.

  19. Observational Constraints on the Nature of the First Supermassive Black Holes Seeds in the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treister, Ezequiel; Schawinski, Kevin; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Weigel, Anna

    2015-08-01

    We constrain the total accreted mass density in supermassive black holes at z>6, as inferred from the integrated X-ray emission in a sample of galaxy candidates selected using observed-frame optical and near-IR dropout techniques. Combining galaxy samples acquired in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field with recent deep Hubble observations of the CANDELS fields and Chandra 4 Msec observations we obtain the most restrictive current constraints on total black hole growth in the early Universe, estimating a mass density <1000M⊙Mpc-3. We further carry out a detailed study of all the individually-detected X-ray sources in the Chandra Deep Field South, finding that none of them is a good candidate to be at z>5.These results place interesting constraints on growth by accretion and imply one or more of the following: only ~20% luminous galaxies at this epoch are seeded with BHs - so seeding is inefficient; most black hole growth at early epochs happens in dusty - as yet undetected - host galaxies and/or in less-massive - also as yet undetected - galaxies; therefore a large fraction of the early black hole buildup is heavily obscured or that either most of the growth is due to radiatively inefficient accretion or due to black hole mergers at these early times. Not seeing a signal from growing black holes in high-redshift galaxies suggests that if their black holes are growing they are doing so in a veiled fashion, or they are simply not growing or perhaps most galaxies do not harbor black holes at their centers at all. These possibilities offer novel insights for high redshift seed formation models.Finally, we present the prospects to constrain the nature of the first black hole seeds in the early Universe using existing and planned space-based facilities.

  20. Confirming the First Supermassive Black Hole in a Dwarf Starburst Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reines, Amy

    2011-10-01

    In the modern universe, supermassive black holes lie at the heart of most, if not all, galaxies with bulges. However, the birth and growth of the first "seed" black holes, back in the earlier universe, is observationally unconstrained. Reines et al. {2011} have recently discovered a candidate million-solar mass black hole in the bulgeless dwarf starburst galaxy Henize 2-10, offering the first opportunity to study a growing black hole in a nearby galaxy much like those in the infant universe. The case for an accreting black hole in Henize 2-10 is strong {e.g. co-spatial non-thermal radio and hard X-ray point sources}, but not watertight. Our proposal aims to confirm {or refute} the presence of this candidate black hole using STIS optical spectroscopy to trace the kinematics and ionization conditions in its immediate vicinity. Existing HST observations show a marginally resolved H-alpha knot coincident with the radio and X-ray point source, so our primary aim is to detect a compact rotating disk of ionized gas, directly yielding a black hole mass. Our secondary aim is to find evidence for AGN-related emission line signatures at the location of the H-alpha knot, and possibly along a narrow jet-like filament. Confirming the presence of a supermassive black hole in Henize 2-10 with these HST observations has immediate implications for our understanding of the birth and early evolution of the first black holes in the high-redshift universe.

  1. The quiescent X-ray spectrum of accreting black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Mark T.; Reis, Rubens C.; Miller, Jon M.; Cackett, Edward M.; Degenaar, Nathalie

    2014-07-01

    The quiescent state is the dominant accretion mode for black holes on all mass scales. Our knowledge of the X-ray spectrum is limited due to the characteristic low luminosity in this state. Herein, we present an analysis of the sample of dynamically confirmed stellar-mass black holes observed in quiescence in the Chandra/XMM-Newton/Suzaku era resulting in a sample of eight black holes with ˜570 ks of observations. In contrast to the majority of active galactic nuclei where observations are limited by contamination from diffuse gas, the stellar-mass systems allow for a clean study of the X-ray spectrum resulting from the accretion flow alone. The data are characterized using simple models. We find a model consisting of a power law or thermal bremsstrahlung to both provide excellent descriptions of the data, where we measure Γ = 2.06 ± 0.03 and kT = 5.03^{+0.33}_{-0.31} keV, respectively, in the 0.3-10 keV bandpass, at a median luminosity of Lx ˜ 5.5 × 10-7LEdd. This result in discussed in the context of our understanding of the accretion flow on to stellar and supermassive black holes at low luminosities.

  2. Accretion flows govern black hole jet properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koljonen, K.; Russell, D.; Fernández Ontiveros, J.; Miller-Jones, J.; Russell, T.; Curran, P.; Soria, R.; Markoff, S.; van der Horst, A.; Casella, P.

    2015-07-01

    The process of jet formation in accreting black holes, and the conditions under which it occurs is currently hotly debated, with competing models predicting the jet power to be governed by black hole spin, the magnetic field strength, the location of the jet base, the mass accretion rate and/or the properties of the inner accretion flow. We present new results that show empirical correlations between the accretion flow properties and the spectral energy distribution of the jets launched from accreting black holes. The X-ray power law is directly related to the particle energy distribution in the hot accretion flow. We find that the photon index of this power law correlates with the characteristic break frequency in the jet spectrum emitted near the jet base, and the jet luminosity up to the break frequency. The observed correlations can be explained by the energy distribution of electrons in the hot accretion flow being subsequently channeled into the jet. These correlations represent a new inflow--outflow connection in accreting black holes, and demonstrate that the spectral properties of the jet rely most critically on the conditions in the inner accretion flow, rather than other parameters such as the black hole mass or spin.

  3. Foundations of Black Hole Accretion Disk Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramowicz, Marek A.; Fragile, P. Chris

    2013-12-01

    This review covers the main aspects of black hole accretion disk theory. We begin with the view that one of the main goals of the theory is to better understand the nature of black holes themselves. In this light we discuss how accretion disks might reveal some of the unique signatures of strong gravity: the event horizon, the innermost stable circular orbit, and the ergosphere. We then review, from a first-principles perspective, the physical processes at play in accretion disks. This leads us to the four primary accretion disk models that we review: Polish doughnuts (thick disks), Shakura-Sunyaev (thin) disks, slim disks, and advection-dominated accretion flows (ADAFs). After presenting the models we discuss issues of stability, oscillations, and jets. Following our review of the analytic work, we take a parallel approach in reviewing numerical studies of black hole accretion disks. We finish with a few select applications that highlight particular astrophysical applications: measurements of black hole mass and spin, black hole vs. neutron star accretion disks, black hole accretion disk spectral states, and quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs).

  4. LOW-MASS AGNs AND THEIR RELATION TO THE FUNDAMENTAL PLANE OF BLACK HOLE ACCRETION

    SciTech Connect

    Gültekin, Kayhan; King, Ashley L.; Miller, Jon M.; Cackett, Edward M.; Pinkney, Jason

    2014-06-20

    We put active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with low-mass black holes on the fundamental plane of black hole accretion—the plane that relates X-ray emission, radio emission, and mass of an accreting black hole—to test whether or not the relation is universal for both stellar-mass and supermassive black holes. We use new Chandra X-ray and Very Large Array radio observations of a sample of black holes with masses less than 10{sup 6.3} M {sub ☉}, which have the best leverage for determining whether supermassive black holes and stellar-mass black holes belong on the same plane. Our results suggest that the two different classes of black holes both belong on the same relation. These results allow us to conclude that the fundamental plane is suitable for use in estimating supermassive black hole masses smaller than ∼10{sup 7} M {sub ☉}, in testing for intermediate-mass black holes, and in estimating masses at high accretion rates.

  5. Suppressing star formation in quiescent galaxies with supermassive black hole winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Edmond; Bundy, Kevin; Cappellari, Michele; Peirani, Sébastien; Rujopakarn, Wiphu; Westfall, Kyle; Yan, Renbin; Bershady, Matthew; Greene, Jenny E.; Heckman, Timothy M.; Drory, Niv; Law, David R.; Masters, Karen L.; Thomas, Daniel; Wake, David A.; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Rubin, Kate; Belfiore, Francesco; Vulcani, Benedetta; Chen, Yan-Mei; Zhang, Kai; Gelfand, Joseph D.; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Roman-Lopes, A.; Schneider, Donald P.

    2016-05-01

    Quiescent galaxies with little or no ongoing star formation dominate the population of galaxies with masses above 2 × 1010 times that of the Sun; the number of quiescent galaxies has increased by a factor of about 25 over the past ten billion years (refs 1, 2, 3, 4). Once star formation has been shut down, perhaps during the quasar phase of rapid accretion onto a supermassive black hole, an unknown mechanism must remove or heat the gas that is subsequently accreted from either stellar mass loss or mergers and that would otherwise cool to form stars. Energy output from a black hole accreting at a low rate has been proposed, but observational evidence for this in the form of expanding hot gas shells is indirect and limited to radio galaxies at the centres of clusters, which are too rare to explain the vast majority of the quiescent population. Here we report bisymmetric emission features co-aligned with strong ionized-gas velocity gradients from which we infer the presence of centrally driven winds in typical quiescent galaxies that host low-luminosity active nuclei. These galaxies are surprisingly common, accounting for as much as ten per cent of the quiescent population with masses around 2 × 1010 times that of the Sun. In a prototypical example, we calculate that the energy input from the galaxy’s low-level active supermassive black hole is capable of driving the observed wind, which contains sufficient mechanical energy to heat ambient, cooler gas (also detected) and thereby suppress star formation.

  6. Suppressing star formation in quiescent galaxies with supermassive black hole winds.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Edmond; Bundy, Kevin; Cappellari, Michele; Peirani, Sébastien; Rujopakarn, Wiphu; Westfall, Kyle; Yan, Renbin; Bershady, Matthew; Greene, Jenny E; Heckman, Timothy M; Drory, Niv; Law, David R; Masters, Karen L; Thomas, Daniel; Wake, David A; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Rubin, Kate; Belfiore, Francesco; Vulcani, Benedetta; Chen, Yan-mei; Zhang, Kai; Gelfand, Joseph D; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Roman-Lopes, A; Schneider, Donald P

    2016-05-26

    Quiescent galaxies with little or no ongoing star formation dominate the population of galaxies with masses above 2 × 10(10) times that of the Sun; the number of quiescent galaxies has increased by a factor of about 25 over the past ten billion years (refs 1-4). Once star formation has been shut down, perhaps during the quasar phase of rapid accretion onto a supermassive black hole, an unknown mechanism must remove or heat the gas that is subsequently accreted from either stellar mass loss or mergers and that would otherwise cool to form stars. Energy output from a black hole accreting at a low rate has been proposed, but observational evidence for this in the form of expanding hot gas shells is indirect and limited to radio galaxies at the centres of clusters, which are too rare to explain the vast majority of the quiescent population. Here we report bisymmetric emission features co-aligned with strong ionized-gas velocity gradients from which we infer the presence of centrally driven winds in typical quiescent galaxies that host low-luminosity active nuclei. These galaxies are surprisingly common, accounting for as much as ten per cent of the quiescent population with masses around 2 × 10(10) times that of the Sun. In a prototypical example, we calculate that the energy input from the galaxy's low-level active supermassive black hole is capable of driving the observed wind, which contains sufficient mechanical energy to heat ambient, cooler gas (also detected) and thereby suppress star formation. PMID:27225122

  7. Suppressing star formation in quiescent galaxies with supermassive black hole winds.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Edmond; Bundy, Kevin; Cappellari, Michele; Peirani, Sébastien; Rujopakarn, Wiphu; Westfall, Kyle; Yan, Renbin; Bershady, Matthew; Greene, Jenny E; Heckman, Timothy M; Drory, Niv; Law, David R; Masters, Karen L; Thomas, Daniel; Wake, David A; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Rubin, Kate; Belfiore, Francesco; Vulcani, Benedetta; Chen, Yan-mei; Zhang, Kai; Gelfand, Joseph D; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Roman-Lopes, A; Schneider, Donald P

    2016-05-25

    Quiescent galaxies with little or no ongoing star formation dominate the population of galaxies with masses above 2 × 10(10) times that of the Sun; the number of quiescent galaxies has increased by a factor of about 25 over the past ten billion years (refs 1-4). Once star formation has been shut down, perhaps during the quasar phase of rapid accretion onto a supermassive black hole, an unknown mechanism must remove or heat the gas that is subsequently accreted from either stellar mass loss or mergers and that would otherwise cool to form stars. Energy output from a black hole accreting at a low rate has been proposed, but observational evidence for this in the form of expanding hot gas shells is indirect and limited to radio galaxies at the centres of clusters, which are too rare to explain the vast majority of the quiescent population. Here we report bisymmetric emission features co-aligned with strong ionized-gas velocity gradients from which we infer the presence of centrally driven winds in typical quiescent galaxies that host low-luminosity active nuclei. These galaxies are surprisingly common, accounting for as much as ten per cent of the quiescent population with masses around 2 × 10(10) times that of the Sun. In a prototypical example, we calculate that the energy input from the galaxy's low-level active supermassive black hole is capable of driving the observed wind, which contains sufficient mechanical energy to heat ambient, cooler gas (also detected) and thereby suppress star formation.

  8. Spin and mass of the supermassive black hole in the Galactic Center

    SciTech Connect

    Dokuchaev, V. I.

    2015-12-15

    A new method for exact determination of the masses and spins of black holes from the observations of quasi-periodic oscillations is discussed. The detected signal from the hot clumps in the accretion plasma must contain modulations with two characteristic frequencies: the frequency of rotation of the black hole event horizon and the frequency of the latitudinal precession of the clump’s orbit. Application of the method of two characteristic frequencies for interpretation of the observed quasi-periodic oscillations from the supermassive black hole in the Galactic center in the X-rays and in the near IR region yields the most exact, for the present, values of the mass and the spin (Kerr parameter) of the Sgr A* black hole: M = (4.2 ± 0.2) × 10{sup 6}M{sub ⊙} and a = 0.65 ± 0.05. The observed quasi-periodic oscillations with a period of about 11.5 min are identified as the black hole event horizon rotation period and those with a period of about 19 min are identified as the latitudinal oscillation period of the hot spot orbits in the accretion disk.

  9. Spin and mass of the supermassive black hole in the Galactic Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dokuchaev, V. I.

    2015-12-01

    A new method for exact determination of the masses and spins of black holes from the observations of quasi-periodic oscillations is discussed. The detected signal from the hot clumps in the accretion plasma must contain modulations with two characteristic frequencies: the frequency of rotation of the black hole event horizon and the frequency of the latitudinal precession of the clump's orbit. Application of the method of two characteristic frequencies for interpretation of the observed quasi-periodic oscillations from the supermassive black hole in the Galactic center in the X-rays and in the near IR region yields the most exact, for the present, values of the mass and the spin (Kerr parameter) of the Sgr A* black hole: M = (4.2 ± 0.2) × 106 M ⊙ and a = 0.65 ± 0.05. The observed quasi-periodic oscillations with a period of about 11.5 min are identified as the black hole event horizon rotation period and those with a period of about 19 min are identified as the latitudinal oscillation period of the hot spot orbits in the accretion disk.

  10. VLBA Reveals Closest Pair of Supermassive Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-05-01

    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) radio telescope have found the closest pair of supermassive black holes ever discovered in the Universe -- a duo of monsters that together are more than 150 million times more massive than the Sun and closer together than the Earth and the bright star Vega. The VLBA The VLBA CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF "These two giant black holes are only about 24 light-years apart, and that's more than 100 times closer than any pair found before," said Cristina Rodriguez, of the University of New Mexico (UNM) and Simon Bolivar University in Venezuela. Black holes are concentrations of mass with gravity so strong that not even light can escape them. The black hole pair is in the center of a galaxy called 0402+379, some 750 million light-years from Earth. Astronomers presume that each of the supermassive black holes was once at the core of a separate galaxy, then the two galaxies collided, leaving the black holes orbiting each other. The black holes orbit each other about once every 150,000 years, the scientists say. "If two black holes like these were to collide, that event would create the type of strong gravitational waves that physicists hope to detect with instruments now under construction," said Gregory Taylor, of UNM. The physicists will need to wait, though: the astronomers calculate that the black holes in 0402+379 won't collide for about a billion billion years. "There are some things that might speed that up a little bit," Taylor remarked. An earlier VLBA study of 0402+379, an elliptical galaxy, showed the pair of radio-wave-emitting objects near its core. Further studies using the VLBA and the Hobby-Eberly Telescope in Texas, revealed that the pair of objects is indeed a pair of supermassive black holes. "We needed the ultra-sharp radio 'vision' of the VLBA, particularly at the high radio frequencies of 22 and 43 GigaHertz, to get the detail needed to show that those objects are a pair of

  11. Structure and Spectroscopy of Black Hole Accretion Disks

    SciTech Connect

    Liedahl, D; Mauche, C

    2005-02-14

    The warped spacetime near black holes is one of the most exotic observable environments in the Universe. X-ray spectra from active galaxies obtained with the current generation of X-ray observatories reveal line emission that is modified by both special relativistic and general relativistic effects. The interpretation is that we are witnessing X-ray irradiated matter orbiting in an accretion disk around a supermassive black hole, as it prepares to cross the event horizon. This interpretation, however, is based upon highly schematized models of accretion disk structure. This report describes a project to design a detailed computer model of accretion disk atmospheres, with the goal of elucidating the high radiation density environments associated with mass flows in the curved spacetime near gravitationally collapsed objects. We have evolved the capability to generate realistic theoretical X-ray line spectra of accretion disks, thereby providing the means for a workable exploration of the behavior of matter in the strong-field limit of gravitation.

  12. Rapid growth of seed black holes in the early universe by supra-exponential accretion.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Tal; Natarajan, Priyamvada

    2014-09-12

    Mass accretion by black holes (BHs) is typically capped at the Eddington rate, when radiation's push balances gravity's pull. However, even exponential growth at the Eddington-limited e-folding time t(E) ~ few × 0.01 billion years is too slow to grow stellar-mass BH seeds into the supermassive luminous quasars that are observed when the universe is 1 billion years old. We propose a dynamical mechanism that can trigger supra-exponential accretion in the early universe, when a BH seed is bound in a star cluster fed by the ubiquitous dense cold gas flows. The high gas opacity traps the accretion radiation, while the low-mass BH's random motions suppress the formation of a slowly draining accretion disk. Supra-exponential growth can thus explain the puzzling emergence of supermassive BHs that power luminous quasars so soon after the Big Bang.

  13. Rapid growth of seed black holes in the early universe by supra-exponential accretion.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Tal; Natarajan, Priyamvada

    2014-09-12

    Mass accretion by black holes (BHs) is typically capped at the Eddington rate, when radiation's push balances gravity's pull. However, even exponential growth at the Eddington-limited e-folding time t(E) ~ few × 0.01 billion years is too slow to grow stellar-mass BH seeds into the supermassive luminous quasars that are observed when the universe is 1 billion years old. We propose a dynamical mechanism that can trigger supra-exponential accretion in the early universe, when a BH seed is bound in a star cluster fed by the ubiquitous dense cold gas flows. The high gas opacity traps the accretion radiation, while the low-mass BH's random motions suppress the formation of a slowly draining accretion disk. Supra-exponential growth can thus explain the puzzling emergence of supermassive BHs that power luminous quasars so soon after the Big Bang. PMID:25103410

  14. Coevolution of Supermassive Black Holes and Galaxies across cosmic times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aversa, Rossella

    2015-10-01

    Understanding how supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and galaxies coevolve within their host dark matter (DM) halos is a fundamental issue in astrophysics. This thesis is aimed to shed light on this topic. As a first step, we employ the recent wide samples of far-infrared (FIR) selected galaxies followed-up in X-rays, and of X-ray/optically selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) followed-up in the FIR band, along with the classic data on AGN and stellar luminosity functions at redshift z & 1.5, to probe different stages in the coevolution of SMBHs and their host galaxies. The results of this analysis indicate the following scenario: (i) the star formation in the host galaxy proceeds within a heavily dust-enshrouded medium, at an almost constant rate, over a timescale . 0.5 - 1 Gyr, and then abruptly declines due to quasar feedback; (ii) part of the interstellar medium loses angular momentum, reaches the circum-nuclear regions, at a rate proportional to the star formation, and is temporarily stored into a massive reservoir/proto-torus, wherefrom it can be promptly accreted; (iii) the black hole (BH) grows by accretion in a self-regulated regime with radiative power that can slightly exceed the Eddington limit (L/LEdd . 4), particularly at the highest redshifts; (iv) the ensuing energy feedback from massive BHs, at its maximum, exceeds the stellar one and removes the interstellar gas, thus stopping the star formation and the fueling of the reservoir; (v) afterwards, if the gas stored in the reservoir is enough, a phase of supply-limited accretion follows, whose rate exponentially declines with a timescale of ∼3 e-folding times. We also discuss how the detailed properties and the specific evolution of the reservoir can be investigated via coordinated, high-resolution observations of starforming, strongly lensed galaxies in the (sub-)mm band with ALMA, and in the X-ray band with Chandra and the next generation of X-ray instruments. According to the scenario described

  15. Possible consequences of tidal disruption by supermassive black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Ks; Dogiel, Vladimir

    2016-07-01

    Stars captured by the supermassive black holes in the galactic centers are common phenomena. Capture events occurred in distant galaxies have been observed by various of X-ray satellites. The capture rate is roughly once every tens to hundreds thousand years for normal galaxies. These capture events should also occur in the past of Milky Way. In this talk we will review some observed high energy phenomena in the galactic centers, which may be the consequences of the stellar capture events including Fermi Bubbles, positron annihilation lines, X-ray emission from Swift 1644+57 etc.

  16. Proto Supermassive Binary Black Hole Detected in X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-04-01

    An international team of astrophysicists, led by D. Hudson from the University of Bonn and including the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory and the University of Virginia, presents their X-ray detection of a proto supermassive binary black hole. Their results will be published in an upcoming issue of Astronomy & Astrophysics. The image of this proto binary black hole was obtained with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. The two black holes have already been seen in radio images. The new X-ray images provide unique evidence that these two black holes are in the process of forming a binary system; that is, they are gravitationally bound and orbit each other. Chandra X-ray Image of 3C 75 Chandra X-ray Image of 3C 75 The two black holes are located in the nearby galaxy cluster Abell 400. With high-resolution Chandra data, the team was able to spatially resolve the two supermassive black holes (separated by 15") at the centre of the cluster. Each black hole is located at the centre of its respective host galaxy and the host galaxies appear to be merging. It is not, however, just the two host galaxies that are colliding - the whole cluster in which they live is merging into another neighbouring galaxy cluster. Using these new data, the team show that the two black holes are moving through the intracluster medium at the supersonic speed of about 1200 km/s. The wind from such a motion would cause the radio plasma emitted from these two black holes to bend backwards. Although this bending had been observed previously, the cause of it was still being debated. Since the bending of the jets due to this motion is in the same direction, it suggests that the two black holes are travelling along the same path within the cluster and are therefore gravitationally bound. Black Hole Merger Animation Black Hole Merger Animation These two black holes became gravitationally bound when their host galaxies collided. In several million years, the two black holes will probably coalesce causing a

  17. THE SUPERNOVA THAT DESTROYED A PROTOGALAXY: PROMPT CHEMICAL ENRICHMENT AND SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE GROWTH

    SciTech Connect

    Whalen, Daniel J.; Johnson, Jarrett L.; Smidt, Joseph; Meiksin, Avery; Heger, Alexander; Even, Wesley; Fryer, Chris L.

    2013-09-01

    The first primitive galaxies formed from accretion and mergers by z {approx} 15, and were primarily responsible for cosmological reionization and the chemical enrichment of the early cosmos. But a few of these galaxies may have formed in the presence of strong Lyman-Werner UV fluxes that sterilized them of H{sub 2}, preventing them from forming stars or expelling heavy elements into the intergalactic medium prior to assembly. At masses of 10{sup 8} M{sub Sun} and virial temperatures of 10{sup 4} K, these halos began to rapidly cool by atomic lines, perhaps forming 10{sup 4}-10{sup 6} M{sub Sun} Pop III stars and, later, the seeds of supermassive black holes. We have modeled the explosion of a supermassive Pop III star in the dense core of a line-cooled protogalaxy with the ZEUS-MP code. We find that the supernova (SN) expands to a radius of {approx}1 kpc, briefly engulfing the entire galaxy, but then collapses back into the potential well of the dark matter. Fallback fully mixes the interior of the protogalaxy with metals, igniting a violent starburst and fueling the rapid growth of a massive black hole at its center. The starburst would populate the protogalaxy with stars in greater numbers and at higher metallicities than in more slowly evolving, nearby halos. The SN remnant becomes a strong synchrotron source that can be observed with eVLA and eMERLIN and has a unique signature that easily distinguishes it from less energetic SN remnants. Such explosions, and their attendant starbursts, may well have marked the birthplaces of supermassive black holes on the sky.

  18. The Supernova that Destroyed a Protogalaxy: Prompt Chemical Enrichment and Supermassive Black Hole Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whalen, Daniel J.; Johnson, Jarrett L.; Smidt, Joseph; Meiksin, Avery; Heger, Alexander; Even, Wesley; Fryer, Chris L.

    2013-09-01

    The first primitive galaxies formed from accretion and mergers by z ~ 15, and were primarily responsible for cosmological reionization and the chemical enrichment of the early cosmos. But a few of these galaxies may have formed in the presence of strong Lyman-Werner UV fluxes that sterilized them of H2, preventing them from forming stars or expelling heavy elements into the intergalactic medium prior to assembly. At masses of 108 M ⊙ and virial temperatures of 104 K, these halos began to rapidly cool by atomic lines, perhaps forming 104-106 M ⊙ Pop III stars and, later, the seeds of supermassive black holes. We have modeled the explosion of a supermassive Pop III star in the dense core of a line-cooled protogalaxy with the ZEUS-MP code. We find that the supernova (SN) expands to a radius of ~1 kpc, briefly engulfing the entire galaxy, but then collapses back into the potential well of the dark matter. Fallback fully mixes the interior of the protogalaxy with metals, igniting a violent starburst and fueling the rapid growth of a massive black hole at its center. The starburst would populate the protogalaxy with stars in greater numbers and at higher metallicities than in more slowly evolving, nearby halos. The SN remnant becomes a strong synchrotron source that can be observed with eVLA and eMERLIN and has a unique signature that easily distinguishes it from less energetic SN remnants. Such explosions, and their attendant starbursts, may well have marked the birthplaces of supermassive black holes on the sky.

  19. Accretion-induced variability links young stellar objects, white dwarfs, and black holes.

    PubMed

    Scaringi, Simone; Maccarone, Thomas J; Körding, Elmar; Knigge, Christian; Vaughan, Simon; Marsh, Thomas R; Aranzana, Ester; Dhillon, Vikram S; Barros, Susana C C

    2015-10-01

    The central engines of disc-accreting stellar-mass black holes appear to be scaled down versions of the supermassive black holes that power active galactic nuclei. However, if the physics of accretion is universal, it should also be possible to extend this scaling to other types of accreting systems, irrespective of accretor mass, size, or type. We examine new observations, obtained with Kepler/K2 and ULTRACAM, regarding accreting white dwarfs and young stellar objects. Every object in the sample displays the same linear correlation between the brightness of the source and its amplitude of variability (rms-flux relation) and obeys the same quantitative scaling relation as stellar-mass black holes and active galactic nuclei. We also show that the most important parameter in this scaling relation is the physical size of the accreting object. This establishes the universality of accretion physics from proto-stars still in the star-forming process to the supermassive black holes at the centers of galaxies. PMID:26601307

  20. Accretion-induced variability links young stellar objects, white dwarfs, and black holes.

    PubMed

    Scaringi, Simone; Maccarone, Thomas J; Körding, Elmar; Knigge, Christian; Vaughan, Simon; Marsh, Thomas R; Aranzana, Ester; Dhillon, Vikram S; Barros, Susana C C

    2015-10-01

    The central engines of disc-accreting stellar-mass black holes appear to be scaled down versions of the supermassive black holes that power active galactic nuclei. However, if the physics of accretion is universal, it should also be possible to extend this scaling to other types of accreting systems, irrespective of accretor mass, size, or type. We examine new observations, obtained with Kepler/K2 and ULTRACAM, regarding accreting white dwarfs and young stellar objects. Every object in the sample displays the same linear correlation between the brightness of the source and its amplitude of variability (rms-flux relation) and obeys the same quantitative scaling relation as stellar-mass black holes and active galactic nuclei. We also show that the most important parameter in this scaling relation is the physical size of the accreting object. This establishes the universality of accretion physics from proto-stars still in the star-forming process to the supermassive black holes at the centers of galaxies.

  1. Accretion-induced variability links young stellar objects, white dwarfs, and black holes

    PubMed Central

    Scaringi, Simone; Maccarone, Thomas J.; Körding, Elmar; Knigge, Christian; Vaughan, Simon; Marsh, Thomas R.; Aranzana, Ester; Dhillon, Vikram S.; Barros, Susana C. C.

    2015-01-01

    The central engines of disc-accreting stellar-mass black holes appear to be scaled down versions of the supermassive black holes that power active galactic nuclei. However, if the physics of accretion is universal, it should also be possible to extend this scaling to other types of accreting systems, irrespective of accretor mass, size, or type. We examine new observations, obtained with Kepler/K2 and ULTRACAM, regarding accreting white dwarfs and young stellar objects. Every object in the sample displays the same linear correlation between the brightness of the source and its amplitude of variability (rms-flux relation) and obeys the same quantitative scaling relation as stellar-mass black holes and active galactic nuclei. We also show that the most important parameter in this scaling relation is the physical size of the accreting object. This establishes the universality of accretion physics from proto-stars still in the star-forming process to the supermassive black holes at the centers of galaxies. PMID:26601307

  2. Coevolution of Supermassive Black Holes and Galaxies across cosmic times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aversa, Rossella

    2015-10-01

    Understanding how supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and galaxies coevolve within their host dark matter (DM) halos is a fundamental issue in astrophysics. This thesis is aimed to shed light on this topic. As a first step, we employ the recent wide samples of far-infrared (FIR) selected galaxies followed-up in X-rays, and of X-ray/optically selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) followed-up in the FIR band, along with the classic data on AGN and stellar luminosity functions at redshift z & 1.5, to probe different stages in the coevolution of SMBHs and their host galaxies. The results of this analysis indicate the following scenario: (i) the star formation in the host galaxy proceeds within a heavily dust-enshrouded medium, at an almost constant rate, over a timescale . 0.5 - 1 Gyr, and then abruptly declines due to quasar feedback; (ii) part of the interstellar medium loses angular momentum, reaches the circum-nuclear regions, at a rate proportional to the star formation, and is temporarily stored into a massive reservoir/proto-torus, wherefrom it can be promptly accreted; (iii) the black hole (BH) grows by accretion in a self-regulated regime with radiative power that can slightly exceed the Eddington limit (L/LEdd . 4), particularly at the highest redshifts; (iv) the ensuing energy feedback from massive BHs, at its maximum, exceeds the stellar one and removes the interstellar gas, thus stopping the star formation and the fueling of the reservoir; (v) afterwards, if the gas stored in the reservoir is enough, a phase of supply-limited accretion follows, whose rate exponentially declines with a timescale of ∼3 e-folding times. We also discuss how the detailed properties and the specific evolution of the reservoir can be investigated via coordinated, high-resolution observations of starforming, strongly lensed galaxies in the (sub-)mm band with ALMA, and in the X-ray band with Chandra and the next generation of X-ray instruments. According to the scenario described

  3. Bondi accretion onto cosmological black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karkowski, Janusz; Malec, Edward

    2013-02-01

    In this paper we investigate a steady accretion within the Einstein-Straus vacuole, in the presence of the cosmological constant. The dark energy damps the mass accretion rate and—above a certain limit—completely stops the steady accretion onto black holes, which, in particular, is prohibited in the inflation era and after (roughly) 1012 years from the big bang (assuming the presently known value of the cosmological constant). Steady accretion would not exist in the late phases of the Penrose’s scenario—known as the Weyl curvature hypothesis—of the evolution of the Universe.

  4. The Direct Collapse of Supermassive Black Hole Seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regan, John A.; Johansson, Peter H.; Wise, John H.

    2016-10-01

    The direct collapse model of supermassive black hole seed formation requires that thegas cools predominantly via atomic hydrogen. To this end we simulate the effect of ananisotropic radiation source on the collapse of a halo at high redshift. The radiationsource is placed at a distance of 3 kpc (physical) from the collapsing object and is setto emit monochromatically in the center of the Lyman-Werner (LW) band. The LW radiationemitted from the high redshift source is followed self-consistently using ray tracingtechniques. Due to self-shielding, a small amount of H2 is able to form at the verycenter of the collapsing halo even under very strong LW radiation. Furthermore, we find thata radiation source, emitting < 1054 (~103 J21) photons per second isrequired to cause the collapse of a clump of M ~ 105 M⊙. The resultingaccretion rate onto the collapsing object is ~ 0.25 M⊙ yr-1.Our results display significant differences, compared to the isotropic radiation field case,in terms of H2 fraction at an equivalent radius. These differences will significantly effectthe dynamics of the collapse. With the inclusion of a strong anisotropic radiation source, thefinal mass of the collapsing object is found to be M ~ 105 M⊙. This is consistentwith predictions for the formation of a supermassive star or quasi-star leading to asupermassive black hole.

  5. Tidal disruption as a probe for supermassive black hole binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuo; Liu, Fukun; Berczik, Peter; Spurzem, Rainer

    2016-02-01

    Supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs) are the products of frequent galaxy mergers. It is very hard to be detected in quiescent galaxy. By using one million particle direct N-body simulations on special many-core hardware (GPU cluster), we study the dynamical co-evolution of SMBHB and its surrounding stars, specially focusing on the evolution of stellar tidal disruption event (TDE) rates before and after the coalescence of the SMBHB. We find a boosted TDE rate during the merger of the galaxies. After the coalescence of two supermassive black holes (SMBHs), the post-merger SMBH can get a kick velocity due to the anisotropic GW radiations. Our results about the recoiling SMBH, which oscillates around galactic center, show that most of TDEs are contributed by unbound stars when the SMBH passing through galactic center. In addition, the TDE light curve in SMBHB system is significantly different from the curve for single SMBH, which can be used to identify the SMBHB.

  6. Astrophysics of Super-Massive Black Hole Mergers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnittman, Jeremy D.

    2013-01-01

    We present here an overview of recent work in the subject of astrophysical manifestations of super-massive black hole (SMBH) mergers. This is a field that has been traditionally driven by theoretical work, but in recent years has also generated a great deal of interest and excitement in the observational astronomy community. In particular, the electromagnetic (EM) counterparts to SMBH mergers provide the means to detect and characterize these highly energetic events at cosmological distances, even in the absence of a space-based gravitational-wave observatory. In addition to providing a mechanism for observing SMBH mergers, EM counterparts also give important information about the environments in which these remarkable events take place, thus teaching us about the mechanisms through which galaxies form and evolve symbiotically with their central black holes.

  7. Accretion of Ghost Condensate by Black Holes

    SciTech Connect

    Frolov, A

    2004-06-02

    The intent of this letter is to point out that the accretion of a ghost condensate by black holes could be extremely efficient. We analyze steady-state spherically symmetric flows of the ghost fluid in the gravitational field of a Schwarzschild black hole and calculate the accretion rate. Unlike minimally coupled scalar field or quintessence, the accretion rate is set not by the cosmological energy density of the field, but by the energy scale of the ghost condensate theory. If hydrodynamical flow is established, it could be as high as tenth of a solar mass per second for 10MeV-scale ghost condensate accreting onto a stellar-sized black hole, which puts serious constraints on the parameters of the ghost condensate model.

  8. Supermassive Black Hole Growth and Merger Rates from Cosmological N-body Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Micic, Miroslav; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Sigurdsson, Steinn; Abel, Tom; /SLAC

    2007-10-29

    Understanding how seed black holes grow into intermediate and supermassive black holes (IMBHs and SMBHs, respectively) has important implications for the duty-cycle of active galactic nuclei (AGN), galaxy evolution, and gravitational wave astronomy. Most studies of the cosmological growth and merger history of black holes have used semianalytic models and have concentrated on SMBH growth in luminous galaxies. Using high resolution cosmological N-body simulations, we track the assembly of black holes over a large range of final masses - from seed black holes to SMBHs - over widely varying dynamical histories. We used the dynamics of dark matter halos to track the evolution of seed black holes in three different gas accretion scenarios. We have found that growth of a Sagittarius A* - size SMBH reaches its maximum mass M{sub SMBH}={approx}10{sup 6}M{sub {circle_dot}} at z{approx}6 through early gaseous accretion episodes, after which it stays at near constant mass. At the same redshift, the duty-cycle of the host AGN ends, hence redshift z=6 marks the transition from an AGN to a starburst galaxy which eventually becomes the Milky Way. By tracking black hole growth as a function of time and mass, we estimate that the IMBH merger rate reaches a maximum of R{sub max}=55 yr{sup -1} at z=11. From IMBH merger rates we calculate N{sub ULX}=7 per Milky Way type galaxy per redshift in redshift range 2 {approx}< z {approx}< 6.

  9. ROTATING ACCRETION FLOWS: FROM INFINITY TO THE BLACK HOLE

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jason; Ostriker, Jeremiah; Sunyaev, Rashid

    2013-04-20

    Accretion onto a supermassive black hole of a rotating inflow is a particularly difficult problem to study because of the wide range of length scales involved. There have been broadly utilized analytic and numerical treatments of the global properties of accretion flows, but detailed numerical simulations are required to address certain critical aspects. We use the ZEUS code to run hydrodynamical simulations of rotating, axisymmetric accretion flows with Bremsstrahlung cooling, considering solutions for which the centrifugal balance radius significantly exceeds the Schwarzschild radius, with and without viscous angular momentum transport. Infalling gas is followed from well beyond the Bondi radius down to the vicinity of the black hole. We produce a continuum of solutions with respect to the single parameter M-dot{sub B}/ M-dot{sub Edd}, and there is a sharp transition between two general classes of solutions at an Eddington ratio of M-dot{sub B}/M-dot{sub Edd}{approx}few Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2}. Our high inflow solutions are very similar to the standard Shakura and Sunyaev results. But our low inflow results are to zeroth order the stationary Papaloizou and Pringle solution, which has no accretion. To next order in the small, assumed viscosity they show circulation, with disk and conical wind outflows almost balancing inflow. These solutions are characterized by hot, vertically extended disks, and net accretion proceeds at an extremely low rate, only of order {alpha} times the inflow rate. Our simulations have converged with respect to spatial resolution and temporal duration, and they do not depend strongly on our choice of boundary conditions.

  10. Formation of dark matter tori around supermassive black holes via the eccentric Kozai-Lidov mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Naoz, Smadar; Silk, Joseph

    2014-11-10

    We explore the effects of long-term secular perturbations on the distribution of dark matter particles around supermassive black hole (BH) binaries. We show that in the hierarchical (in separation) three-body problem, one of the BHs and a dark matter particle form an inner binary. Gravitational perturbations from the BH companion, on a much wider orbit, can cause the dark matter particle to reach extremely high eccentricities and even get accreted onto the BH by what is known as the eccentric Kozai-Lidov (EKL) mechanism. We show that this may produce a torus-like configuration for the dark matter distribution around the less massive member of the BH binary. We first consider an intermediate BH (IMBH) in the vicinity of our galactic center, which may be a relic of a past minor merger. We show that if the IMBH is close enough (i.e., near the stellar disk) the EKL mechanism is very efficient in exciting the eccentricity of dark matter particles in near-polar configurations to extremely high values where they are accreted by the IMBH. We show that this mechanism is even more effective if the central BH grows in mass, where we have assumed adiabatic growth. Because near-polar configurations are disrupted, a torus-like shape is formed. We also show that this behavior is also likely to be relevant for supermassive BH binaries. We suggest that if the BHs are spinning, the accreted dark matter particles may linger in the ergosphere, and thereby generate self-annihilations and produce an indirect signature of potential interest.

  11. Major galaxy mergers and the growth of supermassive black holes in quasars.

    PubMed

    Treister, Ezequiel; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Sanders, David B; Urry, C Megan; Schawinski, Kevin; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan

    2010-04-30

    Despite observed strong correlations between central supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and star formation in galactic nuclei, uncertainties exist in our understanding of their coupling. We present observations of the ratio of heavily obscured to unobscured quasars as a function of cosmic epoch up to z congruent with 3 and show that a simple physical model describing mergers of massive, gas-rich galaxies matches these observations. In the context of this model, every obscured and unobscured quasar represents two distinct phases that result from a massive galaxy merger event. Much of the mass growth of the SMBH occurs during the heavily obscured phase. These observations provide additional evidence for a causal link between gas-rich galaxy mergers, accretion onto the nuclear SMBH, and coeval star formation.

  12. Modelling the cosmological co-evolution of supermassive black holes and galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marulli, F.; Bonoli, S.; Branchini, E.; Moscardini, L.; Springel, V.; White, S. D. M.

    2008-10-01

    We model the cosmological co-evolution of galaxies and their central supermassive black holes (BHs) within a semi-analytical framework developed on the outputs of the Millennium Simulation. This model, described in detail by Croton et al. and De Lucia and Blaizot, introduces a `radio mode' feedback from AGN at the centre of X-ray emitting atmospheres in galaxy groups and clusters. We investigate how well this model can reproduce the physical properties of BHs and AGN. We analyse the scaling relations, the fundamental plane and the mass function of BHs, and compare them with the most recent observational data. Moreover, we extend the semi-analytic model to follow the evolution of the BH mass accretion and its conversion into radiation, and compare the derived AGN bolometric luminosity function with the observed one. While we find for the most part a very good agreement between predicted and observed BH properties, the semi-analytic model underestimates the number density of luminous AGN at high redshifts, independently of the adopted Eddington factor and accretion efficiency. However, an agreement with the observations is possible within the framework of our model, provided it is assumed that the cold gas fraction accreted by BHs at high redshifts is larger than at low redshifts.

  13. Sensitive Spitzer Photometry of Supermassive Black Holes at the Final Stage of Adolescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shemmer, Ohad; Netzer, Hagai; Mor, Rivay; Trakhtenbrot, Benny

    2011-05-01

    We propose to obtain sensitive Spitzer snapshot observations of a unique sample of 35 Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasars at redshift 4.8 for which we obtained reliable, Mg II-based determinations of the supermassive black hole (SMBH) mass and normalized accretion rate (L/L_Edd). These quasars appear to mark the final stage of SMBH `adolescence' in the history of the Universe as their SMBHs are significantly less massive and their L/L_Edd values are significantly higher with respect to their counterparts at lower redshifts. Our observations will provide both 1) deep coverage of the fields around these quasars which will be utilized as crucial priors for our approved Herschel/SPIRE observations of these sources, and 2) coverage of the rest-frame optical SEDs of these fast accreting quasars. The results will maximize our ability to measure the star-formation rate in the host galaxies of these quasars using Herschel. We will thus be able to investigate correlations between SMBH growth and star-forming activity in the early Universe. The Spitzer photometry will also provide invaluable information about the shape of the rest-frame optical continuum in these quasars which will be used to search for extreme disk properties that may be signatures of the remarkably high accretion rates in these sources.

  14. The edge of infinity. Supermassive black holes in the universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melia, Fulvio

    In the past, they were recognized as the most destructive force in nature. Now, following a cascade of astonishing discoveries, supermassive black holes have undergone a dramatic shift in paradigm. Astronomers are finding out that these objects may have been critical to the formation of structure in the early universe, spawning bursts of star formation, planets, and even life itself. They may have contributed as much as half of all the radiation produced after the Big Bang, and as many as 200 million of them may now be lurking through the vast expanses of the observable cosmos. In this elegant, non-technical account, Melia conveys for the general reader the excitement generated by the quest to expose what these giant distortions in the fabric of space and time have to say about our origin and ultimate destiny.

  15. Joint Evolution of Spinning Supermassive Black Holes and Rotating Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merritt, David; Vasiliev, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    A rotating supermassive black hole (SBH) interacts with stars in a galactic nucleus via torques due to dragging of inertial frames. If the stars orbit preferentially about an axis that is misaligned with the SBH's spin, the SBH will experience a net torque and its spin vector will precess; individual stellar orbits also precess about the instantaneous SBH spin vector, although at different rates depending on their orbital elements. Solution of the coupled, post-Newtonian equations describing this interaction reveals two evolutionary modes: sustained precession of the SBH; and damped precession, leading to alignment of the SBH spin with the nuclear angular momentum. Beyond a certain radius, stars interact gravitationally with each other in a time shorter than the Lense-Thirring time. Long-term evolution in this case is well described as uniform precession of the SBH about the cluster's rotational axis, with a stochastic contribution due to star-star interactions.

  16. A PROBABLE MILLI-PARSEC SUPERMASSIVE BINARY BLACK HOLE IN THE NEAREST QUASAR MRK 231

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Chang-Shuo; Lu, Youjun; Dai, Xinyu; Yu, Qingjuan

    2015-08-10

    Supermassive binary black holes (BBHs) are unavoidable products of galaxy mergers and are expected to exist in the cores of many quasars. Great effort has been made during the past several decades to search for BBHs among quasars; however, observational evidence for BBHs remains elusive and ambiguous, which is difficult to reconcile with theoretical expectations. In this paper, we show that the distinct optical-to-UV spectrum of Mrk 231 can be well interpreted as emission from accretion flows onto a BBH, with a semimajor axis of ∼590 AU and an orbital period of ∼1.2 years. The flat optical and UV continua are mainly emitted from a circumbinary disk and a mini-disk around the secondary black hole (BH), respectively; and the observed sharp drop off and flux deficit at λ ∼ 4000–2500 Å is due to a gap (or hole) opened by the secondary BH migrating within the circumbinary disk. If confirmed by future observations, this BBH will provide a unique laboratory to study the interplay between BBHs and accretion flows onto them. Our result also demonstrates a new method to find sub-parsec scale BBHs by searching for deficits in the optical-to-UV continuum among the spectra of quasars.

  17. Off The Beaten Path: Modeling the Dynamics of Supermassive Black Holes in Cosmological Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremmel, Michael J.; Governato, Fabio; Volonteri, Marta; Quinn, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    Cosmological simulations are an essential tool to understand the co-evolution of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and their host galaxies. However, the limited resolution of these simulations presents unique challenges to successfully modeling black hole dynamics. We present a novel, physically motivated method for improving the dynamics of black holes in cosmological simulations, by accounting for the unresolved dynamical friction that SMBHs feel from stars and dark matter. We show how this approach, which naturally scales with resolution, is a major step forward compared to more commonly used 'advection' models that often assume SMBHs sink very rapidly toward the center of their host galaxies. Here, we demonstrate that our method is able to prevent numerical heating of SMBHs while allowing for realistic dynamics.Our implementation will allow us to more realistically model SMBH dynamics, accretion, and mergers in cosmological simulations, giving us the ability to better understand how SMBHs grow with their host galaxies. This also provides an opportunity for more detailed studies of SMBHs in dwarf galaxies, which can give crucial insight into constraining black hole seed formation models.

  18. Cosmic string loops as the seeds of super-massive black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Bramberger, Sebastian F.; Brandenberger, Robert H.; Jreidini, Paul; Quintin, Jerome E-mail: rhb@physics.mcgill.ca E-mail: jquintin@physics.mcgill.ca

    2015-06-01

    Recent discoveries of super-massive black holes at high redshifts indicate a possible tension with the standard ΛCDM paradigm of early universe cosmology which has difficulties in explaining the origin of the required nonlinear compact seeds which trigger the formation of these super-massive black holes. Here we show that cosmic string loops which result from a scaling solution of strings formed during a phase transition in the very early universe lead to an additional source of compact seeds. The number density of string-induced seeds dominates at high redshifts and can help trigger the formation of the observed super-massive black holes.

  19. A LARGE SYSTEMATIC SEARCH FOR CLOSE SUPERMASSIVE BINARY AND RAPIDLY RECOILING BLACK HOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Eracleous, Michael; Boroson, Todd A.; Halpern, Jules P.; Liu Jia

    2012-08-01

    We have carried out a systematic search for subparsec supermassive black hole (BH) binaries among z {approx}< 0.7 Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasars. These are predicted by models of supermassive BH and host galaxy coevolution, therefore their census and population properties constitute an important test of these models. In our working hypothesis, one of the two BHs accretes at a much higher rate than the other and carries with it the only broad emission line region of the system, making the system analogous to a single-lined spectroscopic binary star. Accordingly, we used spectroscopic principal component analysis to search for broad H{beta} emission lines that are displaced from the quasar rest frame by |{Delta} v| {approx}> 1000 km s{sup -1}. This method also yields candidates for rapidly recoiling BHs. Of the 88 candidates, several were previously reported in the literature. We found a correlation between the peak offset and skewness of the broad H{beta} profiles, suggesting a common physical explanation for these profiles. We carried out follow-up spectroscopic observations of 68 objects to search for changes in the peak velocities of the H{beta} lines. We measured statistically significant changes in 14 objects, with implied accelerations between -120 and +120 km s{sup -1} yr{sup -1}. Interpreting the offset broad emission lines as signatures of supermassive binaries is subject to many caveats. Many more follow-up observations over a long temporal baseline are needed to characterize the variability pattern of the broad lines and test that it is consistent with orbital motion. The possibility that some of the objects in this sample are rapidly recoiling BHs remains open.

  20. A Large Systematic Search for Close Supermassive Binary and Rapidly Recoiling Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eracleous, Michael; Boroson, Todd A.; Halpern, Jules P.; Liu, Jia

    2012-08-01

    We have carried out a systematic search for subparsec supermassive black hole (BH) binaries among z <~ 0.7 Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasars. These are predicted by models of supermassive BH and host galaxy coevolution, therefore their census and population properties constitute an important test of these models. In our working hypothesis, one of the two BHs accretes at a much higher rate than the other and carries with it the only broad emission line region of the system, making the system analogous to a single-lined spectroscopic binary star. Accordingly, we used spectroscopic principal component analysis to search for broad Hβ emission lines that are displaced from the quasar rest frame by |Δ v| >~ 1000 km s-1. This method also yields candidates for rapidly recoiling BHs. Of the 88 candidates, several were previously reported in the literature. We found a correlation between the peak offset and skewness of the broad Hβ profiles, suggesting a common physical explanation for these profiles. We carried out follow-up spectroscopic observations of 68 objects to search for changes in the peak velocities of the Hβ lines. We measured statistically significant changes in 14 objects, with implied accelerations between -120 and +120 km s-1 yr-1. Interpreting the offset broad emission lines as signatures of supermassive binaries is subject to many caveats. Many more follow-up observations over a long temporal baseline are needed to characterize the variability pattern of the broad lines and test that it is consistent with orbital motion. The possibility that some of the objects in this sample are rapidly recoiling BHs remains open.

  1. Accretion Disks and Jets Around Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayan, Ramesh

    2008-04-01

    Some of the most luminous objects in the universe involve accretion disks around black holes. In these systems, gas spirals into the black hole and converts a fraction of its gravitational binding energy into thermal energy and radiation. Sometimes, twin relativistic jets are ejected along the angular momentum axis of the disk. Understanding the physics of black hole accretion disks and jets is a major focus of modern astrophysics. Because the object at the center is a black hole, one must work with a relativistic theory. More importantly, one must allow for the effects of magnetic fields. These play an extremely important role, both in the extraction of angular momentum from the accreting gas -- which is what allows the gas to fall into the hole -- and in the launching, acceleration and collimation of the relativistic jets. Thus, at a minimum, one must work with the relativistic single-fluid MHD equations. The talk will briefly summarize our current understanding of black hole accretion, and outline some of the major unsolved problems.

  2. Warping and tearing of misaligned circumbinary disks around eccentric supermassive black hole binaries

    SciTech Connect

    Hayasaki, K.; Sohn, B.W.; Jung, T.; Zhao, G.; Okazaki, A.T.; Naito, T. E-mail: bwsohn@kasi.re.kr E-mail: thjung@kasi.re.kr E-mail: tsuguya@ygu.ac.jp

    2015-07-01

    We study the warping and tearing of a geometrically thin, non-self-gravitating disk surrounding binary supermassive black holes on an eccentric orbit. The circumbinary disk is significantly misaligned with the binary orbital plane, and is subject to the time-dependent tidal torques. In principle, such a disk is warped and precesses, and is torn into mutually misaligned rings in the region, where the tidal precession torques are stronger than the local viscous torques. We derive the tidal-warp and tearing radii of the misaligned circumbinary disks around eccentric SMBH binaries. We find that in disks with the viscosity parameter α larger than a critical value depending on the disk aspect ratio, the disk warping appears outside the tearing radius. This condition is expressed for small amplitude warps as α > √H/(3r) for H/r∼<0.1, where H is the disk scale height. If α < √H/(3r), only the disk tearing occurs because the tidal warp radius is inside the tearing radius, where most of disk material is likely to rapidly accrete onto SMBHs. In warped and torn disks, both the tidal-warp and the tearing radii most strongly depend on the binary semi-major axis, although they also mildly depend on the other orbital and disk parameters. This strong dependence enables us to estimate the semi-major axis, once the tidal warp or tearing radius is determined observationally: for the tidal warp radius of 0.1 pc, the semi-major axis is estimated to be ∼10{sup −2} pc for 10{sup 7} M{sub ⊙} black hole with typical orbital and disk parameters. We also briefly discuss the possibility that central objects of observed warped maser disks in active galactic nuclei are supermassive black hole binaries.

  3. INTERACTION OF RECOILING SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES WITH STARS IN GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Li Shuo; Liu, F. K.; Berczik, Peter; Spurzem, Rainer; Chen Xian E-mail: fkliu@bac.pku.edu.cn

    2012-03-20

    Supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs) are the products of frequent galaxy mergers. The coalescence of the SMBHBs is a distinct source of gravitational wave (GW) radiation. The detections of the strong GW radiation and their possible electromagnetic counterparts are essential. Numerical relativity suggests that the post-merger supermassive black hole (SMBH) gets a kick velocity up to 4000 km s{sup -1} due to the anisotropic GW radiations. Here, we investigate the dynamical coevolution and interaction of the recoiling SMBHs and their galactic stellar environments with one million direct N-body simulations including the stellar tidal disruption by the recoiling SMBHs. Our results show that the accretion of disrupted stars does not significantly affect the SMBH dynamical evolution. We investigate the stellar tidal disruption rates as a function of the dynamical evolution of oscillating SMBHs in the galactic nuclei. Our simulations show that most stellar tidal disruptions are contributed by the unbound stars and occur when the oscillating SMBHs pass through the galactic center. The averaged disruption rate is {approx}10{sup -6} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, which is about an order of magnitude lower than that by a stationary SMBH at similar galactic nuclei. Our results also show that a bound star cluster is around the oscillating SMBH of about {approx}0.7% the black hole mass. In addition, we discover a massive cloud of unbound stars following the oscillating SMBH. We also investigate the dependence of the results on the SMBH masses and density slopes of the galactic nuclei.

  4. Gravitomagnetic acceleration from black hole accretion disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poirier, J.; Mathews, G. J.

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate how the motion of the neutral masses in an accretion disk orbiting a black hole creates a general-relativistic magnetic-like (gravitomagnetic) field that vertically accelerates neutral particles near an accretion disk upward and then inward toward the axis of the accretion disk. Even though this gravitomagnetic field is not the only mechanism contributing to the production of jets, it presents a novel means to identify one general relativistic effect from a much more complicated problem. In addition, as the accelerated material above or below the accretion disk nears the axis with a nearly vertical direction, a frame-dragging effect twists the trajectories around the axis thus contributing to the collimation of the jet.

  5. Feedback-regulated supermassive black hole seed formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dijkstra, Mark; Ferrara, Andrea; Mesinger, Andrei

    2014-08-01

    The nature of the seeds of high-redshift supermassive black holes (SMBHs) is a key question in cosmology. Direct collapse black holes (DCBHs) that form in pristine, atomic-line cooling haloes, illuminated by a Lyman-Werner (LW) UV flux exceeding a critical threshold Jcrit represent an attractive possibility. We investigate when and where these conditions are met during cosmic evolution. For the LW intensity, JLW, we account for departures from the background value in close proximity to star-forming galaxies. For the pristine halo fraction, we account for both (i) supernova-driven outflows and (ii) the inherent pollution from progenitor haloes. We estimate the abundance of DCBH formation sites, nDCBH(z), and find that it increases with cosmic time from nDCBH(z = 20) ˜ 10-12-10-7 cMpc-3 to nDCBH(z = 10) ˜ 10-10-10-5 cMpc-3. Our analysis shows the possible importance of galactic winds, which can suppress the predicted nDCBH by several orders of magnitude, and cause DCBH formation to preferentially occur around the UV-brightest (MUV ˜ -21 ± 1) star-forming galaxies. Our analysis further highlights the dependence of these predictions on (i) the escape fraction of LW photons, (ii) Jcrit, and (iii) the galactic outflow prescription.

  6. Astrophysical ZeV acceleration in the relativistic jet from an accreting supermassive blackhole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebisuzaki, Toshikazu; Tajima, Toshiki

    2014-04-01

    An accreting supermassive blackhole, the central engine of active galactic nucleus (AGN), is capable of exciting extreme amplitude Alfven waves whose wavelength (wave packet) size is characterized by its clumpiness. The pondermotive force and wakefield are driven by these Alfven waves propagating in the AGN (blazar) jet, and accelerate protons/nuclei to extreme energies beyond Zetta-electron volt (ZeV=1021 eV). Such acceleration is prompt, localized, and does not suffer from the multiple scattering/bending enveloped in the Fermi acceleration that causes excessive synchrotron radiation loss beyond 1019 eV. The production rate of ZeV cosmic rays is found to be consistent with the observed gamma-ray luminosity function of blazars and their time variabilities.

  7. Active galaxies. A strong magnetic field in the jet base of a supermassive black hole.

    PubMed

    Martí-Vidal, Ivan; Muller, Sébastien; Vlemmings, Wouter; Horellou, Cathy; Aalto, Susanne

    2015-04-17

    Active galactic nuclei (AGN) host some of the most energetic phenomena in the universe. AGN are thought to be powered by accretion of matter onto a rotating disk that surrounds a supermassive black hole. Jet streams can be boosted in energy near the event horizon of the black hole and then flow outward along the rotation axis of the disk. The mechanism that forms such a jet and guides it over scales from a few light-days up to millions of light-years remains uncertain, but magnetic fields are thought to play a critical role. Using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), we have detected a polarization signal (Faraday rotation) related to the strong magnetic field at the jet base of a distant AGN, PKS 1830-211. The amount of Faraday rotation (rotation measure) is proportional to the integral of the magnetic field strength along the line of sight times the density of electrons. The high rotation measures derived suggest magnetic fields of at least tens of Gauss (and possibly considerably higher) on scales of the order of light-days (0.01 parsec) from the black hole. PMID:25883352

  8. Active galaxies. A strong magnetic field in the jet base of a supermassive black hole.

    PubMed

    Martí-Vidal, Ivan; Muller, Sébastien; Vlemmings, Wouter; Horellou, Cathy; Aalto, Susanne

    2015-04-17

    Active galactic nuclei (AGN) host some of the most energetic phenomena in the universe. AGN are thought to be powered by accretion of matter onto a rotating disk that surrounds a supermassive black hole. Jet streams can be boosted in energy near the event horizon of the black hole and then flow outward along the rotation axis of the disk. The mechanism that forms such a jet and guides it over scales from a few light-days up to millions of light-years remains uncertain, but magnetic fields are thought to play a critical role. Using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), we have detected a polarization signal (Faraday rotation) related to the strong magnetic field at the jet base of a distant AGN, PKS 1830-211. The amount of Faraday rotation (rotation measure) is proportional to the integral of the magnetic field strength along the line of sight times the density of electrons. The high rotation measures derived suggest magnetic fields of at least tens of Gauss (and possibly considerably higher) on scales of the order of light-days (0.01 parsec) from the black hole.

  9. THE ROLE OF NUCLEAR STAR CLUSTERS IN ENHANCING SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE FEEDING RATES DURING GALAXY MERGERS

    SciTech Connect

    Naiman, J. P.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Debuhr, J.; Ma, C.-P.

    2015-04-20

    During galaxy mergers the gas falls to the center, triggers star formation, and feeds the rapid growth of supermassive black holes (SMBHs). SMBHs respond to this fueling by supplying energy back to the ambient gas. Numerical studies suggest that this feedback is necessary to explain why the properties of SMBHs and the formation of bulges are closely related. This intimate link between the SMBH’s mass and the large scale dynamics and luminosity of the host has proven to be a difficult issue to tackle with simulations due to the inability to resolve all the relevant length scales simultaneously. In this paper we simulate SMBH growth at high-resolution with FLASH, accounting for the gravitational focusing effects of nuclear star clusters (NSCs), which appear to be ubiquitous in galactic nuclei. In the simulations, the NSC core is resolved by a minimum cell size of about 0.001 pc or approximately 10{sup −3} of the cluster’s radius. We discuss the conditions required for effective gas funneling to occur, which are mainly dominated by a relationship between NSC velocity dispersion and the local sound speed, and provide a sub-grid prescription for the augmentation of central SMBH accretion rates in the presence of NSCs. For the conditions expected to persist in the centers of merging galaxies, the resultant large central gas densities in NSCs should produce drastically enhanced embedded SMBH accretion rates—up to an order of magnitude increase can be achieved for gas properties resembling those in large-scale galaxy merger simulations. This will naturally result in faster black hole growth rates and higher luminosities than predicted by the commonly used Bondi–Hoyle–Lyttleton accretion formalism.

  10. Can supermassive black holes influence the evolution of their host galaxies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tombesi, F.; Cappi, M.; Reeves, J.; Braito, V.; Veilleux, S.; Reynolds, C.; Lobban, A.

    2016-06-01

    Powerful winds driven by active galactic nuclei (AGN) are often invoked to play a fundamental role in the evolution of both supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and their host galaxies, quenching star formation and explaining the tight SMBH-galaxy relations. A strong support of this "quasar mode" feedback came from the recent X-ray observation of a mildly relativistic accretion disk wind in an ultraluminous infrared galaxy and its connection with a large-scale molecular outflow observed in the IR with Herschel, suggesting a direct link between the SMBH and the gas out of which stars form. Spectroscopic observations, especially in the X-ray band, suggest that such accretion disk winds may be common in local AGN and quasars. However, their origin and characteristics are still not fully understood. Detailed theoretical models and simulations focused on radiation, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) or a combination of these two processes, to investigate the possible acceleration mechanisms and dynamics of these winds. XMM-Newton provided a fundamental contribution to these studies and it will still provide the highest effective area in the critical Fe K band of the spectrum until the launch of Athena. Very important improvements are expected from the high energy resolution of the Hitomi X-ray Observatory.

  11. Diagnosing the Black Hole Accretion Physics of Sgr A*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazio, Giovanni; Ashby, Matthew; Baganoff, Frederick; Becklin, Eric; Carey, Sean; Gammie, Charles; Ghez, Andrea; Glaccum, William; Gurwell, Mark; Haggard, Daryl; Hora, Joseph; Ingalls, James; Marrone, Daniel; Meyer, Leo; Morris, Mark; Smith, Howard; Willner, Steven; Witzel, Gunther

    2016-08-01

    The Galactic center offers the closest opportunity for studying accretion onto supermassive black holes. The fluctuating source, Sgr A*, is detected across the electromagnetic spectrum and may originate in the accretion flow or jet. Recent general relativistic magneto-hydrodynamic (GRMHD) models indicate that variability can be produced by a tilted inner disk, gravitational lensing of bright spots in the disk by the hole, or particle acceleration in reconnection events. These models produce different flare characteristics, and in particular better characterization of flares may enable us to distinguish between strong and weakly magnetized disks. Disentangling the power source and emission mechanisms of the flares is a central challenge to our understanding of the Sgr A* accretion flow. Following our successful observations of the variability of Sgr A* with IRAC in 2013 and 2014, we propose simultaneous IRAC (4.5 micron) and Chandra (2-10 keV) observations to (1) probe the accretion physics of Sgr A* on event-horizon scales and (2) detect any effect of the object G2 on Sgr A*. Specifically, we propose six additional epochs of observation, each of 24 uninterrupted hours; four in 2017 July and two in 2018 July. In this proposal we request two 24-hour (86.4 ks) Chandra periods, and are requesting another four through the Chandra TAC to have simultaneous X-ray observations in each of the six Spitzer epochs. Independent of this proposal we will also request NuSTAR (3-79 keV), SMA/ALMA/APEX (0.8 mm), and Keck/Magellan NIR (2.2 micron) observations during the IRAC/Chandra epochs. Only such long-duration, continuous, multi-wavelength observations can achieve a comprehensive view of the dominant emission process(es) and quantify the physical properties near the event horizon. Theoretical models are increasing in physical sophistication, and our study will provide essential constraints for the next generation of models.

  12. Impetus: New Cloudy’s Radiative Tables for Accretion onto a Galaxy Black Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez-Velasquez, José M.; Klapp, Jaime; Gabbasov, Ruslan; Cruz, Fidel; Sigalotti, Leonardo Di G.

    2016-10-01

    We present digital tables for the radiative terms that appear in the energy and momentum equations used to simulate the accretion onto supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in the centers of galaxies. Cooling and heating rates and radiative accelerations are calculated with two different Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs). One SED is composed of an accretion disk + [X-ray]-power law, while the other is made of an accretion disk + [Corona]-bremsstrahlung with {T}X=1.16× {10}8 K, where pre-computed conditions of adiabatic expansion are included. Quantifications of different physical mechanisms at operation are presented, showing discrepancies and similarities between both SEDs in different ranges of fundamental physical parameters (i.e., ionization parameter, density, and temperature). With the recent discovery of outflows originating at sub-parsec scales, these tables may provide a useful tool for modeling gas accretion processes onto an SMBH.

  13. Recoiling supermassive black holes: a search in the nearby universe

    SciTech Connect

    Lena, D.; Robinson, A.; Axon, D. J.; Merritt, D.; Marconi, A.; Capetti, A.; Batcheldor, D.

    2014-11-10

    The coalescence of a binary black hole can be accompanied by a large gravitational recoil due to anisotropic emission of gravitational waves. A recoiling supermassive black hole (SBH) can subsequently undergo long-lived oscillations in the potential well of its host galaxy, suggesting that offset SBHs may be common in the cores of massive ellipticals. We have analyzed Hubble Space Telescope archival images of 14 nearby core ellipticals, finding evidence for small (≲ 10 pc) displacements between the active galactic nucleus (AGN; the location of the SBH) and the center of the galaxy (the mean photocenter) in 10 of them. Excluding objects that may be affected by large-scale isophotal asymmetries, we consider six galaxies to have detected displacements, including M87, where a displacement was previously reported by Batcheldor et al. In individual objects, these displacements can be attributed to residual gravitational recoil oscillations following a major or minor merger within the last few gigayears. For plausible merger rates, however, there is a high probability of larger displacements than those observed, if SBH coalescence took place in these galaxies. Remarkably, the AGN-photocenter displacements are approximately aligned with the radio source axis in four of the six galaxies with displacements, including three of the four having relatively powerful kiloparsec-scale jets. This suggests intrinsic asymmetries in radio jet power as a possible displacement mechanism, although approximate alignments are also expected for gravitational recoil. Orbital motion in SBH binaries and interactions with massive perturbers can produce the observed displacement amplitudes but do not offer a ready explanation for the alignments.

  14. RECOILING SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES IN SPIN-FLIP RADIO GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, F. K.; Wang Dong; Chen Xian

    2012-02-20

    Numerical relativity simulations predict that coalescence of supermassive black hole (SMBH) binaries leads not only to a spin flip but also to a recoiling of the merger remnant SMBHs. In the literature, X-shaped radio sources are popularly suggested to be candidates for SMBH mergers with spin flip of jet-ejecting SMBHs. Here we investigate the spectral and spatial observational signatures of the recoiling SMBHs in radio sources undergoing black hole spin flip. Our results show that SMBHs in most spin-flip radio sources have mass ratio q {approx}> 0.3 with a minimum possible value q{sub min} {approx_equal} 0.05. For major mergers, the remnant SMBHs can get a kick velocity as high as 2100 km s{sup -1} in the direction within an angle {approx}< 40 Degree-Sign relative to the spin axes of remnant SMBHs, implying that recoiling quasars are biased to be with high Doppler-shifted broad emission lines while recoiling radio galaxies are biased to large apparent spatial off-center displacements. We also calculate the distribution functions of line-of-sight velocity and apparent spatial off-center displacements for spin-flip radio sources with different apparent jet reorientation angles. Our results show that the larger the apparent jet reorientation angle is, the larger the Doppler-shifting recoiling velocity and apparent spatial off-center displacement will be. We investigate the effects of recoiling velocity on the dust torus in spin-flip radio sources and suggest that recoiling of SMBHs would lead to 'dust-poor' active galactic nuclei. Finally, we collect a sample of 19 X-shaped radio objects and for each object give the probability of detecting the predicted signatures of recoiling SMBH.

  15. Triplets of supermassive black holes: astrophysics, gravitational waves and detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaro-Seoane, Pau; Sesana, Alberto; Hoffman, Loren; Benacquista, Matthew; Eichhorn, Christoph; Makino, Junichiro; Spurzem, Rainer

    2010-03-01

    Supermassive black holes (SMBHs) found in the centres of many galaxies are understood to play a fundamental, active role in the cosmological structure formation process. In hierarchical formation scenarios, SMBHs are expected to form binaries following the merger of their host galaxies. If these binaries do not coalesce before the merger with a third galaxy, the formation of a black hole triple system is possible. Numerical simulations of the dynamics of triples within galaxy cores exhibit phases of very high eccentricity (as high as e ~ 0.99). During these phases, intense bursts of gravitational radiation can be emitted at orbital periapsis, which produces a gravitational wave signal at frequencies substantially higher than the orbital frequency. The likelihood of detection of these bursts with pulsar timing and the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is estimated using several population models of SMBHs with masses >rsim 107 Msolar. Assuming that 10 per cent or more of binaries are in triple systems, we find that up to a few dozen of these bursts will produce residuals >1 ns, within the sensitivity range of forthcoming pulsar timing arrays. However, most of such bursts will be washed out in the underlying confusion noise produced by all the other `standard' SMBH binaries emitting in the same frequency window. A detailed data analysis study would be required to assess resolvability of such sources. Implementing a basic resolvability criterion, we find that the chance of catching a resolvable burst at a 1 ns precision level is 2-50 per cent, depending on the adopted SMBH evolution model. On the other hand, the probability of detecting bursts produced by massive binaries (masses >~107Msolar) with LISA is negligible.

  16. Binary Black Holes, Accretion Disks and Relativistic Jets: Photocenters of Nearby AGN and Quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wehrle, Ann E.; Jones, Dayton L.; Meier, David L.; Piner, B. Glenn; Unwin, Stephen C.

    2004-01-01

    One of the most challenging questions in astronomy today is to understand the origin, structure, and evolution of the central engines in the nuclei of quasars and active galaxies (AGNs). The favoured theory involves the activation of relativistic jets from the fueling of a supermassive black hole through an accretion disk. In some AGN an outer optically thick, dusty torus is seen orbiting the black hole system. This torus is probably related to an inner accretion disk - black hole system that forms the actual powerhouse of the AGN. In radio-loud AGN two oppositely-directed radio jets are ejected perpendicular to the torus/disk system. Although there is a wealth of observational data on AGN, some very basic questions have not been definitively answered. The Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) will address the following three key questions about AGN. 1) Does the most compact optical emission from an AGN come from an accretion disk or from a relativistic jet? 2) Does the separation of the radio core and optical photocenter of the quasars used for the reference frame tie, change on the timescales of their photometric variability, or is the separation stable at the level of a few microarcseconds? 3) Do the cores of galaxies harbor binary supermassive black holes remaining from galaxy mergers? It is not known whether such mergers are common, and whether binaries would persist for a significant time.

  17. The evolving corona and evidence for jet launching from the supermassive black hole in Markarian 335

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkins, Daniel; Gallo, Luigi C.

    2015-01-01

    Through detailed analysis of the X-rays that are reflected from the accretion disc, it is possible to probe structures right down to the innermost stable circular orbit and event horizon around the supermassive black holes in AGN. By measuring the illumination pattern of the accretion disc, along with reverberation time lags between variability in the X-ray continuum and reflection, unprecedented detail of the geometry and spatial extent of the corona that produces the X-ray continuum has emerged when the observed data are combined with insight gained from general relativistic ray tracing simulations.We conducted detailed analysis of both the X-ray continuum and its reflection from the accretion disc in the narrow line Seyfert 1 galaxy Markarian 335, over observations spanning nearly a decade to measure the underlying changes in the structure of the X-ray emitting corona that gave rise to more than an order of magnitude variation in luminosity.Underlying this long timescale variability lies much more complex patterns of behaviour on short timescales. We are, for the first time, able to observe and measure the changes in the structure of the corona that give rise to transient phenomena including a flare in the X-ray emission seen during a low flux state by Suzaku in July 2013. This flaring event was found to mark a reconfiguration of the corona while there is evidence that the flare itself was cased by an aborted jet-launching event. More recently, detailed analysis of a NuSTAR target of opportunity observation is letting us understand the sudden increase in X-ray flux by a factor of 15 in Markarian 335 seen in September 2014.These observations allow us to trace, from observations, the evolution of the X-ray emitting corona that gives rise to not only the extreme variability seen in the X-ray emission from AGN, but also the processes by which jets and other outflow are launched from the extreme environments around black holes. This gives us important insight into

  18. Estimating the fossil disc mass during supermassive black hole mergers: the importance of torque implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tazzari, M.; Lodato, G.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we revisit the issue of estimating the `fossil' disc mass in the circumprimary disc, during the merger of a supermassive black hole binary. As the binary orbital decay speeds up due to the emission of gravitational waves, the gas in the circumprimary disc might be forced to accrete rapidly and could in principle provide a significant electromagnetic counterpart to the gravitational wave emission. Since the luminosity of such flare is proportional to the gaseous mass in the circumprimary disc, estimating such mass accurately is important. Previous investigations of this issue have produced contradictory results, with some authors estimating super-Eddington flares and large disc mass, while others suggesting that the `fossil' disc mass is very low, even less than a Jupiter mass. Here, we perform simple 1D calculations to show that such very low estimates of the disc mass are an artefact of the specific implementation of the tidal torque in 1D models. In particular, for moderate mass ratios of the binary, the usual formula for the torque used in 1D models significantly overestimates the width of the gap induced by the secondary and this artificially leads to a very small leftover circumprimary disc. Using a modified torque, calibrated to reproduce the correct gap width as estimated by 3D models, leads to fossil disc masses of the order of one solar mass. The rapid accretion of the whole circumprimary disc would produce peak luminosities of the order of 1-20 times the Eddington luminosity. Even if a significant fraction of the gas escapes accretion by flowing out the secondary orbit during the merger (an effect not included in our calculations), we would still predict close to Eddington luminosities that might be easily detected.

  19. The Coevolution of Supermassive Black Holes and Massive Galaxies at High Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapi, A.; Raimundo, S.; Aversa, R.; Cai, Z.-Y.; Negrello, M.; Celotti, A.; De Zotti, G.; Danese, L.

    2014-02-01

    We exploit the recent, wide samples of far-infrared (FIR) selected galaxies followed up in X-rays and of X-ray/optically selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) followed up in the FIR band, along with the classic data on AGNs and stellar luminosity functions at high redshift z >~ 1.5, to probe different stages in the coevolution of supermassive black holes (BHs) and host galaxies. The results of our analysis indicate the following scenario: (1) the star formation in the host galaxy proceeds within a heavily dust-enshrouded medium at an almost constant rate over a timescale <~ 0.5-1 Gyr and then abruptly declines due to quasar feedback, over the same timescale; (2) part of the interstellar medium loses angular momentum, reaches the circum-nuclear regions at a rate proportional to the star formation, and is temporarily stored in a massive reservoir/proto-torus wherefrom it can be promptly accreted; (3) the BH grows by accretion in a self-regulated regime with radiative power that can slightly exceed the Eddington limit L/L Edd <~ 4, particularly at the highest redshifts; (4) for massive BHs, the ensuing energy feedback at its maximum exceeds the stellar one and removes the interstellar gas, thus stopping the star formation and the fueling of the reservoir; (5) afterward, if the latter has retained enough gas, a phase of supply-limited accretion follows, exponentially declining with a timescale of about two e-folding times. We also discuss how the detailed properties and the specific evolution of the reservoir can be investigated via coordinated, high-resolution observations of star-forming, strongly lensed galaxies in the (sub-)mm band with ALMA and in the X-ray band with Chandra and the next-generation X-ray instruments.

  20. The coevolution of supermassive black holes and massive galaxies at high redshift

    SciTech Connect

    Lapi, A.; Raimundo, S.; Aversa, R.; Cai, Z.-Y.; Celotti, A.; De Zotti, G.; Danese, L.; Negrello, M.

    2014-02-20

    We exploit the recent, wide samples of far-infrared (FIR) selected galaxies followed up in X-rays and of X-ray/optically selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) followed up in the FIR band, along with the classic data on AGNs and stellar luminosity functions at high redshift z ≳ 1.5, to probe different stages in the coevolution of supermassive black holes (BHs) and host galaxies. The results of our analysis indicate the following scenario: (1) the star formation in the host galaxy proceeds within a heavily dust-enshrouded medium at an almost constant rate over a timescale ≲ 0.5-1 Gyr and then abruptly declines due to quasar feedback, over the same timescale; (2) part of the interstellar medium loses angular momentum, reaches the circum-nuclear regions at a rate proportional to the star formation, and is temporarily stored in a massive reservoir/proto-torus wherefrom it can be promptly accreted; (3) the BH grows by accretion in a self-regulated regime with radiative power that can slightly exceed the Eddington limit L/L {sub Edd} ≲ 4, particularly at the highest redshifts; (4) for massive BHs, the ensuing energy feedback at its maximum exceeds the stellar one and removes the interstellar gas, thus stopping the star formation and the fueling of the reservoir; (5) afterward, if the latter has retained enough gas, a phase of supply-limited accretion follows, exponentially declining with a timescale of about two e-folding times. We also discuss how the detailed properties and the specific evolution of the reservoir can be investigated via coordinated, high-resolution observations of star-forming, strongly lensed galaxies in the (sub-)mm band with ALMA and in the X-ray band with Chandra and the next-generation X-ray instruments.

  1. Supermassive black holes: Coevolution (or not) of black holes and host galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kormendy, John

    2013-07-01

    Supermassive black holes (BHs) have been found in 75 galaxies by observing spatially resolved dynamics. The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) revolutionized BH work by advancing the subject from its `proof of concept' phase into quantitative studies of BH demographics. Most influential was the discovery of a tight correlation between BH masses M • and the velocity dispersions σ of stars in the host galaxy bulge components at radii where the stars mostly feel each other and not the BH. Together with correlations between M • and bulge luminosity, with the `missing light' that defines galaxy cores, and with numbers of globular clusters, this has led to the conclusion that BHs and bulges coevolve by regulating each other's growth. This simple picture with one set of correlations for all galaxies dominated BH work in the past decade. New results are now replacing the above, simple story with a richer and more plausible picture in which BHs correlate differently with different kinds of galaxy components. BHs with masses of 105-106 M ⊙ live in some bulgeless galaxies. So classical (merger-built) bulges are not necessary equipment for BH formation. On the other hand, while they live in galaxy disks, BHs do not correlate with galaxy disks or with disk-grown pseudobulges. They also have no special correlation with dark matter halos beyond the fact that halo gravity controls galaxy formation. This leads to the suggestion that there are two modes of BH feeding, (1) local, secular and episodic feeding of small BHs in largely bulgeless galaxies that involves too little energy feedback to drive BH-host-galaxy coevolution and (2) global feeding in major galaxy mergers that rapidly grows giant BHs in short-duration events whose energy feedback does affect galaxy formation. After these quasar-like phases, maintenance-mode BH feedback into hot, X-ray-emitting gas continues to have a primarily negative effect in preventing late-time star formation when cold gas or gas-rich galaxies

  2. Normal Modes of Black Hole Accretion Disks

    SciTech Connect

    Ortega-Rodriguez, Manuel; Silbergleit, Alexander S.; Wagoner, Robert V.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2006-11-07

    This paper studies the hydrodynamical problem of normal modes of small adiabatic oscillations of relativistic barotropic thin accretion disks around black holes (and compact weakly magnetic neutron stars). Employing WKB techniques, we obtain the eigen frequencies and eigenfunctions of the modes for different values of the mass and angular momentum of the central black hole. We discuss the properties of the various types of modes and examine the role of viscosity, as it appears to render some of the modes unstable to rapid growth.

  3. Spin properties of supermassive black holes with powerful outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, Ruth. A.

    2016-05-01

    Relationships between beam power and accretion disc luminosity are studied for a sample of 55 high excitation radio galaxies (HERG), 13 low excitation radio galaxies (LERG), and 29 radio loud quasars (RLQ) with powerful outflows. The ratio of beam power to disc luminosity tends to be high for LERG, low for RLQ, and spans the full range of values for HERG. Writing general expressions for the disc luminosity and beam power and applying the empirically determined relationships allows a function that parametrizes the spins of the holes to be estimated. Interestingly, one of the solutions that is consistent with the data has a functional form that is remarkably similar to that expected in the generalized Blandford-Znajek model with a magnetic field that is similar in form to that expected in magnetically arrested disk (MAD) and advection-dominated accretion flow (ADAF) models. Values of the spin function, obtained independent of specific outflow models, suggest that spin and active galactic nucleus type are not related for these types of sources. The spin function can be used to solve for black hole spin in the context of particular outflow models, and one example is provided.

  4. Flares from stars tidally disrupted by supermassive black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komossa, St.

    2016-04-01

    Stellar tidal disruption events are unique probes of accretion physics and disk winds under extreme conditions. Their luminous flares of radiation are signposts of intermediate-mass black holes (BHs) and recoiling BHs. In X-rays, they have the potential to probe GR effects near the last stable orbit. Some of the events launch relativistic jets, and provide us with a powerful new method of understanding the physics of jet formation and evolution in a quiescent environment. About 30-40 candidate events have been identified by now, mostly in the X-rays and the optical. Events will be detected in the thousands in upcoming sky surveys, enabling statistical studies and rapid multi-wavelength follow-ups. Here, I provide a review of the field, including most recent results.

  5. A Search for Molecular Gas in the Nucleus of M87 and Implications for the Fueling of Supermassive Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Jonathan C.; Beuther, Henrik; Walter, Fabian; Blackman, Eric G.

    2008-12-01

    Supermassive black holes in giant elliptical galaxies are remarkably faint given their expected accretion rates. This motivates models of radiatively inefficient accretion due to either ion-electron thermal decoupling, generation of outflows that inhibit accretion, or settling of gas to a gravitationally unstable disk that forms stars in preference to feeding the black hole. The latter model predicts the presence of cold molecular gas in a thin disk around the black hole. Here we report Submillimeter Array observations of the nucleus of the giant elliptical galaxy M87 that probe 230 GHz continuum and CO (J = 2-1) line emission. Continuum emission is detected from the nucleus and several knots in the jet, including one that has been undergoing flaring behavior. We estimate a conservative upper limit on the mass of molecular gas within ~100 pc and ±400 km s-1 line-of-sight velocity of the central black hole of ~8 × 106 M⊙, which includes an allowance for possible systematic errors associated with subtraction of the continuum. Ignoring such errors, we have a 3 σ sensitivity to ~3 × 106 M⊙. In fact, the continuum-subtracted spectrum shows weak emission features extending up to 4 σ above the rms dispersion of the line-free channels. These may be artifacts of the continuum subtraction process. Alternatively, if they are interpreted as CO emission, then the implied molecular gas mass is ~5 × 106 M⊙ spread out over a velocity range of 700 km s-1. These constraints on molecular gas mass are close to the predictions of the model of self-gravitating, star-forming accretion disks fed by Bondi accretion (Tan & Blackman 2005).

  6. ALIGNMENTS OF BLACK HOLES WITH THEIR WARPED ACCRETION DISKS AND EPISODIC LIFETIMES OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yan-Rong; Wang, Jian-Min; Qiu, Jie; Cheng, Cheng

    2015-05-01

    Warped accretion disks have attracted intense attention because of their critical role in shaping the spin of supermassive massive black holes (SMBHs) through the Bardeen–Petterson effect, a general relativistic effect that leads to final alignments or anti-alignments between black holes and warped accretion disks. We study such alignment processes by explicitly taking into account the finite sizes of accretion disks and the episodic lifetimes of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) that delineate the duration of gas fueling onto accretion disks. We employ an approximate global model to simulate the evolution of accretion disks, allowing us to determine the gravitomagnetic torque that drives the alignments in a simple way. We then track down the evolutionary paths for mass and spin of black holes both in a single activity episode and over a series of episodes. Given with randomly and isotropically oriented gas fueling over episodes, we calculate the spin evolution with different episodic lifetimes and find that it is quite sensitive to the lifetimes. We therefore propose that the spin distribution of SMBHs can place constraints on the episodic lifetimes of AGNs and vice versa. The applications of our results on the observed spin distributions of SMBHs and the observed episodic lifetimes of AGNs are discussed, although both measurements at present are too ambiguous for us to draw a firm conclusion. Our prescription can be easily incorporated into semi-analytic models for black hole growth and spin evolution.

  7. Suppression of the accretion rate in thin discs around binary black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragusa, Enrico; Lodato, Giuseppe; Price, Daniel J.

    2016-08-01

    We present three-dimensional Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations investigating the dependence of the accretion rate on the disc thickness around an equal-mass, circular black hole binary system. We find that for thick/hot discs, with H/R ≳ 0.1, the binary torque does not prevent the gas from penetrating the cavity formed in the disc by the binary (in line with previous investigations). The situation drastically changes for thinner discs; in this case the mass accretion rate is suppressed, such that only a fraction (linearly dependent on H/R) of the available gas is able to flow within the cavity and accrete on to the binary. Extrapolating this result to the cold and thin accretion discs expected around supermassive black hole binary systems implies that this kind of system accretes less material than predicted so far, with consequences not only for the electromagnetic and gravitational waves emissions during the late inspiral phase but also for the recoil speed of the black hole formed after binary coalescence, thus influencing also the evolutionary path both of the binary and of the host galaxy. Our results, being scale-free, are also applicable to equal-mass, circular binaries of stellar mass black holes, such as the progenitor of the recently discovered gravitational wave source GW150914.

  8. The coevolution of galaxies and supermassive black holes: a local perspective.

    PubMed

    Heckman, Timothy M; Kauffmann, Guinevere

    2011-07-01

    One of the most fascinating discoveries in the past decade was that galaxies typically contain a centrally located black hole with a mass that is millions or even billions of times that of the Sun. There is now compelling evidence that we cannot understand how galaxies formed and evolved without understanding the life cycles of these supermassive black holes (and vice versa). We summarize the current understanding of this coevolution of galaxies and supermassive black holes (based largely on observations of the local, present-day universe) and describe prospects for the future.

  9. Observing the dynamics of supermassive black hole binaries with pulsar timing arrays.

    PubMed

    Mingarelli, C M F; Grover, K; Sidery, T; Smith, R J E; Vecchio, A

    2012-08-24

    Pulsar timing arrays are a prime tool to study unexplored astrophysical regimes with gravitational waves. Here, we show that the detection of gravitational radiation from individually resolvable supermassive black hole binary systems can yield direct information about the masses and spins of the black holes, provided that the gravitational-wave-induced timing fluctuations both at the pulsar and at Earth are detected. This in turn provides a map of the nonlinear dynamics of the gravitational field and a new avenue to tackle open problems in astrophysics connected to the formation and evolution of supermassive black holes. We discuss the potential, the challenges, and the limitations of these observations.

  10. Understanding the build-up of supermassive black holes and galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrera, Francisco; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Georgakakis, Antonis

    2016-07-01

    One of the main open questions in modern Astrophysics is understanding the coupled growth of supermassive black holes by accretion and their host galaxies via star formation, from their peak at redshifts z~ 1-4 to the present time. The generic scenario proposed involves an early phase of intense black hole growth that takes place behind large obscuring columns of inflowing dust and gas clouds. It is postulated that this is followed by a blow-out stage during which some form of AGN feedback controls the fate of the interstellar medium and hence, the evolution of the galaxy. X-rays are essential for testing this scenario as they uniquely probe AGN at both the early heavily obscured stage and the later blow-out phase. X-ray spectral analysis can identify the smoking gun evidence of heavily obscured black hole growth (e.g. intense iron Kalpha line). It therefore provides the most robust method for compiling clean samples of deeply shrouded AGN with well-defined selection functions and unbiased determinations of their intrinsic properties (accretion luminosity, obscuring column). X-rays are also the best window for studying in detail AGN feedback. This process ultimately originates in the innermost regions close to the supermassive black hole and is dominated, in terms of energy and mass flux, by highly ionisedmaterial that remains invisible at other wavelengths. The most important epoch for investigating the relation between AGN and galaxies is the redshift range z~1-4, when most black holes and stars we see in the present-day Universe were put in place. Unfortunately, exhaustive efforts with current high-energy telescopes only scrape the tip of the iceberg of the most obscured AGN population. Moreover, Xray studies of the incidence, nature and energetics of AGN feedback are limited to the local Universe. The Athena observatory will provide the technological leap required for a breakthrough in our understanding of AGN and galaxy evolution at the heyday of the Universe

  11. CIRCUMBINARY MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC ACCRETION INTO INSPIRALING BINARY BLACK HOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, Scott C.; Mundim, Bruno C.; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Campanelli, Manuela; Zlochower, Yosef; Krolik, Julian H.; Yunes, Nicolas

    2012-08-10

    We have simulated the magnetohydrodynamic evolution of a circumbinary disk surrounding an equal-mass binary comprising two non-spinning black holes during the period in which the disk inflow time is comparable to the binary evolution time due to gravitational radiation. Both the changing spacetime and the binary orbital evolution are described by an innovative technique utilizing high-order post-Newtonian approximations. Prior to the beginning of the inspiral, the structure of the circumbinary disk is predicted well by extrapolation from Newtonian results: a gap of roughly two binary separation radii is cleared, and matter piles up at the outer edge of this gap as inflow is retarded by torques exerted by the binary; the accretion rate is roughly half its value at large radius. During inspiral, the inner edge of the disk initially moves inward in coordination with the shrinking binary, but-as the orbital evolution accelerates-the inward motion of the disk edge falls behind the rate of binary compression. In this stage, the binary torque falls substantially, but the accretion rate decreases by only 10%-20%. When the binary separation is tens of gravitational radii, the rest-mass efficiency of disk radiation is a few percent, suggesting that supermassive binary black holes could be very luminous at this stage of their evolution. Inner disk heating is modulated at a beat frequency comparable to the binary orbital frequency. However, a disk with sufficient surface density to be luminous may be optically thick, suppressing periodic modulation of the luminosity.

  12. Observational constraints on black hole accretion disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Edison P.

    1994-01-01

    We review the empirical constraints on accretion disk models of stellar-mass black holes based on recent multiwavelength observational results. In addition to time-averaged emission spectra, the time evolutions of the intensity and spectrum provide critical information about the structure, stability, and dynamics of the disk. Using the basic thermal Keplerian disk paradigm, we consider in particular generalizations of the standard optically thin disk models needed to accommodate the extremely rich variety of dynamical phenomena exhibited by black hole candidates ranging from flares of electron-positron annihilations and quasiperiodic oscillations in the X-ray intensity to X-ray novae activity. These in turn provide probes of the disk structure and global geometry. The goal is to construct a single unified framework to interpret a large variety of black hole phenomena. This paper will concentrate on the interface between basic theory and observational data modeling.

  13. Can Supermassive Black Holes Influence the Evolution of their Host Galaxies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tombesi, Francesco; Veilleux, Sylvain; Reeves, James; Reynolds, Christopher S.

    2016-04-01

    Powerful winds driven by active galactic nuclei (AGN) are often invoked to play a fundamental role in the evolution of both supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and their host galaxies, quenching star formation and explaining the tight SMBH-galaxy relations. A strong support of this "quasar-mode" feedback came from the recent X-ray observation of a mildly relativistic accretion disk wind in the ultraluminous infrared galaxy IRAS F11119+3257 hosting a luminous quasar at the center. Energetics arguments indicate a connection with a massive, large-scale molecular outflow observed in infrared with Herschel. This seems to be in agreement with theoretical models in which AGN winds drive hot bubbles in the host galaxy medium, thereby providing a link between the SMBH and the gas out of which stars form. This work was the “cover story” of the March 26th 2015 issue of Nature. Revolutionary improvements in this field are expected from ASTRO-H and Athena.

  14. General Relativistic Simulations of Magnetized Plasmas around Merging Supermassive Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacomazzo, Bruno; Baker, John; Miller, M. Coleman; Reynolds, Christopher; van Meter, James

    2012-03-01

    Coalescing supermassive black hole binaries are produced by the mergers of galaxies and they are among the most powerful sources of gravitational waves that can be detected by space gravitational observatories. In many cases it is believed that the merger of supermassive black holes may happen in presence of matter and magnetic fields and in this case the gravitational wave signal may be accompanied by an electro-magnetic counterpart. We present the first general relativistic simulations of a magnetized plasma around merging supermassive black holes using the general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic code Whisky. By considering different magnetic field strengths, going from non-magnetically dominated to magnetically dominated regimes, we explore how magnetic fields affect the dynamics of the plasma and the possible emission of electromagnetic signals.

  15. An actively accreting massive black hole in the dwarf starburst galaxy Henize2-10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reines, Amy E.; Sivakoff, Gregory R.; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Brogan, Crystal L.

    2011-02-01

    Supermassive black holes are now thought to lie at the heart of every giant galaxy with a spheroidal component, including our own Milky Way. The birth and growth of the first `seed' black holes in the earlier Universe, however, is observationally unconstrained and we are only beginning to piece together a scenario for their subsequent evolution. Here we report that the nearby dwarf starburst galaxy Henize2-10 (refs 5 and 6) contains a compact radio source at the dynamical centre of the galaxy that is spatially coincident with a hard X-ray source. From these observations, we conclude that Henize2-10 harbours an actively accreting central black hole with a mass of approximately one million solar masses. This nearby dwarf galaxy, simultaneously hosting a massive black hole and an extreme burst of star formation, is analogous in many ways to galaxies in the infant Universe during the early stages of black-hole growth and galaxy mass assembly. Our results confirm that nearby star-forming dwarf galaxies can indeed form massive black holes, and that by implication so can their primordial counterparts. Moreover, the lack of a substantial spheroidal component in Henize2-10 indicates that supermassive black-hole growth may precede the build-up of galaxy spheroids.

  16. An actively accreting massive black hole in the dwarf starburst galaxy Henize 2-10.

    PubMed

    Reines, Amy E; Sivakoff, Gregory R; Johnson, Kelsey E; Brogan, Crystal L

    2011-02-01

    Supermassive black holes are now thought to lie at the heart of every giant galaxy with a spheroidal component, including our own Milky Way. The birth and growth of the first 'seed' black holes in the earlier Universe, however, is observationally unconstrained and we are only beginning to piece together a scenario for their subsequent evolution. Here we report that the nearby dwarf starburst galaxy Henize 2-10 (refs 5 and 6) contains a compact radio source at the dynamical centre of the galaxy that is spatially coincident with a hard X-ray source. From these observations, we conclude that Henize 2-10 harbours an actively accreting central black hole with a mass of approximately one million solar masses. This nearby dwarf galaxy, simultaneously hosting a massive black hole and an extreme burst of star formation, is analogous in many ways to galaxies in the infant Universe during the early stages of black-hole growth and galaxy mass assembly. Our results confirm that nearby star-forming dwarf galaxies can indeed form massive black holes, and that by implication so can their primordial counterparts. Moreover, the lack of a substantial spheroidal component in Henize 2-10 indicates that supermassive black-hole growth may precede the build-up of galaxy spheroids.

  17. The Sharpest Spatial View of a Black Hole Accretion Flow from the Chandra X-ray Visionary Project Observation of the NGC 3115 Bondi Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irwin, Jimmy; Wong, K.; Shcherbakov, R. V.; Yukita, M.; Mathews, W. G.

    2013-04-01

    Spatially resolved X-ray spectra of hot gas within a black hole accretion flow provide powerful constraints on accretion models. However, very few nearby supermassive black holes have large enough Bondi radii to be spatially resolved even with Chandra. The best candidate for such a study is the 4-5 arcsec (188-235 pc) Bondi region of the nearest billion solar mass supermassive black hole in the S0 galaxy NGC 3115. We present observational results from our Chandra X-ray Visionary Project (XVP) of NGC 3115, a deep 1 Msec observation that allows us to remove most contaminating X-ray point sources in the region close to the black hole, and to create the first detailed density and temperature profiles of the gas within the Bondi region of a radiatively inefficient accretion flow. Interpretation of the results are also discussed.

  18. Suppression of star formation in early-type galaxies by feedback from supermassive black holes.

    PubMed

    Schawinski, Kevin; Khochfar, Sadegh; Kaviraj, Sugata; Yi, Sukyoung K; Boselli, Alessandro; Barlow, Tom; Conrow, Tim; Forster, Karl; Friedman, Peter G; Martin, D Chris; Morrissey, Patrick; Neff, Susan; Schiminovich, David; Seibert, Mark; Small, Todd; Wyder, Ted K; Bianchi, Luciana; Donas, Jose; Heckman, Tim; Lee, Young-Wook; Madore, Barry; Milliard, Bruno; Rich, R Michael; Szalay, Alex

    2006-08-24

    Detailed high-resolution observations of the innermost regions of nearby galaxies have revealed the presence of supermassive black holes. These black holes may interact with their host galaxies by means of 'feedback' in the form of energy and material jets; this feedback affects the evolution of the host and gives rise to observed relations between the black hole and the host. Here we report observations of the ultraviolet emissions of massive early-type galaxies. We derive an empirical relation for a critical black-hole mass (as a function of velocity dispersion) above which the outflows from these black holes suppress star formation in their hosts by heating and expelling all available cold gas. Supermassive black holes are negligible in mass compared to their hosts but nevertheless seem to play a critical role in the star formation history of galaxies.

  19. Direct collapse to supermassive black hole seeds: comparing the AMR and SPH approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yang; Nagamine, Kentaro; Shlosman, Isaac

    2016-07-01

    We provide detailed comparison between the adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) code ENZO-2.4 and the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH)/N-body code GADGET-3 in the context of isolated or cosmological direct baryonic collapse within dark matter (DM) haloes to form supermassive black holes. Gas flow is examined by following evolution of basic parameters of accretion flows. Both codes show an overall agreement in the general features of the collapse; however, many subtle differences exist. For isolated models, the codes increase their spatial and mass resolutions at different pace, which leads to substantially earlier collapse in SPH than in AMR cases due to higher gravitational resolution in GADGET-3. In cosmological runs, the AMR develops a slightly higher baryonic resolution than SPH during halo growth via cold accretion permeated by mergers. Still, both codes agree in the build-up of DM and baryonic structures. However, with the onset of collapse, this difference in mass and spatial resolution is amplified, so evolution of SPH models begins to lag behind. Such a delay can have effect on formation/destruction rate of H2 due to UV background, and on basic properties of host haloes. Finally, isolated non-cosmological models in spinning haloes, with spin parameter λ ˜ 0.01-0.07, show delayed collapse for greater λ, but pace of this increase is faster for AMR. Within our simulation set-up, GADGET-3 requires significantly larger computational resources than ENZO-2.4 during collapse, and needs similar resources, during the pre-collapse, cosmological structure formation phase. Yet it benefits from substantially higher gravitational force and hydrodynamic resolutions, except at the end of collapse.

  20. X-RAY POLARIZATION FROM ACCRETING BLACK HOLES: CORONAL EMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Schnittman, Jeremy D.; Krolik, Julian H. E-mail: jhk@pha.jhu.ed

    2010-04-01

    We present new calculations of X-ray polarization from accreting black holes (BHs), using a Monte Carlo ray-tracing code in full general relativity. In our model, an optically thick disk in the BH equatorial plane produces thermal seed photons with polarization oriented parallel to the disk surface. These seed photons are then inverse-Compton scattered through a hot (but thermal) corona, producing a hard X-ray power-law spectrum. We consider three different models for the corona geometry: a wedge 'sandwich' with aspect ratio H/R and vertically integrated optical depth tau{sub 0} constant throughout the disk; an inhomogeneous 'clumpy' corona with a finite number of hot clouds distributed randomly above the disk within a wedge geometry; and a spherical corona of uniform density, centered on the BH and surrounded by a truncated thermal disk with inner radius R{sub edge}. In all cases, we find a characteristic transition from horizontal polarization at low energies to vertical polarization above the thermal peak; the vertical direction is defined as the projection of the BH spin axis on the plane of the sky. We show how the details of the spectropolarization signal can be used to distinguish between these models and infer various properties of the corona and BH. Although the bulk of this paper focuses on stellar-mass BHs, we also consider the effects of coronal scattering on the X-ray polarization signal from supermassive BHs in active galactic nuclei.

  1. The lamppost model of accreting black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zdziarski, A.

    2016-06-01

    Niedzwiecki, Zdziarski & Szanecki (2016, ApJL, submitted) have studied the lamppost model, in which the X-ray source in accreting black-hole systems is located on the rotation axis close to the horizon. We point out a number of inconsistencies in the widely used lamppost model relxilllp. They appear to invalidate those model fitting results for which the source distances from the horizon are within several gravitational radii. Furthermore, we note that if those results were correct, most of the photons produced in the lamppost would be trapped by the black hole, and the source luminosity as measured at infinity would be much larger than that observed. This appears to be in conflict with the observed smooth state transitions between the hard and soft states of X-ray binaries. The required increase of the accretion rate and the associated efficiency reduction present also a problem for AGNs. Then, those models imply the luminosity measured in the local frame much higher than the dissipated power due to time dilation and redshift, and the electron temperature significantly higher than that observed. We show that these conditions imply that the fitted sources would be out of the pair equilibrium.

  2. GRMHD simulations of black hole accretion and jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchekhovskoy, Alexander

    2014-03-01

    As black holes accrete surrounding gas, they often produce relativistic, collimated outflows, or jets. Jets are expected to form in the vicinity of a black hole, making them powerful probes of strong-field gravity. However, how the properties of a jet connect to those of the accretion flow and the black hole (e.g. black hole spin) remains an area of active research. I will discuss recent progress in first-principles general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) models of black hole accretion-jet systems, specifically the emerging picture of how jets form and the factors that determine jet properties. The speaker is supported by NASA through Einstein Postdoctoral Fellowship.

  3. Black Hole Advective Accretion Disks with Optical Depth Transition

    SciTech Connect

    Artemove, Y.V.; Bisnovatyi-Kogan, G.S.; Igumenshchev, I.V.; Novikov, I.D.

    2006-02-01

    We have constructed numerically global solutions of advective accretion disks around black holes that describe a continuous transition between the effectively optically thick outer and optically thin inner disk regions. We have concentrated on models of accretion flows with large mass accretion rates, and we have employed a bridging formula for radiative losses at high and low effective optical depths.

  4. BLINDLY DETECTING ORBITAL MODULATIONS OF JETS FROM MERGING SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES

    SciTech Connect

    O'Shaughnessy, R.; Kaplan, D. L.; Kamble, A.; Sesana, A. E-mail: kaplan@uwm.edu E-mail: alberto.sesana@aei.mpg.de

    2011-12-20

    In the last few years before merger, supermassive black hole (SMBH) binaries will rapidly inspiral and precess in a magnetic field imposed by a surrounding circumbinary disk. Multiple simulations suggest that this relative motion will convert some of the local energy to a Poynting-dominated outflow, with a luminosity {approx}10{sup 43} erg s{sup -1} (B/10{sup 4} G){sup 2}(M/10{sup 8} M{sub Sun }){sup 2}(v/0.4c){sup 2}, some of which may emerge as synchrotron emission at frequencies near 1 GHz where current and planned wide-field radio surveys will operate. On top of a secular increase in power (and v) on the gravitational wave inspiral timescale, orbital motion will produce significant, detectable modulations, both on orbital periods and (if black hole spins are not aligned with the binary's total angular momenta) spin-orbit precession timescales. Because the gravitational wave merger time increases rapidly with separation, we find that vast numbers of these transients are ubiquitously predicted, unless explicitly ruled out (by low efficiency {epsilon}) or obscured (by accretion geometry f{sub geo}). If the fraction of Poynting flux converted to radio emission times the fraction of lines of sight accessible f{sub geo} is sufficiently large (f{sub geo}{epsilon} > 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} for a 1 year orbital period), at least one event is accessible to future blind surveys at a nominal 10{sup 4} deg{sup 2} with 0.5 mJy sensitivity. Our procedure generalizes to other flux-limited surveys designed to investigate electromagnetic (EM) signatures associated with many modulations produced by merging SMBH binaries.

  5. The Formation of Galaxies and Supermassive Black Holes: Insights and Puzzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somerville, Rachel S.

    2014-01-01

    Galaxies exist at a nexus of physical scales, molded by physics ranging from the “small” scales of star formation and accretion onto nuclear black holes, up to the very large scales of the cosmic web. It is this special property that makes galaxies so fascinating and so challenging to study, both observationally and theoretically. The past two decades have seen enormous progress in our understanding of how galaxies form and evolve. We have surveyed slices of the sky at many wavelengths, and built sophisticated models and simulations that attempt to capture the complex array of physics that influences galaxy evolution. We are only now coming into possession of large samples of galaxies for which we can study the internal structure as well as the large scale environment in detail, from the epoch of ‘cosmic high noon’ ( 2) to the present. At the same time, numerical simulations set within a cosmological framework have only recently succeeded in building galaxies with realistic internal structures. It has been known for several years that galaxies are growing in mass and radius, experiencing morphological transformation, and ‘downsizing’ their star formation activity over cosmic time. Now, new observations are painting a picture in which the internal structure of galaxies (size and morphology) is intimately linked with their star formation activity and formation history. There are hints that the co-evolution of supermassive black holes with their host galaxies may be the driving force behind these correlations - but this remains controversial. While cosmological simulations set within the hierarchical formation scenario of Cold Dark Matter currently offer a plausible story for interpreting these observations, many puzzles remain. I will review recent insights gleaned from deep multi-wavelength surveys and state-of-the-art theoretical models and simulations, as well as highlight the open questions and challenges for the future.

  6. Active galaxies. A fast and long-lived outflow from the supermassive black hole in NGC 5548.

    PubMed

    Kaastra, J S; Kriss, G A; Cappi, M; Mehdipour, M; Petrucci, P-O; Steenbrugge, K C; Arav, N; Behar, E; Bianchi, S; Boissay, R; Branduardi-Raymont, G; Chamberlain, C; Costantini, E; Ely, J C; Ebrero, J; Di Gesu, L; Harrison, F A; Kaspi, S; Malzac, J; De Marco, B; Matt, G; Nandra, K; Paltani, S; Person, R; Peterson, B M; Pinto, C; Ponti, G; Pozo Nuñez, F; De Rosa, A; Seta, H; Ursini, F; de Vries, C P; Walton, D J; Whewell, M

    2014-07-01

    Supermassive black holes in the nuclei of active galaxies expel large amounts of matter through powerful winds of ionized gas. The archetypal active galaxy NGC 5548 has been studied for decades, and high-resolution x-ray and ultraviolet (UV) observations have previously shown a persistent ionized outflow. An observing campaign in 2013 with six space observatories shows the nucleus to be obscured by a long-lasting, clumpy stream of ionized gas not seen before. It blocks 90% of the soft x-ray emission and causes simultaneous deep, broad UV absorption troughs. The outflow velocities of this gas are up to five times faster than those in the persistent outflow, and, at a distance of only a few light days from the nucleus, it may likely originate from the accretion disk.

  7. Active galaxies. A fast and long-lived outflow from the supermassive black hole in NGC 5548.

    PubMed

    Kaastra, J S; Kriss, G A; Cappi, M; Mehdipour, M; Petrucci, P-O; Steenbrugge, K C; Arav, N; Behar, E; Bianchi, S; Boissay, R; Branduardi-Raymont, G; Chamberlain, C; Costantini, E; Ely, J C; Ebrero, J; Di Gesu, L; Harrison, F A; Kaspi, S; Malzac, J; De Marco, B; Matt, G; Nandra, K; Paltani, S; Person, R; Peterson, B M; Pinto, C; Ponti, G; Pozo Nuñez, F; De Rosa, A; Seta, H; Ursini, F; de Vries, C P; Walton, D J; Whewell, M

    2014-07-01

    Supermassive black holes in the nuclei of active galaxies expel large amounts of matter through powerful winds of ionized gas. The archetypal active galaxy NGC 5548 has been studied for decades, and high-resolution x-ray and ultraviolet (UV) observations have previously shown a persistent ionized outflow. An observing campaign in 2013 with six space observatories shows the nucleus to be obscured by a long-lasting, clumpy stream of ionized gas not seen before. It blocks 90% of the soft x-ray emission and causes simultaneous deep, broad UV absorption troughs. The outflow velocities of this gas are up to five times faster than those in the persistent outflow, and, at a distance of only a few light days from the nucleus, it may likely originate from the accretion disk. PMID:24994647

  8. Coevolution (Or Not) of Supermassive Black Holes and Host Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kormendy, John; Ho, Luis C.

    2013-08-01

    Supermassive black holes (BHs) have been found in 85 galaxies by dynamical modeling of spatially resolved kinematics. The Hubble Space Telescope revolutionized BH research by advancing the subject from its proof-of-concept phase into quantitative studies of BH demographics. Most influential was the discovery of a tight correlation between BH mass [Formula: see text] and the velocity dispersion σ of the bulge component of the host galaxy. Together with similar correlations with bulge luminosity and mass, this led to the widespread belief that BHs and bulges coevolve by regulating each other's growth. Conclusions based on one set of correlations from [Formula: see text] in brightest cluster ellipticals to [Formula: see text] in the smallest galaxies dominated BH work for more than a decade. New results are now replacing this simple story with a richer and more plausible picture in which BHs correlate differently with different galaxy components. A reasonable aim is to use this progress to refine our understanding of BH-galaxy coevolution. BHs with masses of 105-106M⊙ are found in many bulgeless galaxies. Therefore, classical (elliptical-galaxy-like) bulges are not necessary for BH formation. On the other hand, although they live in galaxy disks, BHs do not correlate with galaxy disks. Also, any [Formula: see text] correlations with the properties of disk-grown pseudobulges and dark matter halos are weak enough to imply no close coevolution. The above and other correlations of host-galaxy parameters with each other and with [Formula: see text] suggest that there are four regimes of BH feedback. (1) Local, secular, episodic, and stochastic feeding of small BHs in largely bulgeless galaxies involves too little energy to result in coevolution. (2) Global feeding in major, wet galaxy mergers rapidly grows giant BHs in short-duration, quasar-like events whose energy feedback does affect galaxy evolution. The resulting hosts are classical bulges and coreless

  9. Cosmological simulations of the growth of supermassive black holes and feedback from active galactic nuclei: method and tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, C. M.; Schaye, Joop

    2009-09-01

    We present a method that self-consistently tracks the growth of supermassive black holes (BHs) and the feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN) in cosmological, hydrodynamical simulations. Our model is a substantially modified version of the one introduced by Springel, Di Matteo & Hernquist implemented in a significantly expanded version of the GADGET III code, which contains new prescriptions for star formation, supernova feedback, radiative cooling and chemodynamics. We simulate the growth of BHs from an initial seed state via Eddington-limited accretion of the surrounding gas, and via mergers with other BHs. Because cosmological simulations at present lack both the resolution and the physics to model the multiphase interstellar medium, they tend to strongly underestimate the Bondi-Hoyle accretion rate. To allow low-mass BHs to grow, it is therefore necessary to increase the predicted Bondi-Hoyle rates in star-forming gas by large factors, either by explicitly multiplying the accretion rate by a numerical correction factor or by using an unresolved, subgrid model for the gas close to the BH. We explore the physical regimes where the use of such multiplicative factors is reasonable, and through this introduce a new prescription for gas accretion by BHs. Feedback from AGN is modelled by coupling a fraction of the rest-mass energy of the accreted gas thermally into the surrounding medium. We describe the implementation as well as the limitations of the model in detail and motivate all the changes relative to previous work. We demonstrate how general physical considerations can be used to choose many of the parameters of the model and demonstrate that the fiducial model reproduces observational constraints. We employ a large suite of cosmological simulations, in which the parameters of the BH model are varied away from their fiducial values, to investigate the robustness of the predictions for the cosmic star formation history and the redshift zero cosmic BH

  10. Constraints on individual supermassive black hole binaries from pulsar timing array limits on continuous gravitational waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schutz, Katelin; Ma, Chung-Pei

    2016-06-01

    Pulsar timing arrays (PTAs) are placing increasingly stringent constraints on the strain amplitude of continuous gravitational waves emitted by supermassive black hole binaries on subparsec scales. In this paper, we incorporate independent information about the dynamical masses Mbh of supermassive black holes in specific galaxies at known distances and use this additional information to further constrain whether or not those galaxies could host a detectable supermassive black hole binary. We estimate the strain amplitudes from individual binaries as a function of binary mass ratio for two samples of nearby galaxies: (1) those with direct dynamical measurements of Mbh in the literature, and (2) the 116 most massive early-type galaxies (and thus likely hosts of the most massive black holes) within 108 Mpc from the MASSIVE Survey. Our exploratory analysis shows that the current PTA upper limits on continuous waves (as a function of angular position in the sky) can already constrain the mass ratios of hypothetical black hole binaries in many galaxies in our samples. The constraints are stronger for galaxies with larger Mbh and at smaller distances. For the black holes with Mbh ≳ 5 × 109 M⊙ at the centres of NGC 1600, NGC 4889, NGC 4486 (M87), and NGC 4649 (M60), any binary companion in orbit within the PTA frequency bands would have to have a mass ratio of a few per cent or less.

  11. Hunting for Infrared Signatures of Supermassive Black Hole Activity in Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hainline, Kevin; Reines, Amy; Greene, Jenny; Stern, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    In order to explore the origin of the relationship between the growth of a galaxy and its central supermassive black hole, evidence must be found for black holes in galaxies at a wide range in masses. Searching for supermassive black holes in dwarf galaxies is especially important as these objects have less complicated merger histories, and they may host black holes that are similar to early proposed ``seed'' black holes. However, this selection is complicated by the fact that star formation in these dwarf galaxies can often mask the optical signatures of supermassive black hole growth and active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity in these objects. The all-sky infrared coverage offered by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has been used to great success to select AGNs in more massive galaxies, but great care must be used when using infrared selection techniques on samples of dwarf galaxies. In particular, compact, highly star-forming dwarf galaxies can have infrared colors that may lead them to be erroneously selected as AGNs. In this talk, I will discuss recent work exploring infrared selection of AGN candidates in dwarf galaxies, and present a set of potential IR dwarf-galaxy AGN candidates. I will also outline the importance in these results with respect to future selection of AGNs in low-metallicity galaxies at high-redshift.

  12. Dark-matter haloes and the M-σ relation for supermassive black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larkin, Adam C.; McLaughlin, Dean E.

    2016-10-01

    We develop models of two-component spherical galaxies to establish scaling relations linking the properties of spheroids at z = 0 (total stellar masses, effective radii Re and velocity dispersions within Re) to the properties of their dark-matter haloes at both z = 0 and higher redshifts. Our main motivation is the widely accepted idea that the accretion-driven growth of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in protogalaxies is limited by quasar-mode feedback and gas blow-out. The SMBH masses, MBH, should then be connected to the dark-matter potential wells at the redshift zqso of the blow-out. We specifically consider the example of a power-law dependence on the maximum circular speed in a protogalactic dark-matter halo: M_{BH}∝ V^4_{d,pk}, as could be expected if quasar-mode feedback were momentum-driven. For haloes with a given Vd,pk at a given zqso ≥ 0, our model scaling relations give a typical stellar velocity dispersion σap(Re) at z = 0. Thus, they transform a theoretical MBH-Vd,pk relation into a prediction for an observable MBH-σap(Re) relation. We find the latter to be distinctly non-linear in log-log space. Its shape depends on the generic redshift evolution of haloes in a Λ cold dark matter cosmology and the systematic variation of stellar-to-dark matter mass fraction at z = 0, in addition to any assumptions about the physics underlying the MBH-Vd,pk relation. Despite some clear limitations of the form we use for MBH versus Vd,pk, and even though we do not include any SMBH growth through dry mergers at low redshift, our results for MBH-σap(Re) compare well to data for local early types if we take zqso ˜ 2-4.

  13. PHYSICS OF THE GALACTIC CENTER CLOUD G2, ON ITS WAY TOWARD THE SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE

    SciTech Connect

    Burkert, A.; Schartmann, M.; Alig, C.; Gillessen, S.; Genzel, R.; Fritz, T. K.; Eisenhauer, F.

    2012-05-01

    We investigate the origin, structure, and evolution of the small gas cloud G2, which is on an orbit almost straight into the Galactic central supermassive black hole (SMBH). G2 is a sensitive probe of the hot accretion zone of Sgr A*, requiring gas temperatures and densities that agree well with models of captured shock-heated stellar winds. Its mass is equal to the critical mass below which cold clumps would be destroyed quickly by evaporation. Its mass is also constrained by the fact that at apocenter its sound crossing timescale was equal to its infall timescale. Our numerical simulations show that the observed structure and evolution of G2 can be well reproduced if it forms in pressure equilibrium with its surroundings in 1995 at a distance from the SMBH of 7.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} cm. If the cloud had formed at apocenter in the 'clockwise' stellar disk as expected from its orbit, it would be torn into a very elongated spaghetti-like filament by 2011, which is not observed. This problem can be solved if G2 is the head of a larger, shell-like structure that formed at apocenter. Our numerical simulations show that this scenario explains not only G2's observed kinematical and geometrical properties but also the Br{gamma} observations of a low surface brightness gas tail that trails the cloud. In 2013, while passing the SMBH, G2 will break up into a string of droplets that within the next 30 years will mix with the surrounding hot gas and trigger cycles of active galactic nucleus activity.

  14. Supermassive black hole seed formation at high redshifts: long-term evolution of the direct collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shlosman, Isaac; Choi, Jun-Hwan; Begelman, Mitchell C.; Nagamine, Kentaro

    2016-02-01

    We use cosmological adaptive mesh refinement code ENZO zoom-in simulations to study the long-term evolution of the collapsing gas within dark matter haloes at z. This direct collapse process is a leading candidate for rapid formation of supermassive black hole (SMBH) seeds. To circumvent the Courant condition at small radii, we apply the sink particle method, focusing on evolution on scales ˜0.01-10 pc. The collapse proceeds in two stages, with the secondary runaway happening within the central 10 pc. The sink particles form when the collapsing gas requires additional refinement of the grid size at the highest refinement level. Their growth is negligible with the sole exception of the central seed which grows dramatically to Mseed ˜ 2 × 106 M⊙ in ˜2 Myr, confirming the feasibility of this path to the SMBH. The variability of angular momentum in the accreted gas results in the formation of two misaligned discs. Both discs lie within the Roche limit of the central seed. While the inner disc is geometrically thin and weakly asymmetric, the outer disc flares due to turbulent motions as a result of the massive inflow along a pair of penetrating filaments. The filamentary inflow determines the dominant Fourier modes in this disc - these modes have a non-self-gravitational origin. We do not confirm that m = 1 is a dominant mode that drives the inflow in the presence of a central massive object. The overall configuration appears to be generic, and is expected to form when the central seed becomes sufficiently massive.

  15. Supermassive black hole formation at high redshifts via direct collapse in a cosmological context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jun-Hwan; Shlosman, Isaac; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    2015-07-01

    We study the early stage of the formation of seed supermassive black holes via direct collapse in dark matter (DM) haloes, in the cosmological context. We perform high-resolution zoom-in simulations of such collapse at high z. Using the adaptive mesh refinement code ENZO, we resolve the formation and growth of a DM halo, until its virial temperature reaches ˜104 K, atomic cooling turns on, and collapse ensues. We demonstrate that direct collapse proceeds in two stages, although they are not well separated. The first stage is triggered by the onset of atomic cooling, and leads to rapidly increasing accretion rate with radius, from dot{M}˜ 0.1 M_{⊙} yr^{-1} at the halo virial radius to few M⊙ yr-1, around the scale radius Rs ˜ 30 pc of the NFW DM density profile. The second stage of the collapse commences when the gas density takes precedence over the DM density. This is associated with the gas decoupling from the DM gravitational potential. The ensuing collapse approximates that of an isothermal sphere with dot{M}{(r)}˜ const. We confirm that the gas loses its angular momentum through non-axisymmetric perturbations and gravitational torques, to overcome the centrifugal barrier. During the course of the collapse, this angular momentum transfer process happens on nearly all spatial scales, and the angular momentum vector of the gas varies with position and time. Collapsing gas also exhibits supersonic turbulent motions which suppress gas fragmentation, and are characterized by density PDF consisting of a lognormal part and a high-density power-law tail.

  16. Physics of the Galactic Center Cloud G2, on Its Way toward the Supermassive Black Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkert, A.; Schartmann, M.; Alig, C.; Gillessen, S.; Genzel, R.; Fritz, T. K.; Eisenhauer, F.

    2012-05-01

    We investigate the origin, structure, and evolution of the small gas cloud G2, which is on an orbit almost straight into the Galactic central supermassive black hole (SMBH). G2 is a sensitive probe of the hot accretion zone of Sgr A*, requiring gas temperatures and densities that agree well with models of captured shock-heated stellar winds. Its mass is equal to the critical mass below which cold clumps would be destroyed quickly by evaporation. Its mass is also constrained by the fact that at apocenter its sound crossing timescale was equal to its infall timescale. Our numerical simulations show that the observed structure and evolution of G2 can be well reproduced if it forms in pressure equilibrium with its surroundings in 1995 at a distance from the SMBH of 7.6 × 1016 cm. If the cloud had formed at apocenter in the "clockwise" stellar disk as expected from its orbit, it would be torn into a very elongated spaghetti-like filament by 2011, which is not observed. This problem can be solved if G2 is the head of a larger, shell-like structure that formed at apocenter. Our numerical simulations show that this scenario explains not only G2's observed kinematical and geometrical properties but also the Brγ observations of a low surface brightness gas tail that trails the cloud. In 2013, while passing the SMBH, G2 will break up into a string of droplets that within the next 30 years will mix with the surrounding hot gas and trigger cycles of active galactic nucleus activity.

  17. X-ray Signatures of Accretion in AGNs with Intermediate-mass Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Luis

    2009-09-01

    Supermassive (10^6-10^9 solar mass) black holes (BHs) are closely linked with the evolution of early-type galaxies. Our group has discovered a new class of AGNs with intermediate-mass (10^4-10^6 solar mass) BHs in late-type galaxies. These objects offer important clues to the nature of the seeds of quasars, and their mergers may produce significant gravity waves. We have started to systematically study their multiwavelength properties. A pilot Chandra program revealed that they are unusually X-ray bright, possibly because their low BH masses and high accretion rates sustain a slim accretion disk. We propose to extend and confirm our preliminary results by performing a comprehensive survey of the X-ray properties of a larger sample of this new class of AGNs.

  18. The Equations of Motion of Compact Binaries in the Neighborhood of Supermassive Black Hole

    SciTech Connect

    Gorbatsievich, Alexander; Bobrik, Alexey

    2010-03-24

    By the use of Einstein-Infeld-Hoffmann method, the equations of motion of a binary star system in the field of a supermassive black hole are derived. In spite of the fact that the motion of a binary system as a whole can be relativistic or even ultra-relativistic with respect to the supermassive black hole, it is shown, that under the assumption of non-relativistic relative motion of the stars in binary system, the motion of the binary system as a whole satisfies the Mathisson-Papapetrou equations with additional terms depending on quadrupole moments. Exemplary case of ultrarelativistic motion of a binary neutron star in the vicinity of non-rotating black hole is considered. It it shown that the motion of binary's center of mass may considerably differ from geodesic motion.

  19. Phantom energy accretion onto black holes in a cyclic universe

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Chengyi

    2008-09-15

    Black holes pose a serious problem in cyclic or oscillating cosmology. It is speculated that, in the cyclic universe with phantom turnarounds, black holes will be torn apart by phantom energy prior to turnaround before they can create any problems. In this paper, using the mechanism of phantom accretion onto black holes, we find that black holes do not disappear before phantom turnaround. But the remanent black holes will not cause any problems due to Hawking evaporation.

  20. Environmental Effects on the Growth of Supermassive Black Holes and Active Galactic Nucleus Feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Min-Su; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Ciotti, Luca

    2012-01-01

    We investigate how environmental effects by gas stripping alter the growth of a supermassive black hole (SMBH) and its host galaxy evolution, by means of one-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations that include both mechanical and radiative active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback effects. By changing the truncation radius of the gas distribution (Rt ), beyond which gas stripping is assumed to be effective, we simulate possible environments for satellite and central galaxies in galaxy clusters and groups. The continuous escape of gas outside the truncation radius strongly suppresses star formation, while the growth of the SMBH is less affected by gas stripping because the SMBH accretion is primarily ruled by the density of the central region. As we allow for increasing environmental effects—the truncation radius decreasing from about 410 to 50 kpc—we find that the final SMBH mass declines from about 109 to 8 × 108 M ⊙, but the outflowing mass is roughly constant at about 2 × 1010 M ⊙. There are larger changes in the mass of stars formed, which declines from about 2 × 1010 to 2 × 109 M ⊙, and the final thermal X-ray gas, which declines from about 109 to 5 × 108 M ⊙, with increasing environmental stripping. Most dramatic is the decline in the total time that the objects would be seen as quasars, which declines from 52 Myr (for Rt = 377 kpc) to 7.9 Myr (for Rt = 51 kpc). The typical case might be interpreted as a red and dead galaxy having episodic cooling flows followed by AGN feedback effects resulting in temporary transitions of the overall galaxy color from red to green or to blue, with (cluster) central galaxies spending a much larger fraction of their time in the elevated state than do satellite galaxies. Our results imply that various scaling relations for elliptical galaxies, in particular, the mass ratio between the SMBH and its host galaxy, can have dispersions due to environmental effects such as gas stripping. In addition, the simulations

  1. A supermassive black hole in an ultra-compact dwarf galaxy.

    PubMed

    Seth, Anil C; van den Bosch, Remco; Mieske, Steffen; Baumgardt, Holger; den Brok, Mark; Strader, Jay; Neumayer, Nadine; Chilingarian, Igor; Hilker, Michael; McDermid, Richard; Spitler, Lee; Brodie, Jean; Frank, Matthias J; Walsh, Jonelle L

    2014-09-18

    Ultra-compact dwarf galaxies are among the densest stellar systems in the Universe. These systems have masses of up to 2 × 10(8) solar masses, but half-light radii of just 3-50 parsecs. Dynamical mass estimates show that many such dwarfs are more massive than expected from their luminosity. It remains unclear whether these high dynamical mass estimates arise because of the presence of supermassive black holes or result from a non-standard stellar initial mass function that causes the average stellar mass to be higher than expected. Here we report adaptive optics kinematic data of the ultra-compact dwarf galaxy M60-UCD1 that show a central velocity dispersion peak exceeding 100 kilometres per second and modest rotation. Dynamical modelling of these data reveals the presence of a supermassive black hole with a mass of 2.1 × 10(7) solar masses. This is 15 per cent of the object's total mass. The high black hole mass and mass fraction suggest that M60-UCD1 is the stripped nucleus of a galaxy. Our analysis also shows that M60-UCD1's stellar mass is consistent with its luminosity, implying a large population of previously unrecognized supermassive black holes in other ultra-compact dwarf galaxies.

  2. A supermassive black hole in an ultra-compact dwarf galaxy.

    PubMed

    Seth, Anil C; van den Bosch, Remco; Mieske, Steffen; Baumgardt, Holger; den Brok, Mark; Strader, Jay; Neumayer, Nadine; Chilingarian, Igor; Hilker, Michael; McDermid, Richard; Spitler, Lee; Brodie, Jean; Frank, Matthias J; Walsh, Jonelle L

    2014-09-18

    Ultra-compact dwarf galaxies are among the densest stellar systems in the Universe. These systems have masses of up to 2 × 10(8) solar masses, but half-light radii of just 3-50 parsecs. Dynamical mass estimates show that many such dwarfs are more massive than expected from their luminosity. It remains unclear whether these high dynamical mass estimates arise because of the presence of supermassive black holes or result from a non-standard stellar initial mass function that causes the average stellar mass to be higher than expected. Here we report adaptive optics kinematic data of the ultra-compact dwarf galaxy M60-UCD1 that show a central velocity dispersion peak exceeding 100 kilometres per second and modest rotation. Dynamical modelling of these data reveals the presence of a supermassive black hole with a mass of 2.1 × 10(7) solar masses. This is 15 per cent of the object's total mass. The high black hole mass and mass fraction suggest that M60-UCD1 is the stripped nucleus of a galaxy. Our analysis also shows that M60-UCD1's stellar mass is consistent with its luminosity, implying a large population of previously unrecognized supermassive black holes in other ultra-compact dwarf galaxies. PMID:25230660

  3. Neutrino oscillation above a black hole accretion disk

    SciTech Connect

    Malkus, A.; Kneller, J. P.; McLaughlin, G. C.; Surman, R.

    2015-05-15

    We examine neutrino oscillations in the context of an accretion disk surrounding a black hole. Because accretion disks produce large quantities of neutrinos, they may be home to interesting neutrino oscillation as well. We model accretion disks associated with stellar collapse for the sake of understanding neutrino oscillations. We find that the neutrino oscillations include phenomena seen in the protoneutron star setting as well as phenomena not seen elsewhere.

  4. Emission Signatures from Sub-parsec Binary Supermassive Black Holes. I. Diagnostic Power of Broad Emission Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Khai; Bogdanović, Tamara

    2016-09-01

    Motivated by advances in observational searches for sub-parsec supermassive black hole binaries (SBHBs) made in the past few years, we develop a semi-analytic model to describe spectral emission-line signatures of these systems. The goal of this study is to aid the interpretation of spectroscopic searches for binaries and to help test one of the leading models of binary accretion flows in the literature: SBHB in a circumbinary disk. In this work, we present the methodology and a comparison of the preliminary model with the data. We model SBHB accretion flows as a set of three accretion disks: two mini-disks that are gravitationally bound to the individual black holes and a circumbinary disk. Given a physically motivated parameter space occupied by sub-parsec SBHBs, we calculate a synthetic database of nearly 15 million broad optical emission-line profiles and explore the dependence of the profile shapes on characteristic properties of SBHBs. We find that the modeled profiles show distinct statistical properties as a function of the semimajor axis, mass ratio, eccentricity of the binary, and the degree of alignment of the triple disk system. This suggests that the broad emission-line profiles from SBHB systems can in principle be used to infer the distribution of these parameters and as such merit further investigation. Calculated profiles are more morphologically heterogeneous than the broad emission lines in observed SBHB candidates and we discuss improved treatment of radiative transfer effects, which will allow a direct statistical comparison of the two groups.

  5. SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE FORMATION AT HIGH REDSHIFTS VIA DIRECT COLLAPSE: PHYSICAL PROCESSES IN THE EARLY STAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Jun-Hwan; Shlosman, Isaac; Begelman, Mitchell C. E-mail: shlosman@pa.uky.edu

    2013-09-10

    We use numerical simulations to explore whether direct collapse can lead to the formation of supermassive black hole (SMBH) seeds at high redshifts. Using the adaptive mesh refinement code ENZO, we follow the evolution of gas within slowly tumbling dark matter (DM) halos of M{sub vir} {approx} 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} M{sub Sun} and R{sub vir} {approx} 1 kpc. For our idealized simulations, we adopt cosmologically motivated DM and baryon density profiles and angular momentum distributions. Our principal goal is to understand how the collapsing flow overcomes the centrifugal barrier and whether it is subject to fragmentation which can potentially lead to star formation, decreasing the seed SMBH mass. We find that the collapse proceeds from inside out and leads either to a central runaway or to off-center fragmentation. A disk-like configuration is formed inside the centrifugal barrier, growing via accretion. For models with a more cuspy DM distribution, the gas collapses more and experiences a bar-like perturbation and a central runaway on scales of {approx}< 1-10 pc. We have followed this inflow down to {approx}10{sup -4} pc ({approx}10 AU), where it is estimated to become optically thick. The flow remains isothermal and the specific angular momentum, j, is efficiently transferred by gravitational torques in a cascade of nested bars. This cascade is triggered by finite perturbations from the large-scale mass distribution and by gas self-gravity, and supports a self-similar, disk-like collapse where the axial ratios remain constant. The mass accretion rate shows a global minimum on scales of {approx}1-10 pc at the time of the central runaway. In the collapsing phase, virial supersonic turbulence develops and fragmentation is damped. Models with progressively larger initial DM cores evolve similarly, but the timescales become longer. In models with more organized initial rotation-when the rotation of spherical shells is constrained to be coplanar-a torus forms

  6. The shortest-known-period star orbiting our Galaxy's supermassive black hole.

    PubMed

    Meyer, L; Ghez, A M; Schödel, R; Yelda, S; Boehle, A; Lu, J R; Do, T; Morris, M R; Becklin, E E; Matthews, K

    2012-10-01

    Stars with short orbital periods at the center of our Galaxy offer a powerful probe of a supermassive black hole. Over the past 17 years, the W. M. Keck Observatory has been used to image the galactic center at the highest angular resolution possible today. By adding to this data set and advancing methodologies, we have detected S0-102, a star orbiting our Galaxy's supermassive black hole with a period of just 11.5 years. S0-102 doubles the number of known stars with full phase coverage and periods of less than 20 years. It thereby provides the opportunity, with future measurements, to resolve degeneracies in the parameters describing the central gravitational potential and to test Einstein's theory of general relativity in an unexplored regime.

  7. The shortest-known-period star orbiting our Galaxy's supermassive black hole.

    PubMed

    Meyer, L; Ghez, A M; Schödel, R; Yelda, S; Boehle, A; Lu, J R; Do, T; Morris, M R; Becklin, E E; Matthews, K

    2012-10-01

    Stars with short orbital periods at the center of our Galaxy offer a powerful probe of a supermassive black hole. Over the past 17 years, the W. M. Keck Observatory has been used to image the galactic center at the highest angular resolution possible today. By adding to this data set and advancing methodologies, we have detected S0-102, a star orbiting our Galaxy's supermassive black hole with a period of just 11.5 years. S0-102 doubles the number of known stars with full phase coverage and periods of less than 20 years. It thereby provides the opportunity, with future measurements, to resolve degeneracies in the parameters describing the central gravitational potential and to test Einstein's theory of general relativity in an unexplored regime. PMID:23042888

  8. SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES IN THE HIERARCHICAL UNIVERSE: A GENERAL FRAMEWORK AND OBSERVATIONAL TESTS

    SciTech Connect

    Shen Yue

    2009-10-10

    We present a simple framework for the growth and evolution of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in the hierarchical structure formation paradigm, adopting the general idea that quasar activity is triggered in major mergers. In our model, black hole accretion is triggered during major mergers (mass ratio approx>0.3) of host dark matter halos. The successive evolution of quasar luminosities follows a universal light-curve (LC) form during which the growth of the SMBH is modeled self-consistently: an initial exponential growth at a constant Eddington ratio of order unity until it reaches the peak luminosity, followed by a power-law decay. Assuming that the peak luminosity correlates with the post-merger halo mass, we convolve the LC with the triggering rate of quasar activity to predict the quasar luminosity function (LF). Our model reproduces the observed LF at 0.5 < z < 4.5 for the full luminosity ranges probed by current optical and X-ray surveys. At z < 0.5, our model underestimates the LF at L {sub bol} < 10{sup 45} erg s{sup -1}, allowing room for the active galactic nuclei (AGNs) activity triggered by secular processes instead of major mergers. At z > 4.5, in order to reproduce the observed quasar abundance, the typical quasar hosts must shift to lower mass halos, and/or minor mergers can also trigger quasar activity. Our model reproduces both the observed redshift evolution and luminosity dependence of the linear bias of quasar/AGN clustering. Due to the scatter between instantaneous luminosity and halo mass, quasar/AGN clustering weakly depends on luminosity at low-to-intermediate luminosities; but the linear bias rises rapidly with luminosity at the high luminosity end and at high redshift. In our model, the Eddington ratio distribution is roughly lognormal, which broadens and shifts to lower mean values from high luminosity quasars (L {sub bol} approx> 10{sup 46} erg s{sup -1}) to low-luminosity AGNs (L {sub bol} approx< 10{sup 45} erg s{sup -1}), in good

  9. Black hole accretion discs and screened scalar hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Anne-Christine; Gregory, Ruth; Jha, Rahul

    2016-10-01

    We present a novel way to investigate scalar field profiles around black holes with an accretion disc for a range of models where the Compton wavelength of the scalar is large compared to other length scales. By analysing the problem in ``Weyl" coordinates, we are able to calculate the scalar profiles for accretion discs in the static Schwarzschild, as well as rotating Kerr, black holes. We comment on observational effects.

  10. Rich Kozai–Lidov Dynamics in an Initially Thin and Eccentric Stellar Disk around a Supermassive Black Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Jaroslav; Šubr, Ladislav

    2016-05-01

    There is growing evidence of star formation in the vicinity of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in galactic nuclei. A viable scenario for this process assumes infall of a massive gas cloud toward the SMBH and subsequent formation of a dense accretion disk, which gives birth to the young stars. Numerical hydrodynamical models indicate that this star formation process is rather fast and precedes full circularization of the accretion flow, i.e., the new stars are born on elliptic orbits. By means of direct numerical N-body modeling, we show in this paper that the nonzero eccentricity of the stellar disks around the SMBH leads to an onset of various types of the Kozai–Lidov oscillations of a non-negligible subset of individual orbits in the disk, showing a remarkable robustness of this classical mechanism. Among others, we demonstrate that under certain circumstances, the presence of an additional spherical cluster (which is generally known to damp Kozai–Lidov oscillations) may trigger such oscillations as a result of affecting the internal flow of the angular momentum through the disk. We conclude that the Kozai–Lidov oscillations are capable of substantially modifying the initial structure of the disk (its thickness and distribution of eccentricities, in particular).

  11. Rich Kozai-Lidov Dynamics in an Initially Thin and Eccentric Stellar Disk around a Supermassive Black Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Jaroslav; Šubr, Ladislav

    2016-05-01

    There is growing evidence of star formation in the vicinity of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in galactic nuclei. A viable scenario for this process assumes infall of a massive gas cloud toward the SMBH and subsequent formation of a dense accretion disk, which gives birth to the young stars. Numerical hydrodynamical models indicate that this star formation process is rather fast and precedes full circularization of the accretion flow, i.e., the new stars are born on elliptic orbits. By means of direct numerical N-body modeling, we show in this paper that the nonzero eccentricity of the stellar disks around the SMBH leads to an onset of various types of the Kozai-Lidov oscillations of a non-negligible subset of individual orbits in the disk, showing a remarkable robustness of this classical mechanism. Among others, we demonstrate that under certain circumstances, the presence of an additional spherical cluster (which is generally known to damp Kozai-Lidov oscillations) may trigger such oscillations as a result of affecting the internal flow of the angular momentum through the disk. We conclude that the Kozai-Lidov oscillations are capable of substantially modifying the initial structure of the disk (its thickness and distribution of eccentricities, in particular).

  12. Tidal disruption of a star by a supermassive black hole

    SciTech Connect

    Laguna, P.; Miller, W.A.; Zurek, W.H.

    1991-01-01

    The analysis of stars in galactic nuclei that are captured and tidally disrupted by a black hole of mass > 10{sup 6} M{sub {circle dot}} requires the inclusion of general relativistic effects. We present the first numerical study of tidal breakup of a 1M{sub {circle dot}} main sequence star by a 10{sup 7} M{sub {circle dot}} black hole. We use a smoothed particle code to solve the hydrodynamic equations for a relativistic fluid in a static curved spacetime geometry to analyze, among other things, the fraction of the debris captured by the hole and the velocity of fragments escaping the hole.

  13. Prospect of the Theory of Black Hole Accretion Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Q.; Wang, W.

    2011-12-01

    The theory of black hole accretion disks is one of the most important basic theories and advanced topics in astrophysics. There are four known models of black hole accretion disks: standard thin disk (SSD), Shapiro-Lightman-Eardley (SLE) disk, optically thick advection dominated accretion flows (ADAF) theory (slim disk) and optically thin ADAF theory. During the past decades, they have made great contributions to the development of astrophysics. Despite their great successes in both theory and application, there are still many open questions. First of all, this paper will briefly introduce these four models. Then it will discuss several limitations of these models and review present possible solutions to address these problems. Our review work will contribute to further research of black hole accretion disks to a certain extent.

  14. Accretion of a ghost condensate by black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Frolov, Andrei V.

    2004-09-15

    The intent of this paper is to point out that the accretion of a ghost condensate by black holes could be extremely efficient. We analyze steady-state spherically symmetric flows of the ghost fluid in the gravitational field of a Schwarzschild black hole and calculate the accretion rate. Unlike minimally coupled scalar field or quintessence, the accretion rate is set not by the cosmological energy density of the field, but by the energy scale of the ghost condensate theory. If hydrodynamical flow is established, it could be as high as a tenth of a solar mass per second for 10 MeV scale ghost condensate accreting onto a stellar-sized black hole, which puts serious constraints on the parameters of the ghost condensate model.

  15. The magnetic nature of disk accretion onto black holes.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jon M; Raymond, John; Fabian, Andy; Steeghs, Danny; Homan, Jeroen; Reynolds, Chris; van der Klis, Michiel; Wijnands, Rudy

    2006-06-22

    Although disk accretion onto compact objects-white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes-is central to much of high-energy astrophysics, the mechanisms that enable this process have remained observationally difficult to determine. Accretion disks must transfer angular momentum in order for matter to travel radially inward onto the compact object. Internal viscosity from magnetic processes and disk winds can both in principle transfer angular momentum, but hitherto we lacked evidence that either occurs. Here we report that an X-ray-absorbing wind discovered in an observation of the stellar-mass black hole binary GRO J1655 - 40 (ref. 6) must be powered by a magnetic process that can also drive accretion through the disk. Detailed spectral analysis and modelling of the wind shows that it can only be powered by pressure generated by magnetic viscosity internal to the disk or magnetocentrifugal forces. This result demonstrates that disk accretion onto black holes is a fundamentally magnetic process.

  16. Electromagnetic signatures of supermassive black hole binaries resolved by PTAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Takamitsu L.; Haiman, Zoltán

    2013-11-01

    Pulsar timing arrays (PTAs) may eventually be able to detect not only the stochastic gravitational-wave (GW) background of SMBH binaries, but also individual, particularly massive binaries whose signals stick out above the background. In this contribution, we discuss the possibility of identifying and studying such ‘resolved’ binaries through their electromagnetic emission. The host galaxies of such binaries are themselves expected to be also very massive and rare, so that out to redshifts z ≈ 0.2 a unique massive galaxy may be identified as the host. At higher redshifts, the PTA error boxes are larger and may contain as many as several hundred massive-galaxy interlopers. In this case, the true counterpart may be identified, if it is accreting gas efficiently, as an active galactic nucleus (AGN) with a peculiar spectrum and variable emission features. Specifically, the binary’s tidal torques expel the gas from the inner part of the accretion disc, making it unusually dim in x-ray and UV bands and in broad optical emission lines. The tails of the broad wings of any FeKα emission line may also be ‘clipped’ and missing. The binary’s orbital motion, as well as the gas motions it induces, may trigger quasiperiodic variations. These include coherent flux variability, such as luminous, multi-wavelength flares, as well as Doppler shifts of broad emission lines and ‘see-saw’ oscillations in the FeKα line. Additional features, such as evidence for a recent major merger or dual collimated jets, could also corroborate the counterpart. These properties would make resolved PTA sources stand out among AGN with similar overall luminosities and allow their identification.

  17. Disruption of a red giant star by a supermassive black hole and the case of PS1-10jh

    SciTech Connect

    Bogdanović, Tamara; Cheng, Roseanne M.; Amaro-Seoane, Pau E-mail: rcheng@gatech.edu

    2014-06-20

    The development of a new generation of theoretical models for tidal disruptions is timely, as increasingly diverse events are being captured in surveys of the transient sky. Recently, Gezari et al. reported a discovery of a new class of tidal disruption events: the disruption of a helium-rich stellar core, thought to be a remnant of a red giant (RG) star. Motivated by this discovery and in anticipation of others, we consider tidal interaction of an RG star with a supermassive black hole (SMBH) which leads to the stripping of the stellar envelope and subsequent inspiral of the compact core toward the black hole. Once the stellar envelope is removed the inspiral of the core is driven by tidal heating as well as the emission of gravitational radiation until the core either falls into the SMBH or is tidally disrupted. In the case of the tidal disruption candidate PS1-10jh, we find that there is a set of orbital solutions at high eccentricities in which the tidally stripped hydrogen envelope is accreted by the SMBH before the helium core is disrupted. This places the RG core in a portion of parameter space where strong tidal heating can lift the degeneracy of the compact remnant and disrupt it before it reaches the tidal radius. We consider how this sequence of events explains the puzzling absence of the hydrogen emission lines from the spectrum of PS1-10jh and gives rise to its other observational features.

  18. Disruption of a Red Giant Star by a Supermassive Black Hole and the Case of PS1-10jh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanović, Tamara; Cheng, Roseanne M.; Amaro-Seoane, Pau

    2014-06-01

    The development of a new generation of theoretical models for tidal disruptions is timely, as increasingly diverse events are being captured in surveys of the transient sky. Recently, Gezari et al. reported a discovery of a new class of tidal disruption events: the disruption of a helium-rich stellar core, thought to be a remnant of a red giant (RG) star. Motivated by this discovery and in anticipation of others, we consider tidal interaction of an RG star with a supermassive black hole (SMBH) which leads to the stripping of the stellar envelope and subsequent inspiral of the compact core toward the black hole. Once the stellar envelope is removed the inspiral of the core is driven by tidal heating as well as the emission of gravitational radiation until the core either falls into the SMBH or is tidally disrupted. In the case of the tidal disruption candidate PS1-10jh, we find that there is a set of orbital solutions at high eccentricities in which the tidally stripped hydrogen envelope is accreted by the SMBH before the helium core is disrupted. This places the RG core in a portion of parameter space where strong tidal heating can lift the degeneracy of the compact remnant and disrupt it before it reaches the tidal radius. We consider how this sequence of events explains the puzzling absence of the hydrogen emission lines from the spectrum of PS1-10jh and gives rise to its other observational features.

  19. Recurrent Outbursts and Jet Ejections Expected in Swift J1644+57: Limit-Cycle Activities in a Supermassive Black Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawashima, Tomohisa; Ohsuga, Ken; Usui, Ryuichi; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Negoro, Hitoshi; Matsumoto, Ryoji

    2013-08-01

    A tidal disruption event by a supermassive black hole in Swift J1644+57 can trigger limit-cycle oscillations between a supercritically accreting X-ray bright state and a subcritically accreting X-ray dim state. The time evolution of debris gas around a black hole with mass M = 106 M⊙ is studied by performing axisymmetric, two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic simulations. We assume the α-prescription of viscosity, in which the viscous stress is proportional to the total pressure. The mass supply rate from the outer boundary was assumed to be Msupply = 100LEddfraslc2, where LEdd is the Eddington luminosity, and c is the light speed. Since the mass accretion rate decreases inward by outflows driven by radiation pressure, the state transition from a supercritically accreting slim disk state to a subcritically accreting Shakura-Sunyaev disk starts from the inner disk, and propagates outward on a timescale of one day. The sudden drop of the X-ray flux observed in Swift J1644+57 in 2012 August can be explained by this transition. As long as Msupply exceeds the threshold for the existence of a radiation pressure dominant disk, the accumulation of accreting gas in the subcritically accreting region triggers the transition from a gas pressure dominant Shakura-Sunyaev disk to a slim disk. This transition takes place at t ˜ 50frasl(αfrasl0.1) d after the X-ray darkening. We expect that if α > 0.01, X-ray emission with luminosity gtrsim 1044 erg s-1 and jet ejection will revive in Swift J1644+57 in 2013-2014.

  20. Supermassive black holes do not correlate with galaxy disks or pseudobulges.

    PubMed

    Kormendy, John; Bender, R; Cornell, M E

    2011-01-20

    The masses of supermassive black holes are known to correlate with the properties of the bulge components of their host galaxies. In contrast, they seem not to correlate with galaxy disks. Disk-grown 'pseudobulges' are intermediate in properties between bulges and disks; it has been unclear whether they do or do not correlate with black holes in the same way that bulges do. At stake in this issue are conclusions about which parts of galaxies coevolve with black holes, possibly by being regulated by energy feedback from black holes. Here we report pseudobulge classifications for galaxies with dynamically detected black holes and combine them with recent measurements of velocity dispersions in the biggest bulgeless galaxies. These data confirm that black holes do not correlate with disks and show that they correlate little or not at all with pseudobulges. We suggest that there are two different modes of black-hole feeding. Black holes in bulges grow rapidly to high masses when mergers drive gas infall that feeds quasar-like events. In contrast, small black holes in bulgeless galaxies and in galaxies with pseudobulges grow as low-level Seyfert galaxies. Growth of the former is driven by global processes, so the biggest black holes coevolve with bulges, but growth of the latter is driven locally and stochastically, and they do not coevolve with disks and pseudobulges.

  1. Physical properties of AGN host galaxies as a probe of supermassive black hole feeding mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatti, M.; Lamastra, A.; Menci, N.; Bongiorno, A.; Fiore, F.

    2015-04-01

    Using an advanced semi-analytical model (SAM) for galaxy formation, we investigated the statistical effects of assuming two different mechanisms for triggering AGN activity on the properties of AGN host galaxies. We considered a first accretion mode where AGN activity is triggered by disk instabilities (DI) in isolated galaxies, and a second feeding mode where galaxy mergers and fly-by events (interactions, IT) are responsible for producing a sudden destabilization of large quantities of gas, causing the mass inflow onto the central supermassive black hole. The effects of including IT and DI modes in our SAM were studied and compared with observations separately to single out the regimes in which they might be responsible for triggering AGN activity. We obtained the following results: i) the predictions of our model concerning the stellar mass functions of AGN hosts point out that both DI and IT modes are able to account for the observed abundance of AGN host galaxies with M∗ ≲ 1011M⊙; for more massive hosts, the DI scenario predicts a much lower space density than the IT model in every redshift bin, lying below the observational estimates for redshift z > 0.8. ii) The analysis of the colour-magnitude diagram of AGN hosts for redshift z < 1.5 can provide a good observational test to effectively distinguish between DI and IT mode, since DIs are expected to yield AGN host galaxy colours skewed towards bluer colours, while in the IT scenario the majority of hosts are expected to reside in the red sequence. iii) While both IT and DI scenarios can account for AGN triggered in main sequence or starburst galaxies, DIs fail in triggering AGN activity in passive galaxies. The lack of DI AGN in passive hosts is rather insensitive to changes in the model describing the DI mass inflow, and it is mainly caused by the criterion for the onset of disk instabilities included in our SAM. iv) The two modes are characterized by a different duration of the AGN phase, with DIs

  2. Properties of galaxies around AGNs with the most massive supermassive black holes revealed by clustering analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirasaki, Yuji; Komiya, Yutaka; Ohishi, Masatoshi; Mizumoto, Yoshihiko

    2016-04-01

    We present results of the clustering analysis between active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and galaxies at redshift 0.1-1.0, which was performed to investigate the properties of galaxies associated with the AGNs and reveal the nature of the fueling mechanism of supermassive black holes (SMBHs). We used 8059 AGNs/quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) for which virial masses of individual SMBHs were measured, and divided them into four mass groups.Cross-correlation analysis was performed to reconfirm our previous result that cross-correlation length increases with SMBH mass MBH; we obtained consistent results. A linear bias of AGN for each mass group was measured as 1.47 for MBH = 107.5-108.2 M⊙ and 3.08 for MBH = 109-1010 M⊙. The averaged color and luminosity distributions of galaxies around the AGNs/QSOs were also derived for each mass group. The galaxy color Dopt-IR was estimated from a spectral energy distribution (SED) constructed from a catalog derived by merging the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS) catalogs. The distributions of color and luminosity were derived by a subtraction method, which does not require redshift information of galaxies. The main results of this work are as follows. (1) A linear bias increases by a factor of two from the lower-mass group to the highest-mass group. (2) The environment around AGNs with the most massive SMBHs (MBH > 109 M⊙) is dominated by red sequence galaxies. (3) Marginal indication of decline in luminosity function at dimmer side of MIR > -19.5 is found for galaxies around AGNs with MBH = 108.2-109 M⊙ and nearest redshift group (z = 0.1-0.3). These results indicate that AGNs with the most massive SMBHs reside in haloes where a large fraction of galaxies have been transited to the red sequence. The accretion of hot halo gas as well as recycled gas from evolving stars can be one of the plausible mechanisms to fuel the SMBHs above ˜ 109 M⊙.

  3. Wind from the black-hole accretion disk driving a molecular outflow in an active galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tombesi, F.; Meléndez, M.; Veilleux, S.; Reeves, J. N.; González-Alfonso, E.; Reynolds, C. S.

    2015-03-01

    Powerful winds driven by active galactic nuclei are often thought to affect the evolution of both supermassive black holes and their host galaxies, quenching star formation and explaining the close relationship between black holes and galaxies. Recent observations of large-scale molecular outflows in ultraluminous infrared galaxies support this quasar-feedback idea, because they directly trace the gas from which stars form. Theoretical models suggest that these outflows originate as energy-conserving flows driven by fast accretion-disk winds. Proposed connections between large-scale molecular outflows and accretion-disk activity in ultraluminous galaxies were incomplete because no accretion-disk wind had been detected. Conversely, studies of powerful accretion-disk winds have until now focused only on X-ray observations of local Seyfert galaxies and a few higher-redshift quasars. Here we report observations of a powerful accretion-disk wind with a mildly relativistic velocity (a quarter that of light) in the X-ray spectrum of IRAS F11119+3257, a nearby (redshift 0.189) optically classified type 1 ultraluminous infrared galaxy hosting a powerful molecular outflow. The active galactic nucleus is responsible for about 80 per cent of the emission, with a quasar-like luminosity of 1.5 × 1046 ergs per second. The energetics of these two types of wide-angle outflows is consistent with the energy-conserving mechanism that is the basis of the quasar feedback in active galactic nuclei that lack powerful radio jets (such jets are an alternative way to drive molecular outflows).

  4. Wind from the black-hole accretion disk driving a molecular outflow in an active galaxy.

    PubMed

    Tombesi, F; Meléndez, M; Veilleux, S; Reeves, J N; González-Alfonso, E; Reynolds, C S

    2015-03-26

    Powerful winds driven by active galactic nuclei are often thought to affect the evolution of both supermassive black holes and their host galaxies, quenching star formation and explaining the close relationship between black holes and galaxies. Recent observations of large-scale molecular outflows in ultraluminous infrared galaxies support this quasar-feedback idea, because they directly trace the gas from which stars form. Theoretical models suggest that these outflows originate as energy-conserving flows driven by fast accretion-disk winds. Proposed connections between large-scale molecular outflows and accretion-disk activity in ultraluminous galaxies were incomplete because no accretion-disk wind had been detected. Conversely, studies of powerful accretion-disk winds have until now focused only on X-ray observations of local Seyfert galaxies and a few higher-redshift quasars. Here we report observations of a powerful accretion-disk wind with a mildly relativistic velocity (a quarter that of light) in the X-ray spectrum of IRAS F11119+3257, a nearby (redshift 0.189) optically classified type 1 ultraluminous infrared galaxy hosting a powerful molecular outflow. The active galactic nucleus is responsible for about 80 per cent of the emission, with a quasar-like luminosity of 1.5 × 10(46) ergs per second. The energetics of these two types of wide-angle outflows is consistent with the energy-conserving mechanism that is the basis of the quasar feedback in active galactic nuclei that lack powerful radio jets (such jets are an alternative way to drive molecular outflows). PMID:25810204

  5. Wind from the black-hole accretion disk driving a molecular outflow in an active galaxy.

    PubMed

    Tombesi, F; Meléndez, M; Veilleux, S; Reeves, J N; González-Alfonso, E; Reynolds, C S

    2015-03-26

    Powerful winds driven by active galactic nuclei are often thought to affect the evolution of both supermassive black holes and their host galaxies, quenching star formation and explaining the close relationship between black holes and galaxies. Recent observations of large-scale molecular outflows in ultraluminous infrared galaxies support this quasar-feedback idea, because they directly trace the gas from which stars form. Theoretical models suggest that these outflows originate as energy-conserving flows driven by fast accretion-disk winds. Proposed connections between large-scale molecular outflows and accretion-disk activity in ultraluminous galaxies were incomplete because no accretion-disk wind had been detected. Conversely, studies of powerful accretion-disk winds have until now focused only on X-ray observations of local Seyfert galaxies and a few higher-redshift quasars. Here we report observations of a powerful accretion-disk wind with a mildly relativistic velocity (a quarter that of light) in the X-ray spectrum of IRAS F11119+3257, a nearby (redshift 0.189) optically classified type 1 ultraluminous infrared galaxy hosting a powerful molecular outflow. The active galactic nucleus is responsible for about 80 per cent of the emission, with a quasar-like luminosity of 1.5 × 10(46) ergs per second. The energetics of these two types of wide-angle outflows is consistent with the energy-conserving mechanism that is the basis of the quasar feedback in active galactic nuclei that lack powerful radio jets (such jets are an alternative way to drive molecular outflows).

  6. A Normal Supermassive Black Hole in NGC 1277

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Alister W.; Durré, Mark; Savorgnan, Giulia A. D.; Medling, Anne M.; Batcheldor, Dan; Scott, Nicholas; Watson, Beverly; Marconi, Alessandro

    2016-03-01

    The identification of galaxies with “overly massive” black holes requires two measurements: a black hole mass (Mbh) and a host spheroid mass ({M}{{sph,\\ast }}). Here we provide our measurements for NGC 1277. Our structural decomposition reveals that NGC 1277 is dominated by a “classical” spheroid with a Sérsic index n = 5.3, a half-light radius {R}{{e,major}}=2.1 {{kpc}}, and a stellar mass of 2.7× {10}11\\quad {M}⊙ (using {M}*/{L}V=11.65, Martín-Navarro et al.). This mass is an order of magnitude greater than originally reported. Using the latest Mbh-n, Mbh-{M}{{sph,\\ast }}, and Mbh-σ relations, the expected black hole mass is, respectively, ({0.57}-0.40+1.29)× {10}9\\quad {M}⊙ , ({1.58}-1.13+4.04)× {10}9\\quad {M}⊙ , and ({2.27}-1.44+4.04)× {10}9\\quad {M}⊙ (using σ = 300 km s-1) for which the “sphere-of-influence” is 0.″31. Our new kinematical maps obtained from laser guide star assisted, adaptive optics on the Keck I Telescope dramatically reaffirm the presence of the inner, nearly edge-on, disk seen in the galaxy image. We also report that this produces a large velocity shear (˜400 km s-1) across the inner 0.″2 (70 pc) plus elevated values of \\sqrt{{σ }2+{V}2} across the inner (+/- 3\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 8)× (+/- 0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 6) region of the galaxy. Our new multi-Gaussian expansion (MGE) models and Jeans Anisotropic MGE analysis struggled to match this extended component. Our optimal black hole mass, albeit a probable upper limit because of the disk is 1.2 × 109 M⊙ (M/{L}V=12.3). This is an order of magnitude smaller than originally reported and 4 times smaller than recently reported. It gives an {M}{{bh}}/{M}{{sph,\\ast }} ratio of 0.45% in agreement with the median (≈0.5%) and range (0.1%-5.0%) observed in non-dwarf, early-type galaxies. This result highlights the need for caution with inner disks.

  7. TEARING UP THE DISK: HOW BLACK HOLES ACCRETE

    SciTech Connect

    Nixon, Chris; King, Andrew; Price, Daniel; Frank, Juhan

    2012-10-01

    We show that in realistic cases of accretion in active galactic nuclei or stellar-mass X-ray binaries, the Lense-Thirring effect breaks the central regions of tilted accretion disks around spinning black holes into a set of distinct planes with only tenuous flows connecting them. If the original misalignment of the outer disk to the spin axis of the hole is 45 Degree-Sign {approx}< {theta} {approx}< 135 Degree-Sign , as in {approx}70% of randomly oriented accretion events, the continued precession of these disks sets up partially counterrotating gas flows. This drives rapid infall as angular momentum is canceled and gas attempts to circularize at smaller radii. Disk breaking close to the black hole leads to direct dynamical accretion, while breaking further out can drive gas down to scales where it can accrete rapidly. For smaller tilt angles breaking can still occur and may lead to other observable phenomena such as quasi-periodic oscillations. For such effects not to appear, the black hole spin must in practice be negligibly small, or be almost precisely aligned with the disk. Qualitatively similar results hold for any accretion disk subject to a forced differential precession, such as an external disk around a misaligned black hole binary.

  8. A systematic search for close supermassive black hole binaries in the Catalina Real-time Transient Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Matthew J.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Stern, Daniel; Drake, Andrew J.; Mahabal, Ashish A.; Donalek, Ciro; Glikman, Eilat; Larson, Steve; Christensen, Eric

    2015-10-01

    Hierarchical assembly models predict a population of supermassive black hole (SMBH) binaries. These are not resolvable by direct imaging but may be detectable via periodic variability (or nanohertz frequency gravitational waves). Following our detection of a 5.2-year periodic signal in the quasar PG 1302-102, we present a novel analysis of the optical variability of 243 500 known spectroscopically confirmed quasars using data from the Catalina Real-time Transient Survey (CRTS) to look for close (<0.1 pc) SMBH systems. Looking for a strong Keplerian periodic signal with at least 1.5 cycles over a baseline of nine years, we find a sample of 111 candidate objects. This is in conservative agreement with theoretical predictions from models of binary SMBH populations. Simulated data sets, assuming stochastic variability, also produce no equivalent candidates implying a low likelihood of spurious detections. The periodicity seen is likely attributable to either jet precession, warped accretion discs or periodic accretion associated with a close SMBH binary system. We also consider how other SMBH binary candidates in the literature appear in CRTS data and show that none of these are equivalent to the identified objects. Finally, the distribution of objects found is consistent with that expected from a gravitational-wave-driven population. This implies that circumbinary gas is present at small orbital radii and is being perturbed by the black holes. None of the sources is expected to merge within at least the next century. This study opens a new unique window to study a population of close SMBH binaries that must exist according to our current understanding of galaxy and SMBH evolution.

  9. THE SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE MASS-SPHEROID STELLAR MASS RELATION FOR SERSIC AND CORE-SERSIC GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Nicholas; Graham, Alister W; Schombert, James

    2013-05-01

    We have examined the relationship between supermassive black hole mass (M{sub BH}) and the stellar mass of the host spheroid (M{sub sph,*}) for a sample of 75 nearby galaxies. To derive the spheroid stellar masses we used improved Two Micron All Sky Survey K{sub s}-band photometry from the ARCHANGEL photometry pipeline. Dividing our sample into core-Sersic and Sersic galaxies, we find that they are described by very different M{sub BH}-M{sub sph,*} relations. For core-Sersic galaxies-which are typically massive and luminous, with M{sub BH} {approx}> 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} M{sub Sun }-we find M{sub BH}{proportional_to} M{sub sph,*}{sup 0.97{+-}0.14}, consistent with other literature relations. However, for the Sersic galaxies-with typically lower masses, M{sub sph,*} {approx}< 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun }-we find M{sub BH}{proportional_to}M{sub sph,*}{sup 2.22{+-}0.58}, a dramatically steeper slope that differs by more than 2 standard deviations. This relation confirms that, for Sersic galaxies, M{sub BH} is not a constant fraction of M{sub sph,*}. Sersic galaxies can grow via the accretion of gas which fuels both star formation and the central black hole, as well as through merging. Their black hole grows significantly more rapidly than their host spheroid, prior to growth by dry merging events that produce core-Sersic galaxies, where the black hole and spheroid grow in lockstep. We have additionally compared our Sersic M{sub BH}-M{sub sph,*} relation with the corresponding relation for nuclear star clusters, confirming that the two classes of central massive object follow significantly different scaling relations.

  10. H I OBSERVATIONS OF THE SUPERMASSIVE BINARY BLACK HOLE SYSTEM IN 0402+379

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, C.; Taylor, G. B.; Pihlstroem, Y. M.; Zavala, R. T.; Peck, A. B.

    2009-05-20

    We have recently discovered a supermassive binary black hole system with a projected separation between the two black holes of 7.3 pc in the radio galaxy 0402+379 (Rodriguez et al. 2006). This is the most compact supermassive binary black hole pair yet imaged by more than two orders of magnitude. We present Global VLBI observations at 1.3464 GHz of this radio galaxy, taken to improve the quality of the H I data. Two absorption lines are found toward the southern jet of the source, one redshifted by 370 {+-} 10 km s{sup -1} and the other blueshifted by 700 {+-} 10 km s{sup -1} with respect to the systemic velocity of the source, which, along with the results obtained for the opacity distribution over the source, suggests the presence of two mass clumps rotating around the central region of the source. We propose a model consisting of a geometrically thick disk, of which we only see a couple of clumps, that reproduces the velocities measured from the H I absorption profiles. These clumps rotate in circular Keplerian orbits around an axis that crosses one of the supermassive black holes of the binary system in 0402+379. We find an upper limit for the inclination angle of the twin jets of the source to the line of sight of {theta} = 66 deg., which, according to the proposed model, implies a lower limit on the central mass of {approx}7 x 10{sup 8} M {sub sun} and a lower limit for the scale height of the thick disk of {approx}12 pc.

  11. Supermassive black holes do not correlate with dark matter haloes of galaxies.

    PubMed

    Kormendy, John; Bender, Ralf

    2011-01-20

    Supermassive black holes have been detected in all galaxies that contain bulge components when the galaxies observed were close enough that the searches were feasible. Together with the observation that bigger black holes live in bigger bulges, this has led to the belief that black-hole growth and bulge formation regulate each other. That is, black holes and bulges coevolve. Therefore, reports of a similar correlation between black holes and the dark matter haloes in which visible galaxies are embedded have profound implications. Dark matter is likely to be non-baryonic, so these reports suggest that unknown, exotic physics controls black-hole growth. Here we show, in part on the basis of recent measurements of bulgeless galaxies, that there is almost no correlation between dark matter and parameters that measure black holes unless the galaxy also contains a bulge. We conclude that black holes do not correlate directly with dark matter. They do not correlate with galaxy disks, either. Therefore, black holes coevolve only with bulges. This simplifies the puzzle of their coevolution by focusing attention on purely baryonic processes in the galaxy mergers that make bulges.

  12. Supermassive black holes do not correlate with dark matter haloes of galaxies.

    PubMed

    Kormendy, John; Bender, Ralf

    2011-01-20

    Supermassive black holes have been detected in all galaxies that contain bulge components when the galaxies observed were close enough that the searches were feasible. Together with the observation that bigger black holes live in bigger bulges, this has led to the belief that black-hole growth and bulge formation regulate each other. That is, black holes and bulges coevolve. Therefore, reports of a similar correlation between black holes and the dark matter haloes in which visible galaxies are embedded have profound implications. Dark matter is likely to be non-baryonic, so these reports suggest that unknown, exotic physics controls black-hole growth. Here we show, in part on the basis of recent measurements of bulgeless galaxies, that there is almost no correlation between dark matter and parameters that measure black holes unless the galaxy also contains a bulge. We conclude that black holes do not correlate directly with dark matter. They do not correlate with galaxy disks, either. Therefore, black holes coevolve only with bulges. This simplifies the puzzle of their coevolution by focusing attention on purely baryonic processes in the galaxy mergers that make bulges. PMID:21248846

  13. Editorial: Understanding the Growth of the First Supermassive Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valiante, Rosa; Schneider, Raffaella; Volonteri, Marta

    2016-08-01

    The formation, assembly history, and environmental impact of the massive black holes (BH) that are ubiquitous in the nuclei of luminous galaxies today remain some of the main unsolved problems in cosmic structure formation. In the last several years, it has become clear that quasars are not just tracers of early and recent structure formation, but that they seem to have actively influenced galaxies and clusters through feedback mechanisms that are still not well understood. The discovery of more and more numerous quasars at redshift above 6, powered by BHs with masses similar to that of their local counterparts, further complicates this scenario. This emphasises the urgent need to better understand how and when such massive objects form and grow, what is the strength and scale of their impact on the evolution of their host galaxies, and what are the main physical processes driving and regulating this co-evolution.

  14. Jet-induced star formation by accreting black holes: impact on stellar, galaxy, and cosmic evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirabel, Igor Felix

    2016-07-01

    Evidence that relativistic jets trigger star formation along their axis has been found associated to low redshift and high redshift accreting supermassive black holes. However, the physical processes by which jet-cloud interaction may trigger star formation has so far not been elucidated. To gain insight into this potentially important star formation mechanism during reionization, when microquasars were form prolifically before AGN, our international team is carrying out a muliwavelength study of a microquasar jet-induced star formation region in the Milky Way using data from space missions (Chandra, Integral, ISO, Herschel) and from the ground (at cm and mm wavelengths with the VLA and IRAM, and IR with Gemini and VLT). I will show that this relative nearby star forming region is an ideal laboratory to test models of jet-induced star formation elsewhere in the universe.

  15. Retrograde binaries of massive black holes in circumbinary accretion discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaro-Seoane, Pau; Maureira-Fredes, Cristián; Dotti, Massimo; Colpi, Monica

    2016-06-01

    Context. We explore the hardening of a massive black hole binary embedded in a circumbinary gas disc under a specific circumstance: when the binary and the gas are coplanar and the gas is counter-rotating. The binary has unequal mass and the interaction of the gas with the lighter secondary black hole is the main cause of the braking torque on the binary that shrinks with time. The secondary black hole, revolving in the direction opposite to the gas, experiences a drag from gas-dynamical friction and from direct accretion of part of it. Aims: In this paper, using two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamical grid simulations we investigate the effect of changing the accretion prescriptions on the dynamics of the secondary black hole, which in turn affect the binary hardening and eccentricity evolution. Methods: We find that realistic accretion prescriptions lead to results that differ from those inferred assuming accretion of all the gas within the Roche Lobe of the secondary black hole. Results: When considering gas accretion within the gravitational influence radius of the secondary black hole (which is smaller than the Roche Lobe radius) to better describe gas inflows, the shrinking of the binary is slower. In addition, in this case, a smaller amount of accreted mass is required to reduce the binary separation by the same amount. Different accretion prescriptions result in different discs' surface densities, which alter the black hole's dynamics back. Full 3D Smoothed-particle hydrodynamics realizations of a number of representative cases, run over a shorter interval of time, validate the general trends observed in the less computationally demanding 2D simulations. Conclusions: Initially circular black hole binaries increase their eccentricity only slightly, which then oscillates around small values (<0.1) while they harden. By contrast, initially eccentric binaries become more and more eccentric. A semi-analytical model describing the black hole's dynamics under

  16. Stationary observers on the symmetry axis of rotating supermassive black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrásek, Martin; Hledík, Stanislav

    2007-12-01

    Generalizing the results obtained by Semerák, O. (1993) [Semerák, O. (1993), Stationary Frames in the Kerr Field, Gen. Relativity Gravitation, 10 (1045)], an interesting difference between the Kerr and Kerr-de Sitter geometries has been found. In the case of freely falling stationary observers located on the axis of symmetry, rotating supermassive black holes (not necessarily fast rotating) behave differently from the same bodies for which the present value of cosmological constant is not included. An interesting family of "freely falling stationary observers" is described.

  17. SIMPLE FIT OF DATA RELATING SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE MASS TO GALAXY PITCH ANGLE

    SciTech Connect

    Ringermacher, Harry I.; Mead, Lawrence R.

    2009-06-15

    Seigar et al. have recently demonstrated a new, tight correlation between galactic central supermassive black hole (BH) mass and the pitch angle of the spiral arm in disk galaxies which they attribute to other indirect correlations. They fit a double power law, governed by five parameters, to the BH mass as a function of pitch. Noting the features of their fitted curve, we show that a simple linear proportion of the BH mass to the cotangent of the pitch angle can obtain the same fit, within error. Such a direct, elegant fit may help shed light on the nature of the correlation.

  18. How Super-Massive Black Holes grow and shape galaxies. The promise of the Athena X-ray observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barcons, Xavier

    2016-08-01

    X-ray observations are essential to understand and find AGN, as they are emitted from a few Schwarzschild radii from the central Super-Massive Black Hole, they can escape through relatively large amounts of obscuring material and contamination by the host galaxy is minute. The launch of ESA's Athena X-ray observatory in the late 2020s will revolutionise our knowledge about the AGN phenomenon and their demographics. Athena will consist of a large X-ray imaging telescope with two focal plane instruments offering wide-field sensitive imaging and integral field high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy. Athena will be able to constrain the geometry of accretion disk/corona through X-ray reverberation, measure SMBH spins of tens of AGN, measure AGN radiative and mechanical energy output in local and distant AGN, see perform a complete census of obscured and unobscured AGN out to z~2-3 and find hundreds of growing SMBH at z>6 well into the re-ionisation epoch. Athena will complement and work in synergy with other contemporary facilities (ESO's VLT/E-ELT and ALMA among others) to achieve these and other science objectives related to AGN.

  19. Dwarf Galaxies with Optical Signatures of Accreting Massive Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reines, Amy; Greene, J.; Geha, M.

    2014-07-01

    Supermassive black holes (BHs) live at the heart of essentially all massive galaxies with bulges, power AGN, and are thought to be important agents in the evolution of their hosts. Observations of high-redshift quasars demonstrate that supermassive BHs must start out with masses considerably in excess of normal stellar-mass BHs. However, we do not know how the initial ``seed'' BHs formed in the early Universe, how massive they were originally, or what types of galaxies they formed in. While direct observations of distant seed BHs and their hosts in the infant Universe are unobtainable with current capabilities, models of BH growth in a cosmological context indicate that present-day dwarf galaxies can place valuable constraints on seed masses and distinguish between various seed formation mechanisms at early times. Using optical spectroscopy from the SDSS, we have systematically assembled the largest sample of dwarf galaxies hosting AGN to date. These dwarf galaxies have stellar masses comparable to the Magellanic Clouds and contain some of the least-massive supermassive BHs known. I will present results from this study and discuss our ongoing efforts to find additional examples of AGN in dwarfs and help constrain theories for the formation of the first seed BHs at high redshift.

  20. AS ABOVE, SO BELOW: EXPLOITING MASS SCALING IN BLACK HOLE ACCRETION TO BREAK DEGENERACIES IN SPECTRAL INTERPRETATION

    SciTech Connect

    Markoff, Sera; Silva, Catia V.; Nowak, Michael A.; Gallo, Elena; Plotkin, Richard M.; Hynes, Robert; Wilms, Jörn; Maitra, Dipankar; Drappeau, Samia E-mail: C.V.DeJesusSilva@uva.nl E-mail: egallo@umich.edu E-mail: joern.wilms@sternwarte.uni-erlangen.de E-mail: samia.drappeau@irap.omp.eu

    2015-10-20

    Over the past decade, evidence has mounted that several aspects of black hole (BH) accretion physics proceed in a mass-invariant way. One of the best examples of this scaling is the empirical “fundamental plane of BH accretion” relation linking mass, radio, and X-ray luminosity over eight orders of magnitude in BH mass. The currently favored theoretical interpretation of this relation is that the physics governing power output in weakly accreting BHs depends more on relative accretion rate than on mass. In order to test this theory, we explore whether a mass-invariant approach can simultaneously explain the broadband spectral energy distributions from two BHs at opposite ends of the mass scale but that are at similar Eddington accretion fractions. We find that the same model, with the same value of several fitted physical parameters expressed in mass-scaling units to enforce self-similarity, can provide a good description of two data sets from V404 Cyg and M81*, a stellar and supermassive BH, respectively. Furthermore, only one of several potential emission scenarios for the X-ray band is successful, suggesting it is the dominant process driving the fundamental plane relation at this accretion rate. This approach thus holds promise for breaking current degeneracies in the interpretation of BH high-energy spectra and for constructing better prescriptions of BH accretion for use in various local and cosmological feedback applications.

  1. A close-pair binary in a distant triple supermassive black hole system.

    PubMed

    Deane, R P; Paragi, Z; Jarvis, M J; Coriat, M; Bernardi, G; Fender, R P; Frey, S; Heywood, I; Klöckner, H-R; Grainge, K; Rumsey, C

    2014-07-01

    Galaxies are believed to evolve through merging, which should lead to some hosting multiple supermassive black holes. There are four known triple black hole systems, with the closest black hole pair being 2.4 kiloparsecs apart (the third component in this system is at 3 kiloparsecs), which is far from the gravitational sphere of influence (about 100 parsecs for a black hole with mass one billion times that of the Sun). Previous searches for compact black hole systems concluded that they were rare, with the tightest binary system having a separation of 7 parsecs (ref. 10). Here we report observations of a triple black hole system at redshift z = 0.39, with the closest pair separated by about 140 parsecs and significantly more distant from Earth than any other known binary of comparable orbital separation. The effect of the tight pair is to introduce a rotationally symmetric helical modulation on the structure of the large-scale radio jets, which provides a useful way to search for other tight pairs without needing extremely high resolution observations. As we found this tight pair after searching only six galaxies, we conclude that tight pairs are more common than hitherto believed, which is an important observational constraint for low-frequency gravitational wave experiments. PMID:24990745

  2. A close-pair binary in a distant triple supermassive black hole system.

    PubMed

    Deane, R P; Paragi, Z; Jarvis, M J; Coriat, M; Bernardi, G; Fender, R P; Frey, S; Heywood, I; Klöckner, H-R; Grainge, K; Rumsey, C

    2014-07-01

    Galaxies are believed to evolve through merging, which should lead to some hosting multiple supermassive black holes. There are four known triple black hole systems, with the closest black hole pair being 2.4 kiloparsecs apart (the third component in this system is at 3 kiloparsecs), which is far from the gravitational sphere of influence (about 100 parsecs for a black hole with mass one billion times that of the Sun). Previous searches for compact black hole systems concluded that they were rare, with the tightest binary system having a separation of 7 parsecs (ref. 10). Here we report observations of a triple black hole system at redshift z = 0.39, with the closest pair separated by about 140 parsecs and significantly more distant from Earth than any other known binary of comparable orbital separation. The effect of the tight pair is to introduce a rotationally symmetric helical modulation on the structure of the large-scale radio jets, which provides a useful way to search for other tight pairs without needing extremely high resolution observations. As we found this tight pair after searching only six galaxies, we conclude that tight pairs are more common than hitherto believed, which is an important observational constraint for low-frequency gravitational wave experiments.

  3. X-RAY CONSTRAINTS ON THE LOCAL SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE OCCUPATION FRACTION

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Brendan P.; Gallo, Elena; Baldassare, Vivienne; Greene, Jenny E.; Kelly, Brandon C.; Treu, Tommaso; Woo, Jong-Hak

    2015-01-20

    Distinct seed formation mechanisms are imprinted upon the fraction of dwarf galaxies currently containing a central supermassive black hole. Seeding by Population III remnants is expected to produce a higher occupation fraction than is generated with direct gas collapse precursors. Chandra observations of nearby early-type galaxies can directly detect even low-level supermassive black hole activity, and the active fraction immediately provides a firm lower limit to the occupation fraction. Here, we use the volume-limited AMUSE surveys of ∼200 optically selected early-type galaxies to characterize simultaneously, for the first time, the occupation fraction and the scaling of L {sub X} with M {sub star}, accounting for intrinsic scatter, measurement uncertainties, and X-ray limits. For early-type galaxies with M {sub star} < 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}, we obtain a lower limit to the occupation fraction of >20% (at 95% confidence), but full occupation cannot be excluded. The preferred dependence of log L {sub X} upon log M {sub star} has a slope of ∼0.7-0.8, consistent with the ''downsizing'' trend previously identified from the AMUSE data set, and a uniform Eddington efficiency is disfavored at ∼2σ. We provide guidelines for the future precision with which these parameters may be refined with larger or more sensitive samples.

  4. Spinning up black holes with super-critical accretion flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sądowski, A.; Bursa, M.; Abramowicz, M.; Kluźniak, W.; Lasota, J.-P.; Moderski, R.; Safarzadeh, M.

    2011-08-01

    We study the process of spinning up black holes by accretion from slim disks for a wide range of accretion rates. We show that for super-Eddington accretion rates and low values of the viscosity parameter α ( ≲ 0.01) the limiting value of the dimensionless spin parameter a∗ can reach values higher than a∗ = 0.9978 inferred by Thorne in his seminal study. For Ṁ = 10 ṀEdd and α = 0.01, spin equilibrium is reached at a∗ = 0.9994. We show that the equilibrium spin value depends strongly on the assumed value of α. We also prove that for high accretion rates the impact of captured radiation on spin evolution is negligible.

  5. Cosmological evolution of supermassive black holes in galactic centers unveiled by hard X-ray observations

    PubMed Central

    UEDA, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    We review the current understanding of the cosmological evolution of supermassive black holes in galactic centers elucidated by X-ray surveys of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Hard X-ray observations at energies above 2 keV are the most efficient and complete tools to find “obscured” AGNs, which are dominant populations among all AGNs. Combinations of surveys with various flux limits and survey area have enabled us to determine the space number density and obscuration properties of AGNs as a function of luminosity and redshift. The results have essentially solved the origin of the X-ray background in the energy band below ∼10 keV. The downsizing (or anti-hierarchical) evolution that more luminous AGNs have the space-density peak at higher redshifts has been discovered, challenging theories of galaxy and black hole formation. Finally, we summarize unresolved issues on AGN evolution and prospects for future X-ray missions. PMID:25971656

  6. Cosmological evolution of supermassive black holes in galactic centers unveiled by hard X-ray observations.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    We review the current understanding of the cosmological evolution of supermassive black holes in galactic centers elucidated by X-ray surveys of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Hard X-ray observations at energies above 2 keV are the most efficient and complete tools to find "obscured" AGNs, which are dominant populations among all AGNs. Combinations of surveys with various flux limits and survey area have enabled us to determine the space number density and obscuration properties of AGNs as a function of luminosity and redshift. The results have essentially solved the origin of the X-ray background in the energy band below ∼10 keV. The downsizing (or anti-hierarchical) evolution that more luminous AGNs have the space-density peak at higher redshifts has been discovered, challenging theories of galaxy and black hole formation. Finally, we summarize unresolved issues on AGN evolution and prospects for future X-ray missions.

  7. Cosmological evolution of supermassive black holes in galactic centers unveiled by hard X-ray observations.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    We review the current understanding of the cosmological evolution of supermassive black holes in galactic centers elucidated by X-ray surveys of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Hard X-ray observations at energies above 2 keV are the most efficient and complete tools to find "obscured" AGNs, which are dominant populations among all AGNs. Combinations of surveys with various flux limits and survey area have enabled us to determine the space number density and obscuration properties of AGNs as a function of luminosity and redshift. The results have essentially solved the origin of the X-ray background in the energy band below ∼10 keV. The downsizing (or anti-hierarchical) evolution that more luminous AGNs have the space-density peak at higher redshifts has been discovered, challenging theories of galaxy and black hole formation. Finally, we summarize unresolved issues on AGN evolution and prospects for future X-ray missions. PMID:25971656

  8. Rapid Formation of Supermassive Black Hole Binaries in Galaxy Mergers with Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, L.; Kazantzidis, S.; Madau, P.; Colpi, M.; Quinn, T.; Wadsley, J.; /McMaster U.

    2008-03-24

    Supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are a ubiquitous component of the nuclei of galaxies. It is normally assumed that, following the merger of two massive galaxies, a SMBH binary will form, shrink due to stellar or gas dynamical processes and ultimately coalesce by emitting a burst of gravitational waves. However, so far it has not been possible to show how two SMBHs bind during a galaxy merger with gas due to the difficulty of modeling a wide range of spatial scales. Here we report hydrodynamical simulations that track the formation of a SMBH binary down to scales of a few light years following the collision between two spiral galaxies. A massive, turbulent nuclear gaseous disk arises as a result of the galaxy merger. The black holes form an eccentric binary in the disk in less than a million years as a result of the gravitational drag from the gas rather than from the stars.

  9. Black hole spin influence on accretion disk neutrino detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caballero, O. L.; Zielinski, T.; McLaughlin, G. C.; Surman, R.

    2016-06-01

    Neutrinos are copiously emitted from neutrino-cooled black hole accretion disks playing a fundamental role in their evolution, as well as in the production of gamma ray bursts and r-process nucleosynthesis. The black hole generates a strong gravitational field able to change the properties of the emerging neutrinos. We study the influence of the black hole spin on the structure of the neutrino surfaces, neutrino luminosities, average neutrino energies, and event counts at SuperK. We consider several disk models and provide estimates that cover different black hole efficiency scenarios. We discuss the influence of the detector's inclination with respect to the axis of the torus on neutrino properties. We find that tori around spinning black holes have larger luminosities, energies, and rates compared to tori around static black holes and that the inclination of the observer causes a reduction in the luminosities and detection rates but an increase in the average energies.

  10. Chaotic cold accretion on to black holes in rotating atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaspari, M.; Brighenti, F.; Temi, P.

    2015-07-01

    The fueling of black holes is one key problem in the evolution of baryons in the universe. Chaotic cold accretion (CCA) profoundly differs from classic accretion models, as Bondi and thin disc theories. Using 3D high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations, we now probe the impact of rotation on the hot and cold accretion flow in a typical massive galaxy. In the hot mode, with or without turbulence, the pressure-dominated flow forms a geometrically thick rotational barrier, suppressing the black hole accretion rate to ~1/3 of the spherical case value. When radiative cooling is dominant, the gas loses pressure support and quickly circularizes in a cold thin disk; the accretion rate is decoupled from the cooling rate, although it is higher than that of the hot mode. In the more common state of a turbulent and heated atmosphere, CCA drives the dynamics if the gas velocity dispersion exceeds the rotational velocity, i.e., turbulent Taylor number Tat< 1. Extended multiphase filaments condense out of the hot phase via thermal instability (TI) and rain toward the black hole, boosting the accretion rate up to 100 times the Bondi rate (Ṁ• ~ Ṁcool). Initially, turbulence broadens the angular momentum distribution of the hot gas, allowing the cold phase to condense with prograde or retrograde motion. Subsequent chaotic collisions between the cold filaments, clouds, and a clumpy variable torus promote the cancellation of angular momentum, leading to high accretion rates. As turbulence weakens (Tat > 1), the broadening of the distribution and the efficiency of collisions diminish, damping the accretion rate ∝ Tat-1, until the cold disk drives the dynamics. This is exacerbated by the increased difficulty to grow TI in a rotating halo. The simulated sub-Eddington accretion rates cover the range inferred from AGN cavity observations. CCA predicts inner flat X-ray temperature and r-1 density profiles, as recently discovered in M 87 and NGC 3115. The synthetic Hα images

  11. Direct Formation of Supermassive Black Holes in Metal-enriched Gas at the Heart of High-redshift Galaxy Mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Lucio; Fiacconi, Davide; Bonoli, Silvia; Quinn, Thomas; Roškar, Rok; Shen, Sijing; Wadsley, James

    2015-09-01

    We present novel 3D multi-scale smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of gas-rich galaxy mergers between the most massive galaxies at z ˜ 8-10, designed to scrutinize the direct collapse formation scenario for massive black hole seeds proposed in Mayer et al. The simulations achieve a resolution of 0.1 pc, and include both metallicity-dependent optically thin cooling and a model for thermal balance at high optical depth. We consider different formulations of the SPH hydrodynamical equations, including thermal and metal diffusion. When the two merging galaxy cores collide, gas infall produces a compact, optically thick nuclear disk with densities exceeding 10-10 g cm3. The disk rapidly accretes higher angular momentum gas from its surroundings reaching ˜5 pc and a mass of ≳109 M⊙ in only a few 104 years. Outside ≳2 pc it fragments into massive clumps. Instead, supersonic turbulence prevents fragmentation in the inner parsec region, which remains warm (˜3000-6000 K) and develops strong non-axisymmetric modes that cause prominent radial gas inflows (>104 M⊙ yr-1), forming an ultra-dense massive disky core. Angular momentum transport by non-axisymmetric modes should continue below our spatial resolution limit, quickly turning the disky core into a supermassive protostar which can collapse directly into a massive black hole of mass 108-109 M⊙ via the relativistic radial instability. Such a “cold direct collapse” explains naturally the early emergence of high-z QSOs. Its telltale signature would be a burst of gravitational waves in the frequency range of 10-4-10-1 Hz, possibly detectable by the planned eLISA interferometer.

  12. Mergers of accreting stellar-mass black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagawa, H.; Umemura, M.; Gouda, N.

    2016-11-01

    We present post-Newtonian N-body simulations on mergers of accreting stellar-mass black holes (BHs), where such general relativistic effects as the pericentre shift and gravitational wave (GW) emission are taken into consideration. The attention is concentrated on the effects of the dynamical friction and the Hoyle-Lyttleton mass accretion by ambient gas. We consider a system composed of 10 BHs with initial mass of 30 M⊙. As a result, we show that mergers of accreting stellar-mass BHs are classified into four types: a gas drag-driven, an interplay-driven, a three-body-driven, or an accretion-driven merger. We find that BH mergers proceed before significant mass accretion, even if the accretion rate is ˜10 Eddington accretion rate, and then all BHs can merge into one heavy BH. Using the simulation results for a wide range of parameters, we derive a critical accretion rate (dot{m}_c), below which the BH growth is promoted faster by mergers. Also, it is found that the effect of the recoil by the GW emission can reduce dot{m}_c especially in gas number density higher than 108 cm-3, and enhance the escape probability of merged BHs. Very recently, a gravitational wave event, GW150914, as a result of the merger of a ˜30 M⊙ BH binary has been detected. Based on the present simulations, the BH merger in GW150914 is likely to be driven by three-body encounters accompanied by a few M⊙ of gas accretion, in high-density environments like dense interstellar clouds or galactic nuclei.

  13. The obscuration by dust of most of the growth of supermassive black holes.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Sansigre, Alejo; Rawlings, Steve; Lacy, Mark; Fadda, Dario; Marleau, Francine R; Simpson, Chris; Willott, Chris J; Jarvis, Matt J

    2005-08-01

    Supermassive black holes underwent periods of exponential growth during which we see them as quasars in the distant Universe. The summed emission from these quasars generates the cosmic X-ray background, the spectrum of which has been used to argue that most black-hole growth is obscured. There are clear examples of obscured black-hole growth in the form of 'type-2' quasars, but their numbers are fewer than expected from modelling of the X-ray background. Here we report the direct detection of a population of distant type-2 quasars, which is at least comparable in size to the well-known unobscured type-1 population. We selected objects that have mid-infrared and radio emissions characteristic of quasars, but which are faint at near-infrared and optical wavelengths. We conclude that this population is responsible for most of the black-hole growth in the young Universe and that, throughout cosmic history, black-hole growth occurs in the dusty, gas-rich centres of active galaxies.

  14. Fossil gas and the electromagnetic precursor of supermassive binary black hole mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Philip; Strubbe, Linda E.; Menou, Kristen; Quataert, Eliot

    2010-09-01

    Using a 1D height integrated model, we calculate the evolution of an unequal mass binary black hole with a coplanar gas disc that contains a gap due to the presence of the secondary black hole. Viscous evolution of the outer circumbinary disc initially hardens the binary, while the inner disc drains on to the primary (central) black hole. As long as the inner disc remains cool and thin at low (rather than becoming hot and geometrically thick), the mass of the inner disc reaches an asymptotic mass typically ~10-3-10-4Msolar. Once the semimajor axis shrinks below a critical value, angular momentum losses from gravitational waves dominate over viscous transport in hardening the binary. The inner disc then no longer responds viscously to the inspiraling black holes. Instead, tidal interactions with the secondary rapidly drive the inner disc into the primary. Tidal and viscous dissipation in the inner disc lead to a late time brightening in luminosity, L ~ t-5/4minus, where tminus is the time prior to the final merger. This late time brightening peaks ~1 d prior to the final merger at ~0.1LEdd. This behaviour is relatively robust because of self-regulation in the coupled viscous-gravitational evolution of such binary systems. It constitutes a unique electromagnetic signature of a binary supermassive black hole merger and may allow the host galaxy to be identified if used in conjunction with the Laser Interferometric Space Antenna localization.

  15. Black hole accretion disks with coronae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svensson, Roland; Zdziarski, Andrzej A.

    1994-01-01

    Observations suggest the existence of both hot and cold dark matter in the centers of active galactic nuclei. Recent spectral models require a major fraction of power to be dissipated in the hot matter. We study the case when the hot matter forms a corona around a standard cold alpha-disk. In particular, we investigate the case when a major fraction, f, of the power released when the cold matter accretes is transported to and dissipated in the corona. This has major effects on the cold disk, making it colder, more geometrically thin, denser, and having larger optical depths. One important consequence is the disappearance of the effectively optically thin zone as well as of the radiation pressure dominated zone for values of f sufficiently closed to unity. The disappearance of the radiation pressure dominated zone will result in a cold disk with only a gas pressure dominated zone that is stable against thermal and viscous instabilities. We also show that the pressure ( and the radiation) from the corona will only affect the surface layers of the cold disk. Our results disagree with those of other recent work on accretion disks with coronae. We find those works to be based on unphysical assumptions.

  16. Thin accretion disks onto brane world black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Pun, C. S. J.; Harko, T.; Kovacs, Z.

    2008-10-15

    The brane-world description of our universe entails a large extra dimension and a fundamental scale of gravity that might be lower by several orders of magnitude as compared to the Planck scale. An interesting consequence of the brane-world scenario is in the nature of the vacuum solutions of the brane gravitational field equations, with properties quite distinct as compared to the standard black-hole solutions of general relativity. One possibility of observationally discriminating between different types of black holes is the study of the emission properties of the accretion disks. In the present paper we obtain the energy flux, the emission spectrum and accretion efficiency from the accretion disks around several classes of static and rotating brane-world black holes, and we compare them to the general relativistic case. Particular signatures can appear in the electromagnetic spectrum, thus leading to the possibility of directly testing extra-dimensional physical models by using astrophysical observations of the emission spectra from accretion disks.

  17. Powerful radiative jets in supercritical accretion discs around non-spinning black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sądowski, Aleksander; Narayan, Ramesh

    2015-11-01

    We describe a set of simulations of supercritical accretion on to a non-rotating supermassive black hole (BH). The accretion flow takes the form of a geometrically thick disc with twin low-density funnels around the rotation axis. For accretion rates {gtrsim } 10 dot{M}_Edd, there is sufficient gas in the funnel to make this region optically thick. Radiation from the disc first flows into the funnel, after which it accelerates the optically thick funnel gas along the axis. The resulting jet is baryon loaded and has a terminal density-weighted velocity ≈0.3c. Much of the radiative luminosity is converted into kinetic energy by the time the escaping gas becomes optically thin. These jets are not powered by BHrotation or magnetic driving, but purely by radiation. Their characteristic beaming angle is ˜0.2 rad. For an observer viewing down the axis, the isotropic equivalent luminosity of total energy is as much as 1048 erg s- 1 for a 107 M⊙ BH accreting at 103 Eddington. Therefore, energetically, the simulated jets are consistent with observations of the most powerful tidal disruption events, e.g. Swift J1644. The jet velocity is, however, too low to match the Lorentz factor γ > 2 inferred in J1644. There is no such conflict in the case of other tidal disruption events. Since favourably oriented observers see isotropic equivalent luminosities that are highly super-Eddington, the simulated models can explain observations of ultraluminous X-ray sources, at least in terms of luminosity and energetics, without requiring intermediate-mass BHs.

  18. THE FIRST SPECTROSCOPICALLY RESOLVED SUB-PARSEC ORBIT OF A SUPERMASSIVE BINARY BLACK HOLE

    SciTech Connect

    Bon, E.; Jovanovic, P.; Bon, N.; Popovic, L. C.; Marziani, P.; Shapovalova, A. I.; Borka Jovanovic, V.; Borka, D.; Sulentic, J.

    2012-11-10

    One of the most intriguing scenarios proposed to explain how active galactic nuclei are triggered involves the existence of a supermassive binary black hole (BH) system in their cores. Here, we present an observational evidence for the first spectroscopically resolved sub-parsec orbit of a such system in the core of Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151. Using a method similar to those typically used for spectroscopic binary stars, we obtained radial velocity curves of the supermassive binary system, from which we calculated orbital elements and made estimates about the masses of the components. Our analysis shows that periodic variations in the light and radial velocity curves can be accounted for by an eccentric, sub-parsec Keplerian orbit with a 15.9 year period. The flux maximum in the light curve corresponds to the approaching phase of the secondary component toward the observer. According to the obtained results, we speculate that the periodic variations in the observed H{alpha} line shape and flux are due to shock waves generated by the supersonic motion of the components through the surrounding medium. Given the large observational effort needed to reveal this spectroscopically resolved binary orbital motion, we suggest that many such systems may exist in similar objects even if they are hard to find. Detecting more of them will provide us with insight into the BH mass growth process.

  19. Astronomical constraints on quantum theories of cold dark matter - II. Supermassive black holes and luminous matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spivey, S. C.; Musielak, Z. E.; Fry, J. L.

    2015-04-01

    Our previous model of quantum cold dark matter (QCDM) is expanded to include the influence of supermassive black holes located at centres of different galaxies and galactic luminous (baryonic) matter distributions. The inclusion of a black hole to the galactic potential is shown to produce a more concentrated halo with a cuspier core. The addition of a small-scale galactic luminous matter distribution also concentrates the halo, while a large-scale distribution diffuses it; nevertheless, in either case the smooth core of the halo is preserved. Effects caused by including a non-linear scattering term are investigated by solving the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. The obtained results demonstrate that the scattering term produces a rounder and more diffuse density profile. Moreover, adding a sufficiently large black hole in combination with this term results in an even cuspier profile than the black hole alone. As a result of all these additions, our extended QCDM model can be applied to a much larger range of dark matter halo shapes and sizes.

  20. The Effects of Accretion Flow Dynamics on the Black Hole Shadow of Sagittarius A*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Hung-Yi; Akiyama, Kazunori; Asada, Keiichi

    2016-11-01

    A radiatively inefficient accretion flow (RIAF), which is commonly characterized by its sub-Keplerian nature, is a favored accretion model for the supermassive black hole at the Galactic center, Sagittarius A*. To investigate the observable features of an RIAF, we compare the modeled shadow images, visibilities, and spectra of three flow models with dynamics characterized by (i) a Keplerian shell that is rigidly rotating outside the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) and infalling with a constant angular momentum inside ISCO, (ii) a sub-Keplerian motion, and (iii) a free-falling motion with zero angular momentum at infinity. At near-millimeter wavelengths, the emission is dominated by the flow within several Schwarzschild radii. The energy shift due to these flow dynamics becomes important and distinguishable, suggesting that the flow dynamics are an important model parameter for interpreting the millimeter/sub-millimeter very long baseline interferometric observations with the forthcoming, fully assembled Event Horizon Telescope (EHT). As an example, we demonstrate that structural variations of Sagittarius A* on event horizon-scales detected in previous EHT observations can be explained by the non-stationary dynamics of an RIAF.

  1. Black Hole Event Horizons and Advection-Dominated Accretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClintock, Jeffrey; Mushotzky, Richard F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The XMM data on black-hole X-ray novae are only now becoming available and they have so far not been included in any publications. This work is part of a larger project that makes use of both XMM and Chandra data. Our first publication on the Chandra results is the following: "New Evidence for Black Hole Event Horizons from Chandra" by M.R. Garcia, J.E. McClintock, R. Narayan, P. Callanan, D. Barret and S. Murray (2001, ApJ, 553, L47). Therein we present the luminosities of the two black-hole X-ray novae, GRO J0422+22 and 4U1 543-47, which were observed by Chandra. These results are combined with the luminosities of four additional black-hole X-ray novae, which were observed as part of a Chandra GTO program (PI: S. Murray). The very low, but nonzero, quiescent X-ray luminosities of these black hole binaries is very difficult to understand in the context of standard viscous accretion disk theory. The principal result of this work is that X-ray novae that contain black hole primaries are about 100 times fainter that X-ray novae that contain neutron star primaries. This result had been suggested in earlier work, but the present work very firmly establishes this large luminosity difference. The result is remarkable because the black-hole and the neutron-star systems are believed to be similar in many respects. Most importantly, the mass transfer rate from the secondary star is believed to be very comparable for the two kinds of systems for similar orbital periods. The advection-dominated accretion flow (ADAF) model provides a natural framework for understanding the extraordinarily low luminosities of the black hole systems and the hundred-fold greater luminosities of the neutron star systems. The chief feature of an ADAF is that the heat energy in the accreting gas is trapped in the gas and travels with it, rather than being radiated promptly. Thus the accreting gas reaches the central object with a huge amount of thermal energy. If the accretor is a black hole, the

  2. Prospects for measuring supermassive black hole masses with future extremely large telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Do, Tuan; Wright, Shelley A.; Barth, Aaron J.; Barton, Elizabeth J.; Simard, Luc; Larkin, James E.; Moore, Anna M.; Wang, Lianqi; Ellerbroek, Brent

    2014-04-01

    The next generation of giant-segmented mirror telescopes (>20 m) will enable us to observe galactic nuclei at much higher angular resolution and sensitivity than ever before. These capabilities will introduce a revolutionary shift in our understanding of the origin and evolution of supermassive black holes by enabling more precise black hole mass measurements in a mass range that is unreachable today. We present simulations and predictions of the observations of nuclei that will be made with the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) and the adaptive optics assisted integral-field spectrograph IRIS, which is capable of diffraction-limited spectroscopy from Z band (0.9 μm) to K band (2.2 μm). These simulations, for the first time, use realistic values for the sky, telescope, adaptive optics system, and instrument to determine the expected signal-to-noise ratio of a range of possible targets spanning intermediate mass black holes of ∼10{sup 4} M {sub ☉} to the most massive black holes known today of >10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}. We find that IRIS will be able to observe Milky Way mass black holes out the distance of the Virgo Cluster, and will allow us to observe many more of the brightest cluster galaxies where the most massive black holes are thought to reside. We also evaluate how well the kinematic moments of the velocity distributions can be constrained at the different spectral resolutions and plate scales designed for IRIS. We find that a spectral resolution of ∼8000 will be necessary to measure the masses of intermediate mass black holes. By simulating the observations of galaxies found in Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7, we find that over 10{sup 5} massive black holes will be observable at distances between 0.005 < z < 0.18 with the estimated sensitivity and angular resolution provided by access to Z-band (0.9 μm) spectroscopy from IRIS and the TMT adaptive optics system. These observations will provide the most accurate dynamical measurements of black hole masses to

  3. The Future of High-Energy Astrophysics: Prospects for Supermassive Black Hole Discoveries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niel Brandt, W.

    2011-09-01

    I will describe a few of the most exciting prospects for learning about the physics, demography, and ecology of growing supermassive black holes over the coming 1-2 decades. Facilities that are largely built (e.g., ALMA, EVLA, NuSTAR), are under construction (e.g., Astro-H, e-ROSITA), are expected to be built (e.g., LSST), or will hopefully be built (e.g., Athena, JANUS, LISA-lite) should enable wide-ranging discoveries about the high-energy processes in active galaxies. They will also provide strong connections with the enormous and still growing data archives from current X-ray and gamma-ray missions.

  4. Compact symmetric objects and supermassive binary black holes in the VLBA Imaging and Polarimetry Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, S. E.; Taylor, G. B.; Ortiz, A. A.; Tremblay, C. D.; Helmboldt, J. F.; Romani, R. W.

    2016-06-01

    We present multifrequency Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) follow-up observations of VLBA Imaging and Polarimetry Survey sources identified as likely compact symmetric objects (CSOs) or supermassive binary black holes (SBBHs). We also present new spectroscopic redshifts for 11 sources observed with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope. While no new SBBHs can be confirmed from these observations, we have identified 24 CSOs in the sample, 15 of which are newly designated, and refuted 52 candidates leaving 33 unconfirmed candidates. This is the first large uniform sample of CSOs which can be used to elicit some of the general properties of these sources, including morphological evolution and environmental interaction. We have detected polarized emission from two of these CSOs the properties of which are consistent with active galactic nuclei unification schemes.

  5. Gravitational waves from binary supermassive black holes missing in pulsar observations.

    PubMed

    Shannon, R M; Ravi, V; Lentati, L T; Lasky, P D; Hobbs, G; Kerr, M; Manchester, R N; Coles, W A; Levin, Y; Bailes, M; Bhat, N D R; Burke-Spolaor, S; Dai, S; Keith, M J; Osłowski, S; Reardon, D J; van Straten, W; Toomey, L; Wang, J-B; Wen, L; Wyithe, J S B; Zhu, X-J

    2015-09-25

    Gravitational waves are expected to be radiated by supermassive black hole binaries formed during galaxy mergers. A stochastic superposition of gravitational waves from all such binary systems would modulate the arrival times of pulses from radio pulsars. Using observations of millisecond pulsars obtained with the Parkes radio telescope, we constrained the characteristic amplitude of this background, A(c,yr), to be <1.0 × 10(-15) with 95% confidence. This limit excludes predicted ranges for A(c,yr) from current models with 91 to 99.7% probability. We conclude that binary evolution is either stalled or dramatically accelerated by galactic-center environments and that higher-cadence and shorter-wavelength observations would be more sensitive to gravitational waves.

  6. Selection bias in dynamically measured supermassive black hole samples: consequences for pulsar timing arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sesana, Alberto; Shankar, Francesco; Bernardi, Mariangela; Sheth, Ravi K.

    2016-11-01

    Supermassive black hole -- host galaxy relations are key to the computation of the expected gravitational wave background (GWB) in the pulsar timing array (PTA) frequency band. It has been recently pointed out that standard relations adopted in GWB computations are in fact biased-high. We show that when this selection bias is taken into account, the expected GWB in the PTA band is a factor of about three smaller than previously estimated. Compared to other scaling relations recently published in the literature, the median amplitude of the signal at $f=1$yr$^{-1}$ drops from $1.3\\times10^{-15}$ to $4\\times10^{-16}$. Although this solves any potential tension between theoretical predictions and recent PTA limits without invoking other dynamical effects (such as stalling, eccentricity or strong coupling with the galactic environment), it also makes the GWB detection more challenging.

  7. Gravitational waves from binary supermassive black holes missing in pulsar observations.

    PubMed

    Shannon, R M; Ravi, V; Lentati, L T; Lasky, P D; Hobbs, G; Kerr, M; Manchester, R N; Coles, W A; Levin, Y; Bailes, M; Bhat, N D R; Burke-Spolaor, S; Dai, S; Keith, M J; Osłowski, S; Reardon, D J; van Straten, W; Toomey, L; Wang, J-B; Wen, L; Wyithe, J S B; Zhu, X-J

    2015-09-25

    Gravitational waves are expected to be radiated by supermassive black hole binaries formed during galaxy mergers. A stochastic superposition of gravitational waves from all such binary systems would modulate the arrival times of pulses from radio pulsars. Using observations of millisecond pulsars obtained with the Parkes radio telescope, we constrained the characteristic amplitude of this background, A(c,yr), to be <1.0 × 10(-15) with 95% confidence. This limit excludes predicted ranges for A(c,yr) from current models with 91 to 99.7% probability. We conclude that binary evolution is either stalled or dramatically accelerated by galactic-center environments and that higher-cadence and shorter-wavelength observations would be more sensitive to gravitational waves. PMID:26404832

  8. MULTIPLE TIDAL DISRUPTIONS AS AN INDICATOR OF BINARY SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Wegg, Christopher; Nate Bode, J.

    2011-09-01

    We find that the majority of systems hosting multiple tidal disruptions (TDs) are likely to contain hard binary supermassive black hole (SMBH) systems, and also show that the rates of these repeated events are high enough to be detected by the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) over its lifetime. Therefore, these multiple TD events provide a novel method for identifying SMBH binary systems with parsec to subparsec separations. The rates of TDs are investigated using simulations of non-interacting stars initially orbiting a primary SMBH and the potential of the model stellar cusp. The stars are then evolved forward in time and perturbed by a secondary SMBH inspiraling from the edge of the cusp to its stalling radius. We find with conservative magnitude estimates that the next-generation transient survey LSST should detect multiple TDs in approximately three galaxies over five years of observation, though less conservative estimates could increase this rate by an order of magnitude.

  9. Gravitational-wave limits from pulsar timing constrain supermassive black hole evolution.

    PubMed

    Shannon, R M; Ravi, V; Coles, W A; Hobbs, G; Keith, M J; Manchester, R N; Wyithe, J S B; Bailes, M; Bhat, N D R; Burke-Spolaor, S; Khoo, J; Levin, Y; Osłowski, S; Sarkissian, J M; van Straten, W; Verbiest, J P W; Wang, J-B

    2013-10-18

    The formation and growth processes of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are not well constrained. SMBH population models, however, provide specific predictions for the properties of the gravitational-wave background (GWB) from binary SMBHs in merging galaxies throughout the universe. Using observations from the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array, we constrain the fractional GWB energy density (Ω(GW)) with 95% confidence to be Ω(GW)(H0/73 kilometers per second per megaparsec)(2) < 1.3 × 10(-9) (where H0 is the Hubble constant) at a frequency of 2.8 nanohertz, which is approximately a factor of 6 more stringent than previous limits. We compare our limit to models of the SMBH population and find inconsistencies at confidence levels between 46 and 91%. For example, the standard galaxy formation model implemented in the Millennium Simulation Project is inconsistent with our limit with 50% probability.

  10. MILKY WAY SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE: DYNAMICAL FEEDING FROM THE CIRCUMNUCLEAR ENVIRONMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Hsieh, Pei-Ying; Ho, Paul T. P.; Su, Yu-Nung; Wright, Melvyn; Sun, Ai-Lei; Minh, Young Chol

    2012-09-10

    The supermassive black hole (SMBH), Sgr A*, at the Galactic center is surrounded by a molecular circumnuclear disk (CND) lying between 1.5 and 4 pc radii. The irregular and clumpy structures of the CND suggest dynamical evolution and episodic feeding of gas toward the central SMBH. New sensitive data from the Submillimeter Array and Green Bank Telescope reveal several >5-10 pc scale molecular arms, which either directly connect to the CND or may penetrate inside the CND. The CND appears to be the convergence of the innermost parts of large-scale gas streamers, which are responding to the central gravitational potential well. Rather than being a quasi-stationary structure, the CND may be dynamically evolving, incorporating inflow via streamers, and feeding gas toward the center.

  11. Gravitational-wave limits from pulsar timing constrain supermassive black hole evolution.

    PubMed

    Shannon, R M; Ravi, V; Coles, W A; Hobbs, G; Keith, M J; Manchester, R N; Wyithe, J S B; Bailes, M; Bhat, N D R; Burke-Spolaor, S; Khoo, J; Levin, Y; Osłowski, S; Sarkissian, J M; van Straten, W; Verbiest, J P W; Wang, J-B

    2013-10-18

    The formation and growth processes of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are not well constrained. SMBH population models, however, provide specific predictions for the properties of the gravitational-wave background (GWB) from binary SMBHs in merging galaxies throughout the universe. Using observations from the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array, we constrain the fractional GWB energy density (Ω(GW)) with 95% confidence to be Ω(GW)(H0/73 kilometers per second per megaparsec)(2) < 1.3 × 10(-9) (where H0 is the Hubble constant) at a frequency of 2.8 nanohertz, which is approximately a factor of 6 more stringent than previous limits. We compare our limit to models of the SMBH population and find inconsistencies at confidence levels between 46 and 91%. For example, the standard galaxy formation model implemented in the Millennium Simulation Project is inconsistent with our limit with 50% probability. PMID:24136962

  12. Large scale direct galaxy collision simulations with central supermassive binary black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobolenko, Margaryta; Berczik, Peter; Spurzem, Rainer

    2016-02-01

    We present a set of, large scale direct N-body simulations of the galaxy collision with the central Supermassive Black Hole Binary (SMBHB) system. Based on our simulations which include the accurate Post Newtonian (PN) relativistic dynamical corrections we can estimated the merging time for the real astrophysical object. Each galaxy initially was represented as a set of particles (up to N=500k) with Plummer distribution. The SMBHBs system is described using the two special high mass, i.e. ``relativistic'', particles. The interaction between these two particles have an extra PN correction terms (up to 3.5PN). Merging time upper limit was obtained for the closely interacting galaxy system NGC 6240.

  13. Milky Way Supermassive Black Hole: Dynamical Feeding from the Circumnuclear Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Hsieh, Pei-Ying; Ho, Paul T. P.; Su, Yu-Nung; Wright, Melvyn; Sun, Ai-Lei; Minh, Young Chol

    2012-09-01

    The supermassive black hole (SMBH), Sgr A*, at the Galactic center is surrounded by a molecular circumnuclear disk (CND) lying between 1.5 and 4 pc radii. The irregular and clumpy structures of the CND suggest dynamical evolution and episodic feeding of gas toward the central SMBH. New sensitive data from the Submillimeter Array and Green Bank Telescope reveal several >5-10 pc scale molecular arms, which either directly connect to the CND or may penetrate inside the CND. The CND appears to be the convergence of the innermost parts of large-scale gas streamers, which are responding to the central gravitational potential well. Rather than being a quasi-stationary structure, the CND may be dynamically evolving, incorporating inflow via streamers, and feeding gas toward the center.

  14. DISCOVERY OF AN H{alpha} EMITTING DISK AROUND THE SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE OF M31

    SciTech Connect

    Menezes, R. B.; Steiner, J. E.; Ricci, T. V.

    2013-01-10

    Due to its proximity, the mass of the supermassive black hole in the nucleus of the Andromeda galaxy (M31), the most massive black hole in the Local Group of galaxies, has been measured by several methods involving the kinematics of a stellar disk which surrounds it. We report here the discovery of an eccentric H{alpha} emitting disk around the black hole at the center of M31 and show how modeling this disk can provide an independent determination of the mass of the black hole. Our model implies a mass of 5.0{sup +0.8}{sub -1.0} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} M{sub Sun} for the central black hole, consistent with the average of determinations by methods involving stellar dynamics, and compatible (at 1{sigma} level) with measurements obtained from the most detailed models of the stellar disk around the central black hole. This value is also consistent with the M-{sigma} relation. In order to make a comparison, we applied our simulation on the stellar kinematics in the nucleus of M31 and concluded that the parameters obtained for the stellar disk are not formally compatible with the parameters obtained for the H{alpha} emitting disk. This result suggests that the stellar and the H{alpha} emitting disks are intrinsically different from each other. A plausible explanation is that the H{alpha} emission is associated with a gaseous disk. This hypothesis is supported by the detection of traces of weaker nebular lines in the nuclear region of M31. However, we cannot exclude the possibility that the H{alpha} emission is, at least partially, generated by stars.

  15. Black Hole Accretion and Feedback Driven by Thermal Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaspari, M.; Ruszkowski, M.; Oh, S. P.; Churazov, E.; Brighenti, F.; Ettori, S.; Sharma, P.; Temi, P.

    2013-03-01

    Multiwavelength data indicate that the cores of several galaxy clusters are moderately cooling, though not catastrophically, showing signs of filamentary extended multiphase gas. Through 3D AMR hydrodynamic simulations, we study the impact of thermal instability in the evolution of the intracluster medium. Common moderate turbulence of just over 100 km/s leads to the growth of nonlinear thermal instability within the central few tens kpc. In the presence of a global counterbalancing heating, the condensation of extended filamentary cold gas is violent, occurring when the cooling time falls below 10 times the free-fall time. The frequent stochastic collisions, fragmentations and shearing motions between the cold clouds, filaments and the central torus, efficiently reduce angular momentum. Tracking the accreting gas with a dynamical range of 10 million, we find that the accretion rate is boosted up to 100 times with respect to the Bondi rate. In a commonly turbulent and quasi-stable atmosphere, the mode of black accretion is cold and chaotic, substantially different from the classic idealized scenario. Only in the transonic regime, turbulent dissipation starts to inhibit thermal instability. On sub-parsec scales the cold phase is channeled via a funnel, triggering the black hole feedback likely linked to mechanical jets/outflows. As shown by long-term self-regulated simulations, the interplay of chaotic cold accretion and AGN feedback is crucial in order to avoid the cooling catastrophe and to reproduce the key thermodynamical features of observed clusters.

  16. Small Seed Black Hole Growth in Various Accretion Regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerling-Dunsmore, Hannalore J.; Hopkins, Philip F.

    2016-03-01

    Observational evidence indicates a population of super massive black holes (SMBHs) (~109 -1010M⊙) formed within 1 Gyr after the Big Bang. One proposed means of SMBH formation is accretion onto small seed black holes (BHs) (~ 100M⊙). However, the existence of SMBHs within 1 Gyr requires rapid growth, but conventional models of accretion fail to grow the seed BHs quickly enough. Super Eddington accretion (Ṁ >ṀEddington) may aid in improving growth efficiency. We study small seed BH growth via accretion in 3D, using the magneto-hydrodynamics+gravity code GIZMO. In particular, we consider a BH in a high density turbulent star-forming cloud, and ask whether or not the BH can capture sufficient gas to grow rapidly. We consider both Eddington-limited and super Eddington regimes, and resolve physics on scales from 0.1 pc to 1 kpc while including detailed models for stellar feedback physics, including stellar winds, supernovae, radiation pressure, and photo-ionization. We present results on the viability of different small seed BHs growing into SMBH candidates.

  17. Accreting neutron stars, black holes, and degenerate dwarf stars.

    PubMed

    Pines, D

    1980-02-01

    During the past 8 years, extended temporal and broadband spectroscopic studies carried out by x-ray astronomical satellites have led to the identification of specific compact x-ray sources as accreting neutron stars, black holes, and degenerate dwarf stars in close binary systems. Such sources provide a unique opportunity to study matter under extreme conditions not accessible in the terrestrial laboratory. Quantitative theoretical models have been developed which demonstrate that detailed studies of these sources will lead to a greatly increased understanding of dense and superdense hadron matter, hadron superfluidity, high-temperature plasma in superstrong magnetic fields, and physical processes in strong gravitational fields. Through a combination of theory and observation such studies will make possible the determination of the mass, radius, magnetic field, and structure of neutron stars and degenerate dwarf stars and the identification of further candidate black holes, and will contribute appreciably to our understanding of the physics of accretion by compact astronomical objects. PMID:17749313

  18. Ubiquitous equatorial accretion disc winds in black hole soft states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponti, G.; Fender, R. P.; Begelman, M. C.; Dunn, R. J. H.; Neilsen, J.; Coriat, M.

    2012-05-01

    High-resolution spectra of Galactic black holes (GBHs) reveal the presence of highly ionized absorbers. In one GBH, accreting close to the Eddington limit for more than a decade, a powerful accretion disc wind is observed to be present in softer X-ray states and it has been suggested that it can carry away enough mass and energy to quench the radio jet. Here we report that these winds, which may have mass outflow rates of the order of the inner accretion rate or higher, are a ubiquitous component of the jet-free soft states of all GBHs. We furthermore demonstrate that these winds have an equatorial geometry with opening angles of few tens of degrees, and so are only observed in sources in which the disc is inclined at a large angle to the line of sight. The decrease in Fe XXV/Fe XXVI line ratio with Compton temperature, observed in the soft state, suggests a link between higher wind ionization and harder spectral shapes. Although the physical interaction between the wind, accretion flow and jet is still not fully understood, the mass flux and power of these winds and their presence ubiquitously during the soft X-ray states suggest they are fundamental components of the accretion phenomenon.

  19. Gravitational radiation from a spinning compact object around a supermassive Kerr black hole in circular orbit

    SciTech Connect

    Han Wenbiao

    2010-10-15

    The gravitational waves and energy radiation from a spinning compact object with stellar mass in a circular orbit in the equatorial plane of a supermassive Kerr black hole are investigated in this paper. The effect of how the spin acts on energy and angular moment fluxes is discussed in detail. The calculation results indicate that the spin of a small body should be considered in waveform-template production for the upcoming gravitational wave detections. It is clear that when the direction of spin axes is the same as the orbitally angular momentum ('positive' spin), spin can decrease the energy fluxes which radiate to infinity. For antidirection spin ('negative'), the energy fluxes to infinity can be enlarged. And the relations between fluxes (both infinity and horizon) and spin look like quadratic functions. From frequency shift due to spin, we estimate the wave-phase accumulation during the inspiraling process of the particle. We find that the time of particle inspiral into the black hole is longer for positive spin and shorter for negative compared with the nonspinning particle. Especially, for extreme spin value, the energy radiation near the horizon of the extreme Kerr black hole is much more than that for the nonspinning one. And consequently, the maximum binging energy of the extreme spinning particle is much larger than that of the nonspinning particle.

  20. Supermassive black holes in the EAGLE Universe. Revealing the observables of their growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosas-Guevara, Yetli; Bower, Richard G.; Schaye, Joop; McAlpine, Stuart; Dalla Vecchia, Claudio; Frenk, Carlos S.; Schaller, Matthieu; Theuns, Tom

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the evolution of supermassive black holes in the `Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments' (EAGLE) cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. The largest of the EAGLE volumes covers a (100 cMpc)3 and includes state-of-the-art physical models for star formation and black hole growth that depend only on local gas properties. We focus on the black hole mass function, Eddington ratio distribution and the implied duty cycle of nuclear activity. The simulation is broadly consistent with observational constraints on these quantities. In order to make a more direct comparison with observational data, we calculate the soft and hard X-ray luminosity functions of the active galactic nuclei (AGN). Between redshifts 0 and 1, the simulation is in agreement with data. At higher redshifts, the simulation tends to underpredict the luminosities of the brightest observed AGN. This may be due to the limited volume of the simulation, or a fundamental deficiency of the underlying model. It seems unlikely that additional unresolved variability can account for this difference. The simulation shows a similar `downsizing' of the AGN population as seen in observational surveys.

  1. The light up and early evolution of high redshift Supermassive Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comastri, Andrea; Brusa, Marcella; Aird, James; Lanzuisi, Giorgio

    2016-07-01

    The known AGN population at z > 6 is made by luminous optical QSO hosting Supermassive Black Holes (M > 10 ^{9}solar masses), likely to represent the tip of the iceberg of the luminosity and mass function. According to theoretical models for structure formation, Massive Black Holes (M _{BH} 10^{4-7} solar masses) are predicted to be abundant in the early Universe (z > 6). The majority of these lower luminosity objects are expected to be obscured and severely underepresented in current optical near-infrared surveys. The detection of such a population would provide unique constraints on the Massive Black Holes formation mechanism and subsequent growth and is within the capabilities of deep and large area ATHENA surveys. After a summary of the state of the art of present deep XMM and Chandra surveys, at z >3-6 also mentioning the expectations for the forthcoming eROSITA all sky survey; I will present the observational strategy of future multi-cone ATHENA Wide Field Imager (WFI) surveys and the expected breakthroughs in the determination of the luminosity function and its evolution at high (> 4) and very high (>6) redshifts.

  2. Further evidence for a supermassive black hole mass-pitch angle relation

    SciTech Connect

    Berrier, Joel C.; Kennefick, Daniel; Kennefick, Julia D.; Hartley, Matthew; Lacy, Claud H. S.; Davis, Benjamin L.; Barrows, Robert Scott; Shields, Doug; Seigar, Marc S.; Bentz, Misty C.

    2013-06-01

    We present new and stronger evidence for a previously reported relationship between galactic spiral arm pitch angle P (a measure of the tightness of spiral structure) and the mass M {sub BH} of a disk galaxy's nuclear supermassive black hole (SMBH). We use an improved method to accurately measure the spiral arm pitch angle in disk galaxies to generate quantitative data on this morphological feature for 34 galaxies with directly measured black hole masses. We find a relation of log (M/M {sub ☉}) = (8.21 ± 0.16) – (0.062 ± 0.009)P. This method is compared with other means of estimating black hole mass to determine its effectiveness and usefulness relative to other existing relations. We argue that such a relationship is predicted by leading theories of spiral structure in disk galaxies, including the density wave theory. We propose this relationship as a tool for estimating SMBH masses in disk galaxies. This tool is potentially superior when compared to other methods for this class of galaxy and has the advantage of being unambiguously measurable from imaging data alone.

  3. Revealing accretion onto black holes through X-ray reflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plant, D.; Fender, R.; Ponti, G.; Munoz-Darias, T.; Coriat, M.

    2014-07-01

    Understanding the dynamics behind black hole state transitions and the changes they reflect in outbursts has become long-standing problem. The X-ray reflection spectrum describes the interaction between the hard X-ray source (the power-law continuum) and the cool accretion disc it illuminates, and thus permits an indirect view of how the two evolve. We present a systematic analysis of the reflection spectrum throughout three outbursts (500+ RXTE observations) of the black hole binary GX 339-4, representing the largest study applying a self-consistent treatment of reflection to date. Particular attention is payed to the coincident evolution of the power-law and reflection, which can be used to determine the accretion geometry. The hard state is found to be distinctly reflection weak, however the ratio of reflection to power-law gradually increases as the source luminosity rises. In contrast the reflection is found dominate the power-law throughout most of the soft state, with increasing supremacy as the source decays. Using results from archival and AO-12 observations of GX 339-4 with XMM-Newton we reveal the dynamics driving this evolution and the nature of accretion onto black holes in outburst.

  4. RADIO ACTIVE GALAXY NUCLEI IN GALAXY CLUSTERS: HEATING HOT ATMOSPHERES AND DRIVING SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE GROWTH OVER COSMIC TIME

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, C.-J.; McNamara, B. R.; Nulsen, P. E. J.

    2013-01-20

    We estimate the average radio active galactic nucleus (AGN, mechanical) power deposited into the hot atmospheres of galaxy clusters over more than three quarters of the age of the Universe. Our sample was drawn from eight major X-ray cluster surveys and includes 685 clusters in the redshift range 0.1 < z < 0.6 that overlap the area covered by the NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS). The radio-AGN mechanical power was estimated from the radio luminosity of central NVSS sources, using the relation of Cavagnolo et al. that is based on mechanical powers determined from the enthalpies of X-ray cavities. We find only a weak correlation between radio luminosity and cluster X-ray luminosity, although the most powerful radio sources reside in luminous clusters. The average AGN mechanical power of 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1} exceeds the X-ray luminosity of 44% of the clusters, indicating that the accumulation of radio-AGN energy is significant in these clusters. Integrating the AGN mechanical power to redshift z = 2.0, using simple models for its evolution and disregarding the hierarchical growth of clusters, we find that the AGN energy accumulated per particle in low luminosity X-ray clusters exceeds 1 keV per particle. This result represents a conservative lower limit to the accumulated thermal energy. The estimate is comparable to the level of energy needed to 'preheat' clusters, indicating that continual outbursts from radio-AGN are a significant source of gas energy in hot atmospheres. Assuming an average mass conversion efficiency of {eta} = 0.1, our result implies that the supermassive black holes that released this energy did so by accreting an average of {approx}10{sup 9} M {sub Sun} over time, which is comparable to the level of growth expected during the quasar era.

  5. Simulating the Growth of a Disk Galaxy and its Supermassive Black Hole in a Cosmological Simulating the Growth of a Disk Galaxy and its Supermassive Black Hole in a Cosmological Context

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, Robyn Deborah

    2008-01-01

    Supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are ubiquitous in the centers of galaxies. Their formation and subsequent evolution is inextricably linked to that of their host galaxies, and the study of galaxy formation is incomplete without the inclusion of SMBHs. The present work seeks to understand the growth and evolution of SMBHs through their interaction with the host galaxy and its environment. In the first part of the thesis (Chap. 2 and 3), we combine a simple semi-analytic model of outflows from active galactic nuclei (AGN) with a simulated dark matter density distribution to study the impact of SMBH feedback on cosmological scales. We find that constraints can be placed on the kinetic efficiency of such feedback using observations of the filling fraction of the Lyα forest. We also find that AGN feedback is energetic enough to redistribute baryons over cosmological distances, having potentially significant effects on the interpretation of cosmological data which are sensitive to the total matter density distribution (e.g. weak lensing). However, truly assessing the impact of AGN feedback in the universe necessitates large-dynamic range simulations with extensive treatment of baryonic physics to first model the fueling of SMBHs. In the second part of the thesis (Chap. 4-6) we use a hydrodynamic adaptive mesh refinement simulation to follow the growth and evolution of a typical disk galaxy hosting a SMBH, in a cosmological context. The simulation covers a dynamical range of 10 million allowing us to study the transport of matter and angular momentum from super-galactic scales all the way down to the outer edge of the accretion disk around the SMBH. Focusing our attention on the central few hundred parsecs of the galaxy, we find the presence of a cold, self-gravitating, molecular gas disk which is globally unstable. The global instabilities drive super-sonic turbulence, which maintains local stability and allows gas to fuel a SMBH without first fragmenting completely

  6. USING MEGAMASER DISKS TO PROBE BLACK HOLE ACCRETION

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, Jenny E.; Sun Ailei; Seth, Anil; Den Brok, Mark; Braatz, James A.; Impellizzeri, C. M. Violette; Lo, K. Y.; Henkel, Christian; Peng, Chien Y.; Kuo, Cheng-Yu

    2013-07-10

    We examine the alignment between H{sub 2}O megamaser disks on subparsec scales with circumnuclear disks and bars on <500 pc scales observed with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/WFC3. The HST imaging reveals young stars, indicating the presence of gas. The megamaser disks are not well aligned with the circumnuclear bars or disks as traced by stars in the HST images. We speculate on the implications of the observed misalignments for fueling supermassive black holes in gas-rich spiral galaxies. In contrast, we find a strong preference for the rotation axes of the megamaser disks to align with radio continuum jets observed on {approx}> 50 pc scales, in those galaxies for which radio continuum detections are available. Subarcsecond observations of molecular gas with ALMA will enable a more complete understanding of the interplay between circumnuclear structures.

  7. Science with the space-based interferometer eLISA: Supermassive black hole binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Antoine; Barausse, Enrico; Sesana, Alberto; Petiteau, Antoine; Berti, Emanuele; Babak, Stanislav; Gair, Jonathan; Aoudia, Sofiane; Hinder, Ian; Ohme, Frank; Wardell, Barry

    2016-01-01

    We compare the science capabilities of different eLISA mission designs, including four-link (two-arm) and six-link (three-arm) configurations with different arm lengths, low-frequency noise sensitivities and mission durations. For each of these configurations we consider a few representative massive black hole formation scenarios. These scenarios are chosen to explore two physical mechanisms that greatly affect eLISA rates, namely (i) black hole seeding, and (ii) the delays between the merger of two galaxies and the merger of the black holes hosted by those galaxies. We assess the eLISA parameter estimation accuracy using a Fisher matrix analysis with spin-precessing, inspiral-only waveforms. We quantify the information present in the merger and ringdown by rescaling the inspiral-only Fisher matrix estimates using the signal-to-noise ratio from nonprecessing inspiral-merger-ringdown phenomenological waveforms, and from a reduced set of precessing numerical relativity/post-Newtonian hybrid waveforms. We find that all of the eLISA configurations considered in our study should detect some massive black hole binaries. However, configurations with six links and better low-frequency noise will provide much more information on the origin of black holes at high redshifts and on their accretion history, and they may allow the identification of electromagnetic counterparts to massive black hole mergers.

  8. Accretion onto black holes: The power generating mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Colgate, S.A.; Hills, J.G.; Miller, W.A.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The physical relationships among accretion disks, quasars, black holes, collimated radio sources and galactic dynamos previously has been only weakly related without explicit cause and effect. We have constructed a physical evolution from large, primordial density perturbations to {open_quotes}damped Lyman alpha clouds,{close_quotes} to galaxy formation, to black holes, jets, and the the galactic dynamo. We have derived the general relativistic distortions of radiation emitted from close to the black hole and thereby have a new observational test of the central engine. The physics of accretion disks, the astrophysical dynamo, and magnetic reconnection are the least understood physical phenomena in astrophysics. They are still less understood in the general relativity (GR) field close to the black hole. This lack of physical understanding frustrates a quantitative evaluation of observations that define the evolution from the early universe to star formation. We have made progress in this understanding.

  9. Tilted Thick-Disk Accretion onto a Kerr Black Hole

    SciTech Connect

    Fragile, P C; Anninos, P

    2003-12-12

    We present the first results from fully general relativistic numerical studies of thick-disk accretion onto a rapidly-rotating (Kerr) black hole with a spin axis that is tilted (not aligned) with the angular momentum vector of the disk. We initialize the problem with the solution for an aligned, constant angular momentum, accreting thick disk around a black hole with spin a/M = J/M{sup 2} = +0.9 (prograde disk). The black hole is then instantaneously tilted, through a change in the metric, by an angle {beta}{sub 0}. In this Letter we report results with {beta}{sub 0} = 0, 15, and 30{sup o}. The disk is allowed to respond to the Lense-Thirring precession of the tilted black hole. We find that the disk settles into a quasi-static, twisted, warped configuration with Lense-Thirring precession dominating out to a radius analogous to the Bardeen-Petterson transition in tilted Keplerian disks.

  10. Hyper-Eddington accretion flows on to massive black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inayoshi, Kohei; Haiman, Zoltán; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

    2016-07-01

    We study very high rate, spherically symmetric accretion flows on to massive black holes (BHs; 102 ≲ MBH ≲ 106 M⊙) embedded in dense metal-poor clouds, performing one-dimensional radiation hydrodynamical simulations. We find solutions from outside the Bondi radius at hyper-Eddington rates, unimpeded by radiation feedback when (n∞/105 cm-3) > (MBH/104 M⊙)-1(T∞/104 K)3/2, where n∞ and T∞ are the density and temperature of ambient gas. Accretion rates in this regime are steady, and larger than 5000LEdd/c2, where LEdd is the Eddington luminosity. At lower Bondi rates, the accretion is episodic due to radiative feedback and the average rate is below the Eddington rate. In the hyper-Eddington case, the solution consists of a radiation-dominated central core, where photon trapping due to electron scattering is important, and an accreting envelope which follows a Bondi profile with T ≃ 8000 K. When the emergent luminosity is limited to ≲ LEdd because of photon trapping, radiation from the central region does not affect the gas dynamics at larger scales. We apply our result to the rapid formation of massive BHs in protogalaxies with a virial temperature of Tvir ≳ 104K. Once a seed BH forms at the centre of the galaxy, it can grow to a maximum ˜105(Tvir/104 K) M⊙ via gas accretion independent of the initial BH mass. Finally, we discuss possible observational signatures of rapidly accreting BHs with/without allowance for dust. We suggest that these systems could explain Lyα emitters without X-rays and nearby luminous infrared sources with hot dust emission, respectively.

  11. Confined-exotic-matter wormholes with no gluing effects—Imaging supermassive wormholes and black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Azreg-Aïnou, Mustapha

    2015-07-01

    We classify wormholes endowed with redshift effects and finite mass into three types. Type I wormholes have their radial pressure dying out faster, as one moves away from the throat, than any other component of the stress-energy and thus violate the least the local energy conditions. In type II (resp. III) wormholes the radial and transverse pressures are asymptotically proportional and die out faster (resp. slower) than the energy density. We introduce a novel and generalizable method for deriving, with no cutoff in the stress-energy or gluing, a class of each of the three wormhole types. We focus on type I wormholes and construct different asymptotically flat solutions with finite, upper- and lower-bounded, mass M. It is observed that the radial pressure is negative, and the null energy condition is violated, only inside a narrow layer, adjacent to the throat, of relative spacial extent ε. Reducing the relative size of the layer, without harming the condition of traversability, yields an inverse square law of ε versus M for supermassive wormholes. We show that the diameter of the shadow of this type I supermassive wormhole overlaps with that of the black hole candidate at the center of the Milky Way and that the recent derivation, using the up-to-date millimeter-wavelength very long baseline interferometry made in Astrophys. J. (795) (2014) 134 [\\arXivid(1409.4690)], remains inconclusive. We show that redshift-free wormholes, with positive energy density, have one of their barotropic equations of state in the phantom regime (at least in the region adjacent to the throat), have their stress energy tensor traceless, and are anisotropic. They are all type III wormholes having their variable equations of state approaching 1 and −1 at spatial infinity. We also introduce a new approach for deriving new redshift-free wormholes.

  12. Confined-exotic-matter wormholes with no gluing effects—Imaging supermassive wormholes and black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azreg-Aïnou, Mustapha

    2015-07-01

    We classify wormholes endowed with redshift effects and finite mass into three types. Type I wormholes have their radial pressure dying out faster, as one moves away from the throat, than any other component of the stress-energy and thus violate the least the local energy conditions. In type II (resp. III) wormholes the radial and transverse pressures are asymptotically proportional and die out faster (resp. slower) than the energy density. We introduce a novel and generalizable method for deriving, with no cutoff in the stress-energy or gluing, a class of each of the three wormhole types. We focus on type I wormholes and construct different asymptotically flat solutions with finite, upper- and lower-bounded, mass M. It is observed that the radial pressure is negative, and the null energy condition is violated, only inside a narrow layer, adjacent to the throat, of relative spacial extent epsilon. Reducing the relative size of the layer, without harming the condition of traversability, yields an inverse square law of epsilon versus M for supermassive wormholes. We show that the diameter of the shadow of this type I supermassive wormhole overlaps with that of the black hole candidate at the center of the Milky Way and that the recent derivation, using the up-to-date millimeter-wavelength very long baseline interferometry made in Astrophys. J. {795} (2014) 134 [\\arXivid{1409.4690}], remains inconclusive. We show that redshift-free wormholes, with positive energy density, have one of their barotropic equations of state in the phantom regime (at least in the region adjacent to the throat), have their stress energy tensor traceless, and are anisotropic. They are all type III wormholes having their variable equations of state approaching 1 and -1 at spatial infinity. We also introduce a new approach for deriving new redshift-free wormholes.

  13. Unbound Debris Streams and Remnants Resulting from the Tidal Disruptions of Stars by Supermassive Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillochon, James; McCourt, Michael; Chen, Xian; Johnson, Michael D.; Berger, Edo

    2016-05-01

    The kinetic energy of a star in orbit about a supermassive black hole is a significant fraction of its rest mass energy when its periapse is comparable to its tidal radius. Upon its destruction, a fraction of this energy is extracted and injected into the stellar debris, half of which becomes unbound from the black hole, with the fastest material moving at ˜ 0.03c. In this paper, we present a formalism for determining the fate of these unbound debris streams (UDSs) as they depart from the black hole and interact with the surrounding gas. As the density and velocity varies along the length of a UDS, we find that hydrodynamical drag quickly shapes UDSs into loop-like structures, with the densest portions of the streams leading portions of lower density. As UDSs travel outwards, their drag against the ISM increases quadratically with distance, which causes UDSs to deposit their momentum and energy into the ambient medium before the surrounding shocked ISM has a chance to cool. This sudden injection of ˜ {10}50 erg into the ambient medium generates a Sedov-like unbound debris remnant (UDR) that mimics supernova remnants (SNRs) in energetics and appearance, accelerates particles which will produce cosmic rays and synchrotron emission, and provides momentum feedback into the molecular clouds surrounding a black hole. We estimate that a few of these UDRs might be present within a couple degrees of the Galactic Center masquerading as SNRs, and that the UDR scenario is a plausible explanation for Sgr A east.

  14. UPDATED MASS SCALING RELATIONS FOR NUCLEAR STAR CLUSTERS AND A COMPARISON TO SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Nicholas; Graham, Alister W.

    2013-02-15

    We investigate whether or not nuclear star clusters and supermassive black holes (SMBHs) follow a common set of mass scaling relations with their host galaxy's properties, and hence can be considered to form a single class of central massive object (CMO). We have compiled a large sample of galaxies with measured nuclear star cluster masses and host galaxy properties from the literature and fit log-linear scaling relations. We find that nuclear star cluster mass, M {sub NC}, correlates most tightly with the host galaxy's velocity dispersion: log M {sub NC} = (2.11 {+-} 0.31)log ({sigma}/54) + (6.63 {+-} 0.09), but has a slope dramatically shallower than the relation defined by SMBHs. We find that the nuclear star cluster mass relations involving host galaxy (and spheroid) luminosity and stellar and dynamical mass, intercept with but are in general shallower than the corresponding black hole scaling relations. In particular, M {sub NC}{proportional_to}M {sup 0.55{+-}0.15} {sub Gal,dyn}; the nuclear cluster mass is not a constant fraction of its host galaxy or spheroid mass. We conclude that nuclear stellar clusters and SMBHs do not form a single family of CMOs.

  15. A highly magnetized twin-jet base pinpoints a supermassive black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baczko, A.-K.; Schulz, R.; Kadler, M.; Ros, E.; Perucho, M.; Krichbaum, T. P.; Böck, M.; Bremer, M.; Grossberger, C.; Lindqvist, M.; Lobanov, A. P.; Mannheim, K.; Martí-Vidal, I.; Müller, C.; Wilms, J.; Zensus, J. A.

    2016-09-01

    Supermassive black holes (SMBH) are essential for the production of jets in radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGN). Theoretical models based on (Blandford & Znajek 1977, MNRAS, 179, 433) extract the rotational energy from a Kerr black hole, which could be the case for NGC 1052, to launch these jets. This requires magnetic fields on the order of 103G to 104G. We imaged the vicinity of the SMBH of the AGN NGC 1052 with the Global Millimetre VLBI Array and found a bright and compact central feature that is smaller than 1.9 light days (100 Schwarzschild radii) in radius. Interpreting this as a blend of the unresolved jet bases, we derive the magnetic field at 1 Schwarzschild radius to lie between 200 G and ~ 8.3 × 104 G consistent with Blandford & Znajek models. The VLBI images shown in Figs. 3 and 4 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/593/A47

  16. UNDERSTANDING BLACK HOLE MASS ASSEMBLY VIA ACCRETION AND MERGERS AT LATE TIMES IN COSMOLOGICAL SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kulier, Andrea; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Lackner, Claire N.; Cen, Renyue; Natarajan, Priyamvada

    2015-02-01

    Accretion is thought to primarily contribute to the mass accumulation history of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) throughout cosmic time. While this may be true at high redshifts, at lower redshifts and for the most massive black holes (BHs) mergers themselves might add significantly to the mass budget. We explore this in two disparate environments—a massive cluster and a void region. We evolve SMBHs from 4 > z > 0 using merger trees derived from hydrodynamical cosmological simulations of these two regions, scaled to the observed value of the stellar mass fraction to account for overcooling. Mass gains from gas accretion proportional to bulge growth and BH-BH mergers are tracked, as are BHs that remain ''orbiting'' due to insufficient dynamical friction in a merger remnant, as well as those that are ejected due to gravitational recoil. We find that gas accretion remains the dominant source of mass accumulation in almost all SMBHs; mergers contribute 2.5% ± 0.1% for all SMBHs in the cluster and 1.0% ± 0.1% in the void since z = 4. However, mergers are significant for massive SMBHs. The fraction of mass accumulated from mergers for central BHs generally increases for larger values of the host bulge mass: in the void, the fraction is 2% at M {sub *,} {sub bul} = 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}, increasing to 4% at M {sub *,} {sub bul} ≳ 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉}, and in the cluster it is 4% at M {sub *,} {sub bul} = 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉} and 23% at 10{sup 12} M {sub ☉}. We also find that the total mass in orbiting SMBHs is negligible in the void, but significant in the cluster, in which a potentially detectable 40% of SMBHs and ≈8% of the total SMBH mass (where the total includes central, orbiting, and ejected SMBHs) is found orbiting at z = 0. The existence of orbiting and ejected SMBHs requires modification of the Soltan argument. We estimate this correction to the integrated accreted mass density of SMBHs to be in the range 6%-21%, with a mean value of 11% ± 3

  17. SPOON-FEEDING GIANT STARS TO SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES: EPISODIC MASS TRANSFER FROM EVOLVING STARS AND THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO THE QUIESCENT ACTIVITY OF GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    MacLeod, Morgan; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Grady, Sean; Guillochon, James

    2013-11-10

    Stars may be tidally disrupted if, in a single orbit, they are scattered too close to a supermassive black hole (SMBH). Tidal disruption events are thought to power luminous but short-lived accretion episodes that can light up otherwise quiescent SMBHs in transient flares. Here we explore a more gradual process of tidal stripping where stars approach the tidal disruption radius by stellar evolution while in an eccentric orbit. After the onset of mass transfer, these stars episodically transfer mass to the SMBH every pericenter passage, giving rise to low-level flares that repeat on the orbital timescale. Giant stars, in particular, will exhibit a runaway response to mass loss and 'spoon-feed' material to the black hole for tens to hundreds of orbital periods. In contrast to full tidal disruption events, the duty cycle of this feeding mode is of order unity for black holes M{sub bh} ∼> 10{sup 7} M{sub ☉}. This mode of quasi-steady SMBH feeding is competitive with indirect SMBH feeding through stellar winds, and spoon-fed giant stars may play a role in determining the quiescent luminosity of local SMBHs.

  18. Numerical Simulations of Viscous Accretion Flow around Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seong-Jae; Chattopadhyay, Indranil; Kumar, Rajiv; Hyung, Siek; Ryu, Dongsu

    2016-06-01

    We present shocked viscous accretion flow onto a black hole in a two dimensional cylindrical geometry, where initial conditions were chosen from analytical solutions. The simulation code used the Lagrangian Total Variation Diminishing (LTVD) and remap routine, which enabled us to attain high accuracy in capturing shocks and to handle the angular momentum distribution correctly. The steady state shocked solution in the inviscid, as well as in the viscous regime, matched theoretical predictions well, but increasing viscosity renders the accretion shock unstable. Large amplitude shock oscillation is accompanied by intermittent, transient inner multiple shocks. Such oscillation of the inner part of disk is interpreted as the source of QPO in hard X-rays observed in microquasars; and strong shock oscillation induces strong episodic jet emission. The periodicity of jets and shock oscillation are similar. Our simulation shows that the jets for higher viscosity parameter are evidently stronger and faster than that for lower viscosity.

  19. Viscosity parameter values in accretion flows around black holes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagarkoti, Shreeram; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Viscosity is responsible for the transport of angular momentum in accretion processes. Assuming mixed stress prescription suitable for flow discontinuities, we draw parameter space of specific angular momentum and specific energy of flow at the inner sonic point for all possible values of viscosity parameter. Then, we identify the region which is capable of producing standard Rankine-Hugoniot shocks. From this analysis, it is found that a large range of values of viscosity parameter (0.0-0.3) is capable of producing shocks. At values larger than this, the parameter space allowing shock formation is negligible. The shock formation causes piling up of matter in the post-shock region which Comptonizes soft X-ray photons coming from the Keplerian accretion disk, creating the hard X-Ray radiation. Since numerical simulations generally produce alpha parameters very smaller as compared to this upper limit, we conclude that the shocks remain essential component to model black hole spectral and timing properties.

  20. Physics-Based Spectra of Accretion Disks around Black Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krolik, Julian H.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this grant was to begin the process of deriving the light output of accretion disks around black holes directly from the actual processes that inject heat into the accreting matter, rather than from guessed dependences of heating rate on physical parameters. At JHU, the effort has focussed so far on models of accretion onto "intermediate mass black holes", a possible class of black holes, examples of which may have recently been discovered in nearby galaxies. There, Krolik and his student (Yawei Hui) have computed stellar atmospheres for uniformly-heated disks around this class of black holes. Their models serve two purposes: they are the very first serious attempts to compute the spectrum from accreting black holes in this mass range; and a library of such models can be used later in this program as contrasts for those computed on the basis of real disk dynamics. The output from these local disk calculations has also been successfully coupled to a program that applies the appropriate relativistic transformations and computes photon trajectories in order to predict the spectrum received by observers located at different polar angles. The principal new result of these calculations is the discovery of potentially observable ionization edges of H-like C and O at frequencies near the peak in flux from these objects. Most of the grant money at UCSB was spent on supporting graduate student Shane Davis. In addition. some money was spent on supporting two other students: Ari Socrates (now a Hubble Fellow at Princeton), and Laura Melling. Davis spent the year constructing stellar atmosphere models of accretion disks appropriate for the high/soft (thermal) state of black hole X-ray binaries. As with AGN models published previously by our collaboration with NASA support. our models include a complete general relativistic treatment of both the disk structure and the propagation of photons from the disk to a distant observer. They also include all important

  1. The supermassive black hole and double nucleus of the core elliptical NGC 5419

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzalay, Ximena; Thomas, Jens; Saglia, Roberto P.; Wegner, Gary A.; Bender, Ralf; Erwin, Peter; Fabricius, Maximilian H.; Rusli, Stephanie P.

    2016-11-01

    We obtained adaptive-optics assisted SINFONI observations of the central regions of the giant elliptical galaxy NGC 5419 with a spatial resolution of 0.2 arcsec (≈55 pc). NGC 5419 has a large depleted stellar core with a radius of 1.58 arcsec (430 pc). HST and SINFONI images show a point source located at the galaxy's photocentre, which is likely associated with the low-luminosity AGN previously detected in NGC 5419. Both the HST and SINFONI images also show a second nucleus, off-centred by 0.25 arcsec (≈70 pc). Outside of the central double nucleus, we measure an almost constant velocity dispersion of σ ˜ 350 km s-1. In the region where the double nucleus is located, the dispersion rises steeply to a peak value of ˜420 km s-1. In addition to the SINFONI data, we also obtained stellar kinematics at larger radii from the South African Large Telescope. While NGC 5419 shows low rotation (v < 50 km s-1), the central regions (inside ˜4 rb) clearly rotate in the opposite direction to the galaxy's outer parts. We use orbit-based dynamical models to measure the black hole mass of NGC 5419 from the kinematical data outside of the double nuclear structure. The models imply M_BH=7.2^{+2.7}_{-1.9} × 10^9 M⊙. The enhanced velocity dispersion in the region of the double nucleus suggests that NGC 5419 possibly hosts two supermassive black holes at its centre, separated by only ≈70 pc. Yet our measured MBH is consistent with the black hole mass expected from the size of the galaxy's depleted stellar core. This suggests, that systematic uncertainties in MBH related to the secondary nucleus are small.

  2. The Quest for the Largest Depleted Galaxy Core: Supermassive Black Hole Binaries and Stalled Infalling Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonfini, Paolo; Graham, Alister W.

    2016-10-01

    Partially depleted cores are practically ubiquitous in luminous early-type galaxies (M B ≲ -20.5 mag) and are typically smaller than 1 kpc. In one popular scenario, supermassive black hole (SMBH) binaries—established during dry (i.e., gas-poor) galaxy mergers—kick out the stars from a galaxy’s central region via three-body interactions. Here, this “binary black hole scouring scenario” is probed at its extremes by investigating the two galaxies reported to have the largest partially depleted cores found to date: 2MASX J09194427+5622012 and 2MASX J17222717+3207571 (the brightest galaxy in Abell 2261). We have fit these galaxy’s two-dimensional light distribution using the core-Sérsic model and found that the former galaxy has a core-Sérsic break radius {R}b,{cS}=0.55 {{kpc}}, which is three times smaller than the published value. We use this galaxy to caution that other reportedly large break radii may too have been overestimated if they were derived using the “sharp-transition” (inner core)-to-(outer Sérsic) model. In the case of 2MASX J17222717+3207571, we obtain R b,cS = 3.6 kpc. While we confirm that this is the biggest known partially depleted core of any galaxy, we stress that it is larger than expected from the evolution of SMBH binaries—unless one invokes substantial gravitational-wave-induced (black hole-)recoil events. Given the presence of multiple nuclei located (in projection) within the core radius of this galaxy, we explored and found support for the alternative “stalled infalling perturber” core-formation scenario, in which this galaxy’s core could have been excavated by the action of an infalling massive perturber.

  3. A STRONGLY MAGNETIZED PULSAR WITHIN THE GRASP OF THE MILKY WAY'S SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE

    SciTech Connect

    Rea, N.; Torres, D. F.; Papitto, A.; Camero-Arranz, A.; Esposito, P.; Mereghetti, S.; Tiengo, A.; Pons, J. A.; Viganò, D.; Turolla, R.; Israel, G. L.; Stella, L.; Possenti, A.; Burgay, M.; Perna, R.; Ponti, G.; Baganoff, F. K.; Haggard, D.; Zane, S.; Minter, A.; and others

    2013-10-01

    The center of our Galaxy hosts a supermassive black hole, Sagittarius (Sgr) A*. Young, massive stars within 0.5 pc of Sgr A* are evidence of an episode of intense star formation near the black hole a few million years ago, which might have left behind a young neutron star traveling deep into Sgr A*'s gravitational potential. On 2013 April 25, a short X-ray burst was observed from the direction of the Galactic center. With a series of observations with the Chandra and the Swift satellites, we pinpoint the associated magnetar at an angular distance of 2.4 ± 0.3 arcsec from Sgr A*, and refine the source spin period and its derivative (P = 3.7635537(2) s and P-dot = 6.61(4)×10{sup -12} s s{sup –1}), confirmed by quasi simultaneous radio observations performed with the Green Bank Telescope and Parkes Radio Telescope, which also constrain a dispersion measure of DM = 1750 ± 50 pc cm{sup –3}, the highest ever observed for a radio pulsar. We have found that this X-ray source is a young magnetar at ≈0.07-2 pc from Sgr A*. Simulations of its possible motion around Sgr A* show that it is likely (∼90% probability) in a bound orbit around the black hole. The radiation front produced by the past activity from the magnetar passing through the molecular clouds surrounding the Galactic center region might be responsible for a large fraction of the light echoes observed in the Fe fluorescence features.

  4. Evidence of a Supermassive Black Hole in the Galaxy NGC 1023 From The Nuclear Stellar Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bower, G. A.; Green, R. F.; Bender, R.; Gebhardt, K.; Lauer, T. R.; Magorrian, J.; Richstone, D. O.; Danks, A.; Gull, T.; Hutchings, J.

    2000-01-01

    We analyze the nuclear stellar dynamics of the SBO galaxy NGC 1023, utilizing observational data both from the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph aboard the Hubble Space Telescope and from the ground. The stellar kinematics measured from these long-slit spectra show rapid rotation (V equals approx. 70 km/s at a distance of O.1 deg = 4.9 pc from the nucleus) and increasing velocity dispersion toward the nucleus (where sigma = 295 +/- 30 km/s). We model the observed stellar kinematics assuming an axisymmetric mass distribution with both two and three integrals of motion. Both modeling techniques point to the presence of a central dark compact mass (which presumably is a supermassive black hole) with confidence > 99%. The isotropic two-integral models yield a best-fitting black hole mass of (6.0 +/- 0.4) x 10(exp 7) solar masses and mass-to-light ratio (M/L(sub v)) of 5.38 +/- 0.08, and the goodness-of-fit (CHI(exp 2)) is insensitive to reasonable values for the galaxy's inclination. The three-integral models, which non-parametrically fit the observed line-of-sight velocity distribution as a function of position in the galaxy, suggest a black hole mass of (3.9 +/- 0.4) x 10(exp 7) solar masses and M/L(sub v) of 5.56 +/- 0.02 (internal errors), and the edge-on models are vastly superior fits over models at other inclinations. The internal dynamics in NGC 1023 as suggested by our best-fit three-integral model shows that the velocity distribution function at the nucleus is tangentially anisotropic, suggesting the presence of a nuclear stellar disk. The nuclear line of sight velocity distribution has enhanced wings at velocities >= 600 km/s from systemic, suggesting that perhaps we have detected a group of stars very close to the central dark mass.

  5. Fe Kα Profiles from Simulations of Accreting Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinch, Brooks E.; Schnittman, Jeremy D.; Kallman, Timothy R.; Krolik, Julian H.

    2016-07-01

    We present the first results from a new technique for the prediction of Fe Kα profiles directly from general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulations. Data from a GRMHD simulation are processed by a Monte Carlo global radiation transport code, which determines the X-ray flux irradiating the disk surface and the coronal electron temperature self-consistently. With that irradiating flux and the disk’s density structure drawn from the simulation, we determine the reprocessed Fe Kα emission from photoionization equilibrium and solution of the radiation transfer equation. We produce maps of the surface brightness of Fe Kα emission over the disk surface, which—for our example of a 10{M}⊙ Schwarzschild black hole accreting at 1% the Eddington value—rises steeply one gravitational radius outside the radius of the innermost stable circular orbit and then falls ∝r -2 at larger radii. We explain these features of the Fe Kα radial surface brightness profile as consequences of the disk’s ionization structure and an extended coronal geometry, respectively. We also present the corresponding Fe Kα line profiles as would be seen by distant observers at several inclinations. Both the shapes of the line profiles and the equivalent widths of our predicted Kα lines are qualitatively similar to those typically observed from accreting black holes. Most importantly, this work represents a direct link between theory and observation: in a fully self-consistent way, we produce observable results—iron fluorescence line profiles—from the theory of black hole accretion with almost no phenomenological assumptions.

  6. Fe Kα Profiles from Simulations of Accreting Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinch, Brooks E.; Schnittman, Jeremy D.; Kallman, Timothy R.; Krolik, Julian H.

    2016-07-01

    We present the first results from a new technique for the prediction of Fe Kα profiles directly from general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulations. Data from a GRMHD simulation are processed by a Monte Carlo global radiation transport code, which determines the X-ray flux irradiating the disk surface and the coronal electron temperature self-consistently. With that irradiating flux and the disk’s density structure drawn from the simulation, we determine the reprocessed Fe Kα emission from photoionization equilibrium and solution of the radiation transfer equation. We produce maps of the surface brightness of Fe Kα emission over the disk surface, which—for our example of a 10{M}ȯ Schwarzschild black hole accreting at 1% the Eddington value—rises steeply one gravitational radius outside the radius of the innermost stable circular orbit and then falls ∝r ‑2 at larger radii. We explain these features of the Fe Kα radial surface brightness profile as consequences of the disk’s ionization structure and an extended coronal geometry, respectively. We also present the corresponding Fe Kα line profiles as would be seen by distant observers at several inclinations. Both the shapes of the line profiles and the equivalent widths of our predicted Kα lines are qualitatively similar to those typically observed from accreting black holes. Most importantly, this work represents a direct link between theory and observation: in a fully self-consistent way, we produce observable results—iron fluorescence line profiles—from the theory of black hole accretion with almost no phenomenological assumptions.

  7. [Predicting Spectra of Accretion Disks Around Galactic Black Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krolik, Julian H.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this grant was to construct detailed atmosphere solutions in order to predict the spectra of accretion disks around Galactic black holes. Our plan of action was to take an existing disk atmosphere code (TLUSTY, created by Ivan Hubeny) and introduce those additional physical processes necessary to make it applicable to disks of this variety. These modifications include: treating Comptonization; introducing continuous opacity due to heavy elements; incorporating line opacity due to heavy elements; adopting a disk structure that reflects readjustments due to radiation pressure effects; and injecting heat via a physically-plausible vertical distribution.

  8. Nucleosynthesis in Outflows from Kerr Black Hole Accretion Disks

    SciTech Connect

    Surman, Rebecca; Mclaughlin, Gail C; Sabbatino, N.; Hix, William Raphael

    2008-01-01

    Observational evidence suggests long-duration, collapsar-type gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) may have been more common in the early universe. These events are thought to be powered by accretion disks around black holes (AD-BHs). While GRBs require AD-BHs, not all AD-BHs will power bursts and therefore their formation will be more common than GRBs themselves. Outflows from AD-BHs may therefore be important contributors to the nuclear abundances in the oldest stars, particularly for rare species or those not uniformly observed. Here we consider the nucleosynthesis in this environment starting with relativistic disk models of Kerr black holes and following the element synthesis in a parameterized outflow. We present nucleosynthesis results from a range of AD-BH models.

  9. Time-dependent, optically thick accretion onto a black hole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilden, D. L.; Wheeler, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    A fully relativistic hydrodynamics code which incorporates diffusive radiation transport is used to study time-dependent, spherically symmetric, optically thick accretion onto a black hole. It is found that matter free-falls into the hole regardless of whether the diffusion time scale is longer or shorter than the dynamical time. Nonadiabatic heating due to magnetic field reconnection is included. The internal energy thus generated affects the flow in a purely relativistic way, again ensuring free-fall collapse of the inflowing matter. Any matter enveloping a black hole will thus be swallowed on a dynamical time scale with relatively small net release of energy. The inclusion of angular momentum will not necessarily affect this conclusion.

  10. A CORRELATION BETWEEN STAR FORMATION RATE AND AVERAGE BLACK HOLE ACCRETION IN STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chien-Ting J.; Hickox, Ryan C.; Alberts, Stacey; Pope, Alexandra; Brodwin, Mark; Jones, Christine; Forman, William R.; Goulding, Andrew D.; Murray, Stephen S.; Alexander, David M.; Mullaney, James R.; Assef, Roberto J.; Gorjian, Varoujan; Brown, Michael J. I.; Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Le Floc'h, Emeric

    2013-08-10

    We present a measurement of the average supermassive black hole accretion rate (BHAR) as a function of the star formation rate (SFR) for galaxies in the redshift range 0.25 < z < 0.8. We study a sample of 1767 far-IR-selected star-forming galaxies in the 9 deg{sup 2} Booetes multi-wavelength survey field. The SFR is estimated using 250 {mu}m observations from the Herschel Space Observatory, for which the contribution from the active galactic nucleus (AGN) is minimal. In this sample, 121 AGNs are directly identified using X-ray or mid-IR selection criteria. We combined these detected AGNs and an X-ray stacking analysis for undetected sources to study the average BHAR for all of the star-forming galaxies in our sample. We find an almost linear relation between the average BHAR (in M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}) and the SFR (in M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}) for galaxies across a wide SFR range 0.85 < log SFR < 2.56: log BHAR = (- 3.72 {+-} 0.52) + (1.05 {+-} 0.33)log SFR. This global correlation between SFR and average BHAR is consistent with a simple picture in which SFR and AGN activity are tightly linked over galaxy evolution timescales.

  11. Supermassive Black Holes, AGN Feedback, and Hot X-ray Coronae in Early Type Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forman, William R.; Anderson, Michael E.; Churazov, Eugene; Nulsen, Paul; Jones, Christine; Kraft, Ralph P.

    2016-06-01

    We present the analysis of a sample of more than 200 nearby, early type galaxies observed with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. We exclude resolved point sources, and model the emission from both unresolved X-ray binaries and CVs and ABs to derive the residual thermal emission from the hot atmosphere around each galaxy. We compute the X-ray luminosity of the central supermassive black hole (SMBH). Using galaxy velocity dispersion (or stellar mass) as a proxy for SMBH mass, we derive the Eddington ratios for these low luminosity AGN. We present the X-ray luminosity and gas temperature of the hot coronae as a function of stellar mass (a proxy for dark matter halo mass) and central velocity dispersion to look for anomalously X-ray bright gaseous coronae and to determine the stellar (or halo) mass, below which galactic winds may be important. For hot coronae with X-ray cavities, we derive the "mechanical" power of SMBHs and compare these to their radiative luminosities.

  12. A possible close supermassive black-hole binary in a quasar with optical periodicity.

    PubMed

    Graham, Matthew J; Djorgovski, S G; Stern, Daniel; Glikman, Eilat; Drake, Andrew J; Mahabal, Ashish A; Donalek, Ciro; Larson, Steve; Christensen, Eric

    2015-02-01

    Quasars have long been known to be variable sources at all wavelengths. Their optical variability is stochastic and can be due to a variety of physical mechanisms; it is also well-described statistically in terms of a damped random walk model. The recent availability of large collections of astronomical time series of flux measurements (light curves) offers new data sets for a systematic exploration of quasar variability. Here we report the detection of a strong, smooth periodic signal in the optical variability of the quasar PG 1302-102 with a mean observed period of 1,884 ± 88 days. It was identified in a search for periodic variability in a data set of light curves for 247,000 known, spectroscopically confirmed quasars with a temporal baseline of about 9 years. Although the interpretation of this phenomenon is still uncertain, the most plausible mechanisms involve a binary system of two supermassive black holes with a subparsec separation. Such systems are an expected consequence of galaxy mergers and can provide important constraints on models of galaxy formation and evolution.

  13. Do Nuclear Star Clusters and Supermassive Black Holes Follow the Same Host-Galaxy Correlations?

    DOE PAGES

    Erwin, Peter; Gadotti, Dimitri Alexei

    2012-01-01

    Smore » tudies have suggested that there is a strong correlation between the masses of nuclear star clusters (NSCs) and their host galaxies, a correlation which is said to be an extension of the well-known correlations between supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and their host galaxies. But careful analysis of disk galaxies—including 2D bulge/disk/bar decompositions—shows that whileMBHs correlate with the stellar mass of the bulge component of galaxies, the masses of NSCs correlate much better with the total galaxy stellar mass. In addition, the mass ratio M NSC / M ⋆ ,  tot for NSCs in spirals (at least those with Hubble typesc and later) is typically an order of magnitude smaller than the mass ratio M BH / M ⋆ ,  bul ofMBHs. The absence of a universal “central massive object” correlation argues against common formation and growth mechanisms for bothMBHs and NSCs. We also discuss evidence for a break in the NSC-host galaxy correlation, galaxies with Hubble types earlier thanbc appear to host systematically more massive NSCs than do typesc and later.« less

  14. Swift Coalescence of Supermassive Black Holes in Cosmological Mergers of Massive Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Fazeel Mahmood; Fiacconi, Davide; Mayer, Lucio; Berczik, Peter; Just, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    Supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are ubiquitous in galaxies with a sizable mass. It is expected that a pair of SMBHs originally in the nuclei of two merging galaxies would form a binary and eventually coalesce via a burst of gravitational waves. So far, theoretical models and simulations, focusing only on limited phases of the orbital decay of SMBHs under idealized conditions of the galaxy hosts, have been unable to directly predict the SMBH merger timescale from ab-initio galaxy formation theory. The predicted SMBH merger timescales are long, of order Gyrs, which could be problematic for future gravitational wave (GW) searches. Here, we present the first multi-scale ΛCDM cosmological simulation that follows the orbital decay of a pair of SMBHs in a merger of two typical massive galaxies at z∼ 3, all the way to the final coalescence driven by GW emission. The two SMBHs, with masses ∼ {10}8 {M}ȯ , settle quickly in the nucleus of the merger remnant. The remnant is triaxial and extremely dense due to the dissipative nature of the merger and the intrinsic compactness of galaxies at high redshift. Such properties naturally allow a very efficient hardening of the SMBH binary. The SMBH merger occurs in only ∼10 Myr after the galactic cores have merged, which is two orders of magnitude smaller than the Hubble time.

  15. VERY HIGH ENERGY {gamma}-RAY EMISSION FROM PASSIVE SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES: CONSTRAINTS FOR NGC 1399

    SciTech Connect

    Pedaletti, G.; Wagner, S. J.; Rieger, F. M.

    2011-09-10

    Very high energy (VHE, >100 GeV) {gamma}-rays are expected to be emitted from the vicinity of supermassive black holes (SMBHs), irrespective of their activity state. In the magnetosphere of rotating SMBH, efficient acceleration of charged particles can take place through various processes. These particles could reach energies up to E {approx} 10{sup 19} eV. VHE {gamma}-ray emission from these particles is then feasible via leptonic or hadronic processes. Therefore, passive systems, where the lack of a strong photon field allows the VHE {gamma}-rays to escape, are expected to be detected by Cherenkov telescopes. We present results from recent VHE experiments on the passive SMBH in the nearby elliptical galaxy NGC 1399. No {gamma}-ray signal has been found, neither by the H.E.S.S. experiment nor in the Fermi data analyzed here. We discuss possible implications for the physical characteristics of the system. We conclude that in a scenario where particles are accelerated in vacuum gaps in the magnetosphere, only a fraction {approx}0.3 of the gap is available for particle acceleration, indicating that the system is unlikely to be able to accelerate protons up to E {approx} 10{sup 19} eV.

  16. Detecting Eccentric Supermassive Black Hole Binaries with Pulsar Timing Arrays: Resolvable Source Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, S. R.; Huerta, E. A.; Gair, J. R.; McWilliams, S. T.

    2016-01-01

    The couplings between supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs) and their environments within galactic nuclei have been well studied as part of the search for solutions to the final parsec problem. The scattering of stars by the binary or the interaction with a circumbinary disk may efficiently drive the system to sub-parsec separations, allowing the binary to enter a regime where the emission of gravitational waves can drive it to merger within a Hubble time. However, these interactions can also affect the orbital parameters of the binary. In particular, they may drive an increase in binary eccentricity which survives until the system’s gravitational-wave (GW) signal enters the pulsar-timing array (PTA) band. Therefore, if we can measure the eccentricity from observed signals, we can potentially deduce some of the properties of the binary environment. To this end, we build on previous techniques to present a general Bayesian pipeline with which we can detect and estimate the parameters of an eccentric SMBHB system with PTAs. Additionally, we generalize the PTA {{ F }}{{e}}-statistic to eccentric systems, and show that both this statistic and the Bayesian pipeline are robust when studying circular or arbitrarily eccentric systems. We explore how eccentricity influences the detection prospects of single GW sources, as well as the detection penalty incurred by employing a circular waveform template to search for eccentric signals, and conclude by identifying important avenues for future study.

  17. Low-level supermassive black hole activity and star formation in isolated ellipticals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinkus, Charlotte; Miller, Brendan; Gallo, Elena

    2016-01-01

    We present and discuss Chandra ACIS-S X-ray observations of six early-type galaxies located within cosmic voids. The targeted galaxies have comparable stellar masses of 6-9e10 solar but span a wide range of star formation rates, from 0.03 to 6.5 solar masses per year. These data permit clean investigation of the link, if any, between star formation and low-level supermassive black hole activity. We isolate the nuclear X-ray emission associated with SMBH activity through analyzing the X-ray surface brightness profiles and calculating the predicted X-ray binary contamination within the extraction aperture. The galaxies with higher star formation rates also tend to have greater SMBH-associated X-ray luminosities, perhaps suggestive of a mutual dependence on cold gas. We also compare our void galaxies to cluster early-type galaxies of similar stellar mass, finding that the void galaxies have, on average, more compact optical surface brightness profiles along with greater X-ray luminosities.

  18. New Evidence for High Activity of the Supermassive Black Hole in our Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobukawa, M.; Ryu, S. G.; Tsuru, T. G.; Koyama, K.

    2011-10-01

    Prominent K-shell emission lines of neutral iron (hereafter Fe I-K lines) and hard-continuum X-rays from molecular clouds (MCs) in the Sagittarius B (Sgr B) region were found in two separate Suzaku observations in 2005 and 2009. The X-ray flux of the Fe I-K lines decreased in correlation with the hard-continuum flux by a factor of 0.4-0.5 in four years, which is almost equal to the light traveling across the MCs. The rapid and correlated time variability, the equivalent width of the Fe I-K lines, and the K edge absorption depth of Fe I are consistently explained by "X-ray echoes" due to the fluorescent and Thomson scattering of an X-ray flare from an external source. The required flux of the X-ray flare depends on the distance to the MCs and its time duration. Even for a case with a minimum distance, the flux is larger than those of the brightest Galactic X-ray sources. Based on these facts, we conclude that the supermassive black hole Sgr A* exhibited a large flare a few hundred years ago with a luminosity of more than 4 × 1039 erg s-1. The "X-ray echo" from Sgr B, located a few hundred light-years from Sgr A*, has now reached the Earth.

  19. NEW EVIDENCE FOR HIGH ACTIVITY OF THE SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE IN OUR GALAXY

    SciTech Connect

    Nobukawa, M.; Ryu, S. G.; Tsuru, T. G.; Koyama, K.

    2011-10-01

    Prominent K-shell emission lines of neutral iron (hereafter Fe I-K lines) and hard-continuum X-rays from molecular clouds (MCs) in the Sagittarius B (Sgr B) region were found in two separate Suzaku observations in 2005 and 2009. The X-ray flux of the Fe I-K lines decreased in correlation with the hard-continuum flux by a factor of 0.4-0.5 in four years, which is almost equal to the light traveling across the MCs. The rapid and correlated time variability, the equivalent width of the Fe I-K lines, and the K edge absorption depth of Fe I are consistently explained by 'X-ray echoes' due to the fluorescent and Thomson scattering of an X-ray flare from an external source. The required flux of the X-ray flare depends on the distance to the MCs and its time duration. Even for a case with a minimum distance, the flux is larger than those of the brightest Galactic X-ray sources. Based on these facts, we conclude that the supermassive black hole Sgr A* exhibited a large flare a few hundred years ago with a luminosity of more than 4 x 10{sup 39} erg s{sup -1}. The 'X-ray echo' from Sgr B, located a few hundred light-years from Sgr A*, has now reached the Earth.

  20. Swift Coalescence of Supermassive Black Holes in Cosmological Mergers of Massive Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Fazeel Mahmood; Fiacconi, Davide; Mayer, Lucio; Berczik, Peter; Just, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    Supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are ubiquitous in galaxies with a sizable mass. It is expected that a pair of SMBHs originally in the nuclei of two merging galaxies would form a binary and eventually coalesce via a burst of gravitational waves. So far, theoretical models and simulations, focusing only on limited phases of the orbital decay of SMBHs under idealized conditions of the galaxy hosts, have been unable to directly predict the SMBH merger timescale from ab-initio galaxy formation theory. The predicted SMBH merger timescales are long, of order Gyrs, which could be problematic for future gravitational wave (GW) searches. Here, we present the first multi-scale ΛCDM cosmological simulation that follows the orbital decay of a pair of SMBHs in a merger of two typical massive galaxies at z˜ 3, all the way to the final coalescence driven by GW emission. The two SMBHs, with masses ˜ {10}8 {M}⊙ , settle quickly in the nucleus of the merger remnant. The remnant is triaxial and extremely dense due to the dissipative nature of the merger and the intrinsic compactness of galaxies at high redshift. Such properties naturally allow a very efficient hardening of the SMBH binary. The SMBH merger occurs in only ˜10 Myr after the galactic cores have merged, which is two orders of magnitude smaller than the Hubble time.

  1. LISA observations of supermassive black holes: Parameter estimation using full post-Newtonian inspiral waveforms

    SciTech Connect

    Trias, Miquel; Sintes, Alicia M.

    2008-01-15

    We study parameter estimation of supermassive black hole binary systems in the final stage of inspiral using the full post-Newtonian gravitational waveforms. We restrict our analysis to systems in circular orbit with negligible spins, in the mass range 10{sup 8}M{sub {center_dot}}-10{sup 5}M{sub {center_dot}}, and compare the results with those arising from the commonly used restricted post-Newtonian approximation. The conclusions of this work are particularly important with regard to the astrophysical reach of future Laser Interferometer Space Antenna measurements. Our analysis clearly shows that modeling the inspiral with the full post-Newtonian waveform, not only extends the reach to higher mass systems, but also improves in general the parameter estimation. In particular, there are remarkable improvements in angular resolution and distance measurement for systems with a total mass higher than 5x10{sup 6}M{sub {center_dot}}, as well as a large improvement in the mass determination.

  2. The impact of reionization on the formation of supermassive black hole seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Jarrett L.; Whalen, Daniel J.; Agarwal, Bhaskar; Paardekooper, Jan-Pieter; Khochfar, Sadegh

    2014-11-01

    Direct collapse black holes (DCBHs) formed from the collapse of atomically cooled primordial gas in the early Universe are strong candidates for the seeds of supermassive BHs. DCBHs are thought to form in atomic cooling haloes in the presence of a strong molecule-dissociating, Lyman-Werner (LW) radiation field. Given that star-forming galaxies are likely to be the source of the LW radiation in this scenario, ionizing radiation from these galaxies may accompany the LW radiation. We present cosmological simulations resolving the collapse of primordial gas into an atomic cooling halo, including the effects of both LW and ionizing radiation. We find that in cases where the gas is not self-shielded from the ionizing radiation, the collapse can be delayed by ˜25 Myr. When the ionized gas does collapse, the free electrons that are present catalyse H2 formation. In turn, H2 cooling becomes efficient in the centre of the halo, and DCBH formation is prevented. We emphasize, however, that in many cases the gas collapsing into atomic cooling haloes at high redshift is self-shielding to ionizing radiation. Therefore, it is only in a fraction of such haloes in which DCBH formation is prevented due to reionization.

  3. NANOGrav Limits on Continuous Gravitational Waves from Supermassive Black Hole Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Justin

    2014-03-01

    Gravitational Waves (GWs) are tiny ripples in the fabric of space-time predicted by Einstein's theory of General Relativity. Pulsar timing arrays (PTAs) offer a unique opportunity to detect low frequency GWs in the near future. Such a detection would be complementary to both LIGO and future space based GW efforts. In the low (1e-9 - 1e-7 Hz) frequency band, the expected source of GWs is a stochastic background resulting from the ensemble of supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs) formed during the merger of galaxies, and possibly a few nearby/massive sources that will be individually resolvable. In this talk we will discuss continuous wave search efforts using the current NANOGrav data releases. We will briefly outline both Bayesian and Frequentist search and upper limit pipelines and present preliminary results for sky averaged and targeted upper limits on the strain amplitude using both techniques. Finally we present sensitivity projections for future NANOGrav observations and comment on the plausibility of detection based on current simulations of SMBHBs.

  4. An estimate of the probability of capture of a binary star by a supermassive black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dremova, G. N.; Dremov, V. V.; Tutukov, A. V.

    2016-08-01

    A simple model for the dynamics of stars located in a sphere with a radius of one-tenth of the central parsec, designed to enable estimation of the probability of capture in the close vicinity ( r < 10-3 pc) of a supermassive black hole (SMBH) is presented. In the case of binary stars, such a capture with a high probability results in the formation of a hyper-velocity star. The population of stars in a sphere of radius <0.1 pc is calculated based on data for the Galactic rotation curve. To simulate the distortion of initially circular orbits of stars, these are subjected to a series of random shock encounters ("kicks"), whose net effect is to "push" these binary systems into the region of potential formation of hyper-velocity stars. The mean crossing time of the border of the close vicinity of the SMBH ( r < 10-3 pc) by the stellar orbit can be used to estimate the probability that a binary system is captured, followed by the possible ejection of a hyper-velocity star.

  5. A possible close supermassive black-hole binary in a quasar with optical periodicity.

    PubMed

    Graham, Matthew J; Djorgovski, S G; Stern, Daniel; Glikman, Eilat; Drake, Andrew J; Mahabal, Ashish A; Donalek, Ciro; Larson, Steve; Christensen, Eric

    2015-02-01

    Quasars have long been known to be variable sources at all wavelengths. Their optical variability is stochastic and can be due to a variety of physical mechanisms; it is also well-described statistically in terms of a damped random walk model. The recent availability of large collections of astronomical time series of flux measurements (light curves) offers new data sets for a systematic exploration of quasar variability. Here we report the detection of a strong, smooth periodic signal in the optical variability of the quasar PG 1302-102 with a mean observed period of 1,884 ± 88 days. It was identified in a search for periodic variability in a data set of light curves for 247,000 known, spectroscopically confirmed quasars with a temporal baseline of about 9 years. Although the interpretation of this phenomenon is still uncertain, the most plausible mechanisms involve a binary system of two supermassive black holes with a subparsec separation. Such systems are an expected consequence of galaxy mergers and can provide important constraints on models of galaxy formation and evolution. PMID:25561176

  6. Gravitational Wave Driven Mergers and Coalescence Time of Supermassive Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Fazeel Mahmood; Berczik, Peter; Just, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    The evolution of Supermassive Black Holes (SMBHs) initially embedded in the centers of merging galaxies is studied from the onset of galaxy mergers till coalescence. We performed direct N-body simulations using the highly efficient and massively parallel phi-GPU code capable to run on GPU supported high performance computer clusters. Post-Newtonian terms up to order 3.5 are used to drive the SMBH binary evolution in the relativistic regime. We find that SMBH binaries coalesce well within one billion year when our models are scaled to dense cuspy galaxies at low redshift. Here higher central densities provide larger supply of stars to efficiently extract energy from the SMBH binary orbit and shrink it to the phase where gravitational wave (GW) emission becomes dominant leading to the coalescence of the SMBHs. On the other hand, mergers of models that are representative of giant elliptical galaxies having central cores result in less efficient extraction of binary's orbit energy due to the lower stellar densities in the center. However, high value of eccentricities witnessed for SMBH binaries in such galaxy mergers ensure that the GW emission dominated phase sets in at larger values of the semi-major axis. This helps to compensate for the less efficient energy extraction during the phase dominated by stellar encounters resulting in mergers of SMBHs in about one billion years after the formation of binary.

  7. DISCOVERY OF AN ACTIVE SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE IN THE BULGELESS GALAXY NGC 4561

    SciTech Connect

    Salvo, C. Araya; Mathur, S.; Ghosh, H.; Ferrarese, L.

    2012-10-01

    We present XMM-Newton observations of the Chandra-detected nuclear X-ray source in NGC 4561. The hard X-ray spectrum can be described by a model composed of an absorbed power law with {Gamma} = 2.5{sup +0.4}{sub -0.3} and column density N{sub H} = 1.9{sup +0.1}{sub -0.2} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 22} atoms cm{sup -2}. The absorption-corrected luminosity of the source is L(0.2-10.0 keV) =2.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 41} erg s{sup -1}, with bolometric luminosity over 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1}. Based on the spectrum and the luminosity, we identify the nuclear X-ray source in NGC 4561 to be an active galactic nucleus (AGN), with a black hole (BH) of mass M{sub BH} >2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} M{sub Sun }. The presence of a supermassive black hole at the center of this bulgeless galaxy shows that BH masses are not necessarily related to bulge properties, contrary to general belief. Observations such as these call into question several theoretical models of BH-galaxy coevolution that are based on merger-driven BH growth; secular processes clearly play an important role. Several emission lines are detected in the soft X-ray spectrum of the source which can be well parameterized by an absorbed diffuse thermal plasma with non-solar abundances of some heavy elements. Similar soft X-ray emission is observed in spectra of Seyfert 2 galaxies and low-luminosity AGNs, suggesting an origin in the circumnuclear plasma.

  8. Effect of accretion on primordial black holes in Brans-Dicke theory

    SciTech Connect

    Nayak, B.; Singh, L. P.; Majumdar, A. S.

    2009-07-15

    We consider the effect of accretion of radiation in the early Universe on primordial black holes in Brans-Dicke theory. The rate of growth of a primordial black hole due to accretion of radiation in Brans-Dicke theory is considerably smaller than the rate of growth of the cosmological horizon, thus making available sufficient radiation density for the black hole to accrete causally. We show that accretion of radiation by Brans-Dicke black holes overrides the effect of Hawking evaporation during the radiation dominated era. The subsequent evaporation of the black holes in later eras is further modified due to the variable gravitational 'constant', and they could survive up to longer times compared to the case of standard cosmology. We estimate the impact of accretion on modification of the constraint on their initial mass fraction obtained from the {gamma}-ray background limit from presently evaporating primordial black holes.

  9. Phantom Accretion onto the Schwarzschild AdS Black Hole with Topological Defect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amani, Ali R.; Farahani, H.

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, we have studied phantom energy accretion of prefect fluid onto the Schwarzschild AdS black hole with topological defect. We have obtained critical point during the accretion of fluid on the black hole where the speed of flow is equal speed of sound (Sharif and Abbas in Phantom accretion onto the Schwarzschild de-Sitter black hole, 2011, arXiv:1109.1043 [gr-qc]). The critical velocities have been computed so that the speed of fluid into the black hole is less than speed of sound. Finally, we have found that the critical point is near the black hole horizon.

  10. A rapidly spinning supermassive black hole at the centre of NGC 1365.

    PubMed

    Risaliti, G; Harrison, F A; Madsen, K K; Walton, D J; Boggs, S E; Christensen, F E; Craig, W W; Grefenstette, B W; Hailey, C J; Nardini, E; Stern, Daniel; Zhang, W W

    2013-02-28

    Broad X-ray emission lines from neutral and partially ionized iron observed in active galaxies have been interpreted as fluorescence produced by the reflection of hard X-rays off the inner edge of an accretion disk. In this model, line broadening and distortion result from rapid rotation and relativistic effects near the black hole, the line shape being sensitive to its spin. Alternative models in which the distortions result from absorption by intervening structures provide an equally good description of the data, and there has been no general agreement on which is correct. Recent claims that the black hole (2 × 10(6) solar masses) at the centre of the galaxy NGC 1365 is rotating at close to its maximum possible speed rest on the assumption of relativistic reflection. Here we report X-ray observations of NGC 1365 that reveal the relativistic disk features through broadened Fe-line emission and an associated Compton scattering excess of 10-30 kiloelectronvolts. Using temporal and spectral analyses, we disentangle continuum changes due to time-variable absorption from reflection, which we find arises from a region within 2.5 gravitational radii of the rapidly spinning black hole. Absorption-dominated models that do not include relativistic disk reflection can be ruled out both statistically and on physical grounds.

  11. COEVOLUTION BETWEEN SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES AND BULGES IS NOT VIA INTERNAL FEEDBACK REGULATION BUT BY RATIONED GAS SUPPLY DUE TO ANGULAR MOMENTUM DISTRIBUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Cen, Renyue

    2015-05-20

    We reason that without physical fine-tuning, neither the supermassive black holes (SMBHs) nor the stellar bulges can self-regulate or inter-regulate by driving away already fallen cold gas to produce the observed correlation between them. We suggest an alternative scenario where the observed mass ratios of the SMBHs to bulges reflect the angular momentum distribution of infallen gas such that the mass reaching the stable accretion disk is a small fraction of that reaching the bulge region, averaged over the cosmological timescales. We test this scenario using high-resolution, large-scale cosmological hydrodynamic simulations, without active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback, assuming the angular momentum distribution of gas landing in the bulge region yields a Mestel disk that is supported by independent simulations resolving the Bondi radii of SMBHs. A mass ratio of 0.1%–0.3% between the very low angular momentum gas that free falls to the subparsec region to accrete to the SMBH and the overall star formation rate is found. This ratio is found to increase with increasing redshift to within a factor of ∼2, suggesting that the SMBH-to-bulge ratio is nearly redshift independent, with a modest increase with redshift, which is a testable prediction. Furthermore, the duty cycle of AGNs with high Eddington ratios is expected to increase significantly with redshift. Finally, while SMBHs and bulges are found to coevolve on ∼30–150 Myr timescales or longer, there is indication that on still smaller timescales, the SMBH accretion and star formation may be less correlated.

  12. Modelling the cosmological co-evolution of supermassive black holes and galaxies - I. BH scaling relations and the AGN luminosity function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marulli, Federico; Bonoli, Silvia; Branchini, Enzo; Moscardini, Lauro; Springel, Volker

    2008-04-01

    We model the cosmological co-evolution of galaxies and their central supermassive black holes (BHs) within a semi-analytical framework developed on the outputs of the Millennium Simulation. This model, described in detail by Croton et al. and De Lucia and Blaizot, introduces a `radio mode' feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN) at the centre of X-ray emitting atmospheres in galaxy groups and clusters. Thanks to this mechanism, the model can simultaneously explain: (i) the low observed mass dropout rate in cooling flows; (ii) the exponential cut-off in the bright end of the galaxy luminosity function and (iii) the bulge-dominated morphologies and old stellar ages of the most massive galaxies in clusters. This paper is the first of a series in which we investigate how well this model can also reproduce the physical properties of BHs and AGN. Here we analyse the scaling relations, the fundamental plane and the mass function of BHs, and compare them with the most recent observational data. Moreover, we extend the semi-analytic model to follow the evolution of the BH mass accretion and its conversion into radiation, and compare the derived AGN bolometric luminosity function with the observed one. While we find for the most part a very good agreement between predicted and observed BH properties, the semi-analytic model underestimates the number density of luminous AGN at high redshifts, independently of the adopted Eddington factor and accretion efficiency. However, an agreement with the observations is possible within the framework of our model, provided it is assumed that the cold gas fraction accreted by BHs at high redshifts is larger than at low redshifts.

  13. Gas infall into atomic cooling haloes: on the formation of protogalactic discs and supermassive black holes at z > 10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto, Joaquin; Jimenez, Raul; Haiman, Zoltán

    2013-12-01

    We have performed hydrodynamical simulations from cosmological initial conditions using the Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) code RAMSES to study atomic cooling haloes (ACHs) at z = 10 with masses in the range 5 × 107 M⊙ ≲ M ≲ 2 × 109 M⊙. We assume the gas has primordial composition and H2-cooling and prior star formation in the haloes have been suppressed. We present a comprehensive analysis of the gas and dark matter (DM) properties of 19 haloes at a spatial resolution of ˜10 (proper) pc, selected from simulations with a total volume of ˜2000 (comoving) Mpc3. This is the largest statistical hydro-simulation study of ACHs at z > 10 to date. We examine the morphology, angular momentum, thermodynamical state and turbulent properties of these haloes, in order to assess the prevalence of discs and massive overdensities that may lead to the formation of supermassive black holes (SMBHs). We find no correlation between either the magnitude or the direction of the angular momentum of the gas and its parent DM halo. Only three of the haloes form rotationally supported cores. Two of the most massive haloes, however, form massive, compact overdense blobs, which migrate to the outer region of the halo. These blobs have an accretion rate between ˜10-1 and 10-3 M⊙ yr-1 (at a distance of 100 pc from their centre), and are possible sites of SMBH formation. Our results suggest that the degree of rotational support and the fate of the gas in a halo is determined by its large-scale environment and merger history. In particular, the two haloes that form overdense blobs are located at knots of the cosmic web, cooled their gas early on (z > 17) and experienced many mergers. The gas in these haloes is thus lumpy and highly turbulent, with Mach numbers M≳ 5. In contrast, the haloes forming rotationally supported cores are relatively more isolated, located mid-way along filaments of the cosmic web, cooled their gas more recently and underwent fewer mergers. As a result, the

  14. THE QUASAR ACCRETION DISK SIZE-BLACK HOLE MASS RELATION

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Christopher W.; Kochanek, C. S.; Morgan, Nicholas D.; Falco, Emilio E. E-mail: ckochanek@astronomy.ohio-state.ed E-mail: efalco@cfa.harvard.ed

    2010-04-01

    We use the microlensing variability observed for 11 gravitationally lensed quasars to show that the accretion disk size at a rest-frame wavelength of 2500 A is related to the black hole mass by log(R{sub 2500}/cm) = (15.78 +- 0.12) + (0.80 +- 0.17)log(M{sub BH}/10{sup 9} M{sub sun}). This scaling is consistent with the expectation from thin-disk theory (R {proportional_to} M {sup 2/3}{sub BH}), but when interpreted in terms of the standard thin-disk model (T {proportional_to} R {sup -3/4}), it implies that black holes radiate with very low efficiency, log(eta) = -1.77 +- 0.29 + log(L/L{sub E}), where eta=L/(M-dot c{sup 2}). Only by making the maximum reasonable shifts in the average inclination, Eddington factors, and black hole masses can we raise the efficiency estimate to be marginally consistent with typical efficiency estimates (eta {approx} 10%). With one exception, these sizes are larger by a factor of {approx}4 than the size needed to produce the observed 0.8 {mu}m quasar flux by thermal radiation from a thin disk with the same T {proportional_to} R {sup -3/4} temperature profile. While scattering a significant fraction of the disk emission on large scales or including a large fraction of contaminating line emission can reduce the size discrepancy, resolving it also appears to require that accretion disks have flatter temperature/surface brightness profiles.

  15. BLACK HOLE MASS ESTIMATES AND RAPID GROWTH OF SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES IN LUMINOUS z ∼ 3.5 QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Zuo, Wenwen; Wu, Xue-Bing; Fan, Xiaohui; Green, Richard; Wang, Ran; Bian, Fuyan

    2015-02-01

    We present new near-infrared (IR) observations of the Hβ λ4861 and Mg II λ2798 lines for 32 luminous quasars with 3.2 < z < 3.9 using the Palomar Hale 200 inch telescope and the Large Binocular Telescope. We find that the Mg II FWHM is well correlated with the Hβ FWHM, confirming itself as a good substitute for the Hβ FWHM in the black hole mass estimates. The continuum luminosity at 5100 Å well correlates with the continuum luminosity at 3000 Å and the broad emission line luminosities (Hβ and Mg II). With simultaneous near-IR spectroscopy of the Hβ and Mg II lines to exclude the influences of flux variability, we are able to evaluate the reliability of estimating black hole masses based on the Mg II line for high redshift quasars. With the reliable Hβ line based black hole mass and Eddington ratio estimates, we find that the z ∼ 3.5 quasars in our sample have black hole masses 1.90 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉} ≲ M {sub BH} ≲ 1.37 × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}, with a median of ∼5.14 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉} and are accreting at Eddington ratios between 0.30 and 3.05, with a median of ∼1.12. Assuming a duty cycle of 1 and a seed black hole mass of 10{sup 4} M {sub ☉}, we show that the z ∼ 3.5 quasars in this sample can grow to their estimated black hole masses within the age of the universe at their redshifts.

  16. THERMAL EQUILIBRIA OF MAGNETICALLY SUPPORTED BLACK HOLE ACCRETION DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Oda, H.; Machida, M.; Nakamura, K. E.; Matsumoto, R.

    2009-05-20

    We present new thermal equilibrium solutions for optically thin and optically thick disks incorporating magnetic fields. The purpose of this paper is to explain the bright hard state and the bright/slow transition observed in the rising phases of outbursts in black hole candidates. On the basis of the results of three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations, we assume that magnetic fields inside the disk are turbulent and dominated by the azimuthal component and that the azimuthally averaged Maxwell stress is proportional to the total (gas, radiation, and magnetic) pressure. We prescribe the magnetic flux advection rate to determine the azimuthal magnetic flux at a given radius. Local thermal equilibrium solutions are obtained by equating the heating, radiative cooling, and heat advection terms. We find magnetically supported ({beta} = (p {sub gas} + p {sub rad})/p {sub mag} < 1), thermally stable solutions for both optically thin disks and optically thick disks, in which the heating enhanced by the strong magnetic field balances the radiative cooling. The temperature in a low-{beta} disk (T {approx} 10{sup 7}-10{sup 11}K) is lower than that in an advection-dominated accretion flow (or radiatively inefficient accretion flow) but higher than that in a standard disk. We also study the radial dependence of the thermal equilibrium solutions. The optically thin, low-{beta} branch extends to M-dot{approx}>0.1 M-dot{sub Edd}, where M-dot is the mass accretion rate and M-dot{sub Edd} is the Eddington mass accretion rate, in which the temperature anticorrelates with the mass accretion rate. Thus, optically thin low-{beta} disks can explain the bright hard state. Optically thick, low-{beta} disks have the radial dependence of the effective temperature T {sub eff} {proportional_to} piv{sup -3/4}. Such disks will be observed as staying in a high/soft state. Furthermore, limit cycle oscillations between an optically thick low-{beta} disk and a slim disk will occur because

  17. Constraints on the Nature of CID-42: Recoil Kick or Supermassive Black Hole Pair?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blecha, Laura; Civano, Francesca; Elvis, Martin; Loeb, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    The galaxy CXOC J100043.1+020637, also known as CID-42, is a highly unusual object. An apparent galaxy merger remnant, it displays signatures of both an inspiraling, kiloparsecscale active galactic nucleus (AGN) pair and of a recoiling AGN with a kick velocity approximately greater than 1300 km s(exp -1). Among recoiling AGN candidates, CID-42 alone has both spatial offsets (in optical and X-ray bands) and spectroscopic offsets. In order to constrain the relative likelihood of both scenarios, we develop models using hydrodynamic galaxy merger simulations coupled with radiative transfer calculations. Our gas-rich, major merger models are generally well matched to the galactic morphology and to the inferred stellar mass and star formation rate. We show that a recoiling supermassive black hole (SMBH) in CID-42 should be observable as an AGN at the time of observation. However, in order for the recoiling AGN to produce narrow-line emission, it must be observed shortly after the kick while it still inhabits a dense gaseous region, implying a large total kick velocity (vk approximately greater than 2000 km s(exp -1)). For the dual AGN scenario, an unusually large broad-line offset is required, and the best match to the observed morphology requires a galaxy that is less luminous than CID-42. Further, the lack of X-ray emission from one of the two optical nuclei is not easily attributed to an intrinsically quiescent SMBH or to a Compton-thick galactic environment. While the current data do not allow either the recoiling or the dual AGN scenario for CID-42 to be excluded, our models highlight the most relevant parameters for distinguishing these possibilities with future observations. In particular, high-quality, spatially-resolved spectra that can pinpoint the origin of the broad and narrow line features will be critical for determining the nature of this unique source.

  18. SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES IN A STAR-FORMING GASEOUS CIRCUMNUCLEAR DISK

    SciTech Connect

    Del Valle, L.; Escala, A.; Molina, J.; Maureira-Fredes, C.; Amaro-Seoane, P.; Cuadra, J.

    2015-09-20

    Using N-body/smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations we study the evolution of the separation of a pair of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) embedded in a star-forming circumnuclear disk (CND). This type of disk is expected to be formed in the central kiloparsec of the remnant of gas-rich galaxy mergers. Our simulations indicate that orbital decay of the SMBHs occurs more quickly when the mean density of the CND is higher, due to increased dynamical friction. However, in simulations where the CND is fragmented in high-density gaseous clumps (clumpy CND), the orbits of the SMBHs are erratically perturbed by the gravitational interaction with these clumps, delaying, in some cases, the orbital decay of the SMBHs. The densities of these gaseous clumps in our simulations and in recent studies of clumpy CNDs are two orders of magnitude higher than the observed density of molecular clouds in isolated galaxies or ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs), thus, we expect that SMBH orbits are perturbed less in real CNDs than in the simulated CNDs of this study and other recent studies. We also find that the migration timescale has a weak dependence on the star formation rate of the CND. Furthermore, the migration timescale of an SMBH pair in a star-forming clumpy CND is at most a factor of three longer than the migration timescale of a pair of SMBHs in a CND modeled with more simple gas physics. Therefore, we estimate that the migration timescale of the SMBHs in a clumpy CND is on the order of 10{sup 7} years.

  19. Supermassive Black Hole Binaries: Environment and Galaxy Host Properties of PTA and eLISA sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez Palafox, Eva

    2015-08-01

    Supermassive black hole (BH) binaries would comprise the strongest sources of gravitational waves (GW) once they reach ≪ 1pc separations, for both pulsar timing arrays (PTAs) and space based (SB) detectors. While BH binaries coalescences constitute a natural outcome of the cosmological standard model and galaxy mergers, their dynamical evolution is still poorly understood and therefore their abundances at different stages. We use a dynamical model for the decay of BH binaries coupled with a cosmological simulation and semi-empirical approaches to the occupation of haloes by galaxies and BHs, in order to follow the evolution of the properties distribution of galaxies hosting BH binaries candidates to decay due to GWs emission. Our models allow us to relax simplifying hypothesis about the binaries occupation in galaxies and their mass, as well as redshift evolution. Following previously proposed electromagnetic (EM) signatures of binaries in the subparsec regime, that include spectral features and variability, we model possible distributions of such signatures and alsoset upper limits to their lifespan. We found a bimodal distribution of hosts properties, corresponding to BH binaries suitable to be detected by PTA and the ones detectable only from space missions, as eLISA. Although it has been discussed that the peak of eLISA sources may happen at high z, we show that there must be a population of such sources in the nearby Universe that might show detectable EM signatures, representing an important laboratory for multimessenger astrophysics. We found a weak dependence of galaxy host properties on the binaries occupation, that can be traced back to the BH origin. The combination of the host correlations reported here with the expected EM signal, may be helpful to verify the presence of nearby GW candidates, and to distinguish them from ’regular’ intrinsic AGN variability.

  20. Evolution of Supermassive Black Hole Binaries and Acceleration of Jet Precession in Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, F. K.; Chen, X.

    2007-12-01

    Supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs) are expected with the hierarchical galaxy formation model. Currently, physics processes dominating the evolution of a SMBHB are unclear. An interesting question is whether we could observationally determine the evolution of SMBHBs and give constraints on the physical processes. Jet precession has been observed in many active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and is generally attributed to disk precession. In this paper we calculate the time variation of jet precession and conclude that jet precession is accelerated in SMBHB systems but decelerated in others. The acceleration of jet precession, dPpr/dt, is related to the jet precession timescale, Ppr, and the SMBHB evolution timescale, τa, as dPpr/dt~=-Λ(Ppr/τa). Our calculations based on the models for jet precession and SMBHB evolution show that dPpr/dt can be as high as about -1.0, with a typical value of -0.2, and can be easily detected. We discuss the differential jet precession for NGC 1275 that has been observed in the literature. If its observed rapid acceleration of jet precession is true, the jet precession is due to the orbital motion of an unbound SMBHB with a mass ratio of q~0.76. When jets precess from ancient bubbles to the currently active jets, the separation of the SMBHB decreases from about 1.46 kpc to 0.80 kpc, with an averaged decreasing velocity of da/dt~=-1.54×106 cm s-1 and an evolution timescale of τa~7.5×107 yr. However, if we assume steady jet precession for many cycles, the observations imply a hard SMBHB with a mass ratio of a q~0.21 and a separation of a~0.29 pc.

  1. The imprint of the cosmic supermassive black hole growth history on the 21 cm background radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Takamitsu L.; O'Leary, Ryan M.; Perna, Rosalba

    2016-01-01

    The redshifted 21 cm transition line of hydrogen tracks the thermal evolution of the neutral intergalactic medium (IGM) at `cosmic dawn', during the emergence of the first luminous astrophysical objects (˜100 Myr after the big bang) but before these objects ionized the IGM (˜400-800 Myr after the big bang). Because X-rays, in particular, are likely to be the chief energy courier for heating the IGM, measurements of the 21 cm signature can be used to infer knowledge about the first astrophysical X-ray sources. Using analytic arguments and a numerical population synthesis algorithm, we argue that the progenitors of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) should be the dominant source of hard astrophysical X-rays - and thus the primary driver of IGM heating and the 21 cm signature - at redshifts z ≳ 20, if (i) they grow readily from the remnants of Population III stars and (ii) produce X-rays in quantities comparable to what is observed from active galactic nuclei and high-mass X-ray binaries. We show that models satisfying these assumptions dominate over contributions to IGM heating from stellar populations, and cause the 21 cm brightness temperature to rise at z ≳ 20. An absence of such a signature in the forthcoming observational data would imply that SMBH formation occurred later (e.g. via so-called direct collapse scenarios), that it was not a common occurrence in early galaxies and protogalaxies, or that it produced far fewer X-rays than empirical trends at lower redshifts, either due to intrinsic dimness (radiative inefficiency) or Compton-thick obscuration close to the source.

  2. Hunting a wandering supermassive black hole in the M31 halo hermitage

    SciTech Connect

    Miki, Yohei; Mori, Masao; Kawaguchi, Toshihiro; Saito, Yuriko

    2014-03-10

    In the hierarchical structure formation scenario, galaxies enlarge through multiple merging events with less massive galaxies. In addition, the Magorrian relation indicates that almost all galaxies are occupied by a central supermassive black hole (SMBH) of mass 10{sup –3} times the mass of its spheroidal component. Consequently, SMBHs are expected to wander in the halos of their host galaxies following a galaxy collision, although evidence of this activity is currently lacking. We investigate a current plausible location of an SMBH wandering in the halo of the Andromeda galaxy (M31). According to theoretical studies of N-body simulations, some of the many substructures in the M31 halo are remnants of a minor merger occurring about 1 Gyr ago. First, to evaluate the possible parameter space of the infalling orbit of the progenitor, we perform numerous parameter studies using a graphics processing unit cluster. To reduce uncertainties in the predicted position of the expected SMBH, we then calculate the time evolution of the SMBH in the progenitor dwarf galaxy from N-body simulations using the plausible parameter sets. Our results show that the SMBH lies within the halo (∼20-50 kpc from the M31 center), closer to the Milky Way than the M31 disk. Furthermore, the predicted current positions of the SMBH were restricted to an observational field of 0.°6 × 0.°7 in the northeast region of the M31 halo. We also discuss the origin of the infalling orbit of the satellite galaxy and its relationships with the recently discovered vast thin disk plane of satellite galaxies around M31.

  3. HIGH-FREQUENCY GRAVITATIONAL WAVES FROM SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES: PROSPECTS FOR LIGO-VIRGO DETECTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kocsis, Bence

    2013-02-15

    It is commonly assumed that ground-based gravitational wave (GW) instruments will not be sensitive to supermassive black holes (SMBHs) because the characteristic GW frequencies are far below the {approx}10-1000 Hz sensitivity bands of terrestrial detectors. Here, however, we explore the possibility of SMBH GWs to leak to higher frequencies. In particular, if the high-frequency spectral tail asymptotes to h-tilde (f){proportional_to}f{sup -{alpha}}, where {alpha} {<=} 2, then the spectral amplitude is a constant or increasing function of the mass M at a fixed frequency f >> c {sup 3}/GM. This will happen if the time-domain waveform or its derivative exhibits a discontinuity. Ground-based instruments could search for these universal spectral tails to detect or rule out such features irrespective of their origin. We identify the following processes which may generate high-frequency signals: (1) gravitational bremsstrahlung of ultrarelativistic objects in the vicinity of an SMBH, (2) ringdown modes excited by an external process that has a high-frequency component or terminates abruptly, and (3) gravitational lensing echoes and diffraction. We estimate the order of magnitude of the detection signal-to-noise ratio for each mechanism (1, 2, and 3) as a function of the waveform parameters. In particular for (3), SMBHs produce GW echoes of inspiraling stellar mass binaries in galactic nuclei with a delay of a few minutes to hours. The lensed primary signal and GW echo are both amplified if the binary is within a {approx}10 deg (r/100M){sup -1/2} cone behind the SMBH relative to the line of sight at a distance r from the SMBH. For the rest of the binaries near SMBHs, the amplitude of the GW echo is {approx}0.1(r/100M){sup -1} of the primary signal on average.

  4. GROWTH OF EARLY SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES AND THE HIGH-REDSHIFT EDDINGTON RATIO DISTRIBUTION

    SciTech Connect

    DeGraf, C.; Di Matteo, T.; Khandai, N.; Croft, R.

    2012-08-10

    Using a new large-scale ({approx} 0.75 Gpc){sup 3} hydrodynamic cosmological simulation, we investigate the growth rate of supermassive black holes (BHs) in the early universe (z {approx}> 4.75). Remarkably we find a clear peak in the typical Eddington ratio ({lambda}) at BH masses of (4-8) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} M{sub Sun} (typically in halos of {approx}7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} to 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} M{sub Sun }, close to their shock heating scale), independent of redshift and indicative that most BH growth occurs in the cold-flow-dominated regime. BH growth is enhanced at high-z and by and large regulated by the cosmological evolution of gas density, with {lambda} scaling simply as (1 + z){sup 3}. The peak in {lambda} is caused by the competition between increased gas density available in more massive hosts, and a decrease due to active galactic nucleus feedback that becomes effective above the shock heating halo mass scale and at high BH masses. We show that the distribution of {lambda} among both mass-selected and luminosity-selected samples is approximately lognormal. We combine these findings into a single lognormal fitting formula for the distribution of Eddington ratios as a function of (M{sub BH}, z). This formula can be used in analytic and semianalytic models for evolving BH populations, predicting BH masses of observed quasars, and, in conjunction with the observed distribution of Eddington ratios, can be used to constrain the BH mass function.

  5. Offset active galactic nuclei as tracers of galaxy mergers and supermassive black hole growth

    SciTech Connect

    Comerford, Julia M.; Greene, Jenny E.

    2014-07-10

    Offset active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are AGNs that are in ongoing galaxy mergers, which produce kinematic offsets in the AGNs relative to their host galaxies. Offset AGNs are also close relatives of dual AGNs. We conduct a systematic search for offset AGNs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey by selecting AGN emission lines that exhibit statistically significant line-of-sight velocity offsets relative to systemic. From a parent sample of 18,314 Type 2 AGNs at z < 0.21, we identify 351 offset AGN candidates with velocity offsets of 50 km s{sup –1} < |Δv| < 410 km s{sup –1}. When we account for projection effects in the observed velocities, we estimate that 4%-8% of AGNs are offset AGNs. We designed our selection criteria to bypass velocity offsets produced by rotating gas disks, AGN outflows, and gravitational recoil of supermassive black holes, but follow-up observations are still required to confirm our candidates as offset AGNs. We find that the fraction of AGNs that are offset candidates increases with AGN bolometric luminosity, from 0.7% to 6% over the luminosity range 43 < log (L{sub bol}) [erg s{sup –1}] <46. If these candidates are shown to be bona fide offset AGNs, then this would be direct observational evidence that galaxy mergers preferentially trigger high-luminosity AGNs. Finally, we find that the fraction of AGNs that are offset AGN candidates increases from 1.9% at z = 0.1 to 32% at z = 0.7, in step with the growth in the galaxy merger fraction over the same redshift range.

  6. ENHANCED OFF-CENTER STELLAR TIDAL DISRUPTIONS BY SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES IN MERGING GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, F. K.; Chen, Xian E-mail: chenxian@pku.edu.cn

    2013-04-10

    Off-center stellar tidal disruption flares have been suggested to be a powerful probe of recoiling supermassive black holes (SMBHs) out of galactic centers due to anisotropic gravitational wave radiations. However, off-center tidal flares can also be produced by SMBHs in merging galaxies. In this paper, we computed the tidal flare rates by dual SMBHs in two merging galaxies before the SMBHs become self-gravitationally bounded. We employ an analytical model to calculate the tidal loss-cone feeding rates for both SMBHs, taking into account two-body relaxation of stars, tidal perturbations by the companion galaxy, and chaotic stellar orbits in triaxial gravitational potential. We show that for typical SMBHs with masses 10{sup 7} M{sub Sun }, the loss-cone feeding rates are enhanced by mergers up to {Gamma} {approx} 10{sup -2} yr{sup -1}, about two orders of magnitude higher than those by single SMBHs in isolated galaxies and about four orders of magnitude higher than those by recoiling SMBHs. The enhancements are mainly due to tidal perturbations by the companion galaxy. We suggest that off-center tidal flares are overwhelmed by those from merging galaxies, making the identification of recoiling SMBHs challenging. Based on the calculated rates, we estimate the relative contributions of tidal flare events by single, binary, and dual SMBH systems during cosmic time. Our calculations show that the off-center tidal disruption flares by un-bound SMBHs in merging galaxies contribute a fraction comparable to that by single SMBHs in isolated galaxies. We conclude that off-center tidal disruptions are powerful tracers of the merging history of galaxies and SMBHs.

  7. The Merger-Free Co-Evolution of Galaxies and Supermassive Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Brooke; Smethurst, Rebecca Jane; Lintott, Chris; Galaxy Zoo Team

    2016-06-01

    Calm, "secular" accretion and evolutionary processes, once thought to be relegated to the sidelines of galaxy evolution, are now understood to play a significant role in the buildup of stellar mass in galaxies. Most galaxies are formed and evolve via a mix of secular-driven evolution and more violent processes like strong disk instabilities and galaxy mergers; this makes isolating the effects of secular evolution in galaxies very difficult. Massive pure disk galaxies, lacking the classical or "pseudo" bulge components that arise naturally from mergers and disk instabilities (respectively), are a unique opportunity to study galaxy evolution in the absence of violent processes. Previous studies have disagreed on whether the black hole-galaxy mass correlation is driven by galaxy-galaxy interactions or something more fundamental. Here we present new evidence using a statistically significant sample of AGN hosted in bulgeless disk galaxies at z < 0.2 to constrain black hole-galaxy co-evolution in the absence of mergers.

  8. On the Lamppost Model of Accreting Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedźwiecki, Andrzej; Zdziarski, Andrzej A.; Szanecki, Michał

    2016-04-01

    We study the lamppost model, in which the X-ray source in accreting black hole (BH) systems is located on the rotation axis close to the horizon. We point out a number of inconsistencies in the widely used lamppost model relxilllp, e.g., neglecting the redshift of the photons emitted by the lamppost that are directly observed. They appear to invalidate those model fitting results for which the source distances from the horizon are within several gravitational radii. Furthermore, if those results were correct, most of the photons produced in the lamppost would be trapped by the BH, and the luminosity generated in the source as measured at infinity would be much larger than that observed. This appears to be in conflict with the observed smooth state transitions between the hard and soft states of X-ray binaries. The required increase of the accretion rate and the associated efficiency reduction also present a problem for active galactic nuclei. Then, those models imply the luminosity measured in the local frame is much higher than that produced in the source and measured at infinity, due to the additional effects of time dilation and redshift, and the electron temperature is significantly higher than that observed. We show that these conditions imply that the fitted sources would be out of the e± pair equilibrium. On the other hand, the above issues pose relatively minor problems for sources at large distances from the BH, where relxilllp can still be used.

  9. Quiescent accretion disks in black hole X-ray novae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orosz, Jerome A.; Bailyn, Charles D.; Remillard, Ronald A.; Mcclintock, Jeffrey E.; Foltz, Craig B.

    1994-01-01

    We present detailed time-resolved spectroscopy of the Balmer emission lines from two black hole binary systems in quiescence, A0620-00 and Nova Muscae 1991. We find extraordinary similarities between the two systems. There are 30-40 km/s velocity variations of the emission lines over the orbital period, the phases of which are not aligned with the expected phase of the motion of the compact primary. Detailed modeling of both systems is complicated by variable hot spot components, regions of optical thickness, and intermittent excess emission in the blue line wings of the H-alpha lines. Both sources also display low velocities at the outer edge of the accretion disk, implying a large primary Roche lobe and extreme mass ratios. These complications suggest that although simple optically thin, Keplerian alpha-disk models provide a useful parameterization of emission lines from these systems, the straightforward physical models they imply should be treated with great caution.

  10. Supermassive black holes and central star clusters: Connection with the host galaxy kinematics and color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zasov, A. V.; Cherepashchuk, A. M.

    2013-11-01

    The relationship between the masses of the central, supermassive black holes ( M bh) and of the nuclear star clusters ( M nc) of disk galaxies with various parameters galaxies are considered: the rotational velocity at R = 2 kpc V (2), the maximum rotational velocity V max, the indicative dynamical mass M 25, the integrated mass of the stellar population M *, and the integrated color index B-V. The rotational velocities andmasses of the central objects were taken from the literature. Themass M nc correlatesmore closely with the kinematic parameters and the disk mass than M bh, including with the velocity V max, which is closely related to the virial mass of the dark halo. On average, lenticular galaxies are characterized by higher masses M bh compared to other types of galaxies with similar characteristics. The dependence of the blackhole mass on the color index is bimodal: galaxies of the red group (red-sequence) with B-V >0.6-0.7 which are mostly early-type galaxies with weak star formation, differ appreciably from blue galaxies, which have higher values of M nc and M bh. At the dependences we consider between the masses of the central objects and the parameters of the host galaxies (except for the dependence of M bh on the central velocity dispersion), the red-group galaxies have systematically higher M bh values, even when the host-galaxy parameters are similar. In contrast, in the case of nuclear star clusters, the blue and red galaxies form unified sequences. The results agree with scenarios in which most red-group galaxies form as a result of the partial or complete loss of interstellar gas in a stage of high nuclear activity in galaxies whose central black-hole masses exceed 106-107 M ⊙ (depending on the mass of the galaxy itself). The bulk of disk galaxies with M bh > 107 M ⊙ are lenticular galaxies (types S0, E/S0) whose disks are practically devoid of gas.

  11. The slimming effect of advection on black-hole accretion flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasota, J.-P.; Vieira, R. S. S.; Sadowski, A.; Narayan, R.; Abramowicz, M. A.

    2016-03-01

    Context. At super-Eddington rates accretion flows onto black holes have been described as slim (aspect ratio H/R ≲ 1) or thick (H/R> 1) discs, also known as tori or (Polish) doughnuts. The relation between the two descriptions has never been established, but it was commonly believed that at sufficiently high accretion rates slim discs inflate, becoming thick. Aims: We wish to establish under what conditions slim accretion flows become thick. Methods: We use analytical equations, numerical 1 + 1 schemes, and numerical radiative MHD codes to describe and compare various accretion flow models at very high accretion rates. Results: We find that the dominant effect of advection at high accretion rates precludes slim discs becoming thick. Conclusions: At super-Eddington rates accretion flows around black holes can always be considered slim rather than thick.

  12. THE RATE OF GAS ACCRETION ONTO BLACK HOLES DRIVES JET VELOCITY

    SciTech Connect

    King, Ashley L.; Miller, Jon M.; Gültekin, Kayhan; Reynolds, Mark; Bietenholz, Michael; Bartel, Norbert; Mioduszewski, Amy; Rupen, Michael

    2015-01-20

    Accreting black holes are observed to launch relativistic, collimated jets of matter and radiation. In some sources, discrete ejections have been detected with highly relativistic velocities. These particular sources typically have very high mass accretion rates, while sources lower knot velocities are predominantly associated with black holes with relatively low mass accretion rates. We quantify this behavior by examining knot velocity with respect to X-ray luminosity, a proxy for mass accretion rate onto the black hole. We find a positive correlation between the mass-scaled X-ray luminosity and jet knot velocity. In addition, we find evidence that the jet velocity is also a function of polar angle, supporting the ''spine-sheath'' model of jet production. Our results reveal a fundamental aspect of how accretion shapes mechanical feedback from black holes into their host environments.

  13. The Bright Side of Black Holes: Radiation from Black Hole Accretion Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yucong

    An understanding of radiation is paramount for connecting observations of accretion disks with the theory of black holes. In this thesis, we explore via radiative transfer postprocessing calculations the observational signatures of black holes. We investigate disk spectra by analyzing general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulations of accretion disks. For the most part there are no surprises -- the resulting GRMHD spectrum is very close to the analytic Novikov & Thorne (1973) prediction from decades past, except for a small modification in the case of spinning black holes, which exhibit a high-energy power-law tail that is sourced by hot Comptonized gas from within the plunging region of the accretion flow. These conclusions are borne out by both 1D and 3D radiative transfer calculations of the disk. Significant effort was spent in developing from scratch the 3D radiative code that we used for the analysis. The code is named HERO (Hybrid Evaluator for Radiative Objects) and it is a new general purpose grid-based 3D general relativistic radiative solver.

  14. DUAL SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE CANDIDATES IN THE AGN AND GALAXY EVOLUTION SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Comerford, Julia M.; Schluns, Kyle; Greene, Jenny E.; Cool, Richard J.

    2013-11-01

    Dual supermassive black holes (SMBHs) with kiloparsec-scale separations in merger-remnant galaxies are informative tracers of galaxy evolution, but the avenue for identifying them in large numbers for such studies is not yet clear. One promising approach is to target spectroscopic signatures of systems where both SMBHs are fueled as dual active galactic nuclei (AGNs), or where one SMBH is fueled as an offset AGN. Dual AGNs may produce double-peaked narrow AGN emission lines, while offset AGNs may produce single-peaked narrow AGN emission lines with line-of-sight velocity offsets relative to the host galaxy. We search for such dual and offset systems among 173 Type 2 AGNs at z < 0.37 in the AGN and Galaxy Evolution Survey (AGES), and we find two double-peaked AGNs and five offset AGN candidates. When we compare these results to a similar search of the DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey and match the two samples in color, absolute magnitude, and minimum velocity offset, we find that the fraction of AGNs that are dual SMBH candidates increases from z = 0.25 to z = 0.7 by a factor of ∼6 (from 2/70 to 16/91, or 2.9{sup +3.6}{sub -1.9}% to 18{sup +5}{sub -5}%). This may be associated with the rise in the galaxy merger fraction over the same cosmic time. As further evidence for a link with galaxy mergers, the AGES offset and dual AGN candidates are tentatively ∼3 times more likely than the overall AGN population to reside in a host galaxy that has a companion galaxy (from 16/173 to 2/7, or 9{sup +3}{sub -2}% to 29{sub -19}{sup +26}%). Follow-up observations of the seven offset and dual AGN candidates in AGES will definitively distinguish velocity offsets produced by dual SMBHs from those produced by narrow-line region kinematics, and will help sharpen our observational approach to detecting dual SMBHs.

  15. European Pulsar Timing Array limits on continuous gravitational waves from individual supermassive black hole binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babak, S.; Petiteau, A.; Sesana, A.; Brem, P.; Rosado, P. A.; Taylor, S. R.; Lassus, A.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Bassa, C. G.; Burgay, M.; Caballero, R. N.; Champion, D. J.; Cognard, I.; Desvignes, G.; Gair, J. R.; Guillemot, L.; Janssen, G. H.; Karuppusamy, R.; Kramer, M.; Lazarus, P.; Lee, K. J.; Lentati, L.; Liu, K.; Mingarelli, C. M. F.; Osłowski, S.; Perrodin, D.; Possenti, A.; Purver, M. B.; Sanidas, S.; Smits, R.; Stappers, B.; Theureau, G.; Tiburzi, C.; van Haasteren, R.; Vecchio, A.; Verbiest, J. P. W.

    2016-01-01

    We have searched for continuous gravitational wave (CGW) signals produced by individually resolvable, circular supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs) in the latest European Pulsar Timing Array (EPTA) data set, which consists of ultraprecise timing data on 41-ms pulsars. We develop frequentist and Bayesian detection algorithms to search both for monochromatic and frequency-evolving systems. None of the adopted algorithms show evidence for the presence of such a CGW signal, indicating that the data are best described by pulsar and radiometer noise only. Depending on the adopted detection algorithm, the 95 per cent upper limit on the sky-averaged strain amplitude lies in the range 6 × 10-15 < A < 1.5 × 10-14 at 5 nHz < f < 7 nHz. This limit varies by a factor of five, depending on the assumed source position and the most constraining limit is achieved towards the positions of the most sensitive pulsars in the timing array. The most robust upper limit - obtained via a full Bayesian analysis searching simultaneously over the signal and pulsar noise on the subset of ours six best pulsars - is A ≈ 10-14. These limits, the most stringent to date at f < 10 nHz, exclude the presence of sub-centiparsec binaries with chirp mass M_c>10^9 M_{⊙} out to a distance of about 25 Mpc, and with M_c>10^{10} M_{⊙} out to a distance of about 1Gpc (z ≈ 0.2). We show that state-of-the-art SMBHB population models predict <1 per cent probability of detecting a CGW with the current EPTA data set, consistent with the reported non-detection. We stress, however, that PTA limits on individual CGW have improved by almost an order of magnitude in the last five years. The continuing advances in pulsar timing data acquisition and analysis techniques will allow for strong astrophysical constraints on the population of nearby SMBHBs in the coming years.

  16. Spectroastrometry of rotating gas disks for the detection of supermassive black holes in galactic nuclei. I. Method and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnerucci, A.; Marconi, A.; Capetti, A.; Axon, D. J.; Robinson, A.

    2010-02-01

    This is the first in a series of papers in which we study the application of spectroastrometry in the context of gas kinematical studies aimed at measuring the mass of supermassive black holes. The spectroastrometrical method consists in measuring the photocenter of light emission in different wavelength or velocity channels. In particular we explore the potential of spectroastrometry of gas emission lines in galaxy nuclei to constrain the kinematics of rotating gas disks and to measure the mass of putative supermassive black holes. By means of detailed simulations and test cases, we show that the fundamental advantage of spectroastrometry is that it can provide information on the gravitational potential of a galaxy on scales significantly smaller (~1/10) than the limit imposed by the spatial resolution of the observations. We then describe a simple method to infer detailed kinematical informations from spectroastrometry in longslit spectra and to measure the mass of nuclear mass concentrations. Such method can be applied straightforwardly to integral field spectra, which do not have the complexities due to a partial spatial covering of the source in the case of longslit spectra.

  17. ALMA FOLLOWS STREAMING OF DENSE GAS DOWN TO 40 pc FROM THE SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE IN NGC 1097

    SciTech Connect

    Fathi, Kambiz; Pinol-Ferrer, Nuria; Lundgren, Andreas A.; Wiklind, Tommy; Kohno, Kotaro; Izumi, Takuma; Martin, Sergio; Espada, Daniel; Hatziminaoglou, Evanthia; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Krips, Melanie; Matsushita, Satoki; Meier, David S.; Nakai, Naomasa; Sheth, Kartik; Turner, Jean; Van de Ven, Glenn

    2013-06-20

    We present a kinematic analysis of the dense molecular gas in the central 200 pc of the nearby galaxy NGC 1097, based on Cycle 0 observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). We use the HCN(4-3) line to trace the densest interstellar molecular gas (n{sub H{sub 2}}{approx}10{sup 8} cm{sup -3}), and quantify its kinematics, and estimate an inflow rate for the molecular gas. We find a striking similarity between the ALMA kinematic data and the analytic spiral inflow model that we have previously constructed based on ionized gas velocity fields on larger scales. We are able to follow dense gas streaming down to 40 pc distance from the supermassive black hole in this Seyfert 1 galaxy. In order to fulfill marginal stability, we deduce that the dense gas is confined to a very thin disk, and we derive a dense gas inflow rate of 0.09 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} at 40 pc radius. Combined with previous values from the H{alpha} and CO gas, we calculate a combined molecular and ionized gas inflow rate of {approx}0.2 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} at 40 pc distance from the central supermassive black hole of NGC 1097.

  18. Subaru and e-Merlin observations of NGC 3718. Diaries of a supermassive black hole recoil?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markakis, K.; Dierkes, J.; Eckart, A.; Nishiyama, S.; Britzen, S.; García-Marín, M.; Horrobin, M.; Muxlow, T.; Zensus, J. A.

    2015-08-01

    photometric and spectroscopic characteristics. These characteristics combined with the observed spatial NIR and radio emission offsets, the relative redshift between the broad and the narrow Hα line, the limited star formation activity, and AGN feedback strongly imply the existence of a supermassive black hole recoil. Finally, we discuss a possible interpretation that could naturally incorporate all these findings into one physically consistent picture. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgBased on data collected at Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  19. Gravitomagnetic Acceleration of Black Hole Accretion Disk Matter to Polar Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poirier, John; Mathews, Grant

    2015-04-01

    It is shown that the motion of the neutral masses in an accretion disk orbiting a black hole creates a magnetic-like (gravitomagnetic) field that vertically accelerates neutral particles near the accretion disk away from the disk and then inward toward the axis of the accretion disk. Moreover, as the accelerated material nears the axis, a frame-dragging effect twists the trajectories around the axis thus contributing to the formation of a narrow polar jet emanating from the poles.

  20. The Chaotic Light Curves of Accreting Black Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazanas, Demosthenes

    2007-01-01

    We present model light curves for accreting Black Hole Candidates (BHC) based on a recently developed model of these sources. According to this model, the observed light curves and aperiodic variability of BHC are due to a series of soft photon injections at random (Poisson) intervals and the stochastic nature of the Comptonization process in converting these soft photons to the observed high energy radiation. The additional assumption of our model is that the Comptonization process takes place in an extended but non-uniform hot plasma corona surrounding the compact object. We compute the corresponding Power Spectral Densities (PSD), autocorrelation functions, time skewness of the light curves and time lags between the light curves of the sources at different photon energies and compare our results to observation. Our model reproduces the observed light curves well, in that it provides good fits to their overall morphology (as manifest by the autocorrelation and time skewness) and also to their PSDs and time lags, by producing most of the variability power at time scales 2 a few seconds, while at the same time allowing for shots of a few msec in duration, in accordance with observation. We suggest that refinement of this type of model along with spectral and phase lag information can be used to probe the structure of this class of high energy sources.

  1. Are BL Lac-type objects nearby black holes. [gas accretion model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, S. L.; Elliot, J. L.

    1974-01-01

    It is pointed out that isolated black holes accreting interstellar gas can account for the characteristic properties of the Lacertids. Emission spectra for various interstellar gas densities and black hole masses are compared with the data plotted by Strittmatter et al. (1972) for the BL Lac-type objects. Rough estimates indicate that there may indeed be a finite number of stellar-mass black holes close to the earth as required by the theory. If it is determined that the BL Lac-type objects lie outside of the galactic disk a black hole accretion model may still apply if certain conditions are satisfied.

  2. 5.0 GHz Continuum eEVN Observations of the Recoiling Supermassive Black Hole Candidate SDSSS J113323.97+550415.8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Torres, M.; Piconcelli, N. Ramirez-Olivencia E.; Alberdi, A.; Komossa, S.; Herrero-Illana, R.

    2015-04-01

    We report electronic European VLBI Network (eEVN) radio observations of the recoiling supermassive black hole (SMBH) candidate SDSSS J113323.97+550415.8 (=SDSS1133), in the outskirts of the nearby (D=28.9 Mpc) galaxy Mrk 177 (Koss et al.

  3. Relativistic cross sections of mass stripping and tidal disruption of a star by a super-massive rotating black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, P. B.; Chernyakova, M. A.

    2006-03-01

    Aims.We consider the problem of tidal disruption of a star by a super-massive rotating black hole.Methods. Using a numerically fast Lagrangian model of a tidally disrupted star developed in our previous works, we survey the parameter space of the problem and find regions where the total disruption of the star or a partial mass loss from the star takes place as a result of fly-by around the black hole. Our treatment is based on General Relativity, and we consider a range of black hole masses where the tidal disruption competes with the relativistic effect of direct capture of stars by the black hole. We model the star as a full polytrope with n=1.5 with the solar mass and radius. We show that our results can also be used to obtain the amount of mass lost by stars with different stellar masses and radii.Results.We find that the results can be conveniently represented on the plane of specific orbital angular momenta of the star (jθ, jφ). We calculate the contours of a given mass loss of the star on this plane, for a given black hole mass M, rotational parameter a and inclination of the trajectory of the star with respect to the black hole equatorial plane. In the following such contours are referred to as the tidal cross sections. It is shown that the tidal cross sections can be approximated as circles symmetric above the axis jφ=0, and shifted with respect to the origin of the coordinates in the direction of negative jθ. The radii and shifts of these circles are obtained numerically for the black hole masses in the range 5× 105~M⊙-109~M⊙ and different values of a. It is shown that when a=0 tidal disruption takes place for M < 5× 107~M⊙ and when a≈ 1 tidal disruption is possible for M < 109~M⊙.

  4. Accretion on Reissner–Nordström–(anti)-de Sitter black hole with global monopole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Ayyesha K.; Camci, Ugur; Jamil, Mubasher

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we investigate the accretion on the Reissner–Nordström–anti-de-Sitter black hole with global monopole charge. We discuss the general solutions of accretion using the isothermal and polytropic equations of state for steady state, spherically symmetric, non-rotating accretion on the black hole. In the case of isothermal flow, we consider some specific fluids and derive their solutions at the sonic point as well. However, in the case of polytropic fluid we calculate the general expressions only, as there exists no global (Bondi) solutions for polytropic test fluids. In addition to this, the effect of fluid on the mass accretion rate are also studied. Moreover, the large monopole parameter β greatly suppresses the maximum accretion rate.

  5. ARE RADIO ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI POWERED BY ACCRETION OR BLACK HOLE SPIN?

    SciTech Connect

    McNamara, B. R.; Rohanizadegan, Mina; Nulsen, P. E. J.

    2011-01-20

    We compare accretion and black hole spin as potential energy sources for outbursts from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs). Based on our adopted spin model, we find that the distribution of AGN power estimated from X-ray cavities is consistent with a broad range of both spin parameters and accretion rates. Sufficient quantities of molecular gas are available in most BCGs to power their AGNs by accretion alone. However, we find no correlation between AGN power and molecular gas mass over the range of jet power considered here. For a given AGN power, the BCG's gas mass and accretion efficiency, defined as the fraction of the available cold molecular gas that is required to power the AGN, both vary by more than two orders of magnitude. Most of the molecular gas in BCGs is apparently consumed by star formation or is driven out of the nucleus by the AGN before it reaches the nuclear black hole. Bondi accretion from hot atmospheres is generally unable to fuel powerful AGNs, unless their black holes are more massive than their bulge luminosities imply. We identify several powerful AGNs that reside in relatively gas-poor galaxies, indicating an unusually efficient mode of accretion, or that their AGNs are powered by another mechanism. If these systems are powered primarily by black hole spin rather than by accretion, spin must also be tapped efficiently in some systems, i.e., P{sub jet}> M-dot c{sup 2}, or their black hole masses must be substantially larger than the values implied by their bulge luminosities. We constrain the (model-dependent) accretion rate at the transition from radiatively inefficient to radiatively efficient accretion flows to be a few percent of the Eddington rate, a value that is consistent with other estimates.

  6. STRONG FIELD EFFECTS ON EMISSION LINE PROFILES: KERR BLACK HOLES AND WARPED ACCRETION DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Yan; Li Xiangdong

    2012-01-10

    If an accretion disk around a black hole is illuminated by hard X-rays from non-thermal coronae, fluorescent iron lines will be emitted from the inner region of the accretion disk. The emission line profiles will show a variety of strong field effects, which may be used as a probe of the spin parameter of the black hole and the structure of the accretion disk. In this paper, we generalize the previous relativistic line profile models by including both the black hole spinning effects and the non-axisymmetries of warped accretion disks. Our results show different features from the conventional calculations for either a flat disk around a Kerr black hole or a warped disk around a Schwarzschild black hole by presenting, at the same time, multiple peaks, rather long red tails, and time variations of line profiles with the precession of the disk. We show disk images as seen by a distant observer, which are distorted by the strong gravity. Although we are primarily concerned with the iron K-shell lines in this paper, the calculation is general and is valid for any emission lines produced from a warped accretion disk around a black hole.

  7. The impact of angular momentum on black hole accretion rates in simulations of galaxy formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosas-Guevara, Y. M.; Bower, R. G.; Schaye, J.; Furlong, M.; Frenk, C. S.; Booth, C. M.; Crain, R. A.; Dalla Vecchia, C.; Schaller, M.; Theuns, T.

    2015-11-01

    Feedback from energy liberated by gas accretion on to black holes (BHs) is an attractive mechanism to explain the exponential cut-off at the massive end of the galaxy stellar mass function. Most previous implementations of BH accretion in hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy formation have assumed that BHs grow at an accretion rate that is proportion to the Bondi rate. A major concern is that the Bondi accretion rate is inappropriate when the accreting material has significant angular momentum. We present an improved accretion model that takes into account the circularization and subsequent viscous transport of infalling material, and implemented as a `subgrid' model in hydrodynamic simulations. The resulting accretion rates are generally low in low mass (≲ 1011.5 M⊙) haloes, but show outbursts of Eddington-limited accretion during galaxy mergers. During outbursts these objects strongly resemble quasars. In higher mass haloes, gas accretion peaks at ˜10 per cent of the Eddington rate, which is thought to be conducive to the formation of radio jets. The resulting accretion rate depends strongly on the effective pressure of the gas surrounding the BH, which in turn depends strongly on halo mass. This induces a sharp transition in the importance of BH feedback. In small haloes, the growth of galaxies is regulated by star formation and supernova feedback, but above a halo mass of 1011.5 M⊙, rapid BH growth leads to the suppression of star formation and reduced growth of stellar mass with increasing halo mass.

  8. Impact of black hole's spin to power the accretion/outflow phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Banibrata

    2016-07-01

    I plan to address how important role the spin of black hole is playing to determine various features of accretion and outflow/jet. I will also attempt to explore the relative importance among magnetic fields, viscous and cooling processes of accretion flows and the Kerr parameter of black holes to determine observed features. This will be done based on magnetohydrodynamical modelling of the flow in the pseudo-Newtonian framework. Finally, I will attempt to predict the spin of black holes in observed sources.

  9. THE STANDING ACCRETION SHOCK INSTABILITY IN THE DISK AROUND THE KERR BLACK HOLE

    SciTech Connect

    Nagakura, Hiroki; Yamada, Shoichi

    2009-05-10

    This paper is a sequel to our previous work for accretion onto a Schwarzschild black hole and the so-called standing accretion shock instability; in this paper, we investigate nonaxisymmetric perturbations for a Kerr black hole. The linear and nonlinear phases for the shock evolution are analyzed in detail by both two-dimensional general relativistic hydrodynamical simulations and linear analysis. Since the structure of steady axisymmetric accretion flows with a standing shock wave is very sensitive to the inner transonic flow, their properties such as Mach numbers, which are important for the stability, depend on the Kerr parameter very much. Although the essential features of the instability do not differ from the previous results for the Schwarzschild black hole, the frame-dragging effects specific to the Kerr black hole are also evident. Interestingly, the oscillation periods of the fundamental unstable modes are dependent only on the shock radius irrespective of the injection parameters.

  10. Logarithmic Spiral Arm Pitch Angle of Spiral Galaxies: Measurement and Relationship to Galactic Structure and Nuclear Supermassive Black Hole Mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Benjamin

    In this dissertation, I explore the geometric structure of spiral galaxies and how the visible structure can provide information about the central mass of a galaxy, the density of its galactic disk, and the hidden mass of the supermassive black hole in its nucleus. In order to quantitatively measure the logarithmic spiral pitch angle (a measurement of tightness of the winding) of galactic spiral arms, I led an effort in our research group (the Arkansas Galaxy Evolution Survey) to modify existing two-dimensional fast Fourier transform software to increase its efficacy and accuracy. Using this software, I was able to lead an effort to calculate a black hole mass function (BHMF) for spiral galaxies in our local Universe. This work effectively provides us with a census of local black holes and establishes an endpoint on the evolutionary history of the BHMF for spiral galaxies. Furthermore, my work has indicated a novel fundamental relationship between the pitch angle of a galaxy's spiral arms, the maximum density of neutral atomic hydrogen in its disk, and the stellar mass of its bulge. This result provides strong support for the density wave theory of spiral structure in disk galaxies and poses a critical question of the validity of rival theories for the genesis of spiral structure in disk galaxies.

  11. Does the mass of a black hole decrease due to the accretion of phantom energy?

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Changjun; Chen Xuelei; Faraoni, Valerio; Shen Yougen

    2008-07-15

    According to Babichev et al., the accretion of a phantom test fluid onto a Schwarzschild black hole will induce the mass of the black hole to decrease, however the backreaction was ignored in their calculation. Using new exact solutions describing black holes in a background Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe, we find that the physical black hole mass may instead increase due to the accretion of phantom energy. If this is the case, and the future universe is dominated by phantom dark energy, the black hole apparent horizon and the cosmic apparent horizon will eventually coincide and, after that, the black hole singularity will become naked in finite comoving time before the big rip occurs, violating the cosmic censorship conjecture.

  12. HYDROSTATIC GAS CONSTRAINTS ON SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE MASSES: IMPLICATIONS FOR HYDROSTATIC EQUILIBRIUM AND DYNAMICAL MODELING IN A SAMPLE OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Humphrey, Philip J.; Buote, David A.; Brighenti, Fabrizio; Gebhardt, Karl; Mathews, William G.

    2009-10-01

    We present new mass measurements for the supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in the centers of three early-type galaxies. The gas pressure in the surrounding, hot interstellar medium (ISM) is measured through spatially resolved spectroscopy with the Chandra X-ray Observatory, allowing the SMBH mass (M {sub BH}) to be inferred directly under the hydrostatic approximation. This technique does not require calibration against other SMBH measurement methods and its accuracy depends only on the ISM being close to hydrostatic, which is supported by the smooth X-ray isophotes of the galaxies. Combined with results from our recent study of the elliptical galaxy NGC 4649, this brings the number of galaxies with SMBHs measured in this way to four. Of these, three already have mass determinations from the kinematics of either the stars or a central gas disk, and hence join only a handful of galaxies with M {sub BH} measured by more than one technique. We find good agreement between the different methods, providing support for the assumptions implicit in both the hydrostatic and the dynamical models. The stellar mass-to-light ratios for each galaxy inferred by our technique are in agreement with the predictions of stellar population synthesis models assuming a Kroupa initial mass function (IMF). This concurrence implies that no more than {approx}10%-20% of the ISM pressure is nonthermal, unless there is a conspiracy between the shape of the IMF and nonthermal pressure. Finally, we compute Bondi accretion rates (M-dot{sub bondi}), finding that the two galaxies with the highest M-dot{sub bondi} exhibit little evidence of X-ray cavities, suggesting that the correlation with the active galactic nuclei jet power takes time to be established.

  13. The Influence of Black Hole Mass and Accretion Rate on the FRI/FRII Radio Galaxy Dichotomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wold, M.; Lacy, M.; Armus, L.

    We use medium resolution optical spectra of 3CR radio galaxies to estimate their black hole masses and accretion rates. Black hole masses are found from central stellar velocity dispersions, and accretion rates are derived from narrow emission-line luminosities. The sample covers both Fanaroff-Riley (FR) classes; the more powerful FRIIs and the less powerful FRIs. We find that FRIs and FRIIs separate in diagrams of radio luminosity and narrow-line luminosity versus black hole mass. This suggests that, at a given black hole mass, the FRIIs accrete more efficiently, or accrete more matter, than FRIs.

  14. Imaging the Supermassive Black Hole Shadow and Jet Base of M87 with the Event Horizon Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Ru-Sen; Broderick, Avery E.; Baron, Fabien; Monnier, John D.; Fish, Vincent L.; Doeleman, Sheperd S.; Pankratius, Victor

    2014-06-01

    The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) is a project to assemble a Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) network of millimeter wavelength dishes that can resolve strong field general relativistic signatures near a supermassive black hole. As planned, the EHT will include enough dishes to enable imaging of the predicted black hole "shadow," a feature caused by severe light bending at the black hole boundary. The center of M87, a giant elliptical galaxy, presents one of the most interesting EHT targets as it exhibits a relativistic jet, offering the additional possibility of studying jet genesis on Schwarzschild radius scales. Fully relativistic models of the M87 jet that fit all existing observational constraints now allow horizon-scale images to be generated. We perform realistic VLBI simulations of M87 model images to examine the detectability of the black shadow with the EHT, focusing on a sequence of model images with a changing jet mass load radius. When the jet is launched close to the black hole, the shadow is clearly visible both at 230 and 345 GHz. The EHT array with a resolution of 20-30 μas resolution (~2-4 Schwarzschild radii) is able to image this feature independent of any theoretical models and we show that imaging methods used to process data from optical interferometers are applicable and effective for EHT data sets. We demonstrate that the EHT is also capable of tracing real-time structural changes on a few Schwarzschild radii scales, such as those implicated by very high-energy flaring activity of M87. While inclusion of ALMA in the EHT is critical for shadow imaging, the array is generally robust against loss of a station.

  15. Imaging the supermassive black hole shadow and jet base of M87 with the event horizon telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Ru-Sen; Fish, Vincent L.; Doeleman, Sheperd S.; Pankratius, Victor; Broderick, Avery E.; Baron, Fabien; Monnier, John D.

    2014-06-20

    The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) is a project to assemble a Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) network of millimeter wavelength dishes that can resolve strong field general relativistic signatures near a supermassive black hole. As planned, the EHT will include enough dishes to enable imaging of the predicted black hole 'shadow', a feature caused by severe light bending at the black hole boundary. The center of M87, a giant elliptical galaxy, presents one of the most interesting EHT targets as it exhibits a relativistic jet, offering the additional possibility of studying jet genesis on Schwarzschild radius scales. Fully relativistic models of the M87 jet that fit all existing observational constraints now allow horizon-scale images to be generated. We perform realistic VLBI simulations of M87 model images to examine the detectability of the black shadow with the EHT, focusing on a sequence of model images with a changing jet mass load radius. When the jet is launched close to the black hole, the shadow is clearly visible both at 230 and 345 GHz. The EHT array with a resolution of 20-30 μas resolution (∼2-4 Schwarzschild radii) is able to image this feature independent of any theoretical models and we show that imaging methods used to process data from optical interferometers are applicable and effective for EHT data sets. We demonstrate that the EHT is also capable of tracing real-time structural changes on a few Schwarzschild radii scales, such as those implicated by very high-energy flaring activity of M87. While inclusion of ALMA in the EHT is critical for shadow imaging, the array is generally robust against loss of a station.

  16. ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS PAIRS FROM THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY. II. EVIDENCE FOR TIDALLY ENHANCED STAR FORMATION AND BLACK HOLE ACCRETION

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Xin; Shen Yue; Strauss, Michael A.

    2012-01-20

    Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are occasionally seen in pairs, suggesting that tidal encounters are responsible for the accretion of material by both central supermassive black holes (BHs). In Paper I of this series, we selected a sample of AGN pairs with projected separations r{sub p} < 100 h{sup -1}{sub 70} kpc and velocity offsets <600 km s{sup -1} from the Seventh Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and quantified their frequency. In this paper, we address the BH accretion and recent star formation properties in their host galaxies. AGN pairs experience stronger BH accretion, as measured by their [O III] {lambda}5007 luminosities (corrected for contribution from star formation) and Eddington ratios, than do control samples of single AGNs matched in redshift and host-galaxy stellar mass. Their host galaxies have stronger post-starburst activity and younger mean stellar ages, as indicated by stronger H{delta} absorption and smaller 4000 A break in their spectra. The BH accretion and recent star formation in the host galaxies both increase with decreasing projected separation in AGN pairs, for r{sub p} {approx}< 10-30 h{sup -1}{sub 70} kpc. The intensity of BH accretion, the post-starburst strength, and the mean stellar ages are correlated between the two AGNs in a pair. The luminosities and Eddington ratios of AGN pairs are correlated with recent star formation in their host galaxies, with a scaling relation consistent with that observed in single AGNs. Our results suggest that galaxy tidal interactions enhance both BH accretion and host-galaxy star formation in close AGN pairs, even though the majority of low-redshift AGNs are not coincident with on-going interactions.

  17. Electron thermodynamics in GRMHD simulations of low-luminosity black hole accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ressler, S. M.; Tchekhovskoy, A.; Quataert, E.; Chandra, M.; Gammie, C. F.

    2015-12-01

    Simple assumptions made regarding electron thermodynamics often limit the extent to which general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulations can be applied to observations of low-luminosity accreting black holes. We present, implement, and test a model that self-consistently evolves an entropy equation for the electrons and takes into account the effects of spatially varying electron heating and relativistic anisotropic thermal conduction along magnetic field lines. We neglect the backreaction of electron pressure on the dynamics of the accretion flow. Our model is appropriate for systems accreting at ≪10-5 of the Eddington accretion rate, so radiative cooling by electrons can be neglected. It can be extended to higher accretion rates in the future by including electron cooling and proton-electron Coulomb collisions. We present a suite of tests showing that our method recovers the correct solution for electron heating under a range of circumstances, including strong shocks and driven turbulence. Our initial applications to axisymmetric simulations of accreting black holes show that (1) physically motivated electron heating rates that depend on the local magnetic field strength yield electron temperature distributions significantly different from the constant electron-to-proton temperature ratios assumed in previous work, with higher electron temperatures concentrated in the coronal region between the disc and the jet; (2) electron thermal conduction significantly modifies the electron temperature in the inner regions of black hole accretion flows if the effective electron mean free path is larger than the local scaleheight of the disc (at least for the initial conditions and magnetic field configurations we study). The methods developed in this work are important for producing more realistic predictions for the emission from accreting black holes such as Sagittarius A* and M87; these applications will be explored in future work.

  18. LAUNCHING AND QUENCHING OF BLACK HOLE RELATIVISTIC JETS AT LOW ACCRETION RATE

    SciTech Connect

    Pu, Hung-Yi; Chang, Hsiang-Kuang; Hirotani, Kouichi

    2012-10-20

    Relativistic jets are launched from black hole (BH) X-ray binaries and active galactic nuclei when the disk accretion rate is below a certain limit (i.e., when the ratio of the accretion rate to the Eddingtion accretion rate, m-dot , is below about 0.01) but quenched when above. We propose a new paradigm to explain this observed coupling between the jet and the accretion disk by investigating the extraction of the rotational energy of a BH when it is surrounded by different types of accretion disk. At low accretion rates (e.g., when m-dot {approx}<0.1), the accretion near the event horizon is quasi-spherical. The accreting plasmas fall onto the event horizon in a wide range of latitudes, breaking down the force-free approximation near the horizon. To incorporate the plasma inertia effect, we consider the magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) extraction of the rotational energy from BHs by the accreting MHD fluid, as described by the MHD Penrose process. It is found that the energy extraction operates, and hence a relativistic jet is launched, preferentially when the accretion disk consists of an outer Shakura-Sunyaev disk (SSD) and an inner advection-dominated accretion flow. When the entire accretion disk type changes into an SSD, the jet is quenched because the plasmas bring more rest-mass energy than what is extracted from the hole electromagnetically to stop the extraction. Several other issues related to observed BH disk-jet couplings, such as why the radio luminosity increases with increasing X-ray luminosity until the radio emission drops, are also explained.

  19. The Megamaser Cosmology Project. III. Accurate Masses of Seven Supermassive Black Holes in Active Galaxies with Circumnuclear Megamaser Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, C. Y.; Braatz, J. A.; Condon, J. J.; Impellizzeri, C. M. V.; Lo, K. Y.; Zaw, I.; Schenker, M.; Henkel, C.; Reid, M. J.; Greene, J. E.

    2011-01-01

    Observations of H2O masers from circumnuclear disks in active galaxies for the Megamaser Cosmology Project (MCP) allow accurate measurement of the mass of supermassive black holes (BH) in these galaxies. We present the Very Long Baseline Interferometry images and kinematics of water maser emission in six active galaxies: NGC 1194, NGC 2273, NGC 2960 (Mrk 1419), NGC 4388, NGC 6264 and NGC 6323. We use the Keplerian rotation curves of these six megamaser galaxies, plus a seventh previously published, to determine accurate enclosed masses within the central ~0.3 pc of these galaxies, smaller than the radius of the sphere of influence of the central mass in all cases. We also set lower limits to the central mass densities of between 0.12 × 1010 and 61 × 1010 M sun pc-3. For six of the seven disks, the high central densities rule out clusters of stars or stellar remnants as the central objects, and this result further supports our assumption that the enclosed mass can be attributed predominantly to a supermassive BH. The seven BHs have masses ranging between 0.75 × 107 and 6.5 × 107 M sun, with the mass errors dominated by the uncertainty of the Hubble constant. We compare the megamaser BH mass determination with BH mass measured from the virial estimation method. The virial estimation BH mass in four galaxies is consistent with the megamaser BH mass, but the virial mass uncertainty is much greater. Circumnuclear megamaser disks allow the best mass determination of the central BH mass in external galaxies and significantly improve the observational basis at the low-mass end of the M-σsstarf relation. The M-σsstarf relation may not be a single, low-scatter power law as originally proposed. MCP observations continue and we expect to obtain more maser BH masses in the future.

  20. Super-Eddington Mechanical Power of an Accreting Black Hole in M83

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soria, R.; Long, K. S.; Blair, W. P.; Godfrey, L.; Kuntz, K. D.; Lenc, E.; Stockdale, C.; Winkler, P. F.

    2014-01-01

    Mass accretion onto black holes releases energy in the form of radiation and outflows. Although the radiative flux cannot substantially exceed the Eddington limit, at which the outgoing radiation pressure impedes the inflow of matter, it remains unclear whether the kinetic energy flux is bounded by this same limit. Here, we present the detection of a radio-optical structure, powered by outflows from a non-nuclear black hole. Its accretion disk properties indicate that this black hole is less than 100 solar masses. The optical-infrared line emission implies an average kinetic power of 3 × 10(exp 40) erg second(exp -1), higher than the Eddington luminosity of the black hole. These results demonstrate kinetic power exceeding the Eddington limit over a sustained period, which implies greater ability to influence the evolution of the black hole's environment.

  1. Super-Eddington mechanical power of an accreting black hole in M83.

    PubMed

    Soria, R; Long, K S; Blair, W P; Godfrey, L; Kuntz, K D; Lenc, E; Stockdale, C; Winkler, P F

    2014-03-21

    Mass accretion onto black holes releases energy in the form of radiation and outflows. Although the radiative flux cannot substantially exceed the Eddington limit, at which the outgoing radiation pressure impedes the inflow of matter, it remains unclear whether the kinetic energy flux is bounded by this same limit. Here, we present the detection of a radio-optical structure, powered by outflows from a non-nuclear black hole. Its accretion disk properties indicate that this black hole is less than 100 solar masses. The optical-infrared line emission implies an average kinetic power of 3 × 10(40) erg second(-1), higher than the Eddington luminosity of the black hole. These results demonstrate kinetic power exceeding the Eddington limit over a sustained period, which implies greater ability to influence the evolution of the black hole's environment.

  2. Jet drifts and flips in radio galaxies as probes of the historical evolution of spin axis in supermassive black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saripalli, Lakshmi; Subrahmanyan, Ravi; Hall Roberts, David

    2015-08-01

    Jets in radio galaxies create twin lobes of synchrotron plasma on opposite sides of the host elliptical. The jets are believed to emerge along the spin axis of the central supermassive black hole. The history of evolution in spin axis is traced in the off axis distortions in the radio structure. We have analyzed the radio structures in a large sample of distorted radio galaxies to examine black hole spin axis behavior. These sources are selected specifically to have low axial-ratio structures and hence off-axis distortions that are, however, unbiased with respect to the nature of the distortions.We have imaged 52 radio galaxies having length to width ratio less than 1 to obtain detailed radio structures that enable a tracing of the origin of the off-axis radio emission. The unique sample consists of radio sources where the off axis radio emission originates from strategic locations - regions closer to the host galaxy and from the outer ends of the jets. A third category consists of sources where there is only a swathe of radio emission nearly orthogonal to the radio axis and passing through the central radio core.Our study has highlighted the potential of radio galaxies in tracing black hole spin axis changes over time; we use the occurrence rates of the different categories of sources to derive occurrence rates of drifts and flips in black hole axis. Since the host galaxies are an unbiased sampling of luminous elliptical galaxies, the rates derived are relevant to this parent population (Roberts, Cohen, Lu, Saripalli and Subrahmanyan, 2015, arXiv150203954; Roberts, Saripalli, Subrahmanyan, 2015, arXiv150302021).

  3. The Properties of Hypervelocity Stars and S-stars Originating from an Eccentric Disk around a Supermassive Black Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šubr, Ladislav; Haas, Jaroslav

    2016-09-01

    Hypervelocity stars (HVSs), which are observed in the Galactic halo, are believed to be accelerated to large velocities by a process of tidal disruption of binary stars passing close to the supermassive black hole (SMBH) which resides in the center of the Galaxy. It is, however, still unclear where these relatively young stars were born and what dynamical process pushed them to nearly radial orbits around the SMBH. In this paper we investigate the possibility that the young binaries originated from a thin eccentric disk, similar to the one currently observed in the Galactic center. By means of direct N-body simulations, we follow the dynamical evolution of an initially thin and eccentric disk of stars with a 100% binary fraction orbiting around the SMBH. Such a configuration leads to Kozai-Lidov oscillations of orbital elements, bringing a considerable number of binaries to the close vicinity of the black hole. Subsequent tidal disruption of these binaries accelerates one of their components to velocities well above the escape velocity from the SMBH, while the second component becomes tightly bound to the SMBH. We describe the main kinematic properties of the escaping and tightly bound stars within our model, and compare them qualitatively to the properties of the observed HVSs and S-stars, respectively. The most prominent feature is strong anisotropy in the directions of the escaping stars, which is observed for Galactic HVSs but has not yet been explained.

  4. The Properties of Hypervelocity Stars and S-stars Originating from an Eccentric Disk around a Supermassive Black Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šubr, Ladislav; Haas, Jaroslav

    2016-09-01

    Hypervelocity stars (HVSs), which are observed in the Galactic halo, are believed to be accelerated to large velocities by a process of tidal disruption of binary stars passing close to the supermassive black hole (SMBH) which resides in the center of the Galaxy. It is, however, still unclear where these relatively young stars were born and what dynamical process pushed them to nearly radial orbits around the SMBH. In this paper we investigate the possibility that the young binaries originated from a thin eccentric disk, similar to the one currently observed in the Galactic center. By means of direct N-body simulations, we follow the dynamical evolution of an initially thin and eccentric disk of stars with a 100% binary fraction orbiting around the SMBH. Such a configuration leads to Kozai–Lidov oscillations of orbital elements, bringing a considerable number of binaries to the close vicinity of the black hole. Subsequent tidal disruption of these binaries accelerates one of their components to velocities well above the escape velocity from the SMBH, while the second component becomes tightly bound to the SMBH. We describe the main kinematic properties of the escaping and tightly bound stars within our model, and compare them qualitatively to the properties of the observed HVSs and S-stars, respectively. The most prominent feature is strong anisotropy in the directions of the escaping stars, which is observed for Galactic HVSs but has not yet been explained.

  5. Precession of Fast S0 Stars in the Vicinity of Supermassive Black Hole in the Galactic Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dokuchaev, V. I.; Eroshenko, Yu. N.; Klimkov, K. S.

    2015-09-01

    We elaborate the model of the influence of the diffuse dark matter, invisible stars or stellar mass black holes on the motion of the observed fast moving S0 stars [1-4] around the supermassive black hole SgrA* in the Galactic center with a mass MBH = 4×10^6 Full-size image (<1 K). We will call all this invisible mass as a dark matter. The additional mass perturbs the elliptical orbits of the S0 mass resulting in the so called Newtonian precession of the elliptical orbits. The major aim of our research is the fitting of the published dates on the observed orbital positions of the S0 stars by the theoretically modeling orbit with a power-law profile of the additional (dark matter) mass. Nowadays the observational data provide only the upper limit on the additional mass. In the nearest years the observations of the S0 stars may provide the real weighing of the dark matter inside the orbits of these S0 stars in the Galactic center. This method is a very perspective for the elucidation of the formation and evolution of the dark matter in the Galactic nucleus.

  6. Suppressing star formation in quiescent galaxies with supermassive black hole winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Edmond; Bundy, Kevin; SDSS-IV/MaNGA

    2016-01-01

    In the last 10 billion years (i.e., since redshift z ~2) the number of quiescent galaxies with little to no ongoing star formation has grown by a factor ~25. This is challenging to understand since galaxy formation models predict that these galaxies will continue to accrete fresh gas over their lifetimes, relatively little of which is required to reignite measurable star formation. It is thought that feedback from fresh gas accreting onto a central active galactic nucleus (AGN) might help such galaxies maintain their quiescence, but observational evidence for such ``maintenance mode feedback'' remains sparse. Using novel imaging spectroscopy from the SDSS-IV MaNGA Survey (Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV: Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory), we present evidence for a new maintenance mode phenomenon we term ``red geysers,'' a potentially episodic but relatively low-power AGN driven wind present in typical quiescent field galaxies of moderate mass and spheroidal morphology. We examine an archetypal red geyser that appears to be accreting gas from a low-mass companion but has no corresponding star formation. Instead, we find evidence for a galaxy-scale ionized wind with outflow velocities reaching more than 300 km/s and high velocity dispersions. We also detect a narrow biconical pattern of strong emission line equivalent widths consistent with fast shocks. Given additional confirmation of a radio AGN present in the galaxy, we propose that red geysers such as this may be a common mode in which gas accretion activates an ionized wind feedback mechanism that prevents star formation and helps moderate luminosity quiescent galaxies maintain their quiescence.

  7. Bolometric luminosity black hole growth time and slim accretion discs in active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Netzer, Hagai; Trakhtenbrot, Benny

    2014-02-01

    We investigate the accretion rate, bolometric luminosity, black hole (BH) growth time and BH spin in a large active galactic nucleus (AGN) sample under the assumption that all such objects are powered via thin or slim accretion discs (ADs). We use direct estimates of the mass accretion rate, dot{M}, to show that many currently used values of Lbol and L/LEdd are either underestimated or overestimated because they are based on bolometric correction factors that are adjusted to the properties of moderately accreting AGNs and do not take into account the correct combination of BH mass, spin and accretion rate. The consistent application of AD physics to our sample of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) AGNs leads to the following findings. (1) Even the most conservative assumption about the radiative efficiency of fast-accreting BHs shows that many of these sources must contain slim ADs. We illustrate this by estimating the fraction of such objects at various redshifts. (2) Many previously estimated BH growth times are inconsistent with the AD theory. In particular, the growth times of the fastest accreting BHs were overestimated in the past by large factors with important consequences to AGN evolution. (3) Currently used bolometric correction factors for low accretion rate very massive SDSS BHs are inconsistent with the AD theory. Applying the AD set of assumptions to such objects, combined with standard photoionization calculations of broad emission lines, leads to the conclusion that many such objects must contain fast-spinning BHs.

  8. Studies of Thermally Unstable Accretion Disks Around Black Holes with Adaptive Pseudospectral Domain Decomposition Method. II. Limit-cycle Behavior in Accretion Disks around Kerr Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Li; Sądowski, Aleksander; Abramowicz, Marek A.; Lu, Ju-Fu

    2011-07-01

    For the first time ever, we derive equations governing the time evolution of fully relativistic slim accretion disks in the Kerr metric and numerically construct their detailed non-stationary models. We discuss applications of these general results to a possible limit-cycle behavior of thermally unstable disks. Our equations and numerical method are applicable in a wide class of possible viscosity prescriptions, but in this paper we use a diffusive form of the "standard alpha prescription" that assumes that the viscous torque is proportional to the total pressure. In this particular case, we find that the parameters that dominate the limit-cycle properties are the mass-supply rate and the value of the alpha-viscosity parameter. Although the duration of the cycle (or the outburst) does not exhibit any clear dependence on the black hole spin, the maximal outburst luminosity (in the Eddington units) is positively correlated with the spin value. We suggest a simple method for a rough estimate of the black hole spin based on the maximal luminosity and the ratio of outburst to cycle durations. We also discuss a temperature-luminosity relation for the Kerr black hole accretion disk limit cycle. Based on these results, we discuss the limit-cycle behavior observed in microquasar GRS 1915+105. We also extend this study to several non-standard viscosity prescriptions, including a "delayed heating" prescription recently addressed by the MHD simulations of accretion disks.

  9. STUDIES OF THERMALLY UNSTABLE ACCRETION DISKS AROUND BLACK HOLES WITH ADAPTIVE PSEUDOSPECTRAL DOMAIN DECOMPOSITION METHOD. II. LIMIT-CYCLE BEHAVIOR IN ACCRETION DISKS AROUND KERR BLACK HOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Xue Li; Lu Jufu; Sadowski, Aleksander; Abramowicz, Marek A. E-mail: lujf@xmu.edu.cn

    2011-07-01

    For the first time ever, we derive equations governing the time evolution of fully relativistic slim accretion disks in the Kerr metric and numerically construct their detailed non-stationary models. We discuss applications of these general results to a possible limit-cycle behavior of thermally unstable disks. Our equations and numerical method are applicable in a wide class of possible viscosity prescriptions, but in this paper we use a diffusive form of the 'standard alpha prescription' that assumes that the viscous torque is proportional to the total pressure. In this particular case, we find that the parameters that dominate the limit-cycle properties are the mass-supply rate and the value of the alpha-viscosity parameter. Although the duration of the cycle (or the outburst) does not exhibit any clear dependence on the black hole spin, the maximal outburst luminosity (in the Eddington units) is positively correlated with the spin value. We suggest a simple method for a rough estimate of the black hole spin based on the maximal luminosity and the ratio of outburst to cycle durations. We also discuss a temperature-luminosity relation for the Kerr black hole accretion disk limit cycle. Based on these results, we discuss the limit-cycle behavior observed in microquasar GRS 1915+105. We also extend this study to several non-standard viscosity prescriptions, including a 'delayed heating' prescription recently addressed by the MHD simulations of accretion disks.

  10. Chandra and VLA Observations of Supermassive Black Hole Outbursts in M87 and Implications for Feedback in Early-Type Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forman, William R.; Churazov, E.; Jones, C.

    2013-04-01

    We discuss the effects of supermassive black hole (SMBH) outbursts on the hot atmospheres surrounding massive galaxies as observed with X-ray and radio observations. We initially focus on a detailed study of outbursts from the supermassive black hole in M87 using Chandra and VLA observations. We model the outburst that created the classical Mach 1.2 shock seen in Chandra images and derive the characteristic energy (5x1057 ergs), duration (2 Myrs), and age (12 Myrs) of the outburst from numerical models. We review the outburst history of the SMBH in M87 over the past ~100 Myr. We discuss the implications of the outbursts for feedback in typical early-type galaxy atmospheres.

  11. Three-dimensional simulations of supercritical black hole accretion discs - luminosities, photon trapping and variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sądowski, Aleksander; Narayan, Ramesh

    2016-03-01

    We present a set of four three-dimensional, general relativistic, radiation magnetohydrodynamical simulations of black hole accretion at supercritical mass accretion rates, dot{M} > dot{M}_Edd. We use these simulations to study how disc properties are modified when we vary the black hole mass, the black hole spin, or the mass accretion rate. In the case of a non-rotating black hole, we find that the total efficiency is of the order of 3 per cent dot{M} c^2, approximately a factor of 2 less than the efficiency of a standard thin accretion disc. The radiation flux in the funnel along the axis is highly super-Eddington, but only a small fraction of the energy released by accretion escapes in this region. The bulk of the 3 per cent dot{M} c^2 of energy emerges farther out in the disc, either in the form of photospheric emission or as a wind. In the case of a black hole with a spin parameter of 0.7, we find a larger efficiency of about 8 per cent dot{M} c^2. By comparing the relative importance of advective and diffusive radiation transport, we show that photon trapping is effective near the equatorial plane. However, near the disc surface, vertical transport of radiation by diffusion dominates. We compare the properties of our fiducial three-dimensional run with those of an equivalent two-dimensional axisymmetric model with a mean-field dynamo. The latter simulation runs nearly 100 times faster than the three-dimensional simulation, and gives very similar results for time-averaged properties of the accretion flow, but does not reproduce the time-variability.

  12. HUNTING FOR SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES IN NEARBY GALAXIES WITH THE HOBBY–EBERLY TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Bosch, Remco C. E. van den; Yıldırım, Akin; Gebhardt, Karl; Walsh, Jonelle L.; Gültekin, Kayhan

    2015-05-15

    We have conducted an optical long-slit spectroscopic survey of 1022 galaxies using the 10 m Hobby–Eberly Telescope (HET) at McDonald Observatory. The main goal of the HET Massive Galaxy Survey (HETMGS) is to find nearby galaxies that are suitable for black hole mass measurements. In order to measure accurately the black hole mass, one should kinematically resolve the region where the black hole dominates the gravitational potential. For most galaxies, this region is much less than an arcsecond. Thus, black hole masses are best measured in nearby galaxies with telescopes that obtain high spatial resolution. The HETMGS focuses on those galaxies predicted to have the largest sphere-of-influence, based on published stellar velocity dispersions or the galaxy fundamental plane. To ensure coverage over galaxy types, the survey targets those galaxies across a face-on projection of the fundamental plane. We present the sample selection and resulting data products from the long-slit observations, including central stellar kinematics and emission line ratios. The full data set, including spectra and resolved kinematics, is available online. Additionally, we show that the current crop of black hole masses are highly biased toward dense galaxies and that especially large disks and low dispersion galaxies are under-represented. This survey provides the necessary groundwork for future systematic black hole mass measurement campaigns.

  13. Hunting for Supermassive Black Holes in Nearby Galaxies With the Hobby-Eberly Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Bosch, Remco C. E.; Gebhardt, Karl; Gültekin, Kayhan; Yıldırım, Akin; Walsh, Jonelle L.

    2015-05-01

    We have conducted an optical long-slit spectroscopic survey of 1022 galaxies using the 10 m Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) at McDonald Observatory. The main goal of the HET Massive Galaxy Survey (HETMGS) is to find nearby galaxies that are suitable for black hole mass measurements. In order to measure accurately the black hole mass, one should kinematically resolve the region where the black hole dominates the gravitational potential. For most galaxies, this region is much less than an arcsecond. Thus, black hole masses are best measured in nearby galaxies with telescopes that obtain high spatial resolution. The HETMGS focuses on those galaxies predicted to have the largest sphere-of-influence, based on published stellar velocity dispersions or the galaxy fundamental plane. To ensure coverage over galaxy types, the survey targets those galaxies across a face-on projection of the fundamental plane. We present the sample selection and resulting data products from the long-slit observations, including central stellar kinematics and emission line ratios. The full data set, including spectra and resolved kinematics, is available online. Additionally, we show that the current crop of black hole masses are highly biased toward dense galaxies and that especially large disks and low dispersion galaxies are under-represented. This survey provides the necessary groundwork for future systematic black hole mass measurement campaigns.

  14. Gamma rays from accretion onto rotating black holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, M. S.

    1979-01-01

    Ionized matter falling onto an isolated rotating black hole will be heated sufficiently that proton-proton collisions will produce mesons, including neutral pions, which decay into gamma rays. For massive (1000-solar mass) black holes, the resulting gamma-ray luminosity may exceed 10 to the 36th erg/s with a spectrum peaked near 20 MeV.

  15. Gamma rays from accretion onto rotating black holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, M. S.

    1978-01-01

    Ionized matter falling onto an isolated, rotating black hole will be heated sufficiently that proton-proton collisions will produce mesons, including neutral pions, which decay into gamma rays. For massive (1000 M sub circled dot), black holes, the resulting gamma-ray luminosity may exceed 10 to the 36th power engs/s, with a spectrum peaked near 20 MeV.

  16. Hot accretion flow with radiative cooling: state transitions in black hole X-ray binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Mao-Chun; Xie, Fu-Guo; Yuan, Ye-Fei; Gan, Zhaoming

    2016-06-01

    We investigate state transitions in black hole X-ray binaries through different parameters by using two-dimensional axisymmetric hydrodynamical simulation method. For radiative cooling in hot accretion flow, we take into account the bremsstrahlung, synchrotron and synchrotron self-Comptonization self-consistently in the dynamics. Our main result is that the state transitions occur when the accretion rate reaches a critical value dot{M} ˜ 3α dot{M}_Edd, above which cold and dense clumpy/filamentary structures are formed, embedded within the hot gas. We argued this mode likely corresponds to the proposed two-phase accretion model, which may be responsible for the intermediate state of black hole X-ray binaries. When the accretion rate becomes sufficiently high, the clumpy/filamentary structures gradually merge and settle down on to the mid-plane. Eventually the accretion geometry transforms to a disc-corona configuration. In summary, our results are consistent with the truncated accretion scenario for the state transition.

  17. Mass-loss from advective accretion disc around rotating black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aktar, Ramiz; Das, Santabrata; Nandi, Anuj

    2015-11-01

    We examine the properties of the outflowing matter from an advective accretion disc around a spinning black hole. During accretion, rotating matter experiences centrifugal pressure-supported shock transition that effectively produces a virtual barrier around the black hole in the form of post-shock corona (hereafter PSC). Due to shock compression, PSC becomes hot and dense that eventually deflects a part of the inflowing matter as bipolar outflows because of the presence of extra thermal gradient force. In our approach, we study the outflow properties in terms of the inflow parameters, namely specific energy (E) and specific angular momentum (λ) considering the realistic outflow geometry around the rotating black holes. We find that spin of the black hole (ak) plays an important role in deciding the outflow rate R_{dot{m}} (ratio of mass flux of outflow to inflow); in particular, R_{dot{m}} is directly correlated with ak for the same set of inflow parameters. It is found that a large range of the inflow parameters allows global accretion-ejection solutions, and the effective area of the parameter space (E, λ) with and without outflow decreases with black hole spin (ak). We compute the maximum outflow rate (R^{max}_{dot{m}}) as a function of black hole spin (ak) and observe that R^{max}_{dot{m}} weakly depends on ak that lies in the range ˜10-18 per cent of the inflow rate for the adiabatic index (γ) with 1.5 ≥ γ ≥ 4/3. We present the observational implication of our approach while studying the steady/persistent jet activities based on the accretion states of black holes. We discuss that our formalism seems to have the potential to explain the observed jet kinetic power for several Galactic black hole sources and active galactic nuclei.

  18. Magneto centrifugal winds from accretion discs around black hole binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakravorty, S.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Ferreira, J.; Henri, G.; Belmont, R.; Clavel, M.; Corbel, S.; Rodriguez, J.; Coriat, M.; Drappeau, S.; Malzac, J.

    2016-05-01

    We want to test if self-similar magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) accretion-ejection models can explain the observational results for accretion disk winds in BHBs. In our models, the density at the base of the outflow from the accretion disk is not a free parameter but is determined by solving the full set of dynamical MHD equations without neglecting any physical term. Different MHD solutions were generated for different values of (a) the disk aspect ratio (ǎrepsilon) and (b) the ejection efficiency (p). We generated two kinds of MHD solutions depending on the absence (cold solution) or presence (warm solution) of heating at the disk surface. The cold MHD solutions are found to be inadequate to account for winds due to their low ejection efficiency. The warm solutions can have sufficiently high values of p (\\gtrsim 0.1) which is required to explain the observed physical quantities in the wind. The heating (required at the disk surface for the warm solutions) could be due to the illumination which would be more efficient in the Soft state. We found that in the Hard state a range of ionisation parameter is thermodynamically unstable, which makes it impossible to have any wind at all, in the Hard state. Our results would suggest that a thermo-magnetic process is required to explain winds in BHBs.

  19. An Accretion Model for the Growth of Black Hole in Quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Ye; Cheng, K. S.; Zhang, S. N.

    2003-01-01

    A possible accretion model associated with the ionization instability of quasar disks is proposed to address the growth of the central black hole harbored in the host galaxy. The evolution of quasars in cosmic time is assumed to change from a highly active state to a quiescent state triggered by the S-shaped ionization instability of the quasar accretion disk. For a given external mass transfer rate ionization instability can modify accretion rate in the disk and separates the accretion flows of the disk into three different phases like a S-shape. We suggest that the bright quasars observed today are those quasars with disks in the upper branch of S-shaped instability and the dormant quasars are the system in the lower branch. The disk is assumed to evolve as ADIOS configuration in the lower branch. The mass ratio between black hole and its host galactic bulge is a nature consequence of ADIOS. Our model also demonstrates that a seed black hole 2 x 10(exp 6) solar masses similar to those found in spiral galaxies today is needed to produce a black hole with a final mass 2 x 10(exp 8) solar masses.

  20. Modeling the optical-X-ray accretion lag in LMC X-3: Insights into black-hole accretion physics

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, James F.; McClintock, Jeffrey E.; Orosz, Jerome A.; Buxton, Michelle M.; Bailyn, Charles D.; Remillard, Ronald A.; Kara, Erin

    2014-03-10

    The X-ray persistence and characteristically soft spectrum of the black hole X-ray binary LMC X-3 make this source a touchstone for penetrating studies of accretion physics. We analyze a rich, ten-year collection of optical/infrared (OIR) time-series data in conjunction with all available contemporaneous X-ray data collected by the All-Sky Monitor and Proportional Counter Array detectors aboard the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer. A cross-correlation analysis reveals an X-ray lag of ≈2 weeks. Motivated by this result, we develop a model that reproduces the complex OIR light curves of LMC X-3. The model is comprised of three components of emission: stellar light, accretion luminosity from the outer disk inferred from the time-lagged X-ray emission, and light from the X-ray-heated star and outer disk. Using the model, we filter a strong noise component out of the ellipsoidal light curves and derive an improved orbital period for the system. Concerning accretion physics, we find that the local viscous timescale in the disk increases with the local mass accretion rate; this in turn implies that the viscosity parameter α decreases with increasing luminosity. Finally, we find that X-ray heating is a strong function of X-ray luminosity below ≈50% of the Eddington limit, while above this limit X-ray heating is heavily suppressed. We ascribe this behavior to the strong dependence of the flaring in the disk upon X-ray luminosity, concluding that for luminosities above ≈50% of Eddington, the star lies fully in the shadow of the disk.

  1. CONNECTING STAR FORMATION QUENCHING WITH GALAXY STRUCTURE AND SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES THROUGH GRAVITATIONAL HEATING OF COOLING FLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Fulai

    2014-12-20

    Recent observations suggested that star formation quenching in galaxies is related to galaxy structure. Here we propose a new mechanism to explain the physical origin of this correlation. We assume that while quenching is maintained in quiescent galaxies by a feedback mechanism, cooling flows in the hot halo gas can still develop intermittently. We study cooling flows in a large suite of around 90 hydrodynamic simulations of an isolated galaxy group, and find that the flow development depends significantly on the gravitational potential well in the central galaxy. If the galaxy's gravity is not strong enough, cooling flows result in a central cooling catastrophe, supplying cold gas and feeding star formation to galactic bulges. When the bulge grows prominent enough, compressional heating starts to offset radiative cooling and maintains cooling flows in a long-term hot mode without producing a cooling catastrophe. Our model thus describes a self-limited growth channel for galaxy bulges and naturally explains the connection between quenching and bulge prominence. In particular, we explicitly demonstrate that M{sub ∗}/R{sub eff}{sup 1.5} is a good structural predictor of quenching. We further find that the gravity from the central supermassive black hole also affects the bimodal fate of cooling flows, and we predict a more general quenching predictor to be M{sub bh}{sup 1.6}M{sub ∗}/R{sub eff}{sup 1.5}, which may be tested in future observational studies.

  2. What X-ray polarimetry can teach us about the central supermassive black hole of the Milky Way galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin, Frédéric; Karas, Vladimir; Muleri, Fabio; Soffitta, Paolo; Kunneriath, Devaky

    2016-07-01

    Was Sgr A*, the central supermassive black hole of our own Galaxy, a low luminosity AGN in the past? Despite numerous attempts with spectroscopic and timing analyses, the question remains opened as the origin of irradiation and fluorescence of the 6.4 keV bright giant molecular clouds surrounding Sgr A* is still debated. A possible interpretation, based on Compton scattering processes, implies that the high X-ray luminosity of the nebulae arise from reprocessing of a past outburst of Sgr A*. If true, the reflection nebulae should show strong scattering-induced polarization signatures. Detecting such imprints requires opening a new observational window: X-ray polarimetry. In this presentation, I will summarize the results from past and present polarimetric simulations of the Galactic Center in order to show how a future X-ray polarimeter equipped with imaging detectors, such as XIPE (ESA M4) or IXPE (NASA-SMEX), could prove or rejected the hypothesis of the past active phase of Sgr A*.

  3. Spectroscopic Indication of a Centi-parsec Supermassive Black Hole Binary in the Galactic Center of NGC 5548

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan-Rong; Wang, Jian-Min; Ho, Luis C.; Lu, Kai-Xing; Qiu, Jie; Du, Pu; Hu, Chen; Huang, Ying-Ke; Zhang, Zhi-Xiang; Wang, Kai; Bai, Jin-Ming

    2016-05-01

    As a natural consequence of cosmological hierarchical structure formation, sub-parsec supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs) should be common in galaxies but thus far have eluded spectroscopic identification. Based on four decades of optical spectroscopic monitoring, we report that the nucleus of NGC 5548, a nearby Seyfert galaxy long suspected to have experienced a major merger about 1 billion yr ago, exhibits long-term variability with a period of ˜14 yr in the optical continuum and broad Hβ emission line. Remarkably, the double-peaked profile of Hβ shows systematic velocity changes with a similar period. These pieces of observations plausibly indicate that an SMBHB resides in the center of NGC 5548. The complex, secular variations in the line profiles can be explained by orbital motion of a binary with equal mass and a semimajor axis of ˜22 light-days (corresponding to ˜18 milli-parsec). At a distance of 75 Mpc, NGC 5548 is one of the nearest sub-parsec SMBHB candidates that offers an ideal laboratory for gravitational wave detection.

  4. Multiple periods in the variability of the supermassive black hole binary candidate quasar PG1302-102?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charisi, M.; Bartos, I.; Haiman, Z.; Price-Whelan, A. M.; Márka, S.

    2015-11-01

    Graham et al. discovered a supermassive black hole binary (SMBHB) candidate and identified the detected 5.2 yr period of the optical variability as the orbital period of the binary. Hydrodynamical simulations predict multiple periodic components for the variability of SMBHBs, thus raising the possibility that the true period of the binary is different from 5.2 yr. We analyse the periodogram of PG1302 and find no compelling evidence for additional peaks. We also point out that, despite the 5.2 yr peak being significant if a single source is considered, further analysis is required to account for the fact that PG1302 was selected among a large sample of 247 000 quasars. We derive upper limits on any additional periodic modulations in the available data, by modelling the light curve as the sum of stochastic noise and the known 5.2 yr periodic component, and injecting additional sinusoidal signals. We find that, with the current data, we would be able to detect with high significance (false alarm probability <1 per cent) secondary periodic terms, with periods in the range predicted by the simulations, if the amplitude of the variability was at least ˜0.06 mag (compared to 0.14 mag for the main sinusoid). A three-year follow-up monitoring campaign with weekly observations can increase the sensitivity for detecting secondary peaks by ≈50 per cent, and would allow a more robust test of predictions from hydrodynamical simulations.

  5. Supermassive black holes (SMBH) at work: M87, a case study of the effects of SMBH outbursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forman, William; Churazov, Eugene; Jones, Christine; Vikhlinin, Alexey

    2015-03-01

    Supermassive black holes (SMBHs) play key roles in galaxy and cluster evolution. This is most clearly seen in the ``fossil record'' that is imprinted in the gas rich atmospheres of early type galaxies, groups, and clusters by powerful SMBH outbursts. From a detailed X-ray study of M87, we present the properties of a typical SMBH outburst, its evolution, and the energy partition between shocks and the enthalpy of the gas cavities inflated by the SMBH. About 12 Myr ago, the SMBH in M87 inflated a cavity of relativistic plasma which is still centered near the galaxy nucleus. This outburst drove a shock into the surrounding gas. For M87, we show that the outburst duration is a few Myr and that about 50% of the total energy (5 × 1057 ergs) resides in the bubble inflated by the jet from the SMBH, that 25% of the outburst energy is deposited directly into the ambient atmosphere by the shock, and that 25% of the outburst energy is lost from the radiatively bright core as the weak shock moves to large radii. We conclude by describing a future X-ray mission, SMART-X, with < 1'' angular resolution that would allow us to study the evolution of SMBHs and the hot, X-ray emitting atmospheres from high redshifts to the present for M87-like systems.

  6. GR-AMRVAC code applications: accretion onto compact objects, boson stars versus black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meliani, Z.; Grandclément, P.; Casse, F.; Vincent, F. H.; Straub, O.; Dauvergne, F.

    2016-08-01

    In the close vicinity of a compact object strong gravity imprints its signature onto matter. Systems that contain at least one compact object are observed to exhibit extreme physical properties and typically emit highly energetic radiation. The nature of the compact objects that produce the strongest gravitational fields is to date not settled. General relativistic numerical simulations of fluid dynamics around black holes, neutron stars, and other compact objects such as boson stars (BSs) may give invaluable insights into this fundamental question. In order to study the behavior of fluid in the strong gravity regime of an arbitrary compact object we develop a new general relativistic hydrodynamics code. To this end we extend the existing versatile adaptive mesh refinement code MPI-AMRVAC into a general relativistic hydrodynamics framework and adapt it for the use of numerically given spacetime metrics. In the present article we study accretion flows in the vicinity of various types of BSs whose numerical metrics are calculated by the KADATH spectral solver library. We design specific tests to check the reliability of any code intending to study BSs and compare the solutions with those obtained in the context of Schwarzschild black holes. We perform the first ever general relativistic hydrodynamical simulations of gas accretion by a BS. The behavior of matter at small distances from the center of a BS differs notably from the black hole case. In particular we demonstrate that in the context of Bondi spherical accretion the mass accretion rate onto non-rotating BSs remains constant whereas it increases for Schwarzschild black holes. We also address the scenario of non-spherical accretion onto BSs and show that this may trigger mass ejection from the interior of the BS. This striking feature opens the door to forthcoming investigations regarding accretion-ejection flows around such types of compact objects.

  7. Binary accretion rates: dependence on temperature and mass ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, M. D.; Clarke, C. J.

    2015-09-01

    We perform a series of 2D smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of gas accretion on to binaries via a circumbinary disc, for a range of gas temperatures and binary mass ratios (q). We show that increasing the gas temperature increases the accretion rate on to the primary for all values of the binary mass ratio: for example, for q = 0.1 and a fixed binary separation, an increase of normalized sound speed by a factor of 5 (from our `cold' to `hot' simulations) changes the fraction of the accreted gas that flows on to the primary from 10 to ˜40 per cent. We present a simple parametrization for the average accretion rate of each binary component accurate to within a few per cent and argue that this parametrization (rather than those in the literature based on warmer simulations) is relevant to supermassive black hole accretion and all but the widest stellar binaries. We present trajectories for the growth of q during circumbinary disc accretion and argue that the period distribution of stellar `twin' binaries is strong evidence for the importance of circumbinary accretion. We also show that our parametrization of binary accretion increases the minimum mass ratio needed for spin alignment of supermassive black holes to q ˜ 0.4, with potentially important implications for the magnitude of velocity kicks acquired during black hole mergers.

  8. The XMM-Newton spectrum of a candidate recoiling supermassive black hole: An elusive inverted P-Cygni profile

    SciTech Connect

    Lanzuisi, G.; Civano, F.; Marchesi, S.; Hickox, R.; Comastri, A.; Cappelluti, N.; Costantini, E.; Elvis, M.; Fruscione, A.; Mainieri, V.; Jahnke, K.; Komossa, S.; Piconcelli, E.; Vignali, C.; Brusa, M.

    2013-11-20

    We present a detailed spectral analysis of new XMM-Newton data of the source CXOC J100043.1+020637, also known as CID-42, detected in the COSMOS survey at z = 0.359. Previous works suggested that CID-42 is a candidate recoiling supermassive black hole (SMBH) showing also an inverted P-Cygni profile in the X-ray spectra at ∼6 keV (rest) with an iron emission line plus a redshifted absorption line (detected at 3σ in previous XMM-Newton and Chandra observations). Detailed analysis of the absorption line suggested the presence of ionized material flowing into the black hole at high velocity. In the new long XMM-Newton observation, while the overall spectral shape remains constant, the continuum 2-10 keV flux decrease of ∼20% with respect to previous observation and the absorption line is undetected. The upper limit on the intensity of the absorption line is EW < 162 eV. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations show that the nondetection of the line is solely due to variation in the properties of the inflowing material, in agreement with the transient nature of these features, and that the intensity of the line is lower than the previously measured with a probability of 98.8%. In the scenario of CID-42 as a recoiling SMBH, the absorption line can be interpreted as being due to an inflow of gas with variable density that is located in the proximity of the SMBH and recoiling with it. New monitoring observations will be requested to further characterize this line.

  9. Upper Limit of the Viscosity Parameter in Accretion Flows around a Black Hole with Shock Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagarkoti, Shreeram; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.

    2016-01-01

    Black hole accretion is necessarily transonic; thus, flows must become supersonic and, therefore, sub-Keplerian before they enter into the black hole. The viscous timescale is much longer than the infall timescale close to a black hole. Hence, the angular momentum remains almost constant and the centrifugal force ˜ {l}2/{r}3 becomes increasingly dominant over the gravitational force ˜ 1/{r}2. The slowed down matter piles creating an accretion shock. The flow between shock and inner sonic point is puffed up and behaves like a boundary layer. This so-called Comptonizing cloud/corona produces hard X-rays and jets/outflows and, therefore, is an important component of black hole astrophysics. In this paper, we study steady state viscous, axisymmetric, transonic accretion flows around a Schwarzschild black hole. We adopt a viscosity parameter α and compute the highest possible value of α (namely, {α }{cr}) for each pair of two inner boundary parameters (namely, specific angular momentum carried to horizon, lin and specific energy at inner sonic point, E({x}{in})) which is still capable of producing a standing or oscillating shock. We find that while such possibilities exist for α as high as {α }{cr}=0.3 in very small regions of the flow parameter space, typical {α }{cr} appears to be about ˜0.05-0.1. Coincidentally, this also happens to be the typical viscosity parameter achieved by simulations of magnetorotational instabilities in accretion flows. We therefore believe that all realistic accretion flows are likely to have centrifugal pressure supported shocks unless the viscosity parameter everywhere is higher than {α }{cr}.

  10. A GENERAL RELATIVISTIC MODEL OF ACCRETION DISKS WITH CORONAE SURROUNDING KERR BLACK HOLES

    SciTech Connect

    You Bei; Cao Xinwu; Yuan Yefei E-mail: cxw@shao.ac.cn

    2012-12-20

    We calculate the structure of a standard accretion disk with a corona surrounding a massive Kerr black hole in the general relativistic frame, in which the corona is assumed to be heated by the reconnection of the strongly buoyant magnetic fields generated in the cold accretion disk. The emergent spectra of accretion disk-corona systems are calculated by using the relativistic ray-tracing method. We propose a new method to calculate the emergent Comptonized spectra from the coronae. The spectra of disk-corona systems with a modified {alpha}-magnetic stress show that both the hard X-ray spectral index and the hard X-ray bolometric correction factor L{sub bol}/L{sub X,2-10keV} increase with the dimensionless mass accretion rate, which is qualitatively consistent with the observations of active galactic nuclei. The fraction of the power dissipated in the corona decreases with increasing black hole spin parameter a, which leads to lower electron temperatures of the coronae for rapidly spinning black holes. The X-ray emission from the coronae surrounding rapidly spinning black holes becomes weak and soft. The ratio of the X-ray luminosity to the optical/UV luminosity increases with the viewing angle, while the spectral shape in the X-ray band is insensitive to the viewing angle. We find that the spectral index in the infrared waveband depends on the mass accretion rate and the black hole spin a, which deviates from the f{sub {nu}}{proportional_to}{nu}{sup 1/3} relation expected by the standard thin disk model.

  11. Regulation of black-hole accretion by a disk wind during a violent outburst of V404 Cygni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Darias, T.; Casares, J.; Mata Sánchez, D.; Fender, R. P.; Armas Padilla, M.; Linares, M.; Ponti, G.; Charles, P. A.; Mooley, K. P.; Rodriguez, J.

    2016-06-01

    Accretion of matter onto black holes is universally associated with strong radiative feedback and powerful outflows. In particular, black-hole transients have outflows whose properties are strongly coupled to those of the accretion flow. This includes X-ray winds of ionized material, expelled from the accretion disk encircling the black hole, and collimated radio jets. Very recently, a distinct optical variability pattern has been reported in the transient stellar-mass black hole V404 Cygni, and interpreted as disrupted mass flow into the inner regions of its large accretion disk. Here we report observations of a sustained outer accretion disk wind in V404 Cyg, which is unlike any seen hitherto. We find that the outflowing wind is neutral, has a large covering factor, expands at one per cent of the speed of light and triggers a nebular phase once accretion drops sharply and the ejecta become optically thin. The large expelled mass (>10‑8 solar masses) indicates that the outburst was prematurely ended when a sizeable fraction of the outer disk was depleted by the wind, detaching the inner regions from the rest of the disk. The luminous, but brief, accretion phases shown by transients with large accretion disks imply that this outflow is probably a fundamental ingredient in regulating mass accretion onto black holes.

  12. Regulation of black-hole accretion by a disk wind during a violent outburst of V404 Cygni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Darias, T.; Casares, J.; Mata Sánchez, D.; Fender, R. P.; Armas Padilla, M.; Linares, M.; Ponti, G.; Charles, P. A.; Mooley, K. P.; Rodriguez, J.

    2016-06-01

    Accretion of matter onto black holes is universally associated with strong radiative feedback and powerful outflows. In particular, black-hole transients have outflows whose properties are strongly coupled to those of the accretion flow. This includes X-ray winds of ionized material, expelled from the accretion disk encircling the black hole, and collimated radio jets. Very recently, a distinct optical variability pattern has been reported in the transient stellar-mass black hole V404 Cygni, and interpreted as disrupted mass flow into the inner regions of its large accretion disk. Here we report observations of a sustained outer accretion disk wind in V404 Cyg, which is unlike any seen hitherto. We find that the outflowing wind is neutral, has a large covering factor, expands at one per cent of the speed of light and triggers a nebular phase once accretion drops sharply and the ejecta become optically thin. The large expelled mass (>10-8 solar masses) indicates that the outburst was prematurely ended when a sizeable fraction of the outer disk was depleted by the wind, detaching the inner regions from the rest of the disk. The luminous, but brief, accretion phases shown by transients with large accretion disks imply that this outflow is probably a fundamental ingredient in regulating mass accretion onto black holes.

  13. Regulation of black-hole accretion by a disk wind during a violent outburst of V404 Cygni.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Darias, T; Casares, J; Mata Sánchez, D; Fender, R P; Armas Padilla, M; Linares, M; Ponti, G; Charles, P A; Mooley, K P; Rodriguez, J

    2016-06-01

    Accretion of matter onto black holes is universally associated with strong radiative feedback and powerful outflows. In particular, black-hole transients have outflows whose properties are strongly coupled to those of the accretion flow. This includes X-ray winds of ionized material, expelled from the accretion disk encircling the black hole, and collimated radio jets. Very recently, a distinct optical variability pattern has been reported in the transient stellar-mass black hole V404 Cygni, and interpreted as disrupted mass flow into the inner regions of its large accretion disk. Here we report observations of a sustained outer accretion disk wind in V404 Cyg, which is unlike any seen hitherto. We find that the outflowing wind is neutral, has a large covering factor, expands at one per cent of the speed of light and triggers a nebular phase once accretion drops sharply and the ejecta become optically thin. The large expelled mass (>10(-8) solar masses) indicates that the outburst was prematurely ended when a sizeable fraction of the outer disk was depleted by the wind, detaching the inner regions from the rest of the disk. The luminous, but brief, accretion phases shown by transients with large accretion disks imply that this outflow is probably a fundamental ingredient in regulating mass accretion onto black holes. PMID:27251277

  14. Regulation of black-hole accretion by a disk wind during a violent outburst of V404 Cygni.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Darias, T; Casares, J; Mata Sánchez, D; Fender, R P; Armas Padilla, M; Linares, M; Ponti, G; Charles, P A; Mooley, K P; Rodriguez, J

    2016-05-09

    Accretion of matter onto black holes is universally associated with strong radiative feedback and powerful outflows. In particular, black-hole transients have outflows whose properties are strongly coupled to those of the accretion flow. This includes X-ray winds of ionized material, expelled from the accretion disk encircling the black hole, and collimated radio jets. Very recently, a distinct optical variability pattern has been reported in the transient stellar-mass black hole V404 Cygni, and interpreted as disrupted mass flow into the inner regions of its large accretion disk. Here we report observations of a sustained outer accretion disk wind in V404 Cyg, which is unlike any seen hitherto. We find that the outflowing wind is neutral, has a large covering factor, expands at one per cent of the speed of light and triggers a nebular phase once accretion drops sharply and the ejecta become optically thin. The large expelled mass (>10(-8) solar masses) indicates that the outburst was prematurely ended when a sizeable fraction of the outer disk was depleted by the wind, detaching the inner regions from the rest of the disk. The luminous, but brief, accretion phases shown by transients with large accretion disks imply that this outflow is probably a fundamental ingredient in regulating mass accretion onto black holes.

  15. Can accretion disk properties observationally distinguish black holes from naked singularities?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovács, Z.; Harko, T.

    2010-12-01

    Naked singularities are hypothetical astrophysical objects, characterized by a gravitational singularity without an event horizon. Penrose has proposed a conjecture, according to which there exists a cosmic censor who forbids the occurrence of naked singularities. Distinguishing between astrophysical black holes and naked singularities is a major challenge for present day observational astronomy. In the context of stationary and axially symmetrical geometries, a possibility of differentiating naked singularities from black holes is through the comparative study of thin accretion disks properties around rotating naked singularities and Kerr-type black holes, respectively. In the present paper, we consider accretion disks around axially-symmetric rotating naked singularities, obtained as solutions of the field equations in the Einstein-massless scalar field theory. A first major difference between rotating naked singularities and Kerr black holes is in the frame dragging effect, the angular velocity of a rotating naked singularity being inversely proportional to its spin parameter. Because of the differences in the exterior geometry, the thermodynamic and electromagnetic properties of the disks (energy flux, temperature distribution and equilibrium radiation spectrum) are different for these two classes of compact objects, consequently giving clear observational signatures that could discriminate between black holes and naked singularities. For specific values of the spin parameter and of the scalar charge, the energy flux from the disk around a rotating naked singularity can exceed by several orders of magnitude the flux from the disk of a Kerr black hole. In addition to this, it is also shown that the conversion efficiency of the accreting mass into radiation by rotating naked singularities is always higher than the conversion efficiency for black holes, i.e., naked singularities provide a much more efficient mechanism for converting mass into radiation than black

  16. Growing black holes and galaxies: black hole accretion versus star formation rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volonteri, Marta; Capelo, Pedro R.; Netzer, Hagai; Bellovary, Jillian; Dotti, Massimo; Governato, Fabio

    2015-05-01

    We present a new suite of hydrodynamical simulations and use it to study, in detail, black hole and galaxy properties. The high time, spatial and mass resolution, and realistic orbits and mass ratios, down to 1:6 and 1:10, enable us to meaningfully compare star formation rate (SFR) and BH accretion rate (BHAR) time-scales, temporal behaviour, and relative magnitude. We find that (i) BHAR and galaxy-wide SFR are typically temporally uncorrelated, and have different variability time-scales, except during the merger proper, lasting ˜0.2-0.3 Gyr. BHAR and nuclear (<100 pc) SFR are better correlated, and their variability are similar. Averaging over time, the merger phase leads typically to an increase by a factor of a few in the BHAR/SFR ratio. (ii) BHAR and nuclear SFR are intrinsically proportional, but the correlation lessens if the long-term SFR is measured. (iii) Galaxies in the remnant phase are the ones most likely to be selected as systems dominated by an active galactic nucleus, because of the long time spent in this phase. (iv) The time-scale over which a given diagnostic probes the SFR has a profound impact on the recovered correlations with BHAR, and on the interpretation of observational data.

  17. CONSTRAINTS ON THE VISCOSITY AND MAGNETIC FIELD IN HOT ACCRETION FLOWS AROUND BLACK HOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, B. F.; Taam, Ronald E. E-mail: r-taam@northwestern.edu

    2013-07-15

    The magnitude of the viscosity and magnetic field parameters in hot accretion flows is investigated in low luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs). Theoretical studies show that a geometrically thin, optically thick disk is truncated at mass accretion rates less than a critical value by mass evaporated vertically from the disk to the corona, with the truncated region replaced by an advection dominated accretion flow (ADAF). The critical accretion rate for such a truncation is a function of the viscosity and magnetic field. Observations of X-ray photon indices and spectral fits of a number of LLAGNs published in the literature provide an estimate of the critical rate of mass accretion and the truncation radius, respectively. By comparing the observational results with theoretical predictions, the viscosity and magnetic field parameters in the hot accretion flow region are estimated. Specifically, the mass accretion rates inferred in different sources constrain the viscosity parameter, whereas the truncation radii of the disk, as inferred from spectral fits, further constrain the magnetic field parameter. It is found that the value of the viscosity parameter in the corona/ADAF ranges from 0.17 to 0.5, with values clustered about 0.2-0.3. Magnetic pressure is required by the relatively small truncation radii for some LLAGNs and is found to be as high as its equipartition value with the gas pressure. The inferred values of the viscosity parameter are in agreement with those obtained from the observations of non-stationary accretion in stellar mass black hole X-ray transients. This consistency provides support for the paradigm that a geometrically thin disk is truncated by means of a mass evaporation process from the disk to the corona at low mass accretion rates.

  18. Modelling aperiodic X-ray variability in black hole binaries as propagating mass accretion rate fluctuations: A short review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingram, A. R.

    2016-05-01

    Black hole binary systems can emit very bright and rapidly varying X-ray signals when material from the companion accretes onto the black hole, liberating huge amounts of gravitational potential energy. Central to this process of accretion is turbulence. In the propagating mass accretion rate fluctuations model, turbulence is generated throughout the inner accretion flow, causing fluctuations in the accretion rate. Fluctuations from the outer regions propagate towards the black hole, modulating the fluctuations generated in the inner regions. Here, I present the theoretical motivation behind this picture before reviewing the array of statistical variability properties observed in the light curves of black hole binaries that are naturally explained by the model. I also discuss the remaining challenges for the model, both in terms of comparison to data and in terms of including more sophisticated theoretical considerations.

  19. Competition of supermassive black holes and galactic spheroids in the destruction of globular clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charlton, Jane C.; Laguna, Pablo

    1995-01-01

    The globular clusters that we observe in galaxies may be only a fraction of the initial population. Among the evolutionary influences on the population is the destruction of globular clusters by tidal forces as the cluster moves through the field of influence of a disk, a bulge, and/or a putative nuclear component (black hole). We have conducted a series of N-body simulations of globular clusters on bound and marginally bound orbits through poetentials that include black hole and speroidal components. The degree of concentration of the spheroidal component can have a considerable impact on the extent to which a globular cluster is disrupted. If half the mass of a 10(exp 10) solar mass spheroid is concentrated within 800 pc, then only black holes with masses greater than 10(exp 9) solar mass can have a significant tidal influence over that already exerted by the bulge. However, if the matter in the spheroidal component is not so strongly concentrated toward the center of the galaxy, a more modest central black hole (down to 10(exp 8) solar mass) could have a dominant influence on the globular cluster distribution, particularly if many of the clusters were initially on highly radial orbits. Our simulations show that the stars that are stripped from a globular cluster follow orbits with roughly the same eccentricity as the initial cluster orbit, spreading out along the orbit like a 'string of pearls.' Since only clusters on close to radial orbits will suffer substantial disruption, the population of stripped stars will be on orbits of high eccentricity.

  20. Accretion and ejection in black-hole X-ray transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kylafis, N. D.; Belloni, T. M.

    2015-02-01

    Context. A rich phenomenology has been accumulated over the years regarding accretion and ejection in black-hole X-ray transients (BHTs) and it needs an interpretation. Aims: Here we summarize the current observational picture of the outbursts of BHTs, based on the evolution traced in a hardness-luminosity diagram (HLD), and we offer a physical interpretation. Methods: The basic ingredient in our interpretation is the Poynting-Robertson cosmic battery (PRCB), which provides locally the poloidal magnetic field needed for the ejection of the jet. In addition, we make two assumptions, easily justifiable. The first is that the mass-accretion rate to the black hole in a BHT outburst has a generic bell-shaped form, whose characteristic time scale is much longer than the dynamical or the cooling ones. This is guaranteed by the observational fact that all BHTs start their outburst and end it at the quiescent state, i.e., at very low accretion rate, and that state transitions take place over long time scales (hours to days). The second assumption is that at low accretion rates the accretion flow is geometrically thick, ADAF-like, while at high accretion rates it is geometrically thin. Last, but not least, we demonstrate that the previous history of the system is absolutely necessary for the interpretation of the HLD. Results: Both, at the beginning and the end of an outburst, the PRCB establishes a strong poloidal magnetic field in the ADAF-like part of the accretion flow, and this explains naturally why a jet is always present in the right part of the HLD. In the left part of the HLD, the accretion flow is in the form of a thin disk, and such a disk cannot sustain a strong poloidal magnetic filed. Thus, no jet is expected in this part of the HLD. Finally, the counterclockwise traversal of the HLD is explained as follows: all outbursts start from the quiescent state, in which the inner part of the accretion flow is ADAF-like, threaded by a poloidal magnetic field. As the

  1. Non-axisymmetric relativistic wind accretion with velocity gradients on to a rotating black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz-Osorio, A.; Lora-Clavijo, F. D.

    2016-08-01

    We model, for the first time, the Bondi-Hoyle accretion of a fluid with velocity gradients on to a Kerr black hole, by numerically solving the fully relativistic hydrodynamics equations. Specifically, we consider a supersonic ideal gas, which has velocity gradients perpendicular to the relative motion. We measure the mass and specific angular accretion rates to illustrate whether the fluid presents unstable patterns or not. The initial parameters, we consider in this work, are the velocity gradient ɛv, the black hole spin a, the asymptotic Mach number M_{∞} and adiabatic index Γ. We show that the flow accretion reaches a fairly stationary regime, unlike in the Newtonian case, where significant fluctuations of the mass and angular momentum accretion rates are found. On the other hand, we consider a special case where both density and velocity gradients of the fluid are taken into account. The spin of the black hole and the asymptotic Newtonian Mach number, for this case, are a = 0.98 and M_{∞}=1, respectively. A kind of flip-flop behaviour is found at the early times; nevertheless, the system also reaches a steady state.

  2. A SWIFT SURVEY OF ACCRETION ONTO STELLAR-MASS BLACK HOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, Mark T.; Miller, Jon M.

    2013-05-20

    We present a systemic analysis of all of the stellar-mass black hole binaries (confirmed and candidate) observed by the Swift observatory up to 2010 June. The broad Swift bandpass enables a trace of disk evolution over an unprecedented range in flux and temperature. The final data sample consists of 476 X-ray spectra containing greater than 100 counts, in the 0.6-10 keV band. This is the largest sample of high-quality CCD spectra of accreting black holes published to date. In addition, strictly simultaneous data at optical/UV wavelengths are available for 255 (54%) of these observations. The data are modeled with a combination of an accretion disk and a hard spectral component. For the hard component we consider both a simple power-law model and a thermal Comptonization model. An accretion disk is detected at greater than the 5{sigma} confidence level in 61% of the observations. Light curves and color-color diagrams are constructed for each system. Hardness-luminosity and disk fraction-luminosity diagrams are constructed and are observed to be consistent with those typically observed by RXTE, noting the sensitivity below 2 keV provided by Swift. The observed spectra have an average luminosity of {approx}1% Eddington, though we are sensitive to accretion disks down to a luminosity of 10{sup -3} L{sub Edd}. Thus, this is also the largest sample of such cool accretion disks studied to date. The accretion disk temperature distribution displays two peaks consistent with the classical hard and soft spectral states, with a smaller number of disks distributed between these. The distribution of inner disk radii is observed to be continuous regardless of which model is used to fit the hard continua. There is no evidence for large-scale truncation of the accretion disk in the hard state (at least for L{sub x} {approx}> 10{sup -3} L{sub Edd}), with all of the accretion disks having radii {approx}< 40 R{sub g} . Plots of the accretion disk inner radius versus hardness ratio

  3. GENERAL RELATIVISTIC SIMULATIONS OF ACCRETION INDUCED COLLAPSE OF NEUTRON STARS TO BLACK HOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Giacomazzo, Bruno; Perna, Rosalba

    2012-10-10

    Neutron stars (NSs) in the astrophysical universe are often surrounded by accretion disks. Accretion of matter onto an NS may increase its mass above the maximum value allowed by its equation of state, inducing its collapse to a black hole (BH). Here we study this process for the first time, in three-dimensions, and in full general relativity. By considering three initial NS configurations, each with and without a surrounding disk (of mass {approx}7% M{sub NS}), we investigate the effect of the accretion disk on the dynamics of the collapse and its imprint on both the gravitational wave (GW) and electromagnetic (EM) signals that can be emitted by these sources. We show in particular that, even if the GW signal is similar for the accretion induced collapse (AIC) and the collapse of an NS in vacuum (and detectable only for Galactic sources), the EM counterpart could allow us to discriminate between these two types of events. In fact, our simulations show that, while the collapse of an NS in vacuum leaves no appreciable baryonic matter outside the event horizon, an AIC is followed by a phase of rapid accretion of the surviving disk onto the newly formed BH. The post-collapse accretion rates, on the order of {approx}10{sup -2} M{sub Sun} s{sup -1}, make these events tantalizing candidates as engines of short gamma-ray bursts.

  4. Binary black hole accretion from a circumbinary disk: Gas dynamics inside the central cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Farris, Brian D.; Duffell, Paul; MacFadyen, Andrew I.; Haiman, Zoltan

    2014-03-10

    We present the results of two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamical simulations of circumbinary disk accretion using the finite-volume code DISCO. This code solves the 2D viscous Navier-Stokes equations on a high-resolution moving mesh which shears with the fluid flow, greatly reducing advection errors in comparison with a fixed grid. We perform a series of simulations for binary mass ratios in the range 0.026 ≤ q ≤ 1.0, each lasting longer than a viscous time so that we reach a quasi-steady accretion state. In each case, we find that gas is efficiently stripped from the inner edge of the circumbinary disk and enters the cavity along accretion streams, which feed persistent 'mini disks' surrounding each black hole. We find that for q ≳ 0.1, the binary excites eccentricity in the inner region of the circumbinary disk, creating an overdense lump which gives rise to enhanced periodicity in the accretion rate. The dependence of the periodicity on mass ratio may provide a method for observationally inferring mass ratios from measurements of the accretion rate. We also find that for all mass ratios studied, the magnitude of the accretion onto the secondary is sufficient to drive the binary toward larger mass ratio. This suggests a mechanism for biasing mass-ratio distributions toward equal mass.

  5. Inner Accretion Disk Regions of Black Hole X-ray Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvesen, Greg

    2015-01-01

    The innermost regions of accretion disks in black hole X-ray binaries dominate the observed X-ray emission, which is the main diagnostic that one uses to gain insights into the physics of black holes and accretion. The standard spectrum predicted from a geometrically thin, optically thick disk experiences non-trivial modification due to conspiring physical effects operating within the vertical disk structure such as Comptonization, free-free emission/absorption, bound-free opacities, and energy dissipation by magnetic processes. The complicated interplay of these effects cause the seed accretion disk spectrum to become hardened and it is this hardened emergent spectrum that we observe. To zeroth order, this hardening can be described by a phenomenological parameter called the spectral hardening factor.In practice, the adopted degree of spectral hardening is confined to lie within a rather restrictive range. I will discuss the following consequences of relaxing this criterion, while still requiring the spectral hardening factor to take on physically plausible values. Examining multiple state transitions of the black hole X-ray binary GX 339-4 with archival data from the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer, I will show that appealing to a spectral hardening factor that varies during state transitions provides a viable alternative to a truncated disk model for the evolution of the inner accretion disk. Having demonstrated that moderate degrees of accretion disk spectral hardening cannot be ruled out by observations, I will explore this possibility from a theoretical standpoint. Extending previous work on radiative transfer modeling coupled to the vertical disk structure, I present the impacts on the emergent accretion disk spectrum caused by disk inclination and by allowing accretion power to be dissipated in the corona. Using magnetohydrodynamic simulations of a localized patch of the accretion disk (i.e., shearing box) performed with the Athena code, I will present the

  6. On the formalism of dark energy accretion onto black- and worm-holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín-Moruno, Prado

    2008-01-01

    In this work a general formalism for the accretion of dark energy onto astronomical objects, black holes and wormholes, is considered. It is shown that in models with four dimensions or more, any singularity with a divergence in the Hubble parameter may be avoided by a big trip, if it is assumed that there is no coupling between the bulk and this accreting object. If this is not the case in more than four dimensions, the evolution of the cosmological object depends on the particular model.

  7. Truncation of the Inner Accretion Disk Around a Black Hole at Low Luminosity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomsick, John A.; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Corbel, Stephane; Kaaret, Philip; Kalemci, Emrah; Migliari, Simone

    2009-01-01

    Most black hole binaries show large changes in X-ray luminosity caused primarily by variations in mass accretion rate. An important question for understanding black hole accretion and jet production is whether the inner edge of the accretion disk recedes at low accretion rate. Measurements of the location of the inner edge (R(sub in)) can be made using iron emission lines that arise due to fluorescence of iron in the disk, and these indicate that R(sub in) is very close to the black hole at high and moderate luminosities (greater than approximately equal to 1% of the Eddington luminosity, L(sub Edd). Here, we report on X-ray observation of the black hole GX 339-4 in the hard state by Suzaku and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) that extend iron line studies to 0.14% L(sub Edd) and show that R(sub in) increases by a factor of greater than 27 over the value found when GX 339-4 was bright. The exact value of R(sub in) depends on the inclination of the inner disk (i), and we derive 90% confidence limits of R(sub in) greater than 35R(sub g) at i = 0 degrees and R(sub in) greater than 175R(sub g) at i = 30 degrees. This provides direct evidence that the inner portion of the disk is not present at low luminosity, allowing for the possibility that the inner disk is replaced by advection- or magnetically-dominated accretion flows.

  8. Truncation of the Inner Accretion Disk Around a Black Hole at Low Luminosity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomsick, John A.; Yamoka, Kazutaka; Corbel, Stephane; Kaaret, Philip; Kalemci, Emrah; Migliari, Simone

    2011-01-01

    Most black hole binaries show large changes in X-ray luminosity caused primarily by variations in mass accretion rate. An important question for understanding black hole accretion and jet production is whether the inner edge of the accretion disk recedes at low accretion rate. Measurements of the location of the inner edge (R(sub in)) can be made using iron emission lines that arise due to fluorescence of iron in the disk, and these indicate that R(sub in) is very close to the black hole at high and moderate luminosities (greater than or equal to 1% of the Eddington luminosity, L(sub Edd). Here, we report on X-ray observations of the black hole GX 339-4 in the hard state by Suzaku and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer that extend iron line studies to 0.14% L(sub Edd) and show that R(sub in) increases by a factor of greater than 27 over the value found when GX 339-4 was bright. The exact value of R(sub in) depends on the inclination of the inner disk (i), and we derive 90% confidence limits of R(sub in) greater than 35 R(sub g) at i = 0 degrees and R(sub in) greater than 175 R(sub g) at i = 30 degrees. This provides direct evidence that the inner portion of the disk is not present at low luminosity, allowing for the possibility that the inner disk is replaced by advection- or magnetically dominated accretion flows.

  9. A Periodically Varying Luminous Quasar at z = 2 from the Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey: A Candidate Supermassive Black Hole Binary in the Gravitational Wave-Driven Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tingting; Gezari, Suvi

    2015-08-01

    Supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs) should be an inevitable consequence of the hierarchical growth of massive galaxies through mergers, and the strongest sirens of gravitational waves (GWs) in the cosmos. And yet, their direct detection has remained elusive due to the compact (sub-parsec) orbital separations of gravitationally bound SMBHBs. Here we exploit a theoretically predicted signature of a SMBHB in the time domain: periodic variability caused by a mass accretion rate that is modulated by the binary's orbital motion. We report our first significant periodically varying quasar detection from the systematic search in the Pan-STARRS1 (PS1) Medium Deep Survey, a result recently accepted for publication in The Astrophysical Journal Letters. Our SMBHB candidate, PSO J334.2028+01.4075, is a luminous radio-loud quasar at z = 2.060, with extended baseline photometry from the Catalina Real-Time Transient Survey, as well as archival spectroscopy from the FIRST Bright Quasar Survey. The observed period (542 ± 15 days) and estimated black hole mass (log(MBH/M⊙) = 9.97 ± 0.50), correspond to an orbital separation of 7+8-4 Schwarzschild radii (~ 0.006+0.007-0.003 pc), assuming the rest-frame period of the quasar variability traces the orbital period of the binary. This SMBHB candidate, discovered at the peak redshift for SMBH mergers, is in a physically stable configuration for a circumbinary accretion disk, and within the regime of GW-driven orbital decay. Our search with PS1 is a benchmark study for the exciting capabilities of LSST, which will have orders of magnitude larger survey power, and will potentially pinpoint the locations of thousands of SMBHBs in the variable night sky.

  10. Is there an ordinary supermassive black hole at the Galactic Center?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, A. F.

    Now there are two basic observational techniques to investigate a gravitational potential at the Galactic Center, namely, a) monitoring the orbits of bright stars near the Galactic Center to reconstruct a gravitational potential; b) measuring a size and a shape of shadows around black hole giving an alternative possibility to evaluate black hole parameters in mm-band with VLBI-technique. At the moment one can use a small relativistic correction approach for stellar orbit analysis (however, in the future the approximation will not be not precise enough due to enormous progress of observational facilities) while now for smallest structure analysis in VLBI observations one really needs a strong gravitational field approximation. We discuss results of observations, their conventional interpretations, tensions between observations and models and possible hints for a new physics from the observational data and tensions between observations and interpretations. We will discuss an opportunity to use a Schwarzschild metric for data interpretation or we have to use more exotic models such as Reissner - Nordström or Schwarzschild - de-Sitter metrics for better fits.

  11. An ordinary supermassive black hole at the Galactic Center: pro and contra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, Alexander

    2016-07-01

    Now there are two basic observational techniques to investigate a gravitational potential at the Galactic Center, namely, a) monitoring the orbits of bright stars near the Galactic Center to reconstruct a gravitational potential; b) measuring a size and a shape of shadows around black hole giving an alternative possibility to evaluate black hole parameters in mm-band with VLBI-technique. At the moment one can use a small relativistic correction approach for stellar orbit analysis (however, in the future the approximation will not be not precise enough due to enormous progress of observational facilities) while now for smallest structure analysis in VLBI observations one really needs a strong gravitational field approximation. We discuss results of observations, their conventional interpretations, tensions between observations and models and possible hints for a new physics from the observational data and tensions between observations and interpretations. We will discuss an opportunity to use a Schwarzschild metric for data interpretation or we have to use more exotic models such as Yukawa potential, Reissner -- Nordstrom or Schwarzschild -- de-Sitter metrics for better fits.

  12. Possible Alternatives to the Supermassive Black Hole at the Galactic Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, A. F.

    2015-12-01

    Now there are two basic observational techniques to investigate a gravitational potential at the Galactic Center, namely, (a) monitoring the orbits of bright stars near the Galactic Center to reconstruct a gravitational potential; (b) measuring the size and shape of shadows around black hole giving an alternative possibility to evaluate black hole parameters in mm-band with VLBI-technique. At the moment, one can use a small relativistic correction approach for stellar orbit analysis (however, in the future the approximation will not be precise enough due to enormous progress of observational facilities) while for smallest structure analysis in VLBI observations one really needs a strong gravitational field approximation. We discuss results of observations, their conventional interpretations, tensions between observations and models and possible hints for a new physics from the observational data and tensions between observations and interpretations. We discuss an opportunity to use a Schwarzschild metric for data interpretation or we have to use more exotic models such as Reissner-Nordstrom or Schwarzschild-de-Sitter metrics for better fits.

  13. Flaring from the supermassive black hole in Mrk 335 studied with Swift and NuSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkins, D. R.; Gallo, L. C.; Grupe, D.; Bonson, K.; Komossa, S.; Fabian, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    Monitoring of the narrow line Seyfert 1 galaxy Markarian 335 (Mrk 335) with the Swift satellite discovered an X-ray flare beginning 2014 August 29. At the peak, the 0.5-5 keV count rate had increased from that in the low-flux state by a factor of 10. A target of opportunity observation was triggered with NuSTAR, catching the decline of the flare on 2014 September 20. We present a joint analysis of Swift and NuSTAR observations to understand the cause of this flare. The X-ray spectrum shows an increase in directly observed continuum flux and the softening of the continuum spectrum to a photon index of 2.49_{-0.07}^{+0.08} compared to the previous low-flux observations. The X-ray spectrum remains well described by the relativistically blurred reflection of the continuum from the accretion disc whose emissivity profile suggests that it is illuminated by a compact X-ray source, extending at most 5.2 rg over the disc. A very low reflection fraction of 0.41_{-0.15}^{+0.15} is measured, unexpected for such a compact corona. The X-ray flare is, hence, interpreted as arising from the vertical collimation and ejection of the X-ray emitting corona at a mildly relativistic velocity, causing the continuum emission to be beamed away from the disc. As the flare subsides, the base of this jet-like structure collapses into a compact X-ray source that provides the majority of the radiation that illuminates the disc while continuum emission is still detected from energetic particles further out, maintaining the low reflection fraction.

  14. Hyper-Eddington mass accretion on to a black hole with super-Eddington luminosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, Yuya; Inayoshi, Kohei; Haiman, Zoltán

    2016-10-01

    We perform 1D radiation hydrodynamical simulations to solve accretion flows on to massive black holes (BHs) with a very high rate. Assuming that photon trapping limits the luminosity emerging from the central region to L ≲ LEdd, Inayoshi, Haiman & Ostriker (2016) have shown that an accretion flow settles to a `hyper-Eddington solution, with a steady and isothermal (T ≃ 8000 K) Bondi profile reaching ≳ 5000 times the Eddington accretion rate dot{M}_Eddequiv L_Edd/c^2. Here, we address the possibility that gas accreting with finite angular momentum forms a bright nuclear accretion disc, with a luminosity exceeding the Eddington limit (1 ≲ L/LEdd ≲ 100). Combining our simulations with an analytic model, we find that a transition to steady hyper-Eddington accretion still occurs, as long as the luminosity remains below L/LEdd ≲ 35 (MBH/104 M⊙)3/2(n∞/105 cm-3)(T∞/104 K)-3/2(r⋆/1014 cm)-1/2, where n∞ and T∞ are the density and temperature of the ambient gas, and r⋆ is the radius of the photosphere, at which radiation emerges. If the luminosity exceeds this value, accretion becomes episodic. Our results can be accurately recovered in a toy model of an optically thick spherical shell, driven by radiation force into a collapsing medium. When the central source is dimmer than the above critical value, the expansion of the shell is halted and reversed by ram pressure of the collapsing medium, and by shell's weight. Our results imply that rapid, unimpeded hyper-Eddington accretion is possible even if the luminosity of the central source far exceeds the Eddington limit, and can be either steady or strongly episodic.

  15. Evidence for a Black Hole and Accretion Disk in the LINER NGC 4203.

    PubMed

    Shields; Rix; McIntosh; Ho; Rudnick; Filippenko; Sargent; Sarzi

    2000-05-01

    We present spectroscopic observations from the Hubble Space Telescope that reveal for the first time the presence of a broad pedestal of Balmer line emission in the LINER galaxy NGC 4203. The emission-line profile is suggestive of a relativistic accretion disk and is reminiscent of double-peaked transient Balmer emission observed in a handful of other LINERs. The very broad line emission thus constitutes clear qualitative evidence for a black hole, and spatially resolved narrow-line emission in NGC 4203 can be used to constrain its mass, MBHblack hole mass to bulge mass of less, similar7x10-4 in NGC 4203, which is less by a factor of approximately 3-9 than the mean ratio obtained for other galaxies. The availability of an independent constraint on central black hole mass makes NGC 4203 an important testbed for probing the physics of weak active galactic nuclei. Assuming MBH near the detection limit, the ratio of the observed luminosity to the Eddington luminosity is approximately 10-4. This value is consistent with advection-dominated accretion and hence with scenarios in which an ion torus irradiates an outer accretion disk that produces the observed double-peaked line emission. Follow-up observations will make it possible to improve the black hole mass estimate and study variability in the nuclear emission. PMID:10790063

  16. Growing massive black holes through supercritical accretion of stellar-mass seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupi, A.; Haardt, F.; Dotti, M.; Fiacconi, D.; Mayer, L.; Madau, P.

    2016-03-01

    The rapid assembly of the massive black holes that power the luminous quasars observed at z ˜ 6-7 remains a puzzle. Various direct collapse models have been proposed to head-start black hole growth from initial seeds with masses ˜105 M⊙, which can then reach a billion solar mass while accreting at the Eddington limit. Here, we propose an alternative scenario based on radiatively inefficient supercritical accretion of stellar-mass holes embedded in the gaseous circumnuclear discs (CNDs) expected to exist in the cores of high-redshift galaxies. Our sub-pc resolution hydrodynamical simulations show that stellar-mass holes orbiting within the central 100 pc of the CND bind to very high density gas clumps that arise from the fragmentation of the surrounding gas. Owing to the large reservoir of dense cold gas available, a stellar-mass black hole allowed to grow at super-Eddington rates according to the `slim-disc' solution can increase its mass by three orders of magnitudes within a few million years. These findings are supported by simulations run with two different hydro codes, RAMSES based on the Adaptive Mesh Refinement technique and GIZMO based on a new Lagrangian Godunov-type method, and with similar, but not identical, sub-grid recipes for star formation, supernova feedback, black hole accretion and feedback. The low radiative efficiency of supercritical accretion flows are instrumental to the rapid mass growth of our black holes, as they imply modest radiative heating of the surrounding nuclear environment.

  17. EXTENDED SUBMILLIMETER EMISSION OF THE GALACTIC CENTER AND NEAR-INFRARED/SUBMILLIMETER VARIABILITY OF ITS SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Marin, M.; Eckart, A.; Witzel, G.; Bremer, M.; Kunneriath, D.; Sabha, N.; Straubmeier, C.; Weiss, A.; Zamaninasab, M.; Morris, M. R.; Schoedel, R.; Nishiyama, S.; Baganoff, F.; Karas, V.; Dovciak, M.; Duschl, W. J.; Moultaka, J.; Najarro, F.; Muzic, K.; Vogel, S. N.

    2011-09-10

    The innermost tens of parsecs of our Galaxy are characterized by the presence of molecular cloud complexes surrounding Sgr A*, the radiative counterpart of the supermassive black hole ({approx}4 x 10{sup 6} M{sub sun}) at the Galactic center. We seek to distinguish the different physical mechanisms that dominate the molecular clouds at the Galactic center, with special emphasis on the circumnuclear disk (CND). We also want to study the energy flow and model the variable emission of Sgr A*. Our study is based on NIR and submillimeter (sub-mm) observations. Using sub-mm maps, we describe the complex morphology of the molecular clouds and the circumnuclear disk, along with their masses (of order 10{sup 5}-10{sup 6} M{sub sun}), and derive also the temperature and spectral index maps of the regions under study. We conclude that the average temperature of the dust is 14 {+-} 4 K. The spectral index map shows that the 20 and 50 km s{sup -1} clouds are dominated by dust emission. Comparatively, in the CND and its surroundings the spectral indices decrease toward Sgr A* and range between about 1 and -0.6. These values are mostly explained with a combination of dust, synchrotron, and free-free emission in different ratios. The presence of non-thermal emission also accounts for the apparent low temperatures derived in these areas, indicating their unreliability. The Sgr A* light curves show significant flux density excursions in both the NIR and sub-mm domains. We have defined a classification system to account for the NIR variability of Sgr A*. Also, we have modeled on the NIR/sub-mm events. From our modeling results we can infer a sub-mm emission delay with respect to the NIR; we argue that the delay is due to the adiabatic expansion of the synchrotron source components.

  18. THE MURMUR OF THE HIDDEN MONSTER: CHANDRA'S DECADAL VIEW OF THE SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE IN M31

    SciTech Connect

    Li Zhiyuan; Garcia, Michael R.; Forman, William R.; Jones, Christine; Kraft, Ralph P.; Lal, Dharam V.; Murray, Stephen S.; Wang, Q. Daniel

    2011-02-10

    The Andromeda galaxy (M31) hosts a central supermassive black hole (SMBH), known as M31*, which is remarkable for its mass ({approx}10{sup 8} M{sub sun}) and extreme radiative quiescence. Over the past decade, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory has pointed to the center of M31 {approx}100 times and accumulated a total exposure of {approx}900 ks. Based on these observations, we present an X-ray study of a highly variable source that we associate with M31* based on positional coincidence. We find that M31* remained in a quiescent state from late 1999 to 2005, exhibiting an average 0.5-8 keV luminosity {approx}<10{sup 36} erg s{sup -1}, or only {approx}10{sup -10} of its Eddington luminosity. We report the discovery of an outburst that occurred on 2006 January 6 during which M31* radiated at {approx}4.3 x 10{sup 37} erg s{sup -1}. After the outburst, M31* entered a more active state that apparently lasts to the present, which is characterized by frequent flux variability around an average luminosity of {approx}4.8 x 10{sup 36} erg s{sup -1}. These flux variations are similar to the X-ray flares found in the SMBH of our Galaxy (Sgr A*), making M31* the second SMBH known to exhibit recurrent flares. Future coordinated X-ray/radio observations will provide useful constraints on the physical origin of the flaring emission and help rule out a possible stellar origin of the X-ray source.

  19. A reduced orbital period for the supermassive black hole binary candidate in the quasar PG 1302-102?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Orazio, D. J.; Haiman, Z.; Duffell, P.; Farris, B. D.; MacFadyen, A. I.

    2015-09-01

    Graham et al. have detected a 5.2 yr periodic optical variability of the quasar PG 1302-102 at redshift z = 0.3, which they interpret as the redshifted orbital period (1 + z)tbin of a putative supermassive black hole binary (SMBHB). Here, we consider the implications of a 3-8 times shorter orbital period, suggested by hydrodynamical simulations of circumbinary discs (CBDs) with nearly equal-mass SMBHBs (q ≡ M2/M1 ≳ 0.3). With the corresponding 2-4 times tighter binary separation, PG 1302 would be undergoing gravitational wave dominated inspiral, and serve as a proof that the BHs can be fuelled and produce bright emission even in this late stage of the merger. The expected fraction of binaries with the shorter tbin, among bright quasars, would be reduced by one to two orders of magnitude, compared to the 5.2 yr period, in better agreement with the rarity of candidates reported by Graham et al. Finally, shorter periods would imply higher binary speeds, possibly imprinting periodicity on the light curves from relativistic beaming, as well as measurable relativistic effects on the Fe K α line. The CBD model predicts additional periodic variability on time-scales of tbin and ≈0.5tbin, as well as periodic variation of broad line widths and offsets relative to the narrow lines, which are consistent with the observations. Future observations will be able to test these predictions and hence the binary+CBD hypothesis for PG 1302.

  20. Supermassive black hole pairs in clumpy galaxies at high redshift: delayed binary formation and concurrent mass growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamburello, Valentina; Capelo, Pedro R.; Mayer, Lucio; Bellovary, Jillian M.; Wadsley, James W.

    2016-10-01

    Massive gas-rich galaxy discs at z ˜ 1 - 3 host massive star-forming clumps with typical baryonic masses in the range 107 - 108 M⊙ which can affect the orbital decay and concurrent growth of supermassive black hole (BH) pairs. Using a set of high-resolution simulations of isolated clumpy galaxies hosting a pair of unequal-mass BHs, we study the interaction between massive clumps and a BH pair at kpc scales, during the early phase of the orbital decay. We find that both the interaction with massive clumps and the heating of the cold gas layer of the disc by BH feedback tend to delay significantly the orbital decay of the secondary, which in many cases is ejected and then hovers for a whole Gyr around a separation of 1-2 kpc. In the envelope, dynamical friction is weak and there is no contribution of disc torques: these lead to the fastest decay once the orbit of the secondary BH has circularised in the disc midplane. In runs with larger eccentricities the delay is stronger, although there are some exceptions. We also show that, even in discs with very sporadic transient clump formation, a strong spiral pattern affects the decay time-scale for BHs on eccentric orbits. We conclude that, contrary to previous belief, a gas-rich background is not necessarily conducive to a fast BH decay and binary formation, which prompts more extensive investigations aimed at calibrating event-rate forecasts for ongoing and future gravitational-wave searches, such as with Pulsar Timing Arrays and the future evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna.

  1. Characterizing ``Radio Mode'' AGN Outbursts: the Recent 12 Myr History of the Supermassive Black Hole in M87

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forman, William R.; Churazov, Eugene; Jones, Christine; Heinz, Sebastian; Kraft, Ralph P.; Vikhlinin, Alexey

    2016-01-01

    M87, the bright active galaxy dominating the core of the Virgo cluster, is ideal for studying the interaction of a supermassive black hole with a gas rich environment. We combine results from a deep Chandra observation with a simple shock model to derive the properties of the outburst that created the 13 kpc shock previously reported around M87. The principal constraints for the model are 1) the observed temperature and density profiles, 2) the measured Mach number (about 1.2) and radius of the 13 kpc shock, 3) the observed size of the inner cavity (~3 kpc) that serves as the piston to drive the shock, and 4) the absence of a hot, low density plasma surrounding the central cavity. Qualitatively, the absence of a hot, low density (shocked) region surrounding the inner radio lobes (the piston), requires a "slowly" expanding piston and "long" duration outburst rather than a Sedov-like outburst. Quantitatively, a roughly 5 x 1057 ergs outburst that began about 12 Myr ago and lasted about 2 Myr matches all the constraints. In the context of the model, ~20% of the energy is carried by the shock as it expands to large radii while ~80% of the outburst energy is available to heat the core gas. For an outburst repetition rate of about 12 Myrs (the outburst age), 80% of the outburst energy is sufficient to balance radiative cooling. We discuss the outburst history of M87 as chronicled in its radio and X-ray images and the implications of these outbursts for heating gas rich environments.

  2. Alignment of magnetized accretion disks and relativistic jets with spinning black holes.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Jonathan C; Tchekhovskoy, Alexander; Blandford, Roger D

    2013-01-01

    Accreting black holes (BHs) produce intense radiation and powerful relativistic jets, which are affected by the BH's spin magnitude and direction. Although thin disks might align with the BH spin axis via the Bardeen-Petterson effect, this does not apply to jet systems with thick disks. We used fully three-dimensional general relativistic magnetohydrodynamical simulations to study accreting BHs with various spin vectors and disk thicknesses and with magnetic flux reaching saturation. Our simulations reveal a "magneto-spin alignment" mechanism that causes magnetized disks and jets to align with the BH spin near BHs and to reorient with the outer disk farther away. This mechanism has implications for the evolution of BH mass and spin, BH feedback on host galaxies, and resolved BH images for the accreting BHs in SgrA* and M87.

  3. Radiation-MHD Simulations of Black Hole Accretion Flows and Outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohsuga, K.

    2012-08-01

    We perform two-dimensional radiation-magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the accretion disks, jets, and disk outflows around black holes. We can reproduce the three distinct inflow-outflow modes, which corresponds to the two-dimensional version of the slim disk model, the standard disk model, and the radiatively inefficient accretion flow, with one numerical code. In the case of the super-Eddington accretion flow, we find that a radiatively driven, magnetically collimated jet is produced around the rotation axis and that a time-dependent, clumpy outflow with larger opening angle forms. Such jet and outflow might resolve the relativistic powerful jets of the luminous compact objects and the ultra fast outflows of active galactic nuclei.

  4. THE DYNAMICS, APPEARANCE, AND DEMOGRAPHICS OF RELATIVISTIC JETS TRIGGERED BY TIDAL DISRUPTION OF STARS IN QUIESCENT SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES

    SciTech Connect

    De Colle, Fabio; Guillochon, James; Naiman, Jill; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico E-mail: jfg@ucolick.org E-mail: enrico@ucolick.org

    2012-12-01

    We examine the consequences of a model in which relativistic jets can be triggered in quiescent massive black holes when a geometrically thick and hot accretion disk forms as a result of the tidal disruption of a star. To estimate the power, thrust, and lifetime of the jet, we use the mass accretion history onto the black hole as calculated by detailed hydrodynamic simulations of the tidal disruption of stars. We go on to determine the states of the interstellar medium in various types of quiescent galactic nuclei, and describe how this external matter can affect jets propagating through it. We use this information, together with a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model of the structure of the relativistic flow, to study the dynamics of the jet, the propagation of which is regulated by the density stratification of the environment and by its injection history. The breaking of symmetry involved in transitioning from one to two dimensions is crucial and leads to qualitatively new phenomena. At early times, as the jet power increases, the high pressure of the cocoon collimates the jet, increasing its shock velocity as compared to that of spherical models. We show that small velocity gradients, induced near or at the source, steepen into internal shocks and provide a source of free energy for particle acceleration and radiation along the jet's channel. The jets terminate at a working surface where they interact strongly with the surrounding medium through a combination of shock waves and instabilities; a continuous flow of relativistic fluid emanating from the nucleus supplies this region with mass, momentum, and energy. Information about the t {sup -5/3} decrease in power supply propagates within the jet at the internal sound speed. As a result, the internal energy at the jet head continues to accumulate until long after the peak feeding rate is reached. An appreciable time delay is thus expected between peaks in the short-wavelength radiation emanating near the jet

  5. Ion viscosity mediated by tangled magnetic fields in Accretion flows onto black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, P.; Becker, P. A.; Kafatos, M.

    1995-12-01

    We examine the viscosity mechanism due to momentum transfer between ions in the presence of tangled magnetic fields in accretion flows onto black holes. We do not attempt to present a self-consistent description of the tangled magnetic field; we merely assume its existence and take its coherence length lambda_ {coh} (which is the maximum length a given magnetic field line can be expected to be straight, on average) to be a free parameter. We arrive at a formulation for a hybrid viscosity in which the tangled magnetic field plays the role of an intermediary in momentum transfer between ions. It does so by affecting the mean free path of the ions; the effective mean free path of the ions in our formulation lies in between the usual ion-ion mean free path lambda_ {ii} and lambda_ {coh}. Our calculations are relevant in the scenario of accretion disks around BLACK HOLES, which are expected to have near equipartition tangled magnetic fields embedded in them. We apply this viscosity mechanism to a steady state model of a two temperature quasi-Keplerian accretion disk. The values of the USUAL alpha parameter arising from this mechanism are FOUND to range from =~ 0.01 to =~ 0.5. We find the viscosity to be influenced both by the degree to which the magnetic fields are tangled (represented by xi = lambda_ {coh}/r) and the relative accretion rate dot {M}/dot {M}Eddington. Our results suggest the viability of quasi-spherical accretion for near and super-Eddington accretion rates.

  6. Supermassive black hole tests of general relativity with eLISA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huwyler, Cédric; Porter, Edward K.; Jetzer, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by the parametrized post-Einsteinian (ppE) scheme devised by Yunes and Pretorius, which introduces corrections to the post-Newtonian coefficients of the frequency domain gravitational waveform in order to emulate alternative theories of gravity, we compute analytical time domain waveforms that, after a numerical Fourier transform, aim to represent (phase corrected only) ppE waveforms. In this formalism, alternative theories manifest themselves via corrections to the phase and frequency, as predicted by general relativity (GR), at different post-Newtonian (PN) orders. To present a generic test of alternative theories of gravity, we assume that the coupling constant of each alternative theory is manifestly positive, allowing corrections to the GR waveforms to be either positive or negative. By exploring the capabilities of massive black hole binary GR waveforms in the detection and parameter estimation of corrected time domain ppE signals, using the current eLISA configuration (as presented for the European Space Agency Cosmic Vision L3 mission), we demonstrate that for corrections arising at higher than 1PN order in phase and frequency GR waveforms are sufficient for both detecting and estimating the parameters of alternative theory signals. However, for theories introducing corrections at the 0 and 0.5PN orders, GR waveforms are not capable of covering the entire parameter space, requiring the use of non-GR waveforms for detection and parameter estimation.

  7. X-RAY AND RADIO VARIABILITY OF M31*, THE ANDROMEDA GALAXY NUCLEAR SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, Michael R.; Hextall, Richard; Galache, Jose; Murray, Stephen S.; Primini, F. A.; Baganoff, Frederick K.; Melia, Fulvio; Sjouwerman, Lorant O.; Williams, Ben

    2010-02-10

    We confirm our earlier tentative detection of M31* in X-rays and measure its light curve and spectrum. Observations in 2004-2005 find M31* rather quiescent in the X-ray and radio. However, X-ray observations in 2006-2007 show M31* to be highly variable at times. A separate variable X-ray source is found near P1, the brighter of the two optical nuclei. The apparent angular Bondi radius of M31* is the largest of any black hole and large enough to be well resolved with Chandra. The diffuse emission within this Bondi radius is found to have an X-ray temperature {approx}0.3 keV and density 0.1 cm{sup -3}, indistinguishable from the hot gas in the surrounding regions of the bulge given the statistics allowed by the current observations. The X-ray source at the location of M31* is consistent with a point source and a power-law spectrum with energy slope 0.9 +- 0.2. Our identification of this X-ray source with M31* is based solely on positional coincidence.

  8. Forming supermassive black hole seeds under the influence of a nearby anisotropic multifrequency source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regan, John A.; Johansson, Peter H.; Wise, John H.

    2016-07-01

    The photodissociation of H2 by a nearby anisotropic source of radiation is seen as a critical component in creating an environment in which a direct collapse black hole may form. Employing radiative transfer we model the effect of multifrequency (0.76-60 eV) radiation on a collapsing halo at high redshift. We vary both the shape of the spectrum which emits the radiation and the distance to the emitting galaxy. We use blackbody spectra with temperatures of T = 104 K and 105 K and a realistic stellar spectrum. We find that an optimal zone exists between 1 and 4 kpc from the emitting galaxy. If the halo resides too close to the emitting galaxy the photoionizing radiation creates a large H II region which effectively disrupts the collapsing halo, too far from the source and the radiation flux drops below the level of the expected background and the H2 fraction remains too high. When the emitting galaxy is initially placed between 1 and 2 kpc from the collapsing halo, with a spectral shape consistent with a star-forming high-redshift galaxy, then a large central core forms. The mass of the central core is between 5000 and 10 000 M⊙ at a temperature of approximately 1000 K. This core is however surrounded by a reservoir of hotter gas at approximately 8000 K, which leads to mass inflow rates of the order of ˜0.1 M⊙ yr-1.

  9. Orbital kinematics of edge-on bars with and without supermassive black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, Caleb; Valluri, Monica; Shen, Juntai; Debattista, Victor P.

    2016-01-01

    Observations of external disk galaxies with bars frequently show boxy or peanut shaped bulges, which have a distinct X-shaped structure when the system is viewed edge-on. Such features are also well documented in N-body simulations, where they arise from the buckling of the bar. The precise nature of the orbits that create this structure is still uncertain. Some studies argue that the bulge/X-shape structure is formed and supported by resonant 2:1 "banana" orbit family, while other argue that they arise from 5:3 "brezel" orbits. Here we examine a set of N-body models of a barred disk galaxy (with and without a central black hole). We generate 2-D maps of projected kinematics both for specific orbit families as well as the full simulation of the bars at different orientations. By examining the line-of-sight velocities, velocity dispersions and 3rd and 4th Gauss-Hermite polynomials we attempt to deduce the type of orbits most likely to produce the X-shaped features. We also generate mock kinematics for the Milky Way bar and predict the kinematical features associated with the X-shape that will be observed with upcoming stellar surveys.

  10. SDSS J0159+0105: A Radio-Quiet Quasar with a Centi-Parsec Supermassive Black Hole Binary Candidate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Zhen-Ya; Butler, Nathaniel R.; Shen, Yue; Jiang, Linhua; Wang, Jun-Xian; Chen, Xian; Cuadra, Jorge

    2016-08-01

    We report a candidate centi-parsec supermassive black hole binary (SMBHB) in the radio-quiet quasar SDSS J0159+0105 at z = 0.217. With a modified Lomb-Scargle code (GLSdeDRW) and auto-correlation analysis, we detect two significant (at P > 99%) periodic signals at ˜741 day and ˜1500 day from the 8.1 yr Catalina V-band light curve of this quasar. The period ratio, which is close to 1:2, is typical of a black hole binary system with a mass ratio of 0.05 < q < 0.8 according to recent numerical simulations. SDSS J0159+0105 has two SDSS spectroscopic observations separated by ˜10 yr. There is a significant change in the broad Hβ profile between the two epochs, which can be explained by a single broad-line region (BLR) around the binary system illuminated by the aforementioned mini-disks, or a stream of gas flowing from the circumbinary disk to one of the SMBHs. From the single BLR assumption and the orbital period t orb ˜ 1500 day, we estimate the total virial masses of M SMBHB ˜ 1.3 × 108 M ⊙, the average distances of BLR of ˜0.04 pc (˜50 lt-day, with ±0.3 dex uncertainty), and an SMBHB separation of d = (0.01 pc){M}8,{tot}1/3 (T rest/3.3 yr)2/3 ˜ 0.013 pc (15 lt-day). Based on analytical work, the postulated circumbinary disk has an inner radius of 2d = 0.026 pc (30 lt-day). SDSS J0159+0105 also displays unusual spectral energy distribution. The unique properties of SDSS J0159+0105 are consistent with it being a centi-parsec SMBHB. This paper uses data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), Catalina Real-time Transient Survey (CRTS), SWIFT, GALEX, 2MASS, and WISE archive.

  11. SDSS J0159+0105: A Radio-Quiet Quasar with a Centi-Parsec Supermassive Black Hole Binary Candidate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Zhen-Ya; Butler, Nathaniel R.; Shen, Yue; Jiang, Linhua; Wang, Jun-Xian; Chen, Xian; Cuadra, Jorge

    2016-08-01

    We report a candidate centi-parsec supermassive black hole binary (SMBHB) in the radio-quiet quasar SDSS J0159+0105 at z = 0.217. With a modified Lomb–Scargle code (GLSdeDRW) and auto-correlation analysis, we detect two significant (at P > 99%) periodic signals at ˜741 day and ˜1500 day from the 8.1 yr Catalina V-band light curve of this quasar. The period ratio, which is close to 1:2, is typical of a black hole binary system with a mass ratio of 0.05 < q < 0.8 according to recent numerical simulations. SDSS J0159+0105 has two SDSS spectroscopic observations separated by ˜10 yr. There is a significant change in the broad Hβ profile between the two epochs, which can be explained by a single broad-line region (BLR) around the binary system illuminated by the aforementioned mini-disks, or a stream of gas flowing from the circumbinary disk to one of the SMBHs. From the single BLR assumption and the orbital period t orb ˜ 1500 day, we estimate the total virial masse