Science.gov

Sample records for accretion code lewice

  1. Update to the NASA Lewis Ice Accretion Code LEWICE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, William B.

    1994-01-01

    This report is intended as an update to NASA CR-185129 'User's Manual for the NASA Lewis Ice Accretion Prediction Code (LEWICE).' It describes modifications and improvements made to this code as well as changes to the input and output files, interactive input, and graphics output. The comparison of this code to experimental data is shown to have improved as a result of these modifications.

  2. Users manual for the improved NASA Lewis ice accretion code LEWICE 1.6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, William B.

    1995-01-01

    This report is intended as an update/replacement to NASA CR 185129 'User's Manual for the NASALewis Ice Accretion Prediction Code (LEWICE)' and as an update to NASA CR 195387 'Update to the NASA Lewis Ice Accretion Code LEWICE'. In addition to describing the changes specifically made for this version, information from previous manuals will be duplicated so that the user will not need three manuals to use this code.

  3. Users Manual for the NASA Lewis Ice Accretion Prediction Code (LEWICE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruff, Gary A.; Berkowitz, Brian M.

    1990-01-01

    LEWICE is an ice accretion prediction code that applies a time-stepping procedure to calculate the shape of an ice accretion. The potential flow field is calculated in LEWICE using the Douglas Hess-Smith 2-D panel code (S24Y). This potential flow field is then used to calculate the trajectories of particles and the impingement points on the body. These calculations are performed to determine the distribution of liquid water impinging on the body, which then serves as input to the icing thermodynamic code. The icing thermodynamic model is based on the work of Messinger, but contains several major modifications and improvements. This model is used to calculate the ice growth rate at each point on the surface of the geometry. By specifying an icing time increment, the ice growth rate can be interpreted as an ice thickness which is added to the body, resulting in the generation of new coordinates. This procedure is repeated, beginning with the potential flow calculations, until the desired icing time is reached. The operation of LEWICE is illustrated through the use of five examples. These examples are representative of the types of applications expected for LEWICE. All input and output is discussed, along with many of the diagnostic messages contained in the code. Several error conditions that may occur in the code for certain icing conditions are identified, and a course of action is recommended. LEWICE has been used to calculate a variety of ice shapes, but should still be considered a research code. The code should be exercised further to identify any shortcomings and inadequacies. Any modifications identified as a result of these cases, or of additional experimental results, should be incorporated into the model. Using it as a test bed for improvements to the ice accretion model is one important application of LEWICE.

  4. Users manual for the NASA Lewis three-dimensional ice accretion code (LEWICE 3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bidwell, Colin S.; Potapczuk, Mark G.

    1993-01-01

    A description of the methodology, the algorithms, and the input and output data along with an example case for the NASA Lewis 3D ice accretion code (LEWICE3D) has been produced. The manual has been designed to help the user understand the capabilities, the methodologies, and the use of the code. The LEWICE3D code is a conglomeration of several codes for the purpose of calculating ice shapes on three-dimensional external surfaces. A three-dimensional external flow panel code is incorporated which has the capability of calculating flow about arbitrary 3D lifting and nonlifting bodies with external flow. A fourth order Runge-Kutta integration scheme is used to calculate arbitrary streamlines. An Adams type predictor-corrector trajectory integration scheme has been included to calculate arbitrary trajectories. Schemes for calculating tangent trajectories, collection efficiencies, and concentration factors for arbitrary regions of interest for single droplets or droplet distributions have been incorporated. A LEWICE 2D based heat transfer algorithm can be used to calculate ice accretions along surface streamlines. A geometry modification scheme is incorporated which calculates the new geometry based on the ice accretions generated at each section of interest. The three-dimensional ice accretion calculation is based on the LEWICE 2D calculation. Both codes calculate the flow, pressure distribution, and collection efficiency distribution along surface streamlines. For both codes the heat transfer calculation is divided into two regions, one above the stagnation point and one below the stagnation point, and solved for each region assuming a flat plate with pressure distribution. Water is assumed to follow the surface streamlines, hence starting at the stagnation zone any water that is not frozen out at a control volume is assumed to run back into the next control volume. After the amount of frozen water at each control volume has been calculated the geometry is modified by

  5. User Manual for the NASA Glenn Ice Accretion Code LEWICE: Version 2.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, William B.

    1999-01-01

    A research project is underway at NASA Glenn to produce a computer code which can accurately predict ice growth under a wide range of meteorological conditions for any aircraft surface. This report will present a description of the code inputs and outputs from version 2.0 of this code, which is called LEWICE. This version differs from previous releases due to its robustness and its ability to reproduce results accurately for different spacing and time step criteria across computing platform. It also differs in the extensive effort undertaken to compare the results against the database of ice shapes which have been generated in the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) 1. This report will only describe the features of the code related to the use of the program. The report will not describe the inner working of the code or the physical models used. This information is available in the form of several unpublished documents which will be collectively referred to as a Programmers Manual for LEWICE 2 in this report. These reports are intended as an update/replacement for all previous user manuals of LEWICE. In addition to describing the changes and improvements made for this version, information from previous manuals may be duplicated so that the user will not need to consult previous manuals to use this code.

  6. User Manual for the NASA Glenn Ice Accretion Code LEWICE. Version 2.2.2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, William B.

    2002-01-01

    A research project is underway at NASA Glenn to produce a computer code which can accurately predict ice growth under a wide range of meteorological conditions for any aircraft surface. This report will present a description of the code inputs and outputs from version 2.2.2 of this code, which is called LEWICE. This version differs from release 2.0 due to the addition of advanced thermal analysis capabilities for de-icing and anti-icing applications using electrothermal heaters or bleed air applications. An extensive effort was also undertaken to compare the results against the database of electrothermal results which have been generated in the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) as was performed for the validation effort for version 2.0. This report will primarily describe the features of the software related to the use of the program. Appendix A of this report has been included to list some of the inner workings of the software or the physical models used. This information is also available in the form of several unpublished documents internal to NASA. This report is intended as a replacement for all previous user manuals of LEWICE. In addition to describing the changes and improvements made for this version, information from previous manuals may be duplicated so that the user will not need to consult previous manuals to use this code.

  7. Ice accretion and performance degradation calculations with LEWICE/NS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potapczuk, Mark G.; Al-Khalil, Kamel M.; Velazquez, Matthew T.

    1993-01-01

    The LEWICE ice accretion computer code has been extended to include the solution of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. The code is modular and contains separate stand-alone program elements that create a grid, calculate the flow field parameters, calculate the droplet trajectory paths, determine the amount of ice growth, calculate aeroperformance changes, and plot results. The new elements of the code are described. Calculated results are compared to experiment for several cases, including both ice shape and drag rise.

  8. Ice Accretion and Performance Degradation Calculations with LEWICE/NS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potapczuk, Mark G.; Al-Khalil, Kamel M.; Velazquez, Matthew T.

    1993-01-01

    The LEWICE ice accretion computer code has been extended to include the solution of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. The code is modular and contains separate stand-alone program elements that create a grid, calculate the flow field parameters, calculate the droplet trajectory paths, determine the amount of ice growth, calculate aeroperformance changes, and plot results. The new elements of the code are described. Calculated results are compared to experiment for several cases, including both ice shape and drag rise.

  9. Software Released by LEWICE 2.0 Ice Accretion Software Development Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potapczuk, Mark G.

    2000-01-01

    Computational icing simulation methods are making the transition from the realm of research to commonplace use in design and certification. As such, standards of software management, design, validation, and documentation must be adjusted to accommodate the increased expectations of the user community with respect to accuracy, reliability, capability, and usability. With this in mind, in collaboration with Glenn's Engineering Design and Analysis Division, the Icing Branch of the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field began a software improvement project focused on the two-dimensional ice accretion simulation tool LEWICE. This project is serving as an introduction to the concepts of software management and is intended to serve as a pilot project for future icing simulation code development. The LEWICE 2.0 Software Development Project consisted of two major elements: software management and software validation. The software management element consisted of identifying features of well-designed and well-managed software that are appropriate for an analytical prediction tool such as LEWICE and applying them to a revised version of the code. This element included tasks such as identification of software requirements, development and implementation of coding standards, and implementation of software revision control practices. With the application of these techniques, the LEWICE ice accretion code became a more stable and reliable software product. In addition, the lessons learned about software development and maintenance can be factored into future software projects at the outset. The software validation activity was an integral part of our effort to make LEWICE a more accurate and reliable analysis tool. Because of the efforts taken to extensively validate this software, LEWICE 2.0 is more robust than previous releases and can reproduce results accurately across several computing platforms. It also differs from previous versions in the extensive quantitative

  10. Implementation of Combined Feather and Surface-Normal Ice Growth Models in LEWICE/X

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Velazquez, M. T.; Hansman, R. J., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Experimental observations have shown that discrete rime ice growths called feathers, which grow in approximately the direction of water droplet impingement, play an important role in the growth of ice on accreting surfaces for some thermodynamic conditions. An improved physical model of ice accretion has been implemented in the LEWICE 2D panel-based ice accretion code maintained by the NASA Lewis Research Center. The LEWICE/X model of ice accretion explicitly simulates regions of feather growth within the framework of the LEWICE model. Water droplets impinging on an accreting surface are withheld from the normal LEWICE mass/energy balance and handled in a separate routine; ice growth resulting from these droplets is performed with enhanced convective heat transfer approximately along droplet impingement directions. An independent underlying ice shape is grown along surface normals using the unmodified LEWICE method. The resulting dual-surface ice shape models roughness-induced feather growth observed in icing wind tunnel tests. Experiments indicate that the exact direction of feather growth is dependent on external conditions. Data is presented to support a linear variation of growth direction with temperature and cloud water content. Test runs of LEWICE/X indicate that the sizes of surface regions containing feathers are influenced by initial roughness element height. This suggests that a previous argument that feather region size is determined by boundary layer transition may be incorrect. Simulation results for two typical test cases give improved shape agreement over unmodified LEWICE.

  11. User's manual for the NASA Lewis ice accretion/heat transfer prediction code with electrothermal deicer input

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masiulaniec, Konstanty C.; Wright, William B.

    1994-01-01

    A version of LEWICE has been developed that incorporates a recently developed electrothermal deicer code, developed at the University of Toledo by William B. Wright. This was accomplished, in essence, by replacing a subroutine in LEWICE, called EBAL, which balanced the energies at the ice surface, with a subroutine called UTICE. UTICE performs this same energy balance, as well as handles all the time-timperature transients below the ice surface, for all of the layers of a composite blade as well as the ice layer itself. This new addition is set up in such a fashion that a user may specify any number of heaters, any heater chordwise length, and any heater gap desired. The heaters may be fired in unison, or they may be cycled with periods independent of each other. The heater intensity may also be varied. In addition, the user may specify any number of layers and thicknesses depthwise into the blade. Thus, the new addition has maximum flexibility in modeling virtually any electrothermal deicer installed into any airfoil. It should be noted that the model simulates both shedding and runback. With the runback capability, it can simulate the anti-icing mode of heater performance, as well as detect icing downstream of the heaters due to runback in unprotected portions of the airfoil. This version of LEWICE can be run in three modes. In mode 1, no conduction heat transfer is modeled (which would be equivalent to the original version of LEWICE). In mode 2, all heat transfer is considered due to conduction but no heaters are firing. In mode 3, conduction heat transfer where the heaters are engaged is modeled, with subsequent ice shedding. When run in the first mode, there is virtually identical agreement with the original version of LEWICE in the prediction of accreted ice shapes. The code may be run in the second mode to determine the effects of conduction on the ice accretion process.

  12. Validation Results for LEWICE 2.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, William B.; Rutkowski, Adam

    1999-01-01

    A research project is underway at NASA Lewis to produce a computer code which can accurately predict ice growth under any meteorological conditions for any aircraft surface. This report will present results from version 2.0 of this code, which is called LEWICE. This version differs from previous releases due to its robustness and its ability to reproduce results accurately for different spacing and time step criteria across computing platform. It also differs in the extensive amount of effort undertaken to compare the results in a quantified manner against the database of ice shapes which have been generated in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel (IRT). The results of the shape comparisons are analyzed to determine the range of meteorological conditions under which LEWICE 2.0 is within the experimental repeatability. This comparison shows that the average variation of LEWICE 2.0 from the experimental data is 7.2% while the overall variability of the experimental data is 2.5%.

  13. Experimental Investigation of Ice Accretion Effects on a Swept Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papadakis, M.; Yeong, H. W.; Wong, S. C.; Vargas, M.; Potapczuk, M.

    2005-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to study the effects of 2-, 5-, 10-, and 22.5-min ice accretions on the aerodynamic performance of a swept finite wing. The ice shapes tested included castings of ice accretions obtained from icing tests at the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) and simulated ice shapes obtained with the LEWICE 2.0 ice accretion code. The conditions used for the icing tests were selected to provide five glaze ice shapes with complete and incomplete scallop features and a small rime ice shape. The LEWICE ice shapes were defined for the same conditions as those used in the icing tests. All aerodynamic performance tests were conducted in the 7- x 10-ft Low-Speed Wind Tunnel Facility at Wichita State University. Six component force and moment measurements, aileron hinge moments, and surface pressures were obtained for a Reynolds number of 1.8 million based on mean aerodynamic chord and aileron deflections in the range of -15o to 20o. Tests were performed with the clean wing, six IRT ice shape castings, seven smooth LEWICE ice shapes, and seven rough LEWICE ice shapes. Roughness for the LEWICE ice shapes was simulated with 36-size grit. The experiments conducted showed that the glaze ice castings reduced the maximum lift coefficient of the clean wing by 11.5% to 93.6%, while the 5-min rime ice casting increased maximum lift by 3.4%. Minimum iced wing drag was 133% to 3533% greater with respect to the clean case. The drag of the iced wing near the clean wing stall angle of attack was 17% to 104% higher than that of the clean case. In general, the aileron remained effective in changing the lift of the clean and iced wings for all angles of attack and aileron deflections tested. Aileron hinge moments for the iced wing cases remained within the maximum and minimum limits defined by the clean wing hinge moments. Tests conducted with the LEWICE ice shapes showed that in general the trends in aerodynamic performance degradation of the wing with

  14. Deterministic multi-zone ice accretion modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamaguchi, K.; Hansman, R. John, Jr.; Kazmierczak, Michael

    1991-01-01

    The focus here is on a deterministic model of the surface roughness transition behavior of glaze ice. The initial smooth/rough transition location, bead formation, and the propagation of the transition location are analyzed. Based on the hypothesis that the smooth/rough transition location coincides with the laminar/turbulent boundary layer transition location, a multizone model is implemented in the LEWICE code. In order to verify the effectiveness of the model, ice accretion predictions for simple cylinders calculated by the multizone LEWICE are compared to experimental ice shapes. The glaze ice shapes are found to be sensitive to the laminar surface roughness and bead thickness parameters controlling the transition location, while the ice shapes are found to be insensitive to the turbulent surface roughness.

  15. A Database of Supercooled Large Droplet Ice Accretions [Supplement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZante, Judith Foss

    2007-01-01

    A unique, publicly available database regarding supercooled large droplet (SLD) ice accretions has been developed in NASA Glenn's Icing Research Tunnel. Identical cloud and flight conditions were generated for five different airfoil models. The models chosen represent a variety of aircraft types from the horizontal stabilizer of a large transport aircraft to the wings of regional, business, and general aviation aircraft. In addition to the standard documentation methods of 2D ice shape tracing and imagery, ice mass measurements were also taken. This database will also be used to validate and verify the extension of the ice accretion code, LEWICE, into the SLD realm.

  16. A Database of Supercooled Large Droplet Ice Accretions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZante, Judith Foss

    2007-01-01

    A unique, publicly available database regarding supercooled large droplet ice accretions has been developed in NASA Glenn's Icing Research Tunnel. Identical cloud and flight conditions were generated for five different airfoil models. The models chosen represent a variety of aircraft types from the horizontal stabilizer of a large trans-port aircraft to the wings of regional, business, and general aviation aircraft. In addition to the standard documentation methods of 2D ice shape tracing and imagery, ice mass measurements were also taken. This database will also be used to validate and verify the extension of the ice accretion code, LEWICE, into the SLD realm.

  17. User's Manual for LEWICE Version 3.2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, William

    2008-01-01

    A research project is underway at NASA Glenn to produce a computer code which can accurately predict ice growth under a wide range of meteorological conditions for any aircraft surface. This report will present a description of the code inputs and outputs from version 3.2 of this software, which is called LEWICE. This version differs from release 2.0 due to the addition of advanced thermal analysis capabilities for de-icing and anti-icing applications using electrothermal heaters or bleed air applications, the addition of automated Navier-Stokes analysis, an empirical model for supercooled large droplets (SLD) and a pneumatic boot option. An extensive effort was also undertaken to compare the results against the database of electrothermal results which have been generated in the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) as was performed for the validation effort for version 2.0. This report will primarily describe the features of the software related to the use of the program. Appendix A has been included to list some of the inner workings of the software or the physical models used. This information is also available in the form of several unpublished documents internal to NASA. This report is intended as a replacement for all previous user manuals of LEWICE. In addition to describing the changes and improvements made for this version, information from previous manuals may be duplicated so that the user will not need to consult previous manuals to use this software.

  18. A Summary of Validation Results for LEWICE 2.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, William B.

    1998-01-01

    A research project is underway at NASA Lewis to produce a computer code which can accurately predict ice growth under any meteorological conditions for any aircraft surface. This report will present results from version 2.0 of this code, which is called LEWICE. This version differs from previous releases due to its robustness and its ability to reproduce results accurately for different point spacing, and time step criteria across general computing platforms. It also differs in the extensive amount of effort undertaken to compare the results in a quantifiable manner against the database of ice shapes which have been generated in the NASA Lewis Icing, Research Tunnel (IRT), The complete set of data used for this comparison is available in a recent contractor report . The result of this comparison shows that the difference between the predicted ice shape from LEWICE 2.0 and the average of the experimental data is 7.2% while the variability of the experimental data is 2.5%.

  19. Collection Efficiency and Ice Accretion Characteristics of Two Full Scale and One 1/4 Scale Business Jet Horizontal Tails

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bidwell, Colin S.; Papadakis, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Collection efficiency and ice accretion calculations have been made for a series of business jet horizontal tail configurations using a three-dimensional panel code, an adaptive grid code, and the NASA Glenn LEWICE3D grid based ice accretion code. The horizontal tail models included two full scale wing tips and a 25 percent scale model. Flow solutions for the horizontal tails were generated using the PMARC panel code. Grids used in the ice accretion calculations were generated using the adaptive grid code ICEGRID. The LEWICE3D grid based ice accretion program was used to calculate impingement efficiency and ice shapes. Ice shapes typifying rime and mixed icing conditions were generated for a 30 minute hold condition. All calculations were performed on an SGI Octane computer. The results have been compared to experimental flow and impingement data. In general, the calculated flow and collection efficiencies compared well with experiment, and the ice shapes appeared representative of the rime and mixed icing conditions for which they were calculated.

  20. Further Refinement of the LEWICE SLD Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, William B.

    2006-01-01

    A research project is underway at NASA Glenn Research Center to produce computer software that can accurately predict ice growth for any meteorological conditions for any aircraft surface. This report will present results from version 3.2 of this software, which is called LEWICE. This version differs from previous releases in that it incorporates additional thermal analysis capabilities, a pneumatic boot model, interfaces to external computational fluid dynamics (CFD) flow solvers and has an empirical model for the supercooled large droplet (SLD) regime. An extensive comparison against the database of ice shapes and collection efficiencies that have been generated in the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) has also been performed. The complete set of data used for this comparison will eventually be available in a contractor report. This paper will show the differences in collection efficiency and ice shape between LEWICE 3.2 and experimental data. This report will first describe the LEWICE 3.2 SLD model. A semi-empirical approach was used to incorporate first order physical effects of large droplet phenomena into icing software. Comparisons are then made to every two-dimensional case in the water collection database and the ice shape database. Each collection efficiency condition was run using the following four assumptions: 1) potential flow, no splashing; 2) potential flow, with splashing; 3) Navior-Stokes, no splashing; 4) Navi r-Stokes, with splashing. All cases were run with 21 bin drop size distributions and a lift correction (angle of attack adjustment). Quantitative comparisons are shown for impingement limit, maximum water catch, and total collection efficiency. Due to the large number of ice shape cases, comprehensive comparisons were limited to potential flow cases with and without splashing. Quantitative comparisons are shown for horn height, horn angle, icing limit, area, and leading edge thickness. The results show that the predicted results for

  1. Validation Results for LEWICE 3.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, William B.

    2005-01-01

    A research project is underway at NASA Glenn to produce computer software that can accurately predict ice growth under any meteorological conditions for any aircraft surface. This report will present results from version 3.0 of this software, which is called LEWICE. This version differs from previous releases in that it incorporates additional thermal analysis capabilities, a pneumatic boot model, interfaces to computational fluid dynamics (CFD) flow solvers and has an empirical model for the supercooled large droplet (SLD) regime. An extensive comparison of the results in a quantifiable manner against the database of ice shapes and collection efficiency that have been generated in the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) has also been performed. The complete set of data used for this comparison will eventually be available in a contractor report. This paper will show the differences in collection efficiency between LEWICE 3.0 and experimental data. Due to the large amount of validation data available, a separate report is planned for ice shape comparison. This report will first describe the LEWICE 3.0 model for water collection. A semi-empirical approach was used to incorporate first order physical effects of large droplet phenomena into icing software. Comparisons are then made to every single element two-dimensional case in the water collection database. Each condition was run using the following five assumptions: 1) potential flow, no splashing; 2) potential flow, no splashing with 21 bin drop size distributions and a lift correction (angle of attack adjustment); 3) potential flow, with splashing; 4) Navier-Stokes, no splashing; and 5) Navier-Stokes, with splashing. Quantitative comparisons are shown for impingement limit, maximum water catch, and total collection efficiency. The results show that the predicted results are within the accuracy limits of the experimental data for the majority of cases.

  2. An experimental investigation of multi-element airfoil ice accretion and resulting performance degradation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potapczuk, Mark G.; Berkowitz, Brian M.

    1989-01-01

    An investigation of the ice accretion pattern and performance characteristics of a multi-element airfoil was undertaken in the NASA Lewis 6- by 9-Foot Icing Research Tunnel. Several configurations of main airfoil, slat, and flaps were employed to examine the effects of ice accretion and provide further experimental information for code validation purposes. The text matrix consisted of glaze, rime, and mixed icing conditions. Airflow and icing cloud conditions were set to correspond to those typical of the operating environment anticipated tor a commercial transport vehicle. Results obtained included ice profile tracings, photographs of the ice accretions, and force balance measurements obtained both during the accretion process and in a post-accretion evaluation over a range of angles of attack. The tracings and photographs indicated significant accretions on the slat leading edge, in gaps between slat or flaps and the main wing, on the flap leading-edge surfaces, and on flap lower surfaces. Force measurments indicate the possibility of severe performance degradation, especially near C sub Lmax, for both light and heavy ice accretion and performance analysis codes presently in use. The LEWICE code was used to evaluate the ice accretion shape developed during one of the rime ice tests. The actual ice shape was then evaluated, using a Navier-Strokes code, for changes in performance characteristics. These predicted results were compared to the measured results and indicate very good agreement.

  3. LEWICE 2.2 Capabilities and Thermal Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, William B.

    2002-01-01

    A computational model of bleed air anti-icing and electrothermal de-icing have been added to the LEWICE 2.0 software by integrating the capabilities of two previous programs, ANTICE and LEWICE/ Thermal. This combined model has been released as LEWICE version 2.2. Several advancements have also been added to the previous capabilities of each module. This report will present the capabilities of the software package and provide results for both bleed air and electrothermal cases. A comprehensive validation effort has also been performed to compare the predictions to an existing electrothermal database. A quantitative comparison shows that for deicing cases, the average difference is 9.4 F (26%) compared to 3 F for the experimental data while for evaporative cases the average difference is 2 F (32%) compared to an experimental error of 4 F.

  4. GR-AMRVAC code applications: accretion onto compact objects, boson stars versus black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meliani, Z.; Grandclément, P.; Casse, F.; Vincent, F. H.; Straub, O.; Dauvergne, F.

    2016-08-01

    In the close vicinity of a compact object strong gravity imprints its signature onto matter. Systems that contain at least one compact object are observed to exhibit extreme physical properties and typically emit highly energetic radiation. The nature of the compact objects that produce the strongest gravitational fields is to date not settled. General relativistic numerical simulations of fluid dynamics around black holes, neutron stars, and other compact objects such as boson stars (BSs) may give invaluable insights into this fundamental question. In order to study the behavior of fluid in the strong gravity regime of an arbitrary compact object we develop a new general relativistic hydrodynamics code. To this end we extend the existing versatile adaptive mesh refinement code MPI-AMRVAC into a general relativistic hydrodynamics framework and adapt it for the use of numerically given spacetime metrics. In the present article we study accretion flows in the vicinity of various types of BSs whose numerical metrics are calculated by the KADATH spectral solver library. We design specific tests to check the reliability of any code intending to study BSs and compare the solutions with those obtained in the context of Schwarzschild black holes. We perform the first ever general relativistic hydrodynamical simulations of gas accretion by a BS. The behavior of matter at small distances from the center of a BS differs notably from the black hole case. In particular we demonstrate that in the context of Bondi spherical accretion the mass accretion rate onto non-rotating BSs remains constant whereas it increases for Schwarzschild black holes. We also address the scenario of non-spherical accretion onto BSs and show that this may trigger mass ejection from the interior of the BS. This striking feature opens the door to forthcoming investigations regarding accretion-ejection flows around such types of compact objects.

  5. Super Cooled Large Droplet Analysis of Several Geometries Using LEWICE3D Version 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bidwell, Colin S.

    2011-01-01

    Super Cooled Large Droplet (SLD) collection efficiency calculations were performed for several geometries using the LEWICE3D Version 3 software. The computations were performed using the NASA Glenn Research Center SLD splashing model which has been incorporated into the LEWICE3D Version 3 software. Comparisons to experiment were made where available. The geometries included two straight wings, a swept 64A008 wing tip, two high lift geometries, and the generic commercial transport DLR-F4 wing body configuration. In general the LEWICE3D Version 3 computations compared well with the 2D LEWICE 3.2.2 results and with experimental data where available.

  6. Numerical simulation of the Hall effect in magnetized accretion disks with the Pluto code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakhaei, Mohammad; Safaei, Ghasem; Abbassi, Shahram

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the Hall effect in a standard magnetized accretion disk which is accompanied by dissipation due to viscosity and magnetic resistivity. By considering an initial magnetic field, using the PLUTO code, we perform a numerical magnetohydrodynamic simulation in order to study the effect of Hall diffusion on the physical structure of the disk. Current density and temperature of the disk are significantly modified by Hall diffusion, but the global structure of the disk is not substantially affected. The changes in the current densities and temperature of the disk lead to a modification in the disk luminosity and radiation.

  7. Global Time Dependent Solutions of Stochastically Driven Standard Accretion Disks: Development of Hydrodynamical Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wani, Naveel; Maqbool, Bari; Iqbal, Naseer; Misra, Ranjeev

    2016-07-01

    X-ray binaries and AGNs are powered by accretion discs around compact objects, where the x-rays are emitted from the inner regions and uv emission arise from the relatively cooler outer parts. There has been an increasing evidence that the variability of the x-rays in different timescales is caused by stochastic fluctuations in the accretion disc at different radii. These fluctuations although arise in the outer parts of the disc but propagate inwards to give rise to x-ray variability and hence provides a natural connection between the x-ray and uv variability. There are analytical expressions to qualitatively understand the effect of these stochastic variabilities, but quantitative predictions are only possible by a detailed hydrodynamical study of the global time dependent solution of standard accretion disc. We have developed numerical efficient code (to incorporate all these effects), which considers gas pressure dominated solutions and stochastic fluctuations with the inclusion of boundary effect of the last stable orbit.

  8. LEWICE3D/GlennHT Particle Analysis of the Honeywell Al502 Low Pressure Compressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bidwell, Colin S.; Rigby, David L.

    2015-01-01

    A flow and ice particle trajectory analysis was performed for the booster of the Honeywell AL502 engine. The analysis focused on two closely related conditions one of which produced a rollback and another which did not rollback during testing in the Propulsion Systems Lab at NASA Glenn Research Center. The flow analysis was generated using the NASA Glenn GlennHT flow solver and the particle analysis was generated using the NASA Glenn LEWICE3D v3.56 ice accretion software. The flow and particle analysis used a 3D steady flow, mixing plane approach to model the transport of flow and particles through the engine. The inflow conditions for the rollback case were: airspeed, 145 ms; static pressure, 33,373 Pa; static temperature, 253.3 K. The inflow conditions for the non-roll-back case were: airspeed, 153 ms; static pressure, 34,252 Pa; static temperature, 260.1 K. Both cases were subjected to an ice particle cloud with a median volume diameter of 24 microns, an ice water content of 2.0 gm3 and a relative humidity of 100 percent. The most significant difference between the rollback and non-rollback conditions was the inflow static temperature which was 6.8 K higher for the non-rollback case.

  9. Modern Airfoil Ice Accretions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Addy, Harold E., Jr.; Potapczuk, Mark G.; Sheldon, David W.

    1997-01-01

    This report presents results from the first icing tests performed in the Modem Airfoils program. Two airfoils have been subjected to icing tests in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel (IRT). Both airfoils were two dimensional airfoils; one was representative of a commercial transport airfoil while the other was representative of a business jet airfoil. The icing test conditions were selected from the FAR Appendix C envelopes. Effects on aerodynamic performance are presented including the effects of varying amounts of glaze ice as well as the effects of approximately the same amounts of glaze, mixed, and rime ice. Actual ice shapes obtained in these tests are also presented for these cases. In addition, comparisons are shown between ice shapes from the tests and ice shapes predicted by the computer code, LEWICE for similar conditions. Significant results from the tests are that relatively small amounts of ice can have nearly as much effect on airfoil lift coefficient as much greater amounts of ice and that glaze ice usually has a more detrimental effect than either rime or mixed ice. LEWICE predictions of ice shapes, in general, compared reasonably well with ice shapes obtained in the IRT, although differences in details of the ice shapes were observed.

  10. Icing Analysis of a Swept NACA 0012 Wing Using LEWICE3D Version 3.48

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bidwell, Colin S.

    2014-01-01

    Icing calculations were performed for a NACA 0012 swept wing tip using LEWICE3D Version 3.48 coupled with the ANSYS CFX flow solver. The calculated ice shapes were compared to experimental data generated in the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT). The IRT tests were designed to test the performance of the LEWICE3D ice void density model which was developed to improve the prediction of swept wing ice shapes. Icing tests were performed for a range of temperatures at two different droplet inertia parameters and two different sweep angles. The predicted mass agreed well with the experiment with an average difference of 12%. The LEWICE3D ice void density model under-predicted void density by an average of 30% for the large inertia parameter cases and by 63% for the small inertia parameter cases. This under-prediction in void density resulted in an over-prediction of ice area by an average of 115%. The LEWICE3D ice void density model produced a larger average area difference with experiment than the standard LEWICE density model, which doesn't account for the voids in the swept wing ice shape, (115% and 75% respectively) but it produced ice shapes which were deemed more appropriate because they were conservative (larger than experiment). Major contributors to the overly conservative ice shape predictions were deficiencies in the leading edge heat transfer and the sensitivity of the void ice density model to the particle inertia parameter. The scallop features present on the ice shapes were thought to generate interstitial flow and horse shoe vortices which enhance the leading edge heat transfer. A set of changes to improve the leading edge heat transfer and the void density model were tested. The changes improved the ice shape predictions considerably. More work needs to be done to evaluate the performance of these modifications for a wider range of geometries and icing conditions

  11. Icing Analysis of a Swept NACA 0012 Wing Using LEWICE3D Version 3.48

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bidwell, Colin S.

    2014-01-01

    Icing calculations were performed for a NACA 0012 swept wing tip using LEWICE3D Version 3.48 coupled with the ANSYS CFX flow solver. The calculated ice shapes were compared to experimental data generated in the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT). The IRT tests were designed to test the performance of the LEWICE3D ice void density model which was developed to improve the prediction of swept wing ice shapes. Icing tests were performed for a range of temperatures at two different droplet inertia parameters and two different sweep angles. The predicted mass agreed well with the experiment with an average difference of 12%. The LEWICE3D ice void density model under-predicted void density by an average of 30% for the large inertia parameter cases and by 63% for the small inertia parameter cases. This under-prediction in void density resulted in an over-prediction of ice area by an average of 115%. The LEWICE3D ice void density model produced a larger average area difference with experiment than the standard LEWICE density model, which doesn't account for the voids in the swept wing ice shape, (115% and 75% respectively) but it produced ice shapes which were deemed more appropriate because they were conservative (larger than experiment). Major contributors to the overly conservative ice shape predictions were deficiencies in the leading edge heat transfer and the sensitivity of the void ice density model to the particle inertia parameter. The scallop features present on the ice shapes were thought to generate interstitial flow and horse shoe vortices which enhance the leading edge heat transfer. A set of changes to improve the leading edge heat transfer and the void density model were tested. The changes improved the ice shape predictions considerably. More work needs to be done to evaluate the performance of these modifications for a wider range of geometries and icing conditions.

  12. A review of ice accretion data from a model rotor icing test and comparison with theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Randall K.; Bond, Thomas H.

    1991-01-01

    An experiment was conducted by the Helicopter Icing Consortium (HIC) in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) in which a 1/6 scale fuselage model of a UH-60A Black Hawk helicopter with a generic rotor was subjected to a wide range of icing conditions. The HIC consists of members from NASA, Bell Helicopter, Boeing Helicopter, McDonnell Douglas Helicopters, Sikorsky Aircraft, and Texas A&M University. Data was taken in the form of rotor torque, internal force balance measurements, blade strain gage loading, and two dimensional ice shape tracings. A review of the ice shape data is performed with special attention given to repeatability and correctness of trends in terms of radial variation, rotational speed, icing time, temperature, liquid water content, and volumetric median droplet size. Moreover, an indepth comparison between the experimental data and the analysis of NASA's ice accretion code LEWICE is given. Finally, conclusions are shown as to the quality of the ice accretion data and the predictability of the data base as a whole. Recommendations are also given for improving data taking technique as well as potential future work.

  13. A review of ice accretion data from a model rotor icing test and comparison with theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Randall K.; Bond, Thomas H.

    1991-01-01

    An experiment was conducted by the Helicopter Icing Consortium (HIC) in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) in which a 1/6 scale fuselage model of a UH-60A Black Hawk helicopter with a generic rotor was subjected to a wide range of icing conditions. The HIC consists of members from NASA, Bell Helicopter, Boeing Helicopter, McDonnell Douglas Helicopters, Sikorsky Aircraft, and Texas A&M University. Data was taken in the form of rotor torque, internal force balance measurements, blade strain gage loading, and two dimensional ice shape tracings. A review of the ice shape data is performed with special attention given to repeatability and correctness of trends in terms of radial variation, rotational speed, icing time, temperature, liquid water content, and volumetric median droplet size. Moreover, an indepth comparison between the experimental data and the analysis of NASA's ice accretion code LEWICE is given. Finally, conclusions are drawn as to the quality of the ice accretion data and the predictability of the data base as a whole. Recommendations are also given for improving data taking technique as well as potential future work.

  14. Validation Process for LEWICE Coupled by Use of a Navier-stokes Solver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, William B.

    2016-01-01

    A research project is underway at NASA Glenn to produce computer software that can accurately predict ice growth for many meteorological conditions for any aircraft surface. This report will present results from the latest LEWICE release, version 3.5. This program differs from previous releases in its ability to model mixed phase and ice crystal conditions such as those encountered inside an engine. It also has expanded capability to use structured grids and a new capability to use results from unstructured grid flow solvers. An extensive comparison of the results in a quantifiable manner against the database of ice shapes that have been generated in the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) has also been performed. This paper will show the differences in ice shape between LEWICE 3.5 and experimental data. In addition, comparisons will be made between the lift and drag calculated on the ice shapes from experiment and those produced by LEWICE. This report will also provide a description of both programs. Quantitative geometric comparisons are shown for horn height, horn angle, icing limit, area and leading edge thickness. Quantitative comparisons of calculated lift and drag will also be shown. The results show that the predicted results are within the accuracy limits of the experimental data for the majority of cases.

  15. Quasi-Periodic Oscillations and Frequencies in AN Accretion Disk and Comparison with the Numerical Results from Non-Rotating Black Hole Computed by the Grh Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donmez, Orhan

    The shocked wave created on the accretion disk after different physical phenomena (accretion flows with pressure gradients, star-disk interaction etc.) may be responsible observed Quasi Periodic Oscillations (QPOs) in X-ray binaries. We present the set of characteristics frequencies associated with accretion disk around the rotating and non-rotating black holes for one particle case. These persistent frequencies are results of the rotating pattern in an accretion disk. We compare the frequency's from two different numerical results for fluid flow around the non-rotating black hole with one particle case. The numerical results are taken from Refs. 1 and 2 using fully general relativistic hydrodynamical code with non-selfgravitating disk. While the first numerical result has a relativistic tori around the black hole, the second one includes one-armed spiral shock wave produced from star-disk interaction. Some physical modes presented in the QPOs can be excited in numerical simulation of relativistic tori and spiral waves on the accretion disk. The results of these different dynamical structures on the accretion disk responsible for QPOs are discussed in detail.

  16. Comparison of LEWICE and GlennICE in the SLD Regime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, William B.; Potapczuk, Mark G.; Levinson, Laurie H.

    2008-01-01

    A research project is underway at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) to produce computer software that can accurately predict ice growth under any meteorological conditions for any aircraft surface. This report will present results from two different computer programs. The first program, LEWICE version 3.2.2, has been reported on previously. The second program is GlennICE version 0.1. An extensive comparison of the results in a quantifiable manner against the database of ice shapes that have been generated in the GRC Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) has also been performed, including additional data taken to extend the database in the Super-cooled Large Drop (SLD) regime. This paper will show the differences in ice shape between LEWICE 3.2.2, GlennICE, and experimental data. This report will also provide a description of both programs. Comparisons are then made to recent additions to the SLD database and selected previous cases. Quantitative comparisons are shown for horn height, horn angle, icing limit, area, and leading edge thickness. The results show that the predicted results for both programs are within the accuracy limits of the experimental data for the majority of cases.

  17. Water Droplet Impingement on Simulated Glaze, Mixed, and Rime Ice Accretions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papadakis, Michael; Rachman, Arief; Wong, See-Cheuk; Yeong, Hsiung-Wei; Hung, Kuohsing E.; Vu, Giao T.; Bidwell, Colin S.

    2007-01-01

    Water droplet impingement data were obtained at the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) for a 36-in. chord NACA 23012 airfoil with and without simulated ice using a dye-tracer method. The simulated ice shapes were defined with the NASA Glenn LEWICE 2.2 ice accretion program and including one rime, four mixed and five glaze ice shapes. The impingement experiments were performed with spray clouds having median volumetric diameters of 20, 52, 111, 154, and 236 micron. Comparisons to the experimental data were generated which showed good agreement for the rime and mixed shapes at lower drop sizes. For larger drops sizes LEWICE 2.2 over predicted the collection efficiencies due to droplet splashing effects which were not modeled in the program. Also for the more complex glaze ice shapes interpolation errors resulted in the over prediction of collection efficiencies in cove or shadow regions of ice shapes.

  18. Airfoil Ice-Accretion Aerodynamics Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg, Michael B.; Broeren, Andy P.; Addy, Harold E.; Potapczuk, Mark G.; Guffond, Didier; Montreuil, E.

    2007-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center, ONERA, and the University of Illinois are conducting a major research program whose goal is to improve our understanding of the aerodynamic scaling of ice accretions on airfoils. The program when it is completed will result in validated scaled simulation methods that produce the essential aerodynamic features of the full-scale iced-airfoil. This research will provide some of the first, high-fidelity, full-scale, iced-airfoil aerodynamic data. An initial study classified ice accretions based on their aerodynamics into four types: roughness, streamwise ice, horn ice, and spanwise-ridge ice. Subscale testing using a NACA 23012 airfoil was performed in the NASA IRT and University of Illinois wind tunnel to better understand the aerodynamics of these ice types and to test various levels of ice simulation fidelity. These studies are briefly reviewed here and have been presented in more detail in other papers. Based on these results, full-scale testing at the ONERA F1 tunnel using cast ice shapes obtained from molds taken in the IRT will provide full-scale iced airfoil data from full-scale ice accretions. Using these data as a baseline, the final step is to validate the simulation methods in scale in the Illinois wind tunnel. Computational ice accretion methods including LEWICE and ONICE have been used to guide the experiments and are briefly described and results shown. When full-scale and simulation aerodynamic results are available, these data will be used to further develop computational tools. Thus the purpose of the paper is to present an overview of the program and key results to date.

  19. Magnetized accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyvaerts, J.

    This lecture reviews in simple terms the general subject of large scale magnetic field coupling to plasma flows in the vicinity of accreting compact stars. The relevant astrophysical phenomenology is summarized. Disk interaction with the magnetosphere of accreting stars is first discussed, in particular the structure of the magnetopause, its stability and plasma ejection in so-called propeller systems. The physics of accretion/ejection is then considered. Acceleration and focusing mechanisms of jets from accretion disks around compact stars or black holes and the question of the self-consistency of accretion and ejection are described. By contrast, small scale MHD turbulence in disks is not discussed, neither are accretion columns near the polar caps of neutron stars or white dwarfs. The reader is only assumed to have some basic knowledge of astrophysics and of fluid mechanics and electromagnetism.

  20. A Numerical Method for Simulation of Three Dimensional Ice Accretion on Aircrafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, X.; Wang, K. C.; Zhu, G. L.; Gui, Y. W.

    2011-09-01

    A numerical method for simulation of three dimensional ice accretion on aircraft is proposed in this paper. An Eulerian method for computation of collection efficiency on icing surface is presented at first. The external flow field of gas phase is calculated with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method, based on which the governing equations of water phase are solved, and the corresponding collection efficiency is obtained. A three-dimensional model, considering effects of runback water, is then presented, and an iterative arithmetic for solving the model is developed. The impingement characteristics of a three elements wing are computed to evaluate the numerical method for collection efficiency calculation. Ice accretion on a MS-317 swept wing is calculated, and the consequent ice shape is compared with that of an experiment and Lewice3D. All the computational results are in good agreement with data of the experiment and reference, which indicates that the proposed method is feasible.

  1. Particle Trajectory and Icing Analysis of the E(sup 3) Turbofan Engine Using LEWICE3D Version 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bidwell, Colin S.

    2011-01-01

    Particle trajectory and ice shape calculations were made for the Energy Efficient Engine (E(sup 3)) using the LEWICE3D Version 3 software. The particle trajectory and icing computations were performed using the new "block-to-block" collection efficiency method which has been incorporated into the LEWICE3D Version 3 software. The E(sup 3) was developed by NASA and GE in the early 1980 s as a technology demonstrator and is representative of a modern high bypass turbofan engine. The E(sup 3) flow field was calculated using the NASA Glenn ADPAC turbomachinery flow solver. Computations were performed for the low pressure compressor of the E(sup 3) for a Mach 0.8 cruise condition at 11,887 m assuming a standard warm day for three drop sizes and two drop distributions typically used in aircraft design and certification. Particle trajectory computations were made for water drop sizes of 5, 20, and 100 microns. Particle trajectory and ice shape predictions were made for a 20 micron Langmuir-D distribution and for a 92 mm Super-cooled Large Droplet (SLD) distribution with and without splashing effects for a Liquid Water Content (LWC) of 0.3 g/cu m and an icing time of 30 min. The E3 fan and spinner combination proved to be an effective ice removal mechanism as they removed greater than 36 percent of the mass entering the inlet for the icing cases. The maximum free stream catch fraction for the fan and spinner combination was 0.60 while that on the elements downstream of the fan was 0.03. The non-splashing trajectory and collection efficiency results showed that as drop size increased impingement rates increased on the spinner and fan leaving less mass to impinge on downstream components. The SLD splashing case yielded more mass downstream of the fan than the SLD non-splashing case due to mass being splashed from the upstream inlet lip, spinner and fan components. The ice shapes generated downstream of the fan were either small or nonexistent due to the small available mass

  2. Accretion Disks in Algols: Progenitors and Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Rensbergen, W.; de Greve, J. P.

    2017-02-01

    There are only a few Algols with derived accretion disk parameters. These measurements provide additional constraints for tracing the origin of individual systems. With a modified binary evolution code, series of close binary evolution were calculated. For six Algols with accretion disks we found initial systems that evolve closely into the presently observed system parameters and disk characteristics.

  3. How do accretion discs break?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogan, Suzan

    2016-07-01

    Accretion discs are common in binary systems, and they are often found to be misaligned with respect to the binary orbit. The gravitational torque from a companion induces nodal precession in misaligned disc orbits. In this study, we first calculate whether this precession is strong enough to overcome the internal disc torques communicating angular momentum. We compare the disc precession torque with the disc viscous torque to determine whether the disc should warp or break. For typical parameters precession wins: the disc breaks into distinct planes that precess effectively independently. To check our analytical findings, we perform 3D hydrodynamical numerical simulations using the PHANTOM smoothed particle hydrodynamics code, and confirm that disc breaking is widespread and enhances accretion on to the central object. For some inclinations, the disc goes through strong Kozai cycles. Disc breaking promotes markedly enhanced and variable accretion and potentially produces high-energy particles or radiation through shocks. This would have significant implications for all binary systems: e.g. accretion outbursts in X-ray binaries and fuelling supermassive black hole (SMBH) binaries. The behaviour we have discussed in this work is relevant to a variety of astrophysical systems, for example X-ray binaries, where the disc plane may be tilted by radiation warping, SMBH binaries, where accretion of misaligned gas can create effectively random inclinations and protostellar binaries, where a disc may be misaligned by a variety of effects such as binary capture/exchange, accretion after binary formation.

  4. The PISA Pre-Main Sequence accreting models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tognelli, Emanuele; Prada Moroni, Pier Giorgio; Degl'Innocenti, Scilla

    2013-07-01

    The poster investigates the effect of accretion processes on the evolution of stellar models computed by means of the well tested and updated PROSECCO evolutionary code, under the hypothesis of thin-disk accretion. We analysed the effect on the evolution of the adoption of different parameters as the accretion rate, accretion history, seed mass, and the fraction of the infalling matter energy (alpha_acc) deposed in to the star (accretion energy). We confirm that the most critical parameter is the accretion energy. We show that, depending on alpha_acc the evolution of accreting and non-accreting objects can be completely different, confirming that the adoption of small alpha_acc value (i.e. small accretion energy, cold accretion) produces fainter and more compact models with respect to the ones predicted from non-accreting structures at the same mass and age, models that can not be reconciled with the data available for young objects (i.e. position in the HR diagram, lithium abundances). On the contrary, if a large part of the accretion luminosity is deposed into the star (alpha_acc = 1, hot accretion), at least during the fisrt stages of the accretion phase or during bursts episodes, large radii and luminosities are achievable, with resulting structures much more similar to the non-accreting ones.

  5. Swept wing ice accretion modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potapczuk, M. G.; Bidwell, C. S.

    1990-01-01

    An effort to develop a three-dimensional ice accretion modeling method is initiated. This first step toward creation of a complete aircraft icing simulation code builds on previously developed methods for calculating three-dimensional flowfields and particle trajectories combined with a two-dimensional ice accretion calculation along coordinate locations corresponding to streamlines. This work is intended as a demonstration of the types of calculations necessary to predict a three-dimensional ice accretion. Results of calculations using the 3D method for a MS-317 swept wing geometry are projected onto a 2D plane normal to the wing leading edge and compared to 2D results for the same geometry. These results indicate that the flowfield over the surface and the particle trajectories differed for the two calculations. This led to lower collection efficiencies, convective heat transfer coefficients, freezing fractions, and ultimately ice accumulation for the 3D calculation.

  6. Pulsed Accretion onto Eccentric and Circular Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, Diego J.; Lai, Dong

    2016-08-01

    We present numerical simulations of circumbinary accretion onto eccentric and circular binaries using the moving-mesh code AREPO. This is the first set of simulations to tackle the problem of binary accretion using a finite-volume scheme on a freely moving mesh, which allows for accurate measurements of accretion onto individual stars for arbitrary binary eccentricity. While accretion onto a circular binary shows bursts with period of ˜ 5 times the binary period P b, accretion onto an eccentric binary is predominantly modulated at the period ˜ 1{P}{{b}}. For an equal-mass circular binary, the accretion rates onto individual stars are quite similar to each other, following the same variable pattern in time. By contrast, for eccentric binaries, one of the stars can accrete at a rate 10-20 times larger than its companion. This “symmetry breaking” between the stars, however, alternates over timescales of order 200P b and can be attributed to a slowly precessing, eccentric circumbinary disk. Over longer timescales, the net accretion rates onto individual stars are the same, reaching a quasi-steady state with the circumbinary disk. These results have important implications for the accretion behavior of binary T Tauri stars and supermassive binary black holes.

  7. Gas dynamics for accretion disk simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitehurst, R.

    1994-01-01

    The behavior of accretion disks can largely be understood in terms of the basic physical processes of mass, energy, and momentum conservation. Despite this, detailed modeling of these systems using modern computational techniques is challenging and controversial. Disturbing differences exist between methods used widely in astrophysics, namely Eulerian finite-difference techniques and particle codes such as SPH. Therefore neither technique is fully satisfactory for accretion disk simulations. This paper describes a new fully Lagrangian method designed to resolve these difficulties.

  8. Accretion Processes in Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Martínez-País, Ignacio; Shahbaz, Tariq; Casares Velázquez, Jorge

    2014-03-01

    List of contributors; List of participants; Preface; Acknowledgments; Abbreviations; 1. Accretion disks Henk Spruit; 2. The evolution of binary systems Philipp Podsiadlowski; 3. Accretion onto white dwarfs Brian Warner; 4. Accretion in X-ray binary systems Robert I. Hynes; 5. X-ray binary populations in galaxies Giuseppina Fabbiano; 6. Observational characteristics of accretion onto black holes I Chris Done; 7. Observational characteristics of accretion onto black holes II Rob Fender; 8. Computing black hole accretion John F. Hawley; Appendix: Piazzi Smyth, the Cape of Good Hope, Tenerife and the siting of large telescopes Brian Warner.

  9. Ice Particle Transport Analysis With Phase Change for the E(sup 3) Turbofan Engine Using LEWICE3D Version 3.2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bidwell, Colin, S.

    2012-01-01

    Ice Particle trajectory calculations with phase change were made for the Energy Efficient Engine (E(sup 3)) using the LEWICE3D Version 3.2 software. The particle trajectory computations were performed using the new Glenn Ice Particle Phase Change Model which has been incorporated into the LEWICE3D Version 3.2 software. The E(sup 3) was developed by NASA and GE in the early 1980 s as a technology demonstrator and is representative of a modern high bypass turbofan engine. The E(sup 3) flow field was calculated using the NASA Glenn ADPAC turbomachinery flow solver. Computations were performed for the low pressure compressor of the E(sup 3) for a Mach 0.8 cruise condition at 11,887 m assuming a standard warm day for ice particle sizes of 5, 20, and 100 microns and a free stream particle concentration of 0.3 g/cu m. The impingement efficiency results showed that as particle size increased average impingement efficiencies and scoop factors increased for the various components. The particle analysis also showed that the amount of mass entering the inner core decreased with increased particle size because the larger particles were less able to negotiate the turn into the inner core due to particle inertia. The particle phase change analysis results showed that the larger particles warmed less as they were transported through the low pressure compressor. Only the smallest 5 micron particles were warmed enough to produce melting and the amount of melting was relatively small with a maximum average melting fraction of 0.836. The results also showed an appreciable amount of particle sublimation and evaporation for the 5 micron particles entering the engine core (22 percent).

  10. Validation of NASA Thermal Ice Protection Computer Codes. Part 1; Program Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Dean; Bond, Thomas; Sheldon, David; Wright, William; Langhals, Tammy; Al-Khalil, Kamel; Broughton, Howard

    1996-01-01

    The Icing Technology Branch at NASA Lewis has been involved in an effort to validate two thermal ice protection codes developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center. LEWICE/Thermal (electrothermal deicing & anti-icing), and ANTICE (hot-gas & electrothermal anti-icing). The Thermal Code Validation effort was designated as a priority during a 1994 'peer review' of the NASA Lewis Icing program, and was implemented as a cooperative effort with industry. During April 1996, the first of a series of experimental validation tests was conducted in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel(IRT). The purpose of the April 96 test was to validate the electrothermal predictive capabilities of both LEWICE/Thermal, and ANTICE. A heavily instrumented test article was designed and fabricated for this test, with the capability of simulating electrothermal de-icing and anti-icing modes of operation. Thermal measurements were then obtained over a range of test conditions, for comparison with analytical predictions. This paper will present an overview of the test, including a detailed description of: (1) the validation process; (2) test article design; (3) test matrix development; and (4) test procedures. Selected experimental results will be presented for de-icing and anti-icing modes of operation. Finally, the status of the validation effort at this point will be summarized. Detailed comparisons between analytical predictions and experimental results are contained in the following two papers: 'Validation of NASA Thermal Ice Protection Computer Codes: Part 2- The Validation of LEWICE/Thermal' and 'Validation of NASA Thermal Ice Protection Computer Codes: Part 3-The Validation of ANTICE'

  11. Plastic Deformation of Accreted Planetesimals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadish, J.

    2005-08-01

    The early stages of planetesimal growth follow an accretion model (Weidenschilling, Icarus 2000), which influences the intrinsic strength of a body and may control how its shape evolves after growth. In previous work we have determined the stress field of an accreted planetesimal accounting for possible variation in the object's spin as it accretes (Kadish et al., IJSS In Press) At the end of growth, these objects are subject to transport mechanisms that can distribute them throughout the solar system. As they are transported these objects can be spun-up by tidal forces (Scheeres et al, Icarus 2000), YORP (Bottke et al., Asteroids III 2002), and collisions (Binzel et al., Asteroids II 1989). Such an increase of spin will cause perturbations to the initial stress field and may lead to failure. We are able to show analytically that failure is initiated on the object's surface and a plastic zone propagates inward as the object's spin is increased. If we model an accreted body as a conglomeration of rocks similar to a gravel or sand, the deformation in the region of failure is characterized using a Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion with negligible cohesion and zero hardening(e.g. Holsapple, Icarus 2001). Such a response is highly non-linear and must be solved using finite elements and iterative methods (Simo and Hughes, Computational Inelasticity 1998). Using the commercial finite element code ABAQUS, we present the shape deformation resulting from an elasto-plastic analysis of a spinning, self-gravitating accreted sphere that is spun-up after growth is complete. The methodology can be extended to model plastic deformation due to local failure for more complex planetesimal shapes, such as for the asteroid Kleopatra. This work has implications for the evolution of planetesimal shapes, the creation of binary and contact binary asteroids, and for the maximum spin rate of small planetary bodies.

  12. Partial accretion regime of accreting millisecond pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eksi, Kazim

    2016-07-01

    The inner parts of the disks around neutron stars in low mass X-ray binaries may become geometrically thick due to inhibition of accretion at the disk mid-plane when the central object is rotating rapidly. In such a case matter inflowing through the disk may keep accreting onto the poles of the neutron star from the parts of the disk away from the disk mid-plane while the matter is propelled at the disk mid-plane. An important ingredient of the evolution of millisecond pulsars is then the fraction of the inflowing matter that can accrete onto the poles in the fast rotation regime depending on the fastness parameter. This ``soft'' propeller regime may be associated with the rapid decay stage observed in the light curves of several accreting millisecond pulsars. To date only a few studies considered the partial accretion regime. By using geometrical arguments we improve the existing studies and test the model by reproducing the lightcurves of millisecond X-ray pulsars via time dependent simulations of disk evolution. We also present analytical solutions that represent disks with partial accretion.

  13. Aerodynamics and thermal physics of helicopter ice accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yiqiang

    developed based on a set of 82 experimental measurements and also compared to existing predictions tools. Two reference predictions found in the literature yielded 76% and 54% discrepancy with respect to experimental testing, whereas the proposed ice roughness prediction model resulted in a 31% minimum accuracy in prediction. It must be noted that the accuracy of the proposed model is within the ice shape reproduction uncertainty of icing facilities. Based on the new ice roughness prediction model and the CSR heat transfer scaling method, an icing heat transfer model was developed. The approach achieved high accuracy in heat transfer prediction compared to experiments conducted at the AERTS facility. The discrepancy between predictions and experimental results was within +/-15%, which was within the measurement uncertainty range of the facility. By combining both the ice roughness and heat transfer predictions, and incorporating the modules into an existing ice prediction tool (LEWICE), improved prediction capability was obtained, especially for the glaze regime. With the available ice shapes accreted at the AERTS facility and additional experiments found in the literature, 490 sets of experimental ice shapes and corresponding aerodynamics testing data were available. A physics-based performance degradation empirical tool was developed and achieved a mean absolute deviation of 33% when compared to the entire experimental dataset, whereas 60% to 243% discrepancies were observed using legacy drag penalty prediction tools. Rotor torque predictions coupling Blade Element Momentum Theory and the proposed drag performance degradation tool was conducted on a total of 17 validation cases. The coupled prediction tool achieved a 10% predicting error for clean rotor conditions, and 16% error for iced rotor conditions. It was shown that additional roughness element could affect the measured drag by up to 25% during experimental testing, emphasizing the need of realistic ice structures

  14. Promises and Problems of Pebble Accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kretke, Katherine A.; Levison, H. F.

    2013-10-01

    Despite the large number of exoplanets indicating that giant planets are a common outcome of the star formation process, theoretical models still struggle to explain how ~10 Earth mass rocky/icy embryos can form within the lifetimes of gaseous circumstellar disks. In recent years, aerodynamic-aided accretion of ``pebbles,'' particles ranging from millimeters to decimeters in size, has been suggested as a potential solution to this long-standing problem. Local simulations, simulations which look at the detailed behavior of these pebbles in the vicinity of a planetary embryo, have shown that the potential planetary growth rates can be surprisingly fast. If one assumes that most of the mass in a protoplanetary disk resides in these pebble-sized particles, a Mars mass core could grow to 10 Earth masses in only a few thousand years. However, these local studies cannot investigate how this accretion process behaves in the more complicated, multi-planet environment. We have incorporated the local accretion physics into LIPAD, a Lagrangian code which can follow the collisional / accretional / dynamical evolution of a planetary system, to investigate the how this pebble accretion will manifest itself in the larger planet formation picture. We present how these more comprehensive models raise challenges to using pebble accretion to form observed planetary systems.

  15. Problems and Promises of Pebble Accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kretke, Katherine A.; Levison, H. F.

    2013-05-01

    Abstract (2,250 Maximum Characters): Despite the large number of exoplanets indicating that planets are a common outcome of the star formation process, theoretical models still struggle to explain how ~10 Earth mass rocky/icy embryos can form within the lifetimes of gaseous circumstellar disks. Recently, aerodynamic-aided accretion of ``pebbles,'' particles ranging from millimeters to decimeters in size, has been suggested as a potential solution to this long-standing problem. Local simulations, simulations which look at the detailed behavior of these pebbles in the vicinity of a planetary embryo, have shown that the potential planetary growth rates can be surprisingly fast. If one assumes that most of the mass in a protoplanetary disk resides in these pebble-sized particles, a Mars mass core could grow to 10 Earth masses in only a few thousand years. However, these local studies cannot investigate how this accretion process behaves in the more complicated, multi-planet environment. We have incorporated a prescription of this pebble accretion into LIPAD, a Lagrangian code which can follow the collisional/accretional/dynamical evolution of a planetary system, to investigate the how this pebble accretion will manifest itself in the larger planet formation picture. We discuss how these more comprehensive models present challenges for using pebble accretion to form observed planetary systems.

  16. Dynamics of core accretion

    DOE PAGES

    Nelson, Andrew F.; Ruffert, Maximilian

    2012-12-21

    In this paper, we perform three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of gas flowing around a planetary core of mass Mpl = 10M⊕ embedded in a near Keplerian background flow, using a modified shearing box approximation. We assume an ideal gas behaviour following an equation of state with a fixed ratio of the specific heats, γ = 1.42, consistent with the conditions of a moderate-temperature background disc with solar composition. No radiative heating or cooling is included in the models. We employ a nested grid hydrodynamic code implementing the ‘Piecewise Parabolic Method’ with as many as six fixed nested grids, providing spatial resolutionmore » on the finest grid comparable to the present-day diameters of Neptune and Uranus. We find that a strongly dynamically active flow develops such that no static envelope can form. The activity is not sensitive to plausible variations in the rotation curve of the underlying disc. It is sensitive to the thermodynamic treatment of the gas, as modelled by prescribed equations of state (either ‘locally isothermal’ or ‘locally isentropic’) and the temperature of the background disc material. The activity is also sensitive to the shape and depth of the core's gravitational potential, through its mass and gravitational softening coefficient. Each of these factors influences the magnitude and character of hydrodynamic feedback of the small-scale flow on the background, and we conclude that accurate modelling of such feedback is critical to a complete understanding of the core accretion process. The varying flow pattern gives rise to large, irregular eruptions of matter from the region around the core which return matter to the background flow: mass in the envelope at one time may not be found in the envelope at any later time. No net mass accretion into the envelope is observed over the course of the simulation and none is expected, due to our neglect of cooling. Except in cases of very rapid cooling however, as

  17. Dynamics of core accretion

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Andrew F.; Ruffert, Maximilian

    2012-12-21

    In this paper, we perform three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of gas flowing around a planetary core of mass Mpl = 10M embedded in a near Keplerian background flow, using a modified shearing box approximation. We assume an ideal gas behaviour following an equation of state with a fixed ratio of the specific heats, γ = 1.42, consistent with the conditions of a moderate-temperature background disc with solar composition. No radiative heating or cooling is included in the models. We employ a nested grid hydrodynamic code implementing the ‘Piecewise Parabolic Method’ with as many as six fixed nested grids, providing spatial resolution on the finest grid comparable to the present-day diameters of Neptune and Uranus. We find that a strongly dynamically active flow develops such that no static envelope can form. The activity is not sensitive to plausible variations in the rotation curve of the underlying disc. It is sensitive to the thermodynamic treatment of the gas, as modelled by prescribed equations of state (either ‘locally isothermal’ or ‘locally isentropic’) and the temperature of the background disc material. The activity is also sensitive to the shape and depth of the core's gravitational potential, through its mass and gravitational softening coefficient. Each of these factors influences the magnitude and character of hydrodynamic feedback of the small-scale flow on the background, and we conclude that accurate modelling of such feedback is critical to a complete understanding of the core accretion process. The varying flow pattern gives rise to large, irregular eruptions of matter from the region around the core which return matter to the background flow: mass in the envelope at one time may not be found in the envelope at any later time. No net mass accretion into the envelope is observed over the course of the simulation and none is expected, due to our neglect of cooling. Except in cases of very rapid cooling

  18. Accretion disks in Algols: Progenitors and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Rensbergen, W.; De Greve, J. P.

    2016-08-01

    Context. There are only a few Algols with measured accretion disk parameters. These measurements provide additional constraints for tracing the origin of individual systems, narrowing down the initial parameter space. Aims: We investigate the origin and evolution of six Algol systems with accretion disks to find the initial parameters and evolutionary constraints for them. Methods: With a modified binary evolution code, series of close binary evolution are calculated to obtain the best match for observed individual systems. Results: Initial parameters for six Algol systems with accretion disks were determined matching both the present system parameters and the observed disk characteristics. Conclusions: When Roche lobe overflow (RLOF) starts during core hydrogen burning of the donor, the disk lifetime was found to be short. The disk luminosity is comparable to the luminosity of the gainer during a large fraction of the disk lifetime.

  19. Potential flow analysis of glaze ice accretions on an airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaguli, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    The results of an analytical/experimental study of the flow fields about an airfoil with leading edge glaze ice accretion shapes are presented. Tests were conducted in the Icing Research Tunnel to measure surface pressure distributions and boundary layer separation reattachment characteristics on a general aviation wing section to which was affixed wooden ice shapes which approximated typical glaze ice accretions. Comparisons were made with predicted pressure distributions using current airfoil analysis codes as well as the Bristow mixed analysis/design airfoil panel code. The Bristow code was also used to predict the separation reattachment dividing streamline by inputting the appropriate experimental surface pressure distribution.

  20. Spiral-driven accretion in protoplanetary discs . III. Tridimensional simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennebelle, Patrick; Lesur, Geoffroy; Fromang, Sébastien

    2017-03-01

    Context. Understanding how accretion proceeds in proto-planetary discs, and more generally, understanding their dynamics, is a crucial questions that needs to be answered to explain the conditions in which planets form. Aims: The role that accretion of gas from the surrounding molecular cloud onto the disc may have on its structure needs to be quantified. Methods: We performed tridimensional simulations using the Cartesian AMR code RAMSES of an accretion disc that is subject to infalling material. Results: For the aspect ratio of H/R ≃ 0.15 and disc mass Md ≃ 10-2M⊙ used in our study, we find that for typical accretion rates of the order of a few 10-7M⊙ yr-1, values of the α parameter as high as a few 10-3 are inferred. The mass that is accreted in the inner part of the disc is typically at least 50% of the total mass that has been accreted onto the disc. Conclusions: Our results suggest that external accretion of gas at moderate values onto circumstellar discs may trigger prominent spiral arms that are reminiscent of recent observations made with various instruments, and may lead to significant transport through the disc. If confirmed from observational studies, such accretion may therefore influence disc evolution.

  1. Hybrid Numerical Simulations Of Planetesimal Accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzari, Francesco; Weidenschilling, S. J.

    2006-09-01

    The multi-zone simulation code modelling the accretion of planetesimals into planets (Spaute et al. 1991, Icarus 92, 147; Weidenschilling et al. 1997, ICARUS 128, 429) includes a statistical continuum of small bodies in logarithmic mass bins, while large bodies are discrete objects with individual masses and orbits. Formerly, gravitational interactions between large planetary embryos were treated by statistical scattering. The code has now been updated to properly handle the orbits of protoplanets in a deterministic way. The trajectories of the larger bodies are numerically computed with the symplectic integrator SyYMBA. The additional forces acting on the protoplanets due to collisions with smaller planetesimals and their gravitational perturbations, including dynamical friction, as well as gas drag and tidal interaction with the solar nebula, are incorporated in the N-body algorithm by applying a further step in the leap-frog structure of the SyMBA integrator. The changes in the orbital elements of the large bodies, computed in the stochastic part of the code with a Monte Carlo approach, are applied for half a timestep before and after the N-body Hamiltonian propagation as suggested in Lee & Peale (ApJ 567, 596, 2002). With this code we intend to study the effect of dynamical friction on terrestrial planet formation and the accretion of planetary cores in the outer solar system. We will present preliminary results of simulations performed with the updated code.

  2. Magnetospheric accretion in EX Lupi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, Peter; Kospal, Agnes; Bouvier, Jerome

    2016-08-01

    We propose to observe EX Lup, the prototype of the EXor class of young eruptive stars, in order to understand how the accretion process works in the quiescent system. Here, we request 2.6 hours of telescope time on Spitzer, to carry out a mid-infrared photometric monitoring, which we will supplement with simultaneous ground-based optical and near-infrared data. The multi-wavelength light curves will allow us to reliably separate the effects of fluctuating accretion rate from the rotation of the star. By analyzing the variations of the accretion rate we will determine whether EX Lup accretes through a few stable accretion columns or several short-lived random accretion streams. With this campaign, EX Lup will become one of the T Tauri systems where the accretion process is best understood.

  3. FITDisk: Cataclysmic Variable Accretion Disk Demonstration Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Matthew A.; Dolence, J.

    2013-05-01

    FITDisk models accretion disk phenomena using a fully three-dimensional hydrodynamics calculation, and data can either be visualized as they are computed or stored to hard drive for later playback at a fast frame rate. Simulations are visualized using OpenGL graphics and the viewing angle can be changed interactively. Pseudo light curves of simulated systems can be plotted along with the associated Fourier amplitude spectrum. It provides an easy to use graphical user interface as well as 3-D interactive graphics. The code computes the evolution of a CV accretion disk, visualizes results in real time, records and plays back simulations, and generates and plots pseudo light curves and associated power spectra.

  4. Massive star formation by accretion. I. Disc accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haemmerlé, L.; Eggenberger, P.; Meynet, G.; Maeder, A.; Charbonnel, C.

    2016-01-01

    Context. Massive stars likely form by accretion and the evolutionary track of an accreting forming star corresponds to what is called the birthline in the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram. The shape of this birthline is quite sensitive to the evolution of the entropy in the accreting star. Aims: We first study the reasons why some birthlines published in past years present different behaviours for a given accretion rate. We then revisit the question of the accretion rate, which allows us to understand the distribution of the observed pre-main-sequence (pre-MS) stars in the HR diagram. Finally, we identify the conditions needed to obtain a large inflation of the star along its pre-MS evolution that may push the birthline towards the Hayashi line in the upper part of the HR diagram. Methods: We present new pre-MS models including accretion at various rates and for different initial structures of the accreting core. We compare them with previously published equivalent models. From the observed upper envelope of pre-MS stars in the HR diagram, we deduce the accretion law that best matches the accretion history of most of the intermediate-mass stars. Results: In the numerical computation of the time derivative of the entropy, some treatment leads to an artificial loss of entropy and thus reduces the inflation that the accreting star undergoes along the birthline. In the case of cold disc accretion, the existence of a significant swelling during the accretion phase, which leads to radii ≳ 100 R⊙ and brings the star back to the red part of the HR diagram, depends sensitively on the initial conditions. For an accretion rate of 10-3M⊙ yr-1, only models starting from a core with a significant radiative region evolve back to the red part of the HR diagram. We also obtain that, in order to reproduce the observed upper envelope of pre-MS stars in the HR diagram with an accretion law deduced from the observed mass outflows in ultra-compact HII regions, the fraction of the

  5. Accretion of southern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hillhouse, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Paleomagnetic data from southern Alaska indicate that the Wrangellia and Peninsular terranes collided with central Alaska probably by 65 Ma ago and certainly no later than 55 Ma ago. The accretion of these terranes to the mainland was followed by the arrival of the Ghost Rocks volcanic assemblage at the southern margin of Kodiak Island. Poleward movement of these terranes can be explained by rapid motion of the Kula oceanic plate, mainly from 85 to 43 Ma ago, according to recent reconstructions derived from the hot-spot reference frame. After accretion, much of southwestern Alaska underwent a counterclockwise rotation of about 50 ?? as indicated by paleomagnetic poles from volcanic rocks of Late Cretaceous and Early Tertiary age. Compression between North America and Asia during opening of the North Atlantic (68-44 Ma ago) may account for the rotation. ?? 1987.

  6. Matter accreting neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meszaros, P.

    1981-01-01

    Some of the fundamental neutron star parameters, such as the mass and the magnetic field strength, were experimentally determined in accreting neutron star systems. Some of the relevant data and the models used to derive useful information from them, are reviewed concentrating mainly on X-ray pulsars. The latest advances in our understanding of the radiation mechanisms and the transfer in the strongly magnetized polar cap regions are discussed.

  7. Accretion disk electrodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coroniti, F. V.

    1985-01-01

    Accretion disk electrodynamic phenomena are separable into two classes: (1) disks and coronas with turbulent magnetic fields; (2) disks and black holes which are connected to a large-scale external magnetic field. Turbulent fields may originate in an alpha-omega dynamo, provide anomalous viscous transport, and sustain an active corona by magnetic buoyancy. The large-scale field can extract energy and angular momentum from the disk and black hole, and be dynamically configured into a collimated relativistic jet.

  8. Validation of NASA Thermal Ice Protection Computer Codes. Part 3; The Validation of Antice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Al-Khalil, Kamel M.; Horvath, Charles; Miller, Dean R.; Wright, William B.

    2001-01-01

    An experimental program was generated by the Icing Technology Branch at NASA Glenn Research Center to validate two ice protection simulation codes: (1) LEWICE/Thermal for transient electrothermal de-icing and anti-icing simulations, and (2) ANTICE for steady state hot gas and electrothermal anti-icing simulations. An electrothermal ice protection system was designed and constructed integral to a 36 inch chord NACA0012 airfoil. The model was fully instrumented with thermo-couples, RTD'S, and heat flux gages. Tests were conducted at several icing environmental conditions during a two week period at the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel. Experimental results of running-wet and evaporative cases were compared to the ANTICE computer code predictions and are presented in this paper.

  9. Accretion of the Earth.

    PubMed

    Canup, Robin M

    2008-11-28

    The origin of the Earth and its Moon has been the focus of an enormous body of research. In this paper I review some of the current models of terrestrial planet accretion, and discuss assumptions common to most works that may require re-examination. Density-wave interactions between growing planets and the gas nebula may help to explain the current near-circular orbits of the Earth and Venus, and may result in large-scale radial migration of proto-planetary embryos. Migration would weaken the link between the present locations of the planets and the original provenance of the material that formed them. Fragmentation can potentially lead to faster accretion and could also damp final planet orbital eccentricities. The Moon-forming impact is believed to be the final major event in the Earth's accretion. Successful simulations of lunar-forming impacts involve a differentiated impactor containing between 0.1 and 0.2 Earth masses, an impact angle near 45 degrees and an impact speed within 10 per cent of the Earth's escape velocity. All successful impacts-with or without pre-impact rotation-imply that the Moon formed primarily from material originating from the impactor rather than from the proto-Earth. This must ultimately be reconciled with compositional similarities between the Earth and the Moon.

  10. Bondi-Hoyle Accretion in an Isothermal Magnetized Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Aaron T.; Cunningham, Andrew J.; McKee, Christopher F.; Klein, Richard I.

    2014-03-01

    Bondi-Hoyle rates. Our results should find application in numerical codes, enabling accurate sub-grid models of sink particles accreting from magnetized media.

  11. Bondi-Hoyle accretion in an isothermal magnetized plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Aaron T.; McKee, Christopher F.; Klein, Richard I.; Cunningham, Andrew J.

    2014-03-01

    Bondi-Hoyle rates. Our results should find application in numerical codes, enabling accurate sub-grid models of sink particles accreting from magnetized media.

  12. Turbulent Distortion of Condensate Accretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hazoume, R.; Orou Chabi, J.; Johnson, J. A., III

    1997-01-01

    When a simple model for the relationship between the density-temperature fluctuation correlation and mean values is used, we determine that the rate of change of turbulent intensity can influence directly the accretion rate of droplets. Considerable interest exists in the accretion rate for condensates in nonequilibrium flow with icing and the potential role which reactant accretion can play in nonequilibrium exothermic reactant processes. Turbulence is thought to play an important role in such flows. It has already been experimentally determined that turbulence influences the sizes of droplets in the heterogeneous nucleation of supersaturated vapors. This paper addresses the issue of the possible influence of turbulence on the accretion rate of droplets.

  13. Neutron star accretion and the neutrino fireball

    SciTech Connect

    Colgate, S.A.; Herant, M.E.; Benz, W.

    1991-11-26

    The mixing necessary to explain the ``Fe`` line widths and possibly the observed red shifts of 1987A is explained in terms of large scale, entropy conserving, up and down flows (calculated with a smooth particle 2-D code) taking place between the neutron star and the explosion shock wave due to the gravity and neutrino deposition. Depending upon conditions of entropy and mass flux further accretion takes place in single events, similar to relaxation oscillator, fed by the downward flows of low entropy matter. The shock, in turn, is driven by the upflow of the buoyant high entropy bubbles. Some accretion events will reach a temperature high enough to create a neutrino ``fireball,`` a region hot enough, 11 Mev, so as to be partially opaque to its own (neutrino) radiation. The continuing neutrino deposition drives the explosion shock until the entropy of matter flowing downwards onto the neutron star is high enough to prevent further accretion. This process should result in a robust supernova explosion.

  14. Minidisks in Binary Black Hole Accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Geoffrey; MacFadyen, Andrew

    2017-02-01

    Newtonian simulations have demonstrated that accretion onto binary black holes produces accretion disks around each black hole (“minidisks”), fed by gas streams flowing through the circumbinary cavity from the surrounding circumbinary disk. We study the dynamics and radiation of an individual black hole minidisk using 2D hydrodynamical simulations performed with a new general relativistic version of the moving-mesh code Disco. We introduce a comoving energy variable that enables highly accurate integration of these high Mach number flows. Tidally induced spiral shock waves are excited in the disk and propagate through the innermost stable circular orbit, providing a Reynolds stress that causes efficient accretion by purely hydrodynamic means and producing a radiative signature brighter in hard X-rays than the Novikov–Thorne model. Disk cooling is provided by a local blackbody prescription that allows the disk to evolve self-consistently to a temperature profile where hydrodynamic heating is balanced by radiative cooling. We find that the spiral shock structure is in agreement with the relativistic dispersion relation for tightly wound linear waves. We measure the shock-induced dissipation and find outward angular momentum transport corresponding to an effective alpha parameter of order 0.01. We perform ray-tracing image calculations from the simulations to produce theoretical minidisk spectra and viewing-angle-dependent images for comparison with observations.

  15. RADIATIVELY EFFICIENT MAGNETIZED BONDI ACCRETION

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, Andrew J.; Klein, Richard I.; McKee, Christopher F.; Krumholz, Mark R.; Teyssier, Romain

    2012-01-10

    We have carried out a numerical study of the effect of large-scale magnetic fields on the rate of accretion from a uniform, isothermal gas onto a resistive, stationary point mass. Only mass, not magnetic flux, accretes onto the point mass. The simulations for this study avoid complications arising from boundary conditions by keeping the boundaries far from the accreting object. Our simulations leverage adaptive refinement methodology to attain high spatial fidelity close to the accreting object. Our results are particularly relevant to the problem of star formation from a magnetized molecular cloud in which thermal energy is radiated away on timescales much shorter than the dynamical timescale. Contrary to the adiabatic case, our simulations show convergence toward a finite accretion rate in the limit in which the radius of the accreting object vanishes, regardless of magnetic field strength. For very weak magnetic fields, the accretion rate first approaches the Bondi value and then drops by a factor of {approx}2 as magnetic flux builds up near the point mass. For strong magnetic fields, the steady-state accretion rate is reduced by a factor of {approx}0.2 {beta}{sup 1/2} compared to the Bondi value, where {beta} is the ratio of the gas pressure to the magnetic pressure. We give a simple expression for the accretion rate as a function of the magnetic field strength. Approximate analytic results are given in the Appendices for both time-dependent accretion in the limit of weak magnetic fields and steady-state accretion for the case of strong magnetic fields.

  16. LUNAR ACCRETION FROM A ROCHE-INTERIOR FLUID DISK

    SciTech Connect

    Salmon, Julien; Canup, Robin M. E-mail: robin@boulder.swri.edu

    2012-11-20

    We use a hybrid numerical approach to simulate the formation of the Moon from an impact-generated disk, consisting of a fluid model for the disk inside the Roche limit and an N-body code to describe accretion outside the Roche limit. As the inner disk spreads due to a thermally regulated viscosity, material is delivered across the Roche limit and accretes into moonlets that are added to the N-body simulation. Contrary to an accretion timescale of a few months obtained with prior pure N-body codes, here the final stage of the Moon's growth is controlled by the slow spreading of the inner disk, resulting in a total lunar accretion timescale of {approx}10{sup 2} years. It has been proposed that the inner disk may compositionally equilibrate with the Earth through diffusive mixing, which offers a potential explanation for the identical oxygen isotope compositions of the Earth and Moon. However, the mass fraction of the final Moon that is derived from the inner disk is limited by resonant torques between the disk and exterior growing moons. For initial disks containing <2.5 lunar masses (M{sub Last-Quarter-Moon }), we find that a final Moon with mass > 0.8 M{sub Last-Quarter-Moon} contains {<=}60% material derived from the inner disk, with this material preferentially delivered to the Moon at the end of its accretion.

  17. Modeling Gas Distribution in Protoplanetary Accretion Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronberg, Martin; Lewis, Josiah; Brittain, Sean

    2010-07-01

    Protoplanetary accretion disks are disks of dust and gas which surround and feed material onto a forming star in the earliest stages of its evolution. One of the most useful methods for studying these disks is near infrared spectroscopy of rovibrational CO emission. This paper presents the methods in which synthetically generated spectra are modeled and fit to spectral data gathered from protoplanetary disks. This paper also discussed the methods in which this code can be improved by modifying the code to run a Monte Carlo analysis of best fit across the CONDOR cluster at Clemson University, thereby allowing for the creation of a catalog of protoplanetary disks with detailed information about them as gathered from the model.

  18. Microwave ice accretion meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magenheim, Bertram (Inventor); Rocks, James K. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A system for indicating ice thickness and rate of ice thickness growth on surfaces is disclosed. The region to be monitored for ice accretion is provided with a resonant surface waveguide which is mounted flush, below the surface being monitored. A controlled oscillator provides microwave energy via a feed point at a controllable frequency. A detector is coupled to the surface waveguide and is responsive to electrical energy. A measuring device indicates the frequency deviation of the controlled oscillator from a quiescent frequency. A control means is provided to control the frequency of oscillation of the controlled oscillator. In a first, open-loop embodiment, the control means is a shaft operated by an operator. In a second, closed-loop embodiment, the control means is a processor which effects automatic control.

  19. ACCRETION OUTBURSTS IN CIRCUMPLANETARY DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Lubow, S. H.; Martin, R. G.

    2012-04-20

    We describe a model for the long-term evolution of a circumplanetary disk that is fed mass from a circumstellar disk and contains regions of low turbulence (dead zones). We show that such disks can be subject to accretion-driven outbursts, analogous to outbursts previously modeled in the context of circumstellar disks to explain FU Ori phenomena. Circumplanetary disks around a proto-Jupiter can undergo outbursts for infall accretion rates onto the disks in the range M-dot{sub infall} approx. 10{sup -9} to 10{sup -7} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, typical of accretion rates in the T Tauri phase. During outbursts, the accretion rate and disk luminosity increases by several orders of magnitude. Most of the planet mass growth during planetary gas accretion may occur via disk outbursts involving gas that is considerably hotter than predicted by steady state models. For low infall accretion rates M-dot{sub infall} {approx}< 10{sup -10} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} that occur in late stages of disk accretion, disk outbursts are unlikely to occur, even if dead zones are present. Such conditions are favorable for the formation of icy satellites.

  20. To accrete or not accrete, that is the question

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    von, Huene R.

    1986-01-01

    Along modern convergent margins tectonic processes span a spectrum from accretion to erosion. The process of accretion is generally recognized because it leaves a geologic record, whereas the process of erosion is generally hypothetical because it produces a geologic hiatus. Major conditions that determine the dominance of accretion or erosion at modern convergent margins are: 1) rate and direction of plate convergence, 2) sediment supply and type in the trench, and 3) topography of the subducting ocean floor. Most change in structure has been ascribed to plate motion, but both erosion and accretion are observed along the same convergence margin. Thus sediment supply and topography are probably of equivalent importance to plate motion because both erosion and accretion are observed under constant conditions of plate convergence. The dominance of accretion or erosion at a margin varies with the thickness of trench sediment. In a sediment flooded trench, the proportions of subducted and accreted sediment are commonly established by the position of a decollement along a weak horizon in the sediment section. Thus, the vertical variation of sediment strength and the distribution of horizontal stress are important factors. Once deformation begins, the original sediment strength is decreased by sediment remolding and where sediment thickens rapidly, increases in pore fluid pressure can be pronounced. In sediment-starved trenches, where the relief of the subducting ocean floor is not smoothed over, the front of the margin must respond to the topography subducted as well as that accreted. The hypothesized erosion by the drag of positive features against the underside of the upper plate (a high stress environment) may alternate with erosion due to the collapse of a margin front into voids such as graben (a low stress environment). ?? 1986 Ferdinand Enke Verlag Stuttgart.

  1. Accretion onto Protoplanetary Discs: Implications for Globular Cluster Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijnen, T. P. G.; Pols, O. R.; Pelupessy, F. I.; Zwart, S. Portegies

    2017-03-01

    In the past decade, observational evidence that Globular Clusters (GCs) harbour multiple stellar populations has grown steadily. These observations are hard to reconcile with the classical picture of star formation in GCs, which approximates them as a single generation of stars. Bastian et al. recently suggested an evolutionary scenario in which a second, chemically distinct, population is formed by the accretion of chemically enriched material onto the protoplanetary disc of low-mass stars in the initial GC population. Using assumptions that represent the (dynamical) conditions in a typical GC, we investigate whether a low-mass star surrounded by a protoplanetary disc can accrete sufficient enriched material to account for the observed abundances in `second generation' stars. We compare the outcome of two different smoothed particle hydrodynamics codes and focus on the lifetime and stability of the disc and on the gas accretion rate onto both the star and the disc.

  2. Dynamics of continental accretion.

    PubMed

    Moresi, L; Betts, P G; Miller, M S; Cayley, R A

    2014-04-10

    Subduction zones become congested when they try to consume buoyant, exotic crust. The accretionary mountain belts (orogens) that form at these convergent plate margins have been the principal sites of lateral continental growth through Earth's history. Modern examples of accretionary margins are the North American Cordilleras and southwest Pacific subduction zones. The geologic record contains abundant accretionary orogens, such as the Tasmanides, along the eastern margin of the supercontinent Gondwana, and the Altaïdes, which formed on the southern margin of Laurasia. In modern and ancient examples of long-lived accretionary orogens, the overriding plate is subjected to episodes of crustal extension and back-arc basin development, often related to subduction rollback and transient episodes of orogenesis and crustal shortening, coincident with accretion of exotic crust. Here we present three-dimensional dynamic models that show how accretionary margins evolve from the initial collision, through a period of plate margin instability, to re-establishment of a stable convergent margin. The models illustrate how significant curvature of the orogenic system develops, as well as the mechanism for tectonic escape of the back-arc region. The complexity of the morphology and the evolution of the system are caused by lateral rollback of a tightly arcuate trench migrating parallel to the plate boundary and orthogonally to the convergence direction. We find geological and geophysical evidence for this process in the Tasmanides of eastern Australia, and infer that this is a recurrent and global phenomenon.

  3. Dynamics of continental accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moresi, L.; Betts, P. G.; Miller, M. S.; Cayley, R. A.

    2014-04-01

    Subduction zones become congested when they try to consume buoyant, exotic crust. The accretionary mountain belts (orogens) that form at these convergent plate margins have been the principal sites of lateral continental growth through Earth's history. Modern examples of accretionary margins are the North American Cordilleras and southwest Pacific subduction zones. The geologic record contains abundant accretionary orogens, such as the Tasmanides, along the eastern margin of the supercontinent Gondwana, and the Altaïdes, which formed on the southern margin of Laurasia. In modern and ancient examples of long-lived accretionary orogens, the overriding plate is subjected to episodes of crustal extension and back-arc basin development, often related to subduction rollback and transient episodes of orogenesis and crustal shortening, coincident with accretion of exotic crust. Here we present three-dimensional dynamic models that show how accretionary margins evolve from the initial collision, through a period of plate margin instability, to re-establishment of a stable convergent margin. The models illustrate how significant curvature of the orogenic system develops, as well as the mechanism for tectonic escape of the back-arc region. The complexity of the morphology and the evolution of the system are caused by lateral rollback of a tightly arcuate trench migrating parallel to the plate boundary and orthogonally to the convergence direction. We find geological and geophysical evidence for this process in the Tasmanides of eastern Australia, and infer that this is a recurrent and global phenomenon.

  4. NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF OPTICALLY THICK ACCRETION ONTO A BLACK HOLE. I. SPHERICAL CASE

    SciTech Connect

    Fragile, P. Chris; Gillespie, Anna; Monahan, Timothy; Rodriguez, Marco; Anninos, Peter

    2012-08-01

    Modeling the radiation generated by accreting matter is an important step toward realistic simulations of black hole accretion disks, especially at high accretion rates. To this end, we have recently added radiation transport to the existing general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic code, Cosmos++. However, before attempting to model radiative accretion disks, we have tested the new code using a series of shock tube and Bondi (spherical inflow) problems. The four radiative shock tube tests, first presented by Farris et al., have known analytic solutions, allowing us to calculate errors and convergence rates for our code. The Bondi problem only has an analytic solution when radiative processes are ignored, but it is pertinent because it is closer to the physics we ultimately want to study. In our simulations, we include Thomson scattering and thermal bremsstrahlung in the opacity, focusing exclusively on the super-Eddington regime. Unlike accretion onto bodies with solid surfaces, super-Eddington accretion onto black holes does not produce super-Eddington luminosity. In our examples, despite accreting at up to 300 times the Eddington rate, our measured luminosity is always several orders of magnitude below Eddington.

  5. Rethinking Black Hole Accretion Discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvesen, Greg

    Accretion discs are staples of astrophysics. Tapping into the gravitational potential energy of the accreting material, these discs are highly efficient machines that produce copious radiation and extreme outflows. While interesting in their own right, accretion discs also act as tools to study black holes and directly influence the properties of the Universe. Black hole X-ray binaries are fantastic natural laboratories for studying accretion disc physics and black hole phenomena. Among many of the curious behaviors exhibited by these systems are black hole state transitions -- complicated cycles of dramatic brightening and dimming. Using X-ray observations with high temporal cadence, we show that the evolution of the accretion disc spectrum during black hole state transitions can be described by a variable disc atmospheric structure without invoking a radially truncated disc geometry. The accretion disc spectrum can be a powerful diagnostic for measuring black hole spin if the effects of the disc atmosphere on the emergent spectrum are well-understood; however, properties of the disc atmosphere are largely unconstrained. Using statistical methods, we decompose this black hole spin measurement technique and show that modest uncertainties regarding the disc atmosphere can lead to erroneous spin measurements. The vertical structure of the disc is difficult to constrain due to our ignorance of the contribution to hydrostatic balance by magnetic fields, which are fundamental to the accretion process. Observations of black hole X-ray binaries and the accretion environments near supermassive black holes provide mounting evidence for strong magnetization. Performing numerical simulations of accretion discs in the shearing box approximation, we impose a net vertical magnetic flux that allows us to effectively control the level of disc magnetization. We study how dynamo activity and the properties of turbulence driven by the magnetorotational instability depend on the

  6. ACCRETING CIRCUMPLANETARY DISKS: OBSERVATIONAL SIGNATURES

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Zhaohuan

    2015-01-20

    I calculate the spectral energy distributions of accreting circumplanetary disks using atmospheric radiative transfer models. Circumplanetary disks only accreting at 10{sup –10} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} around a 1 M{sub J} planet can be brighter than the planet itself. A moderately accreting circumplanetary disk ( M-dot ∼10{sup −8} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}; enough to form a 10 M{sub J} planet within 1 Myr) around a 1 M{sub J} planet has a maximum temperature of ∼2000 K, and at near-infrared wavelengths (J, H, K bands), this disk is as bright as a late-M-type brown dwarf or a 10 M{sub J} planet with a ''hot start''. To use direct imaging to find the accretion disks around low-mass planets (e.g., 1 M{sub J} ) and distinguish them from brown dwarfs or hot high-mass planets, it is crucial to obtain photometry at mid-infrared bands (L', M, N bands) because the emission from circumplanetary disks falls off more slowly toward longer wavelengths than those of brown dwarfs or planets. If young planets have strong magnetic fields (≳100 G), fields may truncate slowly accreting circumplanetary disks ( M-dot ≲10{sup −9} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}) and lead to magnetospheric accretion, which can provide additional accretion signatures, such as UV/optical excess from the accretion shock and line emission.

  7. Migration of accreting giant planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crida, A.; Bitsch, B.; Raibaldi, A.

    2016-12-01

    We present the results of 2D hydro simulations of giant planets in proto-planetary discs, which accrete gas at a more or less high rate. First, starting from a solid core of 20 Earth masses, we show that as soon as the runaway accretion of gas turns on, the planet is saved from type I migration : the gap opening mass is reached before the planet is lost into its host star. Furthermore, gas accretion helps opening the gap in low mass discs. Consequently, if the accretion rate is limited to the disc supply, then the planet is already inside a gap and in type II migration. We further show that the type II migration of a Jupiter mass planet actually depends on its accretion rate. Only when the accretion is high do we retrieve the classical picture where no gas crosses the gap and the planet follows the disc spreading. These results impact our understanding of planet migration and planet population synthesis models. The e-poster presenting these results in French can be found here: L'e-poster présentant ces résultats en français est disponible à cette adresse: http://sf2a.eu/semaine-sf2a/2016/posterpdfs/156_179_49.pdf.

  8. Planetesimal Accretion in Binary Star Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzari, F.; Scholl, H.

    2000-11-01

    Planetesimal accretion in close binary systems is a complex process for the gravitational perturbations of the companion star on the planetesimal orbits. These perturbations excite high eccentricities that can halt the accumulation process of planetesimals into planets also in those regions around the star where stable planetary orbits would eventually be possible. However, the evolution of a planetesimal swarm is also affected by collisions and gas drag. In particular, gas drag combined with the secular perturbations of the secondary star forces a strong alignment of all the planetesimal periastra. Since periastra are also coupled to eccentricities via the secular perturbations of the companion, the orbits of the planetesimals, besides all being aligned, also have very close values of eccentricity. This orbital ``phasing'' strongly reduces the contribution of the eccentricity to the relative velocities between planetesimals, and the impact speeds are dominated by the Keplerian shear: accretion becomes possible. This behavior is not limited to small planetesimals but also affects bodies as large as 100 km in diameter. The effects of gas drag are in fact enhanced by the presence of the constant forced component in the orbital eccentricity of the planetesimals. We describe analytically the periastron alignment by using the secular equations developed by Heppenheimer, and we test the prediction of the theory with a numerical code that integrates the orbits of a swarm of planetesimals perturbed by gas drag and collisions. The gas density is assumed to decrease outward, and the collisions are modeled as inelastic. Our computations are focused on the α Centauri system, which is a good candidate for terrestrial planets as we will show. The impact velocities between planetesimals of different sizes are computed at progressively increasing distances from the primary star and are compared with estimates for the maximum velocity for accretion. According to our simulations in

  9. The Evolution of Gas Giant Entropy During Formation by Runaway Accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berardo, David; Cumming, Andrew; Marleau, Gabriel-Dominique

    2017-01-01

    We calculate the evolution of gas giant planets during the runaway gas accretion phase of formation, to understand how the luminosity of young giant planets depends on the accretion conditions. We construct steady-state envelope models, and run time-dependent simulations of accreting planets with the code Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics. We show that the evolution of the internal entropy depends on the contrast between the internal adiabat and the entropy of the accreted material, parametrized by the shock temperature T0 and pressure P0. At low temperatures ({T}0≲ 300–1000 {{K}}, depending on model parameters), the accreted material has a lower entropy than the interior. The convection zone extends to the surface and can drive a high luminosity, leading to rapid cooling and cold starts. For higher temperatures, the accreted material has a higher entropy than the interior, giving a radiative zone that stalls cooling. For {T}0≳ 2000 {{K}}, the surface–interior entropy contrast cannot be accommodated by the radiative envelope, and the accreted matter accumulates with high entropy, forming a hot start. The final state of the planet depends on the shock temperature, accretion rate, and starting entropy at the onset of runaway accretion. Cold starts with L≲ 5× {10}-6 {L}ȯ require low accretion rates and starting entropy, and the temperature of the accreting material needs to be maintained close to the nebula temperature. If instead the temperature is near the value required to radiate the accretion luminosity, 4π {R}2σ {T}04∼ ({GM}\\dot{M}/R), as suggested by previous work on radiative shocks in the context of star formation, gas giant planets form in a hot start with L∼ {10}-4 {L}ȯ .

  10. Terrestrial Planets Accreted Dry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albarede, F.; Blichert-Toft, J.

    2007-12-01

    Plate tectonics shaped the Earth, whereas the Moon is a dry and inactive desert. Mars probably came to rest within the first billion years of its history, and Venus, although internally very active, has a dry inferno for its surface. The strong gravity field of a large planet allows for an enormous amount of gravitational energy to be released, causing the outer part of the planetary body to melt (magma ocean), helps retain water on the planet, and increases the pressure gradient. The weak gravity field and anhydrous conditions prevailing on the Moon stabilized, on top of its magma ocean, a thick buoyant plagioclase lithosphere, which insulated the molten interior. On Earth, the buoyant hydrous phases (serpentines) produced by reactions between the terrestrial magma ocean and the wet impactors received from the outer Solar System isolated the magma and kept it molten for some few tens of million years. The elemental distributions and the range of condensation temperatures show that the planets from the inner Solar System accreted dry. The interior of planets that lost up to 95% of their K cannot contain much water. Foundering of their wet surface material softened the terrestrial mantle and set the scene for the onset of plate tectonics. This very same process may have removed all the water from the surface of Venus 500 My ago and added enough water to its mantle to make its internal dynamics very strong and keep the surface very young. Because of a radius smaller than that of the Earth, not enough water could be drawn into the Martian mantle before it was lost to space and Martian plate tectonics never began. The radius of a planet therefore is the key parameter controlling most of its evolutional features.

  11. Characterizing Accreting White Dwarf Pulsators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szkody, Paula; Mukadam, Anjum

    2014-02-01

    Understanding the population, mass distribution, and evolution of accreting white dwarfs impacts the entire realm of binary interaction, including the creation of Type Ia supernovae. We are concentrating on accreting white dwarf pulsators, as the pulsation properties allow us a view of how the accretion affects the interior of the star. Our ground- based photometry on 11 accreting pulsators with corresponding temperatures from HST UV spectra suggest a broad instability strip in the range of 10500 to 16000K. Additionally, tracking a post-outburst heated white dwarf as it cools and crosses the blue edge and resumes pulsation provides an independent method to locate the empirical instability strip. Determining a post-outburst cooling curve yields an estimate of the amount of heating and the accreted mass during the outburst. We request additional photometry of 2 objects that present unique properties: GW Lib which has not yet returned to its pre-outburst pulsation spectrum after 6 yrs, and EQ Lyn which returned to its pre- outburst pulsation after 3 yrs but is now turning on and off without ongoing outbursts. Following the pulsation spectrum changes over stretches of several nights in a row will provide specific knowledge of the stability of the observed modes.

  12. Classical Accreting Pulsars with NICER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.

    2014-01-01

    Soft excesses are very common center dot Lx > 1038 erg/s - reprocessing by optically thick material at the inner edge of the accretion disk center dot Lx < 1036 erg/s - photoionized or collisionally heated diffuse gas or thermal emission from the NS surface center dot Lx 1037 erg/s - either or both types of emission center dot NICER observations of soft excesses in bright X-ray pulsars combined with reflection modeling will constrain the ionization state, metalicity and dynamics of the inner edge of the magnetically truncated accretion disk Reflection models of an accretion disk for a hard power law - Strong soft excess below 3 keV from hot X-ray heated disk - For weakly ionized case: strong recombination lines - Are we seeing changes in the disk ionization in 4U1626-26? 13 years of weekly monitoring with RXTE PCA center dot Revealed an unexpectedly large population of Be/X-ray binaries compared to the Milky Way center dot Plotted luminosities are typical of "normal" outbursts (once per orbit) center dot The SMC provides an excellent opportunity to study a homogenous population of HMXBs with low interstellar absorption for accretion disk studies. Monitoring with NICER will enable studies of accretion disk physics in X-ray pulsars center dot The SMC provides a potential homogeneous low-absorption population for this study center dot NICER monitoring and TOO observations will also provide measurements of spinfrequencies, QPOs, pulsed fluxes, and energy spectra.

  13. Eclipse Mapping of Accretion Discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, R.

    The eclipse mapping method is an inversion technique that makes use of the information contained in eclipse light curves to probe the structure, the spectrum and the time evolution of accretion discs. In this review I present the basics of the method and discuss its different implementations. I summarize the most important results obtained to date and discuss how they have helped to improve our understanding of accretion physics, from testing the theoretical radial brightness temperature distribution and measuring mass accretion rates to showing the evolution of the structure of a dwarf novae disc throughout its outburst cycle, from isolating the spectrum of a disc wind to revealing the geometry of disc spiral shocks. I end with an outline of the future prospects.

  14. Episodic Accretion in Young Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audard, M.; Ábrahám, P.; Dunham, M. M.; Green, J. D.; Grosso, N.; Hamaguchi, K.; Kastner, J. H.; Kóspál, Á.; Lodato, G.; Romanova, M. M.; Skinner, S. L.; Vorobyov, E. I.; Zhu, Z.

    In the last 20 years, the topic of episodic accretion has gained significant interest in the star-formation community. It is now viewed as a common, although still poorly understood, phenomenon in low-mass star formation. The FU Orionis objects (FUors) are long-studied examples of this phenomenon. FU Orionis objects are believed to undergo accretion outbursts during which the accretion rate rapidly increases from typically 10-7 to a few 10-4 M⊙ yr-1, and remains elevated over several decades or more. EXors, a loosely defined class of pre-main-sequence stars, exhibit shorter and repetitive outbursts, associated with lower accretion rates. The relationship between the two classes, and their connection to the standard pre-main-sequence evolutionary sequence, is an open question: Do they represent two distinct classes, are they triggered by the same physical mechanism, and do they occur in the same evolutionary phases? Over the past couple of decades, many theoretical and numerical models have been developed to explain the origin of FUor and EXor outbursts. In parallel, such accretion bursts have been detected at an increasing rate, and as observing techniques improve, each individual outburst is studied in increasing detail. We summarize key observations of pre-main-sequence star outbursts, and review the latest thinking on outburst triggering mechanisms, the propagation of outbursts from star/disk to disk/jet systems, the relation between classical EXors and FUors, and newly discovered outbursting sources — all of which shed new light on episodic accretion. We finally highlight some of the most promising directions for this field in the near- and long-term.

  15. The structure and appearance of winds from supercritical accretion disks. I - Numerical models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meier, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    Equations for the structure and appearance of supercritical accretion disks and the radiation-driven winds which emanate from them are derived and solved by a steady-state hydrodynamic computer code with a relaxation technique used in stellar structure problems. The present model takes into account the mass of the accreting star, the total accretion rate, a generalization of the disk alpha parameter which accounts for heating by processes in addition to viscosity, and the ratio of the total luminosity to the Eddington luminosity. Solutions indicate that for accretion onto a hard-surfaced star, steady, optically thick winds result for even slightly supercritical accretion, and the object will appear as a supergiant star with a high mass loss rate and a nonblackbody spectrum. Winds from black hole accretion disks are expected to depend on the form of the accretion interior to the critical radius, possibly consisting of no ejection at all, a wind similar to that of a hard-surfaced star, or a column of material ejected from a hole in the accretion disk.

  16. Accretion physics: It's not U, it's B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Jon

    2017-03-01

    Black holes grow by accreting mass, but the process is messy and redistributes gas and energy into their environments. New evidence shows that magnetic processes mediate both the accretion and ejection of matter.

  17. Fueling galaxy growth through gas accretion in cosmological simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Dylan Rubaloff

    Despite significant advances in the numerical modeling of galaxy formation and evolution, it is clear that a satisfactory theoretical picture of how galaxies acquire their baryons across cosmic time remains elusive. In this thesis we present a computational study which seeks to address the question of how galaxies get their gas. We make use of new, more robust simulation techniques and describe the first investigations of cosmological gas accretion using a moving-mesh approach for solving the equations of continuum hydrodynamics. We focus first on a re-examination of past theoretical conclusions as to the relative importance of different accretion modes for galaxy growth. We study the rates and nature of gas accretion at z=2, comparing our new simulations run with the Arepo code to otherwise identical realizations run with the smoothed particle hydrodynamics code Gadget. We find significant physical differences in the thermodynamic history of accreted gas, explained in terms of numerical inaccuracies in SPH. In contrast to previous results, we conclude that hot mode accretion generally dominates galaxy growth, while cold gas filaments experience increased heating and disruption. Next, we consider the impact of feedback on our results, including models for galactic-scale outflows driven by stars as well as the energy released from supermassive black holes. We find that feedback strongly suppresses the inflow of "smooth" mode gas at all redshifts, regardless of its temperature history. Although the geometry of accretion at the virial radius is largely unmodified, strong galactic-fountain recycling motions dominate the inner halo. We measure a shift in the characteristic timescale of accretion, and discuss implications for semi-analytical models of hot halo gas cooling. To overcome the resolution limitations of cosmological volumes, we simulate a suite of eight individual 1012 solar mass halos down to z=2. We quantify the thermal and dynamical structure of the gas in

  18. Perturbation growth in accreting filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, S. D.; Whitworth, A. P.; Hubber, D. A.

    2016-05-01

    We use smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations to investigate the growth of perturbations in infinitely long filaments as they form and grow by accretion. The growth of these perturbations leads to filament fragmentation and the formation of cores. Most previous work on this subject has been confined to the growth and fragmentation of equilibrium filaments and has found that there exists a preferential fragmentation length-scale which is roughly four times the filament's diameter. Our results show a more complicated dispersion relation with a series of peaks linking perturbation wavelength and growth rate. These are due to gravo-acoustic oscillations along the longitudinal axis during the sub-critical phase of growth. The positions of the peaks in growth rate have a strong dependence on both the mass accretion rate onto the filament and the temperature of the gas. When seeded with a multiwavelength density power spectrum, there exists a clear preferred core separation equal to the largest peak in the dispersion relation. Our results allow one to estimate a minimum age for a filament which is breaking up into regularly spaced fragments, as well as an average accretion rate. We apply the model to observations of filaments in Taurus by Tafalla & Hacar and find accretion rates consistent with those estimated by Palmeirim et al.

  19. Neutrinos from Accreting Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anchordoqui, Luis A.; Torres, Diego F.; McCauley, Thomas P.; Romero, Gustavo E.; Aharonian, Felix A.

    2003-05-01

    The magnetospheres of accreting neutron stars develop electrostatic gaps with huge potential drops. Protons and ions, accelerated in these gaps along the dipolar magnetic field lines to energies greater than 100 TeV, can impact onto the surrounding accretion disk. A proton-induced cascade develops, and charged pion decays produce ν emission. With extensive disk shower simulations using DPMJET and GEANT4, we have calculated the resulting ν spectrum. We show that the spectrum produced out of the proton beam is a power law. We use this result to propose accretion-powered X-ray binaries (with highly magnetized neutron stars) as a new population of pointlike ν sources for kilometer-scale detectors such as ICECUBE. As a particular example, we discuss the case of A0535+26. We show that ICECUBE should find A0535+26 to be a periodic ν source, one for which the formation and loss of its accretion disk can be fully detected. Finally, we comment briefly on the possibility that smaller telescopes such as AMANDA could also detect A0535+26 by folding observations with the orbital period.

  20. Small Seed Black Hole Growth in Various Accretion Regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerling-Dunsmore, Hannalore J.; Hopkins, Philip F.

    2016-03-01

    Observational evidence indicates a population of super massive black holes (SMBHs) (~109 -1010M⊙) formed within 1 Gyr after the Big Bang. One proposed means of SMBH formation is accretion onto small seed black holes (BHs) (~ 100M⊙). However, the existence of SMBHs within 1 Gyr requires rapid growth, but conventional models of accretion fail to grow the seed BHs quickly enough. Super Eddington accretion (Ṁ >ṀEddington) may aid in improving growth efficiency. We study small seed BH growth via accretion in 3D, using the magneto-hydrodynamics+gravity code GIZMO. In particular, we consider a BH in a high density turbulent star-forming cloud, and ask whether or not the BH can capture sufficient gas to grow rapidly. We consider both Eddington-limited and super Eddington regimes, and resolve physics on scales from 0.1 pc to 1 kpc while including detailed models for stellar feedback physics, including stellar winds, supernovae, radiation pressure, and photo-ionization. We present results on the viability of different small seed BHs growing into SMBH candidates.

  1. Shocks in the low angular momentum accretion flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suková, Petra; Janiuk, Agnieszka

    2015-04-01

    We address the variability of low luminous galactic nuclei including the Sgr A* or other transient accreting systems, e.g. the black hole X-ray binaries, such as GX 339-4 or IGR J17091. These sources exhibit bright X-ray flares and quasi-periodical oscillations and are theoretically interpreted as the quasi-spherical accretion flows, formed instead of or around Keplerianaccretion disks. In low angular momentum flows the existence of shocks for some range of leading parameters (energy, angular momentum and adiabatic constant of the gas) was studied semi-analytically. The possible hysteresis effect, caused by the fact that the evolution of the flow and the formation of the shock depends on its own history, was discovered. The presence of the shock in the accreted material is important for the observable properties of the out-coming radiation. In the shocked region the gas is dense and hot, thus much more luminous than in the other case. We study the appearance of standing shocks in low angular momentum gas accreting onto a black hole with numerical hydrodynamicalsimulations, using the ZEUS code with Paczynski-Wiitapseudo-Newtonian potential.

  2. Accretion onto Protoplanetary Discs: Implications for Globular Cluster Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijnen, Thomas; Pols, Onno; Portegies Zwart, Simon

    2015-08-01

    In the past decade, observational evidence that Globular Clusters (GCs) harbour multiple stellar populations has grown steadily. These observations are hard to reconcile with the classic picture of star formation in GCs, which approximates them as a single generation of stars. However, Bastian et al. recently suggested an evolutionary scenario in which a second (and higher order) population is formed by the accretion of chemically enriched material onto the low-mass stars in the initial GC population. In this early disc accretion scenario the low-mass, pre-main sequence stars sweep up gas expelled by the more massive stars of the same generation into their protoplanetary disc as they move through the cluster centre.Using assumptions that represent the (dynamical) conditions in a typical GC, we investigate whether a low-mass star surrounded by a protoplanetary disc can indeed accrete sufficient enriched material to account for the observed abundances in 'second generation' stars. We compare the outcome of two different smoothed particle hydrodynamics codes and check for consistency. In particular, we focus on the lifetime and stability of the disc and on the gas accretion rate onto both the star and the disc.

  3. Strongly Magnetized Accretion Disks Around Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvesen, Greg; Armitage, Philip J.; Simon, Jacob B.; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    2017-01-01

    Recent observations are suggestive of strongly magnetized accretion disks around black holes. Performing local (shearing box) simulations of accretion disks, we investigate how a strong magnetization state can develop and persist. We demonstrate that poloidal flux is a necessary prerequisite for the sustainability of strongly magnetized accretion disks. We also show that black hole spin measurements can become unconstrained if magnetic fields provide a significant contribution to the vertical pressure support of the accretion disk atmosphere.

  4. Polar Codes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    density parity check (LDPC) code, a Reed–Solomon code, and three convolutional codes. iii CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY...the most common. Many civilian systems use low density parity check (LDPC) FEC codes, and the Navy is planning to use LDPC for some future systems...other forward error correction methods: a turbo code, a low density parity check (LDPC) code, a Reed–Solomon code, and three convolutional codes

  5. Black Hole Accretion Discs on a Moving Mesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Geoffrey

    2017-01-01

    We present multi-dimensional numerical simulations of black hole accretion disks relevant for the production of electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational wave sources. We perform these simulations with a new general relativistic version of the moving-mesh magnetohydrodynamics code DISCO which we will present. This open-source code, GR-DISCO uses an orbiting and shearing mesh which moves with the dominant flow velocity, greatly improving the numerical accuracy of the thermodynamic variables in supersonic flows while also reducing numerical viscosity and greatly increasing computational efficiency by allowing for a larger time step. We have used GR-DISCO to study black hole accretion discs subject to gravitational torques from a binary companion, relevant for both current and future supermassive binary black hole searches and also as a possible electromagnetic precursor mechanism for LIGO events. Binary torques in these discs excite spiral shockwaves which effectively transport angular momentum in the disc and propagate through the innermost stable orbit, leading to stress corresponding to an alpha-viscosity of 10-2. We also present three-dimensional GRMHD simulations of neutrino dominated accretion flows (NDAFs) occurring after a binary neutron star merger in order to elucidate the conditions for electromagnetic transient production accompanying these gravitational waves sources expected to be detected by LIGO in the near future.

  6. Ice accretion modeling for wind turbine rotor blades

    SciTech Connect

    Chocron, D.; Brahimi, T.; Paraschivoiu, I.; Bombardier, J.A.

    1997-12-31

    The increasing application of wind energy in northern climates implies operation of wind turbines under severe atmospheric icing conditions. Such conditions are well known in the Scandinavian countries, Canada and most of Eastern European countries. An extensive study to develop a procedure for the prediction of ice accretion on wind turbines rotor blades appears to be essential for the safe and economic operation of wind turbines in these cold regions. The objective of the present paper is to develop a computer code capable of simulating the shape and amount of ice which may accumulate on horizontal axis wind turbine blades when operating in icing conditions. The resulting code is capable to predict and simulate the formation of ice in rime and glaze conditions, calculate the flow field and particle trajectories and to perform thermodynamic analysis. It also gives the possibility of studying the effect of different parameters that influence ice formation such as temperature, liquid water content, droplet diameter and accretion time. The analysis has been conducted on different typical airfoils as well as on NASA/DOE Mod-0 wind turbine. Results showed that ice accretion on wind turbines may reduce the power output by more than 20%.

  7. Conservative GRMHD simulations of moderately thin, tilted accretion disks

    SciTech Connect

    Teixeira, Danilo Morales; Fragile, P. Chris; Zhuravlev, Viacheslav V.; Ivanov, Pavel B.

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents our latest numerical simulations of accretion disks that are misaligned with respect to the rotation axis of a Kerr black hole. In this work, we use a new, fully conservative version of the Cosmos++ general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (GRMHD) code, coupled with an ad hoc cooling function designed to control the thickness of the disk. Together these allow us to simulate the thinnest tilted accretion disks ever using a GRMHD code. In this way, we are able to probe the regime where the dimensionless stress and scale height of the disk become comparable. We present results for both prograde and retrograde cases. The simulated prograde tilted disk shows no sign of Bardeen-Petterson alignment even in the innermost parts of the disk. The simulated retrograde tilted disk, however, does show modest alignment. The implication of these results is that the parameter space associated with Bardeen-Petterson alignment for prograde disks may be rather small, only including very thin disks. Unlike our previous work, we find no evidence for standing shocks in our simulated tilted disks. We ascribe this to the black hole spin, tilt angle, and disk scale height all being small in these simulations. We also add to the growing body of literature pointing out that the turbulence driven by the magnetorotational instability in global simulations of accretion disks is not isotropic. Finally, we provide a comparison between our moderately thin, untilted reference simulation and other numerical simulations of thin disks in the literature.

  8. Testing Convergence for Global Accretion Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawley, John F.; Richers, Sherwood A.; Guan, Xiaoyue; Krolik, Julian H.

    2013-08-01

    Global disk simulations provide a powerful tool for investigating accretion and the underlying magnetohydrodynamic turbulence driven by magneto-rotational instability (MRI). Using them to accurately predict quantities such as stress, accretion rate, and surface brightness profile requires that purely numerical effects, arising from both resolution and algorithm, be understood and controlled. We use the flux-conservative Athena code to conduct a series of experiments on disks having a variety of magnetic topologies to determine what constitutes adequate resolution. We develop and apply several resolution metrics: langQz rang and langQ phirang, the ratio of the grid zone size to the characteristic MRI wavelength, αmag, the ratio of the Maxwell stress to the magnetic pressure, and \\langle B_R^2\\rangle /\\langle B_\\phi ^2\\rangle, the ratio of radial to toroidal magnetic field energy. For the initial conditions considered here, adequate resolution is characterized by langQz rang >= 15, langQ phirang >= 20, αmag ≈ 0.45, and \\langle B_R^2\\rangle /\\langle B_\\phi ^2\\rangle \\approx 0.2. These values are associated with >=35 zones per scaleheight H, a result consistent with shearing box simulations. Numerical algorithm is also important. Use of the Harten-Lax-van Leer-Einfeldt flux solver or second-order interpolation can significantly degrade the effective resolution compared to the Harten-Lax-van Leer discontinuities flux solver and third-order interpolation. Resolution at this standard can be achieved only with large numbers of grid zones, arranged in a fashion that matches the symmetries of the problem and the scientific goals of the simulation. Without it, however, quantitative measures important to predictions of observables are subject to large systematic errors.

  9. Binary Black Hole Accretion from a Circumbinary Disk: Gas Dynamics inside the Central Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farris, Brian D.; Duffell, Paul; MacFadyen, Andrew I.; Haiman, Zoltan

    2014-03-01

    We present the results of two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamical simulations of circumbinary disk accretion using the finite-volume code DISCO. This code solves the 2D viscous Navier-Stokes equations on a high-resolution moving mesh which shears with the fluid flow, greatly reducing advection errors in comparison with a fixed grid. We perform a series of simulations for binary mass ratios in the range 0.026 <= q <= 1.0, each lasting longer than a viscous time so that we reach a quasi-steady accretion state. In each case, we find that gas is efficiently stripped from the inner edge of the circumbinary disk and enters the cavity along accretion streams, which feed persistent "mini disks" surrounding each black hole. We find that for q >~ 0.1, the binary excites eccentricity in the inner region of the circumbinary disk, creating an overdense lump which gives rise to enhanced periodicity in the accretion rate. The dependence of the periodicity on mass ratio may provide a method for observationally inferring mass ratios from measurements of the accretion rate. We also find that for all mass ratios studied, the magnitude of the accretion onto the secondary is sufficient to drive the binary toward larger mass ratio. This suggests a mechanism for biasing mass-ratio distributions toward equal mass.

  10. Binary black hole accretion from a circumbinary disk: Gas dynamics inside the central cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Farris, Brian D.; Duffell, Paul; MacFadyen, Andrew I.; Haiman, Zoltan

    2014-03-10

    We present the results of two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamical simulations of circumbinary disk accretion using the finite-volume code DISCO. This code solves the 2D viscous Navier-Stokes equations on a high-resolution moving mesh which shears with the fluid flow, greatly reducing advection errors in comparison with a fixed grid. We perform a series of simulations for binary mass ratios in the range 0.026 ≤ q ≤ 1.0, each lasting longer than a viscous time so that we reach a quasi-steady accretion state. In each case, we find that gas is efficiently stripped from the inner edge of the circumbinary disk and enters the cavity along accretion streams, which feed persistent 'mini disks' surrounding each black hole. We find that for q ≳ 0.1, the binary excites eccentricity in the inner region of the circumbinary disk, creating an overdense lump which gives rise to enhanced periodicity in the accretion rate. The dependence of the periodicity on mass ratio may provide a method for observationally inferring mass ratios from measurements of the accretion rate. We also find that for all mass ratios studied, the magnitude of the accretion onto the secondary is sufficient to drive the binary toward larger mass ratio. This suggests a mechanism for biasing mass-ratio distributions toward equal mass.

  11. ROTATING ACCRETION FLOWS: FROM INFINITY TO THE BLACK HOLE

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jason; Ostriker, Jeremiah; Sunyaev, Rashid

    2013-04-20

    Accretion onto a supermassive black hole of a rotating inflow is a particularly difficult problem to study because of the wide range of length scales involved. There have been broadly utilized analytic and numerical treatments of the global properties of accretion flows, but detailed numerical simulations are required to address certain critical aspects. We use the ZEUS code to run hydrodynamical simulations of rotating, axisymmetric accretion flows with Bremsstrahlung cooling, considering solutions for which the centrifugal balance radius significantly exceeds the Schwarzschild radius, with and without viscous angular momentum transport. Infalling gas is followed from well beyond the Bondi radius down to the vicinity of the black hole. We produce a continuum of solutions with respect to the single parameter M-dot{sub B}/ M-dot{sub Edd}, and there is a sharp transition between two general classes of solutions at an Eddington ratio of M-dot{sub B}/M-dot{sub Edd}{approx}few Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2}. Our high inflow solutions are very similar to the standard Shakura and Sunyaev results. But our low inflow results are to zeroth order the stationary Papaloizou and Pringle solution, which has no accretion. To next order in the small, assumed viscosity they show circulation, with disk and conical wind outflows almost balancing inflow. These solutions are characterized by hot, vertically extended disks, and net accretion proceeds at an extremely low rate, only of order {alpha} times the inflow rate. Our simulations have converged with respect to spatial resolution and temporal duration, and they do not depend strongly on our choice of boundary conditions.

  12. Planetary accretion in circumstellar disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Stewart, Glen R.

    1993-01-01

    The formation of terrestrial planets and the cores of Jovian planets is reviewed in the framework of the planetesimal hypothesis, wherein planets are assumed to grow via the pairwise accumulation of small solid bodies. Emphasis is placed on the dynamics of solid body accretion from kilometer size planetesimals to terrestrial type planets. This stage of planetary growth is least dependent on the characteristics of the evolutionary state of the central star. It is concluded that the evolution of the planetesimal size distribution is determined by the gravitationally enhanced collision cross-section, which favors collisions between planetesimals with smaller velocities. Runaway growth of the largest planetesimal in each accretion zone appears to be a likely outcome. The subsequent accumulation of the resulting protoplanets leads to a large degree of radial mixing in the terrestrial planet region, and giant impacts are probable.

  13. Obscured accretion from AGN surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vignali, Cristian

    2014-07-01

    Recent models of super-massive black hole (SMBH) and host galaxy joint evolution predict the presence of a key phase where accretion, traced by obscured Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) emission, is coupled with powerful star formation. Then feedback processes likely self-regulate the SMBH growth and quench the star-formation activity. AGN in this important evolutionary phase have been revealed in the last decade via surveys at different wavelengths. On the one hand, moderate-to-deep X-ray surveys have allowed a systematic search for heavily obscured AGN, up to very high redshifts (z~5). On the other hand, infrared/optical surveys have been invaluable in offering complementary methods to select obscured AGN also in cases where the nuclear X-ray emission below 10 keV is largely hidden to our view. In this review I will present my personal perspective of the field of obscured accretion from AGN surveys.

  14. Hydrodynamic Viscosity in Accretion Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duschl, Wolfgang J.; Strittmatter, Peter A.; Biermann, Peter L.

    We propose a generalized accretion disk viscosity prescription based on hydrodynamically driven turbulence at the critical effective Reynolds number. This approach is consistent with recent re-analysis by Richard & Zahn (1999) of experimental results on turbulent Couette-Taylor flows. This new β-viscosity formulation applies to both selfgravitating and non-selfgravitating disks and is shown to yield the standard α-disk prescription in the case of shock dissipation limited, non-selfgravitating disks.

  15. Accretion disks around black holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abramowicz, M. A.

    1994-01-01

    The physics of accretion flow very close to a black hole is dominated by several general relativistic effects. It cannot be described by the standard Shakura Sunyaev model or by its relativistic version developed by Novikov and Thome. The most important of these effects is a dynamical mass loss from the inner edge of the disk (Roche lobe overflow). The relativistic Roche lobe overflow induces a strong advective cooling, which is sufficient to stabilize local, axially symmetric thermal and viscous modes. It also stabilizes the non-axially-symmetric global modes discovered by Papaloizou and Pringle. The Roche lobe overflow, however, destabilizes sufficiently self-gravitating accretion disks with respect to a catastrophic runaway of mass due to minute changes of the gravitational field induced by the changes in the mass and angular momentum of the central black hole. One of the two acoustic modes may become trapped near the inner edge of the disk. All these effects, absent in the standard model, have dramatic implications for time-dependent behavior of the accretion disks around black holes.

  16. Formation of giant planets’ cores by classical planetesimal accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morishima, Ryuji

    2015-11-01

    In the core accretion scenario for formation of giant planets, solid-cores each with a roughly ten Earth masses first form, followed by gravitational capture of massive gaseous envelopes. Although recent models favor solid core growth by accretion of centimeter-sized pebbles, classical models in which embryos grow by accretion of km-sized planetesimals have not been fully understood. We perform a suite of simulations for accretion of solid cores, using a particle-based hybrid code that we have recently developed (Morishima 2015, Icarus 260, 368). The code uses an N-body routine for interactions with planetary embryos while a large number of small planetesimals are represented by a small number of tracers and tracer-tracer interactions are handled by a statistical routine. The initial surface densities of both solid and gas are assumed to be seven times the minimum mass solar nebula. The initial planetesimal size, r_0, is varied from 100 m to 100 km. Collisions are assumed to result in either merging or hit-and-run bouncing depending on impact velocity (Genda et al. 2012), while fragmentation is ignored. We find that embryos cannot usually grow to 10 Earth masses within 2 Myr, although it can happen in some cases. For the case of r_0 = 100 m, embryos can grow up to 6-7 Earth masses although they are quickly pushed toward the central star by planetesimals. For r_0 = 100 km, embryo masses can reach only two Earth masses within 2 Myr at best as their growth is slow. The case of r_0 = 1 km is found to be most promising, as growth of embryos is fast while their inward migration is not very rapid.

  17. Clinical coding. Code breakers.

    PubMed

    Mathieson, Steve

    2005-02-24

    --The advent of payment by results has seen the role of the clinical coder pushed to the fore in England. --Examinations for a clinical coding qualification began in 1999. In 2004, approximately 200 people took the qualification. --Trusts are attracting people to the role by offering training from scratch or through modern apprenticeships.

  18. The Influence of Accretion Rate and Metallicity on Thermonuclear Bursts: Predictions from KEPLER Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampe, Nathanael; Heger, Alexander; Galloway, Duncan K.

    2016-03-01

    Using the KEPLER hydrodynamics code, 464 models of thermonuclear X-ray bursters were performed across a range of accretion rates and compositions. We present the library of simulated burst profiles from this sample, and examine variations in the simulated light curve for different model conditions. We find that the recurrence time varies as a power law against accretion rate, and measure its slope while mixed H/He burning is occurring for a range of metallicities, finding the power law gradient to vary from η =1.1 to 1.24. We identify the accretion rates at which mixed H/He burning stops and a transition occurs to different burning regimes. We explore how varying the accretion rate and metallicity affects burst morphology in both the rise and tail.

  19. Time-dependent spherically symmetric accretion onto compact X-ray sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowie, L. L.; Ostriker, J. P.; Stark, A. A.

    1978-01-01

    Analytical arguments and a numerical hydrodynamic code are used to investigate spherically symmetric accretion onto a compact object, in an attempt to provide some insight into gas flows heated by an outgoing X-ray flux. It is shown that preheating of spherically symmetric accretion flows by energetic radiation from an X-ray source results in time-dependent behavior for a much wider range of source parameters than was determined previously and that there are two distinct types of instability. The results are compared with observations of X-ray bursters and transients as well as with theories on quasars and active galactic nuclei that involve quasi-spherically symmetric accretion onto massive black holes. Models based on spherically symmetric accretion are found to be inconsistent with observations of bursters and transients.

  20. Nucleosynthesis in the accretion disks of Type II collapsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Indrani; Mukhopadhyay, Banibrata

    2013-09-01

    We investigate nucleosynthesis inside the gamma-ray burst (GRB) accretion disks formed by the Type II collapsars. In these collapsars, the core collapse of massive stars first leads to the formation of a proto-neutron star. After that, an outward moving shock triggers a successful supernova. However, the supernova ejecta lacks momentum and within a few seconds the newly formed neutron star gets transformed to a stellar mass black hole via massive fallback. The hydrodynamics of such an accretion disk formed from the fallback material of the supernova ejecta has been studied extensively in the past. We use these well-established hydrodynamic models for our accretion disk in order to understand nucleosynthesis, which is mainly advection dominated in the outer regions. Neutrino cooling becomes important in the inner disk where the temperature and density are higher. The higher the accretion rate (dot M) is, the higher the density and temperature are in the disks. We deal with accretion disks with relatively low accretion rates: 0.001 Msolar s-1 ≲ dot M ≲ 0.01 Msolar s-1 and hence these disks are predominantly advection dominated. We use He-rich and Sirich abundances as the initial condition of nucleosynthesis at the outer disk, and being equipped with the disk hydrodynamics and the nuclear network code, we study the abundance evolution as matter inflows and falls into the central object. We investigate the variation in the nucleosynthesis products in the disk with the change in the initial abundance at the outer disk and also with the change in the mass accretion rate. We report the synthesis of several unusual nuclei like 31P, 39K, 43Sc, 35Cl and various isotopes of titanium, vanadium, chromium, manganese and copper. We also confirm that isotopes of iron, cobalt, nickel, argon, calcium, sulphur and silicon get synthesized in the disk, as shown by previous authors. Much of these heavy elements thus synthesized are ejected from the disk via outflows and hence they

  1. Analytical ice shape predictions for flight in natural icing conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkowitz, Brian M.; Riley, James T.

    1988-01-01

    LEWICE is an analytical ice prediction code that has been evaluated against icing tunnel data, but on a more limited basis against flight data. Ice shapes predicted by LEWICE is compared with experimental ice shapes accreted on the NASA Lewis Icing Research Aircraft. The flight data selected for comparison includes liquid water content recorded using a hot wire device and droplet distribution data from a laser spectrometer; the ice shape is recorded using stereo photography. The main findings are as follows: (1) An equivalent sand grain roughness correlation different from that used for LEWICE tunnel comparisons must be employed to obtain satisfactory results for flight; (2) Using this correlation and making no other changes in the code, the comparisons to ice shapes accreted in flight are in general as good as the comparisons to ice shapes accreted in the tunnel (as in the case of tunnel ice shapes, agreement is least reliable for large glaze ice shapes at high angles of attack); (3) In some cases comparisons can be somewhat improved by utilizing the code so as to take account of the variation of parameters such as liquid water content, which may vary significantly in flight.

  2. Planetary migration, accretion, and atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbs-Dixon, Ian M.

    This dissertation explores three distinct projects in the field of planetary formation and evolution: type I migration, cessation of mass accretion, and the atmospheric dynamics of hot Jupiters. All three of these projects touch on outstanding or unresolved issues in the field. Each attempts to unify analytic and numerical approaches in order to physically motivate solutions while simultaneously probing areas currently inaccessible to purely analytic approaches. The first section, type I migration, explores the outstanding problem of the rapid inward migration of low mass planets embedded in protoplanetary disks. Analytic estimates of migration predict characteristic timescales that are much shorter then either observed disk lifetimes or theoretical core-accretion formation timescales. If migration is actually as efficient as these analytic estimates predict, planet formation across the observed range of masses and semimajor axis' is difficult. Here I introduce several new formalisms to both allow the disk to adiabatically adjust to the presence of a planet and include the effect of axisymmetric disk self-gravity. I find that these modifications increase migration timescales by approximately 4 times. In addition to these numerical improvements, I present simulations of migration in lower sound-speed regions of the disk on the grounds that self shadowing within the disk could yield substantially cooler gas temperatures then those derived by most irradiated disk models. In such regions the planetary perturbation excites a secondary instability, leading to the formation of vortices. These vortices cause a substantial reduction in the net torque, increasing migration timescales by up to approximately 200 times the analytically predicted rate. The second section addresses the mechanism for shutting off accretion onto giant planets. According to the conventional sequential accretion scenario, giant planets acquire a majority of their gas in a runaway phase. Conventional

  3. Accretion Flow in the inner Accretion Discs of Cataclysmic Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balman, Solen; Revnivtsev, Mikhail

    2012-07-01

    We study nature of time variability of brightness of non-magnetic cataclysmic variables. We show that lightcurtves of all analyzed DN systems in UV and X-ray energy bands demonstrate band limited noise, which can be adequately described in the framework of the model of propagating fluctuations. The frequency of the break indicates the inner disc truncation with a range of radii (10-3)e+9 cm. We analyse the RXTE and optical (RTT150) data of SS Cyg in outburst and quiescence which show that during the outburst the inner disk radius moves towards the white dwarf and receeds as the outburst declines to quiescence. Cross-correlations between the simultaneous UV and X-ray light curves find time lags in the X-rays of 90-180 sec consistent with travel time of matter from a truncated inner disc to the white dwarf surface. This suggests that DN and other plausible nonmagnetic systems have truncated accretion discs indicating that the accretion may occur through coronal flows in the disc. We compare and contrast magnetic and nonmagnetic systems in terms of their aperiodic noise characteristics and the model of propagating fluctuations. The comparison of the X-ray/UV time lag observed by us in the case of non-magnetic CVs with those, detected for magnetic CVs allows us to make an rough estimate of the viscosity parameter. Multi band simultaneous observations of coming observattories like ASTROSAT will give us the opportunity to study time variability of brightness variations of accretion disks in cataclysmic variables in quiescence and outburst using LAXPC and UVIT/OPT instruments. We will elaborate on the nature and possible outcomes of such research.

  4. Angular momentum transport in thin accretion disks and intermittent accretion.

    PubMed

    Coppi, B; Coppi, P S

    2001-07-30

    The plasma modes, transporting angular momentum in accretion disks, under minimally restrictive conditions when the magnetic energy density is significant relative to the thermal energy density, are shown to be singular if the ideal MHD approximation is adopted. A similarity with the modes producing magnetic reconnection in current carrying plasmas is established. The combined effects of finite plasma temperature, of plasma compressibility, of the gradient of the rotation frequency, and of appropriate transport processes (outside ideal MHD) are involved in the onset of these nonaxisymmetric and locally corotating modes.

  5. A LAGRANGIAN INTEGRATOR FOR PLANETARY ACCRETION AND DYNAMICS (LIPAD)

    SciTech Connect

    Levison, Harold F.; Duncan, Martin J.; Thommes, Edward

    2012-10-01

    We present the first particle-based Lagrangian code that can follow the collisional/accretional/dynamical evolution of a large number of kilometer-sized planetesimals through the entire growth process of becoming planets. We refer to it as the Lagrangian Integrator for Planetary Accretion and Dynamics or LIPAD. LIPAD is built on top of SyMBA, which is a symplectic N-body integrator. In order to handle the very large number of planetesimals required by planet formation simulations, we introduce the concept of a tracer particle. Each tracer is intended to represent a large number of disk particles on roughly the same orbit and size as one another and is characterized by three numbers: the physical radius, the bulk density, and the total mass of the disk particles represented by the tracer. We developed statistical algorithms that follow the velocity and size evolution of the tracers due to close gravitational encounters and physical collisions with one another. The tracers mainly dynamically interact with the larger objects (planetary embryos) in the normal N-body way. LIPAD's greatest strength is that it can accurately model the wholesale redistribution of planetesimals due to gravitational interaction with the embryos, which has recently been shown to significantly affect the growth rate of planetary embryos. We verify the code via a comprehensive set of tests that compare our results with those of Eulerian and/or direct N-body codes.

  6. Star formation sustained by gas accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez Almeida, Jorge; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Muñoz-Tuñón, Casiana; Elmegreen, Debra Meloy

    2014-07-01

    Numerical simulations predict that metal-poor gas accretion from the cosmic web fuels the formation of disk galaxies. This paper discusses how cosmic gas accretion controls star formation, and summarizes the physical properties expected for the cosmic gas accreted by galaxies. The paper also collects observational evidence for gas accretion sustaining star formation. It reviews evidence inferred from neutral and ionized hydrogen, as well as from stars. A number of properties characterizing large samples of star-forming galaxies can be explained by metal-poor gas accretion, in particular, the relationship among stellar mass, metallicity, and star-formation rate (the so-called fundamental metallicity relationship). They are put forward and analyzed. Theory predicts gas accretion to be particularly important at high redshift, so indications based on distant objects are reviewed, including the global star-formation history of the universe, and the gas around galaxies as inferred from absorption features in the spectra of background sources.

  7. Chondrule Accretion with a Growing Protoplanet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Yuji; Oshino, Shoichi; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Wakita, Shigeru

    2017-03-01

    Chondrules are primitive materials in the solar system. They were formed in about the first 3 Myr of the solar system’s history. This timescale is longer than that of Mars formation, and it is conceivable that protoplanets, planetesimals, and chondrules might have existed simultaneously in the solar nebula. Due to protoplanets’ perturbation on the planetesimal dynamics and chondrule accretion on them, all the formed chondrules are unlikely to be accreted by the planetesimals. We investigate the amount of chondrules accreted by planetesimals in such a condition. We assume that a protoplanet is in oligarchic growth, and we perform analytical calculations of chondrule accretion by both a protoplanet and planetesimals. Through the oligarchic growth stage, planetesimals accrete about half of the formed chondrules. The smallest planetesimals get the largest amount of chondrules, compared with the amount accreted by more massive planetesimals. We perform a parameter study and find that this fraction is not greatly changed for a wide range of parameter sets.

  8. Modeling the Effects of Ice Accretion on the Low Pressure Compressor and the Overall Turbofan Engine System Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veres, Joseph P.; Jorgenson, Philip C. E.; Wright, William B.

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this study is on utilizing a mean line compressor flow analysis code coupled to an engine system thermodynamic code, to estimate the effects of ice accretion on the low pressure compressor, and quantifying its effects on the engine system throughout a notional flight trajectory. In this paper a temperature range in which engine icing would occur was assumed. This provided a mechanism to locate potential component icing sites and allow the computational tools to add blockages due to ice accretion in a parametric fashion. Ultimately the location and level of blockage due to icing would be provided by an ice accretion code. To proceed, an engine system modeling code and a mean line compressor flow analysis code were utilized to calculate the flow conditions in the fan-core and low pressure compressor and to identify potential locations within the compressor where ice may accrete. In this study, an "additional blockage" due to the accretion of ice on the metal surfaces, has been added to the baseline aerodynamic blockage due to boundary layer, as well as the blade metal blockage. Once the potential locations of ice accretion are identified, the levels of additional blockage due to accretion were parametrically varied to estimate the effects on the low pressure compressor blade row performance operating within the engine system environment. This study includes detailed analysis of compressor and engine performance during cruise and descent operating conditions at several altitudes within the notional flight trajectory. The purpose of this effort is to develop the computer codes to provide a predictive capability to forecast the onset of engine icing events, such that they could ultimately help in the avoidance of these events.

  9. Theory of protostellar accretion disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruden, S.

    1994-01-01

    I will present an overview of the current paradigm for the theory of gaseous accretion disks around young stars. Protostellar disks form from the collapse of rotating molecular cloud cores. The disks evolve via outward angular momentum transport provided by several mechanisms: gravitational instabilities, thermal convective turbulence, and magnetic stresses. I will review the conditions under which these mechanisms are efficient and consistent with the observed disk evolutionary timescales of several million years. Time permitting, I will discuss outbursts in protostellar disks (FU Orionis variables), the effect of planet formation on disk structure, and the dispersal of remnant gas.

  10. Accretion Onto Magnetic Degenerate Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Juhan

    2000-01-01

    While the original objectives of this research program included the study of radiative processes in cataclysmic variables and the evolution of neutron star magnetic fields, the scope of the reported research expanded to other related topics as this project developed. This final report therefore describes the results of our research in the following areas: 1) Irradiation-driven mass transfer cycles in cataclysmic variables and low-mass X-ray binaries; 2) Propeller effect and magnetic field decay in isolated old neutron stars; 3) Decay of surface magnetic fields in accreting neutron stars and pulsars; 4) Finite-Difference Hydrodynamic simulations of mass transfer in binary stars.

  11. Disk tides and accretion runaway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, William R.; Hahn, Joseph M.

    1995-01-01

    It is suggested that tidal interaction of an accreting planetary embryo with the gaseous preplanetary disk may provide a mechanism to breach the so-called runaway limit during the formation of the giant planet cores. The disk tidal torque converts a would-be shepherding object into a 'predator,' which can continue to cannibalize the planetesimal disk. This is more likely to occur in the giant planet region than in the terrestrial zone, providing a natural cause for Jupiter to predate the inner planets and form within the O(10(exp 7) yr) lifetime of the nebula.

  12. [Predicting Spectra of Accretion Disks Around Galactic Black Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krolik, Julian H.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this grant was to construct detailed atmosphere solutions in order to predict the spectra of accretion disks around Galactic black holes. Our plan of action was to take an existing disk atmosphere code (TLUSTY, created by Ivan Hubeny) and introduce those additional physical processes necessary to make it applicable to disks of this variety. These modifications include: treating Comptonization; introducing continuous opacity due to heavy elements; incorporating line opacity due to heavy elements; adopting a disk structure that reflects readjustments due to radiation pressure effects; and injecting heat via a physically-plausible vertical distribution.

  13. DRA/NASA/ONERA Collaboration on Icing Research. Part 2; Prediction of Airfoil Ice Accretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, William B.; Gent, R. W.; Guffond, Didier

    1997-01-01

    This report presents results from a joint study by DRA, NASA, and ONERA for the purpose of comparing, improving, and validating the aircraft icing computer codes developed by each agency. These codes are of three kinds: (1) water droplet trajectory prediction, (2) ice accretion modeling, and (3) transient electrothermal deicer analysis. In this joint study, the agencies compared their code predictions with each other and with experimental results. These comparison exercises were published in three technical reports, each with joint authorship. DRA published and had first authorship of Part 1 - Droplet Trajectory Calculations, NASA of Part 2 - Ice Accretion Prediction, and ONERA of Part 3 - Electrothermal Deicer Analysis. The results cover work done during the period from August 1986 to late 1991. As a result, all of the information in this report is dated. Where necessary, current information is provided to show the direction of current research. In this present report on ice accretion, each agency predicted ice shapes on two dimensional airfoils under icing conditions for which experimental ice shapes were available. In general, all three codes did a reasonable job of predicting the measured ice shapes. For any given experimental condition, one of the three codes predicted the general ice features (i.e., shape, impingement limits, mass of ice) somewhat better than did the other two. However, no single code consistently did better than the other two over the full range of conditions examined, which included rime, mixed, and glaze ice conditions. In several of the cases, DRA showed that the user's knowledge of icing can significantly improve the accuracy of the code prediction. Rime ice predictions were reasonably accurate and consistent among the codes, because droplets freeze on impact and the freezing model is simple. Glaze ice predictions were less accurate and less consistent among the codes, because the freezing model is more complex and is critically

  14. Limiting Accretion onto Massive Stars by Fragmentation-Induced Starvation

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Thomas; Klessen, Ralf S.; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Banerjee, Robi; /ZAH, Heidelberg

    2010-08-25

    Massive stars influence their surroundings through radiation, winds, and supernova explosions far out of proportion to their small numbers. However, the physical processes that initiate and govern the birth of massive stars remain poorly understood. Two widely discussed models are monolithic collapse of molecular cloud cores and competitive accretion. To learn more about massive star formation, we perform simulations of the collapse of rotating, massive, cloud cores including radiative heating by both non-ionizing and ionizing radiation using the FLASH adaptive mesh refinement code. These simulations show fragmentation from gravitational instability in the enormously dense accretion flows required to build up massive stars. Secondary stars form rapidly in these flows and accrete mass that would have otherwise been consumed by the massive star in the center, in a process that we term fragmentation-induced starvation. This explains why massive stars are usually found as members of high-order stellar systems that themselves belong to large clusters containing stars of all masses. The radiative heating does not prevent fragmentation, but does lead to a higher Jeans mass, resulting in fewer and more massive stars than would form without the heating. This mechanism reproduces the observed relation between the total stellar mass in the cluster and the mass of the largest star. It predicts strong clumping and filamentary structure in the center of collapsing cores, as has recently been observed. We speculate that a similar mechanism will act during primordial star formation.

  15. ACCRETION DISKS AROUND KICKED BLACK HOLES: POST-KICK DYNAMICS

    SciTech Connect

    Ponce, Marcelo; Faber, Joshua A.; Lombardi, James C. E-mail: jafsma@rit.edu

    2012-01-20

    Numerical calculations of merging black hole binaries indicate that asymmetric emission of gravitational radiation can kick the merged black hole at up to thousands of km s{sup -1}, and a number of systems have been observed recently whose properties are consistent with an active galactic nucleus containing a supermassive black hole moving with substantial velocity with respect to its broader accretion disk. We study here the effect of an impulsive kick delivered to a black hole on the dynamical evolution of its accretion disk using a smoothed particle hydrodynamics code, focusing attention on the role played by the kick angle with respect to the orbital angular momentum vector of the pre-kicked disk. We find that for more vertical kicks, for which the angle between the kick and the normal vector to the disk {theta} {approx}< 30 Degree-Sign , a gap remains present in the inner disk, in accordance with the prediction from an analytic collisionless Keplerian disk model, while for more oblique kicks with {theta} {approx}> 45 Degree-Sign , matter rapidly accretes toward the black hole. There is a systematic trend for higher potential luminosities for more oblique kick angles for a given black hole mass, disk mass, and kick velocity, and we find large amplitude oscillations in time in the case of a kick oriented 60 Degree-Sign from the vertical.

  16. LIMITING ACCRETION ONTO MASSIVE STARS BY FRAGMENTATION-INDUCED STARVATION

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Thomas; Klessen, Ralf S.; Banerjee, Robi; Low, Mordecai-Mark Mac

    2010-12-10

    Massive stars influence their surroundings through radiation, winds, and supernova explosions far out of proportion to their small numbers. However, the physical processes that initiate and govern the birth of massive stars remain poorly understood. Two widely discussed models are monolithic collapse of molecular cloud cores and competitive accretion. To learn more about massive star formation, we perform and analyze simulations of the collapse of rotating, massive, cloud cores including radiative heating by both non-ionizing and ionizing radiation using the FLASH adaptive-mesh refinement code. These simulations show fragmentation from gravitational instability in the enormously dense accretion flows required to build up massive stars. Secondary stars form rapidly in these flows and accrete mass that would have otherwise been consumed by the massive star in the center, in a process that we term fragmentation-induced starvation. This explains why massive stars are usually found as members of high-order stellar systems that themselves belong to large clusters containing stars of all masses. The radiative heating does not prevent fragmentation, but does lead to a higher Jeans mass, resulting in fewer and more massive stars than would form without the heating. This mechanism reproduces the observed relation between the total stellar mass in the cluster and the mass of the largest star. It predicts strong clumping and filamentary structure in the center of collapsing cores, as has recently been observed. We speculate that a similar mechanism will act during primordial star formation.

  17. Accretion, Early Thermal State and Differentiation of Icy Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteux, J.; Tobie, G.; Choblet, G.; Le Feuvre, M.

    2011-10-01

    For a better understanding of the thermal evolution of a growing icy satellite and of the conditions under which melting may occur, we developed a three-dimensional numerical model based on the Oedipus code, initially developed to solve the equations of thermal convection in a spherical geometry [11]. This numerical model characterizes the thermal evolution of an icy satellite during its accretion from a variety of plausible impactor population. For each impact, we consider the thermal effects due to the dissipation of the impactor's kinetic energy: After an impact, temperature locally increases deep in the impacted growing object and within the shallow ejecta blanket. As the icy moon grows, gravitational forces increase and impacts become more and more energetic. As the temperature increases below the impact site is proportional to the impact velocity, melting events areexpected tooccur at the end of the accretion once the icy moon reaches a critical size. In order to constrain this critical size, we simulate the growth and thermal evolution of icy bodies from a kilometer-size initial undifferentiated body to a size of order 2500 km from various populations of undifferentiated icy impactors and by assuming different orbital configurations for the growing body and different accretion rates. Preliminary results will be presented.

  18. RINGED ACCRETION DISKS: EQUILIBRIUM CONFIGURATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Pugliese, D.; Stuchlík, Z. E-mail: zdenek.stuchlik@physics.cz

    2015-12-15

    We investigate a model of a ringed accretion disk, made up by several rings rotating around a supermassive Kerr black hole attractor. Each toroid of the ringed disk is governed by the general relativity hydrodynamic Boyer condition of equilibrium configurations of rotating perfect fluids. Properties of the tori can then be determined by an appropriately defined effective potential reflecting the background Kerr geometry and the centrifugal effects. The ringed disks could be created in various regimes during the evolution of matter configurations around supermassive black holes. Therefore, both corotating and counterrotating rings have to be considered as being a constituent of the ringed disk. We provide constraints on the model parameters for the existence and stability of various ringed configurations and discuss occurrence of accretion onto the Kerr black hole and possible launching of jets from the ringed disk. We demonstrate that various ringed disks can be characterized by a maximum number of rings. We present also a perturbation analysis based on evolution of the oscillating components of the ringed disk. The dynamics of the unstable phases of the ringed disk evolution seems to be promising in relation to high-energy phenomena demonstrated in active galactic nuclei.

  19. Nonlinear variations in axisymmetric accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Soumyajit; Sengupta, Anindya; Ray, Arnab K.

    2014-05-01

    We subject the stationary solutions of inviscid and axially symmetric rotational accretion to a time-dependent radial perturbation, which includes nonlinearity to any arbitrary order. Regardless of the order of nonlinearity, the equation of the perturbation bears a form that is similar to the metric equation of an analogue acoustic black hole. We bring out the time dependence of the perturbation in the form of a Liénard system by requiring the perturbation to be a standing wave under the second order of nonlinearity. We perform a dynamical systems analysis of the Liénard system to reveal a saddle point in real time, whose implication is that instabilities will develop in the accreting system when the perturbation is extended into the nonlinear regime. We also model the perturbation as a high-frequency traveling wave and carry out a Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin analysis, treating nonlinearity iteratively as a very feeble effect. Under this approach, both the amplitude and the energy flux of the perturbation exhibit growth, with the acoustic horizon segregating the regions of stability and instability.

  20. PROPERTIES OF GRAVITOTURBULENT ACCRETION DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Rafikov, Roman R.

    2009-10-10

    We explore the properties of cold gravitoturbulent accretion disks-non-fragmenting disks hovering on the verge of gravitational instability (GI)-using a realistic prescription for the effective viscosity caused by gravitational torques. This prescription is based on a direct relationship between the angular momentum transport in a thin accretion disk and the disk cooling in a steady state. Assuming that opacity is dominated by dust we are able to self-consistently derive disk properties for a given M-dot assuming marginal gravitational stability. We also allow external irradiation of the disk and account for a non-zero background viscosity, which can be due to the magneto-rotational instability. Spatial transitions between different co-existing disk states (e.g., between irradiated and self-luminous or between gravitoturbulent and viscous) are described and the location of the boundary at which the disk must fragment is determined in a variety of situations. We demonstrate in particular that at low enough M-dot external irradiation stabilizes the gravitoturbulent disk against fragmentation to very large distances thus providing means of steady mass transport to the central object. Implications of our results for the possibility of planet formation by GI in protoplanetary disks and star formation in the Galactic center and for the problem of feeding supermassive black holes in galactic nuclei are discussed.

  1. Extended Lyα emission from cold accretion streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosdahl, J.; Blaizot, J.

    2012-06-01

    We investigate the observability of cold accretion streams at redshift 3 via Lyα emission and the feasibility of cold accretion as the main driver of Lyα blobs (LABs). We run cosmological zoom simulations focusing on three haloes spanning almost two orders of magnitude in mass, roughly from 1011 to ?. We use a version of the RAMSES code that includes radiative transfer of ultraviolet (UV) photons, and we employ a refinement strategy that allows us to resolve accretion streams in their natural environment to an unprecedented level. For the first time in a simulation, we self-consistently model self-shielding in the cold streams from the cosmological UV background, which enables us to predict their temperatures, ionization states and Lyα luminosities with improved accuracy. We find the efficiency of gravitational heating in cold streams in a ? halo to be around 10-20 per cent throughout most of the halo but reaching much higher values close to the centre. As a result, most of the Lyα luminosity comes from gas which is concentrated at the central 20 per cent of the halo radius, leading to Lyα emission which is not extended. In more massive haloes, of ?, cold accretion is complex and disrupted, and gravitational heating does not happen as a steady process. Ignoring the factors of Lyα scattering, local UV enhancement and supernovae feedback, the cold 'messy' accretion alone in these massive haloes can produce LABs that largely agree with observations in terms of morphology, extent and luminosity. Our simulations slightly and systematically overpredict LAB abundances, perhaps hinting that the interplay of these ignored factors may have a negative net effect on extent and luminosity. We predict that a factor of a few increase in sensitivity from current observational limits should unambiguously reveal continuum-free accretion streams around massive galaxies at z= 3. Animations of our simulations can be found at and are available as Supporting Information with the

  2. Face-on accretion onto a protoplanetary disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijnen, T. P. G.; Pols, O. R.; Pelupessy, F. I.; Portegies Zwart, S.

    2016-10-01

    Context. Stars are generally born in clustered stellar environments, which can affect their subsequent evolution. An example of this environmental influence can be found in globular clusters (GCs) harbouring multiple stellar populations. An evolutionary scenario in which a second (and possibly higher order) population is formed by the accretion of chemically enriched material onto the low-mass stars in the initial GC population has been suggested to explain the multiple stellar populations. The idea, dubbed early disc accretion, is that the low-mass, pre-main-sequence stars sweep up gas expelled by the more massive stars of the same generation into their protoplanetary disc as they move through the cluster core. The same process could also occur, to a lesser extent, in embedded stellar systems that are less dense. Aims: Using assumptions that represent the (dynamical) conditions in a typical GC, we investigate whether a low-mass star of 0.4 M⊙ surrounded by a protoplanetary disc can accrete a sufficient amount of enriched material to account for the observed abundances in so-called second generation GC stars. In particular, we focus on the gas-loading rate onto the disc and star, as well as on the lifetime and stability of the disc. Methods: We perform simulations at multiple resolutions with two different smoothed particle hydrodynamics codes and compare the results. Each code uses a different implementation of the artificial viscosity. Results: We find that the gas-loading rate is about a factor of two smaller than the rate based on geometric arguments, because the effective cross-section of the disc is smaller than its surface area. Furthermore, the loading rate is consistent for both codes, irrespective of resolution. Although the disc gains mass in the high-resolution runs, it loses angular momentum on a timescale of 104 yr. Two effects determine the loss of (specific) angular momentum in our simulations: (1) continuous ram pressure stripping and (2

  3. Radiative, two-temperature simulations of low-luminosity black hole accretion flows in general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sądowski, Aleksander; Wielgus, Maciek; Narayan, Ramesh; Abarca, David; McKinney, Jonathan C.; Chael, Andrew

    2017-04-01

    We present a numerical method that evolves a two-temperature, magnetized, radiative, accretion flow around a black hole, within the framework of general relativistic radiation magnetohydrodynamics. As implemented in the code KORAL, the gas consists of two sub-components - ions and electrons - which share the same dynamics but experience independent, relativistically consistent, thermodynamical evolution. The electrons and ions are heated independently according to a prescription from the literature for magnetohydrodynamical turbulent dissipation. Energy exchange between the particle species via Coulomb collisions is included. In addition, electrons gain and lose energy and momentum by absorbing and emitting synchrotron and bremsstrahlung radiation and through Compton scattering. All evolution equations are handled within a fully covariant framework in the relativistic fixed-metric space-time of the black hole. Numerical results are presented for five models of low-luminosity black hole accretion. In the case of a model with a mass accretion rate dot{M}˜ 4× 10^{-8} dot{M}_Edd, we find that radiation has a negligible effect on either the dynamics or the thermodynamics of the accreting gas. In contrast, a model with a larger dot{M}˜ 4× 10^{-4} dot{M}_Edd behaves very differently. The accreting gas is much cooler and the flow is geometrically less thick, though it is not quite a thin accretion disc.

  4. rHARM: Accretion and Ejection in Resistive GR-MHD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Qian; Fendt, Christian; Noble, Scott; Bugli, Matteo

    2017-01-01

    Turbulent magnetic diffusivity plays an important role for accretion disks and the launching of disk winds. We have implemented magnetic diffusivity and respective resistivity in the general relativistic MHD code HARM. This paper describes the theoretical background of our implementation, its numerical realization, our numerical tests, and preliminary applications. The test simulations of the new code rHARM are compared to an analytic solution of the diffusion equation and a classical shock tube problem. We have further investigated the evolution of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in tori around black holes (BHs) for a range of magnetic diffusivities. We find an indication for a critical magnetic diffusivity (for our setup) beyond which no MRI develops in the linear regime and for which accretion of torus material to the BH is delayed. Preliminary simulations of magnetically diffusive thin accretion disks around Schwarzschild BHs that are threaded by a large-scale poloidal magnetic field show the launching of disk winds with mass fluxes of about 50% of the accretion rate. The disk magnetic diffusivity allows for efficient disk accretion that replenishes the mass reservoir of the inner disk area and thus allows for long-term simulations of wind launching for more than 5000 time units.

  5. Laboratory experiments on Radiative Shocks relevant to Stellar Accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaulagain, Uddhab

    2015-08-01

    Radiative shocks are strong shocks which are characterized by a plasma at high temperatures emitting an important fraction of its energy as radiation. Radiative shocks are found in many astrophysical systems, including stellar accretion shocks, supernovae remnants, jet driven shocks, etc. In the case of stellar accretion, matter is funneled into accretion columns by the stellar magnetic field, and falls at several hundreds km/s from the circumstellar envelope onto the stellar photosphere. This generates a strong radiative shock with x-ray spectral signatures that are a key ingredient to quantify the mass accretion rate. The physical structure and dynamics of such plasmas is complex, and experimental benchmarks are needed to provide a deeper understanding of the physics at play.Recently, radiative shocks have also been produced experimentally using high energy lasers. We discuss the results of an experiment performed on the Prague Asterix Laser System (PALS) facility. Shocks are generated by focusing the PALS Infrared laser beam on millimetre-scale targets filled with xenon gas at low pressure. The shock that is generated then propagates in the gas with a sufficiently high velocity such that the shock is in a radiative flux dominated regime. We will present the first instantaneous imaging of a radiative shock at 21.2 nm which is characterized by the presence of both the radiative precursor and the post shock structure. These results are complemented with time-and-space resolved XUV plasma self-emission measurements using fast diodes. Interpretation of the data, supported by numerical simulations using the 2-D radiative-hydrodynamics code ARWEN, will be presented showing the importance of radiative processes from atomic to larger scales.

  6. Bondi accretion in trumpet geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, August J.; Baumgarte, Thomas W.

    2017-02-01

    The Bondi solution, which describes the radial inflow of a gas onto a non-rotating black hole, provides a powerful test for numerical relativistic codes. However, the Bondi solution is usually derived in Schwarzschild coordinates, which are not well suited for dynamical spacetime evolutions. Instead, many current numerical relativistic codes adopt moving-puncture coordinates, which render black holes in trumpet geometries. Here we transform the Bondi solution into trumpet coordinates, which result in regular expressions for the fluid flow extending into the black-hole interior. We also evolve these solutions numerically and demonstrate their usefulness for testing and calibrating numerical codes.

  7. Foundations of Black Hole Accretion Disk Theory.

    PubMed

    Abramowicz, Marek A; Fragile, P Chris

    2013-01-01

    This review covers the main aspects of black hole accretion disk theory. We begin with the view that one of the main goals of the theory is to better understand the nature of black holes themselves. In this light we discuss how accretion disks might reveal some of the unique signatures of strong gravity: the event horizon, the innermost stable circular orbit, and the ergosphere. We then review, from a first-principles perspective, the physical processes at play in accretion disks. This leads us to the four primary accretion disk models that we review: Polish doughnuts (thick disks), Shakura-Sunyaev (thin) disks, slim disks, and advection-dominated accretion flows (ADAFs). After presenting the models we discuss issues of stability, oscillations, and jets. Following our review of the analytic work, we take a parallel approach in reviewing numerical studies of black hole accretion disks. We finish with a few select applications that highlight particular astrophysical applications: measurements of black hole mass and spin, black hole vs. neutron star accretion disks, black hole accretion disk spectral states, and quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs).

  8. Pulsed accretion in a variable protostar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzerolle, James; Furlan, Elise; Flaherty, Kevin; Balog, Zoltan; Gutermuth, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Periodic increases in luminosity arising from variable accretion rates have been predicted for some pre-main-sequence close binary stars as they grow from circumbinary disks. The phenomenon is known as pulsed accretion and can affect the orbital evolution and mass distribution of young binaries, as well as the potential for planet formation. Accretion variability is a common feature of young stars, with a large range of amplitudes and timescales as measured from multi-epoch observations at optical and infrared wavelengths. Periodic variations consistent with pulsed accretion have been seen in only a few young binaries via optical accretion tracers, albeit intermittently with accretion luminosity variations ranging from zero to 50 per cent from orbit to orbit. Here we report that the infrared luminosity of a young protostar (of age about 105 years) increases by a factor of ten in roughly one week every 25.34 days. We attribute this to pulsed accretion associated with an unseen binary companion. The strength and regularity of this accretion signal is surprising; it may be related to the very young age of the system, which is a factor of ten younger than the other pulsed accretors previously studied.

  9. Plasma physics of accreting neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghosh, Pranab; Lamb, Frederick K.

    1991-01-01

    Plasma concepts and phenomena that are needed to understand X- and gamma-ray sources are discussed. The capture of material from the wind or from the atmosphere or envelope of a binary companion star is described and the resulting types of accretion flows discussed. The reasons for the formation of a magnetosphere around the neutron star are explained. The qualitative features of the magnetospheres of accreting neutron stars are then described and compared with the qualitative features of the geomagnetosphere. The conditions for stable flow and for angular and linear momentum conservation are explained in the context of accretion by magnetic neutron stars and applied to obtain rough estimates of the scale of the magnetosphere. Accretion from Keplerian disks is then considered in some detail. The radial structure of geometrically thin disk flows, the interaction of disk flows with the neutron star magnetosphere, and models of steady accretion from Keplerian disks are described. Accretion torques and the resulting changes in the spin frequencies of rotating neutron stars are considered. The predicted behavior is then compared with observations of accretion-powered pulsars. Magnetospheric processes that may accelerate particles to very high energies, producing GeV and, perhaps, TeV gamma-rays are discussed. Finally, the mechanisms that decelerate and eventually stop accreting plasma at the surfaces of strongly magnetic neutron stars are described.

  10. Pulsed accretion in a variable protostar.

    PubMed

    Muzerolle, James; Furlan, Elise; Flaherty, Kevin; Balog, Zoltan; Gutermuth, Robert

    2013-01-17

    Periodic increases in luminosity arising from variable accretion rates have been predicted for some pre-main-sequence close binary stars as they grow from circumbinary disks. The phenomenon is known as pulsed accretion and can affect the orbital evolution and mass distribution of young binaries, as well as the potential for planet formation. Accretion variability is a common feature of young stars, with a large range of amplitudes and timescales as measured from multi-epoch observations at optical and infrared wavelengths. Periodic variations consistent with pulsed accretion have been seen in only a few young binaries via optical accretion tracers, albeit intermittently with accretion luminosity variations ranging from zero to 50 per cent from orbit to orbit. Here we report that the infrared luminosity of a young protostar (of age about 10(5) years) increases by a factor of ten in roughly one week every 25.34 days. We attribute this to pulsed accretion associated with an unseen binary companion. The strength and regularity of this accretion signal is surprising; it may be related to the very young age of the system, which is a factor of ten younger than the other pulsed accretors previously studied.

  11. Accretion in the galactic halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, Alex Courtney

    2000-10-01

    The Milky Way disk is enveloped in a diffuse, dynamically-hot collection of stars and star clusters collectively known as the ``stellar halo''. Photometric and chemical analyses suggest that these stars are ancient fossils of the galaxy formation epoch. Yet, little is known about the origin of this trace population. Is this system merely a vestige of the initial burst of star formation within the decoupled proto-Galaxy, or is it the detritus of cannibalized satellite galaxies? In an attempt to unravel the history of the Milky Way's stellar halo, I performed a detailed spectroscopic analysis of 55 metal-poor stars possessing ``extreme'' kinematic properties. It is thought that stars on orbits that either penetrate the remote halo or exhibit large retrograde velocities could have been associated with assimilated (or ``accreted'') dwarf galaxies. The hallmark of an accreted halo star is presumed to be a deficiency (compared with normal stars) of the α-elements (O, Mg, Si, Ca, Ti) with respect to iron, a consequence of sporadic bursts of star formation within the diminutive galaxies. Abundances for a select group of light metals (Li, Na, Mg, Si, Ca, Ti), iron-peak nuclides (Cr, Fe, Ni), and neutron-capture elements (Y, Ba) were calculated using line-strengths measured from high-resolution, high signal-to-noise spectral observations collected with the Keck I 10-m and KPNO 4-m telescopes. The abundances extracted from the spectra reveal: (1)The vast majority of outer halo stars possess supersolar [α/Fe] > 0.0) ratios. (2)The [α/Fe] ratio appears to decrease with increasing metallicity. (3)The outer halo stars have lower ratios of [α/Fe] than inner halo stars at a given metallicity. (4)At the largest metallicities, there is a large spread in the observed [α/Fe] ratios. (5)[α/Fe] anti-correlates with RAPO. (6)Only one star (BD+80° 245) exhibits the peculiar abundances expected of an assimilated star. The general conclusion extracted from these data is that the

  12. Accretion flows onto supermassive black holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begelman, Mitchell C.

    1988-01-01

    The radiative and hydrodynamic properties of an angular momentum-dominated accretion flow onto a supermassive black hole depend largely on the ratio of the accretion rate to the Eddington accretion rate. High values of this ratio favor optically thick flows which produce largely thermal radiation, while optically thin 'two-temperature' flows may be present in systems with small values of this ratio. Observations of some AGN suggest that thermal and nonthermal sources of radiation may be of comparable importance in the 'central engine'. Consideration is given to the possibilities for coexistence of different modes of accretion in a single flow. One intriguing possibility is that runaway pair production may cause an optically thick 'accretion annulus' to form at the center of a two-temperature inflow.

  13. Chondrule formation during planetesimal accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asphaug, Erik; Jutzi, Martin; Movshovitz, Naor

    2011-08-01

    We explore the idea that most chondrules formed as a consequence of inefficient pairwise accretion, when molten or partly molten planetesimals ~ 30-100 km diameter, similar in size, collided at velocities comparable to their two-body escape velocity ~ 100 m/s. Although too slow to produce shocks or disrupt targets, these collisions were messy, especially after ~ 1 Ma of dynamical excitation. In SPH simulations we find that the innermost portion of the projectile decelerates into the target, while the rest continues downrange in massive sheets. Unloading from pre-collision hydrostatic pressure P0 ~ 1-100 bar into the nebula, the melt achieves equilibrium with the surface energy of chondrule-sized droplets. Cooling is regulated post collision by the expansion of the optically thick sheets. on a timescale of hours-days. Much of the sheet rains back down onto the target to be reprocessed; the rest is dispersed.

  14. NSCool: Neutron star cooling code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, Dany

    2016-09-01

    NSCool is a 1D (i.e., spherically symmetric) neutron star cooling code written in Fortran 77. The package also contains a series of EOSs (equation of state) to build stars, a series of pre-built stars, and a TOV (Tolman- Oppenheimer-Volkoff) integrator to build stars from an EOS. It can also handle “strange stars” that have a huge density discontinuity between the quark matter and the covering thin baryonic crust. NSCool solves the heat transport and energy balance equations in whole GR, resulting in a time sequence of temperature profiles (and, in particular, a Teff - age curve). Several heating processes are included, and more can easily be incorporated. In particular it can evolve a star undergoing accretion with the resulting deep crustal heating, under a steady or time-variable accretion rate. NSCool is robust, very fast, and highly modular, making it easy to add new subroutines for new processes.

  15. Ethical coding.

    PubMed

    Resnik, Barry I

    2009-01-01

    It is ethical, legal, and proper for a dermatologist to maximize income through proper coding of patient encounters and procedures. The overzealous physician can misinterpret reimbursement requirements or receive bad advice from other physicians and cross the line from aggressive coding to coding fraud. Several of the more common problem areas are discussed.

  16. Effects of ice accretions on aircraft aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Frank T.; Khodadoust, Abdollah

    2001-11-01

    This article is a systematic and comprehensive review, correlation, and assessment of test results available in the public domain which address the aerodynamic performance and control degradations caused by various types of ice accretions on the lifting surfaces of fixed wing aircraft. To help put the various test results in perspective, overviews are provided first of the important factors and limitations involved in computational and experimental icing simulation techniques, as well as key aerodynamic testing simulation variables and governing flow physics issues. Following these are the actual reviews, assessments, and correlations of a large number of experimental measurements of various forms of mostly simulated in-flight and ground ice accretions, augmented where appropriate by similar measurements for other analogous forms of surface contamination and/or disruptions. In-flight icing categories reviewed include the initial and inter-cycle ice accretions inherent in the use of de-icing systems which are of particular concern because of widespread misconceptions about the thickness of such accretions which can be allowed before any serious consequences occur, and the runback/ridge ice accretions typically associated with larger-than-normal water droplet encounters which are of major concern because of the possible potential for catastrophic reductions in aerodynamic effectiveness. The other in-flight ice accretion category considered includes the more familiar large rime and glaze ice accretions, including ice shapes with rather grotesque features, where the concern is that, in spite of all the research conducted to date, the upper limit of penalties possible has probably not been defined. Lastly, the effects of various possible ground frost/ice accretions are considered. The concern with some of these is that for some types of configurations, all of the normally available operating margins to stall at takeoff may be erased if these accretions are not

  17. Accretion Rate: An Axis Of Agn Unification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trump, Jonathan R.; Impey, C. D.; Kelly, B. C.

    2011-01-01

    We show how accretion rate governs the physical properties of broad-line, narrow-line, and lineless active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We avoid the systematic errors plaguing previous studies of AGN accretion rate by using accurate accretion luminosities from well-sampled multiwavelength SEDs from the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS), and accurate black hole masses derived from virial scaling relations (for broad-line AGNs) or host-AGN relations (for narrow-line and lineless AGNs). In general, broad emission lines are present only at the highest accretion rates (L/L_Edd>0.01), and these rapidly accreting AGNs are observed as broad-line AGNs or possibly as obscured narrow-line AGNs. Narrow-line and lineless AGNs at lower specific accretion rates (L/L_Edd<0.01) are unobscured and yet lack a broad line region. The disappearance of the broad emission lines is caused by an expanding radiatively inefficient accretion flow (RIAF) at the inner radius of the accretion disk. The presence of the RIAF also drives L/L_Edd<0.01 narrow-line and lineless AGNs to be 10-100 times more radio-luminous than broad-line AGNs, since the unbound nature of the RIAF means it is easier to form a radio outflow. The IR torus signature also tends to become weaker or disappear from L/L_Edd<0.01 AGNs, although there may be additional mid-IR synchrotron emission associated with the RIAF. Together these results suggest that specific accretion rate is an important physical "axis" of AGN unification, described by a simple model.

  18. Accretion in Saturn's F Ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinke, B. K.; Esposito, L. W.; Stewart, G.

    2012-12-01

    Saturn's F ring is the solar system's principal natural laboratory for direct observation of accretion and disruption processes. The ring resides in the Roche zone, where tidal disruption competes with self-gravity, which allows us to observe the lifecycle of moonlets. Just as nearby moons create structure at the B ring edge (Esposito et al. 2012) and the Keeler gap (Murray 2007), the F ring "shepherding" moons Prometheus and Pandora stir up ring material and create observably changing structures on timescales of days to decades. In fact, Beurle et al (2010) show that Prometheus makes it possible for "distended, yet gravitationally coherent clumps" to form in the F ring, and Barbara and Esposito (2002) predicted a population of ~1 km bodies in the ring. In addition to the observations over the last three decades, the Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) has detected 27 statistically significant features in 101 occultations by Saturn's F ring since July 2004. Seventeen of those 27 features are associated with clumps of ring material. Two features are opaque in occultation, which makes them candidates for solid objects, which we refer to as Moonlets. The 15 other features partially block stellar signal for 22 m to just over 3.7 km along the radial expanse of the occultation. Upon visual inspection of the occultation profile, these features resemble Icicles, thus we will refer to them as such here. The density enhancements responsible for such signal attenuations are likely due to transient clumping of material, evidence that aggregations of material are ubiquitous in the F ring. Our lengthy observing campaign reveals that Icicles are likely transient clumps, while Moonlets are possible solid objects. Optical depth is an indicator of clumping because more-densely aggregated material blocks more light; therefore, it is natural to imagine moonlets as later evolutionary stage of icicle, when looser clumps of material compact to form a feature that appears

  19. Diskoseismology: Probing relativistic accretion disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, Michael Allen

    1992-08-01

    Helioseismology has provided a wealth of information about the structure of the solar atmosphere. Little is known, however, about the structure of accretion disks that are thought to exist around black holes and neutron stars. In this thesis we present calculations of modes that are trapped in thin Keplerian accretion disks. We hope to use observations of thes modes to elucidate the structure of the inner relativistic regions of accretion disks. Our calculations assume that the thin disk is terminated by an innermost stable orbit, as would occur around a slowly rotating black hole or weakly magnetized compact neutron star. The dominant relativistic effects, which allow modes to be trapped within the inner region of the disk, are approximated via a modified Newtonian potential. Using the Lagrangian formulation of Friedman and Schutz, we develop a general formalism for investigating the adiabatic oscillations of arbitrary unperturbed disk models. First we consider the special case of acoustic waves in disks with isothermal atmospheres. Next we describe the Lagrangian perturbation vectors in terms of the derivatives of a scalar potential, as has been done by Ipser and Lindblom. Using this potential, we derive a single partial differential equation governing the oscillations of a disk. The eigenfunctions and eigenfrequencies of a variety of disk models are found to fall into two main classes which are analogous to the p-modes and g-modes in the sun. Specifically we use the potential formalism to compute the g-modes for disks with isothermal atmospheres. Physical arguments show that both the p-modes and g-modes belong to the same family of modes as the p-modes and g-modes in the sun, just viewed in a different parameter regime. With the aid of the Lagrangian formalism we consider possible growth or damping mechanisms and compute the (assumed) relatively small rates of growth or damping of the modes. Specifically, we consider gravitational radiation reaction and

  20. Galaxies in Clusters : Gas Stripping and Accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Dea, Chris; Balsara, Dinshaw; Livio, Mario

    1994-05-01

    We study the process of a galaxy moving through the intercluster gas in a cluster of galaxies, using a high quality hydrocode run at high resolutions. We find that ram pressure stripping occurs in the form of individual events that are separated by about ten million years. In addition we find that the galaxy accretes gas from the downstream side into the core. This accretion process exhibits a radial "pumping" mode, similar to the one found previously in simulations of wind accretion onto compact objects. Some implications of our results for the understanding of a few recent observations are discussed.

  1. Cyclotron Lines in Accreting Neutron Star Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilms, Jörn; Schönherr, Gabriele; Schmid, Julia; Dauser, Thomas; Kreykenbohm, Ingo

    2009-05-01

    Cyclotron lines are formed through transitions of electrons between discrete Landau levels in the accretion columns of accreting neutron stars with strong (1012 G) magnetic fields. We summarize recent results on the formation of the spectral continuum of such systems, describe recent advances in the modeling of the lines based on a modification of the commonly used Monte Carlo approach, and discuss new results on the dependence of the measured cyclotron line energy from the luminosity of transient neutron star systems. Finally, we show that Simbol-X will be ideally suited to build and improve the observational database of accreting and strongly magnetized neutron stars.

  2. Ice Accretion Modeling using an Eulerian Approach for Droplet Impingement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Joe Woong; Garza, Dennis P.; Sankar, Lakshmi N.; Kreeger, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    A three-dimensional Eulerian analysis has been developed for modeling droplet impingement on lifting bodes. The Eulerian model solves the conservation equations of mass and momentum to obtain the droplet flow field properties on the same mesh used in CFD simulations. For complex configurations such as a full rotorcraft, the Eulerian approach is more efficient because the Lagrangian approach would require a significant amount of seeding for accurate estimates of collection efficiency. Simulations are done for various benchmark cases such as NACA0012 airfoil, MS317 airfoil and oscillating SC2110 airfoil to illustrate its use. The present results are compared with results from the Lagrangian approach used in an industry standard analysis called LEWICE.

  3. The beaming of subhalo accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libeskind, Noam I.

    2016-10-01

    We examine the infall pattern of subhaloes onto hosts in the context of the large-scale structure. We find that the infall pattern is essentially driven by the shear tensor of the ambient velocity field. Dark matter subhaloes are preferentially accreted along the principal axis of the shear tensor which corresponds to the direction of weakest collapse. We examine the dependence of this preferential infall on subhalo mass, host halo mass and redshift. Although strongest for the most massive hosts and the most massive subhaloes at high redshift, the preferential infall of subhaloes is effectively universal in the sense that its always aligned with the axis of weakest collapse of the velocity shear tensor. It is the same shear tensor that dictates the structure of the cosmic web and hence the shear field emerges as the key factor that governs the local anisotropic pattern of structure formation. Since the small (sub-Mpc) scale is strongly correlated with the mid-range (~ 10 Mpc) scale - a scale accessible by current surveys of peculiar velocities - it follows that findings presented here open a new window into the relation between the observed large scale structure unveiled by current surveys of peculiar velocities and the preferential infall direction of the Local Group. This may shed light on the unexpected alignments of dwarf galaxies seen in the Local Group.

  4. Accretion Timescales from Kepler AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasliwal, Vishal P.; Vogeley, Michael S.; Richards, Gordon T.

    2015-01-01

    We constrain AGN accretion disk variability mechanisms using the optical light curves of AGN observed by Kepler. AGN optical fluxes are known to exhibit stochastic variations on timescales of hours, days, months and years. The excellent sampling properties of the original Kepler mission - high S/N ratio (105), short sampling interval (30 minutes), and long sampling duration (~ 3.5 years) - allow for a detailed examination of the differences between the variability processes present in various sub-types of AGN such as Type I and II Seyferts, QSOs, and Blazars. We model the flux data using the Auto-Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) representation from the field of time series analysis. We use the Kalman filter to determine optimal mode parameters and use the Akaike Information Criteria (AIC) to select the optimal model. We find that optical light curves from Kepler AGN cannot be fit by low order statistical models such as the popular AR(1) process or damped random walk. Kepler light curves exhibit complicated power spectra and are better modeled by higher order ARMA processes. We find that Kepler AGN typically exhibit power spectra that change from a bending power law (PSD ~ 1/fa) to a flat power spectrum on timescales in the range of ~ 5 - 100 days consistent with the orbital and thermal timescales of a typical 107 solar mass black hole.

  5. Asymmetric evolution of magnetic reconnection in collisionless accretion disk

    SciTech Connect

    Shirakawa, Keisuke Hoshino, Masahiro

    2014-05-15

    An evolution of a magnetic reconnection in a collisionless accretion disk is investigated using a 2.5 dimensional hybrid code simulation. In astrophysical disks, magnetorotational instability (MRI) is considered to play an important role by generating turbulence in the disk and contributes to an effective angular momentum transport through a turbulent viscosity. Magnetic reconnection, on the other hand, also plays an important role on the evolution of the disk through a dissipation of a magnetic field enhanced by a dynamo effect of MRI. In this study, we developed a hybrid code to calculate an evolution of a differentially rotating system. With this code, we first confirmed a linear growth of MRI. We also investigated a behavior of a particular structure of a current sheet, which would exist in the turbulence in the disk. From the calculation of the magnetic reconnection, we found an asymmetric structure in the out-of-plane magnetic field during the evolution of reconnection, which can be understood by a coupling of the Hall effect and the differential rotation. We also found a migration of X-point whose direction is determined only by an initial sign of J{sub 0}×Ω{sub 0}, where J{sub 0} is the initial current density in the neutral sheet and Ω{sub 0} is the rotational vector of the background Keplerian rotation. Associated with the migration of X-point, we also found a significant enhancement of the perpendicular magnetic field compared to an ordinary MRI. MRI-Magnetic reconnection coupling and the resulting magnetic field enhancement can be an effective process to sustain a strong turbulence in the accretion disk and to a transport of angular momentum.

  6. Asymmetric evolution of magnetic reconnection in collisionless accretion disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirakawa, Keisuke; Hoshino, Masahiro

    2014-05-01

    An evolution of a magnetic reconnection in a collisionless accretion disk is investigated using a 2.5 dimensional hybrid code simulation. In astrophysical disks, magnetorotational instability (MRI) is considered to play an important role by generating turbulence in the disk and contributes to an effective angular momentum transport through a turbulent viscosity. Magnetic reconnection, on the other hand, also plays an important role on the evolution of the disk through a dissipation of a magnetic field enhanced by a dynamo effect of MRI. In this study, we developed a hybrid code to calculate an evolution of a differentially rotating system. With this code, we first confirmed a linear growth of MRI. We also investigated a behavior of a particular structure of a current sheet, which would exist in the turbulence in the disk. From the calculation of the magnetic reconnection, we found an asymmetric structure in the out-of-plane magnetic field during the evolution of reconnection, which can be understood by a coupling of the Hall effect and the differential rotation. We also found a migration of X-point whose direction is determined only by an initial sign of J0×Ω0, where J0 is the initial current density in the neutral sheet and Ω0 is the rotational vector of the background Keplerian rotation. Associated with the migration of X-point, we also found a significant enhancement of the perpendicular magnetic field compared to an ordinary MRI. MRI-Magnetic reconnection coupling and the resulting magnetic field enhancement can be an effective process to sustain a strong turbulence in the accretion disk and to a transport of angular momentum.

  7. Accretion-ejection models for AGN jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanni, C.

    2008-10-01

    It is likely that jets from Active Galactic Nuclei derive their energy from accretion onto the central black hole. It is actually possible to fuel the jets by extracting energy and angular momentum from the accretion disk and/or the rotating black hole via the action of large-scale magnetic fields. In this talk I will first present results of analytical and numerical models of the launching process of jets from magnetized accretion disks: I will show that, although a sizeable fraction of the accretion power goes into the jets, these outflows are presumably only mildly relativistic. In the second place, I will therefore suggest that the strongly relativistic components observed at the VLBI scales are accelerated in the innermost parts of the AGNs by Blandford-Znajek and/or Compton-rocket processes. Nonetheless, the non-relativistic disk-wind is needed to collimate the relativistic component and to reproduce the total power of extragalactic jets.

  8. Planetary science: Iron fog of accretion

    DOE PAGES

    Anderson, William W.

    2015-03-02

    Here, pinpointing when Earth's core formed depends on the extent of metal–silicate equilibration in the mantle. Vaporization and recondensation of impacting planetesimal cores during accretion may reconcile disparate lines of evidence.

  9. Time lag in transient cosmic accreting sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisnovatyi-Kogan, G. S.; Giovannelli, F.

    2017-02-01

    Context. We develop models for time lag between the maxima of the source brightness in different wavelengths during a transient flash of luminosity that is connected with a short-period increase of the mass flux onto the central compact object. Aims: We derive a simple formula for finding the time delay among events in different wavelengths which is valid in general for all disk-accreting cosmic sources. We quantitatively also discuss a model for time-lag formation in active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Methods: In close binaries with accretion disks, the time lag is connected with effects of viscosity that define a radial motion of matter in the accretion disk. In AGN flashes, the infalling matter has a low angular momentum, and the time lag is defined by the free-fall time to the gravitating center. Results: We show the validity of these models by means of several examples of galactic and extragalactic accreting sources.

  10. Challenges in forming the solar system's giant planet cores via pebble accretion

    SciTech Connect

    Kretke, K. A.; Levison, H. F.

    2014-12-01

    Though ∼10 M {sub ⊕} mass rocky/icy cores are commonly held as a prerequisite for the formation of gas giants, theoretical models still struggle to explain how these embryos can form within the lifetimes of gaseous circumstellar disks. In recent years, aerodynamic-aided accretion of 'pebbles', objects ranging from centimeters to meters in size, has been suggested as a potential solution to this long-standing problem. While pebble accretion has been demonstrated to be extremely effective in local simulations that look at the detailed behavior of these pebbles in the vicinity of a single planetary embryo, to date there have been no global simulations demonstrating the effectiveness of pebble accretion in a more complicated, multi-planet environment. Therefore, we have incorporated the aerodynamic-aided accretion physics into LIPAD, a Lagrangian code that can follow the collisional/accretional/dynamical evolution of a protoplanetary system, to investigate how pebble accretion manifests itself in the larger planet formation picture. We find that under generic circumstances, pebble accretion naturally leads to an 'oligarchic' type of growth in which a large number of planetesimals grow to similar-sized planets. In particular, our simulations tend to form hundreds of Mars- and Earth-mass objects between 4 and 10 AU. While merging of some oligarchs may grow massive enough to form giant planet cores, leftover oligarchs lead to planetary systems that cannot be consistent with our own solar system. We investigate various ideas presented in the literature (including evaporation fronts and planet traps) and find that none easily overcome this tendency toward oligarchic growth.

  11. Challenges in Forming the Solar System's Giant Planet Cores via Pebble Accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kretke, K. A.; Levison, H. F.

    2014-12-01

    Though ~10 M ⊕ mass rocky/icy cores are commonly held as a prerequisite for the formation of gas giants, theoretical models still struggle to explain how these embryos can form within the lifetimes of gaseous circumstellar disks. In recent years, aerodynamic-aided accretion of "pebbles," objects ranging from centimeters to meters in size, has been suggested as a potential solution to this long-standing problem. While pebble accretion has been demonstrated to be extremely effective in local simulations that look at the detailed behavior of these pebbles in the vicinity of a single planetary embryo, to date there have been no global simulations demonstrating the effectiveness of pebble accretion in a more complicated, multi-planet environment. Therefore, we have incorporated the aerodynamic-aided accretion physics into LIPAD, a Lagrangian code that can follow the collisional/accretional/dynamical evolution of a protoplanetary system, to investigate how pebble accretion manifests itself in the larger planet formation picture. We find that under generic circumstances, pebble accretion naturally leads to an "oligarchic" type of growth in which a large number of planetesimals grow to similar-sized planets. In particular, our simulations tend to form hundreds of Mars- and Earth-mass objects between 4 and 10 AU. While merging of some oligarchs may grow massive enough to form giant planet cores, leftover oligarchs lead to planetary systems that cannot be consistent with our own solar system. We investigate various ideas presented in the literature (including evaporation fronts and planet traps) and find that none easily overcome this tendency toward oligarchic growth.

  12. A Model to Assess the Risk of Ice Accretion Due to Ice Crystal Ingestion in a Turbofan Engine and its Effects on Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgenson, Philip C. E.; Veres, Joseph P.; Wright, William B.; Struk, Peter M.

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of ice accretion within commercial high bypass aircraft turbine engines has been reported under certain atmospheric conditions. Engine anomalies have taken place at high altitudes that were attributed to ice crystal ingestion, partially melting, and ice accretion on the compression system components. The result was one or more of the following anomalies: degraded engine performance, engine roll back, compressor surge and stall, and flameout of the combustor. The main focus of this research is the development of a computational tool that can estimate whether there is a risk of ice accretion by tracking key parameters through the compression system blade rows at all engine operating points within the flight trajectory. The tool has an engine system thermodynamic cycle code, coupled with a compressor flow analysis code, and an ice particle melt code that has the capability of determining the rate of sublimation, melting, and evaporation through the compressor blade rows. Assumptions are made to predict the complex physics involved in engine icing. Specifically, the code does not directly estimate ice accretion and does not have models for particle breakup or erosion. Two key parameters have been suggested as conditions that must be met at the same location for ice accretion to occur: the local wet-bulb temperature to be near freezing or below and the local melt ratio must be above 10%. These parameters were deduced from analyzing laboratory icing test data and are the criteria used to predict the possibility of ice accretion within an engine including the specific blade row where it could occur. Once the possibility of accretion is determined from these parameters, the degree of blockage due to ice accretion on the local stator vane can be estimated from an empirical model of ice growth rate and time spent at that operating point in the flight trajectory. The computational tool can be used to assess specific turbine engines to their susceptibility to

  13. 43 CFR 3110.5-4 - Accreted lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accreted lands. 3110.5-4 Section 3110.5-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Accreted lands. Where an offer includes any accreted lands, the accreted lands shall be described by...

  14. 43 CFR 3110.5-4 - Accreted lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Accreted lands. 3110.5-4 Section 3110.5-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Accreted lands. Where an offer includes any accreted lands, the accreted lands shall be described by...

  15. 43 CFR 3110.5-4 - Accreted lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accreted lands. 3110.5-4 Section 3110.5-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Accreted lands. Where an offer includes any accreted lands, the accreted lands shall be described by...

  16. 43 CFR 3110.5-4 - Accreted lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accreted lands. 3110.5-4 Section 3110.5-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Accreted lands. Where an offer includes any accreted lands, the accreted lands shall be described by...

  17. ASYMMETRIC ACCRETION FLOWS WITHIN A COMMON ENVELOPE

    SciTech Connect

    MacLeod, Morgan; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico

    2015-04-10

    This paper examines flows in the immediate vicinity of stars and compact objects dynamically inspiralling within a common envelope (CE). Flow in the vicinity of the embedded object is gravitationally focused, leading to drag and potentially to gas accretion. This process has been studied numerically and analytically in the context of Hoyle–Lyttleton accretion (HLA). Yet, within a CE, accretion structures may span a large fraction of the envelope radius, and in so doing sweep across a substantial radial gradient of density. We quantify these gradients using detailed stellar evolution models for a range of CE encounters. We provide estimates of typical scales in CE encounters that involve main sequence stars, white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes with giant-branch companions of a wide range of masses. We apply these typical scales to hydrodynamic simulations of three-dimensional HLA with an upstream density gradient. This density gradient breaks the symmetry that defines HLA flow, and imposes an angular momentum barrier to accretion. Material that is focused into the vicinity of the embedded object thus may not be able to accrete. As a result, accretion rates drop dramatically, by one to two orders of magnitude, while drag rates are only mildly affected. We provide fitting formulae to the numerically derived rates of drag and accretion as a function of the density gradient. The reduced ratio of accretion to drag suggests that objects that can efficiently gain mass during CE evolution, such as black holes and neutron stars, may grow less than implied by the HLA formalism.

  18. Transonic disk accretion onto black holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, E. P. T.; Thompson, K. A.

    1980-01-01

    The solution for the radial drift velocity of thin disk accretion onto black holes must be transonic, and is analogous to the critical solution in spherical Bondi accretion, except for the presence of angular momentum. The transonic requirement yields a correct treatment of the inner region of the disk not found in the conventional Keplerian models and may lead to significantly different overall disk structures. Possible observational consequences, relevant to the black hole hypothesis for Cyg X-1 and other candidates, are discussed.

  19. ACCRETION OF GAS ONTO GAP-OPENING PLANETS AND CIRCUMPLANETARY FLOW STRUCTURE IN MAGNETIZED TURBULENT DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Uribe, A. L.; Klahr, H.; Henning, Th.

    2013-06-01

    We have performed three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical simulations of stellar accretion disks, using the PLUTO code, and studied the accretion of gas onto a Jupiter-mass planet and the structure of the circumplanetary gas flow after opening a gap in the disk. We compare our results with simulations of laminar, yet viscous disks with different levels of an {alpha}-type viscosity. In all cases, we find that the accretion flow across the surface of the Hill sphere of the planet is not spherically or azimuthally symmetric, and is predominantly restricted to the mid-plane region of the disk. Even in the turbulent case, we find no significant vertical flow of mass into the Hill sphere. The outer parts of the circumplanetary disk are shown to rotate significantly below Keplerian speed, independent of viscosity, while the circumplanetary disk density (therefore the angular momentum) increases with viscosity. For a simulation of a magnetized turbulent disk, where the global averaged alpha stress is {alpha}{sub MHD} = 10{sup -3}, we find the accretion rate onto the planet to be M-dot {approx}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6}M{sub J} yr{sup -1} for a gap surface density of 12 g cm{sup -2}. This is about a third of the accretion rate obtained in a laminar viscous simulation with equivalent {alpha} parameter.

  20. The impact of non-thermal electrons on resolved black hole accretion disk images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Shengkai; Dexter, Jason; Quataert, Eliot

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in radio astronomy (in particular, the Event Horizon Telescope) allow us for the first time to resolve length scales around the Milky Way's Sgr A* comparable to the event horizon radius. These observations are opening up new opportunities to study strong gravity and accretion physics in the vicinity of a supermassive black hole. However, the processes governing black hole accretion are not well understood. In particular, the electron thermodynamics in black hole accretion disks remain mysterious, and current models vary significantly from each other. The impact of these differences between current electron thermodynamics models on results obtained from EHT images is not well understood. Thus, in this work, we explore the effects of non-thermal electrons on black hole images and radio spectra in the context of both semi-analytic and numerical models of accretion flows. Using general relativistic ray-tracing and radiative transfer code, we simulate images of the accretion disk around Sgr A* and compare our simulations to observed radio data. We estimate the range of electron energy distribution functions permissible by the data. In so doing, we also explore the range and variety of black hole images obtained by varying the distribution function.

  1. Sharing code.

    PubMed

    Kubilius, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Sharing code is becoming increasingly important in the wake of Open Science. In this review I describe and compare two popular code-sharing utilities, GitHub and Open Science Framework (OSF). GitHub is a mature, industry-standard tool but lacks focus towards researchers. In comparison, OSF offers a one-stop solution for researchers but a lot of functionality is still under development. I conclude by listing alternative lesser-known tools for code and materials sharing.

  2. Giant planet formation via pebble accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guilera, O. M.

    2016-08-01

    In the standard model of core accretion, the formation of giant planets occurs by two main processes: first, a massive core is formed by the accretion of solid material; then, when this core exceeds a critical value (typically greater than ) a gaseous runaway growth is triggered and the planet accretes big quantities of gas in a short period of time until the planet achieves its final mass. Thus, the formation of a massive core has to occur when the nebular gas is still available in the disk. This phenomenon imposes a strong time-scale constraint in the giant planet formation due to the fact that the lifetimes of the observed protoplanetary disks are in general lower than 10 Myr. The formation of massive cores before 10 Myr by accretion of big planetesimals (with radii 10 km) in the oligarchic growth regime is only possible in massive disks. However, planetesimal accretion rates significantly increase for small bodies, especially for pebbles, particles of sizes between mm and cm, which are strongly coupled with the gas. In this work, we study the formation of giant planets incorporating pebble accretion rates in our global model of planet formation.

  3. The growth of supermassive black holes fed by accretion disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montesinos Armijo, M. A.; de Freitas Pacheco, J. A.

    2011-02-01

    Context. Supermassive black holes are probably present in the centre of the majority of the galaxies. There is consensus that these exotic objects are formed by the growth of seeds either by mass accretion from a circumnuclear disk and/or by coalescences during merger episodes. Aims: The mass fraction of the disk captured by the central object and the related timescale are still open questions, as is how these quantities depend on parameters, such as the initial mass of the disk or the seed, or on the angular momentum transport mechanism. This paper addresses these particular aspects of the accretion disk evolution and the growth of seeds. Methods: The time-dependent hydrodynamic equations were solved numerically for an axisymmetric disk in which the gravitational potential includes contributions from both the central object and the disk itself. The numerical code is based on a Eulerian formalism, using a finite difference method of second-order, according to the Van Leer upwind algorithm on a staggered mesh. Results: The present simulations indicate that seeds capture about a half of the initial disk mass, a result weakly dependent on model parameters. The timescales required for accreting 50% of the disk mass are in the range 130-540 Myr, depending on the adopted parameters. These timescales can explain the presence of bright quasars at z ~ 6.5. Moreover, at the end of the disk evolution, a "torus-like" geometry develops, offering a natural explanation for the presence of these structures in the central regions of AGNs, representing an additional support to the unified model.

  4. Accretion Disks around Young Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Alessio, Paola

    1996-04-01

    A method to calculate the structure and brightness distribution of accretion disks surrounding low and intermediate mass young stars is introduced and discussed. The method includes a realistic treatment of the energy transport mechanisms and disk heating by radiation from external sources. The disk is assumed steady, geometrically thin and in vertical hydrostatic equilibrium. The turbulent viscosity coefficient is expressed using the α prescription and the α parameter and the mass accretion rate are assumed to be constant through the disk. Energy is transported in the vertical direction by: (a) a turbulent flux, computed self-consistently with the viscosity coefficient used to describe the viscous energy dissipation, (b) radiation, using the first moments of the transfer equation, the Eddington approximation, and the Rosseland and Planck Mean Opacities, and (c) convection, taking into account that the convective elements, not necessarily optically thick, lose energy by radiation and turbulent flux. This treatment of the energy transport mechanisms differs from previous work in this field, allowing one to extend, with confidence, the calculation of the disk structure to optically thin regimes. The heating mechanisms considered, which affect the disk's structure and emission, are stellar radiation and a circumstellar envelope which reprocesses and scatters radiation from the star and from the disk itself. In addition to a detailed numerical calculation, an analytical self-consistent formulation of the irradiation of the disk is given. This analytical formulation allows one to understand and extend the numerical results. To evaluate the potential of the method presented in this thesis, a set of models of viscous non-irradiated and irradiated disks are computed. Their predictions are compared with observations of young stellar sources likely to have disks. Given the disk structure and specifying its orientation with respect to the line of sight, the specific

  5. Density, Velocity and Ionization Structure in Accretion-disc Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Knox

    We propose to exploit the unique capabilities of it FUSE to monitor variations in the wind-formed spectral lines of 3 luminous, low-inclination, cataclysmic variables (CVs). Our principal goal is to improve our understanding of the dynamics of accretion-disc winds. We have previously used HST to investigate substantial and rapid (sim hours to minutes) variability in our target stars, BZ Cam, RW Sex and V603 Aql, and have demonstrated that their disc-outflows are highly structured. We aim here to follow up our discoveries by securing FUSE time-series data. These observations will allow us to determine the relative roles of density and ionization state changes in the outflow and to search for spectroscopic signatures of stochastic small-scale structure and shocked gas. By monitoring the temporal behavior of blue-ward extended absorption lines with a wide range of ionization potentials and excitation energies, we will track the changing physical conditions in the outflow. A new sophisticated Monte Carlo code will be used to calculate the ionization structure of and radiative transfer through CV winds. This will allow us to establish the wind geometry, kinematics and ionization state, both in a time-averaged sense and as a function of time. Our FUSE observations will provide a legacy that will be fundamental to the development of dynamical models of accretion-disc-driven winds, permitting critical tests of recent hydrodynamic simulations of unstable, line-driven disc winds.

  6. Accretion onto Fast X-Ray Pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rappaport, S. A.; Fregeau, J. M.; Spruit, H.

    2004-01-01

    The recent emergence of a new class of accretion-powered, transient, millisecond X-ray pulsars presents some difficulties for the conventional picture of accretion onto rapidly rotating magnetized neutron stars and their spin behavior during outbursts. In particular, it is not clear that the standard paradigm can accommodate the wide range in M(i.e., approx. greater than a factor of 50) over which these systems manage to accrete and the high rate of spindown that the neutron stars exhibit in at least a number of cases. When the accretion rate drops sufficiently, the X-ray pulsar is said to become a "fast rotator," and in the conventional view, this is accompanied by a transition from accretion to "propellering," in which accretion ceases and the matter is ejected from the system. On the theoretical side, we note that this scenario for the onset of propellering cannot be entirely correct because it is not energetically self-consistent. We show that, instead, the transition is likely to take place through disks that combine accretion with spindown and terminate at the corotation radius. We demonstrate the existence of such disk solutions by modifying the Shakura-Sunyaev equations with a simple magnetic torque prescription. The solutions are completely analytic and have the same dependence on M and a (the viscosity parameter) as the original Shakura-Sunyaev solutions, but the radial profiles can be considerably modified, depending on the degree of fastness. We apply these results to compute the torques expected during the outbursts of the transient millisecond pulsars and find that we can explain the large spin-down rates that are observed for quite plausible surface magnetic fields of approx. 10(exp 90 G.

  7. Accretion onto Pre-Main-Sequence Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Lee; Herczeg, Gregory; Calvet, Nuria

    2016-09-01

    Accretion through circumstellar disks plays an important role in star formation and in establishing the properties of the regions in which planets form and migrate. The mechanisms by which protostellar and protoplanetary disks accrete onto low-mass stars are not clear; angular momentum transport by magnetic fields is thought to be involved, but the low-ionization conditions in major regions of protoplanetary disks lead to a variety of complex nonideal magnetohydrodynamic effects whose implications are not fully understood. Accretion in pre-main-sequence stars of masses ≲1M⊙ (and in at least some 2-3-M⊙ systems) is generally funneled by the stellar magnetic field, which disrupts the disk at scales typically of order a few stellar radii. Matter moving at near free-fall velocities shocks at the stellar surface; the resulting accretion luminosities from the dissipation of kinetic energy indicate that mass addition during the T Tauri phase over the typical disk lifetime ˜3 Myr is modest in terms of stellar evolution, but is comparable to total disk reservoirs as estimated from millimeter-wave dust emission (˜10-2 M⊙). Pre-main-sequence accretion is not steady, encompassing timescales ranging from approximately hours to a century, with longer-timescale variations tending to be the largest. Accretion during the protostellar phase—while the protostellar envelope is still falling onto the disk—is much less well understood, mostly because the properties of the central obscured protostar are difficult to estimate. Kinematic measurements of protostellar masses with new interfometric facilities should improve estimates of accretion rates during the earliest phases of star formation.

  8. The Production of Jets From Magnetic Accretion Disks: Simulation of the Blandford-Payne Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meier, David L.

    1995-01-01

    We have performed magnetohydrodynamic (MRD) simulations of the production of jets from magnetized accretion disks with a factor of 5 greater extent in space and time, and with more models, than any study published so far. We find that jets are produced by such disks in a broad range of parameter space, and by at least two different mechanisms. We also are able to follow the propagation of the jet well beyond the accretion disk into the region of hydrodynamic collimation. The code used is our MHD simulation code FLOW (K. Lind, D. Payne, D. Meier, and R. Blandford, 1989), converted to run on Caltech's massively parallel Intel Touchstone Delta supercomputer. Some of these models may be directly applicable to observed radio sources.

  9. Accreting neutron stars by QFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shao-Guang

    layer with thickness of 1 km then q = 1 (N1S1), the gravity from N1S1 inside and exterior will be completely shielded. Because of net nuν _{0} flux is the medium to produce and transmit gravity, q obstructed by the shielding layer lie on the density of layer matter and the section of single nucleon to electronic neutrino obtained by nuclear physics experiments is about 1.1*10 ({-) 43} cm (2) . The mass inside N1S1 for exterior has not gravity interaction, it equivalent to has not inertia as the mass vanish. The neutron star is as a empty shell thereby may rapidly rotating and has not upper limit of mass and radii by the gravity accretion of N1S1, which will influence the mechanisms of pulsars, quasars and X-rays generated. At N1S1 interior the mass for exterior has not gravity which is just we searching dark matter. The mass each part will each other shielding and gravity decrease to less than the pressure of the degenerate neutron gas. The neutron star cannot collapse into a singular point with infinite density, i.e., the black hole with infinite gravity cannot be formed or the neutron star is jest the black hole in observational meaning. By the gravity accrete of N1S1 the neutron star may enlarge its shell radii but thickness keep. Only a shell gravity may be not less than any a observed value which to be deemed as black hole. The neutron star has powerful gravity certainly accompany with great surface negative charge and it may rapidly to rotate, so that there is a powerful magnetic field surround it. The accreting neutron star is as a slowly expand empty shell with fixed thickness of 1 km, its spin period depend on its radii or total accretion mass.

  10. Chaotic cold accretion on to black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaspari, M.; Ruszkowski, M.; Oh, S. Peng

    2013-07-01

    Bondi theory is often assumed to adequately describe the mode of accretion in astrophysical environments. However, the Bondi flow must be adiabatic, spherically symmetric, steady, unperturbed, with constant boundary conditions. Using 3D adaptive mesh refinement simulations, linking the 50 kpc to the sub-parsec (sub-pc) scales over the course of 40 Myr, we systematically relax the classic assumptions in a typical galaxy hosting a supermassive black hole. In the more realistic scenario, where the hot gas is cooling, while heated and stirred on large scales, the accretion rate is boosted up to two orders of magnitude compared with the Bondi prediction. The cause is the non-linear growth of thermal instabilities, leading to the condensation of cold clouds and filaments when tcool/tff ≲ 10. The clouds decouple from the hot gas, `raining' on to the centre. Subsonic turbulence of just over 100 km s-1 (M > 0.2) induces the formation of thermal instabilities, even in the absence of heating, while in the transonic regime turbulent dissipation inhibits their growth (tturb/tcool ≲ 1). When heating restores global thermodynamic balance, the formation of the multiphase medium is violent, and the mode of accretion is fully cold and chaotic. The recurrent collisions and tidal forces between clouds, filaments and the central clumpy torus promote angular momentum cancellation, hence boosting accretion. On sub-pc scales the clouds are channelled to the very centre via a funnel. In this study, we do not inject a fixed initial angular momentum, though vorticity is later seeded by turbulence. A good approximation to the accretion rate is the cooling rate, which can be used as subgrid model, physically reproducing the boost factor of 100 required by cosmological simulations, while accounting for the frequent fluctuations. Since our modelling is fairly general (turbulence/heating due to AGN feedback, galaxy motions, mergers, stellar evolution), chaotic cold accretion may be common in

  11. The Final Fates of Accreting Supermassive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umeda, Hideyuki; Hosokawa, Takashi; Omukai, Kazuyuki; Yoshida, Naoki

    2016-10-01

    The formation of supermassive stars (SMSs) via rapid mass accretion and their direct collapse into black holes (BHs) is a promising pathway for sowing seeds of supermassive BHs in the early universe. We calculate the evolution of rapidly accreting SMSs by solving the stellar structure equations including nuclear burning as well as general relativistic (GR) effects up to the onset of the collapse. We find that such SMSs have a less concentrated structure than a fully convective counterpart, which is often postulated for non-accreting ones. This effect stabilizes the stars against GR instability even above the classical upper mass limit ≳105 M ⊙ derived for the fully convective stars. The accreting SMS begins to collapse at the higher mass with the higher accretion rate. The collapse occurs when the nuclear fuel is exhausted only for cases with \\dot{M}≲ 0.1 {M}⊙ {{{yr}}}-1. With \\dot{M}≃ 0.3{--}1 {M}⊙ {{{yr}}}-1, the star becomes GR unstable during the helium-burning stage at M ≃ 2-3.5 × 105 M ⊙. In an extreme case with 10 {M}⊙ {{{yr}}}-1, the star does not collapse until the mass reaches ≃8.0 × 105 M ⊙, where it is still in the hydrogen-burning stage. We expect that BHs with roughly the same mass will be left behind after the collapse in all the cases.

  12. Aerodynamic Simulation of Ice Accretion on Airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broeren, Andy P.; Addy, Harold E., Jr.; Bragg, Michael B.; Busch, Greg T.; Montreuil, Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    This report describes recent improvements in aerodynamic scaling and simulation of ice accretion on airfoils. Ice accretions were classified into four types on the basis of aerodynamic effects: roughness, horn, streamwise, and spanwise ridge. The NASA Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) was used to generate ice accretions within these four types using both subscale and full-scale models. Large-scale, pressurized windtunnel testing was performed using a 72-in.- (1.83-m-) chord, NACA 23012 airfoil model with high-fidelity, three-dimensional castings of the IRT ice accretions. Performance data were recorded over Reynolds numbers from 4.5 x 10(exp 6) to 15.9 x 10(exp 6) and Mach numbers from 0.10 to 0.28. Lower fidelity ice-accretion simulation methods were developed and tested on an 18-in.- (0.46-m-) chord NACA 23012 airfoil model in a small-scale wind tunnel at a lower Reynolds number. The aerodynamic accuracy of the lower fidelity, subscale ice simulations was validated against the full-scale results for a factor of 4 reduction in model scale and a factor of 8 reduction in Reynolds number. This research has defined the level of geometric fidelity required for artificial ice shapes to yield aerodynamic performance results to within a known level of uncertainty and has culminated in a proposed methodology for subscale iced-airfoil aerodynamic simulation.

  13. The Burst Mode of Protostellar Accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorobyov, E. I.; Basu, Shantanu

    2006-10-01

    We present new numerical simulations in the thin disk approximation that characterize the burst mode of protostellar accretion. The burst mode begins upon the formation of a centrifugally balanced disk around a newly formed protostar. It comprises prolonged quiescent periods of low accretion rate (typically <~10-7 Msolar yr-1) that are punctuated by intense bursts of accretion (typically >~10-4 Msolar yr-1, with duration <~100 yr) during which most of the protostellar mass is accumulated. The accretion bursts are associated with the formation of dense protostellar/protoplanetary embryos, which are later driven onto the protostar by the gravitational torques that develop in the disk. Gravitational instability in the disk, driven by continuing infall from the envelope, is shown to be an effective means of transporting angular momentum outward and mass inward to the protostar. We show that the disk mass always remains significantly less than the central protostar's mass throughout this process. The burst phenomenon is robust enough to occur for a variety of initial values of rotation rate and frozen-in (supercritical) magnetic field and a variety of density-temperature relations. Even in cases where the bursts are nearly entirely suppressed, a moderate increase in cloud size or rotation rate can lead to vigorous burst activity. We conclude that most (if not all) protostars undergo a burst mode of evolution during their early accretion history, as inferred empirically from observations of FU Orionis variables.

  14. Episodic Accretion among the Orion Protostars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, William J.; Safron, Emily; Megeath, S. Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Episodic accretion, where a young stellar object undergoes stochastic spikes in its disk-to-star accretion rate one or more times over its formation period, may be a crucial process in the formation of low-mass stars. These spikes result in a factor of 10 to 100 increase in the source luminosity over the course of several months that may persist for years. Six years after the Spitzer survey of the Orion molecular clouds, the WISE telescope mapped Orion with similar wavelength coverage. Thus, the two surveys can be used to explore the mid-infrared variability of young stars on this timescale, which is suitable for discovering episodic accretion events. Out of 319 Orion protostars that were targets of the Herschel Orion Protostar Survey, we identified two examples of episodic accretion with this method. One of them, HOPS 223, was previously known. The other, HOPS 383, is the first known example of episodic accretion in a Class 0 protostar (age < 0.2 Myr). With these and one other outburst that began early in the Spitzer mission, we estimate that the most likely interval between protostellar outbursts is 740 years, with a 90% confidence interval of 470 to 6200 years. These outbursts are weaker than the optically revealed FU Ori events. We will update the mid-infrared light curves of HOPS 223 and HOPS 383 with recent data from FORCAST aboard SOFIA; HOPS 223 shows signs of fading.

  15. Effects of Ice Accretion on Aircraft Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg, Michael B.

    1998-01-01

    The primary objective of this research was to support the development of a new ice accretion model by improving our physical understanding of the ice accretion process through experimental measurements. The focus was on the effect of the initial ice roughness (smooth/rough boundary) on the accretion process. This includes understanding the boundary-layer development over the roughness and especially its effect on the heat transfer which is fundamental to the ice accretion process. The research focused on acquiring the experimental data needed to formulate a new ice accretion physical model. Research was conducted to analyze boundary-layer data taken on a NACA 0012 airfoil with roughness to simulate the smooth/rough boundary. The effect of isolated roughness on boundary-layer transition was studied experimentally to determine if the classical critical roughness Reynolds number criteria could be applied to transition in the airfoil leading-edge area. The effect of simulated smooth/rough boundary roughness on convective heat transfer was studied to complete the study. During the course of this research the effect of free-stream wind tunnel turbulence on the boundary layer was measured. Since this quantity was not well known, research to accurately measure the wind tunnel turbulence in an icing cloud was undertaken. Preliminary results were attained and the final data were acquired, reduced and presented under a subsequent grant.

  16. Sharing code

    PubMed Central

    Kubilius, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Sharing code is becoming increasingly important in the wake of Open Science. In this review I describe and compare two popular code-sharing utilities, GitHub and Open Science Framework (OSF). GitHub is a mature, industry-standard tool but lacks focus towards researchers. In comparison, OSF offers a one-stop solution for researchers but a lot of functionality is still under development. I conclude by listing alternative lesser-known tools for code and materials sharing. PMID:25165519

  17. Ice Accretions on Modern Airfoils Investigated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Addy, Harold E., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    The Icing Branch at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field initiated and conducted the Modern Airfoils Ice Accretions project to identify ice shapes and determine their effects on the aerodynamic performance of aircraft, particularly on lift and drag. Previous aircraft ice shape and performance documentation focused on a few, older airfoils. This permitted more basic studies of the ice accretion process to be undertaken. However, having established both a working data base of ice shapes and the capability to predict these shapes for basic airfoils, questions arose about how ice might accrete differently on airfoils more representative of those being designed and flown on various aircraft today. Similarly, information about how these ice shapes would affect aerodynamic performance was needed.

  18. Galaxies in clusters: Gas stripping and accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balsara, Dinshaw; Livio, Mario; O'Dea, Christopher P.

    1994-12-01

    We study the process of a galaxy moving through the intracluster gas in a cluster of galaxies, using two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations at high resolution. We find that ram pressure stripping occurs in the form of individual events which are separated by a few times 107 yr. In addition, we find that the galaxy accretes gas from the downstream side into the core. This accretion process exhibits a radial 'pumping' mode, similar to the one found previously in simulations of wind accretion onto compact objects. The flow is found to exhibit a complex shock structure around the core. Some implications of our results for the understanding of a few recent observations are discussed.

  19. Reverberation Mapping of AGN Accretion Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fausnaugh, Michael; AGN STORM Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    I will discuss new reverberation mapping results that allow us to investigate the temperature structure of AGN accretion disks. By measuring time-delays between broad-band continuum light curves, we can determine the size of the disk as a function of wavelength. I will discuss the detection of continuum lags in NGC 5548 reported by the AGN STORM project and implications for the accretion disk. I will also present evidence for continuum lags in two other AGN for which we recently measured black hole masses from continuum-Hbeta reverberations. The mass measurements allow us to compare the continuum lags to predictions from standard thin disk theory, and our results indicate that the accretion disks are larger than the simplest expectations.

  20. SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS OF ACCRETING PROTOPLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Eisner, J. A.

    2015-04-10

    Planets are often invoked as the cause of inferred gaps or inner clearings in transition disks. These putative planets would interact with the remnant circumstellar disk, accreting gas and generating substantial luminosity. Here I explore the expected appearance of accreting protoplanets at a range of evolutionary states. I compare synthetic spectral energy distributions with the handful of claimed detections of substellar-mass companions in transition disks. While observed fluxes of candidate companions are generally compatible with accreting protoplanets, challenges remain in reconciling the extended structure inferred in observed objects with the compact emission expected from protoplanets or circumplanetary disks. I argue that a large fraction of transition disks should harbor bright protoplanets, and that more may be detected as larger telescopes open up additional parameter space.

  1. Strongly magnetized accretion discs require poloidal flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvesen, Greg; Armitage, Philip J.; Simon, Jacob B.; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    2016-08-01

    Motivated by indirect observational evidence for strongly magnetized accretion discs around black holes, and the novel theoretical properties of such solutions, we investigate how a strong magnetization state can develop and persist. To this end, we perform local simulations of accretion discs with an initially purely toroidal magnetic field of equipartition strength. We demonstrate that discs with zero net vertical magnetic flux and realistic boundary conditions cannot sustain a strong toroidal field. However, a magnetic pressure-dominated disc can form from an initial configuration with a sufficient amount of net vertical flux and realistic boundary conditions. Our results suggest that poloidal flux is a necessary prerequisite for the sustainability of strongly magnetized accretion discs.

  2. Roche Potential with Luminous Accretion Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukue, Jun; Hanamoto, Keishi

    2002-12-01

    The radiative environments of an interacting binary, which contains a luminous accretion disk, are investigated. The disk radiation field has no effect in the direction of the orbital plane, while it significantly affects in the polar direction. As the disk luminosity increases, the Roche potential around the compact star becomes hollow in the polar direction. It further crashes toward the pole, and a cone of avoidance appears at the normalized luminosity Γd ≡ Ld/LE = 0.5, where Ld is the disk luminosity and LE the Eddington luminosity of the compact star. The disk corona, the wind-fed accretion flow, and the common envelope suffer a remarkable influence by the luminous disk in active binaries. Of these, the wind-fed accretion is briefly discussed.

  3. Generalized Similarity for Accretion/Decretion Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafikov, Roman R.

    2016-10-01

    Decretion (or external) disks are gas disks freely expanding to large radii due to their internal stresses. They are expected to naturally arise in tidal disruption events, around Be stars, in mass-losing post-main-sequence binaries, as a result of supernova fallback, etc. Their evolution is theoretically understood in two regimes: when the central object does not exert torque on the disk (a standard assumption for conventional accretion disks) or when no mass inflow (or outflow) occurs at the disk center. However, many astrophysical objects—circumbinary disks, Be stars, neutron stars accreting in a propeller regime, etc.—feature non-zero torque simultaneously with the non-zero accretion (or ejection of mass) at the disk center. We provide a general description for the evolution of such disks (both linear and nonlinear) in the self-similar regime, to which the disk should asymptotically converge with time. We identify a similarity parameter λ, which is uniquely related to the degree, to which the central mass accretion is suppressed by the non-zero central torque. The known decretion disk solutions correspond to the two discrete values of λ, while our new solutions cover a continuum of its physically allowed values, corresponding to either accretion or mass ejection by the central object. A direct relationship between λ and central \\dot{M} and torque is also established. We describe the time evolution of the various disk characteristics for different λ, and show that the observable properties (spectrum and luminosity evolution) of the decretion disks, in general, are different from the standard accretion disks with no central torque.

  4. The accretion of migrating giant planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dürmann, Christoph; Kley, Wilhelm

    2017-02-01

    Aims: Most studies concerning the growth and evolution of massive planets focus either on their accretion or their migration only. In this work we study both processes concurrently to investigate how they might mutually affect one another. Methods: We modeled a two-dimensional disk with a steady accretion flow onto the central star and embedded a Jupiter mass planet at 5.2 au. The disk is locally isothermal and viscosity is modeled using a constant α. The planet is held on a fixed orbit for a few hundred orbits to allow the disk to adapt and carve a gap. After this period, the planet is released and free to move according to the gravitational interaction with the gas disk. The mass accretion onto the planet is modeled by removing a fraction of gas from the inner Hill sphere, and the removed mass and momentum can be added to the planet. Results: Our results show that a fast migrating planet is able to accrete more gas than a slower migrating planet. Utilizing a tracer fluid we analyzed the origin of the accreted gas originating predominantly from the inner disk for a fast migrating planet. In the case of slower migration, the fraction of gas from the outer disk increases. We also found that even for very high accretion rates, in some cases gas crosses the planetary gap from the inner to the outer disk. Our simulations show that the crossing of gas changes during the migration process as the migration rate slows down. Therefore, classical type II migration where the planet migrates with the viscous drift rate and no gas crosses the gap is no general process but may only occur for special parameters and at a certain time during the orbital evolution of the planet.

  5. HEROIC: 3D general relativistic radiative post-processor with comptonization for black hole accretion discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayan, Ramesh; Zhu, Yucong; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Saḑowski, Aleksander

    2016-03-01

    We describe Hybrid Evaluator for Radiative Objects Including Comptonization (HEROIC), an upgraded version of the relativistic radiative post-processor code HERO described in a previous paper, but which now Includes Comptonization. HEROIC models Comptonization via the Kompaneets equation, using a quadratic approximation for the source function in a short characteristics radiation solver. It employs a simple form of accelerated lambda iteration to handle regions of high scattering opacity. In addition to solving for the radiation field, HEROIC also solves for the gas temperature by applying the condition of radiative equilibrium. We present benchmarks and tests of the Comptonization module in HEROIC with simple 1D and 3D scattering problems. We also test the ability of the code to handle various relativistic effects using model atmospheres and accretion flows in a black hole space-time. We present two applications of HEROIC to general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics simulations of accretion discs. One application is to a thin accretion disc around a black hole. We find that the gas below the photosphere in the multidimensional HEROIC solution is nearly isothermal, quite different from previous solutions based on 1D plane parallel atmospheres. The second application is to a geometrically thick radiation-dominated accretion disc accreting at 11 times the Eddington rate. Here, the multidimensional HEROIC solution shows that, for observers who are on axis and look down the polar funnel, the isotropic equivalent luminosity could be more than 10 times the Eddington limit, even though the spectrum might still look thermal and show no signs of relativistic beaming.

  6. General relativistic hydrodynamics with Adaptive-Mesh Refinement (AMR) and modeling of accretion disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donmez, Orhan

    We present a general procedure to solve the General Relativistic Hydrodynamical (GRH) equations with Adaptive-Mesh Refinement (AMR) and model of an accretion disk around a black hole. To do this, the GRH equations are written in a conservative form to exploit their hyperbolic character. The numerical solutions of the general relativistic hydrodynamic equations is done by High Resolution Shock Capturing schemes (HRSC), specifically designed to solve non-linear hyperbolic systems of conservation laws. These schemes depend on the characteristic information of the system. We use Marquina fluxes with MUSCL left and right states to solve GRH equations. First, we carry out different test problems with uniform and AMR grids on the special relativistic hydrodynamics equations to verify the second order convergence of the code in 1D, 2 D and 3D. Second, we solve the GRH equations and use the general relativistic test problems to compare the numerical solutions with analytic ones. In order to this, we couple the flux part of general relativistic hydrodynamic equation with a source part using Strang splitting. The coupling of the GRH equations is carried out in a treatment which gives second order accurate solutions in space and time. The test problems examined include shock tubes, geodesic flows, and circular motion of particle around the black hole. Finally, we apply this code to the accretion disk problems around the black hole using the Schwarzschild metric at the background of the computational domain. We find spiral shocks on the accretion disk. They are observationally expected results. We also examine the star-disk interaction near a massive black hole. We find that when stars are grounded down or a hole is punched on the accretion disk, they create shock waves which destroy the accretion disk.

  7. Modelling the Accretion History of the Galactic Disk (and the Gravitational Lensing of a High-z Galaxy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyers, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Over its long history, the Milky Way is expected to have accreted many dwarf galaxies. The debris from the destruction of most of these dwarf galaxies will by now be fully phase-mixed throughout the Galaxy and hence undetectable as local over-densities in position-space. However, the debris from these systems could have distinct kinematic signatures that may help distinguish these stars from, for example, the Galactic disk. We aim to construct a reliable method of determining the contributions to the Milky Way disk from accreted structures that could be applied to current kinematic data sets, such as SDSS's APOGEE survey. In an effort to mimic the kinematic traits of an accreted satellite, we construct single-orbit models to compare to a cosmologically motivated simulation of satellite accretion. We find that these orbit models adhere to the kinematic signatures of certain types of accreted galaxies better than others, giving us insight on which parameters to trust when searching for accreted populations. As a bonus, we describe a separate project in which we attempt to deduce the intrinsic properties of the 8 o'clock arc, a gravitationally lensed Lyman break galaxy at redshift 2.73. Using the lensmodel code and its pixel-based source reconstruction extension pixsrc, we derive a de-lensed image of the galaxy in the source plane.

  8. Accretion disc flows around FU Orionis stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, C. J.; Lin, D. N. C.; Papaloizou, J. C. B.

    1989-01-01

    The accretion disk model of FU Orionis systems in outburst is investigated by examining the time-dependent behavior of a disk around a low-mass protostar that accretes at 0.00001-0.0001 solar masses/yr. It is found that the disk may be stabilized against the thermal ionization instability by the effect of advective heat transport and that it may therefore exist in the quasi-steady-state observed in post-outburst FU Orionis systems. The disk models are used to discuss the cosmochemical consequences of possible FU Ori events during the evolution of the primordial solar nebula.

  9. Accretion dynamics of EX Lupi in quiescence. The star, the spot, and the accretion column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicilia-Aguilar, Aurora; Fang, Min; Roccatagliata, Veronica; Collier Cameron, Andrew; Kóspál, Ágnes; Henning, Thomas; Ábrahám, Peter; Sipos, Nikoletta

    2015-08-01

    Context. EX Lupi is a young, accreting M0 star and the prototype of EXor variable stars. Its spectrum is very rich in emission lines, including many metallic lines with narrow and broad components. The presence of a close companion has also been proposed, based on radial velocity signatures. Aims: We use the metallic emission lines to study the accretion structures and to test the companion hypothesis. Methods: We analyse 54 spectra obtained during five years of quiescence time. We study the line profile variability and the radial velocity of the narrow and broad metallic emission lines. We use the velocity signatures of different species with various excitation conditions and their time dependency to track the dynamics associated with accretion. Results: We observe periodic velocity variations in the broad and the narrow line components, consistent with rotational modulation. The modulation is stronger for lines with higher excitation potentials (e.g. He II), which are likely produced in a confined area very close to the accretion shock. Conclusions: We propose that the narrow line components are produced in the post-shock region, while the broad components originate in the more extended, pre-shock material in the accretion column. All the emission lines suffer velocity modulation due to the rotation of the star. The broad components are responsible for the line-dependent veiling observed in EX Lupi. We demonstrate that a rotationally modulated line-dependent veiling can explain the radial velocity signature of the photospheric absorption lines, making the close-in companion hypothesis unnecessary. The accretion structure is locked to the star and very stable during the five years of observations. Not all stars with similar spectral types and accretion rates show the same metallic emission lines, which could be related to differences in temperature and density in their accretion structure(s). The contamination of photospheric signatures by accretion

  10. Where a Neutron Star's Accretion Disk Ends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-03-01

    In X-ray binaries that consist of a neutron star and a companion star, gas funnels from the companion into an accretion disk surrounding the neutron star, spiraling around until it is eventually accreted. How do the powerful magnetic fields threading through the neutron star affect this accretion disk? Recent observations provide evidence that they may push the accretion disk away from the neutron stars surface.Truncated DisksTheoretical models have indicated that neutron star accretion disks may not extend all the way in to the surface of a neutron star, but may instead be truncated at a distance. This prediction has been difficult to test observationally, however, due to the challenge of measuring the location of the inner disk edge in neutron-star X-ray binaries.In a new study, however, a team of scientists led by Ashley King (Einstein Fellow at Stanford University) has managed to measure the location of the inner edge of the disk in Aquila X-1, a neutron-star X-ray binary located 17,000 light-years away.Iron line feature detected by Swift (red) and NuSTAR (black). The symmetry of the line is one of the indicators that the disk is located far from the neutron star; if the inner regions of the disk were close to the neutron star, severe relativistic effects would skew the line to be asymmetric. [King et al. 2016]Measurements from ReflectionsKing and collaborators used observations made by NuSTAR and Swift/XRT both X-ray space observatories of Aquila X-1 during the peak of an X-ray outburst. By observing the reflection of Aquila X-1s emission off of the inner regions of the accretion disk, the authors were able to estimate the location of the inner edge of the disk.The authors find that this inner edge sits at ~15 gravitational radii. Since the neutron stars surface is at ~5 gravitational radii, this means that the accretion disk is truncated far from the stars surface. In spite of this truncation, material still manages to cross the gap and accrete onto the

  11. Speech coding

    SciTech Connect

    Ravishankar, C., Hughes Network Systems, Germantown, MD

    1998-05-08

    Speech is the predominant means of communication between human beings and since the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876, speech services have remained to be the core service in almost all telecommunication systems. Original analog methods of telephony had the disadvantage of speech signal getting corrupted by noise, cross-talk and distortion Long haul transmissions which use repeaters to compensate for the loss in signal strength on transmission links also increase the associated noise and distortion. On the other hand digital transmission is relatively immune to noise, cross-talk and distortion primarily because of the capability to faithfully regenerate digital signal at each repeater purely based on a binary decision. Hence end-to-end performance of the digital link essentially becomes independent of the length and operating frequency bands of the link Hence from a transmission point of view digital transmission has been the preferred approach due to its higher immunity to noise. The need to carry digital speech became extremely important from a service provision point of view as well. Modem requirements have introduced the need for robust, flexible and secure services that can carry a multitude of signal types (such as voice, data and video) without a fundamental change in infrastructure. Such a requirement could not have been easily met without the advent of digital transmission systems, thereby requiring speech to be coded digitally. The term Speech Coding is often referred to techniques that represent or code speech signals either directly as a waveform or as a set of parameters by analyzing the speech signal. In either case, the codes are transmitted to the distant end where speech is reconstructed or synthesized using the received set of codes. A more generic term that is applicable to these techniques that is often interchangeably used with speech coding is the term voice coding. This term is more generic in the sense that the

  12. Quasi-periodic oscillations in accreting magnetic white dwarfs. II. The asset of numerical modelling for interpreting observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busschaert, C.; Falize, É.; Michaut, C.; Bonnet-Bidaud, J.-M.; Mouchet, M.

    2015-07-01

    Context. Magnetic cataclysmic variables are close binary systems containing a strongly magnetized white dwarf that accretes matter coming from an M-dwarf companion. The high magnetic field strength leads to the formation of an accretion column instead of an accretion disk. High-energy radiation coming from those objects is emitted from the column close to the white dwarf photosphere at the impact region. Its properties depend on the characteristics of the white dwarf and an accurate accretion column model allows the properties of the binary system to be inferred, such as the white dwarf mass, its magnetic field, and the accretion rate. Aims: We study the temporal and spectral behaviour of the accretion region and use the tools we developed to accurately connect the simulation results to the X-ray and optical astronomical observations. Methods: The radiation hydrodynamics code Hades was adapted to simulate this specific accretion phenomena. Classical approaches were used to model the radiative losses of the two main radiative processes: bremsstrahlung and cyclotron. Synthetic light curves and X-ray spectra were extracted from numerical simulations. A fast Fourier analysis was performed on the simulated light curves. The oscillation frequencies and amplitudes in the X-ray and optical domains are studied to compare those numerical results to observational ones. Different dimensional formulae were developed to complete the numerical evaluations. Results: The complete characterization of the emitting region is described for the two main radiative regimes: when only the bremsstrahlung losses and when both cyclotron and bremsstrahlung losses are considered. The effect of the non-linear cooling instability regime on the accretion column behaviour is analysed. Variation in luminosity on short timescales (~1 s quasi-periodic oscillations) is an expected consequence of this specific dynamic. The importance of secondary shock instability on the quasi-periodic oscillation

  13. Multiphase, non-spherical gas accretion on to a black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barai, Paramita; Proga, Daniel; Nagamine, Kentaro

    2012-07-01

    We investigate non-spherical behaviour of gas accreting on to a central supermassive black hole. Assuming optically thin conditions, we include radiative cooling and radiative heating by the central X-ray source. Our simulations are performed using the 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamic (SPH) code GADGET-3 and are compared to theoretical predictions as well as to 1D simulations performed using the grid code ZEUS. As found in earlier 1D studies, our 3D simulations show that the accretion mode depends on the X-ray luminosity (LX) for a fixed density at infinity and accretion efficiency. In the low LX limit, gas accretes in a stable, spherically symmetric fashion. In the high LX limit, the inner gas is significantly heated up and expands, reducing the central mass inflow rate. The expanding gas can turn into a strong enough outflow capable of expelling most of the gas at larger radii. For some intermediate LX, the accretion flow becomes unstable developing prominent non-spherical features. Our detailed analysis and tests show that the key reason for this unstable non-spherical nature of the flow is thermal instability (TI). Small perturbations of the initially spherically symmetric accretion flow that is heated by the intermediate LX quickly grow to form cold and dense clumps surrounded by overheated low-density regions. The cold clumps continue their inwards motion forming filamentary structures, while the hot infalling gas slows down because of buoyancy and can even start outflowing through the channels in between the filaments. We measured various local and global properties of our solutions. In particular, we found that the ratio between the mass inflow rates of the cold and hot gas is a dynamical quantity depending on several factors: time, spatial location and LX; and ranges between 0 and 4. We briefly discuss astrophysical implications of such TI-driven fragmentation of accreting gas on the formation of clouds in narrow- and broad-line regions of active galactic

  14. Coronal Neutrino Emission in Hypercritical Accretion Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawabata, R.; Mineshige, S.; Kawanaka, N.

    2008-03-01

    Hypercritical accretion flows onto stellar mass black holes (BHs) are commonly believed to be as a promising model of central engines of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). In this model a certain fraction of the gravitational binding energy of accreting matter is deposited to the energy of relativistic jets via neutrino annihilation and/or magnetic fields. However, some recent studies have indicated that the energy deposition rate by neutrino annihilation is somewhat smaller than that needed to power a GRB. To overcome this difficulty, Ramirez-Ruiz and Socrates proposed that high-energy neutrinos from the hot corona above the accretion disk might enhance the efficiency of the energy deposition. We elucidate the disk corona model in the context of hypercritical accretion flows. From the energy balance in the disk and the corona, we can calculate the disk and coronal temperature, Td and Tc, and neutrino spectra, taking into account the neutrino cooling processes by neutrino-electron scatterings and neutrino pair productions. The calculated neutrino spectra consist of two peaks: one by the neutrino emission from the disk and the other by that from the corona. We find that the disk corona can enhance the efficiency of energy release but only by a factor of 1.5 or so, unless the height of the corona is very small, Hll r. This is because the neutrino emission is very sensitive to the temperature of the emitting region, and then the ratio Tc/Td cannot be very large.

  15. Planetary growth by the accretion of pebbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambrechts, Michiel; Johansen, Anders; Bitsch, Bertram; Morbidelli, Alessandro

    2015-11-01

    Pebbles, approximately cm-sized solids that drift through a protoplanetary disc, provide a reservoir of material that can be efficiently accreted by planetary embryos due to the dissipating effect of gas drag (Lambrechts & Johansen, 2012).Here, we will highlight the robust implications of pebble accretion on the formation of planets throughout the protoplanetary disc.In the outer disc, icy pebbles form by coagulation and consequently start drifting inwards. Nevertheless, we find that the pebble surface densities are sufficiently high to form giant planets on wide orbits, before the gas disc disperses after a few Myr (Lambrechts & Johansen, 2014). Growth is only halted when cores reach sizes of around 10 Earth masses, when their gravity creates pressure bumps trapping the inwards drifting pebbles.This accretion cutoff triggers the attraction of a massive gaseous envelope. Additionally, the fast growth of giant planets prevents the loss of the cores by type-I migration (Lambrechts et al 2014, Bitsch et al 2015).Closer to the star, interior to the ice line, pebble accretion takes on a different form. There, chondrule-sized particles lead to the formation of much smaller, Mars-sized embryos, before the pebble flux is terminated by the growth of the gas giants (Morbidelli et al, 2015). We will also discuss ongoing work on the conditions under which much larger Super-Earths can form.

  16. Spiral Waves in Accretion Discs - Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boffin, H. M. J.

    Spirals shocks have been widely studied in the context of galactic dynamics and protostellar discs. They may however also play an important role in some classes of close binary stars, and more particularly in cataclysmic variables. In this paper, we review the physics of spirals waves in accretion discs, present the results of numerical simulations and consider whether theory can be reconcilied with observations.

  17. VARIABLE ACCRETION OUTBURSTS IN PROTOSTELLAR EVOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, Jaehan; Hartmann, Lee; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Gammie, Charles E-mail: lhartm@umich.edu E-mail: gammie@illinois.edu

    2013-02-20

    We extend the one-dimensional, two-zone models of long-term protostellar disk evolution with infall of Zhu et al. to consider the potential effects of a finite viscosity in regions where the ionization is too low for the magnetorotational instability (MRI) to operate (the {sup d}ead zone{sup )}. We find that the presence of a small but finite dead zone viscosity, as suggested by simulations of stratified disks with MRI-active outer layers, can trigger inside-out bursts of accretion, starting at or near the inner edge of the disk, instead of the previously found outside-in bursts with zero dead zone viscosity, which originate at a few AU in radius. These inside-out bursts of accretion bear a qualitative resemblance to the outburst behavior of one FU Ori object, V1515 Cyg, in contrast to the outside-in burst models, which more closely resemble the accretion events in FU Ori and V1057 Cyg. Our results suggest that the type and frequency of outbursts are potentially a probe of transport efficiency in the dead zone. Simulations must treat the inner disk regions, R {approx}< 0.5 AU, to show the detailed time evolution of accretion outbursts in general and to observe the inside-out bursts in particular.

  18. The Dusty Accretion of Polluted White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonsor, A.; Farihi, J.; Wyatt, M. C.; van Lieshout, R.

    2017-03-01

    Infrared observations of polluted white dwarfs provide key insights into the accretion processes in action. The standard model for the observed infrared excesses is a flat, opaque, dust disc. The infrared observations are inconsistent with the presence of such a disc around all polluted white dwarfs. We discuss potential explanations for the absence of an infrared excess for many polluted white dwarfs.

  19. Accretion, Outflows, and Winds of Magnetized Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanova, Marina M.; Owocki, Stanley P.

    2015-10-01

    Many types of stars have strong magnetic fields that can dynamically influence the flow of circumstellar matter. In stars with accretion disks, the stellar magnetic field can truncate the inner disk and determine the paths that matter can take to flow onto the star. These paths are different in stars with different magnetospheres and periods of rotation. External field lines of the magnetosphere may inflate and produce favorable conditions for outflows from the disk-magnetosphere boundary. Outflows can be particularly strong in the propeller regime, wherein a star rotates more rapidly than the inner disk. Outflows may also form at the disk-magnetosphere boundary of slowly rotating stars, if the magnetosphere is compressed by the accreting matter. In isolated, strongly magnetized stars, the magnetic field can influence formation and/or propagation of stellar wind outflows. Winds from low-mass, solar-type stars may be either thermally or magnetically driven, while winds from massive, luminous O and B type stars are radiatively driven. In all of these cases, the magnetic field influences matter flow from the stars and determines many observational properties. In this chapter we review recent studies of accretion, outflows, and winds of magnetized stars with a focus on three main topics: (1) accretion onto magnetized stars; (2) outflows from the disk-magnetosphere boundary; and (3) winds from isolated massive magnetized stars. We show results obtained from global magnetohydrodynamic simulations and, in a number of cases compare global simulations with observations.

  20. Viscosity in accretion discs. [for binary stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, J. I.

    1980-01-01

    Both HerX-1 and SS433 may contain accretion disks slaved to a precessing companion star. If so, it is possible to bound the effective viscosity in these disks. The results, in terms of the disk parameter alpha, are lower bounds of 0.01 for HerX-1 and of 0.1 for SS433.

  1. Transsonic accretion modes with density jumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adarchenko, V. A.; Voronin, S. M.

    2015-08-01

    In this study, a class of steady-state solutions of the problem of matter incidence on a gravitating center (accretion), in which the matter jump through a sound barrier is performed at the discontinuity (density jump), is proposed. Substantiation of such solutions is given based on the theory of fast—slow systems. Certain partial solutions are presented as an example.

  2. Accretion and star formation in RQQs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Sarah; Jarvis, Matt; Häußler, Boris; Maddox, Natasha; Kalfountzou, Eleni; Hardcastle, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) and star-forming galaxies are well-traced in the radio part of the electromagnetic spectrum, due to emission at these wavelengths being unaffected by dust obscuration. The key processes involved in producing the radio emission are black-hole accretion and star formation, both of which are thought to be crucial in determining how galaxies evolve. Disentangling the two contributions requires multi-wavelength data, and this is the approach we use for our work on radio-quiet quasars (RQQs). In contrast to previous studies, we find that accretion-connected radio emission dominates over that due to star formation, even at very low radio flux-densities. The first sample we describe is selected from the VISTA Deep Extragalactic Observations (VIDEO) survey, whose depth allows the study of very low accretion rates and/or lower-mass black holes. A second sample is obtained from the Spitzer-Herschel Active Galaxy Survey, spanning a factor of ~100 in optical luminosity over a narrow redshift range at z ~ 1. This enables evolutionary effects to be decoupled when comparisons are made with the VIDEO sample. Using radio data from the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA), we find further support that the AGN makes a significant contribution to the radio emission in RQQs. In addition, the levels of accretion and star formation appear to be weakly correlated with each other, and with optical luminosity.

  3. Numerical simulations of optically thick accretion onto a black hole. II. Rotating flow

    SciTech Connect

    Fragile, P. Chris; Olejar, Ally; Anninos, Peter

    2014-11-20

    In this paper, we report on recent upgrades to our general relativistic radiation magnetohydrodynamics code, Cosmos++, including the development of a new primitive inversion scheme and a hybrid implicit-explicit solver with a more general M {sub 1} closure relation for the radiation equations. The new hybrid solver helps stabilize the treatment of the radiation source terms, while the new closure allows for a much broader range of optical depths to be considered. These changes allow us to expand by orders of magnitude the range of temperatures, opacities, and mass accretion rates, and move a step closer toward our goal of performing global simulations of radiation-pressure-dominated black hole accretion disks. In this work, we test and validate the new method against an array of problems. We also demonstrate its ability to handle super-Eddington, quasi-spherical accretion. Even with just a single proof-of-principle simulation, we already see tantalizing hints of the interesting phenomenology associated with the coupling of radiation and gas in super-Eddington accretion flows.

  4. EARTH, MOON, SUN, AND CV ACCRETION DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, M. M.

    2009-11-01

    Net tidal torque by the secondary on a misaligned accretion disk, like the net tidal torque by the Moon and the Sun on the equatorial bulge of the spinning and tilted Earth, is suggested by others to be a source to retrograde precession in non-magnetic, accreting cataclysmic variable (CV) dwarf novae (DN) systems that show negative superhumps in their light curves. We investigate this idea in this work. We generate a generic theoretical expression for retrograde precession in spinning disks that are misaligned with the orbital plane. Our generic theoretical expression matches that which describes the retrograde precession of Earths' equinoxes. By making appropriate assumptions, we reduce our generic theoretical expression to those generated by others, or to those used by others, to describe retrograde precession in protostellar, protoplanetary, X-ray binary, non-magnetic CV DN, quasar, and black hole systems. We find that spinning, tilted CV DN systems cannot be described by a precessing ring or by a precessing rigid disk. We find that differential rotation and effects on the disk by the accretion stream must be addressed. Our analysis indicates that the best description of a retrogradely precessing spinning, tilted, CV DN accretion disk is a differentially rotating, tilted disk with an attached rotating, tilted ring located near the innermost disk annuli. In agreement with the observations and numerical simulations by others, we find that our numerically simulated CV DN accretion disks retrogradely precess as a unit. Our final, reduced expression for retrograde precession agrees well with our numerical simulation results and with selective observational systems that seem to have main-sequence secondaries. Our results suggest that a major source to retrograde precession is tidal torques like that by the Moon and the Sun on the Earth. In addition, these tidal torques should be common to a variety of systems where one member is spinning and tilted, regardless if

  5. Differentiation and core formation in accreting planetesimals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, W.; Breuer, D.; Spohn, T.

    2012-07-01

    Aims: The compositions of meteorites and the morphologies of asteroid surfaces provide strong evidence that partial melting and differentiation were widespread among the planetesimals of the early solar system. However, it is not easily understood how planetesimals can be differentiated. To account for significantly smaller radii, masses, gravity and accretion energies early, intense heat sources are required, e.g. the short-lived nuclides 26Al and 60Fe. Here, we investigate the process of differentiation and core formation in accreting planetesimals taking into account the effects of sintering, melt heat transport via porous flow and redistribution of the radiogenic heat sources. Methods: We use a spherically symmetric one-dimensional model of a partially molten planetesimal consisting of iron and silicates, which considers the accretion by radial growth. The common heat conduction equation has been modified to consider also melt segregation. In the initial state, the planetesimals are assumed to be highly porous and consist of a mixture of Fe,Ni-FeS and silicates consistent to an H-chondritic composition. The porosity change due to the so called hot pressing is simulated by solving a corresponding differential equation. Magma segregation of iron and silicate melt is treated according to the flow in porous media theory by using the Darcy flow equation and allowing a maximal melt fraction of 50%. Results: We show that the differentiation in planetesimals depends strongly on the formation time, accretion duration, and accretion law and cannot be assumed as instantaneous. Iron melt segregation starts almost simultaneously with silicate segregation and lasts between 0.4 and 10 Ma. The degree of differentiation varies significantly and the most evolved structure consists of an iron core, a silicate mantle, which are covered by an undifferentiated but sintered layer and an undifferentiated and unsintered regolith - suggesting that chondrites and achondrites can

  6. Stellar explosions from accreting white dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Kevin L.

    Unstable thermonuclear burning on accreting white dwarfs (WDs) can lead to a wide variety of outcomes, and induce shock waves in several contexts. In classical and recurrent novae, a WD accreting hydrogen-rich material from a binary companion can experience thermonuclear runaways, ejecting mass into the interstellar/circumbinary environment at ~1000 km/s. This highly supersonic ejecta drives shock waves into the interstellar gas which may be relevant for sweeping out gas from globular clusters or forming circumstellar absorption regions in interacting supernovae. While runaway nuclear burning in novae releases enough energy for these objects to brighten by a factor of ~10 4 over roughly a weeklong outburst, it does not become dynamically unstable. In contrast, certain helium accretion scenarios may allow for dynamical burning modes, in part due to the higher temperature sensitivity of helium burning reactions and larger accreted envelopes. The majority of this thesis involves such dynamical burning modes, specifically detonations - shock waves sustained by nuclear energy release behind the shock front. We investigate when steady-state detonations are realizable in accreted helium layers on WDs, and model their strength and burning products using both semi-analytic and numerical models. We find the minimum helium layer thickness that will sustain a steady laterally propagating detonation and show that it depends on the density and composition of the helium layer, specifically 12 C and 16O. Though gravitationally unbound, the ashes still have unburned helium (~80% in the thinnest cases) and only reach up to heavy elements such as 40Ca, 44Ti, 48Cr, and 52Fe. It is rare for these thin shells to generate large amounts of radioactive isotopes necessary to power light curves, such as 56Ni. This has important implications on whether the unbound helium burning ashes may create faint and fast peculiar supernovae or events with virtually no radioactivity, as well as on off

  7. Numerical MHD codes for modeling astrophysical flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koldoba, A. V.; Ustyugova, G. V.; Lii, P. S.; Comins, M. L.; Dyda, S.; Romanova, M. M.; Lovelace, R. V. E.

    2016-05-01

    We describe a Godunov-type magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code based on the Miyoshi and Kusano (2005) solver which can be used to solve various astrophysical hydrodynamic and MHD problems. The energy equation is in the form of entropy conservation. The code has been implemented on several different coordinate systems: 2.5D axisymmetric cylindrical coordinates, 2D Cartesian coordinates, 2D plane polar coordinates, and fully 3D cylindrical coordinates. Viscosity and diffusivity are implemented in the code to control the accretion rate in the disk and the rate of penetration of the disk matter through the magnetic field lines. The code has been utilized for the numerical investigations of a number of different astrophysical problems, several examples of which are shown.

  8. TORUS: Radiation transport and hydrodynamics code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harries, Tim

    2014-04-01

    TORUS is a flexible radiation transfer and radiation-hydrodynamics code. The code has a basic infrastructure that includes the AMR mesh scheme that is used by several physics modules including atomic line transfer in a moving medium, molecular line transfer, photoionization, radiation hydrodynamics and radiative equilibrium. TORUS is useful for a variety of problems, including magnetospheric accretion onto T Tauri stars, spiral nebulae around Wolf-Rayet stars, discs around Herbig AeBe stars, structured winds of O supergiants and Raman-scattered line formation in symbiotic binaries, and dust emission and molecular line formation in star forming clusters. The code is written in Fortran 2003 and is compiled using a standard Gnu makefile. The code is parallelized using both MPI and OMP, and can use these parallel sections either separately or in a hybrid mode.

  9. Development of 3D Ice Accretion Measurement Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sam; Broeren, Andy P.; Addy, Harold E., Jr.; Sills, Robert; Pifer, Ellen M.

    2012-01-01

    Icing wind tunnels are designed to simulate in-flight icing environments. The chief product of such facilities is the ice accretion that forms on various test articles. Documentation of the resulting ice accretion key piece of data in icing-wind-tunnel tests. Number of currently used options for documenting ice accretion in icing-wind-tunnel testing.

  10. Black Hole Advective Accretion Disks with Optical Depth Transition

    SciTech Connect

    Artemove, Y.V.; Bisnovatyi-Kogan, G.S.; Igumenshchev, I.V.; Novikov, I.D.

    2006-02-01

    We have constructed numerically global solutions of advective accretion disks around black holes that describe a continuous transition between the effectively optically thick outer and optically thin inner disk regions. We have concentrated on models of accretion flows with large mass accretion rates, and we have employed a bridging formula for radiative losses at high and low effective optical depths.

  11. QR Codes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Hsin-Chih; Chang, Chun-Yen; Li, Wen-Shiane; Fan, Yu-Lin; Wu, Ying-Tien

    2013-01-01

    This study presents an m-learning method that incorporates Integrated Quick Response (QR) codes. This learning method not only achieves the objectives of outdoor education, but it also increases applications of Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (CTML) (Mayer, 2001) in m-learning for practical use in a diverse range of outdoor locations. When…

  12. Analytical determination of propeller performance degradation due to ice accretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, T. L.

    1986-01-01

    A computer code has been developed which is capable of computing propeller performance for clean, glaze, or rime iced propeller configurations, thereby providing a mechanism for determining the degree of performance degradation which results from a given icing encounter. The inviscid, incompressible flow field at each specified propeller radial location is first computed using the Theodorsen transformation method of conformal mapping. A droplet trajectory computation then calculates droplet impingement points and airfoil collection efficiency for each radial location, at which point several user-selectable empirical correlations are available for determining the aerodynamic penalities which arise due to the ice accretion. Propeller performance is finally computed using strip analysis for either the clean or iced propeller. In the iced mode, the differential thrust and torque coefficient equations are modified by the drag and lift coefficient increments due to ice to obtain the appropriate iced values. Comparison with available experimental propeller icing data shows good agreement in several cases. The code's capability to properly predict iced thrust coefficient, power coefficient, and propeller efficiency is shown to be dependent on the choice of empirical correlation employed as well as proper specification of radial icing extent.

  13. AGN Accretion Physics: Insights from K2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogeley, Michael

    We propose to use Kepler K2 mission observations of 1800 supermassive black holes at the centers of galaxies (Active Galactic Nuclei; AGN) to test models for accretion physics, to study the relationship between variability and other AGN properties such as accretion rate, and to guide methods for detecting and classifying AGN in future time-domain surveys. AGN exhibit optical brightness fluctuations on timescales from below an hour up to many years. These fluctuations are determined by the physics of accretion of matter onto black holes from their galactic environment. By observing variability on timescales down to below an hour, Kepler probes the accretion region on length scales that are too small to be directly imaged using conventional telescopes. These data allow us to test competing models for accretion physics that make different predictions for the statistics of variability. Our previous work provides strong evidence that models of AGN variability that work on long timescale data are not adequate to describe the full range of fluctuation timescales probed by Kepler. We will analyze the light curves of 1800 AGN that have been monitored by Kepler during recent and ongoing K2 campaigns. These objects span a large range of luminosity and AGN type, thus allowing study of the relationship between variability and other physical properties. We will characterize the statistics of AGN variability using state-of-the-art methods of time series analysis that are appropriate for quantifying the stochastic behavior of AGN. This analysis builds on our previous work in which we developed and tested new analysis software that extracts the full information content of these light curves and will enable several key outcomes: (1) Measurement of the relationship between types of AGN and their variability. (2) Tests for dependence of variability on accretion rate. (3) Investigation of changes in variability behavior that point to changes in the mode of accretion. (4) Correlations

  14. RESISTIVITY-DRIVEN STATE CHANGES IN VERTICALLY STRATIFIED ACCRETION DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, Jacob B.; Hawley, John F.; Beckwith, Kris

    2011-04-01

    We investigate the effect of shear viscosity, {nu}, and Ohmic resistivity, {eta}, on the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in vertically stratified accretion disks through a series of local simulations with the Athena code. First, we use a series of unstratified simulations to calibrate physical dissipation as a function of resolution and background field strength; the effect of the magnetic Prandtl number, P{sub m} = {nu}/{eta}, on the turbulence is captured by {approx}32 grid zones per disk scale height, H. In agreement with previous results, our stratified disk calculations are characterized by a subthermal, predominately toroidal magnetic field that produces MRI-driven turbulence for |z| {approx}< 2H. Above |z| {approx} 2H, the magnetic pressure dominates and the field is buoyantly unstable. Large-scale radial and toroidal fields are also generated near the mid-plane and subsequently rise through the disk. The polarity of this mean field switches on a roughly 10 orbit period in a process that is well modeled by an {alpha}-{Omega} dynamo. Turbulent stress increases with P{sub m} but with a shallower dependence compared to unstratified simulations. For sufficiently large resistivity, {eta} {approx} c{sub s} H/1000, where c{sub s} is the sound speed, MRI turbulence within 2H of the mid-plane undergoes periods of resistive decay followed by regrowth. This regrowth is caused by amplification of the toroidal field via the dynamo. This process results in large amplitude variability in the stress on 10-100 orbital timescales, which may have relevance for partially ionized disks that are observed to have high- and low-accretion states.

  15. Role of Wind Tunnels and Computer Codes in the Certification and Qualification of Rotorcraft for Flight in Forecast Icing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flemming, Robert J.; Britton, Randall K.; Bond, Thomas H.

    1994-01-01

    The cost and time to certify or qualify a rotorcraft for flight in forecast icing has been a major impediment to the development of ice protection systems for helicopter rotors. Development and flight test programs for those aircraft that have achieved certification or qualification for flight in icing conditions have taken many years, and the costs have been very high. NASA, Sikorsky, and others have been conducting research into alternative means for providing information for the development of ice protection systems, and subsequent flight testing to substantiate the air-worthiness of a rotor ice protection system. Model rotor icing tests conducted in 1989 and 1993 have provided a data base for correlation of codes, and for the validation of wind tunnel icing test techniques. This paper summarizes this research, showing test and correlation trends as functions of cloud liquid water content, rotor lift, flight speed, and ambient temperature. Molds were made of several of the ice formations on the rotor blades. These molds were used to form simulated ice on the rotor blades, and the blades were then tested in a wind tunnel to determine flight performance characteristics. These simulated-ice rotor performance tests are discussed in the paper. The levels of correlation achieved and the role of these tools (codes and wind tunnel tests) in flight test planning, testing, and extension of flight data to the limits of the icing envelope are discussed. The potential application of simulated ice, the NASA LEWICE computer, the Sikorsky Generalized Rotor Performance aerodynamic computer code, and NASA Icing Research Tunnel rotor tests in a rotorcraft certification or qualification program are also discussed. The correlation of these computer codes with tunnel test data is presented, and a procedure or process to use these methods as part of a certification or qualification program is introduced.

  16. Modeling Anomalous Crustal Accretion at Spreading Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmeling, H.; Marquart, G.

    2003-12-01

    The thermal and seismic structure of normal oceanic crust or anomalous crust such as Iceland depends on the mode of melt extraction from the mantle and its emplacement within or on top of the crust. We model crustal accretion by a two fold approach. In a 2D spreading model with anomalous mantle temperature beneath the ridge we solve the Navier-Stokes-, the heat tansport, the mass conservation and the melting equations to determine the enhanced melt production beneath the ridge. This melt is extracted and emplaced on top of the model to form the crust. Two cases are distinguished: a) Extruded crustal material is taken out of the model and is only advected according to the spreading of the plate, b) extruded material is fed back into the model from the top to mimic isostatic subsidence of extruded crust. We find that the feed back of case b) is only moderate. For example, if extruded crustal material as thick as 40 km is fed back into the model, the melting region is depressed downward only by as much as 10km, and the total amount of generated melt is reduced by about 20 %. On the other hand, the upper 30 km of the model is cooled considerably by several 100 degrees. A second set of models focuses on the details of crustal accretion without explicitly solving for the melting and extraction. Knowing the spreading rate, the rate of crustal production can be estimated, but the site of emplacement is not obvious. For an anomalous crust such as Iceland we define four source regions of crustal accretion: surface extrusion, intrusion in fissure swarms at shallow depth connected to volcanic centres, magma chambers at shallow to mid-crustal level, and a deep accretion zone, where crust is produced by widespread dyke and sill emplacement and underplating. We solve the Navier-Stokes-, the heat tansport and the mass conservation equations and prescribe different functions in space and time for crustal production in the four defined regions. The temperature of the imposed

  17. Investigation of surface water behavior during glaze ice accretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansman, R. John, Jr.; Turnock, Stephen R.

    1988-01-01

    Microvideo observations of glaze ice accretions on 1-in-diameter cylinders in a closed-loop refrigerated wind tunnel were obtained to study factors controlling the behavior of unfrozen surface water during glaze ice accretion. Three zones of surface water behavior were noted, each with a characteristic roughness. The effect of substrate thermal and roughness properties on ice accretions was also studied. The contact angle and hysteresis were found to increase sharply at temperatures just below 0 C, explaining the high resistance to motion of water beads observed on accreting glaze ice surfaces. Based on the results, a simple multizone modification to the current glaze ice accretion model is proposed.

  18. In-flight photogrammetric measurement of wing ice accretions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcknight, R. C.; Palko, R. L.; Humes, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    A photographic instrumentation system was developed for the Lewis icing research aircraft to measure wind ice accretions during flight. The system generates stereo photographs of the accretions which are then photogrammetrically measured by the Air Force Arnold Engineering and Development Center. The measurements yield a survey of spatial coordinates of an accretion's surface to an accuracy of at least + or - 0.08 cm. The accretions can then be matched to corresponding icing cloud and aerodynamic measurements. The system is being used to measure rime, mixed, and clear natural ice accretions.

  19. Formation Of the Giant Planets By Concurrent Accretion Of Solids And Gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollack, James B.; Hubickyj, Olenka; Bodenheimer, Peter; Lissauer, Jack J.; Podolak, Morris; Greenzweig, Yuval; Cuzzi, Jeffery N. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    New numerical simulations of the formation of the giant planets are presented, in which for the first time both the gas and planetesimal accretion rates are calculated in a self-consistent, interactive fashion. The simulations combine three elements: 1) three-body accretion cross-sections of solids onto an isolated planetary embryo, 2) a stellar evolution code for the planet's gaseous envelope, and 3) a planetesimal dissolution code within the envelope, used to evaluate the planet's effective capture radius and the energy deposition profile of accreted material. Major assumptions include: The planet is embedded in a disk of gas and small planetesimals with locally uniform initial surface mass density, and planetesimals are not allowed to migrate into or out of the planet's feeding zone. All simulations are characterized by three major phases. During the first phase, the planet's mass consists primarily of solid material. The planetesimal accretion rate, which dominates that of gas, rapidly increases owing to runaway accretion, then decreases as the planet's feeding zone is depleted. During the second phase, both solid and gas accretion rates are small and nearly independent of time. The third phase, marked by runaway gas accretion, starts when the solid and gas masses are about equal. It is engendered by a strong positive feedback on the gas accretion rates, driven by the rapid contraction of the gaseous envelope and the rapid expansion of the outer boundary, which depends on the planet's total mass. The overall evolutionary time scale is generally determined by the length of the second phase. The actual rates at which the giant planets accreted small planetesimals is probably intermediate between the constant rates assumed in most previous studies and the highly variable rates that we have used. Within the context, of the adopted model of planetesimal accretion, the joint constraints of the time scale for dissipation of the solar nebula and the current high

  20. On the role of disks in the formation of stellar systems: A numerical parameter study of rapid accretion

    SciTech Connect

    Kratter, Kaitlin M.; Matzner, Christopher D.; Krumholz, Mark R.; Klein, Richard I.

    2009-12-23

    We study rapidly accreting, gravitationally unstable disks with a series of idealized global, numerical experiments using the code ORION. Our numerical parameter study focuses on protostellar disks, showing that one can predict disk behavior and the multiplicity of the accreting star system as a function of two dimensionless parameters which compare the infall rate to the disk sound speed and orbital period. Although gravitational instabilities become strong, we find that fragmentation into binary or multiple systems occurs only when material falls in several times more rapidly than the canonical isothermal limit. The disk-to-star accretion rate is proportional to the infall rate and governed by gravitational torques generated by low-m spiral modes. Furthermore, we also confirm the existence of a maximum stable disk mass: disks that exceed ~50% of the total system mass are subject to fragmentation and the subsequent formation of binary companions.

  1. On the role of disks in the formation of stellar systems: A numerical parameter study of rapid accretion

    DOE PAGES

    Kratter, Kaitlin M.; Matzner, Christopher D.; Krumholz, Mark R.; ...

    2009-12-23

    We study rapidly accreting, gravitationally unstable disks with a series of idealized global, numerical experiments using the code ORION. Our numerical parameter study focuses on protostellar disks, showing that one can predict disk behavior and the multiplicity of the accreting star system as a function of two dimensionless parameters which compare the infall rate to the disk sound speed and orbital period. Although gravitational instabilities become strong, we find that fragmentation into binary or multiple systems occurs only when material falls in several times more rapidly than the canonical isothermal limit. The disk-to-star accretion rate is proportional to the infallmore » rate and governed by gravitational torques generated by low-m spiral modes. Furthermore, we also confirm the existence of a maximum stable disk mass: disks that exceed ~50% of the total system mass are subject to fragmentation and the subsequent formation of binary companions.« less

  2. Low Accretion Rate Expected From G2 Gas Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gracey, Brandon; Morsony, Brian; Workman, Jared

    2015-08-01

    We present high-resolution simulations of the encounter of the G2 gas cloud with Sag A*, focusing on the mass that can be accreted onto the supermassive black hole. Even assuming G2 is a gas cloud of a few time the mass of Earth, we find that very little material should be expected to be accreted. From 5 years before to 5 years after pericenter passage, at most 0.1% of the cloud mass is accreted. The total amount of material accreted by Sag A* increases by at most 20% over this period, and in many cases actually decreases due to the passage of G2. Even over very long timescales, out to 30 years after pericenter passage, only a few 10th's of a percent of the cloud will be accreted, with no significant increase in the overall mass accretion rate of Sag A*.We find that the size of the accretion radius in our simulations has a large effect on the accretion rate, with a smaller accretion radius having a smaller accretion rate. Changing the size of the accretion radius has a larger effect than changing the density profile of the cloud or changing the structure of the background material around Sag A*.

  3. X-Ray Spectra from MHD Simulations of Accreting Black Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnittman, Jeremy D.; Noble, Scott C.; Krolik, Julian H.

    2011-01-01

    We present new global calculations of X-ray spectra from fully relativistic magneto-hydrodynamic (MHO) simulations of black hole (BH) accretion disks. With a self consistent radiative transfer code including Compton scattering and returning radiation, we can reproduce the predominant spectral features seen in decades of X-ray observations of stellar-mass BHs: a broad thermal peak around 1 keV, power-law continuum up to >100 keV, and a relativistically broadened iron fluorescent line. By varying the mass accretion rate, different spectral states naturally emerge: thermal-dominant, steep power-law, and low/hard. In addition to the spectral features, we briefly discuss applications to X-ray timing and polarization.

  4. Probing the Accretion Geometry of Black Holes with X-Ray Polarization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnitman, Jeremy D.

    2011-01-01

    In the coming years, new space missions will be able to measure X-ray polarization at levels of 1% or better in the approx.1-10 keV energy band. In particular, X-ray polarization is an ideal tool for determining the nature of black hole (BH) accretion disks surrounded by hot coronae. Using a Monte Carlo radiation transport code in full general relativity, we calculate the spectra and polarization features of these BH systems. At low energies, the signal is dominated by the thermal flux coming directly from the optically thick disk. At higher energies, the thermal seed photons have been inverse-Compton scattered by the corona, often reflecting back off the disk before reaching the observer, giving a distinctive polarization signature. By measuring the degree and angle of this X-ray polarization, we can infer the BH inclination, the emission geometry of the accretion flow, and also determine the spin of the black hole.

  5. Contrasting Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence with alpha-Viscosity in Simulations of Black Hole Accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragile, P. Christopher Christopher; Etheridge, Sarina Marie; Anninos, Peter; Mishra, Bhupendra

    2017-01-01

    Many analytic, semi-analytic, and even some numerical treatments of black hole accretion parametrize the stresses within the disk as an effective viscosity, even though the true source of stresses is likely to be turbulence driven by the magneto-rotational instability. Despite some attempts to quantify the differences between these treatments, it remains unclear exactly what the consequences of a viscous treatment are, especially in the context of the temporal and spatial variability of global disk parameters. We use the astrophysics code, Cosmos++, to create two accretion disk simulations using alpha-viscosity, one thin and one thick. These simulations are then compared to similar work done using MHD in order to analyze the extent of the validity of the alpha-model. One expected result, which we, nevertheless, demonstrate is the greater spatial and temporal variability of MHD.

  6. Probing accretion on the high-magnetized polar RX J1007.5-2017

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, C. V.; Cieslinski, D.; Ribeiro, T.; Silva, K. M. G.; Baptista, R.; Oliveira, A. S.; Costa, J. E. R.; Campbell, R.

    2014-10-01

    RX J1007.5-2017 is a polar: a compact binary system in which matter flows from a low-mass main-sequence star to a magnetized white dwarf without the formation of an accretion disk. RX J1007.5-2017 has some observational peculiarities (conspicuous optical cyclotron harmonics, a very soft X-ray spectrum, and no polarization in R and I bands), which may be related to extreme conditions at the accretion flow: a very strong white-dwarf magnetic field (around 100 MG on surface) and a low accretion rate. To study the accretion, from the mass-donor star to the white dwarf, we obtained time-resolved spectroscopy using the Goodman spectrograph at the SOAR telescope in observing runs distributed around the first semester of 2012. We found the object in different brightness states. In the low state, we gathered data with two spectral resolutions (219 km/s and 170 km/s). In a brighter state, the spectral resolution was ≍ 170 km/s. The low (high) spectral resolution data cover the spectral region from 360 to 760 nm (435 to 700 nm). The continuum varies in both states and the cyclotron humps are visible at some orbital phases. The low-state spectra show Balmer emission lines superimposed on absorption features from the mass-donor star. The bright-state spectra show strong Balmer, HeI, and HeII emission lines. The Balmer and HeII lines are not single Gaussians: in bright state the lines are broader and have three components; in low state, the lines are narrower and two components are distinguished in some phases. Doppler tomography of the low state reveals that line emission arises mainly from a region near the white dwarf. The orbital dependence of the cyclotron emission was modeled using the Cyclops code, which adopts a 3D representation of the accretion column.

  7. Theoretical Studies of Accreting Neutron Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taam, Ronald E.

    2003-01-01

    Among the newly discovered classes of X-ray sources which have attracted wide attention are close binary systems in which mass is transferred via Roche lobe overflow from a low mass donor star to its neutron star companion. Many of these sources exhibit intense bursts of X-ray radiation as well as periodic and quasi-periodic phenomena. Intensive analysis of these sources as a class has provided insight into the accretion process in binary star systems and into the magnetic field, rotational, and nuclear evolution of the underlying neutron star. In this proposal we have focused on theoretical studies of the hydrodynamical and nuclear processes that take place on the surface of accreting neutron stars in these systems. The investigation of these processes is critical for providing an understanding of a number of outstanding problems related to their transient behavior and evolution.

  8. Anomalous magnetic viscosity in relativistic accretion disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Fujun; Liu, Sanqiu; Li, Xiaoqing

    2013-07-01

    It has been proved that the self-generated magnetic fields by transverse plasmons in the relativistic regime are modulationally unstable, leading to a self-similar collapse of the magnetic flux tubes and resulting in local magnetic structures; highly spatially intermittent flux is responsible for generating the anomalous viscosity. We derive the anomalous magnetic viscosity coefficient, in accretion disks around compact objects, such as black holes, pulsars and quasars, where the plasmas are relativistic, in order to help clarify the nature of viscosity in the theory of accretion disks. The results indicate that, the magnetic viscosity is modified by the relativistic effects of plasmas, and its' strength would be 1015 stronger than the molecular viscosity, which may be helpful in explaining the observations.

  9. Volatile accretion history of the Earth.

    PubMed

    Wood, B J; Halliday, A N; Rehkämper, M

    2010-10-28

    It has long been thought that the Earth had a protracted and complex history of volatile accretion and loss. Albarède paints a different picture, proposing that the Earth first formed as a dry planet which, like the Moon, was devoid of volatile constituents. He suggests that the Earth's complement of volatile elements was only established later, by the addition of a small veneer of volatile-rich material at ∼100 Myr (here and elsewhere, ages are relative to the origin of the Solar System). Here we argue that the Earth's mass balance of moderately volatile elements is inconsistent with Albarède's hypothesis but is well explained by the standard model of accretion from partially volatile-depleted material, accompanied by core formation.

  10. Accretion Disk Emission Around Kerr Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campitiello, Samuele; Sbarrato, T.; Ghisellini, G.

    2016-10-01

    Measuring the spin of supermassive Black holes in Active Galactic Nuclei is a further step towards a better understanding of the evolution of their physics. We proposed a new method to estimate the Black hole spin, based on data-fitting. We consider a numerical model called KERRBB, including all relativistic effects (i.e. light-bending, gravitational redshift and Doppler beaming). We found that the same spectrum can be produced by different masses, accretion rates and spins, but that these three quantities are related. In other words, having a robust indipendent estimate on one of these three quantities fixes the other two. By using the Black hole mass, estimated by the virial method, we can pinpoint a narrow range of possible spins and accretion rates for the 32 blazars we have studied. For these objects, we found a lower limit of the spin, that must be a/M > 0.6-0.7

  11. RELATIVISTIC ACCRETION MEDIATED BY TURBULENT COMPTONIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Socrates, Aristotle E-mail: socrates@astro.princeton.ed

    2010-08-10

    Black hole and neutron star accretion flows display unusually high levels of hard coronal emission in comparison to all other optically thick, gravitationally bound, turbulent astrophysical systems. Since these flows sit in deep relativistic gravitational potentials, their random bulk motions approach the speed of light, therefore allowing turbulent Comptonization to be an important effect. We show that the inevitable production of hard X-ray photons results from turbulent Comptonization in the limit where the turbulence is trans-sonic and the accretion power approaches the Eddington limit. In this regime, the turbulent Compton y-parameter approaches unity and the turbulent Compton temperature is a significant fraction of the electron rest mass energy, in agreement with the observed phenomena.

  12. Meridional circulation in optically thick accretion disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabot, W.; Savedoff, M. P.

    1982-01-01

    Thermal imbalances in stars due to rotation are known to drive mass motions in the meridional plane. A preliminary analytic investigation has been made of a similar effect in optically thick accretion disks using conventional thin-disk approximations. It is found that estimated circulation times can be as short as thermal timescales, resulting in rapid transport of heat and angular momentum. This indicates that the simple approximations commonly used are incomplete with regard to detailed, two-dimensional disk structure.

  13. Accretion tectonics and crustal structure in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coney, P.J.; Jones, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    The entire width of the North American Cordillera in Alaska is made up of "suspect terranes". Pre-Late Cretaceous paleogeography is poorly constrained and the ultimate origins of the many fragments which make up the state are unclear. The Prince William and Chugach terranes accreted since Late Cretaceous time and represent the collapse of much of the northeast Pacific Ocean swept into what today is southern Alaska. Greater Wrangellia, a composite terrane now dispersed into fragments scattered from Idaho to southern Alaska, apparently accreted into Alaska in Late Cretaceous time crushing an enormous deep-marine flysch basin on its inboard side. Most of interior eastern Alaska is the Yukon Tanana terrane, a very large entirely fault-bounded metamorphic-plutonic assemblage covering thousands of square kilometers in Canada as well as Alaska. The original stratigraphy and relationship to North America of the Yukon-Tanana terrane are both obscure. A collapsed Mesozoic flysch basin, similar to the one inboard of Wrangellia, lies along the northern margin. Much of Arctic Alaska was apparently a vast expanse of upper Paleozoic to Early Mesozoic deep marine sediments and mafic volcanic and plutonic rocks now scattered widely as large telescoped sheets and Klippen thrust over the Ruby geanticline and the Brooks Range, and probably underlying the Yukon-Koyukuk basin and the Yukon flats. The Brooks Range itself is a stack of north vergent nappes, the telescoping of which began in Early Cretaceous time. Despite compelling evidence for thousands of kilometers of relative displacement between the accreted terranes, and large amounts of telescoping, translation, and rotation since accretion, the resulting new continental crust added to North America in Alaska carries few obvious signatures that allow application of currently popular simple plate tectonic models. Intraplate telescoping and strike-slip translations, delamination at mid-crustal levels, and large-scale lithospheric

  14. Accretion disk thermal instability in galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mineshige, S.; Shields, G. A.

    1990-03-01

    The nonlinear evolution and spatial propagation of the thermal instability in accretion disks in galactic nuclei are investigated. Integrations of the vertical structure of the disks are described for different alpha prescriptions, and the thermal stability is examined. Global time-dependent calculations of the unstable disks are performed which show that there are two distinct types of behavior according to the assumed prescription for the viscosity parameter: the 'purr' type and the 'roar' type. The roar type is analyzed in some detail.

  15. MODELING THE ACCRETION STRUCTURE OF AU Mon

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood-Stone, Corwin; Miller, Brendan P.; Richards, Mercedes T.; Budaj, Jan; Peters, Geraldine J. E-mail: mbrendan@umich.edu E-mail: budaj@ta3.sk

    2012-12-01

    AU Mon is a long-period (11.113 days) Algol-type binary system with a persistent accretion disk that is apparent as double-peaked H{alpha} emission. We present previously unpublished optical spectra of AU Mon which were obtained over 20 years from 1991-2011 with dense orbital phase coverage. We utilize these data, along with archival UV spectra, to model the temperature and structure of the accretion disk and the gas stream. Synthetic spectral profiles for lines including H{alpha}, H{beta}, and the Al III and Si IV doublets were computed with the Shellspec program. The best match between the model spectra and the observations is obtained for an accretion disk of inner/outer radius 5.1/23 R {sub Sun }, thickness of 5.2 R {sub Sun }, density of 1.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -13} g cm{sup -3}, and maximum temperature of 14,000 K, along with a gas stream at a temperature of {approx}8000 K transferring {approx}2.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9} M {sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. We show H{alpha} Doppler tomograms of the velocity structure of the gas, constructed from difference profiles calculated through sequentially subtracting contributions from the stars and accretion structures. The tomograms provide independent support for the Shellspec modeling, while also illustrating that residual emission at sub-Keplerian velocities persists even after subtracting the disk and stream emission. Spectral variability in the H{alpha} profile beyond that expected from either the orbital or the long-period cycle is present on both multi-week and multi-year timescales, and may reflect quasi-random changes in the mass transfer rate or the disk structure. Finally, a transient UV spectral absorption feature may be modeled as an occasional outflow launched from the vicinity of the disk-stream interaction region.

  16. Dynamics of flux tubes in accretion disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vishniac, E. T.; Duncan, R. C.

    1994-01-01

    The study of magnetized plasmas in astrophysics is complicated by a number of factors, not the least of which is that in considering magnetic fields in stars or accretion disks, we are considering plasmas with densities well above those we can study in the laboratory. In particular, whereas laboratory plasmas are dominated by the confining magnetic field pressure, stars, and probably accretion disks, have magnetic fields whose beta (ratio of gas pressure to magnetic field pressure) is much greater than 1. Observations of the Sun suggest that under such circumstances the magnetic field breaks apart into discrete flux tubes with a small filling factor. On the other hand, theoretical treatments of MHD turbulence in high-beta plasmas tend to assume that the field is more or less homogeneously distributed throughout the plasma. Here we consider a simple model for the distribution of magnetic flux tubes in a turbulent medium. We discuss the mechanism by which small inhomogeneities evolve into discrete flux tubes and the size and distribution of such flux tubes. We then apply the model to accretion disks. We find that the fibrilation of the magnetic field does not enhance magnetic buoyancy. We also note that the evolution of an initially diffuse field in a turbulent medium, e.g., any uniform field in a shearing flow, will initially show exponential growth as the flux tubes form. This growth saturates when the flux tube formation is complete and cannot be used as the basis for a self-sustaining dynamo effect. Since the typical state of the magnetic field is a collection of intense flux tubes, this effect is of limited interest. However, it may be important early in the evolution of the galactic magnetic field, and it will play a large role in numerical simulations. Finally, we note that the formation of flux tubes is an essential ingredient in any successful dynamo model for stars or accretion disks.

  17. THE COSMIC BATTERY IN ASTROPHYSICAL ACCRETION DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Contopoulos, Ioannis; Nathanail, Antonios; Katsanikas, Matthaios

    2015-06-01

    The aberrated radiation pressure at the inner edge of the accretion disk around an astrophysical black hole imparts a relative azimuthal velocity on the electrons with respect to the ions which gives rise to a ring electric current that generates large-scale poloidal magnetic field loops. This is the Cosmic Battery established by Contopoulos and Kazanas in 1998. In the present work we perform realistic numerical simulations of this important astrophysical mechanism in advection-dominated accretion flows, ADAFs. We confirm the original prediction that the inner parts of the loops are continuously advected toward the central black hole and contribute to the growth of the large-scale magnetic field, whereas the outer parts of the loops are continuously diffusing outward through the turbulent accretion flow. This process of inward advection of the axial field and outward diffusion of the return field proceeds all the way to equipartition, thus generating astrophysically significant magnetic fields on astrophysically relevant timescales. We confirm that there exists a critical value of the magnetic Prandtl number between unity and 10 in the outer disk above which the Cosmic Battery mechanism is suppressed.

  18. Terrestrial accretion under oxidizing conditions (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siebert, J.

    2013-12-01

    The abundances of siderophile (iron-loving) elements in the silicate portion of the Earth can be used to constrain the nature of Earth's building blocks during terrestrial accretion and core differentiation. For example, accretion of the Earth from highly reduced material has been proposed as the only way to account for the depletion of slightly siderophile elements (V, Cr) from the mantle. Based on partitioning experiments in the diamond anvil cell at high pressure (up to 75 GPa) and high temperature (up to 4400 K), we show that depletions of slightly siderophile elements (V, Cr, Mn and Nb) can be produced by core formation under more oxidizing conditions than previously proposed. Enhanced solubility of oxygen in the metal increases the siderophile behavior of these elements precluding extrapolation of previous results. We propose that Earth accreted from materials as oxidized as ordinary or carbonaceous chondrites. Using our experimental results and previous datasets, we constrain the metal-silicate partitioning behaviors of oxygen and silicon. We show from continuous core formation model and mass balance calculation that transferring oxygen in the form of FeO from the mantle to the core could have gradually reduced the mantle to its present-day FeO content.

  19. Cosmic dust synthesis by accretion and coagulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Praburam, G.; Goree, J.

    1995-01-01

    The morphology of grains grown by accretion and coagulation is revaled by a new laboratory method of synthesizing cosmic dust analogs. Submicron carbon particles, grown by accretion of carbon atoms from a gas, have a spherical shape with a cauliflower-like surface and an internal micro-structure of radial columns. This shape is probably common for grains grown by accretion at a temperature well below the melting point. Coagulated grains, consisting of spheres that collided to form irregular strings, were also synthesized. Another shape we produced had a bumpy non- spherical morphology, like an interplanetary particle collected in the terrestrial stratosphere. Besides these isolated grains, large spongy aggregates of nanometer-size particles were also found for various experimental conditions. Grains were synthesized using ions to sputter a solid target, producing an atomic vapor at a low temperature. The ions were provided by a plasma, which also provided electrostatic levitation of the grains during their growth. The temporal development of grain growth was studied by extinguishing the plasma after various intervals.

  20. Dynamical Masses of Accreting White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pala, A. F.; Gänsckie, B. T.

    2017-03-01

    The mass retention efficiency is a key question in both the theoretical and observational study of accreting white dwarfs in interacting binaries, with important implications for their potential as progenitors for type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). Canonical wisdom is that classical nova eruptions erode the white dwarf mass, and consequently, cataclysmic variables (CVs) have been excluded from the SN Ia progenitor discussion. However the average mass of white dwarfs in CVs is substantially higher (≃ 0.83 M⊙) than that of single white dwarfs (≃ 0.64 M ⊙), in stark contrast to expectations based on current classical nova models. This finding is based on a sample of ≃ 30 CV white dwarfs with accurate mass measurements, most of them in eclipsing systems. Given the fundamental importance of the mass evolution of accreting white dwarfs, it is necessary to enlarge this sample and to diversify the methods used for measuring masses. We have begun a systematic study of 27 CVs to almost double the number of CV white dwarfs with an accurate mass measurement. Using VLT/X-shooter phase-resolved observations, we can measure the white dwarf masses to a few percent, and will be able to answer the question whether accreting CV white dwarfs grow in mass.

  1. Accretion shock geometries in the magnetic variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stockman, H. S.

    1988-01-01

    The first self consistent shock models for the AM Herculis-type systems successfully identified the dominant physical processes and their signatures. These homogenous shock models predict unpolarized, Rayleigh-Jeans optical spectra with sharp cutoffs and rising polarizations as the shocks become optically thin in the ultraviolet. However, the observed energy distributions are generally flat with intermediate polarizations over a broad optical band. These and other observational evidence support a non-homogenous accretion profile which may extend over a considerable fraction of the stellar surface. Both the fundamental assumptions underlying the canonical 1-D shock model and the extension of this model to inhomogenous accretion shocks were identified, for both radial and linear structures. The observational evidence was also examined for tall shocks and little evidence was found for relative shock heights in excess of h/R(1) greater than or equal to 0.1. For several systems, upper limits to the shock height can be obtained from either x ray or optical data. These lie in the region h/R(1) is approximately 0.01 and are in general agreement with the current physical picture for these systems. The quasi-periodic optical variations observed in several magnetic variables may eventually prove to be a major aid in further understanding their accretion shock geometries.

  2. Terrane accretion: Insights from numerical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, Katharina; Gerya, Taras

    2016-04-01

    The oceanic crust is not homogenous, but contains significantly thicker crust than norm, i.e. extinct arcs, spreading ridges, detached continental fragments, volcanic piles or oceanic swells. These (crustal) fragments may collide with continental crust and form accretionary complexes, contributing to its growth. We analyse this process using a thermo-mechanical computer model (i2vis) of an ocean-continent subduction zone. In this model the oceanic plate can bend spontaneously under the control of visco-plastic rheologies. It moreover incorporates effects such as mineralogical phase changes, fluid release and consumption, partial melting and melt extraction. Based on our 2-D experiments we suggest that the lithospheric buoyancy of the downgoing slab and the rheological strength of crustal material may result in a variety of accretionary processes. In addition to terrane subduction, we are able to identify three distinct modes of terrane accretion: frontal accretion, basal accretion and underplating plateaus. We show that crustal fragments may dock onto continental crust and cease subduction, be scrapped off the downgoing plate, or subduct to greater depth prior to slab break off and subsequent exhumation. Direct consequences of these processes include slab break off, subduction zone transference, structural reworking, formation of high-pressure terranes, partial melting and crustal growth.

  3. Chaotic Accretion and Merging Supermassive Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nixon, Christopher James

    2012-09-01

    The main driver of the work in this thesis is the idea of chaotic accretion in galaxy centres. Most research in this area focuses on orderly or coherent accretion where supermassive black holes or supermassive black hole binaries are fed with gas always possessing the same sense of angular momentum. If instead gas flows in galaxies are chaotic, feeding occurs through randomly oriented depositions of gas. Previous works show that this chaotic mode of feeding can explain some astrophysical phenomena, such as the lack of correlation between host galaxy structure and the direction of jets. It has also been shown that by keeping the black hole spin low this feeding mechanism can grow supermassive black holes from stellar mass seeds. In this thesis I show that it also alleviates the "final parsec problem" by facilitating the merger of two supermassive black holes, and the growth of supermassive black holes through rapid accretion. I also develop the intriguing possibility of breaking a warped disc into two or more distinct planes.

  4. Unified Accretion Model for Sgr A*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbakov, Roman; Penna, R.; Baganoff, F.

    2010-01-01

    We propose a single dynamic model for Sgr A* accretion spanning a factor of a million in radius from the stellar winds feeding region at arcsecond scales down to the plunging region onto a Kerr black hole (BH). The outer accretion flow incorporates injection of mass and energy from individual stars and thermal conduction, which inhibits accretion. The inner region of the flow is modeled using non-radiating 3D GRMHD simulations for a set of BH spins. The smooth connection is made between the outer flow and the inner flow. The surface brightness profile of the extended X-Ray source fits well 1Ms Chandra observations of Sgr A*. The polarized GR ray tracing of cyclo-synchrotron emission is performed to quantify the emission of the inner flow. The parameter space of BH spin, inclination and model variables is explored in order to fit the observed sub-mm spectrum as well as linear and circular polarization fractions found by SMA. The polarized images are calculated and their sizes are related to the observed VLBI correlated flux. This work is partially supported by NASA Earth and Space Science Fellowship.

  5. Partial accretion in the propeller stage of accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gungor, Can; Gogus, Ersin; Eksi, Kazim Yavuz; Guver, Tolga

    2016-07-01

    Accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars (AMXPs) are very important objects for studying the stages of disk - magnetosphere interaction as these objects may show different stages in an observable duration. A typical X-ray light curve of an outburst of AMXP has a fast rise and an exponential decay phases. Most of the outbursts have a knee where the flux goes from the slow decay stage to the rapid decay stage. This knee may be linked to the transition from accretion to propeller stage. Since, after the knee, the X-ray luminosity of the source is still higher than its quiescent level, the accretion from inner disc must be continuing in the propeller stage with a lower fraction than in the accretion stage. The X-ray does not only come from accretion onto the poles but the inner parts of the disk may also contribute to the total X-ray luminosity. To infer what fraction (f) of the inflowing matter accretes onto the star the light curve in the propeller stage, one should first separate the emission originating from the disk and obtain a light curve of X-ray emission only from the magnetic poles. We provide a new method to infer from the observational data the fraction of accreting matter onto the neutron star pole to the mass transferring from outer layers of the disc to the inner disc (f), as a function of the fastness parameter (ω_{*}), assuming the knee is due to the transition from accretion to the propeller stage. We transform X-ray luminosities to the mass fraction, f, and the time scale of outburst to fastness parameter, ω_*. It allows us to compare different types of outbursts of an AMXP in f - ω_* space which is universal for a unique system. We analysed the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer/Proportional Counter Array (RXTE/PCA) observations of the 2000 and the 2011 outbursts and the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Mission/X-ray Telescope (SWIFT/XRT) data of the 2013 outburst of the most known AMXP, Aql X-1 using a combination of blackbody representing hot spot, disk blackbody

  6. Effect of Gas Accretion Disc Profile on Orbital Parameters of the Accreted Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukirgaliyev, Bekdaulet T.; Panamarev, Taras P.; Naurzbaeva, Aisha Zh.; Kalambay, Mukhagali T.; Makukov, Maxim A.; Vilkoviskij, Emmanuil Y.; Omarov, Chingis T.; Berczik, Peter; Just, Andreas; Spurzem, Rainer

    2016-10-01

    The results of studies of the effect of the gas disk and its profile on the dynamics of active galactic nuclei are presented. The study was conducted with a numerical model of galactic nucleus based on phiGRAPE+GPU comprising three subsystems - a central supermassive black hole, gaseous accretion disc, and compact stellar cluster. The evolution of the compact stellar cluster is modeled with direct integration (N-body simulation), while the black hole and gaseous disc are represented phenomenologically: the black hole is introduced as an external potential (fixed in space but variable in time due to black hole mass growth), and the gaseous disc is introduced as spatial time-independent density distribution. We examined and compared with each other orbital parameters of accreting stars for model of the galactic nucleus with gas disc of constant and variable thickness, as well as without gas. It was found that in the presence of a gaseous disk almost half of the accreted particles interact strongly with the gas and are captured by the disc before accretion, while more than 85% of particles are affected to some extent by the disc prior to accretion. This suggests that interaction of the stellar cluster with the gas disk in the galactic nucleus might lead to the formation of stellar disk in the central part of the nucleus.

  7. Revisiting the pre-main-sequence evolution of stars. I. Importance of accretion efficiency and deuterium abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunitomo, Masanobu; Guillot, Tristan; Takeuchi, Taku; Ida, Shigeru

    2017-02-01

    Context. Protostars grow from the first formation of a small seed and subsequent accretion of material. Recent theoretical work has shown that the pre-main-sequence (PMS) evolution of stars is much more complex than previously envisioned. Instead of the traditional steady, one-dimensional solution, accretion may be episodic and not necessarily symmetrical, thereby affecting the energy deposited inside the star and its interior structure. Aims: Given this new framework, we want to understand what controls the evolution of accreting stars. Methods: We use the MESA stellar evolution code with various sets of conditions. In particular, we account for the (unknown) efficiency of accretion in burying gravitational energy into the protostar through a parameter, ξ, and we vary the amount of deuterium present. Results: We confirm the findings of previous works that, in terms of evolutionary tracks on an Hertzprung-Russell (H-R) diagram, the evolution changes significantly with the amount of energy that is lost during accretion. We find that deuterium burning also regulates the PMS evolution. In the low-entropy accretion scenario, the evolutionary tracks in the H-R diagram are significantly different from the classical tracks and are sensitive to the deuterium content. A comparison of theoretical evolutionary tracks and observations allows us to exclude some cold accretion models (ξ 0) with low deuterium abundances. Conclusions: We confirm that the luminosity spread seen in clusters can be explained by models with a somewhat inefficient injection of accretion heat. The resulting evolutionary tracks then become sensitive to the accretion heat efficiency, initial core entropy, and deuterium content. In this context, we predict that clusters with a higher D/H ratio should have less scatter in luminosity than clusters with a smaller D/H. Future work on this issue should include radiation-hydrodynamic simulations to determine the efficiency of accretion heating and further

  8. Winds and accretion in delta Sagittae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaton, Joel A.; Hartkopf, William I.; McAlister, Harold A.; Mason, Brian D.

    1995-04-01

    The ten-year binary delta Sge (M2 Ib-II+B9.5 V) is a zeta Aur binary containing an abnormally cool component. Combining our analysis of the system as a visual binary with Batten's radial-velocity solution leads to the following properties: i = 40 deg, a = 51 mas = 8.83 A.U. = 1893 solar radius, hence d = 173 pc; MB = 2.9 solar mass and MM = 3.8 solar mass; and RB = 2.6 solar radius and RM = 152 solar radius. This interpretation of the orbit places the M supergiant on the asymptotic giant branch. We have collected ultraviolet spectra throughout the star's 1980-90 orbit, concentrated around the conjuction of 1990. The wind of the M giant appears in these as narrow shell lines of singly ionized metals, chiefly Fe II, with P-Cyg profiles at many phases, which show the slow variation in strength expected for the orbit but no pronounced atmospheric eclipse. The terminal velocity of the wind is 16-18 km/s, and its excitation temperature is approximately 10,000 K. Most of the broadening of the wind lines is caused by differential expansion of the atmosphere, with (unmeasurably) low turbulent velocities. Nontheless, the mass loss rate (1.1 +/- 0.4 X 10 -8 solar mas/yr) is almost the same as found previously by Reimers and Schroder for very different assumptions about the velocity structure. Also seen in the spectrum throughout the orbit are the effects of a variable, high-speed wind as well as evidence for accretion onto the B9.5 star. This high-speed wind absorbs in species of all ionization stages observed, e. g., C II, Mg II, Al III, SI IV, C IV, and has a terminaal velocity in the range 200-450 km/s. We presume this wind originates at the B dwarf, not the M supergiant, and speculate that it comes from an accretion disk, as suggested by recent models of magnetically moderated accretion. Evidence for accretion is redshifted absorption in the same transitions formed in the high-speed wind, as well as broad emission lines of singly ionized metals. This emission seems to be

  9. Lessons from accretion disks in cataclysmic variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horne, Keith

    1998-04-01

    We survey recent progress in the interpretation of observations of cataclysmic variables, whose accretion disks are heated by viscous dissipation rather than irradiation. Many features of standard viscous accretion disk models are confirmed by tomographic imaging studies of dwarf novae. Eclipse maps indicate that steady disk temperature structures are established during outbursts. Doppler maps of double-peaked emission lines suggest disk chromospheres heated by magnetic activity. Gas streams impacting on the disk rim leave expected signatures both in the eclipses and emission lines. Doppler maps of dwarf nova IP Peg at the beginning of an outburst show evidence for tidally-induced spiral shocks. While enjoying these successes, we must still face up to the dreaded ``SW Sex syndrome'' which afflicts most if not all cataclysmic variables in high accretion states. The anomalies include single-peaked emission lines with skewed kinematics, flat temperature-radius profiles, shallow offset line eclipses, and narrow low-ionization absorption lines at phase 0.5. The enigmatic behavior of AE Aqr is now largely understood in terms of a magnetic propeller model in which the rapidly spinning white dwarf magnetosphere expels the gas stream out of the system before an accretion disk can form. A final piece in this puzzle is the realization that an internal shock zone occurs in the exit stream at just the right place to explain the anomalous kinematics and violent flaring of the single-peaked emission lines. Encouraged by this success, we propose that disk-anchored magnetic propellers operate in the high accretion rate systems afflicted by the SW Sex syndrome. Magnetic fields anchored in the Keplerian disk sweep forward and apply a boost that expels gas stream material flowing above the disk plane. This working hypothesis offers a framework on which we can hang all the SW Sex anomalies. The lesson for theorists is that magnetic links appear to be transporting energy and angular

  10. Chondrule formation in the radiative accretional shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruzmaikina, T. V.; Ip, W.

    1994-01-01

    The physical, mineralogical, and isotopic properties of chondrules strongly indicate that they were formed by the rapid melting and resolidification of preexisting solids composed of primitive material. The chondrule precursors were heated to temperatures of about 1800 K in short high-temperature events, followed by cooling with a rate of 10(exp 2)-10(exp 3) K/hr. A heat input of about 1500 J/g is required to heat chondrule precursors to such a temperature and melt them. Lightning discharges and flares in the solar nebula, and heating of the chondrule precursors by friction with gas decelerated in the accretional shock or in a shock (of unspecified origin) within the solar nebula, have been discussed as possible mechanisms for chondrule formation. One advantage of chondrule formation in large-scale shocks is that a lot of dust material can be processed. An accretional shock, which is produced by infalling gas of the presolar cloud when it collides with the solar nebula, belongs to this type of shock. In 1984 Wood considered the possibility of chondrule formation in the accretional shock by heating of chondrule precursors by gas drag. He concluded that the density in the accreting material is much lower than needed to melt silicates at the distance of the asteroid belt if the accreting matter had the cosmic ratio of dust to gas, and the mass of the solar nebula did not exceed 2 solar mass units. Melting of chondrule precursors is difficult because of their effective cooling by thermal radiation. Suppression of the radiative cooling of individual grains in dust swarms, which are opaque to thermal emission, was considered to be the only possible means of chondrule formation in solar nebula shocks. Previous models of solid grain melting in solar nebula shocks have neglected gas cooling behind the shock front, i.e., they considered adiabatic shocks. In this paper we show that large dust grains could be heated much stronger than was supposed by these authors, because of

  11. Multi-dimensional structure of accreting young stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geroux, C.; Baraffe, I.; Viallet, M.; Goffrey, T.; Pratt, J.; Constantino, T.; Folini, D.; Popov, M. V.; Walder, R.

    2016-04-01

    This work is the first attempt to describe the multi-dimensional structure of accreting young stars based on fully compressible time implicit multi-dimensional hydrodynamics simulations. One major motivation is to analyse the validity of accretion treatment used in previous 1D stellar evolution studies. We analyse the effect of accretion on the structure of a realistic stellar model of the young Sun. Our work is inspired by the numerical work of Kley & Lin (1996, ApJ, 461, 933) devoted to the structure of the boundary layer in accretion disks, which provides the outer boundary conditions for our simulations. We analyse the redistribution of accreted material with a range of values of specific entropy relative to the bulk specific entropy of the material in the accreting object's convective envelope. Low specific entropy accreted material characterises the so-called cold accretion process, whereas high specific entropy is relevant to hot accretion. A primary goal is to understand whether and how accreted energy deposited onto a stellar surface is redistributed in the interior. This study focusses on the high accretion rates characteristic of FU Ori systems. We find that the highest entropy cases produce a distinctive behaviour in the mass redistribution, rms velocities, and enthalpy flux in the convective envelope. This change in behaviour is characterised by the formation of a hot layer on the surface of the accreting object, which tends to suppress convection in the envelope. We analyse the long-term effect of such a hot buffer zone on the structure and evolution of the accreting object with 1D stellar evolution calculations. We study the relevance of the assumption of redistribution of accreted energy into the stellar interior used in the literature. We compare results obtained with the latter treatment and those obtained with a more physical accretion boundary condition based on the formation of a hot surface layer suggested by present multi

  12. Giant planet formation with pebble accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, J. E.

    2014-05-01

    In the core accretion model for giant planet formation, a solid core forms by coagulation of dust grains in a protoplanetary disk and then accretes gas from the disk when the core reaches a critical mass. Both stages must be completed in a few million years before the disk gas disperses. The slowest stage of this process may be oligarchic growth in which a giant-planet core grows by sweeping up smaller, asteroid-size planetesimals. Here, we describe new numerical simulations of oligarchic growth using a particle-in-a-box model. The simulations include several processes that can effect oligarchic growth: (i) planetesimal fragmentation due to mutual collisions, (ii) the modified capture rate of planetesimals due to a core’s atmosphere, (iii) drag with the disk gas during encounters with the core (so-called “pebble accretion”), (iv) modification of particle velocities by turbulence and drift caused by gas drag, (v) the presence of a population of mm-to-m size “pebbles” that represent the transition point between disruptive collisions between larger particles, and mergers between dust grains, and (vi) radial drift of small objects due to gas drag. Collisions between planetesimals rapidly generate a population of pebbles. The rate at which a core sweeps up pebbles is controlled by pebble accretion dynamics. Metre-size pebbles lose energy during an encounter with a core due to drag, and settle towards the core, greatly increasing the capture probability during a single encounter. Millimetre-size pebbles are tightly coupled to the gas and most are swept past the core during an encounter rather than being captured. Accretion efficiency per encounter increases with pebble size in this size range. However, radial drift rates also increase with size, so metre-size objects encounter a core on many fewer occasions than mm-size pebbles before they drift out of a region. The net result is that core growth rates vary weakly with pebble size, with the optimal diameter

  13. Accretion of the gaseous envelope of Jupiter around a 5 10 Earth-mass core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubickyj, Olenka; Bodenheimer, Peter; Lissauer, Jack J.

    2005-12-01

    New numerical simulations of the formation and evolution of Jupiter are presented. The formation model assumes that first a solid core of several M accretes from the planetesimals in the protoplanetary disk, and then the core captures a massive gaseous envelope from the protoplanetary disk. Earlier studies of the core accretion-gas capture model [Pollack, J.B., Hubickyj, O., Bodenheimer, P., Lissauer, J.J., Podolak, M., Greenzweig, Y., 1996. Icarus 124, 62-85] demonstrated that it was possible for Jupiter to accrete with a solid core of 10-30 M in a total formation time comparable to the observed lifetime of protoplanetary disks. Recent interior models of Jupiter and Saturn that agree with all observational constraints suggest that Jupiter's core mass is 0-11 M and Saturn's is 9-22 M [Saumon, G., Guillot, T., 2004. Astrophys. J. 609, 1170-1180]. We have computed simulations of the growth of Jupiter using various values for the opacity produced by grains in the protoplanet's atmosphere and for the initial planetesimal surface density, σ, in the protoplanetary disk. We also explore the implications of halting the solid accretion at selected core mass values during the protoplanet's growth. Halting planetesimal accretion at low core mass simulates the presence of a competing embryo, and decreasing the atmospheric opacity due to grains emulates the settling and coagulation of grains within the protoplanet's atmosphere. We examine the effects of adjusting these parameters to determine whether or not gas runaway can occur for small mass cores on a reasonable timescale. We compute four series of simulations with the latest version of our code, which contains updated equation of state and opacity tables as well as other improvements. Each series consists of a run without a cutoff in planetesimal accretion, plus up to three runs with a cutoff at a particular core mass. The first series of runs is computed with an atmospheric opacity due to grains (hereafter referred to as

  14. Aerodynamic effects of simulated ice shapes on two-dimensional airfoils and a swept finite tail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alansatan, Sait

    An experimental study was conducted to investigate the effect of simulated glaze ice shapes on the aerodynamic performance characteristics of two-dimensional airfoils and a swept finite tail. The two dimensional tests involved two NACA 0011 airfoils with chords of 24 and 12 inches. Glaze ice shapes computed with the LEWICE code that were representative of 22.5-min and 45-min ice accretions were simulated with spoilers, which were sized to approximate the horn heights of the LEWICE ice shapes. Lift, drag, pitching moment, and surface pressure coefficients were obtained for a range of test conditions. Test variables included Reynolds number, geometric scaling, control deflection and the key glaze ice features, which were horn height, horn angle, and horn location. For the three-dimensional tests, a 25%-scale business jet empennage (BJE) with a T-tail configuration was used to study the effect of ice shapes on the aerodynamic performance of a swept horizontal tail. Simulated glaze ice shapes included the LEWICE and spoiler ice shapes to represent 9-min and 22.5-min ice accretions. Additional test variables included Reynolds number and elevator deflection. Lift, drag, hinge moment coefficients as well as boundary layer velocity profiles were obtained. The experimental results showed substantial degradation in aerodynamic performance of the airfoils and the swept horizontal tail due to the simulated ice shapes. For the two-dimensional airfoils, the largest aerodynamic penalties were obtained when the 3-in spoiler-ice, which was representative of 45-min glaze ice accretions, was set normal to the chord. Scale and Reynolds effects were not significant for lift and drag. However, pitching moments and pressure distributions showed great sensitivity to Reynolds number and geometric scaling. For the threedimensional study with the swept finite tail, the 22.5-min ice shapes resulted in greater aerodynamic performance degradation than the 9-min ice shapes. The addition of 24

  15. Jet production in super-Eddington accretion disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eggum, G. E.; Coroniti, F. V.; Katz, J. I.

    1985-01-01

    A two-dimensional, radiation-coupled, Newtonian hydrodynamic simulation is reported for a super-Eddington, mass accretion rate, M = 4 M(E) disk accretion flow onto a 3-solar mass pseudoblack hole. Near the disk midplane, convection cells effectively block the accretion flow, even though viscous heating maximizes there. Accretion predominantly occurs in a supersonic inflow which follows streamlines of approximately constant angular momentum. The optically thick inflow traps radiation so that 80 percent of the luminosity is absorbed by the black hole; the emergent power is sub-Eddington. An axial jet self consistently forms just outside a conical photosphere which bounds the accretion zone; radiation pressure accelerates the jet to about 10 to the 10th cm/s. The jet's mass efflux is only 0.4 percent of the total mass accretion rate.

  16. Cold Accretion from the Cosmic Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    The cosmic web is a vast, foam-like network of filaments and voids stretching throughout the universe. How did the first galaxies form within the cosmic web, at the intersections of filaments? New observations of a protodisk a galaxy in the early stages of formation may provide a clue.Models for Galaxy FormationNarrowband image of the candidate protodisk (marked with a white ellipse) and filaments (outlined in white). [Adapted from Martin et al. 2016]The standard model for galaxy formation, known as the hot accretion model, argues that galaxies form out of collapsing, virialized gas that forms a hot halo and then slowly cools, fueling star and galaxy formation at its center.But what if galaxies are actually formed from cool gas? In this contrasting picture, the cold accretion model, cool (temperature of ~104 K) unshocked gas from cosmic web filaments flows directly onto galactic disks forming at the filamentary intersections. The narrow streams of cold gas deliver fuel for star formation.A signature of the cold accretion model is that the streams of cold gas form a disk as the gas spirals inward, sinking toward the central protogalaxy. Detecting these cold-flow disks could be strong evidence in support of this model and last year, a team of authors reported just such a detection! This year theyre back again with a second object that may provide confirmation of cold accretion from the cosmic web.A Candidate ProtodiskThe team, led by Christopher Martin (California Institute of Technology), made the discovery using the Palomar Cosmic Web Imager, an instrument designed to observe faint emission from the intergalactic medium. Martin and collaborators found a large (R 100 kpc, more than six times the radius of the Milky Way), rotating structure of hydrogen gas, illuminated by the nearby quasi-stellar object QSO HS1549+1919. The system is located at a redshift of z~2.8.The authors testthree potential kinematic models of the candidate protodisk and filaments. In (a) two

  17. Accretion Disk Outflows from Compact Object Mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, Brian

    Nuclear reactions play a key role in the accretion disks and outflows associated with the merger of binary compact objects and the central engines of gamma-ray bursts and supernovae. The proposed research program will investigate the impact of nucleosynthesis on these events and their observable signatures by means of analytic calculations and numerical simulations. One focus of this research is rapid accretion following the tidal disruption of a white dwarf (WD) by a neutron star (NS) or black hole (BH) binary companion. Tidal disruption shreds the WD into a massive torus composed of C, O, and/or He, which undergoes nuclear reactions and burns to increasingly heavier elements as it flows to smaller radii towards the central compact object. The nuclear energy so released is comparable to that released gravitationally, suggesting that burning could drastically alter the structure and stability of the accretion flow. Axisymmetric hydrodynamic simulations of the evolution of the torus including nuclear burning will be performed to explore issues such as the mass budget of the flow (accretion vs. outflows) and its thermal stability (steady burning and accretion vs. runaway explosion). The mass, velocity, and composition of outflows from the disk will be used in separate radiative transfer calculations to predict the lightcurves and spectra of the 56Ni-decay powered optical transients from WD-NS/WD-BH mergers. The possible connection of such events to recently discovered classes of sub-luminous Type I supernovae will be assessed. The coalescence of NS-NS/NS-BH binaries also results in the formation of a massive torus surrounding a central compact object. Three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the long-term evolution of such accretion disks will be performed, which for the first time follow the effects of weak interactions and the nuclear energy released by Helium recombination. The nucleosynthetic yield of disk outflows will be calculated using a detailed

  18. Volatile loss from accreting icy protoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, D. J.

    1993-03-01

    A large self-gravitating body does not easily lose significant mass because the escape velocity is much larger than the sound speed of atmosphere-forming species under ambient thermal conditions. The most significant exceptions to this are giant impacts or impact jetting by fast-moving projectiles. A very small object (e.g. a comet) also does not easily lose significant volatile mass upon formation because the energy release associated with its accretion is so small. (It can however lose a great deal of mass if it is subsequently moved closer to the Sun.) I argue that there is an intermediate mass range (corresponding to bodies with radii of approximately 300-800 km) for which the ambient steady-state mass loss is a maximum. By ambient, I mean those conditions pertaining to the formation region of the body. By steady state, I mean to exclude infrequent traumas (giant impacts). The existence of a preferred intermediate mass arises through the competition of growing gravitational containment and growing energy release by accretion; it corresponds typically to GM/(Rcs2) approximately equals 2 to 4, where M is the protoplanet mass of radius R, and cs is the sound speed. Several factors determine the amount of volatile loss is this vulnerable zone during accretion but in general the loss is a substantial fraction of the volatiles, sometimes approaching 100 percent. The principal implication is that bodies larger than a few hundred kilometers in radius will not have a 'primitive' (i.e. cometary) composition. This is relevant for understanding Triton, Pluto, Charon, and perhaps Chiron.

  19. Magnetic field evolution of accreting neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Istomin, Y. N.; Semerikov, I. A.

    2016-01-01

    The flow of a matter, accreting on to a magnetized neutron star, is accompanied by an electric current. The closing of the electric current occurs in the crust of a neutron stars in the polar region across the magnetic field. But the conductivity of the crust along the magnetic field greatly exceeds the conductivity across the field, so the current penetrates deep into the crust down up to the superconducting core. The magnetic field, generated by the accretion current, increases greatly with the depth of penetration due to the Hall conductivity of the crust is also much larger than the transverse conductivity. As a result, the current begins to flow mainly in the toroidal direction, creating a strong longitudinal magnetic field, far exceeding an initial dipole field. This field exists only in the narrow polar tube of r width, narrowing with the depth, i.e. with increasing of the crust density ρ, r ∝ ρ-1/4. Accordingly, the magnetic field B in the tube increases with the depth, B∝ρ1/2, and reaches the value of about 1017 Gauss in the core. It destroys superconducting vortices in the core of a star in the narrow region of the size of the order of 10 cm. Because of generated density gradient of vortices, they constantly flow into this dead zone and the number of vortices decreases, the magnetic field of a star decreases as well. The attenuation of the magnetic field is exponential, B = B0(1 + t/τ)-1. The characteristic time of decreasing of the magnetic field τ is equal to τ ≃ 103 yr. Thus, the magnetic field of accreted neutron stars decreases to values of 108-109 Gauss during 107-106 yr.

  20. Constraining Accreting Binary Populations in Normal Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmer, Bret; Hornschemeier, A.; Basu-Zych, A.; Fragos, T.; Jenkins, L.; Kalogera, V.; Ptak, A.; Tzanavaris, P.; Zezas, A.

    2011-01-01

    X-ray emission from accreting binary systems (X-ray binaries) uniquely probe the binary phase of stellar evolution and the formation of compact objects such as neutron stars and black holes. A detailed understanding of X-ray binary systems is needed to provide physical insight into the formation and evolution of the stars involved, as well as the demographics of interesting binary remnants, such as millisecond pulsars and gravitational wave sources. Our program makes wide use of Chandra observations and complementary multiwavelength data sets (through, e.g., the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey [SINGS] and the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey [GOODS]), as well as super-computing facilities, to provide: (1) improved calibrations for correlations between X-ray binary emission and physical properties (e.g., star-formation rate and stellar mass) for galaxies in the local Universe; (2) new physical constraints on accreting binary processes (e.g., common-envelope phase and mass transfer) through the fitting of X-ray binary synthesis models to observed local galaxy X-ray binary luminosity functions; (3) observational and model constraints on the X-ray evolution of normal galaxies over the last 90% of cosmic history (since z 4) from the Chandra Deep Field surveys and accreting binary synthesis models; and (4) predictions for deeper observations from forthcoming generations of X-ray telesopes (e.g., IXO, WFXT, and Gen-X) to provide a science driver for these missions. In this talk, we highlight the details of our program and discuss recent results.

  1. Internal Differentiation in Early-Accreting Planetesimals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkins-Tanton, Linda; Weiss, B. P.; Zuber, M. T.

    2009-09-01

    Chondritic meteorites are unmelted, variably metamorphosed samples of the earliest solids of the solar system. A recent paleomagnetic study of CV chondrites suggests that though the chondrites themselves were not melted, their parent body was internally differentiated and produced a core magnetic dynamo. Bodies that accreted before 1.3 to 3 Ma after CAIs likely contained sufficient 26Al to melt internally from the insulated cumulative effects of radiogenic heating. These bodies would melt from the interior out, sometimes forming an interior magma ocean under a solid, conductive, undifferentiated shell. This shell would consist of the same chondritic material that made up the bulk accreting body before melting began. Simulations indicate that this model of chondrite meteorite genesis requires specific but reasonable conditions: The chondrites experienced metamorphism in the undifferentiated crust of an internally differentiated body of radius 250 km to 450 km, which likely accreted no later than 2.0 Ma after CAIs. This body could have produced a core dynamo lasting more than 10 Ma that left a thermoremanent magnetization in Allende. Because of the limited lifetime of 26Al and the longer apparent period over which chondrite parent bodies were forming, many other parent bodies likely heated without significant melting. However, bodies that are internally differentiated may well exist undetected in the asteroid belt. The shapes and masses of 1 Ceres and 2 Pallas are consistent with differentiated interiors. Other internally differentiated asteroids may have lost their hydrostatic shapes through later impacts, but their surfaces may be irregular, space-weathered primitive material, perhaps with altered or differentiated material at the bottoms of the largest craters. This scenario can explain the mismatch between the enormous diversity (more than 130) of parent bodies represented by achondrites and the paucity (fewer than 10) of basaltic asteroids. Funded by NSF

  2. Variable Protostellar Accretion with Episodic Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorobyov, Eduard I.; Basu, Shantanu

    2015-06-01

    We present the latest development of the disk gravitational instability and fragmentation model, originally introduced by us to explain episodic accretion bursts in the early stages of star formation. Using our numerical hydrodynamics model with improved disk thermal balance and star-disk interaction, we computed the evolution of protostellar disks formed from the gravitational collapse of prestellar cores. In agreement with our previous studies, we find that cores of higher initial mass and angular momentum produce disks that are more favorable to gravitational instability and fragmentation, while a higher background irradiation and magnetic fields moderate the disk tendency to fragment. The protostellar accretion in our models is time-variable, thanks to the nonlinear interaction between different spiral modes in the gravitationally unstable disk, and can undergo episodic bursts when fragments migrate onto the star owing to the gravitational interaction with other fragments or spiral arms. Most bursts occur in the partly embedded Class I phase, with a smaller fraction taking place in the deeply embedded Class 0 phase and a few possible bursts in the optically visible Class II phase. The average burst duration and mean luminosity are found to be in good agreement with those inferred from observations of FUors. The model predicts the existence of two types of bursts: the isolated ones, showing well-defined luminosity peaks separated with prolonged periods (˜ {{10}4} yr) of quiescent accretion, and clustered ones, demonstrating several bursts occurring one after another during just a few hundred years. Finally, we estimate that 40%-70% of the star-forming cores can display bursts after forming a star-disk system.

  3. Understanding Accretion Disks through Three Dimensional Radiation MHD Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yan-Fei

    I study the structures and thermal properties of black hole accretion disks in the radiation pressure dominated regime. Angular momentum transfer in the disk is provided by the turbulence generated by the magneto-rotational instability (MRI), which is calculated self-consistently with a recently developed 3D radiation magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD) code based on Athena. This code, developed by my collaborators and myself, couples both the radiation momentum and energy source terms with the ideal MHD equations by modifying the standard Godunov method to handle the stiff radiation source terms. We solve the two momentum equations of the radiation transfer equations with a variable Eddington tensor (VET), which is calculated with a time independent short characteristic module. This code is well tested and accurate in both optically thin and optically thick regimes. It is also accurate for both radiation pressure and gas pressure dominated flows. With this code, I find that when photon viscosity becomes significant, the ratio between Maxwell stress and Reynolds stress from the MRI turbulence can increase significantly with radiation pressure. The thermal instability of the radiation pressure dominated disk is then studied with vertically stratified shearing box simulations. Unlike the previous results claiming that the radiation pressure dominated disk with MRI turbulence can reach a steady state without showing any unstable behavior, I find that the radiation pressure dominated disks always either collapse or expand until we have to stop the simulations. During the thermal runaway, the heating and cooling rates from the simulations are consistent with the general criterion of thermal instability. However, details of the thermal runaway are different from the predictions of the standard alpha disk model, as many assumptions in that model are not satisfied in the simulations. We also identify the key reasons why previous simulations do not find the instability. The thermal

  4. Neutrino oscillation above a black hole accretion disk

    SciTech Connect

    Malkus, A.; Kneller, J. P.; McLaughlin, G. C.; Surman, R.

    2015-05-15

    We examine neutrino oscillations in the context of an accretion disk surrounding a black hole. Because accretion disks produce large quantities of neutrinos, they may be home to interesting neutrino oscillation as well. We model accretion disks associated with stellar collapse for the sake of understanding neutrino oscillations. We find that the neutrino oscillations include phenomena seen in the protoneutron star setting as well as phenomena not seen elsewhere.

  5. Reverberation Mapping of Accretion Disk Winds in Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangham, S.

    2015-09-01

    Reverberation mapping is commonly used for determining black holes masses in AGN from the delayed response of the Broad Line Region (BLR) to fluctuations in the intensity of the AGN continuum source. However, it can also be an effective tool for investigating the structure and kinematics of the BLR itself. Much prior work has been performed to simulate the transfer functions associated with a range of basic geometries (e.g. Keplerian disks, Hubble-like outflows, etc). One promising model for the BLR is that the emission lines are formed in an equatorial accretion disk wind. Here, we predict the reverberation signatures expected from such a model, by modifying the radiative transfer and ionisation code Python that has previously been used to model broad absorption line quasars. This allows to account self-consistently for ionization and radiative transfer effects in the predicted BLR response, which are normally ignored in such calculations. We discuss the agreement between our results and prior work and consider the possibility of detecting the signature of rotating equatorial disk winds in observations obtained by velocity-resolved reverberation mapping campaigns.

  6. Irradiation instability at the inner edges of accretion disks

    SciTech Connect

    Fung, Jeffrey; Artymowicz, Pawel

    2014-07-20

    An instability can potentially operate in highly irradiated disks where the disk sharply transitions from being radially transparent to opaque (the 'transition region'). Such conditions may exist at the inner edges of transitional disks around T Tauri stars and accretion disks around active galactic nuclei. We derive the criterion for this instability, which we term the 'irradiation instability', or IRI. We also present the linear growth rate as a function of β, the ratio between radiation force and gravity, and c{sub s}, the sound speed of the disk, obtained using two methods: a semi-analytic analysis of the linearized equations and a numerical simulation using the GPU-accelerated hydrodynamical code PEnGUIn. In particular, we find that IRI occurs at β ∼ 0.1 if the transition region extends as wide as ∼0.05r, and at higher β values if it is wider. This threshold value applies to c{sub s} ranging from 3% of the Keplerian orbital speed to 5%, and becomes higher if c{sub s} is lower. Furthermore, in the nonlinear evolution of the instability, disks with a large β and small c{sub s} exhibit 'clumping', extreme local surface density enhancements that can reach over 10 times the initial disk surface density.

  7. X-RAY POLARIZATION FROM ACCRETING BLACK HOLES: CORONAL EMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Schnittman, Jeremy D.; Krolik, Julian H. E-mail: jhk@pha.jhu.ed

    2010-04-01

    We present new calculations of X-ray polarization from accreting black holes (BHs), using a Monte Carlo ray-tracing code in full general relativity. In our model, an optically thick disk in the BH equatorial plane produces thermal seed photons with polarization oriented parallel to the disk surface. These seed photons are then inverse-Compton scattered through a hot (but thermal) corona, producing a hard X-ray power-law spectrum. We consider three different models for the corona geometry: a wedge 'sandwich' with aspect ratio H/R and vertically integrated optical depth tau{sub 0} constant throughout the disk; an inhomogeneous 'clumpy' corona with a finite number of hot clouds distributed randomly above the disk within a wedge geometry; and a spherical corona of uniform density, centered on the BH and surrounded by a truncated thermal disk with inner radius R{sub edge}. In all cases, we find a characteristic transition from horizontal polarization at low energies to vertical polarization above the thermal peak; the vertical direction is defined as the projection of the BH spin axis on the plane of the sky. We show how the details of the spectropolarization signal can be used to distinguish between these models and infer various properties of the corona and BH. Although the bulk of this paper focuses on stellar-mass BHs, we also consider the effects of coronal scattering on the X-ray polarization signal from supermassive BHs in active galactic nuclei.

  8. Lyman-α blobs: polarization arising from cold accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trebitsch, Maxime; Verhamme, Anne; Blaizot, Jérémy; Rosdahl, Joakim

    2016-10-01

    Lyman-α nebulae are typically found in massive environments at high redshift (z ≳ 2). The origin of their Lyman-α (Lyα) emission remains debated. Recent polarimetric observations showed that at least some Lyα sources are polarized. This is often interpreted as proof that the photons are centrally produced and contradicts the scenario in which the Lyα emission is the cooling radiation emitted by gas that is heated during the accretion onto the halo. We suggest that this cooling radiation scenario is compatible with the polarimetric observations. To test this idea, we post-processed a radiative hydrodynamics simulation of a blob with the MCLya Monte Carlo transfer code. We computed radial profiles for the surface brightness and the degree of polarization and compared them to existing observations. We found that computed and observed profiles both are consistent with a significant contribution of the extragalactic gas to the Lyα emission. Most of the photons are centrally emitted and are subsequently scattered inside the filament, which produces the observed high level of polarization. We argue that the contribution of the extragalactic gas to the Lyα emission does not prevent polarization. On the contrary, we find that pure galactic emission causes the polarization profile to be too steep to be consistent with observations.

  9. Accretion disk coronae in high-luminosity systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, Stephen D.; Castor, John I.; Klein, Richard I.; Mckee, Christopher F.

    1994-01-01

    We present the results of self-consistent models of Compton-heated accretion disk coronae. The models are calculated using a new method for computing monochromatic radiative transfer n two dimensions. The method splits the radiation into direct and scattered components. The direct radiation is computed by calculating the optical depth along rays, while transfer of the scattered radiation is approximated by flux-limited diffusion. The resulting code agrees with more accurate treatments to within 50%, and is highly efficient, making it practical for use in large hydrodynamic simulations. The coronal models are used to confirm the results of earlier work, and to extend it to higher luminosities. In contrast to earlier work, which found the outer disks to be shadowed by the inner corona at high luminosities, we find our results to form an almost continuous extension of the models at lower luminosities. This is due to the presence of multiply scattered radiation, which acts to partially offset the loss of direct radiation from the central source. Although the analytic methods derived at lower luminosities cannot be used to derive the coronal structure for L/L(sub Edd) approx. greater than 0.1, the results of the models are amenable to semiempirical fits. We also discuss possible observational consequences of the results for coronal veiling and line fluorescence from the disk.

  10. Fundamental Ice Crystal Accretion Physics Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Currie, Tom; Knezevici, Danny; Fuleki, Dan; Struk, Peter M.; Broeren, Andy P.; Tsao, Jen-ching; Vargas, Mario; Wright, William

    2011-01-01

    Due to numerous engine power-loss events associated with high-altitude convective weather, ice accretion within an engine due to ice-crystal ingestion is being investigated. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada are starting to examine the physical mechanisms of ice accretion on surfaces exposed to ice-crystal and mixed-phase conditions. In November 2010, two weeks of testing occurred at the NRC Research Altitude Facility utilizing a single wedge-type airfoil designed to facilitate fundamental studies while retaining critical features of a compressor stator blade or guide vane. The airfoil was placed in the NRC cascade wind tunnel for both aerodynamic and icing tests. Aerodynamic testing showed excellent agreement compared with CFD data on the icing pressure surface and allowed calculation of heat transfer coefficients at various airfoil locations. Icing tests were performed at Mach numbers of 0.2 to 0.3, total pressures from 93 to 45 kPa, and total temperatures from 5 to 15 C. Ice and liquid water contents ranged up to 20 and 3 grams per cubic meter, respectively. The ice appeared well adhered to the surface in the lowest pressure tests (45 kPa) and, in a particular case, showed continuous leading-edge ice growth to a thickness greater than 15 millimeters in 3 minutes. Such widespread deposits were not observed in the highest pressure tests, where the accretions were limited to a small area around the leading edge. The suction surface was typically ice-free in the tests at high pressure, but not at low pressure. The icing behavior at high and low pressure appeared to be correlated with the wet-bulb temperature, which was estimated to be above 0 C in tests at 93 kPa and below 0 C in tests at lower pressure, the latter enhanced by more evaporative cooling of water. The authors believe that the large ice accretions observed in the low pressure tests would undoubtedly cause the aerodynamic

  11. Fundamental Ice Crystal Accretion Physics Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Struk, Peter M.; Broeren, Andy P.; Tsao, Jen-Ching; Vargas, Mario; Wright, William B.; Currie, Tom; Knezevici, Danny; Fuleki, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Due to numerous engine power-loss events associated with high-altitude convective weather, ice accretion within an engine due to ice crystal ingestion is being investigated. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada are starting to examine the physical mechanisms of ice accretion on surfaces exposed to ice-crystal and mixed-phase conditions. In November 2010, two weeks of testing occurred at the NRC Research Altitude Facility utilizing a single wedge-type airfoil designed to facilitate fundamental studies while retaining critical features of a compressor stator blade or guide vane. The airfoil was placed in the NRC cascade wind tunnel for both aerodynamic and icing tests. Aerodynamic testing showed excellent agreement compared with CFD data on the icing pressure surface and allowed calculation of heat transfer coefficients at various airfoil locations. Icing tests were performed at Mach numbers of 0.2 to 0.3, total pressures from 93 to 45 kPa, and total temperatures from 5 to 15 C. Ice and liquid water contents ranged up to 20 and 3 g/m3, respectively. The ice appeared well adhered to the surface in the lowest pressure tests (45 kPa) and, in a particular case, showed continuous leading-edge ice growth to a thickness greater than 15 mm in 3 min. Such widespread deposits were not observed in the highest pressure tests, where the accretions were limited to a small area around the leading edge. The suction surface was typically ice-free in the tests at high pressure, but not at low pressure. The icing behavior at high and low pressure appeared to be correlated with the wet-bulb temperature, which was estimated to be above 0 C in tests at 93 kPa and below 0 C in tests at lower pressure, the latter enhanced by more evaporative cooling of water. The authors believe that the large ice accretions observed in the low pressure tests would undoubtedly cause the aerodynamic performance of a compressor component

  12. Analytic models of relativistic accretion disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuravlev, V. V.

    2015-06-01

    We present not a literature review but a description, as detailed and consistent as possible, of two analytic models of disk accretion onto a rotating black hole: a standard relativistic disk and a twisted relativistic disk. Although one of these models is older than the other, both are of topical interest for black hole studies. The treatment is such that the reader with only a limited knowledge of general relativity and relativistic hydrodynamics, with little or no use of additional sources, can gain insight into many technical details lacking in the original papers.

  13. Zircon dating of oceanic crustal accretion.

    PubMed

    Lissenberg, C Johan; Rioux, Matthew; Shimizu, Nobumichi; Bowring, Samuel A; Mével, Catherine

    2009-02-20

    Most of Earth's present-day crust formed at mid-ocean ridges. High-precision uranium-lead dating of zircons in gabbros from the Vema Fracture Zone on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge reveals that the crust there grew in a highly regular pattern characterized by shallow melt delivery. Combined with results from previous dating studies, this finding suggests that two distinct modes of crustal accretion occur along slow-spreading ridges. Individual samples record a zircon date range of 90,000 to 235,000 years, which is interpreted to reflect the time scale of zircon crystallization in oceanic plutonic rocks.

  14. Normal Modes of Black Hole Accretion Disks

    SciTech Connect

    Ortega-Rodriguez, Manuel; Silbergleit, Alexander S.; Wagoner, Robert V.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2006-11-07

    This paper studies the hydrodynamical problem of normal modes of small adiabatic oscillations of relativistic barotropic thin accretion disks around black holes (and compact weakly magnetic neutron stars). Employing WKB techniques, we obtain the eigen frequencies and eigenfunctions of the modes for different values of the mass and angular momentum of the central black hole. We discuss the properties of the various types of modes and examine the role of viscosity, as it appears to render some of the modes unstable to rapid growth.

  15. Physics of accretion flows around compact objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasota, Jean-Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Several physical and astrophysical problems related to accretion onto black holes and neutron stars are briefly reviewed. I discuss the observed differences between these two types of compact objects in quiescent Soft X-ray Transients. Then I review the status of various non-standard objects suggested as an alternative to black holes. Finally, I present new results and a suggestion about the nature of the jet activity in Active Galactic Nuclei. To cite this article: J.-P. Lasota, C. R. Physique 8 (2007).

  16. Nonthermal accretion disk models around neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tavani, M.; Liang, Edison P.

    1994-01-01

    We consider the structure and emission spectra of nonthermal accretion disks around both strongly and weakly magnetized neutron stars. Such disks may be dissipating their gravitational binding energy and transferring their angular momentum via semicontinuous magnetic reconnections. We consider specifically the structure of the disk-stellar magnetospheric boundary where magnetic pressure balances the disk pressure. We consider energy dissipation via reconnection of the stellar field and small-scale disk turbulent fields of opposite polarity. Constraints on the disk emission spectrum are discussed.

  17. Warm gas accretion onto the Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bland-Hawthorn, J.

    2009-03-01

    We present evidence that the accretion of warm gas onto the Galaxy today is at least as important as cold gas accretion. For more than a decade, the source of the bright Hα emission (up to 750 mR†) along the Magellanic Stream has remained a mystery. We present a hydrodynamical model that explains the known properties of the Hα emission and provides new insights on the lifetime of the Stream clouds. The upstream clouds are gradually disrupted due to their interaction with the hot halo gas. The clouds that follow plough into gas ablated from the upstream clouds, leading to shock ionisation at the leading edges of the downstream clouds. Since the following clouds also experience ablation, and weaker Hα (100-200 mR) is quite extensive, a disruptive cascade must be operating along much of the Stream. In order to light up much of the Stream as observed, it must have a small angle of attack (≈ 20°) to the halo, and this may already find support in new Hi observations. Another prediction is that the Balmer ratio (Hα/Hβ) will be substantially enhanced due to the slow shock; this will soon be tested by upcoming WHAM observations in Chile. We find that the clouds are evolving on timescales of 100-200 Myr, such that the Stream must be replenished by the Magellanic Clouds at a fairly constant rate (≳ 0.1 M⊙ yr-1). The ablated material falls onto the Galaxy as a warm drizzle; diffuse ionized gas at 104 K is an important constituent of galactic accretion. The observed Hα emission provides a new constraint on the rate of disruption of the Stream and, consequently, the infall rate of metal-poor gas onto the Galaxy. We consider the stability of Hi clouds falling towards the Galactic disk and show that most of these must break down into smaller fragments that become partially ionized. The Galactic halo is expected to have huge numbers of smaller neutral and ionized fragments. When the ionized component of the infalling gas is accounted for, the rate of gas accretion is

  18. Massive accretion disks in galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scoville, N. Z.

    In the luminous infrared galaxies, very large masses of interstellar matter have been concentrated in the galactic nuclei at radii less than 300 pc as a result of galactic merging, while in lower luminosity systems, this material is probably concentrated by stellar bars and viscous accretion. In both cases, the nuclear region will be highly obscured by dust at visible wavelengths, forcing studies to longer wavelengths where the extinction is reduced. We review recent high resolution near infrared (HST-NICMOS) and mm-interferometric imaging of the dense gas and dust accretion disks in nearby luminous galactic nuclei. Since this nuclear ISM is the active ingredient for both starburst activity and a likely fuel for central AGNs, the nuclear accretion disks are critical to both the activity and the optical appearance of the nucleus. For a sample of 24 luminous galaxies imaged with NICMOS at 1-2μm, approximately 13 show nuclear point sources, indicating the existence of a central AGN or an intense starburst at <= 50 pc radius. Approximately 14 of the sample galaxies have apparent central dust disks. In the best studied ultraluminous IR galaxy, Arp 220, the 2μm imaging shows dust disks in both of the merging galactic nuclei and mm-CO line imaging indicates molecular gas masses ~ 109Msolar for each disk. The two gas disks in Arp 220 are counterrotating and their dynamical masses are ~ 2×109Msolar, that is, only slightly larger than the gas masses. These disks have radii ~ 100 pc and thickness 10-50 pc. The high brightness temperatures of the CO lines indicate that the gas in the disks has area filling factors ~25-50% and mean densities of >= 104 cm-3. Within these nuclear disks, the rate of massive star formation is undoubtedly prodigious and, given the high viscosity of the gas, there will also be high radial accretion rates, perhaps >= 10 Msolar yr-1. If this inflow persists to very small radii, it is enough to feed even the highest

  19. A Monte Carlo Code for Relativistic Radiation Transport Around Kerr Black Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnittman, Jeremy David; Krolik, Julian H.

    2013-01-01

    We present a new code for radiation transport around Kerr black holes, including arbitrary emission and absorption mechanisms, as well as electron scattering and polarization. The code is particularly useful for analyzing accretion flows made up of optically thick disks and optically thin coronae. We give a detailed description of the methods employed in the code and also present results from a number of numerical tests to assess its accuracy and convergence.

  20. A MONTE CARLO CODE FOR RELATIVISTIC RADIATION TRANSPORT AROUND KERR BLACK HOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Schnittman, Jeremy D.; Krolik, Julian H. E-mail: jhk@pha.jhu.edu

    2013-11-01

    We present a new code for radiation transport around Kerr black holes, including arbitrary emission and absorption mechanisms, as well as electron scattering and polarization. The code is particularly useful for analyzing accretion flows made up of optically thick disks and optically thin coronae. We give a detailed description of the methods employed in the code and also present results from a number of numerical tests to assess its accuracy and convergence.

  1. Gamma-burst emission from neutron-star accretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colgate, S. A.; Petschek, A. G.; Sarracino, R.

    1983-01-01

    A model for emission of the hard photons of gamma bursts is presented. The model assumes accretion at nearly the Eddington limited rate onto a neutron star without a magnetic field. Initially soft photons are heated as they are compressed between the accreting matter and the star. A large electric field due to relatively small charge separation is required to drag electrons into the star with the nuclei against the flux of photons leaking out through the accreting matter. The photon number is not increased substantially by Bremsstrahlung or any other process. It is suggested that instability in an accretion disc might provide the infalling matter required.

  2. X-Ray Spectra from MHD Simulations of Accreting Black Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnittman, Jeremy D.; Krolik, Julian H.; Noble, Scott C.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a new global radiation transport code coupled to a general relativistic magneto-hydrodynamic simulation of an accreting, nonrotating black hole. For the first time, we are able to explain from first principles in a self-consistent way the X-ray spectra observed from stellar-mass black holes, including a thermal peak, Compton reflection hump, power-law tail, and broad iron line. Varying only the mass accretion rate, we are able to reproduce the low/hard, steep power-law, and thermal-dominant states seen in most galactic black hole sources. The temperature in the corona is T(sub e) 10 keV in a boundary layer near the disk and rises smoothly to T(sub e) greater than or approximately 100 keV in low-density regions far above the disk. Even as the disk's reflection edge varies from the horizon out to approximately equal to 6M as the accretion rate decreases, we find that the shape of the Fe Ka line is remarkably constant. This is because photons emitted from the plunging region are strongly beamed into the horizon and never reach the observer. We have also carried out a basic timing analysis of the spectra and find that the fractional variability increases with photon energy and viewer inclination angle, consistent with the coronal hot spot model for X-ray fluctuations.

  3. NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF NATURALLY TILTED, RETROGRADELY PRECESSING, NODAL SUPERHUMPING ACCRETION DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, M. M.

    2012-02-15

    Accretion disks around black hole, neutron star, and white dwarf systems are thought to sometimes tilt, retrogradely precess, and produce hump-shaped modulations in light curves that have a period shorter than the orbital period. Although artificially rotating numerically simulated accretion disks out of the orbital plane and around the line of nodes generate these short-period superhumps and retrograde precession of the disk, no numerical code to date has been shown to produce a disk tilt naturally. In this work, we report the first naturally tilted disk in non-magnetic cataclysmic variables using three-dimensional smoothed particle hydrodynamics. Our simulations show that after many hundreds of orbital periods, the disk has tilted on its own and this disk tilt is without the aid of radiation sources or magnetic fields. As the system orbits, the accretion stream strikes the bright spot (which is on the rim of the tilted disk) and flows over and under the disk on different flow paths. These different flow paths suggest the lift force as a source to disk tilt. Our results confirm the disk shape, disk structure, and negative superhump period and support the source to disk tilt, source to retrograde precession, and location associated with X-ray and He II emission from the disk as suggested in previous works. Our results identify the fundamental negative superhump frequency as the indicator of disk tilt around the line of nodes.

  4. Time dependent spectrum of an X-ray irradiated accretion disc with stochastic perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maqbool, Bari; Wani, Naveel; Iqbal, Naseer; Misra, Ranjeev

    2016-07-01

    The X-rays emitted by the inner regions of the accretion disk induce structural changes in the outer regions of the disk. We study here how the effective temperature and hence the corresponding spectrum of the disk is altered by stochastic perturbations in the outer regions and thereby try to study the long term variability which has been observed in some X-ray binaries. We use a time dependent global hydrodynamic code to study the variations in the effective temperature of the disk in response to sinusoidal accretion rate perturbations introduced at different radii and with different time periods. To quantify the results, we calculate the root mean square effective temperature at different radii and the root mean square flux at different frequencies. From our calculations of the time-lags in accretion rate, effective temperature and the different frequencies, we find that the time-lags in presence of X-ray irradiation is significantly smaller than the expected viscous time-scale.

  5. Low-mass gas envelopes around accreting cores embedded in radiative 3D discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lega, Elena; Lambrechts, Michiel

    2016-10-01

    Planets with a core mass larger than few Earth masses and a gaseous envelope not exceeding about 10% of the total mass budget are common. Such planets are present in the Solar System (Uranus, Neptune) and are frequently observed around other stars.Our knowledge about the evolution of gas envelopes is mainly based on 1D models. However, such models cannot investigate the complex interaction between the forming envelope and the surrounding gas disc.In this work we perform 3D hydrodynamics simulations accounting for energy transfer and radiative cooling using the FARGOCA code (Lega et al., MNRAS 440, 2014). In addition to the usually considered heatingsources, namely viscous and compressional heating, we have modeled the energy deposited by the accretion of solids.We show that the thermal evolution of the envelope of a 5 Earth mass core is mainly dominated by compressional heating for accretion rates lower than 5 Earth masses per 105 years.Additionally, we demonstrate efficient gas circulation through the envelope. Under certain conditions, the competition between gas circulation and cooling of the envelope can efficiently delay the onset of runaway accretion. This could help in explaining the population of planets with low-mass gas envelope.

  6. Rime ice accretion and its effect on airfoil performance. Ph.D. Thesis. Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg, M. B.

    1982-01-01

    A methodology was developed to predict the growth of rime ice, and the resulting aerodynamic penalty on unprotected, subcritical, airfoil surfaces. The system of equations governing the trajectory of a water droplet in the airfoil flowfield is developed and a numerical solution is obtained to predict the mass flux of super cooled water droplets freezing on impact. A rime ice shape is predicted. The effect of time on the ice growth is modeled by a time-stepping procedure where the flowfield and droplet mass flux are updated periodically through the ice accretion process. Two similarity parameters, the trajectory similarity parameter and accumulation parameter, are found to govern the accretion of rime ice. In addition, an analytical solution is presented for Langmuir's classical modified inertia parameter. The aerodynamic evaluation of the effect of the ice accretion on airfoil performance is determined using an existing airfoil analysis code with empirical corrections. The change in maximum lift coefficient is found from an analysis of the new iced airfoil shape. The drag correction needed due to the severe surface roughness is formulated from existing iced airfoil and rough airfoil data. A small scale wind tunnel test was conducted to determine the change in airfoil performance due to a simulated rime ice shape.

  7. Building the giant planet cores by convergent migration of pebble-accreting embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrenko, Ondrej; Broz, Miroslav

    2016-10-01

    An explanation of the accretion buildup of giant planet cores on rather short (~Myr) time scales remains a long-standing challenge for scenarios of planetary system formation. One of the recently proposed processes that can take part during this evolutionary stage is the convergent Type I migration of Earth-sized embryos towards the zero-torque radius, occurring at an opacity transition within the dusty-gaseous protoplanetary disk (e.g. Pierens et al. 2013). Inconveniently, simulations show that such groups of embryos do not merge easily because they often get locked in mutual mean-motion resonances and consequently form an inward-migrating convoy.We revise this possibility of merging embryos while taking into account their ongoing growth by pebble accretion. Our aim is to check whether the rapid changes of masses combined with the migration of embryos through the feeding zone can break the resonant chain and allow for the giant planet core formation.The environment of the protoplanetary disk is modeled with the 2D FARGO code (Masset 2000), which we modified in order to perform non-isothermal hydrodynamic simulations, assuming flux-limited radiative diffusion (Levermore & Pomraning 1981). The embedded massive bodies are evolved simultaneously in 3D using the hybrid Wisdom-Holman/Gauss-Radau integrator from the Rebound package (Rein & Spiegel 2015). A semi-analytic method is used to evolve the masses of embryos by pebble accretion (e.g. Levison et al. 2015).

  8. Accretion disc time lag distributions: applying CREAM to simulated AGN light curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starkey, D. A.; Horne, Keith; Villforth, C.

    2016-02-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGN) vary in their brightness across all wavelengths. Moreover, longer wavelength ultraviolet-optical continuum light curves appear to be delayed with respect to shorter wavelength light curves. A simple way to model these delays is by assuming thermal reprocessing of a variable point source (a lamp post) by a blackbody accretion disc. We introduce a new method, CREAM (Continuum REprocessed AGN Markov Chain Monte Carlo), that models continuum variations using this lamp post model. The disc light curves lag the lamp post emission with a time delay distribution sensitive to the disc temperature-radius profile and inclination. We test CREAM's ability to recover both inclination and product of black hole mass and accretion rate {Mdot{M}}, and show that the code is also able to infer the shape of the driving light curve. CREAM is applied to synthetic light curves expected from 1000 s exposures of a 17th magnitude AGN with a 2-m telescope in Sloan g and i bands with Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) of 500-900 depending on the filter and lunar phase. We also test CREAM on poorer quality g and i light curves with SNR = 100. We find in the high-SNR case that CREAM can recover the accretion disc inclination to within an uncertainty of 5° and an {Mdot{M}} to within 0.04 dex.

  9. Error-correction coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinds, Erold W. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the progress made towards the completion of a specific task on error-correcting coding. The proposed research consisted of investigating the use of modulation block codes as the inner code of a concatenated coding system in order to improve the overall space link communications performance. The study proposed to identify and analyze candidate codes that will complement the performance of the overall coding system which uses the interleaved RS (255,223) code as the outer code.

  10. The Physics of Wind-Fed Accretion

    SciTech Connect

    Mauche, C W; Liedahl, D A; Akiyama, S; Plewa, T

    2008-05-27

    We provide a brief review of the physical processes behind the radiative driving of the winds of OB stars and the Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton capture and accretion of a fraction of the stellar wind by a compact object, typically a neutron star, in detached high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs). In addition, we describe a program to develop global models of the radiatively-driven photoionized winds and accretion flows of HMXBs, with particular attention to the prototypical system Vela X-1. The models combine XSTAR photoionization calculations, HULLAC emission models appropriate to X-ray photoionized plasmas, improved models of the radiative driving of photoionized winds, FLASH time-dependent adaptive-mesh hydrodynamics calculations, and Monte Carlo radiation transport. We present two- and three-dimensional maps of the density, temperature, velocity, ionization parameter, and emissivity distributions of representative X-ray emission lines, as well as synthetic global Monte Carlo X-ray spectra. Such models help to better constrain the properties of the winds of HMXBs, which bear on such fundamental questions as the long-term evolution of these binaries and the chemical enrichment of the interstellar medium.

  11. Dust Coagulation in Protoplanetary Accretion Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, W.; Henning, Th.; Mucha, R.

    1996-01-01

    The time evolution of dust particles in circumstellar disk-like structures around protostars and young stellar objects is discussed. In particular, we consider the coagulation of grains due to collisional aggregation. The coagulation of the particles is calculated by solving numerically the non-linear Smoluchowski equation. The different physical processes leading to relative velocities between the grains are investigated. The relative velocities may be induced by Brownian motion, turbulence and drift motion. Starting from different regimes which can be identified during the grain growth we also discuss the evolution of dust opacities. These opacities are important for both the derivation of the circumstellar dust mass from submillimeter/millimeter continuum observations and the dynamical behavior of the disks. We present results of our numerical studies of the coagulation of dust grains in a turbulent protoplanetary accretion disk described by a time-dependent one-dimensional (radial) alpha-model. For several periods and disk radii, mass distributions of coagulated grains have been calculated. From these mass spectra, we determined the corresponding Rosseland mean dust opacities. The influence of grain opacity changes due to dust coagulation on the dynamical evolution of a protostellar disk is considered. Significant changes in the thermal structure of the protoplanetary nebula are observed. A 'gap' in the accretion disk forms at the very frontier of the coagulation, i.e., behind the sublimation boundary in the region between 1 and 5 AU.

  12. Bulk Comptonization by turbulence in accretion discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, J.; Blaes, O. M.

    2016-06-01

    Radiation pressure dominated accretion discs around compact objects may have turbulent velocities that greatly exceed the electron thermal velocities within the disc. Bulk Comptonization by the turbulence may therefore dominate over thermal Comptonization in determining the emergent spectrum. Bulk Comptonization by divergenceless turbulence is due to radiation viscous dissipation only. It can be treated as thermal Comptonization by solving the Kompaneets equation with an equivalent `wave' temperature, which is a weighted sum over the power present at each scale in the turbulent cascade. Bulk Comptonization by turbulence with non-zero divergence is due to both pressure work and radiation viscous dissipation. Pressure work has negligible effect on photon spectra in the limit of optically thin turbulence, and in this limit radiation viscous dissipation alone can be treated as thermal Comptonization with a temperature equivalent to the full turbulent power. In the limit of extremely optically thick turbulence, radiation viscous dissipation is suppressed, and the evolution of local photon spectra can be understood in terms of compression and expansion of the strongly coupled photon and gas fluids. We discuss the consequences of these effects for self-consistently resolving and interpreting turbulent Comptonization in spectral calculations in radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulations of high luminosity accretion flows.

  13. Eclipse Mapping: Astrotomography of Accretion Discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, Raymundo

    The Eclipse Mapping Method is an indirect imaging technique that transforms the shape of the eclipse light curve into a map of the surface brightness distribution of the occulted regions. Three decades of application of this technique to the investigation of the structure, the spectrum and the time evolution of accretion discs around white dwarfs in cataclysmic variables have enriched our understanding of these accretion devices with a wealth of details such as (but not limited to) moving heating/cooling waves during outbursts in dwarf novae, tidally-induced spiral shocks of emitting gas with sub-Keplerian velocities, elliptical precessing discs associated to superhumps, and measurements of the radial run of the disc viscosity through the mapping of the disc flickering sources. This chapter reviews the principles of the method, discusses its performance, limitations, useful error propagation procedures, as well as highlights a selection of applications aimed at showing the possible scientific problems that have been and may be addresses with it.

  14. Use and abuse of crustal accretion calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallister, John S.; Cole, James C.; Stoeser, Douglas B.; Quick, James E.

    1990-01-01

    Recent attempts to calculate the average growth rate of continental crust for the Late Proterozoic shield of Arabia and Nubia are subject to large geological uncertainties, and widely contrasting conclusions result from dissimilar boundary conditions. The four greatest sources of divergence are (1) the extent of 620-920 Ma arc-terrane crust beneath Phanerozoic cover; (2) the extent of pre-920 Ma continental crust within the arc terranes; (3) the amount of postaccretion magmatic addition and erosion; and (4) the aggregate length and average life span of Late Proterozoic magmatic-arc systems that formed the Arabian-Nubian Shield. Calculations restricted to the relatively well known Arabian segment of the Arabian-Nubian Shield result in average crustal growth rates and arc accretion rates comparable to rates for modern arc systems, but we recognize substantial uncertainty in such results. Critical review of available geochemical, isotopic, and geochronological evidence contradicts the often stated notion that intact, pre-920 Ma crust is widespread in the eastern Arabian Shield. Instead, the arc terranes of the region apparently were "contaminated" with sediments derived, in part, from pre-920 Ma crust. Available geologic and radiometric data indicate that the Arabian-Nubian Shield and its "Pan-African" extensions constitute the greatest known volume of arc-accreted crust on Earth that formed in the period 920-620 Ma. Thus, the region may truly represent a disproportionate share of Earth's crustal growth budget for this time period.

  15. ECCENTRICITY EVOLUTION THROUGH ACCRETION OF PROTOPLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Yuji; Nagasawa, Makiko; Ida, Shigeru E-mail: nagasawa.m.ad@m.titech.ac.jp

    2015-09-10

    Most super-Earths detected by the radial velocity (RV) method have significantly smaller eccentricities than the eccentricities corresponding to velocity dispersion equal to their surface escape velocity (“escape eccentricities”). If orbital instability followed by giant impacts among protoplanets that have migrated from outer regions is considered, it is usually considered that eccentricities of the merged bodies become comparable to those of orbital crossing bodies, which are excited up to their escape eccentricities by close scattering. However, the eccentricity evolution in the in situ accretion model has not been studied in detail. Here, we investigate the eccentricity evolution through N-body simulations. We have found that the merged planets tend to have much smaller eccentricities than escape eccentricities due to very efficient collision damping. If the protoplanet orbits are initially well separated and their eccentricities are securely increased, an inner protoplanet collides at its apocenter with an outer protoplanet at its pericenter. The eccentricity of the merged body is the smallest for such configurations. Orbital inclinations are also damped by this mechanism and planets tend to share a same orbital plane, which is consistent with Kepler data. Such efficient collision damping is not found when we start calculations from densely packed orbits of the protoplanets. If the protoplanets are initially in the mean-motion resonances, which corresponds to well separated orbits, the in situ accretion model well reproduces the features of eccentricities and inclinations of multiple super-Earths/Earth systems discovered by RV and Kepler surveys.

  16. Black hole accretion disks with coronae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svensson, Roland; Zdziarski, Andrzej A.

    1994-01-01

    Observations suggest the existence of both hot and cold dark matter in the centers of active galactic nuclei. Recent spectral models require a major fraction of power to be dissipated in the hot matter. We study the case when the hot matter forms a corona around a standard cold alpha-disk. In particular, we investigate the case when a major fraction, f, of the power released when the cold matter accretes is transported to and dissipated in the corona. This has major effects on the cold disk, making it colder, more geometrically thin, denser, and having larger optical depths. One important consequence is the disappearance of the effectively optically thin zone as well as of the radiation pressure dominated zone for values of f sufficiently closed to unity. The disappearance of the radiation pressure dominated zone will result in a cold disk with only a gas pressure dominated zone that is stable against thermal and viscous instabilities. We also show that the pressure ( and the radiation) from the corona will only affect the surface layers of the cold disk. Our results disagree with those of other recent work on accretion disks with coronae. We find those works to be based on unphysical assumptions.

  17. Magnetic fields in primordial accretion disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latif, M. A.; Schleicher, D. R. G.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic fields are considered a vital ingredient of contemporary star formation and may have been important during the formation of the first stars in the presence of an efficient amplification mechanism. Initial seed fields are provided via plasma fluctuations and are subsequently amplified by the small-scale dynamo, leading to a strong, tangled magnetic field. We explore how the magnetic field provided by the small-scale dynamo is further amplified via the α-Ω dynamo in a protostellar disk and assess its implications. For this purpose, we consider two characteristic cases, a typical Pop. III star with 10M⊙ and an accretion rate of 10-3M⊙ yr-1, and a supermassive star with 105M⊙ and an accretion rate of 10-1M⊙ yr-1. For the 10M⊙ Pop. III star, we find that coherent magnetic fields can be produced on scales of at least 100 AU, which are sufficient to drive a jet with a luminosity of 100L⊙ and a mass outflow rate of 10-3.7M⊙ yr-1. For the supermassive star, the dynamical timescales in its environment are even shorter, implying smaller orbital timescales and an efficient magnetization out to at least 1000 AU. The jet luminosity corresponds to ~106.0L⊙ and a mass outflow rate of 10-2.1M⊙ yr-1. We expect that the feedback from the supermassive star can have a relevant impact on its host galaxy.

  18. Accretion of planetary matter and the lithium problem in the 16 Cygni stellar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deal, Morgan; Richard, Olivier; Vauclair, Sylvie

    2015-12-01

    Context. The 16 Cygni system is composed of two solar analogues with similar masses and ages. A red dwarf is in orbit around 16 Cygni A, and 16 Cygni B hosts a giant planet. The abundances of heavy elements are similar in the two stars, but lithium is much more depleted in 16 Cygni B than in 16 Cygni A, by a factor of at least 4.7. Aims: The interest of studying the 16 Cygni system is that the two star have the same age and the same initial composition. The differences currently observed must be due to their different evolution, related to the fact that one of them hosts a planet while the other does not. Methods: We computed models of the two stars that precisely fit the observed seismic frequencies. We used the Toulouse Geneva Evolution Code (TGEC), which includes complete atomic diffusion (including radiative accelerations). We compared the predicted surface abundances with the spectroscopic observations and confirm that another mixing process is needed. We then included the effect of accretion-induced fingering convection. Results: The accretion of planetary matter does not change the metal abundances but leads to lithium destruction, which depends upon the accreted mass. A fraction of the Earth's mass is enough to explain the lithium surface abundances of 16 Cygni B. We also checked the beryllium abundances. Conclusions: In the case of accretion of heavy matter onto stellar surfaces, the accreted heavy elements do not remain in the outer convective zones, but are mixed downwards by fingering convection induced by the unstable μ-gradient. Depending on the accreted mass, this mixing process may transport lithium down to its nuclear destruction layers and lead to an extra lithium depletion at the surface. A fraction of the Earth's mass is enough to explain a lithium ratio of 4.7 in the 16 Cygni system. In this case beryllium is not destroyed. Such a process may be frequent in planet-hosting stars and should be studied in other cases in the future.

  19. Probing Agn Accretion Physics With Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogeley, Michael

    We propose to use Kepler observations of a sample of ~100 supermassive black holes at the centers of galaxies (Active Galactic Nuclei; AGN) to test models for accretion physics, to study the relationship between variability and other AGN properties, and to guide methods for detecting and classifying AGN in future time-domain surveys. AGN exhibit optical brightness fluctuations on timescales from below an hour up to many years. These fluctuations are determined by the physics of accretion of matter onto black holes from their galactic environment. By observing variability on timescales down to below an hour, Kepler probes the accretion region on length scales that are too small to be directly imaged using conventional telescopes. Data from this unique time- domain telescope now allow us to test competing models for accretion physics that make different predictions for the statistics of variability. Preliminary work provides strong evidence that models of AGN variability that work on long timescale data are not adequate to describe the full range of fluctuation timescales probed by Kepler. We will analyze the light curves of Kepler AGN that span a large range of luminosity and AGN type, thus allowing study of the relationship between variability and other physical properties. Using methods developed and tested by the Kepler team, we will perform custom post-processing of these light curves to remove known systematics. Statistical analyses of the AGN light curves will include estimation of the Structure Function, which quantifies the correlations of brightness fluctuations, and maximum likelihood light curve reconstruction. Competing models for the stochastic behavior of AGN will be tested to evaluate which models best describe variability of AGN over the full range of timescales probed by Kepler. Correlations between the stochastic model parameters and physical parameters will provide new methods for classification of AGN from their variability and aid in

  20. A nonlinear investigation of corrugation instabilities in magnetic accretion shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, Scott

    2011-05-01

    Accretion shock waves are present in many important astrophysical systems and have been a focus of research for decades. These investigations provide a large body of understanding as to the nature, characteristics, and evolutionary behaviors of accretion shock waves over a wide range of conditions. However, largely absent are investigations into the properties of accretion shock waves in the presence of strong magnetic fields. In such cases these strong magnetic fields can significantly alter the stability behaviors and evolution of the accretion shock wave through the production and propagation of magnetic waves as well as magnetically constrained advection. With strong magnetic fields likely found in a number of accretion shock systems, such as compact binary and protostellar systems, a better understanding of the behaviors of magnetic accretion shock waves is needed. A new magnetohydrodynamics simulation tool, IMOGEN, was developed to carry out an investigation of instabilities in strong, slow magnetic accretion shocks by modelling their long-term, nonlinear evolution. IMOGEN implements a relaxed, second-order, total variation diminishing, monotonic upwind scheme for conservation laws and incorporates a staggered-grid constrained transport scheme for magnetic advection. Through the simulated evolution of magnetic accretion shocks over a wide range of initial conditions, it has been shown, for sufficiently high magnetic field strengths, that magnetic accretion shocks are generally susceptible to corrugation instabilities, which arise in the presence of perturbations of the initial shock front. As these corrugation instabilities grow, they manifestas magnetic wave propagation in the upstream region of the accretion column, which propagate away from the accretion shock front, and as density columns, or fingers, that grow into the higher density downstream flow, defined and constrained by current loops created during the early evolution of the instability.

  1. Simulation numerique de l'accretion de glace sur une pale d'eolienne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernando, Villalpando

    The wind energy industry is growing steadily, and an excellent place for the construction of wind farms is northern Quebec. This region has huge wind energy production potential, as the cold temperatures increase air density and with it the available wind energy. However, some issues associated with arctic climates cause production losses on wind farms. Icing conditions occur frequently, as high air humidity and freezing temperatures cause ice to build up on the blades, resulting in wind turbines operating suboptimally. One of the negative consequences of ice accretion is degradation of the blade's aerodynamics, in the form of a decrease in lift and an increase in drag. Also, the ice grows unevenly, which unbalances the blades and induces vibration. This reduces the expected life of some of the turbine components. If the ice accretion continues, the ice can reach a mass that endangers the wind turbine structure, and operation must be suspended in order to prevent mechanical failure. To evaluate the impact of ice on the profits of wind farms, it is important to understand how ice builds up and how much it can affect blade aerodynamics. In response, researchers in the wind energy field have attempted to simulate ice accretion on airfoils in refrigerated wind tunnels. Unfortunately, this is an expensive endeavor, and researchers' budgets are limited. However, ice accretion can be simulated more cost-effectively and with fewer limitations on airfoil size and air speed using numerical methods. Numerical simulation is an approach that can help researchers acquire knowledge in the field of wind energy more quickly. For years, the aviation industry has invested time and money developing computer codes to simulate ice accretion on aircraft wings. Nearly all these codes are restricted to use by aircraft developers, and so they are not accessible to researchers in the wind engineering field. Moreover, these codes have been developed to meet aeronautical industry

  2. Growing massive black holes through supercritical accretion of stellar-mass seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupi, A.; Haardt, F.; Dotti, M.; Fiacconi, D.; Mayer, L.; Madau, P.

    2016-03-01

    The rapid assembly of the massive black holes that power the luminous quasars observed at z ˜ 6-7 remains a puzzle. Various direct collapse models have been proposed to head-start black hole growth from initial seeds with masses ˜105 M⊙, which can then reach a billion solar mass while accreting at the Eddington limit. Here, we propose an alternative scenario based on radiatively inefficient supercritical accretion of stellar-mass holes embedded in the gaseous circumnuclear discs (CNDs) expected to exist in the cores of high-redshift galaxies. Our sub-pc resolution hydrodynamical simulations show that stellar-mass holes orbiting within the central 100 pc of the CND bind to very high density gas clumps that arise from the fragmentation of the surrounding gas. Owing to the large reservoir of dense cold gas available, a stellar-mass black hole allowed to grow at super-Eddington rates according to the `slim-disc' solution can increase its mass by three orders of magnitudes within a few million years. These findings are supported by simulations run with two different hydro codes, RAMSES based on the Adaptive Mesh Refinement technique and GIZMO based on a new Lagrangian Godunov-type method, and with similar, but not identical, sub-grid recipes for star formation, supernova feedback, black hole accretion and feedback. The low radiative efficiency of supercritical accretion flows are instrumental to the rapid mass growth of our black holes, as they imply modest radiative heating of the surrounding nuclear environment.

  3. BOOK REVIEW: Rotation and Accretion Powered Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaspi, V. M.

    2008-03-01

    Pulsar astrophysics has come a long way in the 40 years since the discovery of the first pulsar by Bell and Hewish. From humble beginnings as bits of 'scruff' on the Cambridge University group's chart recorder paper, the field of pulsars has blossomed into a major area of mainstream astrophysics, with an unparalleled diversity of astrophysical applications. These range from Nobel-celebrated testing of general relativity in the strong-field regime to constraining the equation-of-state of ultradense matter; from probing the winds of massive stars to globular cluster evolution. Previous notable books on the subject of pulsars have tended to focus on some particular topic in the field. The classic text Pulsars by Manchester and Taylor (1977 San Francisco, CA: Freeman) targeted almost exclusively rotation-powered radio pulsars, while the Mészáros book High-Energy Radiation from Magnetized Neutron Stars (1992 Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press) considered both rotation- and accretion-powered neutron stars, but focused on their radiation at x-ray energies and above. The recent book Neutron Stars 1 by Haensel et al (2007 Berlin: Springer) considers only the equation of state and neutron-star structure. Into this context appears Rotation and Accretion Powered Pulsars, by Pranab Ghosh. In contrast to other books, here the author takes an encyclopedic approach and attempts to synthesize practically all of the major aspects of the two main types of neutron star. This is ambitious. The only comparable undertaking is the useful but more elementary Lyne and Graham-Smith text Pulsar Astronomy (1998 Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), or Compact Stellar X-ray Sources (eds Lewin and van der Klis, 2006 Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), an anthology of technical review articles that also includes black hole topics. Rotation and Accretion Powered Pulsars thus fills a clear void in the field, providing a readable, graduate-level book that covers nearly everything you

  4. Binary accretion rates: dependence on temperature and mass ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, M. D.; Clarke, C. J.

    2015-09-01

    We perform a series of 2D smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of gas accretion on to binaries via a circumbinary disc, for a range of gas temperatures and binary mass ratios (q). We show that increasing the gas temperature increases the accretion rate on to the primary for all values of the binary mass ratio: for example, for q = 0.1 and a fixed binary separation, an increase of normalized sound speed by a factor of 5 (from our `cold' to `hot' simulations) changes the fraction of the accreted gas that flows on to the primary from 10 to ˜40 per cent. We present a simple parametrization for the average accretion rate of each binary component accurate to within a few per cent and argue that this parametrization (rather than those in the literature based on warmer simulations) is relevant to supermassive black hole accretion and all but the widest stellar binaries. We present trajectories for the growth of q during circumbinary disc accretion and argue that the period distribution of stellar `twin' binaries is strong evidence for the importance of circumbinary accretion. We also show that our parametrization of binary accretion increases the minimum mass ratio needed for spin alignment of supermassive black holes to q ˜ 0.4, with potentially important implications for the magnitude of velocity kicks acquired during black hole mergers.

  5. Time-dependent Models of Magnetospheric Accretion onto Young Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, C. E.; Owen, J. E.; Espaillat, C. C.; Adams, F. C.

    2017-04-01

    Accretion onto Classical T Tauri stars is thought to take place through the action of magnetospheric processes, with gas in the inner disk being channeled onto the star’s surface by the stellar magnetic field lines. Young stars are known to accrete material in a time-variable manner, and the source of this variability remains an open problem, particularly on the shortest (∼day) timescales. Using one-dimensional time-dependent numerical simulations that follow the field line geometry, we find that for plausibly realistic young stars, steady-state transonic accretion occurs naturally in the absence of any other source of variability. However, we show that if the density in the inner disk varies smoothly in time with ∼day-long timescales (e.g., due to turbulence), this complication can lead to the development of shocks in the accretion column. These shocks propagate along the accretion column and ultimately hit the star, leading to rapid, large amplitude changes in the accretion rate. We argue that when these shocks hit the star, the observed time dependence will be a rapid increase in accretion luminosity, followed by a slower decline, and could be an explanation for some of the short-period variability observed in accreting young stars. Our one-dimensional approach bridges previous analytic work to more complicated multi-dimensional simulations and observations.

  6. Magnetic Field Roles in Black-Holes Accretion Disk's Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbassi, S.; Samadi, M.

    2016-09-01

    We study several factors which play remarkable roles in vertical structure and dynamics of hot accretion flows around black holes. These factors are large-scale magnetic field, thermal conduction, outflow and self-gravity. We consider an axisymmetric, rotating, steady viscous-resistive hot accretion flows.

  7. Mass Accretion Rate of Very Low Luminosity Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Ren-Shiang; Lai, Shih-Ping; Hsieh, Tien-Hao

    2013-08-01

    We propose to measure the mass accretion rate of six Very Low Luminosity Objects (VeLLOs) using Near-infrared Integral Spectrometer (NIFS). The extremely low luminosity of VeLLOs, L_int ≤ 0.1 L_⊙, was previously thought not existing in the nature because the typical accretion rate gives much larger accretion luminosity even for the lowest mass star (``Luminosity Problem''). The commonly accepted solution is that the accretion rate is not constant but episodic. Thus, VeLLOs could be interpreted as protostars being in the quiescent phase of accretion activities. However, there is no observational data directly measuring the mass accretion rate of VeLLOs. The main goal of this proposal is to examine such theory and directly measure the mass accretion rate of VeLLOs for the first time. We propose to measure the blue continuum excess (veiling) of the stellar spectrum, which is the most reliable method for measuring the accretion rate. The measurements have to be made in infrared due to the very high extinction for highly embedded protostars. Our proposal provide a first opportunity to explain the long time ``Luminosity Problem'' through the observational aspects, and Gemini is the only instrument that can provide accurate and high sensitivity infrared spectroscopy measurements within reasonably short time scale.

  8. m-Accretive extensions of a sectorial operator

    SciTech Connect

    Arlinskii, Yu M; Popov, A B

    2013-08-31

    A description of all the maximal accretive extensions and their resolvents is given for a densely defined closed sectorial operator in terms of abstract boundary conditions. These results are applied to parametrize all the m-accretive extensions of a symmetric operator in a planar model of one-centre point interaction. Bibliography: 40 titles.

  9. Does mass accretion lead to field decay in neutron stars?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shibazaki, N.; Murakami, T.; Shaham, J.; Nomoto, K.

    1989-01-01

    Adopting the hypothesis of accretion-induced magnetic field decay in neutron stars, the consequent evolution of a neutron star's spin and magnetic field are calculated. The results are consistent with observations of binary and millisecond radio pulsars. Thermomagnetic effects could provide a possible physical mechanism for such accretion-induced field decay.

  10. Clump Accretion in Supergiant Fast X-Ray Transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chase, Eve; Raymer, E.; Blondin, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Supergiant Fast X-Ray Transients (SFXTs) are a subclass of High-Mass X-Ray Binaries that consist of a neutron star and OB supergiant donor star. These systems display short, bright x-ray flares lasting a few minutes to a few hours with luminosities reaching 1036 erg/s, several orders of magnitude larger than the quiescent luminosities of 1032 erg/s. The clumpy wind hypothesis has been proposed as a possible mechanism for these transient flares; in this model, a portion of the stellar wind from the donor star forms into clumps and is accreted onto the neutron star, inducing flares. We use high-resolution 3D hydrodynamic simulations to test the clumpy wind hypothesis, tracking the mass and angular momentum accretion rates to infer properties of the resulting x-ray flare and secular evolution of the neutron star rotation. Our results are significantly different from the predictions of Hoyle-Lyttleton Accretion (HLA) theory, which assume steady, laminar, axisymmetric flow. For example, an off-axis clump initiated with an impact parameter greater than the clump radius (for which HLA predicts no effect) produces a small spike in mass accretion and induces a long period of disk-like flow that dramatically reduces the accretion rate below the steady HLA value. The result is a brief, weak flare with a net decrease in total accreted mass compared with steady wind accretion accompanied by a substantial accretion of angular momentum.

  11. Accretion Discs Show Their True Colours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-07-01

    Quasars are the brilliant cores of remote galaxies, at the hearts of which lie supermassive black holes that can generate enough power to outshine the Sun a trillion times. These mighty power sources are fuelled by interstellar gas, thought to be sucked into the hole from a surrounding 'accretion disc'. A paper in this week's issue of the journal Nature, partly based on observations collected with ESO's Very Large Telescope, verifies a long-standing prediction about the intensely luminous radiation emitted by these accretion discs. Uncovering the disc ESO PR Photo 21/08 Uncovering the inner disc "Astronomers were puzzled by the fact that the best models of these discs couldn't quite be reconciled with some of the observations, in particular, with the fact that these discs did not appear as blue as they should be," explains lead-author Makoto Kishimoto. Such a discrepancy could be the signal that there was something very wrong with the models. With his colleagues, he investigated this discrepancy by studying the polarised light from six quasars. This enabled them to demonstrate that the disc spectrum is as blue as predicted. "The crucial observational difficulty here has been that the disc is surrounded by a much larger torus containing hot dust, whose light partly outshines that of the disc," says Kishimoto. "Because the light coming from the disc is scattered in the disc vicinity and thus polarised, by observing only polarised light from the quasars, one can uncover the buried light from the disc." In a similar way that a fisherman would wear polarised sunglasses to help get rid of the glare from the water surface and allow him to see more clearly under the water, the filter on the telescope allowed the astronomers to see beyond surrounding clouds of dust and gas to the blue colour of the disc in infrared light. The observations were done with the FORS and ISAAC instruments on one of the 8.2-m Unit Telescopes of ESO's Very Large Telescope, located in the Atacama

  12. Aerodynamic Simulation of Runback Ice Accretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broeren, Andy P.; Whalen, Edward A.; Busch, Greg T.; Bragg, Michael B.

    2010-01-01

    This report presents the results of recent investigations into the aerodynamics of simulated runback ice accretion on airfoils. Aerodynamic tests were performed on a full-scale model using a high-fidelity, ice-casting simulation at near-flight Reynolds (Re) number. The ice-casting simulation was attached to the leading edge of a 72-in. (1828.8-mm ) chord NACA 23012 airfoil model. Aerodynamic performance tests were conducted at the ONERA F1 pressurized wind tunnel over a Reynolds number range of 4.7?10(exp 6) to 16.0?10(exp 6) and a Mach (M) number ran ge of 0.10 to 0.28. For Re = 16.0?10(exp 6) and M = 0.20, the simulated runback ice accretion on the airfoil decreased the maximum lift coe fficient from 1.82 to 1.51 and decreased the stalling angle of attack from 18.1deg to 15.0deg. The pitching-moment slope was also increased and the drag coefficient was increased by more than a factor of two. In general, the performance effects were insensitive to Reynolds numb er and Mach number changes over the range tested. Follow-on, subscale aerodynamic tests were conducted on a quarter-scale NACA 23012 model (18-in. (457.2-mm) chord) at Re = 1.8?10(exp 6) and M = 0.18, using low-fidelity, geometrically scaled simulations of the full-scale castin g. It was found that simple, two-dimensional simulations of the upper- and lower-surface runback ridges provided the best representation of the full-scale, high Reynolds number iced-airfoil aerodynamics, whereas higher-fidelity simulations resulted in larger performance degrada tions. The experimental results were used to define a new subclassification of spanwise ridge ice that distinguishes between short and tall ridges. This subclassification is based upon the flow field and resulting aerodynamic characteristics, regardless of the physical size of the ridge and the ice-accretion mechanism.

  13. Magnetised accretion discs in Kerr spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranea-Sandoval, Ignacio F.; García, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Context. Observational data from X-ray binary systems provide strong evidence of astronomical objects that are too massive and compact to be explained as neutron or hybrid stars. When these systems are in the thermal (high/soft) state, they emit mainly in the 0.1-5 keV energy range. This emission can be explained by thin accretion discs that formed around compact objects like black holes. The profile of the fluorescent iron line is useful to obtain insight into the nature of the compact object. General relativity does not ensure that a black hole must form after the complete gravitational collapse of very massive stars, and other theoretical models such as naked singularities cannot be discarded. The cosmic censorship conjecture was proposed by Penrose to avoid these possibilities and is yet to be proven. Aims: We study the effect caused by external magnetic fields on the observed thermal spectra and iron line profiles of thin accretion discs formed around Kerr black holes and naked singularities. We aim to provide a tool that can be used to estimate the presence of magnetic fields in the neighbourhood of a compact object and to probe the cosmic censorship conjecture in these particular astrophysical environments. Methods: We developed a numerical scheme able to calculate thermal spectra of magnetised Page-Thorne accretion discs formed around rotating black holes and naked singularities as seen by an arbitrary distant observer. We incorporated two different magnetic field configurations: uniform and dipolar, using a perturbative scheme in the coupling constant between matter and magnetic field strength. Under the same assumptions, we obtained observed synthetic line profiles of the 6.4 keV fluorescent iron line. Results: We show that an external magnetic field produces potentially observable modifications on the thermal energy spectrum and the fluorescent iron line profile. Thermal energy spectra of naked singularities are harder and brighter than those from black

  14. Ice Accretions on a Swept GLC-305 Airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vargas, Mario; Papadakis, Michael; Potapczuk, Mark; Addy, Harold; Sheldon, David; Giriunas, Julius

    2002-01-01

    An experiment was conducted in the Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) at NASA Glenn Research Center to obtain castings of ice accretions formed on a 28 deg. swept GLC-305 airfoil that is representative of a modern business aircraft wing. Because of the complexity of the casting process, the airfoil was designed with three removable leading edges covering the whole span. Ice accretions were obtained at six icing conditions. After the ice was accreted, the leading edges were detached from the airfoil and moved to a cold room. Molds of the ice accretions were obtained, and from them, urethane castings were fabricated. This experiment is the icing test of a two-part experiment to study the aerodynamic effects of ice accretions.

  15. Rossby Wave Instability in the Accretion Flows around Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gholipour, Mahmoud

    2017-01-01

    The roles of the Rossby wave instability (RWI) have been significantly developed in some important processes, such as planet formation and angular momentum transport through thin accretion disks. However, their development on accretion flows with advection is insignificant. In this paper, we investigate the effect of advection in the occurrence of RWI through accretion flows around black holes (BHs). In the absence of advection, the occurrence of RWI is extremely low because of high viscosity in the accretion flows around BHs. The results of this paper show that there is a significant chance for the occurrence of RWI in some wavelengths if we consider advection even in low amounts. Therefore, the RWI can be a suitable candidate for angular momentum transport in the accretion flows around BHs. Also, the results show that the advection parameter and the ratio of heat capacity, which are special characters of advection flows, play important roles in the occurrence of RWI.

  16. Inception of ice accretion by ice crystal impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löwe, Jens; Kintea, Daniel; Baumert, Arne; Bansmer, Stephan; Roisman, Ilia V.; Tropea, Cameron

    2016-09-01

    In this experimental and theoretical study the ice accretion phenomena on a heated cylinder in Braunschweig Icing Wind Tunnel are investigated. The ice crystal size, velocity, the liquid-to-total mass ratio are accurately controlled. The evolution of the cylinder temperature, the time required for the inception of the ice accretion, and the ice accretion rate are measured for various operating conditions. The surface temperature of the solid target is determined by balancing the heating power in the wall and the cooling effect of the stream of ice particles. We have discovered that the inception of the ice crystal accretion is determined by the instant when the surface temperature of the heated target reduces to the freezing temperature. This result will help to model the phenomena of ice crystal accretion.

  17. General Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamics Simulations of Tilted Black Hole Accretion Flows and Their Radiative Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiokawa, Hotaka; Gammie, C. F.; Dolence, J.; Noble, S. C.

    2013-01-01

    We perform global General Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamics (GRMHD) simulations of non-radiative, magnetized disks that are initially tilted with respect to the black hole's spin axis. We run the simulations with different size and tilt angle of the tori for 2 different resolutions. We also perform radiative transfer using Monte Carlo based code that includes synchrotron emission, absorption and Compton scattering to obtain spectral energy distribution and light curves. Similar work was done by Fragile et al. (2007) and Dexter & Fragile (2012) to model the super massive black hole SgrA* with tilted accretion disks. We compare our results of fully conservative hydrodynamic code and spectra that include X-ray, with their results.

  18. Ice Accretions and Full-Scale Iced Aerodynamic Performance Data for a Two-Dimensional NACA 23012 Airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Addy, Harold E., Jr.; Broeren, Andy P.; Potapczuk, Mark G.; Lee, Sam; Guffond, Didier; Montreuil, Emmanuel; Moens, Frederic

    2016-01-01

    This report documents the data collected during the large wind tunnel campaigns conducted as part of the SUNSET project (StUdies oN Scaling EffecTs due to ice) also known as the Ice-Accretion Aerodynamics Simulation study: a joint effort by NASA, the Office National d'Etudes et Recherches Aérospatiales (ONERA), and the University of Illinois. These data form a benchmark database of full-scale ice accretions and corresponding ice-contaminated aerodynamic performance data for a two-dimensional (2D) NACA 23012 airfoil. The wider research effort also included an analysis of ice-contaminated aerodynamics that categorized ice accretions by aerodynamic effects and an investigation of subscale, low- Reynolds-number ice-contaminated aerodynamics for the NACA 23012 airfoil. The low-Reynolds-number investigation included an analysis of the geometric fidelity needed to reliably assess aerodynamic effects of airfoil icing using artificial ice shapes. Included herein are records of the ice accreted during campaigns in NASA Glenn Research Center's Icing Research Tunnel (IRT). Two different 2D NACA 23012 airfoil models were used during these campaigns; an 18-in. (45.7-cm) chord (subscale) model and a 72-in. (182.9-cm) chord (full-scale) model. The aircraft icing conditions used during these campaigns were selected from the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA's) Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 25 Appendix C icing envelopes. The records include the test conditions, photographs of the ice accreted, tracings of the ice, and ice depth measurements. Model coordinates and pressure tap locations are also presented. Also included herein are the data recorded during a wind tunnel campaign conducted in the F1 Subsonic Pressurized Wind Tunnel of ONERA. The F1 tunnel is a pressured, high- Reynolds-number facility that could accommodate the full-scale (72-in. (182.9-cm) chord) 2D NACA 23012 model. Molds were made of the ice accreted during selected test runs of the full-scale model

  19. Probing Sagittarius A* accretion with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murchikova, Elena

    2017-01-01

    The submm Hydrogen recombination line technique can be used as a probe of the Galactic Center. We present the results of our H30α observations of ionized gas from within 0.015 pc around SgrA*. The observations were obtained on ALMA in cycle 3. The line was not detected, but we were able to set a limit on the mass of the cool gas (T~ 104 K) at 2 × 10-3 M ⊙. This is the unique probe of gas cooler than T ~106 K traced by X-ray emission. The total amount of gas near SgrA* gives us clues to understanding the accretion rate of SgrA*.

  20. Anisotropic hydrodynamic turbulence in accretion disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoll, Moritz H. R.; Kley, Wilhelm; Picogna, Giovanni

    2017-03-01

    Recently, the vertical shear instability (VSI) has become an attractive purely hydrodynamic candidate for the anomalous angular momentum transport required for weakly ionized accretion disks. In direct three-dimensional numerical simulations of VSI turbulence in disks, a meridional circulation pattern was observed that is opposite to the usual viscous flow behavior. Here, we investigate whether this feature can possibly be explained by an anisotropy of the VSI turbulence. Using three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations, we calculate the turbulent Reynolds stresses relevant for angular momentum transport for a representative section of a disk. We find that the vertical stress is significantly stronger than the radial stress. Using our results in viscous disk simulations with different viscosity coefficients for the radial and vertical direction, we find good agreement with the VSI turbulence for the stresses and meridional flow; this provides additional evidence for the anisotropy. The results are important with respect to the transport of small embedded particles in disks.

  1. COULD SXP 1062 BE AN ACCRETING MAGNETAR?

    SciTech Connect

    Fu Lei; Li Xiangdong

    2012-10-01

    In this work we explore the possible evolutionary track of the neutron star in the newly discovered Be/X-ray binary SXP 1062, which is believed to be the first X-ray pulsar associated with a supernova remnant. Although no cyclotron feature has been detected to indicate the strength of the neutron star's magnetic field, we show that it may be {approx}> 10{sup 14} G. If so, SXP 1062 may belong to the accreting magnetars in binary systems. We attempt to reconcile the short age and long spin period of the pulsar taking account of different initial parameters and spin-down mechanisms of the neutron star. Our calculated results show that to spin down to a period {approx}1000 s within 10-40 kyr requires efficient propeller mechanisms. In particular, the model for angular momentum loss under energy conservation seems to be ruled out.

  2. Could SXP 1062 be an Accreting Magnetar?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Lei; Li, Xiang-Dong

    2012-10-01

    In this work we explore the possible evolutionary track of the neutron star in the newly discovered Be/X-ray binary SXP 1062, which is believed to be the first X-ray pulsar associated with a supernova remnant. Although no cyclotron feature has been detected to indicate the strength of the neutron star's magnetic field, we show that it may be >~ 1014 G. If so, SXP 1062 may belong to the accreting magnetars in binary systems. We attempt to reconcile the short age and long spin period of the pulsar taking account of different initial parameters and spin-down mechanisms of the neutron star. Our calculated results show that to spin down to a period ~1000 s within 10-40 kyr requires efficient propeller mechanisms. In particular, the model for angular momentum loss under energy conservation seems to be ruled out.

  3. Diskoseismology - Signatures of black hole accretion disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowak, Michael; Wagoner, Robert V.

    1992-01-01

    General relativity requires the existence of a spectrum of oscillations which are trapped near the inner edge of accretion disks around black holes. We have developed a general formalism for analyzing the normal modes of such acoustic perturbations of arbitrary thin disk models, approximating the dominant relativistic effects via a modified Newtonian potential (these modes do not exist in Newtonian gravity). The eigenfunctions and eigenfrequencies of a variety of disk models are found to fall in to two main classes, which are analogous to the p-modes and g-modes in the sun. In this work, we compute the eigenfunctions and eigenfrequencies of isothermal disks. The (relatively small) rates of growth or damping of these oscillations due to gravitational radiation and parameterized models of viscosity are also computed.

  4. Accreting Millisecond Pulsars and Fundamental Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strohmayer, Tod

    2005-01-01

    X-ray emission from the surfaces of rapidly rotating neutron stars encodes information about their global properties as well as physical conditions locally. Detailed modelling of, for example, the energy dependent pulse profiles observed from accreting millisecond pulsars and thermonuclear burst oscillations can be used to derive constraints on the masses and radii of neutron stars. These measurements provide direct information on the properties of the dense matter equation of state of the supranuclear density matter in their interiors. Study of absorption lines created in the surface layers can also provide measurements of masses and radii, and may be able to probe aspects of relativistic gravity, such as frame dragging. I will discuss the results of recent efforts to carry out such measurements and their implications for the properties of dense matter.

  5. Galactic warps induced by material accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, J.; Sellwood, J. A.

    2003-12-01

    The outer regions of many edge-on disk galaxies appear noticeably warped with an integral-sign shape. The ubiquity of warps suggests that they are either long-lived or repeatedly regenerated. One of the promising methods to generate warps is by accretion of material with misaligned angular momentum (Jiang & Binney 1999). We study this process using grid-based N-body methods that allow large numbers of particles to be employed but introduce a preferred plane. We present tests that show that the grid effects are under control. Our simulations include the random motions of disk stars and explore disk-halo coupling in more detail. We pay particular attention to whether or not the resultant warps follow Briggs's rules of warp behavior.

  6. Dead Zone Accretion Flows in Protostellar Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Neal; Sano, T.

    2008-01-01

    Planets form inside protostellar disks in a dead zone where the electrical resistivity of the gas is too high for magnetic forces to drive turbulence. We show that much of the dead zone nevertheless is active and flows toward the star while smooth, large-scale magnetic fields transfer the orbital angular momentum radially outward. Stellar X-ray and radionuclide ionization sustain a weak coupling of the dead zone gas to the magnetic fields, despite the rapid recombination of free charges on dust grains. Net radial magnetic fields are generated in the magnetorotational turbulence in the electrically conducting top and bottom surface layers of the disk, and reach the midplane by ohmic diffusion. A toroidal component to the fields is produced near the midplane by the orbital shear. The process is similar to the magnetization of the solar tachocline. The result is a laminar, magnetically driven accretion flow in the region where the planets form.

  7. Observational constraints on black hole accretion disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Edison P.

    1994-01-01

    We review the empirical constraints on accretion disk models of stellar-mass black holes based on recent multiwavelength observational results. In addition to time-averaged emission spectra, the time evolutions of the intensity and spectrum provide critical information about the structure, stability, and dynamics of the disk. Using the basic thermal Keplerian disk paradigm, we consider in particular generalizations of the standard optically thin disk models needed to accommodate the extremely rich variety of dynamical phenomena exhibited by black hole candidates ranging from flares of electron-positron annihilations and quasiperiodic oscillations in the X-ray intensity to X-ray novae activity. These in turn provide probes of the disk structure and global geometry. The goal is to construct a single unified framework to interpret a large variety of black hole phenomena. This paper will concentrate on the interface between basic theory and observational data modeling.

  8. Compact stars and accretion disks: Workshop summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.

    1998-07-01

    A workshop on `Compact Stars and Accretion Disks' was held on 11-12 August 1997 at the Australian National University. The workshop was opened by Professor Jeremy Mould, the Director of Mount Stromlo Observatory. The workshop was organised to coincide with visits to the ANU Astrophysical Theory Centre by Professor Ron Webbink from the University of Illinois, Professor Rainer Wehrse from the University of Heidelberg and Dr Chris Tout from the University of Cambridge. The workshop attracted over 25 participants nationwide. Participants included members of the Special Research Centre for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Sydney, led by Professor Don Melrose, Professor Dick Manchester from the ATNF, Professor Ravi Sood from ADFA, Dr John Greenhill from the University of Tasmania and Dr Rosemary Mardling from Monash University. Dr Helen Johnston from AAO and Dr Kurt Liffman from AFDL also attended the workshop. The abstracts of twelve of the workshop papers are presented in this summary.

  9. Hoyle-Lyttleton Accretion from a Planar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raymer, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of Hoyle-Lyttleton accretion have informed predictions about the evolution of wind-driven accretion systems for over two decades. These simulations frequently exhibit dramatic nonlinear behavior such as the flip-flop instability and the formation of transient accretion disks. During disk accretion, the mass accretion rate is suppressed and angular momentum accretion occurs at quasi-Keplerian rates. These results have been used to interpret neutron star accretion from the equatorially enhanced wind of a Be star in Be/X-ray Binaries. We employ large-scale hydrodynamic simulations to investigate whether the flip-flop instability is possible in three dimensions or is simply a consequence of the restrictions on a 2D flow. We do not observe the flip-flop instability in 3D for any values of the wind scale height or density. Moreover, the angular momentum vector of the accreting gas is typically found to be in the plane of the disk wind rather than perpendicular to it as one might expect based on the results of 2D planar simulations. We measure large-scale asymmetries about the plane of the disk wind that arise due to rotational flow near the accretor. Gas is driven above and below the plane, where it interacts with the bow shock and results in a time-varying shock structure. Winds with scale heights of 0.25 Ra enter locked rotation modes that remain stable for the duration of our computational runs. During this phase, the mass accretion rate is suppressed by up to two orders of magnitude below the analytical prediction and angular momentum accretion occurs at sub-Keplerian values.

  10. AGN Variability: Probing Black Hole Accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Jackeline; O'Brien, Jack; Vogeley, Michael S.; Richards, Gordon T.; Kasliwal, Vishal P.

    2017-01-01

    We combine the long temporal baseline of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) for quasars in Stripe 82 with the high precision photometry of the Kepler/K2 Satellite to study the physics of optical variability in the accretion disk and supermassive black hole engine. We model the lightcurves directly as Continuous-time Auto Regressive Moving Average processes (C-ARMA) with the Kali analysis package (Kasliwal et al. 2016). These models are extremely robust to irregular sampling and can capture aperiodic variability structure on various timescales. We also estimate the power spectral density and structure function of both the model family and the data. A Green's function kernel may also be estimated for the resulting C-ARMA parameter fit, which may be interpreted as the response to driving impulses such as hotspots in the accretion disk. We also examine available spectra for our AGN sample to relate observed and modelled behavior to spectral properties. The objective of this work is twofold: to explore the proper physical interpretation of different families of C-ARMA models applied to AGN optical flux variability and to relate empirical characteristic timescales of our AGN sample to physical theory or to properties estimated from spectra or simulations like the disk viscosity and temperature. We find that AGN with strong variability features on timescales resolved by K2 are well modelled by a low order C-ARMA family while K2 lightcurves with weak amplitude variability are dominated by outliers and measurement errors which force higher order model fits. This work explores a novel approach to combining SDSS and K2 data sets and presents recovered characteristic timescales of AGN variability.

  11. A Wind Accretion Model for HLX-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, M. Coleman; Farrell, Sean A.; Maccarone, Thomas J.

    2014-06-01

    The brightest ultraluminous X-ray source currently known, HLX-1, has been observed to undergo five outburst cycles. The periodicity of these outbursts, and their high inferred maximum accretion rates of ~few × 10-4 M ⊙ yr-1, naturally suggest Roche lobe overflow at the pericenter of an eccentric orbit. It is, however, difficult for the Roche lobe overflow model to explain the apparent trend of decreasing decay times over the different outbursts while the integrated luminosity also drops. Thus, if the trend is real rather than simply being a reflection of the complex physics of accretion disks, a different scenario may be necessary. We present a speculative model in which, within the last decade, a high-mass giant star had most of its envelope tidally stripped by the ~104 - 5 M ⊙ black hole in HLX-1, and the remaining core plus low-mass hydrogen envelope now feeds the hole with a strong wind. This model can explain the short decay time of the disk, and could explain the fast decrease in decay time if the wind speed changes with time. A key prediction of this model is that there will be excess line absorption due to the wind; our analysis does in fact find a flux deficit in the ~0.9-1.1 keV range that is consistent with predictions, albeit at low significance. If this idea is correct, we also expect that within years to dacades the bound material from the original disruption will return and will make HLX-1 a persistently bright source.

  12. LARGE-SCALE AZIMUTHAL STRUCTURES OF TURBULENCE IN ACCRETION DISKS: DYNAMO TRIGGERED VARIABILITY OF ACCRETION

    SciTech Connect

    Flock, M.; Dzyurkevich, N.; Klahr, H.; Turner, N.; Henning, Th.

    2012-01-10

    We investigate the significance of large-scale azimuthal, magnetic, and velocity modes for the magnetorotational instability (MRI) turbulence in accretion disks. We perform three-dimensional global ideal MHD simulations of global stratified protoplanetary disk models. Our domains span azimuthal angles of {pi}/4, {pi}/2, {pi}, and 2{pi}. We observe up to 100% stronger magnetic fields and stronger turbulence for the restricted azimuthal domain models {pi}/2 and {pi}/4 compared to the full 2{pi} model. We show that for those models the Maxwell stress is larger due to strong axisymmetric magnetic fields generated by the {alpha}{Omega} dynamo. Large radial extended axisymmetric toroidal fields trigger temporal magnification of accretion stress. All models display a positive dynamo-{alpha} in the northern hemisphere (upper disk). The parity is distinct in each model and changes on timescales of 40 local orbits. In model 2{pi}, the toroidal field is mostly antisymmetric with respect to the midplane. The eddies of the MRI turbulence are highly anisotropic. The major wavelengths of the turbulent velocity and magnetic fields are between one and two disk scale heights. At the midplane, we find magnetic tilt angles around 8 Degree-Sign -9 Degree-Sign increasing up to 12 Degree-Sign -13 Degree-Sign in the corona. We conclude that an azimuthal extent of {pi} is sufficient to reproduce most turbulent properties in three-dimensional global stratified simulations of magnetized accretion disks.

  13. Elliptical Accretion and Low Luminosity from High Accretion Rate Stellar Tidal Disruption Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svirski, Gilad; Piran, Tsvi; Krolik, Julian

    2017-01-01

    Models for tidal disruption events (TDEs) in which a supermassive black hole disrupts a star commonly assume that the highly eccentric streams of bound stellar debris promptly form a circular accretion disk at the pericenter scale. However, the bolometric peak luminosity of most TDE candidates, ˜ 10^{44} {erg s^{-1}}, implies that we observe only ˜1% of the energy expected from radiatively efficient accretion. Even the energy that must be lost to circularize the returning tidal flow is larger than the observed energy. Recently, Piran et al. (2015) suggested that the observed optical TDE emission is powered by shocks at the apocenter between freshly infalling material and earlier arriving matter. This model explains the small radiated energy, the low temperature, and the large radius implied by the observations as well as the t-5/3 light curve. However the question of the system's low bolometric efficiency remains unanswered. We suggest that the high orbital energy and low angular momentum of the flow make it possible for magnetic stresses to reduce the matter's already small angular momentum to the point at which it can fall ballistically into the SMBH before circularization. As a result, the efficiency is only ˜1-10% of a standard accretion disk's efficiency. Thus, the intrinsically high eccentricity of the tidal debris naturally explains why most TDE candidates are fainter than expected.

  14. Diagnostic Coding for Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Williams, Korwyn; Nuwer, Marc R; Buchhalter, Jeffrey R

    2016-02-01

    Accurate coding is an important function of neurologic practice. This contribution to Continuum is part of an ongoing series that presents helpful coding information along with examples related to the issue topic. Tips for diagnosis coding, Evaluation and Management coding, procedure coding, or a combination are presented, depending on which is most applicable to the subject area of the issue.

  15. Model Children's Code.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque. American Indian Law Center.

    The Model Children's Code was developed to provide a legally correct model code that American Indian tribes can use to enact children's codes that fulfill their legal, cultural and economic needs. Code sections cover the court system, jurisdiction, juvenile offender procedures, minor-in-need-of-care, and termination. Almost every Code section is…

  16. Phylogeny of genetic codes and punctuation codes within genetic codes.

    PubMed

    Seligmann, Hervé

    2015-03-01

    Punctuation codons (starts, stops) delimit genes, reflect translation apparatus properties. Most codon reassignments involve punctuation. Here two complementary approaches classify natural genetic codes: (A) properties of amino acids assigned to codons (classical phylogeny), coding stops as X (A1, antitermination/suppressor tRNAs insert unknown residues), or as gaps (A2, no translation, classical stop); and (B) considering only punctuation status (start, stop and other codons coded as -1, 0 and 1 (B1); 0, -1 and 1 (B2, reflects ribosomal translational dynamics); and 1, -1, and 0 (B3, starts/stops as opposites)). All methods separate most mitochondrial codes from most nuclear codes; Gracilibacteria consistently cluster with metazoan mitochondria; mitochondria co-hosted with chloroplasts cluster with nuclear codes. Method A1 clusters the euplotid nuclear code with metazoan mitochondria; A2 separates euplotids from mitochondria. Firmicute bacteria Mycoplasma/Spiroplasma and Protozoan (and lower metazoan) mitochondria share codon-amino acid assignments. A1 clusters them with mitochondria, they cluster with the standard genetic code under A2: constraints on amino acid ambiguity versus punctuation-signaling produced the mitochondrial versus bacterial versions of this genetic code. Punctuation analysis B2 converges best with classical phylogenetic analyses, stressing the need for a unified theory of genetic code punctuation accounting for ribosomal constraints.

  17. Stochastic events lead to accretion in Saturn's rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Larry W.

    2010-05-01

    UVIS occultations indicate accretion is triggered at the B ring edge, in strong density waves in ring A and in the F ring. Moons may trigger accretion by streamline crowding (Lewis & Stewart); which enhances collisions, leading to accretion; increasing random velocities; leading to more collisions and more accretion. Cassini occultations of these strongly perturbed locations show not only accretion but also disaggregation, with time scales of hours to weeks. The collisions may lead to temporary aggregations via stochastic events: collisions can compress unconsolidated objects, trigger adhesion or bring small pieces into contact with larger or higher-density seeds. Disaggregation then can follow from disruptive collisions or tidal shedding. In the accretion/disruption balance, increased random motions could eventually give the upper hand to disruption… just as ‘irrational exuberance' can lead to financial panic in the economy; or the overpopulation of hares can lead to boom-and-bust in the population of foxes. This unstable equilibrium can similarly give rise to episodic cycles in accretion: explaining why the observable ring features that indicate embedded objects have been increasing since the beginning of Cassini's observations of Saturn in 2004.

  18. Stochastic events lead to accretion in Saturn’s rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, L. W.

    2009-12-01

    UVIS occultations indicate accretion is triggered at the B ring edge, in strong density waves in ring A and in the F ring. Moons may trigger accretion by streamline crowding (Lewis & Stewart); which enhances collisions, leading to accretion; increasing random velocities; leading to more collisions and more accretion. Cassini occultations of these strongly perturbed locations show not only accretion but also disaggregation, with time scales of hours to weeks. The collisions may lead to temporary aggregations via stochastic events: they can compress unconsolidated objects, trigger adhesion or bring small pieces into contact with larger or higher-density seeds. Disaggregation then can follow from disruptive collisions or tidal shedding. In the accretion/disruption balance, increased random motions could eventually give the upper hand to disruption… just as ‘irrational exuberance’ can lead to financial panic in the economy; or the overpopulation of hares can lead to boom-and-bust in the population of foxes. This unstable equilibrium can similarly give rise to episodic cycles in accretion: explaining why the observable ring features that indicate embedded objects have been increasing since the beginning of Cassini’s observations of Saturn in 2004.

  19. Fingering Convection and its Consequences for Accreting White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vauclair, Sylvie; Vauclair, Gérard; Deal, Morgan; Wachlin, F. C.

    2015-06-01

    A number of white dwarf stars show absoption lines of heavy elements in their spectra. Many of them also exhibit infra-red excess in their spectral energy distribution. These observations prove that these white dwarfs are surrounded by an orbiting debris disk resulting from the disruption of rocky planetesimals, remnants of the primordial planetary system. Part of the material from the debris disk is accreted onto the white dwarfs, explaining the presence of heavy elements in their outer layers. Previous attempts to estimate the accretion rates have overlooked the importance of the fingering convection. The fingering convection is an instability triggered by the accumulation in the white dwarf outer layers of material heavier than the underlying H-rich (for the DA) or the He-rich (for the DB) composition. The fingering convection induces a deep mixing of the accreted material. Our preliminary simulations of the fingering convection show that the effect may be important in DA white dwarfs. The accretion rates needed in order to reproduce the observed heavy element abundances exceed by order of magnitudes the accretion rates estimated when this extra-mixing is ignored. By contrast, in the cases of the DB white dwarfs that we have considered in our simulations the fingering convection either does not occur or has very little effects on the derived accretion rates. We have undertaken a systematic exploration of the consequences of the fingering convection in accreting white dwarfs.

  20. GRAVITATIONAL ACCRETION OF PARTICLES ONTO MOONLETS EMBEDDED IN SATURN's RINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Yasui, Yuki; Ohtsuki, Keiji; Daisaka, Hiroshi E-mail: ohtsuki@tiger.kobe-u.ac.jp

    2014-12-20

    Using a local N-body simulation, we examine gravitational accretion of ring particles onto moonlet cores in Saturn's rings. We find that gravitational accretion of particles onto moonlet cores is unlikely to occur in the C ring and probably difficult in the inner B ring as well provided that the cores are rigid water ice. Dependence of particle accretion on ring thickness changes when the radial distance from the planet and/or the density of particles is varied: the former determines the size of the core's Hill radius relative to its physical size, while the latter changes the effect of self-gravity of accreted particles. We find that particle accretion onto high-latitude regions of the core surface can occur even if the rings' vertical thickness is much smaller than the core radius, although redistribution of particles onto the high-latitude regions would not be perfectly efficient in outer regions of the rings such as the outer A ring, where the size of the core's Hill sphere in the vertical direction is significantly larger than the core's physical radius. Our results suggest that large boulders recently inferred from observations of transparent holes in the C ring are not formed locally by gravitational accretion, while propeller moonlets in the A ring would be gravitational aggregates formed by particle accretion onto dense cores. Our results also imply that the main bodies of small satellites near the outer edge of Saturn's rings may have been formed in rather thin rings.

  1. The Accretion Rate Dependence of Burst Oscillation Amplitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ootes, Laura S.; Watts, Anna L.; Galloway, Duncan K.; Wijnands, Rudy

    2017-01-01

    Neutron stars in low-mass X-ray binaries exhibit oscillations during thermonuclear bursts, attributed to asymmetric brightness patterns on the burning surfaces. All models that have been proposed to explain the origin of these asymmetries (spreading hotspots, surface waves, and cooling wakes) depend on the accretion rate. By analysis of archival RXTE data of six oscillation sources, we investigate the accretion rate dependence of the amplitude of burst oscillations. This more than doubles the size of the sample analyzed previously by Muno et al., who found indications for a relationship between accretion rate and oscillation amplitudes. We find that burst oscillation signals can be detected at all observed accretion rates. Moreover, oscillations at low accretion rates are found to have relatively small amplitudes ({A}{{rms}}≤slant 0.10) while oscillations detected in bursts observed at high accretion rates cover a broad spread in amplitudes (0.05≤slant {A}{{rms}}≤slant 0.20). In this paper we present the results of our analysis and discuss these in the light of current burst oscillation models. Additionally, we investigate the bursts of two sources without previously detected oscillations. Despite the fact that these sources have been observed at accretion rates where burst oscillations might be expected, we find their behavior not to be anomalous compared to oscillation sources.

  2. Mergers of accreting stellar-mass black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagawa, H.; Umemura, M.; Gouda, N.

    2016-11-01

    We present post-Newtonian N-body simulations on mergers of accreting stellar-mass black holes (BHs), where such general relativistic effects as the pericentre shift and gravitational wave (GW) emission are taken into consideration. The attention is concentrated on the effects of the dynamical friction and the Hoyle-Lyttleton mass accretion by ambient gas. We consider a system composed of 10 BHs with initial mass of 30 M⊙. As a result, we show that mergers of accreting stellar-mass BHs are classified into four types: a gas drag-driven, an interplay-driven, a three-body-driven, or an accretion-driven merger. We find that BH mergers proceed before significant mass accretion, even if the accretion rate is ˜10 Eddington accretion rate, and then all BHs can merge into one heavy BH. Using the simulation results for a wide range of parameters, we derive a critical accretion rate (dot{m}_c), below which the BH growth is promoted faster by mergers. Also, it is found that the effect of the recoil by the GW emission can reduce dot{m}_c especially in gas number density higher than 108 cm-3, and enhance the escape probability of merged BHs. Very recently, a gravitational wave event, GW150914, as a result of the merger of a ˜30 M⊙ BH binary has been detected. Based on the present simulations, the BH merger in GW150914 is likely to be driven by three-body encounters accompanied by a few M⊙ of gas accretion, in high-density environments like dense interstellar clouds or galactic nuclei.

  3. ACCRETION RATE AND THE PHYSICAL NATURE OF UNOBSCURED ACTIVE GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Trump, Jonathan R.; Impey, Christopher D.; Gabor, Jared M.; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Kelly, Brandon C.; Civano, Francesca; Hao, Heng; Lanzuisi, Giorgio; Merloni, Andrea; Salvato, Mara; Urry, C. Megan; Jahnke, Knud; Nagao, Tohru; Taniguchi, Yoshi; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Liu, Charles; Mainieri, Vincenzo; Scoville, Nick Z.

    2011-05-20

    We show how accretion rate governs the physical properties of a sample of unobscured broad-line, narrow-line, and lineless active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We avoid the systematic errors plaguing previous studies of AGN accretion rates by using accurate intrinsic accretion luminosities (L{sub int}) from well-sampled multiwavelength spectral energy distributions from the Cosmic Evolution Survey, and accurate black hole masses derived from virial scaling relations (for broad-line AGNs) or host-AGN relations (for narrow-line and lineless AGNs). In general, broad emission lines are present only at the highest accretion rates (L{sub int}/L{sub Edd} > 10{sup -2}), and these rapidly accreting AGNs are observed as broad-line AGNs or possibly as obscured narrow-line AGNs. Narrow-line and lineless AGNs at lower specific accretion rates (L{sub int}/L{sub Edd} < 10{sup -2}) are unobscured and yet lack a broad-line region. The disappearance of the broad emission lines is caused by an expanding radiatively inefficient accretion flow (RIAF) at the inner radius of the accretion disk. The presence of the RIAF also drives L{sub int}/L{sub Edd} < 10{sup -2} narrow-line and lineless AGNs to have ratios of radio-to-optical/UV emission that are 10 times higher than L{sub int}/L{sub Edd} > 10{sup -2} broad-line AGNs, since the unbound nature of the RIAF means it is easier to form a radio outflow. The IR torus signature also tends to become weaker or disappear from L{sub int}/L{sub Edd} < 10{sup -2} AGNs, although there may be additional mid-IR synchrotron emission associated with the RIAF. Together, these results suggest that specific accretion rate is an important physical 'axis' of AGN unification, as described by a simple model.

  4. MEASURING TINY MASS ACCRETION RATES ONTO YOUNG BROWN DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Herczeg, Gregory J.; Cruz, Kelle L.; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.

    2009-05-10

    We present low-resolution Keck I/LRIS spectra spanning from 3200 to 9000 A of nine young brown dwarfs and three low-mass stars in the TW Hya Association and in Upper Sco. The optical spectral types of the brown dwarfs range from M5.5 to M8.75, though two have near-IR spectral types of early L dwarfs. We report new accretion rates derived from excess Balmer continuum emission for the low-mass stars TW Hya and Hen 3-600A and the brown dwarfs 2MASS J12073347-3932540, UScoCTIO 128, SSSPM J1102-3431, USco J160606.29-233513.3, DENIS-P J160603.9-205644, and Oph J162225-240515B, and upper limits on accretion for the low-mass star Hen 3-600B and the brown dwarfs UScoCTIO 112, Oph J162225-240515A, and USco J160723.82-221102.0. For the six brown dwarfs in our sample that are faintest at short wavelengths, the accretion luminosity or upper limit is measurable only when the image is binned over large wavelength intervals. This method extends our sensitivity to accretion rate down to {approx}10{sup -13} M{sub sun}yr{sup -1} for brown dwarfs. Since the ability to measure an accretion rate from excess Balmer continuum emission depends on the contrast between excess continuum emission and the underlying photosphere, for objects with earlier spectral types the upper limit on accretion rate is much higher. Absolute uncertainties in our accretion rate measurements of {approx}3-5 include uncertainty in accretion models, brown dwarf masses, and distance. The accretion rate of 2 x 10{sup -12} M {sub sun} yr{sup -1} onto 2MASS J12073347-3932540 is within 15% of two previous measurements, despite large changes in the H{alpha} flux.

  5. Obscured AGN Accretion Across Cosmic Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coil, Alison

    We propose to combine data from XMM-Newton, the Chandra X-ray Observatory, and the Spitzer Space Telescope with ground-based optical spectroscopy from Keck and Magellan to measure the relationship between AGN obscuration and accretion activity over the bulk of cosmic history. This work will establish the prominence of both obscured and unobscured growth phases of black holes and shed light on the processes that trigger and fuel AGN as a function of time. We will complete three complementary projects that focus on a) understanding the completeness and biases of AGN selection at mid-IR versus X-ray wavelengths, b) tracing optical obscuration as a function of luminosity and redshift, and c) measuring the distribution and evolution of X-ray absorption of AGN. We will undertake a study of AGN demographics comparing selection techniques at three different wavelengths: mid-IR selection using data from the Spitzer Space Telescope, X- ray selection using data from the XMM-Newton and Chandra satellites, and broad-line optical selection using PRIMUS spectroscopy. We will determine the overlap and uniqueness of samples created using each method, to quantify the completeness and biases inherent in AGN selection at each wavelength. This will lead to a constraint on the fraction of heavily obscured, Compton-thick AGN to z~1. To study the optical obscuration of AGN, we will use three recently-completed spectroscopic surveys -- PRIMUS, DEEP2, and our own Keck program -- to robustly determine the ratio of unobscured (broad-line) to obscured (non--broad-line) X-ray selected AGN as a function of luminosity from z~0.2 to z~3. We will utilize the well- understood selection functions and characterize the AGN completeness of each survey as a function of redshift, magnitude, and obscuration properties. This will allow us to correct for a variety of observational effects to measure the underlying joint redshift- and luminosity-dependence of optical obscuration, which has direct implications

  6. ACCRETION DISK TEMPERATURES OF QSOs: CONSTRAINTS FROM THE EMISSION LINES

    SciTech Connect

    Bonning, E. W.; Shields, G. A.; Stevens, A. C.; Salviander, S. E-mail: shields@astro.as.utexas.edu E-mail: triples@astro.as.utexas.edu

    2013-06-10

    We compare QSO emission-line spectra to predictions based on theoretical ionizing continua of accretion disks. The observed line intensities do not show the expected trend of higher ionization with theoretical accretion disk temperature as predicted from the black hole mass and accretion rate. Consistent with earlier studies, this suggests that the inner disk does not reach temperatures as high as expected from standard disk theory. Modified radial temperature profiles, taking account of winds or advection in the inner disk, achieve better agreement with observation. The emission lines of radio-detected and radio-undetected sources show different trends as a function of the theoretically predicted disk temperature.

  7. LAMBDA BOO ABUNDANCE PATTERNS: ACCRETION FROM ORBITING SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Jura, M.

    2015-12-15

    The abundance anomalies in λ Boo stars are popularly explained by element-specific mass inflows at rates that are much greater than empirically inferred bounds for interstellar accretion. Therefore, a λ Boo star’s thin outer envelope must derive from a companion star, planet, analogs to Kuiper Belt objects or a circumstellar disk. Because radiation pressure on gas-phase ions might selectively allow the accretion of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen and inhibit the inflow of elements such as iron, the source of the acquired matter need not contain dust. We propose that at least some λ Boo stars accrete from the winds of hot Jupiters.

  8. Sedimentation, accretion, and subsidence in marshes of Barataria Basin, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Hatton, R.S.; DeLaune, R.D.; Patrick, W.H. Jr.

    1983-05-01

    Vertical accretion and sediment accumulation rates were determined from the distribution of /sup 137/Cs in cores collected from fresh water, intermediate, brackish, and salt marshes in the Barataria Basin, Louisiana. Vertical accretion rates vary from about 1.3 cm.yr/sup -1/ in levee areas to 0.7 in backmarshes. Mineral sediment content of the marsh soil profile decreased with distance from the coast. Except in natural levee areas, marsh accretion rates are less than subsidence measured by water level data, however this alone cannot account for observed land-loss patterns in the basin area.

  9. Evolution of the luminosity function of quasar accretion disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caditz, David M.; Petrosian, Vahe; Wandel, Amri

    1991-01-01

    Using an accretion-disk model, accretion disk luminosities are calculated for a grid of black hole masses and accretion rates. It is shown that, as the black-hole mass increases with time, the monochromatic luminosity at a given frequency first increases and then decreases rapidly as this frequency is crossed by the Wien cutoff. The upper limit on the monochromatic luminosity, which is characteristic for a given epoch, constrains the evolution of quasar luminosities and determines the evolultion of the quasar luminosity function.

  10. A pilot study to Doppler-image an accretion spot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moritz Guenther, Hans

    2009-10-01

    Classical T Tauri stars (CTTS) are young, accreting systems. The accretion is thought to cause a soft X-ray excess and unusual line ratios in the He-like triplets. The accretion spots can also be seen with optical Doppler-imaging; however, the final test to correlate these signatures - simultaneous X-ray and ground-based observations - is still missing. We propose a 15 ks pilot study of MN Lup, the prime target for simultaneous observations from the optical point of view, to confirm its CTTS status and characterize its X-ray properties.

  11. Accretion tori and cones of ionizing radiation in Seyfert galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acosta-Pulido, Jose A.; Perez-Fournon, Ismael; Calvani, Massimo; Wilson, Andrew S.

    1990-01-01

    The photoionization of extended narrow-line regions in Seyfert galaxies by the radiation produced in a thick accretion disk is studied. The emission-line spectrum is calculated for a range of black hole masses, varying the values of the ionization parameter and the disk size. It is found that models with a million solar masses fit observations of very large accretion disk sizes, while models with 10 million solar masses fit them better with smaller disks. The latter models are preferable since they have lower super-Eddington accretion rates.

  12. Recent Observational Progress on Accretion Disks Around Compact Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Jon M.

    2016-04-01

    Studies of accretion disks around black holes and neutron stars over the last ten years have made remarkable progress. Our understanding of disk evolution as a function of mass accretion rate is pushing toward a consensus on thin/thick disk transitions; an apparent switching between disk-driven outflow modes has emerged; and monitoring observations have revealed complex spectral energy distributions wherein disk reprocessing must be important. Detailed studies of disk winds, in particular, have the potential to reveal the basic physical processes that mediate disk accretion, and to connect with numerical simulations. This talk will review these developments and look ahead to the potential of Astro-H.

  13. Does mass accretion lead to field decay in neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shibazaki, N.; Murakami, T.; Shaham, Jacob; Nomoto, K.

    1989-01-01

    The recent discovery of cyclotron lines from gamma-ray bursts indicates that the strong magnetic fields of isolated neutron stars might not decay. The possible inverse correlation between the strength of the magnetic field and the mass accreted by the neutron star suggests that mass accretion itself may lead to the decay of the magnetic field. The spin and magnetic field evolution of the neutron star was calculated under the hypothesis of the accretion-induced field decay. It is shown that the calculated results are consistent with the observations of binary and millisecond radio pulsars.

  14. Wind-accretion Disks in Wide Binaries, Second-generation Protoplanetary Disks, and Accretion onto White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perets, Hagai B.; Kenyon, Scott J.

    2013-02-01

    Mass transfer from an evolved donor star to its binary companion is a standard feature of stellar evolution in binaries. In wide binaries, the companion star captures some of the mass ejected in a wind by the primary star. The captured material forms an accretion disk. Here, we study the evolution of wind-accretion disks, using a numerical approach which allows us to follow the long-term evolution. For a broad range of initial conditions, we derive the radial density and temperature profiles of the disk. In most cases, wind accretion leads to long-lived stable disks over the lifetime of the asymptotic giant branch donor star. The disks have masses of a few times 10-5-10-3 M ⊙, with surface density and temperature profiles that follow broken power laws. The total mass in the disk scales approximately linearly with the viscosity parameter used. Roughly, 50%-80% of the mass falling into the disk accretes onto the central star; the rest flows out through the outer edge of the disk into the stellar wind of the primary. For systems with large accretion rates, the secondary accretes as much as 0.1 M ⊙. When the secondary is a white dwarf, accretion naturally leads to nova and supernova eruptions. For all types of secondary star, the surface density and temperature profiles of massive disks resemble structures observed in protoplanetary disks, suggesting that coordinated observational programs might improve our understanding of uncertain disk physics.

  15. Accumulate repeat accumulate codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative channel coding scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate codes' (ARA). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, thus belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA codes on a graph. The structure of encoder for this class can be viewed as precoded Repeat Accumulate (RA) code or as precoded Irregular Repeat Accumulate (IRA) code, where simply an accumulator is chosen as a precoder. Thus ARA codes have simple, and very fast encoder structure when they representing LDPC codes. Based on density evolution for LDPC codes through some examples for ARA codes, we show that for maximum variable node degree 5 a minimum bit SNR as low as 0.08 dB from channel capacity for rate 1/2 can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Thus based on fixed low maximum variable node degree, its threshold outperforms not only the RA and IRA codes but also the best known LDPC codes with the dame maximum node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators any desired high rate codes close to code rate 1 can be obtained with thresholds that stay close to the channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results are provided. The ARA codes also have projected graph or protograph representation that allows for high speed decoder implementation.

  16. Concatenated Coding Using Trellis-Coded Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Michael W.

    1997-01-01

    In the late seventies and early eighties a technique known as Trellis Coded Modulation (TCM) was developed for providing spectrally efficient error correction coding. Instead of adding redundant information in the form of parity bits, redundancy is added at the modulation stage thereby increasing bandwidth efficiency. A digital communications system can be designed to use bandwidth-efficient multilevel/phase modulation such as Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK), Phase Shift Keying (PSK), Differential Phase Shift Keying (DPSK) or Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM). Performance gain can be achieved by increasing the number of signals over the corresponding uncoded system to compensate for the redundancy introduced by the code. A considerable amount of research and development has been devoted toward developing good TCM codes for severely bandlimited applications. More recently, the use of TCM for satellite and deep space communications applications has received increased attention. This report describes the general approach of using a concatenated coding scheme that features TCM and RS coding. Results have indicated that substantial (6-10 dB) performance gains can be achieved with this approach with comparatively little bandwidth expansion. Since all of the bandwidth expansion is due to the RS code we see that TCM based concatenated coding results in roughly 10-50% bandwidth expansion compared to 70-150% expansion for similar concatenated scheme which use convolution code. We stress that combined coding and modulation optimization is important for achieving performance gains while maintaining spectral efficiency.

  17. Coset Codes Viewed as Terminated Convolutional Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossorier, Marc P. C.; Lin, Shu

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, coset codes are considered as terminated convolutional codes. Based on this approach, three new general results are presented. First, it is shown that the iterative squaring construction can equivalently be defined from a convolutional code whose trellis terminates. This convolutional code determines a simple encoder for the coset code considered, and the state and branch labelings of the associated trellis diagram become straightforward. Also, from the generator matrix of the code in its convolutional code form, much information about the trade-off between the state connectivity and complexity at each section, and the parallel structure of the trellis, is directly available. Based on this generator matrix, it is shown that the parallel branches in the trellis diagram of the convolutional code represent the same coset code C(sub 1), of smaller dimension and shorter length. Utilizing this fact, a two-stage optimum trellis decoding method is devised. The first stage decodes C(sub 1), while the second stage decodes the associated convolutional code, using the branch metrics delivered by stage 1. Finally, a bidirectional decoding of each received block starting at both ends is presented. If about the same number of computations is required, this approach remains very attractive from a practical point of view as it roughly doubles the decoding speed. This fact is particularly interesting whenever the second half of the trellis is the mirror image of the first half, since the same decoder can be implemented for both parts.

  18. Probing the Environment of Accreting Compact Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanke, Manfred

    2011-04-01

    X-ray binaries are the topic of this thesis. They consist of a compact object -- a black hole or a neutron star -- and an ordinary star, which loses matter to the compact object. The gravitational energy released through this process of mass accretion is largely converted into X-rays. The latter are used in the present work to screen the environment of the compact object. The main focus in the case of a massive star is on its wind, which is not homogeneous, but may display structures in form of temperature and density variations. Since great importance is, in multiple respects, attached to stellar winds in astrophysics, there is large interest in general to understand these structures more thoroughly. In particular for X-ray binaries, whose compact object obtains matter from the wind of its companion star, the state of the wind can decisively influence mass accretion and its related radiation processes. A detailed introduction to the fundamentals of stellar winds, compact objects, accretion and radiation processes in X-ray binaries, as well as to the employed instruments and analysis methods, is given in chapter 1. The focus of this investigation is on Cygnus X-1, a binary system with a black hole and a blue supergiant, which form a persistently very bright X-ray source because of accretion from the stellar wind. It had been known for a long time that this source -- when the black hole is seen through the dense stellar wind -- often displays abrupt absorption events whose origin is suspected to be in clumps in the wind. More detailed physical properties of these clumps and of the wind in general are explored in this work. Observations that were specifically acquired for this study, as well as archival data from different satellite observatories, are analyzed in view of signatures of the wind and its fine structures. These results are presented in chapter 2. In a first part of the analysis, the statistical distribution of the brightness of Cyg X-1, as measured since

  19. Accreting Binary Populations in the Earlier Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornschemeier, Ann

    2010-01-01

    It is now understood that X-ray binaries dominate the hard X-ray emission from normal star-forming galaxies. Thanks to the deepest (2-4 Ms) Chandra surveys, such galaxies are now being studied in X-rays out to z approximates 4. Interesting X-ray stacking results (based on 30+ galaxies per redshift bin) suggest that the mean rest-frame 2-10 keV luminosity from z=3-4 Lyman break galaxies (LBGs), is comparable to the most powerful starburst galaxies in the local Universe. This result possibly indicates a similar production mechanism for accreting binaries over large cosmological timescales. To understand and constrain better the production of X-ray binaries in high-redshift LBGs, we have utilized XMM-Newton observations of a small sample of z approximates 0.1 GALEX-selected Ultraviolet-Luminous Galaxies (UVLGs); local analogs to high-redshift LBGs. Our observations enable us to study the X-ray emission from LBG-like galaxies on an individual basis, thus allowing us to constrain object-to-object variances in this population. We supplement these results with X-ray stacking constraints using the new 3.2 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South (completed spring 2010) and LBG candidates selected from HST, Swift UVOT, and ground-based data. These measurements provide new X-ray constraints that sample well the entire z=0-4 baseline

  20. Measurement and Correlation of Ice Accretion Roughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, David N.; Hentschel, Daniel B.; Ruff, Gary A.

    2003-01-01

    Measurements were taken of the roughness characteristics of ice accreted on NACA 0012 airfoils in the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT). Tests were conducted with size scaled, using models with chords of 26.7, 53.3, and 80.0 cm, and with liquid-water content scaled, both according to previously-tested scaling methods. The width of the smooth zone which forms on either side of the leading edge of the airfoil and the diameter of the roughness elements are presented in non-dimensional form as functions of the accumulation parameter. The smooth-zone width was found to decrease with increasing accumulation parameter. The roughness-element diameter increased with accumulation parameter until a plateau was reached. This maximum diameter was about 0.06 times twice the model leading-edge radius. Neither smooth-zone width nor element diameter were affected by a change in freezing fraction from 0.2 to 0.4. Both roughness characteristics appeared to scale with model size and with liquid-water content.

  1. Magnetic flux stabilizing thin accretion discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sądowski, Aleksander

    2016-10-01

    We calculate the minimal amount of large-scale poloidal magnetic field that has to thread the inner, radiation-over-gas pressure dominated region of a thin disc for its thermal stability. Such a net field amplifies the magnetization of the saturated turbulent state and makes it locally stable. For a 10 M⊙ black hole the minimal magnetic flux is 10^{24}(dot{M}/dot{M}_Edd)^{20/21} G cm2. This amount is compared with the amount of uniform magnetic flux that can be provided by the companion star - estimated to be in the range 1022-1024 G cm2. If accretion rate is large enough, the companion is not able to provide the required amount and such a system, if still sub-Eddington, must be thermally unstable. The peculiar variability of GRS 1915+105, an X-ray binary with the exceptionally high BH mass and near-Eddington luminosity, may result from the shortage of large-scale poloidal field of uniform polarity.

  2. Magnetohydrodynamic stability of stochastically driven accretion flows.

    PubMed

    Nath, Sujit Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Banibrata; Chattopadhyay, Amit K

    2013-07-01

    We investigate the evolution of magnetohydrodynamic (or hydromagnetic as coined by Chandrasekhar) perturbations in the presence of stochastic noise in rotating shear flows. The particular emphasis is the flows whose angular velocity decreases but specific angular momentum increases with increasing radial coordinate. Such flows, however, are Rayleigh stable but must be turbulent in order to explain astrophysical observed data and, hence, reveal a mismatch between the linear theory and observations and experiments. The mismatch seems to have been resolved, at least in certain regimes, in the presence of a weak magnetic field, revealing magnetorotational instability. The present work explores the effects of stochastic noise on such magnetohydrodynamic flows, in order to resolve the above mismatch generically for the hot flows. We essentially concentrate on a small section of such a flow which is nothing but a plane shear flow supplemented by the Coriolis effect, mimicking a small section of an astrophysical accretion disk around a compact object. It is found that such stochastically driven flows exhibit large temporal and spatial autocorrelations and cross-correlations of perturbation and, hence, large energy dissipations of perturbation, which generate instability. Interestingly, autocorrelations and cross-correlations appear independent of background angular velocity profiles, which are Rayleigh stable, indicating their universality. This work initiates our attempt to understand the evolution of three-dimensional hydromagnetic perturbations in rotating shear flows in the presence of stochastic noise.

  3. Magnetohydrodynamic Origin of Jets from Accretion Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovelace, R. V. E.; Romanova, M. M.

    1998-01-01

    A review is made of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory and simulation of outflows from disks for different distributions of magnetic field threading the disk. In one limit of a relatively weak, initially diverging magnetic field, both thermal and magnetic pressure gradients act to drive matter to an outflow, while a toroidal magnetic field develops which strongly collimates the outflow. The collimation greatly reduces the field divergence and the mass outflow rate decreases after an initial peak. In a second limit of a strong magnetic field, the initial field configuration was taken with the field strength on the disk decreasing outwards to small values so that collimation was reduced. As a result, a family of stationary solutions was discovered where matter is driven mainly by the strong magnetic pressure gradient force. The collimation in this case depends on the pressure of an external medium. These flows are qualitatively similar to the analytic solutions for magnetically driven outflows. The problem of the opening of a closed field line configuration linking a magnetized star and an accretion disk is also discussed.

  4. Pouring 'Cold Water' on Hot Accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, A. E.

    1995-09-01

    The extensive recrystallization of type-6 OC has been interpreted as having resulted either from prograde thermal metamorphism of initially cold, unequilibrated material [1,2] or from autometamorphism due to slow cooling of material that accreted while still hot (1000-1200 K). Although the physical implausibility of hot accretion has been addressed [3], no comprehensive evaluation has been made of arguments in its favor. As shown below, these arguments are based on incomplete data, flawed experiments or improbable interpretations. Correlation between petrologic type and Ca in low-Ca pyroxene. Models of prograde metamorphism assume that, with increasing temperature, opx acquires Ca at the expense of diopside. Analyses of pyroxene in 10 H chondrites showed no correlation between Ca in pyroxene cores and increasing petrologic type [4], but more extensive data sets show such correlations [1,5,6]. A review of data for 51 OC [7] shows a progressive increase in the Wo content of low-Ca pyroxene with petrologic type: Wo 0.4-1.2 in type-3 and -4; Wo 1.2-1.6 in type-5; and Wo 1.6-2.2 in type-6. Striated opx. Undeformed striated opx were interpreted as having formed from inverted protopyroxene during slow cooling [8]; striated opx from H4 Quenggouk were found to convert into normal opx within 1 week during annealing at 1100 K [9]. Because prograde metamorphism probably lasted ~60 Ma [10], there should be no striated opx remaining in type-4 or -5 OC. However, samples of 99% twinned clinopyroxene (analogous to that in chondrules in type-3 OC) annealed for >3 weeks at <=1250 K exhibited only very minor inversion to opx [11-13]. These experiments are consistent with prograde metamorphism; it seems likely that Quenggouk pyroxene probably had a substantial proportion of opx lamellae to begin with. Spinodal decomposition textures and cooling rates. Spinodal decomposition textures in pyroxene in type 4-5 OC were observed to have the same periodicities as those in type-3 OC [14]; it

  5. Ultrasonic techniques for aircraft ice accretion measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansman, R. John, Jr.; Kirby, Mark S.; Lichtenfelts, Fred

    1990-01-01

    Results of tests to measure ice growth in natural (flight) and artificial (icing wind tunnel) icing conditions are presented. Ice thickness is measured using an ultrasonic pulse-echo technique. Two icing regimes, wet and dry ice growth, are identified and the unique ultrasonic signal characteristics associated with these different types of ice growth are described. Ultrasonic measurements of ice growth on cylinders and airfoils exposed to artificial and natural icing conditions are presented. An accuracy of plus or minus 0.5 mm is achieved for ice thickness measurement using the pulse-echo technique. The performance of two-probe type ice detectors is compared to the surface mounted ultrasonic system. The ultrasonically measured ice accretion rates and ice surface condition (wet or dry) are used to compare the heat transfer characteristics for flight and icing wind tunnel environments. In general the heat transfer coefficient is inferred to be higher in the wind tunnel environment, not likely due to higher freestream turbulence levels. Finally, preliminary results of tests to measure ice growth on airfoil using an array of ultrasonic transducers are described. Ice profiles obtained during flight in natural icing conditions are shown and compared with mechanical and stereo image measurements.

  6. Improved reflection models of black hole accretion disks: Treating the angular distribution of X-rays

    SciTech Connect

    García, J.; Steiner, J. F.; McClintock, J. E.; Brenneman, L. E-mail: jsteiner@head.cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: lbrenneman@cfa.harvard.edu; and others

    2014-02-20

    X-ray reflection models are used to constrain the properties of the accretion disk, such as the degree of ionization of the gas and the elemental abundances. In combination with general relativistic ray tracing codes, additional parameters like the spin of the black hole and the inclination to the system can be determined. However, current reflection models used for such studies only provide angle-averaged solutions for the flux reflected at the surface of the disk. Moreover, the emission angle of the photons changes over the disk due to relativistic light bending. To overcome this simplification, we have constructed an angle-dependent reflection model with the XILLVER code and self-consistently connected it with the relativistic blurring code RELLINE. The new model, relxill, calculates the proper emission angle of the radiation at each point on the accretion disk and then takes the corresponding reflection spectrum into account. We show that the reflected spectra from illuminated disks follow a limb-brightening law highly dependent on the ionization of disk and yet different from the commonly assumed form I∝ln (1 + 1/μ). A detailed comparison with the angle-averaged model is carried out in order to determine the bias in the parameters obtained by fitting a typical relativistic reflection spectrum. These simulations reveal that although the spin and inclination are mildly affected, the Fe abundance can be overestimated by up to a factor of two when derived from angle-averaged models. The fit of the new model to the Suzaku observation of the Seyfert galaxy Ark 120 clearly shows a significant improvement in the constraint of the physical parameters, in particular by enhancing the accuracy in the inclination angle and the spin determinations.

  7. Dynamically important magnetic fields near accreting supermassive black holes.

    PubMed

    Zamaninasab, M; Clausen-Brown, E; Savolainen, T; Tchekhovskoy, A

    2014-06-05

    Accreting supermassive black holes at the centres of active galaxies often produce 'jets'--collimated bipolar outflows of relativistic particles. Magnetic fields probably play a critical role in jet formation and in accretion disk physics. A dynamically important magnetic field was recently found near the Galactic Centre black hole. If this is common and if the field continues to near the black hole event horizon, disk structures will be affected, invalidating assumptions made in standard models. Here we report that jet magnetic field and accretion disk luminosity are tightly correlated over seven orders of magnitude for a sample of 76 radio-loud active galaxies. We conclude that the jet-launching regions of these radio-loud galaxies are threaded by dynamically important fields, which will affect the disk properties. These fields obstruct gas infall, compress the accretion disk vertically, slow down the disk rotation by carrying away its angular momentum in an outflow and determine the directionality of jets.

  8. A Systems-Level Perspective on Engine Ice Accretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Ryan David; Guo, Ten-Huei; Simon, Donald L.

    2012-01-01

    Talk covers: (1) Problem of Engine Power Loss;(2) Modeling Engine Icing Effects; (3) Simulation of Engine Rollback; (4) Icing/Engine Control System Interaction; (5) Detection of Ice Accretion; (6) Potential Mitigation Strategies.

  9. The magnetic nature of disk accretion onto black holes.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jon M; Raymond, John; Fabian, Andy; Steeghs, Danny; Homan, Jeroen; Reynolds, Chris; van der Klis, Michiel; Wijnands, Rudy

    2006-06-22

    Although disk accretion onto compact objects-white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes-is central to much of high-energy astrophysics, the mechanisms that enable this process have remained observationally difficult to determine. Accretion disks must transfer angular momentum in order for matter to travel radially inward onto the compact object. Internal viscosity from magnetic processes and disk winds can both in principle transfer angular momentum, but hitherto we lacked evidence that either occurs. Here we report that an X-ray-absorbing wind discovered in an observation of the stellar-mass black hole binary GRO J1655 - 40 (ref. 6) must be powered by a magnetic process that can also drive accretion through the disk. Detailed spectral analysis and modelling of the wind shows that it can only be powered by pressure generated by magnetic viscosity internal to the disk or magnetocentrifugal forces. This result demonstrates that disk accretion onto black holes is a fundamentally magnetic process.

  10. Gas accretion from halos to disks: observations, curiosities, and problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmegreen, Bruce G.

    2016-08-01

    Accretion of gas from the cosmic web to galaxy halos and ultimately their disks is a prediction of modern cosmological models but is rarely observed directly or at the full rate expected from star formation. Here we illustrate possible large-scale cosmic HI accretion onto the nearby dwarf starburst galaxy IC10, observed with the VLA and GBT. We also suggest that cosmic accretion is the origin of sharp metallicity drops in the starburst regions of other dwarf galaxies, as observed with the 10-m GTC. Finally, we question the importance of cosmic accretion in normal dwarf irregulars, for which a recent study of their far-outer regions sees no need for, or evidence of, continuing gas buildup.

  11. Fate of accreting white dwarfs: Type I supernovae vs collapse

    SciTech Connect

    Nomoto, Ken'ichi

    1986-01-01

    The final fate of accreting C + O white dwarfs is either thermonuclear explosion or collapse, if the white dwarf mass grows to the Chandrasekhar mass. We discuss how the fate depends on the initial mass, age, composition of the white dwarf and the mass accretion rate. Relatively fast accretion leads to a carbon deflagration at low central density that gives rise to a Type Ia supernova. Slower accretion induces a helium detonation that could be observed as a Type Ib supernova. If the initial mass of the C + O white dwarf is larger than 1.2 Msub solar, a carbon deflagration starts at high central density and induces a collapse of the white dwarf to form a neutron star. We examine the critical condition for which a carbon deflagration leads to collapse, not explosion. For the case of explosion, we discuss to what extent the nucleosynthesis models are consistent with spectra of Type Ia and Ib supernovae. 61 refs., 18 figs.

  12. Polarized X-rays from accreting neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Dipankar

    2016-07-01

    Accreting neutron stars span a wide range in X-ray luminosity and magnetic field strength. Accretion may be wind-fed or disk-fed, and the dominant X-ray flux may originate in the disk or a magnetically confined accretion column. In all such systems X-ray polarization may arise due to Compton or Magneto-Compton scattering, and on some occasions polarization of non-thermal emission from jet-like ejection may also be detectable. Spectral and temporal behaviour of the polarized X-rays would carry information regarding the radiation process, as well as of the matter dynamics - and can assist the detection of effects such as the Lense-Thirring precession. This talk will review our current knowledge of the expected X-ray polarization from accreting neutron stars and explore the prospects of detection with upcoming polarimetry missions.

  13. Accreting planets as dust dams in 'transition' disks

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, James E.

    2014-07-01

    We investigate under what circumstances an embedded planet in a protoplanetary disk may sculpt the dust distribution such that it observationally presents as a 'transition' disk. We concern ourselves with 'transition' disks that have large holes (≳ 10 AU) and high accretion rates (∼10{sup –9}-10{sup –8} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}), particularly, those disks which photoevaporative models struggle to explain. Adopting the observed accretion rates in 'transition' disks, we find that the accretion luminosity from the forming planet is significant, and can dominate over the stellar luminosity at the gap edge. This planetary accretion luminosity can apply a significant radiation pressure to small (s ≲ 1 μm) dust particles provided they are suitably decoupled from the gas. Secular evolution calculations that account for the evolution of the gas and dust components in a disk with an embedded, accreting planet, show that only with the addition of the radiation pressure can we explain the full observed characteristics of a 'transition' disk (NIR dip in the spectral energy distribution (SED), millimeter cavity, and high accretion rate). At suitably high planet masses (≳ 3-4 M{sub J} ), radiation pressure from the accreting planet is able to hold back the small dust particles, producing a heavily dust-depleted inner disk that is optically thin to infrared radiation. The planet-disk system will present as a 'transition' disk with a dip in the SED only when the planet mass and planetary accretion rate are high enough. At other times, it will present as a disk with a primordial SED, but with a cavity in the millimeter, as observed in a handful of protoplanetary disks.

  14. TW Hya: SPECTRAL VARIABILITY, X-RAYS, AND ACCRETION DIAGNOSTICS

    SciTech Connect

    Dupree, A. K.; Brickhouse, N. S.; Cranmer, S. R.; Luna, G. J. M.; Schneider, E. E.; Bessell, M. S.; Bonanos, A.; Crause, L. A.; Lawson, W. A.; Mallik, S. V.; Schuler, S. C.

    2012-05-01

    The nearest accreting T Tauri star, TW Hya was intensively and continuously observed over {approx}17 days with spectroscopic and photometric measurements from four continents simultaneous with a long segmented exposure using the Chandra satellite. Contemporaneous optical photometry from WASP-S indicates a 4.74 day period was present during this time. The absence of a similar periodicity in the H{alpha} flux and the total X-ray flux which are dominated by accretion processes and the stellar corona, respectively, points to a different source of photometric variations. The H{alpha} emission line appears intrinsically broad and symmetric, and both the profile and its variability suggest an origin in the post-shock cooling region. An accretion event, signaled by soft X-rays, is traced spectroscopically for the first time through the optical emission line profiles. After the accretion event, downflowing turbulent material observed in the H{alpha} and H{beta} lines is followed by He I ({lambda}5876) broadening near the photosphere. Optical veiling resulting from the heated photosphere increases with a delay of {approx}2 hr after the X-ray accretion event. The response of the stellar coronal emission to an increase in the veiling follows {approx}2.4 hr later, giving direct evidence that the stellar corona is heated in part by accretion. Subsequently, the stellar wind becomes re-established. We suggest a model that incorporates the dynamics of this sequential series of events: an accretion shock, a cooling downflow in a supersonically turbulent region, followed by photospheric and later, coronal heating. This model naturally explains the presence of broad optical and ultraviolet lines, and affects the mass accretion rates determined from emission line profiles.

  15. Stochastic events may lead to accretion in Saturn's rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Larry W.

    Stochastic events may lead to accretion in Saturn's rings Larry W. Esposito LASP, University of Colorado UVIS occultations indicate accretion is triggered at the B ring edge, in strong density waves in ring A and in the F ring. Moons may trigger accretion by streamline crowding (Lewis & Stewart); which enhances collisions, leading to accretion; increasing random velocities; leading to more collisions and more accretion. Cassini occultations of these strongly perturbed locations show not only accretion but also disaggregation, with time scales of hours to weeks. The collisions may lead to temporary aggregations via stochastic events: collisions can compress unconsolidated objects, trigger adhesion or bring small pieces into contact with larger or higher-density seeds. Disaggregation then can follow from disruptive collisions or tidal shedding. In the accretion/disruption balance, increased random motions could eventually give the upper hand to disruption. . . just as `irrational exuberance' can lead to financial panic in the economy; or the overpopulation of hares can lead to boom-and-bust in the population of foxes. I present a simple predator-prey model. This system's unstable equilibrium can similarly give rise to episodic cycles in accretion: explaining why the observable ring features that indicate embedded objects have been increasing since the beginning of Cassini's observations of Saturn in 2004. Unlike other interpretations of the peculiar events seen near Saturn Equinox, I emphasize the kinetic description of particle interactions rather than a fluid instability approach; and the dominance of stochastic events involving individual aggregates over free and/or driven modes in a flat disk.

  16. Black hole accretion discs and screened scalar hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Anne-Christine; Gregory, Ruth; Jha, Rahul

    2016-10-01

    We present a novel way to investigate scalar field profiles around black holes with an accretion disc for a range of models where the Compton wavelength of the scalar is large compared to other length scales. By analysing the problem in ``Weyl" coordinates, we are able to calculate the scalar profiles for accretion discs in the static Schwarzschild, as well as rotating Kerr, black holes. We comment on observational effects.

  17. Lunar Accretion and the Moon’s Initial Thermal State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmon, Julien; Canup, R. M.

    2012-10-01

    Previous models of lunar formation from an impact-generated disk predict the Moon accretes in less than a year (Ida et al. 1997, Kokubo et al. 2000). Such a rapid accretion implies a fully molten initial Moon (e.g., Pritchard & Stevenson 2000). However, the lack of global faults on the Moon has been interpreted as constraining the depth of initial melting to the Moon’s outer few hundred kilometers (Solomon & Chaiken 1976). Depth estimates for the lunar magma ocean (250 to 1000 km; e.g., Shearer et al. 2006) are also typically less than the Moon’s full radius (1738 km). Taken at face value, such observations appear most consistent with a partially molten initial Moon. We have developed a new lunar accretion model that includes a more accurate description of the inner protolunar disk, taking into account thermal processes that limit the disk’s evolution rate (Salmon and Canup 2012). Our model predicts a 3-phase accretion of the Moon, in which material initially orbiting in the outer disk accumulates rapidly, followed by a much slower evolution of the vapor/fluid inner disk and a final phase of accretion of inner disk material onto the Moon. The Moon’s total accretion then occurs over about 100 years, which could be compatible with partial cooling of protolunar material. We have coupled our accretion model to a simple model for the Moon’s initial thermal state. We use a 3D spherical grid to model the forming Moon. We estimate heating due to each accretionary event using the impactor properties predicted by our accretion model, assuming that a fixed fraction ("h") of each impactor’s kinetic energy is retained locally within the Moon’s interior, and include cooling from the Moon’s surface. We use this model to estimate the Moon’s initial thermal state as a function of h and specific accretionary histories.

  18. Continental accretion: From oceanic plateaus to allochthonous terranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ben-Avraham, Z.; Nur, A.; Jones, D.; Cox, A.

    1981-01-01

    Some of the regions of the anomalously high sea-floor topography in today's oceans may be modern allochthonous terranes moving with their oceanic plates. Fated to collide with and be accreted to adjacent continents, they may create complex volcanism, cut off and trap oceanic crust, and cause orogenic deformation. The accretion of plateaus during subduction of oceanic plates may be responsible for mountain building comparable to that produced by the collision of continents. Copyright ?? 1981 AAAS.

  19. Numerical modeling of frontal and basal accretion at collisional margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selzer, Cornelia; Buiter, Susanne J. H.; Pfiffner, O. Adrian

    2008-06-01

    We investigate the deformation of orogenic wedges that form in the early stages of continent-continent collisions using a two-dimensional numerical model limited to the upper lithosphere. Our models show that deformation at the plate margins is influenced by rheology, surface processes, and the balance between inward mass flux and outward subduction flux, as controlled by the subduction load (which represents the effects of slab pull and resistive forces) and flexural downbending. We find three characteristic deformation modes: (1) near-pure subduction with little or no accretion; (2) frontal accretion with development of an accretionary wedge built up by offscraping of the sediment layer at shallow depth; and (3) independent frontal and basal accretion where a retrothrust allows stacking of basement nappes at crustal to mantle depths. Near-pure subduction is enabled for "ordinary-rheology" materials, characterized by brittle and viscous material behavior (approximating a "Christmas tree-type" depth profile), and almost zero friction along the subduction shear zone. Frontal accretion occurs when slightly increased friction along the subduction shear zone allows offscraping of the sediment layer from the subducting plate. Independent frontal and basal accretion develops in strong-rheology models with an almost fully brittle material behavior. Major surface erosion or a reduction of the subduction load promote the development of large basement nappes. Frontal accretion is favored by major sedimentation during convergence, a large backstop, and in the case of a lateral transition from a "strong-rheology" to an "ordinary-rheology" subducting plate. Our numerical models develop first-order characteristics as observed in natural orogenic wedges, for example upper crustal nappe stacks, frontal and basal accretion, or extension in the core of an orogen. Frontal and basal accretion are interdependent, and tend to stabilize the subduction system.

  20. Discussion on LDPC Codes and Uplink Coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Ken; Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Moision, Bruce; Hamkins, Jon; Pollara, Fabrizio

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the progress that the workgroup on Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) for space link coding. The workgroup is tasked with developing and recommending new error correcting codes for near-Earth, Lunar, and deep space applications. Included in the presentation is a summary of the technical progress of the workgroup. Charts that show the LDPC decoder sensitivity to symbol scaling errors are reviewed, as well as a chart showing the performance of several frame synchronizer algorithms compared to that of some good codes and LDPC decoder tests at ESTL. Also reviewed is a study on Coding, Modulation, and Link Protocol (CMLP), and the recommended codes. A design for the Pseudo-Randomizer with LDPC Decoder and CRC is also reviewed. A chart that summarizes the three proposed coding systems is also presented.

  1. Bar Codes for Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahn, Erwin

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the evolution of standards for bar codes (series of printed lines and spaces that represent numbers, symbols, and/or letters of alphabet) and describes the two types most frequently adopted by libraries--Code-A-Bar and CODE 39. Format of the codes is illustrated. Six references and definitions of terminology are appended. (EJS)

  2. Manually operated coded switch

    DOEpatents

    Barnette, Jon H.

    1978-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a manually operated recodable coded switch in which a code may be inserted, tried and used to actuate a lever controlling an external device. After attempting a code, the switch's code wheels must be returned to their zero positions before another try is made.

  3. Ice-Accretion Test Results for Three Large-Scale Swept-Wing Models in the NASA Icing Research Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broeren, Andy P.; Potapczuk, Mark G.; Lee, Sam; Malone, Adam M.; Paul, Bernard P., Jr.; Woodard, Brian S.

    2016-01-01

    Icing simulation tools and computational fluid dynamics codes are reaching levels of maturity such that they are being proposed by manufacturers for use in certification of aircraft for flight in icing conditions with increasingly less reliance on natural-icing flight testing and icing-wind-tunnel testing. Sufficient high-quality data to evaluate the performance of these tools is not currently available. The objective of this work was to generate a database of ice-accretion geometry that can be used for development and validation of icing simulation tools as well as for aerodynamic testing. Three large-scale swept wing models were built and tested at the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT). The models represented the Inboard (20 percent semispan), Midspan (64 percent semispan) and Outboard stations (83 percent semispan) of a wing based upon a 65 percent scale version of the Common Research Model (CRM). The IRT models utilized a hybrid design that maintained the full-scale leading-edge geometry with a truncated afterbody and flap. The models were instrumented with surface pressure taps in order to acquire sufficient aerodynamic data to verify the hybrid model design capability to simulate the full-scale wing section. A series of ice-accretion tests were conducted over a range of total temperatures from -23.8 to -1.4 C with all other conditions held constant. The results showed the changing ice-accretion morphology from rime ice at the colder temperatures to highly 3-D scallop ice in the range of -11.2 to -6.3 C. Warmer temperatures generated highly 3-D ice accretion with glaze ice characteristics. The results indicated that the general scallop ice morphology was similar for all three models. Icing results were documented for limited parametric variations in angle of attack, drop size and cloud liquid-water content (LWC). The effect of velocity on ice accretion was documented for the Midspan and Outboard models for a limited number of test cases. The data suggest

  4. Ice-Accretion Test Results for Three Large-Scale Swept-Wing Models in the NASA Icing Research Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broeren, Andy P.; Potapczuk, Mark G.; Lee, Sam; Malone, Adam M.; Paul, Benard P., Jr.; Woodard, Brian S.

    2016-01-01

    Icing simulation tools and computational fluid dynamics codes are reaching levels of maturity such that they are being proposed by manufacturers for use in certification of aircraft for flight in icing conditions with increasingly less reliance on natural-icing flight testing and icing-wind-tunnel testing. Sufficient high-quality data to evaluate the performance of these tools is not currently available. The objective of this work was to generate a database of ice-accretion geometry that can be used for development and validation of icing simulation tools as well as for aerodynamic testing. Three large-scale swept wing models were built and tested at the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT). The models represented the Inboard (20% semispan), Midspan (64% semispan) and Outboard stations (83% semispan) of a wing based upon a 65% scale version of the Common Research Model (CRM). The IRT models utilized a hybrid design that maintained the full-scale leading-edge geometry with a truncated afterbody and flap. The models were instrumented with surface pressure taps in order to acquire sufficient aerodynamic data to verify the hybrid model design capability to simulate the full-scale wing section. A series of ice-accretion tests were conducted over a range of total temperatures from -23.8 deg C to -1.4 deg C with all other conditions held constant. The results showed the changing ice-accretion morphology from rime ice at the colder temperatures to highly 3-D scallop ice in the range of -11.2 deg C to -6.3 deg C. Warmer temperatures generated highly 3-D ice accretion with glaze ice characteristics. The results indicated that the general scallop ice morphology was similar for all three models. Icing results were documented for limited parametric variations in angle of attack, drop size and cloud liquid-water content (LWC). The effect of velocity on ice accretion was documented for the Midspan and Outboard models for a limited number of test cases. The data suggest that

  5. Impact-induced melting during accretion of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vries, Jellie; Nimmo, Francis; Melosh, H. Jay; Jacobson, Seth A.; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Rubie, David C.

    2016-12-01

    Because of the high energies involved, giant impacts that occur during planetary accretion cause large degrees of melting. The depth of melting in the target body after each collision determines the pressure and temperature conditions of metal-silicate equilibration and thus geochemical fractionation that results from core-mantle differentiation. The accretional collisions involved in forming the terrestrial planets of the inner Solar System have been calculated by previous studies using N-body accretion simulations. Here we use the output from such simulations to determine the volumes of melt produced and thus the pressure and temperature conditions of metal-silicate equilibration, after each impact, as Earth-like planets accrete. For these calculations a parameterised melting model is used that takes impact velocity, impact angle and the respective masses of the impacting bodies into account. The evolution of metal-silicate equilibration pressures (as defined by evolving magma ocean depths) during Earth's accretion depends strongly on the lifetime of impact-generated magma oceans compared to the time interval between large impacts. In addition, such results depend on starting parameters in the N-body simulations, such as the number and initial mass of embryos. Thus, there is the potential for combining the results, such as those presented here, with multistage core formation models to better constrain the accretional history of the Earth.

  6. Black hole growth and AGN feedback under clumpy accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeGraf, C.; Dekel, A.; Gabor, J.; Bournaud, F.

    2017-04-01

    High-resolution simulations of supermassive black holes in isolated galaxies have suggested the importance of short (∼10 Myr) episodes of rapid accretion caused by interactions between the black hole and massive dense clouds within the host. Accretion of such clouds could potentially provide the dominant source for black hole growth in high-z galaxies, but it remains unresolved in cosmological simulations. Using a stochastic subgrid model calibrated by high-resolution isolated galaxy simulations, we investigate the impact that variability in black hole accretion rates has on black hole growth and the evolution of the host galaxy. We find this clumpy accretion to more efficiently fuel high-redshift black hole growth. This increased mass allows for more rapid accretion even in the absence of high-density clumps, compounding the effect and resulting in substantially faster overall black hole growth. This increased growth allows the black hole to efficiently evacuate gas from the central region of the galaxy, driving strong winds up to ∼2500 km s-1, producing outflows ∼10 × stronger than the smooth accretion case, suppressing the inflow of gas on to the host galaxy, and suppressing the star formation within the galaxy by as much as a factor of 2. This suggests that the proper incorporation of variability is a key factor in the co-evolution between black holes and their hosts.

  7. The Dripping Handrail Model: Transient Chaos in Accretion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Karl; Scargle, Jeffrey D.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    We define and study a simple dynamical model for accretion systems, the "dripping handrail" (DHR). The time evolution of this spatially extended system is a mixture of periodic and apparently random (but actually deterministic) behavior. The nature of this mixture depends on the values of its physical parameters - the accretion rate, diffusion coefficient, and density threshold. The aperiodic component is a special kind of deterministic chaos called transient chaos. The model can simultaneously exhibit both the quasiperiodic oscillations (QPO) and very low frequency noise (VLFN) that characterize the power spectra of fluctuations of several classes of accretion systems in astronomy. For this reason, our model may be relevant to many such astrophysical systems, including binary stars with accretion onto a compact object - white dwarf, neutron star, or black hole - as well as active galactic nuclei. We describe the systematics of the DHR's temporal behavior, by exploring its physical parameter space using several diagnostics: power spectra, wavelet "scalegrams," and Lyapunov exponents. In addition, we note that for large accretion rates the DHR has periodic modes; the effective pulse shapes for these modes - evaluated by folding the time series at the known period - bear a resemblance to the similarly- determined shapes for some x-ray pulsars. The pulsing observed in some of these systems may be such periodic-mode accretion, and not due to pure rotation as in the standard pulsar model.

  8. Binary interactions with high accretion rates onto main sequence stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiber, Sagiv; Schreier, Ron; Soker, Noam

    2016-07-01

    Energetic outflows from main sequence stars accreting mass at very high rates might account for the powering of some eruptive objects, such as merging main sequence stars, major eruptions of luminous blue variables, e.g., the Great Eruption of Eta Carinae, and other intermediate luminosity optical transients (ILOTs; red novae; red transients). These powerful outflows could potentially also supply the extra energy required in the common envelope process and in the grazing envelope evolution of binary systems. We propose that a massive outflow/jets mediated by magnetic fields might remove energy and angular momentum from the accretion disk to allow such high accretion rate flows. By examining the possible activity of the magnetic fields of accretion disks, we conclude that indeed main sequence stars might accrete mass at very high rates, up to ≈ 10-2 M ⊙ yr-1 for solar type stars, and up to ≈ 1 M ⊙ yr-1 for very massive stars. We speculate that magnetic fields amplified in such extreme conditions might lead to the formation of massive bipolar outflows that can remove most of the disk's energy and angular momentum. It is this energy and angular momentum removal that allows the very high mass accretion rate onto main sequence stars.

  9. Azimuthal Stress and Heat Flux In Radiatively Inefficient Accretion Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devlen, Ebru

    2016-07-01

    Radiatively Inefficient Accretion Flows (RIAFs) have low radiative efficiencies and/or low accretion rates. The accreting gas may retain most of its binding energy in the form of heat. This lost energy for hot RIAFs is one of the problems heavily worked on in the literature. RIAF observations on the accretion to super massive black holes (e.g., Sagittarius A* in the center of our Galaxy) have shown that the observational data are not consistent with either advection-dominated accretion flow (ADAF) or Bondi models. For this reason, it is very important to theoretically comprehend the physical properties of RIAFs derived from observations with a new disk/flow model. One of the most probable candidates for definition of mass accretion and the source of excess heat energy in RIAFs is the gyroviscous modified magnetorotational instability (GvMRI). Dispersion relation is derived by using MHD equations containing heat flux term based on viscosity in the energy equation. Numerical solutions of the disk equations are done and the growth rates of the instability are calculated. This additional heat flux plays an important role in dissipation of energy. The rates of the angular momentum and heat flux which are obtained from numerical calculations of the turbulence brought about by the GVMRI are also discussed.

  10. X-Shooter study of accretion in Chamaeleon I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manara, C. F.; Fedele, D.; Herczeg, G. J.; Teixeira, P. S.

    2016-01-01

    We present the analysis of 34 new VLT/X-Shooter spectra of young stellar objects in the Chamaeleon I star-forming region, together with four more spectra of stars in Taurus and two in Chamaeleon II. The broad wavelength coverage and accurate flux calibration of our spectra allow us to estimate stellar and accretion parameters for our targets by fitting the photospheric and accretion continuum emission from the Balmer continuum down to ~700 nm. The dependence of accretion on stellar properties for this sample is consistent with previous results from the literature. The accretion rates for transitional disks are consistent with those of full disks in the same region. The spread of mass accretion rates at any given stellar mass is found to be smaller than in many studies, but is larger than that derived in the Lupus clouds using similar data and techniques. Differences in the stellar mass range and in the environmental conditions between our sample and that of Lupus may account for the discrepancy in scatter between Chamaeleon I and Lupus. Complete samples in Chamaeleon I and Lupus are needed to determine whether the difference in scatter of accretion rates and the lack of evolutionary trends are not influenced by sample selection. This work is based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the Paranal Observatory under programme ID 084.C-1095 and 094.C-0913.

  11. Quantification of Ice Accretions for Icing Scaling Evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruff, Gary A.; Anderson, David N.

    2003-01-01

    The comparison of ice accretion characteristics is an integral part of aircraft icing research. It is often necessary to compare an ice accretion obtained from a flight test or numerical simulation to one produced in an icing wind tunnel or for validation of an icing scaling method. Traditionally, this has been accomplished by overlaying two-dimensional tracings of ice accretion shapes. This paper addresses the basic question of how to compare ice accretions using more quantitative methods. For simplicity, geometric characteristics of the ice accretions are used for the comparison. One method evaluated is a direct comparison of the percent differences of the geometric measurements. The second method inputs these measurements into a fuzzy inference system to obtain a single measure of the goodness of the comparison. The procedures are demonstrated by comparing ice shapes obtained in the Icing Research Tunnel at NASA Glenn Research Center during recent icing scaling tests. The results demonstrate that this type of analysis is useful in quantifying the similarity of ice accretion shapes and that the procedures should be further developed by expanding the analysis to additional icing data sets.

  12. A Systems-Level Perspective on Engine Ice Accretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Ryan D.; Guo, Ten-Huei; Simon, Donald L.

    2013-01-01

    The accretion of ice in the compression system of commercial gas turbine engines operating in high ice water content conditions is a safety issue being studied by the aviation sector. While most of the research focuses on the underlying physics of ice accretion and the meteorological conditions in which accretion can occur, a systems-level perspective on the topic lends itself to potential near-term operational improvements. This work focuses on developing an accurate and reliable algorithm for detecting the accretion of ice in the low pressure compressor of a generic 40,000 lbf thrust class engine. The algorithm uses only the two shaft speed sensors and works regardless of engine age, operating condition, and power level. In a 10,000-case Monte Carlo simulation, the detection approach was found to have excellent capability at determining ice accretion from sensor noise with detection occurring when ice blocks an average of 6.8% of the low pressure compressor area. Finally, an initial study highlights a potential mitigation strategy that uses the existing engine actuators to raise the temperature in the low pressure compressor in an effort to reduce the rate at which ice accretes.

  13. Magnetic viscosity: outbursts and outflows in accretion driven systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meintjes, P. J.; Breedt, E.

    In this paper magnetic viscosity is investigated in magnetized accretion discs. It will be shown that the effective coupling between the magnetic field of a slow-rotator and an accretion disc, can be a very effective mechanism to drive episodes of high mass accretion onto the surface of a compact object. Outside the corotation radius, angular momentum is effectively transferred outwards through a propeller-type process from the magnetospheric field and magnetic bubbles that are formed as a result of a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, which can result in a centrifugal barrier and accumulation of disc matter outside the corotation radius which will become unstable at some point, triggering enhanced inward mass advection as a result of a magneto-gravitational instability. This may lead to periods of enhanced mass accretion and associated disc brightening, which may explain the dwarf novae phenomenon in certain disc accreting cataclysmic variables. This may be accompanied by mass outflows from the disc and possible non-thermal emission. The description of magnetic viscosity presented in this paper will rely on the values of two constants, i.e. the Hartmann and Reynolds numbers of the magnetized disc plasma. For both these numbers above unity, magnetic stresses in the disc can play a very important role in the kinematics of the plasma in disc accreting systems.

  14. Implementation and Validation of 3-D Ice Accretion Measurement Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sam; Broeren, Andy; Kreeger, Richard; Potapczuk, Mark; Utt, Lloyd

    2014-01-01

    A research program has been implemented to develop and validate the use of a commercial 3-D laser scanning system to record ice accretion geometry in the NASA Icing Research Tunnel. A main component of the program was the geometric assessment of the 3-D laser scanning system on a 2-D (straight wing) and a 3-D (swept wing) airfoil geometries. This exercise consisted of comparison of scanned ice accretion to castings of the same ice accretion. The scan data were also used to create rapid prototype artificial ice shapes that were scanned and compared to the original ice accretion.The results from geometric comparisons on the straight wing showed that the ice shape models generated through the scanrapid prototype process compared reasonably well with the cast shapes. Similar results were obtained with the geometric comparisons on the swept wing. It was difficult to precisely compare the scans of the cast shapes to the original ice accretion scans because the cast shapes appear to have shrunk during the moldcasting process by as much as 0.10-inch. However the comparison of the local ice-shape features were possible and produced better results. The rapid prototype manufacturing process was shown to reproduce the original ice accretion scan normally within 0.01-inch.

  15. Implementation and Validation of 3-D Ice Accretion Measurement Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sam; Broeren, Andy P.; Kreeger, Richard E.; Potapczuk, Mark; Utt, Lloyd

    2014-01-01

    A research program has been implemented to develop and validate the use of a commercial 3-D laser scanning system to record ice accretion geometry in the NASA Icing Research Tunnel. A main component of the program was the geometric assessment of the 3- D laser scanning system on a 2-D (straight wing) and a 3-D (swept wing) airfoil geometries. This exercise consisted of comparison of scanned ice accretion to castings of the same ice accretion. The scan data were also used to create rapid prototype artificial ice shapes that were scanned and compared to the original ice accretion. The results from geometric comparisons on the straight wing showed that the ice shape models generated through the scan/rapid prototype process compared reasonably well with the cast shapes. Similar results were obtained with the geometric comparisons on the swept wing. It was difficult to precisely compare the scans of the cast shapes to the original ice accretion scans because the cast shapes appear to have shrunk during the mold/casting process by as much as 0.10-inch. However the comparison of the local ice-shape features were possible and produced better results. The rapid prototype manufacturing process was shown to reproduce the original ice accretion scan normally within 0.01-inch.

  16. Freddi: Fast Rise Exponential Decay accretion Disk model Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malanchev, K. L.; Lipunova, G. V.

    2016-10-01

    Freddi (Fast Rise Exponential Decay: accretion Disk model Implementation) solves 1-D evolution equations of the Shakura-Sunyaev accretion disk. It simulates fast rise exponential decay (FRED) light curves of low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). The basic equation of the viscous evolution relates the surface density and viscous stresses and is of diffusion type; evolution of the accretion rate can be found on solving the equation. The distribution of viscous stresses defines the emission from the source. The standard model for the accretion disk is implied; the inner boundary of the disk is at the ISCO or can be explicitely set. The boundary conditions in the disk are the zero stress at the inner boundary and the zero accretion rate at the outer boundary. The conditions are suitable during the outbursts in X-ray binary transients with black holes. In a binary system, the accretion disk is radially confined. In Freddi, the outer radius of the disk can be set explicitely or calculated as the position of the tidal truncation radius.

  17. TURBULENT MIXING ON HELIUM-ACCRETING WHITE DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Piro, Anthony L.

    2015-03-10

    An attractive scenario for producing Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) is a double detonation, where detonation of an accreted helium layer triggers ignition of a C/O core. Whether or not such a mechanism can explain some or most SNe Ia depends on the properties of the helium burning, which in turn is set by the composition of the surface material. Using a combination of semi-analytic and simple numerical models, I explore when turbulent mixing due to hydrodynamic instabilities during the accretion process can mix C/O core material up into the accreted helium. Mixing is strongest at high accretion rates, large white dwarf (WD) masses, and slow spin rates. The mixing would result in subsequent helium burning that better matches the observed properties of SNe Ia. In some cases, there is considerable mixing that can lead to more than 50% C/O in the accreted layer at the time of ignition. These results will hopefully motivate future theoretical studies of such strongly mixed conditions. Mixing also has implications for other types of WD surface explosions, including the so-called .Ia supernovae, the calcium-rich transients (if they arise from accreting WDs), and metal-enriched classical novae.

  18. Observational Tests of the Picture of Disk Accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maccarone, Thomas J.

    2014-09-01

    In this chapter, I present a summary of observational tests of the basic picture of disk accretion. An emphasis is placed on tests relevant to black holes, but many of the fundamental results are drawn from studies of other classes of systems. Evidence is discussed for the basic structures of accretion flows. The cases of systems with and without accretion disks are discussed, as is the evidence that disks actually form. Also discussed are the hot spots where accretion streams impact the disks, and the boundary layers in the inner parts of systems where the accretors are not black holes. The nature of slow, large amplitude variability is discussed. It is shown that some of the key predictions of the classical thermal-viscous ionization instability model for producing outbursts are in excellent agreement with observational results. It is also show that there are systems whose outbursts are extremely difficult to explain without invoking variations in the rate of mass transfer from the donor star into the outer accretion disk, or tidally induced variations in the mass transfer rates. Finally, I briefly discuss recent quasar microlensing measurements which give truly independent constraints on the inner accretion geometry around black holes.

  19. TEARING UP THE DISK: HOW BLACK HOLES ACCRETE

    SciTech Connect

    Nixon, Chris; King, Andrew; Price, Daniel; Frank, Juhan

    2012-10-01

    We show that in realistic cases of accretion in active galactic nuclei or stellar-mass X-ray binaries, the Lense-Thirring effect breaks the central regions of tilted accretion disks around spinning black holes into a set of distinct planes with only tenuous flows connecting them. If the original misalignment of the outer disk to the spin axis of the hole is 45 Degree-Sign {approx}< {theta} {approx}< 135 Degree-Sign , as in {approx}70% of randomly oriented accretion events, the continued precession of these disks sets up partially counterrotating gas flows. This drives rapid infall as angular momentum is canceled and gas attempts to circularize at smaller radii. Disk breaking close to the black hole leads to direct dynamical accretion, while breaking further out can drive gas down to scales where it can accrete rapidly. For smaller tilt angles breaking can still occur and may lead to other observable phenomena such as quasi-periodic oscillations. For such effects not to appear, the black hole spin must in practice be negligibly small, or be almost precisely aligned with the disk. Qualitatively similar results hold for any accretion disk subject to a forced differential precession, such as an external disk around a misaligned black hole binary.

  20. A pure hydrodynamic origin of accretion disk turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, Sujit Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Banibrata

    2016-07-01

    Accretion disks consist of flows for which angular velocity decreases but specific angular momentum increases with increasing radial coordinate. Such flows are Rayleigh stable, but must be turbulent in order to explain observed data. Since molecular viscosity is negligible in these systems, scientists have argued for turbulent viscosity for energy dissipation and hence to explain infall of matter. However, so far, the success to explain the origin of turbulence in accretion disks is done with caveats. Here we investigate the evolution of pure hydrodynamic perturbations in stochastically driven accretion disks. We show that the accretion flows, which are inevitably driven by stochastic noise, are hydrodynamically unstable under linear perturbations. We also argue that in accretion disks, stochastic forcing appears generically due to the presence of shear between different annuli of the disk. This work resolves the turbulence problem of accretion disks from pure hydrodynamics and explains the infall of matter for both hot and cold disks. This would help in explaining the origin of timing and spectral features in the disk flows generically.

  1. Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes based ice accretion for aircraft wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lashkajani, Kazem Hasanzadeh

    This thesis addresses one of the current issues in flight safety towards increasing icing simulation capabilities for prediction of complex 2D and 3D glaze ice shapes over aircraft surfaces. During the 1980's and 1990's, the field of aero-icing was established to support design and certification of aircraft flying in icing conditions. The multidisciplinary technologies used in such codes were: aerodynamics (panel method), droplet trajectory calculations (Lagrangian framework), thermodynamic module (Messinger model) and geometry module (ice accretion). These are embedded in a quasi-steady module to simulate the time-dependent ice accretion process (multi-step procedure). The objectives of the present research are to upgrade the aerodynamic module from Laplace to Reynolds-Average Navier-Stokes equations solver. The advantages are many. First, the physical model allows accounting for viscous effects in the aerodynamic module. Second, the solution of the aero-icing module directly provides the means for characterizing the aerodynamic effects of icing, such as loss of lift and increased drag. Third, the use of a finite volume approach to solving the Partial Differential Equations allows rigorous mesh and time convergence analysis. Finally, the approaches developed in 2D can be easily transposed to 3D problems. The research was performed in three major steps, each providing insights into the overall numerical approaches. The most important realization comes from the need to develop specific mesh generation algorithms to ensure feasible solutions in very complex multi-step aero-icing calculations. The contributions are presented in chronological order of their realization. First, a new framework for RANS based two-dimensional ice accretion code, CANICE2D-NS, is developed. A multi-block RANS code from U. of Liverpool (named PMB) is providing the aerodynamic field using the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. The ICEM-CFD commercial tool is used for the iced airfoil

  2. QR Codes 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crompton, Helen; LaFrance, Jason; van 't Hooft, Mark

    2012-01-01

    A QR (quick-response) code is a two-dimensional scannable code, similar in function to a traditional bar code that one might find on a product at the supermarket. The main difference between the two is that, while a traditional bar code can hold a maximum of only 20 digits, a QR code can hold up to 7,089 characters, so it can contain much more…

  3. ARA type protograph codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor); Abbasfar, Aliazam (Inventor); Jones, Christopher R. (Inventor); Dolinar, Samuel J. (Inventor); Thorpe, Jeremy C. (Inventor); Andrews, Kenneth S. (Inventor); Yao, Kung (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    An apparatus and method for encoding low-density parity check codes. Together with a repeater, an interleaver and an accumulator, the apparatus comprises a precoder, thus forming accumulate-repeat-accumulate (ARA codes). Protographs representing various types of ARA codes, including AR3A, AR4A and ARJA codes, are described. High performance is obtained when compared to the performance of current repeat-accumulate (RA) or irregular-repeat-accumulate (IRA) codes.

  4. A Study of Ice Accretion Physics to Improve the Ice Accretion on Airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg, Michael B.

    2001-01-01

    This three-year grant began on November 7, 1996 and was no-cost extended to end on October 30, 2000. The objectives of the grant were: (1) To examine the effect of wind tunnel turbulence on ice accretion; (2) To determine the relationship between ice accretion geometry and airfoil performance; and (3) To determine if the wake-survey method was an appropriate experimental technique for iced-airfoil drag measurement. As specified in the grant the primary deliverables for this research were annual reports in the form of AIAA papers presented at national meetings each year. Masters theses and annual oral reports to be given at NASA Lewis (now Glenn) were also deliverables. Six AIAA papers documented the research findings from this study, Mr. Chad Henze's Masters thesis describes the wind tunnel turbulence work in detail, and a summary of the icing wind tunnel turbulence work was published in the archival AIAA Journal of Aircraft. A brief summary of the findings is given. Please refer to the reports for the details of the studies and findings.

  5. TURBULENCE AND STEADY FLOWS IN THREE-DIMENSIONAL GLOBAL STRATIFIED MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS OF ACCRETION DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Flock, M.; Dzyurkevich, N.; Klahr, H.; Turner, N. J.; Henning, Th.

    2011-07-10

    We present full 2{pi} global three-dimensional stratified magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of accretion disks. We interpret our results in the context of protoplanetary disks. We investigate the turbulence driven by the magnetorotational instability (MRI) using the PLUTO Godunov code in spherical coordinates with the accurate and robust HLLD Riemann solver. We follow the turbulence for more than 1500 orbits at the innermost radius of the domain to measure the overall strength of turbulent motions and the detailed accretion flow pattern. We find that regions within two scale heights of the midplane have a turbulent Mach number of about 0.1 and a magnetic pressure two to three orders of magnitude less than the gas pressure, while in those outside three scale heights the magnetic pressure equals or exceeds the gas pressure and the turbulence is transonic, leading to large density fluctuations. The strongest large-scale density disturbances are spiral density waves, and the strongest of these waves has m = 5. No clear meridional circulation appears in the calculations because fluctuating radial pressure gradients lead to changes in the orbital frequency, comparable in importance to the stress gradients that drive the meridional flows in viscous models. The net mass flow rate is well reproduced by a viscous model using the mean stress distribution taken from the MHD calculation. The strength of the mean turbulent magnetic field is inversely proportional to the radius, so the fields are approximately force-free on the largest scales. Consequently, the accretion stress falls off as the inverse square of the radius.

  6. Using Simulations of Black Holes to Study General Relativity and the Properties of Inner Accretion Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoormann, Janie Katherine

    2016-06-01

    While Albert Einstein's theory of General Relativity (GR) has been tested extensively in our solar system, it is just beginning to be tested in the strong gravitational fields that surround black holes. As a way to study the behavior of gravity in these extreme environments, I have used and added to a ray-tracing code that simulates the X-ray emission from the accretion disks surrounding black holes. In particular, the observational channels which can be simulated include the thermal and reflected spectra, polarization, and reverberation signatures. These calculations can be performed assuming GR as well as four alternative spacetimes. These results can be used to see if it is possible to determine if observations can test the No-Hair theorem of GR which states that stationary, astrophysical black holes are only described by their mass and spin. Although it proves difficult to distinguish between theories of gravity, it is possible to exclude a large portion of the possible deviations from GR using observations of rapidly spinning stellar mass black holes such as Cygnus X-1. The ray-tracing simulations can furthermore be used to study the inner regions of black hole accretion flows. I examined the dependence of X-ray reverberation observations on the ionization of the disk photosphere. My results show that X-ray reverberation and X-ray polarization provides a powerful tool to constrain the geometry of accretion disks which are too small to be imaged directly. The second part of my thesis describes the work on the balloon-borne X-Calibur hard X-ray polarimetry mission and on the space-borne PolSTAR polarimeter concept.

  7. X-RAY SPECTRA FROM MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS OF ACCRETING BLACK HOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Schnittman, Jeremy D.; Krolik, Julian H.; Noble, Scott C. E-mail: jhk@pha.jhu.edu

    2013-06-01

    We present the results of a new global radiation transport code coupled to a general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulation of an accreting, non-rotating black hole. For the first time, we are able to explain from first principles in a self-consistent way all the components seen in the X-ray spectra of stellar-mass black holes, including a thermal peak and all the features associated with strong hard X-ray emission: a power law extending to high energies, a Compton reflection hump, and a broad iron line. Varying only the mass accretion rate, we are able to reproduce a wide range of X-ray states seen in most galactic black hole sources. The temperature in the corona is T{sub e} {approx} 10 keV in a boundary layer near the disk and rises smoothly to T{sub e} {approx}> 100 keV in low-density regions far above the disk. Even as the disk's reflection edge varies from the horizon out to Almost-Equal-To 6M as the accretion rate decreases, we find that the shape of the Fe K{alpha} line is remarkably constant. This is because photons emitted from the plunging region are strongly beamed into the horizon and never reach the observer. We have also carried out a basic timing analysis of the spectra and find that the fractional variability increases with photon energy and viewer inclination angle, consistent with the coronal hot spot model for X-ray fluctuations.

  8. Population synthesis of accreting white dwarfs - II. X-ray and UV emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hai-Liang; Woods, T. E.; Yungelson, L. R.; Gilfanov, M.; Han, Zhanwen

    2015-11-01

    Accreting white dwarfs (WDs) with non-degenerate companions are expected to emit in soft X-rays and the UV, if accreted H-rich material burns stably. They are an important component of the unresolved emission of elliptical galaxies, and their combined ionizing luminosity may significantly influence the optical line emission from warm interstellar medium (ISM). In an earlier paper, we modelled populations of accreting WDs, first generating WD with main-sequence, Hertzsprung gap and red giant companions with the population synthesis code BSE, and then following their evolution with a grid of evolutionary tracks computed with MESA. Now we use these results to estimate the soft X-ray (0.3-0.7 keV), H- and He II-ionizing luminosities of nuclear burning WDs and the number of supersoft X-ray sources for galaxies with different star formation histories. For the starburst case, these quantities peak at ˜1 Gyr and decline by ˜1-3 orders of magnitude by the age of 10 Gyr. For stellar ages of ˜10 Gyr, predictions of our model are consistent with soft X-ray luminosities observed by Chandra in nearby elliptical galaxies and He II 4686 Å/H β line ratio measured in stacked Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectra of retired galaxies, the latter characterizing the strength and hardness of the UV radiation field. However, the soft X-ray luminosity and He II 4686 Å/H β ratio are significantly overpredicted for stellar ages of ≲4-8 Gyr. We discuss various possibilities to resolve this discrepancy and tentatively conclude that it may be resolved by a modification of the typically used criteria of dynamically unstable mass-loss for giant stars.

  9. Light Curves from an MHD Simulation of a Black Hole Accretion Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnittman, Jeremy D.; Krolik, Julian H.; Hawley, John F.

    2006-11-01

    We use a relativistic ray-tracing code to calculate the light curves observed from a global, general relativistic, magnetohydrodynamic simulation of an accretion flow onto a Schwarzschild black hole. We apply three basic emission models to sample different properties of the time-dependent accretion disk. With one of these models, which assumes thermal blackbody emission and free-free absorption, we can predict qualitative features of the high-frequency power spectrum from stellar-mass black holes in the ``thermal dominant'' state. The simulated power spectrum is characterized by a power law of index Γ~3 and total rms fractional variance of <~2% above 10 Hz. For each emission model, we find that the variability amplitude should increase with increasing inclination angle. On the basis of a newly developed formalism for quantifying the significance of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in simulation data, we find that these simulations are able to identify any such features with (rms/mean) amplitudes >~1% near the orbital frequency at the innermost stable orbit. Initial results indicate the existence of transient QPO peaks with frequency ratios of nearly 2:3 at a 99.9% confidence limit, but they are not generic features, because at any given time they are seen only from certain observer directions. In addition, we present detailed analysis of the azimuthal structure of the accretion disk and the evolution of density perturbations in the inner disk. These ``hot-spot'' structures appear to be roughly self-similar over a range of disk radii, with a single characteristic size δφ=25deg and δr/r=0.3, and typical lifetimes Tl~0.3Torb.

  10. Fractionation and Accretion of Meteorite Parent Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weidenschilling, Stuart J.

    2005-01-01

    Senior Scientist Stuart J. Weidenschilling presents his final administrative report for the research program on which he was the Principal Investigator. The research program resulted in the following publications: 1) Particle-gas dynamics and primary accretion. J. N. Cuzzi and S. J . Weidenschilling. To appear in Meteorites and the Early Solar System 11 (D. Lauretta et a]., Eds.), Univ. Arizona Press. 2005; 2) Timescales of the solar protoplanetary disk. S. Russell, L. Hartmann, J . N. Cuzzi, A. Krot, M. Gounelle and S. J. Weidenschilling. To appear in Meteorites and the Early Solar System II (D. Lauretta et al., Eds.), Univ. Arizona Press, 2005; 3) Nebula evolution of thermally processed solids: Reconciling astrophysical models and chondritic meteorites. J. N. Cuzzi, F. J. Ciesla, M. I. Petaev, A. N. Krot, E. R. D. Scott and S . J. Weidenschilling. To appear in Chondrites and the Protoplanetary Disk (A. Krot et a]., Eds.), ASP Conference Series, 2005; 4) Possible chondrule formation in planetesimal bow shocks: Physical processes in the near vicinity of the planetesimal. L. L. Hood, F. J. Ciesla and S. J. Weidenschilling. To appear in Chondrites and the Protoplanetary Disk (A. Krot et al., Eds.), ASP Conference Series, 2005; 5) From icy grains to comets. In Comets II (M. Festou et al., Eds.), Univ. Arizona Press, pp. 97- 104, 2005; 6) Evaluating planetesimal bow shocks as sites for chondrule formation. F. J . Ciesla, L. L. Hood and S. J. Weidenschilling. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 39, 1809-1 821, 2004; and 7) Radial drift of particles in the solar nebula: Implications for planetesimal formation. Icarus 165, 438-442, 2003.

  11. Core Accretion - Gas Capture Model for Gas Giant Planet Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubickyj, O.; Bodenheimer, P.; Lissauer, J. J.

    2005-12-01

    The core accretion - gas capture model is generally accepted as the standard formation model for gas giant planets. This model proposes that a solid core grows via the accretion of planetesimals and then captures a massive envelope from the solar nebula gas. Simulations based on this model (Pollack et al. 1996, Bodenheimer et al. 2000) have been successful in explaining many features of giant planets. We have computed simulations (Hubickyj et al. 2005) of the growth of Jupiter using various values for the opacity produced by grains in the protoplanet's atmosphere and for the initial planetesimal surface density in the protoplanetary disk. We also explore the implications of halting the solid accretion at selected core mass values during the protoplanet's growth. Halting planetesimal accretion at low core mass simulates the presence of a competing embryo, and decreasing the atmospheric opacity due to grains emulates the settling and coagulation of grains within the protoplanet's atmosphere. We examine the effects of adjusting these parameters to determine whether or not gas runaway can occur for small mass cores on a reasonable timescale. Our results demonstrate that reducing grain opacities results in formation times less than half of those for models computed with full interstellar grain opacity values. The reduction of opacity due to grains in the upper portion of the envelope with T ≤ 500 K has the largest effect on the lowering of the formation time. If the accretion of planetesimals is not cut off prior to the accretion of gas, then decreasing the surface density of planetesimals lowers the final core mass of the protoplanet, but increases the formation timescale considerably. Finally, a core mass cutoff results in a reduction of the time needed for a protoplanet to evolve to the stage of runaway gas accretion, provided the cutoff mass is sufficiently large. The overall results indicate that, with reasonable parameters, it is possible that Jupiter formed at

  12. Chaotic cold accretion on to black holes in rotating atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaspari, M.; Brighenti, F.; Temi, P.

    2015-07-01

    The fueling of black holes is one key problem in the evolution of baryons in the universe. Chaotic cold accretion (CCA) profoundly differs from classic accretion models, as Bondi and thin disc theories. Using 3D high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations, we now probe the impact of rotation on the hot and cold accretion flow in a typical massive galaxy. In the hot mode, with or without turbulence, the pressure-dominated flow forms a geometrically thick rotational barrier, suppressing the black hole accretion rate to ~1/3 of the spherical case value. When radiative cooling is dominant, the gas loses pressure support and quickly circularizes in a cold thin disk; the accretion rate is decoupled from the cooling rate, although it is higher than that of the hot mode. In the more common state of a turbulent and heated atmosphere, CCA drives the dynamics if the gas velocity dispersion exceeds the rotational velocity, i.e., turbulent Taylor number Tat< 1. Extended multiphase filaments condense out of the hot phase via thermal instability (TI) and rain toward the black hole, boosting the accretion rate up to 100 times the Bondi rate (Ṁ• ~ Ṁcool). Initially, turbulence broadens the angular momentum distribution of the hot gas, allowing the cold phase to condense with prograde or retrograde motion. Subsequent chaotic collisions between the cold filaments, clouds, and a clumpy variable torus promote the cancellation of angular momentum, leading to high accretion rates. As turbulence weakens (Tat > 1), the broadening of the distribution and the efficiency of collisions diminish, damping the accretion rate ∝ Tat-1, until the cold disk drives the dynamics. This is exacerbated by the increased difficulty to grow TI in a rotating halo. The simulated sub-Eddington accretion rates cover the range inferred from AGN cavity observations. CCA predicts inner flat X-ray temperature and r-1 density profiles, as recently discovered in M 87 and NGC 3115. The synthetic Hα images

  13. Efficient entropy coding for scalable video coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Woong Il; Yang, Jungyoup; Jeon, Byeungwoo

    2005-10-01

    The standardization for the scalable extension of H.264 has called for additional functionality based on H.264 standard to support the combined spatio-temporal and SNR scalability. For the entropy coding of H.264 scalable extension, Context-based Adaptive Binary Arithmetic Coding (CABAC) scheme is considered so far. In this paper, we present a new context modeling scheme by using inter layer correlation between the syntax elements. As a result, it improves coding efficiency of entropy coding in H.264 scalable extension. In simulation results of applying the proposed scheme to encoding the syntax element mb_type, it is shown that improvement in coding efficiency of the proposed method is up to 16% in terms of bit saving due to estimation of more adequate probability model.

  14. Navier-Stokes analysis of airfoils with leading edge ice accretions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potapczuk, Mark G.

    1993-01-01

    A numerical analysis of the flowfield characteristics and the performance degradation of an airfoil with leading edge ice accretions was performed. The important fluid dynamic processes were identified and calculated. Among these were the leading edge separation bubble at low angles of attack, complete separation on the low pressure surface resulting in premature shell, drag rise due to the ice shape, and the effects of angle of attack on the separated flow field. Comparisons to experimental results were conducted to confirm these calculations. A computer code which solves the Navier-Stokes equations in two dimensions, ARC2D, was used to perform the calculations. A Modified Mixing Length turbulence model was developed to produce grids for several ice shape and airfoil combinations. Results indicate that the ability to predict overall performance characteristics, such as lift and drag, at low angles of attack is excellent. Transition location is important for accurately determining separation bubble shape. Details of the flowfield in and downstream of the separated regions requires some modifications. Calculations for the stalled airfoil indicate periodic shedding of vorticity that was generated aft of the ice accretion. Time averaged pressure values produce results which compare favorably with experimental information. A turbulence model which accounts for the history effects in the flow may be justified.

  15. SUBMILLIMETER QUASI-PERIODIC OSCILLATIONS IN MAGNETICALLY CHOKED ACCRETION FLOW MODELS OF SgrA*

    SciTech Connect

    Shcherbakov, Roman V.; McKinney, Jonathan C.

    2013-09-10

    High-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) appear in general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations of magnetically choked accretion flows around rapidly rotating black holes (BHs). We perform polarized radiative transfer calculations with the ASTRORAY code to explore the manifestations of these QPOs for SgrA*. We construct a simulation-based model of a radiatively inefficient accretion flow and find model parameters by fitting the mean polarized source spectrum. The simulated QPOs have a total submillimeter flux amplitude up to 5% and a linearly polarized flux amplitude up to 2%. The oscillations reach high levels of significance 10{sigma}-30{sigma} and high-quality factors Q Almost-Equal-To 5. The oscillation period T Almost-Equal-To 100 M Almost-Equal-To 35 minutes corresponds to the rotation period of the BH magnetosphere that produces a trailing spiral in resolved disk images. The total flux signal is significant over noise for all tested frequencies 87 GHz, 230 GHz, and 857 GHz and inclination angles 10 Degree-Sign , 37 Degree-Sign , and 80 Degree-Sign . The non-detection in the 230 GHz SubMillimeter Array light curve is consistent with a low signal level and a low sampling rate. The presence of submillimeter QPOs in SgrA* will be better tested with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array.

  16. Hypercritical accretion phase and neutrino expectation in the evolution of Cassiopeia A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraija, N.; Bernal, C. G.

    2015-07-01

    Cassiopeia A, the youngest supernova remnant known in the Milky Way, is one of the brightest radio sources in the sky and a unique laboratory for supernova physics. Although its compact remnant was discovered in 1999 by the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, nowadays it is widely accepted that a neutron star lies in the centre of this supernova remnant. In addition, new observations suggest that such a neutron star with a low magnetic field and evidence of a carbon atmosphere could have suffered a hypercritical accretion phase seconds after the explosion. Considering this hypercritical accretion episode, we compute the neutrino cooling effect, the number of events and neutrino flavour ratios expected on Hyper-Kamiokande Experiment. The neutrino cooling effect (the emissivity and luminosity of neutrinos) is obtained through numerical simulations performed in a customized version of the FLASH code. Based on these simulations, we forecast that the number of events expected on the Hyper-Kamiokande Experiment is around 3195. Similarly, we estimate the neutrino flavour ratios to be detected considering the neutrino effective potential due to the thermal and magnetized plasma and thanks to the envelope of the star. It is worth noting that our estimates correspond to the only trustworthy method for verifying the hypercritical phase and although this episode took place 330 years ago, at present supernova remnants with these similarities might occur thus confirming our predictions for this phase.

  17. Application of the Cubed-Sphere Grid to Tilted Black-Hole Accretion Disks

    SciTech Connect

    Fragile, P C; Lindner, C C; Anninos, P; Salmonson, J D

    2008-09-24

    In recent work we presented the first results of global general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulations of tilted (or misaligned) accretion disks around rotating black holes. The simulated tilted disks showed dramatic differences from comparable untilted disks, such as asymmetrical accretion onto the hole through opposing 'plunging streams' and global precession of the disk powered by a torque provided by the black hole. However, those simulations used a traditional spherical-polar grid that was purposefully underresolved along the pole, which prevented us from assessing the behavior of any jets that may have been associated with the tilted disks. To address this shortcoming we have added a block-structured 'cubed-sphere' grid option to the Cosmos++ GRMHD code, which will allow us to simultaneously resolve the disk and polar regions. Here we present our implementation of this grid and the results of a small suite of validation tests intended to demonstrate that the new grid performs as expected. The most important test in this work is a comparison of identical tilted disks, one evolved using our spherical-polar grid and the other with the cubed-sphere grid. We also demonstrate an interesting dependence of the early-time evolution of our disks on their orientation with respect to the grid alignment. This dependence arises from the differing treatment of current sheets within the disks, especially whether they are aligned with symmetry planes of the grid or not.

  18. Enhanced Low-temperature Triple-alpha and Helium-accreting White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly, Ryan; Brown, Edward

    2015-10-01

    The triple-alpha reaction is of critical importance to a variety of astrophysical phenomena. Despite this relevance, the non-resonant contribution to the reaction rate at temperatures below 108 K remains uncertain, with calculations by different groups spanning over 20 orders of magnitude around 107 K Recently, Nguyen et al. (2012) showed that their calculation of the reaction rate, although enhanced at low temperatures compared to the standard NACRE rate, remains consistent with post-main-sequence evolution and the well-observed red giant branch. Nevertheless, there are other astrophysical scenarios where an enhancement of the triple-alpha rate at low temperatures may have observable consequences. One example is AM CVn systems, in which a white dwarf accretes helium-rich material from a low-mass companion in a tight binary. As the white dwarf accretes, runaway helium burning may ignite at the base of the envelope, resulting in a ``helium nova.'' Using the MESA stellar evolution code, we find that for the most energetic outbursts the new triple-alpha rate increases both the time delay and mass of the helium envelope at ignition by a factor of two or more, which may affect the observable frequency and energetics of these explosive events in future surveys.

  19. Modeling High-resolution Spectra from X-ray Illuminated Accretion Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Javier; Kallman, T.

    2010-01-01

    This work is focused on the study of X-ray illuminated accretion disks around compact objects by modeling their structure and reprocessed spectra. Use of low-accuracy and incomplete atomic data is a key limitation in models which have been calculated so far. We remedy this situation by incorporating data for line energies, transition probabilities and photoionization cross sections taken from various sources, most notably calculations using the R-matrix suite of codes. We also implement a self-consistent approach for the radiative transfer of X-rays and the heating and ionization of the gas. These promise to lead to significant improvements in the understanding of the X-ray observations of active galactic nuclei (AGN), X-ray binaries and galactic black holes. By performing detailed radiative transfer calculations we have computed the reflected spectra from constant density slabs for different input parameters (e.g., density, strength of incident X-rays, iron abundance), including the redistribution of photons due to Compton scattering. Although broad and skewed iron emission lines observed in many accreting systems are often attributed to the Doppler effect and gravitational redshift, our results show that Comptonization can be responsible for a significant fraction of the line broadening. By analyzing simulated Suzaku observations from our models, we provide equivalent and physical widths and line centroid energies for atomic lines, absorption edges and recombination continua (among other features). These are provided in tabular and graphical form that can be used directly in the interpretation of observational data.

  20. Simultaneous monitoring of ice accretion and thermography of an airfoil: an IR imaging methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohseni, M.; Frioult, M.; Amirfazli, A.

    2012-10-01

    A novel image analysis methodology based on infrared (IR) imaging was developed for simultaneous monitoring of ice accretion and thermography of airfoils. In this study, an IR camera was calibrated and used to measure the surface temperature of the energized airfoils, and monitor the ice accretion and growth pattern on the airfoils’ surfaces. The methodology comprises the automatic processing of a series of IR video frames with the purpose of detecting ice pattern evolution during the icing test period. A specially developed MATLAB code was used to detect the iced areas in the IR images, and simultaneously monitor surface temperature evolution of the airfoil during an icing test. Knowing the correlation between the icing pattern and surface temperature changes during an icing test is essential for energy efficient design of thermal icing mitigation systems. Processed IR images were also used to determine the ice accumulation rate on the airfoil's surface in a given icing test. The proposed methodology has been demonstrated to work successfully, since the optical images taken at the end of icing tests from the airfoils’ surfaces compared well with the processed IR images detecting the ice grown outward from the airfoils’ leading edge area.

  1. IMPLEMENTATION OF SINK PARTICLES IN THE ATHENA CODE

    SciTech Connect

    Gong Hao; Ostriker, Eve C. E-mail: eco@astro.princeton.edu

    2013-01-15

    We describe the implementation and tests of sink particle algorithms in the Eulerian grid-based code Athena. The introduction of sink particles enables the long-term evolution of systems in which localized collapse occurs, and it is impractical (or unnecessary) to resolve the accretion shocks at the centers of collapsing regions. We discuss the similarities and differences of our methods compared to other implementations of sink particles. Our criteria for sink creation are motivated by the properties of the Larson-Penston collapse solution. We use standard particle-mesh methods to compute particle and gas gravity together. Accretion of mass and momenta onto sinks is computed using fluxes returned by the Riemann solver. A series of tests based on previous analytic and numerical collapse solutions is used to validate our method and implementation. We demonstrate use of our code for applications with a simulation of planar converging supersonic turbulent flow, in which multiple cores form and collapse to create sinks; these sinks continue to interact and accrete from their surroundings over several Myr.

  2. DISTRIBUTION OF ACCRETING GAS AND ANGULAR MOMENTUM ONTO CIRCUMPLANETARY DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Tanigawa, Takayuki; Ohtsuki, Keiji; Machida, Masahiro N.

    2012-03-01

    We investigate gas accretion flow onto a circumplanetary disk from a protoplanetary disk in detail by using high-resolution three-dimensional nested-grid hydrodynamic simulations, in order to provide a basis of formation processes of satellites around giant planets. Based on detailed analyses of gas accretion flow, we find that most of gas accretion onto circumplanetary disks occurs nearly vertically toward the disk surface from high altitude, which generates a shock surface at several scale heights of the circumplanetary disk. The gas that has passed through the shock surface moves inward because its specific angular momentum is smaller than that of the local Keplerian rotation, while gas near the midplane in the protoplanetary disk cannot accrete to the circumplanetary disk. Gas near the midplane within the planet's Hill sphere spirals outward and escapes from the Hill sphere through the two Lagrangian points L{sub 1} and L{sub 2}. We also analyze fluxes of accreting mass and angular momentum in detail and find that the distributions of the fluxes onto the disk surface are well described by power-law functions and that a large fraction of gas accretion occurs at the outer region of the disk, i.e., at about 0.1 times the Hill radius. The nature of power-law functions indicates that, other than the outer edge, there is no specific radius where gas accretion is concentrated. These source functions of mass and angular momentum in the circumplanetary disk would provide us with useful constraints on the structure and evolution of the circumplanetary disk, which is important for satellite formation.

  3. Formation of primordial supermassive stars by rapid mass accretion

    SciTech Connect

    Hosokawa, Takashi; Yoshida, Naoki; Yorke, Harold W.; Inayoshi, Kohei; Omukai, Kazuyuki E-mail: hosokwtk@gmail.com

    2013-12-01

    Supermassive stars (SMSs) forming via very rapid mass accretion ( M-dot {sub ∗}≳0.1 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}) could be precursors of supermassive black holes observed beyond a redshift of about six. Extending our previous work, here we study the evolution of primordial stars growing under such rapid mass accretion until the stellar mass reaches 10{sup 4–5} M {sub ☉}. Our stellar evolution calculations show that a star becomes supermassive while passing through the 'supergiant protostar' stage, whereby the star has a very bloated envelope and a contracting inner core. The stellar radius increases monotonically with the stellar mass until ≅ 100 AU for M {sub *} ≳ 10{sup 4} M {sub ☉}, after which the star begins to slowly contract. Because of the large radius, the effective temperature is always less than 10{sup 4} K during rapid accretion. The accreting material is thus almost completely transparent to the stellar radiation. Only for M {sub *} ≳ 10{sup 5} M {sub ☉} can stellar UV feedback operate and disturb the mass accretion flow. We also examine the pulsation stability of accreting SMSs, showing that the pulsation-driven mass loss does not prevent stellar mass growth. Observational signatures of bloated SMSs should be detectable with future observational facilities such as the James Webb Space Telescope. Our results predict that an inner core of the accreting SMS should suffer from the general relativistic instability soon after the stellar mass exceeds 10{sup 5} M {sub ☉}. An extremely massive black hole should form after the collapse of the inner core.

  4. A WARM MODE OF GAS ACCRETION ON FORMING GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Murante, Giuseppe; Calabrese, Matteo; De Lucia, Gabriella; Monaco, Pierluigi; Borgani, Stefano; Dolag, Klaus E-mail: monaco@oats.inaf.it E-mail: calabrese@oato.inaf.it E-mail: kdolag@mpa-garching.mpg.de

    2012-04-20

    We present results from high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of a Milky-Way-sized halo, aimed at studying the effect of feedback on the nature of gas accretion. Simulations include a model of interstellar medium and star formation, in which supernova (SN) explosions provide effective thermal feedback. We distinguish between gas accretion onto the halo, which occurs when gas particles cross the halo virial radius, and gas accretion onto the central galaxy, which takes place when gas particles cross the inner one-tenth of the virial radius. Gas particles can be accreted through three different channels, depending on the maximum temperature value, T{sub max}, reached during the particles' past evolution: a cold channel for T{sub max} < 2.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} K, a hot one for T > 10{sup 6} K, and a warm one for intermediate values of T{sub max}. We find that the warm channel is at least as important as the cold one for gas accretion onto the central galaxy. This result is at variance with previous findings that the cold mode dominates gas accretion at high redshift. We ascribe this difference to the different SN feedback scheme implemented in our simulations. While results presented so far in the literature are based on uneffective SN thermal feedback schemes and/or the presence of a kinetic feedback, our simulations include only effective thermal feedback. We argue that observational detections of a warm accretion mode in the high-redshift circumgalactic medium would provide useful constraints on the nature of the feedback that regulates star formation in galaxies.

  5. To Cool is to Accrete: Analytic Scalings for Nebular Accretion of Planetary Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Eve J.; Chiang, Eugene

    2015-09-01

    Planets acquire atmospheres from their parent circumstellar disks. We derive a general analytic expression for how the atmospheric mass grows with time t as a function of the underlying core mass {M}{core} and nebular conditions, including the gas metallicity Z. Planets accrete as much gas as can cool: an atmosphere's doubling time is given by its Kelvin-Helmholtz time. Dusty atmospheres behave differently from atmospheres made dust-free by grain growth and sedimentation. The gas-to-core mass ratio (GCR) of a dusty atmosphere scales as GCR \\propto {t}0.4{M}{core}1.7{Z}-0.4{μ }{rcb}3.4, where {μ }{rcb}\\propto 1/(1-Z) (for Z not too close to 1) is the mean molecular weight at the innermost radiative-convective boundary. This scaling applies across all orbital distances and nebular conditions for dusty atmospheres; their radiative-convective boundaries, which regulate cooling, are not set by the external environment, but rather by the internal microphysics of dust sublimation, H2 dissociation, and the formation of H-. By contrast, dust-free atmospheres have their radiative boundaries at temperatures {T}{rcb} close to nebular temperatures {T}{out}, and grow faster at larger orbital distances where cooler temperatures, and by extension lower opacities, prevail. At 0.1 AU in a gas-poor nebula, GCR \\propto {t}0.4{T}{rcb}-1.9{M}{core}1.6{Z}-0.4{μ }{rcb}3.3, while beyond 1 AU in a gas-rich nebula, GCR \\propto {t}0.4{T}{rcb}-1.5{M}{core}1{Z}-0.4{μ }{rcb}2.2. We confirm our analytic scalings against detailed numerical models for objects ranging in mass from Mars (0.1{M}\\oplus ) to the most extreme super-Earths (10-20{M}\\oplus ), and explain why heating from planetesimal accretion cannot prevent the latter from undergoing runaway gas accretion.

  6. Theoretical Researches on Hot Accretion Flows around Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, F. G.

    2010-10-01

    Black hole accretion systems, which are widely believed to be harbored in the central regions of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), low-luminosity AGNs (LLAGNs) as well as some X-ray binaries (XRBs), are the key physical processes to understand their observational phenomena, like spectral energy distribution, radiative variability, etc. In this thesis, we focus on the hot accretion flow models, including advection-dominated accretion flow (ADAF) and luminous hot accretion flow (LHAF). These models are the foundations to explain the observations of LLAGNs and XRBs in hard state. In Chapter 1, a detailed description of the background is presented. First the astrophysical black holes and the systems in which they reside are discussed. Then, an extensive discussion on the accretion process is presented. The basic concepts, 4 well-known accretion models and the mechanism of the transition between ADAF and standard thin disk are focused on. After this, we further describe the properties of ADAF - the basic model of this thesis, e.g., the dynamics, the radiative processes and several recent progresses: outflow, direct turbulent heating to the electrons, as well as LHAF at relatively high accretion rate. In Chapter 2, the influences of outflow on the dynamics of inflow are explored. As indicated through observations (e.g., towards the Galactic center), theoretical researches and (magneto-) hydrodynamical simulations, outflow is a common phenomenon in accretion systems. However, most researches in this field, especially when aiming at explaining/fitting observational data, incline to only include the mass loss due to the existence of outflow, while all the other effects like the angular momentum transport are totally neglected. This obviously conflicts with the results from simulations. Since outflow is not fully understood currently, we here parameterize its properties. Our results are shown as follows: (1) under current status of observations and theories, it is acceptable to

  7. Can Large Icy Moons Accrete Undifferentiated?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choblet, G.; Monteux, J.; Tobie, G.; Le Feuvre, M.

    2012-12-01

    To explain the dichotomy in the degree of differentiation that seems to exist among various icy satellites of the Solar System, we characterize the early thermal evolution of an icy moon growing by km-size impacts. For each impact, we account for the topographic deformation, the deep impact heating and the ejecta heating. For that purpose, we have modified the 3D convection code Oedipus and we monitor the temperature and melt fraction evolution within the growing icy satellite. By exploring the accretionary parameter space, we determine the degree of differentiation of a growing icy moon.

  8. Can Large Icy Moons Accrete Undifferentiated?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteux, J.; Choblet, G.; Tobie, G.; Le Feuvre, M.

    2012-09-01

    To explain the dichotomy in the degree of differentiation that seems to exist among various icy satellites of the Solar System, we characterize the early thermal evolution of an icy moon growing by km-size impacts. For each impact, we account for the topographic deformation, the deep impact heating and the ejecta heating. For that purpose, we have modified the 3D convection code Oedipus and we monitor the temperature and melt fraction evolution within the growing icy satellite. By exploring the accretionary parameter space, we determine the degree of differentiation of a growing icy moon.

  9. Reprocessing of Soft X-ray Emission Lines in Black Hole Accretion Disks

    SciTech Connect

    Mauche, C W; Liedahl, D A; Mathiesen, B F; Jimenez-Garate, M A; Raymond, J C

    2003-10-17

    By means of a Monte Carlo code that accounts for Compton scattering and photoabsorption followed by recombination, we have investigated the radiation transfer of Ly{alpha}, He{alpha}, and recombination continua photons of H- and He-like C, N, O, and Ne produced in the photoionized atmosphere of a relativistic black hole accretion disk. We find that photoelectric opacity causes significant attenuation of photons with energies above the O VIII K-edge; that the conversion efficiencies of these photons into lower-energy lines and recombination continua are high; and that accounting for this reprocessing significantly (by factors of 21% to 105%) increases the flux of the Ly{alpha} and He{alpha} emission lines of H- and He-like C and O escaping the disk atmosphere.

  10. HERO - A 3D general relativistic radiative post-processor for accretion discs around black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yucong; Narayan, Ramesh; Sadowski, Aleksander; Psaltis, Dimitrios

    2015-08-01

    HERO (Hybrid Evaluator for Radiative Objects) is a 3D general relativistic radiative transfer code which has been tailored to the problem of analysing radiation from simulations of relativistic accretion discs around black holes. HERO is designed to be used as a post-processor. Given some fixed fluid structure for the disc (i.e. density and velocity as a function of position from a hydrodynamic or magnetohydrodynamic simulation), the code obtains a self-consistent solution for the radiation field and for the gas temperatures using the condition of radiative equilibrium. The novel aspect of HERO is that it combines two techniques: (1) a short-characteristics (SC) solver that quickly converges to a self-consistent disc temperature and radiation field, with (2) a long-characteristics (LC) solver that provides a more accurate solution for the radiation near the photosphere and in the optically thin regions. By combining these two techniques, we gain both the computational speed of SC and the high accuracy of LC. We present tests of HERO on a range of 1D, 2D, and 3D problems in flat space and show that the results agree well with both analytical and benchmark solutions. We also test the ability of the code to handle relativistic problems in curved space. Finally, we discuss the important topic of ray defects, a major limitation of the SC method, and describe our strategy for minimizing the induced error.

  11. Migration of accreting planets in radiative discs from dynamical torques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierens, A.; Raymond, S. N.

    2016-11-01

    We present the results of hydrodynamical simulations of the orbital evolution of planets undergoing runaway gas accretion in radiative discs. We consider accreting disc models with constant mass flux through the disc, and where radiative cooling balances the effect of viscous heating and stellar irradiation. We assume that 20-30 M⊕ giant planet cores are formed in the region where viscous heating dominates and migrate outward under the action of a strong entropy-related corotation torque. In the case where gas accretion is neglected and for an α viscous stress parameter α = 2 × 10-3, we find evidence for strong dynamical torques in accreting discs with accretion rates {dot{M}}≳ 7× 10^{-8} M_{⊙} yr{}^{-1}. Their main effect is to increase outward migration rates by a factor of ˜2 typically. In the presence of gas accretion, however, runaway outward migration is observed with the planet passing through the zero-torque radius and the transition between the viscous heating and stellar heating dominated regimes. The ability for an accreting planet to enter a fast migration regime is found to depend strongly on the planet growth rate, but can occur for values of the mass flux through the disc of {dot{M}}≳ 5× 10^{-8} M_{⊙} yr{}^{-1}. We find that an episode of runaway outward migration can cause an accreting planet formed in the 5-10 au region to temporarily orbit at star-planet separations as large as ˜60-70 au. However, increase in the amplitude of the Lindblad torque associated with planet growth plus change in the streamline topology near the planet systematically cause the direction of migration to be reversed. Subsequent evolution corresponds to the planet migrating inward rapidly until it becomes massive enough to open a gap in the disc and migrate in the type II regime. Our results indicate that a planet can reach large orbital distances under the combined effect of dynamical torques and gas accretion, but an alternative mechanism is required to

  12. Accretion Rate and the Physical Nature of Unobscured Active Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trump, Jonathan R.; Impey, Christopher D.; Kelly, Brandon C.; Civano, Francesca; Gabor, Jared M.; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Merloni, Andrea; Urry, C. Megan; Hao, Heng; Jahnke, Knud; Nagao, Tohru; Taniguchi, Yoshi; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Lanzuisi, Giorgio; Liu, Charles; Mainieri, Vincenzo; Salvato, Mara; Scoville, Nick Z.

    2011-05-01

    We show how accretion rate governs the physical properties of a sample of unobscured broad-line, narrow-line, and lineless active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We avoid the systematic errors plaguing previous studies of AGN accretion rates by using accurate intrinsic accretion luminosities (L int) from well-sampled multiwavelength spectral energy distributions from the Cosmic Evolution Survey, and accurate black hole masses derived from virial scaling relations (for broad-line AGNs) or host-AGN relations (for narrow-line and lineless AGNs). In general, broad emission lines are present only at the highest accretion rates (L int/L Edd > 10-2), and these rapidly accreting AGNs are observed as broad-line AGNs or possibly as obscured narrow-line AGNs. Narrow-line and lineless AGNs at lower specific accretion rates (L int/L Edd < 10-2) are unobscured and yet lack a broad-line region. The disappearance of the broad emission lines is caused by an expanding radiatively inefficient accretion flow (RIAF) at the inner radius of the accretion disk. The presence of the RIAF also drives L int/L Edd < 10-2 narrow-line and lineless AGNs to have ratios of radio-to-optical/UV emission that are 10 times higher than L int/L Edd > 10-2 broad-line AGNs, since the unbound nature of the RIAF means it is easier to form a radio outflow. The IR torus signature also tends to become weaker or disappear from L int/L Edd < 10-2 AGNs, although there may be additional mid-IR synchrotron emission associated with the RIAF. Together, these results suggest that specific accretion rate is an important physical "axis" of AGN unification, as described by a simple model. Based on observations with the XMM-Newton satellite, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA member states and NASA; the Magellan telescope, operated by the Carnegie Observatories; the ESO Very Large Telescope; and the MMT Observatory, a joint facility of the University of Arizona and the Smithsonian

  13. Quasispherical subsonic accretion in X-ray pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakura, Nikolai I.; Postnov, Konstantin A.; Kochetkova, A. Yu; Hjalmarsdotter, L.

    2013-04-01

    A theoretical model is considered for quasispherical subsonic accretion onto slowly rotating magnetized neutron stars. In this regime, the accreting matter settles down subsonically onto the rotating magnetosphere, forming an extended quasistatic shell. Angular momentum transfer in the shell occurs via large-scale convective motions resulting, for observed pulsars, in an almost iso-angular-momentum \\omega \\sim 1/R^2 rotation law inside the shell. The accretion rate through the shell is determined by the ability of the plasma to enter the magnetosphere due to Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities, with allowance for cooling. A settling accretion regime is possible for moderate accretion rates \\dot M \\lesssim \\dot M_* \\simeq 4\\times 10^{16} g s ^{-1}. At higher accretion rates, a free-fall gap above the neutron star magnetosphere appears due to rapid Compton cooling, and the accretion becomes highly nonstationary. Observations of spin-up/spin-down rates of quasispherically wind accreting equilibrium X-ray pulsars with known orbital periods (e.g., GX 301-2 and Vela X-1) enable us to determine the main dimensionless parameters of the model, as well as to estimate surface magnetic field of the neutron star. For equilibrium pulsars, the independent measurements of the neutron star magnetic field allow for an estimate of the stellar wind velocity of the optical companion without using complicated spectroscopic measurements. For nonequilibrium pulsars, a maximum value is shown to exist for the spin-down rate of the accreting neutron star. From observations of the spin-down rate and the X-ray luminosity in such pulsars (e.g., GX 1+4, SXP 1062, and 4U 2206+54), a lower limit can be put on the neutron star magnetic field, which in all cases turns out to be close to the standard value and which agrees with cyclotron line measurements. Furthermore, both explains the spin-up/spin-down of the pulsar frequency on large time-scales and also accounts for the irregular short

  14. Kronos: A Multiwavelength Observatory for Mapping Accretion-Driven Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Bradley M.; Polidan, Ronald S.; Robinson, Edward L.

    2002-01-01

    Kronos is a multiwavelength observatory proposed as a NASA Medium Explorer. Kronos is designed to make use of the natural variability of accreting sources to create microarcsecond-resolution maps of the environments of supermassive black holes in active galaxies and stella-size black holes in binary systems and to characterize accretion processes in Galactic compact binaries. Kronos will obtain broad energy range spectroscopic data with co-aligned X-ray, ultraviolet, and optical spectrometers. The high-Earth orbit of Kronos enables well-sampled, high time-resolution observations, critical for the innovative and sophisticated methods that are used to understand the accretion flows, mass outflows, jets, and other phenomena found in accreting sources. By utilizing reverberation mapping analysis techniques, Kronos produces advanced high-resolution maps of unprecedented resolution of the extreme environment in the inner cores of active galaxies. Similarly, Doppler tomography and eclipse mapping techniques characterize and map Galactic binary systems, revealing the details of the physics of accretion processes in black hole, neutron star, and white dwarf binary systems. The Kronos instrument complement, sensitivity, and orbital environment make it suitable to aggressively address time variable phenomena in a wide range of astronomical objects from nearby flare stars to distant galaxies.

  15. Dynamical structure of magnetized dissipative accretion flow around black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Biplob; Das, Santabrata

    2016-09-01

    We study the global structure of optically thin, advection dominated, magnetized accretion flow around black holes. We consider the magnetic field to be turbulent in nature and dominated by the toroidal component. With this, we obtain the complete set of accretion solutions for dissipative flows where bremsstrahlung process is regarded as the dominant cooling mechanism. We show that rotating magnetized accretion flow experiences virtual barrier around black hole due to centrifugal repulsion that can trigger the discontinuous transition of the flow variables in the form of shock waves. We examine the properties of the shock waves and find that the dynamics of the post-shock corona (PSC) is controlled by the flow parameters, namely viscosity, cooling rate and strength of the magnetic field, respectively. We separate the effective region of the parameter space for standing shock and observe that shock can form for wide range of flow parameters. We obtain the critical viscosity parameter that allows global accretion solutions including shocks. We estimate the energy dissipation at the PSC from where a part of the accreting matter can deflect as outflows and jets. We compare the maximum energy that could be extracted from the PSC and the observed radio luminosity values for several supermassive black hole sources and the observational implications of our present analysis are discussed.

  16. Investigation of surface water behavior during glaze ice accretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansman, R. John, Jr.; Turnock, Stephen R.

    1990-01-01

    A series of experimental investigations that focused on isolating the primary factors that control the behavior of unfrozen surface water during glaze ice accretion were conducted. Detailed microvideo observations were made of glaze ice accretions on 2.54 cm diam cylinders in a closed-loop refrigerated wind tunnel. Distinct zones of surface water behavior were observed; a smooth wet zone in the stagnation region with a uniform water film, a rough zone where surface tension effects caused coalescence of surface water into stationary beads, and a zone where surface water ran back as rivulets. The location of the transition from the smooth to the rough zone was found to migrate towards the stagnation point with time. Comparative tests were conducted to study the effect of the substrate thermal and roughness properties on ice accretion. The importance of surface water behavior was evaluated by the addition of a surface tension reducing agent to the icing tunnel water supply, which significantly altered the accreted glaze ice shape. Measurements were made to determine the contact angle behavior of water droplets on ice. A simple multizone modification to current glaze ice accretion models was proposed to include the observed surface roughness behavior.

  17. Electromagnetic signatures of thin accretion disks in wormhole geometries

    SciTech Connect

    Harko, Tiberiu; Kovacs, Zoltan; Lobo, Francisco S. N.

    2008-10-15

    In this paper, we study the physical properties and characteristics of matter forming thin accretion disks in static and spherically symmetric wormhole spacetimes. In particular, the time averaged energy flux, the disk temperature, and the emission spectra of the accretion disks are obtained for these exotic geometries and are compared with the Schwarzschild solution. It is shown that more energy is emitted from the disk in a wormhole geometry than in the case of the Schwarzschild potential and the conversion efficiency of the accreted mass into radiation is more than a factor of 2 higher for the wormholes than for static black holes. These effects in the disk radiation are confirmed in the radial profiles of temperature corresponding to theses flux distributions, and in the emission spectrum {omega}L({omega}) of the accretion disks. We conclude that specific signatures appear in the electromagnetic spectrum, thus leading to the possibility of distinguishing wormhole geometries by using astrophysical observations of the emission spectra from accretion disks.

  18. FILAMENTARY ACCRETION FLOWS IN THE EMBEDDED SERPENS SOUTH PROTOCLUSTER

    SciTech Connect

    Kirk, Helen; Myers, Philip C.; Bourke, Tyler L.; Gutermuth, Robert A.; Wilson, Grant W.; Hedden, Abigail

    2013-04-01

    One puzzle in understanding how stars form in clusters is the source of mass-is all of the mass in place before the first stars are born, or is there an extended period when the cluster accretes material which can continuously fuel the star formation process? We use a multi-line spectral survey of the southern filament associated with the Serpens South embedded cluster-forming region in order to determine if mass is accreting from the filament onto the cluster, and whether the accretion rate is significant. Our analysis suggests that material is flowing along the filament's long axis at a rate of {approx}30 M{sub Sun} Myr{sup -1} (inferred from the N{sub 2}H{sup +} velocity gradient along the filament), and radially contracting onto the filament at {approx}130 M{sub Sun} Myr{sup -1} (inferred from HNC self-absorption). These accretion rates are sufficient to supply mass to the central cluster at a similar rate to the current star formation rate in the cluster. Filamentary accretion flows may therefore be very important in the ongoing evolution of this cluster.

  19. Ubiquitous equatorial accretion disc winds in black hole soft states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponti, G.; Fender, R. P.; Begelman, M. C.; Dunn, R. J. H.; Neilsen, J.; Coriat, M.

    2012-05-01

    High-resolution spectra of Galactic black holes (GBHs) reveal the presence of highly ionized absorbers. In one GBH, accreting close to the Eddington limit for more than a decade, a powerful accretion disc wind is observed to be present in softer X-ray states and it has been suggested that it can carry away enough mass and energy to quench the radio jet. Here we report that these winds, which may have mass outflow rates of the order of the inner accretion rate or higher, are a ubiquitous component of the jet-free soft states of all GBHs. We furthermore demonstrate that these winds have an equatorial geometry with opening angles of few tens of degrees, and so are only observed in sources in which the disc is inclined at a large angle to the line of sight. The decrease in Fe XXV/Fe XXVI line ratio with Compton temperature, observed in the soft state, suggests a link between higher wind ionization and harder spectral shapes. Although the physical interaction between the wind, accretion flow and jet is still not fully understood, the mass flux and power of these winds and their presence ubiquitously during the soft X-ray states suggest they are fundamental components of the accretion phenomenon.

  20. Glancing through the accretion column of EXO 2030+375

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrigno, C.; Pjanka, P.; Bozzo, E.; Klochkov, D.; Ducci, L.; Zdziarski, A.

    2016-06-01

    The current generation of X-ray instruments is revealing more and more details about the complex magnetic field topology and the geometry of the accretion flows in highly magnetized accretion powered pulsars. We took advantage of the large collecting area and timing capabilities of the EPIC cameras to investigate the accretion geometry onto the magnetized neutron star in the high mass X-ray binary EXO 2030+375 during the rise of one of the source outburst. The X-ray luminosity was 2×10^{36} erg/s and the timing analysis revealed the presence of a narrow dip-like feature in its pulse profile that was never reported before. The width of this feature corresponds to about one hundredth of the neutron star spin period. From the results of the phase-resolved spectral analysis we suggest that this feature can be ascribed to the self-obscuration of the accretion stream passing in front of the observer line of sight. We inferred from Suzaku observation carried out in 2007 that the self-obscuration of the accretion stream might produce a significantly wider feature in the neutron star pulsed profile at higher luminosities (>˜2×10^{37} erg/s). The presence of such feature is so far unique among all known high mass X-ray binaries hosting strongly magnetized neutron stars.

  1. ELECTROMAGNETIC SPINDOWN OF A TRANSIENT ACCRETING MILLISECOND PULSAR DURING QUIESCENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Melatos, A.; Mastrano, A. E-mail: alpham@unimelb.edu.au

    2016-02-10

    The measured spindown rates in quiescence of the transient accreting millisecond pulsars IGR J00291+5934, XTE J1751–305, SAX J1808.4–3658, and Swift J1756.9–2508 have been used to estimate the magnetic moments of these objects assuming standard magnetic dipole braking. It is shown that this approach leads to an overestimate if the amount of residual accretion is enough to distort the magnetosphere away from a force-free configuration through magnetospheric mass loading or crushing, so that the lever arm of the braking torque migrates inside the light cylinder. We derive an alternative spindown formula and calculate the residual accretion rates where the formula is applicable. As a demonstration we apply the alternative spindown formula to produce updated magnetic moment estimates for the four objects above. We note that based on current uncertain observations of quiescent accretion rates, magnetospheric mass loading and crushing are neither firmly indicated nor ruled out in these four objects. Because quiescent accretion rates are not measured directly (only upper limits are placed), without more data it is impossible to be confident about whether the thresholds for magnetospheric mass loading or crushing are reached or not.

  2. Accretion, radial flows and abundance gradients in spiral galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzulli, Gabriele; Fraternali, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    The metal-poor gas continuously accreting on to the discs of spiral galaxies is unlikely to arrive from the intergalactic medium (IGM) with exactly the same rotation velocity as the galaxy itself and even a small angular momentum mismatch inevitably drives radial gas flows within the disc, with significant consequences to galaxy evolution. Here, we provide some general analytic tools to compute accretion profiles, radial gas flows and abundance gradients in spiral galaxies as a function of the angular momentum of the accreting material. We generalize existing solutions for the decomposition of the gas flows, required to reproduce the structural properties of galaxy discs, into direct accretion from the IGM and a radial mass flux within the disc. We then solve the equation of metallicity evolution in the presence of radial gas flows with a novel method, based on characteristic lines, which greatly reduces the numerical demand on the computation and sheds light on the crucial role of boundary conditions on the abundance profiles predicted by theoretical models. We also discuss how structural and chemical constraints can be combined to disentangle the contributions of inside-out growth and radial flows in the development of abundance gradients in spiral galaxies. Illustrative examples are provided throughout with parameters plausible for the Milky Way. We find that the material accreting on the Milky Way should rotate at 70-80 per cent of the rotational velocity of the disc, in agreement with previous estimates.

  3. Accretion disk emission from a BL Lacertae object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wandel, Amri; Urry, C. Megan

    1991-01-01

    It is suggested here that the UV and X-ray emission of BL Lac objects may originate in an accretion disk. Using detailed calculations of accretion disk spectra, the best-measured ultraviolet and soft X-ray spectra of the BL Lac object PKS 2155-304 are fitted, and the mass and accretion rate required is determined. The ultraviolet through soft X-ray continuum is well fitted by the spectrum of an accretion disk, but near-Eddington accretion rates are required to produce the soft X-ray excess. A hot disk or corona could Comptonize soft photons from the cool disk and produce the observed power-law spectrum in the 1-10 keV range. The dynamic time scale in the disk regions that contribute most of the observed ultraviolet and soft X-ray photons are consistent with the respective time scales for intensity variations observed in these two wave bands; the mass derived from fitting the continuum spectrum is consistent with the limit derived from the fastest hard X-ray variability.

  4. Electromagnetic Spindown of a Transient Accreting Millisecond Pulsar During Quiescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melatos, A.; Mastrano, A.

    2016-02-01

    The measured spindown rates in quiescence of the transient accreting millisecond pulsars IGR J00291+5934, XTE J1751-305, SAX J1808.4-3658, and Swift J1756.9-2508 have been used to estimate the magnetic moments of these objects assuming standard magnetic dipole braking. It is shown that this approach leads to an overestimate if the amount of residual accretion is enough to distort the magnetosphere away from a force-free configuration through magnetospheric mass loading or crushing, so that the lever arm of the braking torque migrates inside the light cylinder. We derive an alternative spindown formula and calculate the residual accretion rates where the formula is applicable. As a demonstration we apply the alternative spindown formula to produce updated magnetic moment estimates for the four objects above. We note that based on current uncertain observations of quiescent accretion rates, magnetospheric mass loading and crushing are neither firmly indicated nor ruled out in these four objects. Because quiescent accretion rates are not measured directly (only upper limits are placed), without more data it is impossible to be confident about whether the thresholds for magnetospheric mass loading or crushing are reached or not.

  5. CLUMPY ACCRETION ONTO BLACK HOLES. I. CLUMPY-ADVECTION-DOMINATED ACCRETION FLOW STRUCTURE AND RADIATION

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Jianmin; Cheng Cheng; Li Yanrong

    2012-04-01

    We investigate the dynamics of clumps embedded in and confined by the advection-dominated accretion flows (ADAFs), in which collisions among the clumps are neglected. We start from the collisionless Boltzmann equation and assume that interaction between the clumps and the ADAF is responsible for transporting the angular momentum of clumps outward. The inner edge of the clumpy-ADAF is set to be the tidal radius of the clumps. We consider strong- and weak-coupling cases, in which the averaged properties of clumps follow the ADAF dynamics and are mainly determined by the black hole potential, respectively. We propose the analytical solution of the dynamics of clumps for the two cases. The velocity dispersion of clumps is one magnitude higher than the ADAF for the strong-coupling case. For the weak-coupling case, we find that the mean radial velocity of clumps is linearly proportional to the coefficient of the drag force. We show that the tidally disrupted clumps would lead to an accumulation of the debris to form a debris disk in the Shakura-Sunyaev regime. The entire hot ADAF will be efficiently cooled down by photons from the debris disk, giving rise to a collapse of the ADAF, and quench the clumpy accretion. Subsequently, evaporation of the collapsed ADAF drives resuscitate of a new clumpy-ADAF, resulting in an oscillation of the global clumpy-ADAF. Applications of the present model are briefly discussed to X-ray binaries, low ionization nuclear emission regions, and BL Lac objects.

  6. Honesty and Honor Codes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Donald; Trevino, Linda Klebe

    2002-01-01

    Explores the rise in student cheating and evidence that students cheat less often at schools with an honor code. Discusses effective use of such codes and creation of a peer culture that condemns dishonesty. (EV)

  7. Cellulases and coding sequences

    DOEpatents

    Li, Xin-Liang; Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Chen, Huizhong

    2001-02-20

    The present invention provides three fungal cellulases, their coding sequences, recombinant DNA molecules comprising the cellulase coding sequences, recombinant host cells and methods for producing same. The present cellulases are from Orpinomyces PC-2.

  8. Cellulases and coding sequences

    DOEpatents

    Li, Xin-Liang; Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Chen, Huizhong

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides three fungal cellulases, their coding sequences, recombinant DNA molecules comprising the cellulase coding sequences, recombinant host cells and methods for producing same. The present cellulases are from Orpinomyces PC-2.

  9. QR Code Mania!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shumack, Kellie A.; Reilly, Erin; Chamberlain, Nik

    2013-01-01

    space, has error-correction capacity, and can be read from any direction. These codes are used in manufacturing, shipping, and marketing, as well as in education. QR codes can be created to produce…

  10. DIANE multiparticle transport code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caillaud, M.; Lemaire, S.; Ménard, S.; Rathouit, P.; Ribes, J. C.; Riz, D.

    2014-06-01

    DIANE is the general Monte Carlo code developed at CEA-DAM. DIANE is a 3D multiparticle multigroup code. DIANE includes automated biasing techniques and is optimized for massive parallel calculations.

  11. Transfert radiatif numerique pour un code SPH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viau, Joseph Edmour Serge

    2001-03-01

    Le besoin de reproduire la formation d'etoiles par simulations numeriques s'est fait de plus en plus present au cours des 30 dernieres annees. Depuis Larson (1968), les codes de simulations n'ont eu de cesse de s'ameliorer. D'ailleurs, en 1977, Lucy introduit une autre methode de calcul venant concurrencer la methode par grille. Cette nouvelle facon de calculer utilise en effet des points a defaut d'utiliser des grilles, ce qui est une bien meilleure adaptation aux calculs d'un effondrement gravitationnel. Il restait cependant le probleme d'ajouter le transfert radiatif a un tel code. Malgre la proposition de Brookshaw (1984), qui nous montre une formule permettant d'ajouter le transfert radiatif sous la forme SPH tout en evitant la double sommation genante qu'elle implique, aucun code SPH a ce jour ne contient un transfert radiatif satisfaisant. Cette these presente pour la premiere fois un code SPH muni d'un transfert radiatif adequat. Toutes les difficultes ont pu etre surmontees afin d'obtenir finalement le transfert radiatif "vrai" qui survient dans l'effondrement d'un nuage moleculaire. Pour verifier l'integrite de nos resultats, une comparaison avec le nonisothermal test case de Boss & Myhill (1993) nous revele un resultat fort satisfaisant. En plus de suivre fidelement la courbe de l'evolution de la temperature centrale en fonction de la densite centrale, notre code est exempt de toutes les anomalies rencontrees par les codes par grille. Le test du cas de la conduction thermique nous a lui aussi servit a verifier la fiabilite de notre code. La aussi les resultats sont fort satisfaisants. Faisant suite a ces resultats, le code fut utilise dans deux situations reelles de recherche, ce qui nous a permis de demontrer les nombreuses possibilites que nous donne notre nouveau code. Dans un premier temps, nous avons tudie le comportement de la temperature dans un disque d'accretion durant son evolution. Ensuite nous avons refait en partie une experience de Bonnell

  12. EMF wire code research

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, T.

    1993-11-01

    This paper examines the results of previous wire code research to determines the relationship with childhood cancer, wire codes and electromagnetic fields. The paper suggests that, in the original Savitz study, biases toward producing a false positive association between high wire codes and childhood cancer were created by the selection procedure.

  13. Universal Noiseless Coding Subroutines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlutsmeyer, A. P.; Rice, R. F.

    1986-01-01

    Software package consists of FORTRAN subroutines that perform universal noiseless coding and decoding of integer and binary data strings. Purpose of this type of coding to achieve data compression in sense that coded data represents original data perfectly (noiselessly) while taking fewer bits to do so. Routines universal because they apply to virtually any "real-world" data source.

  14. Mapping Local Codes to Read Codes.

    PubMed

    Bonney, Wilfred; Galloway, James; Hall, Christopher; Ghattas, Mikhail; Tramma, Leandro; Nind, Thomas; Donnelly, Louise; Jefferson, Emily; Doney, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Background & Objectives: Legacy laboratory test codes make it difficult to use clinical datasets for meaningful translational research, where populations are followed for disease risk and outcomes over many years. The Health Informatics Centre (HIC) at the University of Dundee hosts continuous biochemistry data from the clinical laboratories in Tayside and Fife dating back as far as 1987. However, the HIC-managed biochemistry dataset is coupled with incoherent sample types and unstandardised legacy local test codes, which increases the complexity of using the dataset for reasonable population health outcomes. The objective of this study was to map the legacy local test codes to the Scottish 5-byte Version 2 Read Codes using biochemistry data extracted from the repository of the Scottish Care Information (SCI) Store.

  15. The Instability in Accretion Flows: GvMRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yardimci, Melis; Ebru Devlen, Doç.

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we discuss the physical instability defining the expected turbulence in Radiatively Inefficient Accretion Flows (RIAFs) around the supermassive black holes (e.g., Sagittarius A* in the center of our Galaxy). These flows, with a high probability, include weakly collisional hot, optically thin and dilute plasmas. Within these flows, gravitational potential energy brought about by turbulent stresses is trapped as heat energy. Thus, in order accretion to be realized, outward transport of heat as well as angular momentum is required. This outward heat transport may reduce the mass inflow rate on black hole. We solve MHD equations including variation of viscosity coefficients with pressure in the momentum conservation equation. We plot the wave number-frequency diagrams for the wave modes. We show that one of the most probable candidates for definition of mass accretion and the source of excess heat energy in RIAFs is the gyroviscous modified magnetorotational instabilitiy (GvMRI).

  16. Holocene reef accretion: southwest Molokai, Hawaii, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engels, Mary S.; Fletcher, Charles H.; Field, Michael E.; Storlazzi, Curt D.; Grossman, Eric E.; Rooney, John J.B.; Conger, Christopher L.; Glenn, Craig

    2004-01-01

    Two reef systems off south Molokai, Hale O Lono and Hikauhi (separated by only 10 km), show strong and fundamental differences in modern ecosystem structure and Holocene accretion history that reflect the influence of wave-induced near-bed shear stresses on reef development in Hawaii. Both sites are exposed to similar impacts from south, Kona, and trade-wind swell. However, the Hale O Lono site is exposed to north swell and the Hikuahi site is not. As a result, the reef at Hale O Lono records no late Holocene net accretion while the reef at Hikauhi records consistent and robust accretion over late Holocene time. Analysis and dating of 24 cores from Hale O Lono and Hikauhi reveal the presence of five major lithofacies that reflect paleo-environmental conditions. In order of decreasing depositional energy they are: (1) coral-algal bindstone; (2) mixed skeletal rudstone; (3) massive coral framestone; (4) unconsolidated floatstone; and (5) branching coral framestone-bafflestone. At Hale O Lono, 10 cores document a backstepping reef ranging from ∼ 8,100 cal yr BP (offshore) to ∼ 4,800 cal yr BP (nearshore). A depauperate community of modern coral diminishes shoreward and seaward of ∼ 15 m depth due to wave energy, disrupted recruitment activities, and physical abrasion. Evidence suggests a change from conditions conducive to accretion during the early Holocene to conditions detrimental to accretion in the late Holocene. Reef structure at Hikauhi, reconstructed from 14 cores, reveals a thick, rapidly accreting and young reef (maximum age ∼ 900 cal yr BP). Living coral cover on this reef increases seaward with distance from the reef crest but terminates at a depth of ∼ 20 m where the reef ends in a large sand field. The primary limitation on vertical reef growth is accommodation space under wave base, not recruitment activities or energy conditions. Interpretations of cored lithofacies suggest that modern reef growth on the southwest corner of Molokai, and by

  17. HYPERCRITICAL ACCRETION, INDUCED GRAVITATIONAL COLLAPSE, AND BINARY-DRIVEN HYPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Fryer, Chris L.; Rueda, Jorge A.; Ruffini, Remo

    2014-09-16

    We successfully, applied the induced gravitational collapse (IGC) paradigm to the explanation of GRB-SNe. The progenitor is a tight binary system composed of a CO core and a NS companion. Furthermore, the explosion of the SN leads to hypercritical accretion onto the NS companion, which reaches the critical mass, gravitationally collapsing to a BH with consequent emission of the GRB. The first estimates of this process were based on a simplified model of the binary parameters and the Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton accretion rate. We present the first full numerical simulations of the IGC process. We simulate the core-collapse, the SN explosion, and the hydrodynamic evolution of the accreting material falling into the Bondi-Hoyle surface of the NS. For appropriate binary parameters, the IGC occurs in short timescale 102–103 s due to the combined action of photon trapping and neutrino cooling near the NS surface. We also address the observational features of this process.

  18. Evidence of Accretion in Saturn's F Ring (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnor, C. B.; Buerle, K.; Murray, C. D.; Evans, M. W.; Cooper, N. J.; Williams, G. W.

    2010-12-01

    Lying slightly outside the classical Roche radius and being strongly perturbed by the adjacent moons Prometheus and Pandora, Saturn's F ring represents a unique astrophysical laboratory for examining the processes of mass accretion and moonlet formation. Recent images from the Cassini spacecraft reveal optically thick clumps, capable of casting shadows, and associated structures in regions of the F ring following close passage by Prometheus. Here we examine the accretion environment of the F ring and Prometheus' role in moonlet formation and evolution. Using the observed structures adjacent to these clumps and dynamical arguments we estimate the masses of these clumps and find them comparable to that of ~10-20-km contiguous moonlets. Further, we show that Prometheus' perturbations on the F ring create regions of enhanced density and low relative velocity that may accelerate the accretion of clumps and moonlets.

  19. Gas accretion from the cosmic web feeding disk galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez Almeida, J.; Olmo-García, A.; Elmegreen, B. G.; Muñoz-Tuñón, C.; Elmegreen, D. M.; Filho, M. E.; Pérez-Montero, E.; Amorín, R.

    2017-03-01

    Disk galaxies in cosmological numerical simulations grow by accreting gas from the cosmic web. This gas reaches the external disk, and then spirals in dragged along by tidal forces and/or disk instabilities. The importance of gas infall is as clear from numerical simulations as it is obscure to observations. Extremely metal poor (XMP) galaxies seem to be the best example we have of the gas accretion process at work. They have large off-center starbursts which show significant metallicity drop compared with the host galaxy. This observation is naturally explained as a gas accretion event caught in the act. We present preliminary results of the kinematical properties of the metal poor starbursts in XMPs, which suggest that the starbursts are kinematically decoupled entities within the host galaxy.

  20. The minimum mantle viscosity of an accreting earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooperman, S. A.

    1983-01-01

    The minimum mantle viscosity in an earth accreting from planetesimals is estimated. A plausible distribution of planetesimal sizes deposits enough energy to melt the outer nine-tenths of earth's mass; however, vigorous convection keeps temperatures near the solidus. Viscosity is significantly lower than prevails now. The temperature-dependent viscosity provides self-regulation so there is a continuing balance between accretional energy input and heat transfer out. This allows calculation of the minimum viscosity necessary to transfer out heat by a Nu/Ra-number relation. Typical viscosities are 0.1 to a million sq m/sec, lowest at mid-accretion when the mass growth rate is largest. Terrestrial planets are compared, and minimum iron descent times to central lithospheres are calculated.

  1. Heterogeneous accretion and the moderately volatile element budget of Earth.

    PubMed

    Schönbächler, M; Carlson, R W; Horan, M F; Mock, T D; Hauri, E H

    2010-05-14

    Several models exist to describe the growth and evolution of Earth; however, variables such as the type of precursor materials, extent of mixing, and material loss during accretion are poorly constrained. High-precision palladium-silver isotope data show that Earth's mantle is similar in 107Ag/109Ag to primitive, volatile-rich chondrites, suggesting that Earth accreted a considerable amount of material with high contents of moderately volatile elements. Contradictory evidence from terrestrial chromium and strontium isotope data are reconciled by heterogeneous accretion, which includes a transition from dominantly volatile-depleted to volatile-rich materials with possibly high water contents. The Moon-forming giant impact probably involved the collision with a Mars-like protoplanet that had an oxidized mantle, enriched in moderately volatile elements.

  2. Protracted core formation and rapid accretion of protoplanets.

    PubMed

    Kruijer, T S; Touboul, M; Fischer-Gödde, M; Bermingham, K R; Walker, R J; Kleine, T

    2014-06-06

    Understanding core formation in meteorite parent bodies is critical for constraining the fundamental processes of protoplanet accretion and differentiation within the solar protoplanetary disk. We report variations of 5 to 20 parts per million in (182)W, resulting from the decay of now-extinct (182)Hf, among five magmatic iron meteorite groups. These (182)W variations indicate that core formation occurred over an interval of ~1 million years and may have involved an early segregation of Fe-FeS and a later segregation of Fe melts. Despite this protracted interval of core formation, the iron meteorite parent bodies probably accreted concurrently ~0.1 to 0.3 million years after the formation of Ca-Al-rich inclusions. Variations in volatile contents among these bodies, therefore, did not result from accretion at different times from an incompletely condensed solar nebula but must reflect local processes within the nebula.

  3. Accretion disk emission from a BL Lacertae object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urry, C. Megan; Wandel, Amri

    1990-01-01

    The accretion disk is an attractive model for BL Lac objects because of its preferred axis and high efficiency. While the smooth continuum spectra of BL Lacs do not show large UV bumps, in marked contrast to quasars, high quality simultaneous data do reveal deviations from smoothness. Using detailed calculations of cool accretion disk spectra, the best measured ultraviolet and soft x ray spectra of the BL Lac object PKS 2155-304 are fitted. The mass and accretion rate required are determined. A hot disk or corona could comptonize soft photons from the cool disk and produce the observed power law spectrum in the 1 to 10 keV range. The dynamic time scales in the disk regions that contribute most of the observed ultraviolet and soft x ray photons are consistent with the respective time scales for intensity variations. The mass derived from fitting the continuum spectrum is consistent with the limit derived from the fastest hard x ray variability.

  4. Dynamo magnetic-field generation in turbulent accretion disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepinski, T. F.

    1991-01-01

    Magnetic fields can play important roles in the dynamics and evolution of accretion disks. The presence of strong differential rotation and vertical density gradients in turbulent disks allows the alpha-omega dynamo mechanism to offset the turbulent dissipation and maintain strong magnetic fields. It is found that MHD dynamo magnetic-field normal modes in an accretion disk are highly localized to restricted regions of a disk. Implications for the character of real, dynamically constrained magnetic fields in accretion disks are discussed. The magnetic stress due to the mean magnetic field is found to be of the order of a viscous stress. The dominant stress, however, is likely to come from small-scale fluctuating magnetic fields. These fields may also give rise to energetic flares above the disk surface, providing a possible explanation for the highly variable hard X-ray emission from objects like Cyg X-l.

  5. Observations of Accreting Pulsars with the FERMI-GBM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen

    2012-01-01

    The Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on-board Fermi comprises 12 NaI detectors spanning the 8-1000 keV band and 2 BGO detectors spanning the 100 keV to 40 MeV band. These detectors view the entire unocculted sky, providing long (approximately 40 ks/day) observations of accreting pulsars daily, which allow long-term monitoring of spin-frequencies and pulsed uxes via epoch-folded searches plus daily blind searches for new pulsars. Phase averaged uxes can be measured using the Earth occultation technique. In this talk I will present highlights of GBM accretion-powered pulsar monitoring such as the discovery of a torque reversal in 4U1626-67, a high-energy QPO in A0535+26, and evidence for a stable accretion disk in OAO 1657-415.

  6. The Influence of Outflow in Supercritical Accretion Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahra Zeraatgari, Fatemeh; Abbassi, Shahram; Mosallanezhad, Amin

    2016-06-01

    We solve the radiation-hydrodynamic equations of supercritical accretion flows in the presence of radiation force and outflow by using self-similar solutions. Similar to the pioneering works, in this paper we consider a power-law function for mass inflow rate as \\dot{M}\\propto {r}s. We found that s = 1 when the radiative cooling term is included in the energy equation. Correspondingly, the effective temperature profile with respect to the radius was obtained as {T}{eff}\\propto {r}-1/2. In addition, we investigated the influence of the outflow on the dynamics of the accretion flow. We also calculated the continuum spectrum emitted from the disk surface as well as the bolometric luminosity of the accretion flow. Furthermore, our results show that the advection parameter, f, depends strongly on mass inflow rate.

  7. Accretion of phantom scalar field into a black hole

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, J. A.; Guzman, F. S.

    2009-06-15

    Using numerical methods we present the first full nonlinear study of a phantom scalar field accreted into a black hole. We study different initial configurations and find that the accretion of the field into the black hole can reduce its area down to 50 percent within time scales of the order of few masses of the initial horizon. The analysis includes the cases where the total energy of the space-time is positive or negative. The confirmation of this effect in full nonlinear general relativity implies that the accretion of exotic matter could be considered an evaporation process. We speculate that if this sort of exotic matter has some cosmological significance, this black hole area reduction process might have played a crucial role in black hole formation and population.

  8. ENHANCED ACCRETION RATES OF STARS ON SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES BY STAR-DISK INTERACTIONS IN GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Just, Andreas; Yurin, Denis; Makukov, Maxim; Berczik, Peter; Omarov, Chingis; Spurzem, Rainer; Vilkoviskij, Emmanuil Y.

    2012-10-10

    We investigate the dynamical interaction of a central star cluster surrounding a supermassive black hole (SMBH) and a central accretion disk (AD). The dissipative force acting on stars in the disk leads to an enhanced mass flow toward the SMBH and to an asymmetry in the phase space distribution due to the rotating AD. The AD is considered as a stationary Keplerian rotating disk, which is vertically extended in order to employ a fully self-consistent treatment of stellar dynamics including the dissipative force originating from star-gas ram pressure effects. The stellar system is treated with a direct high-accuracy N-body integration code. A star-by-star representation, desirable in N-body simulations, cannot be extended to real particle numbers yet. Hence, we carefully discuss the scaling behavior of our model with regard to particle number and tidal accretion radius. The main idea is to find a family of models for which the ratio of two-body relaxation time and dissipation time (for kinetic energy of stellar orbits) is constant, which then allows us to extrapolate our results to real parameters of galactic nuclei. Our model is derived from basic physical principles and as such it provides insight into the role of physical processes in galactic nuclei, but it should be regarded as a first step toward more realistic and more comprehensive simulations. Nevertheless, the following conclusions appear to be robust: the star accretion rate onto the AD and subsequently onto the SMBH is enhanced by a significant factor compared to purely stellar dynamical systems neglecting the disk. This process leads to enhanced fueling of central disks in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and to an enhanced rate of tidal stellar disruptions. Such disruptions may produce electromagnetic counterparts in the form of observable X-ray flares. Our models improve predictions for their rates in quiescent galactic nuclei. We do not yet model direct stellar collisions in the gravitational potential

  9. Software Certification - Coding, Code, and Coders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havelund, Klaus; Holzmann, Gerard J.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a certification approach for software development that has been adopted at our organization. JPL develops robotic spacecraft for the exploration of the solar system. The flight software that controls these spacecraft is considered to be mission critical. We argue that the goal of a software certification process cannot be the development of "perfect" software, i.e., software that can be formally proven to be correct under all imaginable and unimaginable circumstances. More realistically, the goal is to guarantee a software development process that is conducted by knowledgeable engineers, who follow generally accepted procedures to control known risks, while meeting agreed upon standards of workmanship. We target three specific issues that must be addressed in such a certification procedure: the coding process, the code that is developed, and the skills of the coders. The coding process is driven by standards (e.g., a coding standard) and tools. The code is mechanically checked against the standard with the help of state-of-the-art static source code analyzers. The coders, finally, are certified in on-site training courses that include formal exams.

  10. Parsec-Scale Accretion and Winds Irradiated by a Quasar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorodnitsyn, A.; Kallman, T.; Proga, D.

    2016-01-01

    We present numerical simulations of properties of a parsec-scale torus exposed to illumination by the central black hole in an active galactic nucleus (AGN). Our physical model allows to investigate the balance between the formation of winds and accretion simultaneously. Radiation-driven winds are allowed by taking into account radiation pressure due to UV and IR radiation along with X-ray heating and dust sublimation. Accretion is allowed through angular momentum transport and the solution of the equations of radiative, viscous radiation hydrodynamics. Our methods adopt flux-limited diffusion radiation hydrodynamics for the dusty, infrared pressure driven part of the flow, along with X-ray heating and cooling. Angular momentum transport in the accreting part of the flow is modeled using effective viscosity. Our results demonstrate that radiation pressure on dust can play an important role in shaping AGN obscuration. For example, when the luminosity illuminating the torus exceeds L greater than 0.01 L(sub Edd), where L(sub Edd) is the Eddington luminosity, we find no episodes of sustained disk accretion because radiation pressure does not allow a disk to form. Despite the absence of the disk accretion, the flow of gas to smaller radii still proceeds at a rate 10(exp -4)-10(exp -1)M dot yr(exp -1) through the capturing of the gas from the hot evaporative flow, thus providing a mechanism to deliver gas from a radiation-pressure dominated torus to the inner accretion disk. As L L(sub edd) increases, larger radiation input leads to larger torus aspect ratios and increased obscuration of the central black hole. We also find the important role of the X-ray heated gas in shaping the obscuring torus.

  11. Contrasting Accreting White Dwarf Pulsators with the ZZ Ceti Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukadam, A. S.; Szkody, P.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Pala, A.

    2017-03-01

    Understanding the similarities and differences between the accreting white dwarf pulsators and their non-interacting counterparts, the ZZ Ceti stars, will eventually help us deduce how accretion affects pulsations. ZZ Ceti stars pulsate in a narrow instability strip in the range 10800–12300 K due to H ionization in their pure H envelopes; their pulsation characteristics depend on their temperature and stellar mass. Models of accreting white dwarfs are found to be pulsationally unstable due to the H/HeI ionization zone, and even show a second instability strip around 15000 K due to HeII ionization. Both these strips are expected to merge for a He abundance higher than 0.48 to form a broad instability strip, which is consistent with the empirical determination of 10500–16000 K. Accreting pulsators undergo outbursts, during which the white dwarf is heated to temperatures well beyond the instability strip and is observed to cease pulsations. The white dwarf then cools to quiescence in a few years as its outer layers cool more than a million times faster than the evolutionary rate. This provides us with an exceptional opportunity to track the evolution of pulsations from the blue edge to quiescence in a few years, while ZZ Ceti stars evolve on Myr timescales. Some accreting pulsators have also been observed to cease pulsations without any apparent evidence of an outburst. This is a distinct difference between this class of pulsators and the non-interacting ZZ Ceti stars. While the ZZ Ceti instability strip is well sampled, the strip for the accreting white dwarfs is sparsely sampled and we hereby add two new potential discoveries to improve the statistics.

  12. Photon Bubbles and the Vertical Structure of Accretion Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begelman, Mitchell C.

    2006-06-01

    We consider the effects of ``photon bubble'' shock trains on the vertical structure of radiation pressure-dominated accretion disks. These density inhomogeneities are expected to develop spontaneously in radiation-dominated accretion disks where magnetic pressure exceeds gas pressure, even in the presence of magnetorotational instability (MRI). They increase the rate at which radiation escapes from the disk and may allow disks to exceed the Eddington limit by a substantial factor without blowing themselves apart. To refine our earlier analysis of photon bubble transport in accretion disks, we generalize the theory of photon bubbles to include the effects of finite optical depths and radiation damping. Modifications to the diffusion law at low τ tend to ``fill in'' the low-density regions of photon bubbles, while radiation damping inhibits the formation of photon bubbles at large radii, small accretion rates, and small heights above the equatorial plane. Accretion disks dominated by photon bubble transport may reach luminosities from 10 to >100 times the Eddington limit (LEdd), depending on the mass of the central object, while remaining geometrically thin. However, photon bubble-dominated disks with α-viscosity are subject to the same thermal and viscous instabilities that plague standard radiation pressure-dominated disks, suggesting that they may be intrinsically unsteady. Photon bubbles can lead to a ``core-halo'' vertical disk structure. In super-Eddington disks the halo forms the base of a wind, which carries away substantial energy and mass, but not enough to prevent the luminosity from exceeding LEdd. Photon bubble-dominated disks may have smaller color corrections than standard accretion disks of the same luminosity. They remain viable contenders for some ultraluminous X-ray sources and may play a role in the rapid growth of supermassive black holes at high redshift.

  13. Evolution of accretion disks in tidal disruption events

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Rong-Feng; Matzner, Christopher D. E-mail: matzner@astro.utoronto.ca

    2014-04-01

    During a stellar tidal disruption event (TDE), an accretion disk forms as stellar debris returns to the disruption site and circularizes. Rather than being confined within the circularizing radius, the disk can spread to larger radii to conserve angular momentum. A spreading disk is a source of matter for re-accretion at rates that may exceed the later stellar fallback rate, although a disk wind can suppress its contribution to the central black hole accretion rate. A spreading disk is detectible through a break in the central accretion rate history or, at longer wavelengths, by its own emission. We model the evolution of TDE disk size and accretion rate by accounting for the time-dependent fallback rate, for the influence of wind losses in the early advective stage, and for the possibility of thermal instability for accretion rates intermediate between the advection-dominated and gas-pressure-dominated states. The model provides a dynamic basis for modeling TDE light curves. All or part of a young TDE disk will precess as a solid body because of the Lense-Thirring effect, and precession may manifest itself as a quasi-periodic modulation of the light curve. The precession period increases with time. Applying our results to the jetted TDE candidate Swift J1644+57, whose X-ray light curve shows numerous quasi-periodic dips, we argue that the data best fit a scenario in which a main-sequence star was fully disrupted by an intermediate mass black hole on an orbit significantly inclined from the black hole equator, with the apparent jet shutoff at t = 500 days corresponding to a disk transition from the advective state to the gas-pressure-dominated state.

  14. Evolution of Accretion Disks in Tidal Disruption Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Rong-Feng; Matzner, Christopher D.

    2014-04-01

    During a stellar tidal disruption event (TDE), an accretion disk forms as stellar debris returns to the disruption site and circularizes. Rather than being confined within the circularizing radius, the disk can spread to larger radii to conserve angular momentum. A spreading disk is a source of matter for re-accretion at rates that may exceed the later stellar fallback rate, although a disk wind can suppress its contribution to the central black hole accretion rate. A spreading disk is detectible through a break in the central accretion rate history or, at longer wavelengths, by its own emission. We model the evolution of TDE disk size and accretion rate by accounting for the time-dependent fallback rate, for the influence of wind losses in the early advective stage, and for the possibility of thermal instability for accretion rates intermediate between the advection-dominated and gas-pressure-dominated states. The model provides a dynamic basis for modeling TDE light curves. All or part of a young TDE disk will precess as a solid body because of the Lense-Thirring effect, and precession may manifest itself as a quasi-periodic modulation of the light curve. The precession period increases with time. Applying our results to the jetted TDE candidate Swift J1644+57, whose X-ray light curve shows numerous quasi-periodic dips, we argue that the data best fit a scenario in which a main-sequence star was fully disrupted by an intermediate mass black hole on an orbit significantly inclined from the black hole equator, with the apparent jet shutoff at t = 500 days corresponding to a disk transition from the advective state to the gas-pressure-dominated state.

  15. More on accreting black hole spacetime in equatorial plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salahshoor, K.; Nozari, K.; Khesali, A. R.

    2017-02-01

    Spacetime around an accreting black hole is an interesting issue to study. The metric of an isolated black hole (rotating or non-rotating) spacetime has been well-known for decades. Although metrics of some spacetimes containing accreting black holes are known in some situations, the issue has some faces that are not well-known yet and need further investigation. In this paper, we construct a new form of metric which the effect of accretion disk on black hole spacetime is taken into account in the equatorial plane. We study motion and trajectories of massive particles and also photons falling from infinity towards black hole in equatorial plane around the black hole. We use an exponential form for the density profile of the accretion disk in equatorial plane as ρ =ρ0e^{-α r}. We show that with this density profile, the disk is radially stable if α ≤ 3 × 10^{-3} (in units of length inverse). In order to study some important quantities related to the accretion disks such as locations of marginally stable circular orbits (r_{ms} or r_{ISCO}), marginally bounded circular orbits (r_{mb}), and also photon orbits in equatorial plane, we use the effective potential approach. We show that in this spacetime metric the innermost stable circular orbit in equatorial plane is given by r_{ISCO}=4.03 μ (where μ =MG/c 2) which is different, but comparable, with the Schwarzschild spacetime result, r^{(Sch)}_{ISCO}=6 μ . We show that the maximum radiation efficiency of the accretion disk, η , in equatorial plane is 8.6 percent which is greater than the corresponding value for Schwarzschild spacetime. Finally, we show that in this setup photons can have stable circular orbits in equatorial plane unlike the Schwarzschild spacetime.

  16. Hyper-Eddington accretion flows on to massive black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inayoshi, Kohei; Haiman, Zoltán; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

    2016-07-01

    We study very high rate, spherically symmetric accretion flows on to massive black holes (BHs; 102 ≲ MBH ≲ 106 M⊙) embedded in dense metal-poor clouds, performing one-dimensional radiation hydrodynamical simulations. We find solutions from outside the Bondi radius at hyper-Eddington rates, unimpeded by radiation feedback when (n∞/105 cm-3) > (MBH/104 M⊙)-1(T∞/104 K)3/2, where n∞ and T∞ are the density and temperature of ambient gas. Accretion rates in this regime are steady, and larger than 5000LEdd/c2, where LEdd is the Eddington luminosity. At lower Bondi rates, the accretion is episodic due to radiative feedback and the average rate is below the Eddington rate. In the hyper-Eddington case, the solution consists of a radiation-dominated central core, where photon trapping due to electron scattering is important, and an accreting envelope which follows a Bondi profile with T ≃ 8000 K. When the emergent luminosity is limited to ≲ LEdd because of photon trapping, radiation from the central region does not affect the gas dynamics at larger scales. We apply our result to the rapid formation of massive BHs in protogalaxies with a virial temperature of Tvir ≳ 104K. Once a seed BH forms at the centre of the galaxy, it can grow to a maximum ˜105(Tvir/104 K) M⊙ via gas accretion independent of the initial BH mass. Finally, we discuss possible observational signatures of rapidly accreting BHs with/without allowance for dust. We suggest that these systems could explain Lyα emitters without X-rays and nearby luminous infrared sources with hot dust emission, respectively.

  17. The Hikurangi Plateau: Tectonic Ricochet and Accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, David; Moresi, Louis; Betts, Peter; Whittaker, Joanne

    2015-04-01

    80 million years between interactions with different subduction systems provided time for the Hikurangi Plateau and Pacific Ocean lithosphere to cool, densify and strengthen. Neogene subduction of the Hikurangi Plateau occurring orthogonal to its Cretaceous predecessor, provides a unique opportunity to explore how changes to the physical properties of oceanic lithosphere affect subduction dynamics. We used Underworld to build mechanically consistent collision models to understand the dynamics of the two Hikurangi collisions. The Hikurangi Plateau is a ~112 Ma, 15km thick oceanic plateau that has been entrained by subduction zones immediately preceding the final break-up of Eastern Gondwana and currently within the active Hikurangi Margin. We explore why attempted subduction of the plateau has resulted in vastly different dynamics on two separate occasions. Slab break-off occured during t