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Sample records for accretion disc origination

  1. How do accretion discs break?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogan, Suzan

    2016-07-01

    Accretion discs are common in binary systems, and they are often found to be misaligned with respect to the binary orbit. The gravitational torque from a companion induces nodal precession in misaligned disc orbits. In this study, we first calculate whether this precession is strong enough to overcome the internal disc torques communicating angular momentum. We compare the disc precession torque with the disc viscous torque to determine whether the disc should warp or break. For typical parameters precession wins: the disc breaks into distinct planes that precess effectively independently. To check our analytical findings, we perform 3D hydrodynamical numerical simulations using the PHANTOM smoothed particle hydrodynamics code, and confirm that disc breaking is widespread and enhances accretion on to the central object. For some inclinations, the disc goes through strong Kozai cycles. Disc breaking promotes markedly enhanced and variable accretion and potentially produces high-energy particles or radiation through shocks. This would have significant implications for all binary systems: e.g. accretion outbursts in X-ray binaries and fuelling supermassive black hole (SMBH) binaries. The behaviour we have discussed in this work is relevant to a variety of astrophysical systems, for example X-ray binaries, where the disc plane may be tilted by radiation warping, SMBH binaries, where accretion of misaligned gas can create effectively random inclinations and protostellar binaries, where a disc may be misaligned by a variety of effects such as binary capture/exchange, accretion after binary formation.

  2. Rethinking Black Hole Accretion Discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvesen, Greg

    Accretion discs are staples of astrophysics. Tapping into the gravitational potential energy of the accreting material, these discs are highly efficient machines that produce copious radiation and extreme outflows. While interesting in their own right, accretion discs also act as tools to study black holes and directly influence the properties of the Universe. Black hole X-ray binaries are fantastic natural laboratories for studying accretion disc physics and black hole phenomena. Among many of the curious behaviors exhibited by these systems are black hole state transitions -- complicated cycles of dramatic brightening and dimming. Using X-ray observations with high temporal cadence, we show that the evolution of the accretion disc spectrum during black hole state transitions can be described by a variable disc atmospheric structure without invoking a radially truncated disc geometry. The accretion disc spectrum can be a powerful diagnostic for measuring black hole spin if the effects of the disc atmosphere on the emergent spectrum are well-understood; however, properties of the disc atmosphere are largely unconstrained. Using statistical methods, we decompose this black hole spin measurement technique and show that modest uncertainties regarding the disc atmosphere can lead to erroneous spin measurements. The vertical structure of the disc is difficult to constrain due to our ignorance of the contribution to hydrostatic balance by magnetic fields, which are fundamental to the accretion process. Observations of black hole X-ray binaries and the accretion environments near supermassive black holes provide mounting evidence for strong magnetization. Performing numerical simulations of accretion discs in the shearing box approximation, we impose a net vertical magnetic flux that allows us to effectively control the level of disc magnetization. We study how dynamo activity and the properties of turbulence driven by the magnetorotational instability depend on the

  3. Eclipse Mapping of Accretion Discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, R.

    The eclipse mapping method is an inversion technique that makes use of the information contained in eclipse light curves to probe the structure, the spectrum and the time evolution of accretion discs. In this review I present the basics of the method and discuss its different implementations. I summarize the most important results obtained to date and discuss how they have helped to improve our understanding of accretion physics, from testing the theoretical radial brightness temperature distribution and measuring mass accretion rates to showing the evolution of the structure of a dwarf novae disc throughout its outburst cycle, from isolating the spectrum of a disc wind to revealing the geometry of disc spiral shocks. I end with an outline of the future prospects.

  4. Strongly magnetized accretion discs require poloidal flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvesen, Greg; Armitage, Philip J.; Simon, Jacob B.; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    2016-08-01

    Motivated by indirect observational evidence for strongly magnetized accretion discs around black holes, and the novel theoretical properties of such solutions, we investigate how a strong magnetization state can develop and persist. To this end, we perform local simulations of accretion discs with an initially purely toroidal magnetic field of equipartition strength. We demonstrate that discs with zero net vertical magnetic flux and realistic boundary conditions cannot sustain a strong toroidal field. However, a magnetic pressure-dominated disc can form from an initial configuration with a sufficient amount of net vertical flux and realistic boundary conditions. Our results suggest that poloidal flux is a necessary prerequisite for the sustainability of strongly magnetized accretion discs.

  5. Spiral Waves in Accretion Discs - Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boffin, H. M. J.

    Spirals shocks have been widely studied in the context of galactic dynamics and protostellar discs. They may however also play an important role in some classes of close binary stars, and more particularly in cataclysmic variables. In this paper, we review the physics of spirals waves in accretion discs, present the results of numerical simulations and consider whether theory can be reconcilied with observations.

  6. Accretion Discs Show Their True Colours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-07-01

    Quasars are the brilliant cores of remote galaxies, at the hearts of which lie supermassive black holes that can generate enough power to outshine the Sun a trillion times. These mighty power sources are fuelled by interstellar gas, thought to be sucked into the hole from a surrounding 'accretion disc'. A paper in this week's issue of the journal Nature, partly based on observations collected with ESO's Very Large Telescope, verifies a long-standing prediction about the intensely luminous radiation emitted by these accretion discs. Uncovering the disc ESO PR Photo 21/08 Uncovering the inner disc "Astronomers were puzzled by the fact that the best models of these discs couldn't quite be reconciled with some of the observations, in particular, with the fact that these discs did not appear as blue as they should be," explains lead-author Makoto Kishimoto. Such a discrepancy could be the signal that there was something very wrong with the models. With his colleagues, he investigated this discrepancy by studying the polarised light from six quasars. This enabled them to demonstrate that the disc spectrum is as blue as predicted. "The crucial observational difficulty here has been that the disc is surrounded by a much larger torus containing hot dust, whose light partly outshines that of the disc," says Kishimoto. "Because the light coming from the disc is scattered in the disc vicinity and thus polarised, by observing only polarised light from the quasars, one can uncover the buried light from the disc." In a similar way that a fisherman would wear polarised sunglasses to help get rid of the glare from the water surface and allow him to see more clearly under the water, the filter on the telescope allowed the astronomers to see beyond surrounding clouds of dust and gas to the blue colour of the disc in infrared light. The observations were done with the FORS and ISAAC instruments on one of the 8.2-m Unit Telescopes of ESO's Very Large Telescope, located in the Atacama

  7. Massive star formation by accretion. I. Disc accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haemmerlé, L.; Eggenberger, P.; Meynet, G.; Maeder, A.; Charbonnel, C.

    2016-01-01

    Context. Massive stars likely form by accretion and the evolutionary track of an accreting forming star corresponds to what is called the birthline in the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram. The shape of this birthline is quite sensitive to the evolution of the entropy in the accreting star. Aims: We first study the reasons why some birthlines published in past years present different behaviours for a given accretion rate. We then revisit the question of the accretion rate, which allows us to understand the distribution of the observed pre-main-sequence (pre-MS) stars in the HR diagram. Finally, we identify the conditions needed to obtain a large inflation of the star along its pre-MS evolution that may push the birthline towards the Hayashi line in the upper part of the HR diagram. Methods: We present new pre-MS models including accretion at various rates and for different initial structures of the accreting core. We compare them with previously published equivalent models. From the observed upper envelope of pre-MS stars in the HR diagram, we deduce the accretion law that best matches the accretion history of most of the intermediate-mass stars. Results: In the numerical computation of the time derivative of the entropy, some treatment leads to an artificial loss of entropy and thus reduces the inflation that the accreting star undergoes along the birthline. In the case of cold disc accretion, the existence of a significant swelling during the accretion phase, which leads to radii ≳ 100 R⊙ and brings the star back to the red part of the HR diagram, depends sensitively on the initial conditions. For an accretion rate of 10-3M⊙ yr-1, only models starting from a core with a significant radiative region evolve back to the red part of the HR diagram. We also obtain that, in order to reproduce the observed upper envelope of pre-MS stars in the HR diagram with an accretion law deduced from the observed mass outflows in ultra-compact HII regions, the fraction of the

  8. Accretion Flow in the inner Accretion Discs of Cataclysmic Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balman, Solen; Revnivtsev, Mikhail

    2012-07-01

    We study nature of time variability of brightness of non-magnetic cataclysmic variables. We show that lightcurtves of all analyzed DN systems in UV and X-ray energy bands demonstrate band limited noise, which can be adequately described in the framework of the model of propagating fluctuations. The frequency of the break indicates the inner disc truncation with a range of radii (10-3)e+9 cm. We analyse the RXTE and optical (RTT150) data of SS Cyg in outburst and quiescence which show that during the outburst the inner disk radius moves towards the white dwarf and receeds as the outburst declines to quiescence. Cross-correlations between the simultaneous UV and X-ray light curves find time lags in the X-rays of 90-180 sec consistent with travel time of matter from a truncated inner disc to the white dwarf surface. This suggests that DN and other plausible nonmagnetic systems have truncated accretion discs indicating that the accretion may occur through coronal flows in the disc. We compare and contrast magnetic and nonmagnetic systems in terms of their aperiodic noise characteristics and the model of propagating fluctuations. The comparison of the X-ray/UV time lag observed by us in the case of non-magnetic CVs with those, detected for magnetic CVs allows us to make an rough estimate of the viscosity parameter. Multi band simultaneous observations of coming observattories like ASTROSAT will give us the opportunity to study time variability of brightness variations of accretion disks in cataclysmic variables in quiescence and outburst using LAXPC and UVIT/OPT instruments. We will elaborate on the nature and possible outcomes of such research.

  9. Eclipse Mapping: Astrotomography of Accretion Discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, Raymundo

    The Eclipse Mapping Method is an indirect imaging technique that transforms the shape of the eclipse light curve into a map of the surface brightness distribution of the occulted regions. Three decades of application of this technique to the investigation of the structure, the spectrum and the time evolution of accretion discs around white dwarfs in cataclysmic variables have enriched our understanding of these accretion devices with a wealth of details such as (but not limited to) moving heating/cooling waves during outbursts in dwarf novae, tidally-induced spiral shocks of emitting gas with sub-Keplerian velocities, elliptical precessing discs associated to superhumps, and measurements of the radial run of the disc viscosity through the mapping of the disc flickering sources. This chapter reviews the principles of the method, discusses its performance, limitations, useful error propagation procedures, as well as highlights a selection of applications aimed at showing the possible scientific problems that have been and may be addresses with it.

  10. The origin of thick discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comerón, Sébastien

    2015-03-01

    Thick discs are defined to be disc-like components with a scale height larger than that of the classical discs. They are ubiquitous (Yoachim & Dalcanton 2006; Comerón et al. 2011a), they are made of mostly old and metal-poor stars and are most easily detected in close to edge-on galaxies. Their origin has been considered mysterious and several formation theories have been proposed: • The thick disc being formed secularly by thin disc stars heated by disc overdensities such as giant molecular clouds or spiral arms (Villumsen 1985, ApJ, 290, 75) and by stars moved outwards from their original orbits by radial migration mechanisms (Schönrich & Binney 2009). • The thick disc being formed by the heating of the thin disc by satellites (Quinn et al. 1993) and the tidal stripping of them (Abadi et al. 2003). • The thick disc being formed fast and already thick at high redshift in an highly unstable disc. Inside that thick disc, a thin disc would form afterwards as suggested by Elemgreen & Elmegreen (2006). • The thick disc being formed originally thick at high redshift by the merger of gas-rich protogalactic fragments and a thin disc forming afterwards within it (Brook et al. 2007). The first mechanism is a secular evolution mechanism. The time-scale of the second one is dependent on the merger history of the main galaxy. In the two last mechanisms, the thick disc forms already thick in a short time-scale at high redshift. Recent Milky Way studies, (see, e.g., Bovy et al. 2012), have shown indications that there is no discontinuity between the thin and the thick disc chemical and kinematic properties. Instead, those studies indicate the presence of a monotonic distribution of disc thicknesses. This would suggest a secular origin for the Milky Way thick disc. Studies in external galaxies (Yoachim & Dalcanton 2006; Comerón et al. 2011b), have shown that low-mass disc galaxies have thick disc relative masses much larger than those found in large-mass galaxies

  11. Spiral-driven accretion in protoplanetary discs . III. Tridimensional simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennebelle, Patrick; Lesur, Geoffroy; Fromang, Sébastien

    2017-03-01

    Context. Understanding how accretion proceeds in proto-planetary discs, and more generally, understanding their dynamics, is a crucial questions that needs to be answered to explain the conditions in which planets form. Aims: The role that accretion of gas from the surrounding molecular cloud onto the disc may have on its structure needs to be quantified. Methods: We performed tridimensional simulations using the Cartesian AMR code RAMSES of an accretion disc that is subject to infalling material. Results: For the aspect ratio of H/R ≃ 0.15 and disc mass Md ≃ 10-2M⊙ used in our study, we find that for typical accretion rates of the order of a few 10-7M⊙ yr-1, values of the α parameter as high as a few 10-3 are inferred. The mass that is accreted in the inner part of the disc is typically at least 50% of the total mass that has been accreted onto the disc. Conclusions: Our results suggest that external accretion of gas at moderate values onto circumstellar discs may trigger prominent spiral arms that are reminiscent of recent observations made with various instruments, and may lead to significant transport through the disc. If confirmed from observational studies, such accretion may therefore influence disc evolution.

  12. Bulk Comptonization by turbulence in accretion discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, J.; Blaes, O. M.

    2016-06-01

    Radiation pressure dominated accretion discs around compact objects may have turbulent velocities that greatly exceed the electron thermal velocities within the disc. Bulk Comptonization by the turbulence may therefore dominate over thermal Comptonization in determining the emergent spectrum. Bulk Comptonization by divergenceless turbulence is due to radiation viscous dissipation only. It can be treated as thermal Comptonization by solving the Kompaneets equation with an equivalent `wave' temperature, which is a weighted sum over the power present at each scale in the turbulent cascade. Bulk Comptonization by turbulence with non-zero divergence is due to both pressure work and radiation viscous dissipation. Pressure work has negligible effect on photon spectra in the limit of optically thin turbulence, and in this limit radiation viscous dissipation alone can be treated as thermal Comptonization with a temperature equivalent to the full turbulent power. In the limit of extremely optically thick turbulence, radiation viscous dissipation is suppressed, and the evolution of local photon spectra can be understood in terms of compression and expansion of the strongly coupled photon and gas fluids. We discuss the consequences of these effects for self-consistently resolving and interpreting turbulent Comptonization in spectral calculations in radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulations of high luminosity accretion flows.

  13. Magnetised accretion discs in Kerr spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranea-Sandoval, Ignacio F.; García, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Context. Observational data from X-ray binary systems provide strong evidence of astronomical objects that are too massive and compact to be explained as neutron or hybrid stars. When these systems are in the thermal (high/soft) state, they emit mainly in the 0.1-5 keV energy range. This emission can be explained by thin accretion discs that formed around compact objects like black holes. The profile of the fluorescent iron line is useful to obtain insight into the nature of the compact object. General relativity does not ensure that a black hole must form after the complete gravitational collapse of very massive stars, and other theoretical models such as naked singularities cannot be discarded. The cosmic censorship conjecture was proposed by Penrose to avoid these possibilities and is yet to be proven. Aims: We study the effect caused by external magnetic fields on the observed thermal spectra and iron line profiles of thin accretion discs formed around Kerr black holes and naked singularities. We aim to provide a tool that can be used to estimate the presence of magnetic fields in the neighbourhood of a compact object and to probe the cosmic censorship conjecture in these particular astrophysical environments. Methods: We developed a numerical scheme able to calculate thermal spectra of magnetised Page-Thorne accretion discs formed around rotating black holes and naked singularities as seen by an arbitrary distant observer. We incorporated two different magnetic field configurations: uniform and dipolar, using a perturbative scheme in the coupling constant between matter and magnetic field strength. Under the same assumptions, we obtained observed synthetic line profiles of the 6.4 keV fluorescent iron line. Results: We show that an external magnetic field produces potentially observable modifications on the thermal energy spectrum and the fluorescent iron line profile. Thermal energy spectra of naked singularities are harder and brighter than those from black

  14. Magnetic flux stabilizing thin accretion discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sądowski, Aleksander

    2016-10-01

    We calculate the minimal amount of large-scale poloidal magnetic field that has to thread the inner, radiation-over-gas pressure dominated region of a thin disc for its thermal stability. Such a net field amplifies the magnetization of the saturated turbulent state and makes it locally stable. For a 10 M⊙ black hole the minimal magnetic flux is 10^{24}(dot{M}/dot{M}_Edd)^{20/21} G cm2. This amount is compared with the amount of uniform magnetic flux that can be provided by the companion star - estimated to be in the range 1022-1024 G cm2. If accretion rate is large enough, the companion is not able to provide the required amount and such a system, if still sub-Eddington, must be thermally unstable. The peculiar variability of GRS 1915+105, an X-ray binary with the exceptionally high BH mass and near-Eddington luminosity, may result from the shortage of large-scale poloidal field of uniform polarity.

  15. Black hole accretion discs and screened scalar hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Anne-Christine; Gregory, Ruth; Jha, Rahul

    2016-10-01

    We present a novel way to investigate scalar field profiles around black holes with an accretion disc for a range of models where the Compton wavelength of the scalar is large compared to other length scales. By analysing the problem in ``Weyl" coordinates, we are able to calculate the scalar profiles for accretion discs in the static Schwarzschild, as well as rotating Kerr, black holes. We comment on observational effects.

  16. Accretion disc viscosity: a limit on the anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nixon, Chris

    2015-07-01

    Observations of warped discs can give insight into the nature of angular momentum transport in accretion discs. Only a few objects are known to show strong periodicity on long time-scales, but when such periodicity is present it is often attributed to precession of the accretion disc. The X-ray binary Hercules X-1/HZ Herculis (Her X-1) is one of the best examples of such periodicity and has been linked to disc precession since it was first observed. By using the current best-fitting models to Her X-1, which invoke precession driven by radiation warping, I place a constraint on the effective viscosities that act in a warped disc. These effective viscosities almost certainly arise due to turbulence induced by the magnetorotational instability. The constraints derived here are in agreement with analytical and numerical investigations into the nature of magnetohydrodynamic disc turbulence, but at odds with some recent global simulations.

  17. Accretion onto Protoplanetary Discs: Implications for Globular Cluster Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijnen, T. P. G.; Pols, O. R.; Pelupessy, F. I.; Zwart, S. Portegies

    2017-03-01

    In the past decade, observational evidence that Globular Clusters (GCs) harbour multiple stellar populations has grown steadily. These observations are hard to reconcile with the classical picture of star formation in GCs, which approximates them as a single generation of stars. Bastian et al. recently suggested an evolutionary scenario in which a second, chemically distinct, population is formed by the accretion of chemically enriched material onto the protoplanetary disc of low-mass stars in the initial GC population. Using assumptions that represent the (dynamical) conditions in a typical GC, we investigate whether a low-mass star surrounded by a protoplanetary disc can accrete sufficient enriched material to account for the observed abundances in `second generation' stars. We compare the outcome of two different smoothed particle hydrodynamics codes and focus on the lifetime and stability of the disc and on the gas accretion rate onto both the star and the disc.

  18. Evolution of an accretion disc in binary black hole systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Shigeo S.; Takahashi, Sanemichi Z.; Toma, Kenji

    2017-03-01

    We investigate evolution of an accretion disc in binary black hole (BBH) systems and possible electromagnetic counterparts of the gravitational waves from mergers of BBHs. Perna et al. proposed a novel evolutionary scenario of an accretion disc in BBHs in which a disc eventually becomes 'dead', i.e. the magnetorotational instability (MRI) becomes inactive. In their scenario, the dead disc survives until a few seconds before the merger event. We improve the dead disc model and propose another scenario, taking account of effects of the tidal torque from the companion and the critical ionization degree for MRI activation more carefully. We find that the mass of the dead disc is much lower than that in the Perna's scenario. When the binary separation sufficiently becomes small, the mass inflow induced by the tidal torque reactivates MRI, restarting mass accretion on to the black hole. We also find that this disc 'revival' happens more than thousands of years before the merger. The mass accretion induced by the tidal torque increases as the separation decreases, and a relativistic jet could be launched before the merger. The emissions from these jets are too faint compared to gamma-ray bursts, but detectable if the merger events happen within ≲10 Mpc or if the masses of the black holes are as massive as ∼105 M⊙.

  19. Circumplanetary discs around young giant planets: a comparison between core-accretion and disc instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szulágyi, J.; Mayer, L.; Quinn, T.

    2017-01-01

    Circumplanetary discs can be found around forming giant planets, regardless of whether core accretion or gravitational instability built the planet. We carried out state-of-the-art hydrodynamical simulations of the circumplanetary discs for both formation scenarios, using as similar initial conditions as possible to unveil possible intrinsic differences in the circumplanetary disc mass and temperature between the two formation mechanisms. We found that the circumplanetary discs' mass linearly scales with the circumstellar disc mass. Therefore, in an equally massive protoplanetary disc, the circumplanetary discs formed in the disc instability model can be only a factor of 8 more massive than their core-accretion counterparts. On the other hand, the bulk circumplanetary disc temperature differs by more than an order of magnitude between the two cases. The subdiscs around planets formed by gravitational instability have a characteristic temperature below 100 K, while the core-accretion circumplanetary discs are hot, with temperatures even greater than 1000 K when embedded in massive, optically thick protoplanetary discs. We explain how this difference can be understood as the natural result of the different formation mechanisms. We argue that the different temperatures should persist up to the point when a full-fledged gas giant forms via disc instability; hence, our result provides a convenient criterion for observations to distinguish between the two main formation scenarios by measuring the bulk temperature in the planet vicinity.

  20. Comparisons and connections between mean field dynamo theory and accretion disc theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackman, E. G.

    2010-01-01

    The origin of large scale magnetic fields in astrophysical rotators, and the conversion of gravitational energy into radiation near stars and compact objects via accretion have been subjects of active research for a half century. Magnetohydrodynamic turbulence makes both problems highly nonlinear, so both subjects have benefitted from numerical simulations.However, understanding the key principles and practical modeling of observations warrants testable semi-analytic mean field theories that distill the essential physics. Mean field dynamo (MFD) theory and alpha-viscosity accretion disc theory exemplify this pursuit. That the latter is a mean field theory is not always made explicit but the combination of turbulence and global symmetry imply such. The more commonly explicit presentation of assumptions in 20th century textbook MFDT has exposed it to arguably more widespread criticism than incurred by 20th century alpha-accretion theory despite complementary weaknesses. In the 21st century however, MFDT has experienced a breakthrough with a dynamical saturation theory that consistently agrees with simulations. Such has not yet occurred in accretion disc theory, though progress is emerging. Ironically however, for accretion engines, MFDT and accretion theory are presently two artificially uncoupled pieces of what should be a single coupled theory. Large scale fields and accretion flows are dynamically intertwined because large scale fields likely play a key role in angular momentum transport. I discuss and synthesize aspects of recent progress in MFDT and accretion disc theory to suggest why the two likely conspire in a unified theory.

  1. A strongly truncated inner accretion disc in the Rapid Burster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Eijnden, J.; Bagnoli, T.; Degenaar, N.; Lohfink, A. M.; Parker, M. L.; in ‘t Zand, J. J. M.; Fabian, A. C.

    2017-03-01

    The neutron star (NS) low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) the Rapid Burster (RB; MXB 1730-335) uniquely shows both Type I and Type II X-ray bursts. The origin of the latter is ill-understood but has been linked to magnetospheric gating of the accretion flow. We present a spectral analysis of simultaneous Swift, NuSTAR and XMM-Newton observations of the RB during its 2015 outburst. Although a broad Fe K line has been observed before, the high quality of our observations allows us to model this line using relativistic reflection models for the first time. We find that the disc is strongly truncated at 41.8^{+6.7}_{-5.3} gravitational radii (∼87 km), which supports magnetospheric Type II burst models and strongly disfavours models involving instabilities at the innermost stable circular orbit. Assuming that the RB magnetic field indeed truncates the disc, we find B = (6.2 ± 1.5) × 108 G, larger than typically inferred for NS LMXBs. In addition, we find a low inclination (i = 29° ± 2°). Finally, we comment on the origin of the Comptonized and thermal components in the RB spectrum.

  2. Accretion of the Moon from non-canonical discs.

    PubMed

    Salmon, J; Canup, R M

    2014-09-13

    Impacts that leave the Earth-Moon system with a large excess in angular momentum have recently been advocated as a means of generating a protolunar disc with a composition that is nearly identical to that of the Earth's mantle. We here investigate the accretion of the Moon from discs generated by such 'non-canonical' impacts, which are typically more compact than discs produced by canonical impacts and have a higher fraction of their mass initially located inside the Roche limit. Our model predicts a similar overall accretional history for both canonical and non-canonical discs, with the Moon forming in three consecutive steps over hundreds of years. However, we find that, to yield a lunar-mass Moon, the more compact non-canonical discs must initially be more massive than implied by prior estimates, and only a few of the discs produced by impact simulations to date appear to meet this condition. Non-canonical impacts require that capture of the Moon into the evection resonance with the Sun reduced the Earth-Moon angular momentum by a factor of 2 or more. We find that the Moon's semi-major axis at the end of its accretion is approximately 7R⊕, which is comparable to the location of the evection resonance for a post-impact Earth with a 2.5 h rotation period in the absence of a disc. Thus, the dynamics of the Moon's assembly may directly affect its ability to be captured into the resonance.

  3. Effect of Gas Accretion Disc Profile on Orbital Parameters of the Accreted Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukirgaliyev, Bekdaulet T.; Panamarev, Taras P.; Naurzbaeva, Aisha Zh.; Kalambay, Mukhagali T.; Makukov, Maxim A.; Vilkoviskij, Emmanuil Y.; Omarov, Chingis T.; Berczik, Peter; Just, Andreas; Spurzem, Rainer

    2016-10-01

    The results of studies of the effect of the gas disk and its profile on the dynamics of active galactic nuclei are presented. The study was conducted with a numerical model of galactic nucleus based on phiGRAPE+GPU comprising three subsystems - a central supermassive black hole, gaseous accretion disc, and compact stellar cluster. The evolution of the compact stellar cluster is modeled with direct integration (N-body simulation), while the black hole and gaseous disc are represented phenomenologically: the black hole is introduced as an external potential (fixed in space but variable in time due to black hole mass growth), and the gaseous disc is introduced as spatial time-independent density distribution. We examined and compared with each other orbital parameters of accreting stars for model of the galactic nucleus with gas disc of constant and variable thickness, as well as without gas. It was found that in the presence of a gaseous disk almost half of the accreted particles interact strongly with the gas and are captured by the disc before accretion, while more than 85% of particles are affected to some extent by the disc prior to accretion. This suggests that interaction of the stellar cluster with the gas disk in the galactic nucleus might lead to the formation of stellar disk in the central part of the nucleus.

  4. Accretion onto Protoplanetary Discs: Implications for Globular Cluster Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijnen, Thomas; Pols, Onno; Portegies Zwart, Simon

    2015-08-01

    In the past decade, observational evidence that Globular Clusters (GCs) harbour multiple stellar populations has grown steadily. These observations are hard to reconcile with the classic picture of star formation in GCs, which approximates them as a single generation of stars. However, Bastian et al. recently suggested an evolutionary scenario in which a second (and higher order) population is formed by the accretion of chemically enriched material onto the low-mass stars in the initial GC population. In this early disc accretion scenario the low-mass, pre-main sequence stars sweep up gas expelled by the more massive stars of the same generation into their protoplanetary disc as they move through the cluster centre.Using assumptions that represent the (dynamical) conditions in a typical GC, we investigate whether a low-mass star surrounded by a protoplanetary disc can indeed accrete sufficient enriched material to account for the observed abundances in 'second generation' stars. We compare the outcome of two different smoothed particle hydrodynamics codes and check for consistency. In particular, we focus on the lifetime and stability of the disc and on the gas accretion rate onto both the star and the disc.

  5. Migration of accreting planets in radiative discs from dynamical torques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierens, A.; Raymond, S. N.

    2016-11-01

    We present the results of hydrodynamical simulations of the orbital evolution of planets undergoing runaway gas accretion in radiative discs. We consider accreting disc models with constant mass flux through the disc, and where radiative cooling balances the effect of viscous heating and stellar irradiation. We assume that 20-30 M⊕ giant planet cores are formed in the region where viscous heating dominates and migrate outward under the action of a strong entropy-related corotation torque. In the case where gas accretion is neglected and for an α viscous stress parameter α = 2 × 10-3, we find evidence for strong dynamical torques in accreting discs with accretion rates {dot{M}}≳ 7× 10^{-8} M_{⊙} yr{}^{-1}. Their main effect is to increase outward migration rates by a factor of ˜2 typically. In the presence of gas accretion, however, runaway outward migration is observed with the planet passing through the zero-torque radius and the transition between the viscous heating and stellar heating dominated regimes. The ability for an accreting planet to enter a fast migration regime is found to depend strongly on the planet growth rate, but can occur for values of the mass flux through the disc of {dot{M}}≳ 5× 10^{-8} M_{⊙} yr{}^{-1}. We find that an episode of runaway outward migration can cause an accreting planet formed in the 5-10 au region to temporarily orbit at star-planet separations as large as ˜60-70 au. However, increase in the amplitude of the Lindblad torque associated with planet growth plus change in the streamline topology near the planet systematically cause the direction of migration to be reversed. Subsequent evolution corresponds to the planet migrating inward rapidly until it becomes massive enough to open a gap in the disc and migrate in the type II regime. Our results indicate that a planet can reach large orbital distances under the combined effect of dynamical torques and gas accretion, but an alternative mechanism is required to

  6. Convection in axially symmetric accretion discs with microscopic transport coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malanchev, K. L.; Postnov, K. A.; Shakura, N. I.

    2017-01-01

    The vertical structure of stationary thin accretion discs is calculated from the energy balance equation with heat generation due to microscopic ion viscosity η and electron heat conductivity κ, both depending on temperature. In the optically thin discs it is found that for the heat conductivity increasing with temperature, the vertical temperature gradient exceeds the adiabatic value at some height, suggesting convective instability in the upper disc layer. There is a critical Prandtl number, Pr = 4/9, above which a Keplerian disc become fully convective. The vertical density distribution of optically thin laminar accretion discs as found from the hydrostatic equilibrium equation cannot be generally described by a polytrope but in the case of constant viscosity and heat conductivity. In the optically thick discs with radiation heat transfer, the vertical disc structure is found to be convectively stable for both absorption-dominated and scattering-dominated opacities, unless a very steep dependence of the viscosity coefficient on temperature is assumed. A polytropic-like structure in this case is found for Thomson scattering-dominated opacity.

  7. Accretion disc flows around FU Orionis stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, C. J.; Lin, D. N. C.; Papaloizou, J. C. B.

    1989-01-01

    The accretion disk model of FU Orionis systems in outburst is investigated by examining the time-dependent behavior of a disk around a low-mass protostar that accretes at 0.00001-0.0001 solar masses/yr. It is found that the disk may be stabilized against the thermal ionization instability by the effect of advective heat transport and that it may therefore exist in the quasi-steady-state observed in post-outburst FU Orionis systems. The disk models are used to discuss the cosmochemical consequences of possible FU Ori events during the evolution of the primordial solar nebula.

  8. Numerical Modeling of Tidal Effects in Polytropic Accretion Discs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godon, P.

    1996-01-01

    A two-dimensional time-dependent hybrid Fourier-Chebyshev method of collocation is developed and used for the study of tidal effects in accretion discs, under the assumption of a polytropic equation of state and a standard alpha viscosity prescription.

  9. Viscosity in accretion discs. [for binary stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, J. I.

    1980-01-01

    Both HerX-1 and SS433 may contain accretion disks slaved to a precessing companion star. If so, it is possible to bound the effective viscosity in these disks. The results, in terms of the disk parameter alpha, are lower bounds of 0.01 for HerX-1 and of 0.1 for SS433.

  10. Thin accretion discs are stabilized by a strong magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sądowski, Aleksander

    2016-07-01

    By studying three-dimensional, radiative, global simulations of sub-Eddington, geometrically thin (H/R ≈ 0.15) black hole accretion flows we show that thin discs which are dominated by magnetic pressure are stable against thermal instability. Such discs are thicker than predicted by the standard model and show significant amount of dissipation inside the marginally stable orbit. Radiation released in this region, however, does not escape to infinity but is advected into the black hole. We find that the resulting accretion efficiency (5.5 ± 0.5 per cent for the simulated 0.8dot{M}_Edd disc) is very close to the predicted by the standard model (5.7 per cent).

  11. Face-on accretion onto a protoplanetary disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijnen, T. P. G.; Pols, O. R.; Pelupessy, F. I.; Portegies Zwart, S.

    2016-10-01

    Context. Stars are generally born in clustered stellar environments, which can affect their subsequent evolution. An example of this environmental influence can be found in globular clusters (GCs) harbouring multiple stellar populations. An evolutionary scenario in which a second (and possibly higher order) population is formed by the accretion of chemically enriched material onto the low-mass stars in the initial GC population has been suggested to explain the multiple stellar populations. The idea, dubbed early disc accretion, is that the low-mass, pre-main-sequence stars sweep up gas expelled by the more massive stars of the same generation into their protoplanetary disc as they move through the cluster core. The same process could also occur, to a lesser extent, in embedded stellar systems that are less dense. Aims: Using assumptions that represent the (dynamical) conditions in a typical GC, we investigate whether a low-mass star of 0.4 M⊙ surrounded by a protoplanetary disc can accrete a sufficient amount of enriched material to account for the observed abundances in so-called second generation GC stars. In particular, we focus on the gas-loading rate onto the disc and star, as well as on the lifetime and stability of the disc. Methods: We perform simulations at multiple resolutions with two different smoothed particle hydrodynamics codes and compare the results. Each code uses a different implementation of the artificial viscosity. Results: We find that the gas-loading rate is about a factor of two smaller than the rate based on geometric arguments, because the effective cross-section of the disc is smaller than its surface area. Furthermore, the loading rate is consistent for both codes, irrespective of resolution. Although the disc gains mass in the high-resolution runs, it loses angular momentum on a timescale of 104 yr. Two effects determine the loss of (specific) angular momentum in our simulations: (1) continuous ram pressure stripping and (2

  12. Accretion of the Moon from non-canonical discs

    PubMed Central

    Salmon, J.; Canup, R. M

    2014-01-01

    Impacts that leave the Earth–Moon system with a large excess in angular momentum have recently been advocated as a means of generating a protolunar disc with a composition that is nearly identical to that of the Earth's mantle. We here investigate the accretion of the Moon from discs generated by such ‘non-canonical’ impacts, which are typically more compact than discs produced by canonical impacts and have a higher fraction of their mass initially located inside the Roche limit. Our model predicts a similar overall accretional history for both canonical and non-canonical discs, with the Moon forming in three consecutive steps over hundreds of years. However, we find that, to yield a lunar-mass Moon, the more compact non-canonical discs must initially be more massive than implied by prior estimates, and only a few of the discs produced by impact simulations to date appear to meet this condition. Non-canonical impacts require that capture of the Moon into the evection resonance with the Sun reduced the Earth–Moon angular momentum by a factor of 2 or more. We find that the Moon's semi-major axis at the end of its accretion is approximately 7R⊕, which is comparable to the location of the evection resonance for a post-impact Earth with a 2.5 h rotation period in the absence of a disc. Thus, the dynamics of the Moon's assembly may directly affect its ability to be captured into the resonance. PMID:25114307

  13. Ubiquitous equatorial accretion disc winds in black hole soft states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponti, G.; Fender, R. P.; Begelman, M. C.; Dunn, R. J. H.; Neilsen, J.; Coriat, M.

    2012-05-01

    High-resolution spectra of Galactic black holes (GBHs) reveal the presence of highly ionized absorbers. In one GBH, accreting close to the Eddington limit for more than a decade, a powerful accretion disc wind is observed to be present in softer X-ray states and it has been suggested that it can carry away enough mass and energy to quench the radio jet. Here we report that these winds, which may have mass outflow rates of the order of the inner accretion rate or higher, are a ubiquitous component of the jet-free soft states of all GBHs. We furthermore demonstrate that these winds have an equatorial geometry with opening angles of few tens of degrees, and so are only observed in sources in which the disc is inclined at a large angle to the line of sight. The decrease in Fe XXV/Fe XXVI line ratio with Compton temperature, observed in the soft state, suggests a link between higher wind ionization and harder spectral shapes. Although the physical interaction between the wind, accretion flow and jet is still not fully understood, the mass flux and power of these winds and their presence ubiquitously during the soft X-ray states suggest they are fundamental components of the accretion phenomenon.

  14. Quasi-Periodic Flares From Star-Accretion Disc Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Lixin; von Fuerst, S.; Blandford, R.

    2008-03-01

    We propose a theory relating the observed quasi-periodoic IR/X-ray signals at the Galactic center and from other massive black holes to collisions between the accretion disc and stars orbiting around the black hole. When an orbiting star passes through the black hole's accretion disc, part of the star's orbital energy is lost in the collision and transformed to radiation as a flare. As the star continues to orbit around the black hole, it hits the disc and produces these energetic flares repeatedly. Due the to precession of the stellar orbit and the bending of light near black hole, these signals will not be periodic but quasi-periodic. The features of the signals, such as the patten of time divisions between consecutive signals and their intensity profiles, can be affected by the mass and spin of the black hole, the disc structure, and the orbital elements of the stellar orbit. We present simulated stellar orbits, disc images, and lightcurves. By comparing different stellar orbits around a Schwarzschild or a Kerr metric black hole and the corresponding lightcurves, we examine how the paramters of the star and black hole result in different features of the signals. Furthermore, we study how the observed quasi-periodic signals can be used to probe the black hole.

  15. Inflow and outflow from the accretion disc of the microquasar SS433: UKIRT spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez M., Sebastian; Blundell, Katherine M.

    2009-08-01

    A succession of near-infrared (near-IR) spectroscopic observations, taken nightly throughout an entire cycle of SS433's orbit, reveal (i) the persistent signature of SS433's accretion disc, having a rotation speed of ~500kms-1, (ii) the presence of circumbinary disc recently discovered at optical wavelengths by Blundell, Bowler & Schmidtobreick (2008) and (iii) a much faster outflow than has previously been measured for the disc wind, with a terminal velocity of ~1500kms-1. The increased wind terminal velocity results in a mass-loss rate of ~10-4Msolaryr-1. These, together with the newly (upwardly) determined masses for the components of the SS433 system, result in an accurate diagnosis of the extent to which SS433 has super-Eddington flows. Our observations imply that the size of the companion star is comparable with the semiminor axis of the orbit which is given by , where e is the eccentricity. Our relatively spectral resolution at these near-IR wavelengths has enabled us to deconstruct the different components that comprise the Brackett-γ (Brγ) line in this binary system, and their physical origins. With this line being dominated throughout our series of observations by the disc wind, and the accretion disc itself being only a minority (~15 per cent) contribution, we caution against use of the unresolved Brγ line intensity as an `accretion signature' in X-ray binaries or microquasars in any quantitative way.

  16. Structure of evolving Accretion Discs and their Implications to the Formation of Planetary Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitsch, Bertram; Morbidelli, A.; Crida, A.; Lega, E.

    2013-10-01

    Two features in a protoplanetary disc can have profound effects on planet formation. The first feature is "pressure bumps", i.e. local maxima in the gas surface density distribution that can arise e.g. at the inner edge of the dead zone. Pressure bumps stop the inward migration of small bodies undergoing gas drag (Brauer et al., 2008), promote the onset of the streaming instability (Johansen and Youdin, 2007), help the accretion of planetary embryos by the pebble-accretion process (Lambrechts and Johansen, 2012) and stop inward type-I migration by the planet-trap mechanism (Masset et al., 2006). The second feature is "scale height bumps", that originate from opacity transitions. The regions of the disc that are shadowed, where H/r decreases with r, allow planetary cores to migrate outwards due to entropy gradient effects (Paardekooper and Mellema (2006), Baruteau and Masset (2008)), until they reach the local minimum of the H/r profile (Bitsch et al. 2013). Thus, it is important to model the existence and the location of these structures in realistic protoplanetary discs. The structure of the disc is dependent on the mass-flux (accretion rate) through the disc, which determines the evolution of the density profile. This mass-flux changes in time, as the whole disc gets accreted onto the central star. We will show using 2D hydrodynamical models how the change of the accretion rate affects the disc structure and how this will change the sweet-spots for saving planetary cores from too rapid inward migration. We will focus here on "scale height bumps" in the disc that will change the alpha-viscosity and consequently the gas surface density (as the mass-flux is constant through the disc). Therefore the formation of pressure bumps is possible, whose prominence and effects on migration will be investigated in detail. This will give important indications of where and when in the disc the cores of giant planets and thus giant planets can form.

  17. Black Hole Accretion Discs on a Moving Mesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Geoffrey

    2017-01-01

    We present multi-dimensional numerical simulations of black hole accretion disks relevant for the production of electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational wave sources. We perform these simulations with a new general relativistic version of the moving-mesh magnetohydrodynamics code DISCO which we will present. This open-source code, GR-DISCO uses an orbiting and shearing mesh which moves with the dominant flow velocity, greatly improving the numerical accuracy of the thermodynamic variables in supersonic flows while also reducing numerical viscosity and greatly increasing computational efficiency by allowing for a larger time step. We have used GR-DISCO to study black hole accretion discs subject to gravitational torques from a binary companion, relevant for both current and future supermassive binary black hole searches and also as a possible electromagnetic precursor mechanism for LIGO events. Binary torques in these discs excite spiral shockwaves which effectively transport angular momentum in the disc and propagate through the innermost stable orbit, leading to stress corresponding to an alpha-viscosity of 10-2. We also present three-dimensional GRMHD simulations of neutrino dominated accretion flows (NDAFs) occurring after a binary neutron star merger in order to elucidate the conditions for electromagnetic transient production accompanying these gravitational waves sources expected to be detected by LIGO in the near future.

  18. Retrograde binaries of massive black holes in circumbinary accretion discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaro-Seoane, Pau; Maureira-Fredes, Cristián; Dotti, Massimo; Colpi, Monica

    2016-06-01

    Context. We explore the hardening of a massive black hole binary embedded in a circumbinary gas disc under a specific circumstance: when the binary and the gas are coplanar and the gas is counter-rotating. The binary has unequal mass and the interaction of the gas with the lighter secondary black hole is the main cause of the braking torque on the binary that shrinks with time. The secondary black hole, revolving in the direction opposite to the gas, experiences a drag from gas-dynamical friction and from direct accretion of part of it. Aims: In this paper, using two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamical grid simulations we investigate the effect of changing the accretion prescriptions on the dynamics of the secondary black hole, which in turn affect the binary hardening and eccentricity evolution. Methods: We find that realistic accretion prescriptions lead to results that differ from those inferred assuming accretion of all the gas within the Roche Lobe of the secondary black hole. Results: When considering gas accretion within the gravitational influence radius of the secondary black hole (which is smaller than the Roche Lobe radius) to better describe gas inflows, the shrinking of the binary is slower. In addition, in this case, a smaller amount of accreted mass is required to reduce the binary separation by the same amount. Different accretion prescriptions result in different discs' surface densities, which alter the black hole's dynamics back. Full 3D Smoothed-particle hydrodynamics realizations of a number of representative cases, run over a shorter interval of time, validate the general trends observed in the less computationally demanding 2D simulations. Conclusions: Initially circular black hole binaries increase their eccentricity only slightly, which then oscillates around small values (<0.1) while they harden. By contrast, initially eccentric binaries become more and more eccentric. A semi-analytical model describing the black hole's dynamics under

  19. Density, Velocity and Ionization Structure in Accretion-disc Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Knox

    We propose to exploit the unique capabilities of it FUSE to monitor variations in the wind-formed spectral lines of 3 luminous, low-inclination, cataclysmic variables (CVs). Our principal goal is to improve our understanding of the dynamics of accretion-disc winds. We have previously used HST to investigate substantial and rapid (sim hours to minutes) variability in our target stars, BZ Cam, RW Sex and V603 Aql, and have demonstrated that their disc-outflows are highly structured. We aim here to follow up our discoveries by securing FUSE time-series data. These observations will allow us to determine the relative roles of density and ionization state changes in the outflow and to search for spectroscopic signatures of stochastic small-scale structure and shocked gas. By monitoring the temporal behavior of blue-ward extended absorption lines with a wide range of ionization potentials and excitation energies, we will track the changing physical conditions in the outflow. A new sophisticated Monte Carlo code will be used to calculate the ionization structure of and radiative transfer through CV winds. This will allow us to establish the wind geometry, kinematics and ionization state, both in a time-averaged sense and as a function of time. Our FUSE observations will provide a legacy that will be fundamental to the development of dynamical models of accretion-disc-driven winds, permitting critical tests of recent hydrodynamic simulations of unstable, line-driven disc winds.

  20. A precessing accretion disc in the intermediate polar XY Arietis?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, A. J.; Mukai, K.

    2007-09-01

    Context: XY Ari is the only intermediate polar to show deep X-ray eclipses of its white dwarf. Previously published observations with Ginga and Chandra have also revealed a broad X-ray orbital modulation, roughly antiphased with the eclipse, and presumed to be due to absorption in an extended structure near the edge of an accretion disc. The X-ray pulse profile is generally seen to be double-peaked, although a single-peaked pulse was seen by RXTE during an outburst in 1996. Aims: We intended to investigate the cause of the broad orbital modulation in XY Ari to better understand the accretion flow in this system and other intermediate polars. Methods: We observed XY Ari with RXTE and analysed previously unpublished archival observations of the system made with ASCA and XMM-Newton. These observations comprise six separate visits and span about ten years. Results: The various X-ray observations show that the broad orbital modulation varies in phase and significance, then ultimately disappears entirely in the last few years. In addition, the X-ray pulse profile shows variations in depth and shape, and in the recent RXTE observations displays no evidence for changes in hardness ratio. Conclusions: The observed changes indicates that both the pulse profile and the orbital modulation are solely due to geometrical effects at the time of the RXTE observations, rather than phase-dependent variations in photoelectric absorption as seen previously. We suggest that this is evidence for a precessing, tilted accretion disc in this system. The precession of the disc moves structures out of our line of sight both at its outer edge (changing the orbital modulation) and at its inner edge where the accretion curtains are anchored (changing the pulse profile).

  1. Accretion disc boundary layers around pre-main-sequence stars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godon, P.

    1996-04-01

    One-dimensional time-dependent calculations of geometrically thin accretion disc boundary layers in pre-main-sequence stars are carried out for mass-accretion rates in the range M˙ = 5×10-7 to 10-4 Msunyr-1, α = 0.005-0.3 and different inner boundary conditions on the temperature. Two kinds of solution are obtained: those with a distinct thermal boundary layer (BL) component and those without a thermal boundary layer. For M˙ up to ≍10-5Msunyr-1, and for a α > αcritic ≍ 0.04, solutions with a thermal BL are obtained. For M˙ ≍ 10-4Msunyr-1 or for α < αcritic solutions without a thermal BL are obtained. The inner boundary condition Fr = σTeff4 leads to hotter solutions and higher threshold values αcritic while the no-flux boundary condition dT/dr=0 leads to cooler solutions. For a very low mass-accretion rate (M˙ ≍ 5×10-7Msunyr-1), the temperature in the disc drops below 104K and the ionization front is adjacent to the outer edge of the hot thermal boundary layer. In the vicinity of the ionization front, the medium becomes slightly optically thin. For a very high mass accretion rate, advection of energy (ζ = Ladv/Lacc ≍ 0.1-0.2) from the boundary layer into the inner boundary becomes important, and the boundary layer luminosity is only a fraction of its expected value.

  2. Magnetic connection and current distribution in black hole accretion discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Cheng-Xuan; Wang, Ding-Xiong; Gan, Zhao-Ming

    2009-10-01

    We discuss one of the possible origins of large-scale magnetic fields based on a continuous distribution of toroidal electric current flowing in the inner region of the disc around a Kerr black hole (BH) in the framework of general relativity. It turns out that four types of configuration of the magnetic connection (MC) are generated, i.e. MC of the BH with the remote astrophysical load (MCHL), MC of the BH with the disc (MCHD), MC of the plunging region with the disc (MCPD) and MC of the inner and outer disc regions (MCDD). It turns out that the Blandford-Znajek process can be regarded as one type of MC, i.e. MCHL. In addition, we propose a scenario for fitting the quasi-periodic oscillations in BH binaries based on MCDD associated with the magnetic reconnection.

  3. An accurate geometric distance to the compact binary SS Cygni vindicates accretion disc theory.

    PubMed

    Miller-Jones, J C A; Sivakoff, G R; Knigge, C; Körding, E G; Templeton, M; Waagen, E O

    2013-05-24

    Dwarf novae are white dwarfs accreting matter from a nearby red dwarf companion. Their regular outbursts are explained by a thermal-viscous instability in the accretion disc, described by the disc instability model that has since been successfully extended to other accreting systems. However, the prototypical dwarf nova, SS Cygni, presents a major challenge to our understanding of accretion disc theory. At the distance of 159 ± 12 parsecs measured by the Hubble Space Telescope, it is too luminous to be undergoing the observed regular outbursts. Using very long baseline interferometric radio observations, we report an accurate, model-independent distance to SS Cygni that places the source substantially closer at 114 ± 2 parsecs. This reconciles the source behavior with our understanding of accretion disc theory in accreting compact objects.

  4. The first experiment of accretion disc tomography in AGNs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risaliti, Guido

    2011-10-01

    We propose four one-orbit observations of the AGN in NGC~1365, with the main aim of measuring the spectral variations during an eclipse. This source showed extraordinary variability in the past observations, indicating a high probability of catching an eclipse by a Compton-thick cloud in the proposed observation time. The differences in the shape of the iron broad emission line at different phases of the eclipse would be a decisive proof of the relativistic effects on this line due to the strong gravity and fast orbital motion of the inner part of the accretion disc. In addition to this unique experiment, the spectral complexity of NGC~1365 (with the highest S/N detection of iron absorption lines in AGNs) makes it the ideal target for a deep ``legacy'' observation.

  5. Electromagnetic versus Lense-Thirring alignment of black hole accretion discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polko, Peter; McKinney, Jonathan C.

    2017-01-01

    Accretion discs and black holes (BHs) have angular momenta that are generally misaligned, which can lead to warped discs and bends in any jets produced. We examine whether a disc that is misaligned at large radii can be aligned more efficiently by the torque of a Blandford-Znajek (BZ) jet than by Lense-Thirring (LT) precession. To obtain a strong result, we will assume that these torques maximally align the disc, rather than cause precession, or disc tearing. We consider several disc states that include radiatively inefficient thick discs, radiatively efficient thin discs, and super-Eddington accretion discs. The magnetic field strength of the BZ jet is chosen as either from standard equipartition arguments or from magnetically arrested disc (MAD) simulations. We show that standard thin accretion discs can reach spin-disc alignment out to large radii long before LT would play a role, due to the slow infall time that gives even a weak BZ jet time to align the disc. We show that geometrically thick radiatively inefficient discs and super-Eddington discs in the MAD state reach spin-disc alignment near the BH when density profiles are shallow as in magnetohydrodynamical simulations, while the BZ jet aligns discs with steep density profiles (as in advection-dominated accretion flows) out to larger radii. Our results imply that the BZ jet torque should affect the cosmological evolution of BH spin magnitude and direction, spin measurements in active galactic nuclei and X-ray binaries, and the interpretations for Event Horizon Telescope observations of discs or jets in strong-field gravity regimes.

  6. Runaway accretion of metals from compact discs of debris on to white dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafikov, Roman R.

    2011-09-01

    It was recently proposed that metal-rich white dwarfs (WDs) accrete their metals from compact discs of debris found to exist around more than a dozen of them. At the same time, elemental abundances measured in atmospheres of some WDs imply vigorous metal accretion at rates up to 1011 g s-1, far in excess of what can be supplied solely by Poynting-Robertson drag acting on such discs of debris. To explain this observation we propose a model, in which rapid transport of metals from the disc on to the WD naturally results from interaction between this particulate disc and a spatially coexisting disc of metallic gas. The latter is fed by evaporation of debris particles at the sublimation radius located at several tens of WD radii. Because of pressure support the gaseous disc orbits the WD slower than the particulate disc. Resultant azimuthal drift between them at speed ≲1 m s-1 causes aerodynamic drag on the disc of solids and drives inward migration of its constituent particles. Upon reaching the sublimation radius, particles evaporate, enhancing the density of the metallic gaseous disc and leading to positive feedback. Under favourable circumstances (low viscosity in the disc of metallic gas and efficient aerodynamic coupling between the discs) a system evolves in a runaway fashion, destroying the discs of debris on time-scale of ˜105 yr, and giving rise to high metal accretion rates up to ? g s-1, in agreement with observations.

  7. Generation of galactic disc warps due to intergalactic accretion flows onto the disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Corredoira, M.; Betancort-Rijo, J.; Beckman, J. E.

    2002-04-01

    A new method is developed to calculate the amplitude of the galactic warps generated by a torque due to external forces. This takes into account that the warp is produced as a reorientation of the different rings which constitute the disc in order to compensate the differential precession generated by the external force, yielding a uniform asymptotic precession for all rings. Application of this method to gravitational tidal forces in the Milky Way due to the Magellanic Clouds leads to a very low amplitude of the warp, as has been inferred in previous studies; so, tidal forces are unlikely to generate warps, at least in the Milky Way. If the force were due to an extragalactic magnetic field, its intensity would have to be very high, greater than 1 mu G, to generate the observed warps. An alternative hypothesis is explored: the accretion of the intergalactic medium over the disk. A cup-shaped distortion is expected, due to the transmission of the linear momentum; but, this effect is small and the predominant effect turns out to be the transmission of angular momentum, i.e. a torque giving an integral-sign shape warp. The torque produced by a flow of velocity ~ 100 km s-1 and baryon density ~ 10-25 kg/m3 is enough to generate the observed warps and this mechanism offers quite a plausible explanation. First, because this order of accretion rate is inferred from other processes observed in the Galaxy, notably its chemical evolution. The inferred rate of infall of matter, ~ 1 M_sun/yr, to the Galactic disc that this theory predicts agrees with the quantitative predictions of this chemical evolution resolving key issues, notably the G-dwarf problem. Second, the required density of the intergalactic medium is within the range of values compatible with observation. By this mechanism, we can explain the warp phenomenon in terms of intergalactic accretion flows onto the disk of the galaxy.

  8. Magnetised accretion discs in Kerr spacetimes. II. Hot spots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Federico; Ranea-Sandoval, Ignacio F.; Johannsen, Tim

    2016-03-01

    Context. Quasi-periodic variability has been observed in a number of X-ray binaries that harbor black hole candidates. In general relativity, black holes are uniquely described by the Kerr metric and, according to the cosmic censorship conjecture, curvature singularities always have to be clothed by an event horizon. Aims: In this paper, we study the observed light curves that arise from orbiting hotspots in thin accretion discs around Kerr black holes and naked singularities, and the effect introduced by the presence of an external magnetic field. Methods: We employ a ray-tracing algorithm to calculate the light curves and power spectra of these hot spots as seen by a distant observer for uniform and dipolar magnetic field configurations, assuming a weak coupling between the magnetic field and the disc matter. Results: We show that the presence of an external dipolar magnetic field leads to potentially observable modifications of these light curves for both Kerr black holes and naked singularities, while an external uniform magnetic field has practically no effect. In particular, we demonstrate that the emission from a hotspot, which is orbiting near the innermost stable circular orbit of a naked singularity in a dipolar magnetic field, can be significantly harder than the emission of the same hotspot in the absence of this type of magnetic field. Conclusions: The comparison of our model with observational data may allow us to study the geometry of magnetic fields around compact objects and to test the cosmic censorship conjecture in conjunction with other observables, such as thermal continuum spectra and iron line profiles.

  9. SOAR observations of the high-viscosity accretion disc of the dwarf nova V4140 Sagitarii in quiescence and in outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, Raymundo; Borges, Bernardo W.; Oliveira, Alexandre S.

    2016-12-01

    We report the analysis of 22 B-band light curves of the dwarf nova V4140 Sgr obtained with SOAR Optical Imager (SOI)/SOAR during two nights along the decline of a superoutburst in 2006 September 12-24 and in quiescence over 50 d following the superoutburst. 3D eclipse mapping of the outburst light curves indicates that the accretion disc is elliptical (eccentricity e = 0.13) and that superhump maximum occurs when the mass donor star is aligned with the bulge of the elliptical disc. The accretion disc is geometrically thin both in outburst and in quiescence; it fills the primary Roche lobe in the outburst and shrinks to about half this size in quiescence. The stability of the eclipse shape, width and depth along quiescence and the derived disc surface brightness distribution indicate that the quiescent accretion disc is in a high-viscosity, steady-state. Flickering mapping of the quiescent data reveals that the low-frequency flickering arises from an azimuthally extended stream-disc impact region at disc rim and from the innermost disc region, whereas the high-frequency flickering originates in the accretion disc. Assuming the disc-related flickering to be caused by fluctuations in the energy dissipation rate induced by magnetohydrodynamic turbulence (Geertsema & Achterberg), we find that the quiescent disc viscosity parameter is large, α ≃ 0.2-0.4, at all radii. The high-viscosity quiescent disc and the inferred low disc temperatures in superoutburst are inconsistent with expectations of the disc-instability model, and lead to the conclusion that the outbursts of V4140 Sgr are powered by mass transfer bursts from its donor star.

  10. Constraints on the temperature inhomogeneity in quasar accretion discs from the ultraviolet-optical spectral variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokubo, Mitsuru

    2015-05-01

    The physical mechanisms of the quasar ultraviolet (UV)-optical variability are not well understood despite the long history of observations. Recently, Dexter & Agol presented a model of quasar UV-optical variability, which assumes large local temperature fluctuations in the quasar accretion discs. This inhomogeneous accretion disc model is claimed to describe not only the single-band variability amplitude, but also microlensing size constraints and the quasar composite spectral shape. In this work, we examine the validity of the inhomogeneous accretion disc model in the light of quasar UV-optical spectral variability by using five-band multi-epoch light curves for nearly 9 000 quasars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Stripe 82 region. By comparing the values of the intrinsic scatter σint of the two-band magnitude-magnitude plots for the SDSS quasar light curves and for the simulated light curves, we show that Dexter & Agol's inhomogeneous accretion disc model cannot explain the tight inter-band correlation often observed in the SDSS quasar light curves. This result leads us to conclude that the local temperature fluctuations in the accretion discs are not the main driver of the several years' UV-optical variability of quasars, and consequently, that the assumption that the quasar accretion discs have large localized temperature fluctuations is not preferred from the viewpoint of the UV-optical spectral variability.

  11. Magnetohydrodynamic Accretion Around Supermassive Black Holes : Short-Length Disc for Stronger Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Ritabrata

    2016-07-01

    Thin accretion flow, i.e., geometrically thin accretion disc was first studied by Shakura and Sunyaev. Relativistic fluid flows around a black hole produce enormous energy on the cost of permanent lost of the gravitational potential due to the fall into a infinitely sloped gravitational well or to be specific, into a space time singularity. This energy is actually observed in different wavelengths and we specify the source as Active Galactic Nuclei, quasars, Gamma-ray burst sources etc. Eventually, two popular kind of accretion disc models are there. The first one is advection dominated, known as geometrically thin optically thick accretion disc. The other is geometrically thick but optically thin as it does not capture photons inside! The jets formed by accretion phenomena are still not well explained. Size of the accretion disc, power of the jets can be powered by magnetic fields generated by the ionized particles of the accretion flow. We show the exact dependency of the disc size upon the magnetic field present along with the quantity of the central gravitating mass.

  12. Conditions for circumstellar disc formation - II. Effects of initial cloud stability and mass accretion rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machida, Masahiro N.; Matsumoto, Tomoaki; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro

    2016-12-01

    Disc formation in strongly magnetized cloud cores is investigated using a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulation with a focus on the effects of the initial cloud stability and the mass accretion rate. The initial cloud stability greatly alters the disc formation process even for prestellar clouds with the same mass-to-flux ratio. A high mass accretion rate on to the disc-forming region is realized in initially unstable clouds, and a large angular momentum is introduced into the circumstellar region in a short time. The region around the protostar has both a thin infalling envelope and a weak magnetic field, which both weaken the effect of magnetic braking. The growth of the rotation-supported disc is promoted in such unstable clouds. Conversely, clouds in an initially near-equilibrium state show lower accretion rates of mass and angular momentum. The angular momentum is transported to the outer envelope before protostar formation. After protostar formation, the circumstellar region has a thick infalling envelope and a strong magnetic field that effectively brakes the disc. As a result, disc formation is suppressed when the initial cloud is in a nearly stable state. The density distribution of the initial cloud also affects the disc formation process. Disc growth strongly depends on the initial conditions when the prestellar cloud has a uniform density, whereas there is no significant difference in the disc formation process in prestellar clouds with non-uniform densities.

  13. A two-fluid model for black-hole accretion flows: particle acceleration and disc structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jason P.; Becker, Peter A.

    2017-02-01

    Hot, tenuous advection-dominated accretion flows around black holes are ideal sites for the Fermi acceleration of relativistic particles at standing shock waves in the accretion disc. Previous work has demonstrated that the shock-acceleration process can be efficient enough to power the observed, strong outflows in radio-loud active galaxies such as M87. However, the dynamical effect (back-reaction) on the flow, exerted by the pressure of the relativistic particles, has not been previously considered, and this effect can have a significant influence on the disc structure. We reexamine the problem by developing a new, two-fluid model for the structure of the accretion disc that includes the dynamical effect of the relativistic particle pressure, combined with the pressure of the background (thermal) gas. The new model is analogous to the two-fluid model of cosmic ray acceleration in supernova-driven shock waves. As part of the model, we also develop a new set of shock jump conditions, which are solved along with the hydrodynamic conservation equations to determine the structure of the accretion disc. The solutions include the formation of a mildly relativistic outflow (jet) at the shock radius, driven by the relativistic particles accelerated in the disc. One of our main conclusions is that in the context of the new two-fluid accretion model, global smooth (shock-free) solutions do not exist, and the disc must always contain a standing shock wave, at least in the inviscid case considered here.

  14. Star-disc interaction in galactic nuclei: orbits and rates of accreted stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Gareth F.; Meiron, Yohai; Shukirgaliyev, Bekdaulet; Panamarev, Taras; Berczik, Peter; Just, Andreas; Spurzem, Rainer

    2016-07-01

    We examine the effect of an accretion disc on the orbits of stars in the central star cluster surrounding a central massive black hole by performing a suite of 39 high-accuracy direct N-body simulations using state-of-the art software and accelerator hardware, with particle numbers up to 128k. The primary focus is on the accretion rate of stars by the black hole (equivalent to their tidal disruption rate for black holes in the small to medium mass range) and the eccentricity distribution of these stars. Our simulations vary not only the particle number, but disc model (two models examined), spatial resolution at the centre (characterized by the numerical accretion radius) and softening length. The large parameter range and physically realistic modelling allow us for the first time to confidently extrapolate these results to real galactic centres. While in a real galactic centre both particle number and accretion radius differ by a few orders of magnitude from our models, which are constrained by numerical capability, we find that the stellar accretion rate converges for models with N ≥ 32k. The eccentricity distribution of accreted stars, however, does not converge. We find that there are two competing effects at work when improving the resolution: larger particle number leads to a smaller fraction of stars accreted on nearly circular orbits, while higher spatial resolution increases this fraction. We scale our simulations to some nearby galaxies and find that the expected boost in stellar accretion (or tidal disruption, which could be observed as X-ray flares) in the presence of a gas disc is about a factor of 10. Even with this boost, the accretion of mass from stars is still a factor of ˜100 slower than the accretion of gas from the disc. Thus, it seems accretion of stars is not a major contributor to black hole mass growth.

  15. Braking down an accreting protostar: disc-locking, disc winds, stellar winds, X-winds and Magnetospheric Ejecta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, J.

    2013-09-01

    Classical T Tauri stars are low mass young forming stars that are surrounded by a circumstellar accretion disc from which they gain mass. Despite this accretion and their own contraction that should both lead to their spin up, these stars seem to conserve instead an almost constant rotational period as long as the disc is maintained. Several scenarios have been proposed in the literature in order to explain this puzzling "disc-locking" situation: either deposition in the disc of the stellar angular momentum by the stellar magnetosphere or its ejection through winds, providing thereby an explanation of jets from Young Stellar Objects. In this lecture, these various mechanisms will be critically detailed, from the physics of the star-disc interaction to the launching of self-confined jets (disc winds, stellar winds, X-winds, conical winds). It will be shown that no simple model can account alone for the whole bulk of observational data and that "disc locking" requires a combination of some of them.

  16. Suppression of the accretion rate in thin discs around binary black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragusa, Enrico; Lodato, Giuseppe; Price, Daniel J.

    2016-08-01

    We present three-dimensional Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations investigating the dependence of the accretion rate on the disc thickness around an equal-mass, circular black hole binary system. We find that for thick/hot discs, with H/R ≳ 0.1, the binary torque does not prevent the gas from penetrating the cavity formed in the disc by the binary (in line with previous investigations). The situation drastically changes for thinner discs; in this case the mass accretion rate is suppressed, such that only a fraction (linearly dependent on H/R) of the available gas is able to flow within the cavity and accrete on to the binary. Extrapolating this result to the cold and thin accretion discs expected around supermassive black hole binary systems implies that this kind of system accretes less material than predicted so far, with consequences not only for the electromagnetic and gravitational waves emissions during the late inspiral phase but also for the recoil speed of the black hole formed after binary coalescence, thus influencing also the evolutionary path both of the binary and of the host galaxy. Our results, being scale-free, are also applicable to equal-mass, circular binaries of stellar mass black holes, such as the progenitor of the recently discovered gravitational wave source GW150914.

  17. Old pre-main-sequence stars. Disc reformation by Bondi-Hoyle accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scicluna, P.; Rosotti, G.; Dale, J. E.; Testi, L.

    2014-06-01

    Young stars show evidence of accretion discs which evolve quickly and disperse with an e-folding time of ~3 Myr. This is in striking contrast with recent observations that suggest evidence of numerous >30 Myr old stars with an accretion disc in large star-forming complexes. We consider whether these observations of apparently old accretors could be explained by invoking Bondi-Hoyle accretion to rebuild a new disc around these stars during passage through a clumpy molecular cloud. We combine a simple Monte Carlo model to explore the capture of mass by such systems with a viscous evolution model to infer the levels of accretion that would be observed. We find that a significant fraction of stars may capture enough material via the Bondi-Hoyle mechanism to rebuild a disc of mass ≳1 minimum-mass solar nebula, and ≲10% accrete at observable levels at any given time. A significant fraction of the observed old accretors may be explained with our proposed mechanism. Such accretion may provide a chance for a second epoch of planet formation, and have unpredictable consequences for planetary evolution.

  18. An accretion disc-irradiation hybrid model for the optical/UV variability in radio-quiet quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hui; Li, Shuang-Liang; Gu, Minfeng; Guo, Hengxiao

    2016-10-01

    The optical/ultraviolet (UV) variability of quasars has been discovered to be correlated with other quasar properties, such as luminosity, black hole mass and rest-frame wavelength. However, the origin of variability has been a puzzle so far. In this work, we upgrade the accretion disc model, which assumed the variability is caused by the change of global mass accretion rate, by constraining the disc size to match the viscous time-scale of accretion disc to the variability time-scale observed and by including the irradiation/X-ray reprocessing to make the emitted spectrum become steeper. We find this hybrid model can reproduce the observed bluer-when-brighter trend quite well, which is used to validate the theoretical model by several works recently. The traditional correlation between the variability amplitude and rest-frame wavelength can also be well fitted by our model. In addition, a weak positive correlation between variability amplitude and black hole mass is present, qualitatively consistent with recent observations.

  19. Supermassive star formation via episodic accretion: protostellar disc instability and radiative feedback efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, Y.; Vorobyov, E. I.; Hosokawa, T.; Yoshida, N.; Omukai, K.; Yorke, H. W.

    2016-06-01

    The formation of supermassive stars (SMSs) is a potential pathway to seed supermassive black holes in the early universe. A critical issue for forming SMSs is stellar UV feedback, which may limit the stellar mass growth via accretion. In this paper, we study the evolution of an accreting SMS and its UV emissivity with realistic variable accretion from a circumstellar disc. First we conduct a 2D hydrodynamical simulation to follow the protostellar accretion until the stellar mass exceeds 104 M⊙. The disc fragments by gravitational instability, creating many clumps that migrate inward to fall on to the star. The resulting accretion history is highly time-dependent: short episodic accretion bursts are followed by longer quiescent phases. We show that the disc for the direct collapse model is more unstable and generates greater variability than normal Pop III cases. Next, we conduct a stellar evolution calculation using the obtained accretion history. Our results show that, regardless of the variable accretion, the stellar radius monotonically increases with almost constant effective temperature at Teff ≃ 5000 K as the stellar mass increases. The resulting UV feedback is too weak to hinder accretion due to the low flux of stellar UV photons. The insensitivity of stellar evolution to variable accretion is attributed to the fact that time-scales of variability, ≲103 yr, are too short to affect the stellar structure. We argue that this evolution will continue until the SMS collapses to produce a black hole by the general relativistic instability after the mass reaches ≳105 M⊙.

  20. Revealing the accretion disc corona in Mrk 335 with multi-epoch X-ray spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keek, L.; Ballantyne, D. R.

    2016-03-01

    Active galactic nuclei host an accretion disc with an X-ray producing corona around a supermassive black hole. In bright sources, such as the Seyfert 1 galaxy Mrk 335, reflection of the coronal emission off the accretion disc has been observed. Reflection produces spectral features such as an Fe Kα emission line, which allow for properties of the inner accretion disc and the corona to be constrained. We perform a multi-epoch spectral analysis of all XMM-Newton, Suzaku, and NuSTAR observations of Mrk 335, and we optimize our fitting procedure to unveil correlations between the Eddington ratio and the spectral parameters. We find that the disc's ionization parameter correlates strongly with the Eddington ratio: the inner disc is more strongly ionized at higher flux. The slope of the correlation is less steep than previously predicted. Furthermore, the cut-off of the power-law spectrum increases in energy with the Eddington ratio, whereas the reflection fraction exhibits a decrease. We interpret this behaviour as geometrical changes of the corona as a function of the accretion rate. Below ˜10 per cent of the Eddington limit, the compact and optically thick corona is located close to the inner disc, whereas at higher accretion rates the corona is likely optically thin and extends vertically further away from the disc surface. Furthermore, we find a soft excess that consists of two components. In addition to a contribution from reflection in low ionization states, a second component is present that traces the overall flux.

  1. A viscosity prescription for a self-gravitating accretion disc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, D. N. C.; Pringle, J. E.

    1987-01-01

    A model for treating the transfer of angular momentum within a gaseous differentially rotating disc subject to gravitational instability is discussed in terms of an effective kinematic viscosity. It is assumed that even when matter in the disc is subject to self-gravitation, the instability does not necessarily lead directly to condensation of parts of the disc into self-gravitating bodies. Conditions under which the present model permits a similarity solution are discussed, and it is shown that the general solution tends to the similarity solution at large times.

  2. The inner disc radius in the propeller phase and accretion-propeller transition of neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertan, Ünal

    2017-04-01

    We have investigated the critical conditions required for a steady propeller effect for magnetized neutron stars with optically thick, geometrically thin accretion discs. We have shown through simple analytical calculations that a steady-state propeller mechanism cannot be sustained at an inner disc radius where the viscous and magnetic stresses are balanced. The radius calculated by equating these stresses is usually found to be close to the conventional Alfvén radius for spherical accretion, rA. Our results show that: (1) a steady propeller phase can be established with a maximum inner disc radius that is at least ∼15 times smaller than rA depending on the mass-flow rate of the disc, rotational period and strength of the magnetic dipole field of the star, (2) the critical accretion rate corresponding to the accretion-propeller transition is orders of magnitude lower than the rate estimated by equating rA to the co-rotation radius. Our results are consistent with the properties of the transitional millisecond pulsars that show transitions between the accretion powered X-ray pulsar and the rotational powered radio-pulsar states.

  3. Spiral-driven accretion in protoplanetary discs. II. Self-similar solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennebelle, Patrick; Lesur, Geoffroy; Fromang, Sébastien

    2016-05-01

    Context. Accretion discs are ubiquitous in the Universe, and it is crucial to understand how angular momentum and mass are radially transported in these objects. Aims: Here, we study the role played by non-linear spiral patterns within hydrodynamical and non-self-gravitating accretion discs assuming that external disturbances such as infall onto the disc may trigger them. Methods: To do so, we computed self-similar solutions that describe discs in which a spiral wave propagates. These solutions present shocks and critical sonic points that were analyzed. Results: We calculated the wave structure for all allowed temperatures and for several spiral shocks. In particular, we inferred the angle of the spiral pattern, the stress it exerts on the disc, and the associated flux of mass and angular momentum as a function of temperature. We quantified the rate of angular momentum transport by means of the dimensionless α parameter. For the thickest disc we considered (corresponding to h/r values of about one-third), we found values of α as high as 0.1 that scaled with the temperature T such that α ∝ T3 / 2 ∝ (h/r)3. The spiral angle scales with the temperature as arctan(r/h). Conclusions: These solutions suggests that perturbations occurring at disc outer boundaries, such as perturbations due to infall motions, can propagate deep inside the disc and therefore should not be ignored, even when considering small radii.

  4. Accretion and magnetic field morphology around Class 0 stage protostellar discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifried, D.; Banerjee, R.; Pudritz, R. E.; Klessen, R. S.

    2015-01-01

    We analyse simulations of turbulent, magnetized molecular cloud cores focusing on the formation of Class 0 stage protostellar discs and the physical conditions in their surroundings. We show that for a wide range of initial conditions Keplerian discs are formed in the Class 0 stage already. In particular, we show that even subsonic turbulent motions reduce the magnetic braking efficiency sufficiently in order to allow rotationally supported discs to form. We therefore suggest that already during the Class 0 stage the fraction of Keplerian discs is significantly higher than 50 per cent, consistent with recent observational trends but significantly higher than predictions based on simulations with misaligned magnetic fields, demonstrating the importance of turbulent motions for the formation of Keplerian discs. We show that the accretion of mass and angular momentum in the surroundings of protostellar discs occurs in a highly anisotropic manner, by means of a few narrow accretion channels. The magnetic field structure in the vicinity of the discs is highly disordered, revealing field reversals up to distances of 1000 au. These findings demonstrate that as soon as even mild turbulent motions are included, the classical disc formation scenario of a coherently rotating environment and a well-ordered magnetic field breaks down. Hence, it is highly questionable to assess the magnetic braking efficiency based on non-turbulent collapse simulation. We strongly suggest that, in addition to the global magnetic field properties, the small-scale accretion flow and detailed magnetic field structure have to be considered in order to assess the likelihood of Keplerian discs to be present.

  5. Self-similar evolution of self-gravitating viscous accretion discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illenseer, Tobias F.; Duschl, Wolfgang J.

    2015-06-01

    A new one-dimensional, dynamical model is proposed for geometrically thin, self-gravitating viscous accretion discs. The vertically integrated equations are simplified using the slow accretion limit and the monopole approximation with a time-dependent central point mass to account for self-gravity and accretion. It is shown that the system of partial differential equations can be reduced to a single non-linear advection diffusion equation which describes the time evolution of angular velocity. In order to solve the equation, three different turbulent viscosity prescriptions are considered. It is shown that for these parametrizations the differential equation allows for similarity transformations depending only on a single non-dimensional parameter. A detailed analysis of the similarity solutions reveals that this parameter is the initial power-law exponent of the angular velocity distribution at large radii. The radial dependence of the self-similar solutions is in most cases given by broken power laws. At small radii, the rotation law always becomes Keplerian with respect to the current central point mass. In the outer regions, the power-law exponent of the rotation law deviates from the Keplerian value and approaches asymptotically the value determined by the initial condition. It is shown that accretion discs with flatter rotation laws at large radii yield higher accretion rates. The methods are applied to self-gravitating accretion discs in active galactic nuclei. Fully self-gravitating discs are found to evolve faster than nearly Keplerian discs. The implications on supermassive black hole formation and Quasar evolution are discussed.

  6. Magnetic fields during the early stages of massive star formation - I. Accretion and disc evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifried, D.; Banerjee, R.; Klessen, R. S.; Duffin, D.; Pudritz, R. E.

    2011-10-01

    We present simulations of collapsing 100 M⊙ mass cores in the context of massive star formation. The effect of variable initial rotational and magnetic energies on the formation of massive stars is studied in detail. We focus on accretion rates and on the question under which conditions massive Keplerian discs can form in the very early evolutionary stage of massive protostars. For this purpose, we perform 12 simulations with different initial conditions extending over a wide range in parameter space. The equations of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) are solved under the assumption of ideal MHD. We find that the formation of Keplerian discs in the very early stages is suppressed for a mass-to-flux ratio normalized to the critical value μ below 10, in agreement with a series of low-mass star formation simulations. This is caused by very efficient magnetic braking resulting in a nearly instantaneous removal of angular momentum from the disc. For weak magnetic fields, corresponding to μ≳ 10, large-scale, centrifugally supported discs build up with radii exceeding 100 au. A stability analysis reveals that the discs are supported against gravitationally induced perturbations by the magnetic field and tend to form single stars rather than multiple objects. We find protostellar accretion rates of the order of a few 10-4 M⊙ yr-1 which, considering the large range covered by the initial conditions, vary only by a factor of ˜ 3 between the different simulations. We attribute this fact to two competing effects of magnetic fields. On the one hand, magnetic braking enhances accretion by removing angular momentum from the disc thus lowering the centrifugal support against gravity. On the other hand, the combined effect of magnetic pressure and magnetic tension counteracts gravity by exerting an outward directed force on the gas in the disc thus reducing the accretion on to the protostars.

  7. The diffusion of contaminant through an accretion disc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, C. J.; Pringle, J. E.

    1988-01-01

    The manner in which a trace contaminant diffuses through an accretion disk is calculated. For a steady disk in which the ratio of diffusivity to viscosity, zeta, is taken to be constant through the disk and for which the surface density distribution is taken to be a power law, analytic solutions to the time-dependent equations governing contaminant evolution are presented. The amount of contaminant which can diffuse its way outwards against the bulk inward accretion flow is calculated, and it is shown that this is a sensitive function of a and zeta.

  8. Efficiency of gas cooling and accretion at the disc-corona interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armillotta, L.; Fraternali, F.; Marinacci, F.

    2016-11-01

    In star-forming galaxies, stellar feedback can have a dual effect on the circumgalactic medium both suppressing and stimulating gas accretion. The trigger of gas accretion can be caused by disc material ejected into the halo in the form of fountain clouds and by its interaction with the surrounding hot corona. Indeed, at the disc-corona interface, the mixing between the cold/metal-rich disc gas (T ≲ 104 K) and the hot coronal gas (T ≳ 106 K) can dramatically reduce the cooling time of a portion of the corona and produce its condensation and accretion. We studied the interaction between fountain clouds and corona in different galactic environments through parsec-scale hydrodynamical simulations, including the presence of thermal conduction, a key mechanism that influences gas condensation. Our simulations showed that the coronal gas condensation strongly depends on the galactic environment, in particular it is less efficient for increasing virial temperature/mass of the haloes where galaxies reside and it is fully ineffective for objects with virial masses larger than 1013 M⊙. This result implies that the coronal gas cools down quickly in haloes with low-intermediate virial mass (Mvir ≲ 3 × 1012 M⊙) but the ability to cool the corona decreases going from late-type to early-type disc galaxies, potentially leading to the switching off of accretion and the quenching of star formation in massive systems.

  9. On the dynamics of misaligned accretion discs and spinning black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lodato, G.; Pringle, J. E.

    2005-12-01

    In this contribution, I discuss the dynamics of misaligned accretion discs and spinning black holes in Active Galactic Nuclei, by using a nself-consistent time-dependent approach, that allows to properly track the evolution of the spin of the black hole during the alignment process. I show that, contrary to previous beliefs, the disc angular momentum and the black hole spin can end up counter-aligned, in such a way that accretion proceeds through retrograde orbits. I will discuss the implications that this counter-aligned mode of accretion has on observables from AGNs, such as the shape of X-ray iron lines, the shape of jets, and the possibility of obscuration of the central engine. I will also discuss, more in general, the effects of the alignment (or counter-alignment) process on the spin history of super-massive black holes.

  10. On radial oscillations in viscous accretion discs surrounding neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Xingming; Taam, Ronald E.

    1992-01-01

    Radial oscillations resulting from axisymmetric perturbations in viscous accretion disks surrounding neutron stars in X-ray binary systems have been investigated. Within the framework of the alpha-viscosity model a series of hydrodynamic calculations demonstrates that the oscillations are global for alpha of about 1. On the other hand, for alpha of 0.4 or less, the oscillations are local and confined to the disk boundaries. If viscous stresses acting in the radial direction are included, however, it is found that the disk can be stabilized. The application of such instabilities in accretion disks, without reference to the boundary layer region between the neutron star (or magnetosphere) and the inner edge of the disk, to the phenomenology of quasi-periodic oscillations is brought into question.

  11. A test of truncation in the accretion discs of X-ray Binaries.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckersall, A.

    2016-06-01

    The truncated-disc model is generally used to help explain the change between the soft and hard states in X-ray Binaries, where the standard accretion disc is truncated in the inner regions and replaced by a radiatively inefficient accretion flow. There is still disagreement though in the extent of this truncation, particularly in at what point truncation begins. Here we analyze XMM EPIC-pn spectra in both the soft and hard states for a number of galactic XRBs, along with RGS data and the latest absorption and emission models to get an independent fit for the ISM column densities for each source. Specifically, we assume the 'canonical' model where the luminous accretion disc extends down to the innermost stable orbit at 6r_g, and construct a spectral model accounting for thermal, reflection and Compton processes ensuring consistent geometrical properties of the models. Rather than attempting to infer the inner disc location from spectral fitting and/or reflection models, we instead attempt a direct test of whether a consistent model will fit assuming no truncation. We discuss the implications for emission models of XRBs.

  12. Accretion disc time lag distributions: applying CREAM to simulated AGN light curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starkey, D. A.; Horne, Keith; Villforth, C.

    2016-02-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGN) vary in their brightness across all wavelengths. Moreover, longer wavelength ultraviolet-optical continuum light curves appear to be delayed with respect to shorter wavelength light curves. A simple way to model these delays is by assuming thermal reprocessing of a variable point source (a lamp post) by a blackbody accretion disc. We introduce a new method, CREAM (Continuum REprocessed AGN Markov Chain Monte Carlo), that models continuum variations using this lamp post model. The disc light curves lag the lamp post emission with a time delay distribution sensitive to the disc temperature-radius profile and inclination. We test CREAM's ability to recover both inclination and product of black hole mass and accretion rate {Mdot{M}}, and show that the code is also able to infer the shape of the driving light curve. CREAM is applied to synthetic light curves expected from 1000 s exposures of a 17th magnitude AGN with a 2-m telescope in Sloan g and i bands with Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) of 500-900 depending on the filter and lunar phase. We also test CREAM on poorer quality g and i light curves with SNR = 100. We find in the high-SNR case that CREAM can recover the accretion disc inclination to within an uncertainty of 5° and an {Mdot{M}} to within 0.04 dex.

  13. Forced Oscillations In Relativistic Accretion Discs And QPOs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petri, J. A.

    2006-08-01

    Quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) have been observed in accretion disks around compact stars with frequencies ranging from a few 0.1 Hz up to 1300 Hz. A correlation between their low- and high-frequency components was discovered and fitted with a single law, irrespective of the nature of the accreting star. That such a relation holds over 6~orders of magnitude strongly supports the idea that the physical mechanism responsible for these oscillations should be the same in all binary systems. We propose a new model for these QPOs based on forced oscillations induced in a relativistic accretion disk due to an asymmetric component in the stellar gravitational or magnetic field. It is shown that the disk experiences three kinds of resonances: corotation, Lindblad, and parametric resonance. 2D numerical simulations are in agreement with the aforementioned linear analysis. They are performed for the Newtonian gravitational potential, as well as for a pseudo-general relativistic potential. Density perturbations are only significant in the region near the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) where the perturbation is maximal. It is argued that the nearly periodic motion induced in the disk will produce high quality factor QPOs. Moreover, this model also explains the segregation between slow and fast rotating neutron stars. Indeed, the strongest resonance occurs when the frequency difference of the two highest modes equals either the spin frequency (for ``slow rotators'') or half of it (for ``fast rotators''). This discrimination is interpreted as a direct manifestation of the presence of an ISCO. Nevertheless, strong gravity is not needed to excite the modes.

  14. Viscous hydrodynamics simulations of circumbinary accretion discs: variability, quasi-steady state and angular momentum transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, Ryan; Muñoz, Diego J.; Lai, Dong

    2017-04-01

    We carry out numerical simulations of circumbinary discs, solving the viscous hydrodynamics equations on a polar grid covering an extended disc outside the binary co-orbital region. We use carefully controlled outer boundary conditions and long-term integrations to ensure that the disc reaches a quasi-steady state, in which the time-averaged mass accretion rate on to the binary, < dot{M}>, matches the mass supply rate at the outer disc. We focus on binaries with comparable masses and a wide range of eccentricities (eB). For eB ≲ 0.05, the mass accretion rate of the binary is modulated at about five times the binary period; otherwise, it is modulated at the binary period. The inner part of the circumbinary disc (r ≲ 6aB) generally becomes coherently eccentric. For low and high eB, the disc line of apsides precesses around the binary, but for intermediate eB (0.2-0.4), it instead becomes locked with that of the binary. By considering the balance of angular momentum transport through the disc by advection, viscous stress and gravitational torque, we determine the time-averaged net angular momentum transfer rate to the binary, < dot{J}>. The specific angular momentum, l_0 = < dot{J}> /< dot{M}>, depends non-monotonically on eB. Contrary to previous claims, we find that l0 is positive for most eB, implying that the binary receives net angular momentum, which may cause its separation to grow with time. The minimum l0 occurs at intermediate eB (0.2-0.4), corresponding to the regime where the inner eccentric disc is apsidally aligned with the binary.

  15. Accretion of Phobos and Deimos in an extended debris disc stirred by transient moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenblatt, Pascal; Charnoz, Sebastien; Dunseath, Kevin M.; Terao-Dunseath, Mariko; Trinh, Antony; Hyodo, Ryuki; Genda, Hidenori; Toupin, Stéven

    2016-08-01

    Phobos and Deimos, the two small satellites of Mars, are thought either to be asteroids captured by the planet or to have formed in a disc of debris surrounding Mars following a giant impact. Both scenarios, however, have been unable to account for the current Mars system. Here we use numerical simulations to suggest that Phobos and Deimos accreted from the outer portion of a debris disc formed after a giant impact on Mars. In our simulations, larger moons form from material in the denser inner disc and migrate outwards due to gravitational interactions with the disc. The resulting orbital resonances spread outwards and gather dispersed outer disc debris, facilitating accretion into two satellites of sizes similar to Phobos and Deimos. The larger inner moons fall back to Mars after about 5 million years due to the tidal pull of the planet, after which the two outer satellites evolve into Phobos- and Deimos-like orbits. The proposed scenario can explain why Mars has two small satellites instead of one large moon. Our model predicts that Phobos and Deimos are composed of a mixture of material from Mars and the impactor.

  16. X-ray reverberation of the inner accretion disc in X-ray binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uttley, Phil; Cassatella, Pablo; Wilkinson, Tony; Wilms, Joern; Pottschmidt, Katja; Hanke, Manfred; Boeck, Moritz

    Rapid fluctuations in the Comptonised emission close to accreting compact objects should lead to reverberation of the accretion disc, both through X-ray heating of the disc (to produce a variable blackbody component) and also correlated changes in the disc reflection component, including the iron K line. If they can be detected, these reverberation signatures can provide powerful constraints on the geometry of the disc and Comptonising regions. The measure-ment of the reverberation delays will provide a natural 'yardstick' to measure the inner disc radius (in km, not R/M!) and so constrain the black hole spin or the neutron star equation of state. I will present new results from XMM-Newton and RXTE observations, which confirm the presence of X-ray reverberation in X-ray binary systems and allow the first measurement of reverberation delays. These results are a pathfinder which highlights the enormous po-tential of high-throughput spectral-timing with the proposed HTRS instrument on board the International X-ray Observatory.

  17. Magnetically elevated accretion discs in active galactic nuclei: broad emission-line regions and associated star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begelman, Mitchell C.; Silk, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    We propose that the accretion discs fueling active galactic nuclei (AGN) are supported vertically against gravity by a strong toroidal (φ-direction) magnetic field that develops naturally as the result of an accretion disc dynamo. The magnetic pressure elevates most of the gas carrying the accretion flow at R to large heights z ≳ 0.1R and low densities, while leaving a thin dense layer containing most of the mass - but contributing very little accretion - around the equator. We show that such a disc model leads naturally to the formation of a broad emission-line region through thermal instability. Extrapolating to larger radii, we demonstrate that local gravitational instability and associated star formation are strongly suppressed compared to standard disc models for AGN, although star formation in the equatorial zone is predicted for sufficiently high mass supply rates. This new class of accretion disc models thus appears capable of resolving two longstanding puzzles in the theory of AGN fueling: the formation of broad emission-line regions and the suppression of fragmentation thought to inhibit accretion at the required rates. We show that the disc of stars that formed in the Galactic Center a few million years ago could have resulted from an episode of magnetically elevated accretion at ≳ 0.1 of the Eddington limit.

  18. Zonal flow evolution and overstability in accretion discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanon, R.; Ogilvie, G. I.

    2017-04-01

    This work presents a linear analytical calculation on the stability and evolution of a compressible, viscous self-gravitating (SG) Keplerian disc with both horizontal thermal diffusion and a constant cooling time-scale when an axisymmetric structure is present and freely evolving. The calculation makes use of the shearing sheet model and is carried out for a range of cooling times. Although the solutions to the inviscid problem with no cooling or diffusion are well known, it is non-trivial to predict the effect caused by the introduction of cooling and of small diffusivities; this work focuses on perturbations of intermediate wavelengths, therefore representing an extension to the classical stability analysis on thermal and viscous instabilities. For density wave modes, the analysis can be simplified by means of a regular perturbation analysis; considering both shear and thermal diffusivities, the system is found to be overstable for intermediate and long wavelengths for values of the Toomre parameter Q ≲ 2; a non-SG instability is also detected for wavelengths ≳18H, where H is the disc scale-height, as long as γ ≲ 1.305. The regular perturbation analysis does not, however, hold for the entropy and potential vorticity slow modes as their ideal growth rates are degenerate. To understand their evolution, equations for the axisymmetric structure's amplitudes in these two quantities are analytically derived and their instability regions obtained. The instability appears boosted by increasing the value of the adiabatic index and of the Prandtl number, while it is quenched by efficient cooling.

  19. Beyond the Standard Scheme for Relativistic Spectral Line Profiles from Black Hole Accretion Discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karas, Vladimir; Sochora, V.; Svoboda, J.; Dovciak, M.

    2011-09-01

    Spectral features can arise by reflection of coronal X-rays on a black hole accretion disc. The resulting profile bears various imprints of strong gravitational field acting on the light emitting gas. We study if the currently discussed instruments on-board X-ray satellites will be able to reveal the departure of the line radial emissivity from a simple smooth power-law function, which is often assumed in data fitting and interpretation. Such a departure can be a result of excess emission occurring at a certain distance. This could be used to study variations with radius of the line production or to constrain the position of the inner edge of the accretion disc. By simulating artificial data from a bright active galactic nucleus we show that the required sensitivity and energy resolution could be reached with Large Area Detector of the proposed LOFT mission.

  20. HEROIC: 3D general relativistic radiative post-processor with comptonization for black hole accretion discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayan, Ramesh; Zhu, Yucong; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Saḑowski, Aleksander

    2016-03-01

    We describe Hybrid Evaluator for Radiative Objects Including Comptonization (HEROIC), an upgraded version of the relativistic radiative post-processor code HERO described in a previous paper, but which now Includes Comptonization. HEROIC models Comptonization via the Kompaneets equation, using a quadratic approximation for the source function in a short characteristics radiation solver. It employs a simple form of accelerated lambda iteration to handle regions of high scattering opacity. In addition to solving for the radiation field, HEROIC also solves for the gas temperature by applying the condition of radiative equilibrium. We present benchmarks and tests of the Comptonization module in HEROIC with simple 1D and 3D scattering problems. We also test the ability of the code to handle various relativistic effects using model atmospheres and accretion flows in a black hole space-time. We present two applications of HEROIC to general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics simulations of accretion discs. One application is to a thin accretion disc around a black hole. We find that the gas below the photosphere in the multidimensional HEROIC solution is nearly isothermal, quite different from previous solutions based on 1D plane parallel atmospheres. The second application is to a geometrically thick radiation-dominated accretion disc accreting at 11 times the Eddington rate. Here, the multidimensional HEROIC solution shows that, for observers who are on axis and look down the polar funnel, the isotropic equivalent luminosity could be more than 10 times the Eddington limit, even though the spectrum might still look thermal and show no signs of relativistic beaming.

  1. A transition in circumbinary accretion discs at a binary mass ratio of 1:25

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Orazio, Daniel J.; Haiman, Zoltán; Duffell, Paul; MacFadyen, Andrew; Farris, Brian

    2016-07-01

    We study circumbinary accretion discs in the framework of the restricted three-body problem (R3Bp) and via numerically solving the height-integrated equations of viscous hydrodynamics. Varying the mass ratio of the binary, we find a pronounced change in the behaviour of the disc near mass ratio q ≡ Ms/Mp ˜ 0.04. For mass ratios above q = 0.04, solutions for the hydrodynamic flow transition from steady, to strongly fluctuating; a narrow annular gap in the surface density around the secondary's orbit changes to a hollow central cavity; and a spatial symmetry is lost, resulting in a lopsided disc. This phase transition is coincident with the mass ratio above which stable orbits do not exist around the L4 and L5 equilibrium points of the R3Bp. Using the DISCO code, we find that for thin discs, for which a gap or cavity can remain open, the mass ratio of the transition is relatively insensitive to disc viscosity and pressure. The q = 0.04 transition has relevance for the evolution of massive black hole binary+disc systems at the centres of galactic nuclei, as well as for young stellar binaries and possibly planets around brown dwarfs.

  2. A pure hydrodynamic origin of accretion disk turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, Sujit Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Banibrata

    2016-07-01

    Accretion disks consist of flows for which angular velocity decreases but specific angular momentum increases with increasing radial coordinate. Such flows are Rayleigh stable, but must be turbulent in order to explain observed data. Since molecular viscosity is negligible in these systems, scientists have argued for turbulent viscosity for energy dissipation and hence to explain infall of matter. However, so far, the success to explain the origin of turbulence in accretion disks is done with caveats. Here we investigate the evolution of pure hydrodynamic perturbations in stochastically driven accretion disks. We show that the accretion flows, which are inevitably driven by stochastic noise, are hydrodynamically unstable under linear perturbations. We also argue that in accretion disks, stochastic forcing appears generically due to the presence of shear between different annuli of the disk. This work resolves the turbulence problem of accretion disks from pure hydrodynamics and explains the infall of matter for both hot and cold disks. This would help in explaining the origin of timing and spectral features in the disk flows generically.

  3. Magnetohydrodynamic Origin of Jets from Accretion Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovelace, R. V. E.; Romanova, M. M.

    1998-01-01

    A review is made of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory and simulation of outflows from disks for different distributions of magnetic field threading the disk. In one limit of a relatively weak, initially diverging magnetic field, both thermal and magnetic pressure gradients act to drive matter to an outflow, while a toroidal magnetic field develops which strongly collimates the outflow. The collimation greatly reduces the field divergence and the mass outflow rate decreases after an initial peak. In a second limit of a strong magnetic field, the initial field configuration was taken with the field strength on the disk decreasing outwards to small values so that collimation was reduced. As a result, a family of stationary solutions was discovered where matter is driven mainly by the strong magnetic pressure gradient force. The collimation in this case depends on the pressure of an external medium. These flows are qualitatively similar to the analytic solutions for magnetically driven outflows. The problem of the opening of a closed field line configuration linking a magnetized star and an accretion disk is also discussed.

  4. Evolution of accretion discs around a kerr black hole using extended magnetohydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foucart, Francois; Chandra, Mani; Gammie, Charles F.; Quataert, Eliot

    2016-02-01

    Black holes accreting well below the Eddington rate are believed to have geometrically thick, optically thin, rotationally supported accretion discs in which the Coulomb mean free path is large compared to GM/c2. In such an environment, the disc evolution may differ significantly from ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) predictions. We present non-ideal global axisymmetric simulations of geometrically thick discs around a rotating black hole. The simulations are carried out using a new code GRIM, which evolves a covariant extended magnetohydrodynamics model derived by treating non-ideal effects as a perturbation of ideal MHD. Non-ideal effects are modelled through heat conduction along magnetic field lines, and a difference between the pressure parallel and perpendicular to the field lines. The model relies on an effective collisionality in the disc from wave-particle scattering and velocity-space (mirror and firehose) instabilities. We find that the pressure anisotropy grows to match the magnetic pressure, at which point it saturates due to the mirror instability. The pressure anisotropy produces outward angular momentum transport with a magnitude comparable to that of MHD turbulence in the disc, and a significant increase in the temperature in the wall of the jet. We also find that, at least in our axisymmetric simulations, conduction has a small effect on the disc evolution because (1) the heat flux is constrained to be parallel to the field and the field is close to perpendicular to temperature gradients, and (2) the heat flux is choked by an increase in effective collisionality associated with the mirror instability.

  5. Modelling accretion disc and stellar wind interactions: the case of Sgr A*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christie, I. M.; Petropoulou, M.; Mimica, P.; Giannios, D.

    2016-07-01

    Sgr A* is an ideal target to study low-luminosity accreting systems. It has been recently proposed that properties of the accretion flow around Sgr A* can be probed through its interactions with the stellar wind of nearby massive stars belonging to the S-cluster. When a star intercepts the accretion disc, the ram and thermal pressures of the disc terminate the stellar wind leading to the formation of a bow shock structure. Here, a semi-analytical model is constructed which describes the geometry of the termination shock formed in the wind. With the employment of numerical hydrodynamic simulations, this model is both verified and extended to a region prone to Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. Because the characteristic wind and stellar velocities are in ˜108 cm s-1 range, the shocked wind may produce detectable X-rays via thermal bremsstrahlung emission. The application of this model to the pericentre passage of S2, the brightest member of the S-cluster, shows that the shocked wind produces roughly a month long X-ray flare with a peak luminosity of L ≈ 4 × 1033 erg s-1 for a stellar mass-loss rate, disc number density, and thermal pressure strength of dot{M}_w= 10^{-7} M_{⊙} yr^{-1}, nd = 105 cm-3, and α = 0.1, respectively. This peak luminosity is comparable to the quiescent X-ray emission detected from Sgr A* and is within the detection capabilities of current X-ray observatories. Its detection could constrain the density and thickness of the disc at a distance of ˜3000 gravitational radii from the supermassive black hole.

  6. Modelling accretion disc and stellar wind interactions: the case of Sgr A.

    PubMed

    Christie, I M; Petropoulou, M; Mimica, P; Giannios, D

    2016-07-01

    Sgr A* is an ideal target to study low-luminosity accreting systems. It has been recently proposed that properties of the accretion flow around Sgr A* can be probed through its interactions with the stellar wind of nearby massive stars belonging to the S-cluster. When a star intercepts the accretion disc, the ram and thermal pressures of the disc terminate the stellar wind leading to the formation of a bow shock structure. Here, a semi-analytical model is constructed which describes the geometry of the termination shock formed in the wind. With the employment of numerical hydrodynamic simulations, this model is both verified and extended to a region prone to Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. Because the characteristic wind and stellar velocities are in ∼10(8) cm s(-1) range, the shocked wind may produce detectable X-rays via thermal bremsstrahlung emission. The application of this model to the pericentre passage of S2, the brightest member of the S-cluster, shows that the shocked wind produces roughly a month long X-ray flare with a peak luminosity of L ≈ 4 × 10(33) erg s(-1) for a stellar mass-loss rate, disc number density, and thermal pressure strength of [Formula: see text], nd = 10(5) cm(-3), and α = 0.1, respectively. This peak luminosity is comparable to the quiescent X-ray emission detected from Sgr A* and is within the detection capabilities of current X-ray observatories. Its detection could constrain the density and thickness of the disc at a distance of ∼3000 gravitational radii from the supermassive black hole.

  7. Infalling clouds on to supermassive black hole binaries - I. Formation of discs, accretion and gas dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goicovic, F. G.; Cuadra, J.; Sesana, A.; Stasyszyn, F.; Amaro-Seoane, P.; Tanaka, T. L.

    2016-01-01

    There is compelling evidence that most - if not all - galaxies harbour a supermassive black hole (SMBH) at their nucleus; hence binaries of these massive objects are an inevitable product of the hierarchical evolution of structures in the Universe, and represent an important but thus-far elusive phase of galaxy evolution. Gas accretion via a circumbinary disc is thought to be important for the dynamical evolution of SMBH binaries, as well as in producing luminous emission that can be used to infer their properties. One plausible source of the gaseous fuel is clumps of gas formed due to turbulence and gravitational instabilities in the interstellar medium, that later fall towards and interact with the binary. In this context, we model numerically the evolution of turbulent clouds in near-radial infall on to equal-mass SMBH binaries, using a modified version of the SPH (smoothed particle hydrodynamics) code GADGET-3. We present a total of 12 simulations that explore different possible pericentre distances and relative inclinations, and show that the formation of circumbinary discs and discs around each SMBH (`mini-discs') depend on those parameters. We also study the dynamics of the formed discs, and the variability of the feeding rate on to the SMBHs in the different configurations.

  8. Density, Velocity and Ionization Structure in Accretion-Disc Winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonneborn, George (Technical Monitor); Long, Knox

    2004-01-01

    This was a project to exploit the unique capabilities of FUSE to monitor variations in the wind- formed spectral lines of the luminous, low-inclination, cataclysmic variables(CV) -- RW Sex. (The original proposal contained two additional objects but these were not approved.) These observations were intended to allow us to determine the relative roles of density and ionization state changes in the outflow and to search for spectroscopic signatures of stochastic small-scale structure and shocked gas. By monitoring the temporal behavior of blue-ward extended absorption lines with a wide range of ionization potentials and excitation energies, we proposed to track the changing physical conditions in the outflow. We planned to use a new Monte Carlo code to calculate the ionization structure of and radiative transfer through the CV wind. The analysis therefore was intended to establish the wind geometry, kinematics and ionization state, both in a time-averaged sense and as a function of time.

  9. X-Ray Evidence for the Accretion Disc-Outflow Connection in 3C 111

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tombesi, Frank; Sambruna, R. M.; Reeves, J. N.; Reynolds, C. S.; Braito, V.

    2011-01-01

    We present the spectral analysis of three Suzaku X-ray Imaging Spectrometer observations of 3C III requested to monitor the predicted variability of its ultrafast outflow on approximately 7 d time-scales. We detect an ionized iron emission line in the first observation and a blueshifted absorption line in the second, when the flux is approximately 30 per cent higher. The location of the material is constrained at less than 0.006 pc from the variability. Detailed modelling supports an identification with ionized reflection off the accretion disc at approximately 20-100rg from the black hole and a highly ionized and massive ultrafast outflow with velocity approximately 0.1c, respectively. The outflow is most probably accelerated by radiation pressure, but additional magnetic thrust cannot be excluded. The measured high outflow rate and mechanical energy support the claims that disc outflows may have a significant feedback role. This work provides the first direct evidence for an accretion disc-outflow connection in a radio-loud active galactic nucleus, possibly linked also to the jet activity.

  10. Variabilities of gamma-ray bursts from black hole hyper-accretion discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Da-Bin; Lu, Zu-Jia; Mu, Hui-Jun; Liu, Tong; Hou, Shu-Jin; Lü, Jing; Gu, Wei-Min; Liang, En-Wei

    2016-11-01

    The emission from black hole binaries (BHBs) and active galactic nuclei (AGNs) display significant aperiodic variabilities. The most promising explanation for these variabilities is the propagating fluctuations in the accretion flow. It is natural to expect that the mechanism driving variabilities in BHBs and AGNs may operate in a black hole hyper-accretion disc, which is believed to power gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). We study the variabilities of jet power in GRBs based on the model of propagating fluctuations. It is found that the variabilities of jet power and the temporal profile of erratic spikes in this scenario are similar to those in observed light curves of prompt gamma-ray emission of GRBs. Our results show that the mechanism driving X-ray variabilities in BHBs and AGNs may operate in the central engine to drive the variabilities of GRBs.

  11. Estimation of mass outflow rates from viscous relativistic accretion discs around black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyay, Indranil; Kumar, Rajiv

    2016-07-01

    We investigated flow in Schwarzschild metric, around a non-rotating black hole and obtained self-consistent accretion-ejection solution in full general relativity. We covered the whole of parameter space in the advective regime to obtain shocked, as well as, shock-free accretion solution. We computed the jet streamline using von Zeipel surfaces and projected the jet equations of motion on to the streamline and solved them simultaneously with the accretion disc equations of motion. We found that steady shock cannot exist beyond α ≳ 0.06 in the general relativistic prescription, but is lower if mass-loss is considered too. We showed that for fixed outer boundary, the shock moves closer to the horizon with increasing viscosity parameter. The mass outflow rate increases as the shock moves closer to the black hole, but eventually decreases, maximizing at some intermediate value of shock location. The jet terminal speed increases with stronger shocks; quantitatively speaking, the terminal speed of jets vj∞ > 0.1 if rsh < 20rg. The maximum of the outflow rate obtained in the general relativistic regime is less than 6 per cent of the mass accretion rate.

  12. A new way to measure supermassive black hole spin in accretion disc-dominated active galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Done, Chris; Jin, C.; Middleton, M.; Ward, Martin

    2013-09-01

    We show that disc continuum fitting can be used to constrain black hole spin in a subclass of narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) active galactic nuclei as their low mass and high mass accretion rate means that the disc peaks at energies just below the soft X-ray bandpass. We apply the technique to the NLS1 PG1244+026, where the optical/UV/X-ray spectrum is consistent with being dominated by a standard disc component. This gives a best estimate for black hole spin which is low, with a firm upper limit of a* <0.86. This contrasts with the recent X-ray determinations of (close to) maximal black hole spin in other NLS1 based on relativistic smearing of the iron profile. While our data on PG1244+026 do not have sufficient statistics at high energy to give a good measure of black hole spin from the iron line profile, cosmological simulations predict that black holes with similar masses have similar growth histories and so should have similar spins. This suggests that there is a problem either in our understanding of disc spectra, or/and X-ray reflection or/and the evolution of black hole spin.

  13. Powerful radiative jets in supercritical accretion discs around non-spinning black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sądowski, Aleksander; Narayan, Ramesh

    2015-11-01

    We describe a set of simulations of supercritical accretion on to a non-rotating supermassive black hole (BH). The accretion flow takes the form of a geometrically thick disc with twin low-density funnels around the rotation axis. For accretion rates {gtrsim } 10 dot{M}_Edd, there is sufficient gas in the funnel to make this region optically thick. Radiation from the disc first flows into the funnel, after which it accelerates the optically thick funnel gas along the axis. The resulting jet is baryon loaded and has a terminal density-weighted velocity ≈0.3c. Much of the radiative luminosity is converted into kinetic energy by the time the escaping gas becomes optically thin. These jets are not powered by BHrotation or magnetic driving, but purely by radiation. Their characteristic beaming angle is ˜0.2 rad. For an observer viewing down the axis, the isotropic equivalent luminosity of total energy is as much as 1048 erg s- 1 for a 107 M⊙ BH accreting at 103 Eddington. Therefore, energetically, the simulated jets are consistent with observations of the most powerful tidal disruption events, e.g. Swift J1644. The jet velocity is, however, too low to match the Lorentz factor γ > 2 inferred in J1644. There is no such conflict in the case of other tidal disruption events. Since favourably oriented observers see isotropic equivalent luminosities that are highly super-Eddington, the simulated models can explain observations of ultraluminous X-ray sources, at least in terms of luminosity and energetics, without requiring intermediate-mass BHs.

  14. Correlated X-ray/ultraviolet/optical variability and the nature of accretion disc in the bare Seyfert 1 galaxy Fairall 9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Main; Dewangan, Gulab C.; Connolly, S. D.; Misra, Ranjeev

    2017-04-01

    We study the multiwavelength variability of the bare Seyfert 1 galaxy Fairall 9 using Swift monitoring observations consisting of 165 usable pointings spanning nearly two years and covering six ultraviolet (UV)/optical bands and X-rays. Fairall 9 is highly variable in all bands though the variability amplitude decreases from X-ray to optical bands. The variations in the X-ray and UV/optical bands are strongly correlated. Our reverberation mapping analysis using the JAVALIN tool shows that the variation in the UV/optical bands lag behind the variations in the X-ray band by ∼2-10 d. These lag measurements strongly suggest that the optical/UV variations are mainly caused by variations in the X-rays, and the origin of most of the optical/UV emission is X-ray reprocessing. The observed lags are found to vary as τ ∝ λ1.36 ± 0.13, consistent with the prediction, τ ∝ λ4/3, for X-ray reprocessing in a standard accretion disc. However, the predicted lags for a standard accretion disc with X-ray reprocessing using the black hole mass (MBH ∼ 2.6 × 108 M⊙) estimated from the reverberation mapping of broad emission lines and the accretion rate relative to the Eddington rate (dot{m_E}=0.02) are shorter than the observed lags. These observations suggest that the accretion disc in Fairall 9 is larger than that predicted by the standard disc model, and confirm similar findings in a few other Seyfert 1 galaxies such as NGC 5548.

  15. Low-mass gas envelopes around accreting cores embedded in radiative 3D discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lega, Elena; Lambrechts, Michiel

    2016-10-01

    Planets with a core mass larger than few Earth masses and a gaseous envelope not exceeding about 10% of the total mass budget are common. Such planets are present in the Solar System (Uranus, Neptune) and are frequently observed around other stars.Our knowledge about the evolution of gas envelopes is mainly based on 1D models. However, such models cannot investigate the complex interaction between the forming envelope and the surrounding gas disc.In this work we perform 3D hydrodynamics simulations accounting for energy transfer and radiative cooling using the FARGOCA code (Lega et al., MNRAS 440, 2014). In addition to the usually considered heatingsources, namely viscous and compressional heating, we have modeled the energy deposited by the accretion of solids.We show that the thermal evolution of the envelope of a 5 Earth mass core is mainly dominated by compressional heating for accretion rates lower than 5 Earth masses per 105 years.Additionally, we demonstrate efficient gas circulation through the envelope. Under certain conditions, the competition between gas circulation and cooling of the envelope can efficiently delay the onset of runaway accretion. This could help in explaining the population of planets with low-mass gas envelope.

  16. A toy model for magnetic connection in black hole accretion disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ding-Xiong; Ye, Yong-Chun; Li, Yang; Liu, Dong-Mei

    2007-01-01

    A toy model for magnetic connection in black hole (BH) accretion disc is discussed based on a poloidal magnetic field generated by a single electric current flowing around a Kerr BH in the equatorial plane. We discuss the effects of the coexistence of two kinds of magnetic connection (MC) arising, respectively, from (1) the closed field lines connecting the BH horizon with the disc (henceforth MCHD) and (2) the closed field lines connecting the plunging region with the disc (henceforth MCPD). The magnetic field configuration is constrained by conservation of magnetic flux and a criterion of the screw instability of the magnetic field. Two parameters λ and αm are introduced to describe our model instead of resolving the complicated magnetohydrodynamic equations. Compared with MCHD, energy and angular momentum of the plunging particles are extracted via MCPD more effectively, provided that the BH spin is not very high. It turns out that negative energy can be delivered to the BH by the plunging particles without violating the second law of BH thermodynamics, however it cannot be realized via MCPD in a stable way.

  17. HERO - A 3D general relativistic radiative post-processor for accretion discs around black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yucong; Narayan, Ramesh; Sadowski, Aleksander; Psaltis, Dimitrios

    2015-08-01

    HERO (Hybrid Evaluator for Radiative Objects) is a 3D general relativistic radiative transfer code which has been tailored to the problem of analysing radiation from simulations of relativistic accretion discs around black holes. HERO is designed to be used as a post-processor. Given some fixed fluid structure for the disc (i.e. density and velocity as a function of position from a hydrodynamic or magnetohydrodynamic simulation), the code obtains a self-consistent solution for the radiation field and for the gas temperatures using the condition of radiative equilibrium. The novel aspect of HERO is that it combines two techniques: (1) a short-characteristics (SC) solver that quickly converges to a self-consistent disc temperature and radiation field, with (2) a long-characteristics (LC) solver that provides a more accurate solution for the radiation near the photosphere and in the optically thin regions. By combining these two techniques, we gain both the computational speed of SC and the high accuracy of LC. We present tests of HERO on a range of 1D, 2D, and 3D problems in flat space and show that the results agree well with both analytical and benchmark solutions. We also test the ability of the code to handle relativistic problems in curved space. Finally, we discuss the important topic of ray defects, a major limitation of the SC method, and describe our strategy for minimizing the induced error.

  18. Linear and non-linear evolution of the vertical shear instability in accretion discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Richard P.; Gressel, Oliver; Umurhan, Orkan M.

    2013-11-01

    We analyse the stability and non-linear dynamics of power-law accretion disc models. These have mid-plane densities that follow radial power laws and have either temperature or entropy distributions that are strict power-law functions of cylindrical radius, R. We employ two different hydrodynamic codes to perform high-resolution 2D axisymmetric and 3D simulations that examine the long-term evolution of the disc models as a function of the power-law indices of the temperature or entropy, the disc scaleheight, the thermal relaxation time of the fluid and the disc viscosity. We present an accompanying stability analysis of the problem, based on asymptotic methods, that we use to guide our interpretation of the simulation results. We find that axisymmetric disc models whose temperature or entropy profiles cause the equilibrium angular velocity to vary with height are unstable to the growth of perturbations whose most obvious character is modes with horizontal and vertical wavenumbers that satisfy |kR/kZ| ≫ 1. Instability occurs only when the thermodynamic response of the fluid is isothermal, or the thermal evolution time is comparable to or shorter than the local dynamical time-scale. These discs appear to exhibit the Goldreich-Schubert-Fricke or `vertical shear' linear instability. Closer inspection of the simulation results uncovers the growth of two distinct modes. The first are characterized by very short radial wavelength perturbations that grow rapidly at high latitudes in the disc, and descend down towards the mid-plane on longer time-scales. We refer to these as `finger modes' because they display kR/kZ ≫ 1. The second appear at slightly later times in the main body of the disc, including near the mid-plane. These `body modes' have somewhat longer radial wavelengths. Early on they manifest themselves as fundamental breathing modes, but quickly become corrugation modes as symmetry about the mid-plane is broken. The corrugation modes are a prominent feature

  19. Mass-loss from advective accretion disc around rotating black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aktar, Ramiz; Das, Santabrata; Nandi, Anuj

    2015-11-01

    We examine the properties of the outflowing matter from an advective accretion disc around a spinning black hole. During accretion, rotating matter experiences centrifugal pressure-supported shock transition that effectively produces a virtual barrier around the black hole in the form of post-shock corona (hereafter PSC). Due to shock compression, PSC becomes hot and dense that eventually deflects a part of the inflowing matter as bipolar outflows because of the presence of extra thermal gradient force. In our approach, we study the outflow properties in terms of the inflow parameters, namely specific energy (E) and specific angular momentum (λ) considering the realistic outflow geometry around the rotating black holes. We find that spin of the black hole (ak) plays an important role in deciding the outflow rate R_{dot{m}} (ratio of mass flux of outflow to inflow); in particular, R_{dot{m}} is directly correlated with ak for the same set of inflow parameters. It is found that a large range of the inflow parameters allows global accretion-ejection solutions, and the effective area of the parameter space (E, λ) with and without outflow decreases with black hole spin (ak). We compute the maximum outflow rate (R^{max}_{dot{m}}) as a function of black hole spin (ak) and observe that R^{max}_{dot{m}} weakly depends on ak that lies in the range ˜10-18 per cent of the inflow rate for the adiabatic index (γ) with 1.5 ≥ γ ≥ 4/3. We present the observational implication of our approach while studying the steady/persistent jet activities based on the accretion states of black holes. We discuss that our formalism seems to have the potential to explain the observed jet kinetic power for several Galactic black hole sources and active galactic nuclei.

  20. The central parsecs of M87: jet emission and an elusive accretion disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto, M. A.; Fernández-Ontiveros, J. A.; Markoff, S.; Espada, D.; González-Martín, O.

    2016-04-01

    We present the first simultaneous spectral energy distribution (SED) of M87 core at a scale of 0.4 arcsec ( ˜ 32 pc) across the electromagnetic spectrum. Two separate, quiescent, and active states are sampled that are characterized by a similar featureless SED of power-law form, and that are thus remarkably different from that of a canonical active galactic nuclei or a radiatively inefficient accretion source. We show that the emission from a jet gives an excellent representation of the core of M87 core covering ten orders of magnitude in frequency for both the active and the quiescent phases. The inferred total jet power is, however, one to two orders of magnitude lower than the jet mechanical power reported in the literature. The maximum luminosity of a thin accretion disc allowed by the data yields an accretion rate of < 6 × 10- 5 M⊙ yr- 1, assuming 10 per cent efficiency. This power suffices to explain M87 radiative luminosity at the jet frame, it is however two to three order of magnitude below that required to account for the jet's kinetic power. The simplest explanation is variability, which requires the core power of M87 to have been two to three orders of magnitude higher in the last 200 yr. Alternatively, an extra source of power may derive from black hole spin. Based on the strict upper limit on the accretion rate, such spin power extraction requires an efficiency an order of magnitude higher than predicted from magnetohydrodynamic simulations, currently in the few hundred per cent range.

  1. On the origin of horseshoes in transitional discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragusa, Enrico; Dipierro, Giovanni; Lodato, Giuseppe; Laibe, Guillaume; Price, Daniel J.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate whether the rings, lopsided features and horseshoes observed at millimetre (mm) wavelengths in transitional discs can be explained by the dynamics of gas and dust at the edge of the cavity in circumbinary discs. We use 3D dusty smoothed particle hydrodynamics calculations to show that binaries with mass ratio q ≳ 0.04 drive eccentricity in the central cavity, naturally leading to a crescent-like feature in the gas density, which is accentuated in the mm dust grain population with intensity contrasts in mm continuum emission of 10 or higher. We perform mock observations to demonstrate that these features closely match those observed by the Atacama Large Millimetre/Submillimetre Array, suggesting that the origin of rings, dust horseshoes and other non-axisymmetric structures in transition discs can be explained by the presence of massive companions.

  2. Spiral structures and temperature distribution in the quiescent accretion disc of the cataclysmic binary V2051 Ophiuchi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutkowski, A.; Waniak, W.; Preston, G.; Pych, W.

    2016-12-01

    We present the capabilities of our new code for obtaining Doppler maps implementing the maximum likelihood approach. As test data, we used observations of the dwarf nova V2051 Ophiuchi. The system was observed in quiescence at least 16 d before the onset of the next outburst. Using Doppler maps obtained for ten emission lines covering three orbital cycles, we detected spiral structures in the accretion disc of V2051 Oph. However, these structures could be biased as our data sampled the orbital period of the binary at only eight different orbital phases. Our Doppler maps show evolution from a one-arm wave structure in Hα to two-armed waves in the other lines. The location of the two-arm structures agrees with simulations showing tidally driven spiral waves in the accretion disc. During consecutive cycles, the qualitative characteristics of the detected structures remained similar but the central absorption increased. For the first time, using the Doppler tomography method, we obtained temperature maps of the accretion disc. However, taking into account all the assumptions involved when using our method to retrieve them, the result should be treated with caution. Our maps present a relatively flat distribution of the temperature over the disc, showing no temperature increase at the location of the spiral arms. Using `ring masking', we have revealed an ionized region located close to the expected location of stream-disc interactions. We found the average temperature of the accretion disc to be 5600 K, which is below the critical limit deduced from the disc instability model.

  3. Origin of structures in disc galaxies: internal or external processes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athanassoula, E.

    2015-03-01

    Disc galaxies have a number of structures, such as bars, spirals, rings, discy bulges, m = 1 asymmetries, thick discs, warps etc. I will summarise what is known about their origin and in particular whether it is due to an external or an internal process. The former include interactions, major or minor mergers etc, while the latter include instabilities, or driving by another component of the same galaxy, as e.g. the bar or the halo. In cases where more than one process is eligible, I will analyse whether it is possible to distinguish between different origins, and what it would take to do so. This discussion will show that, at least in some cases, it is difficult to distinguish between an internal and an external origin.

  4. X-ray reflection from black-hole accretion discs with a radially stratified ionisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svoboda, J.; Domcek, V.; Dovčiak, M.; Guainazzi, M.; Marinucci, A.

    2015-07-01

    Recent X-ray observations have suggested a very high compactness of coronae in Active Galactic Nuclei as well as in X-ray Binaries. The compactness of the source implies that the black-hole accretion disc irradiation is a strong function of radius. We will show how the X-ray spectra are modified assuming the radially stratified ionisation according to the illumination by a point-like source on the black-hole rotational axis. We will discuss how this affects the measurements of the other model parameters, such as spin and radial emissivity. We will show the application of this model to the recent XMM-Newton/NUSTAR data of an active galaxy MCG-6-30-15.

  5. Line formation and the Poynting-Robertson effect in accretion discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, Douglas Lee

    1992-01-01

    A combination of the Sobolev method and a linearization method is used to calculate line profiles from accretion discs which have outer parts optically thin in the continuum, but optically thick in the lines. The Sobolev method is used to find the mean intensity in the lines. The level populations are assumed to be in statistical equilibrium, and it is only the equation governing this equilibrium that is linearized. The temperature in the outer parts is specified as a function of radius. The computed line profiles are compared with those observed from the dwarf nova U Geminorum. The special relativistic equations of motion for a particle and the general relativistic equations of motion for a fluid in an arbitrary radiation field are formulated. The Poynting-Robertson forces are manifested in some of the velocity dependent terms so obtained. Newtonian approximations to the equations of motion are solved for a particle in orbit about a spherically symmetric source of radiation, where the angular size of the source as seen from the orbit is arbitrary. Situations are considered in which the absorption cross section of the particle is independent of frequency as well as when the particle is an atom absorbing in a spectral line. In both instances it is found that the finite size of the source of radiation leads to Poynting-Robertson drags greater than those caused by a point source of the same luminosity. The Newtonian equations are solved for a particle moving radially outward from the source. Limits for the velocities of high speed particles due to Poynting-Robertson drags are obtained. The fluid equations are discussed briefly in their relation to theoretical treatments of relativistic jets and accretion discs.

  6. Photon-conserving Comptonization in simulations of accretion discs around black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sądowski, Aleksander; Narayan, Ramesh

    2015-12-01

    We introduce a new method for treating Comptonization in computational fluid dynamics. By construction, this method conserves the number of photons. Whereas the traditional `blackbody Comptonization' approach assumes that the radiation is locally a perfect blackbody and therefore uses a single parameter, the radiation temperature, to describe the radiation, the new `photon-conserving Comptonization' approach treats the photon gas as a Bose-Einstein fluid and keeps track of both the radiation temperature and the photon number density. We have implemented photon-conserving Comptonization in the general relativistic radiation magnetohydrodynamical code KORAL and we describe its impact on simulations of mildly supercritical black hole accretion discs. We find that blackbody Comptonization underestimates the gas and radiation temperature by up to a factor of 2 compared to photon-conserving Comptonization. This discrepancy could be serious when computing spectra. The photon-conserving simulation indicates that the spectral colour correction factor of the escaping radiation in the funnel region of the disc could be as large as 5.

  7. Long-term quasi-periodicity of 4U 1636-536 resulting from accretion disc instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisniewicz, Mateusz; Zdziarski, Andrzej; Janiuk, Agnieszka; Rosinska, Dorota; Slowikowska, Agnieszka

    2016-07-01

    We present the results of a study of the low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1636-536. We have performed temporal analysis of all available RXTE/ASM, RXTE/PCA, Swift/BAT and MAXI data. We have confirmed the previously discovered quasi-periodicity of ˜45 d present during ˜2004, however we found it continued to 2006. At other epochs, the quasi-periodicity is only transient, and the quasi-period, if present, drifts. We have then applied a time-dependent accretion disc model to the interval with the significant X-ray quasi-periodicity. For our best model, the period and the amplitude of the theoretical light curve agree well with that observed. The modelled quasi-periodicity is due to the hydrogen thermal-ionization instability occurring in outer regions of the accretion disc. The model parameters are the average mass accretion rate (estimated from the light curves), and the accretion disc viscosity parameters, α_{cold} and α_{hot}, for the hot and cold phases, respectively. Our best model gives relatively low values of α_{cold} and α_{hot}.

  8. Warping of an accretion disc and launching of a jet by a spinning black hole in NGC 4258

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qingwen; Yan, Hao; Yi, Zhu

    2013-12-01

    We fit the most up-to-date broad-band spectral energy distribution from radio to X-rays for NGC 4258 with a coupled accretion-jet model that surrounds a Kerr black hole (BH). Here, both the jet and the warped H2O maser disc are assumed to be triggered by a spinning BH through the Blandford-Znajek mechanism and the Bardeen-Petterson effect, respectively. The accretion flow consists of an inner radiatively inefficient accretion flow and an outer truncated standard thin disc, where the transition radius Rtr ≃ 3 × 103Rg for NGC 4258, based on the width and variability of its narrow Fe Kα line. The hybrid jet formation model, as a variant of the Blandford-Znajek model, is used to model the jet power. Therefore, we can estimate the accretion rate and BH spin through the two observed quantities (i.e. X-ray emission and jet power), where the observed jet power is estimated from the low-frequency radio emission. Using this method, we find that the BH of NGC 4258 should be mildly spinning with dimensionless spin parameter a* ≃ 0.7 ± 0.2. The outer thin disc mainly radiates at the near-infrared waveband and the jet contributes predominantly at the radio waveband. Using the above-estimated BH spin and the inferred accretion rate at the region of the maser disc based on the physical existence of the H2O maser, we find that the warp radius is ˜8.6 × 104Rg if it is driven by the Bardeen-Petterson effect. This is very consistent with the observational result.

  9. The mass donor star and the accretion disc of the dwarf nova V2051 Ophiuchi in the infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojcikiewicz, Eduardo; Baptista, Raymundo; Ribeiro, Tiago

    2016-07-01

    We report the analysis of infrared JHK_s high speed photometry of the dwarf nova V2051 Oph in quiescence. We model the ellipsoidal variations in the light curve to measure the fluxes of the mass donor star. Its colors are consistent with an M8 ± 1 spectral type with an equivalent blackbody temperature of T_{bb}= (2700± 300) K, in agreement with spectroscopic measurements and with theoretical expectation for donor stars at the same orbital period. We use the mass donor star fluxes and the Barnes & Evans relation to find a photometric parallax distance of (102 ± 16) pc to the binary. At this distance the outbursts of V2051 Oph occur at disc temperatures everywhere lower than the minimum/critical temperature predicted by the disc instability model, underscoring previous suggestions that they are powered by mass transfer bursts. We subtract the contribution of the mass donor star and apply eclipse mapping techniques to the remaining light curve in order to investigate the structure and emission of its accretion disc. The infrared accretion disc is bright and 'blue' in the inner regions and becomes progressively fainter and redder with increasing radii, indicating that the disc temperature decreases with radius. Bulges in the eclipse shape, more prominent in the H and K_s bands, lead to asymmetric arcs in the eclipse maps reminiscent of the spiral arms found in disc maps of outbursting dwarf novae. The arcs show an azimuthal extent of ˜90^o, extend from the intermediate to the outer disc regions (0.3-0.4 R_{L1}, where R_{L1} is the distance from disc center to the inner lagrangian point), and account for ≃ 30 per cent of the total flux in the H and K_s bands.

  10. The origin of UV-optical variability in AGN and test of disc models: XMM-Newton and ground-based observations of NGC 4395

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHardy, I. M.; Connolly, S. D.; Peterson, B. M.; Bieryla, A.; Chand, H.; Elvis, M. S.; Emmanoulopoulos, D.; Falco, E.; Gandhi, P.; Kaspi, S.; Latham, D.; Lira, P.; McCully, C.; Netzer, H.; Uemura, M.

    2016-05-01

    The origin of short timescale (weeks/months) variability of AGN, whether due to intrinsic disc variations or reprocessing of X-ray emission by a surrounding accretion disc, has been a puzzle for many years. However recently a number of observational programmes, particularly of NGC 5548 with Swift, have shown that the UV/optical variations lag behind the X-ray variations in a manner strongly supportive of X-ray reprocessing. Somewhat surprisingly, the implied size of the accretion disc is ∼3 times greater than expected from a standard, smooth, Shakura-Sunyaev thin disc model. Although the difference may be explained by a clumpy accretion disc, it is not clear whether the difference will occur in all AGN or whether it may change as, eg, a function of black hole mass, accretion rate, or disc temperature. Measurements of interband lags for most AGN require long timescale monitoring, which is hard to arrange. However for low mass (< 106 M⊙) AGN, the combination of XMM-Newton EPIC (X-rays) with the optical monitor in fast readout mode allows an X-ray/UV-optical lag to be measured within a single long observation. Here we summarise previous related observations and report on XMM-Newton observations of NGC 4395 (mass 100 times lower, accretion rate ∼20 times lower than for NGC 5548). We find that the UVW1 lags the X-rays by ∼ 470 s. Simultaneous observations at 6 different ground based observatories also allowed the g-band lag (∼ 800s) to be measured. These observations are in agreement with X-ray reprocessing but initial analysis suggests that, for NGC 4395, they do not differ markedly from the predictions of the standard thin disc model.

  11. Testing black hole neutrino-dominated accretion discs for long-duration gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Cui-Ying; Liu, Tong; Gu, Wei-Min; Tian, Jian-Xiang

    2016-05-01

    Long-duration gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) are generally considered to originate from the massive collapsars. It is believed that the central engine of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is a neutrino-dominated accretion flow (NDAF) around a rotating stellar-mass black hole (BH). The neutrino annihilation above the NDAF is a feasible mechanism to power GRB. In this work, we analyse the distributions of the isotropic gamma-ray-radiated energy and jet kinetic energy of 48 LGRBs. According to the NDAF and fireball models, we estimate the mean accreted masses of LGRBs in our sample to investigate whether the NDAFs can power LGRBs with the reasonable BH parameters and conversion efficiency of neutrino annihilation. The results indicate that most of the values of the accreted masses are less than 5 M⊙ for the extreme Kerr BHs and high conversion efficiency. It suggests that the NDAFs may be suitable for most of LGRBs except for some extremely high energy sources.

  12. Comparison of ejection events in the jet and accretion disc outflows in 3C 111

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tombesi, F.; Sambruna, R. M.; Marscher, A. P.; Jorstad, S. G.; Reynolds, C. S.; Markowitz, A.

    2012-07-01

    We present a comparison of the parameters of accretion disc outflows and the jet of the broad-line radio galaxy 3C 111 on subparsec (sub-pc) scales. We make use of published X-ray observations of ultra-fast outflows (UFOs) and new 43-GHz Very Long Baseline Array images to track the jet knot ejection. We find that the superluminal jet coexists with the mildly relativistic outflows on sub-pc scales, possibly indicating a transverse stratification of a global flow. The two are roughly in pressure equilibrium, with the UFOs potentially providing additional support for the initial jet collimation. The UFOs are much more massive than the jet, but their kinetic power is probably about an order of magnitude lower, at least for the observations considered here. However, their momentum flux is equivalent and both of them are powerful enough to exert a concurrent feedback impact on the surrounding environment. A link between these components is naturally predicted in the context of magnetohydrodynamic models for jet/outflow formation. However, given the high radiation throughput of active galactic nuclei, radiation pressure should also be taken into account. From the comparison with the long-term 2-10 keV Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer light curve, we find that the UFOs are preferentially detected during periods of increasing flux. We also find the possibility to place the UFOs within the known X-ray dips-jet ejection cycles, which has been shown to be a strong proof of the disc-jet connection, in analogue with stellar mass black holes. However, given the limited number of observations presently available, these relations are only tentative and additional spectral monitoring is needed to test them conclusively.

  13. Comparison of Ejection Events in the Jet and Accretion Disc Outflows in 3C 111

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tombesi, F.; Sambruna, R. M.; Marscher, A. P.; Jorstad, S. G.; Reynolds, C. S.; Markowtiz, A.

    2012-01-01

    We present a comparison of the parameters of accretion disc outflows and the jet of the broad-line radio galaxy 3C 111 on sub-pc scales. We make use of published X-ray observations of ultra-fast outflows (UFOs) and new 43 GHz VLBA images to track the jet knots ejection. We find that the superluminal jet coexists with the mildly relativistic outflows on sub-pc scales, possibly indicating a transverse stratification of a global flow. The two are roughly in pressure equilibrium, with the UFOs potentially providing additional support for the initial jet collimation. The UFOs are much more massive than the jet, but their kinetic power is probably about an order of magnitude lower, at least for the observations considered here. However, their momentum flux is equivalent and both of them are powerful enough to exert a concurrent feedback impact on the surrounding environment. A link between these components is naturally predicted in the context of MHD models for jet/outflow formation. However, given the high radiation throughput of AGNs, radiation pressure should also be taken into account. From the comparison with the long-term 2-10 keV RXTE light curve we find that the UFOs are preferentially detected during periods of increasing flux. We also find the possibility to place the UFOs within the known X-ray dips-jet ejection cycles, which has been shown to be a strong proof of the disc-jet connection, in analogue with stellar-mass black holes. However, given the limited number of observations presently available, these relations are only tentative and additional spectral monitoring is needed to test them conclusively.

  14. Collective molecular dissipation on Navier-Stokes macroscopic scales: Accretion disc viscous modeling in SPH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzafame, Giuseppe

    2015-02-01

    In the nonlinear Navier-Stokes viscous flow dynamics, physical damping is mathematically accomplished by a braking term in the momentum equation, corresponding to a heating term in the energy equation, both responsible of the conversion of mechanical energy into heat. In such two terms, it is essential the role of the viscous stress tensor, relative to contiguous macroscopic moving flow components, depending on the macroscopic viscosity coefficient ν. A working formulation for ν can always be found analytically, tuning some arbitrary parameters in the current known formulations, according to the geometry, morphology and physics of the flow. Instead, in this paper, we write an alternative hybrid formulation for ν, where molecular parameters are also included. Our expression for ν has a more physical interpretation of the internal damping in dilute gases because the macroscopic viscosity is related to the small scale molecular dissipation, not strictly dependent on the flow morphology, as well as it is free of any arbitrary parameter. Results for some basic 2D tests are shown in the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) framework. An application to the 3D accretion disc modeling for low mass cataclysmic variables is also discussed. Consequences of the macroscopic viscosity coefficient reformulation in a more strictly physical terms on the thermal conductivity coefficient for dilute gases are also discussed.

  15. Active galactic nuclei at z ˜ 1.5 - III. Accretion discs and black hole spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capellupo, D. M.; Netzer, H.; Lira, P.; Trakhtenbrot, B.; Mejía-Restrepo, J.

    2016-07-01

    This is the third paper in a series describing the spectroscopic properties of a sample of 39 AGN at z ˜ 1.5, selected to cover a large range in black hole mass (MBH) and Eddington ratio (L/LEdd). In this paper, we continue the analysis of the VLT/X-shooter observations of our sample with the addition of nine new sources. We use an improved Bayesian procedure, which takes into account intrinsic reddening, and improved MBH estimates, to fit thin accretion disc (AD) models to the observed spectra and constrain the spin parameter (a*) of the central black holes. We can fit 37 out of 39 AGN with the thin AD model, and for those with satisfactory fits, we obtain constraints on the spin parameter of the BHs, with the constraints becoming generally less well defined with decreasing BH mass. Our spin parameter estimates range from ˜-0.6 to maximum spin for our sample, and our results are consistent with the `spin-up' scenario of BH spin evolution. We also discuss how the results of our analysis vary with the inclusion of non-simultaneous GALEX photometry in our thin AD fitting. Simultaneous spectra covering the rest-frame optical through far-UV are necessary to definitively test the thin AD theory and obtain the best constraints on the spin parameter.

  16. Production of the entire range of r-process nuclides by black hole accretion disc outflows from neutron star mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Meng-Ru; Fernández, Rodrigo; Martínez-Pinedo, Gabriel; Metzger, Brian D.

    2016-12-01

    We consider r-process nucleosynthesis in outflows from black hole accretion discs formed in double neutron star and neutron star-black hole mergers. These outflows, powered by angular momentum transport processes and nuclear recombination, represent an important - and in some cases dominant - contribution to the total mass ejected by the merger. Here we calculate the nucleosynthesis yields from disc outflows using thermodynamic trajectories from hydrodynamic simulations, coupled to a nuclear reaction network. We find that outflows produce a robust abundance pattern around the second r-process peak (mass number A ˜ 130), independent of model parameters, with significant production of A < 130 nuclei. This implies that dynamical ejecta with high electron fraction may not be required to explain the observed abundances of r-process elements in metal poor stars. Disc outflows reach the third peak (A ˜ 195) in most of our simulations, although the amounts produced depend sensitively on the disc viscosity, initial mass or entropy of the torus, and nuclear physics inputs. Some of our models produce an abundance spike at A = 132 that is absent in the Solar system r-process distribution. The spike arises from convection in the disc and depends on the treatment of nuclear heating in the simulations. We conclude that disc outflows provide an important - and perhaps dominant - contribution to the r-process yields of compact binary mergers, and hence must be included when assessing the contribution of these systems to the inventory of r-process elements in the Galaxy.

  17. Optic Disc Boundary and Vessel Origin Segmentation of Fundus Images.

    PubMed

    Roychowdhury, Sohini; Koozekanani, Dara D; Kuchinka, Sam N; Parhi, Keshab K

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents a novel classification-based optic disc (OD) segmentation algorithm that detects the OD boundary and the location of vessel origin (VO) pixel. First, the green plane of each fundus image is resized and morphologically reconstructed using a circular structuring element. Bright regions are then extracted from the morphologically reconstructed image that lie in close vicinity of the major blood vessels. Next, the bright regions are classified as bright probable OD regions and non-OD regions using six region-based features and a Gaussian mixture model classifier. The classified bright probable OD region with maximum Vessel-Sum and Solidity is detected as the best candidate region for the OD. Other bright probable OD regions within 1-disc diameter from the centroid of the best candidate OD region are then detected as remaining candidate regions for the OD. A convex hull containing all the candidate OD regions is then estimated, and a best-fit ellipse across the convex hull becomes the segmented OD boundary. Finally, the centroid of major blood vessels within the segmented OD boundary is detected as the VO pixel location. The proposed algorithm has low computation time complexity and it is robust to variations in image illumination, imaging angles, and retinal abnormalities. This algorithm achieves 98.8%-100% OD segmentation success and OD segmentation overlap score in the range of 72%-84% on images from the six public datasets of DRIVE, DIARETDB1, DIARETDB0, CHASE_DB1, MESSIDOR, and STARE in less than 2.14 s per image. Thus, the proposed algorithm can be used for automated detection of retinal pathologies, such as glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and maculopathy.

  18. Unveiling slim accretion disc in AGN through X-ray and Infrared observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelló-Mor, Núria; Kaspi, Shai; Netzer, Hagai; Du, Pu; Hu, Chen; Ho, Luis C.; Bai, Jin-Ming; Bian, Wei-Hao; Yuan, Ye-Fei; Wang, Jian-Min

    2017-01-01

    In this work, which is a continuation of Castello-Mor et al. (2016), we present new X-ray and infrared (IR) data for a sample of active galactic nuclei (AGN) covering a wide range in Eddington ratio over a small luminosity range. In particular, we rigorously explore the dependence of the optical-to-X-ray spectral index αOX and the IR-to-optical spectral index on the dimensionless accretion rate, dot{M}=dot{m}/η where dot{m}=LAGN/LEdd and η is the mass-to-radiation conversion efficiency, in low and high accretion rate sources. We find that the SED of the faster accreting sources are surprisingly similar to those from the comparison sample of sources with lower accretion rate. In particular: I) the optical-to-UV AGN SED of slow and fast accreting AGN can be fitted with thin AD models. II) The value of αOX is very similar in slow and fast accreting systems up to a dimensionless accretion rate dot{M}c ˜10. We only find a correlation between αOX and dot{M} for sources with dot{M}>dot{M}c. In such cases, the faster accreting sources appear to have systematically larger αOX values. III) We also find that the torus in the faster accreting systems seems to be less efficient in reprocessing the primary AGN radiation having lower IR-to-optical spectral slopes. These findings, failing to recover the predicted differences between the SEDs of slim and thin ADs within the observed spectral window, suggest that additional physical processes or very special geometry act to reduce the extreme UV radiation in fast accreting AGN. This may be related to photon trapping, strong winds, and perhaps other yet unknown physical processes.

  19. The origins of active galactic nuclei obscuration: the 'torus' as a dynamical, unstable driver of accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, Philip F.; Hayward, Christopher C.; Narayanan, Desika; Hernquist, Lars

    2012-02-01

    Recent multiscale simulations have made it possible to follow gas inflows responsible for high-Eddington ratio accretion on to massive black holes (BHs) from galactic scales to the BH accretion disc. When sufficient gas is driven towards a BH, gravitational instabilities generically form lopsided, eccentric discs that propagate inwards from larger radii. The lopsided stellar disc exerts a strong torque on the gas, driving inflows that fuel the growth of the BH. Here, we investigate the possibility that the same disc, in its gas-rich phase, is the putative 'torus' invoked to explain obscured active galactic nuclei (AGN) and the cosmic X-ray background. The disc is generically thick and has characteristic ˜1-10 pc sizes and masses resembling those required of the torus. Interestingly, the scale heights and obscured fractions of the predicted torii are substantial even in the absence of strong stellar feedback providing the vertical support. Rather, they can be maintained by strong bending modes and warps/twists excited by the inflow-generating instabilities. A number of other observed properties commonly attributed to 'feedback' processes may in fact be explained entirely by dynamical, gravitational effects: the lack of alignment between torus and host galaxy, correlations between local star formation rate (SFR) and turbulent gas velocities and the dependence of obscured fractions on AGN luminosity or SFR. We compare the predicted torus properties with observations of gas surface density profiles, kinematics, scale heights and SFR densities in AGN, and find that they are consistent in all cases. We argue that it is not possible to reproduce these observations and the observed column density distribution without a clumpy gas distribution, but allowing for simple clumping on small scales the predicted column density distribution is in good agreement with observations from NH˜ 1020-1027 cm-2. We examine how the NH distribution scales with galaxy and AGN properties

  20. The Disc Origin of the Milky Way Bulge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Matteo, P.

    2016-06-01

    The Galactic bulge, that is the prominent out-of-plane over-density present in the inner few kiloparsecs of the Galaxy, is a complex structure, as the morphology, kinematics, chemistry, and ages of its stars indicate. To understand the nature of its main components-those at [Fe/H] ≳ -1 dex-it is necessary to make an inventory of the stellar populations of the Galactic disc(s), and of their borders: the chemistry of the disc at the solar vicinity, well known from detailed studies of stars over many years, is not representative of the whole disc. This finding, together with the recent revisions of the mass and sizes of the thin and thick discs, constitutes a major step in understanding the bulge complexity. N-body models of a boxy-/peanut-shaped bulge formed from a thin disc through the intermediary of a bar have been successful in interpreting a number of global properties of the Galactic bulge, but they fail in reproducing the detailed chemo-kinematic relations satisfied by its components and their morphology. It is only by adding the thick disc to the picture that we can understand the nature of the Galactic bulge.

  1. HST Spatially Resolved Spectra of the Accretion Disc and Gas Stream of the Nova-Like Variable UX Ursae Majoris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baptista, Raymundo; Horne, Keith; Wade, Richard A.; Hubeny, Ivan; Long, Knox S.; Rutten, Rene G. M.

    1998-01-01

    Time-resolved eclipse spectroscopy of the nova-like variable UX UMa obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope/Faint Object Spectrograph (HST/FOS) on 1994 August and November is analysed with eclipse mapping techniques to produce spatially resolved spectra of its accretion disk and gas stream as a function of distance from the disk centre. The inner accretion disk is characterized by a blue continuum filled with absorption bands and lines, which cross over to emission with increasing disk radius, similar to that reported at optical wavelengths. The comparison of spatially resolved spectra at different azimuths reveals a significant asymmetry in the disk emission at ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths, with the disk side closest to the secondary star showing pronounced absorption by an 'iron curtain' and a Balmer jump in absorption. These results suggest the existence of an absorbing ring of cold gas whose density and/or vertical scale increase with disk radius. The spectrum of the infalling gas stream is noticeably different from the disc spectrum at the same radius suggesting that gas overflows through the impact point at the disk rim and continues along the stream trajectory, producing distinct emission down to 0.1 R(sub LI). The spectrum of the uneclipsed light shows prominent emission lines of Lyalpha, N v lambda1241, SiIV Lambda 1400, C IV Lambda 1550, HeII Lambda 1640, and MgII Lambda 2800, and a UV continuum rising towards longer wavelengths. The Balmer jump appears clearly in emission indicating that the uneclipsed light has an important contribution from optically thin gas. The lines and optically thin continuum emission are most probably emitted in a vertically extended disk chromosphere + wind. The radial temperature profiles of the continuum maps are well described by a steady-state disc model in the inner and intermediate disk regions (R greater than or equal to 0.3R(sub LI) ). There is evidence of an increase in the mass accretion rate from August to November

  2. The origin of blueshifted absorption features in the X-ray spectrum of PG 1211+143: outflow or disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallo, L. C.; Fabian, A. C.

    2013-07-01

    In some radio-quiet active galactic nuclei (AGN), high-energy absorption features in the X-ray spectra have been interpreted as ultrafast outflows (UFOs) - highly ionized material (e.g. Fe XXV and Fe XXVI) ejected at mildly relativistic velocities. In some cases, these outflows can carry energy in excess of the binding energy of the host galaxy. Needless to say, these features demand our attention as they are strong signatures of AGN feedback and will influence galaxy evolution. For the same reason, alternative models need to be discussed and refuted or confirmed. Gallo and Fabian proposed that some of these features could arise from resonance absorption of the reflected spectrum in a layer of ionized material located above and corotating with the accretion disc. Therefore, the absorbing medium would be subjected to similar blurring effects as seen in the disc. A priori, the existence of such plasma above the disc is as plausible as a fast wind. In this work, we highlight the ambiguity by demonstrating that the absorption model can describe the ˜7.6 keV absorption feature (and possibly other features) in the quasar PG 1211+143, an AGN that is often described as a classic example of a UFO. In this model, the 2-10 keV spectrum would be largely reflection dominated (as opposed to power law dominated in the wind models) and the resonance absorption would be originating in a layer between about 6 and 60 gravitational radii. The studies of such features constitute a cornerstone for future X-ray observatories like Astro-H and Athena+. Should our model prove correct, or at least important in some cases, then absorption will provide another diagnostic tool with which to probe the inner accretion flow with future missions.

  3. Reaching the peak of the quasar spectral energy distribution - II. Exploring the accretion disc, dusty torus and host galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collinson, James S.; Ward, Martin J.; Landt, Hermine; Done, Chris; Elvis, Martin; McDowell, Jonathan C.

    2017-02-01

    We continue our study of the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 11 active galactic nuclei (AGN) at 1.5 < z < 2.2, with optical-near-infrared (NIR) spectra, X-ray data and mid-IR photometry. In a previous paper, we presented the observations and models; in this paper, we explore the parameter space of these models. We first quantify uncertainties on the black hole (BH) masses (MBH) and degeneracies between SED parameters. The effect of BH spin is tested, and we find that while low-to-moderate spin values (a* ≤ 0.9) are compatible with the data in all cases, maximal spin (a* = 0.998) can only describe the data if the accretion disc is face-on. The outer accretion disc radii are well constrained in 8/11 objects and are found to be a factor ˜5 smaller than the self-gravity radii. We then extend our modelling campaign into the mid-IR regime with Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer photometry, adding components for the host galaxy and dusty torus. Our estimates of the host galaxy luminosities are consistent with the MBH-bulge relationship, and the measured torus properties (covering factor and temperature) are in agreement with earlier work, suggesting a predominantly silicate-based grain composition. Finally, we deconvolve the optical-NIR spectra using our SED continuum model. We claim that this is a more physically motivated approach than using empirical descriptions of the continuum such as broken power laws. For our small sample, we verify previously noted correlations between emission linewidths and luminosities commonly used for single-epoch MBH estimates, and observe a statistically significant anticorrelation between [O III] equivalent width and AGN luminosity.

  4. The effects of high density on the X-ray spectrum reflected from accretion discs around black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Javier A.; Fabian, Andrew C.; Kallman, Timothy R.; Dauser, Thomas; Parker, Michael L.; McClintock, Jeffrey E.; Steiner, James F.; Wilms, Jörn

    2016-10-01

    Current models of the spectrum of X-rays reflected from accretion discs around black holes and other compact objects are commonly calculated assuming that the density of the disc atmosphere is constant within several Thomson depths from the irradiated surface. An important simplifying assumption of these models is that the ionization structure of the gas is completely specified by a single, fixed value of the ionization parameter ξ, which is the ratio of the incident flux to the gas density. The density is typically fixed at ne = 1015 cm-3. Motivated by observations, we consider higher densities in the calculation of the reflected spectrum. We show by computing model spectra for ne ≳ 1017 cm-3 that high-density effects significantly modify reflection spectra. The main effect is to boost the thermal continuum at energies ≲ 2 keV. We discuss the implications of these results for interpreting observations of both active galactic nuclei and black hole binaries. We also discuss the limitations of our models imposed by the quality of the atomic data currently available.

  5. Time-dependent models of accretion discs with nuclear burning following the tidal disruption of a white dwarf by a neutron star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margalit, Ben; Metzger, Brian D.

    2016-09-01

    We construct time-dependent one-dimensional (vertically averaged) models of accretion discs produced by the tidal disruption of a white dwarf (WD) by a binary neutron star (NS) companion. Nuclear reactions in the disc mid-plane burn the WD matter to increasingly heavier elements at sequentially smaller radii, releasing substantial energy which can impact the disc dynamics. A model for disc outflows is employed, by which cooling from the outflow balances other sources of heating (viscous, nuclear) in regulating the Bernoulli parameter of the mid-plane to a fixed value ≲0. We perform a comprehensive parameter study of the compositional yields and velocity distributions of the disc outflows for WDs of different initial compositions. For C/O WDs, the radial composition profile of the disc evolves self-similarly in a quasi-steady-state manner, and is remarkably robust to model parameters. The nucleosynthesis in helium WD discs does not exhibit this behaviour, which instead depends sensitively on factors controlling the disc mid-plane density (e.g. the strength of the viscosity, α). By the end of the simulation, a substantial fraction of the WD mass is unbound in outflows at characteristic velocities of ˜109 cm s-1. The outflows from WD-NS merger discs contain 10-4-3 × 10-3 M⊙ of radioactive 56Ni, resulting in fast (˜ week long) dim (˜1040 erg s-1) optical transients; shock heating of the ejecta by late-time outflows may increase the peak luminosity to ˜1043 erg s-1. The accreted mass on to the NS is probably not sufficient to induce gravitational collapse, but may be capable of spinning up the NS to periods of ˜10 ms, illustrating the feasibility of this channel in forming isolated millisecond pulsars.

  6. Accretion discs around young stellar objects and the proto-sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, D. N. C.

    1989-01-01

    Observed IR and UV excesses have widely been interpreted as signatures for accretion disks around young stellar objects. Analyses of the observed properties of these disks are important for the investigation of star formation as well as the dynamics of the protoplanetary disk out of which the solar system was formed. Accretion-disk theories suggest that evolution of protoplanetary disks is determined by the efficiency of angular momentum transport. During the formation stages, the disk dynamics are regulated by mixing of infalling material and disk gas. In the outermost regions of the disk, self-gravity may promote the growth of nonaxisymmetric perturbations which can transfer angular momentum outwards. After infall has ceased, convectively driven turbulence can redistribute angular momentum with an evolutionary timescale of 0.1 - 1 Myr. Convection in protoplanetary disks may eventually be stabilized by surface heating as the disk material is depleted.

  7. Time dependent spectrum of an X-ray irradiated accretion disc with stochastic perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maqbool, Bari; Wani, Naveel; Iqbal, Naseer; Misra, Ranjeev

    2016-07-01

    The X-rays emitted by the inner regions of the accretion disk induce structural changes in the outer regions of the disk. We study here how the effective temperature and hence the corresponding spectrum of the disk is altered by stochastic perturbations in the outer regions and thereby try to study the long term variability which has been observed in some X-ray binaries. We use a time dependent global hydrodynamic code to study the variations in the effective temperature of the disk in response to sinusoidal accretion rate perturbations introduced at different radii and with different time periods. To quantify the results, we calculate the root mean square effective temperature at different radii and the root mean square flux at different frequencies. From our calculations of the time-lags in accretion rate, effective temperature and the different frequencies, we find that the time-lags in presence of X-ray irradiation is significantly smaller than the expected viscous time-scale.

  8. Accretion disc-corona and jet emission from the radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy RX J1633.3+4719

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallick, Labani; Dewangan, G. C.; Gandhi, P.; Misra, R.; Kembhavi, A. K.

    2016-08-01

    We perform X-ray/ultraviolet (UV) spectral and X-ray variability studies of the radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxy RX J1633.3+4719 using XMM-Newton and Suzaku observations from 2011 and 2012. The 0.3-10 keV spectra consist of an ultrasoft component described by an accretion disc blackbody (kT_in = 39.6^{+11.2}_{-5.5} eV) and a power law due to the thermal Comptonization (Γ = 1.96^{+0.24}_{-0.31}) of the disc emission. The disc temperature inferred from the soft excess is at least a factor of 2 lower than that found for the canonical soft excess emission from radio-quiet NLS1s. The UV spectrum is described by a power law with photon index 3.05^{+0.56}_{-0.33}. The observed UV emission is too strong to arise from the accretion disc or the host galaxy, but can be attributed to a jet. The X-ray emission from RX J1633.3+4719 is variable with fractional variability amplitude Fvar = 13.5 ± 1.0 per cent. In contrast to radio-quiet active galactic nuclei (AGN), X-ray emission from the source becomes harder with increasing flux. The fractional rms variability increases with energy and the rms spectrum is well described by a constant disc component and a variable power-law continuum with the normalization and photon index being anticorrelated. Such spectral variability cannot be caused by variations in the absorption and must be intrinsic to the hot corona. Our finding of possible evidence for emission from the inner accretion disc, jet and hot corona from RX J1633.3+4719 in the optical to X-ray bands makes this object an ideal target to probe the disc-jet connection in AGN.

  9. Viscous evolution of accretion discs in the quiescence of dwarf novae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mineshige, Shin; Wood, Janet H.

    1989-01-01

    Viscous evolution of accretion disks in the quiescence of dwarf novae is investigated semi-analytically. There are two key factors: the inward flow of the initial mass in the disk and the diffusion of the material added into the disk. The results are compared with the brightness temperature distributions obtained by the eclipse mapping of Z Cha and OY Car. The functional form of the viscosity parameter a, its values, the types of outbursts, and the application to soft X-ray transients are discussed.

  10. Accretion disc geometry evolution of GRS 1915+105 during its plataeu states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarathi Pal, Partha; Gopal Dutta, Broja; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar

    2016-07-01

    The evolution of Time-lags are correlated with the accretion geometry during Plateau states of GRS 1915+105. We find that the lag spectrum for the χ_3 class is different from that of χ_1, χ_2 and χ_4 classes. Hard lags occur only when Comptonizing efficiency (CE) is about 0.9% for different plateau states and its evolution follows the sequence of class transitions suggested on the basis of CE parameter. We conclude that the variation of time lags could be due to change of size of the CENBOL which is often triggered by Compton cooling process.

  11. Origin of ureilite meteorites and implications for planetary accretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Edward R. D.; Taylor, G. J.; Keil, Klaus

    1993-01-01

    The present analysis of the ureilite meteorites suggests that these are formed by well-understood processes, as indicated by such findings as their being partial melt residues rather than cumulates and their forming in a large chondritic body with heterogeneous O isotopic composition. Slow diffusion of the O in solid and molten silicates ensured that partial melting did not homogenize the O isotopes of the residues. These and other determinations furnish a plausible origin for ureilites as residues from the partial melting of isotopically heterogeneous chondritic material.

  12. A thick-disc origin for Tycho Brahe's 1572 supernova?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhrmann, Klaus

    2005-05-01

    The very recent suggestion for the identification of a faint G-type subgiant, dubbed `Tycho G', as the binary progenitor of Tycho Brahe's 1572 Type Ia supernova by Ruiz-Lapuente et al. is essentially based on the peculiar space velocity of the star. Here we demonstrate that the kinematics of Tycho G are likewise in keeping with the stars of the Milky Way's thick-disc population. Hence we may well be seeing an object that is only coincidentally passing in the vicinity of the supernova remnant, or Tycho Brahe and his contemporaries may indeed have witnessed the late explosion of one of the first stars in the Galaxy.

  13. An in-depth study of a neutron star accreting at low Eddington rate: on the possibility of a truncated disc and an outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degenaar, N.; Pinto, C.; Miller, J. M.; Wijnands, R.; Altamirano, D.; Paerels, F.; Fabian, A. C.; Chakrabarty, D.

    2017-01-01

    Due to observational challenges, our knowledge of low-level accretion flows around neutron stars is limited. We present NuSTAR, Swift and Chandra observations of the low-mass X-ray binary IGR J17062-6143, which has been persistently accreting at ≃0.1 per cent of the Eddington limit since 2006. Our simultaneous NuSTAR/Swift observations show that the 0.5-79 keV spectrum can be described by a combination of a power law with a photon index of Γ ≃ 2, a blackbody with a temperature of kTbb ≃ 0.5 keV (presumably arising from the neutron star surface) and disc reflection. Modelling the reflection spectrum suggests that the inner accretion disc was located at Rin ≳ 100 GM/c2 (≳225 km) from the neutron star. The apparent truncation may be due to evaporation of the inner disc into a radiatively-inefficient accretion flow, or due to the pressure of the neutron star magnetic field. Our Chandra gratings data reveal possible narrow emission lines near 1 keV that can be modelled as reflection or collisionally ionized gas, and possible low-energy absorption features that could point to the presence of an outflow. We consider a scenario in which this neutron star has been able to sustain its low accretion rate through magnetic inhibition of the accretion flow, which gives some constraints on its magnetic field strength and spin period. In this configuration, IGR J17062-6143 could exhibit a strong radio jet as well as a (propeller-driven) wind-like outflow.

  14. Viscous pulsational instability of the transonic region of isothermal geometrically thin accretion discs. I - Analytical results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kato, Shoji; Honma, Fumio; Matsumoto, Ryoji

    1988-01-01

    Viscous instability of the transonic region of the conventional geometrically thin alpha-type accretion disks is examined analytically. For simplicity, isothermal disks and isothermal perturbations are assumed. It is found that when the value of alpha is larger than a critical value the disk is unstable against two types of perturbations. One is local propagating perturbations of inertial acoustic waves. Results suggest the possibility that unstable perturbations develop to overstable global oscillations which are restricted only in the innermost region of the disk. The other is standing growing perturbations localized just at the transonic point. The cause of these instabilities is that the azimuthal component of the Lagrangian velocity variation associated with the perturbations becomes in phase with the variation of the viscous stress force. Because of this phase matching work is done on perturbations, and they are amplified.

  15. Irradiation of an Accretion Disc by a Jet: General Properties and Implications for Spin Measurements of Black Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    T.Dauser; Garcia, J.; Wilms, J.; Boeck, M.; Brenneman, L. W.; Falanga, M.; Fukumura, Keigo; Reynolds, C. S.

    2013-01-01

    X-ray irradiation of the accretion disc leads to strong reflection features, which are then broadened and distorted by relativistic effects. We present a detailed, general relativistic approach to model this irradiation for different geometries of the primary X-ray source. These geometries include the standard point source on the rotational axis as well as more jet-like sources, which are radially elongated and accelerating. Incorporating this code in the RELLINE model for relativistic line emission, the line shape for any configuration can be predicted. We study how different irradiation geometries affect the determination of the spin of the black hole. Broad emission lines are produced only for compact irradiating sources situated close to the black hole. This is the only case where the black hole spin can be unambiguously determined. In all other cases the line shape is narrower, which could either be explained by a low spin or an elongated source. We conclude that for those cases and independent of the quality of the data, no unique solution for the spin exists and therefore only a lower limit of the spin value can be given

  16. On the mechanism of self gravitating Rossby interfacial waves in proto-stellar accretion discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yellin-Bergovoy, Ron; Heifetz, Eyal; Umurhan, Orkan M.

    2016-05-01

    The dynamical response of edge waves under the influence of self-gravity is examined in an idealized two-dimensional model of a proto-stellar disc, characterized in steady state as a rotating vertically infinite cylinder of fluid with constant density except for a single density interface at some radius r0. The fluid in basic state is prescribed to rotate with a Keplerian profile $\\Omega_k(r)\\sim r^{-3/2}$ modified by some additional azimuthal sheared flow. A linear analysis shows that there are two azimuthally propagating edge waves, kin to the familiar Rossby waves and surface gravity waves in terrestrial studies, which move opposite to one another with respect to the local basic state rotation rate at the interface. Instability only occurs if the radial pressure gradient is opposite to that of the density jump (unstably stratified) where self-gravity acts as a wave stabilizer irrespective of the stratification of the system. The propagation properties of the waves are discussed in detail in the language of vorticity edge waves. The roles of both Boussinesq and non-Boussinesq effects upon the stability and propagation of these waves with and without the inclusion of self-gravity are then quantified. The dynamics involved with self-gravity non- Boussinesq effect is shown to be a source of vorticity production where there is a jump in the basic state density, in addition, self-gravity also alters the dynamics via the radial main pressure gradient, which is a Boussinesq effect . Further applications of these mechanical insights are presented in the conclusion including the ways in which multiple density jumps or gaps may or may not be stable.

  17. Large-scale magnetic field in the accretion discs of young stars: the influence of magnetic diffusion, buoyancy and Hall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaibrakhmanov, S. A.; Dudorov, A. E.; Parfenov, S. Yu.; Sobolev, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the fossil magnetic field in the accretion and protoplanetary discs using the Shakura and Sunyaev approach. The distinguishing feature of this study is the accurate solution of the ionization balance equations and the induction equation with Ohmic diffusion, magnetic ambipolar diffusion, buoyancy and the Hall effect. We consider the ionization by cosmic rays, X-rays and radionuclides, radiative recombinations, recombinations on dust grains and also thermal ionization. The buoyancy appears as the additional mechanism of magnetic flux escape in the steady-state solution of the induction equation. Calculations show that Ohmic diffusion and magnetic ambipolar diffusion constraint the generation of the magnetic field inside the `dead' zones. The magnetic field in these regions is quasi-vertical. The buoyancy constraints the toroidal magnetic field strength close to the disc inner edge. As a result, the toroidal and vertical magnetic fields become comparable. The Hall effect is important in the regions close to the borders of the `dead' zones because electrons are magnetized there. The magnetic field in these regions is quasi-radial. We calculate the magnetic field strength and geometry for the discs with accretion rates (10^{-8}-10^{-6}) {M}_{⊙} {yr}^{-1}. The fossil magnetic field geometry does not change significantly during the disc evolution while the accretion rate decreases. We construct the synthetic maps of dust emission polarized due to the dust grain alignment by the magnetic field. In the polarization maps, the `dead' zones appear as the regions with the reduced values of polarization degree in comparison to those in the adjacent regions.

  18. Endplate degeneration may be the origination of the vacuum phenomenon in intervertebral discs.

    PubMed

    Li, Fang-Cai; Zhang, Ning; Chen, Wei-Shan; Chen, Qi-Xin

    2010-08-01

    The intravertebral vacuum phenomenon (VP) is usually associated with degenerative disc disease, which could be related to the low back pain. Various theories related to the pathogenesis of VP have been proposed, but these theories have not been critically examined and remain hypothetical. In this article, we review the possible role of endplate degeneration in the pathogenesis of VP, and discuss several pathways possibly linked to them. Due to the endplate calcification and activated cytokines, the transport pathway of the nutrition for the intervertebral disc was blocked, resulting in the metabolic unbalance and decrease of the synthesis of matrix structural proteins. It could promote the matrix decomposition, causing the decrease of the quantity of matrix and the changes of stress distribution in intervertebral disc. As a result, the structure of intervertebral discs became increasingly unstable. While compression happened, the intravertebral cleft could occur and be gradually filled with gas, which may cause low back pain and aggravate the intervertebral discs degeneration. As outlined above, we hypothesize that endplate degeneration might be the origination of the vacuum phenomenon.

  19. The accretion history of dark matter haloes - I. The physical origin of the universal function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa, Camila A.; Wyithe, J. Stuart B.; Schaye, Joop; Duffy, Alan R.

    2015-06-01

    Understanding the universal accretion history of dark matter haloes is the first step towards determining the origin of their structure. We use the extended Press-Schechter formalism to derive the halo mass accretion history from the growth rate of initial density perturbations. We show that the halo mass history is well described by an exponential function of redshift in the high-redshift regime. However, in the low-redshift regime the mass history follows a power law because the growth of density perturbations is halted in the dark energy dominated era due to the accelerated expansion of the Universe. We provide an analytic model that follows the expression {M(z)=M0(1+z)^{af(M0)}e^{-f(M0)z}}, where M0 = M(z = 0), a depends on cosmology and f(M0) depends only on the linear matter power spectrum. The analytic model does not rely on calibration against numerical simulations and is suitable for any cosmology. We compare our model with the latest empirical models for the mass accretion history in the literature and find very good agreement. We provide numerical routines for the model online (available at https://bitbucket.org/astroduff/commah).

  20. Origin and orbital distribution of the trans-Neptunian scattered disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morbidelli, A.; Emel'yanenko, V. V.; Levison, H. F.

    2004-12-01

    We revisit the scenario proposed by Duncan and Levison in the late 1990s on the origin of the trans-Neptunian scattered disc. According to this scenario, the current scattered disc population is the remnant of a much more massive population that formed at the beginning of the Solar system, presumably when Neptune grew in mass. In order to compute the expected orbital distribution of the scattered disc bodies in the framework of this model, we have integrated the evolution of several thousands of test particles over the age of the Solar system, and looked at the orbital distribution of those surviving after more than 2 × 109 yr from their first scattering event. In order to compare this model distribution with the observed distribution, we have modelled the observational biases by generalizing a method originally introduced recently by Trujillo and Brown. Once the biases are taken into account, the model distribution matches the observed distribution fairly well. The most significant discrepancy is that the observed perihelion distance distribution is somewhat skewed towards larger perihelion distances than our model predicts. This is possibly due to the effects of planet migration (which tends to raise perihelion distances as recently shown by Gomes), which is not taken into account in our simulations.

  1. XMM-Newton observations of UW CrB: detection of X-ray bursts and evidence for accretion disc evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakala, Pasi; Ramsay, Gavin; Muhli, Panu; Charles, Phil; Hannikainen, Diana; Mukai, Koji; Vilhu, Osmi

    2005-01-01

    UW CrB (MS 1603+2600) is a peculiar short-period X-ray binary that exhibits extraordinary optical behaviour. The shape of the optical light curve of the system changes drastically from night to night, without any changes in overall brightness. Here we report X-ray observations of UW CrB obtained with XMM-Newton. We find evidence for several X-ray bursts, confirming a neutron star primary. This considerably strengthens the case that UW CrB is an accretion disc corona system located at a distance of at least 5-7 kpc (3-5 kpc above the Galactic plane). The X-ray and Optical Monitor (ultraviolet-optical) light curves show remarkable shape variation from one observing run to another, which we suggest are due to large-scale variations in the accretion disc shape resulting from a warp that periodically obscures the optical and soft X-ray emission. This is also supported by the changes in phase-resolved X-ray spectra.

  2. A monolithic collapse origin for the thin and thick disc structure of the S0 galaxy ESO 243-49

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comerón, S.; Salo, H.; Peletier, R. F.; Mentz, J.

    2016-09-01

    ESO 243-49 is a high-mass (circular velocity vc ≈ 200 km s-1), edge-on S0 galaxy in the Abell 2877 cluster at a distance of ~95 Mpc. To elucidate the origin of the thick disc of this S0 galaxy, we use Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) science verification data to study its kinematics and stellar populations. The thick disc emits ~80% of the light at heights in excess of 3.5 arcsec (1.6 kpc). The rotation velocities of its stars lag by 30-40 km s-1 compared to those in the thin disc, which is compatible with the asymmetric drift. The thick disc is found to be more metal-poor than the thin disc, but both discs have old ages. We suggest an internal origin for the thick disc stars in high-mass galaxies. We propose that the thick disc formed either a) first in a turbulent phase with a high star formation rate and that a thin disc formed shortly afterwards, or b) because of the dynamical heating of a thin pre-existing component. Either way, the star formation in ESO 243-49 was quenched just a few Gyr after the galaxy was born and the formation of a thin and a thick disc must have occurred before the galaxy stopped forming stars. The formation of the discs was so fast that it could be described as a monolithic collapse where several generations of stars formed in rapid succession. Based on observations made at the European Southern Observatory using the Very Large Telescope under programme 60.A-9328(A).

  3. The case for cases B and C: intrinsic hydrogen line ratios of the broad-line region of active galactic nuclei, reddenings, and accretion disc sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaskell, C. Martin

    2017-01-01

    Low-redshift active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with extremely blue optical spectral indices are shown to have a mean, velocity-averaged, broad-line Hα/Hβ ratio of ≈2.72 ± 0.04, consistent with a Baker-Menzel Case B value. Comparison of a wide range of properties of the very bluest AGNs with those of a luminosity-matched subset of the Dong et al. blue AGN sample indicates that the only difference is the internal reddening. Ultraviolet fluxes are brighter for the bluest AGNs by an amount consistent with the flat AGN reddening curve of Gaskell et al. (2004). The lack of a significant difference in the GALEX (FUV-NUV) colour index strongly rules out a steep SMC-like reddening curve and also argues against an intrinsically harder spectrum for the bluest AGNs. For very blue AGNs the Lyα/Hβ ratio is also consistent with being the Case B value. The Case B ratios provide strong support for the self-shielded broad-line model of Gaskell, Klimek & Nazarova. It is proposed that the greatly enhanced Lyα/Hβ ratio at very high velocities is a consequence of continuum fluorescence in the Lyman lines (Case C). Reddenings of AGNs mean that the far-UV luminosity is often underestimated by up to an order of magnitude. This is a major factor causing the discrepancies between measured accretion disc sizes and the predictions of simple accretion disc theory. Dust covering fractions for most AGNs are lower than has been estimated. The total mass in lower mass supermassive black holes must be greater than hitherto estimated.

  4. X-ray Dips Followed by Superluminal Ejections as Evidence for An Accretion Disc Feeding the Jet in A Radio Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marscher, Alan P.; Jorstad, Svetlana G.; Gomez, Jose-Luis; Aller, Margo F.; Terasranta, Harri; Lister, Matthew L.; Stirling, Alastair, M.

    2002-01-01

    Accretion onto black holes is thought to power the relativistic jets and other high-energy phenomena in both active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and the "microquasar" binary systems located in our Galaxy. However, until now there has been insufficient multifrequency monitoring to establish a direct observational link between the black hole and the jet in an AGE. This contrasts with the case of microquasars, in which superluminal features appear and propagate down the radio jet shortly after sudden decreases in the X-ray flux. Such an X-ray dip is most likely caused by the disappearance of a section of the inner accretion disc, part of which falls past the event horizon and the remainder of which is injected into the jet. This infusion of energy generates a disturbance that propagates down the jet, creating the appearance of a superluminal bright spot. Here we report the results of three years of intensive monitoring of the X-ray and radio emission of the Seyfert-like radio galaxy 3C 120. As in the case of microquasars, dips in the X-ray emission are followed by ejections of bright superluminal knots in the radio jet. Comparison of the characteristic length and time scales allows us to infer that the rotational states of the black holes in these two objects are different.

  5. On the evolution of accretion disc flow in cataclysmic variables. III - Outburst properties of constant and uniform-alpha model discs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, D. N. C.; Faulkner, J.; Papaloizou, J.

    1985-01-01

    Attention is given to the stability and evolution of some simple accretion disk models in which the viscosity is prescribed by an ad hoc, uniform-alpha model. Emphasis is placed on systems in which the mass input rate from the secondary to the disk around the primary is assumed to be constant, although initial calculations with variable mass input rates are also performed. Time-dependent visual magnitude light curves constructed for cataclysmic binaries with a range of disk size, primary mass and mass input rate, and viscosity magnitude, are compared with the observed properties of various cataclysmic variable subclasses. The results obtained indicate that the observational differences between novae and dwarf novae may be due to mass input rate differences. The present models can reproduce the gross observational features of U-Gem-type dwarf nova outbursts.

  6. Origin and evolution of two-component debris discs and an application to the q1 Eridani system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schüppler, Christian; Krivov, Alexander V.; Löhne, Torsten; Booth, Mark; Kirchschlager, Florian; Wolf, Sebastian

    2016-09-01

    Many debris discs reveal a two-component structure, with an outer Kuiper-belt analogue and a warm inner component whose origin is still a matter of debate. One possibility is that warm emission stems from an `asteroid belt' closer in to the star. We consider a scenario in which a set of giant planets is formed in an initially extended planetesimal disc. These planets carve a broad gap around their orbits, splitting up the disc into the outer and the inner belts. After the gas dispersal, both belts undergo collisional evolution in a steady-state regime. This scenario is explored with detailed collisional simulations involving realistic physics to describe a long-term collisional depletion of the two-component disc. We find that the inner disc may be able to retain larger amounts of material at older ages than thought before on the basis of simplified analytic models. We show that the proposed scenario is consistent with a suite of thermal emission and scattered light observational data for a bright two-temperature debris disc around a nearby solar-type star q1 Eridani. This implies a Solar system-like architecture of the system, with an outer massive `Kuiper belt', an inner `asteroid belt', and a few Neptune- to Jupiter-mass planets in between.

  7. Probing the accretion disc structure by the twin kHz QPOs and spins of neutron stars in LMXBs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D. H.; Zhang, C. M.; Lei, Y. J.; Chen, L.; Qu, J. L.; Zhi, Q. J.

    2017-04-01

    We analyse the relation between the emission radii of twin kilohertz quasi-periodic oscillations (kHz QPOs) and the co-rotation radii of the 12 neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries (NS-LMXBs), which are simultaneously detected with the twin kHz QPOs and NS spins. We find that the average co-rotation radius of these sources is ∼ 32 km, and all the emission positions of twin kHz QPOs lie inside the co-rotation radii, indicating that the twin kHz QPOs are formed in the spin-up process. It is noticed that the upper frequency of twin kHz QPOs is higher than NS spin frequency by ≥10 per cent, which may account for a critical velocity difference between the Keplerian motion of accretion matter and NS spin that is corresponding to the production of twin kHz QPOs. In addition, we also find that ∼83 per cent of twin kHz QPOs cluster around the radius range of 15-20 km, which may be affected by the hard surface or the local strong magnetic field of the NS. As a special case, SAX J1808.4-3658 shows the larger emission radii of twin kHz QPOs of r ∼ 21-24 km, which may be due to its low accretion rate or small measured NS mass (<1.4 M⊙).

  8. The Origin of Episodic Accretion Bursts in the Early Stages of Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, S.; Vorobyov, E. I.

    2005-12-01

    We present the first model of cloud core collapse which self-consistently generates episodic mass accretion and luminosity bursts. Our numerical models follow the collapse of a rotating molecular cloud core that leads self-consistently to the formation of a protostar and protostellar disk. The disk quickly becomes unstable to the development of a spiral structure similar to that observed recently in AB Aurigae. The instability is driven by the continuous infall of matter from the protostellar envelope onto the disk. The gravitational instability leads to the formation of dense protostellar/protoplanetary clumps within the spiral arms. The growing strength of spiral arms and ensuing redistribution of mass and angular momentum creates a strong centrifugal disbalance in the disk and triggers bursts of mass accretion during which the dense protostellar/protoplanetary clumps fall onto the central protostar. These episodes of clump infall may manifest themselves as episodes of vigorous accretion rate ( ≥ 10-4 M⊙ yr-1) which lead to luminosity increases of up to a factor ˜ 1000. Between these accretion bursts, the protostar is characterized by a low accretion rate ( < 10-6 M⊙ yr-1). During the phase of episodic accretion, the mass of the protostellar disk remains less than the mass of the protostar. This work was supported by a grant from NSERC. EIV acknowledges support from a CITA National Fellowship.

  9. Origin of Siletzia, an Accreted Large Igneous Province in the Cascadia Forearc, and the Early History of the Yellowstone Hotspot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, R. E.; Bukry, D.; Friedman, R. M.; Pyle, D. G.; Duncan, R. A.; Haeussler, P. J.; Wooden, J.

    2014-12-01

    Siletzia as named by Irving (1979) is a Paleogene large igneous province forming the oceanic basalt basement of coastal OR, WA and S. BC that was accreted to North America in the early Eocene. U-Pb (magmatic, detrital zircon) and 40Ar/39Ar ages constrained by mapping, global coccolith (CP) zones, and magnetic polarities permit correlation of basalts with the geomagnetic polarity time scale of Gradstein et al. (2012). Siletzia was rapidly erupted 56-49 Ma (Chron 25-22), and accretion was completed between 51 and 49 Ma in Oregon. Magmatism continued until ca. 46 Ma with emplacement of a basalt sill complex during or shortly after accretion. Siletzia's great crustal thickness, rapid eruption, and timing of accretion are consistent with formation as an oceanic plateau. Eight m.y. after accretion, margin-parallel extension and regional dike swarms mark the Tillamook magmatic episode in the forearc (41.6 Ma; CP zone 14a; Chron 19r). We examined the origin of Siletzia and the possible role of a long-lived Yellowstone hotspot (YHS) in an open source plate modeling program. In most reference frames, the YHS is on or near an inferred northeast-striking Kula- Farallon and/or Resurrection-Farallon ridge 60 to 50 Ma. The YHS thus could have provided a 56-49 Ma source on the Farallon plate for Siletzia, which accreted to North America by 50 Ma. A sister plateau, the Eocene basalt basement of the Yakutat terrane, now in Alaska, formed on the adjacent Kula (or Resurrection) plate and accreted to coastal British Columbia at about the same time. Following accretion of Siletzia, the leading edge of North America overrode the YHS ca. 42 Ma. The encounter with an active YHS may explain the voluminous high-Ti tholeiitic to alkalic magmatism of the 42-34 Ma Tillamook episode and extension in the forearc. Clockwise rotation of western Oregon about a pole in the backarc has since moved the Tillamook center and underlying Siletzia northward ~250 km from the probable hotspot track on North

  10. The Compton Microscope: Using the Energy Dependence of QPO Amplitudes to Probe Their Origin in Accretion Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehr, D. E.; Wagoner, R. V.; Wilms, J.

    1999-12-01

    We report the development of a new tool to determine the origin of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in accretion disk systems. The technique uses the source energy spectrum and the energy dependence of the QPO fractional amplitude to restrict the location of the emission region of the modulated photons, which are assumed to originate in the inner accretion disk. Both Monte-Carlo and semi-analytical methods are presented. We assume the accretion disk is enshrouded by a slab atmosphere of hot electrons in which unsaturated Compton scattering produces the high-energy spectrum. Properties of the atmosphere, in particular the electron temperature, are assumed functions of radius from the central compact object. We show that our model reproduces the observed energy dependence of the fractional amplitude of the 67 Hz QPO in GRS 1915+105 if the QPO is assumed to originate at a particular region of the inner disk. This work was supported by NASA Graduate Student Researchers Program grant NGT 5-50044 to D.E.L., NASA grant NAG 5-3102 to R.V.W., and grant number Sta 173/22 of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft to J.W. This research has made use of data obtained through the High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center Online Service, provided by the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center.

  11. Runaway gas accretion and gap opening versus type I migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crida, A.; Bitsch, B.

    2017-03-01

    Growing planets interact with their natal protoplanetary disc, which exerts a torque onto them allowing them to migrate in the disc. Small mass planets do not affect the gas profile and migrate in the fast type-I migration. Although type-I migration can be directed outwards for planets smaller than 20 - 30M⊕ in some regions of the disc, planets above this mass should be lost into the central star long before the disc disperses. Massive planets push away material from their orbit and open a gap. They subsequently migrate in the slower, type II migration, which could save them from migrating all the way to the star. Hence, growing giant planets can be saved if and only if they can reach the gap opening mass, because this extends their migration timescale, allowing them to eventually survive at large orbits until the disc itself disperses. However, most of the previous studies only measured the torques on planets with fixed masses and orbits to determine the migration rate. Additionally, the transition between type-I and type-II migration itself is not well studied, especially when taking the growth mechanism of rapid gas accretion from the surrounding disc into account. Here we use isothermal 2D disc simulations with FARGO-2D1D to study the migration behaviour of gas accreting protoplanets in discs. We find that migrating giant planets always open gaps in the disc. We further show analytically and numerically that in the runaway gas accretion regime, the growth time-scale is comparable to the type-I migration time-scale, indicating that growing planets will reach gap opening masses before migrating all the way to the central star in type-I migration if the disc is not extremely viscous and/or thick. An accretion rate limited to the radial gas flow in the disc, in contrast, is not fast enough. When gas accretion by the planet is taken into account, the gap opening process is accelerated because the planet accretes material originating from its horseshoe region. This

  12. Gondwanaland origin, dispersion, and accretion of East and Southeast Asian continental terranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalfe, I.

    1994-10-01

    East and Southeast Asia is a complex assembly of allochthonous continental terranes, island arcs, accretionary complexes and small ocean basins. The boundaries between continental terranes are marked by major fault zones or by sutures recognized by the presence of ophiolites, mélanges and accretionary complexes. Stratigraphical, sedimentological, paleobiogeographical and paleomagnetic data suggest that all of the East and Southeast Asian continental terranes were derived directly or indirectly from the Iran-Himalaya-Australia margin of Gondwanaland. The evolution of the terranes is one of rifting from Gondwanaland, northwards drift and amalgamation/accretion to form present day East Asia. Three continental silvers were rifted from the northeast margin of Gondwanaland in the Silurian-Early Devonian (North China, South China, Indochina/East Malaya, Qamdo-Simao and Tarim terranes), Early-Middle Permian (Sibumasu, Lhasa and Qiangtang terranes) and Late Jurassic (West Burma terrane, Woyla terranes). The northwards drift of these terranes was effected by the opening and closing of three successive Tethys oceans, the Paleo-Tethys, Meso-Tethys and Ceno-Tethys. Terrane assembly took place between the Late Paleozoic and Cenozoic, but the precise timings of amalgamation and accretion are still contentious. Amalgamation of South China and Indochina/East Malaya occurred during the Early Carboniferous along the Song Ma Suture to form "Cathaysialand". Cathaysialand, together with North China, formed a large continental region within the Paleotethys during the Late Carboniferous and Permian. Paleomagnetic data indicate that this continental region was in equatorial to low northern paleolatitudes which is consistent with the tropical Cathaysian flora developed on these terranes. The Tarim terrane (together with the Kunlun, Qaidam and Ala Shan terranes) accreted to Kazakhstan/Siberia in the Permian. This was followed by the suturing of Sibumasu and Qiangtang to Cathaysialand in the

  13. Long-Term Properties of Accretion Discs in X-ray Binaries. 1; The Variable Third Period in SMC X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, P. A.; Clarkson, W. I.; Coe, M. J.; Laycock, S.; Tout, M.; Wilson, C.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Long term X-ray monitoring data from the RXTE All Sky Monitor (ASM) reveal that the third (superorbital) period in SMC X-1 is not constant but varies between 40-60 days. A dynamic power spectrum analysis indicates that the third period has been present continuously throughout the five years of ASM observations. This period changed smoothly from 60 days to 45 days and then returned to its former value, on a timescale of approximately 1600 days. During the nearly 4 years of overlap between the CGRO & RXTE missions, the simultaneous BATSE hard X-ray data confirm this variation in SMC X-1. Sources of systematic error and possible artefacts are investigated and found to be incapable of reproducing the results reported here. Our disco cry of such an instability in the superorbital period of SMC X-1 is interpreted in the context of recent theoretical studies of warped, precessing accretion discs. We find that the behaviour of SMC X-1 is consistent with a radiation - driven warping model.

  14. Interference as an Origin of the Peaked Noise in Accreting X-Ray Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veledina, Alexandra

    2016-12-01

    We propose a physical model for the peaked noise in the X-ray power density spectra of accreting X-ray binaries. We interpret its appearance as an interference of two Comptonization continua: one coming from the upscattering of seed photons from the cold thin disk and the other fed by the synchrotron emission of the hot flow. Variations of both X-ray components are caused by fluctuations in mass accretion rate, but there is a delay between them corresponding to the propagation timescale from the disk Comptonization radius to the region of synchrotron Comptonization. If the disk and synchrotron Comptonization are correlated, the humps in the power spectra are harmonically related and the dips between them appear at frequencies related as odd numbers 1:3:5. If they are anti-correlated, the humps are related as 1:3:5, but the dips are harmonically related. Similar structures are expected to be observed in accreting neutron star binaries and supermassive black holes. The delay can be easily recovered from the frequency of peaked noise and further used to constrain the combination of the viscosity parameter and disk height-to-radius ratio α(H/R)2 of the accretion flow. We model multi-peak power spectra of black hole X-ray binaries GX 339-4 and XTE J1748-288 to constrain these parameters.

  15. The stellar accretion origin of stellar population gradients in massive galaxies at large radii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschmann, Michaela; Naab, Thorsten; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Forbes, Duncan A.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Davé, Romeel; Oser, Ludwig; Karabal, Emin

    2015-05-01

    We investigate the evolution of stellar population gradients from z = 2 to 0 in massive galaxies at large radii (r > 2Reff) using 10 cosmological zoom simulations of haloes with 6 × 1012 M⊙ < Mhalo < 2 × 1013 M⊙. The simulations follow metal cooling and enrichment from SNII, SNIa and asymptotic giant branch winds. We explore the differential impact of an empirical model for galactic winds that reproduces the mass-metallicity relation and its evolution with redshift. At larger radii the galaxies, for both models, become more dominated by stars accreted from satellite galaxies in major and minor mergers. In the wind model, fewer stars are accreted, but they are significantly more metal-poor resulting in steep global metallicity (<∇Zstars> = -0.35 dex dex-1) and colour (e.g. <∇g - r> = -0.13 dex dex-1) gradients in agreement with observations. In contrast, colour and metallicity gradients of the models without winds are inconsistent with observations. Age gradients are in general mildly positive at z = 0 (<∇Agestars> = 0.04 dex dex-1) with significant differences between the models at higher redshift. We demonstrate that for the wind model, stellar accretion is steepening existing in situ metallicity gradients by about 0.2 dex by the present day and helps to match observed gradients of massive early-type galaxies at large radii. Colour and metallicity gradients are significantly steeper for systems which have accreted stars in minor mergers, while galaxies with major mergers have relatively flat gradients, confirming previous results. The effect of stellar migration of in situ formed stars to large radii is discussed. This study highlights the importance of stellar accretion for stellar population properties of massive galaxies at large radii, which can provide important constraints for formation models.

  16. Computing the origin and evolution of the ribosome from its structure — Uncovering processes of macromolecular accretion benefiting synthetic biology

    PubMed Central

    Caetano-Anollés, Gustavo; Caetano-Anollés, Derek

    2015-01-01

    Accretion occurs pervasively in nature at widely different timeframes. The process also manifests in the evolution of macromolecules. Here we review recent computational and structural biology studies of evolutionary accretion that make use of the ideographic (historical, retrodictive) and nomothetic (universal, predictive) scientific frameworks. Computational studies uncover explicit timelines of accretion of structural parts in molecular repertoires and molecules. Phylogenetic trees of protein structural domains and proteomes and their molecular functions were built from a genomic census of millions of encoded proteins and associated terminal Gene Ontology terms. Trees reveal a ‘metabolic-first’ origin of proteins, the late development of translation, and a patchwork distribution of proteins in biological networks mediated by molecular recruitment. Similarly, the natural history of ancient RNA molecules inferred from trees of molecular substructures built from a census of molecular features shows patchwork-like accretion patterns. Ideographic analyses of ribosomal history uncover the early appearance of structures supporting mRNA decoding and tRNA translocation, the coevolution of ribosomal proteins and RNA, and a first evolutionary transition that brings ribosomal subunits together into a processive protein biosynthetic complex. Nomothetic structural biology studies of tertiary interactions and ancient insertions in rRNA complement these findings, once concentric layering assumptions are removed. Patterns of coaxial helical stacking reveal a frustrated dynamics of outward and inward ribosomal growth possibly mediated by structural grafting. The early rise of the ribosomal ‘turnstile’ suggests an evolutionary transition in natural biological computation. Results make explicit the need to understand processes of molecular growth and information transfer of macromolecules. PMID:27096056

  17. The broad emission-line region: the confluence of the outer accretion disc with the inner edge of the dusty torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goad, M. R.; Korista, K. T.; Ruff, A. J.

    2012-11-01

    We have investigated the observational characteristics of a class of broad emission line region (BLR) geometries that connect the outer accretion disc with the inner edge of the dusty toroidal obscuring region (TOR). We suggest that the BLR consists of photoionized gas of densities which allow for efficient cooling by ultraviolet (UV)/optical emission lines and of incident continuum fluxes which discourage the formation of grains, and that such gas occupies the range of distance and scale height between the continuum-emitting accretion disc and the dusty TOR. As a first approximation, we assume a population of clouds illuminated by ionizing photons from the central source, with the scale height of the illuminated clouds growing with increasing radial distance, forming an effective surface of a 'bowl'. Observer lines of sight which peer into the bowl lead to a Type 1 active galactic nuclei (AGN) spectrum. We assume that the gas dynamics are dominated by gravity, and we include in this model the effects of transverse Doppler shift (TDS), gravitational redshift (GR) and scale-height-dependent macroturbulence. Our simple model reproduces many of the commonly observed phenomena associated with the central regions of AGN, including (i) the shorter than expected continuum-dust delays (geometry), (ii) the absence of response in the core of the optical recombination lines on short time-scales (geometry/photoionization), (iii) an enhanced redwing response on short time-scales (GR and TDS), (iv) the observed differences between the delays for high- and low-ionization lines (photoionization), (v) identifying one of the possible primary contributors to the observed line widths for near face-on systems even for purely transverse motion (GR and TDS), (vi) a mechanism responsible for producing Lorentzian profiles (especially in the Balmer and Mg II emission lines) in low-inclination systems (turbulence), (vii) the absence of significant continuum-emission-line delays between the

  18. EVIDENCE FOR AN ACCRETION ORIGIN FOR THE OUTER HALO GLOBULAR CLUSTER SYSTEM OF M31

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, A. D.; Huxor, A. P.; Ferguson, A. M. N.; Irwin, M. J.; Chapman, S. C.; Tanvir, N. R.; McConnachie, A. W.; Ibata, R. A.; Lewis, G. F.

    2010-07-01

    We use a sample of newly discovered globular clusters from the Pan-Andromeda Archaeological Survey (PAndAS) in combination with previously cataloged objects to map the spatial distribution of globular clusters in the M31 halo. At projected radii beyond {approx}30 kpc, where large coherent stellar streams are readily distinguished in the field, there is a striking correlation between these features and the positions of the globular clusters. Adopting a simple Monte Carlo approach, we test the significance of this association by computing the probability that it could be due to the chance alignment of globular clusters smoothly distributed in the M31 halo. We find that the likelihood of this possibility is low, below 1%, and conclude that the observed spatial coincidence between globular clusters and multiple tidal debris streams in the outer halo of M31 reflects a genuine physical association. Our results imply that the majority of the remote globular cluster system of M31 has been assembled as a consequence of the accretion of cluster-bearing satellite galaxies. This constitutes the most direct evidence to date that the outer halo globular cluster populations in some galaxies are largely accreted.

  19. Gas accretion as the origin of chemical abundance gradients in distant galaxies.

    PubMed

    Cresci, G; Mannucci, F; Maiolino, R; Marconi, A; Gnerucci, A; Magrini, L

    2010-10-14

    It has recently been suggested that galaxies in the early Universe could have grown through the accretion of cold gas, and that this may have been the main driver of star formation and stellar mass growth. Because the cold gas is essentially primordial, it has a very low abundance of elements heavier than helium (referred to as metallicity). If funnelled to the centre of a galaxy, it will result in the central gas having an overall lower metallicity than gas further from the centre, because the gas further out has been enriched by supernovae and stellar winds, and not diluted by the primordial gas. Here we report chemical abundances across three rotationally supported star-forming galaxies at redshift z ≈ 3, only 2 Gyr after the Big Bang. We find 'inverse' gradients, with the central, star-forming regions having lower metallicities than less active ones, which is opposite to what is seen in local galaxies. We conclude that the central gas has been diluted by the accretion of primordial gas, as predicted by 'cold flow' models.

  20. The Origin of Warped, Precessing Accretion Disks in X-ray Binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maloney, Philip R.; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    1997-01-01

    The radiation-driven warping instability discovered by Pringle holds considerable promise as the mechanism responsible for producing warped, precessing accretion disks in X-ray binaries. This instability is an inherently global mode of the disk, thereby avoiding the difficulties with earlier models for the precession. Here we follow up on earlier work to study the linear behavior of the instability in the specific context of a binary system. We treat the influence of the companion as an orbit-averaged quadrupole torque on the disk. The presence of this external torque allows the existence of solutions in which the direction of precession of the warp is retrograde with respect to disk rotation, in addition to the prograde solutions that exist in the absence of external torques.

  1. ON THE ROLE AND ORIGIN OF NONTHERMAL ELECTRONS IN HOT ACCRETION FLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Niedźwiecki, Andrzej; Stȩpnik, Agnieszka

    2015-02-01

    We study the X-ray spectra of tenuous, two-temperature accretion flows using a model involving an exact, Monte Carlo computation of the global Comptonization effect as well as a general relativistic description of both the flow structure and radiative processes. In our previous work, we found that in flows surrounding supermassive black holes, thermal synchrotron radiation is not capable of providing a sufficient seed photon flux to explain the X-ray spectral indices as well as the cut-off energies measured in several best-studied active galactic nuclei (AGNs). In this work, we complete the model by including seed photons provided by nonthermal synchrotron radiation and we find that it allows us to reconcile the hot flow model with the AGN data. We take into account two possible sources of nonthermal electrons. First, we consider e {sup ±} produced by charged-pion decay, which should always be present in the innermost part of a two-temperature flow due to proton-proton interactions. We find that for a weak heating of thermal electrons (small δ) the synchrotron emission of pion-decay e {sup ±} is much stronger than the thermal synchrotron emission in the considered range of bolometric luminosities, L ∼ (10{sup –4}-10{sup –2}) L {sub Edd}. The small-δ model including hadronic effects, in general, agrees with the AGN data, except for the case of a slowly rotating black hole and a thermal distribution of protons. For large δ, the pion-decay e {sup ±} have a negligible effect and, in this model, we consider nonthermal electrons produced by direct acceleration. We find an approximate agreement with the AGN data for the fraction of the heating power of electrons, which is used for the nonthermal acceleration η ∼ 0.1. However, for constant η and δ, the model predicts a positive correlation of the X-ray spectral index with the Eddington ratio, and hence a fine tuning of η and/or δ with the accretion rate is required to explain the negative correlation

  2. On the Role and Origin of Nonthermal Electrons in Hot Accretion Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedźwiecki, Andrzej; Stȩpnik, Agnieszka; Xie, Fu-Guo

    2015-02-01

    We study the X-ray spectra of tenuous, two-temperature accretion flows using a model involving an exact, Monte Carlo computation of the global Comptonization effect as well as a general relativistic description of both the flow structure and radiative processes. In our previous work, we found that in flows surrounding supermassive black holes, thermal synchrotron radiation is not capable of providing a sufficient seed photon flux to explain the X-ray spectral indices as well as the cut-off energies measured in several best-studied active galactic nuclei (AGNs). In this work, we complete the model by including seed photons provided by nonthermal synchrotron radiation and we find that it allows us to reconcile the hot flow model with the AGN data. We take into account two possible sources of nonthermal electrons. First, we consider e ± produced by charged-pion decay, which should always be present in the innermost part of a two-temperature flow due to proton-proton interactions. We find that for a weak heating of thermal electrons (small δ) the synchrotron emission of pion-decay e ± is much stronger than the thermal synchrotron emission in the considered range of bolometric luminosities, L ~ (10-4-10-2) L Edd. The small-δ model including hadronic effects, in general, agrees with the AGN data, except for the case of a slowly rotating black hole and a thermal distribution of protons. For large δ, the pion-decay e ± have a negligible effect and, in this model, we consider nonthermal electrons produced by direct acceleration. We find an approximate agreement with the AGN data for the fraction of the heating power of electrons, which is used for the nonthermal acceleration η ~ 0.1. However, for constant η and δ, the model predicts a positive correlation of the X-ray spectral index with the Eddington ratio, and hence a fine tuning of η and/or δ with the accretion rate is required to explain the negative correlation observed at low luminosities. We note a

  3. The structure of protostellar accretion disks and the origin of bipolar flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wardle, Mark; Koenigl, Arieh

    1993-01-01

    Equations are obtained which govern the disk-wind structure and identify the physical parameters relevant to circumstellar disks. The system of equations is analyzed in the thin-disk approximation, and it is shown that the system can be consistently reduced to a set of ordinary differential equations in z. Representative solutions are presented, and it is shown that the apparent paradox discussed by Shu (1991) is resolved when the finite thickness of the disk is taken into account. Implications of the results for the origin of bipolar flows in young stellar objects and possible application to active galactic nuclei are discussed.

  4. Partial accretion in the propeller stage of accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gungor, Can; Gogus, Ersin; Eksi, Kazim Yavuz; Guver, Tolga

    2016-07-01

    Accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars (AMXPs) are very important objects for studying the stages of disk - magnetosphere interaction as these objects may show different stages in an observable duration. A typical X-ray light curve of an outburst of AMXP has a fast rise and an exponential decay phases. Most of the outbursts have a knee where the flux goes from the slow decay stage to the rapid decay stage. This knee may be linked to the transition from accretion to propeller stage. Since, after the knee, the X-ray luminosity of the source is still higher than its quiescent level, the accretion from inner disc must be continuing in the propeller stage with a lower fraction than in the accretion stage. The X-ray does not only come from accretion onto the poles but the inner parts of the disk may also contribute to the total X-ray luminosity. To infer what fraction (f) of the inflowing matter accretes onto the star the light curve in the propeller stage, one should first separate the emission originating from the disk and obtain a light curve of X-ray emission only from the magnetic poles. We provide a new method to infer from the observational data the fraction of accreting matter onto the neutron star pole to the mass transferring from outer layers of the disc to the inner disc (f), as a function of the fastness parameter (ω_{*}), assuming the knee is due to the transition from accretion to the propeller stage. We transform X-ray luminosities to the mass fraction, f, and the time scale of outburst to fastness parameter, ω_*. It allows us to compare different types of outbursts of an AMXP in f - ω_* space which is universal for a unique system. We analysed the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer/Proportional Counter Array (RXTE/PCA) observations of the 2000 and the 2011 outbursts and the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Mission/X-ray Telescope (SWIFT/XRT) data of the 2013 outburst of the most known AMXP, Aql X-1 using a combination of blackbody representing hot spot, disk blackbody

  5. Growth of asteroids, planetary embryos, and Kuiper belt objects by chondrule accretion

    PubMed Central

    Johansen, Anders; Low, Mordecai-Mark Mac; Lacerda, Pedro; Bizzarro, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Chondrules are millimeter-sized spherules that dominate primitive meteorites (chondrites) originating from the asteroid belt. The incorporation of chondrules into asteroidal bodies must be an important step in planet formation, but the mechanism is not understood. We show that the main growth of asteroids can result from gas drag–assisted accretion of chondrules. The largest planetesimals of a population with a characteristic radius of 100 km undergo runaway accretion of chondrules within ~3 My, forming planetary embryos up to Mars’s size along with smaller asteroids whose size distribution matches that of main belt asteroids. The aerodynamical accretion leads to size sorting of chondrules consistent with chondrites. Accretion of millimeter-sized chondrules and ice particles drives the growth of planetesimals beyond the ice line as well, but the growth time increases above the disc lifetime outside of 25 AU. The contribution of direct planetesimal accretion to the growth of both asteroids and Kuiper belt objects is minor. In contrast, planetesimal accretion and chondrule accretion play more equal roles in the formation of Moon-sized embryos in the terrestrial planet formation region. These embryos are isolated from each other and accrete planetesimals only at a low rate. However, the continued accretion of chondrules destabilizes the oligarchic configuration and leads to the formation of Mars-sized embryos and terrestrial planets by a combination of direct chondrule accretion and giant impacts. PMID:26601169

  6. Growth of asteroids, planetary embryos, and Kuiper belt objects by chondrule accretion.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Anders; Low, Mordecai-Mark Mac; Lacerda, Pedro; Bizzarro, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Chondrules are millimeter-sized spherules that dominate primitive meteorites (chondrites) originating from the asteroid belt. The incorporation of chondrules into asteroidal bodies must be an important step in planet formation, but the mechanism is not understood. We show that the main growth of asteroids can result from gas drag-assisted accretion of chondrules. The largest planetesimals of a population with a characteristic radius of 100 km undergo runaway accretion of chondrules within ~3 My, forming planetary embryos up to Mars's size along with smaller asteroids whose size distribution matches that of main belt asteroids. The aerodynamical accretion leads to size sorting of chondrules consistent with chondrites. Accretion of millimeter-sized chondrules and ice particles drives the growth of planetesimals beyond the ice line as well, but the growth time increases above the disc lifetime outside of 25 AU. The contribution of direct planetesimal accretion to the growth of both asteroids and Kuiper belt objects is minor. In contrast, planetesimal accretion and chondrule accretion play more equal roles in the formation of Moon-sized embryos in the terrestrial planet formation region. These embryos are isolated from each other and accrete planetesimals only at a low rate. However, the continued accretion of chondrules destabilizes the oligarchic configuration and leads to the formation of Mars-sized embryos and terrestrial planets by a combination of direct chondrule accretion and giant impacts.

  7. ORIGIN OF INTERMITTENT ACCRETION-POWERED X-RAY OSCILLATIONS IN NEUTRON STARS WITH MILLISECOND SPIN PERIODS

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, Frederick K.; Boutloukos, Stratos; Van Wassenhove, Sandor; Chamberlain, Robert T.; Lo, Ka Ho; Coleman Miller, M.

    2009-11-01

    We have shown previously that many of the properties of persistent accretion-powered millisecond pulsars can be understood if their X-ray emitting areas are near their spin axes and move as the accretion rate and structure of the inner disk vary. Here, we show that this 'nearly aligned moving spot model' may also explain the intermittent accretion-powered pulsations that have been detected in three weakly magnetic accreting neutron stars. We show that movement of the emitting area from very close to the spin axis to approx10 deg. away can increase the fractional rms amplitude from approx<0.5%, which is usually undetectable with current instruments, to a few percent, which is easily detectable. The second harmonic of the spin frequency usually would not be detected, in agreement with observations. The model produces intermittently detectable oscillations for a range of emitting area sizes and beaming patterns, stellar masses and radii, and viewing directions. Intermittent oscillations are more likely in stars that are more compact. In addition to explaining the sudden appearance of accretion-powered millisecond oscillations in some neutron stars with millisecond spin periods, the model explains why accretion-powered millisecond oscillations are relatively rare and predicts that the persistent accretion-powered millisecond oscillations of other stars may become undetectable for brief intervals. It suggests why millisecond oscillations are frequently detected during the X-ray bursts of some neutron stars but not others and suggests mechanisms that could explain the occasional temporal association of intermittent accretion-powered oscillations with thermonuclear X-ray bursts.

  8. Migration of accreting giant planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crida, A.; Bitsch, B.; Raibaldi, A.

    2016-12-01

    We present the results of 2D hydro simulations of giant planets in proto-planetary discs, which accrete gas at a more or less high rate. First, starting from a solid core of 20 Earth masses, we show that as soon as the runaway accretion of gas turns on, the planet is saved from type I migration : the gap opening mass is reached before the planet is lost into its host star. Furthermore, gas accretion helps opening the gap in low mass discs. Consequently, if the accretion rate is limited to the disc supply, then the planet is already inside a gap and in type II migration. We further show that the type II migration of a Jupiter mass planet actually depends on its accretion rate. Only when the accretion is high do we retrieve the classical picture where no gas crosses the gap and the planet follows the disc spreading. These results impact our understanding of planet migration and planet population synthesis models. The e-poster presenting these results in French can be found here: L'e-poster présentant ces résultats en français est disponible à cette adresse: http://sf2a.eu/semaine-sf2a/2016/posterpdfs/156_179_49.pdf.

  9. The origin of stellar, planetary, satellite and galactic rotation as tangential accretion of decaying orbital torus sections of relevant material transferring orbital momentum into rotational motion of the accreted body.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brekke, S. E.

    2002-12-01

    The origin of planetary, satellite and stellar rotation is due to tangential accretion of orbiting torus sections of material which decay.In the case of the sun and other stars torus sections of mostly hydrogen gas are held together by magnetic and electric fields,and in the case of the planets, gaseous and rocky,torus sections are of relevant material such as gases as methane and ammonia and rocky materials such as silicatesheld together also by magnetic and electric fields. The torus section orbits decay due to slowing down and by gravitational attraction tangentially collide with a protoplanet or protostar such as the sun. The orbital motion of the torus section is transferred to the slowly rotating protoplanet in tangential accretion thereby speeding up the rotation of the protoplanet or star. This is a transfer of orbital motion into rotary motion through tangential collision. The evidence for this is the differential layering of the body of a planet or star.The origin of the torus sections is the Big Bang. Galactic formation in part is due to already formed arms in slowly decaying orbital motion which tangentially collide with other already formed arms into spiral and barred spiral galaxies in which the rotation resulted from orbital motion being converted to rotary motion. Rotation of spiral galaxies slows down and the spirals change into ellipticals. All of this was seen in a coffee cup when some old creamer was put into it. Elliptical Galaxies do actually spin slower than Spirals. Therefore, all heavenly bodies are rotating at their present speed due to tangential collision and accretion of already formed arms of material in which orbital motion is converted into rotary motion in which there may be some slowing down over time.

  10. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF HOT ACCRETION FLOWS. II. NATURE, ORIGIN, AND PROPERTIES OF OUTFLOWS AND THEIR POSSIBLE OBSERVATIONAL APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan Feng; Bu Defu; Wu Maochun E-mail: dfbu@shao.ac.cn

    2012-12-20

    Hydrodynamical (HD) and magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) numerical simulations of hot accretion flows have indicated that the inflow accretion rate decreases inward. Two models have been proposed to explain this result. In the adiabatic inflow-outflow solution (ADIOS), this is because of the loss of gas in the outflow. In the alternative convection-dominated accretion flow model, it is thought that the flow is convectively unstable and gas is locked in convective eddies. We investigate the nature of the inward decrease of the accretion rate using HD and MHD simulations. We calculate various properties of the inflow and outflow such as temperature and rotational velocity. Systematic and significant differences are found. These results suggest that the inflow and outflow are not simply convective turbulence; instead, systematic inward and outward motion (i.e., real outflow) must exist. We have also analyzed the convective stability of MHD accretion flows and found that they are stable. These results favor the ADIOS scenario. We suggest that the mechanisms of producing outflow in HD and MHD flows are the buoyancy associated with the convection and the centrifugal force associated with the angular momentum transport mediated by the magnetic field, respectively. The latter is similar to the Blandford and Payne mechanism but no large-scale open magnetic field is required. We discuss some possible observational applications, including the Fermi bubble in the Galactic center and winds in active galactic nuclei and black hole X-ray binaries.

  11. The star formation history and accretion-disc fraction among the K-type members of the Scorpius-Centaurus OB association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecaut, Mark J.; Mamajek, Eric E.

    2016-09-01

    We present results of a spectroscopic survey for new K- and M-type members of Scorpius-Centaurus (Sco-Cen), the nearest OB Association (˜100-200 pc). Using an X-ray, proper motion and colour-magnitude selected sample, we obtained spectra for 361 stars, for which we report spectral classifications and Li and Hα equivalent widths. We identified 156 new members of Sco-Cen, and recovered 51 previously published members. We have combined these with previously known members to form a sample of 493 solar-mass (˜0.7-1.3 M⊙) members of Sco-Cen. We investigated the star formation history of this sample, and re-assessed the ages of the massive main-sequence turn-off and the G-type members in all three subgroups. We performed a census for circumstellar discs in our sample using WISE infrared data and find a protoplanetary disc fraction for K-type stars of 4.4^{+1.6}_{-0.9} per cent for Upper Centaurus-Lupus and Lower Centaurus-Crux at ˜16 Myr and 9.0^{+4.0}_{-2.2} per cent for Upper Scorpius at ˜10 Myr. These data are consistent with a protoplanetary disc e-folding time-scale of ˜4-5 Myr for ˜1 M⊙ stars, twice that previously quoted, but consistent with the Bell et al. revised age scale of young clusters. Finally, we construct an age map of Scorpius-Centaurus which clearly reveals substructure consisting of concentrations of younger and older stars. We find evidence for strong age gradients within all three subgroups. None of the subgroups are consistent with being simple, coeval populations which formed in single bursts, but likely represents a multitude of smaller star formation episodes of hundreds to tens of stars each.

  12. Characterizing thermal sweeping: a rapid disc dispersal mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, James E.; Hudoba de Badyn, Mathias; Clarke, Cathie J.; Robins, Luke

    2013-12-01

    We consider the properties of protoplanetary discs that are undergoing inside-out clearing by photoevaporation. In particular, we aim to characterize the conditions under which a protoplanetary disc may undergo `thermal sweeping', a rapid (≲104 years) disc destruction mechanism proposed to occur when a clearing disc reaches sufficiently low surface density at its inner edge and where the disc is unstable to runaway penetration by the X-rays. We use a large suite of 1D radiation-hydrodynamic simulations to probe the observable parameter space, which is unfeasible in higher dimensions. These models allow us to determine the surface density at which thermal sweeping will take over the disc's evolution and to evaluate this critical surface density as a function of X-ray luminosity, stellar mass and inner hole radius. We find that this critical surface density scales linearly with X-ray luminosity, increases with inner hole radius and decreases with stellar mass, and we develop an analytic model that reproduces these results. This surface density criterion is then used to determine the evolutionary state of protoplanetary discs at the point that they become unstable to destruction by thermal sweeping. We find that transition discs created by photoevaporation will undergo thermal sweeping when their inner holes reach 20-40 au, implying that transition discs with large holes and no accretion (which were previously a predicted outcome of the later stages of all flavours of the photoevaporation model) will not form. Thermal sweeping thus avoids the production of large numbers of large, non-accreting holes (which are not observed) and implies that the majority of holes created by photoevaporation should still be accreting. We emphasize that the surface density criteria that we have developed apply to all situations where the disc develops an inner hole that is optically thin to X-rays. It thus applies not only to the case of holes originally created by photoevaporation but

  13. The Dusty Accretion of Polluted White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonsor, A.; Farihi, J.; Wyatt, M. C.; van Lieshout, R.

    2017-03-01

    Infrared observations of polluted white dwarfs provide key insights into the accretion processes in action. The standard model for the observed infrared excesses is a flat, opaque, dust disc. The infrared observations are inconsistent with the presence of such a disc around all polluted white dwarfs. We discuss potential explanations for the absence of an infrared excess for many polluted white dwarfs.

  14. Going with the flow: using gas clouds to probe the accretion flow feeding Sgr A*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCourt, Michael; Madigan, Ann-Marie

    2016-01-01

    The massive black hole in our Galactic centre, Sgr A*, accretes only a small fraction of the gas available at its Bondi radius. The physical processes determining this accretion rate remain unknown, partly due to a lack of observational constraints on the gas at distances between ˜10 and ˜105 Schwarzschild radii (Rs) from the black hole. Recent infrared observations identify low-mass gas clouds, G1 and G2, moving on highly eccentric, nearly co-planar orbits through the accretion flow around Sgr A*. Although it is not yet clear whether these objects contain embedded stars, their extended gaseous envelopes evolve independently as gas clouds. In this paper we attempt to use these gas clouds to constrain the properties of the accretion flow at ˜103 Rs. Assuming that G1 and G2 follow the same trajectory, we model the small differences in their orbital parameters as evolution resulting from interaction with the background flow. We find evolution consistent with the G-clouds originating in the clockwise disc. Our analysis enables the first unique determination of the rotation axis of the accretion flow: we localize the rotation axis to within 20°, finding an orientation consistent with the parsec-scale jet identified in X-ray observations and with the circumnuclear disc, a massive torus of molecular gas ˜1.5 pc from Sgr A*. This suggests that the gas in the accretion flow comes predominantly from the circumnuclear disc, rather than the winds of stars in the young clockwise disc. This result will be tested by the Event-Horizon Telescope within the next year. Our model also makes testable predictions for the orbital evolution of G1 and G2, falsifiable on a 5-10 year time-scale.

  15. The Importance of Rotational Time-scales in Accretion Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costigan, Gráinne; Vink, Joirck; Scholz, Aleks; Testi, Leonardo; Ray, Tom

    2013-07-01

    For the first few million years, one of the dominant sources of emission from a low mass young stellar object is from accretion. This process regulates the flow of material and angular moments from the surroundings to the central object, and is thought to play an important role in the definition of the long term stellar properties. Variability is a well documented attribute of accretion, and has been observed on time-scales of from days to years. However, where these variations come from is not clear. Th current model for accretion is magnetospheric accretion, where the stellar magnetic field truncates the disc, allowing the matter to flow from the disc onto the surface of the star. This model allows for variations in the accretion rate to come from many different sources, such as the magnetic field, the circumstellar disc and the interaction of the different parts of the system. We have been studying unbiased samples of accretors in order to identify the dominant time-scales and typical magnitudes of variations. In this way different sources of variations can be excluded and any missing physics in these systems identified. Through our previous work with the Long-term Accretion Monitoring Program (LAMP), we found 10 accretors in the ChaI region, whose variability is dominated by short term variations of 2 weeks. This was the shortest time period between spectroscopic observations which spanned 15 months, and rules out large scale processes in the disk as origins of this variability. On the basis of this study we have gone further to study the accretion signature H-alpha, over the time-scales of minutes and days in a set of Herbig Ae and T Tauri stars. Using the same methods as we used in LAMP we found the dominant time-scales of variations to be days. These samples both point towards rotation period of these objects as being an important time-scale for accretion variations. This allows us to indicate which are the most likely sources of these variations.

  16. Abundance gradients in low surface brightness spirals: clues on the origin of common gradients in galactic discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bresolin, F.; Kennicutt, R. C.

    2015-12-01

    We acquired spectra of 141 H II regions in 10 late-type low surface brightness galaxies (LSBGs). The analysis of the chemical abundances obtained from the nebular emission lines shows that metallicity gradients are a common feature of LSBGs, contrary to previous claims concerning the absence of such gradients in this class of galaxies. The average slope, when expressed in units of the isophotal radius, is found to be significantly shallower in comparison to galaxies of high surface brightness. This result can be attributed to the reduced surface brightness range measured across their discs, when combined with a universal surface mass density-metallicity relation. With a similar argument we explain the common abundance gradient observed in high surface brightness galaxy (HSBG) discs and its approximate dispersion. This conclusion is reinforced by our result that LSBGs share the same common abundance gradient with HSBGs, when the slope is expressed in terms of the exponential disc scalelength.

  17. Evolution of protoplanetary discs with magnetically driven disc winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Takeru K.; Ogihara, Masahiro; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Crida, Aurélien; Guillot, Tristan

    2016-12-01

    Aims: We investigate the evolution of protoplanetary discs (PPDs) with magnetically driven disc winds and viscous heating. Methods: We considered an initially massive disc with 0.1 M⊙ to track the evolution from the early stage of PPDs. We solved the time evolution of surface density and temperature by taking into account viscous heating and the loss of mass and angular momentum by the disc winds within the framework of a standard α model for accretion discs. Our model parameters, turbulent viscosity, disc wind mass-loss, and disc wind torque, which were adopted from local magnetohydrodynamical simulations and constrained by the global energetics of the gravitational accretion, largely depends on the physical condition of PPDs, particularly on the evolution of the vertical magnetic flux in weakly ionized PPDs. Results: Although there are still uncertainties concerning the evolution of the vertical magnetic flux that remains, the surface densities show a large variety, depending on the combination of these three parameters, some of which are very different from the surface density expected from the standard accretion. When a PPD is in a wind-driven accretion state with the preserved vertical magnetic field, the radial dependence of the surface density can be positive in the inner region <1-10 au. The mass accretion rates are consistent with observations, even in the very low level of magnetohydrodynamical turbulence. Such a positive radial slope of the surface density strongly affects planet formation because it inhibits the inward drift or even causes the outward drift of pebble- to boulder-sized solid bodies, and it also slows down or even reversed the inward type-I migration of protoplanets. Conclusions: The variety of our calculated PPDs should yield a wide variety of exoplanet systems.

  18. Magnetic viscosity: outbursts and outflows in accretion driven systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meintjes, P. J.; Breedt, E.

    In this paper magnetic viscosity is investigated in magnetized accretion discs. It will be shown that the effective coupling between the magnetic field of a slow-rotator and an accretion disc, can be a very effective mechanism to drive episodes of high mass accretion onto the surface of a compact object. Outside the corotation radius, angular momentum is effectively transferred outwards through a propeller-type process from the magnetospheric field and magnetic bubbles that are formed as a result of a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, which can result in a centrifugal barrier and accumulation of disc matter outside the corotation radius which will become unstable at some point, triggering enhanced inward mass advection as a result of a magneto-gravitational instability. This may lead to periods of enhanced mass accretion and associated disc brightening, which may explain the dwarf novae phenomenon in certain disc accreting cataclysmic variables. This may be accompanied by mass outflows from the disc and possible non-thermal emission. The description of magnetic viscosity presented in this paper will rely on the values of two constants, i.e. the Hartmann and Reynolds numbers of the magnetized disc plasma. For both these numbers above unity, magnetic stresses in the disc can play a very important role in the kinematics of the plasma in disc accreting systems.

  19. Magnetic fields in giant planet formation and protoplanetary discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keith, Sarah Louise

    2015-12-01

    Protoplanetary discs channel accretion onto their host star. How this is achieved is critical to the growth of giant planets which capture their massive gaseous atmosphere from the surrounding flow. Theoretical studies find that an embedded magnetic field could power accretion by hydromagnetic turbulence or torques from a large-scale field. This thesis presents a study of the inuence of magnetic fields in three key aspects of this process: circumplanetary disc accretion, gas flow across gaps in protoplanetary discs, and magnetic-braking in accretion discs. The first study examines the conditions needed for self-consistent accretion driven by magnetic fields or gravitational instability. Models of these discs typically rely on hydromagnetic turbulence as the source of effective viscosity. However, magnetically coupled,accreting regions may be so limited that the disc may not support sufficient inflow. An improved Shakura-Sunyaev ? disc is used to calculate the ionisation fraction and strength of non-ideal effects. Steady magnetically-driven accretion is limited to the thermally ionised, inner disc so that accretion in the remainder of the disc is time-dependent. The second study addresses magnetic flux transport in an accretion gap evacuated by a giant planet. Assuming the field is passively drawn along with the gas, the hydrodynamical simulation of Tanigawa, Ohtsuki & Machida (2012) is used for an a posteriori analysis of the gap field structure. This is used to post-calculate magnetohydrodynamical quantities. This assumption is self-consistent as magnetic forces are found to be weak, and good magnetic coupling ensures the field is frozen into the gas. Hall drift dominates across much of the gap, with the potential to facilitate turbulence and modify the toroidal field according to the global field orientation. The third study considers the structure and stability of magnetically-braked accretion discs. Strong evidence for MRI dead-zones has renewed interest in

  20. Magnetized accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyvaerts, J.

    This lecture reviews in simple terms the general subject of large scale magnetic field coupling to plasma flows in the vicinity of accreting compact stars. The relevant astrophysical phenomenology is summarized. Disk interaction with the magnetosphere of accreting stars is first discussed, in particular the structure of the magnetopause, its stability and plasma ejection in so-called propeller systems. The physics of accretion/ejection is then considered. Acceleration and focusing mechanisms of jets from accretion disks around compact stars or black holes and the question of the self-consistency of accretion and ejection are described. By contrast, small scale MHD turbulence in disks is not discussed, neither are accretion columns near the polar caps of neutron stars or white dwarfs. The reader is only assumed to have some basic knowledge of astrophysics and of fluid mechanics and electromagnetism.

  1. Tectonic accretion and the origin of the two major metamorphic and plutonic welts in the Canadian Cordillera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monger, J. W. H.; Price, R. A.; Tempelman-Kluit, D. J.

    1982-02-01

    The Omineca Crystalline Belt and Coast Plutonic Complex are the two major regional tectonic welts in the Canadian Cordillera in which were concentrated intense deformation, regional metamorphism, granitic magmatism, uplift, and erosion. The welts, which formerly were thought to result from subduction of Pacific Ocean lithosphere beneath the western edge of North America, can now be viewed partly as the result of tectonic overlap and/or compressional thickening of crustal rocks during collisions between North America and two large, composite, allochthonous terranes that were accreted to its ancient western margin. The inner composite terrane, Terrane I, includes four smaller terranes that apparently were together by the end of Triassic time. The outer composite terrane, Terrane II, comprises two terranes, amalgamated by Late Jurassic time. The Omineca Crystalline Belt formed mainly from mid-Jurassic time onward, during and following the collision of Terrane I with North America. This belt straddles the zone of overlap of autochthonous and allochthonous terranes, and its characteristic metamorphism and structure are superimposed on both. The Coast Plutonic Complex formed mainly in Cretaceous to early Tertiary time during and following the attachment of Terrane II to the new, Jurassic, continental margin. It lies along the boundary of Terrane I and Terrane II and involves elements of both terranes. The collisions took place within the overall setting of the North American plate moving relatively westward into various Pacific plates from Jurassic time onward and in conjunction with subduction of Pacific Ocean lithosphere. *Present address: Geological Survey of Canada, 601 Booth Street, Ottawa, Ontario K1A OE8, Canada

  2. Warps and waves in the stellar discs of the Auriga cosmological simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, Facundo A.; White, Simon D. M.; Grand, Robert J. J.; Marinacci, Federico; Springel, Volker; Pakmor, Rüdiger

    2017-03-01

    Recent studies have revealed an oscillating asymmetry in the vertical structure of the Milky Way's disc. Here, we analyse 16 high-resolution, fully cosmological simulations of the evolution of individual Milky Way-sized galaxies, carried out with the magnetohydrodynamic code AREPO. At redshift zero, about 70 per cent of our galactic discs show strong vertical patterns, with amplitudes that can exceed 2 kpc. Half of these are typical 'integral sign' warps. The rest are oscillations similar to those observed in the Milky Way. Such structures are thus expected to be common. The associated mean vertical motions can be as large as 30 km s-1. Cold disc gas typically follows the vertical patterns seen in the stars. These perturbations have a variety of causes: close encounters with satellites, distant fly-bys of massive objects, accretion of misaligned cold gas from halo infall or from mergers. Tidally induced vertical patterns can be identified in both young and old stellar populations, whereas those originating from cold gas accretion are seen mainly in the younger populations. Galaxies with regular or at most weakly perturbed discs are usually, but not always, free from recent interactions with massive companions, although we have one case where an equilibrium compact disc reforms after a merger.

  3. On the origin of the Schechter-like mass function of young star clusters in disc galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieberz, P.; Kroupa, P.

    2017-03-01

    The mass function of freshly formed star clusters is empirically often described as a power law. However, the cluster mass function of populations of young clusters over the scale of a galaxy has been found to be described by a Schechter-function. Here we address this apparent discrepancy. We assume that in an annulus of an isolated self-regulated radially exponential axially symmetric disc galaxy, the local mass function of very young (embedded) clusters is a power law with an upper mass limit which depends on the local star formation rate density. Radial integration of this mass function yields a galaxy-wide embedded cluster mass function. This integrated embedded cluster mass function has a Schechter-type form, which results from the addition of many low-mass clusters forming at all galactocentric distances and rarer massive clusters only forming close to the centre of the galaxy.

  4. Formation of a hot proto-atmosphere on the accreting giant icy satellite: Implications for the origin and evolution of Titan, Ganymede, and Callisto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuramoto, Kiyoshi; Matsui, Takafumi

    1994-10-01

    Judging from accretion energy and accretion time for the giant icy satellites it is suggested that a proto-atmosphere is formed by the evaporation of icy materials during accretion of these bodies around the proto-gaseous giant planets. The blanketing effect of proto-atmosphere during accretion of these satellites in the gas-free environment is studied. We use a gray atmosphere model in which the condensation of H2O in a convective atmosphere is taken into account. The numerical results strongly suggest that the accretion energy flux is large enough to increase the surface temperature higher than approximately 500 K during accretion due to the blanketing effect of proto-atmosphere as long as the accretion time is shorter than 105 years. Such a high surface temperature causes the formation of a deep water-rich ocean due to the melting of icy materials. Also, a rocky core should be eventually formed by sinking of rocky materials through the water-rich ocean during accretion. Therefore, the apparent difference in the surface geologic features between Ganymede and Callisto can hardly be explained by whether or not these bodies have experienced the formation of rocky core. Stability of hydrostatic structure of the proto-atmosphere is also studied. Vigorous escape of the proto-atmosphere is likely to occur under high surface temperature. A large portion of accretional energy is possibly consumed by the vigorous escape during accretion. Thus, the giant icy satellites may lose a significant amount of icy materials during their accretions.

  5. Apparent quasar disc sizes in the "bird's nest" paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abolmasov, P.

    2017-04-01

    Context. Quasar microlensing effects make it possible to measure the accretion disc sizes around distant supermassive black holes that are still well beyond the spatial resolution of contemporary instrumentation. The sizes measured with this technique appear inconsistent with the standard accretion disc model. Not only are the measured accretion disc sizes larger, but their dependence on wavelength is in most cases completely different from the predictions of the standard model. Aims: We suggest that these discrepancies may arise not from non-standard accretion disc structure or systematic errors, as it was proposed before, but rather from scattering and reprocession of the radiation of the disc. In particular, the matter falling from the gaseous torus and presumably feeding the accretion disc may at certain distances become ionized and produce an extended halo that is free from colour gradients. Methods: A simple analytical model is proposed assuming that a geometrically thick translucent inflow acts as a scattering mirror changing the apparent spatial properties of the disc. This inflow may be also identified with the broad line region or its inner parts. Results: Such a model is able to explain the basic properties of the apparent disc sizes, primarily their large values and their shallow dependence on wavelength. The only condition required is to scatter a significant portion of the luminosity of the disc. This can easily be fulfilled if the scattering inflow has a large geometrical thickness and clumpy structure.

  6. Proto-planetary disc evolution and dispersal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosotti, Giovanni Pietro

    2015-05-01

    Planets form from gas and dust discs in orbit around young stars. The timescale for planet formation is constrained by the lifetime of these discs. The properties of the formed planetary systems depend thus on the evolution and final dispersal of the discs, which is the main topic of this thesis. Observations reveal the existence of a class of discs called "transitional", which lack dust in their inner regions. They are thought to be the last stage before the complete disc dispersal, and hence they may provide the key to understanding the mechanisms behind disc evolution. X-ray photoevaporation and planet formation have been studied as possible physical mechanisms responsible for the final dispersal of discs. However up to now, these two phenomena have been studied separately, neglecting any possible feedback or interaction. In this thesis we have investigated what is the interplay between these two processes. We show that the presence of a giant planet in a photo-evaporating disc can significantly shorten its lifetime, by cutting the inner regions from the mass reservoir in the exterior of the disc. This mechanism produces transition discs that for a given mass accretion rate have larger holes than in models considering only X-ray photo-evaporation, constituting a possible route to the formation of accreting transition discs with large holes. These discs are found in observations and still constitute a puzzle for the theory. Inclusion of the phenomenon called "thermal sweeping", a violent instability that can destroy a whole disc in as little as 10 4 years, shows that the outer disc left can be very short-lived (depending on the X-ray luminosity of the star), possibly explaining why very few non accreting transition discs are observed. However the mechanism does not seem to be efficient enough to reconcile with observations. In this thesis we also show that X-ray photo-evaporation naturally explains the observed correlation between stellar masses and accretion

  7. Hydrodynamic modelling of accretion impacts in classical T Tauri stars: radiative heating of the pre-shock plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, G.; Orlando, S.; Peres, G.; Argiroffi, C.; Bonito, R.

    2017-01-01

    Context. It is generally accepted that, in classical T Tauri stars, the plasma from the circumstellar disc accretes onto the stellar surface with free-fall velocity and the impact generates a shock. The impact region is expected to contribute to emission in different spectral bands; many studies have confirmed that the X-rays arise from the post-shock plasma but, otherwise, there are no studies in the literature investigating the origin of the observed UV emission which is apparently correlated to accretion. Aims: We investigated the effect of radiative heating of the infalling material by the post-shock plasma at the base of the accretion stream, with the aim to identify in which region a significant part of the UV emission originates. Methods: We developed a one-dimensional hydrodynamic model describing the impact of an accretion stream onto the stellar surface; the model takes into account the gravity, the radiative cooling of an optically thin plasma, the thermal conduction, and the heating due to absorption of X-ray radiation. The latter term represents the heating of the infalling plasma due to the absorption of X-rays emitted from the post-shock region. Results: We found that the radiative heating of the pre-shock plasma plays a non-negligible role in the accretion phenomenon. In particular, the dense and cold plasma of the pre-shock accretion column is gradually heated up to a few 105K due to irradiation of X-rays arising from the shocked plasma at the impact region. This heating mechanism does not affect significantly the dynamics of the post-shock plasma. On the other hand, a region of radiatively heated gas (that we consider a precursor) forms in the unshocked accretion column and contributes significantly to UV emission. Our model naturally reproduces the luminosity of UV emission lines correlated to accretion and shows that most of the UV emission originates from the precursor.

  8. Planetary growth by the accretion of pebbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambrechts, Michiel; Johansen, Anders; Bitsch, Bertram; Morbidelli, Alessandro

    2015-11-01

    Pebbles, approximately cm-sized solids that drift through a protoplanetary disc, provide a reservoir of material that can be efficiently accreted by planetary embryos due to the dissipating effect of gas drag (Lambrechts & Johansen, 2012).Here, we will highlight the robust implications of pebble accretion on the formation of planets throughout the protoplanetary disc.In the outer disc, icy pebbles form by coagulation and consequently start drifting inwards. Nevertheless, we find that the pebble surface densities are sufficiently high to form giant planets on wide orbits, before the gas disc disperses after a few Myr (Lambrechts & Johansen, 2014). Growth is only halted when cores reach sizes of around 10 Earth masses, when their gravity creates pressure bumps trapping the inwards drifting pebbles.This accretion cutoff triggers the attraction of a massive gaseous envelope. Additionally, the fast growth of giant planets prevents the loss of the cores by type-I migration (Lambrechts et al 2014, Bitsch et al 2015).Closer to the star, interior to the ice line, pebble accretion takes on a different form. There, chondrule-sized particles lead to the formation of much smaller, Mars-sized embryos, before the pebble flux is terminated by the growth of the gas giants (Morbidelli et al, 2015). We will also discuss ongoing work on the conditions under which much larger Super-Earths can form.

  9. Accretion disk electrodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coroniti, F. V.

    1985-01-01

    Accretion disk electrodynamic phenomena are separable into two classes: (1) disks and coronas with turbulent magnetic fields; (2) disks and black holes which are connected to a large-scale external magnetic field. Turbulent fields may originate in an alpha-omega dynamo, provide anomalous viscous transport, and sustain an active corona by magnetic buoyancy. The large-scale field can extract energy and angular momentum from the disk and black hole, and be dynamically configured into a collimated relativistic jet.

  10. Accretion of the Earth.

    PubMed

    Canup, Robin M

    2008-11-28

    The origin of the Earth and its Moon has been the focus of an enormous body of research. In this paper I review some of the current models of terrestrial planet accretion, and discuss assumptions common to most works that may require re-examination. Density-wave interactions between growing planets and the gas nebula may help to explain the current near-circular orbits of the Earth and Venus, and may result in large-scale radial migration of proto-planetary embryos. Migration would weaken the link between the present locations of the planets and the original provenance of the material that formed them. Fragmentation can potentially lead to faster accretion and could also damp final planet orbital eccentricities. The Moon-forming impact is believed to be the final major event in the Earth's accretion. Successful simulations of lunar-forming impacts involve a differentiated impactor containing between 0.1 and 0.2 Earth masses, an impact angle near 45 degrees and an impact speed within 10 per cent of the Earth's escape velocity. All successful impacts-with or without pre-impact rotation-imply that the Moon formed primarily from material originating from the impactor rather than from the proto-Earth. This must ultimately be reconciled with compositional similarities between the Earth and the Moon.

  11. Structure of radiation-dominated gravitoturbulent quasar discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadmehri, Mohsen; Khajenabi, Fazeleh; Dib, Sami

    2017-02-01

    Self-gravitating accretion discs in a gravitoturbulent state, including radiation and gas pressures, are studied using a set of new analytical solutions. While the Toomre parameter of the disc remains close to its critical value for the onset of gravitational instability, the dimensionless stress parameter is uniquely determined from the thermal energy reservoir of the disc and its cooling rate. Our solutions are applicable to the accretion discs with dynamically important radiation pressure such as that in the quasars discs. We show that physical quantities of a gravitoturbulent disc in the presence of radiation are significantly modified compared to solutions with only gas pressure. We show that the dimensionless stress parameter is an increasing function of the radial distance so that its steepness strongly depends on the accretion rate. In a disc without radiation its slope is 4.5; however, we show that in the presence of radiation, it varies between 2 and 4.5 depending on the accretion rate and the central mass. As for the surface density, we find a shallower profile with an exponent -2 in a disc with sub-Eddington accretion rate compared to a similar disc, but without radiation, where its surface density slope is -3 independent of the accretion rate. We then investigate gravitational stability of the disc when the stress parameter reaches to its critical value. In order to self-consistently determine the fragmentation boundary, however, it is shown that the critical value of the stress parameter is a power-law function of the ratio of gas pressure and the total pressure and its exponent is around 1.7. We also estimate the maximum mass of the central black hole using our analytical solutions.

  12. Differential effects of prenatal and postnatal expressions of mutant human DISC1 on neurobehavioral phenotypes in transgenic mice: evidence for neurodevelopmental origin of major psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Ayhan, Y; Abazyan, B; Nomura, J; Kim, R; Ladenheim, B; Krasnova, I N; Sawa, A; Margolis, R L; Cadet, J L; Mori, S; Vogel, M W; Ross, C A; Pletnikov, M V

    2011-03-01

    Strong genetic evidence implicates mutations and polymorphisms in the gene Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia-1 (DISC1) as risk factors for both schizophrenia and mood disorders. Recent studies have shown that DISC1 has important functions in both brain development and adult brain function. We have described earlier a transgenic mouse model of inducible expression of mutant human DISC1 (hDISC1) that acts in a dominant-negative manner to induce the marked neurobehavioral abnormalities. To gain insight into the roles of DISC1 at various stages of neurodevelopment, we examined the effects of mutant hDISC1 expressed during (1) only prenatal period, (2) only postnatal period, or (3) both periods. All periods of expression similarly led to decreased levels of cortical dopamine (DA) and fewer parvalbumin-positive neurons in the cortex. Combined prenatal and postnatal expression produced increased aggression and enhanced response to psychostimulants in male mice along with increased linear density of dendritic spines on neurons of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, and lower levels of endogenous DISC1 and LIS1. Prenatal expression only resulted in smaller brain volume, whereas selective postnatal expression gave rise to decreased social behavior in male mice and depression-like responses in female mice as well as enlarged lateral ventricles and decreased DA content in the hippocampus of female mice, and decreased level of endogenous DISC1. Our data show that mutant hDISC1 exerts differential effects on neurobehavioral phenotypes, depending on the stage of development at which the protein is expressed. The multiple and diverse abnormalities detected in mutant DISC1 mice are reminiscent of findings in major mental diseases.

  13. The jet-disc connection in AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sbarrato, T.; Padovani, P.; Ghisellini, G.

    2014-11-01

    We present our latest results on the connection between accretion rate and relativistic jet power in active galactic nuclei (AGN), by using a large sample which includes mostly blazars, but contains also some radio galaxies. The jet power can be traced by γ-ray luminosity in the case of blazars, and radio luminosity for both classes. The accretion-disc luminosity is instead traced by the broad emission lines. Among blazars, we find a correlation between broad line emission and the γ-ray or radio luminosities, suggesting a direct tight connection between jet power and accretion rate. We confirm that the observational differences between blazar subclasses reflect differences in the accretion regime, but with blazars only we cannot properly access the low-accretion regime. By introducing radio galaxies, we succeed in observing the fingerprint of the transition between radiatively efficient and inefficient accretion discs in the jetted AGN family. The transition occurs at the standard critical value Ld/LEdd ˜ 10-2 and it appears smooth. Below this value, the ionizing luminosity emitted by the accretion structure drops significantly.

  14. Gamma-burst emission from neutron-star accretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colgate, S. A.; Petschek, A. G.; Sarracino, R.

    1983-01-01

    A model for emission of the hard photons of gamma bursts is presented. The model assumes accretion at nearly the Eddington limited rate onto a neutron star without a magnetic field. Initially soft photons are heated as they are compressed between the accreting matter and the star. A large electric field due to relatively small charge separation is required to drag electrons into the star with the nuclei against the flux of photons leaking out through the accreting matter. The photon number is not increased substantially by Bremsstrahlung or any other process. It is suggested that instability in an accretion disc might provide the infalling matter required.

  15. The role of thermodynamics in disc fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamatellos, Dimitris; Whitworth, Anthony P.

    2009-12-01

    Thermodynamics play an important role in determining the way a protostellar disc fragments to form planets, brown dwarfs and low-mass stars. We explore the effect that different treatments of radiative transfer have in simulations of fragmenting discs. Three prescriptions for the radiative transfer are used: (i) the diffusion approximation of Stamatellos et al.; (ii) the barotropic equation of state (EOS) of Goodwin et al. and (iii) the barotropic EOS of Bate et al. The barotropic approximations capture the general evolution of the density and temperature at the centre of each proto-fragment but (i) they do not make any adjustments for particular circumstances of a proto-fragment forming in the disc and (ii) they do not take into account thermal inertia effects that are important for fast-forming proto-fragments in the outer disc region. As a result, the number of fragments formed in the disc and their properties are different, when a barotropic EOS is used. This is important not only for disc studies but also for simulations of collapsing turbulent clouds, as in many cases in such simulations stars form with discs that subsequently fragment. We also examine the difference in the way proto-fragments condense out in the disc at different distances from the central star using the diffusion approximation and following the collapse of each proto-fragment until the formation of the second core (ρ ~= 10-3gcm-3). We find that proto-fragments forming closer to the central star tend to form earlier and evolve faster from the first to the second core than proto-fragments forming in the outer disc region. The former have a large pool of material in the inner disc region that they can accrete from and grow in mass. The latter accrete more slowly and they are hotter because they generally form in a quick abrupt event.

  16. Accretion, radial flows and abundance gradients in spiral galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzulli, Gabriele; Fraternali, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    The metal-poor gas continuously accreting on to the discs of spiral galaxies is unlikely to arrive from the intergalactic medium (IGM) with exactly the same rotation velocity as the galaxy itself and even a small angular momentum mismatch inevitably drives radial gas flows within the disc, with significant consequences to galaxy evolution. Here, we provide some general analytic tools to compute accretion profiles, radial gas flows and abundance gradients in spiral galaxies as a function of the angular momentum of the accreting material. We generalize existing solutions for the decomposition of the gas flows, required to reproduce the structural properties of galaxy discs, into direct accretion from the IGM and a radial mass flux within the disc. We then solve the equation of metallicity evolution in the presence of radial gas flows with a novel method, based on characteristic lines, which greatly reduces the numerical demand on the computation and sheds light on the crucial role of boundary conditions on the abundance profiles predicted by theoretical models. We also discuss how structural and chemical constraints can be combined to disentangle the contributions of inside-out growth and radial flows in the development of abundance gradients in spiral galaxies. Illustrative examples are provided throughout with parameters plausible for the Milky Way. We find that the material accreting on the Milky Way should rotate at 70-80 per cent of the rotational velocity of the disc, in agreement with previous estimates.

  17. Dynamics of core accretion

    DOE PAGES

    Nelson, Andrew F.; Ruffert, Maximilian

    2012-12-21

    In this paper, we perform three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of gas flowing around a planetary core of mass Mpl = 10M⊕ embedded in a near Keplerian background flow, using a modified shearing box approximation. We assume an ideal gas behaviour following an equation of state with a fixed ratio of the specific heats, γ = 1.42, consistent with the conditions of a moderate-temperature background disc with solar composition. No radiative heating or cooling is included in the models. We employ a nested grid hydrodynamic code implementing the ‘Piecewise Parabolic Method’ with as many as six fixed nested grids, providing spatial resolutionmore » on the finest grid comparable to the present-day diameters of Neptune and Uranus. We find that a strongly dynamically active flow develops such that no static envelope can form. The activity is not sensitive to plausible variations in the rotation curve of the underlying disc. It is sensitive to the thermodynamic treatment of the gas, as modelled by prescribed equations of state (either ‘locally isothermal’ or ‘locally isentropic’) and the temperature of the background disc material. The activity is also sensitive to the shape and depth of the core's gravitational potential, through its mass and gravitational softening coefficient. Each of these factors influences the magnitude and character of hydrodynamic feedback of the small-scale flow on the background, and we conclude that accurate modelling of such feedback is critical to a complete understanding of the core accretion process. The varying flow pattern gives rise to large, irregular eruptions of matter from the region around the core which return matter to the background flow: mass in the envelope at one time may not be found in the envelope at any later time. No net mass accretion into the envelope is observed over the course of the simulation and none is expected, due to our neglect of cooling. Except in cases of very rapid cooling however, as

  18. Dynamics of core accretion

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Andrew F.; Ruffert, Maximilian

    2012-12-21

    In this paper, we perform three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of gas flowing around a planetary core of mass Mpl = 10M embedded in a near Keplerian background flow, using a modified shearing box approximation. We assume an ideal gas behaviour following an equation of state with a fixed ratio of the specific heats, γ = 1.42, consistent with the conditions of a moderate-temperature background disc with solar composition. No radiative heating or cooling is included in the models. We employ a nested grid hydrodynamic code implementing the ‘Piecewise Parabolic Method’ with as many as six fixed nested grids, providing spatial resolution on the finest grid comparable to the present-day diameters of Neptune and Uranus. We find that a strongly dynamically active flow develops such that no static envelope can form. The activity is not sensitive to plausible variations in the rotation curve of the underlying disc. It is sensitive to the thermodynamic treatment of the gas, as modelled by prescribed equations of state (either ‘locally isothermal’ or ‘locally isentropic’) and the temperature of the background disc material. The activity is also sensitive to the shape and depth of the core's gravitational potential, through its mass and gravitational softening coefficient. Each of these factors influences the magnitude and character of hydrodynamic feedback of the small-scale flow on the background, and we conclude that accurate modelling of such feedback is critical to a complete understanding of the core accretion process. The varying flow pattern gives rise to large, irregular eruptions of matter from the region around the core which return matter to the background flow: mass in the envelope at one time may not be found in the envelope at any later time. No net mass accretion into the envelope is observed over the course of the simulation and none is expected, due to our neglect of cooling. Except in cases of very rapid cooling

  19. From birth to death of protoplanetary discs: modelling their formation, evolution and dispersal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Shigeo S.; Kunitomo, Masanobu; Takahashi, Sanemichi Z.

    2016-09-01

    The formation, evolution and dispersal processes of protoplanetary discs are investigated and the disc lifetime is estimated. The gravitational collapse of a pre-stellar core forms both a central star and a protoplanetary disc. The central star grows by accretion from the disc and irradiation by the central star heats up the disc and generates a thermal wind, which results in the disc's dispersal. Using the one-dimensional diffusion equation, we calculate the evolution of protoplanetary discs numerically. To calculate the disc evolution from formation to dispersal, we add source and sink terms that represent gas accretion from pre-stellar cores and photoevaporation, respectively. We find that the disc lifetimes of typical pre-stellar cores are around 2-4 million years (Myr). A pre-stellar core with high angular momentum forms a larger disc with a long lifetime, while a disc around an X-ray-luminous star has a short lifetime. Integrating disc lifetimes under various masses and angular velocities of pre-stellar cores and X-ray luminosities of young stellar objects, we obtain the disc fraction at a given stellar age and mean lifetime of the disc. Our model indicates that the mean lifetime of a protoplanetary disc is 3.7 Myr, which is consistent with the observational estimate from young stellar clusters. We also find that the dispersion of X-ray luminosity is needed to reproduce the observed disc fraction.

  20. To accrete or not accrete, that is the question

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    von, Huene R.

    1986-01-01

    Along modern convergent margins tectonic processes span a spectrum from accretion to erosion. The process of accretion is generally recognized because it leaves a geologic record, whereas the process of erosion is generally hypothetical because it produces a geologic hiatus. Major conditions that determine the dominance of accretion or erosion at modern convergent margins are: 1) rate and direction of plate convergence, 2) sediment supply and type in the trench, and 3) topography of the subducting ocean floor. Most change in structure has been ascribed to plate motion, but both erosion and accretion are observed along the same convergence margin. Thus sediment supply and topography are probably of equivalent importance to plate motion because both erosion and accretion are observed under constant conditions of plate convergence. The dominance of accretion or erosion at a margin varies with the thickness of trench sediment. In a sediment flooded trench, the proportions of subducted and accreted sediment are commonly established by the position of a decollement along a weak horizon in the sediment section. Thus, the vertical variation of sediment strength and the distribution of horizontal stress are important factors. Once deformation begins, the original sediment strength is decreased by sediment remolding and where sediment thickens rapidly, increases in pore fluid pressure can be pronounced. In sediment-starved trenches, where the relief of the subducting ocean floor is not smoothed over, the front of the margin must respond to the topography subducted as well as that accreted. The hypothesized erosion by the drag of positive features against the underside of the upper plate (a high stress environment) may alternate with erosion due to the collapse of a margin front into voids such as graben (a low stress environment). ?? 1986 Ferdinand Enke Verlag Stuttgart.

  1. Accretion Disks in Algols: Progenitors and Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Rensbergen, W.; de Greve, J. P.

    2017-02-01

    There are only a few Algols with derived accretion disk parameters. These measurements provide additional constraints for tracing the origin of individual systems. With a modified binary evolution code, series of close binary evolution were calculated. For six Algols with accretion disks we found initial systems that evolve closely into the presently observed system parameters and disk characteristics.

  2. Reconstructing the star formation history of the Milky Way disc(s) from chemical abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snaith, O.; Haywood, M.; Di Matteo, P.; Lehnert, M. D.; Combes, F.; Katz, D.; Gómez, A.

    2015-06-01

    We develop a chemical evolution model to study the star formation history of the Milky Way. Our model assumes that the Milky Way has formed from a closed-box-like system in the inner regions, while the outer parts of the disc have experienced some accretion. Unlike the usual procedure, we do not fix the star formation prescription (e.g. Kennicutt law) to reproduce the chemical abundance trends. Instead, we fit the abundance trends with age to recover the star formation history of the Galaxy. Our method enables us to recover the star formation history of the Milky Way in the first Gyrs with unprecedented accuracy in the inner (R < 7-8 kpc) and outer (R > 9-10 kpc) discs, as sampled in the solar vicinity. We show that half the stellar mass formed during the thick-disc phase in the inner galaxy during the first 4-5 Gyr. This phase was followed by a significant dip in star formation activity (at 8-9 Gyr) and a period of roughly constant lower-level star formation for the remaining 8 Gyr. The thick-disc phase has produced as many metals in 4 Gyr as the thin-disc phase in the remaining 8 Gyr. Our results suggest that a closed-box model is able to fit all the available constraints in the inner disc. A closed-box system is qualitatively equivalent to a regime where the accretion rate maintains a high gas fraction in the inner disc at high redshift. In these conditions the SFR is mainly governed by the high turbulence of the interstellar medium. By z ~ 1 it is possible that most of the accretion takes place in the outer disc, while the star formation activity in the inner disc is mostly sustained by the gas that is not consumed during the thick-disc phase and the continuous ejecta from earlier generations of stars. The outer disc follows a star formation history very similar to that of the inner disc, although initiated at z ~ 2, about 2 Gyr before the onset of the thin-disc formation in the inner disc.

  3. The inner cavity of the circumnuclear disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blank, M.; Morris, M. R.; Frank, A.; Carroll-Nellenback, J. J.; Duschl, W. J.

    2016-06-01

    The circumnuclear disc (CND) orbiting the Galaxy's central black hole is a reservoir of material that can ultimately provide energy through accretion, or form stars in the presence of the black hole, as evidenced by the stellar cluster that is presently located at the CND's centre. In this paper, we report the results of a computational study of the dynamics of the CND. The results lead us to question two paradigms that are prevalent in previous research on the Galactic Centre. The first is that the disc's inner cavity is maintained by the interaction of the central stellar cluster's strong winds with the disc's inner rim, and secondly, that the presence of unstable clumps in the disc implies that the CND is a transient feature. Our simulations show that, in the absence of a magnetic field, the interaction of the wind with the inner disc rim actually leads to a filling of the inner cavity within a few orbital time-scales, contrary to previous expectations. However, including the effects of magnetic fields stabilizes the inner disc rim against rapid inward migration. Furthermore, this interaction causes instabilities that continuously create clumps that are individually unstable against tidal shearing. Thus the occurrence of such unstable clumps does not necessarily mean that the disc is itself a transient phenomenon. The next steps in this investigation are to explore the effect of the magnetorotational instability on the disc evolution and to test whether the results presented here persist for longer time-scales than those considered here.

  4. On the X-ray spectra of luminous, inhomogeneous accretion flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merloni, A.; Malzac, J.; Fabian, A. C.; Ross, R. R.

    2006-08-01

    We discuss the expected X-ray spectral and variability properties of black hole accretion discs at high luminosity, under the hypothesis that radiation-pressure-dominated discs are subject to violent clumping instabilities and, as a result, have a highly inhomogeneous two-phase structure. After deriving the full accretion disc solutions explicitly in terms of the parameters of the model, we study their radiative properties both with a simple two-zone model, treatable analytically, and with radiative transfer simulations which account simultaneously for energy balance and Comptonization in the hot phase, together with reflection, reprocessing, ionization and thermal balance in the cold phase. We show that, if not only the density, but also the heating rate within these flows is inhomogeneous, then complex reflection-dominated spectra can be obtained for a high enough covering fraction of the cold phase. In general, large reflection components in the observed X-ray spectra should be associated with strong soft excesses, resulting from the combined emission of ionized atomic emission lines. The variability properties of such systems are such that, even when contributing to a large fraction of the hard X-ray spectrum, the reflection component is less variable than the power-law-like emission originating from the hot Comptonizing phase, in agreement with what is observed in many Narrow Line Seyfert 1 galaxies and bright Seyfert 1. Our model falls within the family of those trying to explain the complex X-ray spectra of bright AGN with ionized reflection, but presents an alternative, specific, physically motivated, geometrical set-up for the complex multiphase structure of the inner regions of near-Eddington accretion flows.

  5. A pebbles accretion model with chemistry and implications for the Solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali-Dib, Mohamad

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the chemical composition of the Solar system's giant planets atmospheres using a physical formation model with chemistry. The model incorporate disc evolution, pebbles and gas accretion, type I and II migration, simplified disc photoevaporation and Solar system chemical measurements. We track the chemical compositions of the formed giant planets and compare them to the observed values. Two categories of models are studied: with and without disc chemical enrichment via photoevaporation (PE). Predictions for the oxygen and nitrogen abundances, core masses and total amount of heavy elements for the planets are made for each case. We find that in the case without disc PE, both Jupiter and Saturn will have a small residual core and comparable total amounts of heavy elements in the envelopes. We predict oxygen abundances enrichments in the same order as carbon, phosphorus and sulfur for both planets. Cometary nitrogen abundances does not allow us to easily reproduce Jupiter's nitrogen observations. In the case with disc PE, less core erosion is needed to reproduce the chemical composition of the atmospheres, so both planets will end up with possibly more massive residual cores and higher total mass of heavy elements. It is also significantly easier to reproduce Jupiter's nitrogen abundance. No single disc was found to form both Jupiter and Saturn with all their constraints in the case without photoevaporation. No model was able to fit the constraints on Uranus and Neptune, hinting towards a more complicated formation mechanism for these planets. The predictions of these models should be compared to the upcoming Juno measurements to better understand the origins of the Solar system giant planets.

  6. Binary accretion rates: dependence on temperature and mass ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, M. D.; Clarke, C. J.

    2015-09-01

    We perform a series of 2D smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of gas accretion on to binaries via a circumbinary disc, for a range of gas temperatures and binary mass ratios (q). We show that increasing the gas temperature increases the accretion rate on to the primary for all values of the binary mass ratio: for example, for q = 0.1 and a fixed binary separation, an increase of normalized sound speed by a factor of 5 (from our `cold' to `hot' simulations) changes the fraction of the accreted gas that flows on to the primary from 10 to ˜40 per cent. We present a simple parametrization for the average accretion rate of each binary component accurate to within a few per cent and argue that this parametrization (rather than those in the literature based on warmer simulations) is relevant to supermassive black hole accretion and all but the widest stellar binaries. We present trajectories for the growth of q during circumbinary disc accretion and argue that the period distribution of stellar `twin' binaries is strong evidence for the importance of circumbinary accretion. We also show that our parametrization of binary accretion increases the minimum mass ratio needed for spin alignment of supermassive black holes to q ˜ 0.4, with potentially important implications for the magnitude of velocity kicks acquired during black hole mergers.

  7. The Accretion-Ejection Mechanisms in X-ray Binaries: an Unified View

    SciTech Connect

    Petrucci, P. O.; Foellmi, C.; Ferreira, J.; Henri, G.; Belmont, R.; Malzac, J.

    2009-05-11

    We present a new keplerian accretion disc solution, the so-called Jet Emitting Disc (JED hereafter), which is part of global self-consistent disc-jet MHD structure. In our framework, a large scale, organized vertical magnetic field is threading the JED giving birth, when conditions are met, to stationnary self-collimated non relativistic jets. The main condition is that the magnetic pressure P{sub mag} must be of the order of the total pressure P{sub tot} in the JED and a direct consequence is a jet torque largely dominating the viscuous torque. This in turn implies an accretion velocity of the order of the sound speed and then a density much lower than a standard accretion disc. Moreover, most of the accretion power P{sub acc} being extracted by the jet, only part of it (<50%) is liberated in the JED as heating power.

  8. Accretion Processes in Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Martínez-País, Ignacio; Shahbaz, Tariq; Casares Velázquez, Jorge

    2014-03-01

    List of contributors; List of participants; Preface; Acknowledgments; Abbreviations; 1. Accretion disks Henk Spruit; 2. The evolution of binary systems Philipp Podsiadlowski; 3. Accretion onto white dwarfs Brian Warner; 4. Accretion in X-ray binary systems Robert I. Hynes; 5. X-ray binary populations in galaxies Giuseppina Fabbiano; 6. Observational characteristics of accretion onto black holes I Chris Done; 7. Observational characteristics of accretion onto black holes II Rob Fender; 8. Computing black hole accretion John F. Hawley; Appendix: Piazzi Smyth, the Cape of Good Hope, Tenerife and the siting of large telescopes Brian Warner.

  9. The structure of protoplanetary discs around evolving young stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitsch, Bertram; Johansen, Anders; Lambrechts, Michiel; Morbidelli, Alessandro

    2015-03-01

    The formation of planets with gaseous envelopes takes place in protoplanetary accretion discs on time scales of several million years. Small dust particles stick to each other to form pebbles, pebbles concentrate in the turbulent flow to form planetesimals and planetary embryos and grow to planets, which undergo substantial radial migration. All these processes are influenced by the underlying structure of the protoplanetary disc, specifically the profiles of temperature, gas scale height, and density. The commonly used disc structure of the minimum mass solar nebula (MMSN) is a simple power law in all these quantities. However, protoplanetary disc models with both viscous and stellar heating show several bumps and dips in temperature, scale height, and density caused by transitions in opacity, which are missing in the MMSN model. These play an important role in the formation of planets, since they can act as sweet spots for forming planetesimals via the streaming instability and affect the direction and magnitude of type-I migration. We present 2D simulations of accretion discs that feature radiative cooling and viscous and stellar heating, and they are linked to the observed evolutionary stages of protoplanetary discs and their host stars. These models allow us to identify preferred planetesimal and planet formation regions in the protoplanetary disc as a function of the disc's metallicity, accretion rate, and lifetime. We derive simple fitting formulae that feature all structural characteristics of protoplanetary discs during the evolution of several Myr. These fits are straightforward for applying to modelling any growth stage of planets where detailed knowledge of the underlying disc structure is required. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  10. Episodic Accretion in Young Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audard, M.; Ábrahám, P.; Dunham, M. M.; Green, J. D.; Grosso, N.; Hamaguchi, K.; Kastner, J. H.; Kóspál, Á.; Lodato, G.; Romanova, M. M.; Skinner, S. L.; Vorobyov, E. I.; Zhu, Z.

    In the last 20 years, the topic of episodic accretion has gained significant interest in the star-formation community. It is now viewed as a common, although still poorly understood, phenomenon in low-mass star formation. The FU Orionis objects (FUors) are long-studied examples of this phenomenon. FU Orionis objects are believed to undergo accretion outbursts during which the accretion rate rapidly increases from typically 10-7 to a few 10-4 M⊙ yr-1, and remains elevated over several decades or more. EXors, a loosely defined class of pre-main-sequence stars, exhibit shorter and repetitive outbursts, associated with lower accretion rates. The relationship between the two classes, and their connection to the standard pre-main-sequence evolutionary sequence, is an open question: Do they represent two distinct classes, are they triggered by the same physical mechanism, and do they occur in the same evolutionary phases? Over the past couple of decades, many theoretical and numerical models have been developed to explain the origin of FUor and EXor outbursts. In parallel, such accretion bursts have been detected at an increasing rate, and as observing techniques improve, each individual outburst is studied in increasing detail. We summarize key observations of pre-main-sequence star outbursts, and review the latest thinking on outburst triggering mechanisms, the propagation of outbursts from star/disk to disk/jet systems, the relation between classical EXors and FUors, and newly discovered outbursting sources — all of which shed new light on episodic accretion. We finally highlight some of the most promising directions for this field in the near- and long-term.

  11. Redundant disc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barack, W. N.; Domas, P. A.; Beekman, S. W. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A rotatable disc is described that consists of parallel plates tightly joined together for rotation about a hub. Each plate is provided with several angularly projecting spaced lands. The lands of each plate are interposed in alternating relationship between the lands of the next adjacent plate. In this manner, circumferential displacement of adjacent sectors in any one plate is prevented in the event that a crack develops. Each plate is redundantly sized so that, in event of structural failure of one plate, the remaining plates support a proportionate share of the load of the failed plate. The plates are prevented from separating laterally through the inclusion of generally radially extending splines which are inserted to interlock cooperating, circumferentially adjacent lands.

  12. A simple accretion model of a rotating gas sphere onto a Schwarzschild black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huerta, E. A.; Mendoza, S.

    2007-04-01

    We construct a simple accretion model of a rotating gas sphere onto a Schwarzschild black hole. We show how to build analytic solutions in terms of Jacobi elliptic functions. This construction represents a general relativistic generalisation of the Newtonian accretion model first proposed by Ulrich (1976). In exactly the same form as it occurs for the Newtonian case, the flow naturally predicts the existence of an equatorial rotating accretion disc about the hole. However, the radius of the disc increases monotonically without limit as the flow reaches its minimum allowed angular momentum for this particular model.

  13. Partial accretion regime of accreting millisecond pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eksi, Kazim

    2016-07-01

    The inner parts of the disks around neutron stars in low mass X-ray binaries may become geometrically thick due to inhibition of accretion at the disk mid-plane when the central object is rotating rapidly. In such a case matter inflowing through the disk may keep accreting onto the poles of the neutron star from the parts of the disk away from the disk mid-plane while the matter is propelled at the disk mid-plane. An important ingredient of the evolution of millisecond pulsars is then the fraction of the inflowing matter that can accrete onto the poles in the fast rotation regime depending on the fastness parameter. This ``soft'' propeller regime may be associated with the rapid decay stage observed in the light curves of several accreting millisecond pulsars. To date only a few studies considered the partial accretion regime. By using geometrical arguments we improve the existing studies and test the model by reproducing the lightcurves of millisecond X-ray pulsars via time dependent simulations of disk evolution. We also present analytical solutions that represent disks with partial accretion.

  14. On the energy dissipation rate at the inner edge of circumbinary discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terquem, Caroline; Papaloizou, John C. B.

    2017-01-01

    We study, by means of numerical simulations and analysis, the details of the accretion process from a disc on to a binary system. We show that energy is dissipated at the edge of a circumbinary disc and this is associated with the tidal torque that maintains the cavity: angular momentum is transferred from the binary to the disc through the action of compressional shocks and viscous friction. These shocks can be viewed as being produced by fluid elements that drift into the cavity and, before being accreted, are accelerated on to trajectories that send them back to impact the disc. The rate of energy dissipation is approximately equal to the product of potential energy per unit mass at the disc's inner edge and the accretion rate, estimated from the disc parameters just beyond the cavity edge, that would occur without the binary. For very thin discs, the actual accretion rate on to the binary may be significantly less. We calculate the energy emitted by a circumbinary disc taking into account energy dissipation at the inner edge and also irradiation arising there from reprocessing of light from the stars. We find that, for tight PMS binaries, the SED is dominated by emission from the inner edge at wavelengths between 1-4 and 10 μm. This may apply to systems like CoRoT 223992193 and V1481 Ori.

  15. Atomic gas in debris discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hales, Antonio S.; Barlow, M. J.; Crawford, I. A.; Casassus, S.

    2017-04-01

    We have conducted a search for optical circumstellar absorption lines in the spectra of 16 debris disc host stars. None of the stars in our sample showed signs of emission line activity in either Hα, Ca II or Na I, confirming their more evolved nature. Four stars were found to exhibit narrow absorption features near the cores of the photospheric Ca II and Na I D lines (when Na I D data were available). We analyse the characteristics of these spectral features to determine whether they are of circumstellar or interstellar origins. The strongest evidence for circumstellar gas is seen in the spectrum of HD 110058, which is known to host a debris disc observed close to edge-on. This is consistent with a recent ALMA detection of molecular gas in this debris disc, which shows many similarities to the β Pictoris system.

  16. Double Compton and Cyclo-Synchrotron in Super-Eddington Discs, Magnetized Coronae, and Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinney, Jonathan C.; Chluba, Jens; Wielgus, Maciek; Narayan, Ramesh; Sadowski, Aleksander

    2017-01-01

    Black hole accretion discs accreting near the Eddington rate are dominated by bremsstrahlung cooling, but above the Eddington rate the double Compton process can dominate in radiation-dominated regions while the cyclo-synchrotron can dominate in strongly-magnetized regions like in a corona or jet. We present an extension to the general relativistic radiation magnetohydrodynamic code HARMRAD to account for emission and absorption by thermal cyclo-synchrotron, double Compton, bremsstrahlung, low-temperature OPAL opacities as well as Thomson and Compton scattering. We approximate the radiation field as a Bose-Einstein distribution and evolve it using the radiation number-energy-momentum conservation equations in order to track photon hardening. We perform various simulations to study how these extensions affect the radiative properties of magnetically-arrested discs accreting at Eddington to super-Eddington rates. We find that double Compton dominates bremsstrahlung in the disc within a radius of r ˜ 15rg (gravitational radii) at a hundred times the Eddington accretion rate, and within smaller radii at lower accretion rates. Double Compton and cyclo-synchrotron regulate radiation and gas temperatures in the corona, while cyclo-synchrotron regulates temperatures in the jet. Interestingly, as the accretion rate drops to Eddington, an optically thin corona develops whose gas temperature of T ˜ 109K is ˜100 times higher than the disc's black body temperature. Our results show the importance of double Compton and synchrotron in super-Eddington discs, magnetized coronae, and jets.

  17. The avian intervertebral disc arises from rostral sclerotome and lacks a nucleus pulposus: Implications for evolution of the vertebrate disc

    PubMed Central

    Bruggeman, Bradley J.; Maier, Jennifer A.; Mohiuddin, Yasmin S.; Powers, Rae; Lo, YinTing; Guimarães-Camboa, Nuno; Evans, Sylvia M.; Harfe, Brian D.

    2012-01-01

    Deterioration of the intervertebral discs is an unfortunate consequence of aging. The intervertebral disc in mammals is composed of three parts: a jelly-like center called the nucleus pulposus, the cartilaginous annulus fibrosus and anterior and posterior endplates that attach the discs to vertebrae. In order to understand the origin of the disc, we have investigated the intervertebral region of chickens. Surprisingly, our comparison of mouse and chicken discs revealed that chicken discs lack nuclei pulposi. In addition, the notochord, which in mice forms nuclei pulposi, was found to persist as a rod-like structure and express Shh throughout chicken embryogenesis. Our fate mapping data indicates that cells originating from the rostral half of each somite are responsible for forming the avian disc while cells in the caudal region of each somite form vertebrae. A histological analysis of mammalian and non-mammalian organisms suggests that nuclei pulposi are only present in mammals. PMID:22354863

  18. Understanding inverse metallicity gradients in galactic discs as a consequence of inside-out formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schönrich, Ralph; McMillan, Paul J.

    2017-01-01

    The early stages of a galaxy's evolution leave an imprint on its metallicity distribution. We discuss the origins and evolution of radial metallicity gradients in discs of spiral galaxies using an analytical chemical evolution model. We explain how radial metallicity gradients in stellar populations are determined by three factors: the radial metallicity profile of the star-forming ISM, radial changes in the star-formation history (in particular inside-out formation), and radial mixing of stars. Under reasonable assumptions, inside-out formation steepens the negative ISM metallicity gradient, but contributes positively to the stellar metallicity gradient, up to inverting the metallicity profile to a positive d[Fe/H]/dR. This reconciles steep negative d[Fe/H]/dR in some high redshift galaxies to generally flatter gradients in local observations. We discuss the evidence for inverse radial metallicity gradients (positive d[X/H]/dR) at high redshifts and the inverse relationship between azimuthal velocity and the metallicity (positive dVφ/d[Fe/H]) of stars for the Milky Way's thick disc. The former can be achieved by high central gas-loss rates and re-distribution processes, e.g. re-accretion of enriched material in conjunction with inside-out formation, and near-disc galactic fountaining. For the Milky Way thick disc, we show that the positive dVφ/d[Fe/H] correlation points to comparable timescales for inside-out formation, initial metal enrichment and SNIa enrichment. We argue that the original ISM metallicity gradient could be inferred with better data from the high-metallicity tail of the alpha enhanced population. Including inside-out formation in our models changes the local vertical metallicity gradient by about -0.2 dex/ kpc, in line with local measurements.

  19. Separating gas-giant and ice-giant planets by halting pebble accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambrechts, M.; Johansen, A.; Morbidelli, A.

    2014-12-01

    In the solar system giant planets come in two flavours: gas giants (Jupiter and Saturn) with massive gas envelopes, and ice giants (Uranus and Neptune) with much thinner envelopes around their cores. It is poorly understood how these two classes of planets formed. High solid accretion rates, necessary to form the cores of giant planets within the life-time of protoplanetary discs, heat the envelope and prevent rapid gas contraction onto the core, unless accretion is halted. We find that, in fact, accretion of pebbles (~cm sized particles) is self-limiting: when a core becomes massive enough it carves a gap in the pebble disc. This halt in pebble accretion subsequently triggers the rapid collapse of the super-critical gas envelope. Unlike gas giants, ice giants do not reach this threshold mass and can only bind low-mass envelopes that are highly enriched by water vapour from sublimated icy pebbles. This offers an explanation for the compositional difference between gas giants and ice giants in the solar system. Furthermore, unlike planetesimal-driven accretion scenarios, our model allows core formation and envelope attraction within disc life-times, provided that solids in protoplanetary discs are predominantly made up of pebbles. Our results imply that the outer regions of planetary systems, where the mass required to halt pebble accretion is large, are dominated by ice giants and that gas-giant exoplanets in wide orbits are enriched by more than 50 Earth masses of solids.

  20. The fight for accretion: discovery of intermittent mass transfer in BB Doradus in the low state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Gil, P.; Schmidtobreick, L.; Long, K. S.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Torres, M. A. P.; Rubio-Díez, M. M.; Santander-García, M.

    2012-05-01

    Our long-term photometric monitoring of southern nova-like cataclysmic variables with the 1.3-m Small and Moderate Aperture Research Telescope System (SMARTS) telescope found BB Doradus fading from V˜ 14.3 towards a deep low state at V˜ 19.3 in 2008 April. Here we present time-resolved optical spectroscopy of BB Dor in this faint state in 2009. The optical spectrum in quiescence is a composite of a hot white dwarf with Teff= 30 000 ± 5000 K and a M3-M4 secondary star with narrow emission lines (mainly of the Balmer series and He I) superposed. We associate these narrow profiles with an origin on the donor star. An analysis of the radial velocity curve of the Hα emission from the donor star allowed the measurement of an orbital period of 0.154 095 ± 0.000 003 d (3.698 28 ± 0.000 07 h), different from all previous estimates. We detected episodic accretion events which veiled the spectra of both stars and radically changed the line profiles within a time-scale of tens of minutes. This shows that accretion is not completely quenched in the low state. During these accretion episodes the line wings are stronger and their radial velocity curve is delayed by ˜0.2 cycle, similar to that observed in SW Sex and AM Her stars in the high state, with respect to the motion of the white dwarf. Two scenarios are proposed to explain the extra emission: impact of the material on the outer edge of a cold, remnant accretion disc, or the combined action of a moderately magnetic white dwarf (B1≲ 5 MG) and the magnetic activity of the donor star.

  1. Rapid radiative clearing of protoplanetary discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haworth, Thomas J.; Clarke, Cathie J.; Owen, James E.

    2016-04-01

    The lack of observed transition discs with inner gas holes of radii greater than ˜50 au implies that protoplanetary discs dispersed from the inside out must remove gas from the outer regions rapidly. We investigate the role of photoevaporation in the final clearing of gas from low mass discs with inner holes. In particular, we study the so-called `thermal sweeping' mechanism which results in rapid clearing of the disc. Thermal sweeping was originally thought to arise when the radial and vertical pressure scalelengths at the X-ray heated inner edge of the disc match. We demonstrate that this criterion is not fundamental. Rather, thermal sweeping occurs when the pressure maximum at the inner edge of the dust heated disc falls below the maximum possible pressure of X-ray heated gas (which depends on the local X-ray flux). We derive new critical peak volume and surface density estimates for rapid radiative clearing which, in general, result in rapid dispersal happening less readily than in previous estimates. This less efficient clearing of discs by X-ray driven thermal sweeping leaves open the issue of what mechanism (e.g. far-ultraviolet heating) can clear gas from the outer disc sufficiently quickly to explain the non-detection of cold gas around weak line T Tauri stars.

  2. Late veneer and late accretion to the terrestrial planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brasser, R.; Mojzsis, S. J.; Werner, S. C.; Matsumura, S.; Ida, S.

    2016-12-01

    It is generally accepted that silicate-metal ('rocky') planet formation relies on coagulation from a mixture of sub-Mars sized planetary embryos and (smaller) planetesimals that dynamically emerge from the evolving circum-solar disc in the first few million years of our Solar System. Once the planets have, for the most part, assembled after a giant impact phase, they continue to be bombarded by a multitude of planetesimals left over from accretion. Here we place limits on the mass and evolution of these planetesimals based on constraints from the highly siderophile element (HSE) budget of the Moon. Outcomes from a combination of N-body and Monte Carlo simulations of planet formation lead us to four key conclusions about the nature of this early epoch. First, matching the terrestrial to lunar HSE ratio requires either that the late veneer on Earth consisted of a single lunar-size impactor striking the Earth before 4.45 Ga, or that it originated from the impact that created the Moon. An added complication is that analysis of lunar samples indicates the Moon does not preserve convincing evidence for a late veneer like Earth. Second, the expected chondritic veneer component on Mars is 0.06 weight percent. Third, the flux of terrestrial impactors must have been low (≲10-6 M⊕ Myr-1) to avoid wholesale melting of Earth's crust after 4.4 Ga, and to simultaneously match the number of observed lunar basins. This conclusion leads to an Hadean eon which is more clement than assumed previously. Last, after the terrestrial planets had fully formed, the mass in remnant planetesimals was ∼10-3 M⊕, lower by at least an order of magnitude than most previous models suggest. Our dynamically and geochemically self-consistent scenario requires that future N-body simulations of rocky planet formation either directly incorporate collisional grinding or rely on pebble accretion.

  3. Stellar discs in Aquarius dark matter haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeBuhr, Jackson; Ma, Chung-Pei; White, Simon D. M.

    2012-10-01

    We investigate the gravitational interactions between live stellar discs and their dark matter haloes, using Λ cold dark matter haloes similar in mass to that of the Milky Way taken from the Aquarius Project. We introduce the stellar discs by first allowing the haloes to respond to the influence of a growing rigid disc potential from z = 1.3 to 1.0. The rigid potential is then replaced with star particles which evolve self-consistently with the dark matter particles until z = 0.0. Regardless of the initial orientation of the disc, the inner parts of the haloes contract and change from prolate to oblate as the disc grows to its full size. When the disc's normal is initially aligned with the major axis of the halo at z = 1.3, the length of the major axis contracts and becomes the minor axis by z = 1.0. Six out of the eight discs in our main set of simulations form bars, and five of the six bars experience a buckling instability that results in a sudden jump in the vertical stellar velocity dispersion and an accompanying drop in the m = 2 Fourier amplitude of the disc surface density. The bars are not destroyed by the buckling but continue to grow until the present day. Bars are largely absent when the disc mass is reduced by a factor of 2 or more; the relative disc-to-halo mass is therefore a primary factor in bar formation and evolution. A subset of the discs is warped at the outskirts and contains prominent non-coplanar material with a ring-like structure. Many discs reorient by large angles between z = 1 and 0, following a coherent reorientation of their inner haloes. Larger reorientations produce more strongly warped discs, suggesting a tight link between the two phenomena. The origins of bars and warps appear independent: some discs with strong bars show little disturbances at the outskirts, while the discs with the weakest bars show severe warps.

  4. Numerical and experimental study of magnetized accretion phenomena in young stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khiar, Benjamin; Ciardi, Andrea; Revet, Guilhem; Vinci, Tommaso; Fuchs, Julien; Orlando, Salvatore; Inaf Team; Luli Team; Lerma Team

    2016-10-01

    Newly formed stars accrete mass from the circumstellar disc via magnetized accretion funnels that connect the inner disc regions to the star. The ensuing impact of this free-falling plasma onto the stellar surface generates a strong shock, whose emission is used as a proxy to determine the accretion rates. Observations show that the X-ray luminosity arising from the shock heated plasma at the base of accretion columns is largelybelow the value expected on the basis of optical/UV observations. As a result, current 2D numerical simulations matching X-ray accretion rates cannot reproduce optical accretion rates. To understand the impact of accretion flows on the stellar surface in the presence of a strong magnetic field we have developed laboratory experiments reproducing crucial aspects of the accretion dynamics in Young Stellar Objects. As a model of accretion columns, we use laser-produced super-Alfvenic magnetically confined jets to collide them on solid targets. Here we present results from these experiments and from multi-dimensional MHD simulations. The authors acknowledge the support from the Ile-de-France DIM ACAV, from the LABEX Plas@par and from the ANR Grant SILAMPA.

  5. Turbine disc sealing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Diakunchak, Ihor S.

    2013-03-05

    A disc seal assembly for use in a turbine engine. The disc seal assembly includes a plurality of outwardly extending sealing flange members that define a plurality of fluid pockets. The sealing flange members define a labyrinth flow path therebetween to limit leakage between a hot gas path and a disc cavity in the turbine engine.

  6. Accretion disks in Algols: Progenitors and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Rensbergen, W.; De Greve, J. P.

    2016-08-01

    Context. There are only a few Algols with measured accretion disk parameters. These measurements provide additional constraints for tracing the origin of individual systems, narrowing down the initial parameter space. Aims: We investigate the origin and evolution of six Algol systems with accretion disks to find the initial parameters and evolutionary constraints for them. Methods: With a modified binary evolution code, series of close binary evolution are calculated to obtain the best match for observed individual systems. Results: Initial parameters for six Algol systems with accretion disks were determined matching both the present system parameters and the observed disk characteristics. Conclusions: When Roche lobe overflow (RLOF) starts during core hydrogen burning of the donor, the disk lifetime was found to be short. The disk luminosity is comparable to the luminosity of the gainer during a large fraction of the disk lifetime.

  7. Accretion Onto Magnetic Degenerate Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Juhan

    2000-01-01

    While the original objectives of this research program included the study of radiative processes in cataclysmic variables and the evolution of neutron star magnetic fields, the scope of the reported research expanded to other related topics as this project developed. This final report therefore describes the results of our research in the following areas: 1) Irradiation-driven mass transfer cycles in cataclysmic variables and low-mass X-ray binaries; 2) Propeller effect and magnetic field decay in isolated old neutron stars; 3) Decay of surface magnetic fields in accreting neutron stars and pulsars; 4) Finite-Difference Hydrodynamic simulations of mass transfer in binary stars.

  8. On the formation of planetary systems in photoevaporating transition discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terquem, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    In protoplanetary discs, planetary cores must be at least 0.1 M⊕ at 1 au for migration to be significant; this mass rises to 1 M⊕ at 5 au. Planet formation models indicate that these cores form on million year time-scales. We report here a study of the evolution of 0.1 and 1 M⊕ cores, migrating from about 2 and 5 au, respectively, in million year old photoevaporating discs. In such a disc, a gap opens up at around 2 au after a few million years. The inner region subsequently accrete on to the star on a smaller time-scale. We find that, typically, the smallest cores form systems of non-resonant planets beyond 0.5 au with masses up to about 1.5 M⊕. In low-mass discs, the same cores may evolve in situ. More massive cores form systems of a few Earth-mass planets. They migrate within the inner edge of the disc gap only in the most massive discs. Delivery of material to the inner parts of the disc ceases with opening of the gap. Interestingly, when the heavy cores do not migrate significantly, the type of systems that are produced resembles our Solar system. This study suggests that low-mm flux transition discs may not form systems of planets on short orbits but may instead harbour Earth-mass planets in the habitable zone.

  9. Hall magneto-hydrodynamics in protoplanetary discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Béthune, W.; Lesur, G.; Ferreira, J.

    2016-12-01

    Protoplanetary discs exhibit large-scale, organised structures. Because they are dense and cold, they should be weakly ionized, and hence concerned by non-ideal plasma effects, such as the Hall effect. We perform numerical simulations of non-stratified Keplerian discs, in the non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic framework. We show that the Hall effect causes self-organisation through three distinct stages. A weak Hall effect enhances turbulent transport. At intermediate strength, it produces magnetized vortices. A strong Hall effect generates axisymmetric zonal flows. These structures may trap dust particles, and thus influence planetary formation. The transport of angular momentum is quenched in the organised state, impugning the relevance of magneto-rotational turbulence as a driving mechanism of accretion in Hall dominated regions.

  10. Chaotic Accretion and Merging Supermassive Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nixon, Christopher James

    2012-09-01

    The main driver of the work in this thesis is the idea of chaotic accretion in galaxy centres. Most research in this area focuses on orderly or coherent accretion where supermassive black holes or supermassive black hole binaries are fed with gas always possessing the same sense of angular momentum. If instead gas flows in galaxies are chaotic, feeding occurs through randomly oriented depositions of gas. Previous works show that this chaotic mode of feeding can explain some astrophysical phenomena, such as the lack of correlation between host galaxy structure and the direction of jets. It has also been shown that by keeping the black hole spin low this feeding mechanism can grow supermassive black holes from stellar mass seeds. In this thesis I show that it also alleviates the "final parsec problem" by facilitating the merger of two supermassive black holes, and the growth of supermassive black holes through rapid accretion. I also develop the intriguing possibility of breaking a warped disc into two or more distinct planes.

  11. Why stellar feedback promotes disc formation in simulated galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Übler, Hannah; Naab, Thorsten; Oser, Ludwig; Aumer, Michael; Sales, Laura V.; White, Simon D. M.

    2014-09-01

    We study how feedback influences baryon infall on to galaxies using cosmological, zoom-in simulations of haloes with present mass Mvir = 6.9 × 1011 to 1.7 × 1012 M⊙. Starting at z = 4 from identical initial conditions, implementations of weak and strong stellar feedback produce bulge- and disc-dominated galaxies, respectively. Strong feedback favours disc formation: (1) because conversion of gas into stars is suppressed at early times, as required by abundance matching arguments, resulting in flat star formation histories and higher gas fractions; (2) because 50 per cent of the stars form in situ from recycled disc gas with angular momentum only weakly related to that of the z = 0 dark halo; (3) because late-time gas accretion is typically an order of magnitude stronger and has higher specific angular momentum, with recycled gas dominating over primordial infall; (4) because 25-30 per cent of the total accreted gas is ejected entirely before z ˜ 1, removing primarily low angular momentum material which enriches the nearby intergalactic medium. Most recycled gas roughly conserves its angular momentum, but material ejected for long times and to large radii can gain significant angular momentum before re-accretion. These processes lower galaxy formation efficiency in addition to promoting disc formation.

  12. A wind-driving disc model for the mm-wavelength polarization structure of HL Tau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsakos, Titos; Tzeferacos, Petros; Königl, Arieh

    2016-12-01

    The recent advent of spatially resolved mm- and cm-wavelength polarimetry in protostellar accretion discs could help clarify the role of magnetic fields in the angular momentum transport in these systems. The best case to date is that of HL Tau, where the inability to produce a good fit to the 1.25-mm data with a combination of vertical and azimuthal magnetic field components was interpreted as implying that centrifugally driven winds (CDWs) are probably not a significant transport mechanism on the ˜102 au scale probed by the observations. Using synthetic polarization maps of heuristic single-field-component discs and of a post-processed simulation of a wind-driving disc, we demonstrate that a much better fit to the data can be obtained if the radial field component, a hallmark of the CDW mechanism, dominates in the polarized emission region. A similar inference was previously made in modelling the far-infrared polarization map of the pc-scale dust ring in the Galactic Centre. To reconcile this interpretation with theoretical models of protostellar discs, which indicate that the wind is launched from a comparatively high elevation above the mid-plane, we propose that most of the polarized emission originates - with a high ( ≳ 10 per cent) intrinsic degree of polarization - in small ( ≲ 0.1 mm) grains that remain suspended above the mid-plane, and that the bulk of the mm-wavelength emission is produced - with low intrinsic polarization - by larger grains that have settled to the mid-plane.

  13. Implications of pebble accretion on the composition of hot and cold Jupiters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitsch, Bertram; Johansen, Anders; Madhusudhan, Nikku

    2016-10-01

    The formation of the planetary cores of gas giants via the accretion of planetesimals takes very long and is not compatible with the lifetime of protoplanetary discs (Levison et al. 2010). This time-scale problem can be solved through the accretion of pebbles onto a planetary seed. Contrary to planetesimals, pebbles feel the headwind from the gas which robs them of angular momentum allowing an efficient growth from the entire Hill sphere, which reduces the growth time-scale by several orders of magnitude (Lambrechts & Johansen, 2012; 2014). However, pebble accretion self-terminates when the planets start to open a partial gap in the disc, which accelerates the gas outside of the planets orbit to super-Keplerian speeds and thus stops the flow of pebbles onto the planetary core (Lambrechts et al. 2014). Typically this mass is of the order of 10-20 Earth masses, depending on the local disc properties. The planet can then start to accrete a gaseous envelope without a pollution of pebbles. During its growth, the planet migrates through the disc, which evolves in time (Bitsch et al. 2015a,b).Different volatile species like CO2 or H2O have different condensation temperatures and are thus present in either solid or gaseous form at different locations in the disc. A pebble accreting planet can thus only accrete volatiles that are in solid form, while a gas accreting planet will only accrete volatiles which are in gaseous form. Therefore the final chemical composition of the planetary atmosphere of a giant planet is strongly influenced by the formation location of the initial planetary seed and its subsequent migration path through the disc. Additionally, the envelope can be enriched through the erosion of the planetary core.I will discuss the implications of the formation of planets via pebble accretion and their subsequent migration through the disc on the composition of gas giants. In particular I will focus on the carbon to oxygen ratio of hot Jupiters around other stars

  14. Colours of bulges and discs within galaxy clusters and the signature of disc fading on infall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, Michael J.; Stevenson, Jeffrey B.; Smith, Russell J.; Wegner, Gary A.; Lucey, John R.; Simard, Luc

    2010-11-01

    The origins of the bulge and disc components of galaxies are of primary importance to understanding galaxy formation. Here bulge-disc decomposition is performed simultaneously in B and R bands for 922 bright galaxies in eight nearby (z < 0.06) clusters with deep redshift coverage using photometry from the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO) Fundamental Plane Survey. The total galaxy colours follow a universal colour-magnitude relation (CMR). The discs of L* galaxies are 0.24 mag bluer in B - R than bulges. Bulges have a significant CMR slope while the CMR slope of discs is flat. Thus the slope of the CMR of the total light is driven primarily (60 per cent) by the bulge CMR, and to a lesser extent (40 per cent) by the change in the bulge-to-total ratio as a function of magnitude. The colours of the bulge and disc components do not depend on the bulge-to-total ratio, for galaxies with bulge-to-total ratios greater than 0.2. While the colours of the bulge components do not depend significantly on environment, the median colours of discs vary significantly, with discs in the cluster centre redder by 0.10 mag than those at the virial radius. Thus while star formation in bulges appears to be regulated primarily by mass-dependent, and hence presumably internal, processes, that of discs is affected by the cluster environment.

  15. Chemical separation of disc components using RAVE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojno, Jennifer; Kordopatis, Georges; Steinmetz, Matthias; McMillan, Paul; Matijevič, Gal; Binney, James; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.; Boeche, Corrado; Just, Andreas; Grebel, Eva K.; Siebert, Arnaud; Bienaymé, Olivier; Gibson, Brad K.; Zwitter, Tomaž; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Navarro, Julio F.; Parker, Quentin A.; Reid, Warren; Seabroke, George; Watson, Fred

    2016-10-01

    We present evidence from the RAdial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) survey of chemically separated, kinematically distinct disc components in the solar neighbourhood. We apply probabilistic chemical selection criteria to separate our sample into α-low (`thin disc') and α-high (`thick disc') sequences. Using newly derived distances, which will be utilized in the upcoming RAVE DR5, we explore the kinematic trends as a function of metallicity for each of the disc components. For our α-low disc, we find a negative trend in the mean rotational velocity (Vφ) as a function of iron abundance ([Fe/H]). We measure a positive gradient ∂Vφ/∂[Fe/H] for the α-high disc, consistent with results from high-resolution surveys. We also find differences between the α-low and α-high discs in all three components of velocity dispersion. We discuss the implications of an α-low, metal-rich population originating from the inner Galaxy, where the orbits of these stars have been significantly altered by radial mixing mechanisms in order to bring them into the solar neighbourhood. The probabilistic separation we propose can be extended to other data sets for which the accuracy in [α/Fe] is not sufficient to disentangle the chemical disc components a priori. For such data sets which will also have significant overlap with Gaia DR1, we can therefore make full use of the improved parallax and proper motion data as it becomes available to investigate kinematic trends in these chemical disc components.

  16. Accretion onto Fast X-Ray Pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rappaport, S. A.; Fregeau, J. M.; Spruit, H.

    2004-01-01

    The recent emergence of a new class of accretion-powered, transient, millisecond X-ray pulsars presents some difficulties for the conventional picture of accretion onto rapidly rotating magnetized neutron stars and their spin behavior during outbursts. In particular, it is not clear that the standard paradigm can accommodate the wide range in M(i.e., approx. greater than a factor of 50) over which these systems manage to accrete and the high rate of spindown that the neutron stars exhibit in at least a number of cases. When the accretion rate drops sufficiently, the X-ray pulsar is said to become a "fast rotator," and in the conventional view, this is accompanied by a transition from accretion to "propellering," in which accretion ceases and the matter is ejected from the system. On the theoretical side, we note that this scenario for the onset of propellering cannot be entirely correct because it is not energetically self-consistent. We show that, instead, the transition is likely to take place through disks that combine accretion with spindown and terminate at the corotation radius. We demonstrate the existence of such disk solutions by modifying the Shakura-Sunyaev equations with a simple magnetic torque prescription. The solutions are completely analytic and have the same dependence on M and a (the viscosity parameter) as the original Shakura-Sunyaev solutions, but the radial profiles can be considerably modified, depending on the degree of fastness. We apply these results to compute the torques expected during the outbursts of the transient millisecond pulsars and find that we can explain the large spin-down rates that are observed for quite plausible surface magnetic fields of approx. 10(exp 90 G.

  17. On the formation of a quasi-stationary twisted disc after a tidal disruption event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang-Gruess, M.; Ivanov, P. B.; Papaloizou, J. C. B.

    2016-12-01

    We investigate misaligned accretion discs formed after tidal disruption events that occur when a star encounters a supermassive black hole. We employ the linear theory of warped accretion discs to find the shape of a disc for which the stream arising from the disrupted star provides a source of angular momentum that is misaligned with that of the black hole. For quasi-steady configurations, we find that when the warp diffusion or propagation time is large compared to the local mass accretion time and/or the natural disc alignment radius is small, misalignment is favoured. These results have been verified using smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations. We also simulated 1D model discs including gas and radiation pressure. As accretion rates initially exceed the Eddington limit, the disc is initially advection dominated. Assuming the α model for the disc, where it can be thermally unstable, it subsequently undergoes cyclic transitions between high and low states. During these transitions, the aspect ratio varies from ˜1 to ˜10-3 which is reflected in changes in the degree of disc misalignment at the stream impact location. For maximal black hole rotation and sufficiently large values of viscosity parameter α > ˜0.01-0.1, the ratio of the disc inclination to that of the initial stellar orbit is estimated to be 0.1-0.2 in the advection-dominated state, while reaching of order unity in the low state. Misalignment decreases with decrease of α, but increases as the black hole rotation parameter decreases. Thus, it is always significant when the latter is small.

  18. Jet and accretion power in the most powerful Fermi blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghisellini, G.; Tavecchio, F.; Ghirlanda, G.

    2009-11-01

    Among the blazars detected by the Fermi satellite, we have selected the 23 blazars that in the 3months of survey had an average γ-ray luminosity above 1048ergs-1. For 17 out of the 23 sources we found and analysed X-ray and optical-ultraviolet data taken by the Swift satellite. With these data, implemented by archival and not simultaneous data, we construct the spectral energy distributions, and interpreted them with a simple one-zone, leptonic, synchrotron and inverse Compton model. When possible, we also compare different high-energy states of single sources, like 0528+134 and 3C454.3, for which multiple good sets of multiwavelength data are available. In our powerful blazars the high energy emission always dominates the electromagnetic output, and the relatively low level of the synchrotron radiation often does not hide the accretion disc emission. We can then constrain the black hole mass and the disc luminosity. Both are large (i.e. masses equal or greater than 109M solar and disc luminosities above 10 per cent of Eddington). By modelling the non-thermal continuum we derive the power that the jet carries in the form of bulk motion of particles and fields. On average, the jet power is found to be slightly larger than the disc luminosity, and proportional to the mass accretion rate.

  19. Efficiency of super-Eddington magnetically-arrested accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinney, Jonathan C.; Dai, Lixin; Avara, Mark J.

    2015-11-01

    The radiative efficiency of super-Eddington accreting black holes (BHs) is explored for magnetically-arrested discs, where magnetic flux builds-up to saturation near the BH. Our three-dimensional general relativistic radiation magnetohydrodynamic (GRRMHD) simulation of a spinning BH (spin a/M = 0.8) accreting at ˜50 times Eddington shows a total efficiency ˜50 per cent when time-averaged and total efficiency ≳ 100 per cent in moments. Magnetic compression by the magnetic flux near the rotating BH leads to a thin disc, whose radiation escapes via advection by a magnetized wind and via transport through a low-density channel created by a Blandford-Znajek (BZ) jet. The BZ efficiency is sub-optimal due to inertial loading of field lines by optically thick radiation, leading to BZ efficiency ˜40 per cent on the horizon and BZ efficiency ˜5 per cent by r ˜ 400rg (gravitational radii) via absorption by the wind. Importantly, radiation escapes at r ˜ 400rg with efficiency η ≈ 15 per cent (luminosity L ˜ 50LEdd), similar to η ≈ 12 per cent for a Novikov-Thorne thin disc and beyond η ≲ 1 per cent seen in prior GRRMHD simulations or slim disc theory. Our simulations show how BH spin, magnetic field, and jet mass-loading affect these radiative and jet efficiencies.

  20. A photoevaporative gap in the closest planet-forming disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ercolano, Barbara; Rosotti, Giovanni P.; Picogna, Giovanni; Testi, Leonardo

    2017-01-01

    The dispersal of the circum-stellar discs of dust and gas surrounding young low-mass stars has important implications for the formation of planetary systems. Photoevaporation from energetic radiation from the central object is thought to drive the dispersal in the majority of discs, by creating a gap which disconnects the outer from the inner regions of the disc and then disperses the outer disc from the inside-out, while the inner disc keeps draining viscously on to the star. In this Letter, we show that the disc around TW Hya, the closest protoplanetary disc to Earth, may be the first object where a photoevaporative gap has been imaged around the time at which it is being created. Indeed, the detected gap in the Atacama large millimeter/submillimeter array images is consistent with the expectations of X-ray photoevaporation models, thus not requiring the presence of a planet. The photoevaporation model is also consistent with a broad range of properties of the TW Hya system, e.g. accretion rate and the location of the gap at the onset of dispersal. We show that the central, unresolved 870 μm continuum source might be produced by free-free emission from the gas and/or residual dust inside the gap.

  1. Accretion dynamics of EX Lupi in quiescence. The star, the spot, and the accretion column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicilia-Aguilar, Aurora; Fang, Min; Roccatagliata, Veronica; Collier Cameron, Andrew; Kóspál, Ágnes; Henning, Thomas; Ábrahám, Peter; Sipos, Nikoletta

    2015-08-01

    Context. EX Lupi is a young, accreting M0 star and the prototype of EXor variable stars. Its spectrum is very rich in emission lines, including many metallic lines with narrow and broad components. The presence of a close companion has also been proposed, based on radial velocity signatures. Aims: We use the metallic emission lines to study the accretion structures and to test the companion hypothesis. Methods: We analyse 54 spectra obtained during five years of quiescence time. We study the line profile variability and the radial velocity of the narrow and broad metallic emission lines. We use the velocity signatures of different species with various excitation conditions and their time dependency to track the dynamics associated with accretion. Results: We observe periodic velocity variations in the broad and the narrow line components, consistent with rotational modulation. The modulation is stronger for lines with higher excitation potentials (e.g. He II), which are likely produced in a confined area very close to the accretion shock. Conclusions: We propose that the narrow line components are produced in the post-shock region, while the broad components originate in the more extended, pre-shock material in the accretion column. All the emission lines suffer velocity modulation due to the rotation of the star. The broad components are responsible for the line-dependent veiling observed in EX Lupi. We demonstrate that a rotationally modulated line-dependent veiling can explain the radial velocity signature of the photospheric absorption lines, making the close-in companion hypothesis unnecessary. The accretion structure is locked to the star and very stable during the five years of observations. Not all stars with similar spectral types and accretion rates show the same metallic emission lines, which could be related to differences in temperature and density in their accretion structure(s). The contamination of photospheric signatures by accretion

  2. The accretion of migrating giant planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dürmann, Christoph; Kley, Wilhelm

    2017-02-01

    Aims: Most studies concerning the growth and evolution of massive planets focus either on their accretion or their migration only. In this work we study both processes concurrently to investigate how they might mutually affect one another. Methods: We modeled a two-dimensional disk with a steady accretion flow onto the central star and embedded a Jupiter mass planet at 5.2 au. The disk is locally isothermal and viscosity is modeled using a constant α. The planet is held on a fixed orbit for a few hundred orbits to allow the disk to adapt and carve a gap. After this period, the planet is released and free to move according to the gravitational interaction with the gas disk. The mass accretion onto the planet is modeled by removing a fraction of gas from the inner Hill sphere, and the removed mass and momentum can be added to the planet. Results: Our results show that a fast migrating planet is able to accrete more gas than a slower migrating planet. Utilizing a tracer fluid we analyzed the origin of the accreted gas originating predominantly from the inner disk for a fast migrating planet. In the case of slower migration, the fraction of gas from the outer disk increases. We also found that even for very high accretion rates, in some cases gas crosses the planetary gap from the inner to the outer disk. Our simulations show that the crossing of gas changes during the migration process as the migration rate slows down. Therefore, classical type II migration where the planet migrates with the viscous drift rate and no gas crosses the gap is no general process but may only occur for special parameters and at a certain time during the orbital evolution of the planet.

  3. Highly ionized disc and transient outflows in the Seyfert galaxy IRAS 18325-5926

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasawa, K.; Fabian, A. C.; Kara, E.; Reynolds, C. S.; Miniutti, G.; Tombesi, F.

    2016-08-01

    We report on strong X-ray variability and the Fe K-band spectrum of the Seyfert galaxy IRAS 18325-5926 obtained from the 2001 XMM-Newton EPIC pn observation with a duration of ~120 ks. While the X-ray source is highly variable, the 8-10 keV band shows larger variability than that of the lower energies. Amplified 8-10 keV flux variations are associated with two prominent flares of the X-ray source during the observation. The Fe K emission is peaked at 6.6 keV with moderate broadening. It is likely to originate from a highly ionized disc with an ionization parameter of log ξ ≃ 3. The Fe K line flux responds to the main flare, which supports its disc origin. A short burst of the Fe line flux has no relation to the continuum brightness, for which we have no clear explanation. We also find transient, blueshifted Fe K absorption features that can be identified with high-velocity (~0.2c) outflows of highly ionized gas, as found in other active galaxies. The deepest absorption feature appears only briefly (~1 h) at the onset of the main flare and disappears when the flare declines. The rapid evolution of the absorption spectrum makes this source peculiar among the active galaxies with high-velocity outflows. Another detection of the absorption feature also precedes the other flare. The variability of the absorption feature partly accounts for the excess variability in the 8-10 keV band where the absorption feature appears. Although no reverberation measurement is available, the black hole mass of ~2 × 106M⊙ is inferred from the X-ray variability. When this mass is assumed, the black hole is accreting at around the Eddington limit, which may fit the highly ionized disc and strong outflows observed in this galaxy.

  4. Modelling the cross-spectral variability of the black hole binary MAXI J1659-152 with propagating accretion rate fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapisarda, S.; Ingram, A.; Kalamkar, M.; van der Klis, M.

    2016-11-01

    The power spectrum of the X-ray fluctuations of accreting black holes often consists of two broad humps. We quantitatively investigate the hypothesis that the lower frequency hump originates from variability in a truncated thin accretion disc, propagating into a large scaleheight inner hot flow which, in turn, itself is the origin of the higher frequency hump. We extend the propagating mass accretion rate fluctuations model PROPFLUC to accommodate double-hump power spectra in this way. Furthermore, we extend the model to predict the cross-spectrum between two energy bands in addition to their power spectra, allowing us to constrain the model using the observed time lags, which in the model result from both propagation of fluctuations from the disc to the hot flow, and inside the hot flow. We jointly fit soft and hard power spectrum, and the cross-spectrum between the two bands using this model for five Swift X-ray Telescope observations of MAXI J1659-152. The new double-hump model provides a better fit to the data than the old single-hump model for most of our observations. The data show only a small phase lag associated with the low-frequency hump. We demonstrate quantitatively that this is consistent with the model. We compare the truncation radius measured from our fits with that measured purely by spectral fitting and find agreement within a factor of two. This analysis encompasses the first joint fits of stellar-mass black hole cross-spectra and power spectra with a single self-consistent physical model.

  5. Efficiency of thin magnetically arrested discs around black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avara, Mark J.; McKinney, Jonathan C.; Reynolds, Christopher S.

    2016-10-01

    The radiative and jet efficiencies of thin magnetized accretion discs around black holes (BHs) are affected by BH spin and the presence of a magnetic field that, when strong, could lead to large deviations from Novikov-Thorne (NT) thin disc theory. To seek the maximum deviations, we perform general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations of radiatively efficient thin (half-height H to radius R of H/R ≈ 0.10) discs around moderately rotating BHs with a/M = 0.5. First, our simulations, each evolved for more than 70 000 rg/c (gravitational radius rg and speed of light c), show that large-scale magnetic field readily accretes inward even through our thin disc and builds-up to the magnetically arrested disc (MAD) state. Secondly, our simulations of thin MADs show the disc achieves a radiative efficiency of ηr ≈ 15 per cent (after estimating photon capture), which is about twice the NT value of ηr ˜ 8 per cent for a/M = 0.5 and gives the same luminosity as an NT disc with a/M ≈ 0.9. Compared to prior simulations with ≲10 per cent deviations, our result of an ≈80 per cent deviation sets a new benchmark. Building on prior work, we are now able to complete an important scaling law which suggests that observed jet quenching in the high-soft state in BH X-ray binaries is consistent with an ever-present MAD state with a weak yet sustained jet.

  6. Accretion to magnetized stars through the Rayleigh-Taylor instability: global 3D simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, A. K.; Romanova, M. M.

    2008-05-01

    We present results of 3D simulations of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) instabilities at the accretion disc-magnetosphere boundary. The instability is Rayleigh-Taylor, and develops for a fairly broad range of accretion rates and stellar rotation rates and magnetic fields. It manifests itself in the form of tall, thin tongues of plasma that penetrate the magnetosphere in the equatorial plane. The shape and number of the tongues changes with time on the inner disc dynamical time-scale. In contrast with funnel flows, which deposit matter mainly in the polar region, the tongues deposit matter much closer to the stellar equator. The instability appears for relatively small misalignment angles, Θ <~ 30°, between the star's rotation and magnetic axes, and is associated with higher accretion rates. The hotspots and light curves during accretion through instability are generally much more chaotic than during stable accretion. The unstable state of accretion has possible implications for quasi-periodic oscillations and intermittent pulsations from accreting systems, as well as planet migration.

  7. On the existence of accretion-driven bursts in massive star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, D. M.-A.; Vorobyov, E. I.; Kuiper, R.; Kley, W.

    2017-01-01

    Accretion-driven luminosity outbursts are a vivid manifestation of variable mass accretion on to protostars. They are known as the so-called FU Orionis phenomenon in the context of low-mass protostars. More recently, this process has been found in models of primordial star formation. Using numerical radiation hydrodynamics simulations, we stress that present-day forming massive stars also experience variable accretion and show that this process is accompanied by luminous outbursts induced by the episodic accretion of gaseous clumps falling from the circumstellar disc on to the protostar. Consequently, the process of accretion-induced luminous flares is also conceivable in the high-mass regime of star formation and we propose to regard this phenomenon as a general mechanism that can affect protostars regardless of their mass and/or the chemical properties of the parent environment in which they form. In addition to the commonness of accretion-driven outbursts in the star formation machinery, we conjecture that luminous flares from regions hosting forming high-mass stars may be an observational implication of the fragmentation of their accretion discs.

  8. Thermodynamics of giant planet formation: shocking hot surfaces on circumplanetary discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szulágyi, J.; Mordasini, C.

    2017-02-01

    The luminosity of young giant planets can inform about their formation and accretion history. The directly imaged planets detected so far are consistent with the `hot-start' scenario of high entropy and luminosity. If nebular gas passes through a shock front before being accreted into a protoplanet, the entropy can be substantially altered. To investigate this, we present high-resolution, three-dimensional radiative hydrodynamic simulations of accreting giant planets. The accreted gas is found to fall with supersonic speed in the gap from the circumstellar disc's upper layers on to the surface of the circumplanetary disc and polar region of the protoplanet. There it shocks, creating an extended hot supercritical shock surface. This shock front is optically thick; therefore, it can conceal the planet's intrinsic luminosity beneath. The gas in the vertical influx has high entropy which when passing through the shock front decreases significantly while the gas becomes part of the disc and protoplanet. This shows that circumplanetary discs play a key role in regulating a planet's thermodynamic state. Our simulations furthermore indicate that around the shock surface extended regions of atomic - sometimes ionized - hydrogen develop. Therefore, circumplanetary disc shock surfaces could influence significantly the observational appearance of forming gas giants.

  9. Fu Ori outbursts and the planet-disc mass exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayakshin, Sergei; Lodato, Giuseppe

    2012-10-01

    It has been recently proposed that giant protoplanets migrating inwards through the disc more rapidly than they contract could be tidally disrupted when they fill their Roche lobes ˜0.1 au away from their parent protostars. Here we consider the process of mass and angular momentum exchange between the tidally disrupted planet and the surrounding disc in detail. We find that the planet's adiabatic mass-radius relation and its ability to open a deep gap in the disc determine whether the disruption proceeds as a sudden runaway or a balanced quasi-static process. In the latter case, the planet feeds the inner disc through its Lagrangian L1 point like a secondary star in a stellar binary system. As the planet loses mass, it gains specific angular momentum and normally migrates in the outward direction until the gap closes. Numerical experiments show that planet disruption outbursts are preceded by long 'quiescent' periods during which the disc inward of the planet is empty. The hole in the disc is created when the planet opens a deep gap, letting the inner disc to drain on to the star while keeping the outer one stalled behind the planet. We find that the mass-losing planet embedded in a realistic protoplanetary disc spawns an extremely rich set of variability patterns. In a subset of parameter space, there is a limit cycle behaviour caused by non-linear interaction between the planet mass-loss and the disc hydrogen ionization instability. We suggest that tidal disruptions of young massive planets near their stars may be responsible for the observed variability of young accreting protostars such as FU Ori, EXor and T Tauri stars in general.

  10. From Disc Wind Models to Observations of TTauri Microjets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Jonathan; Casse, Fabien; Garcia, Paulo; Darren, O'brien; Sylvie, Cabrit; Catherine, Dougados; Pesenti, Nicolas; Luc, Binette

    Two decades after their discovery jets from accreting young stars still represent a major challenge for theorists. Several theoretical scenarii have been proposed but only models involving large scale magnetic fields have proved capable of producing self-collimated jets. However the launching region remains unknown: is it the star the surrounding accretion disc or their interaction zone? Progresses in high angular resolution offer now the opportunity to test the various proposed models. I will first review the results on magnetized disc winds based on the only MHD model describing self-consistently these accretion-ejection structures. Then I will show how the thermal and ionization states of the outflowing matter can be consistently computed once the dominant heating source has been chosen (ambipolar diffusion alfven wave damping or some local mechanical heating). A set of observational predictions (emission maps line fluxes/ratios and line profiles) for selected optical forbidden lines can then be calculated. As an illustration I will compare these predictions with new sub-arcsecond spectroimaging observations of the DG Tau and RW Aur jets and discuss the constraints they set on disc winds in TTauri stars.

  11. Scars of intense accretion episodes at metal-rich white dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farihi, J.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Wyatt, M. C.; Girven, J.; Pringle, J. E.; King, A. R.

    2012-07-01

    A re-evaluation of time-averaged accretion rates at DBZ-type white dwarfs points to historical, time-averaged rates significantly higher than the currently observed episodes at their DAZ counterparts. The difference between the ongoing, instantaneous accretion rates witnessed at DAZ white dwarfs, which often exceed 108 g s-1, and those inferred over the past 105-106 yr for the DBZ stars can be of a few orders of magnitude, and therefore must result from high-rate episodes of tens to hundreds of years so that they remain undetected to date. This paper explores the likelihood that such brief, intense accretion episodes of gas-phase material can account for existing data. For reasonable assumptions about the circumstellar gas, accretion rates approaching or exceeding 1015 g s-1 are possible, similar to rates observed in quiescent cataclysmic variables, and potentially detectable with future X-ray missions or wide-field monitoring facilities. Gaseous debris that is prone to such rapid accretion may be abundant immediately following a tidal disruption event via collisions and sublimation, or if additional bodies impinge upon an extant disc. Particulate disc matter accretes at or near the Poynting-Robertson drag rate for long periods between gas-producing events, consistent with rates inferred for dusty DAZ white dwarfs. In this picture, warm DAZ stars without infrared excesses have rates consistent with accretion from particulate discs that remain undetected. This overall picture has implications for quasi-steady state models of accretion and the derived chemical composition of asteroidal debris in DBZ white dwarfs.

  12. Holographic optical disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Gan; An, Xin; Pu, Allen; Psaltis, Demetri; Mok, Fai H.

    1999-11-01

    The holographic disc is a high capacity, disk-based data storage device that can provide the performance for next generation mass data storage needs. With a projected capacity approaching 1 terabit on a single 12 cm platter, the holographic disc has the potential to become a highly efficient storage hardware for data warehousing applications. The high readout rate of holographic disc makes it especially suitable for generating multiple, high bandwidth data streams such as required for network server computers. Multimedia applications such as interactive video and HDTV can also potentially benefit from the high capacity and fast data access of holographic memory.

  13. Circumplanetary disc or circumplanetary envelope?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szulágyi, J.; Masset, F.; Lega, E.; Crida, A.; Morbidelli, A.; Guillot, T.

    2016-08-01

    We present three-dimensional simulations with nested meshes of the dynamics of the gas around a Jupiter mass planet with the JUPITER and FARGOCA codes. We implemented a radiative transfer module into the JUPITER code to account for realistic heating and cooling of the gas. We focus on the circumplanetary gas flow, determining its characteristics at very high resolution (80 per cent of Jupiter's diameter). In our nominal simulation where the temperature evolves freely by the radiative module and reaches 13000 K at the planet, a circumplanetary envelope was formed filling the entire Roche lobe. Because of our equation of state is simplified and probably overestimates the temperature, we also performed simulations with limited maximal temperatures in the planet region (1000, 1500, and 2000 K). In these fixed temperature cases circumplanetary discs (CPDs) were formed. This suggests that the capability to form a CPD is not simply linked to the mass of the planet and its ability to open a gap. Instead, the gas temperature at the planet's location, which depends on its accretion history, plays also fundamental role. The CPDs in the simulations are hot and cooling very slowly, they have very steep temperature and density profiles, and are strongly sub-Keplerian. Moreover, the CPDs are fed by a strong vertical influx, which shocks on the CPD surfaces creating a hot and luminous shock-front. In contrast, the pressure supported circumplanetary envelope is characterized by internal convection and almost stalled rotation.

  14. Magnetospheric accretion in EX Lupi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, Peter; Kospal, Agnes; Bouvier, Jerome

    2016-08-01

    We propose to observe EX Lup, the prototype of the EXor class of young eruptive stars, in order to understand how the accretion process works in the quiescent system. Here, we request 2.6 hours of telescope time on Spitzer, to carry out a mid-infrared photometric monitoring, which we will supplement with simultaneous ground-based optical and near-infrared data. The multi-wavelength light curves will allow us to reliably separate the effects of fluctuating accretion rate from the rotation of the star. By analyzing the variations of the accretion rate we will determine whether EX Lup accretes through a few stable accretion columns or several short-lived random accretion streams. With this campaign, EX Lup will become one of the T Tauri systems where the accretion process is best understood.

  15. Effect of Be disc evolution on global one-armed oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oktariani, F.; Okazaki, A. T.; Kunjaya, C.; Aprilia

    2016-07-01

    We study the effect of density distribution evolution on the global one-armed oscillation modes in low-viscosity discs around isolated and binary Be stars. Observations show that some Be stars exhibit evidence of formation and dissipation of the equatorial disc. In this paper, we first calculate the density evolution in discs around isolated Be stars. To model the formation stage of the disc, we inject mass at a radius just outside the star at a constant rate for 30-50 yr. As the disc develops, the density distribution approaches the form of the steady disc solution. Then, we turn-off the mass injection to model the disc dissipation stage. The innermost part of the disc starts accretion, and a gap forms between the star and the disc. Next, we calculate the one-armed modes at several epochs. We neglect the effect of viscosity because the time-scale of oscillations is much shorter than the disc evolution time-scale for low viscosity. In the disc formation stage, the eigenfrequency increases with time towards the value for the steady state disc. On the other hand, one-armed eigenmodes in dissipating Be discs have significantly higher eigenfrequencies and narrower propagation regions. Observationally, such a change of mode characteristics can be taken as an evidence for gap opening around the star. In binary Be stars, the characteristics of the disc evolution and the eigenmodes are qualitatively the same as in isolated Be stars, but quantitatively, they have shorter evolution time-scales and higher eigenfrequencies, which is in agreement with the observed trend.

  16. Accretion of southern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hillhouse, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Paleomagnetic data from southern Alaska indicate that the Wrangellia and Peninsular terranes collided with central Alaska probably by 65 Ma ago and certainly no later than 55 Ma ago. The accretion of these terranes to the mainland was followed by the arrival of the Ghost Rocks volcanic assemblage at the southern margin of Kodiak Island. Poleward movement of these terranes can be explained by rapid motion of the Kula oceanic plate, mainly from 85 to 43 Ma ago, according to recent reconstructions derived from the hot-spot reference frame. After accretion, much of southwestern Alaska underwent a counterclockwise rotation of about 50 ?? as indicated by paleomagnetic poles from volcanic rocks of Late Cretaceous and Early Tertiary age. Compression between North America and Asia during opening of the North Atlantic (68-44 Ma ago) may account for the rotation. ?? 1987.

  17. The observed peripheral growth of disc galaxies from z ~ 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadotti, Dimitri A.; Sachdeva, Sonali; Saha, Kanak; Singh, Harinder P.

    2017-03-01

    Using images from the Hubble Space Telescope and Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we have computed both parametric and non-parametric measures, and examined the evolution in size, concentration, stellar mass, effective stellar mass density and asymmetry for a sample of 600 disc galaxies from z ~ 1 till z ~ 0. We find that disc galaxies have gained more than 50 per cent of their present stellar mass over the last 8 Gyr. Also, the increase in disc size is found to be peripheral. While the average total (Petrosian) radius almost doubles from z ~ 1 to z ~ 0, the average effective (half-light) radius undergoes a marginal increase in comparison. This indicates that galaxies grow more substantially in their outskirts, and is consistent with the inside-out growth picture. The substantial increase in mass and size indicates that accretion of external material has been a dominant mode of galaxy growth, where the circumgalactic environment plays a significant role.

  18. Line-driven ablation of circumstellar discs – I. Optically thin decretion discs of classical Oe/Be stars

    PubMed Central

    Kee, Nathaniel Dylan; Owocki, Stanley; Sundqvist, J. O.

    2016-01-01

    discussion of future extensions to study line-driven ablation of denser, optically thick, accretion discs of pre-main-sequence massive stars. PMID:27346978

  19. Line-driven ablation of circumstellar discs - I. Optically thin decretion discs of classical Oe/Be stars.

    PubMed

    Kee, Nathaniel Dylan; Owocki, Stanley; Sundqvist, J O

    2016-05-21

    discussion of future extensions to study line-driven ablation of denser, optically thick, accretion discs of pre-main-sequence massive stars.

  20. Matter accreting neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meszaros, P.

    1981-01-01

    Some of the fundamental neutron star parameters, such as the mass and the magnetic field strength, were experimentally determined in accreting neutron star systems. Some of the relevant data and the models used to derive useful information from them, are reviewed concentrating mainly on X-ray pulsars. The latest advances in our understanding of the radiation mechanisms and the transfer in the strongly magnetized polar cap regions are discussed.

  1. VARIABLE ACCRETION OUTBURSTS IN PROTOSTELLAR EVOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, Jaehan; Hartmann, Lee; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Gammie, Charles E-mail: lhartm@umich.edu E-mail: gammie@illinois.edu

    2013-02-20

    We extend the one-dimensional, two-zone models of long-term protostellar disk evolution with infall of Zhu et al. to consider the potential effects of a finite viscosity in regions where the ionization is too low for the magnetorotational instability (MRI) to operate (the {sup d}ead zone{sup )}. We find that the presence of a small but finite dead zone viscosity, as suggested by simulations of stratified disks with MRI-active outer layers, can trigger inside-out bursts of accretion, starting at or near the inner edge of the disk, instead of the previously found outside-in bursts with zero dead zone viscosity, which originate at a few AU in radius. These inside-out bursts of accretion bear a qualitative resemblance to the outburst behavior of one FU Ori object, V1515 Cyg, in contrast to the outside-in burst models, which more closely resemble the accretion events in FU Ori and V1057 Cyg. Our results suggest that the type and frequency of outbursts are potentially a probe of transport efficiency in the dead zone. Simulations must treat the inner disk regions, R {approx}< 0.5 AU, to show the detailed time evolution of accretion outbursts in general and to observe the inside-out bursts in particular.

  2. Composition of early planetary atmospheres - I. Connecting disc astrochemistry to the formation of planetary atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cridland, A. J.; Pudritz, R. E.; Alessi, M.

    2016-09-01

    We present a model of the early chemical composition and elemental abundances of planetary atmospheres based on the cumulative gaseous chemical species that are accreted on to planets forming by core accretion from evolving protoplanetary discs. The astrochemistry of the host disc is computed using an ionization-driven, non-equilibrium chemistry network within viscously evolving disc models. We accrete gas giant planets whose orbital evolution is controlled by planet traps using the standard core accretion model and track the chemical composition of the material that is accreted on to the protoplanet. We choose a fiducial disc model and evolve planets in three traps - water ice line, dead zone and heat transition. For a disc with a lifetime of 4.1 Myr, we produce two hot Jupiters (M = 1.43, 2.67 MJupiter, r = 0.15, 0.11 au) in the heat transition and ice line trap and one failed core (M = 0.003 MJupiter, r = 3.7 au) in the dead zone. These planets are found with mixing ratios for CO and H2O of 1.99 × 10-4 and 5.0 × 10-4, respectively, for both hot Jupiters. Additionally, for these planets we find CO2 and CH4, with mixing ratios of 1.8 × 10-6 → 9.8 × 10-10 and 1.1 × 10-8 → 2.3 × 10-10, respectively. These ranges correspond well with the mixing ratio ranges that have been inferred through the detection of emission spectra from hot Jupiters by multiple authors. We compute a carbon-to-oxygen ratio of 0.227 for the ice line planet and 0.279 for the heat transition planet. These planets accreted their gas inside the ice line, hence the sub-solar C/O.

  3. Magnetic launching and collimation of jets from the disc-magnetosphere boundary: 2.5D MHD simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lii, Patrick; Romanova, Marina; Lovelace, Richard

    2012-03-01

    We use axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamic simulations to investigate the launching and collimation of jets emerging from the disc-magnetosphere boundary of accreting magnetized stars. Our analysis shows that the matter flows into the jet from the inner edge of the accretion disc. It is magnetically accelerated along field lines extending up from the disc and simultaneously collimated by the magnetic pinch force. In the reference run which we use for analysis, the matter in the jet crosses the Alfvén surface a few R* above the disc and the fast magnetosonic surface ˜13R* above the disc. At larger distances, the magnetic pressure is a few times smaller than the total matter pressure, but the magnetic force continues to accelerate and collimate the jet. In steady state, we observe a matter ejection-to-accretion ratio of ˜0.2. Across different simulation runs, we measure a range of half-opening angles between Θ≈ 4° and 20° at the top of the simulation region, depending on the degree of magnetization in the outflow. We consider the case of stars undergoing epochs of high accretion [such as EX Lupi (EXors), FU Orionis (FUORs) and Classical T Tauri Stars (CTTSs)] where the stellar magnetosphere is strongly compressed by the incoming accretion disc. For a typical EXor (mass 0.8 M⊙, radius 2 R⊙) accreting at ˜10-5 M⊙ yr-1, we measure poloidal velocities in the jet ranging from 30 km s-1 on the outer edge of the jet to more than 260 km s-1 on the inner edge. In general, the models can be applied to a variety of magnetized stars - white dwarfs, neutron stars and brown dwarfs - which exhibit periods of high accretion.

  4. Bryan total disc arthroplasty: a replacement disc for cervical disc disease

    PubMed Central

    Wenger, Markus; Markwalder, Thomas-Marc

    2010-01-01

    Total disc arthroplasty is a new option in the treatment of cervical degenerative disc disease. Several types of cervical disc prostheses currently challenge the gold-standard discectomy and fusion procedures. This review describes the Bryan Cervical Disc System and presents the Bryan prosthesis, its indications, surgical technique, complications, and outcomes, as given in the literature. PMID:22915917

  5. Boundary between stable and unstable regimes of accretion. Ordered and chaotic unstable regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blinova, A. A.; Romanova, M. M.; Lovelace, R. V. E.

    2016-07-01

    We present a new study of the Rayleigh-Taylor unstable regime of accretion on to rotating magnetized stars in a set of high grid resolution three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations performed in low-viscosity discs. We find that the boundary between the stable and unstable regimes is determined almost entirely by the fastness parameter ωs = Ω⋆/ΩK(rm), where Ω⋆ is the angular velocity of the star and ΩK(rm) is the angular velocity of the Keplerian disc at the disc-magnetosphere boundary r = rm. We found that accretion is unstable if ωs ≲ 0.6. Accretion through instabilities is present in stars with different magnetospheric sizes. However, only in stars with relatively small magnetospheres, rm/R⋆ ≲ 7, do the unstable tongues produce chaotic hotspots on the stellar surface and irregular light curves. At even smaller values of the fastness parameter, ωs ≲ 0.45, multiple irregular tongues merge, forming one or two ordered unstable tongues that rotate with the angular frequency of the inner disc. This transition occurs in stars with even smaller magnetospheres, rm/R⋆ ≲ 4.2. Most of our simulations were performed at a small tilt of the dipole magnetosphere, Θ = 5°, and a small viscosity parameter α = 0.02. Test simulations at higher α values show that many more cases become unstable, and the light curves become even more irregular. Test simulations at larger tilts of the dipole Θ show that instability is present, however, accretion in two funnel streams dominates if Θ ≳ 15°. The results of these simulations can be applied to accreting magnetized stars with relatively small magnetospheres: Classical T Tauri stars, accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars, and cataclysmic variables.

  6. Chaotic cold accretion on to black holes in rotating atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaspari, M.; Brighenti, F.; Temi, P.

    2015-07-01

    The fueling of black holes is one key problem in the evolution of baryons in the universe. Chaotic cold accretion (CCA) profoundly differs from classic accretion models, as Bondi and thin disc theories. Using 3D high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations, we now probe the impact of rotation on the hot and cold accretion flow in a typical massive galaxy. In the hot mode, with or without turbulence, the pressure-dominated flow forms a geometrically thick rotational barrier, suppressing the black hole accretion rate to ~1/3 of the spherical case value. When radiative cooling is dominant, the gas loses pressure support and quickly circularizes in a cold thin disk; the accretion rate is decoupled from the cooling rate, although it is higher than that of the hot mode. In the more common state of a turbulent and heated atmosphere, CCA drives the dynamics if the gas velocity dispersion exceeds the rotational velocity, i.e., turbulent Taylor number Tat< 1. Extended multiphase filaments condense out of the hot phase via thermal instability (TI) and rain toward the black hole, boosting the accretion rate up to 100 times the Bondi rate (Ṁ• ~ Ṁcool). Initially, turbulence broadens the angular momentum distribution of the hot gas, allowing the cold phase to condense with prograde or retrograde motion. Subsequent chaotic collisions between the cold filaments, clouds, and a clumpy variable torus promote the cancellation of angular momentum, leading to high accretion rates. As turbulence weakens (Tat > 1), the broadening of the distribution and the efficiency of collisions diminish, damping the accretion rate ∝ Tat-1, until the cold disk drives the dynamics. This is exacerbated by the increased difficulty to grow TI in a rotating halo. The simulated sub-Eddington accretion rates cover the range inferred from AGN cavity observations. CCA predicts inner flat X-ray temperature and r-1 density profiles, as recently discovered in M 87 and NGC 3115. The synthetic Hα images

  7. Implementation and Validation of 3-D Ice Accretion Measurement Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sam; Broeren, Andy; Kreeger, Richard; Potapczuk, Mark; Utt, Lloyd

    2014-01-01

    A research program has been implemented to develop and validate the use of a commercial 3-D laser scanning system to record ice accretion geometry in the NASA Icing Research Tunnel. A main component of the program was the geometric assessment of the 3-D laser scanning system on a 2-D (straight wing) and a 3-D (swept wing) airfoil geometries. This exercise consisted of comparison of scanned ice accretion to castings of the same ice accretion. The scan data were also used to create rapid prototype artificial ice shapes that were scanned and compared to the original ice accretion.The results from geometric comparisons on the straight wing showed that the ice shape models generated through the scanrapid prototype process compared reasonably well with the cast shapes. Similar results were obtained with the geometric comparisons on the swept wing. It was difficult to precisely compare the scans of the cast shapes to the original ice accretion scans because the cast shapes appear to have shrunk during the moldcasting process by as much as 0.10-inch. However the comparison of the local ice-shape features were possible and produced better results. The rapid prototype manufacturing process was shown to reproduce the original ice accretion scan normally within 0.01-inch.

  8. Implementation and Validation of 3-D Ice Accretion Measurement Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sam; Broeren, Andy P.; Kreeger, Richard E.; Potapczuk, Mark; Utt, Lloyd

    2014-01-01

    A research program has been implemented to develop and validate the use of a commercial 3-D laser scanning system to record ice accretion geometry in the NASA Icing Research Tunnel. A main component of the program was the geometric assessment of the 3- D laser scanning system on a 2-D (straight wing) and a 3-D (swept wing) airfoil geometries. This exercise consisted of comparison of scanned ice accretion to castings of the same ice accretion. The scan data were also used to create rapid prototype artificial ice shapes that were scanned and compared to the original ice accretion. The results from geometric comparisons on the straight wing showed that the ice shape models generated through the scan/rapid prototype process compared reasonably well with the cast shapes. Similar results were obtained with the geometric comparisons on the swept wing. It was difficult to precisely compare the scans of the cast shapes to the original ice accretion scans because the cast shapes appear to have shrunk during the mold/casting process by as much as 0.10-inch. However the comparison of the local ice-shape features were possible and produced better results. The rapid prototype manufacturing process was shown to reproduce the original ice accretion scan normally within 0.01-inch.

  9. Accretion in the galactic halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, Alex Courtney

    2000-10-01

    The Milky Way disk is enveloped in a diffuse, dynamically-hot collection of stars and star clusters collectively known as the ``stellar halo''. Photometric and chemical analyses suggest that these stars are ancient fossils of the galaxy formation epoch. Yet, little is known about the origin of this trace population. Is this system merely a vestige of the initial burst of star formation within the decoupled proto-Galaxy, or is it the detritus of cannibalized satellite galaxies? In an attempt to unravel the history of the Milky Way's stellar halo, I performed a detailed spectroscopic analysis of 55 metal-poor stars possessing ``extreme'' kinematic properties. It is thought that stars on orbits that either penetrate the remote halo or exhibit large retrograde velocities could have been associated with assimilated (or ``accreted'') dwarf galaxies. The hallmark of an accreted halo star is presumed to be a deficiency (compared with normal stars) of the α-elements (O, Mg, Si, Ca, Ti) with respect to iron, a consequence of sporadic bursts of star formation within the diminutive galaxies. Abundances for a select group of light metals (Li, Na, Mg, Si, Ca, Ti), iron-peak nuclides (Cr, Fe, Ni), and neutron-capture elements (Y, Ba) were calculated using line-strengths measured from high-resolution, high signal-to-noise spectral observations collected with the Keck I 10-m and KPNO 4-m telescopes. The abundances extracted from the spectra reveal: (1)The vast majority of outer halo stars possess supersolar [α/Fe] > 0.0) ratios. (2)The [α/Fe] ratio appears to decrease with increasing metallicity. (3)The outer halo stars have lower ratios of [α/Fe] than inner halo stars at a given metallicity. (4)At the largest metallicities, there is a large spread in the observed [α/Fe] ratios. (5)[α/Fe] anti-correlates with RAPO. (6)Only one star (BD+80° 245) exhibits the peculiar abundances expected of an assimilated star. The general conclusion extracted from these data is that the

  10. Investigating the inner discs of Herbig Ae/Be stars with CO bandhead and Brγ emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilee, J. D.; Fairlamb, J.; Oudmaijer, R. D.; Mendigutía, I.; van den Ancker, M. E.; Kraus, S.; Wheelwright, H. E.

    2014-12-01

    Herbig Ae/Be stars lie in the mass range between low- and high-mass young stars, and therefore offer a unique opportunity to observe any changes in the formation processes that may occur across this boundary. This paper presents medium-resolution Very Large Telescope (VLT)/X-shooter spectra of six Herbig Ae/Be stars, drawn from a sample of 91 targets, and high-resolution VLT/Cryogenic Infrared Echelle Spectrograph (CRIRES) spectra of five Herbig Ae/Be stars, chosen based on the presence of CO first overtone bandhead emission in their spectra. The X-shooter survey reveals a low detection rate of CO first overtone emission (7 per cent), consisting of objects mainly of spectral type B. A positive correlation is found between the strength of the CO v = 2-0 and Brγ emission lines, despite their intrinsic linewidths suggesting a separate kinematic origin. The high-resolution CRIRES spectra are modelled, and are well fitted under the assumption that the emission originates from small scale Keplerian discs, interior to the dust sublimation radius, but outside the corotation radius of the central stars. In addition, our findings are in very good agreement for the one object where spatially resolved near-infrared interferometric studies have also been performed. These results suggest that the Herbig Ae/Be stars in question are in the process of gaining mass via disc accretion, and that modelling of high spectral resolution spectra is able to provide a reliable probe into the process of stellar accretion in young stars of intermediate to high masses.

  11. New Brown Dwarf Discs in Upper Scorpius Observed with WISE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, P.; Scholz, A.; Ray, T. P.; Natta, A.; Marsh, K. A.; Padgett, D.; Ressler, M. E.

    2013-01-01

    We present a census of the disc population for UKIDSS selected brown dwarfs in the 5-10 Myr old Upper Scorpius OB association. For 116 objects originally identified in UKIDSS, the majority of them not studied in previous publications, we obtain photometry from the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer data base. The resulting colour magnitude and colour colour plots clearly show two separate populations of objects, interpreted as brown dwarfs with discs (class II) and without discs (class III). We identify 27 class II brown dwarfs, 14 of them not previously known. This disc fraction (27 out of 116, or 23%) among brown dwarfs was found to be similar to results for K/M stars in Upper Scorpius, suggesting that the lifetimes of discs are independent of the mass of the central object for low-mass stars and brown dwarfs. 5 out of 27 discs (19 per cent) lack excess at 3.4 and 4.6 microns and are potential transition discs (i.e. are in transition from class II to class III). The transition disc fraction is comparable to low-mass stars.We estimate that the time-scale for a typical transition from class II to class III is less than 0.4 Myr for brown dwarfs. These results suggest that the evolution of brown dwarf discs mirrors the behaviour of discs around low-mass stars, with disc lifetimes of the order of 5 10 Myr and a disc clearing time-scale significantly shorter than 1 Myr.

  12. Thanatology in protoplanetary discs. The combined influence of Ohmic, Hall, and ambipolar diffusion on dead zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesur, Geoffroy; Kunz, Matthew W.; Fromang, Sébastien

    2014-06-01

    Protoplanetary discs are poorly ionised due to their low temperatures and high column densities and are therefore subject to three "non-ideal" magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects: Ohmic dissipation, ambipolar diffusion, and the Hall effect. The existence of magnetically driven turbulence in these discs has been a central question since the discovery of the magnetorotational instability (MRI). Early models considered Ohmic diffusion only and led to a scenario of layered accretion, in which a magnetically "dead" zone in the disc midplane is embedded within magnetically "active" surface layers at distances of about 1-10 au from the central protostellar object. Recent work has suggested that a combination of Ohmic dissipation and ambipolar diffusion can render both the midplane and surface layers of the disc inactive and that torques due to magnetically driven outflows are required to explain the observed accretion rates. We reassess this picture by performing three-dimensional numerical simulations that include all three non-ideal MHD effects for the first time. We find that the Hall effect can generically "revive" dead zones by producing a dominant azimuthal magnetic field and a large-scale Maxwell stress throughout the midplane, provided that the angular velocity and magnetic field satisfy Ω·B > 0. The attendant large magnetic pressure modifies the vertical density profile and substantially increases the disc scale height beyond its hydrostatic value. Outflows are produced but are not necessary to explain accretion rates ≲ 10-7 M⊙ yr-1. The flow in the disc midplane is essentially laminar, suggesting that dust sedimentation may be efficient. These results demonstrate that if the MRI is relevant for driving mass accretion in protoplanetary discs, one must include the Hall effect to obtain even qualitatively correct results. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  13. Differentiation and core formation in accreting planetesimals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, W.; Breuer, D.; Spohn, T.

    2012-07-01

    Aims: The compositions of meteorites and the morphologies of asteroid surfaces provide strong evidence that partial melting and differentiation were widespread among the planetesimals of the early solar system. However, it is not easily understood how planetesimals can be differentiated. To account for significantly smaller radii, masses, gravity and accretion energies early, intense heat sources are required, e.g. the short-lived nuclides 26Al and 60Fe. Here, we investigate the process of differentiation and core formation in accreting planetesimals taking into account the effects of sintering, melt heat transport via porous flow and redistribution of the radiogenic heat sources. Methods: We use a spherically symmetric one-dimensional model of a partially molten planetesimal consisting of iron and silicates, which considers the accretion by radial growth. The common heat conduction equation has been modified to consider also melt segregation. In the initial state, the planetesimals are assumed to be highly porous and consist of a mixture of Fe,Ni-FeS and silicates consistent to an H-chondritic composition. The porosity change due to the so called hot pressing is simulated by solving a corresponding differential equation. Magma segregation of iron and silicate melt is treated according to the flow in porous media theory by using the Darcy flow equation and allowing a maximal melt fraction of 50%. Results: We show that the differentiation in planetesimals depends strongly on the formation time, accretion duration, and accretion law and cannot be assumed as instantaneous. Iron melt segregation starts almost simultaneously with silicate segregation and lasts between 0.4 and 10 Ma. The degree of differentiation varies significantly and the most evolved structure consists of an iron core, a silicate mantle, which are covered by an undifferentiated but sintered layer and an undifferentiated and unsintered regolith - suggesting that chondrites and achondrites can

  14. AGN Accretion Physics: Insights from K2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogeley, Michael

    between the stochastic model parameters and physical parameters will provide new methods for classification of AGN from their variability and aid in identification of AGN from photometric surveys. (5) Results of this empirical study will serve as a guide to theorists who study the complex astrophysics of accretion. (6) Sensitivity analysis of these statistics to cadence will allow us to make forecasts for detection and classification of AGN from future surveys such as LSST. Results of this research will include new constraints on models of accretion physics, more powerful methods for classifying AGN by their variability, and forecasts that guide design of future time-domain surveys of AGN. Products of this program will include a catalog of precision light curves of AGN, variability model parameters for every light curve, and a software package for time series statistical analysis. Thus, the proposed research directly addresses a key NASA goal in astrophysics in the area of Cosmic Origins (understanding the formation of black holes and their impact on galaxies). This research pursues several science themes identified by the 2010 Decadal Survey: Discovery (Opening the Time Domain); Origins (Origin of black holes); and Frontiers of Knowledge (Nature of Compact Objects). The research team for this project combines expertise in time series analysis, variability studies of AGN, statistical analysis of large surveys, Kepler photometry, and multi-wavelength observations of quasars and AGN. This work is timely because observations from the K2 campaigns now include a large set of high-cadence light curves with very high-quality photometry and we have fully tested our methods and analysis software.

  15. Impacts of a flaring star-forming disc and stellar radial mixing on the vertical metallicity gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, Daisuke; Grand, Robert J. J.; Gibson, Brad K.; Casagrande, Luca; Hunt, Jason A. S.; Brook, Chris B.

    2017-01-01

    Using idealized N-body simulations of a Milky Way-sized disc galaxy, we qualitatively study how the metallicity distributions of the thin disc star particles are modified by the formation of the bar and spiral arm structures. The thin disc in our numerical experiments initially has a tight negative radial metallicity gradient and a constant vertical scaleheight. We show that the radial mixing of stars drives a positive vertical metallicity gradient in the thin disc. On the other hand, if the initial thin disc is flared, with vertical scaleheight increasing with galactocentric radius, the metal-poor stars, originally in the outer disc, become dominant in regions above the disc plane at every radii. This process can drive a negative vertical metallicity gradient, which is consistent with the current observed trend. This model mimics a scenario where the star-forming thin disc was flared in the outer region at earlier epochs. Our numerical experiment with an initial flared disc predicts that the negative vertical metallicity gradient of the mono-age relatively young thin disc population should be steeper in the inner disc, and the radial metallicity gradient of the mono-age population should be shallower at greater heights above the disc plane. We also predict that the metallicity distribution function of mono-age young thin disc populations above the disc plane would be more positively skewed in the inner disc compared to the outer disc.

  16. Black hole mergers: can gas discs solve the `final parsec' problem?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lodato, G.; Nayakshin, S.; King, A. R.; Pringle, J. E.

    2009-09-01

    We compute the effect of an orbiting gas disc in promoting the coalescence of a central supermassive black hole binary. Unlike earlier studies, we consider a finite mass of gas with explicit time dependence: we do not assume that the gas necessarily adopts a steady state or a spatially constant accretion rate, i.e. that the merging black hole was somehow inserted into a pre-existing accretion disc. We consider the tidal torque of the binary on the disc, and the binary's gravitational radiation. We study the effects of star formation in the gas disc in a simple energy feedback framework. The disc spectrum differs in detail from that found before. In particular, tidal torques from the secondary black hole heat the edges of the gap, creating bright rims around the secondary. These rims do not in practice have uniform brightness either in azimuth or time, but can on average account for as much as 50 per cent of the integrated light from the disc. This may lead to detectable high-photon-energy variability on the relatively long orbital time-scale of the secondary black hole, and thus offer a prospective signature of a coalescing black hole binary. We also find that the disc can drive the binary to merger on a reasonable time-scale only if its mass is at least comparable with that of the secondary black hole, and if the initial binary separation is relatively small, i.e. a0 <~ 0.05 pc. Star formation complicates the merger further by removing mass from the disc. In the feedback model we consider, this sets an effective limit to the disc mass. As a result, binary merging is unlikely unless the black hole mass ratio is <~0.001. Gas discs thus appear not to be an effective solution to the `last parsec' problem for a significant class of mergers.

  17. Grain charging in protoplanetary discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilgner, M.

    2012-02-01

    Context. Recent work identified a growth barrier for dust coagulation that originates in the electric repulsion between colliding particles. Depending on its charge state, dust material may have the potential to control key processes towards planet formation such as magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence and grain growth, which are coupled in a two-way process. Aims: We quantify the grain charging at different stages of disc evolution and differentiate between two very extreme cases: compact spherical grains and aggregates with fractal dimension Df = 2. Methods: Applying a simple chemical network that accounts for collisional charging of grains, we provide a semi-analytical solution. This allowed us to calculate the equilibrium population of grain charges and the ionisation fraction efficiently. The grain charging was evaluated for different dynamical environments ranging from static to non-stationary disc configurations. Results: The results show that the adsorption/desorption of neutral gas-phase heavy metals, such as magnesium, effects the charging state of grains. The greater the difference between the thermal velocities of the metal and the dominant molecular ion, the greater the change in the mean grain charge. Agglomerates have more negative excess charge on average than compact spherical particles of the same mass. The rise in the mean grain charge is proportional to N1/6 in the ion-dust limit. We find that grain charging in a non-stationary disc environment is expected to lead to similar results. Conclusions: The results indicate that the dust growth and settling in regions where the dust growth is limited by the so-called "electro-static barrier" do not prevent the dust material from remaining the dominant charge carrier.

  18. The Accretion Rate Dependence of Burst Oscillation Amplitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ootes, Laura S.; Watts, Anna L.; Galloway, Duncan K.; Wijnands, Rudy

    2017-01-01

    Neutron stars in low-mass X-ray binaries exhibit oscillations during thermonuclear bursts, attributed to asymmetric brightness patterns on the burning surfaces. All models that have been proposed to explain the origin of these asymmetries (spreading hotspots, surface waves, and cooling wakes) depend on the accretion rate. By analysis of archival RXTE data of six oscillation sources, we investigate the accretion rate dependence of the amplitude of burst oscillations. This more than doubles the size of the sample analyzed previously by Muno et al., who found indications for a relationship between accretion rate and oscillation amplitudes. We find that burst oscillation signals can be detected at all observed accretion rates. Moreover, oscillations at low accretion rates are found to have relatively small amplitudes ({A}{{rms}}≤slant 0.10) while oscillations detected in bursts observed at high accretion rates cover a broad spread in amplitudes (0.05≤slant {A}{{rms}}≤slant 0.20). In this paper we present the results of our analysis and discuss these in the light of current burst oscillation models. Additionally, we investigate the bursts of two sources without previously detected oscillations. Despite the fact that these sources have been observed at accretion rates where burst oscillations might be expected, we find their behavior not to be anomalous compared to oscillation sources.

  19. Turbulent Distortion of Condensate Accretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hazoume, R.; Orou Chabi, J.; Johnson, J. A., III

    1997-01-01

    When a simple model for the relationship between the density-temperature fluctuation correlation and mean values is used, we determine that the rate of change of turbulent intensity can influence directly the accretion rate of droplets. Considerable interest exists in the accretion rate for condensates in nonequilibrium flow with icing and the potential role which reactant accretion can play in nonequilibrium exothermic reactant processes. Turbulence is thought to play an important role in such flows. It has already been experimentally determined that turbulence influences the sizes of droplets in the heterogeneous nucleation of supersaturated vapors. This paper addresses the issue of the possible influence of turbulence on the accretion rate of droplets.

  20. Volatile accretion history of the Earth.

    PubMed

    Wood, B J; Halliday, A N; Rehkämper, M

    2010-10-28

    It has long been thought that the Earth had a protracted and complex history of volatile accretion and loss. Albarède paints a different picture, proposing that the Earth first formed as a dry planet which, like the Moon, was devoid of volatile constituents. He suggests that the Earth's complement of volatile elements was only established later, by the addition of a small veneer of volatile-rich material at ∼100 Myr (here and elsewhere, ages are relative to the origin of the Solar System). Here we argue that the Earth's mass balance of moderately volatile elements is inconsistent with Albarède's hypothesis but is well explained by the standard model of accretion from partially volatile-depleted material, accompanied by core formation.

  1. Active states and structure transformations in accreting white dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boneva, Daniela; Kaygorodov, Pavel

    2016-07-01

    Active states in white dwarfs are usually associated with light curve's effects that concern to the bursts, flickering or flare-up occurrences. It is common that a gas-dynamics source exists for each of these processes there. We consider the white dwarf binary stars with accretion disc around the primary. We suggest a flow transformation modeling of the mechanisms that are responsible for ability to cause some flow instability and bring the white dwarfs system to the outburst's development. The processes that cause the accretion rate to sufficiently increase are discussed. Then the transition from a quiescent to an active state is realized. We analyze a quasi-periodic variability in the luminosity of white dwarf binary stars systems. The results are supported with an observational data.

  2. Accretion tectonics and crustal structure in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coney, P.J.; Jones, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    The entire width of the North American Cordillera in Alaska is made up of "suspect terranes". Pre-Late Cretaceous paleogeography is poorly constrained and the ultimate origins of the many fragments which make up the state are unclear. The Prince William and Chugach terranes accreted since Late Cretaceous time and represent the collapse of much of the northeast Pacific Ocean swept into what today is southern Alaska. Greater Wrangellia, a composite terrane now dispersed into fragments scattered from Idaho to southern Alaska, apparently accreted into Alaska in Late Cretaceous time crushing an enormous deep-marine flysch basin on its inboard side. Most of interior eastern Alaska is the Yukon Tanana terrane, a very large entirely fault-bounded metamorphic-plutonic assemblage covering thousands of square kilometers in Canada as well as Alaska. The original stratigraphy and relationship to North America of the Yukon-Tanana terrane are both obscure. A collapsed Mesozoic flysch basin, similar to the one inboard of Wrangellia, lies along the northern margin. Much of Arctic Alaska was apparently a vast expanse of upper Paleozoic to Early Mesozoic deep marine sediments and mafic volcanic and plutonic rocks now scattered widely as large telescoped sheets and Klippen thrust over the Ruby geanticline and the Brooks Range, and probably underlying the Yukon-Koyukuk basin and the Yukon flats. The Brooks Range itself is a stack of north vergent nappes, the telescoping of which began in Early Cretaceous time. Despite compelling evidence for thousands of kilometers of relative displacement between the accreted terranes, and large amounts of telescoping, translation, and rotation since accretion, the resulting new continental crust added to North America in Alaska carries few obvious signatures that allow application of currently popular simple plate tectonic models. Intraplate telescoping and strike-slip translations, delamination at mid-crustal levels, and large-scale lithospheric

  3. Gas accretion from halos to disks: observations, curiosities, and problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmegreen, Bruce G.

    2016-08-01

    Accretion of gas from the cosmic web to galaxy halos and ultimately their disks is a prediction of modern cosmological models but is rarely observed directly or at the full rate expected from star formation. Here we illustrate possible large-scale cosmic HI accretion onto the nearby dwarf starburst galaxy IC10, observed with the VLA and GBT. We also suggest that cosmic accretion is the origin of sharp metallicity drops in the starburst regions of other dwarf galaxies, as observed with the 10-m GTC. Finally, we question the importance of cosmic accretion in normal dwarf irregulars, for which a recent study of their far-outer regions sees no need for, or evidence of, continuing gas buildup.

  4. Polarized X-rays from accreting neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Dipankar

    2016-07-01

    Accreting neutron stars span a wide range in X-ray luminosity and magnetic field strength. Accretion may be wind-fed or disk-fed, and the dominant X-ray flux may originate in the disk or a magnetically confined accretion column. In all such systems X-ray polarization may arise due to Compton or Magneto-Compton scattering, and on some occasions polarization of non-thermal emission from jet-like ejection may also be detectable. Spectral and temporal behaviour of the polarized X-rays would carry information regarding the radiation process, as well as of the matter dynamics - and can assist the detection of effects such as the Lense-Thirring precession. This talk will review our current knowledge of the expected X-ray polarization from accreting neutron stars and explore the prospects of detection with upcoming polarimetry missions.

  5. RADIATIVELY EFFICIENT MAGNETIZED BONDI ACCRETION

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, Andrew J.; Klein, Richard I.; McKee, Christopher F.; Krumholz, Mark R.; Teyssier, Romain

    2012-01-10

    We have carried out a numerical study of the effect of large-scale magnetic fields on the rate of accretion from a uniform, isothermal gas onto a resistive, stationary point mass. Only mass, not magnetic flux, accretes onto the point mass. The simulations for this study avoid complications arising from boundary conditions by keeping the boundaries far from the accreting object. Our simulations leverage adaptive refinement methodology to attain high spatial fidelity close to the accreting object. Our results are particularly relevant to the problem of star formation from a magnetized molecular cloud in which thermal energy is radiated away on timescales much shorter than the dynamical timescale. Contrary to the adiabatic case, our simulations show convergence toward a finite accretion rate in the limit in which the radius of the accreting object vanishes, regardless of magnetic field strength. For very weak magnetic fields, the accretion rate first approaches the Bondi value and then drops by a factor of {approx}2 as magnetic flux builds up near the point mass. For strong magnetic fields, the steady-state accretion rate is reduced by a factor of {approx}0.2 {beta}{sup 1/2} compared to the Bondi value, where {beta} is the ratio of the gas pressure to the magnetic pressure. We give a simple expression for the accretion rate as a function of the magnetic field strength. Approximate analytic results are given in the Appendices for both time-dependent accretion in the limit of weak magnetic fields and steady-state accretion for the case of strong magnetic fields.

  6. The Galactic stellar disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feltzing, S.; Bensby, T.

    2008-12-01

    The study of the Milky Way stellar discs in the context of galaxy formation is discussed. In particular, we explore the properties of the Milky Way disc using a new sample of about 550 dwarf stars for which we have recently obtained elemental abundances and ages based on high-resolution spectroscopy. For all the stars we also have full kinematic information as well as information about their stellar orbits. We confirm results from previous studies that the thin and the thick discs have distinct abundance patterns. But we also explore a larger range of orbital parameters than what has been possible in our previous studies. Several new results are presented. We find that stars that reach high above the Galactic plane and have eccentric orbits show remarkably tight abundance trends. This implies that these stars formed out of well-mixed gas that had been homogenized over large volumes. We find some evidence that suggest that the event that most likely caused the heating of this stellar population happened a few billion years ago. Through a simple, kinematic exploration of stars with super-solar [Fe/H], we show that the solar neighbourhood contains metal-rich, high velocity stars that are very likely associated with the thick disc. Additionally, the HR1614 moving group and the Hercules and Arcturus stellar streams are discussed and it is concluded that, probably, a large fraction of the groups and streams so far identified in the disc are the result of evolution and interactions within the stellar disc rather than being dissolved stellar clusters or engulfed dwarf galaxies. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile. Also based on observations collected at the Nordic Optical Telescope on La Palma, Spain, and at the European Southern Observatories on La Silla and Paranal, Chile, Proposals no. 65.L-0019(B), 67.B-0108(B), 69.B-0277.

  7. A connection between accretion state and Fe K absorption in an accreting neutron star: black hole-like soft-state winds?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponti, Gabriele; Muñoz-Darias, Teodoro; Fender, Robert P.

    2014-10-01

    High-resolution X-ray spectra of accreting stellar-mass black holes reveal the presence of accretion disc winds, traced by high-ionization Fe K lines. These winds appear to have an equatorial geometry and to be observed only during disc-dominated states in which the radio jet is absent. Accreting neutron star systems also show equatorial high-ionization absorbers. However, the presence of any correlation with the accretion state has not been previously tested. We have studied EXO 0748-676, a transient neutron star system, for which we can reliably determine the accretion state, in order to investigate the Fe K absorption/accretion state/jet connection. Not one of 20 X-ray spectra obtained in the hard state revealed any significant Fe K absorption line. However, intense Fe XXV and Fe XXVI (as well as a rarely observed Fe XXIII line plus S XVI; a blend of S XVI and Ar XVII; Ca XX and Ca XIX, possibly produced by the same high-ionization material) absorption lines (EW_{Fe {XXIII-XXV}}=31± 3, EW_{Fe {XXVI}}=8± 3 eV) are clearly detected during the only soft-state observation. This suggests that the connection between Fe K absorption and states (and anticorrelation between the presence of Fe K absorption and jets) is also valid for EXO 0748-676 and therefore it is not a unique property of black hole systems but a more general characteristic of accreting sources.

  8. Global Time Dependent Solutions of Stochastically Driven Standard Accretion Disks: Development of Hydrodynamical Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wani, Naveel; Maqbool, Bari; Iqbal, Naseer; Misra, Ranjeev

    2016-07-01

    X-ray binaries and AGNs are powered by accretion discs around compact objects, where the x-rays are emitted from the inner regions and uv emission arise from the relatively cooler outer parts. There has been an increasing evidence that the variability of the x-rays in different timescales is caused by stochastic fluctuations in the accretion disc at different radii. These fluctuations although arise in the outer parts of the disc but propagate inwards to give rise to x-ray variability and hence provides a natural connection between the x-ray and uv variability. There are analytical expressions to qualitatively understand the effect of these stochastic variabilities, but quantitative predictions are only possible by a detailed hydrodynamical study of the global time dependent solution of standard accretion disc. We have developed numerical efficient code (to incorporate all these effects), which considers gas pressure dominated solutions and stochastic fluctuations with the inclusion of boundary effect of the last stable orbit.

  9. Electron thermodynamics in GRMHD simulations of low-luminosity black hole accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ressler, S. M.; Tchekhovskoy, A.; Quataert, E.; Chandra, M.; Gammie, C. F.

    2015-12-01

    Simple assumptions made regarding electron thermodynamics often limit the extent to which general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulations can be applied to observations of low-luminosity accreting black holes. We present, implement, and test a model that self-consistently evolves an entropy equation for the electrons and takes into account the effects of spatially varying electron heating and relativistic anisotropic thermal conduction along magnetic field lines. We neglect the backreaction of electron pressure on the dynamics of the accretion flow. Our model is appropriate for systems accreting at ≪10-5 of the Eddington accretion rate, so radiative cooling by electrons can be neglected. It can be extended to higher accretion rates in the future by including electron cooling and proton-electron Coulomb collisions. We present a suite of tests showing that our method recovers the correct solution for electron heating under a range of circumstances, including strong shocks and driven turbulence. Our initial applications to axisymmetric simulations of accreting black holes show that (1) physically motivated electron heating rates that depend on the local magnetic field strength yield electron temperature distributions significantly different from the constant electron-to-proton temperature ratios assumed in previous work, with higher electron temperatures concentrated in the coronal region between the disc and the jet; (2) electron thermal conduction significantly modifies the electron temperature in the inner regions of black hole accretion flows if the effective electron mean free path is larger than the local scaleheight of the disc (at least for the initial conditions and magnetic field configurations we study). The methods developed in this work are important for producing more realistic predictions for the emission from accreting black holes such as Sagittarius A* and M87; these applications will be explored in future work.

  10. The accretion regimes of a highly magnetized NS: the unique case of NuSTAR J095551+6940.8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dall'Osso, Simone; Perna, Rosalba; Papitto, Alessandro; Bozzo, Enrico; Stella, Luigi

    2016-04-01

    The ultraluminous accreting pulsar M82-X2 (NuSTAR J095551+6940.8) offers an unprecedented opportunity to study the disc-magnetosphere interaction in a new regime of supercritical accretion. The source X-ray emission has been highly variable during the last 15 yrs. It ranged from a maximum of ˜2 × 1040 erg s-1 through intermediate values ˜ a few × 1039 erg s-1, and down to a minimum below 2 × 1038 erg s-1 that we have determined here, by analysing archival Chandra HRC observations of the source at an epoch at which it was undetected. We interpret the source variability via a magnetically threaded disc model: when at peak luminosity, the neutron star (NS) is close to spin equilibrium, its inner disc edge rm ˜ 108 cm is approximately half the corotation radius rco, and radiation pressure dominates the disc out to rtr ≲ 109 cm. In the radiation-pressure-dominated regime, rm grows very slowly as the mass inflow rate drops: as a result, rm < rco remains valid until dot{M} ≳dot{M}_E, the Eddington accretion rate, allowing a wide range of accretion luminosities to the NS. Once dot{M} < dot{M}_E accretion on to the NS is inhibited because rm > rco, and the source luminosity is expected to drop by a large factor. We conclude that a magnetically threaded accretion disc surrounding a highly magnetized NS (B ≲ 1013 G), and transitioning between the radiation-pressure and gas-pressure dominated regimes, offers the best interpretation for all the currently observed properties of NuSTAR J095551+6940.8.

  11. Broad-band spectral analysis of the accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar SAX J1748.9-2021

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pintore, F.; Sanna, A.; Di Salvo, T.; Del Santo, M.; Riggio, A.; D'Aì, A.; Burderi, L.; Scarano, F.; Iaria, R.

    2016-04-01

    We analysed a 115-ks XMM-Newton observation and the stacking of 8 d of INTEGRAL observations, taken during the raise of the 2015 outburst of the accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar SAX J1748.9-2021. The source showed numerous type-I burst episodes during the XMM-Newton observation, and for this reason we studied separately the persistent and burst epochs. We described the persistent emission with a combination of two soft thermal components, a cold thermal Comptonization component (˜2 keV) and an additional hard X-ray emission described by a power law (Γ ˜ 2.3). The continuum components can be associated with an accretion disc, the neutron star (NS) surface and a thermal Comptonization emission coming out of an optically thick plasma region, while the origin of the high-energy tail is still under debate. In addition, a number of broad (σ = 0.1-0.4 keV) emission features likely associated with reflection processes have been observed in the XMM-Newton data. The estimated 1.0-50 keV unabsorbed luminosity of the source is ˜5 × 1037 erg s-1, about 25 per cent of the Eddington limit assuming a 1.4 M⊙ NS. We suggest that the spectral properties of SAX J1748.9-2021 are consistent with a soft state, differently from many other accreting X-ray millisecond pulsars which are usually found in the hard state. Moreover, none of the observed type-I burst reached the Eddington luminosity. Assuming that the burst ignition and emission are produced above the whole NS surface, we estimate an NS radius of ˜7-8 km, consistent with previous results.

  12. A SCUBA-2 850-μm survey of protoplanetary discs in the IC 348 cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieza, L.; Williams, J.; Kourkchi, E.; Andrews, S.; Casassus, S.; Graves, S.; Schreiber, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    We present 850-μm observations of the 2-3 Myr cluster IC 348 in the Perseus molecular cloud using the SCUBA-2 camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. Our SCUBA-2 map has a diameter of 30 arcmin and contains ˜370 cluster members, including ˜200 objects with IR excesses. We detect a total of 13 discs. Assuming standard dust properties and a gas-to-dust-mass ratio of 100, we derive disc masses ranging from 1.5 to 16 MJUP. We also detect six Class 0/I protostars. We find that the most massive discs (MD > 3 MJUP; 850-μm flux > 10 mJy) in IC 348 tend to be transition objects according to the characteristic `dip' in their infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs). This trend is also seen in other regions. We speculate that this could be an initial conditions effect (e.g. more massive discs tend to form giant planets that result in transition disc SEDs) and/or a disc evolution effect (the formation of one or more massive planets results in both a transition disc SED and a reduction of the accretion rate, increasing the lifetime of the outer disc). A stacking analysis of the discs that remain undetected in our SCUBA-2 observations suggests that their median 850-μm flux should be ≲1 mJy, corresponding to a disc mass ≲0.3 MJUP (gas plus dust) or ≲1 M⊕ of dust. While the available data are not deep enough to allow a meaningful comparison of the disc luminosity functions between IC 348 and other young stellar clusters, our results imply that disc masses exceeding the minimum-mass solar nebula are very rare (≲1per cent) at the age of IC 348, especially around very low-mass stars.

  13. Revival of the Jumping Disc

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ucke, C.; Schlichting, H-J.

    2009-01-01

    Snap discs made of bimetal have many technical applications as thermostats. Jumping discs are a toy version of such snap discs. Besides giving technical information, we describe physical investigations. We show especially how, through simple measurements and calculations, you can determine the initial speed ([approximately equal to]3.5 m…

  14. Microwave ice accretion meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magenheim, Bertram (Inventor); Rocks, James K. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A system for indicating ice thickness and rate of ice thickness growth on surfaces is disclosed. The region to be monitored for ice accretion is provided with a resonant surface waveguide which is mounted flush, below the surface being monitored. A controlled oscillator provides microwave energy via a feed point at a controllable frequency. A detector is coupled to the surface waveguide and is responsive to electrical energy. A measuring device indicates the frequency deviation of the controlled oscillator from a quiescent frequency. A control means is provided to control the frequency of oscillation of the controlled oscillator. In a first, open-loop embodiment, the control means is a shaft operated by an operator. In a second, closed-loop embodiment, the control means is a processor which effects automatic control.

  15. Accretion Timescales from Kepler AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasliwal, Vishal P.; Vogeley, Michael S.; Richards, Gordon T.

    2015-01-01

    We constrain AGN accretion disk variability mechanisms using the optical light curves of AGN observed by Kepler. AGN optical fluxes are known to exhibit stochastic variations on timescales of hours, days, months and years. The excellent sampling properties of the original Kepler mission - high S/N ratio (105), short sampling interval (30 minutes), and long sampling duration (~ 3.5 years) - allow for a detailed examination of the differences between the variability processes present in various sub-types of AGN such as Type I and II Seyferts, QSOs, and Blazars. We model the flux data using the Auto-Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) representation from the field of time series analysis. We use the Kalman filter to determine optimal mode parameters and use the Akaike Information Criteria (AIC) to select the optimal model. We find that optical light curves from Kepler AGN cannot be fit by low order statistical models such as the popular AR(1) process or damped random walk. Kepler light curves exhibit complicated power spectra and are better modeled by higher order ARMA processes. We find that Kepler AGN typically exhibit power spectra that change from a bending power law (PSD ~ 1/fa) to a flat power spectrum on timescales in the range of ~ 5 - 100 days consistent with the orbital and thermal timescales of a typical 107 solar mass black hole.

  16. Hybrid cervical disc arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Tu, Tsung-Hsi; Wu, Jau-Ching; Cheng, Henrich; Mummaneni, Praveen V

    2017-01-01

    For patients with multilevel cervical stenosis at nonadjacent segments, one of the traditional approaches has included a multilevel fusion of the abnormal segments as well as the intervening normal segment. In this video we demonstrate an alternative treatment plan with tailored use of a combination of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) and cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA) with an intervening skipped level. The authors present the case of a 72-year-old woman with myeloradiculopathy and a large disc herniation with facet joint degeneration at C3-4 and bulging disc at C5-6. After nonoperative treatment failed, she underwent a single-level ACDF at C3-4 and single-level arthroplasty at C5-6, which successfully relieved her symptoms. No intervention was performed at the normal intervening C4-5 segment. By using ACDF combined with arthroplasty, the authors have avoided a 3-level fusion for this patient and maintained the range of motion of 2 disc levels. The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/OrxcPUBvqLk .

  17. The Teddy Bears' Disc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurillard, Diana

    1985-01-01

    Reports an evaluation of the Teddy Bear disc, an interactive videodisc developed at the Open University for a second-level course in metallurgy and materials technology. Findings from observation of students utilizing the videodisc are reviewed; successful design features and design problems are considered; and development costs are outlined. (MBR)

  18. THE COSMIC BATTERY IN ASTROPHYSICAL ACCRETION DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Contopoulos, Ioannis; Nathanail, Antonios; Katsanikas, Matthaios

    2015-06-01

    The aberrated radiation pressure at the inner edge of the accretion disk around an astrophysical black hole imparts a relative azimuthal velocity on the electrons with respect to the ions which gives rise to a ring electric current that generates large-scale poloidal magnetic field loops. This is the Cosmic Battery established by Contopoulos and Kazanas in 1998. In the present work we perform realistic numerical simulations of this important astrophysical mechanism in advection-dominated accretion flows, ADAFs. We confirm the original prediction that the inner parts of the loops are continuously advected toward the central black hole and contribute to the growth of the large-scale magnetic field, whereas the outer parts of the loops are continuously diffusing outward through the turbulent accretion flow. This process of inward advection of the axial field and outward diffusion of the return field proceeds all the way to equipartition, thus generating astrophysically significant magnetic fields on astrophysically relevant timescales. We confirm that there exists a critical value of the magnetic Prandtl number between unity and 10 in the outer disk above which the Cosmic Battery mechanism is suppressed.

  19. The Auriga Project: the properties and formation mechanisms of disc galaxies across cosmic time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grand, Robert J. J.; Gómez, Facundo A.; Marinacci, Federico; Pakmor, Rüdiger; Springel, Volker; Campbell, David J. R.; Frenk, Carlos S.; Jenkins, Adrian; White, Simon D. M.

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a suite of thirty cosmological magneto-hydrodynamical zoom simulations of the formation of galaxies in isolated Milky Way mass dark haloes. These were carried out with the moving mesh code AREPO, together with a comprehensive model for galaxy formation physics, including AGN feedback and magnetic fields, which produces realistic galaxy populations in large cosmological simulations. We demonstrate that our simulations reproduce a wide range of present-day observables, in particular, two component disc dominated galaxies with appropriate stellar masses, sizes, rotation curves, star formation rates and metallicities. We investigate the driving mechanisms that set present-day disc sizes/scale lengths, and find that they are related to the angular momentum of halo material. We show that the largest discs are produced by quiescent mergers that inspiral into the galaxy and deposit high angular momentum material into the pre-existing disc, simultaneously increasing the spin of dark matter and gas in the halo. More violent mergers and strong AGN feedback play roles in limiting disc size by destroying pre-existing discs and by suppressing gas accretion onto the outer disc, respectively. The most important factor that leads to compact discs, however, is simply a low angular momentum for the halo. In these cases, AGN feedback plays an important role in limiting central star formation and the formation of a massive bulge.

  20. Influence of the water content in protoplanetary discs on planet migration and formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitsch, Bertram; Johansen, Anders

    2016-05-01

    The temperature and density profiles of protoplanetary discs depend crucially on the mass fraction of micrometre-sized dust grains and on their chemical composition. A larger abundance of micrometre-sized grains leads to an overall heating of the disc, so that the water ice line moves further away from the star. An increase in the water fraction inside the disc, maintaining a fixed dust abundance, increases the temperature in the icy regions of the disc and lowers the temperature in the inner regions. Discs with a larger silicate fraction have the opposite effect. Here we explore the consequence of the dust composition and abundance for the formation and migration of planets. We find that discs with low water content can only sustain outwards migration for planets up to 4 Earth masses, while outwards migration in discs with a larger water content persists up to 8 Earth masses in the late stages of the disc evolution. Icy planetary cores that do not reach run-away gas accretion can thus migrate to orbits close to the host star if the water abundance is low. Our results imply that hot and warm super-Earths found in exoplanet surveys could have formed beyond the ice line and thus contain a significant fraction in water. These water-rich super-Earths should orbit primarily around stars with a low oxygen abundance, where a low oxygen abundance is caused by either a low water-to-silicate ratio or by overall low metallicity.

  1. ACCRETION OUTBURSTS IN CIRCUMPLANETARY DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Lubow, S. H.; Martin, R. G.

    2012-04-20

    We describe a model for the long-term evolution of a circumplanetary disk that is fed mass from a circumstellar disk and contains regions of low turbulence (dead zones). We show that such disks can be subject to accretion-driven outbursts, analogous to outbursts previously modeled in the context of circumstellar disks to explain FU Ori phenomena. Circumplanetary disks around a proto-Jupiter can undergo outbursts for infall accretion rates onto the disks in the range M-dot{sub infall} approx. 10{sup -9} to 10{sup -7} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, typical of accretion rates in the T Tauri phase. During outbursts, the accretion rate and disk luminosity increases by several orders of magnitude. Most of the planet mass growth during planetary gas accretion may occur via disk outbursts involving gas that is considerably hotter than predicted by steady state models. For low infall accretion rates M-dot{sub infall} {approx}< 10{sup -10} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} that occur in late stages of disk accretion, disk outbursts are unlikely to occur, even if dead zones are present. Such conditions are favorable for the formation of icy satellites.

  2. Analytic models of relativistic accretion disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuravlev, V. V.

    2015-06-01

    We present not a literature review but a description, as detailed and consistent as possible, of two analytic models of disk accretion onto a rotating black hole: a standard relativistic disk and a twisted relativistic disk. Although one of these models is older than the other, both are of topical interest for black hole studies. The treatment is such that the reader with only a limited knowledge of general relativity and relativistic hydrodynamics, with little or no use of additional sources, can gain insight into many technical details lacking in the original papers.

  3. TEARING UP THE DISK: HOW BLACK HOLES ACCRETE

    SciTech Connect

    Nixon, Chris; King, Andrew; Price, Daniel; Frank, Juhan

    2012-10-01

    We show that in realistic cases of accretion in active galactic nuclei or stellar-mass X-ray binaries, the Lense-Thirring effect breaks the central regions of tilted accretion disks around spinning black holes into a set of distinct planes with only tenuous flows connecting them. If the original misalignment of the outer disk to the spin axis of the hole is 45 Degree-Sign {approx}< {theta} {approx}< 135 Degree-Sign , as in {approx}70% of randomly oriented accretion events, the continued precession of these disks sets up partially counterrotating gas flows. This drives rapid infall as angular momentum is canceled and gas attempts to circularize at smaller radii. Disk breaking close to the black hole leads to direct dynamical accretion, while breaking further out can drive gas down to scales where it can accrete rapidly. For smaller tilt angles breaking can still occur and may lead to other observable phenomena such as quasi-periodic oscillations. For such effects not to appear, the black hole spin must in practice be negligibly small, or be almost precisely aligned with the disk. Qualitatively similar results hold for any accretion disk subject to a forced differential precession, such as an external disk around a misaligned black hole binary.

  4. Sparse aperture masking interferometry survey of transitional discs. Search for substellar-mass companions and asymmetries in their parent discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willson, M.; Kraus, S.; Kluska, J.; Monnier, J. D.; Ireland, M.; Aarnio, A.; Sitko, M. L.; Calvet, N.; Espaillat, C.; Wilner, D. J.

    2016-10-01

    Context. Transitional discs are a class of circumstellar discs around young stars with extensive clearing of dusty material within their inner regions on 10s of au scales. One of the primary candidates for this kind of clearing is the formation of planet(s) within the disc that then accrete or clear their immediate area as they migrate through the disc. Aims: The goal of this survey was to search for asymmetries in the brightness distribution around a selection of transitional disc targets. We then aimed to determine whether these asymmetries trace dynamically-induced structures in the disc or the gap-opening planets themselves. Methods: Our sample included eight transitional discs. Using the Keck/NIRC2 instrument we utilised the Sparse Aperture Masking (SAM) interferometry technique to search for asymmetries indicative of ongoing planet formation. We searched for close-in companions using both model fitting and interferometric image reconstruction techniques. Using simulated data, we derived diagnostics that helped us to distinguish between point sources and extended asymmetric disc emission. In addition, we investigated the degeneracy between the contrast and separation that appear for marginally resolved companions. Results: We found FP Tau to contain a previously unseen disc wall, and DM Tau, LkHα330, and TW Hya to contain an asymmetric signal indicative of point source-like emission. We placed upper limits on the contrast of a companion in RXJ 1842.9-3532 and V2246 Oph. We ruled the asymmetry signal in RXJ 1615.3-3255 and V2062 Oph to be false positives. In the cases where our data indicated a potential companion we computed estimates for the value of McṀc and found values in the range of . Conclusions: We found significant asymmetries in four targets. Of these, three were consistent with companions. We resolved a previously unseen gap in the disc of FP Tau extending inwards from approximately 10 au. Based on observations made with the Keck observatory

  5. TW Hya: SPECTRAL VARIABILITY, X-RAYS, AND ACCRETION DIAGNOSTICS

    SciTech Connect

    Dupree, A. K.; Brickhouse, N. S.; Cranmer, S. R.; Luna, G. J. M.; Schneider, E. E.; Bessell, M. S.; Bonanos, A.; Crause, L. A.; Lawson, W. A.; Mallik, S. V.; Schuler, S. C.

    2012-05-01

    The nearest accreting T Tauri star, TW Hya was intensively and continuously observed over {approx}17 days with spectroscopic and photometric measurements from four continents simultaneous with a long segmented exposure using the Chandra satellite. Contemporaneous optical photometry from WASP-S indicates a 4.74 day period was present during this time. The absence of a similar periodicity in the H{alpha} flux and the total X-ray flux which are dominated by accretion processes and the stellar corona, respectively, points to a different source of photometric variations. The H{alpha} emission line appears intrinsically broad and symmetric, and both the profile and its variability suggest an origin in the post-shock cooling region. An accretion event, signaled by soft X-rays, is traced spectroscopically for the first time through the optical emission line profiles. After the accretion event, downflowing turbulent material observed in the H{alpha} and H{beta} lines is followed by He I ({lambda}5876) broadening near the photosphere. Optical veiling resulting from the heated photosphere increases with a delay of {approx}2 hr after the X-ray accretion event. The response of the stellar coronal emission to an increase in the veiling follows {approx}2.4 hr later, giving direct evidence that the stellar corona is heated in part by accretion. Subsequently, the stellar wind becomes re-established. We suggest a model that incorporates the dynamics of this sequential series of events: an accretion shock, a cooling downflow in a supersonically turbulent region, followed by photospheric and later, coronal heating. This model naturally explains the presence of broad optical and ultraviolet lines, and affects the mass accretion rates determined from emission line profiles.

  6. HIPPARCOS age-metallicity relation of the solar neighbourhood disc stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibukiyama, A.; Arimoto, N.

    2002-11-01

    We derive age-metallicity relations (AMRs) and orbital parameters for the 1658 solar neighbourhood stars to which accurate distances are measured by the HIPPARCOS satellite. The sample stars comprise 1382 thin disc stars, 229 thick disc stars, and 47 halo stars according to their orbital parameters. We find a considerable scatter for thin disc AMR along the one-zone Galactic chemical evolution (GCE) model. Orbits and metallicities of thin disc stars show now clear relation each other. The scatter along the AMR exists even if the stars with the same orbits are selected. We examine simple extension of one-zone GCE models which account for inhomogeneity in the effective yield and inhomogeneous star formation rate in the Galaxy. Both extensions of the one-zone GCE model cannot account for the scatter in age - [Fe/H] - [Ca/Fe] relation simultaneously. We conclude, therefore, that the scatter along the thin disc AMR is an essential feature in the formation and evolution of the Galaxy. The AMR for thick disc stars shows that the star formation terminated 8 Gyr ago in the thick disc. As already reported by Gratton et al. (\\cite{Gratton_et.al.2000}) and Prochaska et al. (\\cite{Prochaska_et.al.2000}), thick disc stars are more Ca-rich than thin disc stars with the same [Fe/H]. We find that thick disc stars show a vertical abundance gradient. These three facts, the AMR, vertical gradient, and [Ca/Fe]-[Fe/H] relation, support monolithic collapse and/or accretion of satellite dwarf galaxies as likely thick disc formation scenarios. Tables 2 and 3 are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http:/ /cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/ cgi-bin/qcat?J/ A+A/394/927

  7. LUMBAR DISC HERNIATION

    PubMed Central

    Vialle, Luis Roberto; Vialle, Emiliano Neves; Suárez Henao, Juan Esteban; Giraldo, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    Lumbar disc herniation is the most common diagnosis among the degenerative abnormalities of the lumbar spine (affecting 2 to 3% of the population), and is the principal cause of spinal surgery among the adult population. The typical clinical picture includes initial lumbalgia, followed by progressive sciatica. The natural history of disc herniation is one of rapid resolution of the symptoms (four to six weeks). The initial treatment should be conservative, managed through medication and physiotherapy, sometimes associated with percutaneous nerve root block. Surgical treatment is indicated if pain control is unsuccessful, if there is a motor deficit greater than grade 3, if there is radicular pain associated with foraminal stenosis, or if cauda equina syndrome is present. The latter represents a medical emergency. A refined surgical technique, with removal of the extruded fragment and preservation of the ligamentum flavum, resolves the sciatic symptoms and reduces the risk of recurrence over the long term. PMID:27019834

  8. Biomechanics of Disc Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Palepu, V.; Kodigudla, M.; Goel, V. K.

    2012-01-01

    Disc degeneration and associated disorders are among the most debated topics in the orthopedic literature over the past few decades. These may be attributed to interrelated mechanical, biochemical, and environmental factors. The treatment options vary from conservative approaches to surgery, depending on the severity of degeneration and response to conservative therapies. Spinal fusion is considered to be the “gold standard” in surgical methods till date. However, the association of adjacent level degeneration has led to the evolution of motion preservation technologies like spinal arthroplasty and posterior dynamic stabilization systems. These new technologies are aimed to address pain and preserve motion while maintaining a proper load sharing among various spinal elements. This paper provides an elaborative biomechanical review of the technologies aimed to address the disc degeneration and reiterates the point that biomechanical efficacy followed by long-term clinical success will allow these nonfusion technologies as alternatives to fusion, at least in certain patient population. PMID:22745914

  9. Mechanotransduction in intervertebral discs

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Tsung-Ting; Cheng, Chao-Min; Chen, Chien-Fu; Lai, Po-Liang

    2014-01-01

    Mechanotransduction plays a critical role in intracellular functioning—it allows cells to translate external physical forces into internal biochemical activities, thereby affecting processes ranging from proliferation and apoptosis to gene expression and protein synthesis in a complex web of interactions and reactions. Accordingly, aberrant mechanotransduction can either lead to, or be a result of, a variety of diseases or degenerative states. In this review, we provide an overview of mechanotransduction in the context of intervertebral discs, with a focus on the latest methods of investigating mechanotransduction and the most recent findings regarding the means and effects of mechanotransduction in healthy and degenerative discs. We also provide some discussion of potential directions for future research and treatments. PMID:25267492

  10. Dynamics of continental accretion.

    PubMed

    Moresi, L; Betts, P G; Miller, M S; Cayley, R A

    2014-04-10

    Subduction zones become congested when they try to consume buoyant, exotic crust. The accretionary mountain belts (orogens) that form at these convergent plate margins have been the principal sites of lateral continental growth through Earth's history. Modern examples of accretionary margins are the North American Cordilleras and southwest Pacific subduction zones. The geologic record contains abundant accretionary orogens, such as the Tasmanides, along the eastern margin of the supercontinent Gondwana, and the Altaïdes, which formed on the southern margin of Laurasia. In modern and ancient examples of long-lived accretionary orogens, the overriding plate is subjected to episodes of crustal extension and back-arc basin development, often related to subduction rollback and transient episodes of orogenesis and crustal shortening, coincident with accretion of exotic crust. Here we present three-dimensional dynamic models that show how accretionary margins evolve from the initial collision, through a period of plate margin instability, to re-establishment of a stable convergent margin. The models illustrate how significant curvature of the orogenic system develops, as well as the mechanism for tectonic escape of the back-arc region. The complexity of the morphology and the evolution of the system are caused by lateral rollback of a tightly arcuate trench migrating parallel to the plate boundary and orthogonally to the convergence direction. We find geological and geophysical evidence for this process in the Tasmanides of eastern Australia, and infer that this is a recurrent and global phenomenon.

  11. Dynamics of continental accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moresi, L.; Betts, P. G.; Miller, M. S.; Cayley, R. A.

    2014-04-01

    Subduction zones become congested when they try to consume buoyant, exotic crust. The accretionary mountain belts (orogens) that form at these convergent plate margins have been the principal sites of lateral continental growth through Earth's history. Modern examples of accretionary margins are the North American Cordilleras and southwest Pacific subduction zones. The geologic record contains abundant accretionary orogens, such as the Tasmanides, along the eastern margin of the supercontinent Gondwana, and the Altaïdes, which formed on the southern margin of Laurasia. In modern and ancient examples of long-lived accretionary orogens, the overriding plate is subjected to episodes of crustal extension and back-arc basin development, often related to subduction rollback and transient episodes of orogenesis and crustal shortening, coincident with accretion of exotic crust. Here we present three-dimensional dynamic models that show how accretionary margins evolve from the initial collision, through a period of plate margin instability, to re-establishment of a stable convergent margin. The models illustrate how significant curvature of the orogenic system develops, as well as the mechanism for tectonic escape of the back-arc region. The complexity of the morphology and the evolution of the system are caused by lateral rollback of a tightly arcuate trench migrating parallel to the plate boundary and orthogonally to the convergence direction. We find geological and geophysical evidence for this process in the Tasmanides of eastern Australia, and infer that this is a recurrent and global phenomenon.

  12. Magnetohydrodynamic disc winds and line width distributions - II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chajet, L. S.; Hall, P. B.

    2017-02-01

    We study AGN emission line profiles combining an improved version of the accretion disc-wind model of Murray & Chiang with the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model of Emmering et al. Here, we extend our previous work to consider central objects with different masses and/or luminosities. We have compared the dispersions in our model C IV line-width distributions to observational upper limit on that dispersion, considering both smooth and clumpy torus models. Following Fine et al., we transform that scatter in the profile line-widths into a constraint on the torus geometry and show how the half-opening angle of the obscuring structure depends on the mass of the central object and the accretion rate. We find that the results depend only mildly on the dimensionless angular momentum, one of the two integrals of motion that characterize the dynamics of the self-similar ideal MHD outflows.

  13. James Clerk Maxwell and the dynamics of astrophysical discs.

    PubMed

    Ogilvie, Gordon I

    2008-05-28

    Maxwell's investigations into the stability of Saturn's rings provide one of the earliest analyses of the dynamics of astrophysical discs. Current research in planetary rings extends Maxwell's kinetic theory to treat dense granular gases of particles undergoing moderately frequent inelastic collisions. Rather than disrupting the rings, local instabilities may be responsible for generating their irregular radial structure. Accretion discs around black holes or compact stars consist of a plasma permeated by a tangled magnetic field and may be compared with laboratory fluids through an analogy that connects Maxwell's researches in electromagnetism and viscoelasticity. A common theme in this work is the appearance of a complex fluid with a dynamical constitutive equation relating the stress in the medium to the history of its deformation.

  14. Agitating mass transfer with a warped disc's shadow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cambier, H.

    2015-10-01

    For compact objects fed by Roche lobe overflow, accretion-generated X-rays irradiating the donor star can alter gas flow towards the Lagrange point thus varying mass transfer. The latest work specific to this topic consists of simple yet insightful two-dimensional hydrodynamics simulations stressing the role of global flow. To explore how a time-varying disc shadow affects mass transfer, I generalize the geometry, employ a robust hydrodynamics solver, and use phase space analysis near the nozzle to include coriolis lift there. Without even exposing the nozzle, a warped disc's shadow can drive mass transfer cycles by shifting the equatorial edges of the irradiation patches in turns: drawing in denser ambient gas before sweeping it into the nozzle. Other important effects remain missing in two-dimensional models, which I discuss along with prospects for more detailed yet efficient models.

  15. A Semi-Analytic Study of Feedback Processes and Metallicity Profiles in Disc Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandford, Nathan Ross; Lu, Yu

    2016-01-01

    The metallicity gradients of disc galaxies contain valuable information about the physics governing their formation and evolution. The observed metallicity profiles have negative gradients that are steeper at high redshifts, indicating an inside-out formation of disc galaxies. We improve on our semi-analytic galaxy formation model (Lu, Mo & Wechsler 2015) by incorporating the radial distribution of metals into the model. With the improved model, we explore how feedback scenarios affect metallicity gradients. The model features 3 feedback scenarios: An Ejective (EJ) model, which includes ejective supernova (SN) feedback, a PRe-Heating (PR) model, which assumes that the intergalactic medium is preheated, preventing it from collapsing onto galaxies, and a Re-Incorporation (RI) model, which also includes strong outflows but allows ejected gas to re-accrete onto the galaxies. We compare the models with observations from Ho et al. (2015) and find that while all models struggle to match the observed metallicity gradient-stellar mass relationship, the PR model predicts metallicity gradients that best match observations. We also find that the RI model predicts a flat gradient because its outflow and re-accretion replenish the disc uniformly with newly accreted enriched gas, erasing the mark of inside-out formation. Our findings suggest feedback plays a key role in shaping the metallicity gradients of disc galaxies and require more detailed theoretical modeling to understand them.

  16. Total disc replacement.

    PubMed

    Vital, J-M; Boissière, L

    2014-02-01

    Total disc replacement (TDR) (partial disc replacement will not be described) has been used in the lumbar spine since the 1980s, and more recently in the cervical spine. Although the biomechanical concepts are the same and both are inserted through an anterior approach, lumbar TDR is conventionally indicated for chronic low back pain, whereas cervical TDR is used for soft discal hernia resulting in cervicobrachial neuralgia. The insertion technique must be rigorous, with precise centering in the disc space, taking account of vascular anatomy, which is more complex in the lumbar region, particularly proximally to L5-S1. All of the numerous studies, including prospective randomized comparative trials, have demonstrated non-inferiority to fusion, or even short-term superiority regarding speed of improvement. The main implant-related complication is bridging heterotopic ossification with resulting loss of range of motion and increased rates of adjacent segment degeneration, although with an incidence lower than after arthrodesis. A sufficiently long follow-up, which has not yet been reached, will be necessary to establish definitively an advantage for TDR, particularly in the cervical spine.

  17. Mechanics of Actuated Disc Cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehkhoda, Sevda; Detournay, Emmanuel

    2017-02-01

    This paper investigates the mechanics of an actuated disc cutter with the objective of determining the average forces acting on the disc as a function of the parameters characterizing its motion. The specific problem considered is that of a disc cutter revolving off-centrically at constant angular velocity around a secondary axis rigidly attached to a cartridge, which is moving at constant velocity and undercutting rock at a constant depth. This model represents an idealization of a technology that has been implemented in a number of hard rock mechanical excavators with the goal of reducing the average thrust force to be provided by the excavation equipment. By assuming perfect conformance of the rock with the actuated disc as well as a prescribed motion of the disc (perfectly rigid machine), the evolution of the contact surface between the disc and the rock during one actuation of the disc can be computed. Coupled with simple cutter/rock interaction models that embody either a ductile or a brittle mode of fragmentation, these kinematical considerations lead to an estimate of the average force on the cartridge and of the partitioning of the energy imparted by the disc to the rock between the actuation mechanism of the disc and the translation of the cartridge on which the actuated disc is attached.

  18. Polarimetric microlensing of circumstellar discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajadian, Sedighe; Rahvar, Sohrab

    2015-12-01

    We study the benefits of polarimetry observations of microlensing events to detect and characterize circumstellar discs around the microlensed stars located at the Galactic bulge. These discs which are unresolvable from their host stars make a net polarization effect due to their projected elliptical shapes. Gravitational microlensing can magnify these signals and make them be resolved. The main aim of this work is to determine what extra information about these discs can be extracted from polarimetry observations of microlensing events in addition to those given by photometry ones. Hot discs which are closer to their host stars are more likely to be detected by microlensing, owing to more contributions in the total flux. By considering this kind of discs, we show that although the polarimetric efficiency for detecting discs is similar to the photometric observation, but polarimetry observations can help to constraint the disc geometrical parameters e.g. the disc inner radius and the lens trajectory with respect to the disc semimajor axis. On the other hand, the time-scale of polarimetric curves of these microlensing events generally increases while their photometric time-scale does not change. By performing a Monte Carlo simulation, we show that almost four optically thin discs around the Galactic bulge sources are detected (or even characterized) through photometry (or polarimetry) observations of high-magnification microlensing events during 10-yr monitoring of 150 million objects.

  19. ACCRETING CIRCUMPLANETARY DISKS: OBSERVATIONAL SIGNATURES

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Zhaohuan

    2015-01-20

    I calculate the spectral energy distributions of accreting circumplanetary disks using atmospheric radiative transfer models. Circumplanetary disks only accreting at 10{sup –10} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} around a 1 M{sub J} planet can be brighter than the planet itself. A moderately accreting circumplanetary disk ( M-dot ∼10{sup −8} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}; enough to form a 10 M{sub J} planet within 1 Myr) around a 1 M{sub J} planet has a maximum temperature of ∼2000 K, and at near-infrared wavelengths (J, H, K bands), this disk is as bright as a late-M-type brown dwarf or a 10 M{sub J} planet with a ''hot start''. To use direct imaging to find the accretion disks around low-mass planets (e.g., 1 M{sub J} ) and distinguish them from brown dwarfs or hot high-mass planets, it is crucial to obtain photometry at mid-infrared bands (L', M, N bands) because the emission from circumplanetary disks falls off more slowly toward longer wavelengths than those of brown dwarfs or planets. If young planets have strong magnetic fields (≳100 G), fields may truncate slowly accreting circumplanetary disks ( M-dot ≲10{sup −9} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}) and lead to magnetospheric accretion, which can provide additional accretion signatures, such as UV/optical excess from the accretion shock and line emission.

  20. Planetary system formation in thermally evolving viscous protoplanetary discs.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Richard P; Hellary, Phil; Fendyke, Stephen M; Coleman, Gavin

    2014-04-28

    Observations of extrasolar planets are providing new opportunities for furthering our understanding of planetary formation processes. In this paper, we review planet formation and migration scenarios and describe some recent simulations that combine planetary accretion and gas-disc-driven migration. While the simulations are successful at forming populations of low- and intermediate-mass planets with short orbital periods, similar to those that are being observed by ground- and space-based surveys, our models fail to form any gas giant planets that survive migration into the central star. The simulation results are contrasted with observations, and areas of future model development are discussed.

  1. Magnetorotationally driven wind cycles in local disc models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riols, A.; Ogilvie, G. I.; Latter, H.; Ross, J. P.

    2016-12-01

    Jets, from the protostellar to the AGN context, have been extensively studied but their connection to the turbulent dynamics of the underlying accretion disc is poorly understood. Following a similar approach to Lesur, Fereira & Ogilvie, we examine the role of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in the production and acceleration of outflows from discs. Via a suite of 1D shearing-box simulations of stratified discs, we show that magnetocentrifugal winds exhibit cyclic activity with a period of 10-20 Ω-1, a few times the orbital period. The cycle seems to be more vigorous for strong vertical field; it is robust to the variation of relevant parameters and independent of numerical details. The convergence of these solutions (in particular the mass-loss rate) with vertical box size is also studied. By considering a sequence of magnetohydrostatic equilibria and their stability, the periodic activity may be understood as the succession of the following phases: (a) a dominant MRI channel mode, (b) strong magnetic field generation, (c) consequent wind launching, and ultimately (d) vertical expulsion of the excess magnetic field by the expanding and accelerating gas associated with the wind. We discuss potential connections between this behaviour and observed time-variability in disc-jet systems.

  2. Studies of the Origin of High-frequency Quasi-periodic Oscillations of Mass-accreting Black Holes in X-Ray Binaries with Next-generation X-Ray Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beheshtipour, Banafsheh; Hoormann, Janie K.; Krawczynski, Henric

    2016-08-01

    Observations with RXTE (Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer) revealed the presence of high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (HFQPOs) of the X-ray flux from several accreting stellar-mass black holes. HFQPOs (and their counterparts at lower frequencies) may allow us to study general relativity in the regime of strong gravity. However, the observational evidence today does not yet allow us to distinguish between different HFQPO models. In this paper we use a general-relativistic ray-tracing code to investigate X-ray timing spectroscopy and polarization properties of HFQPOs in the orbiting Hotspot model. We study observational signatures for the particular case of the 166 Hz quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) in the galactic binary GRS 1915+105. We conclude with a discussion of the observability of spectral signatures with a timing-spectroscopy experiment such as the LOFT (Large Observatory for X-ray Timing) and polarization signatures with space-borne X-ray polarimeters such as IXPE (Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer), PolSTAR (Polarization Spectroscopic Telescope Array), PRAXyS(Polarimetry of Relativistic X-ray Sources), or XIPE (X-ray Imaging Polarimetry Explorer). A mission with high count rate such as LOFT would make it possible to get a QPO phase for each photon, enabling the study of the QPO-phase-resolved spectral shape and the correlation between this and the flux level. Owing to the short periods of the HFQPOs, first-generation X-ray polarimeters would not be able to assign a QPO phase to each photon. The study of QPO-phase-resolved polarization energy spectra would thus require simultaneous observations with a first-generation X-ray polarimeter and a LOFT-type mission.

  3. Faint AGN in z ≳ 6 Lyman-break galaxies powered by cold accretion and rapid angular momentum transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, Joseph A.; Furlanetto, Steven

    2012-11-01

    We develop a radiation pressure-balanced model for the interstellar medium of high-redshift galaxies that describes many facets of galaxy formation at z ≳ 6, including star formation rates and distributions and gas accretion on to central black holes. We first show that the vertical gravitational force in the disc of such a model is dominated by the disc self-gravity supported by the radiation pressure of ionizing starlight on gas. Constraining our model to reproduce the UV luminosity function of Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs), we limit the available parameter space to wind mass-loading factors one to four times the canonical value for momentum-driven winds. We then focus our study by exploring the effects of different angular momentum transport mechanisms in the galactic disc and find that accretion driven by gravitational torques, such as from linear spiral waves or non-linear orbit crossings, can build up black hole masses by z = 6 consistent with the canonical M-σ relation with a duty cycle of unity, while accretion mediated by a local viscosity such as in an α-disc results in negligible black hole (BH) accretion. Both gravitational torque models produce X-ray emission from active galactic nuclei (AGN) in high-redshift LBGs in excess of the estimated contribution from high-mass X-ray binaries. Using a recent analysis of deep Chandra observations by Cowie et al., we can already begin to rule out the most extreme regions of our parameter space: the inflow velocity of gas through the disc must either be less than one per cent of the disc circular velocity or the X-ray luminosity of the AGN must be substantially obscured. Moderately deeper future observations or larger sample sizes will be able to probe the more reasonable range of angular momentum transport models and obscuring geometries.

  4. Disc formation in turbulent cloud cores: is magnetic flux loss necessary to stop the magnetic braking catastrophe or not?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos-Lima, R.; de Gouveia Dal Pino, E. M.; Lazarian, A.

    2013-03-01

    Recent numerical analysis of Keplerian disc formation in turbulent, magnetized cloud cores by Santos-Lima et al. demonstrated that reconnection diffusion is an efficient process to remove the magnetic flux excess during the buildup of a rotationally supported disc. This process is induced by fast reconnection of the magnetic fields in a turbulent flow. In a similar numerical study, Seifried et al. concluded that reconnection diffusion or any other non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic effects would not be necessary and turbulence shear alone would provide a natural way to build up a rotating disc without requiring magnetic flux loss. Their conclusion was based on the fact that the mean mass-to-flux ratio (μ) evaluated over a spherical region with a radius much larger than the disc is nearly constant in their models. In this paper, we compare the two sets of simulations and show that this averaging over large scales can mask significant real increases of μ in the inner regions where the disc is built up. We demonstrate that turbulence-induced reconnection diffusion of the magnetic field happens in the initial stages of the disc formation in the turbulent envelope material that is accreting. Our analysis is suggestive that reconnection diffusion is present in both sets of simulations and provides a simple solution for the `magnetic braking catastrophe' which is discussed in the literature in relation to the formation of protostellar accretion discs.

  5. Winds and accretion in delta Sagittae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaton, Joel A.; Hartkopf, William I.; McAlister, Harold A.; Mason, Brian D.

    1995-04-01

    The ten-year binary delta Sge (M2 Ib-II+B9.5 V) is a zeta Aur binary containing an abnormally cool component. Combining our analysis of the system as a visual binary with Batten's radial-velocity solution leads to the following properties: i = 40 deg, a = 51 mas = 8.83 A.U. = 1893 solar radius, hence d = 173 pc; MB = 2.9 solar mass and MM = 3.8 solar mass; and RB = 2.6 solar radius and RM = 152 solar radius. This interpretation of the orbit places the M supergiant on the asymptotic giant branch. We have collected ultraviolet spectra throughout the star's 1980-90 orbit, concentrated around the conjuction of 1990. The wind of the M giant appears in these as narrow shell lines of singly ionized metals, chiefly Fe II, with P-Cyg profiles at many phases, which show the slow variation in strength expected for the orbit but no pronounced atmospheric eclipse. The terminal velocity of the wind is 16-18 km/s, and its excitation temperature is approximately 10,000 K. Most of the broadening of the wind lines is caused by differential expansion of the atmosphere, with (unmeasurably) low turbulent velocities. Nontheless, the mass loss rate (1.1 +/- 0.4 X 10 -8 solar mas/yr) is almost the same as found previously by Reimers and Schroder for very different assumptions about the velocity structure. Also seen in the spectrum throughout the orbit are the effects of a variable, high-speed wind as well as evidence for accretion onto the B9.5 star. This high-speed wind absorbs in species of all ionization stages observed, e. g., C II, Mg II, Al III, SI IV, C IV, and has a terminaal velocity in the range 200-450 km/s. We presume this wind originates at the B dwarf, not the M supergiant, and speculate that it comes from an accretion disk, as suggested by recent models of magnetically moderated accretion. Evidence for accretion is redshifted absorption in the same transitions formed in the high-speed wind, as well as broad emission lines of singly ionized metals. This emission seems to be

  6. Chondrule formation in the radiative accretional shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruzmaikina, T. V.; Ip, W.

    1994-01-01

    The physical, mineralogical, and isotopic properties of chondrules strongly indicate that they were formed by the rapid melting and resolidification of preexisting solids composed of primitive material. The chondrule precursors were heated to temperatures of about 1800 K in short high-temperature events, followed by cooling with a rate of 10(exp 2)-10(exp 3) K/hr. A heat input of about 1500 J/g is required to heat chondrule precursors to such a temperature and melt them. Lightning discharges and flares in the solar nebula, and heating of the chondrule precursors by friction with gas decelerated in the accretional shock or in a shock (of unspecified origin) within the solar nebula, have been discussed as possible mechanisms for chondrule formation. One advantage of chondrule formation in large-scale shocks is that a lot of dust material can be processed. An accretional shock, which is produced by infalling gas of the presolar cloud when it collides with the solar nebula, belongs to this type of shock. In 1984 Wood considered the possibility of chondrule formation in the accretional shock by heating of chondrule precursors by gas drag. He concluded that the density in the accreting material is much lower than needed to melt silicates at the distance of the asteroid belt if the accreting matter had the cosmic ratio of dust to gas, and the mass of the solar nebula did not exceed 2 solar mass units. Melting of chondrule precursors is difficult because of their effective cooling by thermal radiation. Suppression of the radiative cooling of individual grains in dust swarms, which are opaque to thermal emission, was considered to be the only possible means of chondrule formation in solar nebula shocks. Previous models of solid grain melting in solar nebula shocks have neglected gas cooling behind the shock front, i.e., they considered adiabatic shocks. In this paper we show that large dust grains could be heated much stronger than was supposed by these authors, because of

  7. The binary millisecond pulsar PSR J1023+0038 during its accretion state - I. Optical variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahbaz, T.; Linares, M.; Nevado, S. P.; Rodríguez-Gil, P.; Casares, J.; Dhillon, V. S.; Marsh, T. R.; Littlefair, S.; Leckngam, A.; Poshyachinda, S.

    2015-11-01

    We present time-resolved optical photometry of the binary millisecond `redback' pulsar PSR J1023+0038 (=AY Sex) during its low-mass X-ray binary phase. The light curves taken between 2014 January and April show an underlying sinusoidal modulation due to the irradiated secondary star and accretion disc. We also observe superimposed rapid flaring on time-scales as short as ˜20 s with amplitudes of ˜0.1-0.5 mag and additional large flare events on time-scales of ˜5-60 min with amplitudes of ˜0.5-1.0 mag. The power density spectrum of the optical flare light curves is dominated by a red-noise component, typical of aperiodic activity in X-ray binaries. Simultaneous X-ray and UV observations by the Swift satellite reveal strong correlations that are consistent with X-ray reprocessing of the UV light, most likely in the outer regions of the accretion disc. On some nights we also observe sharp-edged, rectangular, flat-bottomed dips randomly distributed in orbital phase, with a median duration of ˜250 s and a median ingress/egress time of ˜20 s. These rectangular dips are similar to the mode-switching behaviour between disc `active' and `passive' luminosity states, observed in the X-ray light curves of other redback millisecond pulsars. This is the first time that the optical analogue of the X-ray mode-switching has been observed. The properties of the passive- and active-state light curves can be explained in terms of clumpy accretion from a trapped inner accretion disc near the corotation radius, resulting in rectangular, flat-bottomed optical and X-ray light curves.

  8. Black hole accretion rings revealed by future X-ray spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sochora, V.; Karas, V.; Svoboda, J.; Dovčiak, M.

    2011-11-01

    Spectral features can arise by reflection of coronal X-rays on a black hole accretion disc. The resulting profile bears various imprints of a strong gravitational field acting on the light-emitting gas. The observed shape of the reflection line is formed by integrating contributions over a range of radii across the accretion disc plane, where the individual photons experience a different level of energy shifts, boosting and amplification by relativistic effects. These have to be convolved with the intrinsic emissivity of the line, which is a function of radius and the emission angle in the local frame. We study if the currently discussed instruments on-board X-ray satellites will be able to reveal the departure of the line radial emissivity from a simple smooth power-law function, which is often assumed in data fitting and its interpretation. Such a departure can be a result of excess emission occurring at a certain distance. This could be used to study variations with a radius of the line production or to constrain the position of the inner edge of the accretion disc. By simulating artificial data from a bright active galactic nucleus of a type 1 Seyfert galaxy (inclination ≃30°, X-ray flux ≃1-2 mCrab in a keV energy band) we show that the required sensitivity and energy resolution could be reached with a large area detector of the proposed Large Observatory for X-ray Timing mission. Galactic black holes will provide another category of potentially suitable targets if the relativistic spectral features are indeed produced by reflection from their accretion discs.

  9. Terrestrial Planets Accreted Dry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albarede, F.; Blichert-Toft, J.

    2007-12-01

    Plate tectonics shaped the Earth, whereas the Moon is a dry and inactive desert. Mars probably came to rest within the first billion years of its history, and Venus, although internally very active, has a dry inferno for its surface. The strong gravity field of a large planet allows for an enormous amount of gravitational energy to be released, causing the outer part of the planetary body to melt (magma ocean), helps retain water on the planet, and increases the pressure gradient. The weak gravity field and anhydrous conditions prevailing on the Moon stabilized, on top of its magma ocean, a thick buoyant plagioclase lithosphere, which insulated the molten interior. On Earth, the buoyant hydrous phases (serpentines) produced by reactions between the terrestrial magma ocean and the wet impactors received from the outer Solar System isolated the magma and kept it molten for some few tens of million years. The elemental distributions and the range of condensation temperatures show that the planets from the inner Solar System accreted dry. The interior of planets that lost up to 95% of their K cannot contain much water. Foundering of their wet surface material softened the terrestrial mantle and set the scene for the onset of plate tectonics. This very same process may have removed all the water from the surface of Venus 500 My ago and added enough water to its mantle to make its internal dynamics very strong and keep the surface very young. Because of a radius smaller than that of the Earth, not enough water could be drawn into the Martian mantle before it was lost to space and Martian plate tectonics never began. The radius of a planet therefore is the key parameter controlling most of its evolutional features.

  10. Heat distribution in disc brake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimenda, Frantisek; Soukup, Josef; Kampo, Jan

    2016-06-01

    This article is deals by the thermal analysis of the disc brake with floating caliper. The issue is solved by numerically. The half 2D model is used for solution in program ADINA 8.8. Two brake discs without the ventilation are solved. One disc is made from cast iron and the second is made from stainless steel. Both materials are an isotropic. By acting the pressure force on the brake pads will be pressing the pads to the brake disc. Speed will be reduced (slowing down). On the contact surface generates the heat, which the disc and pads heats. In the next part of article is comparison the maximum temperature at the time of braking. The temperatures of both materials for brake disc (gray cast iron, stainless steel) are compares. The heat flux during braking for the both materials is shown.

  11. Enclosed rotary disc air pulser

    DOEpatents

    Olson, A. L.; Batcheller, Tom A.; Rindfleisch, J. A.; Morgan, John M.

    1989-01-01

    An enclosed rotary disc air pulser for use with a solvent extraction pulse olumn includes a housing having inlet, exhaust and pulse leg ports, a shaft mounted in the housing and adapted for axial rotation therein, first and second disc members secured to the shaft within the housing in spaced relation to each other to define a chamber therebetween, the chamber being in communication with the pulse leg port, the first disc member located adjacent the inlet port, the second disc member being located adjacent the exhaust port, each disc member having a milled out portion, the disc members positioned on the shaft so that as the shaft rotates, the milled out portions permit alternative cyclical communication between the inlet port and the chamber and the exhaust port and the chamber.

  12. Mass accretion rates from multiband photometry in the Carina Nebula: the case of Trumpler 14

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beccari, G.; De Marchi, G.; Panagia, N.; Valenti, E.; Carraro, G.; Romaniello, M.; Zoccali, M.; Weidner, C.

    2015-01-01

    Context. We present a study of the mass accretion rates of pre-main sequence (PMS) stars in the cluster Trumpler 14 (Tr 14) in the Carina Nebula. Using optical multiband photometry we were able to identify 356 PMS stars showing Hα excess emission with equivalent width EW(Hα) > 20 Å. We interpret this observational feature as an indication that these objects are still actively accreting gas from their circumstellar medium. From a comparison of the HR diagram with PMS evolutionary models we derive ages and masses of the PMS stars. We find that most of the PMS objects are younger than 10 Myr with a median age of ~3 Myr. Surprisingly, we also find that ~20% of the mass accreting objects are older than 10 Myr. For each PMS star in Trumpler 14 we determine the mass accretion rate (Ṁacc) and discuss its dependence on mass and age. We finally combine the optical photometry with near-IR observations to build the spectral energy distribution (SED) for each PMS star in Tr 14. The analysis of the SEDs suggests the presence of transitional discs in which a large amount of gas is still present and sustains accretion onto the PMS object at ages older than 10 Myr. Our results, discussed in light of recent recent discoveries with Herschel of transitional discs containing a massive gas component around the relatively old PMS stars TW Hydrae, 49 Ceti, and HD 95086, support a new scenario n which old and evolved debris discs still host a significant amount of gas. Aims: Methods: Results:

  13. PARTICLE ACCELERATION DURING MAGNETOROTATIONAL INSTABILITY IN A COLLISIONLESS ACCRETION DISK

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshino, Masahiro

    2013-08-20

    Particle acceleration during the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in a collisionless accretion disk was investigated by using a particle-in-cell simulation. We discuss the important role that magnetic reconnection plays not only on the saturation of MRI but also on the relativistic particle generation. The plasma pressure anisotropy of p > p{sub ||} induced by the action of MRI dynamo leads to rapid growth in magnetic reconnection, resulting in the fast generation of nonthermal particles with a hard power-law spectrum. This efficient particle acceleration mechanism involved in a collisionless accretion disk may be a possible model to explain the origin of high-energy particles observed around massive black holes.

  14. The chemical evolution of local star-forming galaxies: radial profiles of ISM metallicity, gas mass, and stellar mass and constraints on galactic accretion and winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Ho, I.-Ting; Schruba, Andreas; Burkert, Andreas; Zahid, H. Jabran; Bresolin, Fabio; Dima, Gabriel I.

    2015-06-01

    The radially averaged metallicity distribution of the interstellar medium (ISM) and the young stellar population of a sample of 20 disc galaxies is investigated by means of an analytical chemical evolution model which assumes constant ratios of galactic wind mass-loss and accretion mass gain to star formation rate. Based on this model, the observed metallicities and their gradients can be described surprisingly well by the radially averaged distribution of the ratio of stellar mass to ISM gas mass. The comparison between observed and model-predicted metallicity is used to constrain the rate of mass-loss through galactic wind and accretion gain in units of the star formation rate. Three groups of galaxies are found: galaxies with either mostly winds and only weak accretion, or mostly accretion and only weak winds, and galaxies where winds are roughly balanced by accretion. The three groups are distinct in the properties of their gas discs. Galaxies with approximately equal rates of mass-loss and accretion gain have low metallicity, atomic-hydrogen-dominated gas discs with a flat spatial profile. The other two groups have gas discs dominated by molecular hydrogen out to 0.5 to 0.7 isophotal radii and show a radial exponential decline, which is on average steeper for the galaxies with small accretion rates. The rates of accretion ( ≲ 1.0 × SFR) and outflow ( ≲ 2.4 × SFR) are relatively low. The latter depend on the calibration of the zero-point of the metallicity determination from the use of H II region strong emission lines.

  15. On the formation of compact planetary systems via concurrent core accretion and migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, Gavin A. L.; Nelson, Richard P.

    2016-04-01

    We present the results of planet formation N-body simulations based on a comprehensive physical model that includes planetary mass growth through mutual embryo collisions and planetesimal/boulder accretion, viscous disc evolution, planetary migration and gas accretion on to planetary cores. The main aim of this study is to determine which set of model parameters leads to the formation of planetary systems that are similar to the compact low-mass multiplanet systems that have been discovered by radial velocity surveys and the Kepler mission. We vary the initial disc mass, solids-to-gas ratio and the sizes of the boulders/planetesimals, and for a restricted volume of the parameter space we find that compact systems containing terrestrial planets, super-Earths and Neptune-like bodies arise as natural outcomes of the simulations. Disc models with low values of the solids-to-gas ratio can only form short-period super-Earths and Neptunes when small planetesimals/boulders provide the main source of accretion, since the mobility of these bodies is required to overcome the local isolation masses for growing embryos. The existence of short-period super-Earths around low-metallicity stars provides strong evidence that small, mobile bodies (planetesimals, boulders or pebbles) played a central role in the formation of the observed planets.

  16. Accretion-induced variability links young stellar objects, white dwarfs, and black holes.

    PubMed

    Scaringi, Simone; Maccarone, Thomas J; Körding, Elmar; Knigge, Christian; Vaughan, Simon; Marsh, Thomas R; Aranzana, Ester; Dhillon, Vikram S; Barros, Susana C C

    2015-10-01

    The central engines of disc-accreting stellar-mass black holes appear to be scaled down versions of the supermassive black holes that power active galactic nuclei. However, if the physics of accretion is universal, it should also be possible to extend this scaling to other types of accreting systems, irrespective of accretor mass, size, or type. We examine new observations, obtained with Kepler/K2 and ULTRACAM, regarding accreting white dwarfs and young stellar objects. Every object in the sample displays the same linear correlation between the brightness of the source and its amplitude of variability (rms-flux relation) and obeys the same quantitative scaling relation as stellar-mass black holes and active galactic nuclei. We also show that the most important parameter in this scaling relation is the physical size of the accreting object. This establishes the universality of accretion physics from proto-stars still in the star-forming process to the supermassive black holes at the centers of galaxies.

  17. Swings between rotation and accretion power in a binary millisecond pulsar.

    PubMed

    Papitto, A; Ferrigno, C; Bozzo, E; Rea, N; Pavan, L; Burderi, L; Burgay, M; Campana, S; Di Salvo, T; Falanga, M; Filipović, M D; Freire, P C C; Hessels, J W T; Possenti, A; Ransom, S M; Riggio, A; Romano, P; Sarkissian, J M; Stairs, I H; Stella, L; Torres, D F; Wieringa, M H; Wong, G F

    2013-09-26

    It is thought that neutron stars in low-mass binary systems can accrete matter and angular momentum from the companion star and be spun-up to millisecond rotational periods. During the accretion stage, the system is called a low-mass X-ray binary, and bright X-ray emission is observed. When the rate of mass transfer decreases in the later evolutionary stages, these binaries host a radio millisecond pulsar whose emission is powered by the neutron star's rotating magnetic field. This evolutionary model is supported by the detection of millisecond X-ray pulsations from several accreting neutron stars and also by the evidence for a past accretion disc in a rotation-powered millisecond pulsar. It has been proposed that a rotation-powered pulsar may temporarily switch on during periods of low mass inflow in some such systems. Only indirect evidence for this transition has hitherto been observed. Here we report observations of accretion-powered, millisecond X-ray pulsations from a neutron star previously seen as a rotation-powered radio pulsar. Within a few days after a month-long X-ray outburst, radio pulses were again detected. This not only shows the evolutionary link between accretion and rotation-powered millisecond pulsars, but also that some systems can swing between the two states on very short timescales.

  18. Accretion-induced variability links young stellar objects, white dwarfs, and black holes

    PubMed Central

    Scaringi, Simone; Maccarone, Thomas J.; Körding, Elmar; Knigge, Christian; Vaughan, Simon; Marsh, Thomas R.; Aranzana, Ester; Dhillon, Vikram S.; Barros, Susana C. C.

    2015-01-01

    The central engines of disc-accreting stellar-mass black holes appear to be scaled down versions of the supermassive black holes that power active galactic nuclei. However, if the physics of accretion is universal, it should also be possible to extend this scaling to other types of accreting systems, irrespective of accretor mass, size, or type. We examine new observations, obtained with Kepler/K2 and ULTRACAM, regarding accreting white dwarfs and young stellar objects. Every object in the sample displays the same linear correlation between the brightness of the source and its amplitude of variability (rms-flux relation) and obeys the same quantitative scaling relation as stellar-mass black holes and active galactic nuclei. We also show that the most important parameter in this scaling relation is the physical size of the accreting object. This establishes the universality of accretion physics from proto-stars still in the star-forming process to the supermassive black holes at the centers of galaxies. PMID:26601307

  19. Radiative, two-temperature simulations of low-luminosity black hole accretion flows in general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sądowski, Aleksander; Wielgus, Maciek; Narayan, Ramesh; Abarca, David; McKinney, Jonathan C.; Chael, Andrew

    2017-04-01

    We present a numerical method that evolves a two-temperature, magnetized, radiative, accretion flow around a black hole, within the framework of general relativistic radiation magnetohydrodynamics. As implemented in the code KORAL, the gas consists of two sub-components - ions and electrons - which share the same dynamics but experience independent, relativistically consistent, thermodynamical evolution. The electrons and ions are heated independently according to a prescription from the literature for magnetohydrodynamical turbulent dissipation. Energy exchange between the particle species via Coulomb collisions is included. In addition, electrons gain and lose energy and momentum by absorbing and emitting synchrotron and bremsstrahlung radiation and through Compton scattering. All evolution equations are handled within a fully covariant framework in the relativistic fixed-metric space-time of the black hole. Numerical results are presented for five models of low-luminosity black hole accretion. In the case of a model with a mass accretion rate dot{M}˜ 4× 10^{-8} dot{M}_Edd, we find that radiation has a negligible effect on either the dynamics or the thermodynamics of the accreting gas. In contrast, a model with a larger dot{M}˜ 4× 10^{-4} dot{M}_Edd behaves very differently. The accreting gas is much cooler and the flow is geometrically less thick, though it is not quite a thin accretion disc.

  20. Herschel SPIRE observations of the TWA brown dwarf disc 2MASSW J1207334-393254

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riaz, B.; Lodato, G.; Stamatellos, D.; Gizis, J. E.

    2012-05-01

    We present Herschel/SPIRE observations for the 2MASS 1207334-393254 (2M1207) system. Based on radiative transfer modelling of near-infrared to submillimetre data, we estimate a disc mass of 3 ± 2 MJup and an outer disc radius of 50-100 au for the 2M1207A disc. The relative disc mass for 2M1207A is similar to the T Tauri star TW Hya, which indicates that massive discs are not underabundant around substellar objects. In probing the various formation mechanisms for this system, we find that core accretion is highly uncertain mainly due to the large separation between the primary and the companion. Disc fragmentation could be a likely scenario based on analytical models, and if the disc initially was more massive than its current estimate. Considering that the TW Hydrae Association (TWA) is sparsely populated, this system could have formed via one of the known binary formation mechanisms (e.g. turbulent fragmentation of a core) and survived disruption at an early stage.

  1. The ultraluminous X-ray source NGC 5643 ULX1: a large stellar mass black hole accreting at super-Eddington rates?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pintore, Fabio; Zampieri, Luca; Sutton, Andrew D.; Roberts, Timothy P.; Middleton, Matthew J.; Gladstone, Jeanette C.

    2016-06-01

    A sub-set of the brightest ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs), with X-ray luminosities well above 1040 erg s-1, typically have energy spectra which can be well described as hard power laws, and short-term variability in excess of ˜10 per cent. This combination of properties suggests that these ULXs may be some of the best candidates to host intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs), which would be accreting at sub-Eddington rates in the hard state seen in Galactic X-ray binaries. In this work, we present a temporal and spectral analysis of all of the available XMM-Newton data from one such ULX, the previously poorly studied 2XMM J143242.1-440939, located in NGC 5643. We report that its high-quality EPIC spectra can be better described by a broad, thermal component, such as an advection-dominated disc or an optically thick Comptonizing corona. In addition, we find a hint of a marginal change in the short-term variability which does not appear to be clearly related to the source unabsorbed luminosity. We discuss the implications of these results, excluding the possibility that the source may be host an IMBH in a low state, and favouring an interpretation in terms of super-Eddington accretion on to a black hole of stellar origin. The properties of NGC 5643 ULX1 allow us to associate this source to the population of the hard/ultraluminous ULX class.

  2. Core Accretion - Gas Capture Model for Gas Giant Planet Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubickyj, O.; Bodenheimer, P.; Lissauer, J. J.

    2005-12-01

    5 AU via the core accretion process in 1 Myr with a core of 10 M⊕ or in 5 Myr with a core of 5 M⊕. This research has been supported by NASA grant NAG 5--9661 and NASA grant NAG 5--13285 from the Origins of Solar Systems Program. Bodenheimer, P., O. Hubickyj, & J. J. Lissauer 2000. Models of the in situ formation of detected extrasolar giant planets. Icarus 143, 2--14. Hubickyj, O., P. Bodenheimer, & J. J. Lissauer 2005. Accretion of the gaseous envelope of Jupiter around 5 -- 10 Earth--mass core. Icarus, in press. Pollack J. B., O. Hubickyj, P. Bodenheimer, J. J. Lissauer, M. Podolak, & Y. Greenzweig 1996. Formation of the giant planets by concurrent accretion of solids and gas. Icarus 124, 62--85.

  3. Preparation of ormetoprim sulfadimethoxine medicated discs for disc diffusion assay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Romet (a blend of ormetoprim and sulfadimethoxine) is a typeA medicated article for the manufacture of medicated feed in the catfish industry. Recently, the commercial manufacture of ormetoprim–sulfadimethoxine susceptibility discs was discontinued. Ormetoprim–sulfadimethoxine discs were prepared at...

  4. Sizes of protoplanetary discs after star-disc encounters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breslau, Andreas; Steinhausen, Manuel; Vincke, Kirsten; Pfalzner, Susanne

    2014-05-01

    Most stars do not form in isolation, but as part of a star cluster or association. These young stars are initially surrounded by protoplanetary discs. In these cluster environments tidal interactions with other cluster members can alter the disc properties. Besides the disc frequency, its mass, angular momentum, and energy, the disc's size is particularly prone to being changed by a passing star. So far the change in disc size has only been investigated for a small number of very specific encounters. Several studies investigated the effect of the cluster environment on the sizes of planetary systems like our own solar system, based on a generalisation of information from this limited sample. We performed numerical simulations covering the wide parameter space typical of young star clusters, to test the validity of this approach. Here the sizes of discs after encounters are presented, based on a size definition that is comparable to the one used in observational studies. We find that, except for encounters between equal-mass stars, the usually applied estimates are insufficient. They tend to severely overestimate the remaining disc size. We show that the disc size after an encounter can be described by a relatively simple dependence on the periastron distance and the mass ratio of the encounter partners. This knowledge allows us, for example, to pin down the types of encounter possibly responsible for the structure of today's solar system. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  5. Characterizing Accreting White Dwarf Pulsators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szkody, Paula; Mukadam, Anjum

    2014-02-01

    Understanding the population, mass distribution, and evolution of accreting white dwarfs impacts the entire realm of binary interaction, including the creation of Type Ia supernovae. We are concentrating on accreting white dwarf pulsators, as the pulsation properties allow us a view of how the accretion affects the interior of the star. Our ground- based photometry on 11 accreting pulsators with corresponding temperatures from HST UV spectra suggest a broad instability strip in the range of 10500 to 16000K. Additionally, tracking a post-outburst heated white dwarf as it cools and crosses the blue edge and resumes pulsation provides an independent method to locate the empirical instability strip. Determining a post-outburst cooling curve yields an estimate of the amount of heating and the accreted mass during the outburst. We request additional photometry of 2 objects that present unique properties: GW Lib which has not yet returned to its pre-outburst pulsation spectrum after 6 yrs, and EQ Lyn which returned to its pre- outburst pulsation after 3 yrs but is now turning on and off without ongoing outbursts. Following the pulsation spectrum changes over stretches of several nights in a row will provide specific knowledge of the stability of the observed modes.

  6. Classical Accreting Pulsars with NICER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.

    2014-01-01

    Soft excesses are very common center dot Lx > 1038 erg/s - reprocessing by optically thick material at the inner edge of the accretion disk center dot Lx < 1036 erg/s - photoionized or collisionally heated diffuse gas or thermal emission from the NS surface center dot Lx 1037 erg/s - either or both types of emission center dot NICER observations of soft excesses in bright X-ray pulsars combined with reflection modeling will constrain the ionization state, metalicity and dynamics of the inner edge of the magnetically truncated accretion disk Reflection models of an accretion disk for a hard power law - Strong soft excess below 3 keV from hot X-ray heated disk - For weakly ionized case: strong recombination lines - Are we seeing changes in the disk ionization in 4U1626-26? 13 years of weekly monitoring with RXTE PCA center dot Revealed an unexpectedly large population of Be/X-ray binaries compared to the Milky Way center dot Plotted luminosities are typical of "normal" outbursts (once per orbit) center dot The SMC provides an excellent opportunity to study a homogenous population of HMXBs with low interstellar absorption for accretion disk studies. Monitoring with NICER will enable studies of accretion disk physics in X-ray pulsars center dot The SMC provides a potential homogeneous low-absorption population for this study center dot NICER monitoring and TOO observations will also provide measurements of spinfrequencies, QPOs, pulsed fluxes, and energy spectra.

  7. Probing Agn Accretion Physics With Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogeley, Michael

    identification of AGN from synoptic photometric surveys. Models validated with Kepler data will be applied to a test bed data set from SDSS to make forecasts for detection and classification of AGN from future surveys such as LSST. Results of this research will include new constraints on models of accretion physics, more powerful methods for classifying AGN by their variability, and forecasts that are useful for design of future time-domain surveys of AGN. Products of this program will include a catalog of precision light curves of AGN and a software package for time series statistical analysis. Thus, the proposed research directly addresses a key NASA goal in astrophysics in the area of Cosmic Origins (understanding the formation of black holes and their impact on galaxies). This research pursues several science themes identified by the 2010 Decadal Survey: Discovery (Opening the Time Domain); Origins (Origin of black holes); and Frontiers of Knowledge (Nature of Compact Objects). The research team combines expertise in statistical analysis of large surveys and multi- wavelength observations of AGN. This work is timely because Kepler observations now include a large set of high-cadence light curves with very high-quality photometry. We also have a complementary testbed data set of multi-color, multi-epoch photometry from SDSS (Stripe 82) and a calibration pipeline that yields 1% photometry, which is indicative of what will be possible with the next generation of synoptic surveys. It is notable that this use of Kepler was not in its original mission design; this is a novel use of the satellite's capability.

  8. Accretion disk emission from a BL Lacertae object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wandel, Amri; Urry, C. Megan

    1991-01-01

    It is suggested here that the UV and X-ray emission of BL Lac objects may originate in an accretion disk. Using detailed calculations of accretion disk spectra, the best-measured ultraviolet and soft X-ray spectra of the BL Lac object PKS 2155-304 are fitted, and the mass and accretion rate required is determined. The ultraviolet through soft X-ray continuum is well fitted by the spectrum of an accretion disk, but near-Eddington accretion rates are required to produce the soft X-ray excess. A hot disk or corona could Comptonize soft photons from the cool disk and produce the observed power-law spectrum in the 1-10 keV range. The dynamic time scale in the disk regions that contribute most of the observed ultraviolet and soft X-ray photons are consistent with the respective time scales for intensity variations observed in these two wave bands; the mass derived from fitting the continuum spectrum is consistent with the limit derived from the fastest hard X-ray variability.

  9. Spin-Coating Technology of the Cover Layer for Digital Video Recording-Blue Disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komaki, Tsuyoshi; Hirata, Hideki; Usami, Mamoru; Ushida, Tomoki; Hayashida, Naoki; Inoue, Hiroyasu; Kato, Tatsuya; Shingai, Hiroshi; Utsunomiya, Hajime

    2002-06-01

    We have achieved the cover layer thickness distribution of 100± 1.5 μm on a disc by improving the spin-coating method and developing an original spin-coating machine. The small skew of the disc is achieved by using a newly developed UV-curable resin.

  10. Constraining Accreting Binary Populations in Normal Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmer, Bret; Hornschemeier, A.; Basu-Zych, A.; Fragos, T.; Jenkins, L.; Kalogera, V.; Ptak, A.; Tzanavaris, P.; Zezas, A.

    2011-01-01

    X-ray emission from accreting binary systems (X-ray binaries) uniquely probe the binary phase of stellar evolution and the formation of compact objects such as neutron stars and black holes. A detailed understanding of X-ray binary systems is needed to provide physical insight into the formation and evolution of the stars involved, as well as the demographics of interesting binary remnants, such as millisecond pulsars and gravitational wave sources. Our program makes wide use of Chandra observations and complementary multiwavelength data sets (through, e.g., the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey [SINGS] and the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey [GOODS]), as well as super-computing facilities, to provide: (1) improved calibrations for correlations between X-ray binary emission and physical properties (e.g., star-formation rate and stellar mass) for galaxies in the local Universe; (2) new physical constraints on accreting binary processes (e.g., common-envelope phase and mass transfer) through the fitting of X-ray binary synthesis models to observed local galaxy X-ray binary luminosity functions; (3) observational and model constraints on the X-ray evolution of normal galaxies over the last 90% of cosmic history (since z 4) from the Chandra Deep Field surveys and accreting binary synthesis models; and (4) predictions for deeper observations from forthcoming generations of X-ray telesopes (e.g., IXO, WFXT, and Gen-X) to provide a science driver for these missions. In this talk, we highlight the details of our program and discuss recent results.

  11. Variable Protostellar Accretion with Episodic Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorobyov, Eduard I.; Basu, Shantanu

    2015-06-01

    We present the latest development of the disk gravitational instability and fragmentation model, originally introduced by us to explain episodic accretion bursts in the early stages of star formation. Using our numerical hydrodynamics model with improved disk thermal balance and star-disk interaction, we computed the evolution of protostellar disks formed from the gravitational collapse of prestellar cores. In agreement with our previous studies, we find that cores of higher initial mass and angular momentum produce disks that are more favorable to gravitational instability and fragmentation, while a higher background irradiation and magnetic fields moderate the disk tendency to fragment. The protostellar accretion in our models is time-variable, thanks to the nonlinear interaction between different spiral modes in the gravitationally unstable disk, and can undergo episodic bursts when fragments migrate onto the star owing to the gravitational interaction with other fragments or spiral arms. Most bursts occur in the partly embedded Class I phase, with a smaller fraction taking place in the deeply embedded Class 0 phase and a few possible bursts in the optically visible Class II phase. The average burst duration and mean luminosity are found to be in good agreement with those inferred from observations of FUors. The model predicts the existence of two types of bursts: the isolated ones, showing well-defined luminosity peaks separated with prolonged periods (˜ {{10}4} yr) of quiescent accretion, and clustered ones, demonstrating several bursts occurring one after another during just a few hundred years. Finally, we estimate that 40%-70% of the star-forming cores can display bursts after forming a star-disk system.

  12. Unstable mass-outflows in geometrically thick accretion flows around black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuda, Toru; Das, Santabrata

    2015-10-01

    Accretion flows around black holes generally result in mass-outflows that exhibit irregular behaviour quite often. Using 2D time-dependent hydrodynamical calculations, we show that the mass-outflow is unstable in the cases of thick accretion flows such as the low angular momentum accretion flow and the advection-dominated accretion flow. For the low angular momentum flow, the inward accreting matter on the equatorial plane interacts with the outflowing gas along the rotational axis and the centrifugally supported oblique shock is formed at the interface of both the flows, when the viscosity parameter α is as small as α ≤ 10-3. The hot and rarefied blobs, which result in the eruptive mass-outflow, are generated in the inner shocked region and grow up towards the outer boundary. The advection-dominated accretion flow attains finally in the form of a torus disc with the inner edge of the disc at 3Rg ≤ r ≤ 6Rg and the centre at 6Rg ≤ r ≤ 10Rg, and a series of hot blobs is intermittently formed near the inner edge of the torus and grows up along the outer surface of the torus. As a result, the luminosity and the mass-outflow rate are modulated irregularly where the luminosity is enhanced by 10-40 per cent and the mass-outflow rate is increased by a factor of few up to 10. We interpret the unstable nature of the outflow to be due to the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, examining the Richardson number for the Kelvin-Helmholtz criterion in the inner region of the flow. We propose that the flare phenomena of Sgr A* may be induced by the unstable mass-outflow as is found in this work.

  13. Swept wing ice accretion modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potapczuk, M. G.; Bidwell, C. S.

    1990-01-01

    An effort to develop a three-dimensional ice accretion modeling method is initiated. This first step toward creation of a complete aircraft icing simulation code builds on previously developed methods for calculating three-dimensional flowfields and particle trajectories combined with a two-dimensional ice accretion calculation along coordinate locations corresponding to streamlines. This work is intended as a demonstration of the types of calculations necessary to predict a three-dimensional ice accretion. Results of calculations using the 3D method for a MS-317 swept wing geometry are projected onto a 2D plane normal to the wing leading edge and compared to 2D results for the same geometry. These results indicate that the flowfield over the surface and the particle trajectories differed for the two calculations. This led to lower collection efficiencies, convective heat transfer coefficients, freezing fractions, and ultimately ice accumulation for the 3D calculation.

  14. Multi-level recordable disc using signal waveform modulation recording method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Jing; Pan, Longfa; Yang, Bo; Hu, Junhua

    A new kind of multi-level recordable disc is presented in this paper. By improving the recording control signal in DVD-R/RW burning process, a Multi-level disc with signal waveform modulation can be achieved. The multi-level recording method increases the recording density but also the channel noise. The optimally designed partial response maximum likelihood (PRML) equalizer is effective in recovering channel symbol, and the original error rate reach 10E-4. This kind of multi-level method can be used for the purpose such as increasing the capacity of disc, hiding data and burning disc identification information etc.

  15. Origin of earth's moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    The major geochemical properties of the moon are briefly considered along with the significant facts of the moon's geologic history, and then the three current hypotheses regarding the moon's origin, namely, fission, capture, and binary accretion, are reviewed. The individual merits and improbabilities associated with each mechanism are taken into consideration. Special attention is given to the binary accretion model as the most promising one. In the variants of this model, of crucial importance is the nature of the more general hypothesis assumed for planetary formation from the solar nebula. The two main models differ considerably in the amount of chemical fractionation they allow to accompany planetary formation.

  16. Hyper-Eddington mass accretion on to a black hole with super-Eddington luminosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, Yuya; Inayoshi, Kohei; Haiman, Zoltán

    2016-10-01

    We perform 1D radiation hydrodynamical simulations to solve accretion flows on to massive black holes (BHs) with a very high rate. Assuming that photon trapping limits the luminosity emerging from the central region to L ≲ LEdd, Inayoshi, Haiman & Ostriker (2016) have shown that an accretion flow settles to a `hyper-Eddington solution, with a steady and isothermal (T ≃ 8000 K) Bondi profile reaching ≳ 5000 times the Eddington accretion rate dot{M}_Eddequiv L_Edd/c^2. Here, we address the possibility that gas accreting with finite angular momentum forms a bright nuclear accretion disc, with a luminosity exceeding the Eddington limit (1 ≲ L/LEdd ≲ 100). Combining our simulations with an analytic model, we find that a transition to steady hyper-Eddington accretion still occurs, as long as the luminosity remains below L/LEdd ≲ 35 (MBH/104 M⊙)3/2(n∞/105 cm-3)(T∞/104 K)-3/2(r⋆/1014 cm)-1/2, where n∞ and T∞ are the density and temperature of the ambient gas, and r⋆ is the radius of the photosphere, at which radiation emerges. If the luminosity exceeds this value, accretion becomes episodic. Our results can be accurately recovered in a toy model of an optically thick spherical shell, driven by radiation force into a collapsing medium. When the central source is dimmer than the above critical value, the expansion of the shell is halted and reversed by ram pressure of the collapsing medium, and by shell's weight. Our results imply that rapid, unimpeded hyper-Eddington accretion is possible even if the luminosity of the central source far exceeds the Eddington limit, and can be either steady or strongly episodic.

  17. Simulations of magnetic fields in isolated disc galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakmor, Rüdiger; Springel, Volker

    2013-06-01

    Magnetic fields are known to be dynamically important in the interstellar medium of our own Galaxy, and they are ubiquitously observed in diffuse gas in the haloes of galaxies and galaxy clusters. Yet, magnetic fields have typically been neglected in studies of the formation of galaxies, leaving their global influence on galaxy formation largely unclear. Here we extend our magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) implementation in the moving-mesh code AREPO to cosmological problems which include radiative cooling and the formation of stars. In particular, we replace our previously employed divergence cleaning approach with a Powell eight-wave scheme, which turns out to be significantly more stable, even in very dynamic environments. We verify the improved accuracy through simulations of the magneto-rotational instability in accretion discs, which reproduce the correct linear growth rate of the instability. Using this new MHD code, we simulate the formation of isolated disc galaxies similar to the Milky Way using idealized initial conditions with and without magnetic fields. We find that the magnetic field strength is quickly amplified in the initial central starburst and the differential rotation of the forming disc, eventually reaching a saturation value. At this point, the magnetic field pressure in the interstellar medium becomes comparable to the thermal pressure, and a further efficient growth of the magnetic field strength is prevented. The additional pressure component leads to a lower star formation rate at late times compared to simulations without magnetic fields, and induces changes in the spiral arm structures of the gas disc. In addition, we observe highly magnetized fountain-like outflows from the disc. These results are robust with numerical resolution and are largely independent of the initial magnetic seed field strength assumed in the initial conditions, as the amplification process is rapid and self-regulated. Our findings suggest an important influence of

  18. Imaginal disc regeneration takes flight.

    PubMed

    Hariharan, Iswar K; Serras, Florenci

    2017-04-01

    Drosophila imaginal discs, the larval precursors of adult structures such as the wing and leg, are capable of regenerating after damage. During the course of regeneration, discs can sometimes generate structures that are appropriate for a different type of disc, a phenomenon termed transdetermination. Until recently, these phenomena were studied by physically fragmenting discs and then transplanting them into the abdomens of adult female flies. This field has experienced a renaissance following the development of genetic ablation systems that can damage precisely defined regions of the disc without the need for surgery. Together with more traditional approaches, these newer methods have generated many novel insights into wound healing, the mechanisms that drive regenerative growth, plasticity during regeneration and systemic effects of tissue damage and regeneration.

  19. Pyrite discs in coal: evidence for fossilized bacterial colonies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Southam, G.; Donald, R.; Rostad, A.; Brock, C.

    2001-01-01

    Discs of pyrite from 1 to 3 mm in diameter and ∼100 μm thick were observed within fracture planes in coal from the Black Mesa coal deposit in northeastern Arizona. The pyrite discs were composed of aggregates of crystals, which suggested that sulfide mineral diagenesis had initiated at multiple nucleation sites and occurred prior to the compaction forces occurring during coal formation. Stable sulfur isotope analysis of the discs (δ34S = −31.7‰) supports a bacterial origin resulting from dissimilatory sulfate reduction. Fossilized bacteria on the disc surfaces (average = 27/100 μm2) appeared as halos when viewed using reflected light microscopy, but were lenticular by scanning electron microscopy, each microfossil being 2–3 μm in length. A fossilized bacterial colony (pyrite disc), 1 mm in diameter, would contain ∼2.1 × 107 microfossils. These microfossils were not observed on hydrothermal pyrite. Coating and in-filling of sulfate-reducing bacteria with iron disulfide during in vitro sulfide mineral diagenesis provide mechanisms to explain the preservation of the three-dimensional lenticular microfossils observed on the pyrite discs.

  20. Intraoral micro-identification discs.

    PubMed

    Hansen, R W

    1991-12-01

    Intraoral micro-identification discs have recently been utilized to provide a more permanent method of personal identification. A wafer of plastic or metal with a surface area of 2.5 to 5 mm2 and carrying identifying numbers and/or letters (indicia) is bonded to the buccal enamel surface of the posterior teeth. Personal identification can occur after the I.D. disc is identified and the indicia is read. Reading of photoreduced indicia requires the aid of a microscope subsequent to the removal of the microdisc. In situ reading of disc indicia is possible using low power handheld magnifiers if the size of the indicia approximates 0.3 mm. Computerization is an integral part of non-custom alpha/numeric type designs, but a custom disc carries a name, address, and other specific information unique to the manufacturer. The use of a computer improves access to the database and it decreases the amount of data placed on the disc. Microdisc bases may be fabricated using a mylar type plastic or they may be manufactured from a stainless steel blank. Plastic discs are constructed with an internal sandwich containing the photo-reduced indicia. Metal discs are marked with a photochemical etch or engraved with a computer driven YAG laser. Attachment of the disc to the enamel surface is accomplished by conventional etching and bonding techniques and are typically bonded to the buccal surface of the maxillary first permanent molar or the second primary molar. Clear composite bonding material covers the disc so that salivary contamination does not result in degradation of the indicia. Orthodontic style discs with a mesh back carry laser written information that may be cemented with conventional orthodontic bonding cement. Standardization of the indicia and overall design is considered to be an important aspect of patient and professional acceptance.

  1. The DISC1 promoter: characterization and regulation by FOXP2.

    PubMed

    Walker, Rosie M; Hill, Alison E; Newman, Alice C; Hamilton, Gillian; Torrance, Helen S; Anderson, Susan M; Ogawa, Fumiaki; Derizioti, Pelagia; Nicod, Jérôme; Vernes, Sonja C; Fisher, Simon E; Thomson, Pippa A; Porteous, David J; Evans, Kathryn L

    2012-07-01

    Disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) is a leading candidate susceptibility gene for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and recurrent major depression, which has been implicated in other psychiatric illnesses of neurodevelopmental origin, including autism. DISC1 was initially identified at the breakpoint of a balanced chromosomal translocation, t(1;11) (q42.1;14.3), in a family with a high incidence of psychiatric illness. Carriers of the translocation show a 50% reduction in DISC1 protein levels, suggesting altered DISC1 expression as a pathogenic mechanism in psychiatric illness. Altered DISC1 expression in the post-mortem brains of individuals with psychiatric illness and the frequent implication of non-coding regions of the gene by association analysis further support this assertion. Here, we provide the first characterization of the DISC1 promoter region. Using dual luciferase assays, we demonstrate that a region -300 to -177 bp relative to the transcription start site (TSS) contributes positively to DISC1 promoter activity, while a region -982 to -301 bp relative to the TSS confers a repressive effect. We further demonstrate inhibition of DISC1 promoter activity and protein expression by forkhead-box P2 (FOXP2), a transcription factor implicated in speech and language function. This inhibition is diminished by two distinct FOXP2 point mutations, R553H and R328X, which were previously found in families affected by developmental verbal dyspraxia. Our work identifies an intriguing mechanistic link between neurodevelopmental disorders that have traditionally been viewed as diagnostically distinct but which do share varying degrees of phenotypic overlap.

  2. Shadow of a Large Disc Casts New Light on the Formation of High Mass Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-05-01

    both a large sample of low and intermediate-mass protostars, known as T Tauri and Herbig Ae/Be stars, respectively. Moreover, the Hα line is extremely broad and shows a deep blue-shifted absorption typically associated with accretion disc-driven outflows. In the spectrum, numerous iron (Fe II) lines were also observed, which are velocity-shifted by ± 120 km/s. This is clear evidence for the existence of shocks with velocities of more than 50 km/s, hence another confirmation of the outflow hypothesis. The central protostar Due to heavy extinction, the nature of an accreting protostellar object, i.e. a star in the process of formation, is usually difficult to infer. Accessible are only those that are located in the neighbourhood of their elder brethren, e.g. next to a cluster of hot stars (cf. ESO PR 15/03). Such already evolved massive stars are a rich source of energetic photons and produce powerful stellar winds of protons (like the "solar wind" but much stronger) which impact on the surrounding interstellar gas and dust clouds. This process may lead to partial evaporation and dispersion of those clouds, thereby "lifting the curtain" and allowing us to look directly at young stars in that region. However, for all high-mass protostellar candidates located away from such a hostile environment there is not a single direct evidence for a (proto-)stellar central object; likewise, the origin of the luminosity - typically about ten thousand solar luminosities - is unclear and may be due to multiple objects or even embedded clusters. The new disc in M 17 is the only system which exhibits a central object at the expected position of the forming star. The 2.2 µm emission is relatively compact (240 AU x 450 AU) - too small to host a cluster of stars. Assuming that the emission is due solely to the star, the astronomers derive an absolute infrared brightness of about K = -2.5 magnitudes which would correspond to a main sequence star of about 20 solar masses. Given the fact

  3. Elemental Fractionation During Rapid Accretion of the Moon Triggered by a Giant Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abe, Y.; Zahnle, K. J.; Hashimoto, A.

    1998-01-01

    Recently, Ida et al. made an N-body simulation of lunar accretion from a protolunar disk formed by a giant impact. One of their important conclusions is that the accretion time of the Moon is as short as one month. Such rapid accretion is a necessary consequence of the high surface density of a lunar mass disk accreting just beyond the Roche limit (about 3Re); the Safronov accretion time (a few days) is even shorter. The energy of accretion always exceeds the gravitational binding energy of newly arriving matter. Hence, without an energy sink, the accreting body is thermally unstable. For the Earth and other planets, radiation acts as the sink. However, in such a short accretion time, the Moon cannot radiate the accretional energy. Even radiating at a silicate cloudtop temperature of roughly 2000 K, it would take more than 100 yr to radiatively cool the Moon. The plausible alternative heat sinks are heat capacity, latent heat of vaporization, and thermal escape of the gas to space (i.e., hydrodynamic blowoff). The latter becomes plausible for the Moon because the scale height at 2000 K (about 300 km) is a significant fraction of the lunar radius. The early stages of lunar (or "lunatesimal") growth release relatively little energy and can occur simply by heating the material, especially if the accreting material is originally cold. However, the material is unlikely to be cold, because the disk itself is hot and cooling time is long, while the lunar accretion time iss very short. Therefore, the moon is likely to accrete condensed material just after it condenses. Accordingly, the newly accreted material will be on the verge of vaporization and will have very little heat capacity to spare. The immediate heat sink is the latent heat of vaporization. Most of the vapor will escape from the moon, because the thermal energy in the gas can be used to drive escape. However, vaporization is generally incomplete. the latent heat of vaporization exceeds the energy of accretion

  4. The Causal Connection Between Disc and Power-Law Variability in Hard State Black Hole X-Ray Binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uttley, P.; Wilkinson, T.; Cassatella, P.; Wilms, J.; Pottschimdt, K.; Hanke, M.; Boeck, M.

    2010-01-01

    We use the XMM-Newton EPIC-pn instrument in timing mode to extend spectral time-lag studies of hard state black hole X-ray binaries into the soft X-ray band. \\Ve show that variations of the disc blackbody emission substantially lead variations in the power-law emission, by tenths of a second on variability time-scales of seconds or longer. The large lags cannot be explained by Compton scattering but are consistent with time-delays due to viscous propagation of mass accretion fluctuations in the disc. However, on time-scales less than a second the disc lags the power-law variations by a few ms, consistent with the disc variations being dominated by X-ray heating by the power-law, with the short lag corresponding to the light-travel time between the power-law emitting region and the disc. Our results indicate that instabilities in the accretion disc are responsible for continuum variability on time-scales of seconds or longer and probably also on shorter time-scales.

  5. Accretion Disk Outflows from Compact Object Mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, Brian

    Nuclear reactions play a key role in the accretion disks and outflows associated with the merger of binary compact objects and the central engines of gamma-ray bursts and supernovae. The proposed research program will investigate the impact of nucleosynthesis on these events and their observable signatures by means of analytic calculations and numerical simulations. One focus of this research is rapid accretion following the tidal disruption of a white dwarf (WD) by a neutron star (NS) or black hole (BH) binary companion. Tidal disruption shreds the WD into a massive torus composed of C, O, and/or He, which undergoes nuclear reactions and burns to increasingly heavier elements as it flows to smaller radii towards the central compact object. The nuclear energy so released is comparable to that released gravitationally, suggesting that burning could drastically alter the structure and stability of the accretion flow. Axisymmetric hydrodynamic simulations of the evolution of the torus including nuclear burning will be performed to explore issues such as the mass budget of the flow (accretion vs. outflows) and its thermal stability (steady burning and accretion vs. runaway explosion). The mass, velocity, and composition of outflows from the disk will be used in separate radiative transfer calculations to predict the lightcurves and spectra of the 56Ni-decay powered optical transients from WD-NS/WD-BH mergers. The possible connection of such events to recently discovered classes of sub-luminous Type I supernovae will be assessed. The coalescence of NS-NS/NS-BH binaries also results in the formation of a massive torus surrounding a central compact object. Three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the long-term evolution of such accretion disks will be performed, which for the first time follow the effects of weak interactions and the nuclear energy released by Helium recombination. The nucleosynthetic yield of disk outflows will be calculated using a detailed

  6. Cervical Total Disc Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Basho, Rahul; Hood, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Symptomatic adjacent segment degeneration of the cervical spine remains problematic for patients and surgeons alike. Despite advances in surgical techniques and instrumentation, the solution remains elusive. Spurred by the success of total joint arthroplasty in hips and knees, surgeons and industry have turned to motion preservation devices in the cervical spine. By preserving motion at the diseased level, the hope is that adjacent segment degeneration can be prevented. Multiple cervical disc arthroplasty devices have come onto the market and completed Food and Drug Administration Investigational Device Exemption trials. Though some of the early results demonstrate equivalency of arthroplasty to fusion, compelling evidence of benefits in terms of symptomatic adjacent segment degeneration are lacking. In addition, non-industry-sponsored studies indicate that these devices are equivalent to fusion in terms of adjacent segment degeneration. Longer-term studies will eventually provide the definitive answer. PMID:24353955

  7. Accretion physics: It's not U, it's B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Jon

    2017-03-01

    Black holes grow by accreting mass, but the process is messy and redistributes gas and energy into their environments. New evidence shows that magnetic processes mediate both the accretion and ejection of matter.

  8. A disc inside the bipolar planetary nebula M2-9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lykou, F.; Chesneau, O.; Zijlstra, A. A.; Castro-Carrizo, A.; Lagadec, E.; Balick, B.; Smith, N.

    2011-03-01

    Aims: Bipolarity in proto-planetary and planetary nebulae is associated with events occurring in or around their cores. Past infrared observations have revealed the presence of dusty structures around the cores, many in the form of discs. Characterising those dusty discs provides invaluable constraints on the physical processes that govern the final mass expulsion of intermediate mass stars. We focus this study on the famous M2-9 bipolar nebula, where the moving lighthouse beam pattern indicates the presence of a wide binary. The compact and dense dusty core in the centre of the nebula can be studied by means of optical interferometry. Methods: M2-9 was observed with VLTI/MIDI at 39-47 m baselines with the UT2-UT3 and UT3-UT4 baseline configurations. These observations are interpreted using a dust radiative transfer Monte Carlo code. Results: A disc-like structure is detected perpendicular to the lobes, and a good fit is found with a stratified disc model composed of amorphous silicates. The disc is compact, 25 × 35 mas at 8 μm and 37 × 46 mas at 13 μm. For the adopted distance of 1.2 kpc, the inner rim of the disc is ~15 AU. The mass represents a few percent of the mass found in the lobes. The compactness of the disc puts strong constraints on the binary content of the system, given an estimated orbital period 90-120 yr. We derive masses of the binary components between 0.6-1.0 M⊙ for a white dwarf and 0.6-1.4 M⊙ for an evolved star. We present different scenarios on the geometric structure of the disc accounting for the interactions of the binary system, which includes an accretion disc as well. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile, ESO N: 079.D-146.

  9. Perturbation growth in accreting filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, S. D.; Whitworth, A. P.; Hubber, D. A.

    2016-05-01

    We use smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations to investigate the growth of perturbations in infinitely long filaments as they form and grow by accretion. The growth of these perturbations leads to filament fragmentation and the formation of cores. Most previous work on this subject has been confined to the growth and fragmentation of equilibrium filaments and has found that there exists a preferential fragmentation length-scale which is roughly four times the filament's diameter. Our results show a more complicated dispersion relation with a series of peaks linking perturbation wavelength and growth rate. These are due to gravo-acoustic oscillations along the longitudinal axis during the sub-critical phase of growth. The positions of the peaks in growth rate have a strong dependence on both the mass accretion rate onto the filament and the temperature of the gas. When seeded with a multiwavelength density power spectrum, there exists a clear preferred core separation equal to the largest peak in the dispersion relation. Our results allow one to estimate a minimum age for a filament which is breaking up into regularly spaced fragments, as well as an average accretion rate. We apply the model to observations of filaments in Taurus by Tafalla & Hacar and find accretion rates consistent with those estimated by Palmeirim et al.

  10. Neutrinos from Accreting Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anchordoqui, Luis A.; Torres, Diego F.; McCauley, Thomas P.; Romero, Gustavo E.; Aharonian, Felix A.

    2003-05-01

    The magnetospheres of accreting neutron stars develop electrostatic gaps with huge potential drops. Protons and ions, accelerated in these gaps along the dipolar magnetic field lines to energies greater than 100 TeV, can impact onto the surrounding accretion disk. A proton-induced cascade develops, and charged pion decays produce ν emission. With extensive disk shower simulations using DPMJET and GEANT4, we have calculated the resulting ν spectrum. We show that the spectrum produced out of the proton beam is a power law. We use this result to propose accretion-powered X-ray binaries (with highly magnetized neutron stars) as a new population of pointlike ν sources for kilometer-scale detectors such as ICECUBE. As a particular example, we discuss the case of A0535+26. We show that ICECUBE should find A0535+26 to be a periodic ν source, one for which the formation and loss of its accretion disk can be fully detected. Finally, we comment briefly on the possibility that smaller telescopes such as AMANDA could also detect A0535+26 by folding observations with the orbital period.

  11. The life cycles of Be viscous decretion discs: time-dependent modelling of infrared continuum observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, R. G.; Carciofi, A. C.; Bjorkman, J. E.; Rivinius, Th.; Baade, D.; Rímulo, L. R.

    2017-01-01

    We apply the viscous decretion disc (VDD) model to interpret the infrared disc continuum emission of 80 Be stars observed in different epochs. In this way, we determined 169 specific disc structures, namely their density scale, ρ0, and exponent, n. We found that the n values range mainly between 1.5 and 3.5, and ρ0 varies between 10-12 and 10-10 g cm-3, with a peak close to the lower value. Our large sample also allowed us to firmly establish that the discs around early-type stars are denser than in late-type stars. Additionally, we estimated the disc mass decretion rates and found that they range between 10-12 and 10-9 M⊙ yr-1. These values are compatible with recent stellar evolution models of fast-rotating stars. One of the main findings of this work is a correlation between the ρ0 and n values. In order to find out whether these relations can be traced back to the evolution of discs or have some other origin, we used the VDD model to calculate temporal sequences under different assumptions for the time profile of the disc mass injection. The results support the hypothesis that the observed distribution of disc properties is due to a common evolutionary path. In particular, our results suggest that the time-scale for disc growth, during which the disc is being actively fed by mass injection episodes, is shorter than the time-scale for disc dissipation, when the disc is no longer fed by the star and dissipates as a result of the viscous diffusion of the disc material.

  12. Strongly Magnetized Accretion Disks Around Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvesen, Greg; Armitage, Philip J.; Simon, Jacob B.; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    2017-01-01

    Recent observations are suggestive of strongly magnetized accretion disks around black holes. Performing local (shearing box) simulations of accretion disks, we investigate how a strong magnetization state can develop and persist. We demonstrate that poloidal flux is a necessary prerequisite for the sustainability of strongly magnetized accretion disks. We also show that black hole spin measurements can become unconstrained if magnetic fields provide a significant contribution to the vertical pressure support of the accretion disk atmosphere.

  13. Double-disc gate valve

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, Seth J.

    1979-01-01

    This invention relates to an improvement in a conventional double-disc gate valve having a vertically movable gate assembly including a wedge, spreaders slidably engaged therewtih, a valve disc carried by the spreaders. When the gate assembly is lowered to a selected point in the valve casing, the valve discs are moved transversely outward to close inlet and outlet ports in the casing. The valve includes hold-down means for guiding the disc-and-spreader assemblies as they are moved transversely outward and inward. If such valves are operated at relatively high differential pressures, they sometimes jam during opening. Such jamming has been a problem for many years in gate valves used in gaseous diffusion plants for the separtion of uranium isotopes. The invention is based on the finding that the above-mentioned jamming results when the outlet disc tilts about its horizontal axis in a certain way during opening of the valve. In accordance with the invention, tilting of the outlet disc is maintained at a tolerable value by providing the disc with a rigid downwardly extending member and by providing the casing with a stop for limiting inward arcuate movement of the member to a preselected value during opening of the valve.

  14. Plastic Deformation of Accreted Planetesimals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadish, J.

    2005-08-01

    The early stages of planetesimal growth follow an accretion model (Weidenschilling, Icarus 2000), which influences the intrinsic strength of a body and may control how its shape evolves after growth. In previous work we have determined the stress field of an accreted planetesimal accounting for possible variation in the object's spin as it accretes (Kadish et al., IJSS In Press) At the end of growth, these objects are subject to transport mechanisms that can distribute them throughout the solar system. As they are transported these objects can be spun-up by tidal forces (Scheeres et al, Icarus 2000), YORP (Bottke et al., Asteroids III 2002), and collisions (Binzel et al., Asteroids II 1989). Such an increase of spin will cause perturbations to the initial stress field and may lead to failure. We are able to show analytically that failure is initiated on the object's surface and a plastic zone propagates inward as the object's spin is increased. If we model an accreted body as a conglomeration of rocks similar to a gravel or sand, the deformation in the region of failure is characterized using a Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion with negligible cohesion and zero hardening(e.g. Holsapple, Icarus 2001). Such a response is highly non-linear and must be solved using finite elements and iterative methods (Simo and Hughes, Computational Inelasticity 1998). Using the commercial finite element code ABAQUS, we present the shape deformation resulting from an elasto-plastic analysis of a spinning, self-gravitating accreted sphere that is spun-up after growth is complete. The methodology can be extended to model plastic deformation due to local failure for more complex planetesimal shapes, such as for the asteroid Kleopatra. This work has implications for the evolution of planetesimal shapes, the creation of binary and contact binary asteroids, and for the maximum spin rate of small planetary bodies.

  15. Medical Information on Optical Disc*

    PubMed Central

    Schipma, Peter B.; Cichocki, Edward M.; Ziemer, Susan M.

    1987-01-01

    Optical discs may permit a revolutionary change in the distribution and use of medical information. A single compact disc, similar in size to that used for digital audio recording, can contain over 500 million characters of information that is accessible by a Personal Computer. These discs can be manufactured at a cost lower than that of print on paper, at reasonable volumes. Software can provide the health care professional with nearly instantaneous access to the information. Thus, for the first time, the opportunity exists to have large local medical information collections. This paper describes an application of this technology in the field of Oncology.

  16. Mitral disc-valve variance

    PubMed Central

    Berroya, Renato B.; Escano, Fernando B.

    1972-01-01

    This report deals with a rare complication of disc-valve prosthesis in the mitral area. A significant disc poppet and struts destruction of mitral Beall valve prostheses occurred 20 and 17 months after implantation. The resulting valve incompetence in the first case contributed to the death of the patient. The durability of Teflon prosthetic valves appears to be in question and this type of valve probably will be unacceptable if there is an increasing number of disc-valve variance in the future. Images PMID:5017573

  17. PROBING STELLAR ACCRETION WITH MID-INFRARED HYDROGEN LINES

    SciTech Connect

    Rigliaco, Elisabetta; Pascucci, I.; Mulders, G. D.; Duchene, G.; Edwards, S.; Ardila, D. R.; Grady, C.; Mendigutía, I.; Montesinos, B.; Najita, J. R.; Carpenter, J.; Furlan, E.; Gorti, U.; Meijerink, R.; Meyer, M. R. E-mail: elisabetta.rigliaco@phys.ethz.ch

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we investigate the origin of the mid-infrared (IR) hydrogen recombination lines for a sample of 114 disks in different evolutionary stages (full, transitional, and debris disks) collected from the Spitzer archive. We focus on the two brighter H I lines observed in the Spitzer spectra, the H I (7-6) at 12.37 μm and the H I (9-7) at 11.32 μm. We detect the H I (7-6) line in 46 objects, and the H I (9-7) in 11. We compare these lines with the other most common gas line detected in Spitzer spectra, the [Ne II] at 12.81 μm. We argue that it is unlikely that the H I emission originates from the photoevaporating upper surface layers of the disk, as has been found for the [Ne II] lines toward low-accreting stars. Using the H I (9-7)/H I (7-6) line ratios we find these gas lines are likely probing gas with hydrogen column densities of 10{sup 10}-10{sup 11} cm{sup –3}. The subsample of objects surrounded by full and transitional disks show a positive correlation between the accretion luminosity and the H I line luminosity. These two results suggest that the observed mid-IR H I lines trace gas accreting onto the star in the same way as other hydrogen recombination lines at shorter wavelengths. A pure chromospheric origin of these lines can be excluded for the vast majority of full and transitional disks. We report for the first time the detection of the H I (7-6) line in eight young (<20 Myr) debris disks. A pure chromospheric origin cannot be ruled out in these objects. If the H I (7-6) line traces accretion in these older systems, as in the case of full and transitional disks, the strength of the emission implies accretion rates lower than 10{sup –10} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. We discuss some advantages of extending accretion indicators to longer wavelengths, and the next steps required pinning down the origin of mid-IR hydrogen lines.

  18. Dynamics of accretion disks in a constant curvature f(R)-gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alipour, N.; Khesali, A. R.; Nozari, K.

    2016-07-01

    So far the basic physical properties of matter forming a thin accretion disc in the static and spherically symmetric space-time metric of the vacuum f(R) modified gravity models (Pun et al. in Phys. Rev. D 78:024043, 2008) and building radiative models of thin accretion disks for both Schwarzschild and Kerr black holes in f(R) gravity (Perez et al. in Astron. Astrophys. 551:4, 2013) were addressed properly. Also von Zeipel surfaces and convective instabilities in f(R)-Schwarzschild(Kerr) background have been investigated recently (Alipour et al. in Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 454:1992, 2015). In this streamline, here we study the effects of radial and angular pressure gradients on thick accretion disks in Schwarzschild geometries in a constant curvature f(R) modified gravity. Since thick accretion disks have high accretion rate, we study configuration and structure of thick disks by focusing on the effect of pressure gradient on formation of the disks. We clarify our study by assuming two types of equation of state: polytropic and Clapeyron equation of states.

  19. Design Issues in Video Disc Map Display.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-01

    Tables: disc storage capacities under various conditions. Photos: map frames. Constanzo , D.J. (1984a), "The Potential for Video Disc Technology in...discs. Constanzo , D.J. (1984b), "Requirements and Specifications for Cartographic Video Discs", presented as a poster paper at the 1984 Army Science

  20. Enlivening Physics, a Local Video Disc Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInerney, M.

    1989-01-01

    Describes how to make and use an inexpensive video disc of physics demonstrations. Discusses the background, production of the disc, subject of the disc including angular momentum, "monkey and the hunter" experiment, Doppler shift, pressure of a constant volume of gas thermometer, and wave effects, and using the disc in classroom. (YP)

  1. Disc Golf: Teaching a Lifetime Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastham, Susan L.

    2015-01-01

    Disc golf is a lifetime activity that can be enjoyed by students of varying skill levels and abilities. Disc golf follows the principles of ball golf but is generally easier for students to play and enjoy success. The object of disc golf is similar to ball golf and involves throwing a disc from the teeing area to the target in as few throws as…

  2. Decellularized allogeneic intervertebral disc: natural biomaterials for regenerating disc degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhijun; Chen, Kai; Shan, Zhi; Chen, Shuai; Wang, Jiying; Mo, Jian; Ma, Jianjun; Xu, Wenbing; Qin, An; Fan, Shunwu

    2016-01-01

    Intervertebral disc degeneration is associated with back pain and disc herniation. This study established a modified protocol for intervertebral disc (IVD) decellularization and prepared its extracellular matrix (ECM). By culturing mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)(3, 7, 14 and 21 days) and human degenerative IVD cells (7 days) in the ECM, implanting it subcutaneously in rabbit and injecting ECM microparticles into degenerative disc, the biological safety and efficacy of decellularized IVD was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. Here, we demonstrated that cellular components can be removed completely after decellularization and maximally retain the structure and biomechanics of native IVD. We revealed that allogeneic ECM did not evoke any apparent inflammatory reaction in vivo and no cytotoxicity was found in vitro. Moreover, IVD ECM can induce differentiation of MSCs into IVD-like cells in vitro. Furthermore, allogeneic ECM microparticles are effective on the treatment of rabbit disc degeneration in vivo. In conclusion, our study developed an optimized method for IVD decellularization and we proved decellularized IVD is safe and effective for the treatment of degenerated disc diseases. PMID:26933821

  3. Optical effects related to Keplerian discs orbiting Kehagias-Sfetsos naked singularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuchlík, Zdeněk; Schee, Jan

    2014-10-01

    We demonstrate possible optical signatures of the Kehagias-Sfetsos (KS) naked singularity spacetimes representing a spherically symmetric vacuum solution of the modified Hořava gravity. In such spacetimes, accretion structures significantly different from those present in standard black hole spacetimes occur due to the ‘antigravity’ effect, which causes an internal static sphere surrounded by Keplerian discs. We focus our attention on the optical effects related to the Keplerian accretion discs, constructing the optical appearance of the Keplerian discs, the spectral continuum due to their thermal radiation, and the spectral profiled lines generated in the innermost parts of such discs. The KS naked singularity signature is strongly encoded in the characteristics of predicted optical effects, especially in cases where the spectral continuum and spectral lines are profiled by the strong gravity of the spacetimes due to the vanishing region of the angular velocity gradient influencing the effectiveness of the viscosity mechanism. We can conclude that optical signatures of KS naked singularities can be well distinguished from the signatures of standard black holes.

  4. Does disc fragmentation prevent the formation of supermassive stars in protogalaxies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inayoshi, Kohei; Haiman, Zoltán

    2014-12-01

    Supermassive stars (SMSs; ≳ 105 M⊙) formed in the first protogalaxies with virial temperature Tvir ≳ 104 K are expected to collapse into seeds of supermassive black hole in the high-redshift Universe (z ≳ 7). Fragmentation of the primordial gas is, however, a possible obstacle to SMS formation. We discuss the expected properties of a compact, metal-free, marginally unstable nuclear protogalactic disc, and the fate of the clumps formed in the disc by gravitational instability. Interior to a characteristic radius Rf = few × 10-2 pc, the disc fragments into massive clumps with Mc ˜ 30 M⊙. The clumps grow via accretion and migrate inward rapidly on a time-scale of ˜104 yr, which is comparable or shorter than the Kelvin-Helmholtz time >104 yr. Some clumps may evolve to zero-age main-sequence stars and halt gas accretion by radiative feedback, but most of the clumps can migrate inward and merge with the central protostar before forming massive stars. Moreover, we found that dust-induced fragmentation in metal-enriched gas does not modify these conclusions unless Z ≳ 3 × 10- 4 Z⊙, because clump migration below this metallicity remains as rapid as in the primordial case. Our results suggest that fragmentation of a compact, metal-poor disc cannot prevent the formation of a SMS.

  5. Tissue engineering: A live disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hukins, David W. L.

    2005-12-01

    A material-cell hybrid device that mimics the anatomic shape of the intervertebral disc has been made and successfully implanted into mice to show that tissue engineering may, in the future, benefit sufferers from back pain.

  6. Disc Golf, a Growing Sport

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Joseph T.; Jones, Richard E.; Runstrom, Michael; Hardy, Jolene

    2015-01-01

    Background Disc golf is a sport played much like traditional golf, but rather than using a ball and club, players throw flying discs with various throwing motions. It has been played by an estimated 8 to 12 million people in the United States. Like all sports, injuries sustained while playing disc golf are not uncommon. Although formalized in the 1970s, it has grown at a rapid pace; however, disc golf–related injuries have yet to be described in the medical literature. Purpose To describe the most common injuries incurred by disc golf players while comparing the different types of throwing styles. Study Design Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods The data in this study were collected from 883 disc golf players who responded to an online survey collected over a 1-month period. Respondents answered 49 questions related to demographics, experience, style of play, and injury details. Using a chi-square analysis, common injuries sustained in players using backhand and forehand throwing styles were compared. Results More than 81% of respondents stated that they had sustained an injury playing disc golf, including injuries to the elbow (n = 325), shoulder (n = 305), back (n = 218), and knee (n = 199). The injuries were most commonly described as a muscle strain (n = 241), sprain (n = 162), and tendinitis (n = 145). The type of throw primarily used by players varied, with 86.2% using backhand, 12.7% using forehand, and 1.1% using an overhead throw. Players using a forehand throw were more likely to sustain an elbow injury (P = .014). Many players (n = 115) stated they had undergone surgery due to a disc golf–related injury, with the most common surgeries including meniscal, shoulder, spine, and foot/ankle surgeries. Conclusion The majority of surveyed disc golfers sustained at least 1 injury while playing disc golf, with many requiring surgery. The types of injuries sustained by players varied by the types of throw primarily used. As the sport of disc golf continues

  7. Percutaneous diode laser disc nucleoplasty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menchetti, P. P.; Longo, Leonardo

    2004-09-01

    The treatment of herniated disc disease (HNP) over the years involved different miniinvasive surgical options. The classical microsurgical approach has been substituted over the years both by endoscopic approach in which is possible to practice via endoscopy a laser thermo-discoplasty, both by percutaneous laser disc nucleoplasty. In the last ten years, the percutaneous laser disc nucleoplasty have been done worldwide in more than 40000 cases of HNP. Because water is the major component of the intervertebral disc, and in HNP pain is caused by the disc protrusion pressing against the nerve root, a 980 nm Diode laser introduced via a 22G needle under X-ray guidance and local anesthesia, vaporizes a small amount of nucleous polposus with a disc shrinkage and a relief of pressure on nerve root. Most patients get off the table pain free and are back to work in 5 to 7 days. Material and method: to date, 130 patients (155 cases) suffering for relevant symptoms therapy-resistant 6 months on average before consulting our department, have been treated. Eightyfour (72%) males and 46 (28%) females had a percutaneous laser disc nucleoplasty. The average age of patients operated was 48 years (22 - 69). The level of disc removal was L3/L4 in 12 cases, L4/L5 in 87 cases and L5/S1 in 56 cases. Two different levels were treated at the same time in 25 patients. Results: the success rate at a minimum follow-up of 6 months was 88% with a complication rate of 0.5%.

  8. High-energy gamma-ray observations of the accreting black hole V404 Cygni during its 2015 June outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loh, A.; Corbel, S.; Dubus, G.; Rodriguez, J.; Grenier, I.; Hovatta, T.; Pearson, T.; Readhead, A.; Fender, R.; Mooley, K.

    2016-10-01

    We report on Fermi/Large Area Telescope observations of the accreting black hole low-mass X-ray binary V404 Cygni during its outburst in 2015 June-July. Detailed analyses reveal a possible excess of γ-ray emission on 2015 26 June, with a very soft spectrum above 100 MeV, at a position consistent with the direction of V404 Cyg (within the 95 per cent confidence region and a chance probability of 4 × 10-4). This emission cannot be associated with any previously known Fermi source. Its temporal coincidence with the brightest radio and hard X-ray flare in the light curve of V404 Cyg, at the end of the main active phase of its outburst, strengthens the association with V404 Cyg. If the γ-ray emission is associated with V404 Cyg, the simultaneous detection of 511 keV annihilation emission by INTEGRAL reqires that the high-energy γ-rays originate away from the corona, possibly in a Blandford-Znajek jet. The data give support to models involving a magnetically arrested disc where a bright γ-ray jet can re-form after the occurrence of a major transient ejection seen in the radio.

  9. Accreting neutron stars by QFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shao-Guang

    I deduce the new gravitational formula from the variance in mass of QFT and GR (H05-0029-08, E15-0039 -08, E14-0032-08, D31-0054-10) in the partial differential: f (QFT) = f (GR) = delta∂ (m v)/delta∂ t = f _{P} + f _{C} , f _{P} = m delta∂ v / delta∂ t = - ( G m M /r (2) ) r / r, f _{C} = v delta∂ m / delta∂ t = - ( G mM / r (2) ) v / c (1). f (QFT) is the quasi-Casimir pressure of net virtual neutrinos nuν _{0} flux (after counteract contrary direction nuν _{0}). f (GR) is equivalent to Einstein’s equation as a new version of GR. GR can be inferred from Eq.(1) thereby from QFT, but QFT cannot be inferred from Eq.(1) or GR. f (QFT) is essential but f (GR) is phenomenological. Eq.(1) is obtained just by to absorb the essence of corpuscule collided gravitation origin ism proposed by Fatio in 1690 and 1920 Majorana’s experiment concept about gravitational shield effect again fuse with QFT. Its core content is that the gravity produced by particles collide cannot linear addition, i.e., Eq.(1) with the adding nonlinearity caused by the variable mass to replace the nonlinearity of Einstein’s equation. The nonlinear gravitation problems can be solved using the classical gradual approximation of alone f _{P} and alone f _{C}. Such as the calculation of advance of the perihelion of QFT, let the gravitational potential U = - G M /r which is just the distribution density of net nuν _{0} flux. From SR we again get Eq.(1): f (QFT) = f _{P} + f _{C}, f _{P} = - m ( delta∂ U / delta∂ r) r / r, f _{C} = - m ( delta∂U / delta∂ r) v / c , U = (1 - betaβ (2) )V, V is the Newtonian gravitational potential. f_{ P} correspond the change rate of three-dimensional momentum p, f_{C} correspond the change rate of fourth dimensional momentum i m c which show directly as a dissipative force of mass change. In my paper ‘To cross the great gap between the modern physics and classic physics, China Science &Technology Overview 129 85-91 (2011)’ with the

  10. Planetary accretion in circumstellar disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Stewart, Glen R.

    1993-01-01

    The formation of terrestrial planets and the cores of Jovian planets is reviewed in the framework of the planetesimal hypothesis, wherein planets are assumed to grow via the pairwise accumulation of small solid bodies. Emphasis is placed on the dynamics of solid body accretion from kilometer size planetesimals to terrestrial type planets. This stage of planetary growth is least dependent on the characteristics of the evolutionary state of the central star. It is concluded that the evolution of the planetesimal size distribution is determined by the gravitationally enhanced collision cross-section, which favors collisions between planetesimals with smaller velocities. Runaway growth of the largest planetesimal in each accretion zone appears to be a likely outcome. The subsequent accumulation of the resulting protoplanets leads to a large degree of radial mixing in the terrestrial planet region, and giant impacts are probable.

  11. Obscured accretion from AGN surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vignali, Cristian

    2014-07-01

    Recent models of super-massive black hole (SMBH) and host galaxy joint evolution predict the presence of a key phase where accretion, traced by obscured Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) emission, is coupled with powerful star formation. Then feedback processes likely self-regulate the SMBH growth and quench the star-formation activity. AGN in this important evolutionary phase have been revealed in the last decade via surveys at different wavelengths. On the one hand, moderate-to-deep X-ray surveys have allowed a systematic search for heavily obscured AGN, up to very high redshifts (z~5). On the other hand, infrared/optical surveys have been invaluable in offering complementary methods to select obscured AGN also in cases where the nuclear X-ray emission below 10 keV is largely hidden to our view. In this review I will present my personal perspective of the field of obscured accretion from AGN surveys.

  12. Hydrodynamic Viscosity in Accretion Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duschl, Wolfgang J.; Strittmatter, Peter A.; Biermann, Peter L.

    We propose a generalized accretion disk viscosity prescription based on hydrodynamically driven turbulence at the critical effective Reynolds number. This approach is consistent with recent re-analysis by Richard & Zahn (1999) of experimental results on turbulent Couette-Taylor flows. This new β-viscosity formulation applies to both selfgravitating and non-selfgravitating disks and is shown to yield the standard α-disk prescription in the case of shock dissipation limited, non-selfgravitating disks.

  13. A self-similar solution for thermal disc winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, C. J.; Alexander, R. D.

    2016-08-01

    We derive a self-similar description for the 2D streamline topology and flow structure of an axisymmetric, thermally driven wind originating from a disc in which the density is a power-law function of radius. Our scale-free solution is strictly only valid in the absence of gravity or centrifugal support; comparison with 2D hydrodynamic simulations of winds from Keplerian discs however demonstrates that the scale-free solution is a good approximation also in the outer regions of such discs, and can provide a reasonable description even for launch radii well within the gravitational radius of the flow. Although other authors have considered the flow properties along streamlines whose geometry has been specified in advance, this is the first isothermal calculation in which the flow geometry and variation of flow variables along streamlines is determined self-consistently. It is found that the flow trajectory is very sensitive to the power-law index of radial density variation in the disc: the steeper the density gradient, the stronger is the curvature of streamlines close to the flow base that is required in order to maintain momentum balance perpendicular to the flow. Steeper disc density profiles are also associated with more rapid acceleration, and a faster fall-off of density, with height above the disc plane. The derivation of a set of simple governing equations for the flow structure of thermal winds from the outer regions of power-law discs offers the possibility of deriving flow observables without having to resort to hydrodynamical simulation.

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: New brown dwarf discs in Upper Scorpius (Dawson+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, P.; Scholz, A.; Ray, T. P.; Marsh, K. A.; Wood, K.; Natta, A.; Padgett, D.; Ressler, M. E.

    2014-03-01

    We present a census of the disc population for UKIDSS selected brown dwarfs in the 5-10Myr old Upper Scorpius OB association. For 116 objects originally identified in UKIDSS, the majority of them not studied in previous publications, we obtain photometry from the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer data base. The resulting colour-magnitude and colour-colour plots clearly show two separate populations of objects, interpreted as brown dwarfs with discs (class II) and without discs (class III). We identify 27 class II brown dwarfs, 14 of them not previously known. This disc fraction (27 out of 116, or 23%) among brown dwarfs was found to be similar to results for K/M stars in Upper Scorpius, suggesting that the lifetimes of discs are independent of the mass of the central object for low-mass stars and brown dwarfs. 5 out of 27 discs (19%) lack excess at 3.4 and 4.6μm and are potential transition discs (i.e. are in transition from class II to class III). The transition disc fraction is comparable to low-mass stars. We estimate that the time-scale for a typical transition from class II to class III is less than 0.4Myr for brown dwarfs. These results suggest that the evolution of brown dwarf discs mirrors the behaviour of discs around low-mass stars, with disc lifetimes of the order of 5-10Myr and a disc clearing time-scale significantly shorter than 1Myr. (2 data files).

  15. Accretion disks around black holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abramowicz, M. A.

    1994-01-01

    The physics of accretion flow very close to a black hole is dominated by several general relativistic effects. It cannot be described by the standard Shakura Sunyaev model or by its relativistic version developed by Novikov and Thome. The most important of these effects is a dynamical mass loss from the inner edge of the disk (Roche lobe overflow). The relativistic Roche lobe overflow induces a strong advective cooling, which is sufficient to stabilize local, axially symmetric thermal and viscous modes. It also stabilizes the non-axially-symmetric global modes discovered by Papaloizou and Pringle. The Roche lobe overflow, however, destabilizes sufficiently self-gravitating accretion disks with respect to a catastrophic runaway of mass due to minute changes of the gravitational field induced by the changes in the mass and angular momentum of the central black hole. One of the two acoustic modes may become trapped near the inner edge of the disk. All these effects, absent in the standard model, have dramatic implications for time-dependent behavior of the accretion disks around black holes.

  16. AGN fuelling: Bridging Large and Small Scales - Overlapping Inflows as Catalysts of Accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manuel Carmona Loaiza, Juan Manuel

    2015-05-01

    One of the biggest challenges in understanding the fuelling of supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei (AGN) is not on accounting for the source of fuel, as a galaxy can comfortably supply the required mass budget, but on its actual delivery. While a clear picture has been developed for the large scale (~ kpc) down to the intermediate one (~ 100 pc), and for the smallest scales (~ 0.1 pc) where an accretion disc likely forms, a bridge that has proven difficult to build is that between ~ 100 pc and ~ 0.1 pc. It is feared that gas at these scales might still retain enough angular momentum and settle into a larger scale disc with very low or no inflow to form or replenish the inner accretion disc (on ~ 0.01 pc scales). In this Thesis, I present numerical simulations in which a rotating gaseous shell flows towards a SMBH because of its lack of rotational support. As inflow proceeds, gas from the shell impacts an already present nuclear (~ 10pc) disc. The cancellation of angular momentum and redistribution of gas, due to the misalignment between the angular momentum of the shell and that of the disc, is studied in this scenario. The underlying hypothesis is that even if transport of angular momentum at these scales may be inefficient, the interaction of an inflow with a nuclear disc would still provide a mechanism to bring mass inwards because of the cancellation of angular momentum. I quantify the amount of gas such a cancellation would bring to the central parsec under different circumstances: Co- and counter-rotation between the disc and the shell and the presence or absence of an initial turbulent kick; I also discuss the impact of self gravity in our simulations. The scenario we study is highly idealized and designed to capture the specific outcomes produced by the mechanism proposed. I find that angular momentum cancellation and redistribution via hydrodynamical shocks leads to sub-pc inflows enhanced by more than 2-3 orders of magnitude. In all of our

  17. Planetary migration, accretion, and atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbs-Dixon, Ian M.

    This dissertation explores three distinct projects in the field of planetary formation and evolution: type I migration, cessation of mass accretion, and the atmospheric dynamics of hot Jupiters. All three of these projects touch on outstanding or unresolved issues in the field. Each attempts to unify analytic and numerical approaches in order to physically motivate solutions while simultaneously probing areas currently inaccessible to purely analytic approaches. The first section, type I migration, explores the outstanding problem of the rapid inward migration of low mass planets embedded in protoplanetary disks. Analytic estimates of migration predict characteristic timescales that are much shorter then either observed disk lifetimes or theoretical core-accretion formation timescales. If migration is actually as efficient as these analytic estimates predict, planet formation across the observed range of masses and semimajor axis' is difficult. Here I introduce several new formalisms to both allow the disk to adiabatically adjust to the presence of a planet and include the effect of axisymmetric disk self-gravity. I find that these modifications increase migration timescales by approximately 4 times. In addition to these numerical improvements, I present simulations of migration in lower sound-speed regions of the disk on the grounds that self shadowing within the disk could yield substantially cooler gas temperatures then those derived by most irradiated disk models. In such regions the planetary perturbation excites a secondary instability, leading to the formation of vortices. These vortices cause a substantial reduction in the net torque, increasing migration timescales by up to approximately 200 times the analytically predicted rate. The second section addresses the mechanism for shutting off accretion onto giant planets. According to the conventional sequential accretion scenario, giant planets acquire a majority of their gas in a runaway phase. Conventional

  18. Iridescence in beef caused by multilayer interference from sarcomere discs.

    PubMed

    Swatland, H J

    2012-02-01

    Microscope photometry of raw and cooked iliocostalis was used to test the hypothesis that interference colours in beef may originate from reflections from sarcomere discs. Evidence in support of the hypothesis was, firstly, that interference colours were not altered by rotating a polarizer in the illumination pathway, or by rotating a polarizer in the measuring pathway. But when both pathways contained polarizers, iridescence was completely extinguished when the polarizers were crossed. Secondly, the reflectance spectra of interference colours all showed multiple interference peaks, with a major peak possibly originating from the top sarcomere and minor peaks originating from lower sarcomeres. Thirdly, major peaks were strongly dependent on the angle of measurement. Iridescence in beef is quite rare, but reflections from sarcomere discs may be a ubiquitous source of light scattering in meat.

  19. A Wind Accretion Model for HLX-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, M. Coleman; Farrell, Sean A.; Maccarone, Thomas J.

    2014-06-01

    The brightest ultraluminous X-ray source currently known, HLX-1, has been observed to undergo five outburst cycles. The periodicity of these outbursts, and their high inferred maximum accretion rates of ~few × 10-4 M ⊙ yr-1, naturally suggest Roche lobe overflow at the pericenter of an eccentric orbit. It is, however, difficult for the Roche lobe overflow model to explain the apparent trend of decreasing decay times over the different outbursts while the integrated luminosity also drops. Thus, if the trend is real rather than simply being a reflection of the complex physics of accretion disks, a different scenario may be necessary. We present a speculative model in which, within the last decade, a high-mass giant star had most of its envelope tidally stripped by the ~104 - 5 M ⊙ black hole in HLX-1, and the remaining core plus low-mass hydrogen envelope now feeds the hole with a strong wind. This model can explain the short decay time of the disk, and could explain the fast decrease in decay time if the wind speed changes with time. A key prediction of this model is that there will be excess line absorption due to the wind; our analysis does in fact find a flux deficit in the ~0.9-1.1 keV range that is consistent with predictions, albeit at low significance. If this idea is correct, we also expect that within years to dacades the bound material from the original disruption will return and will make HLX-1 a persistently bright source.

  20. Angular momentum transport in thin accretion disks and intermittent accretion.

    PubMed

    Coppi, B; Coppi, P S

    2001-07-30

    The plasma modes, transporting angular momentum in accretion disks, under minimally restrictive conditions when the magnetic energy density is significant relative to the thermal energy density, are shown to be singular if the ideal MHD approximation is adopted. A similarity with the modes producing magnetic reconnection in current carrying plasmas is established. The combined effects of finite plasma temperature, of plasma compressibility, of the gradient of the rotation frequency, and of appropriate transport processes (outside ideal MHD) are involved in the onset of these nonaxisymmetric and locally corotating modes.

  1. Isotopes as tracers of the sources of the lunar material and processes of lunar origin.

    PubMed

    Pahlevan, Kaveh

    2014-09-13

    Ever since the Apollo programme, isotopic abundances have been used as tracers to study lunar formation, in particular to study the sources of the lunar material. In the past decade, increasingly precise isotopic data have been reported that give strong indications that the Moon and the Earth's mantle have a common heritage. To reconcile these observations with the origin of the Moon via the collision of two distinct planetary bodies, it has been proposed (i) that the Earth-Moon system underwent convective mixing into a single isotopic reservoir during the approximately 10(3) year molten disc epoch after the giant impact but before lunar accretion, or (ii) that a high angular momentum impact injected a silicate disc into orbit sourced directly from the mantle of the proto-Earth and the impacting planet in the right proportions to match the isotopic observations. Recently, it has also become recognized that liquid-vapour fractionation in the energetic aftermath of the giant impact is capable of generating measurable mass-dependent isotopic offsets between the silicate Earth and Moon, rendering isotopic measurements sensitive not only to the sources of the lunar material, but also to the processes accompanying lunar origin. Here, we review the isotopic evidence that the silicate-Earth-Moon system represents a single planetary reservoir. We then discuss the development of new isotopic tracers sensitive to processes in the melt-vapour lunar disc and how theoretical calculations of their behaviour and sample observations can constrain scenarios of post-impact evolution in the earliest history of the Earth-Moon system.

  2. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: low-mass protoplanetary discs from a SCUBA-2 census of NGC 1333

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodds, P.; Greaves, J. S.; Scholz, A.; Hatchell, J.; Holland, W. S.; JCMT Gould Belt Survey Team

    2015-02-01

    NGC 1333 is a 1-2 Myr old cluster of stars in the Perseus molecular cloud. We used 850 μm data from the Gould Belt Survey with SCUBA-2 on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope to measure or place limits on disc masses for 82 Class II sources in this cluster. Eight disc candidates were detected; one is estimated to have mass of about 9 MJup in dust plus gas, while the others host only 2-4 MJup of circumstellar material. None of these discs exceeds the threshold for the `minimum mass solar nebula' (MMSN). This reinforces previous claims that only a small fraction of Class II sources at an age of 1-2 Myr have discs exceeding the MMSN threshold and thus can form a planetary system like our own. However, other regions with similarly low fractions of MMSN discs (IC 348, UpSco, σ Ori) are thought to be older than NGC 1333. Compared with coeval regions, the exceptionally low fraction of massive discs in NGC 1333 cannot easily be explained by the effects of UV radiation or stellar encounters. Our results indicate that additional environmental factors significantly affect disc evolution and the outcome of planet formation by core accretion.

  3. Gravitoturbulence in magnetized protostellar discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riols, A.; Latter, H.

    2016-08-01

    Gravitational instability (GI) features in several aspects of protostellar disc evolution, most notably in angular momentum transport, fragmentation, and the outbursts exemplified by FU Ori and EX Lupi systems. The outer regions of protostellar discs may also be coupled to magnetic fields, which could then modify the development of GI. To understand the basic elements of their interaction, we perform local 2D ideal and resistive magnetohydrodynamics simulations with an imposed toroidal field. In the regime of moderate plasma beta, we find that the system supports a hot gravitoturbulent state, characterized by considerable magnetic energy and stress and a surprisingly large Toomre parameter Q ≳ 10. This result has potential implications for disc structure, vertical thickness, ionization, etc. Our simulations also reveal the existence of long-lived and dense `magnetic islands' or plasmoids. Lastly, we find that the presence of a magnetic field has little impact on the fragmentation criterion of the disc. Though our focus is on protostellar discs, some of our results may be relevant for the outer radii of AGN.

  4. Impact of planet-planet scattering on the formation and survival of debris discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzari, F.

    2014-10-01

    Planet-planet scattering is a major dynamical mechanism able to significantly alter the architecture of a planetary system. In addition to that, it may also affect the formation and retention of a debris disc by the system. A violent chaotic evolution of the planets can easily clear leftover planetesimal belts preventing the ignition of a substantial collisional cascade that can give origin to a debris disc. On the other end, a mild evolution with limited steps in eccentricity and semimajor axis can trigger the formation of a debris disc by stirring an initially quiet planetesimal belt. The variety of possible effects that planet-planet scattering can have on the formation of debris discs is analysed and the statistical probability of the different outcomes is evaluated. This leads to the prediction that systems which underwent an episode of chaotic evolution might have a lower probability of harbouring a debris disc.

  5. Galactic archaeology of a thick disc: Excavating ESO 533-4 with VIMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comerón, S.; Salo, H.; Janz, J.; Laurikainen, E.; Yoachim, P.

    2015-12-01

    The disc of galaxies is made of the superposition of a thin and a thick disc. Star formation is hosted in the thin discs and contributes to their growth. Thick discs are formed of old stars. The formation mechanisms of thick discs are under discussion. Thick discs might have formed either at high redshift on a short timescale or might have been built slowly over a Hubble-Lemaître time. They may have an internal or an external origin. Here we adopt a galactic archaeology approach to study the thick disc of ESO 533-4, i.e. we study the kinematics and the stellar populations of this galaxy in detail. ESO 533-4 is a Southern, nearby, and almost bulgeless galaxy. We present the first ever Integral Field Unit spectroscopy of an edge-on galaxy with enough depth and quality to study the thick disc. We exposed ESO 533-4 with the blue grism of the VIMOS instrument of the VLT for 6.5 h. The field of view covered an axial extent from ~ 0.1 r25 to ~ 0.7 r25, where r25 is the 25 mag arcsec-2 isophotal radius. This corresponds to the range from ~1 kpc to ~7 kpc. We used pPXF and the MILES library to obtain velocity and stellar population maps. We compared our kinematic data with simple GADGET-2 models. The apparent rotational lag of the thick disc of ESO 533-4 is compatible with that expected from the combinations of two effects: differential asymmetric drift and the projection effects arising from studying a disc a few degrees (2-3°) away from edge-on. Thus, ESO 533-4 contains little or no counter-rotating material. This is compatible with three formation scenarios: the secular dynamical heating of an initially thin disc, the formation of the thick disc at high redshift in an early turbulent disc phase, and the creation of a thick disc in a major merger event. If this last mechanism occurred in all galaxies, it would cause retrograde thick discs in half of them. These retrograde discs have not been observed in the five massive disc galaxies (circular velocity vc ≳ 120 km s-1

  6. The Criterion of Supernova Explosion Revisited: The Mass Accretion History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwa, Yudai; Yamada, Shoichi; Takiwaki, Tomoya; Kotake, Kei

    2016-01-01

    By performing neutrino-radiation hydrodynamic simulations in spherical symmetry (1D) and axial symmetry (2D) with different progenitor models by Woosley & Heger from 12 to 100 M⊙, we find that all 1D runs fail to produce an explosion and several 2D runs succeed. The difference in the shock evolutions for different progenitors can be interpreted by the difference in their mass accretion histories, which are in turn determined by the density structures of progenitors. The mass accretion history has two phases in the majority of the models: the earlier phase, in which the mass accretion rate is high and rapidly decreasing, and the later phase, with a low and almost constant accretion rate. They are separated by the so-called turning point, the origin of which is a change of the accreting layer. We argue that shock revival will most likely occur around the turning point and hence that its location in the \\dot{M}{--}{L}ν plane will be a good measure for the possibility of shock revival: if the turning point lies above the critical curve and the system stays there for a long time, shock revival will obtain. In addition, we develop a phenomenological model to approximately evaluate the trajectories in the \\dot{M}{--}{L}ν plane, which, after calibrating free parameters by a small number of 1D simulations, reproduces the location of the turning point reasonably well by using the initial density structure of progenitor alone. We suggest the application of the phenomenological model to a large collection of progenitors in order to infer without simulations which ones are more likely to explode.

  7. Star formation sustained by gas accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez Almeida, Jorge; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Muñoz-Tuñón, Casiana; Elmegreen, Debra Meloy

    2014-07-01

    Numerical simulations predict that metal-poor gas accretion from the cosmic web fuels the formation of disk galaxies. This paper discusses how cosmic gas accretion controls star formation, and summarizes the physical properties expected for the cosmic gas accreted by galaxies. The paper also collects observational evidence for gas accretion sustaining star formation. It reviews evidence inferred from neutral and ionized hydrogen, as well as from stars. A number of properties characterizing large samples of star-forming galaxies can be explained by metal-poor gas accretion, in particular, the relationship among stellar mass, metallicity, and star-formation rate (the so-called fundamental metallicity relationship). They are put forward and analyzed. Theory predicts gas accretion to be particularly important at high redshift, so indications based on distant objects are reviewed, including the global star-formation history of the universe, and the gas around galaxies as inferred from absorption features in the spectra of background sources.

  8. Chondrule Accretion with a Growing Protoplanet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Yuji; Oshino, Shoichi; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Wakita, Shigeru

    2017-03-01

    Chondrules are primitive materials in the solar system. They were formed in about the first 3 Myr of the solar system’s history. This timescale is longer than that of Mars formation, and it is conceivable that protoplanets, planetesimals, and chondrules might have existed simultaneously in the solar nebula. Due to protoplanets’ perturbation on the planetesimal dynamics and chondrule accretion on them, all the formed chondrules are unlikely to be accreted by the planetesimals. We investigate the amount of chondrules accreted by planetesimals in such a condition. We assume that a protoplanet is in oligarchic growth, and we perform analytical calculations of chondrule accretion by both a protoplanet and planetesimals. Through the oligarchic growth stage, planetesimals accrete about half of the formed chondrules. The smallest planetesimals get the largest amount of chondrules, compared with the amount accreted by more massive planetesimals. We perform a parameter study and find that this fraction is not greatly changed for a wide range of parameter sets.

  9. Theory of protostellar accretion disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruden, S.

    1994-01-01

    I will present an overview of the current paradigm for the theory of gaseous accretion disks around young stars. Protostellar disks form from the collapse of rotating molecular cloud cores. The disks evolve via outward angular momentum transport provided by several mechanisms: gravitational instabilities, thermal convective turbulence, and magnetic stresses. I will review the conditions under which these mechanisms are efficient and consistent with the observed disk evolutionary timescales of several million years. Time permitting, I will discuss outbursts in protostellar disks (FU Orionis variables), the effect of planet formation on disk structure, and the dispersal of remnant gas.

  10. Disk tides and accretion runaway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, William R.; Hahn, Joseph M.

    1995-01-01

    It is suggested that tidal interaction of an accreting planetary embryo with the gaseous preplanetary disk may provide a mechanism to breach the so-called runaway limit during the formation of the giant planet cores. The disk tidal torque converts a would-be shepherding object into a 'predator,' which can continue to cannibalize the planetesimal disk. This is more likely to occur in the giant planet region than in the terrestrial zone, providing a natural cause for Jupiter to predate the inner planets and form within the O(10(exp 7) yr) lifetime of the nebula.

  11. A Theoretical Perspective on the Formation and Fragmentation of Protostellar Discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitworth, A.; Lomax, O.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the factors influencing the formation and gravitational fragmentation of protostellar discs. We start with a review of how observations of prestellar cores can be analysed statistically to yield plausible initial conditions for simulations of their subsequent collapse. Simulations based on these initial conditions show that, despite the low levels of turbulence in prestellar cores, they deliver primary protostars and associated discs which are routinely subject to stochastic impulsive perturbations; consequently misalignment of the spins and orbits of protostars are common. Also, the simulations produce protostars that collectively have a mass function and binary statistics matching those observed in nearby star-formation regions, but only if a significant fraction of the turbulent energy in the core is solenoidal, and accretion onto the primary protostar is episodic with a duty cycle ≳ 3 000 yr. Under this circumstance, a core typically spawns between 4 and 5 protostars, with high efficiency, and the lower mass protostars are mainly formed by disc fragmentation. The requirement that a proto-fragment in a disc lose thermal energy on a dynamical timescale dictates that there is a sweet spot for disc fragmentation at radii 70 AU ≲ R ≲ 100 AU and temperatures 10 K ≲ T ≲ 20 K, and this might explain the brown dwarf desert.

  12. Coevolution of binaries and circumbinary gaseous discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, David P.; Quinn, Thomas R.

    2017-01-01

    The recent discoveries of circumbinary planets by Kepler raise questions for contemporary planet formation models. Understanding how these planets form requires characterizing their formation environment, the circumbinary protoplanetary disc and how the disc and binary interact and change as a result. The central binary excites resonances in the surrounding protoplanetary disc which drive evolution in both the binary orbital elements and in the disc. To probe how these interactions impact binary eccentricity and disc structure evolution, N-body smooth particle hydrodynamics simulations of gaseous protoplanetary discs surrounding binaries based on Kepler 38 were run for 104 binary periods for several initial binary eccentricities. We find that nearly circular binaries weakly couple to the disc via a parametric instability and excite disc eccentricity growth. Eccentric binaries strongly couple to the disc causing eccentricity growth for both the disc and binary. Discs around sufficiently eccentric binaries which strongly couple to the disc develop an m = 1 spiral wave launched from the 1:3 eccentric outer Lindblad resonance which corresponds to an alignment of gas particle longitude of periastrons. All systems display binary semimajor axis decay due to dissipation from the viscous disc.

  13. DISC1 knockdown impairs the tangential migration of cortical interneurons by affecting the actin cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Steinecke, André; Gampe, Christin; Nitzsche, Falk; Bolz, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) is a risk gene for a spectrum of major mental disorders. It has been shown to regulate radial migration as well as dendritic arborization during neurodevelopment and corticogenesis. In a previous study we demonstrated through in vitro experiments that DISC1 also controls the tangential migration of cortical interneurons originating from the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE). Here we first show that DISC1 is necessary for the proper tangential migration of cortical interneurons in the intact brain. Expression of EGFP under the Lhx6 promotor allowed us to analyze exclusively interneurons transfected in the MGE after in utero electroporation. After 3 days in utero, DISC1 deficient interneurons displayed prolonged leading processes and, compared to control, fewer neurons reached the cortex. Time-lapse video microscopy of cortical feeder-layers revealed a decreased migration velocity due to a reduction of soma translocations. Immunostainings indicated that DISC1 is co-localized with F-actin in the growth cone-like structure of the leading process. DISC1 knockdown reduced F-actin levels whereas the overall actin level was not altered. Moreover, DISC1 knockdown also decreased levels of phosphorylated Girdin, which cross-links F-actin, as well as the Girdin-activator pAkt. In contrast, using time-lapse video microscopy of fluorescence-tagged tubulin and EB3 in fibroblasts, we found no effects on microtubule polymerization when DISC1 was reduced. However, DISC1 affected the acetylation of microtubules in the leading processes of MGE-derived cortical interneurons. Together, our results provide a mechanism how DISC1 might contribute to interneuron migration thereby explaining the reduced number of specific classes of cortical interneurons in some DISC1 mouse models. PMID:25071449

  14. Pulsed Accretion onto Eccentric and Circular Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, Diego J.; Lai, Dong

    2016-08-01

    We present numerical simulations of circumbinary accretion onto eccentric and circular binaries using the moving-mesh code AREPO. This is the first set of simulations to tackle the problem of binary accretion using a finite-volume scheme on a freely moving mesh, which allows for accurate measurements of accretion onto individual stars for arbitrary binary eccentricity. While accretion onto a circular binary shows bursts with period of ˜ 5 times the binary period P b, accretion onto an eccentric binary is predominantly modulated at the period ˜ 1{P}{{b}}. For an equal-mass circular binary, the accretion rates onto individual stars are quite similar to each other, following the same variable pattern in time. By contrast, for eccentric binaries, one of the stars can accrete at a rate 10-20 times larger than its companion. This “symmetry breaking” between the stars, however, alternates over timescales of order 200P b and can be attributed to a slowly precessing, eccentric circumbinary disk. Over longer timescales, the net accretion rates onto individual stars are the same, reaching a quasi-steady state with the circumbinary disk. These results have important implications for the accretion behavior of binary T Tauri stars and supermassive binary black holes.

  15. Computer simulations of planetary accretion dynamics: Sensitivity to initial conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isaacman, R.; Sagan, C.

    1976-01-01

    The implications and limitations of program ACRETE were tested. The program is a scheme based on Newtonian physics and accretion with unit sticking efficiency, devised to simulate the origin of the planets. The dependence of the results on a variety of radial and vertical density distribution laws, the ratio of gas to dust in the solar nebula, the total nebular mass, and the orbital eccentricity of the accreting grains was explored. Only for a small subset of conceivable cases are planetary systems closely like our own generated. Many models have tendencies towards one of two preferred configurations: multiple star systems, or planetary systems in which Jovian planets either have substantially smaller masses than in our system or are absent altogether. But for a wide range of cases recognizable planetary systems are generated - ranging from multiple star systems with accompanying planets, to systems with Jovian planets at several hundred AU, to single stars surrounded only by asteroids.

  16. Rapid variability as a probe of warped space-time around accreting black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Axelsson, Magnus

    2016-07-01

    The geometry of the inner accretion flow of X-ray binaries is complex, with multiple regions contributing to the observed emission. Frequency-resolved spectroscopy is a powerful tool in breaking this spectral degeneracy. We have extracted the spectra of the strong low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) and its harmonic in GX339-4 and XTE J1550-564, and compare these to the time-averaged spectrum and the spectrum of the rapid (<0.1 s) variability. Our results support the picture where the QPO arises from vertical (Lense-Thirring) precession of an inhomogeneous hot flow, softer at larger radii closer to the truncated disc and harder in the innermost parts where the rapid variability is produced. This coupling between variability and spectra allows us to constrain the soft Comptonization component, breaking the degeneracy plaguing the time-averaged spectrum and revealing the geometry of the accretion flow close to the black hole.

  17. Evolution of double white dwarf binaries undergoing direct-impact accretion: Implications for gravitational wave astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremer, Kyle; Breivik, Katelyn; Larson, Shane L.; Kalogera, Vassiliki

    2017-01-01

    For close double white dwarf binaries, the mass-transfer phenomenon known as direct-impact accretion (when the mass transfer stream impacts the accretor directly rather than forming a disc) may play a pivotal role in the long-term evolution of the systems. In this analysis, we explore the long-term evolution of white dwarf binaries accreting through direct-impact and explore implications of such systems to gravitational wave astronomy. We cover a broad range of parameter space which includes initial component masses and the strength of tidal coupling, and show that these systems, which lie firmly within the LISA frequency range, show strong negative chirps which can last as long as several million years. Detections of double white dwarf systems in the direct-impact phase by detectors such as LISA would provide astronomers with unique ways of probing the physics governing close compact object binaries.

  18. MAGNETOSPHERIC ACCRETION IN CLOSE PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Ardila, David R.; Jonhs-Krull, Christopher; Herczeg, Gregory J.; Mathieu, Robert D.; Quijano-Vodniza, Alberto

    2015-10-01

    The transfer of matter between a circumbinary disk and a young binary system remains poorly understood, obscuring the interpretation of accretion indicators. To explore the behavior of these indicators in multiple systems, we have performed the first systematic time-domain study of young binaries in the ultraviolet. We obtained far- and near-ultraviolet HST/COS spectra of the young spectroscopic binaries DQ Tau and UZ Tau E. Here we focus on the continuum from 2800 to 3200 Å and on the C iv doublet (λλ1548.19, 1550.77 Å) as accretion diagnostics. Each system was observed over three or four consecutive binary orbits, at phases ∼0, 0.2, 0.5, and 0.7. Those observations are complemented by ground-based U-band measurements. Contrary to model predictions, we do not detect any clear correlation between accretion luminosity and phase. Further, we do not detect any correlation between C iv flux and phase. For both stars the appearance of the C iv line is similar to that of single Classical T Tauri Stars (CTTSs), despite the lack of stable long-lived circumstellar disks. However, unlike the case in single CTTSs, the narrow and broad components of the C iv lines are uncorrelated, and we argue that the narrow component is powered by processes other than accretion, such as flares in the stellar magnetospheres and/or enhanced activity in the upper atmosphere. We find that both stars contribute equally to the narrow component C iv flux in DQ Tau, but the primary dominates the narrow component C iv emission in UZ Tau E. The C iv broad component flux is correlated with other accretion indicators, suggesting an accretion origin. However, the line is blueshifted, which is inconsistent with its origin in an infall flow close to the star. It is possible that the complicated geometry of the region, as well as turbulence in the shock region, are responsible for the blueshifted line profiles.

  19. Combining N-body accretion simulations with partitioning experiments in a statistical model of terrestrial planet accretion and core formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, R. A.; Ciesla, F.; Campbell, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    The terrestrial planets accreted in a series of increasingly large and violent collisions. Simultaneously, metallic cores segregated from their silicate mantles, acquiring their modern compositions through high pressure (P), high temperature (T) partitioning reactions. Here we present a model that couples these aspects of early planetary evolution, building on recent accretion simulations and experimental results. We have run 100 N-body simulations of terrestrial planet accretion, with Jupiter and Saturn on either circular (CJS) or eccentric (EJS) orbits, to gain insight into the statistics of this highly stochastic process (Fischer and Ciesla, 2014). An Earth (Mars) analogue forms in 84-92% (2-10%) of our simulations. We draw on our recent high P-T metal-silicate partitioning experiments of Ni, Co, V, Cr, Si, and O in a diamond anvil cell to 100 GPa and 5500 K. In our model, N-body simulations describe the delivery, masses, and original locations of planetary building blocks. As planets accrete, their core and mantle compositions are modified by high P-T reactions with each collision (Rubie et al., 2011). By utilizing a large number of N-body simulations, we obtain a statistical view and observe a wide range of outcomes. We use this model to predict the core compositions of Earth-like planets. For partial equilibration of the mantle at 50% of the core-mantle boundary (CMB) pressure, we find that their cores contain 6.9 ± 1.8 wt% Si and 4.8 ± 2.3 wt% O (Figure), with this uncertainty due entirely to variations in accretion history in our 100 simulations. This composition is consistent with the seismologically-inferred density of Earth's core, based on comparisons to high P-T equations of state (Fischer et al., 2011, 2014). Earth analogues experience 0.7 ± 0.1 or 0.9 ± 0.2 log units of oxidation during accretion in EJS or CJS simulations respectively, which is due to both the effects of high P-T partitioning and the temporal evolution of the Earth analogue

  20. New Insights on the Accretion Disk-Winds Connection in Radio-Loud AGNs from Suzaku

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tombesi, F.; Sambruna, R. M.; Reeves, J. N.; Braito, V.; Cappi, M.; Reynolds, S.; Mushotzky, R. F.

    2011-01-01

    From the spectral analysis of long Suzaku observations of five radio-loud AGNs we have been able to discover the presence of ultra-fast outflows with velocities ,,approx.0.1 c in three of them, namely 3C III, 3C 120 and 3C 390.3. They are consistent with being accretion disk winds/outflows. We also performed a follow-up on 3C III to monitor its outflow on approx.7 days time-scales and detected an anti-correlated variability of a possible relativistic emission line with respect to blue-shifted Fe K features, following a flux increase. This provides the first direct evidence for an accretion disc-wind connection in an AGN. The mass outflow rate of these outflows can be comparable to the accretion rate and their mechanical power can correspond to a significant fraction of the bolometric luminosity and is comparable to their typical jet power. Therefore, they can possibly play a significant role in the expected feedback from AGNs and can give us further clues on the relation between the accretion disk and the formation of winds/jets.

  1. Shock vaporization and the accretion of the icy satellites of Jupiter and Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahrens, T. J.; Okeefe, J. D.

    1984-01-01

    The role of impact vaporization acting during the formation of the Jovian and Saturnian satellites is examined in an attempt to explain the observed density in terms of composition of these rock and ice objects. A hypothesis is examined which states that the smaller satellites of Saturn having mean densities in the 1.1 to 1.4 Mg/cu m range represent primordial accreted planetesimal condensates formed in the proto-Jovian and Saturnian accretionary planetary discs. These densities are in the range expected for water-ice/silicate mixtures constrained in the solar values of O/Si and O/Mg atomic ratios. It is demonstrated that if the large satellites accreted from the same group of planetesimals which formed the small Saturnian satellites impact vaporization of water upon accretion in a porous regolith, at low H2O partial pressure, can account for the increase in mean planetesimal density from 1.6 Mg/cu m (43% H2O + 57% silicate) to a mean planetary density of 1.9 Mg/cu m for Ganymedean-sized water silicate objects. If impact volatilization of initially porous planetesimals is assumed, it can be demonstrated starting with planetesimals composed of 54% H2O and 40% silicate partial devolatilization upon accretion will yield a Ganymede-sized planet, having a radius of 2600 km and a density of 1.85 kg/cu m, similar to that of Ganymede, Callisto, and Titan.

  2. Particle dynamics in discs with turbulence generated by the vertical shear instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoll, Moritz H. R.; Kley, Wilhelm

    2016-10-01

    Context. Among the candidates for generating turbulence in accretion discs in situations with low intrinsic ionization, the vertical shear instability (VSI) has become an interesting candidate, since it relies purely on a vertical gradient in the angular velocity. Existing numerical simulations have shown that α-values a few times 10-4 can be generated. Aims: The particle growth in the early planet formation phase is determined by the dynamics of embedded dust particles. Here, we address, in particular, the efficiency of VSI-turbulence in concentrating particles to generate overdensities and low collision velocities. Methods: We perform three-dimensional (3D) numerical hydrodynamical simulations of accretion discs around young stars that include radiative transport and irradiation from the central star. The motion of embedded particles within a size range of a fraction of mm up to several m is followed using standard drag formula. Results: We confirm that, under realistic conditions, the VSI is able to generate turbulence in full 3D protoplanetary discs. The irradiated disc shows turbulence within 10 to 60 au. The mean radial motion of the gas is such that it is directed inward near the midplane and outward in the surface layers. We find that large particles drift inward with the expected speed, while small particles can experience phases of outward drift. Additionally, the particles show bunching behaviour with overdensities reaching five times the average value, which is strongest for dimensionless stopping times around unity. Conclusions: Particles in a VSI-turbulent discs are concentrated in large-scale turbulent eddies and show low relative speeds that allow for growing collisions. The reached overdensities will also enable the onset of streaming instabilities, further enhancing particle growth. The outward drift for small particles at higher disk elevations enable the transport of processed high temperature material in the solar system to greater distances.

  3. Early evolution of clumps formed via gravitational instability in protoplanetary discs: precursors of Hot Jupiters?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvagni, M.; Mayer, L.

    2014-01-01

    Although it is fairly established that Gravitational Instability (GI) should occur in the early phases of the evolution of a protoplanetary disc, the fate of the clumps resulting from disc fragmentation and their role in planet formation is still unclear. In the present study we investigate semi-analytically their evolution following the contraction of a synthetic population of clumps with varied initial structure and orbits coupled with the surrounding disc and the central star. Our model is based on recently published state-of-the-art 3D collapse simulations of clumps with varied thermodynamics. Various evolutionary mechanisms are taken into account, and their effect is explored both individually and in combination with others: migration and tidal disruption, mass accretion, gap opening and disc viscosity. It is found that, in general, at least 50 per cent of the initial clumps survive tides, leaving behind potential gas giant progenitors after ˜105 yr of evolution in the disc. The rest might either be disrupted or produce super-Earths and other low-mass planets provided that a solid core can be assembled on a sufficiently short time-scale, a possibility that we do not address in this paper. Extrapolating to million year time-scales, all our surviving protoplanets would lead to close-in gas giants. This outcome might in part reflect the limitations of the migration model adopted, and is reminiscent of the analogous result found in core-accretion models in absence of fine-tuning of the migration rate. Yet it suggests that a significant fraction of the clumps formed by GI could be the precursors of Hot Jupiters.

  4. RINGED ACCRETION DISKS: EQUILIBRIUM CONFIGURATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Pugliese, D.; Stuchlík, Z. E-mail: zdenek.stuchlik@physics.cz

    2015-12-15

    We investigate a model of a ringed accretion disk, made up by several rings rotating around a supermassive Kerr black hole attractor. Each toroid of the ringed disk is governed by the general relativity hydrodynamic Boyer condition of equilibrium configurations of rotating perfect fluids. Properties of the tori can then be determined by an appropriately defined effective potential reflecting the background Kerr geometry and the centrifugal effects. The ringed disks could be created in various regimes during the evolution of matter configurations around supermassive black holes. Therefore, both corotating and counterrotating rings have to be considered as being a constituent of the ringed disk. We provide constraints on the model parameters for the existence and stability of various ringed configurations and discuss occurrence of accretion onto the Kerr black hole and possible launching of jets from the ringed disk. We demonstrate that various ringed disks can be characterized by a maximum number of rings. We present also a perturbation analysis based on evolution of the oscillating components of the ringed disk. The dynamics of the unstable phases of the ringed disk evolution seems to be promising in relation to high-energy phenomena demonstrated in active galactic nuclei.

  5. Nonlinear variations in axisymmetric accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Soumyajit; Sengupta, Anindya; Ray, Arnab K.

    2014-05-01

    We subject the stationary solutions of inviscid and axially symmetric rotational accretion to a time-dependent radial perturbation, which includes nonlinearity to any arbitrary order. Regardless of the order of nonlinearity, the equation of the perturbation bears a form that is similar to the metric equation of an analogue acoustic black hole. We bring out the time dependence of the perturbation in the form of a Liénard system by requiring the perturbation to be a standing wave under the second order of nonlinearity. We perform a dynamical systems analysis of the Liénard system to reveal a saddle point in real time, whose implication is that instabilities will develop in the accreting system when the perturbation is extended into the nonlinear regime. We also model the perturbation as a high-frequency traveling wave and carry out a Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin analysis, treating nonlinearity iteratively as a very feeble effect. Under this approach, both the amplitude and the energy flux of the perturbation exhibit growth, with the acoustic horizon segregating the regions of stability and instability.

  6. PROPERTIES OF GRAVITOTURBULENT ACCRETION DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Rafikov, Roman R.

    2009-10-10

    We explore the properties of cold gravitoturbulent accretion disks-non-fragmenting disks hovering on the verge of gravitational instability (GI)-using a realistic prescription for the effective viscosity caused by gravitational torques. This prescription is based on a direct relationship between the angular momentum transport in a thin accretion disk and the disk cooling in a steady state. Assuming that opacity is dominated by dust we are able to self-consistently derive disk properties for a given M-dot assuming marginal gravitational stability. We also allow external irradiation of the disk and account for a non-zero background viscosity, which can be due to the magneto-rotational instability. Spatial transitions between different co-existing disk states (e.g., between irradiated and self-luminous or between gravitoturbulent and viscous) are described and the location of the boundary at which the disk must fragment is determined in a variety of situations. We demonstrate in particular that at low enough M-dot external irradiation stabilizes the gravitoturbulent disk against fragmentation to very large distances thus providing means of steady mass transport to the central object. Implications of our results for the possibility of planet formation by GI in protoplanetary disks and star formation in the Galactic center and for the problem of feeding supermassive black holes in galactic nuclei are discussed.

  7. Two-dimensional numerical simulations of supercritical accretion flows revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xiao-Hong; Yuan, Feng; Bu, De-Fu; Ohsuga, Ken E-mail: fyuan@shao.ac.cn

    2014-01-01

    We study the dynamics of super-Eddington accretion flows by performing two-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamic simulations. Compared with previous works, in this paper we include the T {sub θφ} component of the viscous stress and consider various values of the viscous parameter α. We find that when T {sub θφ} is included, the rotational speed of the high-latitude flow decreases, while the density increases and decreases at the high and low latitudes, respectively. We calculate the radial profiles of inflow and outflow rates. We find that the inflow rate decreases inward, following a power law form of M-dot {sub in}∝r{sup s}. The value of s depends on the magnitude of α and is within the range of ∼0.4-1.0. Correspondingly, the radial profile of density becomes flatter compared with the case of a constant M-dot (r). We find that the density profile can be described by ρ(r)∝r {sup –p} and the value of p is almost same for a wide range of α ranging from α = 0.1 to 0.005. The inward decrease of inflow accretion rate is very similar to hot accretion flows, which is attributed to the mass loss in outflows. To study the origin of outflow, we analyze the convective stability of the slim disk. We find that depending on the value of α, the flow is marginally stable (when α is small) or unstable (when α is large). This is different from the case of hydrodynamical hot accretion flow, where radiation is dynamically unimportant and the flow is always convectively unstable. We speculate that the reason for the difference is because radiation can stabilize convection. The origin of outflow is thus likely because of the joint function of convection and radiation, but further investigation is required.

  8. Time evolution of accreting magnetofluid around a compact object-Newtonian analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habibi, Fahimeh; Shaghaghian, Mahboobeh; Pazhouhesh, Reza

    2015-07-01

    Time evolution of a thick disc with finite conductivity around a nonrotating compact object is presented. Along with the Maxwell equations and the Ohm's law, the Newtonian limit of the relativistic fluid equations governing the motion of a finitely conducting plasma is derived. The magnetofluid is considered to possess only the poloidal components of the electromagnetic field. Moreover, the shear viscous stress is neglected, as well as the self-gravity of the disc. In order to solve the equations, we have used a self-similar solution. The main features of this solution are as follows. The azimuthal velocity is somewhat increased from the Keplerian value in the equator plane to the super-Keplerian values at the surface of disc. Moreover, the radial velocity is obtained proportional to the meridional velocity. Magnetofluid does not have any nonzero component of the current density. Subsequently, the electromagnetic force is vanished and does not play any role in the force balance. While the pressure gradient maintains the disc structure in latitudinal direction, magnetofluid has no accretion on the central compact object. Analogously to the parameter α in the standard model, our calculations contain one parameter η0 which specifies the size of the electrical resistivity.

  9. Galactic Disk Warps due to Intergalactic Accretion Flows onto the Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Corredoira, M.; Betancort-Rijo, J.; Beckman, J. E.

    2008-06-01

    The accretion of the intergalactic medium onto the gaseous disc is used to explain the generation of galactic warps. A cup-shaped distortion is expected, due to the transmission of the linear momentum; but, this effect is small for most incident inflow angles and the predominant effect turns out to be the transmission of angular momentum, i.e. a torque giving an integral-sign shaped warp. The torque produced by a flow of velocity ˜ 100 km/s and baryon density ˜ 10-25 kg/m3, which is within the possible values for the intergalactic medium, is enough to generate the observed warps and this mechanism offers quite a plausible explanation. The inferred rate of infall of matter, ˜ 1 M⊙/yr, to the Galactic disc that this theory predicts agrees with the quantitative predictions of chemical evolution resolving key issues, notably the G-dwarf problem. Sánchez-Salcedo (2006) suggests that this mechanism is not plausible because it would produce a dependence of the scaleheight of the disc with the Galactocentric azimuth in the outer disc, but rather than being an objection this is another argument in favour of the mechanism because this dependence is actually observed in our Galaxy.

  10. Growing massive black holes through supercritical accretion of stellar-mass seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupi, A.; Haardt, F.; Dotti, M.; Fiacconi, D.; Mayer, L.; Madau, P.

    2016-03-01

    The rapid assembly of the massive black holes that power the luminous quasars observed at z ˜ 6-7 remains a puzzle. Various direct collapse models have been proposed to head-start black hole growth from initial seeds with masses ˜105 M⊙, which can then reach a billion solar mass while accreting at the Eddington limit. Here, we propose an alternative scenario based on radiatively inefficient supercritical accretion of stellar-mass holes embedded in the gaseous circumnuclear discs (CNDs) expected to exist in the cores of high-redshift galaxies. Our sub-pc resolution hydrodynamical simulations show that stellar-mass holes orbiting within the central 100 pc of the CND bind to very high density gas clumps that arise from the fragmentation of the surrounding gas. Owing to the large reservoir of dense cold gas available, a stellar-mass black hole allowed to grow at super-Eddington rates according to the `slim-disc' solution can increase its mass by three orders of magnitudes within a few million years. These findings are supported by simulations run with two different hydro codes, RAMSES based on the Adaptive Mesh Refinement technique and GIZMO based on a new Lagrangian Godunov-type method, and with similar, but not identical, sub-grid recipes for star formation, supernova feedback, black hole accretion and feedback. The low radiative efficiency of supercritical accretion flows are instrumental to the rapid mass growth of our black holes, as they imply modest radiative heating of the surrounding nuclear environment.

  11. Transition of a herniated lumbar disc to lumbar discal cyst: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Bansil, Rohit; Hirano, Yoshitaka; Sakuma, Hideo; Watanabe, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Another rare cause of lower back pain with radiculopathy is the discal cyst. It is believed to arise from degeneration of a herniated disc, although many other theories of its origin have been proposed. Here, we report a patient with lower back pain/radiculopathy attributed originally to a herniated lumbar disc, which transformed within 6 months into a discal cyst. Case Description: A 42-year-old male had a magnetic resonance (MR) documented herniated lumbar disc at the L4-5 level. It was managed conservatively for 6 months, after which symptoms recurred and progressed. The follow-up MR study revealed a discal cyst at the L4-5 without residual herniated disc. Of interest, the cyst communicated with the L4-5 intervertebral disc, which was herniated under the posterior longitudinal ligament and the disc space. During surgery, the cyst was completely removed, and his symptoms/signs resolved. Conclusion: A discal cyst develops as pathological sequelae of a degenerated herniated disc. Although rare, these lesions must be considered among the differential diagnoses in young patients with radicular back pain. MR study clearly documents these lesions, and surgical excision of the cyst is the treatment of choice. PMID:27843689

  12. Photoevaporating transitional discs and molecular cloud cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Min; Sui, Ning

    2017-04-01

    We investigate the evolution of photoevaporating protoplanetary discs including mass influx from molecular cloud cores. We examine the influence of cloud core properties on the formation and evolution of transitional discs. We use one-dimensional thin disc assumption and calculate the evolution of the protoplanetary disc. The effects of X-ray photoevaporation are also included. Our calculations suggest that most discs should experience the transitional disc phase within 10 Myr. The formation time of a gap and its initial location are functions of the properties of the cloud cores. In some circumstances, discs can open two gaps by photoevaporation alone. The two gaps form when the gas in the disc can expand to large radius and if the mass at large radius is sufficiently small. The surface density profile of the disc determines whether the two gaps can form. Since the structure of a disc is determined by the properties of a molecular cloud core, the core properties determine the formation of two gaps in the disc. We further find that even when the photoevaporation rate is reduced to 10 per cent of the standard value, two gaps can still form in the disc. The only difference is that the formation time is delayed.

  13. Electromagnetic Levitation of a Disc

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valle, R.; Neves, F.; de Andrade, R., Jr.; Stephan, R. M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a teaching experiment that explores the levitation of a disc of ferromagnetic material in the presence of the magnetic field produced by a single electromagnet. In comparison to the classical experiment of the levitation of a sphere, the main advantage of the proposed laboratory bench is that the uniform magnetic field…

  14. What Disc Brightness Profiles Can Tell us about Galaxy Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckman, John; Erwin, Peter; Gutiérrez, Leonel

    2015-03-01

    Azimuthally averaged surface brightness profiles of disc galaxies provide a most useful practical classification scheme which gives insights into their evolution. Freeman (1970) first classified disc profiles into Type I, with a single exponential decline in surface brightness, and Type II, having a split exponential profile, whose inner radial portion is shallower than its outer section. Van der Kruit & and Searle, (1981) drew attention to sharply truncated profiles of outer discs observed edge-on, but more recently Pohlen et al. (2004) showed that if these same galaxies were observed face-on their profiles would be of Type II. Finally in Erwin, Beckman and Pohlen (2005) we found a significant fraction of profiles with inner portion steeper than the outer portion, which we termed ``antitruncations`` or Type III profiles. In Erwin, Pohlen and Beckman (2008), we produced a refined classification, taking into account those Type II's produced by dynamical effects at the outer Lindblad resonance, and those Type III's caused by the presence of an outer stellar halo. In Gutiérrez et al. (2011) we showed the distribution of the three main profile types along the Hubble sequence. In early type discs Types I and III predominate, while in late types, Sc and later, Type II predominates. The evolution of Type II's over cosmic time was studied by Azzollini et al. (2008a, 2008b) who obtained four key results: (a) between z = 1 and z = 0 the break radius between the inner (shallower) and outer (steeper) profile has increased systematically, by a factor 1.3; (b) the inner profile has steepened while the outer profile is shallower at lower z; (c) the extrapolated central surface brightness has fallen by over two magnitudes; (d) the discs in the full redshift interval are always bluest at the break radius. While this behaviour can be qualitatively explained via evolutionary models including stellar migration plus gas infall, such as that by Roskar et al. (2008), and while Type III

  15. Foundations of Black Hole Accretion Disk Theory.

    PubMed

    Abramowicz, Marek A; Fragile, P Chris

    2013-01-01

    This review covers the main aspects of black hole accretion disk theory. We begin with the view that one of the main goals of the theory is to better understand the nature of black holes themselves. In this light we discuss how accretion disks might reveal some of the unique signatures of strong gravity: the event horizon, the innermost stable circular orbit, and the ergosphere. We then review, from a first-principles perspective, the physical processes at play in accretion disks. This leads us to the four primary accretion disk models that we review: Polish doughnuts (thick disks), Shakura-Sunyaev (thin) disks, slim disks, and advection-dominated accretion flows (ADAFs). After presenting the models we discuss issues of stability, oscillations, and jets. Following our review of the analytic work, we take a parallel approach in reviewing numerical studies of black hole accretion disks. We finish with a few select applications that highlight particular astrophysical applications: measurements of black hole mass and spin, black hole vs. neutron star accretion disks, black hole accretion disk spectral states, and quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs).

  16. Pulsed accretion in a variable protostar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzerolle, James; Furlan, Elise; Flaherty, Kevin; Balog, Zoltan; Gutermuth, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Periodic increases in luminosity arising from variable accretion rates have been predicted for some pre-main-sequence close binary stars as they grow from circumbinary disks. The phenomenon is known as pulsed accretion and can affect the orbital evolution and mass distribution of young binaries, as well as the potential for planet formation. Accretion variability is a common feature of young stars, with a large range of amplitudes and timescales as measured from multi-epoch observations at optical and infrared wavelengths. Periodic variations consistent with pulsed accretion have been seen in only a few young binaries via optical accretion tracers, albeit intermittently with accretion luminosity variations ranging from zero to 50 per cent from orbit to orbit. Here we report that the infrared luminosity of a young protostar (of age about 105 years) increases by a factor of ten in roughly one week every 25.34 days. We attribute this to pulsed accretion associated with an unseen binary companion. The strength and regularity of this accretion signal is surprising; it may be related to the very young age of the system, which is a factor of ten younger than the other pulsed accretors previously studied.

  17. Plasma physics of accreting neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghosh, Pranab; Lamb, Frederick K.

    1991-01-01

    Plasma concepts and phenomena that are needed to understand X- and gamma-ray sources are discussed. The capture of material from the wind or from the atmosphere or envelope of a binary companion star is described and the resulting types of accretion flows discussed. The reasons for the formation of a magnetosphere around the neutron star are explained. The qualitative features of the magnetospheres of accreting neutron stars are then described and compared with the qualitative features of the geomagnetosphere. The conditions for stable flow and for angular and linear momentum conservation are explained in the context of accretion by magnetic neutron stars and applied to obtain rough estimates of the scale of the magnetosphere. Accretion from Keplerian disks is then considered in some detail. The radial structure of geometrically thin disk flows, the interaction of disk flows with the neutron star magnetosphere, and models of steady accretion from Keplerian disks are described. Accretion torques and the resulting changes in the spin frequencies of rotating neutron stars are considered. The predicted behavior is then compared with observations of accretion-powered pulsars. Magnetospheric processes that may accelerate particles to very high energies, producing GeV and, perhaps, TeV gamma-rays are discussed. Finally, the mechanisms that decelerate and eventually stop accreting plasma at the surfaces of strongly magnetic neutron stars are described.

  18. Pulsed accretion in a variable protostar.

    PubMed

    Muzerolle, James; Furlan, Elise; Flaherty, Kevin; Balog, Zoltan; Gutermuth, Robert

    2013-01-17

    Periodic increases in luminosity arising from variable accretion rates have been predicted for some pre-main-sequence close binary stars as they grow from circumbinary disks. The phenomenon is known as pulsed accretion and can affect the orbital evolution and mass distribution of young binaries, as well as the potential for planet formation. Accretion variability is a common feature of young stars, with a large range of amplitudes and timescales as measured from multi-epoch observations at optical and infrared wavelengths. Periodic variations consistent with pulsed accretion have been seen in only a few young binaries via optical accretion tracers, albeit intermittently with accretion luminosity variations ranging from zero to 50 per cent from orbit to orbit. Here we report that the infrared luminosity of a young protostar (of age about 10(5) years) increases by a factor of ten in roughly one week every 25.34 days. We attribute this to pulsed accretion associated with an unseen binary companion. The strength and regularity of this accretion signal is surprising; it may be related to the very young age of the system, which is a factor of ten younger than the other pulsed accretors previously studied.

  19. The origin of rotation profiles in star-forming clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Sanemichi Z.; Tomida, Kengo; Machida, Masahiro N.; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro

    2016-12-01

    The angular momentum distribution and its redistribution are of crucial importance in the formation and evolution of circumstellar discs. Many molecular line observations towards young stellar objects indicate that the radial distributions of the specific angular momentum j have a characteristic profile. In the inner region, typically R ≲ 100 au, the specific angular momenta distribute as j ∝ r1/2, indicating the existence of a rotationally supported disc. In the outer regions, R ≳ 5000 au, j increases as the radius increases, and the slope is steeper than unity. This behaviour is assumed to reflect the original angular momentum distributions in the maternal molecular clouds. In the intermediate region, 100 au ≲ R ≲ 5000 au, the j-distribution appears to be almost flat. While this is often interpreted to be a consequence of the conservation of the specific angular momentum, the interpretation actually is insufficient and requires a stronger condition that the initial distribution of j must be spatially uniform. However, this requirement seems to be unrealistic and inconsistent with observations. In this work, we propose a simple alternative explanation: the apparently flat j profile is produced by strong elongation owing to the large velocity gradient in the accreting flow, no matter what the initial j-distribution is. In order to show this, we provide a simple analytic model for the gravitational collapse of molecular clouds. We also propose a method to estimate the ages of protostars using only the observed rotation profile. We demonstrate the validity of this method in comparison with hydrodynamic simulations, and apply the model to the young stellar objects L1527 IRS, TMC-1A and B335.

  20. Accretion flows onto supermassive black holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begelman, Mitchell C.

    1988-01-01

    The radiative and hydrodynamic properties of an angular momentum-dominated accretion flow onto a supermassive black hole depend largely on the ratio of the accretion rate to the Eddington accretion rate. High values of this ratio favor optically thick flows which produce largely thermal radiation, while optically thin 'two-temperature' flows may be present in systems with small values of this ratio. Observations of some AGN suggest that thermal and nonthermal sources of radiation may be of comparable importance in the 'central engine'. Consideration is given to the possibilities for coexistence of different modes of accretion in a single flow. One intriguing possibility is that runaway pair production may cause an optically thick 'accretion annulus' to form at the center of a two-temperature inflow.

  1. The chemical compositions of Galactic disc F and G dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Bacham E.; Tomkin, Jocelyn; Lambert, David L.; Allende Prieto, Carlos

    2003-03-01

    very old stars with origins in the inner Galaxy and metallicities [Fe/H]<=-0.4. At the same [Fe/H], the sampled thin disc stars have VLSR~ 0 km s-1, and are generally younger with a birthplace at about the Sun's Galactocentric distance. In the range -0.35 >=[Fe/H]>=-0.70, well represented by present thin and thick disc samples, [X/Fe] of the thick disc stars is greater than that of thin disc stars for Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti and Eu. [X/Fe] is very similar for the thin and thick disc for - notably - Na and iron-group elements. Barium ([Ba/Fe]) may be underabundant in thick relative to thin disc stars. These results extend previous ideas about composition differences between the thin and thick disc.

  2. Peripheral Disc Margin Shape and Internal Disc Derangement: Imaging Correlation in Significantly Painful Discs Identified at Provocation Lumbar Discography

    PubMed Central

    Bartynski, W.S.; Rothfus, W.E.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Annular margin shape is used to characterize lumbar disc abnormality on CT/MR imaging studies. Abnormal discs also have internal derangement including annular degeneration and radial defects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate potential correlation between disc-margin shape and annular internal derangement on post-discogram CT in significantly painful discs encountered at provocation lumbar discography (PLD). Significantly painful discs were encountered at 126 levels in 86 patients (47 male, 39 female) studied by PLD where no prior surgery had been performed and response to intradiscal lidocaine after provocation resulted in either substantial/total relief or no improvement after lidocaine administration. Post-discogram CT and discogram imaging was evaluated for disc-margin characteristics (bulge/protrusion), features of disc internal derangement (radial annular defect [RD: radial tear/fissure/annular gap], annular degeneration) and presence/absence of discographic contrast leakage. In discs with focal protrusion, 50 of 63 (79%) demonstrated Grade 3 RD with 13 (21%) demonstrating severe degenerative change only. In discs with generalized-bulge-only, 48 of 63 (76%) demonstrated degenerative change only (primarily Dallas Grade 3) with 15 of 63 (24%) demonstrating a RD (Dallas Grade 3). Differences were highly statistically significant (p<0.001). Pain elimination with intra-discal lidocaine correlated with discographic contrast leakage (p<0.001). Disc-margin shape correlates with features of internal derangement in significantly painful discs encountered at PLD. Discs with focal protrusion typically demonstrate RD while generalized bulging discs typically demonstrated degenerative changes only (p<0.001). Disc-margin shape may provide an important imaging clue to the cause of chronic discogenic low back pain. PMID:22681741

  3. Chondrule formation during planetesimal accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asphaug, Erik; Jutzi, Martin; Movshovitz, Naor

    2011-08-01

    We explore the idea that most chondrules formed as a consequence of inefficient pairwise accretion, when molten or partly molten planetesimals ~ 30-100 km diameter, similar in size, collided at velocities comparable to their two-body escape velocity ~ 100 m/s. Although too slow to produce shocks or disrupt targets, these collisions were messy, especially after ~ 1 Ma of dynamical excitation. In SPH simulations we find that the innermost portion of the projectile decelerates into the target, while the rest continues downrange in massive sheets. Unloading from pre-collision hydrostatic pressure P0 ~ 1-100 bar into the nebula, the melt achieves equilibrium with the surface energy of chondrule-sized droplets. Cooling is regulated post collision by the expansion of the optically thick sheets. on a timescale of hours-days. Much of the sheet rains back down onto the target to be reprocessed; the rest is dispersed.

  4. Diverse stellar haloes in nearby Milky Way mass disc galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmsen, Benjamin; Monachesi, Antonela; Bell, Eric F.; de Jong, Roelof S.; Bailin, Jeremy; Radburn-Smith, David J.; Holwerda, Benne W.

    2017-04-01

    We have examined the resolved stellar populations at large galactocentric distances along the minor axis (from 10 kpc up to between 40 and 75 kpc), with limited major axis coverage, of six nearby highly inclined Milky Way (MW) mass disc galaxies using Hubble Space Telescope data from the Galaxy haloes, Outer discs, Substructure, Thick discs, and Star clusters (GHOSTS) survey. We select red giant branch stars to derive stellar halo density profiles. The projected minor axis density profiles can be approximated by power laws with projected slopes of -2 to -3.7 and a diversity of stellar halo masses of 1-6 × 109 M⊙, or 2-14 per cent of the total galaxy stellar masses. The typical intrinsic scatter around a smooth power-law fit is 0.05-0.1 dex owing to substructure. By comparing the minor and major axis profiles, we infer projected axis ratios c/a at ∼25 kpc between 0.4and0.75. The GHOSTS stellar haloes are diverse, lying between the extremes charted out by the (rather atypical) haloes of the MW and M31. We find a strong correlation between the stellar halo metallicities and the stellar halo masses. We compare our results with cosmological models, finding good agreement between our observations and accretion-only models where the stellar haloes are formed by the disruption of dwarf satellites. In particular, the strong observed correlation between stellar halo metallicity and mass is naturally reproduced. Low-resolution hydrodynamical models have unrealistically high stellar halo masses. Current high-resolution hydrodynamical models appear to predict stellar halo masses somewhat higher than observed but with reasonable metallicities, metallicity gradients, and density profiles.

  5. [Optic disc granuloma secondary to sarcoidosis].

    PubMed

    Qu-Knafo, L; Auregan-Giocanti, A

    2017-02-01

    We report a case of optic disc granuloma due to sarcoidosis. A 64-year-old, caucasian female with a history of pulmonary sarcoidosis presented with a vision loss on her left eye. The ophthalmologic examination revealed a discrete optic disc infiltrate compatible with the diagnosis of optic disc granuloma. Fluorescein angiography showed diffusion and impregnation of the granuloma without vascularitis. The optical coherence tomography demonstrated a homogenous and isoreflective lesion at the optic disc. The patient recovered her visual acuity after systemic corticosteroid treatment. Isolated optic disc granuloma is a rare condition of ocular sarcoidosis.

  6. Origins of Stellar Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Kathryn V.

    2016-08-01

    This contribution reviews ideas about the origins of stellar halos. It includes discussion of the theoretical understanding of and observational evidence for stellar populations formed ``in situ'' (meaning formed in orbits close to their current ones), ``kicked-out'' (meaning formed in the inner galaxy in orbits unlike their current ones) and ``accreted'' (meaning formed in a dark matter halo other than the one they currently occupy). At this point there is general agreement that a significant fraction of any stellar halo population is likely ``accreted''. There is modest evidence for the presence of a ``kicked-out'' population around both the Milky Way and M31. Our theoretical understanding of and the observational evidence for an ``in situ'' population are less clear.

  7. Circadian disc shedding in Xenopus retina in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Flannery, J.G.; Fisher, S.K.

    1984-02-01

    To further examine the endogenous rhythm of disc shedding and phagocytosis observed in several species, adult Xenopus were entrained to a 12 hr light/12 hr dark cycle and then placed in constant darkness. At various times during a 3-day period of constant darkness, eyes were explanted and placed into culture medium, then processed for light and electron microscopy. A clear rhythmicity of disc shedding was observed, with pronounced peaks at the times light onset occurred in the original entrainment cycle. Modification of the HCO/sub 3/- ion concentration in the medium was found to raise the amplitude of the peak of endogenous disc shedding. Explants maintained in culture medium containing deuterium oxide (a compound known to perturb circadian oscillators) were found to shed with a longer interval between peaks. The addition of the protein synthesis inhibitor, anisomycin, to this preparation suppressed the shedding rhythm. The action of anisomycin was investigated by autoradiographic examination of the pattern of /sup 3/H-leucine uptake and protein synthesis by the explant. The findings suggest the presence of a circadian oscillator for rhythmic disc shedding within the amphibian eye.

  8. Black-Hole Accretion Disks --- Towards a New Paradigm ---

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, S.; Fukue, J.; Mineshige, S.

    2008-03-01

    Part I: Concepts of Accretion Disks: Chap. 1: Introduction, 1.1 Accretion Energy - Historical Origin, { Accretion-Disk Paradigm - Active Universe, 1.3 Accretion-Powered Objects - Observational Reviews, 1.4 X-Ray Binaries and Ultra-Luminous X-Ray Sources, 1.5 Active Galactic Nuclei, 1.6 Present Paradigm, Chap. 2: Physical Processes Related to Accretion, 2.1 Eddington Luminosity, 2.2 Bondi Accretion, 2.3 Viscous Process, 2.4 Magnetic Instabilities, 2.5 Relativistic Effects Part II: Classical Picture: Chap. 3: Classical Models, 3.1 Viscous Accretion Disks, 3.2 Standard Disks, 3.3 Optically Thin Disks, 3.4 Accretion Disk Coronae, 3.5 Relativistic Standard Disks, 3.6 Relativistic Tori Chap. 4: Secular and Thermal Instabilities, 4.1 Secular Instability, 4.2 Thermal Instability, 4.3 Stability Examination on dot{M}-Σ and T-Σ Planes, 4.4 Mathematical Derivation of the Stability Criterion, Chap. 5: Dwarf-Nova Type Instability, 5.1 Thermal-Ionization Instability, 5.2 Time Evolution of Disks in X-Ray Novae Chap. 6: Observability of Relativistic Effects, 6.1 Ray Tracing, 6.2 Imaging - Black Hole Silhouette, 6.3 Spectroscopy - Continuum and Line, 6.4 Photometry - Light Curve Diagnosis, 6.5 Other Effects - Lensing and Jets, Part III: Modern Picture: Chap. 7: Equations to Construct Generalized Models, 7.1 Basic Equations and Importance of Advection, 7.2 One-Temperature Disks, 7.3 Two-Temperature Disks, 7.4 Time-Dependent Equations Chap. 8: Transonic Nature of Accretion Flows, 8.1 Topology of Black-Hole Accretion, 8.2 Regularity Condition at a Critical Radius, 8.3 Topology around the Critical Radius in Isothermal Disks, 8.4 Numerical Examples of Transonic Flows, 8.5 Transonic Flows with Standing Shocks Chap. 9: Radiatively Inefficient Accretion Flows, 9.1 Advection-Dominated Accretion Flow, 9.2 Radial Structure of Advection-Dominated Flow, 9.3 Radiation Spectra of Advection-Dominated Flow, 9.4 Stability of Advection-Dominated Flow, 9.5 Multi-Dimensional Effects, Chap. 10: Slim

  9. Sonic hedgehog functions upstream of disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (disc1): implications for mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Penelope J.; Cunliffe, Vincent T.; Roy, Sudipto; Wood, Jonathan D.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT DISRUPTED-IN-SCHIZOPHRENIA (DISC1) has been one of the most intensively studied genetic risk factors for mental illness since it was discovered through positional mapping of a translocation breakpoint in a large Scottish family where a balanced chromosomal translocation was found to segregate with schizophrenia and affective disorders. While the evidence for it being central to disease pathogenesis in the original Scottish family is compelling, recent genome-wide association studies have not found evidence for common variants at the DISC1 locus being associated with schizophrenia in the wider population. It may therefore be the case that DISC1 provides an indication of biological pathways that are central to mental health issues and functional studies have shown that it functions in multiple signalling pathways. However, there is little information regarding factors that function upstream of DISC1 to regulate its expression and function. We herein demonstrate that Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signalling promotes expression of disc1 in the zebrafish brain. Expression of disc1 is lost in smoothened mutants that have a complete loss of Shh signal transduction, and elevated in patched mutants which have constitutive activation of Shh signalling. We previously demonstrated that disc1 knockdown has a dramatic effect on the specification of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPC) in the hindbrain and Shh signalling is known to be essential for the specification of these cells. We show that disc1 is prominently expressed in olig2-positive midline progenitor cells that are absent in smo mutants, while cyclopamine treatment blocks disc1 expression in these cells and mimics the effect of disc1 knock down on OPC specification. Various features of a number of psychiatric conditions could potentially arise through aberrant Hedgehog signalling. We therefore suggest that altered Shh signalling may be an important neurodevelopmental factor in the pathobiology of mental illness. PMID

  10. X-Ray Binary Phenomenology and Their Accretion Disk Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazanas, Demosthenes

    We propose a scheme that accounts for the broader spectral and temporal properties of galactic black hole X-ray transients. The fundamental notion behind this proposal is that the mass accretion rate, dot{M}, of the disks of these systems depends on the radius, as it has been proposed for ADIOS. We propose that, because of this dependence of dot{M} on radius, an accretion disk which is geometrically thin and cool at large radii converts into a geometrically thick, advection dominated, hot disk interior to a transition radius at which the local accretion rate drops below the square of the viscosity parameter, a condition for the existence of advection dominated flows. We argue also that such a transition requires in addition that the vertical disk support be provided by magnetic fields. As discussed in other chapters of this book, the origin of these fields is local to the disk by the Poynting Robertson battery, thereby providing a complete self-contained picture for the spectra and evolution of these systems.

  11. Ultraviolet line diagnostics of accretion disk winds in cataclysmic variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vitello, Peter; Shlosman, Isaac

    1993-01-01

    The IUE data base is used to analyze the UV line shapes of the cataclysmic variables RW Sex, RW Tri, and V Sge. Observed lines are compared to synthetic line profiles computed using a model of rotating biconical winds from accretion disks. The wind model calculates the wind ionization structure self-consistently including photoionization from the disk and boundary layer and treats 3D line radiation transfer in the Sobolev approximation. It is found that winds from accretion disks provide a good fit for reasonable parameters to the observed UV lines which include the P Cygni profiles for low-inclination systems and pure emission at large inclination. Disk winds are preferable to spherical winds which originate on the white dwarf because they: (1) require a much lower ratio of mass-loss rate to accretion rate and are therefore more plausible energetically; (2) provide a natural source for a biconical distribution of mass outflow which produces strong scattering far above the disk leading to P Cygni profiles for low-inclination systems and pure line emission profiles at high inclination with the absence of eclipses in UV lines; and (3) produce rotation-broadened pure emission lines at high inclination.

  12. UV line diagnostics of accretion disk winds in cataclysmic variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vitello, Peter; Shlosman, Isaac

    1992-01-01

    The IUE data base is used to analyze the UV line shapes of cataclysmic variables RW Sex, RW Tri, and V Sge. Observed lines are compared to synthetic line profiles computed using a model of rotating bi-conical winds from accretion disks. The wind model calculates the wind ionization structure self-consistently including photoionization from the disk and boundary layer and treats 3-D line radiation transfer in the Sobolev approximation. It is found that winds from accretion disks provide a good fit for reasonable parameters to the observed UV lines which include the P Cygni profiles for low inclination systems and pure emission at large inclination. Disk winds are preferable to spherical winds which originate on the white dwarf because they (1) require a much lower ratio of mass loss rate to accretion rate and are therefore more plausible energetically, (2) provide a natural source for a bi-conical distribution of mass outflow which produces strong scattering far above the disk leading to P Cygni profiles for low inclination systems, and pure line emission profiles at high inclination with the absence of eclipses in UV lines, and (3) produce rotation broadened pure emission lines at high inclination.

  13. Neutron and antineutron production in accretion onto compact objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dermer, Charles D.; Ramaty, Reuven

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear reactions in the hot accretion plasma surrounding a collapsed star are a source of neutrons, primarily through spallation and pion-producing reactions, and antineutrons, principally through the reaction p+p yields p+p+n+anti-n. We calculate spectra of neutrons and antineutrons produced by a variety of nonthermal energetic particle distributions in which the target particles are either at rest or in motion. If only neutral particles are free to escape the interaction site, a component of the proton and antiproton fluxes in the cosmic radiation results from the neutrons and antineutrons which leave the accretion plasma and subsequently decay in the interstellar medium. This additional antiproton component could account for the enhanced flux of antiprotons in the cosmic radiation, compared to values expected from the standard leaky-box model of cosmic-ray propagation and confinement. Moreover, the low-energy antiproton flux measured by Buffington et al. (1981) could result from target-particle motion in the accretion plasma. This model for the origin of antiprotons predicts a narrow 2.223 MeV line which could be observable.

  14. Echo Tomography of Hercules X-1: Mapping the Accretion Disc with RXTE and HST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vrtilek, S.

    2000-01-01

    A paper based on the RXTE results contents the following and are ready for submission to ApJ: "Possible Detection of Companion Star Reflection from Hercules X-1 with RXTE". A paper combining July 1998 and July 1999 observations (including the RXTE results for both years) is nearly ready for submission to ApJ: The July 1998 and July 1999 Multiwavelength Campaigns on Hercules X-I/HZ Herculis. The July 1999 observations took place during an anomalous X-ray low state and the RXTE and EUVE data are consistent with X_ray reflected from the surface of the companion star.

  15. Diagnosing the Black Hole Accretion Physics of Sgr A*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazio, Giovanni; Ashby, Matthew; Baganoff, Frederick; Becklin, Eric; Carey, Sean; Gammie, Charles; Ghez, Andrea; Glaccum, William; Gurwell, Mark; Haggard, Daryl; Hora, Joseph; Ingalls, James; Marrone, Daniel; Meyer, Leo; Morris, Mark; Smith, Howard; Willner, Steven; Witzel, Gunther

    2016-08-01

    The Galactic center offers the closest opportunity for studying accretion onto supermassive black holes. The fluctuating source, Sgr A*, is detected across the electromagnetic spectrum and may originate in the accretion flow or jet. Recent general relativistic magneto-hydrodynamic (GRMHD) models indicate that variability can be produced by a tilted inner disk, gravitational lensing of bright spots in the disk by the hole, or particle acceleration in reconnection events. These models produce different flare characteristics, and in particular better characterization of flares may enable us to distinguish between strong and weakly magnetized disks. Disentangling the power source and emission mechanisms of the flares is a central challenge to our understanding of the Sgr A* accretion flow. Following our successful observations of the variability of Sgr A* with IRAC in 2013 and 2014, we propose simultaneous IRAC (4.5 micron) and Chandra (2-10 keV) observations to (1) probe the accretion physics of Sgr A* on event-horizon scales and (2) detect any effect of the object G2 on Sgr A*. Specifically, we propose six additional epochs of observation, each of 24 uninterrupted hours; four in 2017 July and two in 2018 July. In this proposal we request two 24-hour (86.4 ks) Chandra periods, and are requesting another four through the Chandra TAC to have simultaneous X-ray observations in each of the six Spitzer epochs. Independent of this proposal we will also request NuSTAR (3-79 keV), SMA/ALMA/APEX (0.8 mm), and Keck/Magellan NIR (2.2 micron) observations during the IRAC/Chandra epochs. Only such long-duration, continuous, multi-wavelength observations can achieve a comprehensive view of the dominant emission process(es) and quantify the physical properties near the event horizon. Theoretical models are increasing in physical sophistication, and our study will provide essential constraints for the next generation of models.

  16. A spectroscopic survey of Herbig Ae/Be stars with X-Shooter - II. Accretion diagnostic lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairlamb, J. R.; Oudmaijer, R. D.; Mendigutia, I.; Ilee, J. D.; van den Ancker, M. E.

    2017-02-01

    The Herbig Ae/Be stars (HAeBes) allow an exploration of the properties of pre-main-sequence(PMS) stars above the low-mass range (<2 M_{⊙}) and those bordering the high-mass range (>8 M_{⊙}). This paper is the second in a series exploring accretion in 91 HAeBes with Very Large Telescope/X-shooter spectra. Equivalent width measurements are carried out on 32 different lines, spanning the UV (ultraviolet) to NIR (near infrared), in order to obtain their line luminosities. The line luminosities were compared to accretion luminosities that were determined directly from measurements of a UV excess. When detected, emission lines always demonstrate a correlation with the accretion luminosity, regardless of detection frequency. The average relationship between accretion luminosity and line luminosity is found to be L_acc ∝ L_line1.16 ± 0.15. This is in agreement with the findings in Classical T Tauri stars, although the HAeBe relationship is generally steeper, particularly towards the Herbig Be mass range. Since all observed lines display a correlation with the accretion luminosity, all of them can be used as accretion tracers. This has increased the number of accretion diagnostic lines in HAeBes 10-fold. However, questions still remain on the physical origin of each line, which may not be due to accretion.

  17. Effects of ice accretions on aircraft aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Frank T.; Khodadoust, Abdollah

    2001-11-01

    This article is a systematic and comprehensive review, correlation, and assessment of test results available in the public domain which address the aerodynamic performance and control degradations caused by various types of ice accretions on the lifting surfaces of fixed wing aircraft. To help put the various test results in perspective, overviews are provided first of the important factors and limitations involved in computational and experimental icing simulation techniques, as well as key aerodynamic testing simulation variables and governing flow physics issues. Following these are the actual reviews, assessments, and correlations of a large number of experimental measurements of various forms of mostly simulated in-flight and ground ice accretions, augmented where appropriate by similar measurements for other analogous forms of surface contamination and/or disruptions. In-flight icing categories reviewed include the initial and inter-cycle ice accretions inherent in the use of de-icing systems which are of particular concern because of widespread misconceptions about the thickness of such accretions which can be allowed before any serious consequences occur, and the runback/ridge ice accretions typically associated with larger-than-normal water droplet encounters which are of major concern because of the possible potential for catastrophic reductions in aerodynamic effectiveness. The other in-flight ice accretion category considered includes the more familiar large rime and glaze ice accretions, including ice shapes with rather grotesque features, where the concern is that, in spite of all the research conducted to date, the upper limit of penalties possible has probably not been defined. Lastly, the effects of various possible ground frost/ice accretions are considered. The concern with some of these is that for some types of configurations, all of the normally available operating margins to stall at takeoff may be erased if these accretions are not

  18. Accretion Rate: An Axis Of Agn Unification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trump, Jonathan R.; Impey, C. D.; Kelly, B. C.

    2011-01-01

    We show how accretion rate governs the physical properties of broad-line, narrow-line, and lineless active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We avoid the systematic errors plaguing previous studies of AGN accretion rate by using accurate accretion luminosities from well-sampled multiwavelength SEDs from the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS), and accurate black hole masses derived from virial scaling relations (for broad-line AGNs) or host-AGN relations (for narrow-line and lineless AGNs). In general, broad emission lines are present only at the highest accretion rates (L/L_Edd>0.01), and these rapidly accreting AGNs are observed as broad-line AGNs or possibly as obscured narrow-line AGNs. Narrow-line and lineless AGNs at lower specific accretion rates (L/L_Edd<0.01) are unobscured and yet lack a broad line region. The disappearance of the broad emission lines is caused by an expanding radiatively inefficient accretion flow (RIAF) at the inner radius of the accretion disk. The presence of the RIAF also drives L/L_Edd<0.01 narrow-line and lineless AGNs to be 10-100 times more radio-luminous than broad-line AGNs, since the unbound nature of the RIAF means it is easier to form a radio outflow. The IR torus signature also tends to become weaker or disappear from L/L_Edd<0.01 AGNs, although there may be additional mid-IR synchrotron emission associated with the RIAF. Together these results suggest that specific accretion rate is an important physical "axis" of AGN unification, described by a simple model.

  19. Black holes in short period X-ray binaries and the transition to radiatively inefficient accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knevitt, G.; Wynn, G. A.; Vaughan, S.; Watson, M. G.

    2014-02-01

    By comparing the orbital period distributions of black hole and neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) in the Ritter-Kolb catalogue we show that there is statistical evidence for a dearth of black hole systems at short orbital periods (Porb < 4 h). This could either be due to a true divergence in orbital period distributions of these two types of system, or to black hole LMXBs being preferentially hidden from view at short orbital periods. We explore the latter possibility, by investigating whether black hole LMXBs could be concealed by a switch to radiatively inefficient accretion at low luminosities. The peak luminosity and the duration of X-ray binary outbursts are related to the disc radius and, hence, the orbital period. At short periods, where the peak outburst luminosity drops close to the threshold for radiatively inefficient accretion, black hole LMXBs have lower outburst luminosities, shorter outburst durations and lower X-ray duty cycles than comparable neutron star systems. These factors can combine to severely reduce the detection probability of short period black hole LMXBs relative to those containing neutron stars. We estimate the outburst properties and orbital period distribution of black hole LMXBs using two models of the transition to radiatively inefficient accretion: an instantaneous drop in accretion efficiency (η) to zero, at a fraction (f) of the Eddington luminosity (LEdd) and a power-law efficiency decrease, η ∝ dot{M}^n, for L < f LEdd. We show that a population of black hole LMXBs at short orbital periods can only be hidden by a sharp drop in efficiency, either instantaneous or for n ≳ 3. This could be achieved by a genuine drop in luminosity or through abrupt spectral changes that shift the accretion power out of a given X-ray band.

  20. Accretion in Saturn's F Ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinke, B. K.; Esposito, L. W.; Stewart, G.

    2012-12-01

    Saturn's F ring is the solar system's principal natural laboratory for direct observation of accretion and disruption processes. The ring resides in the Roche zone, where tidal disruption competes with self-gravity, which allows us to observe the lifecycle of moonlets. Just as nearby moons create structure at the B ring edge (Esposito et al. 2012) and the Keeler gap (Murray 2007), the F ring "shepherding" moons Prometheus and Pandora stir up ring material and create observably changing structures on timescales of days to decades. In fact, Beurle et al (2010) show that Prometheus makes it possible for "distended, yet gravitationally coherent clumps" to form in the F ring, and Barbara and Esposito (2002) predicted a population of ~1 km bodies in the ring. In addition to the observations over the last three decades, the Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) has detected 27 statistically significant features in 101 occultations by Saturn's F ring since July 2004. Seventeen of those 27 features are associated with clumps of ring material. Two features are opaque in occultation, which makes them candidates for solid objects, which we refer to as Moonlets. The 15 other features partially block stellar signal for 22 m to just over 3.7 km along the radial expanse of the occultation. Upon visual inspection of the occultation profile, these features resemble Icicles, thus we will refer to them as such here. The density enhancements responsible for such signal attenuations are likely due to transient clumping of material, evidence that aggregations of material are ubiquitous in the F ring. Our lengthy observing campaign reveals that Icicles are likely transient clumps, while Moonlets are possible solid objects. Optical depth is an indicator of clumping because more-densely aggregated material blocks more light; therefore, it is natural to imagine moonlets as later evolutionary stage of icicle, when looser clumps of material compact to form a feature that appears

  1. Diskoseismology: Probing relativistic accretion disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, Michael Allen

    1992-08-01

    Helioseismology has provided a wealth of information about the structure of the solar atmosphere. Little is known, however, about the structure of accretion disks that are thought to exist around black holes and neutron stars. In t