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Sample records for accretion disk winds

  1. Relativistic Radiation Hydrodynamical Accretion-Disk Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukue, Jun; Akizuki, Chizuru

    2007-10-01

    Accretion-disk winds blowing off perpendicular to a luminous disk are examined within the framework of fully special relativistic radiation hydrodynamics. The wind is assumed to be steady, vertical, and isothermal. Using a velocity-dependent variable Eddington factor, we can solve the rigorous equations of relativistic radiative hydrodynamics, and can obtain radiatively driven winds accelerated up to relativistic speeds. For less-luminous cases, disk winds are transonic types passing through saddle-type critical points, and the final speeds of the winds increase as the disk flux and/or the isothermal sound speed increase. For luminous cases, on the other hand, disk winds are always supersonic, since the critical points disappear due to the characteristic nature of the disk gravitational fields. The boundary between the transonic and supersonic types is located at around hat{F}c ˜ 0.1(ɛ + p) / (ρc2) / γc, where hat{F}c is the radiative flux at the critical point normalized by the local Eddington luminosity, (ɛ + p) / (ρc2) is the enthalpy of the gas divided by the rest-mass energy, and γc is the Lorentz factor of the wind velocity at the critical point. In transonic winds, the final speed becomes 0.4-0.8c for typical parameters, while it can reach ˜ c in supersonic winds.

  2. Radiative-Thermal Winds from an Accretion Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukue, Jun

    2002-06-01

    We examine a hydrodynamical wind, which emanates from an accretion disk and is driven by thermal and radiation pressures, under a one-dimensional approximation along supposed streamlines. Such a disk wind is characterized by the disk gravitational and radiation fields, whose behavior is rather different from the spherical case. Along the streamline of winds, the gravitational field produced by the central object generally has a peak at some height, unlike the spherical case where it decreases monotonically. The radiation field produced by the disk, on the other hand, is almost constant near to the disk surface and decreases far from the disk, again unlike the spherical case. Due to these characteristic properties of force fields, disk winds are classified into three patterns: in the cold less-luminous case no wind can blow, in the warm luminous case transonic winds are established, and beyond some critical luminosity disk winds are always supersonic. We found that transonic winds can blow for the parameter range of a0 + 2Γeff >~ 0.8, where a0 is the initial sound speed in units of the Keplerian speed at the wind base and Γeff the normalized disk luminosity at the wind base. Furthermore, supersonic winds blow for Γeff >~ 0.4. We derive the terminal speed as a function of Γeff A radial extension of the flow is also discussed and applie d to mass outflow from several active objects.

  3. Radiative-Thermal Winds from an Accretion Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukue, J.

    We examine a hydrodynamical wind, which emanates from an accretion disk and is driven by thermal and radiation pressures, under a one-dimensional approximation along supposed streamlines. Such a disk wind is characterized by the disk gravitational and radiation fields, whose behavior is rather different from the spherical case. Along the streamline of winds, the gravitational field produced by the central object generally has a peak at some height. The radiation field produced by the disk, on the other hand, is almost constant near to the disk surface and decreases far from the disk. As a result of these characteristic properties of force fields, disk winds are classified into three patterns; in the cold less-luminous case no wind can blow, in the warm luminous case transonic winds are established, and beyond some critical luminosity disk winds are always supersonic. We found that transonic winds can blow for the parameter range of a0 + 2Γeff > 0.8, where a0 is the initial sound speed in units of the Keplerian speed at the wind base and Γeff the normalized disk luminosity at the wind base. Furthermore, supersonic winds blow for Γeff > 0.4.

  4. Simulations of Accretion Disk Wind Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Craig L.; Yong, Suk Yee; O'Dowd, Matthew; Webster, Rachel L.; Bate, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    The kinematics of the broad emission line region (BELR) in quasars is largely unknown, however there is strong evidence that outflows may be a key component. For example, in approximately 15% of quasars we observe broad, blue-shifted absorption features which may be ubiquitous based on line-of-sight arguments. We use a new mathematical description of an outflowing disk-wind with an initial rotational component to predict surface brightness distributions of this wind at different orientations. These surface brightness distributions will allow us to simulate gravitational microlensing of BELR light, with a view to mapping the structure and better understanding the kinematics of these flows.

  5. Ultraviolet line diagnostics of accretion disk winds in cataclysmic variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vitello, Peter; Shlosman, Isaac

    1993-01-01

    The IUE data base is used to analyze the UV line shapes of the cataclysmic variables RW Sex, RW Tri, and V Sge. Observed lines are compared to synthetic line profiles computed using a model of rotating biconical winds from accretion disks. The wind model calculates the wind ionization structure self-consistently including photoionization from the disk and boundary layer and treats 3D line radiation transfer in the Sobolev approximation. It is found that winds from accretion disks provide a good fit for reasonable parameters to the observed UV lines which include the P Cygni profiles for low-inclination systems and pure emission at large inclination. Disk winds are preferable to spherical winds which originate on the white dwarf because they: (1) require a much lower ratio of mass-loss rate to accretion rate and are therefore more plausible energetically; (2) provide a natural source for a biconical distribution of mass outflow which produces strong scattering far above the disk leading to P Cygni profiles for low-inclination systems and pure line emission profiles at high inclination with the absence of eclipses in UV lines; and (3) produce rotation-broadened pure emission lines at high inclination.

  6. UV line diagnostics of accretion disk winds in cataclysmic variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vitello, Peter; Shlosman, Isaac

    1992-01-01

    The IUE data base is used to analyze the UV line shapes of cataclysmic variables RW Sex, RW Tri, and V Sge. Observed lines are compared to synthetic line profiles computed using a model of rotating bi-conical winds from accretion disks. The wind model calculates the wind ionization structure self-consistently including photoionization from the disk and boundary layer and treats 3-D line radiation transfer in the Sobolev approximation. It is found that winds from accretion disks provide a good fit for reasonable parameters to the observed UV lines which include the P Cygni profiles for low inclination systems and pure emission at large inclination. Disk winds are preferable to spherical winds which originate on the white dwarf because they (1) require a much lower ratio of mass loss rate to accretion rate and are therefore more plausible energetically, (2) provide a natural source for a bi-conical distribution of mass outflow which produces strong scattering far above the disk leading to P Cygni profiles for low inclination systems, and pure line emission profiles at high inclination with the absence of eclipses in UV lines, and (3) produce rotation broadened pure emission lines at high inclination.

  7. Wind-accretion Disks in Wide Binaries, Second-generation Protoplanetary Disks, and Accretion onto White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perets, Hagai B.; Kenyon, Scott J.

    2013-02-01

    Mass transfer from an evolved donor star to its binary companion is a standard feature of stellar evolution in binaries. In wide binaries, the companion star captures some of the mass ejected in a wind by the primary star. The captured material forms an accretion disk. Here, we study the evolution of wind-accretion disks, using a numerical approach which allows us to follow the long-term evolution. For a broad range of initial conditions, we derive the radial density and temperature profiles of the disk. In most cases, wind accretion leads to long-lived stable disks over the lifetime of the asymptotic giant branch donor star. The disks have masses of a few times 10-5-10-3 M ⊙, with surface density and temperature profiles that follow broken power laws. The total mass in the disk scales approximately linearly with the viscosity parameter used. Roughly, 50%-80% of the mass falling into the disk accretes onto the central star; the rest flows out through the outer edge of the disk into the stellar wind of the primary. For systems with large accretion rates, the secondary accretes as much as 0.1 M ⊙. When the secondary is a white dwarf, accretion naturally leads to nova and supernova eruptions. For all types of secondary star, the surface density and temperature profiles of massive disks resemble structures observed in protoplanetary disks, suggesting that coordinated observational programs might improve our understanding of uncertain disk physics.

  8. X-ray Heated Winds from Accretion Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, D. T.; Castor, J. I.; Klein, R. I.; McKee, C. F.; Bell, J. B.

    1993-05-01

    We present 2-D axisymmetric hydrodynamical simulations of thermally driven winds from accretion disks which result from the absorption of X-rays from a central compact object (~ 10(8M_sun) ). We have assumed the accretion disk flares with radius so that the outer parts can be directly exposed to the ionizing radiation from the central source. The effects of rotation, central gravity from the compact object, and optically thin heating and cooling have been added to a second-order Godunov scheme employing local adaptive mesh refinement. Each model exhibits solutions where there is a gravitationally bound, nearly isothermal corona for streamlines emanating from small radii, and a free flowing wind for streamlines from large radii. We have calculated models for a range of luminosities which show the different types of wind solutions possible. These range from a rapidly-heated, nearly isothermal wind for high luminosities to a slowly-heated, gravitationally inhibited wind for low luminosities. A direct comparison is made to the analytic prediction of mass loss rate as a function of radius of Begelman, McKee, and Shields (1983). We find good agreement at high luminosities; however, discrepancies are found at low luminosities indicating an improved description of the transition to a gravitationally retarded wind. Finally, for the purposes of X-ray spectroscopy of the wind, we present the column density of various iron ions as a function of inclination angle of the disk for a few of our models.

  9. Radiato-Magneto-Thermal Winds from an Accretion Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukue, Jun

    2004-02-01

    We examine a hydrodynamical wind, which emanates from an accretion disk and is driven by thermal, magnetic, and radiation pressures, under a one-dimensional approximation along supposed streamlines. The disk gas is assumed to be isothermal, the magnetic field has only a toroidal component, and the radiation field is evaluated along the streamline. Such a disk wind is characterized by an isothermal sound speed, the Alfvén speed at the footpoint, and the strength of radiation fields. Isothermal winds can always blow even in the cold less-luminous case, and transonic winds are established, except for the perfectly cold case without thermal pressure. Beyond some critical luminosity, disk winds are always supersonic, irrespective of the thermal and magnetic pressures. We found that the terminal speed v∞ is roughly expressed as (1/2) v∞2 = (1/2) v02 - (1/2) (GM/r0) + 10.5 aT2 + 0.7 aAO2 + 16 Γeff (GM/r0), where v0 is the initial velocity, M the mass of the central object, r0 the radius of the wind base on the disk, aT the isothermal sound speed, aA0 the initial Alfvén speed, and Γeff the effective normalized luminosity, although the coefficients depend on the configuration of the streamlines.

  10. Wind-driven Accretion in Transitional Protostellar Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lile; Goodman, Jeremy J.

    2017-01-01

    Transitional protostellar disks have inner cavities that are heavily depleted in dust and gas, yet most of them show signs of ongoing accretion, often at rates comparable to full disks. We show that recent constraints on the gas surface density in a few well-studied disk cavities suggest that the accretion speed is at least transsonic. We propose that this is the natural result of accretion driven by magnetized winds. Typical physical conditions of the gas inside these cavities are estimated for plausible X-ray and FUV radiation fields. The gas near the midplane is molecular and predominantly neutral, with a dimensionless ambipolar parameter in the right general range for wind solutions of the type developed by Königl, Wardle, and others. That is to say, the density of ions and electrons is sufficient for moderately good coupling to the magnetic field, but it is not so good that the magnetic flux needs to be dragged inward by the accreting neutrals.

  11. Ultraviolet eclipse observations of an accretion disk wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drew, J. E.; Mason, K. O.; Cordova, F. A.; Horne, K. D.; Mauche, C. W.; Raymond, J. C.

    1995-01-01

    We present eclipse time series of ultraviolet CIV 1549A and HeII profiles in the spectrum of the nova-like variable UX UMa, obtained using the Goddard High Resolution Spectrometer (GHRS) on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). These data provide important new insights into the origin of these mainly wind-formed lines. Specifically, they show that the shallow line eclipses first discovered in International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) observations are due to the occultation of superposed narrow absorption features and provide the first clear evidence that the outflows in high-state cataclysmic variables (CV) are rooted in the inner accretion disk.

  12. Reverberation Mapping of Accretion Disk Winds in Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangham, S.

    2015-09-01

    Reverberation mapping is commonly used for determining black holes masses in AGN from the delayed response of the Broad Line Region (BLR) to fluctuations in the intensity of the AGN continuum source. However, it can also be an effective tool for investigating the structure and kinematics of the BLR itself. Much prior work has been performed to simulate the transfer functions associated with a range of basic geometries (e.g. Keplerian disks, Hubble-like outflows, etc). One promising model for the BLR is that the emission lines are formed in an equatorial accretion disk wind. Here, we predict the reverberation signatures expected from such a model, by modifying the radiative transfer and ionisation code Python that has previously been used to model broad absorption line quasars. This allows to account self-consistently for ionization and radiative transfer effects in the predicted BLR response, which are normally ignored in such calculations. We discuss the agreement between our results and prior work and consider the possibility of detecting the signature of rotating equatorial disk winds in observations obtained by velocity-resolved reverberation mapping campaigns.

  13. Accretion Disks, Magnetospheres, and Disk Winds as Emitters of the Hydrogen Lines in Herbig Ae/Be Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tambovtseva, L. V.; Grinin, V. P.; Weigelt, G.; Schertl, D.; Hofmann, K.-H.; Caratti o Garatti, A.; Garcia Lopez, R.

    2017-02-01

    Various disk and outflow components of the circumstellar environment of young Herbig Ae/Be stars may contribute to the hydrogen line emission. These are a magnetosphere, a disk wind, and a gaseous accretion disk. Non-LTE modeling was performed to show the influence of the model parameters on the intensity and the line profiles for each emitting region to present the spatial distribution of the brightness for each component and to compare their contributions to the total line emission. The modeling shows that the disk wind is the dominant contributor to the Brγ and Hα lines rather than the magnetospheric accretion and gaseous accretion disk.

  14. The structure and appearance of winds from supercritical accretion disks. I - Numerical models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meier, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    Equations for the structure and appearance of supercritical accretion disks and the radiation-driven winds which emanate from them are derived and solved by a steady-state hydrodynamic computer code with a relaxation technique used in stellar structure problems. The present model takes into account the mass of the accreting star, the total accretion rate, a generalization of the disk alpha parameter which accounts for heating by processes in addition to viscosity, and the ratio of the total luminosity to the Eddington luminosity. Solutions indicate that for accretion onto a hard-surfaced star, steady, optically thick winds result for even slightly supercritical accretion, and the object will appear as a supergiant star with a high mass loss rate and a nonblackbody spectrum. Winds from black hole accretion disks are expected to depend on the form of the accretion interior to the critical radius, possibly consisting of no ejection at all, a wind similar to that of a hard-surfaced star, or a column of material ejected from a hole in the accretion disk.

  15. The structure and appearance of winds from supercritical accretion disks. I - Numerical models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meier, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    Equations for the structure and appearance of supercritical accretion disks and the radiation-driven winds which emanate from them are derived and solved by a steady-state hydrodynamic computer code with a relaxation technique used in stellar structure problems. The present model takes into account the mass of the accreting star, the total accretion rate, a generalization of the disk alpha parameter which accounts for heating by processes in addition to viscosity, and the ratio of the total luminosity to the Eddington luminosity. Solutions indicate that for accretion onto a hard-surfaced star, steady, optically thick winds result for even slightly supercritical accretion, and the object will appear as a supergiant star with a high mass loss rate and a nonblackbody spectrum. Winds from black hole accretion disks are expected to depend on the form of the accretion interior to the critical radius, possibly consisting of no ejection at all, a wind similar to that of a hard-surfaced star, or a column of material ejected from a hole in the accretion disk.

  16. Hydrodynamic Models of Line-Driven Accretion Disk Winds III: Local Ionization Equilibrium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pereyra, Nicolas Antonio; Kallman, Timothy R.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We present time-dependent numerical hydrodynamic models of line-driven accretion disk winds in cataclysmic variable systems and calculate wind mass-loss rates and terminal velocities. The models are 2.5-dimensional, include an energy balance condition with radiative heating and cooling processes, and includes local ionization equilibrium introducing time dependence and spatial dependence on the line radiation force parameters. The radiation field is assumed to originate in an optically thick accretion disk. Wind ion populations are calculated under the assumption that local ionization equilibrium is determined by photoionization and radiative recombination, similar to a photoionized nebula. We find a steady wind flowing from the accretion disk. Radiative heating tends to maintain the temperature in the higher density wind regions near the disk surface, rather than cooling adiabatically. For a disk luminosity L (sub disk) = solar luminosity, white dwarf mass M(sub wd) = 0.6 solar mass, and white dwarf radii R(sub wd) = 0.01 solar radius, we obtain a wind mass-loss rate of M(sub wind) = 4 x 10(exp -12) solar mass yr(exp -1) and a terminal velocity of approximately 3000 km per second. These results confirm the general velocity and density structures found in our earlier constant ionization equilibrium adiabatic CV wind models. Further we establish here 2.5D numerical models that can be extended to QSO/AGN winds where the local ionization equilibrium will play a crucial role in the overall dynamics.

  17. CONSTRAINTS ON COMPTON-THICK WINDS FROM BLACK HOLE ACCRETION DISKS: CAN WE SEE THE INNER DISK?

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, Christopher S.

    2012-11-01

    Strong evidence is emerging that winds can be driven from the central regions of accretion disks in both active galactic nuclei and Galactic black hole binaries. Direct evidence for highly ionized, Compton-thin inner-disk winds comes from observations of blueshifted (v {approx} 0.05-0.1c) iron-K X-ray absorption lines. However, it has been suggested that the inner regions of black hole accretion disks can also drive Compton-thick winds-such winds would enshroud the inner disk, preventing us from seeing direct signatures of the accretion disk (i.e., the photospheric thermal emission, or the Doppler/gravitationally broadened iron K{alpha} line). Here, we show that, provided the source is sub-Eddington, the well-established wind-driving mechanisms fail to launch a Compton-thick wind from the inner disk. For the accelerated region of the wind to be Compton-thick, the momentum carried in the wind must exceed the available photon momentum by a factor of at least 2/{lambda}, where {lambda} is the Eddington ratio of the source, ruling out radiative acceleration unless the source is very close to the Eddington limit. Compton-thick winds also carry large mass fluxes, and a consideration of the connections between the wind and the disk shows this to be incompatible with magneto-centrifugal driving. Finally, thermal driving of the wind is ruled out on the basis of the large Compton radii that typify black hole systems. In the absence of some new acceleration mechanisms, we conclude that the inner regions of sub-Eddington accretion disks around black holes are indeed naked.

  18. Is the Blazar Sequence related to accretion disk winds?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boula, Stella; Mastichiadis, Apostolos; Kazanas, Demosthenes

    2016-08-01

    Adopting the hypothesis that the nonthermal emission of blazars is primarily due to the acceleration of electrons, we construct a simple leptonic model in order to explain the Blazar Sequence. The acceleration process is assumed to be of the first order Fermi type and the injected electrons and photons in the emitting region of the blazar are described by spatially averaged kinetic equations. According to the leptonic scenario, the spectral energy distributions of blazars have two basic components: a low frequency component, peaking in the optical through X-rays, from synchrotron emission; and a high frequency one, peaking in the γ rays, probably originating from Compton scattering of some seed photon source, either internal (synchrotron self-Compton) and/or external to the jet (external Compton). We find an adequate description of the Blazar Sequence by assuming a wind density profile of the form n(r) 1/r. Higher luminosity objects have higher accretion rates, higher optical thicknesses of the wind to Compton scattering and thus higher external photon fields than the lower luminosity ones. Therefore, we present indicative Blazar Sequence models which reproduce the basic observational trends just by varying one parameter, namely the mass accretion rate dot{m}.

  19. WIND-DRIVEN ACCRETION IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS. II. RADIAL DEPENDENCE AND GLOBAL PICTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Bai Xuening

    2013-08-01

    Non-ideal magnetohydrodynamical effects play a crucial role in determining the mechanism and efficiency of angular momentum transport as well as the level of turbulence in protoplanetary disks (PPDs), which are the key to understanding PPD evolution and planet formation. It was shown in our previous work that at 1 AU, the magnetorotational instability (MRI) is completely suppressed when both ohmic resistivity and ambipolar diffusion (AD) are taken into account, resulting in a laminar flow with accretion driven by magnetocentrifugal wind. In this work, we study the radial dependence of the laminar wind solution using local shearing-box simulations. The scaling relation on the angular momentum transport for the laminar wind is obtained, and we find that the wind-driven accretion rate can be approximated as M-dot approx. 0.91 x 10{sup -8}R{sub AU}{sup 1.21}(B{sub p}/10 mG){sup 0.93} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, where B{sub p} is the strength of the large-scale poloidal magnetic field threading the disk. The result is independent of disk surface density. Four criteria are outlined for the existence of the laminar wind solution: (1) ohmic resistivity dominated the midplane region, (2) the AD-dominated disk upper layer, (3) the presence of a (not too weak) net vertical magnetic flux, and (4) sufficiently well-ionized gas beyond the disk surface. All these criteria are likely to be met in the inner region of the disk from {approx}0.3 AU to about 5-10 AU for typical PPD accretion rates. Beyond this radius, the angular momentum transport is likely to proceed due to a combination of the MRI and disk wind, and eventually completely dominated by the MRI (in the presence of strong AD) in the outer disk. Our simulation results provide key ingredients for a new paradigm on the accretion processes in PPDs.

  20. Mass loss from pre-main-sequence accretion disks. I - The accelerating wind of FU Orionis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calvet, Nuria; Hartmann, Lee; Kenyon, Scott J.

    1993-01-01

    We present evidence that the wind of the pre-main-sequence object FU Orionis arises from the surface of the luminous accretion disk. A disk wind model calculated assuming radiative equilibrium explains the differential behavior of the observed asymmetric absorption-line profiles. The model predicts that strong lines should be asymmetric and blueshifted, while weak lines should be symmetric and double-peaked due to disk rotation, in agreement with observations. We propose that many blueshifted 'shell' absorption features are not produced in a true shell of material, but rather form in a differentially expanding wind that is rapidly rotating. The inference of rapid rotation supports the proposal that pre-main-sequence disk winds are rotationally driven.

  1. Wind from the black-hole accretion disk driving a molecular outflow in an active galaxy.

    PubMed

    Tombesi, F; Meléndez, M; Veilleux, S; Reeves, J N; González-Alfonso, E; Reynolds, C S

    2015-03-26

    Powerful winds driven by active galactic nuclei are often thought to affect the evolution of both supermassive black holes and their host galaxies, quenching star formation and explaining the close relationship between black holes and galaxies. Recent observations of large-scale molecular outflows in ultraluminous infrared galaxies support this quasar-feedback idea, because they directly trace the gas from which stars form. Theoretical models suggest that these outflows originate as energy-conserving flows driven by fast accretion-disk winds. Proposed connections between large-scale molecular outflows and accretion-disk activity in ultraluminous galaxies were incomplete because no accretion-disk wind had been detected. Conversely, studies of powerful accretion-disk winds have until now focused only on X-ray observations of local Seyfert galaxies and a few higher-redshift quasars. Here we report observations of a powerful accretion-disk wind with a mildly relativistic velocity (a quarter that of light) in the X-ray spectrum of IRAS F11119+3257, a nearby (redshift 0.189) optically classified type 1 ultraluminous infrared galaxy hosting a powerful molecular outflow. The active galactic nucleus is responsible for about 80 per cent of the emission, with a quasar-like luminosity of 1.5 × 10(46) ergs per second. The energetics of these two types of wide-angle outflows is consistent with the energy-conserving mechanism that is the basis of the quasar feedback in active galactic nuclei that lack powerful radio jets (such jets are an alternative way to drive molecular outflows).

  2. The Accretion Disk Wind in the Black Hole GRS 1915 + 105

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J.M.; Raymond, J.; Fabian, A. C.; Gallo, E.; Kaastra, J.; Kallman, T.; King, A. L.; Proga, D.; Reynolds, C. S.; Zoghbi, A.

    2016-01-01

    We report on a 120 kiloseconds Chandra/HETG spectrum of the black hole GRS 1915+105. The observation was made during an extended and bright soft state in 2015 June. An extremely rich disk wind absorption spectrum is detected, similar to that observed at lower sensitivity in 2007. The very high resolution of the third-order spectrum reveals four components to the disk wind in the Fe K band alone; the fastest has a blueshift of v = 0.03 c (velocity equals 0.03 the speed of light). Broadened reemission from the wind is also detected in the first-order spectrum, giving rise to clear accretion disk P Cygni profiles. Dynamical modeling of the re-emission spectrum gives wind launching radii of r approximately equal to 10 (sup 2-4) GM (Gravitational constant times Mass) divided by c (sup 2) (the speed of light squared). Wind density values of n approximately equal to 10 (sup 13-16) per cubic centimeter are then required by the ionization parameter formalism. The small launching radii, high density values, and inferred high mass outflow rates signal a role for magnetic driving. With simple, reasonable assumptions, the wind properties constrain the magnitude of the emergent magnetic field to be B approximately equal to 10 (sup 3-4) G (Gravitational constant) if the wind is driven via magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) pressure from within the disk and B approximately equal to 10 (sup 4-5) G (Gravitational constant) if the wind is driven by magnetocentrifugal acceleration. The MHD estimates are below upper limits predicted by the canonical alpha-disk model. We discuss these results in terms of fundamental disk physics and black hole accretion modes.

  3. The Accretion Disk Wind in the Black Hole GRS 1915 + 105

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J.M.; Raymond, J.; Fabian, A. C.; Gallo, E.; Kaastra, J.; Kallman, T.; King, A. L.; Proga, D.; Reynolds, C. S.; Zoghbi, A.

    2016-01-01

    We report on a 120 kiloseconds Chandra/HETG spectrum of the black hole GRS 1915+105. The observation was made during an extended and bright soft state in 2015 June. An extremely rich disk wind absorption spectrum is detected, similar to that observed at lower sensitivity in 2007. The very high resolution of the third-order spectrum reveals four components to the disk wind in the Fe K band alone; the fastest has a blueshift of v = 0.03 c (velocity equals 0.03 the speed of light). Broadened reemission from the wind is also detected in the first-order spectrum, giving rise to clear accretion disk P Cygni profiles. Dynamical modeling of the re-emission spectrum gives wind launching radii of r approximately equal to 10 (sup 2-4) GM (Gravitational constant times Mass) divided by c (sup 2) (the speed of light squared). Wind density values of n approximately equal to 10 (sup 13-16) per cubic centimeter are then required by the ionization parameter formalism. The small launching radii, high density values, and inferred high mass outflow rates signal a role for magnetic driving. With simple, reasonable assumptions, the wind properties constrain the magnitude of the emergent magnetic field to be B approximately equal to 10 (sup 3-4) G (Gravitational constant) if the wind is driven via magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) pressure from within the disk and B approximately equal to 10 (sup 4-5) G (Gravitational constant) if the wind is driven by magnetocentrifugal acceleration. The MHD estimates are below upper limits predicted by the canonical alpha-disk model. We discuss these results in terms of fundamental disk physics and black hole accretion modes.

  4. Accretion disk winds as the jet suppression mechanism in the microquasar GRS 1915+105.

    PubMed

    Neilsen, Joseph; Lee, Julia C

    2009-03-26

    Stellar-mass black holes with relativistic jets, also known as microquasars, mimic the behaviour of quasars and active galactic nuclei. Because timescales around stellar-mass black holes are orders of magnitude smaller than those around more distant supermassive black holes, microquasars are ideal nearby 'laboratories' for studying the evolution of accretion disks and jet formation in black-hole systems. Whereas studies of black holes have revealed a complex array of accretion activity, the mechanisms that trigger and suppress jet formation remain a mystery. Here we report the presence of a broad emission line in the faint, hard states and narrow absorption lines in the bright, soft states of the microquasar GRS 1915+105. ('Hard' and 'soft' denote the character of the emitted X-rays.) Because the hard states exhibit prominent radio jets, we argue that the broad emission line arises when the jet illuminates the inner accretion disk. The jet is weak or absent during the soft states, and we show that the absorption lines originate when the powerful radiation field around the black hole drives a hot wind off the accretion disk. Our analysis shows that this wind carries enough mass away from the disk to halt the flow of matter into the radio jet.

  5. Regulation of black-hole accretion by a disk wind during a violent outburst of V404 Cygni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Darias, T.; Casares, J.; Mata Sánchez, D.; Fender, R. P.; Armas Padilla, M.; Linares, M.; Ponti, G.; Charles, P. A.; Mooley, K. P.; Rodriguez, J.

    2016-06-01

    Accretion of matter onto black holes is universally associated with strong radiative feedback and powerful outflows. In particular, black-hole transients have outflows whose properties are strongly coupled to those of the accretion flow. This includes X-ray winds of ionized material, expelled from the accretion disk encircling the black hole, and collimated radio jets. Very recently, a distinct optical variability pattern has been reported in the transient stellar-mass black hole V404 Cygni, and interpreted as disrupted mass flow into the inner regions of its large accretion disk. Here we report observations of a sustained outer accretion disk wind in V404 Cyg, which is unlike any seen hitherto. We find that the outflowing wind is neutral, has a large covering factor, expands at one per cent of the speed of light and triggers a nebular phase once accretion drops sharply and the ejecta become optically thin. The large expelled mass (>10-8 solar masses) indicates that the outburst was prematurely ended when a sizeable fraction of the outer disk was depleted by the wind, detaching the inner regions from the rest of the disk. The luminous, but brief, accretion phases shown by transients with large accretion disks imply that this outflow is probably a fundamental ingredient in regulating mass accretion onto black holes.

  6. Regulation of black-hole accretion by a disk wind during a violent outburst of V404 Cygni.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Darias, T; Casares, J; Mata Sánchez, D; Fender, R P; Armas Padilla, M; Linares, M; Ponti, G; Charles, P A; Mooley, K P; Rodriguez, J

    2016-06-02

    Accretion of matter onto black holes is universally associated with strong radiative feedback and powerful outflows. In particular, black-hole transients have outflows whose properties are strongly coupled to those of the accretion flow. This includes X-ray winds of ionized material, expelled from the accretion disk encircling the black hole, and collimated radio jets. Very recently, a distinct optical variability pattern has been reported in the transient stellar-mass black hole V404 Cygni, and interpreted as disrupted mass flow into the inner regions of its large accretion disk. Here we report observations of a sustained outer accretion disk wind in V404 Cyg, which is unlike any seen hitherto. We find that the outflowing wind is neutral, has a large covering factor, expands at one per cent of the speed of light and triggers a nebular phase once accretion drops sharply and the ejecta become optically thin. The large expelled mass (>10(-8) solar masses) indicates that the outburst was prematurely ended when a sizeable fraction of the outer disk was depleted by the wind, detaching the inner regions from the rest of the disk. The luminous, but brief, accretion phases shown by transients with large accretion disks imply that this outflow is probably a fundamental ingredient in regulating mass accretion onto black holes.

  7. Gas content of transitional disks: a VLT/X-Shooter study of accretion and winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manara, C. F.; Testi, L.; Natta, A.; Rosotti, G.; Benisty, M.; Ercolano, B.; Ricci, L.

    2014-08-01

    Context. Transitional disks are thought to be a late evolutionary stage of protoplanetary disks whose inner regions have been depleted of dust. The mechanism responsible for this depletion is still under debate. To constrain the various models it is mandatory to have a good understanding of the properties of the gas content in the inner part of the disk. Aims: Using X-Shooter broad band - UV to near-infrared - medium-resolution spectroscopy, we derive the stellar, accretion, and wind properties of a sample of 22 transitional disks. The analysis of these properties allows us to place strong constraints on the gas content in a region very close to the star (≲0.2 AU) that is not accessible with any other observational technique. Methods: We fitted the spectra with a self-consistent procedure to simultaneously derive spectral type, extinction, and accretion properties of the targets. From the continuum excess at near-infrared wavelength we distinguished whether our targets have dust free inner holes. By analyzing forbidden emission lines, we derived the wind properties of the targets. We then compared our findings with results for classical T Tauri stars. Results: The accretion rates and wind properties of 80% of the transitional disks in our sample, which is strongly biased toward stongly accreting objects, are comparable to those of classical T Tauri stars. Thus, there are (at least) some transitional disks with accretion properties compatible with those of classical T Tauri stars, irrespective of the size of the dust inner hole. Only in two cases are the mass accretion rates much lower, while the wind properties remain similar. We detected no strong trend of the mass accretion rates with the size of the dust-depleted cavity or with the presence of a dusty optically thick disk very close to the star. These results suggest that, close to the central star, there is a gas-rich inner disk with a density similar to that of classical T Tauri star disks. Conclusions: The

  8. New Insights on the Accretion Disk-Winds Connection in Radio-Loud AGNs from Suzaku

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tombesi, F.; Sambruna, R. M.; Reeves, J. N.; Braito, V.; Cappi, M.; Reynolds, S.; Mushotzky, R. F.

    2011-01-01

    From the spectral analysis of long Suzaku observations of five radio-loud AGNs we have been able to discover the presence of ultra-fast outflows with velocities ,,approx.0.1 c in three of them, namely 3C III, 3C 120 and 3C 390.3. They are consistent with being accretion disk winds/outflows. We also performed a follow-up on 3C III to monitor its outflow on approx.7 days time-scales and detected an anti-correlated variability of a possible relativistic emission line with respect to blue-shifted Fe K features, following a flux increase. This provides the first direct evidence for an accretion disc-wind connection in an AGN. The mass outflow rate of these outflows can be comparable to the accretion rate and their mechanical power can correspond to a significant fraction of the bolometric luminosity and is comparable to their typical jet power. Therefore, they can possibly play a significant role in the expected feedback from AGNs and can give us further clues on the relation between the accretion disk and the formation of winds/jets.

  9. Wind-driven Accretion in Protoplanetary Disks. I. Suppression of the Magnetorotational Instability and Launching of the Magnetocentrifugal Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Xue-Ning; Stone, James M.

    2013-05-01

    We perform local, vertically stratified shearing-box MHD simulations of protoplanetary disks (PPDs) at a fiducial radius of 1 AU that take into account the effects of both Ohmic resistivity and ambipolar diffusion (AD). The magnetic diffusion coefficients are evaluated self-consistently from a look-up table based on equilibrium chemistry. We first show that the inclusion of AD dramatically changes the conventional picture of layered accretion. Without net vertical magnetic field, the system evolves into a toroidal field dominated configuration with extremely weak turbulence in the far-UV ionization layer that is far too inefficient to drive rapid accretion. In the presence of a weak net vertical field (plasma β ~ 105 at midplane), we find that the magnetorotational instability (MRI) is completely suppressed, resulting in a fully laminar flow throughout the vertical extent of the disk. A strong magnetocentrifugal wind is launched that efficiently carries away disk angular momentum and easily accounts for the observed accretion rate in PPDs. Moreover, under a physical disk wind geometry, all the accretion flow proceeds through a strong current layer with a thickness of ~0.3H that is offset from disk midplane with radial velocity of up to 0.4 times the sound speed. Both Ohmic resistivity and AD are essential for the suppression of the MRI and wind launching. The efficiency of wind transport increases with increasing net vertical magnetic flux and the penetration depth of the FUV ionization. Our laminar wind solution has important implications on planet formation and global evolution of PPDs.

  10. WIND-DRIVEN ACCRETION IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS. I. SUPPRESSION OF THE MAGNETOROTATIONAL INSTABILITY AND LAUNCHING OF THE MAGNETOCENTRIFUGAL WIND

    SciTech Connect

    Bai Xuening; Stone, James M.

    2013-05-20

    We perform local, vertically stratified shearing-box MHD simulations of protoplanetary disks (PPDs) at a fiducial radius of 1 AU that take into account the effects of both Ohmic resistivity and ambipolar diffusion (AD). The magnetic diffusion coefficients are evaluated self-consistently from a look-up table based on equilibrium chemistry. We first show that the inclusion of AD dramatically changes the conventional picture of layered accretion. Without net vertical magnetic field, the system evolves into a toroidal field dominated configuration with extremely weak turbulence in the far-UV ionization layer that is far too inefficient to drive rapid accretion. In the presence of a weak net vertical field (plasma {beta} {approx} 10{sup 5} at midplane), we find that the magnetorotational instability (MRI) is completely suppressed, resulting in a fully laminar flow throughout the vertical extent of the disk. A strong magnetocentrifugal wind is launched that efficiently carries away disk angular momentum and easily accounts for the observed accretion rate in PPDs. Moreover, under a physical disk wind geometry, all the accretion flow proceeds through a strong current layer with a thickness of {approx}0.3H that is offset from disk midplane with radial velocity of up to 0.4 times the sound speed. Both Ohmic resistivity and AD are essential for the suppression of the MRI and wind launching. The efficiency of wind transport increases with increasing net vertical magnetic flux and the penetration depth of the FUV ionization. Our laminar wind solution has important implications on planet formation and global evolution of PPDs.

  11. The Behavior of Accretion Disks in Low Mass X-ray Binaries: Disk Winds and Alpha Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayless, Amanda J.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation presents research on two low mass X-ray binaries. The eclipsing low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1822-371 is the prototypical accretion disk corona (ADC) system. We have obtained new time-resolved UV spectroscopy with the ACS/SBC on the Hubble Space Telescope and new V- and J-band photometry with the 1.3-m SMARTS telescope at CTIO. We show that the accretion disk in the system has a strong wind with projected velocities up to 4000 km/s as determined from the Doppler width of the C IV emission line. The broad and shallow eclipse indicates that the disk has a vertically-extended, optically-thick component at optical wavelengths. This component extends almost to the edge of the disk and has a height equal to 50% of the disk radius. As it has a low brightness temperature, we identify it as the optically-thick base of the disk wind. V1408 Aql (=4U 1957+115) is a low mass X-ray binary which continues to be a black hole candidate. We have new photometric data of this system from the Otto Struve 2.1-m telescope's high speed CCD photometer at McDonald Observatory. The light curve is largely sinusoidal which we model with two components: a constant light source from the disk and a sinusoidal modulation at the orbital period from the irradiated face of the companion star. This is a radical re-interpretation of the orbital light curve. We do not require a large or asymmetric disk rim to account for the modulation in the light curve. Thus, the orbital inclination is unconstrained in our new model, removing the foundation for any claims of the compact object being a black hole.

  12. Accretion disk winds in active galactic nuclei: X-ray observations, models, and feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tombesi, F.

    2016-05-01

    Powerful winds driven by active galactic nuclei (AGN) are often invoked to play a fundamental role in the evolution of both supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and their host galaxies, quenching star formation and explaining the tight SMBH-galaxy relations. A strong support of this ``quasar mode'' feedback came from the recent X-ray observation of a mildly relativistic accretion disk wind in a ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) and its connection with a large-scale molecular outflow, providing a direct link between the SMBH and the gas out of which stars form. Spectroscopic observations, especially in the X-ray band, show that such accretion disk winds may be common in local AGN and quasars. However, their origin and characteristics are still not fully understood. Detailed theoretical models and simulations focused on radiation, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) or a combination of these two processes to investigate the possible acceleration mechanisms and the dynamics of these winds. Some of these models have been directly compared to X-ray spectra, providing important insights into the wind physics. However, fundamental improvements on these studies will come only from the unprecedented energy resolution and sensitivity of the upcoming X-ray observatories, namely ASTRO-H (launch date early 2016) and Athena (2028).

  13. Modeling X-ray Absorbers in AGNs with MHD-Driven Accretion-Disk Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukumura, Keigo; Kazanas, D.; Shrader, C. R.; Tombesi, F.; Contopoulos, J.; Behar, E.

    2013-04-01

    We have proposed a systematic view of the observed X-ray absorbers, namely warm absorbers (WAs) in soft X-ray and highly-ionized ultra-fast outflows (UFOs), in the context of magnetically-driven accretion-disk wind models. While potentially complicated by variability and thermal instability in these energetic outflows, in this simplistic model we have calculated 2D kinematic field as well as density and ionization structure of the wind with density profile of 1/r corresponding to a constant column distribution per decade of ionization parameter. In particular we show semi-analytically that the inner layer of the disk-wind manifests itself as the strongly-ionized fast outflows while the outer layer is identified as the moderately-ionized absorbers. The computed characteristics of these two apparently distinct absorbers are consistent with X-ray data (i.e. a factor of ~100 difference in column and ionization parameters as well as low wind velocity vs. near-relativistic flow). With the predicted contour curves for these wind parameters one can constrain allowed regions for the presence of WAs and UFOs.The model further implies that the UFO's gas pressure is comparable to that of the observed radio jet in 3C111 suggesting that the magnetized disk-wind with density profile of 1/r is a viable agent to help sustain such a self-collimated jet at small radii.

  14. Optical spectroscopy of Z Canis Majoris, V1057 Cygni, and FU Orionis - Accretion disks and signatures of disk winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welty, Alan D.; Strom, Stephen E.; Edwards, Suzan; Kenyon, Scott J.; Hartmann, Lee W.

    1992-09-01

    High resolution, high SNR optical spectra have been used to investigate the hypothesis that in outburst, FU Ori objects are self-luminous accretion disks whose light dominates at optical and near-IR wavelengths. Strong evidence has been found for linewidth versus wavelength correlation in good agreement with model predictions for Z CMa and V1057 Cyg, but not for FU Ori itself. Linewidth varies continuously with wavelength at optical wavelengths in the former two objects, In the case of FU Ori, it is argued that a combination of strong wind components to spectral lines, and surface gravity possibly being lower than that of supergiants, conceals the underlying linewidth versus wavelength relationship. A marginal correlation is found between linewidth and lower excitation potential in all three objects. Synthetic disk spectra are subtracted from observed spectral, and remarkably good fits are found for all three objects for wavelengths longer than about 5000 A.

  15. Optical spectroscopy of Z Canis Majoris, V1057 Cygni, and FU Orionis - Accretion disks and signatures of disk winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welty, Alan D.; Strom, Stephen E.; Edwards, Suzan; Kenyon, Scott J.; Hartmann, Lee W.

    1992-01-01

    High resolution, high SNR optical spectra have been used to investigate the hypothesis that in outburst, FU Ori objects are self-luminous accretion disks whose light dominates at optical and near-IR wavelengths. Strong evidence has been found for linewidth versus wavelength correlation in good agreement with model predictions for Z CMa and V1057 Cyg, but not for FU Ori itself. Linewidth varies continuously with wavelength at optical wavelengths in the former two objects, In the case of FU Ori, it is argued that a combination of strong wind components to spectral lines, and surface gravity possibly being lower than that of supergiants, conceals the underlying linewidth versus wavelength relationship. A marginal correlation is found between linewidth and lower excitation potential in all three objects. Synthetic disk spectra are subtracted from observed spectral, and remarkably good fits are found for all three objects for wavelengths longer than about 5000 A.

  16. MAGNETICALLY DRIVEN ACCRETION DISK WINDS AND ULTRA-FAST OUTFLOWS IN PG 1211+143

    SciTech Connect

    Fukumura, Keigo; Tombesi, Francesco; Kazanas, Demosthenes; Shrader, Chris; Contopoulos, Ioannis

    2015-05-20

    We present a study of X-ray ionization of MHD accretion-disk winds in an effort to constrain the physics underlying the highly ionized ultra-fast outflows (UFOs) inferred by X-ray absorbers often detected in various sub classes of Seyfert active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Our primary focus is to show that magnetically driven outflows are indeed physically plausible candidates for the observed outflows accounting for the AGN absorption properties of the present X-ray spectroscopic observations. Employing a stratified MHD wind launched across the entire AGN accretion disk, we calculate its X-ray ionization and the ensuing X-ray absorption-line spectra. Assuming an appropriate ionizing AGN spectrum, we apply our MHD winds to model the absorption features in an XMM-Newton/EPIC spectrum of the narrow-line Seyfert, PG 1211+143. We find, through identifying the detected features with Fe Kα transitions, that the absorber has a characteristic ionization parameter of log (ξ{sub c}[erg cm s{sup −1}]) ≃ 5–6 and a column density on the order of N{sub H} ≃ 10{sup 23} cm{sup −2} outflowing at a characteristic velocity of v{sub c}/c ≃ 0.1–0.2 (where c is the speed of light). The best-fit model favors its radial location at r{sub c} ≃ 200 R{sub o} (R{sub o} is the black hole’s innermost stable circular orbit), with an inner wind truncation radius at R{sub t} ≃ 30 R{sub o}. The overall K-shell feature in the data is suggested to be dominated by Fe xxv with very little contribution from Fe xxvi and weakly ionized iron, which is in good agreement with a series of earlier analyses of the UFOs in various AGNs, including PG 1211+143.

  17. Magnetically Driven Accretion Disk Winds and Ultra-fast Outflows in PG 1211+143

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukumura, Keigo; Tombesi, Francesco; Kazanas, Demosthenes; Shrader, Chris; Behar, Ehud; Contopoulos, Ioannis

    2015-05-01

    We present a study of X-ray ionization of MHD accretion-disk winds in an effort to constrain the physics underlying the highly ionized ultra-fast outflows (UFOs) inferred by X-ray absorbers often detected in various sub classes of Seyfert active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Our primary focus is to show that magnetically driven outflows are indeed physically plausible candidates for the observed outflows accounting for the AGN absorption properties of the present X-ray spectroscopic observations. Employing a stratified MHD wind launched across the entire AGN accretion disk, we calculate its X-ray ionization and the ensuing X-ray absorption-line spectra. Assuming an appropriate ionizing AGN spectrum, we apply our MHD winds to model the absorption features in an XMM-Newton/EPIC spectrum of the narrow-line Seyfert, PG 1211+143. We find, through identifying the detected features with Fe Kα transitions, that the absorber has a characteristic ionization parameter of log (ξc[erg cm s-1]) ≃ 5-6 and a column density on the order of NH ≃ 1023 cm-2 outflowing at a characteristic velocity of vc/c ≃ 0.1-0.2 (where c is the speed of light). The best-fit model favors its radial location at rc ≃ 200 Ro (Ro is the black hole’s innermost stable circular orbit), with an inner wind truncation radius at Rt ≃ 30 Ro. The overall K-shell feature in the data is suggested to be dominated by Fe xxv with very little contribution from Fe xxvi and weakly ionized iron, which is in good agreement with a series of earlier analyses of the UFOs in various AGNs, including PG 1211+143.

  18. Evidence for the Magnetic Origin of Black Hole Accretion Disk Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrader, Chris R.; Fukumura, Keigo; Kazanas, Demos; Tombesi, Francesco; Behar, Ehud

    2017-06-01

    Black hole accretion disks seem to produce plasma outflows that result in blue-shifted absorption features in their spectra1. The literature of the past decade or so has demonstrated that the X-ray absorption-line properties of these outflows are often diverse. They can range in velocity from non-relativistic (~300 km s^-1) to sub-relativistic (~0.1c) over broad range in ionization of the wind plasma. We report here that semi-analytical, self-similar magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) wind models that have successfully accounted for the X-ray absorber properties of supermassive black can also be applied to the high-resolution X-ray spectrum of the accreting stellar-mass black holes, in particular to the 2005 outburst of GRO J1655-40. This supports the argument of their MHD origin and is consistent with aligned with earlier observational claims. It further hints at the notion of a universal magnetic structure of the observed winds across the known black hole mass range.

  19. Numerical experiments in galactic disks: Gravitational instability, stochastic accretion, and galactic winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, John C.

    Using 0D, 1D, and 3D models of galaxies, I explore different problems in galaxy evolution most suited to each technique. In the simplest case, a galaxy is described by a few numbers integrated via coupled ordinary differential equations. By allowing the galaxies to respond to a stochastic accretion rate, I show a natural way of generating the finite scatter observed in several galaxy scaling relations: the correlation between a galaxy's stellar mass and its star formation rate or metallicity. By comparing this simple model to observations, we constrain the process by which gas accretes onto galaxies, which must occur, but is essentially impossible to observe directly. Adding an additional dimension to the models, we explore the structure of galactic disks as a function of radius. We find that turbulence driven by gravitational instability in the disks and the resulting migration of gas can explain a wide variety of phenomena, including the age-velocity dispersion correlation of stars in the solar neighborhood, the central quenching star formation in disk galaxies, rings of star formation, and the observed radial profile of gas column densities. Finally, we run a set of fully three-dimensional galaxy simulations to try to understand what physics is responsible for basic properties of galaxies, including the rate at which they form stars, and the rate at which they eject mass in large-scale winds. We find that supernovae are capable of driving moderate metal-enhanced winds, but surprisingly they have very little effect on the star formation rates of dwarf galaxies. Instead, ordinary photoelectric heating dominates the star formation law in low-mass galaxies.

  20. Accretion disk electrodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coroniti, F. V.

    1985-01-01

    Accretion disk electrodynamic phenomena are separable into two classes: (1) disks and coronas with turbulent magnetic fields; (2) disks and black holes which are connected to a large-scale external magnetic field. Turbulent fields may originate in an alpha-omega dynamo, provide anomalous viscous transport, and sustain an active corona by magnetic buoyancy. The large-scale field can extract energy and angular momentum from the disk and black hole, and be dynamically configured into a collimated relativistic jet.

  1. MIGRATION OF EXTRASOLAR PLANETS: EFFECTS FROM X-WIND ACCRETION DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Fred C.; Cai, Mike J.; Lizano, Susana

    2009-09-10

    Magnetic fields are dragged in from the interstellar medium during the gravitational collapse that forms star/disk systems. Consideration of mean field magnetohydrodynamics in these disks shows that magnetic effects produce sub-Keplerian rotation curves and truncate the inner disk. This Letter explores the ramifications of these predicted disk properties for the migration of extrasolar planets. Sub-Keplerian flow in gaseous disks drives a new migration mechanism for embedded planets and modifies the gap-opening processes for larger planets. This sub-Keplerian migration mechanism dominates over Type I migration for sufficiently small planets (m{sub P} {approx}< 1 M {sub +}) and/or close orbits (r {approx}< 1 AU). Although the inclusion of sub-Keplerian torques shortens the total migration time by only a moderate amount, the mass accreted by migrating planetary cores is significantly reduced. Truncation of the inner disk edge (for typical system parameters) naturally explains final planetary orbits with periods P {approx} 4 days. Planets with shorter periods, P {approx} 2 days, can be explained by migration during FU-Orionis outbursts, when the mass accretion rate is high and the disk edge moves inward. Finally, the midplane density is greatly increased at the inner truncation point of the disk (the X-point); this enhancement, in conjunction with continuing flow of gas and solids through the region, supports the in situ formation of giant planets.

  2. Quasar Rain: The Broad Emission Line Region as Condensations in the Warm Accretion Disk Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elvis, Martin

    2017-09-01

    The origin of the broad emission line region (BELR) in quasars and active galactic nuclei is still unclear. I propose that condensations form in the warm, radiation-pressure-driven, accretion disk wind of quasars creating the BEL clouds and uniting them with the other two manifestations of cool (∼104 K) gas in quasars, the low ionization phase of the warm absorbers (WAs) and the clouds causing X-ray eclipses. The cool clouds will condense quickly (days to years), before the WA outflows reach escape velocity (which takes months to centuries). Cool clouds form in equilibrium with the warm phase of the wind because the rapidly varying X-ray quasar continuum changes the force multiplier, causing pressure waves to move gas into stable locations in pressure–temperature space. The narrow range of two-phase equilibrium densities may explain the (luminosity){}1/2 scaling of the BELR size, while the scaling of cloud formation timescales could produce the Baldwin effect. These dense clouds have force multipliers of order unity and so cannot be accelerated to escape velocity. They fall back on a dynamical timescale (months to centuries), producing an inflow that rains down toward the central black hole. As they soon move at Mach ∼10–100 with respect to the WA outflow, these “raindrops” will be rapidly destroyed within months. This rain of clouds may produce the elliptical BELR orbits implied by velocity-resolved reverberation mapping in some objects and can explain the opening angle and destruction timescale of the narrow “cometary” tails of the clouds seen in X-ray eclipse observations. Some consequences and challenges of this “quasar rain” model are presented, along with several avenues for theoretical investigation.

  3. Numerical simulations of dissipationless disk accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogovalov, S. V.; Tronin, I. V.

    2017-09-01

    Our goal is to study the regime of disk accretion in which almost all of the angular momentum and energy is carried away by the wind outflowing from the disk in numerical experiments. For this type of accretion the kinetic energy flux in the outflowing wind can exceed considerably the bolometric luminosity of the accretion disk, what is observed in the plasma flow from galactic nuclei in a number of cases. In this paper we consider the nonrelativistic case of an outflow from a cold Keplerian disk. All of the conclusions derived previously for such a system in the self-similar approximation are shown to be correct. The numerical results agree well with the analytical predictions. The inclination angle of the magnetic field lines in the disk is less than 60°, which ensures a free wind outflow from the disk, while the energy flux per wind particle is greater than the particle rotation energy in its Keplerian orbit by several orders of magnitude, provided that the ratio r A/ r ≫ 1, where r A is the Alfvénic radius and r is the radius of the Keplerian orbit. In this case, the particle kinetic energy reaches half the maximum possible energy in the simulation region. The magnetic field collimates the outflowing wind near the rotation axis and decollimates appreciably the wind outflowing from the outer disk periphery.

  4. Disk wind and magnetospheric accretion in emission from the Herbig Ae star MWC 480

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tambovtseva, L. V.; Grinin, V. P.; Potravnov, I. S.; Mkrtichian, D. E.

    2016-09-01

    The young Herbig Ae star MWC 480 (HD 31648) is one of the comprehensively spectroscopically studied stars in the ultraviolet, optical, and infrared spectral ranges. Using non-LTE modeling of its hydrogen spectrum, we have calculated the contribution to the hydrogen emission from such important regions of the circumstellar environment as the disk wind and the magnetosphere. We have used our own observations of the stellar spectrum performed with the 2.4-m telescope at the Thai National Observatory to quantitatively check our theoretical calculations. In addition, all of the visible and infrared spectra available in the literature have been used for a qualitative comparison. The modeling results have revealed a significant role of the magneto-centrifugal disk wind in the formation of atomic hydrogen emission. The cause of the emission line variability in the spectrum ofMWC 480 is discussed.

  5. Stratified Magnetically Driven Accretion-Disk Winds and Their Relations To Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fukumura, Keigo; Tombesi, Francesco; Kazanas, Demosthenes; Shrader, Chris; Behar, Ehud; Contopoulos, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    We explore the poloidal structure of two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) winds in relation to their potential association with the X-ray warm absorbers (WAs) and the highly ionized ultra-fast outflows (UFOs) in active galactic nuclei (AGNs), in a single unifying approach. We present the density n(r, theta), ionization parameter xi(r, theta), and velocity structure v(r, theta) of such ionized winds for typical values of their fluid-to-magnetic flux ratio, F, and specific angular momentum, H, for which wind solutions become super-Alfvenic. We explore the geometrical shape of winds for different values of these parameters and delineate the values that produce the widest and narrowest opening angles of these winds, quantities necessary in the determination of the statistics of AGN obscuration. We find that winds with smaller H show a poloidal geometry of narrower opening angles with their Alfv´en surface at lower inclination angles and therefore they produce the highest line of sight (LoS) velocities for observers at higher latitudes with the respect to the disk plane. We further note a physical and spatial correlation between the X-ray WAs and UFOs that form along the same LoS to the observer but at different radii, r, and distinct values of n, xi, and v consistent with the latest spectroscopic data of radio-quiet Seyfert galaxies. We also show that, at least in the case of 3C 111, the winds' pressure is sufficient to contain the relativistic plasma responsible for its radio emission. Stratified MHD disk winds could therefore serve as a unique means to understand and unify the diverse AGN outflows.

  6. Stratified magnetically driven accretion-disk winds and their relations to jets

    SciTech Connect

    Fukumura, Keigo; Tombesi, Francesco; Kazanas, Demosthenes; Shrader, Chris; Contopoulos, Ioannis

    2014-01-10

    We explore the poloidal structure of two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) winds in relation to their potential association with the X-ray warm absorbers (WAs) and the highly ionized ultra-fast outflows (UFOs) in active galactic nuclei (AGNs), in a single unifying approach. We present the density n(r, θ), ionization parameter ξ(r, θ), and velocity structure v(r, θ) of such ionized winds for typical values of their fluid-to-magnetic flux ratio, F, and specific angular momentum, H, for which wind solutions become super-Alfvénic. We explore the geometrical shape of winds for different values of these parameters and delineate the values that produce the widest and narrowest opening angles of these winds, quantities necessary in the determination of the statistics of AGN obscuration. We find that winds with smaller H show a poloidal geometry of narrower opening angles with their Alfvén surface at lower inclination angles and therefore they produce the highest line of sight (LoS) velocities for observers at higher latitudes with the respect to the disk plane. We further note a physical and spatial correlation between the X-ray WAs and UFOs that form along the same LoS to the observer but at different radii, r, and distinct values of n, ξ, and v consistent with the latest spectroscopic data of radio-quiet Seyfert galaxies. We also show that, at least in the case of 3C 111, the winds' pressure is sufficient to contain the relativistic plasma responsible for its radio emission. Stratified MHD disk winds could therefore serve as a unique means to understand and unify the diverse AGN outflows.

  7. Stratified Magnetically Driven Accretion-disk Winds and Their Relations to Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukumura, Keigo; Tombesi, Francesco; Kazanas, Demosthenes; Shrader, Chris; Behar, Ehud; Contopoulos, Ioannis

    2014-01-01

    We explore the poloidal structure of two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) winds in relation to their potential association with the X-ray warm absorbers (WAs) and the highly ionized ultra-fast outflows (UFOs) in active galactic nuclei (AGNs), in a single unifying approach. We present the density n(r, θ), ionization parameter ξ(r, θ), and velocity structure v(r, θ) of such ionized winds for typical values of their fluid-to-magnetic flux ratio, F, and specific angular momentum, H, for which wind solutions become super-Alfvénic. We explore the geometrical shape of winds for different values of these parameters and delineate the values that produce the widest and narrowest opening angles of these winds, quantities necessary in the determination of the statistics of AGN obscuration. We find that winds with smaller H show a poloidal geometry of narrower opening angles with their Alfvén surface at lower inclination angles and therefore they produce the highest line of sight (LoS) velocities for observers at higher latitudes with the respect to the disk plane. We further note a physical and spatial correlation between the X-ray WAs and UFOs that form along the same LoS to the observer but at different radii, r, and distinct values of n, ξ, and v consistent with the latest spectroscopic data of radio-quiet Seyfert galaxies. We also show that, at least in the case of 3C 111, the winds' pressure is sufficient to contain the relativistic plasma responsible for its radio emission. Stratified MHD disk winds could therefore serve as a unique means to understand and unify the diverse AGN outflows.

  8. ACCRETION OUTBURSTS IN CIRCUMPLANETARY DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Lubow, S. H.; Martin, R. G.

    2012-04-20

    We describe a model for the long-term evolution of a circumplanetary disk that is fed mass from a circumstellar disk and contains regions of low turbulence (dead zones). We show that such disks can be subject to accretion-driven outbursts, analogous to outbursts previously modeled in the context of circumstellar disks to explain FU Ori phenomena. Circumplanetary disks around a proto-Jupiter can undergo outbursts for infall accretion rates onto the disks in the range M-dot{sub infall} approx. 10{sup -9} to 10{sup -7} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, typical of accretion rates in the T Tauri phase. During outbursts, the accretion rate and disk luminosity increases by several orders of magnitude. Most of the planet mass growth during planetary gas accretion may occur via disk outbursts involving gas that is considerably hotter than predicted by steady state models. For low infall accretion rates M-dot{sub infall} {approx}< 10{sup -10} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} that occur in late stages of disk accretion, disk outbursts are unlikely to occur, even if dead zones are present. Such conditions are favorable for the formation of icy satellites.

  9. Recent Observational Progress on Accretion Disks Around Compact Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Jon M.

    2016-04-01

    Studies of accretion disks around black holes and neutron stars over the last ten years have made remarkable progress. Our understanding of disk evolution as a function of mass accretion rate is pushing toward a consensus on thin/thick disk transitions; an apparent switching between disk-driven outflow modes has emerged; and monitoring observations have revealed complex spectral energy distributions wherein disk reprocessing must be important. Detailed studies of disk winds, in particular, have the potential to reveal the basic physical processes that mediate disk accretion, and to connect with numerical simulations. This talk will review these developments and look ahead to the potential of Astro-H.

  10. Hydrodynamic Viscosity in Accretion Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duschl, Wolfgang J.; Strittmatter, Peter A.; Biermann, Peter L.

    We propose a generalized accretion disk viscosity prescription based on hydrodynamically driven turbulence at the critical effective Reynolds number. This approach is consistent with recent re-analysis by Richard & Zahn (1999) of experimental results on turbulent Couette-Taylor flows. This new β-viscosity formulation applies to both selfgravitating and non-selfgravitating disks and is shown to yield the standard α-disk prescription in the case of shock dissipation limited, non-selfgravitating disks.

  11. Testing Accretion Disk Wind Models of Broad Absorption Line Quasars with SDSS Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindgren, Sean; Gabel, Jack

    2017-06-01

    We present an investigation of a large sample of broad absorption line (BAL) quasars (QSO) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 5 (DR5). Properties of the BALs, such as absorption equivalent width, outflow velocities, and depth of BAL, are obtained from analysis by Gibson et al. We perform correlation analysis on these data to test the predictions made by the radiation driven, accretion disk streamline model of Murray and Chiang. We find the CIV BAL maximum velocity and the continuum luminosity are correlated, consistent with radiation driven models. The mean minimum velocity of CIV is lower in low ionization BALs (LoBALs), than highly ionized BALs (HiBALS), suggesting an orientation effect consistent with the Murray and Chiang model. Finally, we find that HiBALs greatly outnumber LoBALs in the general BAL population, supporting prediction of the Murray and Chiang model that HiBALs have a greater global covering factor than LoBALs.

  12. Revealing the location and structure of the accretion disk wind in PDS 456

    SciTech Connect

    Gofford, J.; Reeves, J. N.; Nardini, E.; Costa, M. T.; Matzeu, G. A.; Braito, V.; O'Brien, P.; Ward, M.; Turner, T. J.; Miller, L.

    2014-03-20

    We present evidence for the rapid variability of the high-velocity iron K-shell absorption in the nearby (z = 0.184) quasar PDS 456. From a recent long Suzaku observation in 2013 (∼1 Ms effective duration), we find that the equivalent width of iron K absorption increases by a factor of ∼5 during the observation, increasing from <105 eV within the first 100 ks of the observation, toward a maximum depth of ∼500 eV near the end. The implied outflow velocity of ∼0.25 c is consistent with that claimed from earlier (2007, 2011) Suzaku observations. The absorption varies on timescales as short as ∼1 week. We show that this variability can be equally well attributed to either (1) an increase in column density, plausibly associated with a clumpy time-variable outflow, or (2) the decreasing ionization of a smooth homogeneous outflow which is in photo-ionization equilibrium with the local photon field. The variability allows a direct measure of absorber location, which is constrained to within r = 200-3500 r {sub g} of the black hole. Even in the most conservative case, the kinetic power of the outflow is ≳ 6% of the Eddington luminosity, with a mass outflow rate in excess of ∼40% of the Eddington accretion rate. The wind momentum rate is directly equivalent to the Eddington momentum rate which suggests that the flow may have been accelerated by continuum scattering during an episode of Eddington-limited accretion.

  13. Theory of protostellar accretion disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruden, S.

    1994-01-01

    I will present an overview of the current paradigm for the theory of gaseous accretion disks around young stars. Protostellar disks form from the collapse of rotating molecular cloud cores. The disks evolve via outward angular momentum transport provided by several mechanisms: gravitational instabilities, thermal convective turbulence, and magnetic stresses. I will review the conditions under which these mechanisms are efficient and consistent with the observed disk evolutionary timescales of several million years. Time permitting, I will discuss outbursts in protostellar disks (FU Orionis variables), the effect of planet formation on disk structure, and the dispersal of remnant gas.

  14. ACCRETING CIRCUMPLANETARY DISKS: OBSERVATIONAL SIGNATURES

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Zhaohuan

    2015-01-20

    I calculate the spectral energy distributions of accreting circumplanetary disks using atmospheric radiative transfer models. Circumplanetary disks only accreting at 10{sup –10} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} around a 1 M{sub J} planet can be brighter than the planet itself. A moderately accreting circumplanetary disk ( M-dot ∼10{sup −8} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}; enough to form a 10 M{sub J} planet within 1 Myr) around a 1 M{sub J} planet has a maximum temperature of ∼2000 K, and at near-infrared wavelengths (J, H, K bands), this disk is as bright as a late-M-type brown dwarf or a 10 M{sub J} planet with a ''hot start''. To use direct imaging to find the accretion disks around low-mass planets (e.g., 1 M{sub J} ) and distinguish them from brown dwarfs or hot high-mass planets, it is crucial to obtain photometry at mid-infrared bands (L', M, N bands) because the emission from circumplanetary disks falls off more slowly toward longer wavelengths than those of brown dwarfs or planets. If young planets have strong magnetic fields (≳100 G), fields may truncate slowly accreting circumplanetary disks ( M-dot ≲10{sup −9} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}) and lead to magnetospheric accretion, which can provide additional accretion signatures, such as UV/optical excess from the accretion shock and line emission.

  15. ACCRETION DISK TEMPERATURES OF QSOs: CONSTRAINTS FROM THE EMISSION LINES

    SciTech Connect

    Bonning, E. W.; Shields, G. A.; Stevens, A. C.; Salviander, S. E-mail: shields@astro.as.utexas.edu E-mail: triples@astro.as.utexas.edu

    2013-06-10

    We compare QSO emission-line spectra to predictions based on theoretical ionizing continua of accretion disks. The observed line intensities do not show the expected trend of higher ionization with theoretical accretion disk temperature as predicted from the black hole mass and accretion rate. Consistent with earlier studies, this suggests that the inner disk does not reach temperatures as high as expected from standard disk theory. Modified radial temperature profiles, taking account of winds or advection in the inner disk, achieve better agreement with observation. The emission lines of radio-detected and radio-undetected sources show different trends as a function of the theoretically predicted disk temperature.

  16. PROPERTIES OF GRAVITOTURBULENT ACCRETION DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Rafikov, Roman R.

    2009-10-10

    We explore the properties of cold gravitoturbulent accretion disks-non-fragmenting disks hovering on the verge of gravitational instability (GI)-using a realistic prescription for the effective viscosity caused by gravitational torques. This prescription is based on a direct relationship between the angular momentum transport in a thin accretion disk and the disk cooling in a steady state. Assuming that opacity is dominated by dust we are able to self-consistently derive disk properties for a given M-dot assuming marginal gravitational stability. We also allow external irradiation of the disk and account for a non-zero background viscosity, which can be due to the magneto-rotational instability. Spatial transitions between different co-existing disk states (e.g., between irradiated and self-luminous or between gravitoturbulent and viscous) are described and the location of the boundary at which the disk must fragment is determined in a variety of situations. We demonstrate in particular that at low enough M-dot external irradiation stabilizes the gravitoturbulent disk against fragmentation to very large distances thus providing means of steady mass transport to the central object. Implications of our results for the possibility of planet formation by GI in protoplanetary disks and star formation in the Galactic center and for the problem of feeding supermassive black holes in galactic nuclei are discussed.

  17. The magnetic nature of disk accretion onto black holes.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jon M; Raymond, John; Fabian, Andy; Steeghs, Danny; Homan, Jeroen; Reynolds, Chris; van der Klis, Michiel; Wijnands, Rudy

    2006-06-22

    Although disk accretion onto compact objects-white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes-is central to much of high-energy astrophysics, the mechanisms that enable this process have remained observationally difficult to determine. Accretion disks must transfer angular momentum in order for matter to travel radially inward onto the compact object. Internal viscosity from magnetic processes and disk winds can both in principle transfer angular momentum, but hitherto we lacked evidence that either occurs. Here we report that an X-ray-absorbing wind discovered in an observation of the stellar-mass black hole binary GRO J1655 - 40 (ref. 6) must be powered by a magnetic process that can also drive accretion through the disk. Detailed spectral analysis and modelling of the wind shows that it can only be powered by pressure generated by magnetic viscosity internal to the disk or magnetocentrifugal forces. This result demonstrates that disk accretion onto black holes is a fundamentally magnetic process.

  18. Magnetically Torqued Thin Accretion Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kluźniak, W.; Rappaport, S.

    2007-12-01

    We compute the properties of a geometrically thin, steady accretion disk surrounding a central rotating, magnetized star. The magnetosphere is assumed to entrain the disk over a wide range of radii. The model is simplified in that we adopt two (alternate) ad hoc, but plausible, expressions for the azimuthal component of the magnetic field as a function of radial distance. We find a solution for the angular velocity profile tending to corotation close to the central star and smoothly matching a Keplerian curve at a radius where the viscous stress vanishes. The value of this ``transition'' radius is nearly the same for both of our adopted B-field models. We then solve analytically for the torques on the central star and for the disk luminosity due to gravity and magnetic torques. When expressed in a dimensionless form, the resulting quantities depend on one parameter alone, the ratio of the transition radius to the corotation radius. For rapid rotators, the accretion disk may be powered mostly by spin-down of the central star. These results are independent of the viscosity prescription in the disk. We also solve for the disk structure for the special case of an optically thick alpha disk. Our results are applicable to a range of astrophysical systems including accreting neutron stars, intermediate polar cataclysmic variables, and T Tauri systems.

  19. Persistent Patterns in Accretion Disks

    SciTech Connect

    Amin, Mustafa A.; Frolov, Andrei V.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2006-04-03

    We present a set of new characteristic frequencies associated with accretion disks around compact objects. These frequencies arise from persistent rotating patterns in the disk that are finite in radial extent and driven purely by the gravity of the central body. Their existence depends on general relativistic corrections to orbital motion and, if observed, could be used to probe the strong gravity region around a black hole. We also discuss a possible connection to the puzzle of quasi-periodic oscillations.

  20. RINGED ACCRETION DISKS: EQUILIBRIUM CONFIGURATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Pugliese, D.; Stuchlík, Z. E-mail: zdenek.stuchlik@physics.cz

    2015-12-15

    We investigate a model of a ringed accretion disk, made up by several rings rotating around a supermassive Kerr black hole attractor. Each toroid of the ringed disk is governed by the general relativity hydrodynamic Boyer condition of equilibrium configurations of rotating perfect fluids. Properties of the tori can then be determined by an appropriately defined effective potential reflecting the background Kerr geometry and the centrifugal effects. The ringed disks could be created in various regimes during the evolution of matter configurations around supermassive black holes. Therefore, both corotating and counterrotating rings have to be considered as being a constituent of the ringed disk. We provide constraints on the model parameters for the existence and stability of various ringed configurations and discuss occurrence of accretion onto the Kerr black hole and possible launching of jets from the ringed disk. We demonstrate that various ringed disks can be characterized by a maximum number of rings. We present also a perturbation analysis based on evolution of the oscillating components of the ringed disk. The dynamics of the unstable phases of the ringed disk evolution seems to be promising in relation to high-energy phenomena demonstrated in active galactic nuclei.

  1. Disk tides and accretion runaway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, William R.; Hahn, Joseph M.

    1995-01-01

    It is suggested that tidal interaction of an accreting planetary embryo with the gaseous preplanetary disk may provide a mechanism to breach the so-called runaway limit during the formation of the giant planet cores. The disk tidal torque converts a would-be shepherding object into a 'predator,' which can continue to cannibalize the planetesimal disk. This is more likely to occur in the giant planet region than in the terrestrial zone, providing a natural cause for Jupiter to predate the inner planets and form within the O(10(exp 7) yr) lifetime of the nebula.

  2. Strongly Magnetized Accretion Disks Around Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvesen, Greg; Armitage, Philip J.; Simon, Jacob B.; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    2017-01-01

    Recent observations are suggestive of strongly magnetized accretion disks around black holes. Performing local (shearing box) simulations of accretion disks, we investigate how a strong magnetization state can develop and persist. We demonstrate that poloidal flux is a necessary prerequisite for the sustainability of strongly magnetized accretion disks. We also show that black hole spin measurements can become unconstrained if magnetic fields provide a significant contribution to the vertical pressure support of the accretion disk atmosphere.

  3. 10 micron detection of the hard X-ray transient GRO J0422+32: Free-free emission from an X-ray-driven accretion disk wind?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paradijs, Van J.; Telesco, C. M.; Kouveliotou, C.; Fishman, G. J.

    1994-01-01

    We report the detection of 10 micrometer emission from the transient low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) and optical nova GRO J0422+32 near the maximum of its outburst. We discuss this result in terms of (1) a 'standard' model according to which low-energy radiation of LMXB is caused by reprocessing of X-rays in an accretion disk; (2) emission from a cool secondary star; (3) emission from dust grains heated by the transient X-rays, and (4) free-free emission from an X-ray-driven wind from the accretion disk. Only the fourth alternative provides a viable explanation for the observed 10 micrometer emission, with a mass-loss rate in the disk wind that may be substantially higher than the rate of accretion onto the compact star. The presence of such a wind may have a profound effect on the evolution of the binary, and contribute to the solution of the 'birthrate problem' of millisecond ratio pulsars.

  4. 10 micron detection of the hard X-ray transient GRO J0422+32: Free-free emission from an X-ray-driven accretion disk wind?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paradijs, Van J.; Telesco, C. M.; Kouveliotou, C.; Fishman, G. J.

    1994-01-01

    We report the detection of 10 micrometer emission from the transient low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) and optical nova GRO J0422+32 near the maximum of its outburst. We discuss this result in terms of (1) a 'standard' model according to which low-energy radiation of LMXB is caused by reprocessing of X-rays in an accretion disk; (2) emission from a cool secondary star; (3) emission from dust grains heated by the transient X-rays, and (4) free-free emission from an X-ray-driven wind from the accretion disk. Only the fourth alternative provides a viable explanation for the observed 10 micrometer emission, with a mass-loss rate in the disk wind that may be substantially higher than the rate of accretion onto the compact star. The presence of such a wind may have a profound effect on the evolution of the binary, and contribute to the solution of the 'birthrate problem' of millisecond ratio pulsars.

  5. Accretion disks around black holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abramowicz, M. A.

    1994-01-01

    The physics of accretion flow very close to a black hole is dominated by several general relativistic effects. It cannot be described by the standard Shakura Sunyaev model or by its relativistic version developed by Novikov and Thome. The most important of these effects is a dynamical mass loss from the inner edge of the disk (Roche lobe overflow). The relativistic Roche lobe overflow induces a strong advective cooling, which is sufficient to stabilize local, axially symmetric thermal and viscous modes. It also stabilizes the non-axially-symmetric global modes discovered by Papaloizou and Pringle. The Roche lobe overflow, however, destabilizes sufficiently self-gravitating accretion disks with respect to a catastrophic runaway of mass due to minute changes of the gravitational field induced by the changes in the mass and angular momentum of the central black hole. One of the two acoustic modes may become trapped near the inner edge of the disk. All these effects, absent in the standard model, have dramatic implications for time-dependent behavior of the accretion disks around black holes.

  6. Heating of protostellar accretion disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Campos, R. R.; Jatenco-Pereira, V.

    2017-07-01

    The magneto-rotational instability (MRI) is believed to be the mechanism responsible for a magneto-hydrodynamic turbulence that could lead to the accretion observed in protoplanetary disks. The need of a minimum amount of ionization in protostellar accretion disks is necessary for the MRI to take place. There are in the literature several studies that include the damping of Alfvén waves as an additional heating source besides the viscous heating mechanism in a geometrically thin and optically thick disk. The damping of the waves transfers energy to the disk increasing the temperature and consequently its ionization fraction, making possible the presence of the MRI in a large part of the disk. We analyzed the contribution of non-ideal effects such as Ohmic and ambipolar diffusion for the disk heating and compare these heating rates with those obtained by damping of Alfvén waves. In order to study these non-ideal effects, we have estimated the radiation emission of each effect through the energy conservation equation, and associated each emission with a black body radiation, which enabled us to assign a temperature contribution of each effect. Using the ATHENA code we were able to simulate the disk at different radial distances, and estimate the electric current density needed to calculate the radiation emission associated with each effect. Once we have those data, we were able to compare the results with other heating sources, like viscosity and Alfvén waves damping, and we concluded that the Ohmic and ambipolar diffusions do not heat the disk in any significant way.

  7. Accretion, Outflows, and Winds of Magnetized Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanova, Marina M.; Owocki, Stanley P.

    2015-10-01

    Many types of stars have strong magnetic fields that can dynamically influence the flow of circumstellar matter. In stars with accretion disks, the stellar magnetic field can truncate the inner disk and determine the paths that matter can take to flow onto the star. These paths are different in stars with different magnetospheres and periods of rotation. External field lines of the magnetosphere may inflate and produce favorable conditions for outflows from the disk-magnetosphere boundary. Outflows can be particularly strong in the propeller regime, wherein a star rotates more rapidly than the inner disk. Outflows may also form at the disk-magnetosphere boundary of slowly rotating stars, if the magnetosphere is compressed by the accreting matter. In isolated, strongly magnetized stars, the magnetic field can influence formation and/or propagation of stellar wind outflows. Winds from low-mass, solar-type stars may be either thermally or magnetically driven, while winds from massive, luminous O and B type stars are radiatively driven. In all of these cases, the magnetic field influences matter flow from the stars and determines many observational properties. In this chapter we review recent studies of accretion, outflows, and winds of magnetized stars with a focus on three main topics: (1) accretion onto magnetized stars; (2) outflows from the disk-magnetosphere boundary; and (3) winds from isolated massive magnetized stars. We show results obtained from global magnetohydrodynamic simulations and, in a number of cases compare global simulations with observations.

  8. Accretion Disks around Young Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Alessio, Paola

    1996-04-01

    A method to calculate the structure and brightness distribution of accretion disks surrounding low and intermediate mass young stars is introduced and discussed. The method includes a realistic treatment of the energy transport mechanisms and disk heating by radiation from external sources. The disk is assumed steady, geometrically thin and in vertical hydrostatic equilibrium. The turbulent viscosity coefficient is expressed using the α prescription and the α parameter and the mass accretion rate are assumed to be constant through the disk. Energy is transported in the vertical direction by: (a) a turbulent flux, computed self-consistently with the viscosity coefficient used to describe the viscous energy dissipation, (b) radiation, using the first moments of the transfer equation, the Eddington approximation, and the Rosseland and Planck Mean Opacities, and (c) convection, taking into account that the convective elements, not necessarily optically thick, lose energy by radiation and turbulent flux. This treatment of the energy transport mechanisms differs from previous work in this field, allowing one to extend, with confidence, the calculation of the disk structure to optically thin regimes. The heating mechanisms considered, which affect the disk's structure and emission, are stellar radiation and a circumstellar envelope which reprocesses and scatters radiation from the star and from the disk itself. In addition to a detailed numerical calculation, an analytical self-consistent formulation of the irradiation of the disk is given. This analytical formulation allows one to understand and extend the numerical results. To evaluate the potential of the method presented in this thesis, a set of models of viscous non-irradiated and irradiated disks are computed. Their predictions are compared with observations of young stellar sources likely to have disks. Given the disk structure and specifying its orientation with respect to the line of sight, the specific

  9. Accretion Disks in Algols: Progenitors and Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Rensbergen, W.; de Greve, J. P.

    2017-02-01

    There are only a few Algols with derived accretion disk parameters. These measurements provide additional constraints for tracing the origin of individual systems. With a modified binary evolution code, series of close binary evolution were calculated. For six Algols with accretion disks we found initial systems that evolve closely into the presently observed system parameters and disk characteristics.

  10. Pre-main-sequence disk accretion in Z Canis Majoris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, L.; Kenyon, S. J.; Hewett, R.; Edwards, S.; Strom, K. M.; Strom, S. E.; Stauffer, J. R.

    1989-01-01

    It is suggested that the pre-main-sequence object Z CMa is a luminous accretion disk, similar in many respects to the FU Orionis variables. Z CMa shows the broad, doubled optical absorption lines expected from a rapidly rotating accretion disk. The first overtone CO absorption detected in Z CMa is blue-shifted, suggesting line formation in a disk wind. Accretion at rates about 0.001 solar mass/yr over 100 yr is required to explain the luminosity of Z CMa. The large amount of material accreted (0.1 solar mass/yr) indicates that Z CMa is in a very early stage of stellar evolution, possibly in an initial phase of massive disk accretion.

  11. Pre-main-sequence disk accretion in Z Canis Majoris

    SciTech Connect

    Hartmann, L.; Kenyon, S.J.; Hewett, R.; Edwards, S.; Strom, K.M.; Strom, S.E.; Stauffer, J.R.

    1989-03-01

    It is suggested that the pre-main-sequence object Z CMa is a luminous accretion disk, similar in many respects to the FU Orionis variables. Z CMa shows the broad, doubled optical absorption lines expected from a rapidly rotating accretion disk. The first overtone CO absorption detected in Z CMa is blue-shifted, suggesting line formation in a disk wind. Accretion at rates about 0.001 solar mass/yr over 100 yr is required to explain the luminosity of Z CMa. The large amount of material accreted (0.1 solar mass/yr) indicates that Z CMa is in a very early stage of stellar evolution, possibly in an initial phase of massive disk accretion. 41 references.

  12. Diskoseismology: Probing relativistic accretion disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, Michael Allen

    1992-08-01

    Helioseismology has provided a wealth of information about the structure of the solar atmosphere. Little is known, however, about the structure of accretion disks that are thought to exist around black holes and neutron stars. In this thesis we present calculations of modes that are trapped in thin Keplerian accretion disks. We hope to use observations of thes modes to elucidate the structure of the inner relativistic regions of accretion disks. Our calculations assume that the thin disk is terminated by an innermost stable orbit, as would occur around a slowly rotating black hole or weakly magnetized compact neutron star. The dominant relativistic effects, which allow modes to be trapped within the inner region of the disk, are approximated via a modified Newtonian potential. Using the Lagrangian formulation of Friedman and Schutz, we develop a general formalism for investigating the adiabatic oscillations of arbitrary unperturbed disk models. First we consider the special case of acoustic waves in disks with isothermal atmospheres. Next we describe the Lagrangian perturbation vectors in terms of the derivatives of a scalar potential, as has been done by Ipser and Lindblom. Using this potential, we derive a single partial differential equation governing the oscillations of a disk. The eigenfunctions and eigenfrequencies of a variety of disk models are found to fall into two main classes which are analogous to the p-modes and g-modes in the sun. Specifically we use the potential formalism to compute the g-modes for disks with isothermal atmospheres. Physical arguments show that both the p-modes and g-modes belong to the same family of modes as the p-modes and g-modes in the sun, just viewed in a different parameter regime. With the aid of the Lagrangian formalism we consider possible growth or damping mechanisms and compute the (assumed) relatively small rates of growth or damping of the modes. Specifically, we consider gravitational radiation reaction and

  13. Winds from disks in compact binaries

    SciTech Connect

    Mauche, C.W.

    1993-10-27

    We herein present an observational and theoretical review of the winds of compact binaries. After a brief consideration of the accretion disk coronae and winds of X-ray binaries, the review concentrates on the winds of cataclysmic variables (CVs). Specifically, we consider the related problems of the geometry and mass-loss rate of the winds of CVs, their ionization state and variability, and the results from studies of eclipsing CVs. Finally, the properties of bona fide accretion disk wind models are reviewed.

  14. Foundations of Black Hole Accretion Disk Theory.

    PubMed

    Abramowicz, Marek A; Fragile, P Chris

    2013-01-01

    This review covers the main aspects of black hole accretion disk theory. We begin with the view that one of the main goals of the theory is to better understand the nature of black holes themselves. In this light we discuss how accretion disks might reveal some of the unique signatures of strong gravity: the event horizon, the innermost stable circular orbit, and the ergosphere. We then review, from a first-principles perspective, the physical processes at play in accretion disks. This leads us to the four primary accretion disk models that we review: Polish doughnuts (thick disks), Shakura-Sunyaev (thin) disks, slim disks, and advection-dominated accretion flows (ADAFs). After presenting the models we discuss issues of stability, oscillations, and jets. Following our review of the analytic work, we take a parallel approach in reviewing numerical studies of black hole accretion disks. We finish with a few select applications that highlight particular astrophysical applications: measurements of black hole mass and spin, black hole vs. neutron star accretion disks, black hole accretion disk spectral states, and quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs).

  15. Accretion, winds and outflows in young stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günther, H. M.

    2013-02-01

    Young stars and planetary systems form in molecular clouds. After the initial radial infall an accretion disk develops. For classical T Tauri stars (CTTS, F-K type precursors) the accretion disk does not reach down to the central star, but it is truncated near the co-rotation radius by the stellar magnetic field. The inner edge of the disk is ionized by the stellar radiation, so that the accretion stream is funneled along the magnetic field lines. On the stellar surface an accretion shock develops, which is observed over a wide wavelength range as X-ray emission, UV excess, optical veiling and optical and IR emission lines. Some of the accretion tracers, e.g. Hα, can be calibrated to measure the accretion rate. This accretion process is variable on time scales of hours to years due to changing accretion rates, stellar rotation and reconfiguration of the magnetic field. Furthermore, many (if not all) accreting systems also drive strong outflows which are ultimately powered by accretion. However, the exact driving mechanism is still unclear. Several components could contribute to the outflows: slow, wide-angle disk winds, X-winds launched close to the inner disk rim, and thermally driven stellar winds. In any case, the outflows contain material of very different temperatures and speeds. The disk wind is cool and can have a molecular component with just a few tens of km s-1, while the central component of the outflow can reach a few 100 km s-1. In some cases the inner part of the outflow is collimated to a small-angle jet. These jets have an onion-like structure, where the inner components are consecutively hotter and faster. The jets can contain working surfaces, which show up as Herbig-Haro knots. Accretion and outflows in the CTTS phase do not only determine stellar parameters like the rotation rate on the main-sequence, they also can have a profound impact on the environment of young stars. This review concentrates on CTTS in near-by star forming regions where

  16. Thick accretion disks ten years later

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abramowicz, Marek A.

    1988-01-01

    The theory of radiation pressure supported thick accretion disks is discussed and observational evidence for their existence is reviewed. Theoretical aspects examined include luminosity, spectra, jets, and variability. Observational data of the binary system SS 433, compact X-ray sources (showing quasi-periodic oscillations), and active galactic nuclei are presented. The observed central masses, total luminosities, accretion rates, efficiencies, funnels, jets, and variabilities of objects thought to be thick accretion disks are given in a table and the history of the discovery of thick accretion disks is summarized.

  17. Discovery of very high velocity outflow in V Hydra - Wind from an accretion disk in a binary?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sahai, R.; Wannier, P. G.

    1988-01-01

    High-resolution observations of lines from the CO v = 1-0 vibration-rotation band at 4.6 microns, taken with the FTS/KPNO 4-m telescope, are reported for the carbon-rich red giant V Hydra, which is surrounded by an extended expanding molecular envelope resulting from extensive mass loss. The spectrum shows, in addition to the expected absorption at the outflow velocity of the envelope, absorption extending up to 120 km/s bluewards of the stellar velocity. A comparison of the spectrum observed at two epochs shows that the high-velocity absorption features change with time. It is suggested that the observed high-velocity features in V Hydra arise in a high-velocity polar outflow from an accretion disk in a binary system, as proposed in the mass-loss model for bipolar envelopes by Morris (1988).

  18. Why Do T Tauri Disks Accrete?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, Lee; D'Alessio, Paola; Calvet, Nuria; Muzerolle, James

    2006-01-01

    Observations of T Tauri stars and young brown dwarfs suggest that the accretion rates of their disks scales roughly with the square of the central stellar mass. No dependence of accretion rate on stellar mass is predicted by the simplest version of the Gammie layered disk model, in which nonthermal ionization of upper disk layers allows accretion to occur via the magnetorotational instability. We show that a minor modification of Gaminie's model to include heating by irradiation from the central star yields a modest dependence of accretion on the mass of the central star. A purely viscous disk model could provide a strong dependence of accretion rate on stellar mass if the initial disk radius (before much viscous evolution has occurred) has a strong dependence on stellar mass. However, it is far from clear that at least the most massive pre-main-sequence disks can be totally magnetically activated by X-rays or cosmic rays. We suggest that a combination of effects are responsible for the observed dependence, with the lowest mass stars having the lowest mass disks, which can be thoroughly magnetically active, while the higher mass stars have higher mass disks that have layered accret,ion and relatively inactive or "dead" central zones at some radii. In such dead zones, we suggest that gravitational instabilities may play a role in allowing accretion to proceed. In this connection, we emphasize the uncertainty in disk masses derived from dust emission and argue that T Tauri disk masses have been systematically underestimated by conventional analyses. Furtlier study of accretion rates, especially in the lowest mass stars, would help to clarify the mechanisms of accretion in T Tauri stars.

  19. Photon Bubbles and the Vertical Structure of Accretion Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begelman, Mitchell C.

    2006-06-01

    We consider the effects of ``photon bubble'' shock trains on the vertical structure of radiation pressure-dominated accretion disks. These density inhomogeneities are expected to develop spontaneously in radiation-dominated accretion disks where magnetic pressure exceeds gas pressure, even in the presence of magnetorotational instability (MRI). They increase the rate at which radiation escapes from the disk and may allow disks to exceed the Eddington limit by a substantial factor without blowing themselves apart. To refine our earlier analysis of photon bubble transport in accretion disks, we generalize the theory of photon bubbles to include the effects of finite optical depths and radiation damping. Modifications to the diffusion law at low τ tend to ``fill in'' the low-density regions of photon bubbles, while radiation damping inhibits the formation of photon bubbles at large radii, small accretion rates, and small heights above the equatorial plane. Accretion disks dominated by photon bubble transport may reach luminosities from 10 to >100 times the Eddington limit (LEdd), depending on the mass of the central object, while remaining geometrically thin. However, photon bubble-dominated disks with α-viscosity are subject to the same thermal and viscous instabilities that plague standard radiation pressure-dominated disks, suggesting that they may be intrinsically unsteady. Photon bubbles can lead to a ``core-halo'' vertical disk structure. In super-Eddington disks the halo forms the base of a wind, which carries away substantial energy and mass, but not enough to prevent the luminosity from exceeding LEdd. Photon bubble-dominated disks may have smaller color corrections than standard accretion disks of the same luminosity. They remain viable contenders for some ultraluminous X-ray sources and may play a role in the rapid growth of supermassive black holes at high redshift.

  20. Transonic disk accretion onto black holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, E. P. T.; Thompson, K. A.

    1980-01-01

    The solution for the radial drift velocity of thin disk accretion onto black holes must be transonic, and is analogous to the critical solution in spherical Bondi accretion, except for the presence of angular momentum. The transonic requirement yields a correct treatment of the inner region of the disk not found in the conventional Keplerian models and may lead to significantly different overall disk structures. Possible observational consequences, relevant to the black hole hypothesis for Cyg X-1 and other candidates, are discussed.

  1. Transonic disk accretion onto black holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, E. P. T.; Thompson, K. A.

    1980-01-01

    The solution for the radial drift velocity of thin disk accretion onto black holes must be transonic, and is analogous to the critical solution in spherical Bondi accretion, except for the presence of angular momentum. The transonic requirement yields a correct treatment of the inner region of the disk not found in the conventional Keplerian models and may lead to significantly different overall disk structures. Possible observational consequences, relevant to the black hole hypothesis for Cyg X-1 and other candidates, are discussed.

  2. Accretion disks in Algols: Progenitors and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Rensbergen, W.; De Greve, J. P.

    2016-08-01

    Context. There are only a few Algols with measured accretion disk parameters. These measurements provide additional constraints for tracing the origin of individual systems, narrowing down the initial parameter space. Aims: We investigate the origin and evolution of six Algol systems with accretion disks to find the initial parameters and evolutionary constraints for them. Methods: With a modified binary evolution code, series of close binary evolution are calculated to obtain the best match for observed individual systems. Results: Initial parameters for six Algol systems with accretion disks were determined matching both the present system parameters and the observed disk characteristics. Conclusions: When Roche lobe overflow (RLOF) starts during core hydrogen burning of the donor, the disk lifetime was found to be short. The disk luminosity is comparable to the luminosity of the gainer during a large fraction of the disk lifetime.

  3. Magneto-thermal Disk Winds from Protoplanetary Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Xue-Ning; Ye, Jiani; Goodman, Jeremy; Yuan, Feng

    2016-02-01

    The global evolution and dispersal of protoplanetary disks (PPDs) are governed by disk angular-momentum transport and mass-loss processes. Recent numerical studies suggest that angular-momentum transport in the inner region of PPDs is largely driven by magnetized disk wind, yet the wind mass-loss rate remains unconstrained. On the other hand, disk mass loss has conventionally been attributed to photoevaporation, where external heating on the disk surface drives a thermal wind. We unify the two scenarios by developing a one-dimensional model of magnetized disk winds with a simple treatment of thermodynamics as a proxy for external heating. The wind properties largely depend on (1) the magnetic field strength at the wind base, characterized by the poloidal Alfvén speed vAp, (2) the sound speed cs near the wind base, and (3) how rapidly poloidal field lines diverge (achieve {R}-2 scaling). When {v}{Ap}\\gg {c}{{s}}, corotation is enforced near the wind base, resulting in centrifugal acceleration. Otherwise, the wind is accelerated mainly by the pressure of the toroidal magnetic field. In both cases, the dominant role played by magnetic forces likely yields wind outflow rates that exceed purely hydrodynamical mechanisms. For typical PPD accretion-rate and wind-launching conditions, we expect vAp to be comparable to cs at the wind base. The resulting wind is heavily loaded, with a total wind mass-loss rate likely reaching a considerable fraction of the wind-driven accretion rate. Implications for modeling global disk evolution and planet formation are also discussed.

  4. Quasar Feedback in the Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxy F11119+3257: Connecting the Accretion Disk Wind with the Large-scale Molecular Outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veilleux, S.; Bolatto, A.; Tombesi, F.; Meléndez, M.; Sturm, E.; González-Alfonso, E.; Fischer, J.; Rupke, D. S. N.

    2017-07-01

    In Tombesi et al., we reported the first direct evidence for a quasar accretion disk wind driving a massive (>100 M ⊙ yr-1) molecular outflow. The target was F11119+3257, an ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) with unambiguous type 1 quasar optical broad emission lines. The energetics of the accretion disk wind and molecular outflow were found to be consistent with the predictions of quasar feedback models where the molecular outflow is driven by a hot energy-conserving bubble inflated by the inner quasar accretion disk wind. However, this conclusion was uncertain because the mass outflow rate, momentum flux, and mechanical power of the outflowing molecular gas were estimated from the optically thick OH 119 μm transition profile observed with Herschel. Here, we independently confirm the presence of the molecular outflow in F11119+3257, based on the detection of ˜±1000 km s-1 blue- and redshifted wings in the CO(1-0) emission line profile derived from deep ALMA observations obtained in the compact array configuration (˜2.″8 resolution). The broad CO(1-0) line emission appears to be spatially extended on a scale of at least ˜7 kpc from the center. Mass outflow rate, momentum flux, and mechanical power of (80-200) {R}7-1 M ⊙ yr-1, (1.5-3.0) {R}7-1 L AGN/c, and (0.15-0.40)% {R}7-1 {L}{AGN}, respectively, are inferred from these data, assuming a CO-to-H2 conversion factor appropriate for a ULIRG (R 7 is the radius of the outflow normalized to 7 kpc, and L AGN is the AGN luminosity). These rates are time-averaged over a flow timescale of 7 × 106 yr. They are similar to the OH-based rates time-averaged over a flow timescale of 4 × 105 yr, but about a factor of 4 smaller than the local (“instantaneous” ≲105 yr) OH-based estimates cited in Tombesi et al. The implications of these new results are discussed in the context of time-variable quasar-mode feedback and galaxy evolution. The need for an energy-conserving bubble to explain the molecular outflow

  5. Generalized Similarity for Accretion/Decretion Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafikov, Roman R.

    2016-10-01

    Decretion (or external) disks are gas disks freely expanding to large radii due to their internal stresses. They are expected to naturally arise in tidal disruption events, around Be stars, in mass-losing post-main-sequence binaries, as a result of supernova fallback, etc. Their evolution is theoretically understood in two regimes: when the central object does not exert torque on the disk (a standard assumption for conventional accretion disks) or when no mass inflow (or outflow) occurs at the disk center. However, many astrophysical objects—circumbinary disks, Be stars, neutron stars accreting in a propeller regime, etc.—feature non-zero torque simultaneously with the non-zero accretion (or ejection of mass) at the disk center. We provide a general description for the evolution of such disks (both linear and nonlinear) in the self-similar regime, to which the disk should asymptotically converge with time. We identify a similarity parameter λ, which is uniquely related to the degree, to which the central mass accretion is suppressed by the non-zero central torque. The known decretion disk solutions correspond to the two discrete values of λ, while our new solutions cover a continuum of its physically allowed values, corresponding to either accretion or mass ejection by the central object. A direct relationship between λ and central \\dot{M} and torque is also established. We describe the time evolution of the various disk characteristics for different λ, and show that the observable properties (spectrum and luminosity evolution) of the decretion disks, in general, are different from the standard accretion disks with no central torque.

  6. Evolution of Accretion Disks in Tidal Disruption Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Rong-Feng; Matzner, Christopher D.

    2014-04-01

    During a stellar tidal disruption event (TDE), an accretion disk forms as stellar debris returns to the disruption site and circularizes. Rather than being confined within the circularizing radius, the disk can spread to larger radii to conserve angular momentum. A spreading disk is a source of matter for re-accretion at rates that may exceed the later stellar fallback rate, although a disk wind can suppress its contribution to the central black hole accretion rate. A spreading disk is detectible through a break in the central accretion rate history or, at longer wavelengths, by its own emission. We model the evolution of TDE disk size and accretion rate by accounting for the time-dependent fallback rate, for the influence of wind losses in the early advective stage, and for the possibility of thermal instability for accretion rates intermediate between the advection-dominated and gas-pressure-dominated states. The model provides a dynamic basis for modeling TDE light curves. All or part of a young TDE disk will precess as a solid body because of the Lense-Thirring effect, and precession may manifest itself as a quasi-periodic modulation of the light curve. The precession period increases with time. Applying our results to the jetted TDE candidate Swift J1644+57, whose X-ray light curve shows numerous quasi-periodic dips, we argue that the data best fit a scenario in which a main-sequence star was fully disrupted by an intermediate mass black hole on an orbit significantly inclined from the black hole equator, with the apparent jet shutoff at t = 500 days corresponding to a disk transition from the advective state to the gas-pressure-dominated state.

  7. Evolution of accretion disks in tidal disruption events

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Rong-Feng; Matzner, Christopher D. E-mail: matzner@astro.utoronto.ca

    2014-04-01

    During a stellar tidal disruption event (TDE), an accretion disk forms as stellar debris returns to the disruption site and circularizes. Rather than being confined within the circularizing radius, the disk can spread to larger radii to conserve angular momentum. A spreading disk is a source of matter for re-accretion at rates that may exceed the later stellar fallback rate, although a disk wind can suppress its contribution to the central black hole accretion rate. A spreading disk is detectible through a break in the central accretion rate history or, at longer wavelengths, by its own emission. We model the evolution of TDE disk size and accretion rate by accounting for the time-dependent fallback rate, for the influence of wind losses in the early advective stage, and for the possibility of thermal instability for accretion rates intermediate between the advection-dominated and gas-pressure-dominated states. The model provides a dynamic basis for modeling TDE light curves. All or part of a young TDE disk will precess as a solid body because of the Lense-Thirring effect, and precession may manifest itself as a quasi-periodic modulation of the light curve. The precession period increases with time. Applying our results to the jetted TDE candidate Swift J1644+57, whose X-ray light curve shows numerous quasi-periodic dips, we argue that the data best fit a scenario in which a main-sequence star was fully disrupted by an intermediate mass black hole on an orbit significantly inclined from the black hole equator, with the apparent jet shutoff at t = 500 days corresponding to a disk transition from the advective state to the gas-pressure-dominated state.

  8. A model for neutrino emission from nuclear accretion disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deaton, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Compact object mergers involving at least one neutron star can produce short-lived black hole accretion engines. Over tens to hundreds of milliseconds such an engine consumes a disk of hot, nuclear-density fluid, and drives changes to its surrounding environment through luminous emission of neutrinos. The neutrino emission may drive an ultrarelativistic jet, may peel off the disk's outer layers as a wind, may irradiate those winds or other forms of ejecta and thereby change their composition, may change the composition and thermodynamic state of the disk itself, and may oscillate in its flavor content. We present the full spatial-, angular-, and energy-dependence of the neutrino distribution function around a realistic model of a nuclear accretion disk, to inform future explorations of these types of behaviors. Spectral Einstein Code (SpEC).

  9. Accretion disks around a mass with quadrupole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abishev, M.; Boshkayev, K.; Quevedo, H.; Toktarbay, S.

    We consider the stability properties of circular orbits of test particles moving around a mass with quadrupole. We show that the quadrupole modifies drastically the properties of an accretion disk made of such test particles.

  10. Nonthermal accretion disk models around neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tavani, M.; Liang, Edison P.

    1994-01-01

    We consider the structure and emission spectra of nonthermal accretion disks around both strongly and weakly magnetized neutron stars. Such disks may be dissipating their gravitational binding energy and transferring their angular momentum via semicontinuous magnetic reconnections. We consider specifically the structure of the disk-stellar magnetospheric boundary where magnetic pressure balances the disk pressure. We consider energy dissipation via reconnection of the stellar field and small-scale disk turbulent fields of opposite polarity. Constraints on the disk emission spectrum are discussed.

  11. Gas dynamics for accretion disk simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitehurst, R.

    1994-01-01

    The behavior of accretion disks can largely be understood in terms of the basic physical processes of mass, energy, and momentum conservation. Despite this, detailed modeling of these systems using modern computational techniques is challenging and controversial. Disturbing differences exist between methods used widely in astrophysics, namely Eulerian finite-difference techniques and particle codes such as SPH. Therefore neither technique is fully satisfactory for accretion disk simulations. This paper describes a new fully Lagrangian method designed to resolve these difficulties.

  12. A Realistic Accretion Disk Model for AGNs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suleimanov, V.; Ghosh, K. K.; Austin, R. A.; Ramsey, B. D.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We present a new relativistic accretion disk model of AGNs, based on alpha modified accretion disk theory, where alpha is a parameter that characterizes the efficiency of the mechanism of angular momentum transport. In this model we have considered a geometrically-thin, high-luminosity (alpha-accretion disk, around a supermassive black hole. The geometrically thin limit assumes a local energy balance within the accretion disk, which has been used to derive the plasma temperature of the disk. The energy balance equation has three solutions: low, medium and high temperature, depending on the heating rate of the accretion disk. We predict that the inner part of a high luminosity accretion disk is in the high- temperature (10(exp 7) to 10(exp 9) K) state and for this we obtain the high temperature solution of the energy balance equation using a Comptonization process. We find the local spectrum of each ring of the disk (we have divided the high temperature region of the disk into 50 rings) to be a diluted Wien spectrum. However, the emergent integral spectrum of the high temperature region is a power-law with a high-energy cutoff that depends on the basic parameters of AGNs (the accretion rate, the incidence angle, and the mass and the angular momentum of the central black hole). We have fitted the observed spectra of 28 AGNs using the present model and have derived the values of the basic parameters of these AGNs. Results of these spectral fittings have been discussed in the framework of the unification model of AGNs.

  13. Reverberation Mapping of AGN Accretion Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fausnaugh, Michael; AGN STORM Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    I will discuss new reverberation mapping results that allow us to investigate the temperature structure of AGN accretion disks. By measuring time-delays between broad-band continuum light curves, we can determine the size of the disk as a function of wavelength. I will discuss the detection of continuum lags in NGC 5548 reported by the AGN STORM project and implications for the accretion disk. I will also present evidence for continuum lags in two other AGN for which we recently measured black hole masses from continuum-Hbeta reverberations. The mass measurements allow us to compare the continuum lags to predictions from standard thin disk theory, and our results indicate that the accretion disks are larger than the simplest expectations.

  14. Thick Accretion Disk Model for Ultraluminous Supersoft Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Wei-Min; Sun, Mou-Yuan; Lu, You-Jun; Yuan, Feng; Liu, Ji-Feng

    2016-02-01

    We propose a geometrically thick, super-Eddington accretion disk model, where an optically thick wind is not necessary, to understand ultraluminous supersoft sources (ULSs). For high mass accretion rates \\dot{M}≳ 30{\\dot{M}}{{Edd}} and not small inclination angles θ ≳ 25^\\circ , where {\\dot{M}}{{Edd}} is the Eddington accretion rate, the hard photons from the hot inner region may be shaded by the geometrically thick inner disk, and therefore only the soft photons from the outer thin disk and the outer photosphere of the thick disk can reach the observer. Our model can naturally explain the approximate relation between the typical thermal radius and the thermal temperature, {R}{{bb}}\\propto {T}{{bb}}-2. Moreover, the thick disk model can unify ULSs and normal ultraluminous X-ray sources, where the different observational characteristics are probably related to the inclination angle and the mass accretion rate. By comparing our model with the optically thick outflow model, we find that a lower mass accretion rate is required in our model.

  15. Where a Neutron Star's Accretion Disk Ends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-03-01

    In X-ray binaries that consist of a neutron star and a companion star, gas funnels from the companion into an accretion disk surrounding the neutron star, spiraling around until it is eventually accreted. How do the powerful magnetic fields threading through the neutron star affect this accretion disk? Recent observations provide evidence that they may push the accretion disk away from the neutron stars surface.Truncated DisksTheoretical models have indicated that neutron star accretion disks may not extend all the way in to the surface of a neutron star, but may instead be truncated at a distance. This prediction has been difficult to test observationally, however, due to the challenge of measuring the location of the inner disk edge in neutron-star X-ray binaries.In a new study, however, a team of scientists led by Ashley King (Einstein Fellow at Stanford University) has managed to measure the location of the inner edge of the disk in Aquila X-1, a neutron-star X-ray binary located 17,000 light-years away.Iron line feature detected by Swift (red) and NuSTAR (black). The symmetry of the line is one of the indicators that the disk is located far from the neutron star; if the inner regions of the disk were close to the neutron star, severe relativistic effects would skew the line to be asymmetric. [King et al. 2016]Measurements from ReflectionsKing and collaborators used observations made by NuSTAR and Swift/XRT both X-ray space observatories of Aquila X-1 during the peak of an X-ray outburst. By observing the reflection of Aquila X-1s emission off of the inner regions of the accretion disk, the authors were able to estimate the location of the inner edge of the disk.The authors find that this inner edge sits at ~15 gravitational radii. Since the neutron stars surface is at ~5 gravitational radii, this means that the accretion disk is truncated far from the stars surface. In spite of this truncation, material still manages to cross the gap and accrete onto the

  16. The Effects of Accretion Disk Geometry on AGN Reflection Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Corbin James; Reynolds, Christopher S.

    2017-08-01

    Despite being the gravitational engines that power galactic-scale winds and mega parsec-scale jets in active galaxies, black holes are remarkably simple objects, typically being fully described by their angular momenta (spin) and masses. The modelling of AGN X-ray reflection spectra has proven fruitful in estimating the spin of AGN, as well as giving insight into their accretion histories and the properties of plasmas in the strong gravity regime. However, current models make simplifying assumptions about the geometry of the reflecting material in the accretion disk and the irradiating X-ray corona, approximating the disk as an optically thick, infinitely thin disk of material in the orbital plane. We present results from the new relativistic raytracing suite, Fenrir, that explore the effects that disk thickness may have on the reflection spectrum and the accompanying reverberation signatures. Approximating the accretion disk as an optically thick, geometrically thin, radiation pressure dominated disk (Shakura & Sunyaev 1973), one finds that the disk geometry is non-negligible in many cases, with significant changes in the broad Fe K line profile. Finally, we explore the systematic errors inherent in approximating the disk as being infinitely thin when modeling reflection spectrum, potentially biasing determinations of black hole and corona properties.

  17. Accretion disk thermal instability in galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mineshige, S.; Shields, G. A.

    1990-03-01

    The nonlinear evolution and spatial propagation of the thermal instability in accretion disks in galactic nuclei are investigated. Integrations of the vertical structure of the disks are described for different alpha prescriptions, and the thermal stability is examined. Global time-dependent calculations of the unstable disks are performed which show that there are two distinct types of behavior according to the assumed prescription for the viscosity parameter: the 'purr' type and the 'roar' type. The roar type is analyzed in some detail.

  18. Meridional circulation in optically thick accretion disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabot, W.; Savedoff, M. P.

    1982-01-01

    Thermal imbalances in stars due to rotation are known to drive mass motions in the meridional plane. A preliminary analytic investigation has been made of a similar effect in optically thick accretion disks using conventional thin-disk approximations. It is found that estimated circulation times can be as short as thermal timescales, resulting in rapid transport of heat and angular momentum. This indicates that the simple approximations commonly used are incomplete with regard to detailed, two-dimensional disk structure.

  19. ACCRETION IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS BY COLLISIONAL FUSION

    SciTech Connect

    Wettlaufer, J. S.

    2010-08-10

    The formation of a solar system such as ours is believed to have followed a multi-stage process around a protostar and its associated accretion disk. Whipple first noted that planetesimal growth by particle agglomeration is strongly influenced by gas drag, and Cuzzi and colleagues have shown that when midplane particle mass densities approach or exceed those of the gas, solid-solid interactions dominate the drag effect. The size dependence of the drag creates a 'bottleneck' at the meter scale with such bodies rapidly spiraling into the central star, whereas much smaller or larger particles do not. Independent of whether the origin of the drag is angular momentum exchange with gas or solids in the disk, successful planetary accretion requires rapid planetesimal growth to kilometer scales. A commonly accepted picture is that for collisional velocities V{sub c} above a certain threshold value, V {sub th{approx}} 0.1-10 cm s{sup -1}, particle agglomeration is not possible; elastic rebound overcomes attractive surface and intermolecular forces. However, if perfect sticking is assumed for all ranges of interparticle collision speeds the bottleneck can be overcome by rapid planetesimal growth. While previous work has dealt with the influences of collisional pressures and the possibility of particle fracture or penetration, the basic role of the phase behavior of matter-phase diagrams, amorphs, and polymorphs-has been neglected. Here, it is demonstrated for compact bodies that novel aspects of surface phase transitions provide a physical basis for efficient sticking through collisional melting/amorphization/polymorphization and subsequent fusion/annealing to extend the collisional velocity range of primary accretion to {Delta}V{sub c} {approx} 1-100 m s{sup -1} >> V {sub th}, which encompasses both typical turbulent rms speeds and the velocity differences between boulder-sized and small grains {approx}1-50 m s{sup -1}. Therefore, as inspiraling meter-sized bodies collide

  20. EARTH, MOON, SUN, AND CV ACCRETION DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, M. M.

    2009-11-01

    Net tidal torque by the secondary on a misaligned accretion disk, like the net tidal torque by the Moon and the Sun on the equatorial bulge of the spinning and tilted Earth, is suggested by others to be a source to retrograde precession in non-magnetic, accreting cataclysmic variable (CV) dwarf novae (DN) systems that show negative superhumps in their light curves. We investigate this idea in this work. We generate a generic theoretical expression for retrograde precession in spinning disks that are misaligned with the orbital plane. Our generic theoretical expression matches that which describes the retrograde precession of Earths' equinoxes. By making appropriate assumptions, we reduce our generic theoretical expression to those generated by others, or to those used by others, to describe retrograde precession in protostellar, protoplanetary, X-ray binary, non-magnetic CV DN, quasar, and black hole systems. We find that spinning, tilted CV DN systems cannot be described by a precessing ring or by a precessing rigid disk. We find that differential rotation and effects on the disk by the accretion stream must be addressed. Our analysis indicates that the best description of a retrogradely precessing spinning, tilted, CV DN accretion disk is a differentially rotating, tilted disk with an attached rotating, tilted ring located near the innermost disk annuli. In agreement with the observations and numerical simulations by others, we find that our numerically simulated CV DN accretion disks retrogradely precess as a unit. Our final, reduced expression for retrograde precession agrees well with our numerical simulation results and with selective observational systems that seem to have main-sequence secondaries. Our results suggest that a major source to retrograde precession is tidal torques like that by the Moon and the Sun on the Earth. In addition, these tidal torques should be common to a variety of systems where one member is spinning and tilted, regardless if

  1. X-Ray--heated Coronae and Winds from Accretion Disks: Time-dependent Two-dimensional Hydrodynamics with Adaptive Mesh Refinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, D. Tod; Klein, Richard I.; Castor, John I.; McKee, Christopher F.; Bell, John B.

    1996-04-01

    We perform for the first time time-dependent, two-dimensional, axisymmetric hydrodynamic simulations using local adaptive mesh refinement of thermally driven rotating winds from X-ray-irradiated accretion disks. The disk is assumed to flare in height with radius allowing direct exposure from the central X-ray source. The heating and cooling are treated strictly in the optically thin approximation. We adopt two spectra characteristic of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) which have Compton temperatures of TIC ≍ 1.3 x 107 K and 108 K. We have computed a number of models which cover a large range in luminosity (0.002 ≤ L/LEddington < 1) and radius (≲20 Compton radii). Our models enable us to extend and improve on the analytic predictions of Begelman, McKee, & Shields (BMS) for Compton-heated winds by including non-Compton processes such as photoionization heating and line cooling, typical of X-ray-heated winds. These non-Compton processes can be dominant at low temperatures (≲107 K), thus being important in the wind regions of AGNs. Our results agree well with a number of predictions given by BMS, even when non-Compton processes dominate, suggesting that their analytic approximations of the hydrodynamics of disk winds are applicable to the more general area of X-ray-heated winds. In the regime in which Compton processes dominate (i.e., TIC = 108 K spectrum), we have used our results to improve the analytic predictions of BMS, providing a new expression for the mass-loss rate and a modified view of the wind solution topology. We find that beginning from a basically static state, the time-dependent flow which develops eventually settles into a steady wind, without any evidence of hydrodynamic instabilities. The solution topology consists of a corona with an exponentially truncated wind at small radii, and a vigorous wind at large radii which can be impeded by gravity for small luminosities. We have constructed radius-luminosity parameter space plots of our numerical

  2. Simulating a Thin Accretion Disk Using PLUTO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillipson, Rebecca; Vogeley, Michael S.; Boyd, Patricia T.

    2017-08-01

    Accreting black hole systems such as X-ray binaries and active galactic nuclei exhibit variability in their luminosity on many timescales ranging from milliseconds to tens of days, and even hundreds of days. The mechanism(s) driving this variability and the relationship between short- and long-term variability is poorly understood. Current studies on accretion disks seek to determine how the changes in black hole mass, the rate at which mass accretes onto the central black hole, and the external environment affect the variability on scales ranging from stellar-mass black holes to supermassive black holes. Traditionally, the fluid mechanics equations governing accretion disks have been simplified by considering only the kinematics of the disk, and perhaps magnetic fields, in order for their phenomenological behavior to be predicted analytically. We seek to employ numerical techniques to study accretion disks including more complicated physics traditionally ignored in order to more accurately understand their behavior over time. We present a proof-of-concept three dimensional, global simulation using the astrophysical hydrodynamic code PLUTO of a simplified thin disk model about a central black hole which will serve as the basis for development of more complicated models including external effects such as radiation and magnetic fields. We also develop a tool to generate a synthetic light curve that displays the variability in luminosity of the simulation over time. The preliminary simulation and accompanying synthetic light curve demonstrate that PLUTO is a reliable code to perform sophisticated simulations of accretion disk systems which can then be compared to observational results.

  3. MHD of accretion-disk flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yankova, Krasimira

    2015-01-01

    Accretion is one of the most important problems of astrophysics concerning the transfer of matter and the transformation of energy into space. Process represents a falling of the substance on a cosmic object from the surrounding area and is a powerful gravitational mechanism for the production of radiation. Accretion disc effectively converts the mass of the substance by viscous friction and released potential energy transformed into radiation by particle collisions. Accretion onto compact object shows high energy efficiency and temporal variability in a broad class of observational data in all ranges. In the disks of these objects are developed a series instabilities and structures that govern the distribution of the energy. They are expressed in many variety non-stationary phenomena that we observe. That is why we propose generalized model of magnetized accretion disk with advection, which preserves the nonlinearity of the problem. We study interaction of the plasmas flow with the magnetic field, and how this affects the self-organizing disk. The aim of the work is to describe the accretion flow in detail, in his quality of the open astrophysical system, to investigate the evolution and to reveal the mechanisms of the structuring the disk-corona system for to interpret correctly the high energy behavior of such sources.

  4. Thermal limit cycles in supermassive accretion disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, G. A.; Lin, D. N. C.

    1988-01-01

    Interpretations of the quasi-periodic outbursts of dwarf novae in terms of a thermal-viscous limit cycle mechanism operating in the accretion disk are discussed. Numerical solutions to vertical equilibrium equations are used to show that the limit cycle mechanism should occur in supermassive disks. The mechanism acts as a gate that modulates the rate of accretion reaching small radii, where most of the luminosity is produced. Formulas are derived for the period and outburst luminosity in terms of the black hole mass and the radius at which the unstable zone occurs.

  5. Theoretical restrictions on accretion disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, B. F.; Xie, G. Z.; Ji, K. F.

    1994-10-01

    We construct a standard thin disk model taking into account the pressure from both gas and radiation, the opacity contributed by both electron scattering and absorption, and the gravity from both a central object and disk. A simple and powerful technique for solving the non-linear equations is presented. Through a numerical algorithm for the two equations for beta, gamma, xi, all the disk quantities are expressed as the analytical function of beta, gamma, xi. We also discuss the solutions in the limit cases as beta approaches 0, as beta approaches 1, and the parameter range of the lienar approximation. From the numerical solutions and limit analyses, we found that it is not necessary to include the self-gravity of the disk.

  6. Hoyle-Lyttleton Accretion from a Planar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raymer, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of Hoyle-Lyttleton accretion have informed predictions about the evolution of wind-driven accretion systems for over two decades. These simulations frequently exhibit dramatic nonlinear behavior such as the flip-flop instability and the formation of transient accretion disks. During disk accretion, the mass accretion rate is suppressed and angular momentum accretion occurs at quasi-Keplerian rates. These results have been used to interpret neutron star accretion from the equatorially enhanced wind of a Be star in Be/X-ray Binaries. We employ large-scale hydrodynamic simulations to investigate whether the flip-flop instability is possible in three dimensions or is simply a consequence of the restrictions on a 2D flow. We do not observe the flip-flop instability in 3D for any values of the wind scale height or density. Moreover, the angular momentum vector of the accreting gas is typically found to be in the plane of the disk wind rather than perpendicular to it as one might expect based on the results of 2D planar simulations. We measure large-scale asymmetries about the plane of the disk wind that arise due to rotational flow near the accretor. Gas is driven above and below the plane, where it interacts with the bow shock and results in a time-varying shock structure. Winds with scale heights of 0.25 Ra enter locked rotation modes that remain stable for the duration of our computational runs. During this phase, the mass accretion rate is suppressed by up to two orders of magnitude below the analytical prediction and angular momentum accretion occurs at sub-Keplerian values.

  7. Lessons from accretion disks in cataclysmic variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horne, Keith

    1998-04-01

    We survey recent progress in the interpretation of observations of cataclysmic variables, whose accretion disks are heated by viscous dissipation rather than irradiation. Many features of standard viscous accretion disk models are confirmed by tomographic imaging studies of dwarf novae. Eclipse maps indicate that steady disk temperature structures are established during outbursts. Doppler maps of double-peaked emission lines suggest disk chromospheres heated by magnetic activity. Gas streams impacting on the disk rim leave expected signatures both in the eclipses and emission lines. Doppler maps of dwarf nova IP Peg at the beginning of an outburst show evidence for tidally-induced spiral shocks. While enjoying these successes, we must still face up to the dreaded ``SW Sex syndrome'' which afflicts most if not all cataclysmic variables in high accretion states. The anomalies include single-peaked emission lines with skewed kinematics, flat temperature-radius profiles, shallow offset line eclipses, and narrow low-ionization absorption lines at phase 0.5. The enigmatic behavior of AE Aqr is now largely understood in terms of a magnetic propeller model in which the rapidly spinning white dwarf magnetosphere expels the gas stream out of the system before an accretion disk can form. A final piece in this puzzle is the realization that an internal shock zone occurs in the exit stream at just the right place to explain the anomalous kinematics and violent flaring of the single-peaked emission lines. Encouraged by this success, we propose that disk-anchored magnetic propellers operate in the high accretion rate systems afflicted by the SW Sex syndrome. Magnetic fields anchored in the Keplerian disk sweep forward and apply a boost that expels gas stream material flowing above the disk plane. This working hypothesis offers a framework on which we can hang all the SW Sex anomalies. The lesson for theorists is that magnetic links appear to be transporting energy and angular

  8. Planetary accretion in circumstellar disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Stewart, Glen R.

    1993-01-01

    The formation of terrestrial planets and the cores of Jovian planets is reviewed in the framework of the planetesimal hypothesis, wherein planets are assumed to grow via the pairwise accumulation of small solid bodies. Emphasis is placed on the dynamics of solid body accretion from kilometer size planetesimals to terrestrial type planets. This stage of planetary growth is least dependent on the characteristics of the evolutionary state of the central star. It is concluded that the evolution of the planetesimal size distribution is determined by the gravitationally enhanced collision cross-section, which favors collisions between planetesimals with smaller velocities. Runaway growth of the largest planetesimal in each accretion zone appears to be a likely outcome. The subsequent accumulation of the resulting protoplanets leads to a large degree of radial mixing in the terrestrial planet region, and giant impacts are probable.

  9. Planetary accretion in circumstellar disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Stewart, Glen R.

    1993-01-01

    The formation of terrestrial planets and the cores of Jovian planets is reviewed in the framework of the planetesimal hypothesis, wherein planets are assumed to grow via the pairwise accumulation of small solid bodies. Emphasis is placed on the dynamics of solid body accretion from kilometer size planetesimals to terrestrial type planets. This stage of planetary growth is least dependent on the characteristics of the evolutionary state of the central star. It is concluded that the evolution of the planetesimal size distribution is determined by the gravitationally enhanced collision cross-section, which favors collisions between planetesimals with smaller velocities. Runaway growth of the largest planetesimal in each accretion zone appears to be a likely outcome. The subsequent accumulation of the resulting protoplanets leads to a large degree of radial mixing in the terrestrial planet region, and giant impacts are probable.

  10. Analytic models of relativistic accretion disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuravlev, V. V.

    2015-06-01

    We present not a literature review but a description, as detailed and consistent as possible, of two analytic models of disk accretion onto a rotating black hole: a standard relativistic disk and a twisted relativistic disk. Although one of these models is older than the other, both are of topical interest for black hole studies. The treatment is such that the reader with only a limited knowledge of general relativity and relativistic hydrodynamics, with little or no use of additional sources, can gain insight into many technical details lacking in the original papers.

  11. Disk accretion onto magnetic T Tauri stars

    SciTech Connect

    Koenigl, A. )

    1991-03-01

    The dynamical and radiative consequences of disk accretion onto magnetic T Tauri stars (TTS) are examined using the Ghosh and Lamb model. It is shown that a prolonged disk accretion phase is compatible with the low rotation rates measured in these stars if they possess a kilogauss strength field that disrupts the disk at a distance of a few stellar radii from the center. It is estimated that a steady state in which the net torque exerted on the star is zero can be attained on a time scale that is shorter than the age of the youngest visible TTS. Although the disk does not develop an ordinary shear boundary layer in this case, one can account for the observed UV excess and Balmer emission in terms of the shocks that form at the bottom of the high-latitude magnetic accretion columns on the stellar surface. This picture also provides a natural explanation of some of the puzzling variability properties of stars like DF Tau and RY Lup. YY Ori stars are interpreted as magnetic TTS in which the observer's line of sight is roughly parallel to an accretion column. 37 refs.

  12. Accretion disks in luminous young stellar objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beltrán, M. T.; de Wit, W. J.

    2016-01-01

    An observational review is provided of the properties of accretion disks around young stars. It concerns the primordial disks of intermediate- and high-mass young stellar objects in embedded and optically revealed phases. The properties were derived from spatially resolved observations and, therefore, predominantly obtained with interferometric means, either in the radio/(sub)millimeter or in the optical/infrared wavelength regions. We make summaries and comparisons of the physical properties, kinematics, and dynamics of these circumstellar structures and delineate trends where possible. Amongst others, we report on a quadratic trend of mass accretion rates with mass from T Tauri stars to the highest mass young stellar objects and on the systematic difference in mass infall and accretion rates.

  13. Water Masers in AGN Accretion Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braatz, J. A.; Reid, M. J.; Greenhill, L. J.; Kuo, C.-Y.; Condon, J. J.; Lo, K.-Y.; Henkel, C.

    2009-08-01

    Water vapor masers at 22 GHz have been detected in over 100 galaxies, most of them AGNs. High resolution VLBI observations of these masers provide the only opportunity for direct imaging of sub-parsec structure in AGN accretion disks. The key science goals associated with such observations are concentrated in two areas. First, observations of nearby, bright sources, exemplified by NGC 4258, enable unique investigations of accretion disk geometry, substructure, thickness, and rotation properties. Second, when combined with spectral line monitoring, VLBI imaging and subsequent disk modeling enables the estimation of a distance to the host galaxy independent of standard candle arguments. In this contribution we present VLBI observations of two maser disk systems in galaxies well into the Hubble flow, UGC 3789 and NGC 6323. A long term goal in these studies is to measure the Hubble constant with high precision and, as a complement to CMB observations, constrain several key cosmological parameters, including the equation of state for dark energy. Observations with VSOP-2 at 22 GHz will have the resolution critical for mapping substructure in these accretion disks and will contribute to reducing systematic errors in the measurement of distances to galaxies.

  14. Anisotropic hydrodynamic turbulence in accretion disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoll, Moritz H. R.; Kley, Wilhelm; Picogna, Giovanni

    2017-03-01

    Recently, the vertical shear instability (VSI) has become an attractive purely hydrodynamic candidate for the anomalous angular momentum transport required for weakly ionized accretion disks. In direct three-dimensional numerical simulations of VSI turbulence in disks, a meridional circulation pattern was observed that is opposite to the usual viscous flow behavior. Here, we investigate whether this feature can possibly be explained by an anisotropy of the VSI turbulence. Using three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations, we calculate the turbulent Reynolds stresses relevant for angular momentum transport for a representative section of a disk. We find that the vertical stress is significantly stronger than the radial stress. Using our results in viscous disk simulations with different viscosity coefficients for the radial and vertical direction, we find good agreement with the VSI turbulence for the stresses and meridional flow; this provides additional evidence for the anisotropy. The results are important with respect to the transport of small embedded particles in disks.

  15. Observational constraints on black hole accretion disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Edison P.

    1994-01-01

    We review the empirical constraints on accretion disk models of stellar-mass black holes based on recent multiwavelength observational results. In addition to time-averaged emission spectra, the time evolutions of the intensity and spectrum provide critical information about the structure, stability, and dynamics of the disk. Using the basic thermal Keplerian disk paradigm, we consider in particular generalizations of the standard optically thin disk models needed to accommodate the extremely rich variety of dynamical phenomena exhibited by black hole candidates ranging from flares of electron-positron annihilations and quasiperiodic oscillations in the X-ray intensity to X-ray novae activity. These in turn provide probes of the disk structure and global geometry. The goal is to construct a single unified framework to interpret a large variety of black hole phenomena. This paper will concentrate on the interface between basic theory and observational data modeling.

  16. Modeling Gas Distribution in Protoplanetary Accretion Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronberg, Martin; Lewis, Josiah; Brittain, Sean

    2010-07-01

    Protoplanetary accretion disks are disks of dust and gas which surround and feed material onto a forming star in the earliest stages of its evolution. One of the most useful methods for studying these disks is near infrared spectroscopy of rovibrational CO emission. This paper presents the methods in which synthetically generated spectra are modeled and fit to spectral data gathered from protoplanetary disks. This paper also discussed the methods in which this code can be improved by modifying the code to run a Monte Carlo analysis of best fit across the CONDOR cluster at Clemson University, thereby allowing for the creation of a catalog of protoplanetary disks with detailed information about them as gathered from the model.

  17. Magnetohydrodynamics of Accretion Disks in Cataclysmic Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Wenhua

    Angular momentum transport in the accretion disks of cataclysmic variables (CVs) is a crucial ingredient of driving the evolution of CVs and is believed to account for the observed episodic outbursts in dwarf novae. However, the physical mechanisms of driving angular momentum transport in CV disks are not well understood yet. In this thesis, the angular momentum transport driven by the spiral shocks and the magnetorotational instability (MRI) is thoroughly studied using a series of global hydrodynamical and magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) simulations conducted with Athena++. Spiral shocks are a possible accretion mechanism in cold quiescence state when the CV disk may be too cool and neutral for the MRI to operate. We perform global two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations where we found mass accretion is driven by deposition of negative angular momentum carried by the waves through shock dissipation. The effective viscosity parameter alpha eff is 0.02-0.05 when the disk Mach number is < 10. Spiral shocks are found very sensitive to the size and Mach number of the disk: they are stronger with larger disk sizes or lower Mach numbers. We also apply the spiral shock analysis to circumplanetary disks (CPDs) and found spiral shocks can contribute significantly to the angular momentum transport and energy dissipation in CPDs yielding alphaeff ˜ 0.001-0.02. In hot outburst state the CV disk is ionized so MRI and spiral shocks both drive angular momentum transport. We perform global three-dimensional MHD simulations of CV disks to investigate the relative importance of spiral shocks and MRI. Our steady-state solutions indicate that the relative importance in driving angular momentum transport of spiral shocks and MRI is mostly determined by the gas Mach number and the seed magnetic field strength, and is independent of the seed field geometry. While the mass accretion rate in steady-state disks is always equal to the mass supply rate, the steady-state alpha eff is larger

  18. Stratified Simulations of Collisionless Accretion Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirabayashi, Kota; Hoshino, Masahiro

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents a series of stratified-shearing-box simulations of collisionless accretion disks in the recently developed framework of kinetic magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), which can handle finite non-gyrotropy of a pressure tensor. Although a fully kinetic simulation predicted a more efficient angular-momentum transport in collisionless disks than in the standard MHD regime, the enhanced transport has not been observed in past kinetic-MHD approaches to gyrotropic pressure anisotropy. For the purpose of investigating this missing link between the fully kinetic and MHD treatments, this paper explores the role of non-gyrotropic pressure and makes the first attempt to incorporate certain collisionless effects into disk-scale, stratified disk simulations. When the timescale of gyrotropization was longer than, or comparable to, the disk-rotation frequency of the orbit, we found that the finite non-gyrotropy selectively remaining in the vicinity of current sheets contributes to suppressing magnetic reconnection in the shearing-box system. This leads to increases both in the saturated amplitude of the MHD turbulence driven by magnetorotational instabilities and in the resultant efficiency of angular-momentum transport. Our results seem to favor the fast advection of magnetic fields toward the rotation axis of a central object, which is required to launch an ultra-relativistic jet from a black hole accretion system in, for example, a magnetically arrested disk state.

  19. Dust Coagulation in Protoplanetary Accretion Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, W.; Henning, Th.; Mucha, R.

    1996-01-01

    The time evolution of dust particles in circumstellar disk-like structures around protostars and young stellar objects is discussed. In particular, we consider the coagulation of grains due to collisional aggregation. The coagulation of the particles is calculated by solving numerically the non-linear Smoluchowski equation. The different physical processes leading to relative velocities between the grains are investigated. The relative velocities may be induced by Brownian motion, turbulence and drift motion. Starting from different regimes which can be identified during the grain growth we also discuss the evolution of dust opacities. These opacities are important for both the derivation of the circumstellar dust mass from submillimeter/millimeter continuum observations and the dynamical behavior of the disks. We present results of our numerical studies of the coagulation of dust grains in a turbulent protoplanetary accretion disk described by a time-dependent one-dimensional (radial) alpha-model. For several periods and disk radii, mass distributions of coagulated grains have been calculated. From these mass spectra, we determined the corresponding Rosseland mean dust opacities. The influence of grain opacity changes due to dust coagulation on the dynamical evolution of a protostellar disk is considered. Significant changes in the thermal structure of the protoplanetary nebula are observed. A 'gap' in the accretion disk forms at the very frontier of the coagulation, i.e., behind the sublimation boundary in the region between 1 and 5 AU.

  20. Magnetic Field Transport in Accretion Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafari, Amir; Vishniac, Ethan

    2017-06-01

    The most plausible theories for launching astrophysical jets rely on strong magnetic fields at the inner parts of some accretion disks. An internal dynamo can in principle generate small scale magnetic fields in situ but generating a large scale field in a disk seems a difficult task in the dynamo theories. In fact, as far as numerous numerical experiments indicate, a dynamo-generated field in general would not be coherent enough over the large length scales of order the disk's radius. Instead, a large scale poloidal field dragged in from the environment, and compressed by the accretion, provides a more promising possibility. The difficulty in the latter picture, however, arises from the reconnection of the radial field component across the mid-plane which annihilates the field faster than it is dragged inward by the accretion. We suggest that a combination of different effects, including magnetic buoyancy and turbulent pumping, is responsible for the vertical transport of the field lines toward the surface of the disk. The radial component of the poloidal field vanishes at the mid-plane, which efficiently impedes reconnection, and grows exponentially toward the surface where it can become much larger than the vertical field component. This allows the poloidal field to be efficiently advected to small radii until the allowed bending angle drops to of order unity, and the field can drive a strong outflow.

  1. Massive accretion disks in galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scoville, N. Z.

    In the luminous infrared galaxies, very large masses of interstellar matter have been concentrated in the galactic nuclei at radii less than 300 pc as a result of galactic merging, while in lower luminosity systems, this material is probably concentrated by stellar bars and viscous accretion. In both cases, the nuclear region will be highly obscured by dust at visible wavelengths, forcing studies to longer wavelengths where the extinction is reduced. We review recent high resolution near infrared (HST-NICMOS) and mm-interferometric imaging of the dense gas and dust accretion disks in nearby luminous galactic nuclei. Since this nuclear ISM is the active ingredient for both starburst activity and a likely fuel for central AGNs, the nuclear accretion disks are critical to both the activity and the optical appearance of the nucleus. For a sample of 24 luminous galaxies imaged with NICMOS at 1-2μm, approximately 13 show nuclear point sources, indicating the existence of a central AGN or an intense starburst at <= 50 pc radius. Approximately 14 of the sample galaxies have apparent central dust disks. In the best studied ultraluminous IR galaxy, Arp 220, the 2μm imaging shows dust disks in both of the merging galactic nuclei and mm-CO line imaging indicates molecular gas masses ~ 109Msolar for each disk. The two gas disks in Arp 220 are counterrotating and their dynamical masses are ~ 2×109Msolar, that is, only slightly larger than the gas masses. These disks have radii ~ 100 pc and thickness 10-50 pc. The high brightness temperatures of the CO lines indicate that the gas in the disks has area filling factors ~25-50% and mean densities of >= 104 cm-3. Within these nuclear disks, the rate of massive star formation is undoubtedly prodigious and, given the high viscosity of the gas, there will also be high radial accretion rates, perhaps >= 10 Msolar yr-1. If this inflow persists to very small radii, it is enough to feed even the highest

  2. Pebble Accretion in Turbulent Protoplanetary Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ziyan; Bai, Xue-Ning; Murray-Clay, Ruth A.

    2017-09-01

    It has been realized in recent years that the accretion of pebble-sized dust particles onto planetary cores is an important mode of core growth, which enables the formation of giant planets at large distances and assists planet formation in general. The pebble accretion theory is built upon the orbit theory of dust particles in a laminar protoplanetary disk (PPD). For sufficiently large core mass (in the “Hill regime”), essentially all particles of appropriate sizes entering the Hill sphere can be captured. However, the outer regions of PPDs are expected to be weakly turbulent due to the magnetorotational instability (MRI), where turbulent stirring of particle orbits may affect the efficiency of pebble accretion. We conduct shearing-box simulations of pebble accretion with different levels of MRI turbulence (strongly turbulent assuming ideal magnetohydrodynamics, weakly turbulent in the presence of ambipolar diffusion, and laminar) and different core masses to test the efficiency of pebble accretion at a microphysical level. We find that accretion remains efficient for marginally coupled particles (dimensionless stopping time {τ }s∼ 0.1{--}1) even in the presence of strong MRI turbulence. Though more dust particles are brought toward the core by the turbulence, this effect is largely canceled by a reduction in accretion probability. As a result, the overall effect of turbulence on the accretion rate is mainly reflected in the changes in the thickness of the dust layer. On the other hand, we find that the efficiency of pebble accretion for strongly coupled particles (down to {τ }s∼ 0.01) can be modestly reduced by strong turbulence for low-mass cores.

  3. Diskoseismology - Signatures of black hole accretion disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowak, Michael; Wagoner, Robert V.

    1992-01-01

    General relativity requires the existence of a spectrum of oscillations which are trapped near the inner edge of accretion disks around black holes. We have developed a general formalism for analyzing the normal modes of such acoustic perturbations of arbitrary thin disk models, approximating the dominant relativistic effects via a modified Newtonian potential (these modes do not exist in Newtonian gravity). The eigenfunctions and eigenfrequencies of a variety of disk models are found to fall in to two main classes, which are analogous to the p-modes and g-modes in the sun. In this work, we compute the eigenfunctions and eigenfrequencies of isothermal disks. The (relatively small) rates of growth or damping of these oscillations due to gravitational radiation and parameterized models of viscosity are also computed.

  4. Black hole accretion disks with coronae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svensson, Roland; Zdziarski, Andrzej A.

    1994-01-01

    Observations suggest the existence of both hot and cold dark matter in the centers of active galactic nuclei. Recent spectral models require a major fraction of power to be dissipated in the hot matter. We study the case when the hot matter forms a corona around a standard cold alpha-disk. In particular, we investigate the case when a major fraction, f, of the power released when the cold matter accretes is transported to and dissipated in the corona. This has major effects on the cold disk, making it colder, more geometrically thin, denser, and having larger optical depths. One important consequence is the disappearance of the effectively optically thin zone as well as of the radiation pressure dominated zone for values of f sufficiently closed to unity. The disappearance of the radiation pressure dominated zone will result in a cold disk with only a gas pressure dominated zone that is stable against thermal and viscous instabilities. We also show that the pressure ( and the radiation) from the corona will only affect the surface layers of the cold disk. Our results disagree with those of other recent work on accretion disks with coronae. We find those works to be based on unphysical assumptions.

  5. Global self-similar protostellar disk/wind models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teitler, Seth A.

    The magnetocentrifugal disk wind mechanism is the leading candidate for producing the large-scale, bipolar jets commonly seen in protostellar systems. I present a detailed formulation of a global, radially self-similar model for a fully general, non-ideal disk that launches a magnetocentrifugal disk wind. This formulation generalizes the conductivity tensor formalism previously used in radially localized disk models to a global disk model. The model involves matching a solution of the equations of non-ideal MHD describing matter in the disk to a solution of the equations of ideal MHD describing a "cold" wind. The disk solution is required to pass smoothly through the sonic point, the wind solution is required to pass smoothly through the Alfven point, and the two solutions must match at the disk/wind interface. This model includes for the first time a self-consistent treatment of the evolution of magnetic flux threading the disk, which can change on the disk accretion timescale. These constraints fix the distribution of the magnetic field threading the disk, the midplane accretion speed, and the midplane migration speed of flux surfaces. Specializing to the case of a disk in the ambipolar diffusivity regime, I present a representative solution using the neutral matter-field coupling constant. I conclude with a brief discussion of the importance of self-similar disk/wind models in studying global processes in protostellar systems.

  6. FITDisk: Cataclysmic Variable Accretion Disk Demonstration Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Matthew A.; Dolence, J.

    2013-05-01

    FITDisk models accretion disk phenomena using a fully three-dimensional hydrodynamics calculation, and data can either be visualized as they are computed or stored to hard drive for later playback at a fast frame rate. Simulations are visualized using OpenGL graphics and the viewing angle can be changed interactively. Pseudo light curves of simulated systems can be plotted along with the associated Fourier amplitude spectrum. It provides an easy to use graphical user interface as well as 3-D interactive graphics. The code computes the evolution of a CV accretion disk, visualizes results in real time, records and plays back simulations, and generates and plots pseudo light curves and associated power spectra.

  7. Anomalous magnetic viscosity in relativistic accretion disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Fujun; Liu, Sanqiu; Li, Xiaoqing

    2013-07-01

    It has been proved that the self-generated magnetic fields by transverse plasmons in the relativistic regime are modulationally unstable, leading to a self-similar collapse of the magnetic flux tubes and resulting in local magnetic structures; highly spatially intermittent flux is responsible for generating the anomalous viscosity. We derive the anomalous magnetic viscosity coefficient, in accretion disks around compact objects, such as black holes, pulsars and quasars, where the plasmas are relativistic, in order to help clarify the nature of viscosity in the theory of accretion disks. The results indicate that, the magnetic viscosity is modified by the relativistic effects of plasmas, and its' strength would be 1015 stronger than the molecular viscosity, which may be helpful in explaining the observations.

  8. Winds and accretion in delta Sagittae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaton, Joel A.; Hartkopf, William I.; McAlister, Harold A.; Mason, Brian D.

    1995-04-01

    The ten-year binary delta Sge (M2 Ib-II+B9.5 V) is a zeta Aur binary containing an abnormally cool component. Combining our analysis of the system as a visual binary with Batten's radial-velocity solution leads to the following properties: i = 40 deg, a = 51 mas = 8.83 A.U. = 1893 solar radius, hence d = 173 pc; MB = 2.9 solar mass and MM = 3.8 solar mass; and RB = 2.6 solar radius and RM = 152 solar radius. This interpretation of the orbit places the M supergiant on the asymptotic giant branch. We have collected ultraviolet spectra throughout the star's 1980-90 orbit, concentrated around the conjuction of 1990. The wind of the M giant appears in these as narrow shell lines of singly ionized metals, chiefly Fe II, with P-Cyg profiles at many phases, which show the slow variation in strength expected for the orbit but no pronounced atmospheric eclipse. The terminal velocity of the wind is 16-18 km/s, and its excitation temperature is approximately 10,000 K. Most of the broadening of the wind lines is caused by differential expansion of the atmosphere, with (unmeasurably) low turbulent velocities. Nontheless, the mass loss rate (1.1 +/- 0.4 X 10 -8 solar mas/yr) is almost the same as found previously by Reimers and Schroder for very different assumptions about the velocity structure. Also seen in the spectrum throughout the orbit are the effects of a variable, high-speed wind as well as evidence for accretion onto the B9.5 star. This high-speed wind absorbs in species of all ionization stages observed, e. g., C II, Mg II, Al III, SI IV, C IV, and has a terminaal velocity in the range 200-450 km/s. We presume this wind originates at the B dwarf, not the M supergiant, and speculate that it comes from an accretion disk, as suggested by recent models of magnetically moderated accretion. Evidence for accretion is redshifted absorption in the same transitions formed in the high-speed wind, as well as broad emission lines of singly ionized metals. This emission seems to be

  9. Dynamics of flux tubes in accretion disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vishniac, E. T.; Duncan, R. C.

    1994-01-01

    The study of magnetized plasmas in astrophysics is complicated by a number of factors, not the least of which is that in considering magnetic fields in stars or accretion disks, we are considering plasmas with densities well above those we can study in the laboratory. In particular, whereas laboratory plasmas are dominated by the confining magnetic field pressure, stars, and probably accretion disks, have magnetic fields whose beta (ratio of gas pressure to magnetic field pressure) is much greater than 1. Observations of the Sun suggest that under such circumstances the magnetic field breaks apart into discrete flux tubes with a small filling factor. On the other hand, theoretical treatments of MHD turbulence in high-beta plasmas tend to assume that the field is more or less homogeneously distributed throughout the plasma. Here we consider a simple model for the distribution of magnetic flux tubes in a turbulent medium. We discuss the mechanism by which small inhomogeneities evolve into discrete flux tubes and the size and distribution of such flux tubes. We then apply the model to accretion disks. We find that the fibrilation of the magnetic field does not enhance magnetic buoyancy. We also note that the evolution of an initially diffuse field in a turbulent medium, e.g., any uniform field in a shearing flow, will initially show exponential growth as the flux tubes form. This growth saturates when the flux tube formation is complete and cannot be used as the basis for a self-sustaining dynamo effect. Since the typical state of the magnetic field is a collection of intense flux tubes, this effect is of limited interest. However, it may be important early in the evolution of the galactic magnetic field, and it will play a large role in numerical simulations. Finally, we note that the formation of flux tubes is an essential ingredient in any successful dynamo model for stars or accretion disks.

  10. DISPERSAL OF PROTOPLANETARY DISKS BY CENTRAL WIND STRIPPING

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuyama, I.; Johnstone, D.; Hollenbach, D.

    2009-07-20

    We present a model for the dispersal of protoplanetary disks by winds from either the central star or the inner disk. These winds obliquely strike the flaring disk surface and strip away disk material by entraining it in an outward radial-moving flow at the wind-disk interface, which lies several disk scale heights above the midplane. The disk dispersal time depends on the entrainment velocity, v{sub d} = {epsilon}c{sub s} , at which disk material flows into this turbulent shear layer interface, where {epsilon} is a scale factor and c{sub s} is the local sound speed in the disk surface just below the entrainment layer. If {epsilon} {approx} 0.1, a likely upper limit, the dispersal time at 1 AU is {approx}6 Myr for a disk with a surface density of 10{sup 3} g cm{sup -2}, a solar mass central star, and a wind with an outflow rate M-dot{sub w}=10{sup -8}M{sub odot}yr{sup -1} and terminal velocity v{sub w} = 200kms{sup -1}. When compared with photoevaporation and viscous evolution, wind stripping can be a dominant mechanism only for the combination of low accretion rates ({approx}<10{sup -8} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}) and wind outflow rates approaching these accretion rates. This case is unusual since generally outflow rates are {approx}<0.1 of accretion rates.

  11. Angular momentum transport in thin accretion disks and intermittent accretion.

    PubMed

    Coppi, B; Coppi, P S

    2001-07-30

    The plasma modes, transporting angular momentum in accretion disks, under minimally restrictive conditions when the magnetic energy density is significant relative to the thermal energy density, are shown to be singular if the ideal MHD approximation is adopted. A similarity with the modes producing magnetic reconnection in current carrying plasmas is established. The combined effects of finite plasma temperature, of plasma compressibility, of the gradient of the rotation frequency, and of appropriate transport processes (outside ideal MHD) are involved in the onset of these nonaxisymmetric and locally corotating modes.

  12. Magnetic interchange instability in accretion disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubow, Stephen H.; Spruit, Hendrik C.

    1995-05-01

    We investigate the stability of a disk to magnetic interchange in the disk plane, when a poloidal magentic field provides some radial support of the disk. The disk is assumed to be geometrically thin and may possess rotation and shear. We assume the unperturbed magnetic field vertically threads the disk and has a comparable radial component at the disk surface. We formulate the linear stability problem as an initial value problem in shearing coordinates and ignore any effects of winds. Shear stabilizes the interchange instability strongly compared to the uniformly rotating case studied previously and makes the growth algebraic rather than exponential. A second form of instability with long wavelengths is identified, whose growth appears to be transient. If the field strength is measured by the travel time tauA of an Alfven wave across the disk thickness, significant amplification for both forms of instability requires (tauA Omega)-2 greater than or approximately equal to L/H, where L is the radial length scale of the field gradient and H is the disk thickness. Field strengths such that 1 less than or approximately equal (tauA Omega)-2 less than or approximately equal L/H are stable to these instabilities as well as the instability recently investigated by Balbus & Hawley (1991). The results suggest that in dark environments in which the magnetic energy density is greater than the thermal energy density, disks are stable over a substantial range of parameter space, with radial advection of magnetic flux limited by the interchange instability possibly near the disk center. Such environments may be relevant for the production of magnetic winds or jets in young stars or active galactic nuclei.

  13. Black Hole Advective Accretion Disks with Optical Depth Transition

    SciTech Connect

    Artemove, Y.V.; Bisnovatyi-Kogan, G.S.; Igumenshchev, I.V.; Novikov, I.D.

    2006-02-01

    We have constructed numerically global solutions of advective accretion disks around black holes that describe a continuous transition between the effectively optically thick outer and optically thin inner disk regions. We have concentrated on models of accretion flows with large mass accretion rates, and we have employed a bridging formula for radiative losses at high and low effective optical depths.

  14. Unified Models of AGN Accretion Disks and Blazars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kafatos, M.; Ramos, E.; Becker, P.; Subramanian, P.; Yang, R.

    1996-01-01

    Accretion disks around supermassive black holes are expected to be the power sources in all AGNS, including blazars. To date, though, little direct evidence for such disks exists in AGN observations. In blazars, the intense relativistic beaming would mask any underlying disk component. Here we present relevant work that our group at GMU is carrying out on unified aspects of disk accretion onto supermassive black holes and the possible coupling of thick disks to beams in the inner regions.

  15. THE COSMIC BATTERY IN ASTROPHYSICAL ACCRETION DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Contopoulos, Ioannis; Nathanail, Antonios; Katsanikas, Matthaios

    2015-06-01

    The aberrated radiation pressure at the inner edge of the accretion disk around an astrophysical black hole imparts a relative azimuthal velocity on the electrons with respect to the ions which gives rise to a ring electric current that generates large-scale poloidal magnetic field loops. This is the Cosmic Battery established by Contopoulos and Kazanas in 1998. In the present work we perform realistic numerical simulations of this important astrophysical mechanism in advection-dominated accretion flows, ADAFs. We confirm the original prediction that the inner parts of the loops are continuously advected toward the central black hole and contribute to the growth of the large-scale magnetic field, whereas the outer parts of the loops are continuously diffusing outward through the turbulent accretion flow. This process of inward advection of the axial field and outward diffusion of the return field proceeds all the way to equipartition, thus generating astrophysically significant magnetic fields on astrophysically relevant timescales. We confirm that there exists a critical value of the magnetic Prandtl number between unity and 10 in the outer disk above which the Cosmic Battery mechanism is suppressed.

  16. Equilibrium configuration of a stratus floating above accretion disks: Full-disk calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itanishi, Yusuke; Fukue, Jun

    2017-06-01

    We examine floating strati above a luminous accretion disk, supported by the radiative force from the entire disk, and calculate the equilibrium locus, which depends on the disk luminosity and the optical depth of the stratus. Due to the radiative transfer effect (albedo effect), the floating height of the stratus with a finite optical depth generally becomes high, compared with the particle case. In contrast to the case of the near-disk approximation, moreover, the floating height becomes yet higher in the present full-disk calculation, since the intense radiation from the inner disk is taken into account. As a result, when the disk luminosity normalized by the Eddington luminosity is ∼0.3 and the stratus optical depth is around unity, the stable configuration disappears at around r ∼ 50 rg, rg being the Schwarzschild radius, and the stratus would be blown off as a cloudy wind consisting of many strati with appropriate conditions. This luminosity is sufficiently smaller than the Eddington one, and the present results suggest that the radiation-driven cloudy wind can be easily blown off from the sub-Eddington disk, and this can explain various outflows observed in ultra-fast outflow objects as well as in broad-absorption-line quasars.

  17. Neutrino oscillation above a black hole accretion disk

    SciTech Connect

    Malkus, A.; Kneller, J. P.; McLaughlin, G. C.; Surman, R.

    2015-05-15

    We examine neutrino oscillations in the context of an accretion disk surrounding a black hole. Because accretion disks produce large quantities of neutrinos, they may be home to interesting neutrino oscillation as well. We model accretion disks associated with stellar collapse for the sake of understanding neutrino oscillations. We find that the neutrino oscillations include phenomena seen in the protoneutron star setting as well as phenomena not seen elsewhere.

  18. Normal Modes of Black Hole Accretion Disks

    SciTech Connect

    Ortega-Rodriguez, Manuel; Silbergleit, Alexander S.; Wagoner, Robert V.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2006-11-07

    This paper studies the hydrodynamical problem of normal modes of small adiabatic oscillations of relativistic barotropic thin accretion disks around black holes (and compact weakly magnetic neutron stars). Employing WKB techniques, we obtain the eigen frequencies and eigenfunctions of the modes for different values of the mass and angular momentum of the central black hole. We discuss the properties of the various types of modes and examine the role of viscosity, as it appears to render some of the modes unstable to rapid growth.

  19. A Wind Accretion Model for HLX-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, M. Coleman; Farrell, Sean A.; Maccarone, Thomas J.

    2014-06-01

    The brightest ultraluminous X-ray source currently known, HLX-1, has been observed to undergo five outburst cycles. The periodicity of these outbursts, and their high inferred maximum accretion rates of ~few × 10-4 M ⊙ yr-1, naturally suggest Roche lobe overflow at the pericenter of an eccentric orbit. It is, however, difficult for the Roche lobe overflow model to explain the apparent trend of decreasing decay times over the different outbursts while the integrated luminosity also drops. Thus, if the trend is real rather than simply being a reflection of the complex physics of accretion disks, a different scenario may be necessary. We present a speculative model in which, within the last decade, a high-mass giant star had most of its envelope tidally stripped by the ~104 - 5 M ⊙ black hole in HLX-1, and the remaining core plus low-mass hydrogen envelope now feeds the hole with a strong wind. This model can explain the short decay time of the disk, and could explain the fast decrease in decay time if the wind speed changes with time. A key prediction of this model is that there will be excess line absorption due to the wind; our analysis does in fact find a flux deficit in the ~0.9-1.1 keV range that is consistent with predictions, albeit at low significance. If this idea is correct, we also expect that within years to dacades the bound material from the original disruption will return and will make HLX-1 a persistently bright source.

  20. A wind accretion model for HLX-1

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M. Coleman; Farrell, Sean A.; Maccarone, Thomas J.

    2014-06-20

    The brightest ultraluminous X-ray source currently known, HLX-1, has been observed to undergo five outburst cycles. The periodicity of these outbursts, and their high inferred maximum accretion rates of ∼few × 10{sup –4} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, naturally suggest Roche lobe overflow at the pericenter of an eccentric orbit. It is, however, difficult for the Roche lobe overflow model to explain the apparent trend of decreasing decay times over the different outbursts while the integrated luminosity also drops. Thus, if the trend is real rather than simply being a reflection of the complex physics of accretion disks, a different scenario may be necessary. We present a speculative model in which, within the last decade, a high-mass giant star had most of its envelope tidally stripped by the ∼10{sup 4–5} M {sub ☉} black hole in HLX-1, and the remaining core plus low-mass hydrogen envelope now feeds the hole with a strong wind. This model can explain the short decay time of the disk, and could explain the fast decrease in decay time if the wind speed changes with time. A key prediction of this model is that there will be excess line absorption due to the wind; our analysis does in fact find a flux deficit in the ∼0.9-1.1 keV range that is consistent with predictions, albeit at low significance. If this idea is correct, we also expect that within years to dacades the bound material from the original disruption will return and will make HLX-1 a persistently bright source.

  1. Dead Zone Accretion Flows in Protostellar Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Neal; Sano, T.

    2008-01-01

    Planets form inside protostellar disks in a dead zone where the electrical resistivity of the gas is too high for magnetic forces to drive turbulence. We show that much of the dead zone nevertheless is active and flows toward the star while smooth, large-scale magnetic fields transfer the orbital angular momentum radially outward. Stellar X-ray and radionuclide ionization sustain a weak coupling of the dead zone gas to the magnetic fields, despite the rapid recombination of free charges on dust grains. Net radial magnetic fields are generated in the magnetorotational turbulence in the electrically conducting top and bottom surface layers of the disk, and reach the midplane by ohmic diffusion. A toroidal component to the fields is produced near the midplane by the orbital shear. The process is similar to the magnetization of the solar tachocline. The result is a laminar, magnetically driven accretion flow in the region where the planets form.

  2. Dead Zone Accretion Flows in Protostellar Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Neal; Sano, T.

    2008-01-01

    Planets form inside protostellar disks in a dead zone where the electrical resistivity of the gas is too high for magnetic forces to drive turbulence. We show that much of the dead zone nevertheless is active and flows toward the star while smooth, large-scale magnetic fields transfer the orbital angular momentum radially outward. Stellar X-ray and radionuclide ionization sustain a weak coupling of the dead zone gas to the magnetic fields, despite the rapid recombination of free charges on dust grains. Net radial magnetic fields are generated in the magnetorotational turbulence in the electrically conducting top and bottom surface layers of the disk, and reach the midplane by ohmic diffusion. A toroidal component to the fields is produced near the midplane by the orbital shear. The process is similar to the magnetization of the solar tachocline. The result is a laminar, magnetically driven accretion flow in the region where the planets form.

  3. Magnetized Black Hole Accretion Disks with Poloidal Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvesen, Greg; Simon, Jacob B.; Armitage, Philip J.; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    2017-08-01

    Observations of blueshifted absorption lines associated with black hole X-ray binary accretion disk winds sometimes imply a magnetic driving mechansim. To study the properties of magnetized disks, we performed shearing box simulations (stratified, isothermal, ideal MHD) with different amounts of net vertical magnetic flux, spanning essentially the entire range over which the MRI is linearly unstable. This net vertical flux sets the strength of the dominant toroidal field that is generated by the MRI-dynamo. Given sufficiently large net vertical flux, magnetic pressure support against gravity dominates throughout the vertical column of the disk. Without net poloidal flux, a strongly magnetized state cannot persist because the toroidal field buoyantly escapes faster than it can be replenished. With increasing disk magnetization: (1) toroidal field reversals characteristic of the MRI-dynamo become less frequent and more sporadic and (2) gas density becomes more inhomogeneous, with field concentrating in low-density regions. We are currently investigating whether magnetic pressure support in the disk atmosphere alters the disk continuum spectrum, which would bring the robustness of black hole spin measurements into question.

  4. Accretion Disk Outflows from Compact Object Mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, Brian

    Nuclear reactions play a key role in the accretion disks and outflows associated with the merger of binary compact objects and the central engines of gamma-ray bursts and supernovae. The proposed research program will investigate the impact of nucleosynthesis on these events and their observable signatures by means of analytic calculations and numerical simulations. One focus of this research is rapid accretion following the tidal disruption of a white dwarf (WD) by a neutron star (NS) or black hole (BH) binary companion. Tidal disruption shreds the WD into a massive torus composed of C, O, and/or He, which undergoes nuclear reactions and burns to increasingly heavier elements as it flows to smaller radii towards the central compact object. The nuclear energy so released is comparable to that released gravitationally, suggesting that burning could drastically alter the structure and stability of the accretion flow. Axisymmetric hydrodynamic simulations of the evolution of the torus including nuclear burning will be performed to explore issues such as the mass budget of the flow (accretion vs. outflows) and its thermal stability (steady burning and accretion vs. runaway explosion). The mass, velocity, and composition of outflows from the disk will be used in separate radiative transfer calculations to predict the lightcurves and spectra of the 56Ni-decay powered optical transients from WD-NS/WD-BH mergers. The possible connection of such events to recently discovered classes of sub-luminous Type I supernovae will be assessed. The coalescence of NS-NS/NS-BH binaries also results in the formation of a massive torus surrounding a central compact object. Three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the long-term evolution of such accretion disks will be performed, which for the first time follow the effects of weak interactions and the nuclear energy released by Helium recombination. The nucleosynthetic yield of disk outflows will be calculated using a detailed

  5. Magnetohydrodynamic Origin of Jets from Accretion Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovelace, R. V. E.; Romanova, M. M.

    1998-01-01

    A review is made of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory and simulation of outflows from disks for different distributions of magnetic field threading the disk. In one limit of a relatively weak, initially diverging magnetic field, both thermal and magnetic pressure gradients act to drive matter to an outflow, while a toroidal magnetic field develops which strongly collimates the outflow. The collimation greatly reduces the field divergence and the mass outflow rate decreases after an initial peak. In a second limit of a strong magnetic field, the initial field configuration was taken with the field strength on the disk decreasing outwards to small values so that collimation was reduced. As a result, a family of stationary solutions was discovered where matter is driven mainly by the strong magnetic pressure gradient force. The collimation in this case depends on the pressure of an external medium. These flows are qualitatively similar to the analytic solutions for magnetically driven outflows. The problem of the opening of a closed field line configuration linking a magnetized star and an accretion disk is also discussed.

  6. Magnetohydrodynamic Origin of Jets from Accretion Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovelace, R. V. E.; Romanova, M. M.

    1998-01-01

    A review is made of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory and simulation of outflows from disks for different distributions of magnetic field threading the disk. In one limit of a relatively weak, initially diverging magnetic field, both thermal and magnetic pressure gradients act to drive matter to an outflow, while a toroidal magnetic field develops which strongly collimates the outflow. The collimation greatly reduces the field divergence and the mass outflow rate decreases after an initial peak. In a second limit of a strong magnetic field, the initial field configuration was taken with the field strength on the disk decreasing outwards to small values so that collimation was reduced. As a result, a family of stationary solutions was discovered where matter is driven mainly by the strong magnetic pressure gradient force. The collimation in this case depends on the pressure of an external medium. These flows are qualitatively similar to the analytic solutions for magnetically driven outflows. The problem of the opening of a closed field line configuration linking a magnetized star and an accretion disk is also discussed.

  7. Viscosity Prescription for Gravitationally Unstable Accretion Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafikov, Roman R.

    2015-05-01

    Gravitationally unstable accretion disks emerge in a variety of astrophysical contexts—giant planet formation, FU Orioni outbursts, feeding of active galactic nuclei, and the origin of Pop III stars. When a gravitationally unstable disk is unable to cool rapidly, it settles into a quasi-stationary, fluctuating gravitoturbulent state, in which its Toomre Q remains close to a constant value {{Q}0}∼ 1. Here we develop an analytical formalism describing the evolution of such a disk, which is based on the assumptions of Q={{Q}0} and local thermal equilibrium. Our approach works in the presence of additional sources of angular momentum transport (e.g., MRI), as well as external irradiation. Thermal balance dictates a unique value of the gravitoturbulent stress {{α }gt} driving disk evolution, which is a function of the local surface density and angular frequency. We compare this approach with other commonly used gravitoturbulent viscosity prescriptions, which specify the explicit dependence of stress {{α }gt} on Toomre Q in an ad hoc fashion, and identify the ones that provide consistent results. We nevertheless argue that our Q={{Q}0} approach is more flexible, robust, and straightforward and should be given preference in applications. We illustrate this with a couple of analytical calculations—locations of the snow line and of the outer edge of the dead zone in a gravitoturbulent protoplanetary disk—which clearly show the simplicity and versatility of the Q={{Q}0} approach.

  8. Spin Evolution of Accreting Young Stars. II. Effect of Accretion-powered Stellar Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matt, Sean P.; Pinzón, Giovanni; Greene, Thomas P.; Pudritz, Ralph E.

    2012-01-01

    We present a model for the rotational evolution of a young, solar-mass star interacting magnetically with an accretion disk. As in a previous paper (Paper I), the model includes changes in the star's mass and radius as it descends the Hayashi track, a decreasing accretion rate, and a prescription for the angular momentum transfer between the star and disk. Paper I concluded that, for the relatively strong magnetic coupling expected in real systems, additional processes are necessary to explain the existence of slowly rotating pre-main-sequence stars. In the present paper, we extend the stellar spin model to include the effect of a spin-down torque that arises from an accretion-powered stellar wind (APSW). For a range of magnetic field strengths, accretion rates, initial spin rates, and mass outflow rates, the modeled stars exhibit rotation periods within the range of 1-10 days in the age range of 1-3 Myr. This range coincides with the bulk of the observed rotation periods, with the slow rotators corresponding to stars with the lowest accretion rates, strongest magnetic fields, and/or highest stellar wind mass outflow rates. We also make a direct, quantitative comparison between the APSW scenario and the two types of disk-locking models (namely, the X-wind and Ghosh & Lamb type models) and identify some remaining theoretical issues for understanding young star spins.

  9. Magnetic tensions can control the dynamics of accretion disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundt, W.

    1990-10-01

    This paper considers the dynamics of the Galaxy and of accretion disks in general. It is shown that the dominant shear force in accretion disks is likely to be controlled by magnetic tensions. In galactic disks, the magnetic tensions can guarantee the mass-accretion rate required by the quasar phenomenon. It is shown that the inner near-rigidly rotating regions of galactic disks contains supercritical (toroidal) fields which are significantly larger than those in the outer parts, and it is argued that disks with magnetic fields of ram-pressure strength should be violently unstable.

  10. Global Self-similar Protostellar Disk/Wind Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teitler, Seth

    2011-05-01

    The magnetocentrifugal disk wind mechanism is the leading candidate for producing the large-scale, bipolar jets commonly seen in protostellar systems. I present a detailed formulation of a global, radially self-similar model for a non-ideal disk that launches a magnetocentrifugal wind. This formulation generalizes the conductivity tensor formalism previously used in radially localized disk models. The model involves matching a solution of the equations of non-ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) describing matter in the disk to a solution of the equations of ideal MHD describing a "cold" wind. The disk solution must pass smoothly through the sonic point, the wind solution must pass smoothly through the Alfvén point, and the two solutions must match at the disk/wind interface. This model includes for the first time a self-consistent treatment of the evolution of magnetic flux threading the disk, which can change on the disk accretion timescale. The formulation presented here also allows a realistic conductivity profile for the disk to be used in a global disk/wind model for the first time. The physical constraints on the model solutions fix the distribution of the magnetic field threading the disk, the midplane accretion speed, and the midplane migration speed of flux surfaces. I present a representative solution that corresponds to a disk in the ambipolar conductivity regime with a nominal neutral-matter-magnetic-field coupling parameter that is constant along field lines, matched to a wind solution. I conclude with a brief discussion of the importance of self-similar disk/wind models in studying global processes such as dust evolution in protostellar systems. Presented as a dissertation to the Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The University of Chicago, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the PhD degree.

  11. Dust Heating by Ultraviolet Accretion Disk Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagua, R. O.; Viegas-Aldrovandi, S. M.

    1987-05-01

    ABSTRACT. Since the first observations, the continuum of active galactic nuclei have been represented by a power law (F ). Recently, infrared and ultraviolet observations lead to the of thermal com ponents at these ranges. The Seyfert 2 galaxies show an ultraviolet excess at 10 -2O associated to thermal emission by heated dust (Neugebauer 1978, hq , 17, 149; Neugebauer, Becklin, Oke, and Searle, 1976, Ap. J., 205, 29). The extrapolation of the optical law does not provide enough ioni zing photons neither the necessary ultraviolet luminosity that explains dust heating. In this paper, we analyze the contribution of an ultraviolet accretion disk component (Malkan and Sargent 1982, Ap. J., 254, 22 (Paper I); 1983, Ap. 5., 268, 582) added to the non thermal continuum explaining the observational values of H luminosity, the intensity ratio ( /H ) and the infrared luminosity associated to thermal emission of dust grains heated by the central source. oit : GALAXIES-ACTIVE

  12. Compact stars and accretion disks: Workshop summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.

    1998-07-01

    A workshop on `Compact Stars and Accretion Disks' was held on 11-12 August 1997 at the Australian National University. The workshop was opened by Professor Jeremy Mould, the Director of Mount Stromlo Observatory. The workshop was organised to coincide with visits to the ANU Astrophysical Theory Centre by Professor Ron Webbink from the University of Illinois, Professor Rainer Wehrse from the University of Heidelberg and Dr Chris Tout from the University of Cambridge. The workshop attracted over 25 participants nationwide. Participants included members of the Special Research Centre for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Sydney, led by Professor Don Melrose, Professor Dick Manchester from the ATNF, Professor Ravi Sood from ADFA, Dr John Greenhill from the University of Tasmania and Dr Rosemary Mardling from Monash University. Dr Helen Johnston from AAO and Dr Kurt Liffman from AFDL also attended the workshop. The abstracts of twelve of the workshop papers are presented in this summary.

  13. Testing Convergence for Global Accretion Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawley, John F.; Richers, Sherwood A.; Guan, Xiaoyue; Krolik, Julian H.

    2013-08-01

    Global disk simulations provide a powerful tool for investigating accretion and the underlying magnetohydrodynamic turbulence driven by magneto-rotational instability (MRI). Using them to accurately predict quantities such as stress, accretion rate, and surface brightness profile requires that purely numerical effects, arising from both resolution and algorithm, be understood and controlled. We use the flux-conservative Athena code to conduct a series of experiments on disks having a variety of magnetic topologies to determine what constitutes adequate resolution. We develop and apply several resolution metrics: langQz rang and langQ phirang, the ratio of the grid zone size to the characteristic MRI wavelength, αmag, the ratio of the Maxwell stress to the magnetic pressure, and \\langle B_R^2\\rangle /\\langle B_\\phi ^2\\rangle, the ratio of radial to toroidal magnetic field energy. For the initial conditions considered here, adequate resolution is characterized by langQz rang >= 15, langQ phirang >= 20, αmag ≈ 0.45, and \\langle B_R^2\\rangle /\\langle B_\\phi ^2\\rangle \\approx 0.2. These values are associated with >=35 zones per scaleheight H, a result consistent with shearing box simulations. Numerical algorithm is also important. Use of the Harten-Lax-van Leer-Einfeldt flux solver or second-order interpolation can significantly degrade the effective resolution compared to the Harten-Lax-van Leer discontinuities flux solver and third-order interpolation. Resolution at this standard can be achieved only with large numbers of grid zones, arranged in a fashion that matches the symmetries of the problem and the scientific goals of the simulation. Without it, however, quantitative measures important to predictions of observables are subject to large systematic errors.

  14. Accretion disk radiation dynamics and the cosmic battery

    SciTech Connect

    Koutsantoniou, Leela E.; Contopoulos, Ioannis E-mail: icontop@academyofathens.gr

    2014-10-10

    We investigate the dynamics of radiation in the surface layers of an optically thick astrophysical accretion disk around a Kerr black hole. The source of the radiation is the surface of the accretion disk itself, and not a central object as in previous studies of the Poynting-Robertson effect. We generate numerical sky maps from photon trajectories that originate on the surface of the disk as seen from the inner edge of the disk at the position of the innermost stable circular orbit. We investigate several accretion disk morphologies with a Shakura-Sunyaev surface temperature distribution. Finally, we calculate the electromotive source of the Cosmic Battery mechanism around the inner edge of the accretion disk and obtain characteristic timescales for the generation of astrophysical magnetic fields.

  15. Magnetic fields in primordial accretion disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latif, M. A.; Schleicher, D. R. G.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic fields are considered a vital ingredient of contemporary star formation and may have been important during the formation of the first stars in the presence of an efficient amplification mechanism. Initial seed fields are provided via plasma fluctuations and are subsequently amplified by the small-scale dynamo, leading to a strong, tangled magnetic field. We explore how the magnetic field provided by the small-scale dynamo is further amplified via the α-Ω dynamo in a protostellar disk and assess its implications. For this purpose, we consider two characteristic cases, a typical Pop. III star with 10M⊙ and an accretion rate of 10-3M⊙ yr-1, and a supermassive star with 105M⊙ and an accretion rate of 10-1M⊙ yr-1. For the 10M⊙ Pop. III star, we find that coherent magnetic fields can be produced on scales of at least 100 AU, which are sufficient to drive a jet with a luminosity of 100L⊙ and a mass outflow rate of 10-3.7M⊙ yr-1. For the supermassive star, the dynamical timescales in its environment are even shorter, implying smaller orbital timescales and an efficient magnetization out to at least 1000 AU. The jet luminosity corresponds to ~106.0L⊙ and a mass outflow rate of 10-2.1M⊙ yr-1. We expect that the feedback from the supermassive star can have a relevant impact on its host galaxy.

  16. Accreting planets as dust dams in 'transition' disks

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, James E.

    2014-07-01

    We investigate under what circumstances an embedded planet in a protoplanetary disk may sculpt the dust distribution such that it observationally presents as a 'transition' disk. We concern ourselves with 'transition' disks that have large holes (≳ 10 AU) and high accretion rates (∼10{sup –9}-10{sup –8} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}), particularly, those disks which photoevaporative models struggle to explain. Adopting the observed accretion rates in 'transition' disks, we find that the accretion luminosity from the forming planet is significant, and can dominate over the stellar luminosity at the gap edge. This planetary accretion luminosity can apply a significant radiation pressure to small (s ≲ 1 μm) dust particles provided they are suitably decoupled from the gas. Secular evolution calculations that account for the evolution of the gas and dust components in a disk with an embedded, accreting planet, show that only with the addition of the radiation pressure can we explain the full observed characteristics of a 'transition' disk (NIR dip in the spectral energy distribution (SED), millimeter cavity, and high accretion rate). At suitably high planet masses (≳ 3-4 M{sub J} ), radiation pressure from the accreting planet is able to hold back the small dust particles, producing a heavily dust-depleted inner disk that is optically thin to infrared radiation. The planet-disk system will present as a 'transition' disk with a dip in the SED only when the planet mass and planetary accretion rate are high enough. At other times, it will present as a disk with a primordial SED, but with a cavity in the millimeter, as observed in a handful of protoplanetary disks.

  17. Accreting Planets as Dust Dams in "Transition" Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, James E.

    2014-07-01

    We investigate under what circumstances an embedded planet in a protoplanetary disk may sculpt the dust distribution such that it observationally presents as a "transition" disk. We concern ourselves with "transition" disks that have large holes (gsim 10 AU) and high accretion rates (~10-9-10-8 M ⊙ yr-1), particularly, those disks which photoevaporative models struggle to explain. Adopting the observed accretion rates in "transition" disks, we find that the accretion luminosity from the forming planet is significant, and can dominate over the stellar luminosity at the gap edge. This planetary accretion luminosity can apply a significant radiation pressure to small (s <~ 1 μm) dust particles provided they are suitably decoupled from the gas. Secular evolution calculations that account for the evolution of the gas and dust components in a disk with an embedded, accreting planet, show that only with the addition of the radiation pressure can we explain the full observed characteristics of a "transition" disk (NIR dip in the spectral energy distribution (SED), millimeter cavity, and high accretion rate). At suitably high planet masses (gsim 3-4 MJ ), radiation pressure from the accreting planet is able to hold back the small dust particles, producing a heavily dust-depleted inner disk that is optically thin to infrared radiation. The planet-disk system will present as a "transition" disk with a dip in the SED only when the planet mass and planetary accretion rate are high enough. At other times, it will present as a disk with a primordial SED, but with a cavity in the millimeter, as observed in a handful of protoplanetary disks.

  18. Evolution of Pre-Main Sequence Accretion Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, Lee W.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this project is to develop a comprehensive global picture of the physical conditions in, and evolutionary timescales of, pre-main sequence accretion disks. The results of this work will help constrain the initial conditions for planet formation. To this end we are developing much larger samples of 3-10 Myr-old stars to provide better empirical constraints on protoplanetary disk evolution; measuring disk accretion rates in these systems; and constructing detailed model disk structures consistent with observations to infer physical conditions such as grain growth in protoplanetary disks.

  19. Evolution of Pre-Main Sequence Accretion Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, Lee W.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this project was to develop a comprehensive global picture of the physical conditions in, and evolutionary timescales of, premain sequence accretion disks. The results of this work will help constrain the initial conditions for planet formation. To this end we developed much larger samples of 3-10 Myr-old stars to provide better empirical constraints on protoplanetary disk evolution; measured disk accretion rates in these systems; and constructed detailed model disk structures consistent with observations to infer physical conditions such as grain growth in protoplanetary disks.

  20. Evolution of Pre-Main Sequence Accretion Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, Lee W.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this project is to develop a comprehensive global picture of the physical conditions in, and evolutionary timescales of, pre-main sequence accretion disks. The results of this work will help constrain the initial conditions for planet formation. To this end we are developing much larger samples of 3-10 Myr-old stars to provide better empirical constraints on protoplanetary disk evolution; measuring disk accretion rates in these systems; and constructing detailed model disk structures consistent with observations to infer physical conditions such as grain growth in protoplanetary disks.

  1. Constraints from Dust Mass and Mass Accretion Rate Measurements on Angular Momentum Transport in Protoplanetary Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulders, Gijs D.; Pascucci, Ilaria; Manara, Carlo F.; Testi, Leonardo; Herczeg, Gregory J.; Henning, Thomas; Mohanty, Subhanjoy; Lodato, Giuseppe

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate the relation between disk mass and mass accretion rate to constrain the mechanism of angular momentum transport in protoplanetary disks. We find a correlation between dust disk mass and mass accretion rate in Chamaeleon I with a slope that is close to linear, similar to the one recently identified in Lupus. We investigate the effect of stellar mass and find that the intrinsic scatter around the best-fit {M}{dust}–{M}\\star and {\\dot{M}}{acc}–{M}\\star relations is uncorrelated. We simulate synthetic observations of an ensemble of evolving disks using a Monte Carlo approach and find that disks with a constant α viscosity can fit the observed relations between dust mass, mass accretion rate, and stellar mass but overpredict the strength of the correlation between disk mass and mass accretion rate when using standard initial conditions. We find two possible solutions. In the first one, the observed scatter in {M}{dust} and {\\dot{M}}{acc} is not primordial, but arises from additional physical processes or uncertainties in estimating the disk gas mass. Most likely grain growth and radial drift affect the observable dust mass, while variability on large timescales affects the mass accretion rates. In the second scenario, the observed scatter is primordial, but disks have not evolved substantially at the age of Lupus and Chamaeleon I owing to a low viscosity or a large initial disk radius. More accurate estimates of the disk mass and gas disk sizes in a large sample of protoplanetary disks, through either direct observations of the gas or spatially resolved multiwavelength observations of the dust with ALMA, are needed to discriminate between both scenarios or to constrain alternative angular momentum transport mechanisms such as MHD disk winds.

  2. Magnetohydrodynamic simulations of global accretion disks with vertical magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Takeru K.; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro

    2014-04-01

    We report results of three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) simulations of global accretion disks threaded with weak vertical magnetic fields. We perform the simulations in the spherical coordinates with different temperature profiles and accordingly different rotation profiles. In the cases with a spatially constant temperature, because the rotation frequency is vertically constant in the equilibrium condition, general properties of the turbulence excited by magnetorotational instability are quantitatively similar to those obtained in local shearing box simulations. On the other hand, in the cases with a radially variable temperature profile, the vertical differential rotation, which is inevitable in the equilibrium condition, winds up the magnetic field lines in addition to the usual radial differential rotation. As a result, the coherent wound magnetic fields contribute to the Maxwell stress in the surface regions. We obtain nondimensional density and velocity fluctuations ∼0.1-0.2 at the midplane. The azimuthal power spectra of the magnetic fields show shallower slopes, ∼m {sup 0} – m {sup –1}, than those of velocity and density. The Poynting flux associated with the MHD turbulence drives intermittent and structured disk winds as well as sound-like waves toward the midplane. The mass accretion mainly occurs near the surfaces, and the gas near the midplane slowly moves outward in the time domain of the present simulations. The vertical magnetic fields are also dragged inward in the surface regions, while they stochastically move outward and inward around the midplane. We also discuss an observational implication of induced spiral structure in the simulated turbulent disks.

  3. THE STRUCTURE OF THE ACCRETION DISK IN THE ACCRETION DISK CORONA X-RAY BINARY 4U 1822-371 AT OPTICAL AND ULTRAVIOLET WAVELENGTHS

    SciTech Connect

    Bayless, Amanda J.; Robinson, Edward L.; Cornell, Mark E.; Hynes, Robert I.; Ashcraft, Teresa A.

    2010-01-20

    The eclipsing low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1822-371 is the prototypical accretion disk corona (ADC) system. We have obtained new time-resolved UV spectroscopy of 4U 1822-371 with the Advanced Camera for Surveys/Solar Blind Channel on the Hubble Space Telescope and new V- and J-band photometry with the 1.3 m SMARTS telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory. We use the new data to construct its UV/optical spectral energy distribution and its orbital light curve in the UV, V, and J bands. We derive an improved ephemeris for the optical eclipses and confirm that the orbital period is changing rapidly, indicating extremely high rates of mass flow in the system, and we show that the accretion disk in the system has a strong wind with projected velocities up to 4000 km s{sup -1}. We show that the disk has a vertically extended, optically thick component at optical wavelengths. This component extends almost to the edge of the disk and has a height equal to approx0.5 of the disk radius. As it has a low brightness temperature, we identify it as the optically thick base of a disk wind, not as the optical counterpart of the ADC. Like previous models of 4U 1822-371, ours needs a tall obscuring wall near the edge of the accretion disk, but we interpret the wall as a layer of cooler material at the base of the disk wind, not as a tall, luminous disk rim.

  4. Parsec-Scale Accretion and Winds Irradiated by a Quasar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorodnitsyn, A.; Kallman, T.; Proga, D.

    2016-01-01

    We present numerical simulations of properties of a parsec-scale torus exposed to illumination by the central black hole in an active galactic nucleus (AGN). Our physical model allows to investigate the balance between the formation of winds and accretion simultaneously. Radiation-driven winds are allowed by taking into account radiation pressure due to UV and IR radiation along with X-ray heating and dust sublimation. Accretion is allowed through angular momentum transport and the solution of the equations of radiative, viscous radiation hydrodynamics. Our methods adopt flux-limited diffusion radiation hydrodynamics for the dusty, infrared pressure driven part of the flow, along with X-ray heating and cooling. Angular momentum transport in the accreting part of the flow is modeled using effective viscosity. Our results demonstrate that radiation pressure on dust can play an important role in shaping AGN obscuration. For example, when the luminosity illuminating the torus exceeds L greater than 0.01 L(sub Edd), where L(sub Edd) is the Eddington luminosity, we find no episodes of sustained disk accretion because radiation pressure does not allow a disk to form. Despite the absence of the disk accretion, the flow of gas to smaller radii still proceeds at a rate 10(exp -4)-10(exp -1)M dot yr(exp -1) through the capturing of the gas from the hot evaporative flow, thus providing a mechanism to deliver gas from a radiation-pressure dominated torus to the inner accretion disk. As L L(sub edd) increases, larger radiation input leads to larger torus aspect ratios and increased obscuration of the central black hole. We also find the important role of the X-ray heated gas in shaping the obscuring torus.

  5. Parsec-Scale Accretion and Winds Irradiated by a Quasar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorodnitsyn, A.; Kallman, T.; Proga, D.

    2016-01-01

    We present numerical simulations of properties of a parsec-scale torus exposed to illumination by the central black hole in an active galactic nucleus (AGN). Our physical model allows to investigate the balance between the formation of winds and accretion simultaneously. Radiation-driven winds are allowed by taking into account radiation pressure due to UV and IR radiation along with X-ray heating and dust sublimation. Accretion is allowed through angular momentum transport and the solution of the equations of radiative, viscous radiation hydrodynamics. Our methods adopt flux-limited diffusion radiation hydrodynamics for the dusty, infrared pressure driven part of the flow, along with X-ray heating and cooling. Angular momentum transport in the accreting part of the flow is modeled using effective viscosity. Our results demonstrate that radiation pressure on dust can play an important role in shaping AGN obscuration. For example, when the luminosity illuminating the torus exceeds L greater than 0.01 L(sub Edd), where L(sub Edd) is the Eddington luminosity, we find no episodes of sustained disk accretion because radiation pressure does not allow a disk to form. Despite the absence of the disk accretion, the flow of gas to smaller radii still proceeds at a rate 10(exp -4)-10(exp -1)M dot yr(exp -1) through the capturing of the gas from the hot evaporative flow, thus providing a mechanism to deliver gas from a radiation-pressure dominated torus to the inner accretion disk. As L L(sub edd) increases, larger radiation input leads to larger torus aspect ratios and increased obscuration of the central black hole. We also find the important role of the X-ray heated gas in shaping the obscuring torus.

  6. A pure hydrodynamic origin of accretion disk turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, Sujit Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Banibrata

    2016-07-01

    Accretion disks consist of flows for which angular velocity decreases but specific angular momentum increases with increasing radial coordinate. Such flows are Rayleigh stable, but must be turbulent in order to explain observed data. Since molecular viscosity is negligible in these systems, scientists have argued for turbulent viscosity for energy dissipation and hence to explain infall of matter. However, so far, the success to explain the origin of turbulence in accretion disks is done with caveats. Here we investigate the evolution of pure hydrodynamic perturbations in stochastically driven accretion disks. We show that the accretion flows, which are inevitably driven by stochastic noise, are hydrodynamically unstable under linear perturbations. We also argue that in accretion disks, stochastic forcing appears generically due to the presence of shear between different annuli of the disk. This work resolves the turbulence problem of accretion disks from pure hydrodynamics and explains the infall of matter for both hot and cold disks. This would help in explaining the origin of timing and spectral features in the disk flows generically.

  7. Magnetically Induced Disk Winds and Transport in the HL Tau Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Okuzumi, Satoshi; Flock, Mario; Turner, Neal J.

    2017-08-01

    The mechanism of angular momentum transport in protoplanetary disks is fundamental to understanding the distributions of gas and dust in the disks. The unprecedented ALMA observations taken toward HL Tau at high spatial resolution and subsequent radiative transfer modeling reveal that a high degree of dust settling is currently achieved in the outer part of the HL Tau disk. Previous observations, however, suggest a high disk accretion rate onto the central star. This configuration is not necessarily intuitive in the framework of the conventional viscous disk model, since efficient accretion generally requires a high level of turbulence, which can suppress dust settling considerably. We develop a simplified, semi-analytical disk model to examine under what condition these two properties can be realized in a single model. Recent, non-ideal MHD simulations are utilized to realistically model the angular momentum transport both radially via MHD turbulence and vertically via magnetically induced disk winds. We find that the HL Tau disk configuration can be reproduced well when disk winds are properly taken into account. While the resulting disk properties are likely consistent with other observational results, such an ideal situation can be established only if the plasma β at the disk midplane is β 0 ≃ 2 × 104 under the assumption of steady accretion. Equivalently, the vertical magnetic flux at 100 au is about 0.2 mG. More detailed modeling is needed to fully identify the origin of the disk accretion and quantitatively examine plausible mechanisms behind the observed gap structures in the HL Tau disk.

  8. Conservative GRMHD simulations of moderately thin, tilted accretion disks

    SciTech Connect

    Teixeira, Danilo Morales; Fragile, P. Chris; Zhuravlev, Viacheslav V.; Ivanov, Pavel B.

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents our latest numerical simulations of accretion disks that are misaligned with respect to the rotation axis of a Kerr black hole. In this work, we use a new, fully conservative version of the Cosmos++ general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (GRMHD) code, coupled with an ad hoc cooling function designed to control the thickness of the disk. Together these allow us to simulate the thinnest tilted accretion disks ever using a GRMHD code. In this way, we are able to probe the regime where the dimensionless stress and scale height of the disk become comparable. We present results for both prograde and retrograde cases. The simulated prograde tilted disk shows no sign of Bardeen-Petterson alignment even in the innermost parts of the disk. The simulated retrograde tilted disk, however, does show modest alignment. The implication of these results is that the parameter space associated with Bardeen-Petterson alignment for prograde disks may be rather small, only including very thin disks. Unlike our previous work, we find no evidence for standing shocks in our simulated tilted disks. We ascribe this to the black hole spin, tilt angle, and disk scale height all being small in these simulations. We also add to the growing body of literature pointing out that the turbulence driven by the magnetorotational instability in global simulations of accretion disks is not isotropic. Finally, we provide a comparison between our moderately thin, untilted reference simulation and other numerical simulations of thin disks in the literature.

  9. LUNAR ACCRETION FROM A ROCHE-INTERIOR FLUID DISK

    SciTech Connect

    Salmon, Julien; Canup, Robin M. E-mail: robin@boulder.swri.edu

    2012-11-20

    We use a hybrid numerical approach to simulate the formation of the Moon from an impact-generated disk, consisting of a fluid model for the disk inside the Roche limit and an N-body code to describe accretion outside the Roche limit. As the inner disk spreads due to a thermally regulated viscosity, material is delivered across the Roche limit and accretes into moonlets that are added to the N-body simulation. Contrary to an accretion timescale of a few months obtained with prior pure N-body codes, here the final stage of the Moon's growth is controlled by the slow spreading of the inner disk, resulting in a total lunar accretion timescale of {approx}10{sup 2} years. It has been proposed that the inner disk may compositionally equilibrate with the Earth through diffusive mixing, which offers a potential explanation for the identical oxygen isotope compositions of the Earth and Moon. However, the mass fraction of the final Moon that is derived from the inner disk is limited by resonant torques between the disk and exterior growing moons. For initial disks containing <2.5 lunar masses (M{sub Last-Quarter-Moon }), we find that a final Moon with mass > 0.8 M{sub Last-Quarter-Moon} contains {<=}60% material derived from the inner disk, with this material preferentially delivered to the Moon at the end of its accretion.

  10. Accretion in Radiative Equipartition (AiRE) Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdi, Yasaman K.; Afshordi, Niayesh

    2017-07-01

    Standard accretion disk theory predicts that the total pressure in disks at typical (sub-)Eddington accretion rates becomes radiation pressure dominated. However, radiation pressure dominated disks are thermally unstable. Since these disks are observed in approximate steady state over the instability timescale, our accretion models in the radiation-pressure-dominated regime (i.e., inner disk) need to be modified. Here, we present a modification to the Shakura & Sunyaev model, where the radiation pressure is in equipartition with the gas pressure in the inner region. We call these flows accretion in radiative equipartition (AiRE) disks. We introduce the basic features of AiRE disks and show how they modify disk properties such as the Toomre parameter and the central temperature. We then show that the accretion rate of AiRE disks is limited from above and below, by Toomre and nodal sonic point instabilities, respectively. The former leads to a strict upper limit on the mass of supermassive black holes as a function of cosmic time (and spin), while the latter could explain the transition between hard and soft states of X-ray binaries.

  11. DISTRIBUTION OF ACCRETING GAS AND ANGULAR MOMENTUM ONTO CIRCUMPLANETARY DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Tanigawa, Takayuki; Ohtsuki, Keiji; Machida, Masahiro N.

    2012-03-01

    We investigate gas accretion flow onto a circumplanetary disk from a protoplanetary disk in detail by using high-resolution three-dimensional nested-grid hydrodynamic simulations, in order to provide a basis of formation processes of satellites around giant planets. Based on detailed analyses of gas accretion flow, we find that most of gas accretion onto circumplanetary disks occurs nearly vertically toward the disk surface from high altitude, which generates a shock surface at several scale heights of the circumplanetary disk. The gas that has passed through the shock surface moves inward because its specific angular momentum is smaller than that of the local Keplerian rotation, while gas near the midplane in the protoplanetary disk cannot accrete to the circumplanetary disk. Gas near the midplane within the planet's Hill sphere spirals outward and escapes from the Hill sphere through the two Lagrangian points L{sub 1} and L{sub 2}. We also analyze fluxes of accreting mass and angular momentum in detail and find that the distributions of the fluxes onto the disk surface are well described by power-law functions and that a large fraction of gas accretion occurs at the outer region of the disk, i.e., at about 0.1 times the Hill radius. The nature of power-law functions indicates that, other than the outer edge, there is no specific radius where gas accretion is concentrated. These source functions of mass and angular momentum in the circumplanetary disk would provide us with useful constraints on the structure and evolution of the circumplanetary disk, which is important for satellite formation.

  12. Dynamo magnetic-field generation in turbulent accretion disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepinski, T. F.

    1991-01-01

    Magnetic fields can play important roles in the dynamics and evolution of accretion disks. The presence of strong differential rotation and vertical density gradients in turbulent disks allows the alpha-omega dynamo mechanism to offset the turbulent dissipation and maintain strong magnetic fields. It is found that MHD dynamo magnetic-field normal modes in an accretion disk are highly localized to restricted regions of a disk. Implications for the character of real, dynamically constrained magnetic fields in accretion disks are discussed. The magnetic stress due to the mean magnetic field is found to be of the order of a viscous stress. The dominant stress, however, is likely to come from small-scale fluctuating magnetic fields. These fields may also give rise to energetic flares above the disk surface, providing a possible explanation for the highly variable hard X-ray emission from objects like Cyg X-l.

  13. Dynamo magnetic-field generation in turbulent accretion disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepinski, T. F.

    1991-01-01

    Magnetic fields can play important roles in the dynamics and evolution of accretion disks. The presence of strong differential rotation and vertical density gradients in turbulent disks allows the alpha-omega dynamo mechanism to offset the turbulent dissipation and maintain strong magnetic fields. It is found that MHD dynamo magnetic-field normal modes in an accretion disk are highly localized to restricted regions of a disk. Implications for the character of real, dynamically constrained magnetic fields in accretion disks are discussed. The magnetic stress due to the mean magnetic field is found to be of the order of a viscous stress. The dominant stress, however, is likely to come from small-scale fluctuating magnetic fields. These fields may also give rise to energetic flares above the disk surface, providing a possible explanation for the highly variable hard X-ray emission from objects like Cyg X-l.

  14. TEARING UP THE DISK: HOW BLACK HOLES ACCRETE

    SciTech Connect

    Nixon, Chris; King, Andrew; Price, Daniel; Frank, Juhan

    2012-10-01

    We show that in realistic cases of accretion in active galactic nuclei or stellar-mass X-ray binaries, the Lense-Thirring effect breaks the central regions of tilted accretion disks around spinning black holes into a set of distinct planes with only tenuous flows connecting them. If the original misalignment of the outer disk to the spin axis of the hole is 45 Degree-Sign {approx}< {theta} {approx}< 135 Degree-Sign , as in {approx}70% of randomly oriented accretion events, the continued precession of these disks sets up partially counterrotating gas flows. This drives rapid infall as angular momentum is canceled and gas attempts to circularize at smaller radii. Disk breaking close to the black hole leads to direct dynamical accretion, while breaking further out can drive gas down to scales where it can accrete rapidly. For smaller tilt angles breaking can still occur and may lead to other observable phenomena such as quasi-periodic oscillations. For such effects not to appear, the black hole spin must in practice be negligibly small, or be almost precisely aligned with the disk. Qualitatively similar results hold for any accretion disk subject to a forced differential precession, such as an external disk around a misaligned black hole binary.

  15. Freddi: Fast Rise Exponential Decay accretion Disk model Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malanchev, K. L.; Lipunova, G. V.

    2016-10-01

    Freddi (Fast Rise Exponential Decay: accretion Disk model Implementation) solves 1-D evolution equations of the Shakura-Sunyaev accretion disk. It simulates fast rise exponential decay (FRED) light curves of low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). The basic equation of the viscous evolution relates the surface density and viscous stresses and is of diffusion type; evolution of the accretion rate can be found on solving the equation. The distribution of viscous stresses defines the emission from the source. The standard model for the accretion disk is implied; the inner boundary of the disk is at the ISCO or can be explicitely set. The boundary conditions in the disk are the zero stress at the inner boundary and the zero accretion rate at the outer boundary. The conditions are suitable during the outbursts in X-ray binary transients with black holes. In a binary system, the accretion disk is radially confined. In Freddi, the outer radius of the disk can be set explicitely or calculated as the position of the tidal truncation radius.

  16. TEMPERATURE STRUCTURE OF PROTOPLANETARY DISKS UNDERGOING LAYERED ACCRETION

    SciTech Connect

    Lesniak, M. V.; Desch, S. J.

    2011-10-20

    We calculate the temperature structures of protoplanetary disks (PPDs) around T Tauri stars heated by both incident starlight and viscous dissipation. We present a new algorithm for calculating the temperatures in disks in hydrostatic and radiative equilibrium, based on Rybicki's method for iteratively calculating the vertical temperature structure within an annulus. At each iteration, the method solves for the temperature at all locations simultaneously, and converges rapidly even at high (>>10{sup 4}) optical depth. The method retains the full frequency dependence of the radiation field. We use this algorithm to study for the first time disks evolving via the magnetorotational instability. Because PPD midplanes are weakly ionized, this instability operates preferentially in their surface layers, and disks will undergo layered accretion. We find that the midplane temperatures T{sub mid} are strongly affected by the column density {Sigma}{sub a} of the active layers, even for fixed mass accretion rate M-dot . Models assuming uniform accretion predict midplane temperatures in the terrestrial planet forming region several x 10{sup 2} K higher than our layered accretion models do. For M-dot < 10{sup -7} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} and the column densities {Sigma}{sub a} < 10 g cm{sup -2} associated with layered accretion, disk temperatures are indistinguishable from those of a passively heated disk. We find emergent spectra are insensitive to {Sigma}{sub a}, making it difficult to observationally identify disks undergoing layered versus uniform accretion.

  17. Accretion Disks in Supersoft X-ray Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popham, Robert; DiStefano, Rosanne

    1996-01-01

    We examine the role of the accretion disk in the steady-burning white dwarf model for supersoft sources. The accretion luminosity of the disk is quite small compared to the nuclear burning luminosity of the central source. Thus, in contrast to standard accretion disks, the main role of the disk is to reprocess the radiation from the white dwarf. We calculate models of accretion disks around luminous white dwarfs and compare the resulting disk fluxes to optical and UV observations of the LMC supersoft sources CAL 83, CAL 87, and RX J0513.9-6951. We find that if the white dwarf luminosity is near the upper end of the steady-burning region, and the flaring of the disk is included, then reprocessing by the disk can account for the UV fluxes and a substantial fraction of the optical fluxes of these systems. Reprocessing by the companion star can provide additional optical flux, and here too the disk plays an important role: since the disk is fairly thick, it shadows a significant fraction of the companion's surface.

  18. Filling a SMBH accretion disk atmosphere at small and intermediate radii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karas, Vladimir; Czerny, Bozena; Kunneriath, Devaky

    2017-08-01

    The medium above an accretion disk is highly diluted and hot. An efficient mechanism to deliver particles and dust grains is an open question; apparently, different processes must be in operation. We discuss an interplay of two different scenarios, where the material is elevated from the plane of an equatorial accretion disk into a corona near a supermassive black hole: (i) an electromagnetically induced transport, which can be driven by magnetic field of stars passing across an accretion disk (Karas et al., 2017); and (ii) radiatively driven acceleration by radiation emerging from the disk (Czerny et al 2015), which can launch a dusty wind near above the dust sublimation radius. The former process can operate in the vicinity of a supermassive black hole (SMBH) surrounded by a dense nuclear star-cluster. The latter process involves the effect of radiation pressure from various sources - stars, accretion disc, and the central accreting SMBH; it can help filling the Broad-Line Region against the vertical component of the black hole gravitational attraction and the accretion disk self-gravity at radius about a few $\\times 10^3 R_g$.

  19. Thermal stability of a thin disk with magnetically driven winds

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Shuang-Liang; Begelman, Mitchell C. E-mail: mitch@jila.colorado.edu

    2014-05-01

    The absence of thermal instability in the high/soft state of black hole X-ray binaries, in disagreement with the standard thin disk theory, has been a long-standing riddle for theoretical astronomers. We have tried to resolve this question by studying the thermal stability of a thin disk with magnetically driven winds in the M-dot −Σ plane. It is found that disk winds can greatly decrease the disk temperature and thus help the disk become more stable at a given accretion rate. The critical accretion rate, M-dot {sub crit}, corresponding to the thermal instability threshold, is significantly increased in the presence of disk winds. For α = 0.01 and B {sub φ} = 10B {sub p}, the disk is quite stable even for a very weak initial poloidal magnetic field [β{sub p,0}∼2000,β{sub p}=(P{sub gas}+P{sub rad})/(B{sub p}{sup 2}/8π)]. However, when B {sub φ} = B {sub p} or B {sub φ} = 0.1B {sub p}, a somewhat stronger (but still weak) field (β{sub p,} {sub 0} ∼ 200 or β{sub p,} {sub 0} ∼ 20) is required to make the disk stable. Nevertheless, despite the great increase of M-dot {sub crit}, the luminosity threshold, corresponding to instability, remains almost constant or decreases slowly with increasing M-dot {sub crit} due to decreased gas temperature. The advection and diffusion timescales of the large-scale magnetic field threading the disk are also investigated in this work. We find that the advection timescale can be smaller than the diffusion timescale in a disk with winds, because the disk winds take away most of the gravitational energy released in the disk, resulting in the decrease of the magnetic diffusivity η and the increase of the diffusion timescale.

  20. Jet production in super-Eddington accretion disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eggum, G. E.; Coroniti, F. V.; Katz, J. I.

    1985-01-01

    A two-dimensional, radiation-coupled, Newtonian hydrodynamic simulation is reported for a super-Eddington, mass accretion rate, M = 4 M(E) disk accretion flow onto a 3-solar mass pseudoblack hole. Near the disk midplane, convection cells effectively block the accretion flow, even though viscous heating maximizes there. Accretion predominantly occurs in a supersonic inflow which follows streamlines of approximately constant angular momentum. The optically thick inflow traps radiation so that 80 percent of the luminosity is absorbed by the black hole; the emergent power is sub-Eddington. An axial jet self consistently forms just outside a conical photosphere which bounds the accretion zone; radiation pressure accelerates the jet to about 10 to the 10th cm/s. The jet's mass efflux is only 0.4 percent of the total mass accretion rate.

  1. Nonlinear evolution of accretion disks induced by radiative feedback processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, K. R.; Lin, D. N. C.; Ruden, Steven P.

    1991-01-01

    The existence of accretion disks around young stellar objects has recently become widely accepted. The luminosity of some young stellar objects is highly variable and is generally attributed to the release of gravitational energy from matter funneled onto them by accretion disks. The inward transport of matter through these disks is coupled to the outward transfer of angular momentum. This transfer is most likely to be regulated by the mixing of adjacent annuli through the process of large-scale turbulence. Most of the accretion energy generated by this process emerges near the inner edge of the disk. This radiation may be intercepted by the disk and may modify the vertical and viscous evolution of the disk itself. If surface heating can stabilize the disk against the dominant viscous process, then in systems with large accretion rates, angular momentum transport and mass flow through the disk will be quenched. Using this result, it is shown that such a mechanism can induce feedback through the disk which produces oscillations in the luminosity of the central object. This oscillation can become chaotic in certain regimes and might thus explain the highly variable nature of many T Tauri systems and their outbursting counterparts: the FU Orionis objects.

  2. Accretion disk emission from a BL Lacertae object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urry, C. Megan; Wandel, Amri

    1990-01-01

    The accretion disk is an attractive model for BL Lac objects because of its preferred axis and high efficiency. While the smooth continuum spectra of BL Lacs do not show large UV bumps, in marked contrast to quasars, high quality simultaneous data do reveal deviations from smoothness. Using detailed calculations of cool accretion disk spectra, the best measured ultraviolet and soft x ray spectra of the BL Lac object PKS 2155-304 are fitted. The mass and accretion rate required are determined. A hot disk or corona could comptonize soft photons from the cool disk and produce the observed power law spectrum in the 1 to 10 keV range. The dynamic time scales in the disk regions that contribute most of the observed ultraviolet and soft x ray photons are consistent with the respective time scales for intensity variations. The mass derived from fitting the continuum spectrum is consistent with the limit derived from the fastest hard x ray variability.

  3. Accretion disk emission from a BL Lacertae object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urry, C. Megan; Wandel, Amri

    1990-01-01

    The accretion disk is an attractive model for BL Lac objects because of its preferred axis and high efficiency. While the smooth continuum spectra of BL Lacs do not show large UV bumps, in marked contrast to quasars, high quality simultaneous data do reveal deviations from smoothness. Using detailed calculations of cool accretion disk spectra, the best measured ultraviolet and soft x ray spectra of the BL Lac object PKS 2155-304 are fitted. The mass and accretion rate required are determined. A hot disk or corona could comptonize soft photons from the cool disk and produce the observed power law spectrum in the 1 to 10 keV range. The dynamic time scales in the disk regions that contribute most of the observed ultraviolet and soft x ray photons are consistent with the respective time scales for intensity variations. The mass derived from fitting the continuum spectrum is consistent with the limit derived from the fastest hard x ray variability.

  4. Direct detection of a magnetic field in the innermost regions of an accretion disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donati, Jean-François; Paletou, Fréderic; Bouvier, Jérome; Ferreira, Jonathan

    2005-11-01

    Models predict that magnetic fields play a crucial role in the physics of astrophysical accretion disks and their associated winds and jets. For example, the rotation of the disk twists around the rotation axis the initially vertical magnetic field, which responds by slowing down the plasma in the disk and by causing it to fall towards the central star. The magnetic energy flux produced in this process points away from the disk, pushing the surface plasma outwards, leading to a wind from the disk and sometimes a collimated jet. But these predictions have hitherto not been supported by observations. Here we report the direct detection of the magnetic field in the core of the protostellar accretion disk FU Orionis. The surface field reaches strengths of about 1kG close to the centre of the disk, and it includes a significant azimuthal component, in good agreement with recent models. But we find that the field is very filamentary and slows down the disk plasma much more than models predict, which may explain why FU Ori fails to collimate its wind into a jet.

  5. Direct detection of a magnetic field in the innermost regions of an accretion disk.

    PubMed

    Donati, Jean-François; Paletou, Fréderic; Bouvier, Jérome; Ferreira, Jonathan

    2005-11-24

    Models predict that magnetic fields play a crucial role in the physics of astrophysical accretion disks and their associated winds and jets. For example, the rotation of the disk twists around the rotation axis the initially vertical magnetic field, which responds by slowing down the plasma in the disk and by causing it to fall towards the central star. The magnetic energy flux produced in this process points away from the disk, pushing the surface plasma outwards, leading to a wind from the disk and sometimes a collimated jet. But these predictions have hitherto not been supported by observations. Here we report the direct detection of the magnetic field in the core of the protostellar accretion disk FU Orionis. The surface field reaches strengths of about 1 kG close to the centre of the disk, and it includes a significant azimuthal component, in good agreement with recent models. But we find that the field is very filamentary and slows down the disk plasma much more than models predict, which may explain why FU Ori fails to collimate its wind into a jet.

  6. Accretion Disk Assembly During Common Envelope Evolution: Implications for Feedback and LIGO Binary Black Hole Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murguia-Berthier, Ariadna; MacLeod, Morgan; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Antoni, Andrea; Macias, Phillip

    2017-08-01

    During a common envelope (CE) episode in a binary system, the engulfed companion spirals to tighter orbital separations under the influence of drag from the surrounding envelope material. As this object sweeps through material with a steep radial gradient of density, net angular momentum is introduced into the flow, potentially leading to the formation of an accretion disk. The presence of a disk would have dramatic consequences for the outcome of the interaction because accretion might be accompanied by strong, polar outflows with enough energy to unbind the entire envelope. Without a detailed understanding of the necessary conditions for disk formation during CE, therefore, it is difficult to accurately predict the population of merging compact binaries. This paper examines the conditions for disk formation around objects embedded within CEs using the “wind tunnel” formalism developed by MacLeod et al. We find that the formation of disks is highly dependent on the compressibility of the envelope material. Disks form only in the most compressible of stellar envelope gas, found in envelopes’ outer layers in zones of partial ionization. These zones are largest in low-mass stellar envelopes, but comprise small portions of the envelope mass and radius in all cases. We conclude that disk formation and associated accretion feedback in CE is rare, and if it occurs, transitory. The implication for LIGO black hole binary assembly is that by avoiding strong accretion feedback, CE interactions should still result in the substantial orbital tightening needed to produce merging binaries.

  7. Electromagnetic signatures of thin accretion disks in wormhole geometries

    SciTech Connect

    Harko, Tiberiu; Kovacs, Zoltan; Lobo, Francisco S. N.

    2008-10-15

    In this paper, we study the physical properties and characteristics of matter forming thin accretion disks in static and spherically symmetric wormhole spacetimes. In particular, the time averaged energy flux, the disk temperature, and the emission spectra of the accretion disks are obtained for these exotic geometries and are compared with the Schwarzschild solution. It is shown that more energy is emitted from the disk in a wormhole geometry than in the case of the Schwarzschild potential and the conversion efficiency of the accreted mass into radiation is more than a factor of 2 higher for the wormholes than for static black holes. These effects in the disk radiation are confirmed in the radial profiles of temperature corresponding to theses flux distributions, and in the emission spectrum {omega}L({omega}) of the accretion disks. We conclude that specific signatures appear in the electromagnetic spectrum, thus leading to the possibility of distinguishing wormhole geometries by using astrophysical observations of the emission spectra from accretion disks.

  8. Vertical Structure of Magnetized Accretion Disks around Young Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizano, S.; Tapia, C.; Boehler, Y.; D'Alessio, P.

    2016-01-01

    We model the vertical structure of the magnetized accretion disks that are subject to viscous and resistive heating and irradiation by the central star. We apply our formalism to the radial structure of the magnetized accretion disks that are threaded by the poloidal magnetic field dragged during the process of star formation, which was developed by Shu and coworkers. We consider disks around low-mass protostars, T Tauri, and FU Orionis stars, as well as two levels of disk magnetization: {λ }{sys}=4 (strongly magnetized disks) and {λ }{sys}=12 (weakly magnetized disks). The rotation rates of strongly magnetized disks have large deviations from Keplerian rotation. In these models, resistive heating dominates the thermal structure for the FU Ori disk, and the T Tauri disk is very thin and cold because it is strongly compressed by magnetic pressure; it may be too thin compared with observations. Instead, in the weakly magnetized disks, rotation velocities are close to Keplerian, and resistive heating is always less than 7% of the viscous heating. In these models, the T Tauri disk has a larger aspect ratio, which is consistent with that inferred from observations. All the disks have spatially extended hot atmospheres where the irradiation flux is absorbed, although most of the mass (˜90%-95%) is in the disk midplane. With the advent of ALMA one expects direct measurements of magnetic fields and their morphology at disk scales. It will then be possible to determine the mass-to-flux ratio of magnetized accretion disks around young stars, an essential parameter for their structure and evolution. Our models contribute to the understanding of the vertical structure and emission of these disks.

  9. Vertical Structure of Magnetized Accretion Disks Around Young Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapia, Carlos; Lizano, Susana

    2016-01-01

    We model the vertical structure of magnetized accretion disks subject to viscous and resistive heating, and irradiation by the central star. We apply our formalism to the radial structure of magnetized accretion disks threaded by a poloidal magnetic field dragged during the process of star formation developed by Shu and coworkers. We consider disks around low mass protostars, T Tauri, and FU Orionis stars. We consider two levels of disk magnetization, λsys = 4 (strongly magnetized disks), and λsys = 12 (weakly magnetized disks). The rotation rates of strongly magnetized disks have large deviations from Keplerian rotation. In these models, resistive heating dominates the thermal structure for the FU Ori disk. The T Tauri disk is very thin and cold because it is strongly compressed by magnetic pressure; it may be too thin compared with observations. Instead, in the weakly magnetized disks, rotation velocities are close to Keplerian, and resistive heating is always less than 7% of the viscous heating. In these models, the T Tauri disk has a larger aspect ratio, consistent with that inferred from observations. All the disks have spatially extended hot atmospheres where the irradiation flux is absorbed, although most of the mass (~ 90 - 95 %) is in the disk midplane.

  10. Evolution of the luminosity function of quasar accretion disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caditz, David M.; Petrosian, Vahe; Wandel, Amri

    1991-01-01

    Using an accretion-disk model, accretion disk luminosities are calculated for a grid of black hole masses and accretion rates. It is shown that, as the black-hole mass increases with time, the monochromatic luminosity at a given frequency first increases and then decreases rapidly as this frequency is crossed by the Wien cutoff. The upper limit on the monochromatic luminosity, which is characteristic for a given epoch, constrains the evolution of quasar luminosities and determines the evolultion of the quasar luminosity function.

  11. ON HYDROMAGNETIC STRESSES IN ACCRETION DISK BOUNDARY LAYERS

    SciTech Connect

    Pessah, Martin E.; Chan, Chi-kwan E-mail: ckch@nordita.org

    2012-05-20

    Detailed calculations of the physical structure of accretion disk boundary layers, and thus their inferred observational properties, rely on the assumption that angular momentum transport is opposite to the radial angular frequency gradient of the disk. The standard model for turbulent shear viscosity satisfies this assumption by construction. However, this behavior is not supported by numerical simulations of turbulent magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) accretion disks, which show that angular momentum transport driven by the magnetorotational instability (MRI) is inefficient in disk regions where, as expected in boundary layers, the angular frequency increases with radius. In order to shed light on physically viable mechanisms for angular momentum transport in this inner disk region, we examine the generation of hydromagnetic stresses and energy density in differentially rotating backgrounds with angular frequencies that increase outward in the shearing-sheet framework. We isolate the modes that are unrelated to the standard MRI and provide analytic solutions for the long-term evolution of the resulting shearing MHD waves. We show that, although the energy density of these waves can be amplified significantly, their associated stresses oscillate around zero, rendering them an inefficient mechanism to transport significant angular momentum (inward). These findings are consistent with the results obtained in numerical simulations of MHD accretion disk boundary layers and challenge the standard assumption of efficient angular momentum transport in the inner disk regions. This suggests that the detailed structure of turbulent MHD accretion disk boundary layers could differ appreciably from those derived within the standard framework of turbulent shear viscosity.

  12. ON THE STRUCTURE OF ACCRETION DISKS WITH OUTFLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Jiao Chengliang; Wu Xuebing E-mail: wuxb@pku.edu.cn

    2011-06-01

    To study the outflows from accretion disks, we solve the set of hydrodynamic equations for accretion disks in spherical coordinates (r{theta}{phi}) to obtain the explicit structure along the {theta}-direction. Using self-similar assumptions in the radial direction, we change the equations to a set of ordinary differential equations about the {theta}-coordinate, which are then solved with symmetrical boundary conditions in the equatorial plane; the velocity field is then obtained. The {alpha} viscosity prescription is applied and an advective factor f is used to simplify the energy equation. The results display thinner, quasi-Keplerian disks for Shakura-Sunyaev disks; thicker, sub-Keplerian disks for advection-dominated accretion flows; and slim disks which are consistent with previous popular analytical models. However, an inflow region and an outflow region always exist, except when the viscosity parameter {alpha} is too large, which supports the results of some recent numerical simulation works. Our results indicate that the outflows should be common in various accretion disks and may be stronger in slim disks, where both advection and radiation pressure are dominant. We also present the structure's dependence on the input parameters and discuss their physical meanings. The caveats of this work and possible improvements for the future are discussed.

  13. On Hydromagnetic Stresses in Accretion Disk Boundary Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pessah, Martin E.; Chan, Chi-kwan

    2012-05-01

    Detailed calculations of the physical structure of accretion disk boundary layers, and thus their inferred observational properties, rely on the assumption that angular momentum transport is opposite to the radial angular frequency gradient of the disk. The standard model for turbulent shear viscosity satisfies this assumption by construction. However, this behavior is not supported by numerical simulations of turbulent magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) accretion disks, which show that angular momentum transport driven by the magnetorotational instability (MRI) is inefficient in disk regions where, as expected in boundary layers, the angular frequency increases with radius. In order to shed light on physically viable mechanisms for angular momentum transport in this inner disk region, we examine the generation of hydromagnetic stresses and energy density in differentially rotating backgrounds with angular frequencies that increase outward in the shearing-sheet framework. We isolate the modes that are unrelated to the standard MRI and provide analytic solutions for the long-term evolution of the resulting shearing MHD waves. We show that, although the energy density of these waves can be amplified significantly, their associated stresses oscillate around zero, rendering them an inefficient mechanism to transport significant angular momentum (inward). These findings are consistent with the results obtained in numerical simulations of MHD accretion disk boundary layers and challenge the standard assumption of efficient angular momentum transport in the inner disk regions. This suggests that the detailed structure of turbulent MHD accretion disk boundary layers could differ appreciably from those derived within the standard framework of turbulent shear viscosity

  14. Super-Eddington accretion disks in Ultraluminous X-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabrika, S.; Vinokurov, A.; Atapin, K.; Sholukhova, O.

    2016-06-01

    The origin of Ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) in external galaxies whose X-ray luminosities exceed those of the brightest black holes in our Galaxy hundreds and thousands times is mysterious. The most popular models for the ULXs involve either intermediate mass black holes (IMBHs) or stellar-mass black holes accreting at super-Eddington rates. Here we review the ULX properties, their X-ray spectra indicate the presence of hot winds in their accretion disks supposing the supercritical accretion. However, the strongest evidences come from optical spectroscopy. The spectra of the ULX counterparts are very similar to that of SS433, the only known supercritical accretor in our Galaxy. The spectra are apparently of WNL type (late nitrogen Wolf-Rayet stars) or LBV (luminous blue variables) in their hot state, which are very scarce stellar objects. We find that the spectra do not originate from WNL/LBV type donors but from very hot winds from the accretion disks, whose physical conditions are similar to those in stellar winds from these stars. The results suggest that bona-fide ULXs must constitute a homogeneous class of objects, which most likely have supercritical accretion disks.

  15. Accretion disks in the bimetric theory of gravitation: strong gravity sensitivity of the inner disk edge

    SciTech Connect

    Chubaryan, E.V.; Paul, H.G.; Sarkisyan, A.V.

    1988-05-01

    Optically thin accretion disks with bremsstrahlung are calculated in the bimetric theory of gravitation. The obtained results are compared with the corresponding results in Einstein's theory. The gravitational sensitivity of the inner disk edge, situated in the strong field of a central compact object, is an argument in support of the assertion that the accretion disk as a whole could be determined by strong gravity effects.

  16. Disk Accretion of Tidally Disrupted Rocky Bodies onto White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, W.; Desch, S.

    2017-03-01

    The prevailing model for the pollution of white dwarf photospheres invokes accretion from a disk of gas and solid particles, fed by tidal disruption of rocky bodies inside the Roche radius. Current models can successfully explain the accretion rates of metals onto white dwarfs, provided the gaseous disks viscously spread at rates consistent with a partially suppressed magnetorotational instability (Metzger et al. 2012); however, these models do not explore the extent of the magnetorotational instability in disks by calculating the degree of ionization. We present ionization fractions for thermal and non-thermal processes to assess the extent of the magnetorotational instability in white dwarf disks. We determine that the disk viscosity parameter α can be as high as 0.1 in white disks, implying that the magnetorotational instability must be carefully modeled.

  17. MAGNETICALLY LEVITATING ACCRETION DISKS AROUND SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Gaburov, Evghenii; Johansen, Anders; Levin, Yuri

    2012-10-20

    In this paper, we report on the formation of magnetically levitating accretion disks around supermassive black holes (SMBHs). The structure of these disks is calculated by numerically modeling tidal disruption of magnetized interstellar gas clouds. We find that the resulting disks are entirely supported by the pressure of the magnetic fields against the component of gravitational force directed perpendicular to the disks. The magnetic field shows ordered large-scale geometry that remains stable for the duration of our numerical experiments extending over 10% of the disk lifetime. Strong magnetic pressure allows high accretion rate and inhibits disk fragmentation. This in combination with the repeated feeding of magnetized molecular clouds to an SMBH yields a possible solution to the long-standing puzzle of black hole growth in the centers of galaxies.

  18. Smearing of mass accretion rate variation by viscous processes in accretion disks in compact binary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, A.; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.

    2016-09-01

    Variation of mass supply rate from the companion can be smeared out by viscous processes inside an accretion disk. Hence, by the time the flow reaches the inner edge, the variation in X-rays need not reflect the true variation of the mass supply rate at the outer edge. However, if the viscosity fluctuates around a mean value, one would expect the viscous time scale t_{{visc}} also to spread around a mean value. In high mass X-ray binaries, which are thought to be primarily wind-fed, the size of the viscous Keplerian disk is smaller and thus such a spread could be lower as compared to the low mass X-ray binaries which are primarily fed by Roche lobe overflow. If there is an increasing or decreasing trend in viscosity, the interval between enhanced emission would be modified systematically. In the absence of a detailed knowledge about the variation of mass supply rates at the outer edge, we study ideal circumstances where modulation must take place exactly in orbital time scales, such as when there is an ellipticity in the orbit. We study a few compact binaries using long term All Sky monitor (ASM) data (1.5-12 keV) of Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) and all sky survey data (15-50 keV) of Swift satellites by different methods to look for such smearing effects and to infer what these results can tell us about the viscous processes inside the respective disks. We employ three different methods to seek imprints of periodicity on the X-ray variation and found that in all the cases, the location of the peak in the power density spectra is consistent with the orbital frequencies. Interestingly, in high mass X-ray binaries the peaks are sharp with high rms values, consistent with a small Keplerian disk in a wind fed system. However, in low mass X-ray binaries with larger Keplerian disk component, the peaks are spreaded out with much lower rms values. X-ray reflections, or superhump phenomena which may also cause such X-ray modulations would not be affected by the size of

  19. Observational Tests of the Picture of Disk Accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maccarone, Thomas J.

    2014-09-01

    In this chapter, I present a summary of observational tests of the basic picture of disk accretion. An emphasis is placed on tests relevant to black holes, but many of the fundamental results are drawn from studies of other classes of systems. Evidence is discussed for the basic structures of accretion flows. The cases of systems with and without accretion disks are discussed, as is the evidence that disks actually form. Also discussed are the hot spots where accretion streams impact the disks, and the boundary layers in the inner parts of systems where the accretors are not black holes. The nature of slow, large amplitude variability is discussed. It is shown that some of the key predictions of the classical thermal-viscous ionization instability model for producing outbursts are in excellent agreement with observational results. It is also show that there are systems whose outbursts are extremely difficult to explain without invoking variations in the rate of mass transfer from the donor star into the outer accretion disk, or tidally induced variations in the mass transfer rates. Finally, I briefly discuss recent quasar microlensing measurements which give truly independent constraints on the inner accretion geometry around black holes.

  20. Propagation of tidal disturbance in gaseous accretion disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, D. N. C.; Papaloizou, J. C. B.; Savonije, G. J.

    1990-01-01

    Linear wave propagation is studied in geometrically thin accretion disks where the equilibrium variables, such as density and temperature, are stratified in the direction normal to the plane of the disk; i.e., the vertical direction. It is shown, due to refraction effects, that waves excited by tidal disturbances induced by a satellite or a companion of the central object are not expected to reach the interior regions of the disk with a significant amplitude.

  1. Accretion disk emission from a BL Lacertae object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wandel, Amri; Urry, C. Megan

    1991-01-01

    It is suggested here that the UV and X-ray emission of BL Lac objects may originate in an accretion disk. Using detailed calculations of accretion disk spectra, the best-measured ultraviolet and soft X-ray spectra of the BL Lac object PKS 2155-304 are fitted, and the mass and accretion rate required is determined. The ultraviolet through soft X-ray continuum is well fitted by the spectrum of an accretion disk, but near-Eddington accretion rates are required to produce the soft X-ray excess. A hot disk or corona could Comptonize soft photons from the cool disk and produce the observed power-law spectrum in the 1-10 keV range. The dynamic time scale in the disk regions that contribute most of the observed ultraviolet and soft X-ray photons are consistent with the respective time scales for intensity variations observed in these two wave bands; the mass derived from fitting the continuum spectrum is consistent with the limit derived from the fastest hard X-ray variability.

  2. Accretion disk emission from a BL Lacertae object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wandel, Amri; Urry, C. Megan

    1991-01-01

    It is suggested here that the UV and X-ray emission of BL Lac objects may originate in an accretion disk. Using detailed calculations of accretion disk spectra, the best-measured ultraviolet and soft X-ray spectra of the BL Lac object PKS 2155-304 are fitted, and the mass and accretion rate required is determined. The ultraviolet through soft X-ray continuum is well fitted by the spectrum of an accretion disk, but near-Eddington accretion rates are required to produce the soft X-ray excess. A hot disk or corona could Comptonize soft photons from the cool disk and produce the observed power-law spectrum in the 1-10 keV range. The dynamic time scale in the disk regions that contribute most of the observed ultraviolet and soft X-ray photons are consistent with the respective time scales for intensity variations observed in these two wave bands; the mass derived from fitting the continuum spectrum is consistent with the limit derived from the fastest hard X-ray variability.

  3. Young Stellar Objects in Lynds 1641: Disks and Accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Min; Kim, Jinyoung Serena; van Boekel, Roy; Sicilia-Aguilar, Aurora; Henning, Thomas; Flaherty, Kevin

    2013-07-01

    We investigate the young stellar objects (YSOs) in the Lynds 1641 (L1641) cloud using multi-wavelength data including Spitzer, WISE, 2MASS, and XMM covering 1390 YSOs across a range of evolutionary stages. In addition, we targeted a sub-sample of YSOs for optical spectroscopy with the MMT/Hectospec and the MMT/Hectochelle. We use this data, along with archival photometric data, to derive spectral types, masses, ages and extinction values. We also use the H_alpha and H_beta lines to derive accretion rates. We calculate the disk fraction as N(II)/N(II+III), where N(II) and N(III) are numbers of Class\\ II and Class\\ III sources, respectively, and obtain a disk fraction of 50% in L1641. We find that the disk frequency is almost constant as a function of stellar mass with a slight peak at log(M_*/M_sun) -0.25. The analysis of multi-epoch data indicates that the accretion variability of YSOs cannot explain the two orders of magnitude of scatter for YSOs with similar masses in the M_acc vs. M_* plot. Forty-six new transition disk objects are confirmed in our spectroscopic survey and we find that the fraction of transition disks that are actively accreting is lower than for optically thick disks (40-45% vs. 77-79% respectively). We confirm our previous result that the accreting YSOs with transition disks have a similar median accretion rate to normal optically thick disks. Analyzing the age distributions of various populations, we find that the diskless YSOs are statistically older than the YSOs with optically-thick disks and the transition disk objects have a median age which is intermediate between the two populations.

  4. Nucleosynthesis in the accretion disks of Type II collapsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Indrani; Mukhopadhyay, Banibrata

    2013-09-01

    We investigate nucleosynthesis inside the gamma-ray burst (GRB) accretion disks formed by the Type II collapsars. In these collapsars, the core collapse of massive stars first leads to the formation of a proto-neutron star. After that, an outward moving shock triggers a successful supernova. However, the supernova ejecta lacks momentum and within a few seconds the newly formed neutron star gets transformed to a stellar mass black hole via massive fallback. The hydrodynamics of such an accretion disk formed from the fallback material of the supernova ejecta has been studied extensively in the past. We use these well-established hydrodynamic models for our accretion disk in order to understand nucleosynthesis, which is mainly advection dominated in the outer regions. Neutrino cooling becomes important in the inner disk where the temperature and density are higher. The higher the accretion rate (dot M) is, the higher the density and temperature are in the disks. We deal with accretion disks with relatively low accretion rates: 0.001 Msolar s-1 ≲ dot M ≲ 0.01 Msolar s-1 and hence these disks are predominantly advection dominated. We use He-rich and Sirich abundances as the initial condition of nucleosynthesis at the outer disk, and being equipped with the disk hydrodynamics and the nuclear network code, we study the abundance evolution as matter inflows and falls into the central object. We investigate the variation in the nucleosynthesis products in the disk with the change in the initial abundance at the outer disk and also with the change in the mass accretion rate. We report the synthesis of several unusual nuclei like 31P, 39K, 43Sc, 35Cl and various isotopes of titanium, vanadium, chromium, manganese and copper. We also confirm that isotopes of iron, cobalt, nickel, argon, calcium, sulphur and silicon get synthesized in the disk, as shown by previous authors. Much of these heavy elements thus synthesized are ejected from the disk via outflows and hence they

  5. Flux distributions and colors of accretion disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pacharintanakul, P.; Katz, J. I.

    1980-01-01

    The disk model of Shakura and Sunyaev (1973) and Novikov and Thorne (1973) is used to calculate temperature distributions and integrated spectral fluxes for disks around a typical white dwarf and a typical neutron star, under the assumption that each element of the disk locally radiates as a blackbody. In addition, the disks' integrated UBV colors are calculated using the grid colors for real model atmospheres calculated by Buser and Kurucz (1978) and the observed colors given by Allen (1973). In all the calculations the effect of radiation from one part of the disk on all the other parts is included.

  6. Magnetic interchange instability of accretion disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaisig, M.; Tajima, T.; Lovelace, R. V. E.

    1992-01-01

    The nonlinear evolution of the magnetic interchange or buoyancy instability of a differentially rotating disk threaded by an ordered vertical magnetic field is investigated. A 2D ideal fluid in the equatorial plane of a central mass in the corotating frame of reference is considered as a model for the disk. If the rotation rate of the disk is Keplerian, the disk is found to be stable. If the vertical magnetic field is sufficiently strong, and the field strength decreases with distance from the central object, and thus the rotation of the disk deviates from Keplerian, if is found that an instability develops. The magnetic flux and disk matter expand outward in certain ranges of azimuth, while disk matter with less magnetic flux moves inward over the remaining range of azimuth, showing a characteristic development of an interchange instability.

  7. Evolution of Pre-Main Sequence Accretion Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, Lee W.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this project was to develop a comprehensive global picture of the physical conditions in, and evolutionary timescales of, pre-main sequence accretion disks. The results of this work will help constrain the initial conditions for planet formation. To this end we: (1) Developed detailed calculations of disk structure to study physical conditions and investigate the observational effects of grain growth in T Tauri disks; (2) Studied the dusty emission and accretion rates in older disk systems, with ages closer to the expected epoch of (giant) planet formation at 3-10 Myr, and (3) Began a project to develop much larger samples of 3-10 Myr-old stars to provide better empirical constraints on protoplanetary disk evolution.

  8. [Predicting Spectra of Accretion Disks Around Galactic Black Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krolik, Julian H.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this grant was to construct detailed atmosphere solutions in order to predict the spectra of accretion disks around Galactic black holes. Our plan of action was to take an existing disk atmosphere code (TLUSTY, created by Ivan Hubeny) and introduce those additional physical processes necessary to make it applicable to disks of this variety. These modifications include: treating Comptonization; introducing continuous opacity due to heavy elements; incorporating line opacity due to heavy elements; adopting a disk structure that reflects readjustments due to radiation pressure effects; and injecting heat via a physically-plausible vertical distribution.

  9. Microlensing and the structure of active galactic nucleus accretion disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauch, Kevin P.; Blandford, Roger D.

    1991-01-01

    Rapid variability has been reported in two of the four gravitationally lensed images of Q2237 + 0305, and this is attributed to microlensing caused by the intervening stars. The associated constraints on the source size and properties are studied and compared with a variety of stationary accretion disk models. The reported microlensing variation in Q2237 + 0305 requires the disk size to be over 3 times smaller than a blackbody disk of similar luminosity, implying that the optical emission is either nonthermal or optically tin. An exploration of nonstationary disk models including orbiting, transient hot spots leads to a similar conclusion. Implications for models of active galactic nucleus optical continua are briefly discussed.

  10. Gas accretion from the cosmic web feeding disk galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez Almeida, J.; Olmo-García, A.; Elmegreen, B. G.; Muñoz-Tuñón, C.; Elmegreen, D. M.; Filho, M. E.; Pérez-Montero, E.; Amorín, R.

    2017-03-01

    Disk galaxies in cosmological numerical simulations grow by accreting gas from the cosmic web. This gas reaches the external disk, and then spirals in dragged along by tidal forces and/or disk instabilities. The importance of gas infall is as clear from numerical simulations as it is obscure to observations. Extremely metal poor (XMP) galaxies seem to be the best example we have of the gas accretion process at work. They have large off-center starbursts which show significant metallicity drop compared with the host galaxy. This observation is naturally explained as a gas accretion event caught in the act. We present preliminary results of the kinematical properties of the metal poor starbursts in XMPs, which suggest that the starbursts are kinematically decoupled entities within the host galaxy.

  11. Accretion of Debris-Disk Matter onto White Dwarfs: Stellar Consequences and Derived Accretion Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deal, M.; Vauclair, S.; Vauclair, G.

    2013-12-01

    Heavy elements are observed in the atmospheres of many DA and DB white dwarfs, and their presence is attributed to the accretion of matter coming from debris disks. Several authors have deduced accretion rates from observed abundances, taking into account the mixing induced by convective zones and gravitational settling. The values obtained are different for DA and DB white dwarfs. Here we show that an important process was forgotten in all these computations: thermohaline mixing, induced by the inverse μ-gradient which is established during an accretion process. Taking this mixing into account leads to an increase in the derived accretion rates, especially for DA white dwarfs, and modifies the conclusions.

  12. ACCRETION DISKS AROUND KICKED BLACK HOLES: POST-KICK DYNAMICS

    SciTech Connect

    Ponce, Marcelo; Faber, Joshua A.; Lombardi, James C. E-mail: jafsma@rit.edu

    2012-01-20

    Numerical calculations of merging black hole binaries indicate that asymmetric emission of gravitational radiation can kick the merged black hole at up to thousands of km s{sup -1}, and a number of systems have been observed recently whose properties are consistent with an active galactic nucleus containing a supermassive black hole moving with substantial velocity with respect to its broader accretion disk. We study here the effect of an impulsive kick delivered to a black hole on the dynamical evolution of its accretion disk using a smoothed particle hydrodynamics code, focusing attention on the role played by the kick angle with respect to the orbital angular momentum vector of the pre-kicked disk. We find that for more vertical kicks, for which the angle between the kick and the normal vector to the disk {theta} {approx}< 30 Degree-Sign , a gap remains present in the inner disk, in accordance with the prediction from an analytic collisionless Keplerian disk model, while for more oblique kicks with {theta} {approx}> 45 Degree-Sign , matter rapidly accretes toward the black hole. There is a systematic trend for higher potential luminosities for more oblique kick angles for a given black hole mass, disk mass, and kick velocity, and we find large amplitude oscillations in time in the case of a kick oriented 60 Degree-Sign from the vertical.

  13. Black-Hole Accretion Disks --- Towards a New Paradigm ---

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, S.; Fukue, J.; Mineshige, S.

    2008-03-01

    Part I: Concepts of Accretion Disks: Chap. 1: Introduction, 1.1 Accretion Energy - Historical Origin, { Accretion-Disk Paradigm - Active Universe, 1.3 Accretion-Powered Objects - Observational Reviews, 1.4 X-Ray Binaries and Ultra-Luminous X-Ray Sources, 1.5 Active Galactic Nuclei, 1.6 Present Paradigm, Chap. 2: Physical Processes Related to Accretion, 2.1 Eddington Luminosity, 2.2 Bondi Accretion, 2.3 Viscous Process, 2.4 Magnetic Instabilities, 2.5 Relativistic Effects Part II: Classical Picture: Chap. 3: Classical Models, 3.1 Viscous Accretion Disks, 3.2 Standard Disks, 3.3 Optically Thin Disks, 3.4 Accretion Disk Coronae, 3.5 Relativistic Standard Disks, 3.6 Relativistic Tori Chap. 4: Secular and Thermal Instabilities, 4.1 Secular Instability, 4.2 Thermal Instability, 4.3 Stability Examination on dot{M}-Σ and T-Σ Planes, 4.4 Mathematical Derivation of the Stability Criterion, Chap. 5: Dwarf-Nova Type Instability, 5.1 Thermal-Ionization Instability, 5.2 Time Evolution of Disks in X-Ray Novae Chap. 6: Observability of Relativistic Effects, 6.1 Ray Tracing, 6.2 Imaging - Black Hole Silhouette, 6.3 Spectroscopy - Continuum and Line, 6.4 Photometry - Light Curve Diagnosis, 6.5 Other Effects - Lensing and Jets, Part III: Modern Picture: Chap. 7: Equations to Construct Generalized Models, 7.1 Basic Equations and Importance of Advection, 7.2 One-Temperature Disks, 7.3 Two-Temperature Disks, 7.4 Time-Dependent Equations Chap. 8: Transonic Nature of Accretion Flows, 8.1 Topology of Black-Hole Accretion, 8.2 Regularity Condition at a Critical Radius, 8.3 Topology around the Critical Radius in Isothermal Disks, 8.4 Numerical Examples of Transonic Flows, 8.5 Transonic Flows with Standing Shocks Chap. 9: Radiatively Inefficient Accretion Flows, 9.1 Advection-Dominated Accretion Flow, 9.2 Radial Structure of Advection-Dominated Flow, 9.3 Radiation Spectra of Advection-Dominated Flow, 9.4 Stability of Advection-Dominated Flow, 9.5 Multi-Dimensional Effects, Chap. 10: Slim

  14. A disk wind in AB Aurigae traced with Hα interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perraut, K.; Dougados, C.; Lima, G. H. R. A.; Benisty, M.; Mourard, D.; Ligi, R.; Nardetto, N.; Tallon-Bosc, I.; ten Brummelaar, T.; Farrington, C.

    2016-11-01

    Context. A crucial issue in star formation is understanding the physical mechanism by which mass is accreted onto and ejected by a young star, then collimated into jets. Hydrogen lines are often used to trace mass accretion in young stars, but recent observations suggest that they could instead trace mass outflow in a disk wind. Aims: Obtaining direct constraints on the HI line formation regions is crucial in order to disentangle the different models. We present high angular and spectral resolution observations of the Hα line of the Herbig Ae star AB Aur to probe the origin of this line at sub-AU scales, and to place constraints on the geometry of the emitting region. Methods: We use the visible spectrograph VEGA at the CHARA long-baseline optical array to resolve the AB Aur circumstellar environment from spectrally resolved interferometric measurements across the Hα emission line. We developed a 2D radiative transfer model to fit the emission line profile and the spectro-interferometric observables. The model includes the combination of a Blandford & Payne magneto-centrifugal disk wind and a magnetospheric accretion flow. Results: We measure a visibility decrease within the Hα line, indicating that we clearly resolve the Hα formation region. We derive a Gaussian half width at half maximum between 0.05 and 0.15 AU in the core of the line, which indicates that the bulk of the Hα emission has a size scale intermediate between the disk inner truncation radius and the dusty disk inner rim. A clear asymmetric differential phase signal is found with a minimum of -30° ± 15° towards the core of the line. We show that these observations are in general agreement with predictions from a magneto-centrifugal disk wind arising from the innermost regions of the disk. Better agreement, in particular with the differential phases, is found when a compact magnetospheric accretion flow is included. Conclusions: We resolve the Hα formation region in a young accreting

  15. Stability of general-relativistic accretion disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korobkin, Oleg; Abdikamalov, Ernazar B.; Schnetter, Erik; Stergioulas, Nikolaos; Zink, Burkhard

    2011-02-01

    Self-gravitating relativistic disks around black holes can form as transient structures in a number of astrophysical scenarios such as binary neutron star and black hole-neutron star coalescences, as well as the core collapse of massive stars. We explore the stability of such disks against runaway and nonaxisymmetric instabilities using three-dimensional hydrodynamics simulations in full general relativity using the Thor code. We model the disk matter using the ideal fluid approximation with a Γ-law equation of state with Γ=4/3. We explore three disk models around nonrotating black holes with disk-to-black hole mass ratios of 0.24, 0.17, and 0.11. Because of metric blending in our initial data, all of our initial models contain an initial axisymmetric perturbation which induces radial disk oscillations. Despite these oscillations, our models do not develop the runaway instability during the first several orbital periods. Instead, all of the models develop unstable nonaxisymmetric modes on a dynamical time scale. We observe two distinct types of instabilities: the Papaloizou-Pringle and the so-called intermediate type instabilities. The development of the nonaxisymmetric mode with azimuthal number m=1 is accompanied by an outspiraling motion of the black hole, which significantly amplifies the growth rate of the m=1 mode in some cases. Overall, our simulations show that the properties of the unstable nonaxisymmetric modes in our disk models are qualitatively similar to those in the Newtonian theory.

  16. Stability of general-relativistic accretion disks

    SciTech Connect

    Korobkin, Oleg; Abdikamalov, Ernazar B.; Schnetter, Erik; Stergioulas, Nikolaos; Zink, Burkhard

    2011-02-15

    Self-gravitating relativistic disks around black holes can form as transient structures in a number of astrophysical scenarios such as binary neutron star and black hole-neutron star coalescences, as well as the core collapse of massive stars. We explore the stability of such disks against runaway and nonaxisymmetric instabilities using three-dimensional hydrodynamics simulations in full general relativity using the Thor code. We model the disk matter using the ideal fluid approximation with a {Gamma}-law equation of state with {Gamma}=4/3. We explore three disk models around nonrotating black holes with disk-to-black hole mass ratios of 0.24, 0.17, and 0.11. Because of metric blending in our initial data, all of our initial models contain an initial axisymmetric perturbation which induces radial disk oscillations. Despite these oscillations, our models do not develop the runaway instability during the first several orbital periods. Instead, all of the models develop unstable nonaxisymmetric modes on a dynamical time scale. We observe two distinct types of instabilities: the Papaloizou-Pringle and the so-called intermediate type instabilities. The development of the nonaxisymmetric mode with azimuthal number m=1 is accompanied by an outspiraling motion of the black hole, which significantly amplifies the growth rate of the m=1 mode in some cases. Overall, our simulations show that the properties of the unstable nonaxisymmetric modes in our disk models are qualitatively similar to those in the Newtonian theory.

  17. PARTICLE ACCELERATION DURING MAGNETOROTATIONAL INSTABILITY IN A COLLISIONLESS ACCRETION DISK

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshino, Masahiro

    2013-08-20

    Particle acceleration during the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in a collisionless accretion disk was investigated by using a particle-in-cell simulation. We discuss the important role that magnetic reconnection plays not only on the saturation of MRI but also on the relativistic particle generation. The plasma pressure anisotropy of p > p{sub ||} induced by the action of MRI dynamo leads to rapid growth in magnetic reconnection, resulting in the fast generation of nonthermal particles with a hard power-law spectrum. This efficient particle acceleration mechanism involved in a collisionless accretion disk may be a possible model to explain the origin of high-energy particles observed around massive black holes.

  18. Thermal Stability and Vertical Structure of Radiation Dominated Accretion Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yanfei; Stone, J. M.; Davis, S.

    2013-01-01

    Standard thin disk model predicts that radiation dominated accretion disk is thermally unstable. However, using a radiation MHD code based on flux-limited diffusion (FLD) approximation, Hirose et al. (2009) finds that when the accretion stress provided by Magneto-rotational instability (MRI) is calculated self-consistently, the disk is actually stable. We check this surprising result with our recently developed radiation transfer module in Athena. We modify the Godunov method to include the radiation source terms and close the radiation momentum equations with variable Eddington tensor. In this way, it works in both optically thin and thick regimes, and works for both radiation or gas pressure dominated flows. As a general purpose radiation MHD code, it can also be used to study other systems, where radiation field plays an important role, such as feedback effects of stars on the interstellar medium. I will show a set of tests to demonstrate that the code is working accurately as expected for different regimes. I will describe in detail our results on the thermal stability of accretion disks in both the gas pressure dominated regime and radiation pressure dominated regime. Detailed studies of the vertical structures of the accretion disk will also be presented. I will also comment on the differences between our results and the results from FLD calculations.

  19. EUV energy distributions of accretion disks in active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storzer, H.; Hauschildt, P. H.

    1994-01-01

    We have calculated UV/EUV (300 A less than or = lambda less than or = 1500 A) continuous energy distributions of accretion disks in the centers of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) for disk luminosities in the range 0.1 L(sub Edd) and central masses ranging from 10(exp 8) solar mass to 10(exp 10) solar mass. The vertical gas pressure structure of the disk is obtained analytically, the temperature stratification and the resulting continuum radiation fields are calculated numerically. We show that weak Lyman edges are an intrinsic feature of such disks. The strength of the H I Lyman edge decreases for increasing accretion rate and fixed mass of the central black hole. It increases for increasing central mass and fixed luminosity in terms of the Eddington luminosity.

  20. Plasma (Accretion) Disks with High Magnetic Energy Densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, F.; Coppi, B.

    2006-04-01

    ``Corrugated'' plasma disks can form in the dominant gravity of a central object when the peak plasma pressure in the disk is of the same order as that of the pressure of the ``external'' magnetic field, while the magnetic field resulting from internal plasma currents is of the same order as the external field. The corrugation refers to a periodic variation of the plasma density in a region around the equatorial plane. The considered structure represents a transition between a ``classical'' accretion disk and a ``rings sequence'' configuration^2. The common feature of the ``corrugated'' and the ``rings sequence'' configurations is the ``crystal'' structure of the magnetic surfaces that consist of a sequence of pairs of oppositely directed toroidal current density filaments. The connection between the characteristics of these configurations and those of the marginally stable ballooning modes that can be found in a model accretion disk is pointed out and analyzed.

  1. EFFECTIVE INNER RADIUS OF TILTED BLACK HOLE ACCRETION DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Fragile, P. Chris

    2009-12-01

    One of the primary means of determining the spin a of an astrophysical black hole is by actually measuring the inner radius r {sub in} of a surrounding accretion disk and using that to infer a. By comparing a number of different estimates of r {sub in} from simulations of tilted accretion disks with differing black hole spins, we show that such a procedure can give quite wrong answers. Over the range 0 <= a/M <= 0.9, we find that, for moderately thick disks (H/r approx 0.2) with modest tilt (15 deg.), r {sub in} is nearly independent of spin. This result is likely dependent on tilt, such that for larger tilts, it may even be that r {sub in} would increase with increasing spin. In the opposite limit, we confirm through numerical simulations of untilted disks that, in the limit of zero tilt, r {sub in} recovers approximately the expected dependence on a.

  2. Self-gravity in Magnetized Neutrino-dominated Accretion Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahamat, Narjes; Abbassi, Shahram

    2017-08-01

    In the present work we study self-gravity effects on the vertical structure of a magnetized neutrino-dominated accretion disk as a central engine for gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Some of the disk physical timescales that are supposed to play a pivotal role in the late-time evolutions of the disk, such as viscous, cooling, and diffusion timescales, have been studied. We are interested in investigating the possibility of the occurrence of X-ray flares, observed in late-time GRBs’ extended emission through the “magnetic barrier” and “fragmentation” processes in our model. The results lead us to interpret self-gravity as an amplifier for Blandford-Payne luminosity (BP power) and the generated magnetic field, but a suppressor for neutrino luminosity and magnetic barrier processes via highlighting the fragmentation mechanism in the outer disk, especially for the higher mass accretion rates.

  3. Ultraviolet spectroscopy of pre-main-sequence accretion disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenyon, S. J.; Hartmann, L.; Imhoff, C. L.; Cassatella, A.

    1989-01-01

    Low-resolution, ultraviolet spectra of the pre-main-sequence objects Z Canis Majoris, V1057 Cygni, and FU Orionis are presented. Ultraviolet absorption features indicate spectral types of A5 I for FU Ori and F5 I for Z CMa. These results are in reasonable agreement with predictions of simple accretion disk models. The lack of significant veiling of ultraviolet absorption features implies that a hot boundary layer at the inner edge of the disk contributes less than 20 percent of the radiation at 2600-3200 A, which is significantly smaller than expected. It is suggested that accretion has significantly modified the structure of the underlying pre-main-sequence stars in these systems (perhaps by expanding the photosphere or by spinning up a radiative photosphere close to breakup velocity, or both), or that the boundary layer region is much more extended above the disk midplane than standard thin disk theories predict.

  4. Ultraviolet spectroscopy of pre-main-sequence accretion disks

    SciTech Connect

    Kenyon, S.J.; Hartmann, L.; Imhoff, C.L.; Cassatella, A.; Computer Sciences Corp., Greenbelt, MD; International Ultraviolet Explorer Observatory, Madrid )

    1989-09-01

    Low-resolution, ultraviolet spectra of the pre-main-sequence objects Z Canis Majoris, V1057 Cygni, and FU Orionis are presented. Ultraviolet absorption features indicate spectral types of A5 I for FU Ori and F5 I for Z CMa. These results are in reasonable agreement with predictions of simple accretion disk models. The lack of significant veiling of ultraviolet absorption features implies that a hot boundary layer at the inner edge of the disk contributes less than 20 percent of the radiation at 2600-3200 A, which is significantly smaller than expected. It is suggested that accretion has significantly modified the structure of the underlying pre-main-sequence stars in these systems (perhaps by expanding the photosphere or by spinning up a radiative photosphere close to breakup velocity, or both), or that the boundary layer region is much more extended above the disk midplane than standard thin disk theories predict. 26 refs.

  5. Evolution of Pre-Main Sequence Accretion Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, Lee W.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this project is to develop a comprehensive global picture of the physical conditions in, and evolutionary timescales of, pre-main sequence accretion disks. The results of this work will help constrain the initial conditions for planet formation. To this end we plan to: (1) Develop much larger samples of 3-10 Myr-old stars to provide better empirical constraints on protoplanetary disk evolution; (2) Study the dusty emission and accretion rates in these systems, with ages closer to the expected epoch of (giant) planet formation at 3-10 Myr; and (3) Develop detailed model disk structures consistent with observations to infer physical conditions in protoplanetary disks and to constrain possible grain growth as the first stage of planetesimal formation.

  6. Hall-effect-controlled gas dynamics in protoplanetary disks. I. Wind solutions at the inner disk

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Xue-Ning

    2014-08-20

    The gas dynamics of protoplanetary disks (PPDs) is largely controlled by non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects including Ohmic resistivity, the Hall effect, and ambipolar diffusion. Among these the role of the Hall effect is the least explored and most poorly understood. In this series, we have included, for the first time, all three non-ideal MHD effects in a self-consistent manner to investigate the role of the Hall effect on PPD gas dynamics using local shearing-box simulations. In this first paper, we focus on the inner region of PPDs, where previous studies (Bai and Stone 2013; Bai 2013) excluding the Hall effect have revealed that the inner disk up to ∼10 AU is largely laminar, with accretion driven by a magnetocentrifugal wind. We confirm this basic picture and show that the Hall effect modifies the wind solutions depending on the polarity of the large-scale poloidal magnetic field B{sub 0} threading the disk. When B{sub 0}⋅Ω>0, the horizontal magnetic field is strongly amplified toward the disk interior, leading to a stronger disk wind (by ∼50% or less in terms of the wind-driven accretion rate). The enhanced horizontal field also leads to much stronger large-scale Maxwell stress (magnetic braking) that contributes to a considerable fraction of the wind-driven accretion rate. When B{sub 0}⋅Ω<0, the horizontal magnetic field is reduced, leading to a weaker disk wind (by ≲ 20%) and negligible magnetic braking. Under fiducial parameters, we find that when B{sub 0}⋅Ω>0, the laminar region extends farther to ∼10-15 AU before the magnetorotational instability sets in, while for B{sub 0}⋅Ω<0, the laminar region extends only to ∼3-5 AU for a typical accretion rate of ∼10{sup –8} to10{sup –7} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. Scaling relations for the wind properties, especially the wind-driven accretion rate, are provided for aligned and anti-aligned field geometries.

  7. On the Gravitational Stability of Gravito-turbulent Accretion Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Min-Kai; Kratter, Kaitlin M.

    2016-06-01

    Low mass, self-gravitating accretion disks admit quasi-steady, “gravito-turbulent” states in which cooling balances turbulent viscous heating. However, numerical simulations show that gravito-turbulence cannot be sustained beyond dynamical timescales when the cooling rate or corresponding turbulent viscosity is too large. The result is disk fragmentation. We motivate and quantify an interpretation of disk fragmentation as the inability to maintain gravito-turbulence due to formal secondary instabilities driven by: (1) cooling, which reduces pressure support; and/or (2) viscosity, which reduces rotational support. We analyze the axisymmetric gravitational stability of viscous, non-adiabatic accretion disks with internal heating, external irradiation, and cooling in the shearing box approximation. We consider parameterized cooling functions in 2D and 3D disks, as well as radiative diffusion in 3D. We show that generally there is no critical cooling rate/viscosity below which the disk is formally stable, although interesting limits appear for unstable modes with lengthscales on the order of the disk thickness. We apply this new linear theory to protoplanetary disks subject to gravito-turbulence modeled as an effective viscosity, and cooling regulated by dust opacity. We find that viscosity renders the disk beyond ˜60 au dynamically unstable on radial lengthscales a few times the local disk thickness. This is coincident with the empirical condition for disk fragmentation based on a maximum sustainable stress. We suggest turbulent stresses can play an active role in realistic disk fragmentation by removing rotational stabilization against self-gravity, and that the observed transition in behavior from gravito-turbulent to fragmenting may reflect instability of the gravito-turbulent state itself.

  8. Axisymmetric Two-Dimensional Computation of Magnetic Field Dragging in Accretion Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reyes-Ruiz, Mauricio; Stepinski, Tomasz F.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we model a geometrically thin accretion disk interacting with an externally imposed, uniform, vertical magnetic field. The accretion flow in the disk drags and distorts field lines, amplifying the magnetic field in the process. Inside the disk the radial component of the field is sheared into a toroidal component. The aim of this work is to establish the character of the resultant magnetic field and its dependence on the disk's parameters. We concentrate on alpha-disks driven by turbulent viscosity. Axisymmetric, two-dimensional solutions are obtained without taking into account the back-reaction of the magnetic field on the structure of the disk. The character of the magnetic field depends strongly on the magnitude of the magnetic Prandtl number, P . We present two illustrative examples of viscous disks: a so-called 'standard' steady state model of a disk around a compact star (e.g., cataclysmic variable), and a steady state model of a proto-planetary disk. In both cases, P = 1, P = 10(sup -1), and P = 10(sup -2) scenarios are calculated. Significant bending and magnification of the magnetic field is possible only for disks characterized by P of the order of 10(sup -2). In such a case, the field lines are bent sufficiently to allow the development of a centrifugally driven wind. Inside the disk the field is dominated by its toroidal component. We also investigate the dragging of the magnetic field by a nonviscous protoplanetary disk described by a phenomenological model. This scenario leads to large distortion and magnification of the magnetic field.

  9. Accretion Disk Emission Around Kerr Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campitiello, Samuele; Sbarrato, T.; Ghisellini, G.

    2016-10-01

    Measuring the spin of supermassive Black holes in Active Galactic Nuclei is a further step towards a better understanding of the evolution of their physics. We proposed a new method to estimate the Black hole spin, based on data-fitting. We consider a numerical model called KERRBB, including all relativistic effects (i.e. light-bending, gravitational redshift and Doppler beaming). We found that the same spectrum can be produced by different masses, accretion rates and spins, but that these three quantities are related. In other words, having a robust indipendent estimate on one of these three quantities fixes the other two. By using the Black hole mass, estimated by the virial method, we can pinpoint a narrow range of possible spins and accretion rates for the 32 blazars we have studied. For these objects, we found a lower limit of the spin, that must be a/M > 0.6-0.7

  10. Durability of the accretion disk of millisecond pulsars.

    PubMed

    Michel, F C; Dessler, A J

    1985-05-24

    Pulsars with pulsation periods in the millisecond range are thought to be neutron stars that have acquired an extraordinarily short spin period through the accretion of stellar material spiraling down onto the neutron star from a nearby companion. Nearly all the angular momentum and most of the mass of the companion star is transferred to the neutron star. During this process, wherein the neutron star consumes its companion, it is required that a disk of stellar material be formed around the neutron star. In conventional models it is supposed that the disk is somehow lost when the accretion phase is finished, so that only the rapidly spinning neutron star remains. However, it is possible that, after the accretion phase, a residual disk remains in stable orbit around the neutron star. The end result of such an accretion process is an object that looks much like a miniature (about 100 kilometers), heavy version of Saturn: a central object (the neutron star) surrounded by a durable disk.

  11. Structure and Spectroscopy of Black Hole Accretion Disks

    SciTech Connect

    Liedahl, D; Mauche, C

    2005-02-14

    The warped spacetime near black holes is one of the most exotic observable environments in the Universe. X-ray spectra from active galaxies obtained with the current generation of X-ray observatories reveal line emission that is modified by both special relativistic and general relativistic effects. The interpretation is that we are witnessing X-ray irradiated matter orbiting in an accretion disk around a supermassive black hole, as it prepares to cross the event horizon. This interpretation, however, is based upon highly schematized models of accretion disk structure. This report describes a project to design a detailed computer model of accretion disk atmospheres, with the goal of elucidating the high radiation density environments associated with mass flows in the curved spacetime near gravitationally collapsed objects. We have evolved the capability to generate realistic theoretical X-ray line spectra of accretion disks, thereby providing the means for a workable exploration of the behavior of matter in the strong-field limit of gravitation.

  12. Durability of the accretion disk of millisecond pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michel, F. C.; Dessler, A. J.

    1985-01-01

    Pulsars with pulsation periods in the millisecond range are thought to be neutron stars that have acquired an extraordinarily short spin period through the accretion of stellar material spiraling down onto the neutron star from a nearby companion. Nearly all the angular momentum and most of the mass of the companion star is transferred to the neutron star. During this process, wherein the neutron star consumes its companion, it is required that a disk of stellar material be formed around the neutron star. In conventional models it is supposed that the disk is somehow lost when the accretion phase is finished, so that only the rapidly spinning neutron star remains. However, it is possible that, after the accretion phase, a residual disk remains in stable orbit around the neutron star. The end result of such an accretion process is an object that looks much like a miniature (about 100 kilometers), heavy version of Saturn: a central object (the neutron star) surrounded by a durable disk.

  13. Magnetically Regulated Gas Accretion in High-Redshift Galactic Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birnboim, Yuval

    2009-09-01

    Disk galaxies are in hydrostatic equilibrium along their vertical axis. The pressure allowing for this configuration consists of thermal, turbulent, magnetic, and cosmic-ray components. For the Milky Way the thermal pressure contributes ~10% of the total pressure near the plane, with this fraction dropping toward higher altitudes. Out of the rest, magnetic fields contribute ~1/3 of the pressure to distances of ~3 kpc above the disk plane. In this Letter, we attempt to extrapolate these local values to high-redshift, rapidly accreting, rapidly star-forming disk galaxies and study the effect of the extra pressure sources on the accretion of gas onto the galaxies. In particular, magnetic field tension may convert a smooth cold-flow accretion to clumpy, irregular star formation regions and rates. The infalling gas accumulates on the edge of the magnetic fields, supported by magnetic tension. When the mass of the infalling gas exceeds some threshold mass, its gravitational force cannot be balanced by magnetic tension anymore, and it falls toward the disk's plane, rapidly making stars. Simplified estimations of this threshold mass are consistent with clumpy star formation observed in SINS, UDF, GOODS, and GEMS surveys. We discuss the shortcomings of pure hydrodynamic codes in simulating the accretion of cold flows into galaxies, and emphasize the need for magnetohydrodynamic simulations.

  14. Accretion outbursts in self-gravitating protoplanetary disks

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, Jaehan; Hartmann, Lee; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Nelson, Richard P. E-mail: lhartm@umich.edu E-mail: r.p.nelson@qmul.ac.uk

    2014-11-01

    We improve on our previous treatments of the long-term evolution of protostellar disks by explicitly solving disk self-gravity in two dimensions. The current model is an extension of the one-dimensional layered accretion disk model of Bae et al. We find that gravitational instability (GI)-induced spiral density waves heat disks via compressional heating (i.e., PdV work), and can trigger accretion outbursts by activating the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in the magnetically inert disk dead zone. The GI-induced spiral waves propagate well inside of the gravitationally unstable region before they trigger outbursts at R ≲ 1 AU where GI cannot be sustained. This long-range propagation of waves cannot be reproduced with the previously used local α treatments for GI. In our standard model where zero dead-zone residual viscosity (α{sub rd}) is assumed, the GI-induced stress measured at the onset of outbursts is locally as large as 0.01 in terms of the generic α parameter. However, as suggested in our previous one-dimensional calculations, we confirm that the presence of a small but finite α{sub rd} triggers thermally driven bursts of accretion instead of the GI + MRI-driven outbursts that are observed when α{sub rd} = 0. The inclusion of non-zero residual viscosity in the dead zone decreases the importance of GI soon after mass feeding from the envelope cloud ceases. During the infall phase while the central protostar is still embedded, our models stay in a 'quiescent' accretion phase with M-dot {sub acc}∼10{sup −8}--10{sup −7} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} over 60% of the time and spend less than 15% of the infall phase in accretion outbursts. While our models indicate that episodic mass accretion during protostellar evolution can qualitatively help explain the low accretion luminosities seen in most low-mass protostars, detailed tests of the mechanism will require model calculations for a range of protostellar masses with some constraint on the initial core

  15. Accretion Outbursts in Self-gravitating Protoplanetary Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Jaehan; Hartmann, Lee; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Nelson, Richard P.

    2014-11-01

    We improve on our previous treatments of the long-term evolution of protostellar disks by explicitly solving disk self-gravity in two dimensions. The current model is an extension of the one-dimensional layered accretion disk model of Bae et al. We find that gravitational instability (GI)-induced spiral density waves heat disks via compressional heating (i.e., PdV work), and can trigger accretion outbursts by activating the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in the magnetically inert disk dead zone. The GI-induced spiral waves propagate well inside of the gravitationally unstable region before they trigger outbursts at R <~ 1 AU where GI cannot be sustained. This long-range propagation of waves cannot be reproduced with the previously used local α treatments for GI. In our standard model where zero dead-zone residual viscosity (αrd) is assumed, the GI-induced stress measured at the onset of outbursts is locally as large as 0.01 in terms of the generic α parameter. However, as suggested in our previous one-dimensional calculations, we confirm that the presence of a small but finite αrd triggers thermally driven bursts of accretion instead of the GI + MRI-driven outbursts that are observed when αrd = 0. The inclusion of non-zero residual viscosity in the dead zone decreases the importance of GI soon after mass feeding from the envelope cloud ceases. During the infall phase while the central protostar is still embedded, our models stay in a "quiescent" accretion phase with \\dot{M}_acc˜ 10-8{--}10-7 M⊙ yr-1 over 60% of the time and spend less than 15% of the infall phase in accretion outbursts. While our models indicate that episodic mass accretion during protostellar evolution can qualitatively help explain the low accretion luminosities seen in most low-mass protostars, detailed tests of the mechanism will require model calculations for a range of protostellar masses with some constraint on the initial core angular momentum, which affects the length of time

  16. Tilted Thick-Disk Accretion onto a Kerr Black Hole

    SciTech Connect

    Fragile, P C; Anninos, P

    2003-12-12

    We present the first results from fully general relativistic numerical studies of thick-disk accretion onto a rapidly-rotating (Kerr) black hole with a spin axis that is tilted (not aligned) with the angular momentum vector of the disk. We initialize the problem with the solution for an aligned, constant angular momentum, accreting thick disk around a black hole with spin a/M = J/M{sup 2} = +0.9 (prograde disk). The black hole is then instantaneously tilted, through a change in the metric, by an angle {beta}{sub 0}. In this Letter we report results with {beta}{sub 0} = 0, 15, and 30{sup o}. The disk is allowed to respond to the Lense-Thirring precession of the tilted black hole. We find that the disk settles into a quasi-static, twisted, warped configuration with Lense-Thirring precession dominating out to a radius analogous to the Bardeen-Petterson transition in tilted Keplerian disks.

  17. Accretion Disk Illumination in Schwarzschild and Kerr Geometries: Fitting Formulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukumura, Keigo; Kazanas, Demosthenes

    2007-07-01

    We describe the methodology and compute the illumination of geometrically thin accretion disks around black holes of arbitrary spin parameter a exposed to the radiation of a pointlike isotropic source at arbitrary height above the disk on its symmetry axis. We then provide analytic fitting formulae for the illumination as a function of the source height h and the black hole angular momentum a. We find that for a source on the disk symmetry axis and with h/M>3, the main effect of the parameter a is allowing the disk to extend to smaller radii (approaching r/M-->1 as a/M-->1) and thus allowing the illumination of regions of much higher rotational velocity and redshift. We also compute the illumination profiles for anisotropic emission associated with the motion of the source relative to the accretion disk and present the fractions of photons absorbed by the black hole, intercepted by the disk, or escaping to infinity for both isotropic and anisotropic emission for a/M=0 and 0.99. As the anisotropy (of a source approaching the disk) increases, the illumination profile reduces (approximately) to a single power law, whose index q, because of absorption of the beamed photons by the black hole, saturates to a value no higher than q>~3. Finally, we compute the fluorescent Fe line profiles associated with the specific illumination and compare them among various cases.

  18. Radial Transport and Meridional Circulation in Accretion Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philippov, Alexander A.; Rafikov, Roman R.

    2017-03-01

    Radial transport of particles, elements and fluid driven by internal stresses in three-dimensional (3D) astrophysical accretion disks is an important phenomenon, potentially relevant for the outward dust transport in protoplanetary disks, origin of the refractory particles in comets, isotopic equilibration in the Earth–Moon system, etc. To gain better insight into these processes, we explore the dependence of meridional circulation in 3D disks with shear viscosity on their thermal stratification, and demonstrate a strong effect of the latter on the radial flow. Previous locally isothermal studies have normally found a pattern of the radial outflow near the midplane, switching to inflow higher up. Here we show, both analytically and numerically, that a flow that is inward at all altitudes is possible in disks with entropy and temperature steeply increasing with height. Such thermodynamic conditions may be typical in the optically thin, viscously heated accretion disks. Disks in which these conditions do not hold should feature radial outflow near the midplane, as long as their internal stress is provided by the shear viscosity. Our results can also be used for designing hydrodynamical disk simulations with a prescribed pattern of the meridional circulation.

  19. Accreting protoplanets in the LkCa 15 transition disk.

    PubMed

    Sallum, S; Follette, K B; Eisner, J A; Close, L M; Hinz, P; Kratter, K; Males, J; Skemer, A; Macintosh, B; Tuthill, P; Bailey, V; Defrère, D; Morzinski, K; Rodigas, T; Spalding, E; Vaz, A; Weinberger, A J

    2015-11-19

    Exoplanet detections have revolutionized astronomy, offering new insights into solar system architecture and planet demographics. While nearly 1,900 exoplanets have now been discovered and confirmed, none are still in the process of formation. Transition disks, protoplanetary disks with inner clearings best explained by the influence of accreting planets, are natural laboratories for the study of planet formation. Some transition disks show evidence for the presence of young planets in the form of disk asymmetries or infrared sources detected within their clearings, as in the case of LkCa 15 (refs 8, 9). Attempts to observe directly signatures of accretion onto protoplanets have hitherto proven unsuccessful. Here we report adaptive optics observations of LkCa 15 that probe within the disk clearing. With accurate source positions over multiple epochs spanning 2009-2015, we infer the presence of multiple companions on Keplerian orbits. We directly detect Hα emission from the innermost companion, LkCa 15 b, evincing hot (about 10,000 kelvin) gas falling deep into the potential well of an accreting protoplanet.

  20. X-Ray Binary Phenomenology and Their Accretion Disk Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazanas, Demosthenes

    We propose a scheme that accounts for the broader spectral and temporal properties of galactic black hole X-ray transients. The fundamental notion behind this proposal is that the mass accretion rate, dot{M}, of the disks of these systems depends on the radius, as it has been proposed for ADIOS. We propose that, because of this dependence of dot{M} on radius, an accretion disk which is geometrically thin and cool at large radii converts into a geometrically thick, advection dominated, hot disk interior to a transition radius at which the local accretion rate drops below the square of the viscosity parameter, a condition for the existence of advection dominated flows. We argue also that such a transition requires in addition that the vertical disk support be provided by magnetic fields. As discussed in other chapters of this book, the origin of these fields is local to the disk by the Poynting Robertson battery, thereby providing a complete self-contained picture for the spectra and evolution of these systems.

  1. Where do Accretion Disks Around Black Holes End?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmus, D.; Duschl, W. J.

    2010-10-01

    Accretion disks around (supermassive) black holes act as "machines" which extract gravitational energy. In fact, the observed radiation allows to sample the physical conditions very close to the event horizon. For a test particle, the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) is located at 3 rS for a non-rotating hole (Schwarzschild metrics; at smaller radii for a rotating black hole). This ISCO is usually identified with the inner edge of the accretion disk. For a given black hole mass, it allows, in principle, to determine the Kerr parameter. In "real life," however, we deal not with test particles but with a viscous flow, which introduces additional forces. We have calculated the location of the inner edge in a more realistic environment. The results show that the true inner edge of the disk is no longer located at the ISCO, when radial advection of energy is taken into account with a careful treatment of the transonic nature of the flow.

  2. Electrodynamics of disk-accreting magnetic neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, M. Coleman; Lamb, Frederick K.; Hamilton, Russell J.

    1994-01-01

    We have investigated the electrodynamics of magnetic neutron stars accreting from Keplerian disks and the implications for particle acceleration and gamma-ray emission by such systems. We argue that the particle density in the magnetospheres of such stars is larger by orders of magnitude than the Goldreich-Julian density, so that the formation of vacuum gaps is unlikely. We show that even if the star rotates slowly, electromotive forces (EMFs) of order 10(exp 15) V are produced by the interaction of plasma in the accretion disk with the magnetic field of the neutron star. The resistance of the disk-magnetosphere-star circuit is small, and hence these EMFs drive very large conduction currents. Such large currents are likely to produce magnetospheric instabilities, such as relativistic double layers and reconnection events, that can accelerate electrons or ions to very high energies.

  3. Isothermal, Compton-heated coronae above accretion disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostriker, Eve C.; Mckee, Christopher F.; Klein, Richard I.

    1991-01-01

    The structure of Compton-heated coronae above accretion disks is studied here by using analytic and numerical approaches are used here to determine the direct and scattered radiation reaching the base of the corona for a range of central source luminosities. It is found that the outer region of the corona is unaffected by multiple scattering in the interior, provided that the luminosity of the central source is sufficient below the Eddington limit. How attenuation and scattering by the corona affects the strength of chromospheric emission lines is determined, as is the condition for which the irradiation due to the central source exceeds the locally generated flux from the disk. Finally, it is shown that the stability analysis for irradiated accretion disks of Tuchman et al. is not substantially altered by the corona.

  4. Isothermal, Compton-heated coronae above accretion disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostriker, Eve C.; Mckee, Christopher F.; Klein, Richard I.

    1991-01-01

    The structure of Compton-heated coronae above accretion disks is studied here by using analytic and numerical approaches are used here to determine the direct and scattered radiation reaching the base of the corona for a range of central source luminosities. It is found that the outer region of the corona is unaffected by multiple scattering in the interior, provided that the luminosity of the central source is sufficient below the Eddington limit. How attenuation and scattering by the corona affects the strength of chromospheric emission lines is determined, as is the condition for which the irradiation due to the central source exceeds the locally generated flux from the disk. Finally, it is shown that the stability analysis for irradiated accretion disks of Tuchman et al. is not substantially altered by the corona.

  5. Electrodynamics of disk-accreting magnetic neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, M. Coleman; Lamb, Frederick K.; Hamilton, Russell J.

    1994-01-01

    We have investigated the electrodynamics of magnetic neutron stars accreting from Keplerian disks and the implications for particle acceleration and gamma-ray emission by such systems. We argue that the particle density in the magnetospheres of such stars is larger by orders of magnitude than the Goldreich-Julian density, so that the formation of vacuum gaps is unlikely. We show that even if the star rotates slowly, electromotive forces (EMFs) of order 10(exp 15) V are produced by the interaction of plasma in the accretion disk with the magnetic field of the neutron star. The resistance of the disk-magnetosphere-star circuit is small, and hence these EMFs drive very large conduction currents. Such large currents are likely to produce magnetospheric instabilities, such as relativistic double layers and reconnection events, that can accelerate electrons or ions to very high energies.

  6. Gas accretion from halos to disks: observations, curiosities, and problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmegreen, Bruce G.

    2016-08-01

    Accretion of gas from the cosmic web to galaxy halos and ultimately their disks is a prediction of modern cosmological models but is rarely observed directly or at the full rate expected from star formation. Here we illustrate possible large-scale cosmic HI accretion onto the nearby dwarf starburst galaxy IC10, observed with the VLA and GBT. We also suggest that cosmic accretion is the origin of sharp metallicity drops in the starburst regions of other dwarf galaxies, as observed with the 10-m GTC. Finally, we question the importance of cosmic accretion in normal dwarf irregulars, for which a recent study of their far-outer regions sees no need for, or evidence of, continuing gas buildup.

  7. Exploring Stability of General Relativistic Accretion Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korobkin, Oleg; Abdikamalov, Ernazar; Schnetter, Erik; Stergioulas, Nikolaos; Zink, Burkhard

    2011-04-01

    Self-gravitating relativistic disks around black holes can form as transient structures in a number of astrophysical scenarios, involving core collapse of massive stars and mergers of compact ob jects. I will present results on our recent study of the stability of such disks against runaway and non-axisymmetric instabilities, which we explore using three-dimensional hydrodynamics simulations in full general relativity. All of our models develop unstable non-axisymmetric modes on a dynamical timescale. We observe two distinct types of instabilities: the Papaloizou-Pringle and the so-called intermediate type instabilities. The development of the non-axisymmetric mode with azimuthal number m=1 is accompanied by an outspiraling motion of the black hole, which significantly amplifies the growth rate of the m=1 mode in some cases. We will discuss the types, growth rates and pattern speeds of the unstable modes, as well as the detectability of the gravitational waves from such objects.

  8. Magnetic reconnection process in accretion disk systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piovezan, P.; de Gouveia Dal Pino, E. M.

    2009-08-01

    At the present study, we investigate the role of magnetic reconnection in three different astrophysical systems, namely young stellar objects (YSO's), microquasars, and active galactic nuclei (AGN's). In the case of microquasars and AGN's, violent reconnection episodes between the magnetic field lines of the inner disk region (which are established by a turbulent dynamo) and those anchored into the black hole are able to heat the coronal/disk gas and accelerate particles to relativistic velocities through a diffusive first-order Fermi-like process within the reconnection site that will produce relativistic blobs. The heating of the coronal/disk gas is able to produce a steep X-ray spectrum with a luminosity that is consistent with the observations and we argue that it is being produced mainly at the foot of the reconnection zone, while the Fermi-like acceleration process within the reconnection site results a power-law electron distribution with N(E) ∝ E-α, with α=5/2, and a corresponding synchrotron radio power-law spectrum with a spectral index that is compatible with that observed during the radio flares in microquasars (Sν ∝ ν-0.75). The scaling laws that we derive for AGN's indicate that the same mechanism may be occurring there. Finally, in the case of the YSO's, a similar magnetic configuration can be reached. The amount of magnetic energy that can be extracted from the inner disk region can heat the coronal gas to temperatures of the order of 10^8 K and could explain the observed X-ray flaring emission.

  9. Bipolar flows, molecular gas disks, and the collapse and accretion of rotating interstellar clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boss, Alan P.

    1987-01-01

    Rigorous numerical models of the collapse and accretion of rotating, axisymmetric, isothermal interstellar clouds are studied. The results show that molecular gas disks and evacuated bipolar cavities both appear to be natural consequences of the collapse of rotating interstellar clouds. Dynamically significant magnetic fields may not be necessary for explaining either phenomenon. The models strongly support theoretical models of the type where an isotropic wind from a pre-main sequence star is extrinsically collimated by a rotationally derived molecular gas cloud. The models imply that collimation should be strongest on small scales where rotational effects are most important, i.e., in the dense region of the molecular gas disk.

  10. The Physics of Wind-Fed Accretion

    SciTech Connect

    Mauche, C W; Liedahl, D A; Akiyama, S; Plewa, T

    2008-05-27

    We provide a brief review of the physical processes behind the radiative driving of the winds of OB stars and the Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton capture and accretion of a fraction of the stellar wind by a compact object, typically a neutron star, in detached high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs). In addition, we describe a program to develop global models of the radiatively-driven photoionized winds and accretion flows of HMXBs, with particular attention to the prototypical system Vela X-1. The models combine XSTAR photoionization calculations, HULLAC emission models appropriate to X-ray photoionized plasmas, improved models of the radiative driving of photoionized winds, FLASH time-dependent adaptive-mesh hydrodynamics calculations, and Monte Carlo radiation transport. We present two- and three-dimensional maps of the density, temperature, velocity, ionization parameter, and emissivity distributions of representative X-ray emission lines, as well as synthetic global Monte Carlo X-ray spectra. Such models help to better constrain the properties of the winds of HMXBs, which bear on such fundamental questions as the long-term evolution of these binaries and the chemical enrichment of the interstellar medium.

  11. The Physics of Wind-Fed Accretion

    SciTech Connect

    Mauche, Christopher W.; Liedahl, Duane A.; Akiyama, Shizuka

    2008-09-30

    We provide a brief review of the physical processes behind the radiative driving of the winds of OB stars and the Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton capture and accretion of a fraction of the stellar wind by a compact object, typically a neutron star, in detached high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs). In addition, we describe a program to develop global models of the radiatively-driven photoionized winds and accretion flows of HMXBs, with particular attention to the prototypical system Vela X-l. The models combine XSTAR photoionization calculations, HULLAC emission models appropriate to X-ray photoionized plasmas, improved models of the radiative driving of photoionized winds, FLASH time-dependent adaptive-mesh hydrodynamics calculations, and Monte Carlo radiation transport. We present two- and three-dimensional maps of the density, temperature, velocity, ionization parameter, and emissivity distributions of representative X-ray emission lines, as well as synthetic global Monte Carlo X-ray spectra. Such models help to better constrain the properties of the winds of HMXBs, which bear on such fundamental questions as the long-term evolution of these binaries and the chemical enrichment of the interstellar medium.

  12. Hydrodynamical processes in planet-forming accretion disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Min-Kai

    Understanding the physics of accretion flows in circumstellar disk provides the foundation to any theory of planet formation. The last few years have witnessed dramatic a revision in the fundamental fluid dynamics of protoplanetary accretion disks. There is growing evidence that the key to answering some of the most pressing questions, such as the origin of disk turbulence, mass transport, and planetesimal formation, may lie within, and intimately linked to, purely hydrodynamical processes in protoplanetary disks. Recent studies, including those from the proposal team, have discovered and highlighted the significance of several new hydrodynamical instabilities in the planet-forming regions of these disks. These include, but not limited to: the vertical shear instability, active between 10 to 100 AU; the zombie vortex instability, operating in regions interior to about 1AU; and the convective over-stability at intermediate radii. Secondary Rossbywave and elliptic instabilities may also be triggered, feeding off the structures that emerge from the above primary instabilities. The result of these hydrodynamic processes range from small-scale turbulence that transports angular momentum, to large-scale vortices that concentrate dust particles and enhance planetesimal formation. Hydrodynamic processes pertain to a wide range of disk conditions, meaning that at least one of these processes are active at any given disk location and evolutionary epoch. This remains true even after planet formation, which affects their subsequent orbital evolution. Hydrodynamical processes also have direct observable consequences. For example, vortices have being invoked to explain recent ALMA images of asymmetric `dust-traps' in transition disks. Hydrodynamic activities thus play a crucial role at every stage of planet formation and disk evolution. We propose to develop theoretical models of the above hydrodynamic processes under physical disk conditions by properly accounting for disk

  13. Quasar Unification Via Disk Winds: From Phenomenology to Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knigge, C.

    2015-09-01

    I will give an overview of a collaborative project aimed at testing the viability of QSO unification via accretion disk winds. In this scenario, most of the characteristic spectral features of QSOs are formed in these outflows. More specifically, broad absorption lines (BALs) are produced for sight lines within the outflow, while broad emission lines (BELs) are observed for other viewing angles. In order to test these ideas, we use a state-of- the-art Monte Carlo radiative transfer and photoionization code to predict emergent spectra for a wide range of viewing angles and quasar properties (black hole mass, accretion rate, X-ray luminosity, etc). It turns out to be relatively straightforward to produce BALs, but harder to obtain sufficiently strong BELs. We also find that it is easy to overionize the wind with realistic X-ray luminosities. In addition, we are using our code to test and improve hydrodynamic disk wind models for quasars. So far, we have been able to demonstrate that the treatment of ionization in existing hydrodynamic models of line-driven disk winds is too simplistic to yield realistic results: the modelled outflows would be strongly overionized and hence would not feel the line-driving forces that are asssumed to produce them. We have therefore embarked on an effort to model line-driven disk winds self-consistently by linking a hydrodynamics code with our ionization and radiative transfer code. Finally, we can also predict the reverberation signatures produced by disk winds, which can be directly compared to the results of the latest reverberation mapping campaigns.

  14. Properties and Distribution of Current Sheets in Accretion Disk Coronae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvesen, Greg; Begelman, M. C.; Simon, J. B.; Beckwith, K.

    2013-04-01

    Theoretical models involving the interplay of a geometrically thin, optically thick accretion disk embedded in an extended coronal atmosphere may describe black hole X-ray binaries across all spectral states. Buoyant magnetic field generated in the accretion disk is continuously supplied to the corona by a dynamo process driven by the magnetorotational instability. This rising field leads to the formation of a magnetic pressure-dominated, low-density, geometrically thick corona where substantial accretion energy is dissipated, likely by collisionless magnetic reconnection, perhaps even generating outflows. Despite the potential importance of magnetic reconnection in shaping the energetics and kinematics of the corona, studies of multiple reconnection sites in a large volume are currently prohibited by the computational expense required to properly treat the microphysical nature of reconnection. Under the assumption that coronal structure is determined by ideal magnetohydrodynamics, we analyze local simulations of accretion disks (i.e., shearing boxes) performed with the ATHENA code, where the spatial domains are extended to capture 'mesoscale' structures that are dynamically important in accretion disk evolution. We employ a location routine to identify zones of enhanced current density, which trace likely sites of magnetic reconnection. We describe the positions, orientations, sizes, shapes, strengths, and kinematics of these regions and correlate them with the spatial distribution of numerical dissipation. Statistical distributions of these various properties of current density zones are presented to determine the heights within the corona that contribute most to the dissipation rate, the flow properties associated with reconnection sites, and representative parameters for future large volume reconnection simulations.

  15. Constraints on r-process nucleosynthesis in accretion disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jin, Liping

    1991-01-01

    Systems in which accretion drives an outflow from a region near a compact object may enrich the interstellar medium in r-process elements. A detailed assessment of the efficacy of this mechanism for the r-process is presented here, taking into account the constraints imposed by typical accretion-disk conditions. It is concluded that r-process elements are unlikely to have been made in this way, largely because the total production is too low, by a factor of about 100,000, to explain the observed abundances.

  16. A VLT/X-Shooter study of accretion and photoevaporation in Transitional Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manara, Carlo Felice; Testi, Leonardo; Natta, Antonella; Ricci, Luca; Benisty, Myriam; Rosotti, Giovanni; Ercolano, Barbara

    2013-07-01

    Transitional Disks (TDs) are considered to be a late evolutionary stage of optically thick massive disks whose inner regions are being evacuated, leaving behind large holes that can be detected both by modeling the infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) or, in some cases, by mm-interferometry. These holes could be produced by processes of photoevaporation, grain growth, or planet formation. Still, none of these processes alone has been shown to be sufficient to explain all observations. In this context, the combination of inner hole size, mass accretion rate and wind properties is a powerful observational diagnostic of disk evolution models, but the current measurements of mass accretion rates for TDs are mostly based on secondary indicators (such as the 10% Ha width), and very few data on the wind properties for these objects are available. Here we present a detailed study of the accretion and wind properties of TDs carried out with the VLT/X-Shooter spectrograph. Combining new and archival X-Shooter observations, we collected a sample of more than 20 TDs from different nearby star-forming regions. Our sample includes objects with both small (<5-15 AU) and large (>20-30 AU) known inner hole size from the literature (either from mm-observations or infrared SED fitting). We check their stellar parameters (Teff, Lstar, Av, Mstar) and derive their accretion properties (Lacc, Macc) in a self-consistent way, which makes use of the wide wavelength coverage of X-Shooter, and study their wind properties by mean of different forbidden emission lines analysis. Here we present some preliminary results.

  17. Equilibrium configuration and stability of a stratus floating above accretion disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakai, Takuya; Fukue, Jun

    2016-04-01

    We examine the equilibrium configurations of a stratus floating above an accretion disk, using the radiative force from the luminous disk just below the stratus. For various disk luminosities and optical depths of the stratus, the stratus can stably float on the outer disk, while a stable configuration does not exist on the inner disk. When the disk luminosity normalized by the Eddington luminosity is unity, and the stratus optical depth is around unity, the stable configuration disappears at r ≲ 50rg, rg being the Schwarzschild radius, and the stratus would be blown off as a cloudy wind, which consists of many strati with appropriate conditions. In the outer region of r ≳ 50rg, on the other hand, we find that the stable floating height is z ˜ 20rg, which is approximately two times larger than in the case of the particle. This difference is due to the anisotropic scattering effect; the stratus can get twice the momentum from radiation than it can in the particle case. The present results, that the radiation-driven cloudy wind can be easily blown off from the luminous disk, can explain observed outflows in broad absorption line quasars and ultra-fast outflow objects.

  18. 3D MHD Simulations of Stratified Accretion Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, James M.; Hawley, John F.; Gammie, Charles

    1993-12-01

    We investigate the growth and nonlinear saturation of a powerful local shear instability in weakly magnetised accretion disks using three dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. To achieve a sufficiently high numerical resolution, we use a local approximation for the disk and carry out the simulations on massively parallel supercomputers. Here we investigate the linear growth and nonlinear saturation of the instability in a vertically stratified, intially isothermal disk. A variety of initial field configurations and strengths are considered. The simulations allow a quantitative analysis of the role of bouyancy as a saturation mechanism, and possible dynamo action in the disk. This work is partially supported by NSF grant PHY-9018251 and NASA grants NAGW-1510 and NAGW-2376. Code development is supported by the NASA HPCC Initiative through grant NAG5-2202. Computations were carried out on the CM200 system of the National Center for Supercomputing Applications.

  19. LARGE-SCALE AZIMUTHAL STRUCTURES OF TURBULENCE IN ACCRETION DISKS: DYNAMO TRIGGERED VARIABILITY OF ACCRETION

    SciTech Connect

    Flock, M.; Dzyurkevich, N.; Klahr, H.; Turner, N.; Henning, Th.

    2012-01-10

    We investigate the significance of large-scale azimuthal, magnetic, and velocity modes for the magnetorotational instability (MRI) turbulence in accretion disks. We perform three-dimensional global ideal MHD simulations of global stratified protoplanetary disk models. Our domains span azimuthal angles of {pi}/4, {pi}/2, {pi}, and 2{pi}. We observe up to 100% stronger magnetic fields and stronger turbulence for the restricted azimuthal domain models {pi}/2 and {pi}/4 compared to the full 2{pi} model. We show that for those models the Maxwell stress is larger due to strong axisymmetric magnetic fields generated by the {alpha}{Omega} dynamo. Large radial extended axisymmetric toroidal fields trigger temporal magnification of accretion stress. All models display a positive dynamo-{alpha} in the northern hemisphere (upper disk). The parity is distinct in each model and changes on timescales of 40 local orbits. In model 2{pi}, the toroidal field is mostly antisymmetric with respect to the midplane. The eddies of the MRI turbulence are highly anisotropic. The major wavelengths of the turbulent velocity and magnetic fields are between one and two disk scale heights. At the midplane, we find magnetic tilt angles around 8 Degree-Sign -9 Degree-Sign increasing up to 12 Degree-Sign -13 Degree-Sign in the corona. We conclude that an azimuthal extent of {pi} is sufficient to reproduce most turbulent properties in three-dimensional global stratified simulations of magnetized accretion disks.

  20. The response of relativistic outflowing gas to the inner accretion disk of a black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Michael L.; Pinto, Ciro; Fabian, Andrew C.; Lohfink, Anne; Buisson, Douglas J. K.; Alston, William N.; Kara, Erin; Cackett, Edward M.; Chiang, Chia-Ying; Dauser, Thomas; De Marco, Barbara; Gallo, Luigi C.; Garcia, Javier; Harrison, Fiona A.; King, Ashley L.; Middleton, Matthew J.; Miller, Jon M.; Miniutti, Giovanni; Reynolds, Christopher S.; Uttley, Phil; Vasudevan, Ranjan; Walton, Dominic J.; Wilkins, Daniel R.; Zoghbi, Abderahmen

    2017-03-01

    The brightness of an active galactic nucleus is set by the gas falling onto it from the galaxy, and the gas infall rate is regulated by the brightness of the active galactic nucleus; this feedback loop is the process by which supermassive black holes in the centres of galaxies may moderate the growth of their hosts. Gas outflows (in the form of disk winds) release huge quantities of energy into the interstellar medium, potentially clearing the surrounding gas. The most extreme (in terms of speed and energy) of these—the ultrafast outflows—are the subset of X-ray-detected outflows with velocities higher than 10,000 kilometres per second, believed to originate in relativistic (that is, near the speed of light) disk winds a few hundred gravitational radii from the black hole. The absorption features produced by these outflows are variable, but no clear link has been found between the behaviour of the X-ray continuum and the velocity or optical depth of the outflows, owing to the long timescales of quasar variability. Here we report the observation of multiple absorption lines from an extreme ultrafast gas flow in the X-ray spectrum of the active galactic nucleus IRAS 13224‑3809, at 0.236 ± 0.006 times the speed of light (71,000 kilometres per second), where the absorption is strongly anti-correlated with the emission of X-rays from the inner regions of the accretion disk. If the gas flow is identified as a genuine outflow then it is in the fastest five per cent of such winds, and its variability is hundreds of times faster than in other variable winds, allowing us to observe in hours what would take months in a quasar. We find X-ray spectral signatures of the wind simultaneously in both low- and high-energy detectors, suggesting a single ionized outflow, linking the low- and high-energy absorption lines. That this disk wind is responding to the emission from the inner accretion disk demonstrates a connection between accretion processes occurring on very

  1. The response of relativistic outflowing gas to the inner accretion disk of a black hole.

    PubMed

    Parker, Michael L; Pinto, Ciro; Fabian, Andrew C; Lohfink, Anne; Buisson, Douglas J K; Alston, William N; Kara, Erin; Cackett, Edward M; Chiang, Chia-Ying; Dauser, Thomas; De Marco, Barbara; Gallo, Luigi C; Garcia, Javier; Harrison, Fiona A; King, Ashley L; Middleton, Matthew J; Miller, Jon M; Miniutti, Giovanni; Reynolds, Christopher S; Uttley, Phil; Vasudevan, Ranjan; Walton, Dominic J; Wilkins, Daniel R; Zoghbi, Abderahmen

    2017-03-01

    The brightness of an active galactic nucleus is set by the gas falling onto it from the galaxy, and the gas infall rate is regulated by the brightness of the active galactic nucleus; this feedback loop is the process by which supermassive black holes in the centres of galaxies may moderate the growth of their hosts. Gas outflows (in the form of disk winds) release huge quantities of energy into the interstellar medium, potentially clearing the surrounding gas. The most extreme (in terms of speed and energy) of these-the ultrafast outflows-are the subset of X-ray-detected outflows with velocities higher than 10,000 kilometres per second, believed to originate in relativistic (that is, near the speed of light) disk winds a few hundred gravitational radii from the black hole. The absorption features produced by these outflows are variable, but no clear link has been found between the behaviour of the X-ray continuum and the velocity or optical depth of the outflows, owing to the long timescales of quasar variability. Here we report the observation of multiple absorption lines from an extreme ultrafast gas flow in the X-ray spectrum of the active galactic nucleus IRAS 13224-3809, at 0.236 ± 0.006 times the speed of light (71,000 kilometres per second), where the absorption is strongly anti-correlated with the emission of X-rays from the inner regions of the accretion disk. If the gas flow is identified as a genuine outflow then it is in the fastest five per cent of such winds, and its variability is hundreds of times faster than in other variable winds, allowing us to observe in hours what would take months in a quasar. We find X-ray spectral signatures of the wind simultaneously in both low- and high-energy detectors, suggesting a single ionized outflow, linking the low- and high-energy absorption lines. That this disk wind is responding to the emission from the inner accretion disk demonstrates a connection between accretion processes occurring on very different

  2. Echo tomography of black hole accretion disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horne, Keith

    2003-02-01

    We discuss technologies for micro-arcsec echo mapping of black hole accretion flows in Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). Echo mapping employs time delays, Doppler shifts, and photoionization physics to map the geometry, kinematics, and physical conditions in the reprocessing region close to a compact time-variable source of ionizing radiation. Time delay maps are derived from detailed analysis of variations in lightcurves at different wavelengths. Echo mapping is a maturing technology at a stage of development similar to that of radio inteferometry just before the VLA. The first important results are in, confirming the basic assumptions of the method, measuring the sizs of AGN emission line regions, delivering dozens of black hole masses, and showing the promise of the technique. Resolution limits with existing AGN monitoring datasets are typically approximately 5 - 10 light days. This should improve down to 1 - 2 light days in the next-generation echo mapping experiments, using facilities like Kronos and Robonet that are designed for and dedicated to sustained spectroscopic monitoring. A light day is 0.4 micro-arcsec at a redshift of 0.1, thus echo mapping probes regions 103 times smaller than with VLBI, and 105 times smaller than with HST.

  3. The SEDs of Gapped Accretion Disks surrounding Binary Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gultekin, Kayhan; Miller, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    We calculate the observability of a black hole (BH) accretion disk with a gap or a hole created by a secondary BH embedded in the disk. We find that for an interesting range of parameters of BH masses 10^6-10^9 M⊙), orbital separation 1 AU to ~0.1 pc), and gap width (10-190 disk scale heights), the missing thermal emission from a gap manifests itself in an observable decrement in the spectral energy distribution (SED). The change in slope in the broken power law is strongly dependent on the width of the gap in the accretion disk, which in turn is uniquely determined by the mass ratio of the BHs (under our assumptions), such that it scales roughly as q^(5/12). Thus, one can use spectral observations of the continuum of bright AGNs to infer not only the presence of a closely separated BH binary, but also the mass ratio. When the BH merger opens an entire hole (or cavity) in the inner disk, the broadband SED of the AGNs or quasar may serve as a diagnostic. We note future directions for this research.

  4. The average size and temperature profile of quasar accretion disks

    SciTech Connect

    Jiménez-Vicente, J.; Mediavilla, E.; Muñoz, J. A.; Motta, V.; Falco, E.

    2014-03-01

    We use multi-wavelength microlensing measurements of a sample of 10 image pairs from 8 lensed quasars to study the structure of their accretion disks. By using spectroscopy or narrowband photometry, we have been able to remove contamination from the weakly microlensed broad emission lines, extinction, and any uncertainties in the large-scale macro magnification of the lens model. We determine a maximum likelihood estimate for the exponent of the size versus wavelength scaling (r{sub s} ∝λ {sup p}, corresponding to a disk temperature profile of T∝r {sup –1/p}) of p=0.75{sub −0.2}{sup +0.2} and a Bayesian estimate of p = 0.8 ± 0.2, which are significantly smaller than the prediction of the thin disk theory (p = 4/3). We have also obtained a maximum likelihood estimate for the average quasar accretion disk size of r{sub s}=4.5{sub −1.2}{sup +1.5} lt-day at a rest frame wavelength of λ = 1026 Å for microlenses with a mean mass of M = 1 M {sub ☉}, in agreement with previous results, and larger than expected from thin disk theory.

  5. Bulk viscosity of accretion disks around non rotating black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeen Moghaddas, M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we study the Keplerian, relativistic accretion disks around the non rotating black holes with the bulk viscosity. Many of authors studied the relativistic accretion disks around the black holes, but they ignored the bulk viscosity. We introduce a simple method to calculate the bulk in these disks. We use the simple form for the radial component of the four velocity in the Schwarzschild metric, then the other components of the four velocity and the components of the shear and the bulk tensor are calculated. Also all components of the bulk viscosity, the shear viscosity and stress tensor are calculated. It is seen that some components of the bulk tensor are comparable with the shear tensor. We calculate some of the thermodynamic quantities of the relativistic disks. Comparison of thermodynamic quantities shows that in some states influences of the bulk viscosity are important, especially in the inner radiuses. All calculations are done analytically and we do not use the boundary conditions. Finally, we find that in the relativistic disks around the black holes, the bulk viscosity is non-negligible in all the states.

  6. On the magnetic viscosity in Keplerian accretion disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coroniti, F. V.

    1981-01-01

    The paper develops a model for the anomalous viscosity in accretion disks based on the hypothesis that the hydrodynamic turbulence within the disk takes the form of spatially localized magnetic flux cells. The local shear flow due to Keplerian differential rotation distorts the flux cell topology, converting shear flow energy into magnetic energy. In the radial diffusion approximation, the kinematic viscosity is estimated from the radial displacement and is shown to maximize at flux cell scale lengths for which the shear flow stopping and reconnection times are equal.

  7. Accretion of supersonic winds on boson stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gracia-Linares, M.; Guzmán, F. S.

    2016-09-01

    We present the evolution of a supersonic wind interacting with a boson star (BS) and compare the resulting wind density profile with that of the shock cone formed when the wind is accreted by a nonrotating black hole (BH) of the same mass. The physical differences between these accretors are that a BS, unlike a BH, has no horizon nor a mechanical surface, and thus the wind is expected to trespass the BS. Despite these conditions, on the BS space-time, the gas achieves a stationary flux with the gas accumulating in a high-density elongated structure comparable to the shock cone formed behind a BH. The highest density resides in the center of the BS, whereas in the case of the BH, it is found on the downstream part of the BH near the event horizon. The maximum density of the gas is smaller in the BS case than in the BH case. Our results indicate that the highest density of the wind is more similar on the BS to that on the BH when the BS has high self-interaction, when it is more compact and when the wind velocity is higher. We expect this and similar analyses help us know whether BSs can still be black hole mimickers or can be ruled out.

  8. ACCELERATION AND COLLIMATION OF RELATIVISTIC MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC DISK WINDS

    SciTech Connect

    Porth, Oliver; Fendt, Christian E-mail: fendt@mpia.d

    2010-02-01

    We perform axisymmetric relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations to investigate the acceleration and collimation of jets and outflows from disks around compact objects. Newtonian gravity is added to the relativistic treatment in order to establish the physical boundary condition of an underlying accretion disk in centrifugal and pressure equilibrium. The fiducial disk surface (respectively a slow disk wind) is prescribed as boundary condition for the outflow. We apply this technique for the first time in the context of relativistic jets. The strength of this approach is that it allows us to run a parameter study in order to investigate how the accretion disk conditions govern the outflow formation. Substantial effort has been made to implement a current-free, numerical outflow boundary condition in order to avoid artificial collimation present in the standard outflow conditions. Our simulations using the PLUTO code run for 500 inner disk rotations and on a physical grid size of 100 x 200 inner disk radii. The simulations evolve from an initial state in hydrostatic equilibrium and an initially force-free magnetic field configuration. Two options for the initial field geometries are applied-an hourglass-shaped potential magnetic field and a split monopole field. Most of our parameter runs evolve into a steady state solution which can be further analyzed concerning the physical mechanism at work. In general, we obtain collimated beams of mildly relativistic speed with Lorentz factors up to 6 and mass-weighted half-opening angles of 3-7 deg. The split-monopole initial setup usually results in less collimated outflows. The light surface of the outflow magnetosphere tends to align vertically-implying three relativistically distinct regimes in the flow-an inner subrelativistic domain close to the jet axis, a (rather narrow) relativistic jet and a surrounding subrelativistic outflow launched from the outer disk surface-similar to the spine-sheath structure currently

  9. Acceleration and Collimation of Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamic Disk Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porth, Oliver; Fendt, Christian

    2010-02-01

    We perform axisymmetric relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations to investigate the acceleration and collimation of jets and outflows from disks around compact objects. Newtonian gravity is added to the relativistic treatment in order to establish the physical boundary condition of an underlying accretion disk in centrifugal and pressure equilibrium. The fiducial disk surface (respectively a slow disk wind) is prescribed as boundary condition for the outflow. We apply this technique for the first time in the context of relativistic jets. The strength of this approach is that it allows us to run a parameter study in order to investigate how the accretion disk conditions govern the outflow formation. Substantial effort has been made to implement a current-free, numerical outflow boundary condition in order to avoid artificial collimation present in the standard outflow conditions. Our simulations using the PLUTO code run for 500 inner disk rotations and on a physical grid size of 100 × 200 inner disk radii. The simulations evolve from an initial state in hydrostatic equilibrium and an initially force-free magnetic field configuration. Two options for the initial field geometries are applied—an hourglass-shaped potential magnetic field and a split monopole field. Most of our parameter runs evolve into a steady state solution which can be further analyzed concerning the physical mechanism at work. In general, we obtain collimated beams of mildly relativistic speed with Lorentz factors up to 6 and mass-weighted half-opening angles of 3-7 deg. The split-monopole initial setup usually results in less collimated outflows. The light surface of the outflow magnetosphere tends to align vertically—implying three relativistically distinct regimes in the flow—an inner subrelativistic domain close to the jet axis, a (rather narrow) relativistic jet and a surrounding subrelativistic outflow launched from the outer disk surface—similar to the spine-sheath structure

  10. Irradiation instability at the inner edges of accretion disks

    SciTech Connect

    Fung, Jeffrey; Artymowicz, Pawel

    2014-07-20

    An instability can potentially operate in highly irradiated disks where the disk sharply transitions from being radially transparent to opaque (the 'transition region'). Such conditions may exist at the inner edges of transitional disks around T Tauri stars and accretion disks around active galactic nuclei. We derive the criterion for this instability, which we term the 'irradiation instability', or IRI. We also present the linear growth rate as a function of β, the ratio between radiation force and gravity, and c{sub s}, the sound speed of the disk, obtained using two methods: a semi-analytic analysis of the linearized equations and a numerical simulation using the GPU-accelerated hydrodynamical code PEnGUIn. In particular, we find that IRI occurs at β ∼ 0.1 if the transition region extends as wide as ∼0.05r, and at higher β values if it is wider. This threshold value applies to c{sub s} ranging from 3% of the Keplerian orbital speed to 5%, and becomes higher if c{sub s} is lower. Furthermore, in the nonlinear evolution of the instability, disks with a large β and small c{sub s} exhibit 'clumping', extreme local surface density enhancements that can reach over 10 times the initial disk surface density.

  11. The origin of Jovian and Saturnian satellites in accretion disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruskol, E. L.

    2006-12-01

    The properties of gas-dust disks that surrounded Jupiter and Saturn during the final stage of their formation are analyzed. The sizes of the disks are determined by the total planetocentric angular momentum of the matter accreted by planets and correspond to the sizes of the orbits of their largest satellites. The mass of the solid component of disks is limited from below by the total mass of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter (no less than 4 × 1026 g) and the mass of the largest Saturnian satellites (1.4 × 1026 g), whereas the mass of the gaseous component is limited from above by the amount of hydrogen and helium that could have been later lost by the disks. Our analysis of the known mechanisms of dissipation of gas showed that its simultaneous content in the disks relative to the solid component was much lower than the corresponding gas-to-solid ratio in the Sun. A certain amount of solid compounds (including ice) could have been brought into the disks with planetesimals, which had undergone mutual collisions in the neighborhood of giant planets and served as germs of satellites. The bulk of solid matter appears to have been captured into disks when the latter were crossed by smaller and intermediate-sized planetesimals, which then became parts of the satellites.

  12. THE DISK-WIND-JET CONNECTION IN THE BLACK HOLE H 1743-322

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J. M.; King, A. L.; Raymond, J.; Fabian, A. C.; Reynolds, C. S.; Kallman, T. R.; Cackett, E. M.; Van der Klis, M.; Steeghs, D. T. H.

    2012-11-01

    X-ray disk winds are detected in spectrally soft, disk-dominated phases of stellar-mass black hole outbursts. In contrast, compact, steady, relativistic jets are detected in spectrally hard states that are dominated by non-thermal X-ray emission. Although these distinctive outflows appear to be almost mutually exclusive, it is possible that a disk wind persists in hard states but cannot be detected via X-ray absorption lines owing to very high ionization. Here, we present an analysis of a deep, 60 ks Chandra/HETGS observation of the black hole candidate H 1743-322 in the low/hard state. The spectrum shows no evidence of a disk wind, with tight limits, and within the range of ionizing flux levels that were measured in prior Chandra observations wherein a wind was clearly detected. In H 1743-322, at least, disk winds are actually diminished in the low/hard state, and disk winds and jets are likely state dependent and anti-correlated. These results suggest that although the launching radii of winds and jets may differ by orders of magnitude, they may both be tied to a fundamental property of the inner accretion flow, such as the mass accretion rate and/or the magnetic field topology of the disk. We discuss these results in the context of disk winds and jets in other stellar-mass black holes, and possible launching mechanisms for black hole outflows.

  13. Physics-Based Spectra of Accretion Disks around Black Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krolik, Julian H.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this grant was to begin the process of deriving the light output of accretion disks around black holes directly from the actual processes that inject heat into the accreting matter, rather than from guessed dependences of heating rate on physical parameters. At JHU, the effort has focussed so far on models of accretion onto "intermediate mass black holes", a possible class of black holes, examples of which may have recently been discovered in nearby galaxies. There, Krolik and his student (Yawei Hui) have computed stellar atmospheres for uniformly-heated disks around this class of black holes. Their models serve two purposes: they are the very first serious attempts to compute the spectrum from accreting black holes in this mass range; and a library of such models can be used later in this program as contrasts for those computed on the basis of real disk dynamics. The output from these local disk calculations has also been successfully coupled to a program that applies the appropriate relativistic transformations and computes photon trajectories in order to predict the spectrum received by observers located at different polar angles. The principal new result of these calculations is the discovery of potentially observable ionization edges of H-like C and O at frequencies near the peak in flux from these objects. Most of the grant money at UCSB was spent on supporting graduate student Shane Davis. In addition. some money was spent on supporting two other students: Ari Socrates (now a Hubble Fellow at Princeton), and Laura Melling. Davis spent the year constructing stellar atmosphere models of accretion disks appropriate for the high/soft (thermal) state of black hole X-ray binaries. As with AGN models published previously by our collaboration with NASA support. our models include a complete general relativistic treatment of both the disk structure and the propagation of photons from the disk to a distant observer. They also include all important

  14. Physics-Based Spectra of Accretion Disks around Black Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krolik, Julian H.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this grant was to begin the process of deriving the light output of accretion disks around black holes directly from the actual processes that inject heat into the accreting matter, rather than from guessed dependences of heating rate on physical parameters. At JHU, the effort has focussed so far on models of accretion onto "intermediate mass black holes", a possible class of black holes, examples of which may have recently been discovered in nearby galaxies. There, Krolik and his student (Yawei Hui) have computed stellar atmospheres for uniformly-heated disks around this class of black holes. Their models serve two purposes: they are the very first serious attempts to compute the spectrum from accreting black holes in this mass range; and a library of such models can be used later in this program as contrasts for those computed on the basis of real disk dynamics. The output from these local disk calculations has also been successfully coupled to a program that applies the appropriate relativistic transformations and computes photon trajectories in order to predict the spectrum received by observers located at different polar angles. The principal new result of these calculations is the discovery of potentially observable ionization edges of H-like C and O at frequencies near the peak in flux from these objects. Most of the grant money at UCSB was spent on supporting graduate student Shane Davis. In addition. some money was spent on supporting two other students: Ari Socrates (now a Hubble Fellow at Princeton), and Laura Melling. Davis spent the year constructing stellar atmosphere models of accretion disks appropriate for the high/soft (thermal) state of black hole X-ray binaries. As with AGN models published previously by our collaboration with NASA support. our models include a complete general relativistic treatment of both the disk structure and the propagation of photons from the disk to a distant observer. They also include all important

  15. Anchoring Polar Magnetic Field in a Stationary Thick Accretion Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samadi, Maryam; Abbassi, Shahram

    2017-08-01

    We investigate the properties of a hot accretion flow bathed in a poloidal magnetic field. We consider an axisymmetric viscous-resistive flow in the steady-state configuration. We assume that the dominant mechanism of energy dissipation is due to turbulence viscosity and magnetic diffusivity. A certain fraction of that energy can be advected toward the central compact object. We employ the self-similar method in the radial direction to find a system of ODEs with just one varible, θ in the spherical coordinates. For the existence and maintenance of a purely poloidal magnetic field in a rotating thick disk, we find that the necessary condition is a constant value of angular velocity along a magnetic field line. We obtain an analytical solution for the poloidal magnetic flux. We explore possible changes in the vertical structure of the disk under the influences of symmetric and asymmetric magnetic fields. Our results reveal that a polar magnetic field with even symmetry about the equatorial plane makes the disk vertically thin. Moreover, the accretion rate decreases when we consider a strong magnetic field. Finally, we notice that hot magnetized accretion flows can be fully advected even in a slim shape.

  16. Magnetized Accretion and Dead Zones in Protoplanetary disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzyurkevich, Natalia; Turner, Neal J.; Henning, Thomas; Kley, Wilhelm

    2013-07-01

    The edges of magnetically-dead zones in protostellar disks have been proposed as locations where density bumps may arise, trapping planetesimals and helping form planets. Magneto-rotational turbulence in magnetically-active zones provides both accretion of gas on the star and transport of mass to the dead zone. We investigate the location of the magnetically-active regions in a protostellar disk around a solar-type star, varying the parameters like dust-to-gas ratio. The dead zone is in most cases defined by the ambipolar diffusion. In our maps, the dead zone takes a variety of shapes, including a fish-tail pointing away from the star and islands located on and off the midplane. The corresponding accretion rates vary with radius, indicating locations where the surface density will increase over time, and others where it will decrease. We show that density bumps do not readily grow near the dead zone's outer edge, independently of the disk parameters and the dust properties. Instead, the accretion rate peaks at the radius where the gas-phase metals freeze out. This could lead to clearing a valley in the surface density, and to a trap for pebbles located just outside the metal freeze-out line. Here, we provide the fitting formula for the metal line and consider the cojoint impact of metal ans snow lines on the shape of the dead zone.

  17. Super-spinning compact objects generated by thick accretion disks

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zilong; Bambi, Cosimo E-mail: bambi@fudan.edu.cn

    2013-03-01

    If astrophysical black hole candidates are the Kerr black holes predicted by General Relativity, the value of their spin parameter must be subject to the theoretical bound |a{sub *}| ≤ 1. In this work, we consider the possibility that these objects are either non-Kerr black holes in an alternative theory of gravity or exotic compact objects in General Relativity. We study the accretion process when their accretion disk is geometrically thick with a simple version of the Polish doughnut model. The picture of the accretion process may be qualitatively different from the one around a Kerr black hole. The inner edge of the disk may not have the typical cusp on the equatorial plane any more, but there may be two cusps, respectively above and below the equatorial plane. We extend previous work on the evolution of the spin parameter and we estimate the maximum value of a{sub *} for the super-massive black hole candidates in galactic nuclei. Since measurements of the mean radiative efficiency of AGNs require η > 0.15, we infer the ''observational'' bound |a{sub *}|∼<1.3, which seems to be quite independent of the exact nature of these objects. Such a bound is only slightly weaker than |a{sub *}|∼<1.2 found in previous work for thin disks.

  18. NUCLEOSYNTHESIS IN THE OUTFLOWS ASSOCIATED WITH ACCRETION DISKS OF TYPE II COLLAPSARS

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Indrani; Mukhopadhyay, Banibrata E-mail: bm@physics.iisc.ernet.in

    2013-11-20

    We investigate nucleosynthesis inside the outflows from gamma-ray burst (GRB) accretion disks formed by the Type II collapsars. In these collapsars, massive stars undergo core collapse to form a proto-neutron star initially, and a mild supernova (SN) explosion is driven. The SN ejecta lack momentum, and subsequently this newly formed neutron star gets transformed to a stellar mass black hole via massive fallback. The hydrodynamics and the nucleosynthesis in these accretion disks have been studied extensively in the past. Several heavy elements are synthesized in the disk, and much of these heavy elements are ejected from the disk via winds and outflows. We study nucleosynthesis in the outflows launched from these disks by using an adiabatic, spherically expanding outflow model, to understand which of these elements thus synthesized in the disk survive in the outflow. While studying this, we find that many new elements like isotopes of titanium, copper, zinc, etc., are present in the outflows. {sup 56}Ni is abundantly synthesized in most of the cases in the outflow, which implies that the outflows from these disks in a majority of cases will lead to an observable SN explosion. It is mainly present when outflow is considered from the He-rich, {sup 56}Ni/{sup 54}Fe-rich zones of the disks. However, outflow from the Si-rich zone of the disk remains rich in silicon. Although emission lines of many of these heavy elements have been observed in the X-ray afterglows of several GRBs by Chandra, BeppoSAX, XMM-Newton, etc., Swift seems to have not yet detected these lines.

  19. The frequency of accretion disks around single stars: Chamaeleon I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daemgen, Sebastian; Elliot Meyer, R.; Jayawardhana, Ray; Petr-Gotzens, Monika G.

    2016-02-01

    Context. It is well known that stellar companions can influence the evolution of a protoplanetary disk. Nevertheless, previous disk surveys did not - and could not - consistently exclude binaries from their samples. Aims: We present a study dedicated to investigating the frequency of ongoing disk accretion around single stars in a star-forming region. Methods: We obtained near-infrared spectroscopy of 54 low-mass stars selected from a high-angular resolution survey in the 2-3 Myr-old Chamaeleon I region to determine the presence of Brackett-γ emission, taking the residual chance of undetected multiplicity into account, which we estimate to be on the order of 30%. The result is compared with previous surveys of the same feature in binary stars of the same region to provide a robust estimate of the difference between the accretor fractions of single stars and individual components of binary systems. Results: We find Brγ emission among 39.5+ 14.0-9.9% of single stars, which is a significantly higher fraction than for binary stars in Chamaeleon I. In particular, close binary systems with separations <100 AU show emission in only 6.5+ 16.5-3.0% of the cases according to the same analysis. The emitter frequency of wider binaries appears consistent with the single star value. Interpreting Brγ emission as a sign of ongoing accretion and correcting for sensitivity bias, we infer an accretor fraction of single stars of Facc = 47.8+ 14.0-9.9%. This is slightly higher but consistent with previous estimates that do not clearly exclude binaries from their samples. Conclusions: Through our robust and consistent analysis, we confirm that the fraction of young single stars harboring accretion disks is much larger than that of close binaries at the same age. Our findings have important implications for the timescales of disk evolution and planet formation.

  20. Magnetized Accretion and Dead Zones in Protostellar Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzyurkevich, Natalia; Turner, Neal J.; Henning, Thomas; Kley, Wilhelm

    2013-03-01

    The edges of magnetically dead zones in protostellar disks have been proposed as locations where density bumps may arise, trapping planetesimals and helping form planets. Magneto-rotational turbulence in magnetically active zones provides both accretion of gas on the star and transport of mass to the dead zone. We investigate the location of the magnetically active regions in a protostellar disk around a solar-type star, varying the disk temperature, surface density profile, and dust-to-gas ratio. We also consider stellar masses between 0.4 and 2 M ⊙, with corresponding adjustments in the disk mass and temperature. The dead zone's size and shape are found using the Elsasser number criterion with conductivities including the contributions from ions, electrons, and charged fractal dust aggregates. The charged species' abundances are found using the approach proposed by Okuzumi. The dead zone is in most cases defined by the ambipolar diffusion. In our maps, the dead zone takes a variety of shapes, including a fish tail pointing away from the star and islands located on and off the midplane. The corresponding accretion rates vary with radius, indicating locations where the surface density will increase over time, and others where it will decrease. We show that density bumps do not readily grow near the dead zone's outer edge, independently of the disk parameters and the dust properties. Instead, the accretion rate peaks at the radius where the gas-phase metals freeze out. This could lead to clearing a valley in the surface density, and to a trap for pebbles located just outside the metal freezeout line.

  1. MAGNETIZED ACCRETION AND DEAD ZONES IN PROTOSTELLAR DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Dzyurkevich, Natalia; Henning, Thomas; Turner, Neal J.; Kley, Wilhelm

    2013-03-10

    The edges of magnetically dead zones in protostellar disks have been proposed as locations where density bumps may arise, trapping planetesimals and helping form planets. Magneto-rotational turbulence in magnetically active zones provides both accretion of gas on the star and transport of mass to the dead zone. We investigate the location of the magnetically active regions in a protostellar disk around a solar-type star, varying the disk temperature, surface density profile, and dust-to-gas ratio. We also consider stellar masses between 0.4 and 2 M{sub Sun }, with corresponding adjustments in the disk mass and temperature. The dead zone's size and shape are found using the Elsasser number criterion with conductivities including the contributions from ions, electrons, and charged fractal dust aggregates. The charged species' abundances are found using the approach proposed by Okuzumi. The dead zone is in most cases defined by the ambipolar diffusion. In our maps, the dead zone takes a variety of shapes, including a fish tail pointing away from the star and islands located on and off the midplane. The corresponding accretion rates vary with radius, indicating locations where the surface density will increase over time, and others where it will decrease. We show that density bumps do not readily grow near the dead zone's outer edge, independently of the disk parameters and the dust properties. Instead, the accretion rate peaks at the radius where the gas-phase metals freeze out. This could lead to clearing a valley in the surface density, and to a trap for pebbles located just outside the metal freezeout line.

  2. Winds from T Tauri stars. II - Balmer line profiles for inner disk winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calvet, Nuria; Hartmann, Lee; Hewett, Robert

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented of calculations of Balmer emission line profiles using escape probability methods for T Tauri wind models with nonspherically symmetric geometry. The wind is assumed to originate in the inner regions of an accretion disk surrounding the T Tauri star, and flows outward in a 'cone' geometry. Two types of wind models are considered, both with monotonically increasing expansion velocities as a function of radial distance. For flows with large turbulent velocities, such as the HF Alfven wave-driven wind models, the effect of cone geometry is to increase the blue wing emission, and to move the absorption reversal close to line center. Line profiles for a wind model rotating with the same angular velocity as the inner disk are also calculated. The Balmer lines of this model are significantly broader than observed in most objects, suggesting that the observed emission lines do not arise in a region rotating at Keplerian velocity.

  3. Capture and induced disk accretion in young star encounters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostriker, Eve C.

    1994-03-01

    Young stars display evidence of moderately massive, centrifugally supported, gaseous, and dusty circumstellar disks. These disks are highly susceptible to compressional and transverse disturbances. Such density and bending waves may be excited by tidal forces from external gravitational perturbers, including passing, initially unbound stars. The energy and angular momentum exchange between the two-body orbit and the disk permits capture of passing stars on near-parabolic orbits, and can cause disk accretion. We compute energy and angular momentum transfer for near-parabolic orbits with periastron xmin beyond two disk radii rD, as a function of relative disk-orbit angles, using linear perturbation theory. We present both numerical evaluation of the integrations and asymptotic analytic results. These are used to compute capture rates and induced accretion rates in stellar clusters. We find that for encounters with xmin near 2rD, the disk angular momentum is reduced by a few to several percent (angle-averaged), with prograde, coplanar orientations yielding reductions by more than 10%. For typical open cluster parameters, the capture probability is less than 0.1% at xmin approximately 2rD; for most orientations energy is actually given to the perturber, rather than the reverse. Capture is permitted only for polar and retrograde encounters, and even then is unlikely. In particular, the asymptotic analytic results (large xmin/rD limit) for resonant transfer predict that the disk's energy change will be positive for inclinations greater than 101.5 deg, with the maximum, positive value at inclination 117 deg only 1% of the (negative) disk energy change at zero inclination. Both the angular momentum transfer and the capture probability drop off with increasing xmin/rD, first as an exponential and then as a power law. We explain this behavior in terms of the ratio of perturbed angular velocity to disk angular velocities, and the spectrum of allowed resonances. We compare our

  4. On Magnetic Dynamos in Thin Accretion Disks around Compact and Young Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepinski, T. F.

    1993-01-01

    A variety of geometrically thin accretion disks commonly associated with such astronomical objects as X-ray binaries, cataclysmic variables, and protostars are likely to be seats of MHD dynamo actions. Thin disk geometry and the particular physical environment make accretion disk dynamos different from stellar, planetary, or even galactic dynamos. We discuss those particular features of disk dynamos with emphasis on the difference between protoplanetary disk dynamos and those associated with compact stars. We then describe normal mode solutions for thin disk dynamos and discuss implications for the dynamical behavior of dynamo-magnetized accretion disks.

  5. Rotation and emission lines in stars and accretion disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, Keith; Saar, Steven H.

    1991-01-01

    In the accretion disks of quiescent dwarf novae, Doppler mapping studies reveal that Balmer emission lines increase sharply toward the center of the disk, with surface brightnesses scaling roughly as R exp -3/2 varies as Omega(Kep). Similarly, among chromospherically active stars the H-alpha and Ca II H and K emission cores are stronger in the more rapidly rotating stars, with surface brightnesses scaling again roughly as Omega(rot). Since in both cases the emission lines scale linearly with the rotation frequency, it is proposed that the mechanism powering the emission lines in quiescent accretion disks is the same as that in chromospherically active stars, namely, the emergence of magnetic flux generated by the action of a dynamo, and its interaction with the atmosphere. If this empirical connection between disks and stars is in fact due to magnetic dynamos, the range of rotation rates available for testing dynamo theories expands from a factor of 1000 to 10 to the 7th.

  6. A Method for the Study of Accretion Disk Emission in Cataclysmic Variables. I. The Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puebla, Raúl E.; Diaz, Marcos P.; Hillier, D. John; Hubeny, Ivan

    2011-07-01

    We have developed a spectrum synthesis method for modeling the ultraviolet (UV) emission from the accretion disk from cataclysmic variables (CVs). The disk is separated into concentric rings, with an internal structure from the Wade & Hubeny disk-atmosphere models. For each ring, a wind atmosphere is calculated in the comoving frame with a vertical velocity structure obtained from a solution of the Euler equation. Using simple assumptions, regarding rotation and the wind streamlines, these one-dimensional models are combined into a single 2.5-dimensional model for which we compute synthetic spectra. We find that the resulting line and continuum behavior as a function of the orbital inclination is consistent with the observations, and verify that the accretion rate affects the wind temperature, leading to corresponding trends in the intensity of UV lines. In general, we also find that the primary mass has a strong effect on the P Cygni absorption profiles, the synthetic emission line profiles are strongly sensitive to the wind temperature structure, and an increase in the mass-loss rate enhances the resonance line intensities. Synthetic spectra were compared with UV data for two high orbital inclination nova-like CVs—RW Tri and V347 Pup. We needed to include disk regions with arbitrary enhanced mass loss to reproduce reasonably well widths and line profiles. This fact and a lack of flux in some high ionization lines may be the signature of the presence of density-enhanced regions in the wind, or alternatively, may result from inadequacies in some of our simplifying assumptions.

  7. Ultraviolet observations of accretion disk in LMC X-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowley, A. P.; Schmidtke, P. C.; Hutchings, J. B.; Crampton, D.

    1994-07-01

    We report information obtained from a series of International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) low-resolution spectra and two HST UV spectra of LMC X-3. The HST spectra are used to identify disk emission lines and interstellar absorptions as well as to fit continuum models, which indicate the presence of a hot disk component. The IUE observations, mainly taken over approximately 1.5 years, were intended to study how the observed characteristics of the accretion disk change through the precessional cycle. It is shown that although the emission line strengths and short-wavelength ultraviolet flux are well correlated, both optical and UV data show little long-term periodic modulation was present during our observations, indicating LMC X-3 had dropped into a 'low' state.

  8. Accretion Effects on Disks Around Non-Magnetic Compact Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, Michele M.

    2013-02-01

    Accretion disks in compact binaries are thought to sometimes tilt and precess in the retrograde direction as indicated by modulations in light curves and/or signals. Using 3D Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics and a low mass transfer rate, Montgomery (2012) shows the disk in non-magnetic Cataclysmic Variables tilts naturally after enough time has passed. In that work, twice the fundamental negative superhump signal 2ν_ is associated with disk tilt around the line of nodes, gas stream overflow approximately twice per orbital period, and retrograde precession. In this work, we show that after enough additional time has passed in the same simulation, the 4ν_ harmonic appears. The decrease in the 2ν_ amplitude approximately equals the amplitude of the 4ν_ harmonic. We discuss the implications.

  9. Ultraviolet observations of accretion disk in LMC X-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowley, A. P.; Schmidthe, P. C.; Hutchings, J. B.; Crampton, D.

    1994-01-01

    We report information obtained from a series of International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) low-resolution spectra and two HST UV spectra of LMC X-3. The HST spectra are used to identify disk emission lines and interstellar absorptions as well as to fit continuum models, which indicate the presence of a hot disk component. The IUE observations, mainly taken over approximately 1.5 years, were intended to study how the observed characteristics of the accretion disk change through the precessional cycle. It is shown that although the emission line strengths and short-wavelength ultraviolet flux are well correlated, both optical and UV data show little long-term periodic modulation was present during our observations, indicating LMC X-3 had dropped into a 'low' state.

  10. Numerical Modeling of Tidal Effects in Polytropic Accretion Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godon, Patrick

    1997-01-01

    A two-dimensional time-dependent hybrid Fourier-Chebyshev method of collocation is developed and used for the study of tidal effects in accretion disks, under the assumptions of a polytropic equation of state and a standard alpha viscosity prescription. Under the influence of the m = 1 azimuthal component of the tidal potential, viscous oscillations in the outer disk excite an m = 1 eccentric instability in the disk. While the m = 2 azimuthal component of the tidal potential excites a Papaloizou-Pringle instability in the inner disk (a saturated m = 2 azimuthal mode), with an elliptic pattern rotating at about a fraction (approx. = 1/3) of the local Keplerian velocity in the inner disk. The period of the elliptic mode corresponds well to the periods of the short-period oscillations observed in cataclysmic variables. In cold disks (r(Omega)/c(sub s) = M approx. = 40) we also find a critical value of the viscosity parameter (alpha approx. = 0.01), below which shock dissipation dominates and is balanced by the wave amplification due to the wave action conservation. In this case the double spiral shock propagates all the way to the inner boundary with a Mach number M(sub s) approx. = 1.3.

  11. Turbulent Transport In Global Models of Magnetized Accretion Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorathia, Kareem

    The modern theory of accretion disks is dominated by the discovery of the magnetorotational instability (MRI). While hydrodynamic disks satisfy Rayleigh's criterion and there exists no known unambiguous route to turbulence in such disks, a weakly magnetized disk of plasma is subject to the MRI and will become turbulent. This MRI-driven magnetohydrodnamic turbulence generates a strong anisotropic correlation between the radial and azimuthal magnetic fields which drives angular momentum outwards. Accretion disks perform two vital functions in various astrophysical systems: an intermediate step in the gravitational collapse of a rotating gas, where the disk transfers angular momentum outwards and allows material to fall inwards; and as a power source, where the gravitational potential energy of infalling matter can be converted to luminosity. Accretion disks are important in astrophysical processes at all scales in the universe. Studying accretion from first principles is difficult, as analytic treatments of turbulent systems have proven quite limited. As such, computer simulations are at the forefront of studying systems this far into the non-linear regime. While computational work is necessary to study accretion disks, it is no panacea. Fully three-dimensional simulations of turbulent astrophysical systems require an enormous amount of computational power that is inaccessible even to sophisticated modern supercomputers. These limitations have necessitated the use of local models, in which a small spatial region of the full disk is simulated, and constrain numerical resolution to what is feasible. These compromises, while necessary, have the potential to introduce numerical artifacts in the resulting simulations. Understanding how to disentangle these artifacts from genuine physical phenomena and to minimize their effect is vital to constructing simulations that can make reliable astrophysical predictions and is the primary concern of the work presented here. The use

  12. Powerful, Rotating Disk Winds from Stellar-mass Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J. M.; Fabian, A. C.; Kaastra, J.; Kallman, T.; King, A. L.; Proga, D.; Raymond, J.; Reynolds, C. S.

    2015-12-01

    We present an analysis of ionized X-ray disk winds found in the Fe K band of four stellar-mass black holes observed with Chandra, including 4U 1630-47, GRO J1655-40, H 1743-322, and GRS 1915+105. High-resolution photoionization grids were generated in order to model the data. Third-order gratings spectra were used to resolve complex absorption profiles into atomic effects and multiple velocity components. The Fe xxv line is found to be shaped by contributions from the intercombination line (in absorption), and the Fe xxvi line is detected as a spin-orbit doublet. The data require 2-3 absorption zones, depending on the source. The fastest components have velocities approaching or exceeding 0.01c, increasing mass outflow rates and wind kinetic power by orders of magnitude over prior single-zone models. The first-order spectra require re-emission from the wind, broadened by a degree that is loosely consistent with Keplerian orbital velocities at the photoionization radius. This suggests that disk winds are rotating with the orbital velocity of the underlying disk, and provides a new means of estimating launching radii—crucial to understanding wind driving mechanisms. Some aspects of the wind velocities and radii correspond well to the broad-line region in active galactic nuclei (AGNs), suggesting a physical connection. We discuss these results in terms of prevalent models for disk wind production and disk accretion itself, and implications for massive black holes in AGNs.

  13. Asymmetric evolution of magnetic reconnection in collisionless accretion disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirakawa, Keisuke; Hoshino, Masahiro

    2014-05-01

    An evolution of a magnetic reconnection in a collisionless accretion disk is investigated using a 2.5 dimensional hybrid code simulation. In astrophysical disks, magnetorotational instability (MRI) is considered to play an important role by generating turbulence in the disk and contributes to an effective angular momentum transport through a turbulent viscosity. Magnetic reconnection, on the other hand, also plays an important role on the evolution of the disk through a dissipation of a magnetic field enhanced by a dynamo effect of MRI. In this study, we developed a hybrid code to calculate an evolution of a differentially rotating system. With this code, we first confirmed a linear growth of MRI. We also investigated a behavior of a particular structure of a current sheet, which would exist in the turbulence in the disk. From the calculation of the magnetic reconnection, we found an asymmetric structure in the out-of-plane magnetic field during the evolution of reconnection, which can be understood by a coupling of the Hall effect and the differential rotation. We also found a migration of X-point whose direction is determined only by an initial sign of J0×Ω0, where J0 is the initial current density in the neutral sheet and Ω0 is the rotational vector of the background Keplerian rotation. Associated with the migration of X-point, we also found a significant enhancement of the perpendicular magnetic field compared to an ordinary MRI. MRI-Magnetic reconnection coupling and the resulting magnetic field enhancement can be an effective process to sustain a strong turbulence in the accretion disk and to a transport of angular momentum.

  14. THE QUASAR ACCRETION DISK SIZE-BLACK HOLE MASS RELATION

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Christopher W.; Kochanek, C. S.; Morgan, Nicholas D.; Falco, Emilio E. E-mail: ckochanek@astronomy.ohio-state.ed E-mail: efalco@cfa.harvard.ed

    2010-04-01

    We use the microlensing variability observed for 11 gravitationally lensed quasars to show that the accretion disk size at a rest-frame wavelength of 2500 A is related to the black hole mass by log(R{sub 2500}/cm) = (15.78 +- 0.12) + (0.80 +- 0.17)log(M{sub BH}/10{sup 9} M{sub sun}). This scaling is consistent with the expectation from thin-disk theory (R {proportional_to} M {sup 2/3}{sub BH}), but when interpreted in terms of the standard thin-disk model (T {proportional_to} R {sup -3/4}), it implies that black holes radiate with very low efficiency, log(eta) = -1.77 +- 0.29 + log(L/L{sub E}), where eta=L/(M-dot c{sup 2}). Only by making the maximum reasonable shifts in the average inclination, Eddington factors, and black hole masses can we raise the efficiency estimate to be marginally consistent with typical efficiency estimates (eta {approx} 10%). With one exception, these sizes are larger by a factor of {approx}4 than the size needed to produce the observed 0.8 {mu}m quasar flux by thermal radiation from a thin disk with the same T {proportional_to} R {sup -3/4} temperature profile. While scattering a significant fraction of the disk emission on large scales or including a large fraction of contaminating line emission can reduce the size discrepancy, resolving it also appears to require that accretion disks have flatter temperature/surface brightness profiles.

  15. Asymmetric evolution of magnetic reconnection in collisionless accretion disk

    SciTech Connect

    Shirakawa, Keisuke Hoshino, Masahiro

    2014-05-15

    An evolution of a magnetic reconnection in a collisionless accretion disk is investigated using a 2.5 dimensional hybrid code simulation. In astrophysical disks, magnetorotational instability (MRI) is considered to play an important role by generating turbulence in the disk and contributes to an effective angular momentum transport through a turbulent viscosity. Magnetic reconnection, on the other hand, also plays an important role on the evolution of the disk through a dissipation of a magnetic field enhanced by a dynamo effect of MRI. In this study, we developed a hybrid code to calculate an evolution of a differentially rotating system. With this code, we first confirmed a linear growth of MRI. We also investigated a behavior of a particular structure of a current sheet, which would exist in the turbulence in the disk. From the calculation of the magnetic reconnection, we found an asymmetric structure in the out-of-plane magnetic field during the evolution of reconnection, which can be understood by a coupling of the Hall effect and the differential rotation. We also found a migration of X-point whose direction is determined only by an initial sign of J{sub 0}×Ω{sub 0}, where J{sub 0} is the initial current density in the neutral sheet and Ω{sub 0} is the rotational vector of the background Keplerian rotation. Associated with the migration of X-point, we also found a significant enhancement of the perpendicular magnetic field compared to an ordinary MRI. MRI-Magnetic reconnection coupling and the resulting magnetic field enhancement can be an effective process to sustain a strong turbulence in the accretion disk and to a transport of angular momentum.

  16. An Eccentric Accretion Disk In V691 Cra?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peris, Charith; Vrtilek, S. D.

    2011-09-01

    We present phase-resolved spectroscopic observations over a full orbital period (5.6 hr) of the low-mass X-ray binary, V691 CrA, obtained with IMACS on the 6.5-m Walter Baade telescope at Las Campanas Observatory in June 2010. This is part of an on-going program to construct modulated tomograms in selected optical lines that enable us to study the geometry of the accretion flow and to examine spectral signatures that differentiate between neutron stars and black holes. The images constructed via tomography provide one of the few paths toward detailed insight into the structure of spatially unresolved accretion processes and the dependence of that structure on the nature of the central condensed object. Apparent in the V691 CrA spectrum are emission lines from H, He, and Fe with Hα and HeII 4686 showing clear double peaks varying with phase. Using K1= 94.5 km/s (Casares et al., 2010) and K2 = 324 km/s (Jonker et al 2003) we confirm a systemic velocity γ = -43 km/s (Casares et al 2003). Using these values to generate Modulation maps in Hα we find strong disk emission and a bright spot at the point where the accreting stream hits the disk. The center of the disk appears significantly offset from the center-of-mass of the system indicating an eccentric disk that may be associated with precession. We will present these results in the context of both black hole and neutron star systems observed by our project. SDV has been supported in part by NSF grant AST-0507637 awarded to the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and a Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Studies Grant.

  17. Testing the Star-Disk Connection: CIV and MGII Maps of Accretion Disks CYC3-MED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horne, Keith

    1992-06-01

    Empirical scaling laws among magnetic activity indicators are well established for the sun and other cool stars. Ground-based studies of Balmer and CaII emission suggest that similar relationships may hold for the accretion disks and tidally-locked secondary stars in cataclysmic variables. We propose to test this star-disk connection by using HST to make Doppler maps of MgII and CIV emission in three quiescent dwarf novae. These lines sensitive to chromospheric and transition region temperature regimes are predicted to scale as radius to the -3/2 and -3 respectively in the Keplerian accretion disk. Our experiment tests the hypothesis that dynamo action powers emission lines from accretion disk chromospheres. The disk and secondary star rotate much faster than the stars for which magnetic activity relations have been previously determined. By expanding the study of magnetic activity to higher rotation rates and different geometries, we expect to gain insights into the basic physics that will advance our understanding of dynamos and magnetic activity in a broad context. NOTE: THE TAC CUT THIS PROPOSAL FROM 3 TO 1 OBJECT.

  18. RESISTIVITY-DRIVEN STATE CHANGES IN VERTICALLY STRATIFIED ACCRETION DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, Jacob B.; Hawley, John F.; Beckwith, Kris

    2011-04-01

    We investigate the effect of shear viscosity, {nu}, and Ohmic resistivity, {eta}, on the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in vertically stratified accretion disks through a series of local simulations with the Athena code. First, we use a series of unstratified simulations to calibrate physical dissipation as a function of resolution and background field strength; the effect of the magnetic Prandtl number, P{sub m} = {nu}/{eta}, on the turbulence is captured by {approx}32 grid zones per disk scale height, H. In agreement with previous results, our stratified disk calculations are characterized by a subthermal, predominately toroidal magnetic field that produces MRI-driven turbulence for |z| {approx}< 2H. Above |z| {approx} 2H, the magnetic pressure dominates and the field is buoyantly unstable. Large-scale radial and toroidal fields are also generated near the mid-plane and subsequently rise through the disk. The polarity of this mean field switches on a roughly 10 orbit period in a process that is well modeled by an {alpha}-{Omega} dynamo. Turbulent stress increases with P{sub m} but with a shallower dependence compared to unstratified simulations. For sufficiently large resistivity, {eta} {approx} c{sub s} H/1000, where c{sub s} is the sound speed, MRI turbulence within 2H of the mid-plane undergoes periods of resistive decay followed by regrowth. This regrowth is caused by amplification of the toroidal field via the dynamo. This process results in large amplitude variability in the stress on 10-100 orbital timescales, which may have relevance for partially ionized disks that are observed to have high- and low-accretion states.

  19. Hydraulic jumps in 'viscous' accretion disks. [in astronomical models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michel, F. C.

    1984-01-01

    It is proposed that the dissipative process necessary for rapid accretion disk evolution is driven by hydraulic jump waves on the surface of the disk. These waves are excited by the asymmetric nature of the central rotator (e.g., neutron star magnetosphere) and spiral out into the disk to form a pattern corotating with the central object. Disk matter in turn is slowed slightly at each encounter with the jump and spirals inward. In this process, the disk is heated by true turbulence produced in the jumps. Additional effects, such as a systematic misalignment of the magnetic moment of the neutron star until it is nearly orthogonal, and systematic distortion of the magnetosphere in such a way as to form an even more asymmetric central 'paddle wheel', may enhance the interaction with inflowing matter. The application to X-ray sources corresponds to the 'slow' solutions of Ghosh and Lamb, and therefore to rms magnetic fields of about 4 x 10 to the 10th gauss. Analogous phenomena have been proposed to act in the formation of galactic spiral structure.

  20. Hydraulic jumps in 'viscous' accretion disks. [in astronomical models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michel, F. C.

    1984-01-01

    It is proposed that the dissipative process necessary for rapid accretion disk evolution is driven by hydraulic jump waves on the surface of the disk. These waves are excited by the asymmetric nature of the central rotator (e.g., neutron star magnetosphere) and spiral out into the disk to form a pattern corotating with the central object. Disk matter in turn is slowed slightly at each encounter with the jump and spirals inward. In this process, the disk is heated by true turbulence produced in the jumps. Additional effects, such as a systematic misalignment of the magnetic moment of the neutron star until it is nearly orthogonal, and systematic distortion of the magnetosphere in such a way as to form an even more asymmetric central 'paddle wheel', may enhance the interaction with inflowing matter. The application to X-ray sources corresponds to the 'slow' solutions of Ghosh and Lamb, and therefore to rms magnetic fields of about 4 x 10 to the 10th gauss. Analogous phenomena have been proposed to act in the formation of galactic spiral structure.

  1. ACCRETION RATES OF MOONLETS EMBEDDED IN CIRCUMPLANETARY PARTICLE DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Ohtsuki, Keiji; Yasui, Yuki; Daisaka, Hiroshi

    2013-08-01

    We examine the gravitational capture probability of colliding particles in circumplanetary particle disks and accretion rates of small particles onto an embedded moonlet, using analytic calculation, three-body orbital integrations, and N-body simulations. Expanding our previous work, we take into account the Rayleigh distribution of particles' orbital eccentricities and inclinations in our analytic calculation and orbital integration and confirm agreement between them when the particle velocity dispersion is comparable to or larger than their mutual escape velocity and the ratio of the sum of the physical radii of colliding particles to their mutual Hill radius (r-tilde{sub p}) is much smaller than unity. As shown by our previous work, the capture probability decreases significantly when the velocity dispersion is larger than the escape velocity and/or r-tilde{sub p}{approx}>0.7. Rough surfaces of particles can enhance the capture probability. We compare the results of three-body calculations with N-body simulations for accretion of small particles by an embedded moonlet and find agreement at the initial stage of accretion. However, when particles forming an aggregate on the moonlet surface nearly fill the Hill sphere, the aggregate reaches a quasi-steady state with a nearly constant number of particles covering the moonlet, and the accretion rate is significantly reduced compared to the three-body results.

  2. Luminosity limit for alpha-viscosity accretion disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Edison P.; Wandel, Amri

    1991-01-01

    The existence of a luminosity limit for alpha-viscosity physically thin accretion disks around black holes is established, using a new formulation of the radiation equation bridging optically thick and thin regimes. For alpha close to unity, this limit can be lower than the Eddington limit. Physically, this limit is due to the combined effects of gas and radiation pressure which become too large to satisfy vertical hydrostatic balance at intermediate optical depths for sufficiently high luminosities. This effect was overlooked in previous treatments using only the optically thin or thick limits of the radiative equation.

  3. Quiescent accretion disks in black hole X-ray novae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orosz, Jerome A.; Bailyn, Charles D.; Remillard, Ronald A.; Mcclintock, Jeffrey E.; Foltz, Craig B.

    1994-01-01

    We present detailed time-resolved spectroscopy of the Balmer emission lines from two black hole binary systems in quiescence, A0620-00 and Nova Muscae 1991. We find extraordinary similarities between the two systems. There are 30-40 km/s velocity variations of the emission lines over the orbital period, the phases of which are not aligned with the expected phase of the motion of the compact primary. Detailed modeling of both systems is complicated by variable hot spot components, regions of optical thickness, and intermittent excess emission in the blue line wings of the H-alpha lines. Both sources also display low velocities at the outer edge of the accretion disk, implying a large primary Roche lobe and extreme mass ratios. These complications suggest that although simple optically thin, Keplerian alpha-disk models provide a useful parameterization of emission lines from these systems, the straightforward physical models they imply should be treated with great caution.

  4. Accretion Disks around Young Stars: An Observational Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ménard, F.; Bertout, C.

    Accretion disks are pivotal elements in the formation and early evolution of solar-like stars. On top of supplying the raw material, their internal conditions also regulate the formation of planets. Their study therefore holds the key to solve this long standing mystery: how did our Solar System form? This chapter focuses on observational studies of the circumstellar environment, and in particular of circumstellar disks, associated with pre-main sequence solar-like stars. The direct measurement of disk parameters poses an obvious challenge: at the distance of the typical star forming regions ( e.g. 140 pc for Taurus), a planetary system like ours (with diameter simeq50 AU out to Pluto, but excluding the Kuiper belt which could extend much farther out) subtends only 0.35''. Yet its surface brightness is low in comparison to the bright central star and high angular and high contrast imaging techniques are required if one hopes to resolve and measure these protoplanetary disks. Fortunately, capable instruments providing 0.1'' resolution or better and high contrast have been available for just about 10 years now. They are covering a large part of the electromagnetic spectrum, from the UV/Optical with HST and the near-infrared from ground-based adaptive optics systems, to the millimetric range with long-baseline radio interferometers. It is therefore not surprising that our knowledge of the structure of the disks surrounding low-mass stars has made a gigantic leap forward in the last decade. In the following pages we will attempt to describe, in a historical perpective, the road that led to the idea that most solar-like stars are surrounded by an accretion disk at one point in their early life and how, nowadays, their structural and physical parameters can be estimated from direct observations. We will follow by a short discussion of a few of the constraints available regarding the evolution and dissipation of these disks. This last topic is particularly relevant today

  5. The Anomalous Accretion Disk of the Cataclysmic Variable RW Sextantis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linnell, Albert P.; Godon, P.; Hubeny, I.; Sion, E. M.; Szkody, P.

    2011-01-01

    The standard model for stable Cataclysmic Variable (CV) accretion disks (Frank, King and Raine 1992) derives an explicit analytic expression for the disk effective temperature as function of radial distance from the white dwarf (WD). That model specifies that the effective temperature, Teff(R), varies with R as ()0.25, where () represents a combination of parameters including R, the mass transfer rate M(dot), and other parameters. It is well known that fits of standard model synthetic spectra to observed CV spectra find almost no instances of agreement. We have derived a generalized expression for the radial temperature gradient, which preserves the total disk luminosity as function of M(dot) but permits a different exponent from the theoretical value of 0.25, and have applied it to RW Sex (Linnell et al.,2010,ApJ, 719,271). We find an excellent fit to observed FUSE and IUE spectra for an exponent of 0.125, curiously close to 1/2 the theoretical value. Our annulus synthetic spectra, combined to represent the accretion disk, were produced with program TLUSTY, were non-LTE and included H, He, C, Mg, Al, Si, and Fe as explicit ions. We illustrate our results with a plot showing the failure to fit RW Sex for a range of M(dot) values, our model fit to the observations, and a chi2 plot showing the selection of the exponent 0.125 as the best fit for the M(dot) range shown. (For the final model parameters see the paper cited.)

  6. Crystalline structure of accretion disks: Features of a global model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montani, Giovanni; Benini, Riccardo

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, we develop the analysis of a two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical configuration for an axially symmetric and rotating plasma (embedded in a dipolelike magnetic field), modeling the structure of a thin accretion disk around a compact astrophysical object. Our study investigates the global profile of the disk plasma, in order to fix the conditions for the existence of a crystalline morphology and ring sequence, as outlined by the local analysis pursued in Coppi [Phys. PlasmasPHPAEN1070-664X10.1063/1.1883667 12, 7302 (2005)] and Coppi and Rousseau [Astrophys. J.AJLEEY0004-637X10.1086/500315 641, 458 (2006)]. In the linear regime, when the electromagnetic back-reaction of the plasma is small enough, we show the existence of an oscillating radial behavior for the flux surface function, which very closely resembles the one outlined in the local model, apart from a radial modulation of the amplitude. In the opposite limit, corresponding to a dominant back-reaction in the magnetic structure over the field of central object, we can recognize the existence of a ringlike decomposition of the disk, according to the same modulation of the magnetic flux surface, and a smoother radial decay of the disk density, with respect to the linear case. In this extreme nonlinear regime, the global model seems to predict a configuration very close to that of the local analysis, but here the thermostatic pressure, crucial for the equilibrium setting, is also radially modulated. Among the conditions requested for the validity of such a global model, the confinement of the radial coordinate within a given value sensitive to the disk temperature and to the mass of the central objet, stands; however, this condition corresponds to dealing with a thin disk configuration.

  7. Chemistry in a Forming Protoplanetary Disk: Main Accretion Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoneda, Haruaki; Tsukamoto, Yusuke; Furuya, Kenji; Aikawa, Yuri

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the chemistry in a radiation-hydrodynamics model of a star-forming core that evolves from a cold (∼10 K) prestellar core to the main accretion phase in ∼105 years. A rotationally supported gravitationally unstable disk is formed around a protostar. We extract the temporal variation of physical parameters in ∼1.5 × 103 SPH particles that end up in the disk, and perform post-processing calculations of the gas-grain chemistry adopting a three-phase model. Inside the disk, the SPH particles migrate both inward and outward. Since a significant fraction of volatiles such as CO can be trapped in the water-dominant ice in the three-phase model, the ice mantle composition depends not only on the current position in the disk, but also on whether the dust grain has ever experienced higher temperatures than the water sublimation temperature. Stable molecules such as H2O, CH4, NH3, and CH3OH are already abundant at the onset of gravitational collapse and are simply sublimated as the fluid parcels migrate inside the water snow line. On the other hand, various molecules such as carbon chains and complex organic molecules (COMs) are formed in the disk. The COMs abundance sensitively depends on the outcomes of photodissociation and diffusion rates of photofragments in bulk ice mantle. As for S-bearing species, H2S ice is abundant in the collapse phase. In the warm regions in the disk, H2S is sublimated to be destroyed, while SO, H2CS, OCS, and SO2 become abundant.

  8. Crystalline structure of accretion disks: features of a global model.

    PubMed

    Montani, Giovanni; Benini, Riccardo

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, we develop the analysis of a two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical configuration for an axially symmetric and rotating plasma (embedded in a dipolelike magnetic field), modeling the structure of a thin accretion disk around a compact astrophysical object. Our study investigates the global profile of the disk plasma, in order to fix the conditions for the existence of a crystalline morphology and ring sequence, as outlined by the local analysis pursued in Coppi [Phys. Plasmas 12, 7302 (2005)] and Coppi and Rousseau [Astrophys. J. 641, 458 (2006)]. In the linear regime, when the electromagnetic back-reaction of the plasma is small enough, we show the existence of an oscillating radial behavior for the flux surface function, which very closely resembles the one outlined in the local model, apart from a radial modulation of the amplitude. In the opposite limit, corresponding to a dominant back-reaction in the magnetic structure over the field of central object, we can recognize the existence of a ringlike decomposition of the disk, according to the same modulation of the magnetic flux surface, and a smoother radial decay of the disk density, with respect to the linear case. In this extreme nonlinear regime, the global model seems to predict a configuration very close to that of the local analysis, but here the thermostatic pressure, crucial for the equilibrium setting, is also radially modulated. Among the conditions requested for the validity of such a global model, the confinement of the radial coordinate within a given value sensitive to the disk temperature and to the mass of the central objet, stands; however, this condition corresponds to dealing with a thin disk configuration.

  9. Save the Planet, Feed the Star: How Super-Earths Survive Migration and Drive Disk Accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, Jeffrey; Chiang, Eugene

    2017-04-01

    Two longstanding problems in planet formation include (1) understanding how planets survive migration, and (2) articulating the process by which protoplanetary disks disperse—and in particular how they accrete onto their central stars. We can go a long way toward solving both problems if the disk gas surrounding planets has no intrinsic diffusivity (“viscosity”). In inviscid, laminar disks, a planet readily repels gas away from its orbit. On short timescales, zero viscosity gas accumulates inside a planet’s orbit to slow Type I migration by orders of magnitude. On longer timescales, multiple super-Earths (distributed between, say, ˜0.1-10 au) can torque inviscid gas out of interplanetary space, either inward to feed their stars, or outward to be blown away in a wind. We explore this picture with 2D hydrodynamics simulations of Earths and super-Earths embedded in inviscid disks, confirming their slow/stalled migration even under gas-rich conditions, and showing that disk transport rates range up to ˜ {10}-7 {M}⊙ {{yr}}-1 and scale as \\dot{M}\\propto {{Σ }}{M}{{p}}3/2, where Σ is the disk surface density and M p is the planet mass. Gas initially sandwiched between two planets is torqued past both into the inner and outer disks. In sum, sufficiently compact systems of super-Earths can clear their natal disk gas in a dispersal history that may be complicated and non-steady but which conceivably leads over Myr timescales to large gas depletions similar to those characterizing transition disks.

  10. No Disk Winds in Failed Black Hole Outbursts? New Observations of H1743-322

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neilsen, Joseph; Coriat, Mickael; Motta, Sara; Fender, Rob P.; Ponti, Gabriele; Corbel, Stephane

    2016-04-01

    The rich and complex physics of stellar-mass black holes in outburst is often referred to as the "disk-jet connection," a term that encapsulates the evolution of accretion disks over several orders of magnitude in Eddington ratio; through Compton scattering, reflection, and thermal emission; as they produce steady compact jets, relativistic plasma ejections, and (from high spectral resolution revelations of the last 15 years) massive, ionized disk winds. It is well established that steady jets are associated with radiatively inefficient X-ray states, and that winds tend to appear during states with more luminous disks, but the underlying physical processes that govern these connections (and their changes during state transitions) are not fully understood. I will present a unique perspective on the disk-wind-jet connection based on new Chandra HETGS, NuSTAR, and JVLA observations of the black hole H1743-322. Rather than following the usual outburst track, the 2015 outburst of H1743 fizzled: the disk never appeared in X-rays, and the source remained spectrally hard for the entire ~100 days. Remarkably, we find no evidence for any accretion disk wind in our data, even though H1743-322 has produced winds at comparable hard X-ray luminosities. I will discuss the implications of this "failed outburst" for our picture of winds from black holes and the astrophysics that governs them.

  11. MHD Modelling of Protostellar Disk Winds and Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolan, Christopher; Sutherland, Ralph; Salmeron, Raquel; Bicknell, Geoff

    2013-07-01

    One of the outstanding challenges in star formation is the angular momentum problem. Angular momentum transport is required to allow a cloud core to collapse to form a star. Angular momentum in the initial collapsing cloud prevents the majority of material falling directly onto the protostar, instead settling into a circumstellar disk around it. It is from this point that the angular momentum must be redistributed to allow material to accrete. Radial transport of angular momentum is accomplished via the magnetorotational instability (MRI). Vertical angular momentum transport has generally been attributed to centrifugally driven winds (CDWs) from the disk surface. Both modes of transport depend on the strength of the local magnetic field, parametrised by the ratio of the vertical Alfven speed to the isothermal sound speed, a0. MRI is expected to dominate in the presence of weak fields (a0 ≪ 1), whereas CDWs require a strong field (a0 ≲ 1). Here we present calculations of the structure of minimum-mass solar nebula protostellar disks in strong fields (a0 = 1) around a solar mass star, focusing on the regions of these disks that may launch a CDW from their surface. These results have implications for disk-driven models of protostellar jet launching including the connection between disk properties and large scale features of jets.

  12. The Quasar Accretion Disk Size-Black Hole Mass Relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Christopher W.; Kochanek, C. S.; Morgan, Nicholas D.; Falco, Emilio E.

    2010-04-01

    We use the microlensing variability observed for 11 gravitationally lensed quasars to show that the accretion disk size at a rest-frame wavelength of 2500 Å is related to the black hole mass by log(R 2500/cm) = (15.78 ± 0.12) + (0.80 ± 0.17)log(M BH/109 M sun). This scaling is consistent with the expectation from thin-disk theory (R vprop M 2/3 BH), but when interpreted in terms of the standard thin-disk model (T vprop R -3/4), it implies that black holes radiate with very low efficiency, log(η) = -1.77 ± 0.29 + log(L/L E), where η =L/(\\dot{M}c^2). Only by making the maximum reasonable shifts in the average inclination, Eddington factors, and black hole masses can we raise the efficiency estimate to be marginally consistent with typical efficiency estimates (η ≈ 10%). With one exception, these sizes are larger by a factor of ~4 than the size needed to produce the observed 0.8 μm quasar flux by thermal radiation from a thin disk with the same T vprop R -3/4 temperature profile. While scattering a significant fraction of the disk emission on large scales or including a large fraction of contaminating line emission can reduce the size discrepancy, resolving it also appears to require that accretion disks have flatter temperature/surface brightness profiles. Based on observations obtained with the Small and Moderate Aperture Research Telescope System (SMARTS) 1.3 m, which is operated by the SMARTS Consortium, the Apache Point Observatory 3.5 m telescope, which is owned and operated by the Astrophysical Research Consortium, the WIYN Observatory which is owned and operated by the University of Wisconsin, Indiana University, Yale University, and the National Optical Astronomy Observatories (NOAO), the 6.5 m Magellan Baade telescope, which is a collaboration between the observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington (OCIW), University of Arizona, Harvard University, University of Michigan, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and observations made

  13. Testing Horava-Lifshitz gravity using thin accretion disk properties

    SciTech Connect

    Harko, Tiberiu; Kovacs, Zoltan; Lobo, Francisco S. N.

    2009-08-15

    Recently, a renormalizable gravity theory with higher spatial derivatives in four dimensions was proposed by Horava. The theory reduces to Einstein gravity with a nonvanishing cosmological constant in IR, but it has improved UV behaviors. The spherically symmetric black hole solutions for an arbitrary cosmological constant, which represent the generalization of the standard Schwarzschild-(anti) de Sitter solution, have also been obtained for the Horava-Lifshitz theory. The exact asymptotically flat Schwarzschild-type solution of the gravitational field equations in Horava gravity contains a quadratic increasing term, as well as the square root of a fourth order polynomial in the radial coordinate, and it depends on one arbitrary integration constant. The IR-modified Horava gravity seems to be consistent with the current observational data, but in order to test its viability more observational constraints are necessary. In the present paper we consider the possibility of observationally testing Horava gravity by using the accretion disk properties around black holes. The energy flux, the temperature distribution, the emission spectrum, as well as the energy conversion efficiency are obtained, and compared to the standard general relativistic case. Particular signatures can appear in the electromagnetic spectrum, thus leading to the possibility of directly testing Horava gravity models by using astrophysical observations of the emission spectra from accretion disks.

  14. Turbulence in the Outer Regions of Protoplanetary Disks. II. Strong Accretion Driven by a Vertical Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Jacob B.; Bai, Xue-Ning; Armitage, Philip J.; Stone, James M.; Beckwith, Kris

    2013-09-01

    We carry out a series of local, vertically stratified shearing box simulations of protoplanetary disks that include ambipolar diffusion and a net vertical magnetic field. The ambipolar diffusion profiles we employ correspond to 30 AU and 100 AU in a minimum mass solar nebula (MMSN) disk model, which consists of a far-ultraviolet-ionized surface layer and low-ionization disk interior. These simulations serve as a follow-up to Simon et al., in which we found that without a net vertical field, the turbulent stresses that result from the magnetorotational instability (MRI) are too weak to account for observed accretion rates. The simulations in this work show a very strong dependence of the accretion stresses on the strength of the background vertical field; as the field strength increases, the stress amplitude increases. For a net vertical field strength (quantified by β0, the ratio of gas to magnetic pressure at the disk mid-plane) of β0 = 104 and β0 = 105, we find accretion rates \\dot{M} \\sim 10^{-8}-10-7 M ⊙ yr-1. These accretion rates agree with observational constraints, suggesting a vertical magnetic field strength of ~60-200 μG and 10-30 μG at 30 AU and 100 AU, respectively, in a MMSN disk. Furthermore, the stress has a non-negligible component due to a magnetic wind. For sufficiently strong vertical field strengths, MRI turbulence is quenched, and the flow becomes largely laminar, with accretion proceeding through large-scale correlations in the radial and toroidal field components as well as through the magnetic wind. In all simulations, the presence of a low-ionization region near the disk mid-plane, which we call the ambipolar damping zone, results in reduced stresses there.

  15. Broad band variability of SS433: accretion disk at work?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revnivtsev, M.; Fabrika, S.; Abolmasov, P.; Postnov, K.; Bikmaev, I.; Burenin, R.; Pavlinsky, M.; Sunyaev, R.; Khamitov, I.; Sakhibullin, N.

    2006-02-01

    We present broad band power spectra of variations of SS433 in radio, optical and X-ray spectral bands. We show that at frequencies lower than 10-5 Hz the source demonstrates the same variability pattern in all these bands. The broad band power spectrum can be fitted by one power law down to frequencies 10-7 Hz with flattening afterwards. Such a flattening means that on time scales longer than 107 s the source variability becomes uncorrelated. This naturally leads to the appearance of quasi-poissonian flares in the source light curve, which have been regularly observed in radio and optical spectral bands. The radio flux power spectrum appears to have a second break at Fourier frequencies ˜ 10-5 Hz which can be caused by the smearing of the intrinsic radio variability on timescale of the light-crossing time of the radio emitting region. We find a correlation of the radio and optical fluxes of SS433 and the radio flux is delayed by about ˜ 2 days with respect to the optical one. Power spectra of optical and X-ray variabilities continue with the same power law from 10-7 Hz up to 0.01{-}0.05 Hz. The broad band power spectrum of SS433 can be interpreted in terms of self-similar accretion rate modulations in the accretion disk proposed by Lyubarskii (1997, MNRAS, 292, 679) and elaborated by Churazov et al. (2001, MNRAS, 321, 759). We discuss a viscous time-scale in the accretion disk of SS433 with reference to the observed broad band power spectrum.

  16. On local ionization equilibrium and disk winds in QSOs

    SciTech Connect

    Pereyra, Nicolas A.

    2014-11-01

    We present theoretical C IV λλ1548,1550 absorption line profiles for QSOs calculated assuming the accretion disk wind (ADW) scenario. The results suggest that the multiple absorption troughs seen in many QSOs may be due to the discontinuities in the ion balance of the wind (caused by X-rays), rather than discontinuities in the density/velocity structure. The profiles are calculated from a 2.5-dimensional time-dependent hydrodynamic simulation of a line-driven disk wind for a typical QSO black hole mass, a typical QSO luminosity, and for a standard Shakura-Sunyaev disk. We include the effects of ionizing X-rays originating from within the inner disk radius by assuming that the wind is shielded from the X-rays from a certain viewing angle up to 90° ({sup e}dge on{sup )}. In the shielded region, we assume constant ionization equilibrium, and thus constant line-force parameters. In the non-shielded region, we assume that both the line-force and the C IV populations are nonexistent. The model can account for P-Cygni absorption troughs (produced at edge on viewing angles), multiple absorption troughs (produced at viewing angles close to the angle that separates the shielded region and the non-shielded region), and for detached absorption troughs (produced at an angle in between the first two absorption line types); that is, the model can account for the general types of broad absorption lines seen in QSOs as a viewing angle effect. The steady nature of ADWs, in turn, may account for the steady nature of the absorption structure observed in multiple-trough broad absorption line QSOs. The model parameters are M {sub bh} = 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉} and L {sub disk} = 10{sup 47} erg s{sup –1}.

  17. On Local Ionization Equilibrium and Disk Winds in QSOs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereyra, Nicolas A.

    2014-11-01

    We present theoretical C IV λλ1548,1550 absorption line profiles for QSOs calculated assuming the accretion disk wind (ADW) scenario. The results suggest that the multiple absorption troughs seen in many QSOs may be due to the discontinuities in the ion balance of the wind (caused by X-rays), rather than discontinuities in the density/velocity structure. The profiles are calculated from a 2.5-dimensional time-dependent hydrodynamic simulation of a line-driven disk wind for a typical QSO black hole mass, a typical QSO luminosity, and for a standard Shakura-Sunyaev disk. We include the effects of ionizing X-rays originating from within the inner disk radius by assuming that the wind is shielded from the X-rays from a certain viewing angle up to 90° ("edge on"). In the shielded region, we assume constant ionization equilibrium, and thus constant line-force parameters. In the non-shielded region, we assume that both the line-force and the C IV populations are nonexistent. The model can account for P-Cygni absorption troughs (produced at edge on viewing angles), multiple absorption troughs (produced at viewing angles close to the angle that separates the shielded region and the non-shielded region), and for detached absorption troughs (produced at an angle in between the first two absorption line types); that is, the model can account for the general types of broad absorption lines seen in QSOs as a viewing angle effect. The steady nature of ADWs, in turn, may account for the steady nature of the absorption structure observed in multiple-trough broad absorption line QSOs. The model parameters are M bh = 109 M ⊙ and L disk = 1047 erg s-1.

  18. Convective overstability in radially stratified accretion disks under thermal relaxation

    SciTech Connect

    Klahr, Hubert; Hubbard, Alexander

    2014-06-10

    This paper expands the stability criterion for radially stratified, vertically unstratified accretion disks incorporating thermal relaxation. We find a linear amplification of epicyclic oscillations in these disks that depends on the effective cooling time, i.e., an overstability. The growth rates of the overstability vanish for both extreme cases, e.g., infinite cooling time and instantaneous cooling, i.e., the adiabatic and fully isothermal cases. However, for thermal relaxation times τ on the order of the orbital frequency, τΩ ∼ 1, modes grow at a rate proportional to the square of the Brunt-Väisälä frequency. The overstability is based on epicyclic motions, with the thermal relaxation causing gas to heat while radially displaced inward and cool while radially displaced outward. This causes the gas to have a lower density when moving outward compared to when it moves inward, so it feels the outward-directed pressure force more strongly on that leg of the journey. We suggest the term 'convective overstability' for the phenomenon which has already been studied numerically in the nonlinear regime in the context of amplifying vortices in disks under the name 'subcritical baroclinic instability'. The aim of the present paper is to make clear that vortex formation in three-dimensional disks is not necessarily subcritical, i.e., does not need a finite perturbation, nor is it baroclinic in the sense of geophysical fluid dynamics, which requires on vertical shear. We find that convective overstability is a linear instability that will operate under a wide range of physical conditions for circumstellar disks.

  19. A High-mass Protobinary System with Spatially Resolved Circumstellar Accretion Disks and Circumbinary Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, S.; Kluska, J.; Kreplin, A.; Bate, M.; Harries, T. J.; Hofmann, K.-H.; Hone, E.; Monnier, J. D.; Weigelt, G.; Anugu, A.; de Wit, W. J.; Wittkowski, M.

    2017-01-01

    High-mass multiples might form via fragmentation of self-gravitational disks or alternative scenarios such as disk-assisted capture. However, only a few observational constraints exist on the architecture and disk structure of high-mass protobinaries and their accretion properties. Here, we report the discovery of a close (57.9 ± 0.2 mas = 170 au) high-mass protobinary, IRAS17216-3801, where our VLTI/GRAVITY+AMBER near-infrared interferometry allows us to image the circumstellar disks around the individual components with ∼3 mas resolution. We estimate the component masses to ∼20 and ∼18 M⊙ and find that the radial intensity profiles can be reproduced with an irradiated disk model, where the inner regions are excavated of dust, likely tracing the dust sublimation region in these disks. The circumstellar disks are strongly misaligned with respect to the binary separation vector, which indicates that the tidal forces did not have time to realign the disks, pointing toward a young dynamical age of the system. We constrain the distribution of the Brγ and CO-emitting gas using VLTI/GRAVITY spectro-interferometry and VLT/CRIRES spectro-astrometry and find that the secondary is accreting at a higher rate than the primary. VLT/NACO imaging shows L‧-band emission on (3–4)× larger scales than the binary separation, matching the expected dynamical truncation radius for the circumbinary disk. The IRAS17216-3801 system is ∼3× more massive and ∼5× more compact than other high-mass multiplies imaged at infrared wavelength and the first high-mass protobinary system where circumstellar and circumbinary dust disks could be spatially resolved. This opens exciting new opportunities for studying star–disk interactions and the role of multiplicity in high-mass star formation. Based on observations made with ESO telescopes at Paranal Observatory under program IDs 60.A-9174(A), 089.C-0819(A,C), 089.C-0959(D,E), 094.C-0153(A), 096.C-0652(A).

  20. GLOBAL PROPERTIES OF FULLY CONVECTIVE ACCRETION DISKS FROM LOCAL SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Bodo, G.; Ponzo, F.; Rossi, P.; Cattaneo, F.; Mignone, A.

    2015-08-01

    We present an approach to deriving global properties of accretion disks from the knowledge of local solutions derived from numerical simulations based on the shearing box approximation. The approach consists of a two-step procedure. First, a local solution valid for all values of the disk height is constructed by piecing together an interior solution obtained numerically with an analytical exterior radiative solution. The matching is obtained by assuming hydrostatic balance and radiative equilibrium. Although in principle the procedure can be carried out in general, it simplifies considerably when the interior solution is fully convective. In these cases, the construction is analogous to the derivation of the Hayashi tracks for protostars. The second step consists of piecing together the local solutions at different radii to obtain a global solution. Here we use the symmetry of the solutions with respect to the defining dimensionless numbers—in a way similar to the use of homology relations in stellar structure theory—to obtain the scaling properties of the various disk quantities with radius.

  1. Accretion disk coronae in high-luminosity systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, Stephen D.; Castor, John I.; Klein, Richard I.; Mckee, Christopher F.

    1994-01-01

    We present the results of self-consistent models of Compton-heated accretion disk coronae. The models are calculated using a new method for computing monochromatic radiative transfer n two dimensions. The method splits the radiation into direct and scattered components. The direct radiation is computed by calculating the optical depth along rays, while transfer of the scattered radiation is approximated by flux-limited diffusion. The resulting code agrees with more accurate treatments to within 50%, and is highly efficient, making it practical for use in large hydrodynamic simulations. The coronal models are used to confirm the results of earlier work, and to extend it to higher luminosities. In contrast to earlier work, which found the outer disks to be shadowed by the inner corona at high luminosities, we find our results to form an almost continuous extension of the models at lower luminosities. This is due to the presence of multiply scattered radiation, which acts to partially offset the loss of direct radiation from the central source. Although the analytic methods derived at lower luminosities cannot be used to derive the coronal structure for L/L(sub Edd) approx. greater than 0.1, the results of the models are amenable to semiempirical fits. We also discuss possible observational consequences of the results for coronal veiling and line fluorescence from the disk.

  2. Accretion disk coronae in high-luminosity systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, Stephen D.; Castor, John I.; Klein, Richard I.; Mckee, Christopher F.

    1994-01-01

    We present the results of self-consistent models of Compton-heated accretion disk coronae. The models are calculated using a new method for computing monochromatic radiative transfer n two dimensions. The method splits the radiation into direct and scattered components. The direct radiation is computed by calculating the optical depth along rays, while transfer of the scattered radiation is approximated by flux-limited diffusion. The resulting code agrees with more accurate treatments to within 50%, and is highly efficient, making it practical for use in large hydrodynamic simulations. The coronal models are used to confirm the results of earlier work, and to extend it to higher luminosities. In contrast to earlier work, which found the outer disks to be shadowed by the inner corona at high luminosities, we find our results to form an almost continuous extension of the models at lower luminosities. This is due to the presence of multiply scattered radiation, which acts to partially offset the loss of direct radiation from the central source. Although the analytic methods derived at lower luminosities cannot be used to derive the coronal structure for L/L(sub Edd) approx. greater than 0.1, the results of the models are amenable to semiempirical fits. We also discuss possible observational consequences of the results for coronal veiling and line fluorescence from the disk.

  3. VADER: A flexible, robust, open-source code for simulating viscous thin accretion disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krumholz, M. R.; Forbes, J. C.

    2015-06-01

    The evolution of thin axisymmetric viscous accretion disks is a classic problem in astrophysics. While models based on this simplified geometry provide only approximations to the true processes of instability-driven mass and angular momentum transport, their simplicity makes them invaluable tools for both semi-analytic modeling and simulations of long-term evolution where two- or three-dimensional calculations are too computationally costly. Despite the utility of these models, the only publicly-available frameworks for simulating them are rather specialized and non-general. Here we describe a highly flexible, general numerical method for simulating viscous thin disks with arbitrary rotation curves, viscosities, boundary conditions, grid spacings, equations of state, and rates of gain or loss of mass (e.g., through winds) and energy (e.g., through radiation). Our method is based on a conservative, finite-volume, second-order accurate discretization of the equations, which we solve using an unconditionally-stable implicit scheme. We implement Anderson acceleration to speed convergence of the scheme, and show that this leads to factor of ∼5 speed gains over non-accelerated methods in realistic problems, though the amount of speedup is highly problem-dependent. We have implemented our method in the new code Viscous Accretion Disk Evolution Resource (VADER), which is freely available for download from

  4. ON THE ROLE OF THE ACCRETION DISK IN BLACK HOLE DISK-JET CONNECTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J. M.; Reis, R. C.; Pooley, G. G.; Fabian, A. C.; Cackett, E. M.; Nowak, M. A.; Pottschmidt, K.; Wilms, J.

    2012-09-20

    Models of jet production in black hole systems suggest that the properties of the accretion disk-such as its mass accretion rate, inner radius, and emergent magnetic field-should drive and modulate the production of relativistic jets. Stellar-mass black holes in the 'low/hard' state are an excellent laboratory in which to study disk-jet connections, but few coordinated observations are made using spectrometers that can incisively probe the inner disk. We report on a series of 20 Suzaku observations of Cygnus X-1 made in the jet-producing low/hard state. Contemporaneous radio monitoring was done using the Arcminute MicroKelvin Array radio telescope. Two important and simple results are obtained: (1) the jet (as traced by radio flux) does not appear to be modulated by changes in the inner radius of the accretion disk and (2) the jet is sensitive to disk properties, including its flux, temperature, and ionization. Some more complex results may reveal aspects of a coupled disk-corona-jet system. A positive correlation between the reflected X-ray flux and radio flux may represent specific support for a plasma ejection model of the corona, wherein the base of a jet produces hard X-ray emission. Within the framework of the plasma ejection model, the spectra suggest a jet base with v/c {approx_equal} 0.3 or the escape velocity for a vertical height of z {approx_equal} 20 GM/c {sup 2} above the black hole. The detailed results of X-ray disk continuum and reflection modeling also suggest a height of z {approx_equal} 20 GM/c {sup 2} for hard X-ray production above a black hole, with a spin in the range 0.6 {<=} a {<=} 0.99. This height agrees with X-ray time lags recently found in Cygnus X-1. The overall picture that emerges from this study is broadly consistent with some jet-focused models for black hole spectral energy distributions in which a relativistic plasma is accelerated at z = 10-100 GM/c {sup 2}. We discuss these results in the context of disk-jet connections

  5. Imprint of accretion disk-induced migration on gravitational waves from extreme mass ratio inspirals.

    PubMed

    Yunes, Nicolás; Kocsis, Bence; Loeb, Abraham; Haiman, Zoltán

    2011-10-21

    We study the effects of a thin gaseous accretion disk on the inspiral of a stellar-mass black hole into a supermassive black hole. We construct a phenomenological angular momentum transport equation that reproduces known disk effects. Disk torques modify the gravitational wave phase evolution to detectable levels with LISA for reasonable disk parameters. The Fourier transform of disk-modified waveforms acquires a correction with a different frequency trend than post-Newtonian vacuum terms. Such inspirals could be used to detect accretion disks with LISA and to probe their physical parameters. © 2011 American Physical Society

  6. Generation of a dynamo magnetic field in a protoplanetary accretion disk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepinski, T.; Levy, E. H.

    1987-01-01

    A new computational technique is developed that allows realistic calculations of dynamo magnetic field generation in disk geometries corresponding to protoplanetary and protostellar accretion disks. The approach is of sufficient generality to allow, in the future, a wide class of accretion disk problems to be solved. Here, basic modes of a disk dynamo are calculated. Spatially localized oscillatory states are found to occur in Keplerain disks. A physical interpretation is given that argues that spatially localized fields of the type found in these calculations constitute the basic modes of a Keplerian disk dynamo.

  7. Driving disk winds and heating hot coronae by MRI turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Io, Yuki; Suzuki, Takeru K.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the formation of hot coronae and vertical outflows in accretion disks by magnetorotational turbulence. We perform local three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) simulations with the vertical stratification by explicitly solving an energy equation with various effective ratios of specific heats, γ. Initially imposed weak vertical magnetic fields are effectively amplified by magnetorotational instability and winding caused by the differential rotation. In the isothermal case (γ = 1), the disk winds are driven mainly by the Poynting flux associated with the MHD turbulence and show quasi-periodic intermittency. In contrast, in the non-isothermal cases with γ ≥ 1.1, the regions above 1-2 scale heights from the midplane are effectively heated to form coronae with temperature ∼50 times the initial value, which are connected to the cooler midplane region through the pressure-balanced transition regions. As a result, the disk winds are driven mainly by the gas pressure, exhibiting more time-steady nature, although the nondimensional time-averaged mass loss rates are similar to that of the isothermal case. Sound-like waves are confined in the cool midplane region in these cases, and the amplitude of the density fluctuations is larger than that of the isothermal case.

  8. Driving Disk Winds and Heating Hot Coronae by MRI Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Io, Yuki; Suzuki, Takeru K.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the formation of hot coronae and vertical outflows in accretion disks by magnetorotational turbulence. We perform local three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) simulations with the vertical stratification by explicitly solving an energy equation with various effective ratios of specific heats, γ. Initially imposed weak vertical magnetic fields are effectively amplified by magnetorotational instability and winding caused by the differential rotation. In the isothermal case (γ = 1), the disk winds are driven mainly by the Poynting flux associated with the MHD turbulence and show quasi-periodic intermittency. In contrast, in the non-isothermal cases with γ >= 1.1, the regions above 1-2 scale heights from the midplane are effectively heated to form coronae with temperature ~50 times the initial value, which are connected to the cooler midplane region through the pressure-balanced transition regions. As a result, the disk winds are driven mainly by the gas pressure, exhibiting more time-steady nature, although the nondimensional time-averaged mass loss rates are similar to that of the isothermal case. Sound-like waves are confined in the cool midplane region in these cases, and the amplitude of the density fluctuations is larger than that of the isothermal case.

  9. TESTING MODELS OF ACCRETION-DRIVEN CORONAL HEATING AND STELLAR WIND ACCELERATION FOR T TAURI STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Cranmer, Steven R.

    2009-11-20

    Classical T Tauri stars are pre-main-sequence objects that undergo simultaneous accretion, wind outflow, and coronal X-ray emission. The impact of plasma on the stellar surface from magnetospheric accretion streams is likely to be a dominant source of energy and momentum in the upper atmospheres of these stars. This paper presents a set of models for the dynamics and heating of three distinct regions on T Tauri stars that are affected by accretion: (1) the shocked plasmas directly beneath the magnetospheric accretion streams, (2) stellar winds that are accelerated along open magnetic flux tubes, and (3) closed magnetic loops that resemble the Sun's coronal active regions. For the loops, a self-consistent model of coronal heating was derived from numerical simulations of solar field-line tangling and turbulent dissipation. Individual models are constructed for the properties of 14 well-observed stars in the Taurus-Auriga star-forming region. Predictions for the wind mass-loss rates are, on average, slightly lower than the observations, which suggests that disk winds or X-winds may also contribute to the measured outflows. For some of the stars, however, the modeled stellar winds do appear to contribute significantly to the measured mass fluxes. Predictions for X-ray luminosities from the shocks and loops are in general agreement with existing observations. The stars with the highest accretion rates tend to have X-ray luminosities dominated by the high-temperature (5-10 MK) loops. The X-ray luminosities for the stars having lower accretion rates are dominated by the cooler accretion shocks.

  10. Using High Speed Rotating Gas to Study Angular Momentum in Accretion Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrios, William; Greess, Samuel; Merino, Enrique; Ji, Hantao

    2013-10-01

    Accretion disks are a sheet of gas and dust which surrounds black holes and quasars. The angular momentum in accretion disks is one of the biggest mysteries in astrophysics. A machine was recently built to create accretion disks in a closed chamber. In order to study this, there are several important instruments that are used: a fog machine to see the accretion disks form within the chamber, a high speed camera to observe and record the formation of the accretion disks, and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) to analyze velocity profile of the rotating gas and better understand this phenomenon. By collecting relevant data and subsequent computational analysis, results from a previous experiment are reproduced, expanded and the new properties observed with this experiment are characterized. A discussion of any modifications done to the machine, technical challenges and preliminary results will be presented.

  11. Spectrally resolved eclipse maps of the accretion disk in UX Ursae Majoris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutten, Rene G. M.; Dhillon, V. S.; Horne, Keith; Kuulkers, E.; Van Paradijs, J.

    1993-01-01

    An effort is made to observationally constrain accretion disks on the basis of light curves from the eclipsing cataclysmic variable UX Ursae Majoris, reconstructing the spectral energy distribution across the face of an accretion disk. The spectral resolution obtained suffices to reveal not only the radial dependence of absorption and emission line features within the disk, but also the spectral details of the bright spot that is formed where the accretion stream from the secondary star collides with the disk. The importance of such constraints for theoretical models is noted.

  12. Spectral energy distributions of T Tauri stars - Disk flaring and limits on accretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenyon, S. J.; Hartmann, L.

    1987-01-01

    The Adams et al. (1987) conclusion that much of the IR excess emission in the spectral energy distribution of T Tauri stars arises from reprocessing of stellar radiation by a dusty circumstellar disk is presently supported by analyses conducted in light of various models of these stars' spectra. A low mass reprocessing disk can, however, produce these spectra as well as a massive accretion disk. The detection of possible boundary layer radiation in the optical and near-UV regions poses the strongest limits on accretion rates. Disk accretion in the T Tauri phase does not significantly modify stellar evolution.

  13. Effects of Accretion Disks on Spins and Eccentricities of Binaries, and Implications for Gravitational Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, John

    2012-01-01

    Effects of accretion disks on spins and eccentricities of binaries, and implications for gravitational waves. John Baker Space-based gravitational wave observations will allow exquisitely precise measurements of massive black hole binary properties. Through several recently suggested processes, these properties may depend on interactions with accretion disks through the merger process. I will discuss ways that accretion may influence those binary properties which may be probed by gravitational-wave observations.

  14. You’re Cut Off: HD and MHD Simulations of Truncated Accretion Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogg, J. Drew; Reynolds, Christopher S.

    2017-01-01

    Truncated accretion disks are commonly invoked to explain the spectro-temporal variability from accreting black holes in both small systems, i.e. state transitions in galactic black hole binaries (GBHBs), and large systems, i.e. low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs). In the canonical truncated disk model of moderately low accretion rate systems, gas in the inner region of the accretion disk occupies a hot, radiatively inefficient phase, which leads to a geometrically thick disk, while the gas in the outer region occupies a cooler, radiatively efficient phase that resides in the standard geometrically thin disk. Observationally, there is strong empirical evidence to support this phenomenological model, but a detailed understanding of the disk behavior is lacking. We present well-resolved hydrodynamic (HD) and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) numerical models that use a toy cooling prescription to produce the first sustained truncated accretion disks. Using these simulations, we study the dynamics, angular momentum transport, and energetics of a truncated disk in the two different regimes. We compare the behaviors of the HD and MHD disks and emphasize the need to incorporate a full MHD treatment in any discussion of truncated accretion disk evolution.

  15. Laboratory Study of Angular Momentum Transport in Astrophysical Accretion Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Hantao

    2014-10-01

    Studying astrophysical processes in the lab becomes increasingly possible and exciting, as one of Stirling's favorite subjects throughout his scientific career. In this talk, I will describe experimental efforts to study mechanisms of rapid angular momentum transport required to occur in accretion disks to explain a wide range of phenomena from star formation, energetic activity of cataclysmic variables, to powering quasars, the most luminous steady sources in the Universe. By carefully isolating effects due to artificial boundaries, which are inherent to terrestrial experiments, certain astrophysical questions regarding hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic stabilities are being addressed in the laboratory. Inspirations from Stirling as well as scientific exchanges with him will be mentioned during this talk as part of my scientific journey on this subject.

  16. Evidence for accretion disks in highly polarized quasars

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.S.; Elston, R.; Berriman, G.; Allen, R.G.; Balonek, T.J.

    1988-03-01

    The results of a search for thermal components in 11 highly polarized quasars (HPQs) using UVBRI polarimetry and photometry are reported. The 2000-2500 A luminosities of the thermal components are calculated and the estimated luminosities of the broad-line region (BLR) are given in the same wavelength for comparison. The observed optical continua are modeled as a combination of polarized synchrotron emission, unpolarized emission from the BLR, and an unpolarized flat spectral component that may be optically thick thermal emission from an accretion disk. Evidence for thermal emission components is found in three HPQs: PKS 0420-014, B2 1156+295, and 3C 454.3, with marginal evidence in another two, PKS 1510-089 and PKS 2345-167. 15 references.

  17. Evidence for accretion disks in highly polarized quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Paul S.; Elston, Richard; Berriman, Graham; Allen, Richard G.; Balonek, Thomas J.

    1988-01-01

    The results of a search for thermal components in 11 highly polarized quasars (HPQs) using UVBRI polarimetry and photometry are reported. The 2000-2500 A luminosities of the thermal components are calculated and the estimated luminosities of the broad-line region (BLR) are given in the same wavelength for comparison. The observed optical continua are modeled as a combination of polarized synchrotron emission, unpolarized emission from the BLR, and an unpolarized flat spectral component that may be optically thick thermal emission from an accretion disk. Evidence for thermal emission components is found in three HPQs: PKS 0420-014, B2 1156+295, and 3C 454.3, with marginal evidence in another two, PKS 1510-089 and PKS 2345-167.

  18. Understanding Accretion Disks through Three Dimensional Radiation MHD Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yan-Fei

    I study the structures and thermal properties of black hole accretion disks in the radiation pressure dominated regime. Angular momentum transfer in the disk is provided by the turbulence generated by the magneto-rotational instability (MRI), which is calculated self-consistently with a recently developed 3D radiation magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD) code based on Athena. This code, developed by my collaborators and myself, couples both the radiation momentum and energy source terms with the ideal MHD equations by modifying the standard Godunov method to handle the stiff radiation source terms. We solve the two momentum equations of the radiation transfer equations with a variable Eddington tensor (VET), which is calculated with a time independent short characteristic module. This code is well tested and accurate in both optically thin and optically thick regimes. It is also accurate for both radiation pressure and gas pressure dominated flows. With this code, I find that when photon viscosity becomes significant, the ratio between Maxwell stress and Reynolds stress from the MRI turbulence can increase significantly with radiation pressure. The thermal instability of the radiation pressure dominated disk is then studied with vertically stratified shearing box simulations. Unlike the previous results claiming that the radiation pressure dominated disk with MRI turbulence can reach a steady state without showing any unstable behavior, I find that the radiation pressure dominated disks always either collapse or expand until we have to stop the simulations. During the thermal runaway, the heating and cooling rates from the simulations are consistent with the general criterion of thermal instability. However, details of the thermal runaway are different from the predictions of the standard alpha disk model, as many assumptions in that model are not satisfied in the simulations. We also identify the key reasons why previous simulations do not find the instability. The thermal

  19. Modeling MHD accretion-ejection: episodic ejections of jets triggered by a mean-field disk dynamo

    SciTech Connect

    Stepanovs, Deniss; Fendt, Christian; Sheikhnezami, Somayeh E-mail: fendt@mpia.de

    2014-11-20

    We present MHD simulations exploring the launching, acceleration, and collimation of jets and disk winds. The evolution of the disk structure is consistently taken into account. Extending our earlier studies, we now consider the self-generation of the magnetic field by an α{sup 2}Ω mean-field dynamo. The disk magnetization remains on a rather low level, which helps to evolve the simulations for T > 10, 000 dynamical time steps on a domain extending 1500 inner disk radii. We find the magnetic field of the inner disk to be similar to the commonly found open field structure, favoring magneto-centrifugal launching. The outer disk field is highly inclined and predominantly radial. Here, differential rotation induces a strong toroidal component, which plays a key role in outflow launching. These outflows from the outer disk are slower, denser, and less collimated. If the dynamo action is not quenched, magnetic flux is continuously generated, diffuses outward through the disk, and fills the entire disk. We have invented a toy model triggering a time-dependent mean-field dynamo. The duty cycles of this dynamo lead to episodic ejections on similar timescales. When the dynamo is suppressed as the magnetization falls below a critical value, the generation of the outflows and also accretion is inhibited. The general result is that we can steer episodic ejection and large-scale jet knots by a disk-intrinsic dynamo that is time-dependent and regenerates the jet-launching magnetic field.

  20. Black hole accretion disks - Electrodynamic coupling of accretion-disk coronae and the partitioning of soft and hard X-ray emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuperus, M.; Ionson, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    It is demonstrated that the observed large ratio of hard to soft X-ray emission and the bimodel behavior of black hole accreting X-ray sources such as Cygnus X-1 can be described in terms of a magnetically structured accretion disk corona which is electrodynamically coupled to the disk turbulent motions while the disk is thermodynamically coupled to the corona as described by a feedback parameter delta. The observed ratio of hard to soft X-ray emission is independent of the disk thickness, and weakly dependent of the disk parameter alpha relating the disk viscous stresses to the total pressure. Observed values of the luminosity ratio point towards strong differences of the feedback of the low state compared to the high state, in the sense that low state means small feedback (delta less than 0.2) and high state means strong feedback delta of about 0.5.

  1. Black hole accretion disks - Electrodynamic coupling of accretion-disk coronae and the partitioning of soft and hard X-ray emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuperus, M.; Ionson, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    It is demonstrated that the observed large ratio of hard to soft X-ray emission and the bimodel behavior of black hole accreting X-ray sources such as Cygnus X-1 can be described in terms of a magnetically structured accretion disk corona which is electrodynamically coupled to the disk turbulent motions while the disk is thermodynamically coupled to the corona as described by a feedback parameter delta. The observed ratio of hard to soft X-ray emission is independent of the disk thickness, and weakly dependent of the disk parameter alpha relating the disk viscous stresses to the total pressure. Observed values of the luminosity ratio point towards strong differences of the feedback of the low state compared to the high state, in the sense that low state means small feedback (delta less than 0.2) and high state means strong feedback delta of about 0.5.

  2. Do Accretion Disks Exist in High Energy Astrophysics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppi, B.

    2006-10-01

    The familiar concept of an accretion disk is based on its gas dynamic description where, in particular, the vertical equilibrium is maintained by the (weak) vertical component of the gravitational force due to the central object. When a plasma structure differentially rotating around the same kind of object is considered in which the magnetic field diffusion due to finite resistivity is realistically weak, a radially periodic sequence of pairs of opposite current channels is found. Moreover, the vertical confinement of the structure is maintained by the resulting Lorentz force rather than by gravity. Thus, a ``Lorentz compression'' occurs. In addition, sequences of plasma rings^2 rather than disks emerge. (Note that H. Alfvén had proposed that planetary rings may be ``fossils'' of pre- existing envisioned plasma rings. Moreover, a large ring is the most prominent feature emerging from the high resolution X- ray image of the Crab). The ``seed'' magnetic field in which the structure is immersed is considerably smaller than that produced by the internal toroidal currents. The magnetic pressure is of the order of the plasma pressure. Thus, ring sequence configurations can be suitable for the emergence of a jet from their center. Two coupled non-linear equations have been solved, representing the vertical and the horizontal equilibrium conditions for the structure.*Sponsored in part by the U.S. D.O.E. B. Coppi, Phys. Plasmas 12, 057301, (2005) B. Coppi and F. Rousseau, Ap. J. 641 (1), 458 (2006)

  3. Nonstationary magnetic microstructures in stellar thin accretion disks.

    PubMed

    Montani, Giovanni; Petitta, Jacopo

    2013-05-01

    We examine the morphology of magnetic structures in thin plasma accretion disks, generalizing a stationary ideal magnetohydrodynamics model for the time-dependent viscoresistive case. Our analysis deals with small-scale perturbations to a central dipolelike magnetic field, which give rise-as in the ideal case-to the periodic modulation of magnetic flux surfaces along the radial direction, corresponding to the formation of a toroidal current channel's sequence. These microstructures suffer an exponential damping in time because of the nonzero resistivity coefficient, allowing us to define a configuration lifetime which mainly depends on the midplane temperature and on the length scale of the structure itself. By means of this lifetime, we show that the microstructures can exist within the inner regions of stellar disks in a defined range of temperatures, precisely for radii of R

  4. The intrinsic quasar luminosity function: Accounting for accretion disk anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    DiPompeo, M. A.; Myers, A. D.; Brotherton, M. S.; Runnoe, J. C.; Green, R. F.

    2014-05-20

    Quasar luminosity functions are a fundamental probe of the growth and evolution of supermassive black holes. Measuring the intrinsic luminosity function is difficult in practice, due to a multitude of observational and systematic effects. As sample sizes increase and measurement errors drop, characterizing the systematic effects is becoming more important. It is well known that the continuum emission from the accretion disk of quasars is anisotropic—in part due to its disk-like structure—but current luminosity function calculations effectively assume isotropy over the range of unobscured lines of sight. Here, we provide the first steps in characterizing the effect of random quasar orientations and simple models of anisotropy on observed luminosity functions. We find that the effect of orientation is not insignificant and exceeds other potential corrections such as those from gravitational lensing of foreground structures. We argue that current observational constraints may overestimate the intrinsic luminosity function by as much as a factor of ∼2 on the bright end. This has implications for models of quasars and their role in the universe, such as quasars' contribution to cosmological backgrounds.

  5. NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF NATURALLY TILTED, RETROGRADELY PRECESSING, NODAL SUPERHUMPING ACCRETION DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, M. M.

    2012-02-15

    Accretion disks around black hole, neutron star, and white dwarf systems are thought to sometimes tilt, retrogradely precess, and produce hump-shaped modulations in light curves that have a period shorter than the orbital period. Although artificially rotating numerically simulated accretion disks out of the orbital plane and around the line of nodes generate these short-period superhumps and retrograde precession of the disk, no numerical code to date has been shown to produce a disk tilt naturally. In this work, we report the first naturally tilted disk in non-magnetic cataclysmic variables using three-dimensional smoothed particle hydrodynamics. Our simulations show that after many hundreds of orbital periods, the disk has tilted on its own and this disk tilt is without the aid of radiation sources or magnetic fields. As the system orbits, the accretion stream strikes the bright spot (which is on the rim of the tilted disk) and flows over and under the disk on different flow paths. These different flow paths suggest the lift force as a source to disk tilt. Our results confirm the disk shape, disk structure, and negative superhump period and support the source to disk tilt, source to retrograde precession, and location associated with X-ray and He II emission from the disk as suggested in previous works. Our results identify the fundamental negative superhump frequency as the indicator of disk tilt around the line of nodes.

  6. Accretion Disk Lifetimes and Stellar Rotation Periods for Young Stars in NGC 2264

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makidon, R. B.; Strom, S. E.; Tingley, B.; Adams, M. T.; Hillenbrand, L.; Hartmann, L.; Calvet, N.; Jones, B. F.

    1997-12-01

    We present the initial results of a study aimed at: (1) determining the lifetime of the disk accretion phase among low mass pre-main sequence stars; (2) establishing the time dependence of disk mass accretion rates; and (3) further exploring the role played by accretion disks in regulating stellar rotation. Our laboratory for this study is NGC 2264, a young cluster which contains more than 300 proper motion members with ages ranging from 0.1 to 10 Myr and masses ranging from 0.1 to 10 Msun. We diagnose the presence of circumstellar accretion disks from observed ultraviolet excesses, estimate accretion rates from the magnitude of those excesses, and determine stellar rotation periods for more than 200 stars from the analysis of spot-modulated I-band light curves. We find for PMS stars with masses M <= 0.4 Msun: (1) that accretion disk lifetimes can exceed 10 Myr; (2) that accretion rates decay with time (dM/dt ~ M(-n) ; 0.9 < n < 2); and (3) that disks appear to play a critical role in regulating stellar rotation periods. In particular, PMS stars stars surrounded by accretion disks on average rotate more slowly than their counterparts which show no evidence of such disks: the median rotation period for stars surrounded by disks is 7.91 days, while for stars which lack disks the median period is 3.97 days. However, our results suggest the range of periods (0.5 < P < 30 days) among stars surrounded by disks is considerably larger than reported in previous studies. The authors would like to thank Dr. Brian Patten for his many contributions to this project. This work was supported by a grant awarded under the NASA Origins of Solar Systems Program.

  7. Tracking the Disk Wind Behavior of MAXI J1305-704

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinclair, Kimberly Poppy; Miller, Jon M.

    2017-01-01

    There is still much to be understood about black hole accretion disks and their relationship to black hole disk winds. In an attempt to better understand these relationships, we have analyzed the x-ray transient black hole binary MAXI J1305-704 during its outburst in 2012 in order to draw conclusions about the parameters of its disk. The source showed strong absorption signs, as detected by Chandra, on April 21, 2012. From this date on, we analyzed SWIFT observations of the source, using XSPEC from HEASOFT, in order to find strong signals of absorption. By modeling 67 successive observations over the period of 74 days, we were able to closely track the evolution of various disk properties, from inner disk temperature, to power law index, to column density. We could also analyze various parameter relationships in order to determine if there is a statistically significant correlation between any of the properties of a disk. We found that there are strong linear relationships between disk temperature & ionization, photon index & disk temperature, and photon index & ionization. These relationships seem to imply that the corona, in addition to the disk, may be driving the wind properties. Additionally, the counterintuitive relationship between disk temperature and ionization, where disk temperature increases as ionization decreases, seems to imply that there are mechanisms at play in the disk system that are not yet fully understood.

  8. METAL ACCRETION ONTO WHITE DWARFS CAUSED BY POYNTING-ROBERTSON DRAG ON THEIR DEBRIS DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Rafikov, Roman R.

    2011-05-01

    Recent discoveries of compact (sizes {approx}disks around more than a dozen metal-rich white dwarfs (WDs) suggest that pollution of these stars with metals may be caused by accretion of high-Z material from the disk. But the mechanism responsible for efficient transfer of mass from a particulate disk to the WD atmosphere has not yet been identified. Here we demonstrate that radiation of the WD can effectively drive accretion of matter through the disk toward the sublimation radius (located at several tens of WD radii), where particles evaporate, feeding a disk of metal gas accreting onto the WD. We show that, contrary to some previous claims, Poynting-Robertson (PR) drag on the debris disk is effective at providing metal accretion rate M-dot{sub PR}{approx}10{sup 8} g s{sup -1} and higher, scaling quadratically with WD effective temperature. We compare our results with observations and show that, as expected, no WD hosting a particulate debris disk shows evidence of metal accretion rate below that produced by the PR drag. Existence of WDs accreting metals at rates significantly higher than M-dot{sub PR} suggests that another mechanism in addition to the PR drag drives accretion of high-Z elements in these systems.

  9. Ubiquitous equatorial accretion disc winds in black hole soft states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponti, G.; Fender, R. P.; Begelman, M. C.; Dunn, R. J. H.; Neilsen, J.; Coriat, M.

    2012-05-01

    High-resolution spectra of Galactic black holes (GBHs) reveal the presence of highly ionized absorbers. In one GBH, accreting close to the Eddington limit for more than a decade, a powerful accretion disc wind is observed to be present in softer X-ray states and it has been suggested that it can carry away enough mass and energy to quench the radio jet. Here we report that these winds, which may have mass outflow rates of the order of the inner accretion rate or higher, are a ubiquitous component of the jet-free soft states of all GBHs. We furthermore demonstrate that these winds have an equatorial geometry with opening angles of few tens of degrees, and so are only observed in sources in which the disc is inclined at a large angle to the line of sight. The decrease in Fe XXV/Fe XXVI line ratio with Compton temperature, observed in the soft state, suggests a link between higher wind ionization and harder spectral shapes. Although the physical interaction between the wind, accretion flow and jet is still not fully understood, the mass flux and power of these winds and their presence ubiquitously during the soft X-ray states suggest they are fundamental components of the accretion phenomenon.

  10. STRONG FIELD EFFECTS ON EMISSION LINE PROFILES: KERR BLACK HOLES AND WARPED ACCRETION DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Yan; Li Xiangdong

    2012-01-10

    If an accretion disk around a black hole is illuminated by hard X-rays from non-thermal coronae, fluorescent iron lines will be emitted from the inner region of the accretion disk. The emission line profiles will show a variety of strong field effects, which may be used as a probe of the spin parameter of the black hole and the structure of the accretion disk. In this paper, we generalize the previous relativistic line profile models by including both the black hole spinning effects and the non-axisymmetries of warped accretion disks. Our results show different features from the conventional calculations for either a flat disk around a Kerr black hole or a warped disk around a Schwarzschild black hole by presenting, at the same time, multiple peaks, rather long red tails, and time variations of line profiles with the precession of the disk. We show disk images as seen by a distant observer, which are distorted by the strong gravity. Although we are primarily concerned with the iron K-shell lines in this paper, the calculation is general and is valid for any emission lines produced from a warped accretion disk around a black hole.

  11. DISKSPEC: A Tool for Analyzing Observed Spectra of Accretion Disk Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubeny, Ivan

    2013-10-01

    Accretion disks are ubiquitous in astronomy, associated with AGN, stellar mass black holes, X-ray binaries, progenitors of Ia supernovae, X-ray binaries, cataclysmic variables {CVs} {ordinary, recurrent, and dwarf novae, novalikes}, pre-main sequence stars. An understanding of the nature of, and physical processes in, accretion disks is one of the central themes in astrophysics. A large number of past, present, and future HST observational programs were/are/will be devoted to astronomical systems that harbor an accretion disk. We propose to develop a package DISKSPEC, which enables the user to generate a synthetic spectum of an accretion disk for essentially any combination of input parameters. The strategy is to use a sufficiently dense and extended grid of models for genericdisk rings, and to develop a code that computes a spectrum of the whole disk by interpolating the generic grid spectra to the actual spectra emergent from the individual radial rings of the disk, and integrates over the disk taking into account Doppler shifts due to disk rotation. We believe that the package will serve many researchers using new or archival HST data to be able to perform a spectroscopic analysis of objects that contain an accretion disk in a fast and flexible way, and thus contribute significantly to a better use of past, present, and future HST observations.

  12. Disk-mediated accretion burst in a high-mass young stellar object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caratti O Garatti, A.; Stecklum, B.; Garcia Lopez, R.; Eislöffel, J.; Ray, T. P.; Sanna, A.; Cesaroni, R.; Walmsley, C. M.; Oudmaijer, R. D.; de Wit, W. J.; Moscadelli, L.; Greiner, J.; Krabbe, A.; Fischer, C.; Klein, R.; Ibañez, J. M.

    2016-11-01

    Solar-mass stars form via disk-mediated accretion. Recent findings indicate that this process is probably episodic in the form of accretion bursts, possibly caused by disk fragmentation. Although it cannot be ruled out that high-mass young stellar objects arise from the coalescence of their low-mass brethren, the latest results suggest that they more likely form via disks. It follows that disk-mediated accretion bursts should occur. Here we report on the discovery of the first disk-mediated accretion burst from a roughly twenty-solar-mass high-mass young stellar object. Our near-infrared images show the brightening of the central source and its outflow cavities. Near-infrared spectroscopy reveals emission lines typical for accretion bursts in low-mass protostars, but orders of magnitude more luminous. Moreover, the released energy and the inferred mass-accretion rate are also orders of magnitude larger. Our results identify disk-accretion as the common mechanism of star formation across the entire stellar mass spectrum.

  13. DUST-DRIVEN WIND FROM DISK GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Mahavir; Nath, Biman B.; Shchekinov, Yuri E-mail: biman@rri.res.in

    2011-08-01

    We study gaseous outflows from disk galaxies driven by radiation pressure on dust grains. We include the effect of bulge and dark matter halo and show that the existence of such an outflow implies a maximum value of disk mass-to-light ratio. We show that the terminal wind speed is proportional to the disk rotation speed in the limit of a cold gaseous outflow, and that in general there is a contribution from the gas sound speed. Using the mean opacity of dust grains and the evolution of the luminosity of a simple stellar population, we then show that the ratio of the wind terminal speed (v{sub {infinity}}) to the galaxy rotation speed (v{sub c}) ranges between 2 and 3 for a period of {approx}10 Myr after a burst of star formation, after which it rapidly decays. This result is independent of any free parameter and depends only on the luminosity of the stellar population and the relation between disk and dark matter halo parameters. We briefly discuss the possible implications of our results.

  14. The Dynamics of Truncated Black Hole Accretion Disks. I. Viscous Hydrodynamic Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogg, J. Drew; Reynolds, Christopher S.

    2017-07-01

    Truncated accretion disks are commonly invoked to explain the spectro-temporal variability in accreting black holes in both small systems, i.e., state transitions in galactic black hole binaries (GBHBs), and large systems, i.e., low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs). In the canonical truncated disk model of moderately low accretion rate systems, gas in the inner region of the accretion disk occupies a hot, radiatively inefficient phase, which leads to a geometrically thick disk, while the gas in the outer region occupies a cooler, radiatively efficient phase that resides in the standard geometrically thin disk. Observationally, there is strong empirical evidence to support this phenomenological model, but a detailed understanding of the dynamics of truncated disks is lacking. We present a well-resolved viscous, hydrodynamic simulation that uses an ad hoc cooling prescription to drive a thermal instability and, hence, produce the first sustained truncated accretion disk. With this simulation, we perform a study of the dynamics, angular momentum transport, and energetics of a truncated disk. We find that the time variability introduced by the quasi-periodic transition of gas from efficient cooling to inefficient cooling impacts the evolution of the simulated disk. A consequence of the thermal instability is that an outflow is launched from the hot/cold gas interface, which drives large, sub-Keplerian convective cells into the disk atmosphere. The convective cells introduce a viscous θ - ϕ stress that is less than the generic r - ϕ viscous stress component, but greatly influences the evolution of the disk. In the truncated disk, we find that the bulk of the accreted gas is in the hot phase.

  15. The Destruction of Thin Stellar Disks Via Cosmologically Common Satellite Accretion Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purcell, Chris W.; Kazantzidis, Stelios; Bullock, James S.

    2009-04-01

    Most Galaxy-sized systems (M host sime 1012 M sun) in the ΛCDM cosmology are expected to have interacted with at least one satellite with a total mass M sat sime 1011 M sun sime 3M disk in the past 8 Gyr. Analytic and numerical investigations suggest that this is the most precarious type of accretion for the survival of thin galactic disks because more massive accretion events are relatively rare and less massive ones preserve thin disk components. We use high-resolution, dissipationless N-body simulations to study the response of an initially thin, fully formed Milky Way-type stellar disk to these cosmologically common satellite accretion events, and show that the thin disk does not survive. Regardless of orbital configuration, the impacts transform the disks into structures that are roughly three times as thick and more than twice as kinematically hot as the observed dominant thin disk component of the Milky Way. We conclude that if the Galactic thin disk is a representative case, then the presence of a stabilizing gas component is the only recourse for explaining the preponderance of disk galaxies in a ΛCDM universe; otherwise, the disk of the Milky Way must be uncommonly cold and thin for its luminosity, perhaps as a consequence of an unusually quiescent accretion history.

  16. A new approach to probe the accretion disk physics in quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junxian; Sun, Yuhan; Cai, Zhenyi; Chen, Xiaoyang; Zheng, Zhenya; Gu, Weimin

    2015-08-01

    Quasars generally appear bluer while they brighten. The physics behind this color variation remains unclear. With SDSS Stripe 82 monitoring data, we have shown that the color variation of quasars is timescale dependent, in the way that the variable emission at shorter timescales is bluer than that at longer timescales. This discovery directly rules out the possibility that simply attributes the color variability to contamination from the host galaxy. It can't be due to changes in global accretion rate either. The thermal accretion disk fluctuation model is favored, in the way that shorter timescale variation is dominated by fluctuations from the innermost accretion disk where the disk is hotter, while longer term variation could be produced in larger disk region with effectively lower disk temperature. Variable emission at different timescales therefore can be used to probe disk local emission, instead of the integrated emission throughout the disk as the single epoch observation probes. This thus provides us an interesting and new approach to test the accretion disk theory, and to probe the disk physics. We will present new results based this approach, using monitoring data sets including SDSS and GALEX. Monte Carlo simulations of quasar color variation behavior at different timescales based on disk thermal fluctuation model will also be presented.

  17. NEUTRINO SPECTRA FROM ACCRETION DISKS: NEUTRINO GENERAL RELATIVISTIC EFFECTS AND THE CONSEQUENCES FOR NUCLEOSYNTHESIS

    SciTech Connect

    Caballero, O. L.; McLaughlin, G. C.; Surman, R. E-mail: olcaball@ncsu.edu E-mail: surmanr@union.edu

    2012-02-01

    Black hole (BH) accretion disks have been proposed as good candidates for a range of interesting nucleosynthesis, including the r-process. The presence of the BH influences the neutrino fluxes and affects the nucleosynthesis resulting from the interaction of the emitted neutrinos and hot outflowing material ejected from the disk. We study the impact of general relativistic effects on the neutrinos emitted from BH accretion disks. We present abundances obtained by considering null geodesics and energy shifts for two different disk models. We find that both the bending of the neutrino trajectories and the energy shifts have important consequences for the nucleosynthetic outcome.

  18. On the formation of the martian moons from a circum-martian accretion disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenblatt, Pascal; Charnoz, Sébastien

    2012-11-01

    We reconsider two scenarios for the formation of Phobos and Deimos from a circum-martian accretion disk of debris: the strong tide regime for which accretion occurs close to the planet at the Roche limit and the weak tide regime for which accretion occurs farther from the planet. We assume a disk with an initial mass of 1018 kg (Craddock, R.A. [2011]. Icarus 211, 1150-1161). In the strong tide regime, the disk loses its material by viscous spreading inward to and outward from the planet. When outward moving material crosses the Roche limit, small-sized moonlets are accreted from gravitational instabilities with a shape and density similar to Phobos and Deimos. Due to the gravitational torque exerted by the disk, the moonlets migrate away from the planet, though they cannot reach the synchronous orbit (lying at 6 Mars’ radii). After the disk has lost most of its mass they rapidly fall back onto Mars due to the tidal decay of their orbits. Although, the total mass of moonlets is comparable to the mass of Phobos, their survival time does not exceed 200 Ma, which is incompatible with the formation of Phobos and Deimos early in Mars’ history. In the weak tide regime, moonlets can accrete near the synchronous orbit with the mass of Deimos in a disk of up to 1018 kg (similarly to planetary embryos formation in the protoplanetary disk). A Phobos-mass embryo can also be formed in the same disk but closer to Mars (at 3-4 Mars’ radii) so that it rapidly falls back onto Mars by tidal decay of its orbit. However, several embryos may accrete together in the disk (similarly to the final stage of terrestrial planet formation), and Phobos and Deimos may be the last two remnants of those bodies formed near the synchronous distance to Mars. Further investigations are still needed to understand such accretion mechanism within a circum-martian disk primarily extending below the synchronous orbit.

  19. Evidence for Magnetically Driven Protoplanetary Disk Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Molly; Pascucci, Ilaria; Edwards, Suzan; Feng, Wanda; Rigliaco, Elisabetta; Gorti, Uma; Hollenbach, David J.; Tuttle Keane, James

    2017-01-01

    We present Keck high resolution (~7km/s) optical spectra from a sample of 32 pre-main sequence T-Tauri stars in Taurus-Auriga plus TW Hya. We focus on low-excitation forbidden emission lines like the [O I] 6300 Å and 5577 Å lines, whose high-velocity component, with blueshifts between ~30 - 150 km/s, is known to trace fast outflowing material in the form of jets (e.g. Hartigan et al. 1995). The origin of the low-velocity component (LVC), with blueshifts on the order of ~5 km/s, has been long debated. We demonstrate that the LVC can be described by a combination of a broad and a narrow line emitting region. We show that the broad line emitting region is very common, arises within ~0.5 AU from the star, and shows the expected disk wind signature, i.e. larger blueshifts associated with narrower lines and lower disc inclinations. Such winds must be magnetically driven given that the emitting region is well inside the gravitational potential well of the central star. The origin of the narrow line emitting region remains difficult to assess, in particular we cannot exclude that it traces a thermally driven (photoevaporative) wind. Disk winds, both thermally and magnetically driven, might play a major role in the evolution and eventual dispersal of protoplanetary material, which has implications for solar system architectures and planet formation more generally. Hence, it is critical to determine the rate at which mass is lost via disk winds.

  20. Workshop on Physics of Accretion Disks Around Compact and Young Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, E (Editor); Stepinski, T. F. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the two-day Workshop on Physics of Accretion Disks Around Compact and Young Stars was to bring together workers on accretion disks in the western Gulf region (Texas and Louisiana). Part 2 presents the workshop program, a list of poster presentations, and a list of workshop participants. Accretion disks are believed to surround many stars. Some of these disks form around compact stars, such as white dwarfs, neutron stars, or black holes that are members of binary systems and reveal themselves as a power source, especially in the x-ray and gamma regions of the spectrum. On the other hand, protostellar disks are believed to be accretion disks associated with young, pre-main-sequence stars and manifest themselves mostly in infrared and radio observations. These disks are considered to be a natural outcome of the star formation process. The focus of this workshop included theory and observations relevant to accretion disks around compact objects and newly forming stars, with the primary purpose of bringing the two communities together for intellectual cross-fertilization. The nature of the workshop was exploratory, to see how much interaction is possible between distinct communities and to better realize the local potential in this subject. A critical workshop activity was identification and documentation of key issues that are of mutual interest to both communities.

  1. Nonlinear calculations of the time evolution of black hole accretion disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luo, C.

    1994-01-01

    Based on previous works on black hole accretion disks, I continue to explore the disk dynamics using the finite difference method to solve the highly nonlinear problem of time-dependent alpha disk equations. Here a radially zoned model is used to develop a computational scheme in order to accommodate functional dependence of the viscosity parameter alpha on the disk scale height and/or surface density. This work is based on the author's previous work on the steady disk structure and the linear analysis of disk dynamics to try to apply to x-ray emissions from black candidates (i.e., multiple-state spectra, instabilities, QPO's, etc.).

  2. Numerical simulation of the Hall effect in magnetized accretion disks with the Pluto code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakhaei, Mohammad; Safaei, Ghasem; Abbassi, Shahram

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the Hall effect in a standard magnetized accretion disk which is accompanied by dissipation due to viscosity and magnetic resistivity. By considering an initial magnetic field, using the PLUTO code, we perform a numerical magnetohydrodynamic simulation in order to study the effect of Hall diffusion on the physical structure of the disk. Current density and temperature of the disk are significantly modified by Hall diffusion, but the global structure of the disk is not substantially affected. The changes in the current densities and temperature of the disk lead to a modification in the disk luminosity and radiation.

  3. Ice Accretion Prediction on Wind Turbines and Consequent Power Losses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yirtici, Ozcan; Tuncer, Ismail H.; Ozgen, Serkan

    2016-09-01

    Ice accretion on wind turbine blades modifies the sectional profiles and causes alteration in the aerodynamic characteristic of the blades. The objective of this study is to determine performance losses on wind turbines due to the formation of ice in cold climate regions and mountainous areas where wind energy resources are found. In this study, the Blade Element Momentum method is employed together with an ice accretion prediction tool in order to estimate the ice build-up on wind turbine blades and the energy production for iced and clean blades. The predicted ice shapes of the various airfoil profiles are validated with the experimental data and it is shown that the tool developed is promising to be used in the prediction of power production losses of wind turbines.

  4. ACCRETION DISKS AROUND MASSIVE STARS: HYDRODYNAMIC STRUCTURE, STABILITY, AND DUST SUBLIMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Vaidya, Bhargav; Fendt, Christian; Beuther, Henrik E-mail: fendt@mpia.de

    2009-09-01

    We investigate the structure of accretion disks around massive protostar applying steady state models of thin disks. The thin disk equations are solved with proper opacities for dust and gas taking into account the huge temperature variation along the disk. We explore a wide parameter range concerning stellar mass, accretion rate, and viscosity parameter {alpha}. The most essential finding is a very high temperature of the inner disk. For e.g., a 10 M{sub sun} protostar with an accretion rate of {approx}10{sup -4} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}, the disk midplane temperature may reach almost 10{sup 5} K. The disk luminosity in this case is about 10{sup 4} L{sub sun} and, thus, potentially higher than that of a massive protostar. We motivate our disk model with similar hot disks around compact stars. We calculate a dust sublimation radius by turbulent disk self-heating of more than 10 AU, a radius, which is 3 times larger than that caused by stellar irradiation. We discuss implications of this result on the flashlight effect and the consequences for the radiation pressure of the central star. In deference to disks around low-mass protostars, our models suggest rather high values for the disk turbulence parameter {alpha} {<=} 1. However, disk stability to fragmentation due to thermal effects and gravitational instability would require a lower {alpha} value. For {alpha} = 0.1, we find stable disks out to 80 AU. Essentially, our model allows us to compare the outer disk to some of the observed massive protostellar disk sources, and from that, extrapolate the disk structure close to the star which is yet impossible to observe.

  5. Constraining MHD Disk-Winds with X-ray Absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukumura, Keigo; Tombesi, F.; Shrader, C. R.; Kazanas, D.; Contopoulos, J.; Behar, E.

    2014-01-01

    From the state-of-the-art spectroscopic observations of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) the robust features of absorption lines (e.g. most notably by H/He-like ions), called warm absorbers (WAs), have been often detected in soft X-rays (< 2 keV). While the identified WAs are often mildly blueshifted to yield line-of-sight velocities up to ~100-3,000 km/sec in typical X-ray-bright Seyfert 1 AGNs, a fraction of Seyfert galaxies such as PG 1211+143 exhibits even faster absorbers (v/ 0.1-0.2) called ultra-fast outflows (UFOs) whose physical condition is much more extreme compared with the WAs. Motivated by these recent X-ray data we show that the magnetically- driven accretion-disk wind model is a plausible scenario to explain the characteristic property of these X-ray absorbers. As a preliminary case study we demonstrate that the wind model parameters (e.g. viewing angle and wind density) can be constrained by data from PG 1211+143 at a statistically significant level with chi-squared spectral analysis. Our wind models can thus be implemented into the standard analysis package, XSPEC, as a table spectrum model for general analysis of X-ray absorbers.

  6. Collimation of magnetic jets by disk winds - the case of M87

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levinson, Amir

    2015-08-01

    The interaction of a magnetic jet emerging from the ergosphere of an accreting black hole, with a transonic wind emanating from the accretion flow surrounding the black hole will be discussed. It is found that effective collimation of the polar jet occurs already for modest ratios of the wind and jet powers. The jet is ensheathed by a shocked wind layer that can be a significant source of low energy emission at relatively small radii. It is suggested that a disk wind from the RIAF may be responsible for the collimation of the jet in M87, and that the shocked wind layer may be the source of the radio emission detected by the EHT. The variable TeV emission may originate from a sparking gap at the base of the magnetic jet, as proposed recently.

  7. The connection of standard thin disk with advection-dominated accretion flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yi-qing; Lu, Ju-fu; G. U., Wei-min

    2005-04-01

    Using the standard Runge-Kutta method, a global solution of the basic equations describing black hole accretion flows is derived. It is proved that transition from a standard thin disk to an advection-dominated accretion flow is realizable in case of high viscosity, without introducing any additional mechanism of energy transfer or specifying any ad hoc outer boundary condition.

  8. ACCRETION OF GAS ONTO GAP-OPENING PLANETS AND CIRCUMPLANETARY FLOW STRUCTURE IN MAGNETIZED TURBULENT DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Uribe, A. L.; Klahr, H.; Henning, Th.

    2013-06-01

    We have performed three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical simulations of stellar accretion disks, using the PLUTO code, and studied the accretion of gas onto a Jupiter-mass planet and the structure of the circumplanetary gas flow after opening a gap in the disk. We compare our results with simulations of laminar, yet viscous disks with different levels of an {alpha}-type viscosity. In all cases, we find that the accretion flow across the surface of the Hill sphere of the planet is not spherically or azimuthally symmetric, and is predominantly restricted to the mid-plane region of the disk. Even in the turbulent case, we find no significant vertical flow of mass into the Hill sphere. The outer parts of the circumplanetary disk are shown to rotate significantly below Keplerian speed, independent of viscosity, while the circumplanetary disk density (therefore the angular momentum) increases with viscosity. For a simulation of a magnetized turbulent disk, where the global averaged alpha stress is {alpha}{sub MHD} = 10{sup -3}, we find the accretion rate onto the planet to be M-dot {approx}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6}M{sub J} yr{sup -1} for a gap surface density of 12 g cm{sup -2}. This is about a third of the accretion rate obtained in a laminar viscous simulation with equivalent {alpha} parameter.

  9. Accretion of Gas onto Gap-opening Planets and Circumplanetary Flow Structure in Magnetized Turbulent Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uribe, A. L.; Klahr, H.; Henning, Th.

    2013-06-01

    We have performed three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical simulations of stellar accretion disks, using the PLUTO code, and studied the accretion of gas onto a Jupiter-mass planet and the structure of the circumplanetary gas flow after opening a gap in the disk. We compare our results with simulations of laminar, yet viscous disks with different levels of an α-type viscosity. In all cases, we find that the accretion flow across the surface of the Hill sphere of the planet is not spherically or azimuthally symmetric, and is predominantly restricted to the mid-plane region of the disk. Even in the turbulent case, we find no significant vertical flow of mass into the Hill sphere. The outer parts of the circumplanetary disk are shown to rotate significantly below Keplerian speed, independent of viscosity, while the circumplanetary disk density (therefore the angular momentum) increases with viscosity. For a simulation of a magnetized turbulent disk, where the global averaged alpha stress is αMHD = 10-3, we find the accretion rate onto the planet to be \\dot{M}\\approx 2\\times 10^{-6}M_{{J}}\\,yr^{-1} for a gap surface density of 12 g cm-2. This is about a third of the accretion rate obtained in a laminar viscous simulation with equivalent α parameter.

  10. Prevention of accretion onto white dwarfs by stellar winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, James

    1992-01-01

    There is indirect observational evidence that hot white dwarfs may have weak stellar winds. In this paper, the interaction between such a wind and the flow of ISM material in the gravitational field of the white dwarf is investigated with the aim of finding limits on the mass-loss rate and terminal velocity of winds capable of preventing accretion from the ISM. The limiting cases of no relative motion of the star and the ISM and supersonic relative motion of the star through ISM are separately investigated. Each case is treated by generalizing models for the interaction between the solar wind and the local ISM to include the effects of gravity. It is found that, for wind velocities expected for radiatively driven winds, mass-loss rates as low as 10 exp -21 solar mass/yr are sufficient to prevent accretion from the hot phase of the ISM. To prevent accretion during passages through cold clouds, wind mass-loss rates of order 10 exp -18 to 10 exp -17 are required.

  11. Ice accretion modeling for wind turbine rotor blades

    SciTech Connect

    Chocron, D.; Brahimi, T.; Paraschivoiu, I.; Bombardier, J.A.

    1997-12-31

    The increasing application of wind energy in northern climates implies operation of wind turbines under severe atmospheric icing conditions. Such conditions are well known in the Scandinavian countries, Canada and most of Eastern European countries. An extensive study to develop a procedure for the prediction of ice accretion on wind turbines rotor blades appears to be essential for the safe and economic operation of wind turbines in these cold regions. The objective of the present paper is to develop a computer code capable of simulating the shape and amount of ice which may accumulate on horizontal axis wind turbine blades when operating in icing conditions. The resulting code is capable to predict and simulate the formation of ice in rime and glaze conditions, calculate the flow field and particle trajectories and to perform thermodynamic analysis. It also gives the possibility of studying the effect of different parameters that influence ice formation such as temperature, liquid water content, droplet diameter and accretion time. The analysis has been conducted on different typical airfoils as well as on NASA/DOE Mod-0 wind turbine. Results showed that ice accretion on wind turbines may reduce the power output by more than 20%.

  12. Prevention of accretion onto white dwarfs by stellar winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, James

    1992-01-01

    There is indirect observational evidence that hot white dwarfs may have weak stellar winds. In this paper, the interaction between such a wind and the flow of ISM material in the gravitational field of the white dwarf is investigated with the aim of finding limits on the mass-loss rate and terminal velocity of winds capable of preventing accretion from the ISM. The limiting cases of no relative motion of the star and the ISM and supersonic relative motion of the star through ISM are separately investigated. Each case is treated by generalizing models for the interaction between the solar wind and the local ISM to include the effects of gravity. It is found that, for wind velocities expected for radiatively driven winds, mass-loss rates as low as 10 exp -21 solar mass/yr are sufficient to prevent accretion from the hot phase of the ISM. To prevent accretion during passages through cold clouds, wind mass-loss rates of order 10 exp -18 to 10 exp -17 are required.

  13. Evolution of dynamo-generated magnetic fields in accretion disks around compact and young stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepinski, Tomasz F.

    1994-01-01

    Geometrically thin, optically thick, turbulent accretion disks are believed to surround many stars. Some of them are the compact components of close binaries, while the others are throught to be T Tauri stars. These accretion disks must be magnetized objects because the accreted matter, whether it comes from the companion star (binaries) or from a collapsing molecular cloud core (single young stars), carries an embedded magnetic field. In addition, most accretion disks are hot and turbulent, thus meeting the condition for the MHD turbulent dynamo to maintain and amplify any seed field magnetic field. In fact, for a disk's magnetic field to persist long enough in comparison with the disk viscous time it must be contemporaneously regenerated because the characteristic diffusion time of a magnetic field is typically much shorter than a disk's viscous time. This is true for most thin accretion disks. Consequently, studying magentic fields in thin disks is usually synonymous with studying magnetic dynamos, a fact that is not commonly recognized in the literature. Progress in studying the structure of many accretion disks was achieved mainly because most disks can be regarded as two-dimensional flows in which vertical and radial structures are largely decoupled. By analogy, in a thin disk, one may expect that vertical and radial structures of the magnetic field are decoupled because the magnetic field diffuses more rapidly to the vertical boundary of the disk than along the radius. Thus, an asymptotic method, called an adiabatic approximation, can be applied to accretion disk dynamo. We can represent the solution to the dynamo equation in the form B = Q(r)b(r,z), where Q(r) describes the field distribution along the radius, while the field distribution across the disk is included in the vector function b, which parametrically depends on r and is normalized by the condition max (b(z)) = 1. The field distribution across the disk is established rapidly, while the radial

  14. Angular Momentum in Disk Wind Revealed in the Young Star MWC 349A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qizhou; Claus, Brian; Watson, Linda; Moran, James

    2017-03-01

    Disk winds are thought to play a critical role in star birth. As winds extract excess angular momentum from accretion disks, matter in the disk can be transported inward to the star to fuel mass growth. However, observational evidence of wind carrying angular momentum has been very limited. We present Submillimeter Array (SMA) observations of the young star MWC 349A in the H26α and H30α recombination lines. The high signal-to-noise ratios made possible by the maser emission process allow us to constrain the relative astrometry of the maser spots to milli-arcsecond precision. Previous observations of the H30α line with the SMA and the Plateau de Bure interferometer (PdBI) showed that masers are distributed in the disk and wind. Our new high-resolution observations of the H26α line reveal differences in spatial distribution from that of the H30α line. H26α line masers in the disk are excited in a thin annulus with a radius of about 25 au, while the H30α line masers are formed in a slightly larger annulus with a radius of 30 au. This is consistent with expectations for maser excitation in the presence of an electron density variation of approximately R ‑4. In addition, the H30α and H26α line masers arise from different parts in the wind. This difference is also expected from maser theory. The wind component of both masers exhibits line-of-sight velocities that closely follow a Keplerian law. This result provides strong evidence that the disk wind extracts significant angular momentum, thereby facilitating mass accretion in the young star.

  15. Angular momentum regulation in low-mass young stars surrounded by accretion disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Suzan; Strom, Stephen E.; Hartigan, Patrick; Strom, Karen M.; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Herbst, William; Attridge, Joanne; Merrill, K. M.; Probst, Ron; Gatley, Ian

    1993-01-01

    From study of a sample of 34 T Tauri stars with photometrically derived rotation periods and spectral types later than KS, we find that the observed periods appear to be related to the presence or absence of an accretion disk. Those stars which we infer to be surrounded by accretion disks have rotation periods P(rot) over 4 days with a most probable P(rot) of about 8.5 days, while those stars which lack accretion disk signatures cover a wide range of P(rot) from 1.5 to 16 days, including a significant number of objects with P(rot) less than 4 days. This suggests the possibility that the 'initial' angular momentum of a star is not established until it dissipates its circumstellar accretion disk. During the disk accretion phase, the stellar angular velocity appears to be regulated at a low value, countering the tendency of the star to spin up both from contraction toward the main sequence and from the accretion of inner disk material of high specific angular momentum. When the accretion disk is dissipated, this regulation mechanism will cease to function. At this point, the star is no longer maintained at a low angular velocity, but is 'free' to conserve its angular momentum, and thus to increase its angular velocity in response to contraction and changes in moment of inertia. This hypothesis, combined with a spread in disk dispersal time scales, provides a context for explaining the observed distribution of stellar rotational velocities for stars on the ZAMS in young clusters.

  16. Resolved images of a protostellar outflow driven by an extended disk wind.

    PubMed

    Bjerkeli, Per; van der Wiel, Matthijs H D; Harsono, Daniel; Ramsey, Jon P; Jørgensen, Jes K

    2016-12-14

    Young stars are associated with prominent outflows of molecular gas. The ejection of gas is believed to remove angular momentum from the protostellar system, permitting young stars to grow by the accretion of material from the protostellar disk. The underlying mechanism for outflow ejection is not yet understood, but is believed to be closely linked to the protostellar disk. Various models have been proposed to explain the outflows, differing mainly in the region where acceleration of material takes place: close to the protostar itself ('X-wind', or stellar wind), in a larger region throughout the protostellar disk (disk wind), or at the interface between the two. Outflow launching regions have so far been probed only by indirect extrapolation because of observational limits. Here we report resolved images of carbon monoxide towards the outflow associated with the TMC1A protostellar system. These data show that gas is ejected from a region extending up to a radial distance of 25 astronomical units from the central protostar, and that angular momentum is removed from an extended region of the disk. This demonstrates that the outflowing gas is launched by an extended disk wind from a Keplerian disk.

  17. Does an Average White Dwarf Have Enough Mass to Prevent Accretion Disk Tilt?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, M. M.

    2010-11-01

    In a recent publication, we introduce the lift force as a common source to accretion disk tilt that is likely relevant to accretion disk systems. Lift is generated by slightly different supersonic gas stream speeds flowing over and under the disk at the bright spot. In this conference proceeding, we focus on whether the average white dwarf has enough mass to prevent a disk tilt in non-magnetic Cataclysmic Variables (CVs) with accretion disks. Assuming a white dwarf mass of 0.6 Msolar and a disk mass of 10-11 Msolar, we vary the secondary mass to establish theoretical minimum mass transfer rates needed to induce and maintain a disk tilt of four degrees around the line of nodes. For mass ratios in the range (0.13<=q = M2M-1<=0.45), we confirm that the secondary mass does not contribute significantly to disk tilt. We also confirm that the average white dwarf does not have enough mass to prevent a disk tilt. We find that disk tilt may be likely in low mass transfer rate systems such as CV SU UMa's.

  18. Lunar volatile depletion due to incomplete accretion within an impact-generated disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canup, Robin M.; Visscher, Channon; Salmon, Julien; Fegley, Bruce, Jr.

    2015-12-01

    The Moon may have formed from an Earth-orbiting disk of vapour and melt produced by a giant impact. The mantles of the Moon and Earth have similar compositions. However, it is unclear why lunar samples are more depleted in volatile elements than terrestrial mantle rocks, given that an evaporative escape mechanism seems inconsistent with expected disk conditions. Dynamical models suggest that the Moon initially accreted from the outermost disk, but later acquired up to 60% of its mass from melt originating from the inner disk. Here we combine dynamical, thermal and chemical models to show that volatile depletion in the Moon can be explained by preferential accretion of volatile-rich melt in the inner disk to the Earth, rather than to the growing Moon. Melt in the inner disk is initially hot and volatile poor, but volatiles condense as the disk cools. In our simulations, the delivery of inner disk melt to the Moon effectively ceases when gravitational interactions cause the Moon’s orbit to expand away from the disk, and this termination of lunar accretion occurs before condensation of potassium and more volatile elements. Thus, the portion of the Moon derived from the inner disk is expected to be volatile depleted. We suggest that this mechanism may explain part or all of the Moon’s volatile depletion, depending on the degree of mixing within the lunar interior.

  19. The Effect of Mass Accretion for Formation and Thermal Evolution of Circumstellar Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukamoto, Yusuke; Machida, Masahiro N.; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro

    The planet formation process via direct disk fragmentation is a necessary mechanism to explain the diversity of exo-planetary systems. Examples of planetary systems which might form by disk fragmentation are HR8799 and GJ758. The formation of the planets in these systems via core accretion seems to be unlikely.

  20. Relativistic iron lines in accretion disks: the contribution of higher order images in the strong deflection limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldi, Giulio Francesco; Bozza, Valerio

    2017-02-01

    The shapes of relativistic iron lines observed in spectra of candidate black holes carry the signatures of the strong gravitational fields in which the accretion disks lie. These lines result from the sum of the contributions of all images of the disk created by gravitational lensing, with the direct and first-order images largely dominating the overall shapes. Higher order images created by photons tightly winding around the black holes are often neglected in the modeling of these lines, since they require a substantially higher computational effort. With the help of the strong deflection limit, we present the most accurate semi-analytical calculation of these higher order contributions to the iron lines for Schwarzschild black holes. We show that two regimes exist depending on the inclination of the disk with respect to the line of sight. Many useful analytical formulae can be also derived in this framework.

  1. Toward realistic simulations of magneto-thermal winds from weakly-ionized protoplanetary disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gressel, Oliver

    2017-05-01

    Protoplanetary disks (PPDs) accrete onto their central T Tauri star via magnetic stresses. When the effect of ambipolar diffusion (AD) is included, and in the presence of a vertical magnetic field, the disk remains laminar between 1-5 au, and a magnetocentrifugal disk wind forms that provides an important mechanism for removing angular momentum. We present global MHD simulations of PPDs that include Ohmic resistivity and AD, where the time-dependent gas-phase electron and ion fractions are computed under FUV and X-ray ionization with a simplified recombination chemistry. To investigate whether the mass loading of the wind is potentially affected by the limited vertical extent of our existing simulations, we attempt to develop a model of a realistic disk atmosphere. To this end, by accounting for stellar irradiation and diffuse reprocessing of radiation, we aim at improving our models towards more realistic thermodynamic properties.

  2. Black hole accretion disks - Coronal stabilization of the Lightman-Eardley instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ionson, J. A.; Kuperus, M.

    1984-01-01

    Physical processes by which the presence of a corona around a black hole can raise the threshold of onset of the Lightman-Eardley (L-E, 1976) instability are explored analytically. The L-E model predicts that an optically thick disk becomes unstable when the disk radiation pressure exceeds the disk gas pressure. The model has important implications for the validity of either the coronal disk or two-temperature disk models for accretion zones around black holes. It is shown that a corona can dissipate accreting gravitational energy through radiative cooling. Specific ratios of hard/soft X-rays are quantified for stable and unstable conditions. X-ray spectra from Cyg X-1 are cited as residing below the instability threshold value and thus are supportive of the coronal disk model.

  3. Self-collimated electromagnetic jets from magnetized accretion disks - The even-symmetry case

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, J. C. L.; Sulkanen, M. E.; Lovelace, R. V. E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper extends the previous treatment (Lovelace et al., 1987) of the origin of self-collimated EM jets to the case of even field symmetry, where the magnetic flux function Psi(r, z) is an even function of z. A viscous resistive accretion disk is assumed to surround a black hole with a force-free plasma outside of the disk. Inside the disk, the induction equation is solved for Psi(r, z) and the toroidal magnetic field. Outside the disk, previous results are used to study the formation of self-collimated EM jets. In contrast with the odd-symmetry case, for even symmetry the toroidal magnetic field acts to vertically compress the disk; a comparatively large toroidal magnetic field can exist inside the disk; and an appreciable fraction (possibly all) of the available accretion power can go into the jets.

  4. Black hole accretion disks - Coronal stabilization of the Lightman-Eardley instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ionson, J. A.; Kuperus, M.

    1984-01-01

    Physical processes by which the presence of a corona around a black hole can raise the threshold of onset of the Lightman-Eardley (L-E, 1976) instability are explored analytically. The L-E model predicts that an optically thick disk becomes unstable when the disk radiation pressure exceeds the disk gas pressure. The model has important implications for the validity of either the coronal disk or two-temperature disk models for accretion zones around black holes. It is shown that a corona can dissipate accreting gravitational energy through radiative cooling. Specific ratios of hard/soft X-rays are quantified for stable and unstable conditions. X-ray spectra from Cyg X-1 are cited as residing below the instability threshold value and thus are supportive of the coronal disk model.

  5. Timescales for planetary accretion and the structure of the protoplanetary disk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.

    1987-01-01

    Models of planetary accretion which assume the mass of condensable matter in the protoplanetary disk was equal to that present in the planets today predict accretion timescales for the outer planets approximately or less than 10 to the 8th years. Such timescales are inconsistent with observations of star forming regions, which suggest that most of the gas in disks around one solar mass is removed in a few x 10 to the 6th years. A unified scenario was outlined for solar system formation consistent with astrophysical constraints. Jupiter's core could have grown by runaway accretion of planetesimals to a mass sufficient to initiate rapid accretion of gas in times of order of 500,000 to 5,000,000 years, provided the surface density of solids in its accretion zone was at least 5 to 10 times greater than that required by minimum mass models of the protoplanetary disk. The inner planets and the asteroids can be accounted for in this picture if the surface density of the solar nebula was relatively uniform out to Jupiter's orbit. The formation of such a protoplanetary disk requires significant transport of mass and angular momentum, and is consistent with viscous accretion disk models of the solar nebula.

  6. A search for the lasts gasps of disk accretion in Orion T Tauri stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Catherine; Briceno, Cesar; Calvet, Nuria; Hernandez, Jesus

    2017-01-01

    Using the echelle mode of the Michigan/Magellan Fiber System (M2FS) on the Magellan/Clay telescope at Las Campanas Observatory, we obtained high resolution spectra (R~35000) of a sample of ~4 - 10 Myr old T Tauri stars distributed in ten 0.5 deg diameter fields in the Orion OB1 association.We present here a search for accretion signatures among a sample of weak-line T Tauri stars (WTTS). These are young stars that on the basis of their classification in low-resolution spectra, are assumed to lack a primordial disk and therefore should not be actively accreting. We look for signatures of disk accretion at modest or low levels by measuring the width at 10% height of the H-alpha profile, and looking for a redshifted absorption feature. In parallel, we determine which WTTS among the M2FS sample have infrared excesses indicating a circumstellar disk, to see which disk-bearing WTTS also show indications of accretion. We propose that such WTTS accreting at low levels are T Tauri stars at or nearing the end of their accretion phase. Our goal is to build a large sample of these objects so that we can place statistical contraints on how long the accretion phase lasts in solar-like and low-mass stars.

  7. THERMAL STABILITY OF MAGNETIZED, OPTICALLY THIN, RADIATIVE COOLING-DOMINATED ACCRETION DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Xiao-Fei; Gu, Wei-Min; Liu, Tong; Ma, Ren-Yi; Lu, Ju-Fu

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the thermal stability of optically thin, two-temperature, radiative cooling-dominated accretion disks. Our linear analysis shows that the disk is thermally unstable without magnetic fields, which agrees with previous stability analysis on the Shapiro-Lightman-Eardley disk. By taking into account the effects of magnetic fields, however, we find that the disk can be, or partly be, thermally stable. Our results may be helpful to understand the outflows in optically thin flows. Moreover, such radiative cooling-dominated disks may provide a new explanation of the different behaviors between black hole and neutron star X-ray binaries on the radio/X-ray correlation.

  8. Optical veiling, disk accretion, and the evolution of T Tauri stars

    SciTech Connect

    Hartmann, L.W.; Kenyon, S.J. )

    1990-01-01

    High-resolution spectra of 31 K7-M1 T Tauri stars (TTs) in the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud demonstrate that most of these objects exhibit substantial excess emission at 5200 A. Extrapolations of these data consistent with low-resolution spectrophotometry indicate that the extra emission is comparable to the stellar luminosity in many cases. If this continuum emission arises in the boundary layers of accreting disks, more than about 30 percent of all TTs may be accreting material at a rate which is sufficiently rapid to alter their evolution from standard Hayashi tracks. It is estimated that roughly 10 percent of the final stellar mass is accreted in the TT phase. This amount of material is comparable to the minimum gravitationally unstable disk mass estimated by Larson and it is speculated that the TT phase represents the final stages of disk accretion driven by gravitational instabilities. 40 refs.

  9. Optical veiling, disk accretion, and the evolution of T Tauri stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, Lee W.; Kenyon, Scott J.

    1990-01-01

    High-resolution spectra of 31 K7-M1 T Tauri stars (TTs) in the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud demonstrate that most of these objects exhibit substantial excess emission at 5200 A. Extrapolations of these data consistent with low-resolution spectrophotometry indicate that the extra emission is comparable to the stellar luminosity in many cases. If this continuum emission arises in the boundary layers of accreting disks, more than about 30 percent of all TTs may be accreting material at a rate which is sufficiently rapid to alter their evolution from standard Hayashi tracks. It is estimated that roughly 10 percent of the final stellar mass is accreted in the TT phase. This amount of material is comparable to the minimum gravitationally unstable disk mass estimated by Larson and it is speculated that the TT phase represents the final stages of disk accretion driven by gravitational instabilities.

  10. Equilibrium Disks, Magnetorotational Instability Mode Excitation, and Steady-state Turbulence in Global Accretion Disk Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkin, E. R.; Bicknell, G. V.

    2013-02-01

    Global three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of turbulent accretion disks are presented which start from fully equilibrium initial conditions in which the magnetic forces are accounted for and the induction equation is satisfied. The local linear theory of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) is used as a predictor of the growth of magnetic field perturbations in the global simulations. The linear growth estimates and global simulations diverge when nonlinear motions—perhaps triggered by the onset of turbulence—upset the velocity perturbations used to excite the MRI. The saturated state is found to be independent of the initially excited MRI mode, showing that once the disk has expelled the initially net flux field and settled into quasi-periodic oscillations in the toroidal magnetic flux, the dynamo cycle regulates the global saturation stress level. Furthermore, time-averaged measures of converged turbulence, such as the ratio of magnetic energies, are found to be in agreement with previous works. In particular, the globally averaged stress normalized to the gas pressure \\overline{< α_P> } = 0.034, with notably higher values achieved for simulations with higher azimuthal resolution. Supplementary tests are performed using different numerical algorithms and resolutions. Convergence with resolution during the initial linear MRI growth phase is found for 23-35 cells per scale height (in the vertical direction).

  11. OT2_rsahai_6: Probing the molecular disk in Y Gem: an AGB star with variable UV emission signifying accretion onto a binary companion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahai, R.

    2011-09-01

    We propose to observe CO J=6-5 and 9-8 line emission from a cool AGB star, Y Gem, which, in dramatic contrast to most objects in its class, has relatively strong and variable FUV and NUV fluxes - evidence of variable accretion of matter onto an accretion disk in a binary system. We found Y Gem as a UV source serendipitously, while combing the GALEX archive as part of a project to look for hot binary companions to cool AGB stars. This object may represent the earliest phases of an AGB star with a growing accretion disk which will produce collimated jets that are widely believed to sculpt the round circumstellar envelopes of AGB stars into bipolar planetary nebulae. It may evolve into a member of the class of post-AGB objects which show no extended outflows, but only circumbinary disks. HIFI observations of high-J CO lines are needed to probe the warmest and innermost circumstellar regions where the hypothesized accretion disk resides and jet launching may occur. Furthermore, the proposed CO observations, together with our existing CO J=2-1 data, will allow us to accurately constrain the CO excitation temperature, and the optical depths of the CO lines and thus the total mass of the emitting region. The disk or torus mass will provide an important constraint on its formation process (e.g., common envelope evolution or Bondi-Hoyle wind-accretion/ Roche lobe overflow.)

  12. On the effects of tidal interaction on thin accretion disks: An analytic study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dgani, R.; Livio, M.; Regev, O.

    1994-01-01

    We calculate tidal effects on two-dimensional thin accretion disks in binary systems. We apply a perturbation expansion to obtain an analytic solution of the tidally induced waves. We obtain spiral waves that are stronger at the inner parts of the disks, in addition to a local disturbance which scales like the strength of the local tidal force. Our results agree with recent calculations of the linear response of the disk to tidal interaction.

  13. An Extensive Numerical Survey of the Correlation Between Outflow Dynamics and Accretion Disk Magnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanovs, Deniss; Fendt, Christian

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the accretion-ejection process of jets from magnetized accretion disks. We apply a novel approach to the jet-launching problem in order to obtain correlations between the physical properties of the jet and the underlying disk. We extend and confirm the previous works of Tzeferacos et al. and Murphy et al. by scanning a large parameter range for the disk magnetization, {μ }{{D}}={10}-3.5...{10}-0.7. We disentangle the disk magnetization at the foot point of the outflow as the main parameter that governs the properties of the outflow. We show how the four jet integrals known from steady-state MHD are correlated to the disk magnetization at the jet foot point. This agrees with the usual findings of the steady-state theory, however, here we obtain these correlations from time-dependent simulations that include the dynamical evolution of the disk in the treatment. In particular, we obtain robust correlations between the local disk magnetization and (i) the outflow velocity, (ii) the jet mass loading, (iii) the jet angular momentum, and (iv) the local mass accretion rate. Essentially, we find that strongly magnetized disks launch more energetic and faster jets and, due to a larger Alfvén lever arm, these jets extract more angular momentum from the underlying disk. These kinds of disk-jet systems have, however, a smaller mass loading parameter and a lower mass ejection-accretion ratio. The jets are launched at the disk surface where the magnetization is μ (r,z)≃ 0.1. The magnetization rapidly increases vertically providing the energy reservoir for subsequent jet acceleration. We find indications of a critical disk magnetization {μ }{{D}}≃ 0.01 that separates the regimes of magneto-centrifugally driven and magnetic pressure-driven jets.

  14. Blocking Metal Accretion onto Population III Stars by Stellar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Shuta J.; Chiaki, Gen; Tominaga, Nozomu; Susa, Hajime

    2017-08-01

    Low-mass population III (PopIII) stars of ≲ 0.8 {M}⊙ could survive up until the present. The nondetection of low-mass PopIII stars in our Galaxy has already put a stringent constraint on the initial mass function (IMF) of PopIII stars, suggesting that PopIII stars have a top-heavy IMF. On the other hand, some claim that the lack of such stars stems from metal enrichment of their surfaces by the accretion of heavy elements from the interstellar medium (ISM). We investigate the effects of the stellar wind on metal accretion onto low-mass PopIII stars because accretion of the local ISM onto the Sun is prevented by the solar wind, even for neutrals. The stellar wind and radiation of low-mass PopIII stars are modeled based on knowledge of nearby low-mass stellar systems, including our Sun. We find that low-mass PopIII stars traveling across the Galaxy form a stellar magnetosphere in most of their life. Once the magnetosphere is formed, most of the neutral interstellar particles are photoionized before reaching the stellar surface and are blown away by the wind. Especially, the accretion abundance of iron will be reduced by a factor of < {10}-12 compared with Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton accretion. The metal accretion can enhance iron abundance [Fe/H] only up to ˜-14. This demonstrates that low-mass PopIII stars remain pristine and will be found as metal-free stars and that further searches for them are valuable in constraining the IMF of PopIII stars.

  15. A NEW PARADIGM FOR GAMMA-RAY BURSTS: LONG-TERM ACCRETION RATE MODULATION BY AN EXTERNAL ACCRETION DISK

    SciTech Connect

    Cannizzo, J. K. E-mail: gehrels@milkyway.gsfc.nasa.gov

    2009-08-01

    We present a new way of looking at the very long-term evolution of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in which the disk of material surrounding the putative black hole powering the GRB jet modulates the mass flow, and hence the efficacy of the process that extracts rotational energy from the black hole and inner accretion disk. The pre-Swift paradigm of achromatic, shallow-to-steep 'breaks' in the long-term GRB light curves has not been borne out by detailed Swift data amassed in the past several years. We argue that, given the initial existence of a fall-back disk near the progenitor, an unavoidable consequence will be the formation of an 'external disk' whose outer edge continually moves to larger radii due to angular momentum transport and lack of a confining torque. The mass reservoir at large radii moves outward with time and gives a natural power-law decay to the GRB light curves. In this model, the different canonical power-law decay segments in the GRB identified by Zhang et al. and Nousek et al. represent different physical states of the accretion disk. We identify a physical disk state with each power-law segment.

  16. A New Paradigm for Gamma Ray Bursts: Long Term Accretion Rate Modulation by an External Accretion Disk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannizzo, John; Gehrels, Neil

    2009-01-01

    We present a new way of looking at the very long term evolution of GRBs in which the disk of material surrounding the putative black hole powering the GRB jet modulates the mass flow, and hence the efficacy of the process that extracts rotational energy from the black hole and inner accretion disk. The pre-Swift paradigm of achromatic, shallow-to-steep "breaks" in the long term GRB light curves has not been borne out by detailed Swift data amassed in the past several years. We argue that, given the initial existence of a fall-back disk near the progenitor, an unavoidable consequence will be the formation of an "external disk" whose outer edge continually moves to larger radii due to angular momentum transport and lack of a confining torque. The mass reservoir at large radii moves outward with time and gives a natural power law decay to the GRB light curves. In this model, the different canonical power law decay segments in the GRB identified by Zhang et al. and Nousek et al. represent different physical states of the accretion disk. We identify a physical disk state with each power law segment.

  17. Accretion of planetary matter from debris disks around white dwarfs: the fate of planetary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deal, M.; Deheuvels, S.; Vauclair, G.; Vauclair, S.; Wachlin, F. C.

    2013-12-01

    Heavy elements are observed in the atmospheres of many DA and DB white dwarfs, and their presence is attributed to the accretion of matter coming from debris disks. Several authors have deduced accretion rates from the observed abundances, taking into account the mixing induced by the convective zones and the gravitational settling. The obtained values are different for DA and DB white dwarfs. Here we show that an important process was forgotten in all these computations: thermohaline mixing, induced by the inverse μ-gradient built during the accretion process. Taking this mixing into account leads to an increase of the derived accretion rates, specially for DA white dwarfs, and modifies the conclusions.

  18. Appearance of Jet-Driving Poynting Flux in Hot, Tenuous Accretion Disks Threaded by an Ordered Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaburaki, Osamu

    2012-04-01

    In a series of our previous studies, a model of radiatively inefficient accretion flows (RIAFs) in a global magnetic field (so-called resistive RIAF model) has proved its ability to account for many physical processes taking place in such accretion flows, as realized in the nuclei of galaxies believed to be accreting at a very small fraction of each Eddington accretion rate. Within the present status of this model, however, the model cannot describe the launch of a self-confined bipolar jet from the vicinity of the disk's inner edge, although it allows the existence of a thermal wind widely distributed over the disk surfaces. This is because the electric field (and hence the Poynting flux) vanishes everywhere in the disk, whereas such a jet in a globally ordered magnetic field is most likely to be accelerated electrodynamically. We show in the present paper that this defect can be overcome naturally if we reformulate the problem so as to admit a quasi-stationary change of the magnetic field (and hence the appearance of a non-irrotational electric field), and also restore all of the terms of order ɛ ≡ (vr/vφ)2 ≲ 1 (where vr and vφ denote the radial and azimuthal components, respectively, of the fluid velocity), which have been neglected altogether in our previous scheme. The restored effects are the inertial and magnetic draggings on the infalling matter. As an illustrative example, a model solution that is correct up to {\\cal O} (ɛ) is derived under a set of plausible restrictions. The new solution predicts the appearance of a localized Poynting flux in a region near the disk inner edge, strongly suggesting that a jet is launched from this region. Another interesting prediction is the appearance of a rapid change of the magnetic field, also localized to this region.

  19. CORONAE AND WINDS FROM IRRADIATED DISKS IN X-RAY BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Higginbottom, Nick; Proga, Daniel E-mail: dproga@physics.unlv.edu

    2015-07-01

    X-ray and UV line emission in X-ray binaries (XRBs) can be accounted for by a hot corona. Such a corona forms through irradiation of the outer disk by radiation produced in the inner accretion flow. The same irradiation can produce a strong outflow from the disk at sufficiently large radii. Outflowing gas has been recently detected in several XRBs via blueshifted absorption lines. However, the causal connection between winds produced by irradiation and the blueshifted absorption lines is problematic, particularly in the case of GRO J1655–40. Observations of this source imply wind densities about two orders of magnitude higher than theoretically predicted. This discrepancy does not mean that these “thermal disk winds” cannot explain blueshifted absorption in other systems, nor that they are unimportant as a sink of matter. Motivated by the inevitability of thermal disk winds and wealth of data taken with current observatories such as Chandra, XMM-Newton, and Suzaku, as well as the future AstroH mission, we decided to investigate the requirements to produce very dense winds. Using physical arguments, hydrodynamical simulations, and absorption-line calculations, we found that modification of the heating and cooling rates by a factor of a few results in an increase of the wind density of up to an order of magnitude and the wind velocity by a factor of about two. Therefore, the mass-loss rate from the disk can be one, if not even two, orders of magnitude higher than the accretion rate onto the central object. Such a high mass-loss rate is expected to destabilize the disk and perhaps provides a mechanism for state change.

  20. Coronae and Winds from Irradiated Disks in X-Ray Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higginbottom, Nick; Proga, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    X-ray and UV line emission in X-ray binaries (XRBs) can be accounted for by a hot corona. Such a corona forms through irradiation of the outer disk by radiation produced in the inner accretion flow. The same irradiation can produce a strong outflow from the disk at sufficiently large radii. Outflowing gas has been recently detected in several XRBs via blueshifted absorption lines. However, the causal connection between winds produced by irradiation and the blueshifted absorption lines is problematic, particularly in the case of GRO J1655-40. Observations of this source imply wind densities about two orders of magnitude higher than theoretically predicted. This discrepancy does not mean that these “thermal disk winds” cannot explain blueshifted absorption in other systems, nor that they are unimportant as a sink of matter. Motivated by the inevitability of thermal disk winds and wealth of data taken with current observatories such as Chandra, XMM-Newton, and Suzaku, as well as the future AstroH mission, we decided to investigate the requirements to produce very dense winds. Using physical arguments, hydrodynamical simulations, and absorption-line calculations, we found that modification of the heating and cooling rates by a factor of a few results in an increase of the wind density of up to an order of magnitude and the wind velocity by a factor of about two. Therefore, the mass-loss rate from the disk can be one, if not even two, orders of magnitude higher than the accretion rate onto the central object. Such a high mass-loss rate is expected to destabilize the disk and perhaps provides a mechanism for state change.

  1. Protosteller Disks Under the Influence of Winds and UV Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yorke, H. W.

    2003-01-01

    Star formation and the creation of protostellar disks generally occur in a crowded environment. Nearby young stars and protostars can influence the disks of their closets neighbors by a combination of outflows and hard radiation. The central stars themselves can have a stellar wind and may produce sufficient UV and X-ray to ultimately destroy their surrounding disks. Here we describe the results of numerical simulations of the influence that an external UV source and a central star's wind can have on its circumstellar disk. The numerical method (axial symmetry assumed) is described elsewhere. We find that protostellar disks will be destroyed on a relatively short time scale ( 10(sup 5)yr) unless they are well shielded from O-stars. Initially isotropic T-Tauri winds do not significantly influence their disks, but instead are focused toward the rotation axis by the disk wind from photoevaporation.

  2. Protosteller Disks Under the Influence of Winds and UV Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yorke, H. W.

    2003-01-01

    Star formation and the creation of protostellar disks generally occur in a crowded environment. Nearby young stars and protostars can influence the disks of their closets neighbors by a combination of outflows and hard radiation. The central stars themselves can have a stellar wind and may produce sufficient UV and X-ray to ultimately destroy their surrounding disks. Here we describe the results of numerical simulations of the influence that an external UV source and a central star's wind can have on its circumstellar disk. The numerical method (axial symmetry assumed) is described elsewhere. We find that protostellar disks will be destroyed on a relatively short time scale ( 10(sup 5)yr) unless they are well shielded from O-stars. Initially isotropic T-Tauri winds do not significantly influence their disks, but instead are focused toward the rotation axis by the disk wind from photoevaporation.

  3. Magnetic Field Roles in Black-Holes Accretion Disk's Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbassi, S.; Samadi, M.

    2016-09-01

    We study several factors which play remarkable roles in vertical structure and dynamics of hot accretion flows around black holes. These factors are large-scale magnetic field, thermal conduction, outflow and self-gravity. We consider an axisymmetric, rotating, steady viscous-resistive hot accretion flows.

  4. Inner Accretion Disk Regions of Black Hole X-ray Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvesen, Greg

    2015-01-01

    The innermost regions of accretion disks in black hole X-ray binaries dominate the observed X-ray emission, which is the main diagnostic that one uses to gain insights into the physics of black holes and accretion. The standard spectrum predicted from a geometrically thin, optically thick disk experiences non-trivial modification due to conspiring physical effects operating within the vertical disk structure such as Comptonization, free-free emission/absorption, bound-free opacities, and energy dissipation by magnetic processes. The complicated interplay of these effects cause the seed accretion disk spectrum to become hardened and it is this hardened emergent spectrum that we observe. To zeroth order, this hardening can be described by a phenomenological parameter called the spectral hardening factor.In practice, the adopted degree of spectral hardening is confined to lie within a rather restrictive range. I will discuss the following consequences of relaxing this criterion, while still requiring the spectral hardening factor to take on physically plausible values. Examining multiple state transitions of the black hole X-ray binary GX 339-4 with archival data from the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer, I will show that appealing to a spectral hardening factor that varies during state transitions provides a viable alternative to a truncated disk model for the evolution of the inner accretion disk. Having demonstrated that moderate degrees of accretion disk spectral hardening cannot be ruled out by observations, I will explore this possibility from a theoretical standpoint. Extending previous work on radiative transfer modeling coupled to the vertical disk structure, I present the impacts on the emergent accretion disk spectrum caused by disk inclination and by allowing accretion power to be dissipated in the corona. Using magnetohydrodynamic simulations of a localized patch of the accretion disk (i.e., shearing box) performed with the Athena code, I will present the

  5. Integrated accretion disk angular momentum removal and astrophysical jet acceleration mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellan, Paul

    2015-11-01

    A model has been developed for how accretion disks discard angular momentum while powering astrophysical jets. The model depends on the extremely weak ionization of disks. This causes disk ions to be collisionally locked to adjacent disk neutrals so a clump of disk ions and neutrals has an effective cyclotron frequency αωci where α is the fractional ionization. When αωci is approximately twice the Kepler orbital frequency, conservation of canonical momentum shows that the clump spirals radially inwards producing a radially inward disk electric current as electrons cannot move radially in the disk. Upon reaching the jet radius, this current then flows axially away from the disk plane along the jet, producing a toroidal magnetic field that drives the jet. Electrons remain frozen to poloidal flux surfaces everywhere and electron motion on flux surfaces in the ideal MHD region outside the disk completes the current path. Angular momentum absorbed from accreting material in the disk by magnetic counter-torque -JrBz is transported by the electric circuit and ejected at near infinite radius in the disk plane. This is like an electric generator absorbing angular momentum and wired to a distant electric motor that emits angular momentum. Supported by USDOE/NSF Partnership in Plasma Science.

  6. Orbital Evolution of Moons in Weakly Accreting Circumplanetary Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Yuri I.; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Sanemichi Z.; Gressel, Oliver

    2017-04-01

    We investigate the formation of hot and massive circumplanetary disks (CPDs) and the orbital evolution of satellites formed in these disks. Because of the comparatively small size-scale of the sub-disk, quick magnetic diffusion prevents the magnetorotational instability (MRI) from being well developed at ionization levels that would allow MRI in the parent protoplanetary disk. In the absence of significant angular momentum transport, continuous mass supply from the parental protoplanetary disk leads to the formation of a massive CPD. We have developed an evolutionary model for this scenario and have estimated the orbital evolution of satellites within the disk. We find, in a certain temperature range, that inward migration of a satellite can be stopped by a change in the structure due to the opacity transitions. Moreover, by capturing second and third migrating satellites in mean motion resonances, a compact system in Laplace resonance can be formed in our disk models.

  7. A Hot and Massive Accretion Disk around the High-mass Protostar IRAS 20126+4104

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huei-Ru Vivien; Keto, Eric; Zhang, Qizhou; Sridharan, T. K.; Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Su, Yu-Nung

    2016-06-01

    We present new spectral line observations of the CH3CN molecule in the accretion disk around the massive protostar IRAS 20126+4104 with the Submillimeter Array, which, for the first time, measure the disk density, temperature, and rotational velocity with sufficient resolution (0.″37, equivalent to ˜600 au) to assess the gravitational stability of the disk through the Toomre-Q parameter. Our observations resolve the central 2000 au region that shows steeper velocity gradients with increasing upper state energy, indicating an increase in the rotational velocity of the hotter gas nearer the star. Such spin-up motions are characteristics of an accretion flow in a rotationally supported disk. We compare the observed data with synthetic image cubes produced by three-dimensional radiative transfer models describing a thin flared disk in Keplerian motion enveloped within the centrifugal radius of an angular-momentum-conserving accretion flow. Given a luminosity of 1.3 × 104 L ⊙, the optimized model gives a disk mass of 1.5 M ⊙ and a radius of 858 au rotating about a 12.0 M ⊙ protostar with a disk mass accretion rate of 3.9 × 10-5 M ⊙ yr-1. Our study finds that, in contrast to some theoretical expectations, the disk is hot and stable to fragmentation with Q > 2.8 at all radii which permits a smooth accretion flow. These results put forward the first constraints on gravitational instabilities in massive protostellar disks, which are closely connected to the formation of companion stars and planetary systems by fragmentation.

  8. Binary Black Hole Accretion from a Circumbinary Disk: Gas Dynamics inside the Central Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farris, Brian D.; Duffell, Paul; MacFadyen, Andrew I.; Haiman, Zoltan

    2014-03-01

    We present the results of two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamical simulations of circumbinary disk accretion using the finite-volume code DISCO. This code solves the 2D viscous Navier-Stokes equations on a high-resolution moving mesh which shears with the fluid flow, greatly reducing advection errors in comparison with a fixed grid. We perform a series of simulations for binary mass ratios in the range 0.026 <= q <= 1.0, each lasting longer than a viscous time so that we reach a quasi-steady accretion state. In each case, we find that gas is efficiently stripped from the inner edge of the circumbinary disk and enters the cavity along accretion streams, which feed persistent "mini disks" surrounding each black hole. We find that for q >~ 0.1, the binary excites eccentricity in the inner region of the circumbinary disk, creating an overdense lump which gives rise to enhanced periodicity in the accretion rate. The dependence of the periodicity on mass ratio may provide a method for observationally inferring mass ratios from measurements of the accretion rate. We also find that for all mass ratios studied, the magnitude of the accretion onto the secondary is sufficient to drive the binary toward larger mass ratio. This suggests a mechanism for biasing mass-ratio distributions toward equal mass.

  9. Binary black hole accretion from a circumbinary disk: Gas dynamics inside the central cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Farris, Brian D.; Duffell, Paul; MacFadyen, Andrew I.; Haiman, Zoltan

    2014-03-10

    We present the results of two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamical simulations of circumbinary disk accretion using the finite-volume code DISCO. This code solves the 2D viscous Navier-Stokes equations on a high-resolution moving mesh which shears with the fluid flow, greatly reducing advection errors in comparison with a fixed grid. We perform a series of simulations for binary mass ratios in the range 0.026 ≤ q ≤ 1.0, each lasting longer than a viscous time so that we reach a quasi-steady accretion state. In each case, we find that gas is efficiently stripped from the inner edge of the circumbinary disk and enters the cavity along accretion streams, which feed persistent 'mini disks' surrounding each black hole. We find that for q ≳ 0.1, the binary excites eccentricity in the inner region of the circumbinary disk, creating an overdense lump which gives rise to enhanced periodicity in the accretion rate. The dependence of the periodicity on mass ratio may provide a method for observationally inferring mass ratios from measurements of the accretion rate. We also find that for all mass ratios studied, the magnitude of the accretion onto the secondary is sufficient to drive the binary toward larger mass ratio. This suggests a mechanism for biasing mass-ratio distributions toward equal mass.

  10. Can neutron stars have auroras ? : electromagnetic coupling process between neutron star and magnetized accretion disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, T.; Iwakiri, W. B.; Enoto, T.; Wada, T.; Tao, C.

    2015-12-01

    In the binary neutron star system, angular momentum transfer from accretion disk to a star is essential process for spin-up/down of stars. The angular momentum transfer has been well formulated for the accretion disk strongly magnetized by the neutron star [e.g., Ghosh and Lamb, 1978, 1979a, b]. However, the electromagnetic (EM) coupling between the neutron star and accretion disk has not been self-consistently solved in the previous studies although the magnetic field lines from the star are strongly tied with the accretion disk. In this study, we applied the planet-magnetosphere coupling process established for Jupiter [Hill, 1979] to the binary neutron star system. Angular momentum distribution is solved based on the torque balance between the neutron star's surface and accretion disk coupled by the magnetic field tensions. We found the EM coupling can transfer significantly larger fraction of the angular momentum from the magnetized accretion disk to the star than the unmagnetized case. The resultant spin-up rate is estimated to ~10^-14 [sec/sec] for the nominal binary system parameters, which is comparable with or larger than the other common spin-down/up processes: e.g., the magnetic dipole radiation spin-down. The Joule heating energy dissipated in the EM coupling is estimated to be up to ~10^36 [erg/sec] for the nominal binary system parameters. The release is comparable to that of gravitation energy directly caused by the matters accreting onto the neutron star. This suggests the EM coupling at the neutron star can accompany the observable radiation as auroras with a similar manner to those at the rotating planetary magnetospheres like Jupiter, Saturn, and other gas giants.

  11. TRUNCATION OF THE INNER ACCRETION DISK AROUND A BLACK HOLE AT LOW LUMINOSITY

    SciTech Connect

    Tomsick, John A.; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Corbel, Stephane; Kaaret, Philip; Kalemci, Emrah; Migliari, Simone

    2009-12-10

    Most black hole binaries show large changes in X-ray luminosity caused primarily by variations in mass accretion rate. An important question for understanding black hole accretion and jet production is whether the inner edge of the accretion disk recedes at low accretion rate. Measurements of the location of the inner edge (R {sub in}) can be made using iron emission lines that arise due to fluorescence of iron in the disk, and these indicate that R {sub in} is very close to the black hole at high and moderate luminosities (approx>1% of the Eddington luminosity, L {sub Edd}). Here, we report on X-ray observations of the black hole GX 339 - 4 in the hard state by Suzaku and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer that extend iron line studies to 0.14% L {sub Edd} and show that R {sub in} increases by a factor of >27 over the value found when GX 339 - 4 was bright. The exact value of R {sub in} depends on the inclination of the inner disk (i), and we derive 90% confidence limits of R {sub in} > 35R{sub g} at i = 0{sup 0} and R {sub in} > 175R{sub g} at i = 30{sup 0}. This provides direct evidence that the inner portion of the disk is not present at low luminosity, allowing for the possibility that the inner disk is replaced by advection- or magnetically dominated accretion flows.

  12. Alignments Of Black Holes with Their Warped Accretion Disks and Episodic Lifetimes of Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan-Rong; Wang, Jian-Min; Cheng, Cheng; Qiu, Jie

    2015-05-01

    Warped accretion disks have attracted intense attention because of their critical role in shaping the spin of supermassive massive black holes (SMBHs) through the Bardeen-Petterson effect, a general relativistic effect that leads to final alignments or anti-alignments between black holes and warped accretion disks. We study such alignment processes by explicitly taking into account the finite sizes of accretion disks and the episodic lifetimes of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) that delineate the duration of gas fueling onto accretion disks. We employ an approximate global model to simulate the evolution of accretion disks, allowing us to determine the gravitomagnetic torque that drives the alignments in a simple way. We then track down the evolutionary paths for mass and spin of black holes both in a single activity episode and over a series of episodes. Given with randomly and isotropically oriented gas fueling over episodes, we calculate the spin evolution with different episodic lifetimes and find that it is quite sensitive to the lifetimes. We therefore propose that the spin distribution of SMBHs can place constraints on the episodic lifetimes of AGNs and vice versa. The applications of our results on the observed spin distributions of SMBHs and the observed episodic lifetimes of AGNs are discussed, although both measurements at present are too ambiguous for us to draw a firm conclusion. Our prescription can be easily incorporated into semi-analytic models for black hole growth and spin evolution.

  13. Dynamics of accretion disks in a constant curvature f(R)-gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alipour, N.; Khesali, A. R.; Nozari, K.

    2016-07-01

    So far the basic physical properties of matter forming a thin accretion disc in the static and spherically symmetric space-time metric of the vacuum f(R) modified gravity models (Pun et al. in Phys. Rev. D 78:024043, 2008) and building radiative models of thin accretion disks for both Schwarzschild and Kerr black holes in f(R) gravity (Perez et al. in Astron. Astrophys. 551:4, 2013) were addressed properly. Also von Zeipel surfaces and convective instabilities in f(R)-Schwarzschild(Kerr) background have been investigated recently (Alipour et al. in Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 454:1992, 2015). In this streamline, here we study the effects of radial and angular pressure gradients on thick accretion disks in Schwarzschild geometries in a constant curvature f(R) modified gravity. Since thick accretion disks have high accretion rate, we study configuration and structure of thick disks by focusing on the effect of pressure gradient on formation of the disks. We clarify our study by assuming two types of equation of state: polytropic and Clapeyron equation of states.

  14. ALIGNMENTS OF BLACK HOLES WITH THEIR WARPED ACCRETION DISKS AND EPISODIC LIFETIMES OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yan-Rong; Wang, Jian-Min; Qiu, Jie; Cheng, Cheng

    2015-05-01

    Warped accretion disks have attracted intense attention because of their critical role in shaping the spin of supermassive massive black holes (SMBHs) through the Bardeen–Petterson effect, a general relativistic effect that leads to final alignments or anti-alignments between black holes and warped accretion disks. We study such alignment processes by explicitly taking into account the finite sizes of accretion disks and the episodic lifetimes of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) that delineate the duration of gas fueling onto accretion disks. We employ an approximate global model to simulate the evolution of accretion disks, allowing us to determine the gravitomagnetic torque that drives the alignments in a simple way. We then track down the evolutionary paths for mass and spin of black holes both in a single activity episode and over a series of episodes. Given with randomly and isotropically oriented gas fueling over episodes, we calculate the spin evolution with different episodic lifetimes and find that it is quite sensitive to the lifetimes. We therefore propose that the spin distribution of SMBHs can place constraints on the episodic lifetimes of AGNs and vice versa. The applications of our results on the observed spin distributions of SMBHs and the observed episodic lifetimes of AGNs are discussed, although both measurements at present are too ambiguous for us to draw a firm conclusion. Our prescription can be easily incorporated into semi-analytic models for black hole growth and spin evolution.

  15. RADIATION PRESSURE-SUPPORTED ACCRETION DISKS: VERTICAL STRUCTURE, ENERGY ADVECTION, AND CONVECTIVE STABILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Gu Weimin

    2012-07-10

    By taking into account the local energy balance per unit volume between the viscous heating and the advective cooling plus the radiative cooling, we investigate the vertical structure of radiation pressure-supported accretion disks in spherical coordinates. Our solutions show that the photosphere of the disk is close to the polar axis and therefore the disk seems to be extremely thick. However, the density profile implies that most of the accreted matter exists in a moderate range around the equatorial plane. We show that the well-known polytropic relation between the pressure and the density is unsuitable for describing the vertical structure of radiation pressure-supported disks. More importantly, we find that the energy advection is significant even for slightly sub-Eddington accretion disks. We argue that the non-negligible advection may help us understand why the standard thin disk model is likely to be inaccurate above {approx}0.3 Eddington luminosity, which was found by some works on black hole spin measurement. Furthermore, the solutions satisfy the Solberg-Hoiland conditions, which indicate the disk to be convectively stable. In addition, we discuss the possible link between our disk model and ultraluminous X-ray sources.

  16. Testing the Propagating Fluctuations Model with a Long, Global Accretion Disk Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogg, J. Drew; Reynolds, Christopher S.

    2016-07-01

    The broadband variability of many accreting systems displays characteristic structures; log-normal flux distributions, root-mean square (rms)-flux relations, and long inter-band lags. These characteristics are usually interpreted as inward propagating fluctuations of the mass accretion rate in an accretion disk driven by stochasticity of the angular momentum transport mechanism. We present the first analysis of propagating fluctuations in a long-duration, high-resolution, global three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation of a geometrically thin (h/r ≈ 0.1) accretion disk around a black hole. While the dynamical-timescale turbulent fluctuations in the Maxwell stresses are too rapid to drive radially coherent fluctuations in the accretion rate, we find that the low-frequency quasi-periodic dynamo action introduces low-frequency fluctuations in the Maxwell stresses, which then drive the propagating fluctuations. Examining both the mass accretion rate and emission proxies, we recover log-normality, linear rms-flux relations, and radial coherence that would produce inter-band lags. Hence, we successfully relate and connect the phenomenology of propagating fluctuations to modern MHD accretion disk theory.

  17. STUDIES OF THERMALLY UNSTABLE ACCRETION DISKS AROUND BLACK HOLES WITH ADAPTIVE PSEUDOSPECTRAL DOMAIN DECOMPOSITION METHOD. II. LIMIT-CYCLE BEHAVIOR IN ACCRETION DISKS AROUND KERR BLACK HOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Xue Li; Lu Jufu; Sadowski, Aleksander; Abramowicz, Marek A. E-mail: lujf@xmu.edu.cn

    2011-07-01

    For the first time ever, we derive equations governing the time evolution of fully relativistic slim accretion disks in the Kerr metric and numerically construct their detailed non-stationary models. We discuss applications of these general results to a possible limit-cycle behavior of thermally unstable disks. Our equations and numerical method are applicable in a wide class of possible viscosity prescriptions, but in this paper we use a diffusive form of the 'standard alpha prescription' that assumes that the viscous torque is proportional to the total pressure. In this particular case, we find that the parameters that dominate the limit-cycle properties are the mass-supply rate and the value of the alpha-viscosity parameter. Although the duration of the cycle (or the outburst) does not exhibit any clear dependence on the black hole spin, the maximal outburst luminosity (in the Eddington units) is positively correlated with the spin value. We suggest a simple method for a rough estimate of the black hole spin based on the maximal luminosity and the ratio of outburst to cycle durations. We also discuss a temperature-luminosity relation for the Kerr black hole accretion disk limit cycle. Based on these results, we discuss the limit-cycle behavior observed in microquasar GRS 1915+105. We also extend this study to several non-standard viscosity prescriptions, including a 'delayed heating' prescription recently addressed by the MHD simulations of accretion disks.

  18. FUV Irradiation and the Heat Signature of Accretion in Protoplanetary Disk Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najita, Joan R.; Ádámkovics, Máté

    2017-09-01

    Although stars accrete mass throughout the first few million years of their lives, the physical mechanism that drives disk accretion in the T Tauri phase is uncertain, and diagnostics that probe the nature of disk accretion have been elusive, particularly in the planet formation region of the disk. Here we explore whether an accretion process such as the magnetorotational instability (MRI) could be detected through its “heat signature,” the energy it deposits in the disk atmosphere. To examine this possibility, we investigate the impact of accretion-related mechanical heating and energetic stellar irradiation (FUV and X-rays) on the thermal-chemical properties of disk atmospheres at planet formation distances. We find that stellar FUV irradiation ({Ly}α and continuum), through its role in heating and photodissociation, affects much of the upper warm (400–2000 K) molecular layer of the atmosphere, and the properties of the layer are generally in good agreement with the observed molecular emission features of disks at UV, near-infrared, and mid-infrared wavelengths. At the same time, the effect of FUV irradiation is restricted to the upper molecular layer of the disk, even when irradiation by {Ly}α is included. The region immediately below the FUV-heated layer is potentially dominated by accretion-related mechanical heating. As cooler (90–400 K) CO, water, and other molecules are potential diagnostics of the mechanically heated layer, emission line studies of these diagnostics might be used to search for evidence of the MRI in action.

  19. GLOBAL MODELING OF RADIATIVELY DRIVEN ACCRETION OF METALS FROM COMPACT DEBRIS DISKS ONTO WHITE DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Bochkarev, Konstantin V.; Rafikov, Roman R. E-mail: rrr@astro.princeton.edu

    2011-11-01

    Recent infrared observations have revealed the presence of compact (radii {approx}< R{sub sun}) debris disks around more than a dozen metal-rich white dwarfs (WDs), likely produced by a tidal disruption of asteroids. Accretion of high-Z material from these disks may account for the metal contamination of these WDs. It was previously shown using local calculations that the Poynting-Robertson (PR) drag acting on the dense, optically thick disk naturally drives metal accretion onto the WD at the typical rate M-dot{sub PR}{approx}10{sup 8} g s{sup -1}. Here we extend this local analysis by exploring the global evolution of the debris disk under the action of the PR drag for a variety of assumptions about the disk properties. We find that massive disks (mass {approx}> 10{sup 20} g), which are optically thick to incident stellar radiation, inevitably give rise to metal accretion at rates M-dot {approx}>0.2 M-dot{sub PR}. The magnitude of M-dot and its time evolution are determined predominantly by the initial pattern of the radial distribution of the debris (i.e., ring-like versus disk-like) but not by the total mass of the disk. The latter determines only the disk lifetime, which can be several Myr or longer. The evolution of an optically thick disk generically results in the development of a sharp outer edge of the disk. We also find that the low-mass ({approx}< 10{sup 20} g), optically thin disks exhibit M-dot << M-dot{sub PR} and evolve on a characteristic timescale {approx}10{sup 5}-10{sup 6} yr, independent of their total mass.

  20. ANISOTROPY OF X-RAY BURSTS FROM NEUTRON STARS WITH CONCAVE ACCRETION DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    He, C.-C.; Keek, L.

    2016-03-01

    Emission from neutron stars and accretion disks in low-mass X-ray binaries is anisotropic. The non-spherical shape of the disk as well as blocking of the neutron star by the disk make the observed flux dependent on the inclination angle of the disk with respect to the line of sight. This is of importance for the interpretation of thermonuclear X-ray bursts from neutron stars. Because part of the X-ray burst is reflected off the disk, the observed burst flux depends on the anisotropies for both direct emission from the neutron star and reflection off the disk. This influences measurements of source distance, mass accretion rate, and constraints on the neutron star’s equation of state. Previous predictions of the anisotropy factors assumed a geometrically flat disk. Detailed observations of two so-called superbursts allowed for the direct and the reflected burst fluxes to each be measured separately. The reflection fraction was much higher than what the anisotropies of a flat disk can account for. We create numerical models to calculate the anisotropy factors for different disk shapes, including concave disks. We present the anisotropy factors of the direct and reflected burst fluxes separately, as well as the anisotropy of the persistent flux. Reflection fractions substantially larger than unity are produced in the case where the inner accretion disk increases steeply in height, such that part of the star is blocked from view. Such a geometry could possibly be induced by the X-ray burst if X-ray heating causes the inner disk to puff up.

  1. RELATIVISTIC LINES AND REFLECTION FROM THE INNER ACCRETION DISKS AROUND NEUTRON STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Cackett, Edward M.; Miller, Jon M.; Ballantyne, David R.; Barret, Didier; Boutelier, Martin; Miller, M. Coleman; Strohmayer, Tod E.

    2010-09-01

    A number of neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) have recently been discovered to show broad, asymmetric Fe K emission lines in their X-ray spectra. These lines are generally thought to be the most prominent part of a reflection spectrum, originating in the inner part of the accretion disk where strong relativistic effects can broaden emission lines. We present a comprehensive, systematic analysis of Suzaku and XMM-Newton spectra of 10 neutron star LMXBs, all of which display broad Fe K emission lines. Of the 10 sources, 4 are Z sources, 4 are atolls, and 2 are accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars (also atolls). The Fe K lines are fit well by a relativistic line model for a Schwarzschild metric, and imply a narrow range of inner disk radii (6-15 GM/c {sup 2}) in most cases. This implies that the accretion disk extends close to the neutron star surface over a range of luminosities. Continuum modeling shows that for the majority of observations, a blackbody component (plausibly associated with the boundary layer) dominates the X-ray emission from 8 to 20 keV. Thus it appears likely that this spectral component produces the majority of the ionizing flux that illuminates the accretion disk. Therefore, we also fit the spectra with a blurred reflection model, wherein a blackbody component illuminates the disk. This model fits well in most cases, supporting the idea that the boundary layer illuminates a geometrically thin disk.

  2. Relativistic Lines and Reflection from the Inner Accretion Disks Around Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cackett, Edward M.; Miller, Jon M.; Ballantyne, David R.; Barret, Didier; Bhattacharyya, Sudip; Boutelier, Martin; Miller, M. Coleman; Strohmayer, Tod E.; Wijnands, Rudy

    2010-09-01

    A number of neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) have recently been discovered to show broad, asymmetric Fe K emission lines in their X-ray spectra. These lines are generally thought to be the most prominent part of a reflection spectrum, originating in the inner part of the accretion disk where strong relativistic effects can broaden emission lines. We present a comprehensive, systematic analysis of Suzaku and XMM-Newton spectra of 10 neutron star LMXBs, all of which display broad Fe K emission lines. Of the 10 sources, 4 are Z sources, 4 are atolls, and 2 are accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars (also atolls). The Fe K lines are fit well by a relativistic line model for a Schwarzschild metric, and imply a narrow range of inner disk radii (6-15 GM/c 2) in most cases. This implies that the accretion disk extends close to the neutron star surface over a range of luminosities. Continuum modeling shows that for the majority of observations, a blackbody component (plausibly associated with the boundary layer) dominates the X-ray emission from 8 to 20 keV. Thus it appears likely that this spectral component produces the majority of the ionizing flux that illuminates the accretion disk. Therefore, we also fit the spectra with a blurred reflection model, wherein a blackbody component illuminates the disk. This model fits well in most cases, supporting the idea that the boundary layer illuminates a geometrically thin disk.

  3. Towards Bayesian Machine Learning for Estimating Parameters of Accretion Disk Models for SPH Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goel, Amit; Montgomery, Michele; Wiegand, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Accretion disks are ubiquitous in Active Galactic Nuclei, in protostellar systems forming protoplanets, and in close binary star systems such as X-ray binaries, Cataclysmic Variables, and Algols, for example. Observations such as disk tilt are found in all of these different accreting system types, suggesting a common physics must be present. To understand the common connections between these different system types, which can help us understand their unique evolutions, we need to better understand the physics of accretion. For example, viscosity is typically a constant value in the disk of a system that is in a specific state such as a quiescent state. However, viscosity can't be constant throughout the disk, especially at the boundaries. To learn more about viscosity and other common parameters in these disk, we use Bayesian Inference and Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques to make predictions of events to come in the numerical simulations of these accreting disks. In this work, we present our techniques and initial findings.

  4. An Extreme X-ray Disk Wind in the Black Hole Candidate IGR J17091-3624

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, A. L.; Miller, J. M.; Raymond, J.; Fabian, A. C.; Reynolds, C. S.; Kallman, T. R.; Maitra, D.; Cackett, E. M.; Rupen, M. P.

    2012-01-01

    Chandra spectroscopy of transient stellar-mass black holes in outburst has clearly revealed accretion disk winds in soft, disk-dominated states, in apparent anti-correlation with relativistic jets in low/hard states. These disk winds are observed to be highly ionized. dense. and to have typical velocities of approx 1000 km/s or less projected along our line of sight. Here. we present an analysis of two Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating spectra of the Galactic black hole candidate IGR J17091-3624 and contemporaneous EVLA radio observations. obtained in 2011. The second Chandra observation reveals an absorption line at 6.91+/-0.01 keV; associating this line with He-like Fe XXV requires a blue-shift of 9300(+500/-400) km/ s (0.03c. or the escape velocity at 1000 R(sub schw)). This projected outflow velocity is an order of magnitude higher than has previously been observed in stellar-mass black holes, and is broadly consistent with some of the fastest winds detected in active galactic nuclei. A potential feature at 7.32 keV, if due to Fe XXVI, would imply a velocity of approx 14600 km/s (0.05c), but this putative feature is marginal. Photoionization modeling suggests that the accretion disk wind in IGR J17091-3624 may originate within 43,300 Schwarzschild radii of the black hole, and may be expelling more gas than accretes. The contemporaneous EVLA observations strongly indicate that jet activity was indeed quenched at the time of our Chandra observations. We discuss the results in the context of disk winds, jets, and basic accretion disk physics in accreting black hole systems

  5. AN EXTREME X-RAY DISK WIND IN THE BLACK HOLE CANDIDATE IGR J17091-3624

    SciTech Connect

    King, A. L.; Miller, J. M.; Maitra, D.; Raymond, J.; Fabian, A. C.; Cackett, E. M.; Reynolds, C. S.; Kallman, T. R.; Rupen, M. P.

    2012-02-20

    Chandra spectroscopy of transient stellar-mass black holes in outburst has clearly revealed accretion disk winds in soft, disk-dominated states, in apparent anti-correlation with relativistic jets in low/hard states. These disk winds are observed to be highly ionized, dense, and to have typical velocities of {approx}1000 km s{sup -1} or less projected along our line of sight. Here, we present an analysis of two Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating spectra of the Galactic black hole candidate IGR J17091-3624 and contemporaneous Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA) radio observations, obtained in 2011. The second Chandra observation reveals an absorption line at 6.91 {+-} 0.01 keV; associating this line with He-like Fe XXV requires a blueshift of 9300{sup +500}{sub -400} km s{sup -1} (0.03c, or the escape velocity at 1000 R{sub Schw}). This projected outflow velocity is an order of magnitude higher than has previously been observed in stellar-mass black holes, and is broadly consistent with some of the fastest winds detected in active galactic nuclei. A potential feature at 7.32 keV, if due to Fe XXVI, would imply a velocity of {approx}14, 600 km s{sup -1} (0.05c), but this putative feature is marginal. Photoionization modeling suggests that the accretion disk wind in IGR J17091-3624 may originate within 43,300 Schwarzschild radii of the black hole and may be expelling more gas than it accretes. The contemporaneous EVLA observations strongly indicate that jet activity was indeed quenched at the time of our Chandra observations. We discuss the results in the context of disk winds, jets, and basic accretion disk physics in accreting black hole systems.

  6. Diffusive Particle Acceleration in Shocked, Viscous Accretion Disks: Green's Function Energy Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Peter A.; Das, Santabrata; Le, Truong

    2011-12-01

    The acceleration of relativistic particles in a viscous accretion disk containing a standing shock is investigated as a possible explanation for the energetic outflows observed around radio-loud black holes. The energy/space distribution of the accelerated particles is computed by solving a transport equation that includes the effects of first-order Fermi acceleration, bulk advection, spatial diffusion, and particle escape. The velocity profile of the accreting gas is described using a model for shocked viscous disks recently developed by the authors, and the corresponding Green's function distribution for the accelerated particles in the disk and the outflow is obtained using a classical method based on eigenfunction analysis. The accretion-driven, diffusive shock acceleration scenario explored here is conceptually similar to the standard model for the acceleration of cosmic rays at supernova-driven shocks. However, in the disk application, the distribution of the accelerated particles is much harder than would be expected for a plane-parallel shock with the same compression ratio. Hence the disk environment plays a key role in enhancing the efficiency of the shock acceleration process. The presence of the shock helps to stabilize the disk by reducing the Bernoulli parameter, while channeling the excess binding energy into the escaping relativistic particles. In applications to M87 and Sgr A*, we find that the kinetic power in the jet is {\\sim}0.01\\,\\dot{M} c^2, and the outflowing relativistic particles have a mean energy ~300 times larger than that of the thermal gas in the disk at the shock radius. Our results suggest that a standing shock may be an essential ingredient in accretion onto underfed black holes, helping to resolve the long-standing problem of the stability of advection-dominated accretion disks.

  7. Density, Velocity and Ionization Structure in Accretion-disc Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Knox

    We propose to exploit the unique capabilities of it FUSE to monitor variations in the wind-formed spectral lines of 3 luminous, low-inclination, cataclysmic variables (CVs). Our principal goal is to improve our understanding of the dynamics of accretion-disc winds. We have previously used HST to investigate substantial and rapid (sim hours to minutes) variability in our target stars, BZ Cam, RW Sex and V603 Aql, and have demonstrated that their disc-outflows are highly structured. We aim here to follow up our discoveries by securing FUSE time-series data. These observations will allow us to determine the relative roles of density and ionization state changes in the outflow and to search for spectroscopic signatures of stochastic small-scale structure and shocked gas. By monitoring the temporal behavior of blue-ward extended absorption lines with a wide range of ionization potentials and excitation energies, we will track the changing physical conditions in the outflow. A new sophisticated Monte Carlo code will be used to calculate the ionization structure of and radiative transfer through CV winds. This will allow us to establish the wind geometry, kinematics and ionization state, both in a time-averaged sense and as a function of time. Our FUSE observations will provide a legacy that will be fundamental to the development of dynamical models of accretion-disc-driven winds, permitting critical tests of recent hydrodynamic simulations of unstable, line-driven disc winds.

  8. Radiation hydrodynamic simulations of line-driven disk winds for ultra-fast outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Mariko; Ohsuga, Ken; Takahashi, Hiroyuki R.; Wada, Keiichi; Yoshida, Tessei

    2016-02-01

    Using two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic simulations, we investigate the origin of the ultra-fast outflows (UFOs) that are often observed in luminous active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We found that the radiation force due to the spectral lines generates strong winds (line-driven disk winds) that are launched from the inner region of accretion disks (˜30 Schwarzschild radii). A wide range of black hole masses (MBH) and Eddington ratios (ε) was investigated to study the conditions causing the line-driven winds. For MBH = 106-109 M⊙ and ε = 0.1-0.7, funnel-shaped disk winds appear, in which dense matter is accelerated outward with an opening angle of 70°-80° and with 10% of the speed of light. If we observe the wind along its direction, the velocity, the column density, and the ionization state are consistent with those of the observed UFOs. As long as obscuration by the torus does not affect the observation of X-ray bands, the UFOs could be statistically observed in about 13%-28% of the luminous AGNs, which is not inconsistent with the observed ratio (˜40%). We also found that the results are insensitive to the X-ray luminosity and the density of the disk surface. Thus, we can conclude that UFOs could exist in any luminous AGNs, such as narrow-line Seyfert 1s and quasars with ε > 0.1, with which fast line-driven winds are associated.

  9. Critical condition for the propeller effect in systems with magnetized neutron stars accreting from geometrically thin accretion disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertan, Unal

    2016-07-01

    The inner disk radius around a magnetized neutron star in the spin-down phase is usually assumed to be close to the radius at which the viscous and magnetic stresses are balanced. With different assumptions, this radius is estimated to be very close the Alfven radius. Furthermore, it is commonly assumed that the propeller mechanism can expel the matter from the system when this radius is found to be greater than the co-rotation radius. In the present work, we have shown with simple analytical calculations from the first principles that a steady-state propeller mechanism cannot be established at the radius where the viscous and the magnetic torques are balanced. We have found that a steady-state propeller phase can be built up with an inner disk radius that is at least ~10 - 30 times smaller than the Alfven radius depending on the current mass-flow rate of the disk, the field strength and the rotational period of the source. This result also indicates that the critical accretion rate for the accretion-propeller transition is orders of magnitude smaller than the rate found by equating the Alfven and the co-rotation radii. Our results are consistent with the properties of recently discovered transitional millisecond pulsars which show transitions between the rotational powered radio pulsar and the accretion powered X-ray pulsar states.

  10. Lightman-Eardley instabilities and accretion disk thickening. [for compact astronomical objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoeger, W. R.

    1979-01-01

    After reviewing the role of Compton scattering in accretion disks around black holes, it is discussed whether Lightman-Eardley (LE) secular instabilities can trigger and maintain Pringle-Rees (PR) thermal instabilities. The radiative-transfer-equation and equation-of-state criteria for LE stability in alpha-viscosity-law disk models and dynamic viscosity criteria for more general situations is derived. On the basis of these considerations the LE instability is insufficient for inducing PR instabilities and hot thick inner regions important in accretion-disk models of compact hard X-ray sources. The density thinning due to radial velocity gradients in the accretion flow is suggested as a more likely and satisfactory mechanism.

  11. Lightman-Eardley instabilities and accretion disk thickening. [for compact astronomical objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoeger, W. R.

    1979-01-01

    After reviewing the role of Compton scattering in accretion disks around black holes, it is discussed whether Lightman-Eardley (LE) secular instabilities can trigger and maintain Pringle-Rees (PR) thermal instabilities. The radiative-transfer-equation and equation-of-state criteria for LE stability in alpha-viscosity-law disk models and dynamic viscosity criteria for more general situations is derived. On the basis of these considerations the LE instability is insufficient for inducing PR instabilities and hot thick inner regions important in accretion-disk models of compact hard X-ray sources. The density thinning due to radial velocity gradients in the accretion flow is suggested as a more likely and satisfactory mechanism.

  12. USING MEGAMASER DISKS TO PROBE BLACK HOLE ACCRETION

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, Jenny E.; Sun Ailei; Seth, Anil; Den Brok, Mark; Braatz, James A.; Impellizzeri, C. M. Violette; Lo, K. Y.; Henkel, Christian; Peng, Chien Y.; Kuo, Cheng-Yu

    2013-07-10

    We examine the alignment between H{sub 2}O megamaser disks on subparsec scales with circumnuclear disks and bars on <500 pc scales observed with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/WFC3. The HST imaging reveals young stars, indicating the presence of gas. The megamaser disks are not well aligned with the circumnuclear bars or disks as traced by stars in the HST images. We speculate on the implications of the observed misalignments for fueling supermassive black holes in gas-rich spiral galaxies. In contrast, we find a strong preference for the rotation axes of the megamaser disks to align with radio continuum jets observed on {approx}> 50 pc scales, in those galaxies for which radio continuum detections are available. Subarcsecond observations of molecular gas with ALMA will enable a more complete understanding of the interplay between circumnuclear structures.

  13. Evidence for large temperature fluctuations in quasar accretion disks from spectral variability

    SciTech Connect

    Ruan, John J.; Anderson, Scott F.; Agol, Eric; Dexter, Jason

    2014-03-10

    The well-known bluer-when-brighter trend observed in quasar variability is a signature of the complex processes in the accretion disk and can be a probe of the quasar variability mechanism. Using a sample of 604 variable quasars with repeat spectra in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-I/II (SDSS), we construct difference spectra to investigate the physical causes of this bluer-when-brighter trend. The continuum of our composite difference spectrum is well fit by a power law, with a spectral index in excellent agreement with previous results. We measure the spectral variability relative to the underlying spectra of the quasars, which is independent of any extinction, and compare to model predictions. We show that our SDSS spectral variability results cannot be produced by global accretion rate fluctuations in a thin disk alone. However, we find that a simple model of an inhomogeneous disk with localized temperature fluctuations will produce power-law spectral variability over optical wavelengths. We show that the inhomogeneous disk will provide good fits to our observed spectral variability if the disk has large temperature fluctuations in many independently varying zones, in excellent agreement with independent constraints from quasar microlensing disk sizes, their strong UV spectral continuum, and single-band variability amplitudes. Our results provide an independent constraint on quasar variability models and add to the mounting evidence that quasar accretion disks have large localized temperature fluctuations.

  14. The Evolution of the Accretion Disk Around 4U 1820-30 During a Superburst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballantyne, D. R.; Strohmayer, T. E.

    2004-01-01

    Accretion from a disk onto a collapsed, relativistic star - a neutron star or black hole - is the mechanism widely believed to be responsible for the emission from compact X-ray binaries. Because of the extreme spatial resolution required, it is not yet possible to directly observe the evolution or dynamics of the inner parts of the accretion disk where general relativistic effects are dominant. Here, we use the bright X-ray emission from a superburst on the surface of the neutron star 4U 1820-30 as a spotlight to illuminate the disk surface. The X-rays cause iron atoms in the disk t o fluoresce, allowing a determination of the ionization state, covering factor and inner radius of the disk over the course of the burst. The time-resolved spectral fitting shows that the inner region of the disk is disrupted by the burst, possibly being heated into a thicker, more tenuous flow, before recovering its previous form in approximately 1000 s. This marks the first instance that the evolution of the inner regions of an accretion disk has been observed in real-time.

  15. A Spectrum Synthesis Program for Binary Stars with Optically Thick Accretion Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linnell, A. P.; Hubeny, I.

    1994-12-01

    We recently reported a spectrum synthesis program for binary stars (Linnell & Hubeny, 1994, ApJ, 434, Oct.20). That program now has been extended to include the case of an optically thick accretion disk associated with either of the two stellar components. Our model of the accretion disk uses the Pringle expression (Pringle, 1981, ARA&A, 19, 137) for T_eff values on the accretion disk face, and the results of Hubeny and Plavec (1981, ApJ, 102, 1156) for rim T_eff values. The treatment of the stellar components is the same as in our 1994 paper. The program divides the rim into NRIM latitude values, typically 9, and divides the visible accretion disk face into NRING concentric ring boundaries, typically 31. The individual rings (for both the rim and the face) subdivide into NSEG pixels, typically 101. An individual synthetic spectrum, appropriate to the local T_eff value, is attached to each pixel. For illustration purposes we have used synthetic spectra prepared from Kurucz atmospheres. The extended program constructs a synthetic spectrum for the accretion disk face, rim, the separate stellar components, and the entire system by producing a sum of contributions, at each wavelength (with due allowance for Doppler shift), from each visible pixel on the accretion disk or the separate stellar components, weighted by the projected area of the pixel. A separate program establishes a visibility key for each pixel and cosine of the zenith angle of the observer as seen from each pixel, for the current value of orbital inclination and orbital longitude. These data combine with synthetic spectra in the spectrum synthesis program to determine line of sight light intensities at each wavelength, i.e., the contributions needed for the sum. Separate data from related programs permit a plot of the system projected on the plane of the sky. This project received partial support from NSF grant AST9020459.

  16. Application of the Cubed-Sphere Grid to Tilted Black-Hole Accretion Disks

    SciTech Connect

    Fragile, P C; Lindner, C C; Anninos, P; Salmonson, J D

    2008-09-24

    In recent work we presented the first results of global general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulations of tilted (or misaligned) accretion disks around rotating black holes. The simulated tilted disks showed dramatic differences from comparable untilted disks, such as asymmetrical accretion onto the hole through opposing 'plunging streams' and global precession of the disk powered by a torque provided by the black hole. However, those simulations used a traditional spherical-polar grid that was purposefully underresolved along the pole, which prevented us from assessing the behavior of any jets that may have been associated with the tilted disks. To address this shortcoming we have added a block-structured 'cubed-sphere' grid option to the Cosmos++ GRMHD code, which will allow us to simultaneously resolve the disk and polar regions. Here we present our implementation of this grid and the results of a small suite of validation tests intended to demonstrate that the new grid performs as expected. The most important test in this work is a comparison of identical tilted disks, one evolved using our spherical-polar grid and the other with the cubed-sphere grid. We also demonstrate an interesting dependence of the early-time evolution of our disks on their orientation with respect to the grid alignment. This dependence arises from the differing treatment of current sheets within the disks, especially whether they are aligned with symmetry planes of the grid or not.

  17. The binary systems IC 10 X-1 and NGC 300 X-1: Accretion of matter from an intense Wolf-Rayet stellar wind onto a black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tutukov, A. V.; Fedorova, A. V.

    2016-01-01

    The current evolutionary stage of the binary systems IC 10 X-1 and NGC 300 X-1, which contain a massive black hole and a Wolf-Rayet star with a strong stellar wind that does not fill its Roche lobe, is considered. The high X-ray luminosity and X-ray properties testify to the presence of accretion disks in these systems. The consistency of the conditions for the existence of such a disk and the possibility of reproducing the observed X-ray luminosity in the framework of the Bondi-Hoyle-Littleton theory for a spherically symmetric stellar wind is analyzed. A brief review of information about the mass-loss rates of Wolf-Rayet stars and the speeds of their stellar winds is given. The evolution of these systems at the current stage is computed. Estimates made using the derived parameters show that it is not possible to achieve consistency, since the conditions for the existence of an accretion disk require that the speed of the Wolf-Rayetwind be appreciably lower than is required to reproduce the observedX-ray luminosity. Several explanations of this situation are possible: (1) the real pattern of the motion of the stellar-wind material in the binary is substantially more complex than is assumed in the Bondi-Hoyle-Littleton theory, changing the conditions for the formation of an accretion disk and influencing the accretion rate onto the black hole; (2) some of the accreting material leaves the accretor due to X-ray heating; (3) the accretion efficiency in these systems is nearly an order of magnitude lower than in the case of accretion through a thin disk onto a non-rotating black hole; (4) the intensity of the Wolf-Rayet wind is one to two orders of magnitude lower than has been suggested by modern studies.

  18. The dynamic of stellar wind accretion and the HMXB zoo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Roland; Manousakis, Antonios

    2016-07-01

    The dynamic of the accretion of stellar wind on the pulsar in Vela X-1 is dominated by unstable hydrodynamical flows. Off-states, 10^{37} erg/s flares, quasi-periodic oscillations and log normal flux distribution can all be reproduced by hydrodynamical simulations and reveal the complex motion of bow shocks moving either towards or away from the neutron star. These behaviors are enlightening the zoo of HMXB and suggest new phenomenology to be detected.

  19. Optical Microlensing and Accretion Disk Structure in the Lensed Quasar SDSS 1520+530

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manickam, Vigneshwar; Grinaski, Ian; MacLeod, Chelsea; Morgan, Christopher W.; Harris, Hugh C.; Kennington, James

    2015-01-01

    We analyze uncorrelated variability in seven seasons of SDSS r-band monitoring data from the doubly-imaged gravitationally lensed quasar SBS 1520+530 to yield a measurement of the size of the near-UV continuum emission region in this quasar. Photometry in the SBS 1520+530 system is complicated significantly by the proximity of a very bright star whose diffraction spike blends with the the lens, so we employed a mirror-flip subtraction technique to correct for this contamination. We conclude by testing our accretion disk measurement against the Quasar Accretion Disk Size - Black Hole Mass Relation.

  20. From Dust to Dust: Protoplanetary Disk Accretion, Hot Jupiter Climates, and the Evaporation of Rocky Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Becker, Daniel Alonso

    2013-12-01

    This dissertation is composed of three independent projects in astrophysics concerning phenomena that are concurrent with the birth, life, and death of planets. In Chapters 1 & 2, we study surface layer accretion in protoplanetary disks driven stellar X-ray and far-ultraviolet (FUV) radiation. In Chapter 3, we identify the dynamical mechanisms that control atmospheric heat redistribution on hot Jupiters. Finally, in Chapter 4, we characterize the death of low-mass, short-period rocky planets by their evaporation into a dusty wind. Chapters 1 & 2: Whether protoplanetary disks accrete at observationally significant rates by the magnetorotational instability (MRI) depends on how well ionized they are. We find that disk surface layers ionized by stellar X-rays are susceptible to charge neutralization by condensates---ranging from mum-sized dust to angstrom-sized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Ion densities in X-ray-irradiated surfaces are so low that ambipolar diffusion weakens the MRI. In contrast, ionization by stellar FUV radiation enables full-blown MRI turbulence in disk surface layers. Far-UV ionization of atomic carbon and sulfur produces a plasma so dense that it is immune to ion recombination on grains and PAHs. Even though the FUV-ionized layer is ˜10--100 times more turbulent than the X-ray-ionized layer, mass accretion rates of both layers are comparable because FUV photons penetrate to lower surface densities than do X-rays. We conclude that surface layer accretion occurs at observationally significant rates at radii ≳ 1--10 AU. At smaller radii, both X-ray- and FUV-ionized surface layers cannot sustain the accretion rates generated at larger distance and an additional means of transport is needed. In the case of transitional disks, it could be provided by planets. Chapter 3: Infrared light curves of transiting hot Jupiters present a trend in which the atmospheres of the hottest planets are less efficient at redistributing the stellar energy

  1. A FAST X-RAY DISK WIND IN THE TRANSIENT PULSAR IGR J17480-2446 IN TERZAN 5

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Jon M.; Maitra, Dipankar; Cackett, Edward M.; Bhattacharyya, Sudip; Strohmayer, Tod E.

    2011-04-10

    Accretion disk winds are revealed in Chandra gratings spectra of black holes. The winds are hot and highly ionized (typically composed of He-like and H-like charge states) and show modest blueshifts. Similar line spectra are sometimes seen in 'dipping' low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), which are likely viewed edge-on; however, that absorption is tied to structures in the outer disk, and blueshifts are not typically observed. Here, we report the detection of blueshifted He-like Fe XXV (3100 {+-} 400 km s{sup -1}) and H-like Fe XXVI (1000 {+-} 200 km s{sup -1}) absorption lines in a Chandra/HETG spectrum of the transient pulsar and LMXB IGR J17480-2446 in Terzan 5. These features indicate a disk wind with at least superficial similarities to those observed in stellar-mass black holes. The wind does not vary strongly with numerous weak X-ray bursts or flares. A broad Fe K emission line is detected in the spectrum, and fits with different line models suggest that the inner accretion disk in this system may be truncated. If the stellar magnetic field truncates the disk, a field strength of B= (0.7-4.0)x10{sup 9} G is implied, which is in line with estimates based on X-ray timing techniques. We discuss our findings in the context of accretion flows onto neutron stars and stellar-mass black holes.

  2. Accretion disk reverberation with Hubble Space Telescope observations of NGC 4593

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cackett, Edward; McHardy, Ian; Horne, Keith D.; Goad, Michael; Edelson, Rick; Korista, Kirk T.; Chiang, Chia-Ying

    2017-08-01

    Irradiation of the accretion disk by X-ray/EUV photons should lead to wavelength-dependent UV/optical continuum time lags as the hotter, inner parts of the disk will see the variable irradiating flux before the cooler, outer parts of the disk. Recently, there has been a significant improvement in wavelength-dependent lag measurements from high-cadence monitoring and a picture is emerging that the accretion disk sizes are a factor of 2 - 3 larger than predicted by the standard disk model. We obtained Hubble Space Telescope spectroscopy of NGC 4593 as part of a larger multi-wavelength reverberation mapping campaign including monitoring by Swift and Kepler. From 2016 July 12 to 2016 August 6 we performed 26 observations with an approximately daily cadence using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph. The spectra cover a nearly continuous wavelength range from approximately 1150 - 10000Å. The continuum is significantly variable at all wavelengths, with variations at 1150Å leading variations at 8950Å by approximately 1.2 days. In the scenario where X-rays or EUV photons drive variability in the accretion disk the time lags should follow λ4/3. Here, we see a significant deviation from this around the Balmer jump, indicating a large contribution to the lags from diffuse continuum emission in the broad line region. However, even when taking this diffuse continuum lag into account, we still find that the accretion disk lags are a factor of about 3 larger than expected from the standard disk model.

  3. White Dwarf Pollution by Disk Accretion of Tidally Disrupted Rocky Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Wanda; Desch, Steven

    2017-01-01

    Approximately 30% of cool white dwarfs (WDs) show heavy elements which should otherwise sediment out of their atmospheres (Koester et al. 2014; Zuckerman et al. 2010). The prevailing model for the pollution of white dwarf photospheres invokes the formation of a solid disk upon a rocky body falling within the WD Roche radius, which is then transported inward by Poynting-Robertson drag (e.g., Metzger et al. 2012, Rafikov 2011). At high temperatures close to the WD, solid particles sublimate to gas that accretes onto the WD and viscously spreads outward. This concept is supported by observations of Ca II emission from WD disks (e.g., Manser et al. 2016). The model by Metzger et al. (2012) successfully explains the range in inferred mass accretion rates (10^10 g/s, Farihi et al. 2010), provided the gaseous disks viscously spread at rates consistent with a partially suppressed magnetorotational instability (MRI). However, Metzger et al. (2012) do not consider disk chemistry or dust-to-gas mixing in their model, and do not calculate the degree of ionization to explore the extent of MRI in WD disks.We present a 1-D model of a gaseous WD disk accretion, to assess the extent of the magnetorotational instability in WD disks. The disk composition is considered with changes in sublimation rate by pressure. The degree of ionization is determined by considering UV, X-ray, and high-temperature ionization. We calculate the rate of viscous spreading and accretion rates of metals onto WDs.

  4. Simulating the Formation of Massive Protostars. I. Radiative Feedback and Accretion Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klassen, Mikhail; Pudritz, Ralph E.; Kuiper, Rolf; Peters, Thomas; Banerjee, Robi

    2016-05-01

    We present radiation hydrodynamic simulations of collapsing protostellar cores with initial masses of 30, 100, and 200 M ⊙. We follow their gravitational collapse and the formation of a massive protostar and protostellar accretion disk. We employ a new hybrid radiative feedback method blending raytracing techniques with flux-limited diffusion for a more accurate treatment of the temperature and radiative force. In each case, the disk that forms becomes Toomre-unstable and develops spiral arms. This occurs between 0.35 and 0.55 freefall times and is accompanied by an increase in the accretion rate by a factor of 2-10. Although the disk becomes unstable, no other stars are formed. In the case of our 100 and 200 M ⊙ simulations, the star becomes highly super-Eddington and begins to drive bipolar outflow cavities that expand outwards. These radiatively driven bubbles appear stable, and appear to be channeling gas back onto the protostellar accretion disk. Accretion proceeds strongly through the disk. After 81.4 kyr of evolution, our 30 M ⊙ simulation shows a star with a mass of 5.48 M ⊙ and a disk of mass 3.3 M ⊙, while our 100 M ⊙ simulation forms a 28.8 M ⊙ mass star with a 15.8 M ⊙ disk over the course of 41.6 kyr, and our 200 M ⊙ simulation forms a 43.7 M ⊙ star with an 18 M ⊙ disk in 21.9 kyr. In the absence of magnetic fields or other forms of feedback, the masses of the stars in our simulation do not appear to be limited by their own luminosities.

  5. Cold Dark Matter Substructure and Galactic Disks I: Morphological Signatures of Hierarchical SatelliteAccretion

    SciTech Connect

    Kazantzidis, Stelios; Bullock, James S.; Zentner, Andrew R.; Kravtsov, Andrey V.; Moustakas, Leonidas A.

    2007-12-03

    We conduct a series of high-resolution, fully self-consistent dissipation less N-body simulations to investigate the cumulative effect of substructure mergers onto thin disk galaxies in the context of the {Lambda}CDM paradigm of structure formation. Our simulation campaign is based on a hybrid approach combining cosmological simulations and controlled numerical experiments. Substructure mass functions, orbital distributions, internal structures, and accretion times are culled directly from cosmological simulations of galaxy-sized cold dark matter (CDM) halos. We demonstrate that accretions of massive subhalos onto the central regions of host halos, where the galactic disk resides, since z {approx} 1 should be common occurrences. In contrast, extremely few satellites in present-day CDM halos are likely to have a significant impact on the disk structure. This is due to the fact that massive subhalos with small orbital pericenters that are most capable of strongly perturbing the disk become either tidally disrupted or suffer substantial mass loss prior to z = 0. One host halo merger history is subsequently used to seed controlled N-body experiments of repeated satellite impacts on an initially-thin Milky Way-type disk galaxy. These simulations track the effects of six dark matter substructures, with initial masses in the range {approx} (0.7-2) x 10{sup 10} M{sub {circle_dot}} ({approx} 20-60% of the disk mass), crossing the disk in the past {approx} 8 Gyr. We show that these accretion events produce several distinctive observational signatures in the stellar disk including: a long-lived, low-surface brightness, ring-like feature in the outskirts; a significant flare; a central bar; and faint filamentary structures that (spuriously) resemble tidal streams in configuration space. The final distribution of disk stars exhibits a complex vertical structure that is well-described by a standard 'thin-thick' disk decomposition, where the 'thick' disk component has emerged

  6. A CORRELATION BETWEEN THE IONIZATION STATE OF THE INNER ACCRETION DISK AND THE EDDINGTON RATIO OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Ballantyne, D. R.; McDuffie, J. R.; Rusin, J. S.

    2011-06-20

    X-ray reflection features observed from the innermost regions of accretion disks in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) allow important tests of accretion theory. In recent years, it has been possible to use the Fe K{alpha} line and reflection continuum to parameterize the ionization state of the irradiated inner accretion disk. Here, we collect 10 measurements of {xi}, the disk ionization parameter, from eight AGNs with strong evidence for reflection from the inner accretion disk and good black hole mass estimates. We find strong statistical evidence (98.56% confidence) for a nearly linear correlation between {xi} and the AGN Eddington ratio. Moreover, such a correlation is predicted by a simple application of {alpha}-disk accretion theory, albeit with a stronger dependence on the Eddington ratio. The theory shows that there will be intrinsic scatter to any correlation as a result of different black hole spins and radii of reflection. There are several possibilities to soften the predicted dependence on the Eddington ratio to allow a closer agreement with the observed correlation, but the current data do not allow for a unique explanation. The correlation can be used to estimate that MCG-6-30-15 should have a highly ionized inner accretion disk, which would imply a black hole spin of {approx}0.8. Additional measurements of {xi} from a larger sample of AGNs are needed to confirm the existence of this correlation, and will allow investigation of the accretion disk/corona interaction in the inner regions of accretion disks.

  7. Time-dependent X-ray emission from unstable accretion disks around black holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mineshige, Shin; Kim, Soon-Wook; Wheeler, J. Craig

    1990-01-01

    The spectral evolution of accretion disks in X-ray binaries containing black holes is studied, based on the disk instability model. The thermal transition of the outer portions of the disk controls the mass flow rate into the inner portions of the disk, thus modulating the soft X-ray flux which is thought to arise from the inner disk. Calculated soft X-ray spectra are consistent with the observations of the X-ray transient A0620 - 00 and especially ASM 2000 + 25, the soft X-ray spectra of which are well fitted by blackbody radiation with a fixed inner edge of the disk, Rin, and with monotonically decreasing temperature at Rin with time. Since the gas pressure is always dominant over the radiation pressure during the decay in these models, a two-temperature region is difficult to create. Instead, it is suggested that hard X-rays are generated in a hot (kT greater than 10 keV) accretion disk corona above the cool (kT less than 1 keV) disk.

  8. The characteristic blue spectra of accretion disks in quasars as uncovered in the infrared.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Makoto; Antonucci, Robert; Blaes, Omer; Lawrence, Andy; Boisson, Catherine; Albrecht, Marcus; Leipski, Christian

    2008-07-24

    Quasars are thought to be powered by supermassive black holes accreting surrounding gas. Central to this picture is a putative accretion disk which is believed to be the source of the majority of the radiative output. It is well known, however, that the most extensively studied disk model-an optically thick disk which is heated locally by the dissipation of gravitational binding energy-is apparently contradicted by observations in a few major respects. In particular, the model predicts a specific blue spectral shape asymptotically from the visible to the near-infrared, but this is not generally seen in the visible wavelength region where the disk spectrum is observable. A crucial difficulty has been that, towards the infrared, the disk spectrum starts to be hidden under strong, hot dust emission from much larger but hitherto unresolved scales, and thus has essentially been impossible to observe. Here we report observations of polarized light interior to the dust-emitting region that enable us to uncover this near-infrared disk spectrum in several quasars. The revealed spectra show that the near-infrared disk spectrum is indeed as blue as predicted. This indicates that, at least for the outer near-infrared-emitting radii, the standard picture of the locally heated disk is approximately correct.

  9. Time-dependent X-ray emission from unstable accretion disks around black holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mineshige, Shin; Kim, Soon-Wook; Wheeler, J. Craig

    1990-01-01

    The spectral evolution of accretion disks in X-ray binaries containing black holes is studied, based on the disk instability model. The thermal transition of the outer portions of the disk controls the mass flow rate into the inner portions of the disk, thus modulating the soft X-ray flux which is thought to arise from the inner disk. Calculated soft X-ray spectra are consistent with the observations of the X-ray transient A0620 - 00 and especially ASM 2000 + 25, the soft X-ray spectra of which are well fitted by blackbody radiation with a fixed inner edge of the disk, Rin, and with monotonically decreasing temperature at Rin with time. Since the gas pressure is always dominant over the radiation pressure during the decay in these models, a two-temperature region is difficult to create. Instead, it is suggested that hard X-rays are generated in a hot (kT greater than 10 keV) accretion disk corona above the cool (kT less than 1 keV) disk.

  10. Testing Accretion Disk Structure with Suzaku data of LMC X-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, Aya; Done, Chris; Davis, Shane; Dotani, Tadayasu; Mizuno, Tsunefumi; Ueda, Yoshihiro

    The Suzaku observation of LMC X-3 gives the best data to date on the shape of the accretion disk spectrum. This is due to the combination of very low absorbing column density along this line of sight which allows the shape of the disk emisison to be constrained at low energies by the CCD's, while the tail can be simultaneously determined up to 30 keV by the high energy detectors. These data clearly demonstrate that the observed disk spectrum is broader than a simple `sum of blackbodies', and relativistic smearing of the emission is strongly required. However, the intrinsic emission should be more complex than a (colour-corrected) sum of blackbodies as it should also contain photo-electric absorption edges from the partially ionised disk photosphere. These are broadened by the relativistic smearing, but the models predict 3-5 per cent deviations for 1/3-1 solar abundance around the edge energies, significantly stronger than observed. This indicate that the models need to include more physical processes such as self-irradiation, bound-bound (line) absorption, and/or emission from recombination continuua and/or lines. Alternatively, if none of these match the data, it may instead require that the accretion disk density and/or emissivity profile with height is different to that assumed. Thus these data demonstrate the feasibility of observational tests of our fundamental understanding of the vertical structure of accretion disks.

  11. Quasi-static model of collimated jets and radio lobes. I. Accretion disk and jets

    SciTech Connect

    Colgate, Stirling A.; Li, Hui; Fowler, T. Kenneth; Pino, Jesse

    2014-07-10

    This is the first of a series of papers showing that when an efficient dynamo can be maintained by accretion disks around supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei, it can lead to the formation of a powerful, magnetic helix that could explain both the observed radio jet/lobe structures on very large scales and ultimately the enormous power inferred from the observed ultra-high-energy cosmic rays. In this work, we solve a set of one-dimensional equations similar to the steady-state standard accretion disk model, but now including the large-scale magnetic fields giving rises to jets. We find that the frequently made assumption that large-scale fields are frozen into the disk is fundamentally incorrect, due to the necessity for current and the accreting mass to flow perpendicular to magnetic flux surfaces. A correct treatment greatly simplifies the calculations, yielding fields that leave the disk nearly vertically with magnetic profiles uniquely determined by disk angular momentum conservation. Representative solutions of the magnetic fields in different radial regions of the disk surface are given, and they determine the overall key features in the jet structure and its dissipation, which will be the subjects of later papers.

  12. Angular Momentum Transport in Accretion Disk Boundary Layers Around Weakly Magnetized Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pessah, Martin E.; Chan, Chi-kwan

    2013-04-01

    The standard model for turbulent shear viscosity in accretion disks is based on the assumption that angular momentum transport is opposite to the radial angular frequency gradient of the disk. This implies that the turbulent stress must be negative and thus transport angular momentum inwards, in the boundary layer where the accretion disk meets the surface of a weakly magnetized star. However, this behavior is not supported by numerical simulations of turbulent magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) accretion disks, which show that angular momentum transport driven by the magnetorotational instability (MRI) is inefficient in disk regions where, as expected in boundary layers, the angular frequency increases with radius. Motivated by the need of a deeper understanding of the behavior of an MHD fluid in a differentially rotating background that deviates from a Keplerian profile, we study the dynamics of MHD waves in configurations that are stable to the standard MRI. Employing the shearing-sheet framework, we show that transient amplification of shearing MHD waves can generate magnetic energy without leading to a substantial generation of hydromagnetic stresses. While these results are in agreement with numerical simulations, they emphasize the need to better understand the mechanism for angular momentum transport in the inner disk regions on more solid grounds.

  13. The evolution of a binary in a retrograde circular orbit embedded in an accretion disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, P. B.; Papaloizou, J. C. B.; Paardekooper, S.-J.; Polnarev, A. G.

    2015-04-01

    Aims: Supermassive black hole binaries may form as a consequence of galaxy mergers. Both prograde and retrograde orbits have been proposed. We study a binary with a small mass ratio, q, in a retrograde orbit immersed in and interacting with a gaseous accretion disk in order to estimate the time scales for inward migration that leads to coalescence and the accretion rate to the secondary component. Methods: We employed both semi-analytic methods and two-dimensional numerical simulations, focusing on the case where the binary mass ratio is small but large enough to significantly perturb the disk. Results: We develop the theory of type I migration in this case and go on to determine the conditions for gap formation. We find that when this happens inward migration occurs on a time scale equal to the time required for one half of the secondary mass to be accreted through the unperturbed accretion disk. The accretion rate onto the secondary itself is found to only play a minor role in the orbital evolution as it is of the order of q1/3 of that to the primary. We obtain good general agreement between the semi-analytic and fully numerical approaches and note that the former can be applied to disks with a wide dynamic range on long time scales. Conclusions: We conclude that inward migration induced by interaction with the disk can enable the binary to migrate inwards, alleviating the so-called final parsec problem. When q is sufficiently small, there is no well-pronounced cavity inside the binary orbit, unlike the prograde case. The accretion rate to the secondary does not influence the binary orbital evolution much, but can lead to some interesting observational consequences, provided the accretion efficiency is sufficiently large. In this case the binary may be detected as, for example, two sources of radiation rotating around each other. However, the study should be extended to consider orbits with significant eccentricity and the effects of gravitational radiation at

  14. Circumbinary ring, circumstellar disks, and accretion in the binary system UY Aurigae

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Ya-Wen; Ho, Paul T. P.; Dutrey, Anne; Guilloteau, Stéphane; Di Folco, Emmanuel; Piétu, Vincent; Gueth, Fréderic; Beck, Tracy; Boehler, Yann; Bary, Jeff; Simon, Michal

    2014-09-20

    Recent exo-planetary surveys reveal that planets can orbit and survive around binary stars. This suggests that some fraction of young binary systems which possess massive circumbinary (CB) disks may be in the midst of planet formation. However, there are very few CB disks detected. We revisit one of the known CB disks, the UY Aurigae system, and probe {sup 13}CO 2-1, C{sup 18}O 2-1, SO 5(6)-4(5) and {sup 12}CO 3-2 line emission and the thermal dust continuum. Our new results confirm the existence of the CB disk. In addition, the circumstellar (CS) disks are clearly resolved in dust continuum at 1.4 mm. The spectral indices between the wavelengths of 0.85 mm and 6 cm are found to be surprisingly low, being 1.6 for both CS disks. The deprojected separation of the binary is 1.''26 based on our 1.4 mm continuum data. This is 0.''07 (10 AU) larger than in earlier studies. Combining the fact of the variation of UY Aur B in R band, we propose that the CS disk of an undetected companion UY Aur Bb obscures UY Aur Ba. A very complex kinematical pattern inside the CB disk is observed due to a mixing of Keplerian rotation of the CB disk, the infall and outflow gas. The streaming gas accreting from the CB ring toward the CS disks and possible outflows are also identified and resolved. The SO emission is found to be at the bases of the streaming shocks. Our results suggest that the UY Aur system is undergoing an active accretion phase from the CB disk to the CS disks. The UY Aur B might also be a binary system, making the UY Aur a triple system.

  15. Evidence for a correlation between mass accretion rates onto young stars and the mass of their protoplanetary disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manara, C. F.; Rosotti, G.; Testi, L.; Natta, A.; Alcalá, J. M.; Williams, J. P.; Ansdell, M.; Miotello, A.; van der Marel, N.; Tazzari, M.; Carpenter, J.; Guidi, G.; Mathews, G. S.; Oliveira, I.; Prusti, T.; van Dishoeck, E. F.

    2016-06-01

    A relation between the mass accretion rate onto the central young star and the mass of the surrounding protoplanetary disk has long been theoretically predicted and observationally sought. For the first time, we have accurately and homogeneously determined the photospheric parameters, mass accretion rate, and disk mass for an essentially complete sample of young stars with disks in the Lupus clouds. Our work combines the results of surveys conducted with VLT/X-Shooter and ALMA. With this dataset we are able to test a basic prediction of viscous accretion theory, the existence of a linear relation between the mass accretion rate onto the central star and the total disk mass. We find a correlation between the mass accretion rate and the disk dust mass, with a ratio that is roughly consistent with the expected viscous timescale when assuming an interstellar medium gas-to-dust ratio. This confirms that mass accretion rates are related to the properties of the outer disk. We find no correlation between mass accretion rates and the disk mass measured by CO isotopologues emission lines, possibly owing to the small number of measured disk gas masses. This suggests that the mm-sized dust mass better traces the total disk mass and that masses derived from CO may be underestimated, at least in some cases.

  16. Shock-driven Accretion in Circumplanetary Disks: Observables and Satellite Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhaohuan; Ju, Wenhua; Stone, James M.

    2016-12-01

    Circumplanetary disks (CPDs) control the growth of planets, supply material for satellites to form, and provide observational signatures of young forming planets. We have carried out two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations with radiative cooling to study CPDs and suggested a new mechanism to drive the disk accretion. Two spiral shocks are present in CPDs, excited by the central star. We find that spiral shocks can at least contribute to, if not dominate, the angular momentum transport and energy dissipation in CPDs. Meanwhile, dissipation and heating by spiral shocks have a positive feedback on shock-driven accretion itself. As the disk is heated up by spiral shocks, the shocks become more open, leading to more efficient angular momentum transport. This shock-driven accretion is, on the other hand, unsteady due to production and destruction of vortices in disks. After being averaged over time, a quasi-steady accretion is reached from the planet’s Hill radius all the way to the planet surface, and the disk α coefficient characterizing angular momentum transport is ˜0.001-0.02. The disk surface density ranges from 10 to 1000 g cm-2 in our simulations, which is at least three orders of magnitude smaller than the “minimum-mass subnebula” model used to study satellite formation; instead it is more consistent with the “gas-starved” satellite formation model. Finally, we calculate the millimeter flux emitted by CPDs at ALMA and EVLA wavelength bands and predict the flux for several recently discovered CPD candidates, which suggests that ALMA is capable of discovering these accreting CPDs.

  17. Young Stellar Objects in Lynds 1641: Disks, Accretion, and Star Formation History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Min; Kim, Jinyoung Serena; van Boekel, Roy; Sicilia-Aguilar, Aurora; Henning, Thomas; Flaherty, Kevin

    2013-07-01

    We investigate the young stellar objects (YSOs) in the Lynds 1641 (L1641) cloud using multi-wavelength data including Spitzer, WISE, the Two Micron All Sky Survey, and XMM covering ~1390 YSOs across a range of evolutionary stages. In addition, we targeted a sub-sample of YSOs for optical spectroscopy with the MMT/Hectospec and the MMT/Hectochelle. We use these data, along with archival photometric data, to derive spectral types, extinction values, masses, ages, and accretion rates. We obtain a disk fraction of ~50% in L1641. The disk frequency is almost constant as a function of stellar mass with a slight peak at log (M */M ⊙) ≈ -0.25. The analysis of multi-epoch spectroscopic data indicates that the accretion variability of YSOs cannot explain the two orders of magnitude of scatter for YSOs with similar masses. Forty-six new transition disk (TD) objects are confirmed in this work, and we find that the fraction of accreting TDs is lower than for optically thick disks (40%-45% versus 77%-79%, respectively). We confirm our previous result that the accreting TDs have a median accretion rate similar to normal optically thick disks. We confirm that two star formation modes (isolated versus clustered) exist in L1641. We find that the diskless YSOs are statistically older than the YSOs with optically thick disks and the TD objects have a median age that is intermediate between those of the other two populations. We tentatively study the star formation history in L1641 based on the age distribution and find that star formation started to be active 2-3 Myr ago.

  18. General relativistic hydrodynamics with Adaptive-Mesh Refinement (AMR) and modeling of accretion disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donmez, Orhan

    We prese