Science.gov

Sample records for accretion powered x-ray

  1. Accretion powered X-ray pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, N. E.; Swank, J. H.; Holt, S. S.

    1982-01-01

    A unified description of the properties of 14 X-ray pulsars is presented and compared with the current theoretical understanding of these systems. The sample extends over six orders of magnitude in luminosity, with the only trend in the phase averaged spectra being that the lower luminosity systems appear to have less abrupt high energy cutoffs. There is no correlation of luminosity with power law index, high energy cutoff energy or iron line EW. Detailed pulse phase spectroscopy is given for five systems.

  2. Dips in the pulse profiles of accretion powered X-ray pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devasia, Jincy; Paul, Biswajit; James, Marykutty; Indulekha, Kavila

    We will report detection of sharp dips in the pulse profiles of several persistent and transient accretion powered X-ray pulsars using RXTE observations.The pulse profiles of accretion pow-ered pulsars carry a lot of information regarding the radiative processes near the surface of the star, magnetic fields that channel the accretion flow etc. The dips in pulse profiles can be due to the interaction of accretion column with the emitting radiation as it passes through the line of sight. We have also investigated the energy dependence and phase width of these dips to get a better understanding of the nature of this feature.

  3. An ultraluminous X-ray source powered by an accreting neutron star.

    PubMed

    Bachetti, M; Harrison, F A; Walton, D J; Grefenstette, B W; Chakrabarty, D; Fürst, F; Barret, D; Beloborodov, A; Boggs, S E; Christensen, F E; Craig, W W; Fabian, A C; Hailey, C J; Hornschemeier, A; Kaspi, V; Kulkarni, S R; Maccarone, T; Miller, J M; Rana, V; Stern, D; Tendulkar, S P; Tomsick, J; Webb, N A; Zhang, W W

    2014-10-09

    The majority of ultraluminous X-ray sources are point sources that are spatially offset from the nuclei of nearby galaxies and whose X-ray luminosities exceed the theoretical maximum for spherical infall (the Eddington limit) onto stellar-mass black holes. Their X-ray luminosities in the 0.5-10 kiloelectronvolt energy band range from 10(39) to 10(41) ergs per second. Because higher masses imply less extreme ratios of the luminosity to the isotropic Eddington limit, theoretical models have focused on black hole rather than neutron star systems. The most challenging sources to explain are those at the luminous end of the range (more than 10(40) ergs per second), which require black hole masses of 50-100 times the solar value or significant departures from the standard thin disk accretion that powers bright Galactic X-ray binaries, or both. Here we report broadband X-ray observations of the nuclear region of the galaxy M82 that reveal pulsations with an average period of 1.37 seconds and a 2.5-day sinusoidal modulation. The pulsations result from the rotation of a magnetized neutron star, and the modulation arises from its binary orbit. The pulsed flux alone corresponds to an X-ray luminosity in the 3-30 kiloelectronvolt range of 4.9 × 10(39) ergs per second. The pulsating source is spatially coincident with a variable source that can reach an X-ray luminosity in the 0.3-10 kiloelectronvolt range of 1.8 × 10(40) ergs per second. This association implies a luminosity of about 100 times the Eddington limit for a 1.4-solar-mass object, or more than ten times brighter than any known accreting pulsar. This implies that neutron stars may not be rare in the ultraluminous X-ray population, and it challenges physical models for the accretion of matter onto magnetized compact objects.

  4. The Relation Between Accretion Rate And Jet Power in X-Ray Luminous Elliptical Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Steven W.; Dunn, R.J.H.; Fabian, A.C.; Taylor, G.B.; Reynolds, C.S.; /Maryland U.

    2006-03-10

    Using Chandra X-ray observations of nine nearby, X-ray luminous elliptical galaxies with good optical velocity dispersion measurements, we show that a tight correlation exists between the Bondi accretion rates calculated from the observed gas temperature and density profiles and estimated black hole masses, and the power emerging from these systems in relativistic jets. The jet powers, which are inferred from the energies and timescales required to inflate cavities observed in the surrounding X-ray emitting gas, can be related to the accretion rates using a power law model of the form log (P{sub Bondi}/10{sup 43} erg s{sup -1}) = A + B log (P{sub jet}/10{sup 43} erg s{sup -1}), with A = 0.62 {+-} 0.15 and B = 0.77 {+-} 0.18. Our results show that a significant fraction of the energy associated with the rest mass of material entering the Bondi accretion radius (2.4{sub -0.7}{sup +1.0} per cent, for P{sub jet} = 10{sup 43} erg s{sup -1}) eventually emerges in the relativistic jets. Our results have significant implications for studies of accretion, jet formation and galaxy formation. The observed tight correlation suggests that the Bondi formulae provide a reasonable description of the accretion process in these systems, despite the likely presence of magnetic pressure and angular momentum in the accreting gas. The similarity of the P{sub Bondi} and P{sub jet} values argues that a significant fraction of the matter entering the accretion radius flows down to regions close to the black holes, where the jets are presumably formed. The tight correlation between P{sub Bondi} and P{sub jet} also suggests that the accretion flows are approximately stable over timescales of a few million years. Our results show that the black hole ''engines'' at the hearts of large elliptical galaxies and groups feed back sufficient energy to stem cooling and star formation, leading naturally to the observed exponential cut off at the bright end of the galaxy luminosity function.

  5. A Suzaku View of Accretion-powered X-Ray Pulsar GX 1+4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Yuki; Kitamoto, Shunji; Suzuki, Hiroo; Hoshino, Akio; Naik, Sachindra; Jaisawal, Gaurava K.

    2017-03-01

    We present results obtained from a Suzaku observation of the accretion-powered X-ray pulsar GX 1+4. A broadband continuum spectrum of the pulsar was found to be better described by a simple model consisting of a blackbody component and an exponential cutoff power law than the previously used compTT continuum model. Though the pulse profile had a sharp dip in soft X-rays (<10 keV), phase-resolved spectroscopy confirmed that the dimming was not due to an increase in photoelectric absorption. Phase-sliced spectral analysis showed the presence of a significant spectral modulation beyond 10 keV except for the dip phase. A search for the presence of a cyclotron resonance scattering feature in the Suzaku spectra yielded a negative result. Iron K-shell (K{}α and {{{K}}}β ) emission lines from nearly neutral iron ions (

  6. ORIGIN OF INTERMITTENT ACCRETION-POWERED X-RAY OSCILLATIONS IN NEUTRON STARS WITH MILLISECOND SPIN PERIODS

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, Frederick K.; Boutloukos, Stratos; Van Wassenhove, Sandor; Chamberlain, Robert T.; Lo, Ka Ho; Coleman Miller, M.

    2009-11-01

    We have shown previously that many of the properties of persistent accretion-powered millisecond pulsars can be understood if their X-ray emitting areas are near their spin axes and move as the accretion rate and structure of the inner disk vary. Here, we show that this 'nearly aligned moving spot model' may also explain the intermittent accretion-powered pulsations that have been detected in three weakly magnetic accreting neutron stars. We show that movement of the emitting area from very close to the spin axis to approx10 deg. away can increase the fractional rms amplitude from approx<0.5%, which is usually undetectable with current instruments, to a few percent, which is easily detectable. The second harmonic of the spin frequency usually would not be detected, in agreement with observations. The model produces intermittently detectable oscillations for a range of emitting area sizes and beaming patterns, stellar masses and radii, and viewing directions. Intermittent oscillations are more likely in stars that are more compact. In addition to explaining the sudden appearance of accretion-powered millisecond oscillations in some neutron stars with millisecond spin periods, the model explains why accretion-powered millisecond oscillations are relatively rare and predicts that the persistent accretion-powered millisecond oscillations of other stars may become undetectable for brief intervals. It suggests why millisecond oscillations are frequently detected during the X-ray bursts of some neutron stars but not others and suggests mechanisms that could explain the occasional temporal association of intermittent accretion-powered oscillations with thermonuclear X-ray bursts.

  7. Accretion onto Fast X-Ray Pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rappaport, S. A.; Fregeau, J. M.; Spruit, H.

    2004-01-01

    The recent emergence of a new class of accretion-powered, transient, millisecond X-ray pulsars presents some difficulties for the conventional picture of accretion onto rapidly rotating magnetized neutron stars and their spin behavior during outbursts. In particular, it is not clear that the standard paradigm can accommodate the wide range in M(i.e., approx. greater than a factor of 50) over which these systems manage to accrete and the high rate of spindown that the neutron stars exhibit in at least a number of cases. When the accretion rate drops sufficiently, the X-ray pulsar is said to become a "fast rotator," and in the conventional view, this is accompanied by a transition from accretion to "propellering," in which accretion ceases and the matter is ejected from the system. On the theoretical side, we note that this scenario for the onset of propellering cannot be entirely correct because it is not energetically self-consistent. We show that, instead, the transition is likely to take place through disks that combine accretion with spindown and terminate at the corotation radius. We demonstrate the existence of such disk solutions by modifying the Shakura-Sunyaev equations with a simple magnetic torque prescription. The solutions are completely analytic and have the same dependence on M and a (the viscosity parameter) as the original Shakura-Sunyaev solutions, but the radial profiles can be considerably modified, depending on the degree of fastness. We apply these results to compute the torques expected during the outbursts of the transient millisecond pulsars and find that we can explain the large spin-down rates that are observed for quite plausible surface magnetic fields of approx. 10(exp 90 G.

  8. X-ray reverberation of the inner accretion disc in X-ray binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uttley, Phil; Cassatella, Pablo; Wilkinson, Tony; Wilms, Joern; Pottschmidt, Katja; Hanke, Manfred; Boeck, Moritz

    Rapid fluctuations in the Comptonised emission close to accreting compact objects should lead to reverberation of the accretion disc, both through X-ray heating of the disc (to produce a variable blackbody component) and also correlated changes in the disc reflection component, including the iron K line. If they can be detected, these reverberation signatures can provide powerful constraints on the geometry of the disc and Comptonising regions. The measure-ment of the reverberation delays will provide a natural 'yardstick' to measure the inner disc radius (in km, not R/M!) and so constrain the black hole spin or the neutron star equation of state. I will present new results from XMM-Newton and RXTE observations, which confirm the presence of X-ray reverberation in X-ray binary systems and allow the first measurement of reverberation delays. These results are a pathfinder which highlights the enormous po-tential of high-throughput spectral-timing with the proposed HTRS instrument on board the International X-ray Observatory.

  9. Polarized X-rays from accreting neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Dipankar

    2016-07-01

    Accreting neutron stars span a wide range in X-ray luminosity and magnetic field strength. Accretion may be wind-fed or disk-fed, and the dominant X-ray flux may originate in the disk or a magnetically confined accretion column. In all such systems X-ray polarization may arise due to Compton or Magneto-Compton scattering, and on some occasions polarization of non-thermal emission from jet-like ejection may also be detectable. Spectral and temporal behaviour of the polarized X-rays would carry information regarding the radiation process, as well as of the matter dynamics - and can assist the detection of effects such as the Lense-Thirring precession. This talk will review our current knowledge of the expected X-ray polarization from accreting neutron stars and explore the prospects of detection with upcoming polarimetry missions.

  10. Accretion process powering the supersoft X-ray sources: A test with the multiwavelength modeling the SED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skopal, Augustin

    2013-02-01

    Radiation of supersoft X-ray sources (SSS) dominates both the supersof X-ray and the far-UV domain, and can be detected also within the optical/near-IR wavelengths. To determine fundamental parameters of SSSs, a multiwavelength approach in modeling their spectra is essential. By this way, the basic physical parameters of a SSS (the temperature, radius, luminosity and column density of the neutral hydrogen) can be determined unambiguously. Here I demonstrate this case for the symbiotic X-ray binary RXJ0059.1-7505 (LIN 358) in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC).

  11. X-Ray-powered Macronovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisaka, Shota; Ioka, Kunihito; Nakar, Ehud

    2016-02-01

    A macronova (or kilonova) was observed as an infrared excess several days after the short gamma-ray burst GRB 130603B. Although the r-process radioactivity is widely discussed as an energy source, it requires a huge mass of ejecta from a neutron star (NS) binary merger. We propose a new model in which the X-ray excess gives rise to the simultaneously observed infrared excess via thermal re-emission, and explore what constraints this would place on the mass and velocity of the ejecta. This X-ray-powered model explains both the X-ray and infrared excesses with a single energy source such as the central engine like a black hole, and allows for a broader parameter region than the previous models, in particular a smaller ejecta mass ˜ {10}-3{--}{10}-2{M}⊙ and higher iron abundance mixed as suggested by general relativistic simulations for typical NS-NS mergers. We also discuss the other macronova candidates in GRB 060614 and GRB 080503, and the implications for the search of electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational waves.

  12. X-RAY POLARIZATION FROM ACCRETING BLACK HOLES: CORONAL EMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Schnittman, Jeremy D.; Krolik, Julian H. E-mail: jhk@pha.jhu.ed

    2010-04-01

    We present new calculations of X-ray polarization from accreting black holes (BHs), using a Monte Carlo ray-tracing code in full general relativity. In our model, an optically thick disk in the BH equatorial plane produces thermal seed photons with polarization oriented parallel to the disk surface. These seed photons are then inverse-Compton scattered through a hot (but thermal) corona, producing a hard X-ray power-law spectrum. We consider three different models for the corona geometry: a wedge 'sandwich' with aspect ratio H/R and vertically integrated optical depth tau{sub 0} constant throughout the disk; an inhomogeneous 'clumpy' corona with a finite number of hot clouds distributed randomly above the disk within a wedge geometry; and a spherical corona of uniform density, centered on the BH and surrounded by a truncated thermal disk with inner radius R{sub edge}. In all cases, we find a characteristic transition from horizontal polarization at low energies to vertical polarization above the thermal peak; the vertical direction is defined as the projection of the BH spin axis on the plane of the sky. We show how the details of the spectropolarization signal can be used to distinguish between these models and infer various properties of the corona and BH. Although the bulk of this paper focuses on stellar-mass BHs, we also consider the effects of coronal scattering on the X-ray polarization signal from supermassive BHs in active galactic nuclei.

  13. Clump Accretion in Supergiant Fast X-Ray Transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chase, Eve; Raymer, E.; Blondin, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Supergiant Fast X-Ray Transients (SFXTs) are a subclass of High-Mass X-Ray Binaries that consist of a neutron star and OB supergiant donor star. These systems display short, bright x-ray flares lasting a few minutes to a few hours with luminosities reaching 1036 erg/s, several orders of magnitude larger than the quiescent luminosities of 1032 erg/s. The clumpy wind hypothesis has been proposed as a possible mechanism for these transient flares; in this model, a portion of the stellar wind from the donor star forms into clumps and is accreted onto the neutron star, inducing flares. We use high-resolution 3D hydrodynamic simulations to test the clumpy wind hypothesis, tracking the mass and angular momentum accretion rates to infer properties of the resulting x-ray flare and secular evolution of the neutron star rotation. Our results are significantly different from the predictions of Hoyle-Lyttleton Accretion (HLA) theory, which assume steady, laminar, axisymmetric flow. For example, an off-axis clump initiated with an impact parameter greater than the clump radius (for which HLA predicts no effect) produces a small spike in mass accretion and induces a long period of disk-like flow that dramatically reduces the accretion rate below the steady HLA value. The result is a brief, weak flare with a net decrease in total accreted mass compared with steady wind accretion accompanied by a substantial accretion of angular momentum.

  14. LMXB X-ray Transients: Revealing Basic Accretion Parameters in Non-stationary Regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Wenfei; Yan, Zhen; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Wenda

    2014-08-01

    X-ray observations of low mass X-ray binaries(LMXBs), especially those black hole transient systems, have been very important in shaping up our understanding of black hole accretion and testing accretion theory in a broad range of accretion regimes. We show strong evidence for non-stationary accretion regimes in the X-ray observations of spectral states and multi-wavelength observations of disk-jet coupling in more than 100 outbursts of 36 black hole and neutron star transients in the past decade or so. The occurrence of spectral state transitions and the peak episodic jet power during the rising phase of transient outbursts are found correlated with rate-of-increase of the X-ray luminosity, indicating the rate-of-change of the mass accretion rate, in addition to the mass accretion rate, must be considered when interpreting observations of spectral state transitions and disk-jet coupling in these X-ray transients. This is supported by observations since the increase of the mass accretion rate due to its rate-of-change on the observational time scale of interest is significant during outbursts.

  15. Probing AGN Accretion History Through X-Ray Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paolillo, Maurizio; Papadakis, I.; Brandt, W. N.; Xue, Y. Q.; Luo, B.; Tozzi, P.; Shemmer, O.; Allevato, V.; Bauer, F.; Koekemoer, A.; Vignali, C.; Vito, F.; Yang, G.; Wang, J. X.; Zheng, X.

    2016-10-01

    I will present recent results on AGN variability in the CDFS survey. Using over 10 years of X-ray monitoring and comparison with local AGNs we are able to constrain the variability dependence on BH mass and accreton rate, and use it to trace the accretion hisory of the AGN population up to z=3.

  16. TW Hya: SPECTRAL VARIABILITY, X-RAYS, AND ACCRETION DIAGNOSTICS

    SciTech Connect

    Dupree, A. K.; Brickhouse, N. S.; Cranmer, S. R.; Luna, G. J. M.; Schneider, E. E.; Bessell, M. S.; Bonanos, A.; Crause, L. A.; Lawson, W. A.; Mallik, S. V.; Schuler, S. C.

    2012-05-01

    The nearest accreting T Tauri star, TW Hya was intensively and continuously observed over {approx}17 days with spectroscopic and photometric measurements from four continents simultaneous with a long segmented exposure using the Chandra satellite. Contemporaneous optical photometry from WASP-S indicates a 4.74 day period was present during this time. The absence of a similar periodicity in the H{alpha} flux and the total X-ray flux which are dominated by accretion processes and the stellar corona, respectively, points to a different source of photometric variations. The H{alpha} emission line appears intrinsically broad and symmetric, and both the profile and its variability suggest an origin in the post-shock cooling region. An accretion event, signaled by soft X-rays, is traced spectroscopically for the first time through the optical emission line profiles. After the accretion event, downflowing turbulent material observed in the H{alpha} and H{beta} lines is followed by He I ({lambda}5876) broadening near the photosphere. Optical veiling resulting from the heated photosphere increases with a delay of {approx}2 hr after the X-ray accretion event. The response of the stellar coronal emission to an increase in the veiling follows {approx}2.4 hr later, giving direct evidence that the stellar corona is heated in part by accretion. Subsequently, the stellar wind becomes re-established. We suggest a model that incorporates the dynamics of this sequential series of events: an accretion shock, a cooling downflow in a supersonically turbulent region, followed by photospheric and later, coronal heating. This model naturally explains the presence of broad optical and ultraviolet lines, and affects the mass accretion rates determined from emission line profiles.

  17. Quasispherical subsonic accretion in X-ray pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakura, Nikolai I.; Postnov, Konstantin A.; Kochetkova, A. Yu; Hjalmarsdotter, L.

    2013-04-01

    A theoretical model is considered for quasispherical subsonic accretion onto slowly rotating magnetized neutron stars. In this regime, the accreting matter settles down subsonically onto the rotating magnetosphere, forming an extended quasistatic shell. Angular momentum transfer in the shell occurs via large-scale convective motions resulting, for observed pulsars, in an almost iso-angular-momentum \\omega \\sim 1/R^2 rotation law inside the shell. The accretion rate through the shell is determined by the ability of the plasma to enter the magnetosphere due to Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities, with allowance for cooling. A settling accretion regime is possible for moderate accretion rates \\dot M \\lesssim \\dot M_* \\simeq 4\\times 10^{16} g s ^{-1}. At higher accretion rates, a free-fall gap above the neutron star magnetosphere appears due to rapid Compton cooling, and the accretion becomes highly nonstationary. Observations of spin-up/spin-down rates of quasispherically wind accreting equilibrium X-ray pulsars with known orbital periods (e.g., GX 301-2 and Vela X-1) enable us to determine the main dimensionless parameters of the model, as well as to estimate surface magnetic field of the neutron star. For equilibrium pulsars, the independent measurements of the neutron star magnetic field allow for an estimate of the stellar wind velocity of the optical companion without using complicated spectroscopic measurements. For nonequilibrium pulsars, a maximum value is shown to exist for the spin-down rate of the accreting neutron star. From observations of the spin-down rate and the X-ray luminosity in such pulsars (e.g., GX 1+4, SXP 1062, and 4U 2206+54), a lower limit can be put on the neutron star magnetic field, which in all cases turns out to be close to the standard value and which agrees with cyclotron line measurements. Furthermore, both explains the spin-up/spin-down of the pulsar frequency on large time-scales and also accounts for the irregular short

  18. Radiative efficiency of hot accretion flow and the radio/X-ray correlation in X-ray binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Fu-Guo

    2016-02-01

    Significant progresses have been made since the discovery of hot accretion flow, a theory successfully applied to the low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs) and black hole (BH) X-ray binaries (BHBs) in their hard states. Motivated by these updates, we re-investigate the radiative efficiency of hot accretion flow. We find that, the brightest regime of hot accretion flow shows a distinctive property, i.e. it has a constant efficiency independent of accretion rates, similar to the standard thin disk. For less bright regime, the efficiency has a steep positive correlation with the accretion rate, while for faint regime typical of advection-dominated accretion flow, the correlation is shadower. This result can naturally explain the observed two distinctive correlations between radio and X-ray luminosities in black hole X-ray binaries. The key difference in systems with distinctive correlations could be the viscous parameter, which determines the critical luminosity of different accretion modes.

  19. The hard X-ray emission spectra from accretion columns in intermediate polars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yi, Insu; Vishniac, Ethan T.

    1994-01-01

    We consider the hard (greater than 2 keV) X-ray emission from accretion columns in an intermediate polar system, GK Per, using a simple settling solution. The rate of photon emission per logarithmic energy interval can be fitted with a power law, E(exp -gamma), with gamma approximately 2.0, in agreement with observations. This index is only weakly dependent on the mass accretion rate, dot-M, for dot-M in the range of a few times 10(exp 16-18) g/s. The peak energy of the photon spectra (after photoelectric absorption) is expected to be E(sub p) approximately (5 keV) gamma(exp -1/3) (N(sub H)/10(exp 23)/sq cm)(exp 1/3) where N(sub H) is the hydrogen column density along the line of sight. The observed spectra of GK Per and possibly of V1223 Sgr suggest N(sub H) approximately 10(exp 23)/sq cm. This large N(sub H) may be due to partially ionized preshock column material. Alternatively, we also consider absorption by the cool outer parts of an accretion disk. In this case the photoelectric absorption depth in the disk is a sensitive function of inclination. For GK Per the required inclination is approximately 83 deg. For mass accretion rates larger than a critical rate of approximately 10(exp 18) g/s, X-ray emission from the column accretion is significantly affected by radiation drag. Although the mass accretion rate increases dramatically during outbursts, the observed hard (greater than 2 keV) X-ray luminosity will not rise proportionately. The slope and peak energy of the outburst spectra are only weakly affected. We conclude that the observed X-ray spectra can be explained by this simple analytic solution and that the production of hard X-rays from the accretion shock at the magnetic poles in the intermediate polars is in general agreement with the observations. However, since the X-ray emission and absorption depend on the mass accretion rate in a complicated manner, observed hard X-ray luminosities (greater than 2 keV) are not a good indicator of the mass

  20. X-Ray Spectra from MHD Simulations of Accreting Black Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnittman, Jeremy D.; Noble, Scott C.; Krolik, Julian H.

    2011-01-01

    We present new global calculations of X-ray spectra from fully relativistic magneto-hydrodynamic (MHO) simulations of black hole (BH) accretion disks. With a self consistent radiative transfer code including Compton scattering and returning radiation, we can reproduce the predominant spectral features seen in decades of X-ray observations of stellar-mass BHs: a broad thermal peak around 1 keV, power-law continuum up to >100 keV, and a relativistically broadened iron fluorescent line. By varying the mass accretion rate, different spectral states naturally emerge: thermal-dominant, steep power-law, and low/hard. In addition to the spectral features, we briefly discuss applications to X-ray timing and polarization.

  1. X-ray observations of the accreting Be/X-ray binary pulsar A 0535+26 in outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caballero, I.

    2009-04-01

    Neutron stars are compact objects, characterized by R~10-14 km radius, M~1.4Msun and extremely high central densities ~10e15 g/cm^3. If they are part of a binary system, a flow of matter can take place from the companion star onto the neutron star. The accretion of matter onto neutron stars is one of the most powerful sources of energy in the universe. The accretion of matter takes place under extreme physical conditions, with magnetic fields in the range B~10^(8-15)G, which are impossible to reproduce on terrestrial laboratories. Therefore, accreting neutron stars are unique laboratories to study the matter under extreme conditions. In this thesis, X-ray observations of the accreting Be/X-ray binary A 0535+26 during a normal (type I) outburst are presented. In this system, the neutron star orbits around the optical companion HDE 245770 in an eccentric orbit, and sometimes presents X-ray outbursts (giant or normal) associated with the passage of the neutron star through the periastron. After more than eleven years of quiescence, A 0535+26 showed outbursting activity in 2005. The normal outburst analyzed in this work took place in August/September 2005, and reached a maximum X-ray flux of ~400 mCrab in the 5-100 kev range. The outburst, which lasted for ~30 days, was observed with the RXTE and INTEGRAL observatories. We have measured the spectrum of the source. In particular, two absorption-like features, interpreted as fundamental and first harmonic cyclotron resonant scattering features, have been detected at E~46 kev and E~102 kev with INTEGRAL and RXTE. Cyclotron lines are the only direct way to measure the magnetic field of a neutron star. Our observations have allowed to confirm the magnetic field of A 0535+26 at the site of the X-ray emission to be B~5x10^12 G. We studied the luminosity dependence of the cyclotron line in A 0535+26, and contrary to other sources, we found no significant variation of the cyclotron line energy with the luminosity. Changes of

  2. Interference as an Origin of the Peaked Noise in Accreting X-Ray Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veledina, Alexandra

    2016-12-01

    We propose a physical model for the peaked noise in the X-ray power density spectra of accreting X-ray binaries. We interpret its appearance as an interference of two Comptonization continua: one coming from the upscattering of seed photons from the cold thin disk and the other fed by the synchrotron emission of the hot flow. Variations of both X-ray components are caused by fluctuations in mass accretion rate, but there is a delay between them corresponding to the propagation timescale from the disk Comptonization radius to the region of synchrotron Comptonization. If the disk and synchrotron Comptonization are correlated, the humps in the power spectra are harmonically related and the dips between them appear at frequencies related as odd numbers 1:3:5. If they are anti-correlated, the humps are related as 1:3:5, but the dips are harmonically related. Similar structures are expected to be observed in accreting neutron star binaries and supermassive black holes. The delay can be easily recovered from the frequency of peaked noise and further used to constrain the combination of the viscosity parameter and disk height-to-radius ratio α(H/R)2 of the accretion flow. We model multi-peak power spectra of black hole X-ray binaries GX 339-4 and XTE J1748-288 to constrain these parameters.

  3. Partial accretion in the propeller stage of accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gungor, Can; Gogus, Ersin; Eksi, Kazim Yavuz; Guver, Tolga

    2016-07-01

    Accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars (AMXPs) are very important objects for studying the stages of disk - magnetosphere interaction as these objects may show different stages in an observable duration. A typical X-ray light curve of an outburst of AMXP has a fast rise and an exponential decay phases. Most of the outbursts have a knee where the flux goes from the slow decay stage to the rapid decay stage. This knee may be linked to the transition from accretion to propeller stage. Since, after the knee, the X-ray luminosity of the source is still higher than its quiescent level, the accretion from inner disc must be continuing in the propeller stage with a lower fraction than in the accretion stage. The X-ray does not only come from accretion onto the poles but the inner parts of the disk may also contribute to the total X-ray luminosity. To infer what fraction (f) of the inflowing matter accretes onto the star the light curve in the propeller stage, one should first separate the emission originating from the disk and obtain a light curve of X-ray emission only from the magnetic poles. We provide a new method to infer from the observational data the fraction of accreting matter onto the neutron star pole to the mass transferring from outer layers of the disc to the inner disc (f), as a function of the fastness parameter (ω_{*}), assuming the knee is due to the transition from accretion to the propeller stage. We transform X-ray luminosities to the mass fraction, f, and the time scale of outburst to fastness parameter, ω_*. It allows us to compare different types of outbursts of an AMXP in f - ω_* space which is universal for a unique system. We analysed the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer/Proportional Counter Array (RXTE/PCA) observations of the 2000 and the 2011 outbursts and the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Mission/X-ray Telescope (SWIFT/XRT) data of the 2013 outburst of the most known AMXP, Aql X-1 using a combination of blackbody representing hot spot, disk blackbody

  4. Interpreting the radio/X-ray correlation of black hole X-ray binaries based on the accretion-jet model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Fu-Guo; Yuan, Feng

    2016-03-01

    Two types of correlations between the radio and X-ray luminosities (LR and LX) have been found in black hole X-ray binaries. For some sources, they follow the `original' type of correlation which is described by a single power law. Later it was found that some other sources follow a different correlation consisting of three power-law branches, with each branch having different power-law indexes. In this work, we explain these two types of correlation under the coupled accretion-jet model. We attribute the difference between these two types of sources to the different value of viscosity parameter α. One possible reason for different α is the different configuration of magnetic field in the accretion material coming from the companion stars. For the `single power-law' sources, their α is high; so their accretion is always in the mode of advection-dominated accretion flow (ADAF) for the whole range of X-ray luminosity. For those `hybrid power-law' sources, the value of α is small so their accretion mode changes from an ADAF to a luminous hot accretion flow, and eventually to two-phase accretion as the accretion rate increases. Because the dependence of radiative efficiency on the mass accretion rate is different for these three accretion modes, different power-law indexes in the LR-LX correlation are expected. Constraints on the ratio of the mass-loss rate into the jet and the mass accretion rate in the accretion flow are obtained, which can be tested in future by radiative magnetohydrodynamic numerical simulations of jet formation.

  5. Spectroscopy of Low Mass X-Ray Binaries: New Insights into Accretion. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DilVrtilek, Saeqa; Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This project is to observe two low mass X-ray binaries, chosen for their X-ray brightness, low column density, and diversity of accretion behavior. The high spectral resolution of the RGS, the broad energy range and tremendous collecting power of EPIC, and simultaneous optical monitoring with the OM are particularly well-suited to these studies. observation of one of the two objects has taken place and the data were received in late November. The second object is yet to be observed. Over the next year we will: investigate the physical conditions of the emitting gas using emission and recombination line diagnostics to determine temperatures, densities, elemental abundances, and ionization structure; study the behavior of emission features as a function of binary orbit; and test and improve models of X-ray line emission developed by us over the past decade. We will gain insight on both the geometry of the accretion flow and on the evolutionary history of LMXBs.

  6. Spectroscopy of Low Mass X-Ray Binaries: New Insights into Accretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vrtilek, Saeqa Dil; Mushotzky, Richard F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This project is to observe two low mass X-ray binaries, chosen for their X-ray brightness, low column density, and diversity of accretion behavior. The high spectral resolution of the RGS, the broad energy range and tremendous collecting power of EPIC, and simultaneous optical monitoring with the OM are particularly well-suited to these studies. The second of two objects was not observed until September of 2002. Data analysis for the new observation is underway. over the next year we will: investigate the physical conditions of the emitting gas using emission and recombination line diagnostics to determine temperatures, densities, elemental abundances, and ionization structure; study the behavior of emission features as a function of binary orbit; and test and improve models of X-ray line emission developed by us over the past decade. We will gain insight on both the geometry of the accretion flow and on the evolutionary history of LMXBs.

  7. An X-ray outburst from the rapidly accreting young star that illuminates McNeil's nebula.

    PubMed

    Kastner, J H; Richmond, M; Grosso, N; Weintraub, D A; Simon, T; Frank, A; Hamaguchi, K; Ozawa, H; Henden, A

    2004-07-22

    Young, low-mass stars are luminous X-ray sources whose powerful X-ray flares may exert a profound influence over the process of planet formation. The origin of the X-ray emission is uncertain. Although many (or perhaps most) recently formed, low-mass stars emit X-rays as a consequence of solar-like coronal activity, it has also been suggested that X-ray emission may be a direct result of mass accretion onto the forming star. Here we report X-ray imaging spectroscopy observations which reveal a factor approximately 50 increase in the X-ray flux from a young star that is at present undergoing a spectacular optical/infrared outburst (this star illuminates McNeil's nebula). The outburst seems to be due to the sudden onset of a phase of rapid accretion. The coincidence of a surge in X-ray brightness with the optical/infrared eruption demonstrates that strongly enhanced high-energy emission from young stars can occur as a consequence of high accretion rates. We suggest that such accretion-enhanced X-ray emission from erupting young stars may be short-lived, because intense star-disk magnetospheric interactions are quenched rapidly by the subsequent flood of new material onto the star.

  8. Accretion and Outflows in X-ray Binaries: What's Really Going on During X-ray Quiescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, Rachel K. D.; Bailyn, Charles D.; Buxton, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    X-ray binaries, consisting of a star and a stellar-mass black hole, are wonderful laboratories for studying accretion and outflows. They evolve on timescales quite accessible to us, unlike their supermassive cousins, and allow the possibility of gaining a deeper understanding of these two common astrophysical processes. Different wavelength regimes reveal different aspects of the systems: radio emission is largely generated by outflows and jets, X-ray emission by inner accretion flows, and optical/infrared (OIR) emission by the outer disk and companion star. The search for relationships between these different wavelengths is thus an area of active research, aiming to reveal deeper connections between accretion and outflows.Initial evidence for a strong, tight correlation between radio and X-ray emission has weakened as further observations and newly-discovered sources have been obtained. This has led to discussions of multiple tracks or clusters, or the possibility that no overall relation exists for the currently-known population of X-ray binaries. Our ability to distinguish among these options is hampered by a relative lack of observations at lower luminosities, and especially of truly X-ray quiescent (non-outbursting) systems. Although X-ray binaries spend the bulk of their existence in quiescence, few quiescent sources have been observed and multiple observations of individual sources are largely nonexistent. Here we discuss new observations of the lowest-luminosity quiescent X-ray binary, A0620-00, and the place this object occupies in investigations of the radio/X-ray plane. For the first time, we also incorporate simultaneous OIR data with the radio and X-ray data.In December 2013 we took simultaneous observations of A0620-00 in the X-ray (Chandra), the radio (EVLA), and the OIR (SMARTS 1.3m). These X-ray and radio data allowed us to investigate similarities among quiescent X-ray binaries, and changes over time for this individual object, in the radio/X-ray

  9. X-Ray Binary Phenomenology and Their Accretion Disk Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazanas, Demosthenes

    We propose a scheme that accounts for the broader spectral and temporal properties of galactic black hole X-ray transients. The fundamental notion behind this proposal is that the mass accretion rate, dot{M}, of the disks of these systems depends on the radius, as it has been proposed for ADIOS. We propose that, because of this dependence of dot{M} on radius, an accretion disk which is geometrically thin and cool at large radii converts into a geometrically thick, advection dominated, hot disk interior to a transition radius at which the local accretion rate drops below the square of the viscosity parameter, a condition for the existence of advection dominated flows. We argue also that such a transition requires in addition that the vertical disk support be provided by magnetic fields. As discussed in other chapters of this book, the origin of these fields is local to the disk by the Poynting Robertson battery, thereby providing a complete self-contained picture for the spectra and evolution of these systems.

  10. Probing the Evolving X-ray Sources of Accreting Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkins, Dan

    2013-04-01

    Material spiralling into black holes powers some of the most luminous objects we see in the Unviverse; AGN and galactic black hole binaries. X-rays are emitted from a corona of energetic particles around the black hole and are seen to reflect off of the accretion disc. As well as being impressive objects in their own right, the black holes in AGN can emit such large amounts of energy that they are important in governing the growth of galaxies and clusters. Through detailed analysis of the observed reflection features in the X-ray spectrum and the variability of the detected emission showing reverberation time lags between the directly observed continuum and the reflection, it is possible to detect the emission from material right down to the innermost stable orbit around the black hole. Comparing these observations to the results of general relativistic ray tracing simulations allows them to be analysed in the context of the geometry of the X-ray emitting region and it has been possible to constrain the locations of the X-ray sources in a number of AGN including 1H 0707-495, IRAS 13224-3809 and MCG-6-30-15. With high quality data from long X-ray observations of these sources, it has, for the first time, been possible to follow the evolution of the coronal X-ray source as the luminosity of the source goes up and down. We are able to find evidence that the size and other properties of the X-ray source changes on the timescale of a few hours, giving rise to the extreme variability seen in these sources with the source increasing in size as the luminosity increases. Such detailed analysis of observations (both of spectra and variability) and studies of how the X-ray source is changing is paving the way to the science that will be possible with the next generation of X-ray instruments (NuStar and Astro-H) and will allow us to understand the processes at work in the innermost regions of accretion black holes, releasing energy from the accretion flow to power some of the

  11. Flywheel-powered X-ray generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siedband, M. P.

    1984-01-01

    The use of a small flywheel appears to be a practical alternative to other power sources for mobile X-ray system applications. A 5 kg flywheel has been constructed which runs at 10 krpm and stores 30 KJ while requiring less than 500 W to bring the system up to speed. The wheel is coupled to an aircraft alternator and can yield pulsed power levels over 50 KWp. The aircraft alternator has the advantage of high frequency output which has also permitted the design of smaller high voltage transformers. A series of optical sensors detecting shaft position function as an electronic commutator so that the alternator may operate as a motor to bring the wheel up to operating speed. The system permits the generation of extremely powerful X-rays from a variety of low power sources such as household power outlets, automobile batteries or sources of poorly regulated electrical power such as those found in third world countries.

  12. Black holes in short period X-ray binaries and the transition to radiatively inefficient accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knevitt, G.; Wynn, G. A.; Vaughan, S.; Watson, M. G.

    2014-02-01

    By comparing the orbital period distributions of black hole and neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) in the Ritter-Kolb catalogue we show that there is statistical evidence for a dearth of black hole systems at short orbital periods (Porb < 4 h). This could either be due to a true divergence in orbital period distributions of these two types of system, or to black hole LMXBs being preferentially hidden from view at short orbital periods. We explore the latter possibility, by investigating whether black hole LMXBs could be concealed by a switch to radiatively inefficient accretion at low luminosities. The peak luminosity and the duration of X-ray binary outbursts are related to the disc radius and, hence, the orbital period. At short periods, where the peak outburst luminosity drops close to the threshold for radiatively inefficient accretion, black hole LMXBs have lower outburst luminosities, shorter outburst durations and lower X-ray duty cycles than comparable neutron star systems. These factors can combine to severely reduce the detection probability of short period black hole LMXBs relative to those containing neutron stars. We estimate the outburst properties and orbital period distribution of black hole LMXBs using two models of the transition to radiatively inefficient accretion: an instantaneous drop in accretion efficiency (η) to zero, at a fraction (f) of the Eddington luminosity (LEdd) and a power-law efficiency decrease, η ∝ dot{M}^n, for L < f LEdd. We show that a population of black hole LMXBs at short orbital periods can only be hidden by a sharp drop in efficiency, either instantaneous or for n ≳ 3. This could be achieved by a genuine drop in luminosity or through abrupt spectral changes that shift the accretion power out of a given X-ray band.

  13. Spectroscopy of Low Mass X-Ray Binaries: New Insights into Accretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DilVrtilek, Saeqa; Mushotsky, Richard (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    This project is to observe two low mass X-ray binaries, chosen for their X-ray brightness, low column density, and diversity of accretion behavior. The high spectral resolution of the RGS, the broad energy range and tremendous collecting power of EPIC, and simultaneous optical monitoring with the OM are particularly well-suited to these studies. The second of two objects was observed on September of 2002. Data analysis for both observation has been completed: an investigation of the physical conditions of the emitting gas using emission and recombination line diagnostics to determine temperatures, densities, elemental abundances, and ionization structure. A study of behavior of the emission features as a function of binary orbit shows modulated behavior in one of the systems. A paper on "High-resolution observations of low-mass X-ray binaries" is near completion. The paper includes observations with the Chandra HETG that are not yet completed.

  14. X-ray emission from cataclysmic variables with accretion disks. I - Hard X-rays. II - EUV/soft X-ray radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, J.; Raymond, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    Theoretical models explaining the hard-X-ray, soft-X-ray, and EUV emission of accretion-disk cataclysmic variables in terms of the disk boundary layer (DBL) are developed on the basis of a survey of the published observational data. The data are compared with model predictions in graphs for systems with high or low (greater than or less than 10-Pg/s) accretion rates. Good agreement is obtained both at low accretion rates, where an optically thin rarefied hot (Te = 10 to the 8th K) DBL radiates most of its energy as hard X-rays, and at high accretion rates, where an optically thick 100,000-K DBL radiates most of its energy in the EUV and as soft X-rays. Detailed analysis of the old nova V603 Aql suggests that previous models predicting more detections of soft-X-ray/EUV emissions from thick-DBL objects (Ferland et al., 1982) used inappropriate dwarf masses, interstellar column densities, or classical-nova space densities.

  15. X-ray and UV radiation from accreting nonmagnetic degenerate dwarfs. II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kylafis, N. D.; Lamb, D. Q.

    1982-01-01

    Numerical calculations of X-ray and UV emission from accreting nonmagnetic degenerate dwarfs are reported, which span the entire range of accretion rates and stellar masses. Calculations include the effects of bremsstrahlung, Compton cooling, radiation pressure, albedo of the stellar surface, Compton degradation and free-free abscription of the X-ray spectrum by the accreting matter. Maximum X-ray luminosity for degenerate dwarfs undergoing spherical accretion is found to be 2.2 x 10 to the 36th ergs/s, which is little changed if accretion occurs radially over only a fraction of the stellar surface, so that the emitted radiation escapes without significant scattering. The temperature characterizing the X-ray spectra produced by degenerate dwarfs strongly depends on the stellar mass and the accretion rate, and it is suggested that the correlation between spectral temperature and luminosity is an important signature of degenerate X-ray sources.

  16. Black hole accretion rings revealed by future X-ray spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sochora, V.; Karas, V.; Svoboda, J.; Dovčiak, M.

    2011-11-01

    Spectral features can arise by reflection of coronal X-rays on a black hole accretion disc. The resulting profile bears various imprints of a strong gravitational field acting on the light-emitting gas. The observed shape of the reflection line is formed by integrating contributions over a range of radii across the accretion disc plane, where the individual photons experience a different level of energy shifts, boosting and amplification by relativistic effects. These have to be convolved with the intrinsic emissivity of the line, which is a function of radius and the emission angle in the local frame. We study if the currently discussed instruments on-board X-ray satellites will be able to reveal the departure of the line radial emissivity from a simple smooth power-law function, which is often assumed in data fitting and its interpretation. Such a departure can be a result of excess emission occurring at a certain distance. This could be used to study variations with a radius of the line production or to constrain the position of the inner edge of the accretion disc. By simulating artificial data from a bright active galactic nucleus of a type 1 Seyfert galaxy (inclination ≃30°, X-ray flux ≃1-2 mCrab in a keV energy band) we show that the required sensitivity and energy resolution could be reached with a large area detector of the proposed Large Observatory for X-ray Timing mission. Galactic black holes will provide another category of potentially suitable targets if the relativistic spectral features are indeed produced by reflection from their accretion discs.

  17. Powerful jets from black hole X-ray binaries in low/hard X-ray states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fender, R. P.

    2001-03-01

    Four persistent (Cygnus X-1, GX 339-4, GRS 1758-258 and 1E 1740.7-2942) and three transient (GS 2023+38, GRO J0422+32 and GS 1354-64) black hole X-ray binary systems have been extensively observed at radio wavelengths during extended periods in the low/hard X-ray state, which is characterized in X-rays by a hard power-law spectrum and strong variability. All seven systems show a persistent flat or inverted (in the sense that α>~0, where Sν~να) radio spectrum in this state, markedly different from the optically thin radio spectra exhibited by most X-ray transients within days of outburst. Furthermore, in none of the systems is a high-frequency cut-off to this spectral component detected, and there is evidence that it extends to near-infrared or optical regimes. Luminous persistent hard X-ray states in the black hole system GRS 1915+105 produce a comparable spectrum. This spectral component is considered to arise in synchrotron emission from a conical, partially self-absorbed jet, of the same genre as those originally considered for active galactic nuclei. Whatever the physical origin of the low/hard X-ray states, these self-similar outflows are an ever-present feature. The power in the jet component is likely to be a significant (>=5per cent) and approximately fixed fraction of the total accretion luminosity. The correlation between hard X-ray and synchrotron emission in all the sources implies that the jets are intimately related to the Comptonization process, and do not have very large bulk Lorentz factors, unless the hard X-ray emission is also beamed by the same factor.

  18. On the X-ray spectra of luminous, inhomogeneous accretion flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merloni, A.; Malzac, J.; Fabian, A. C.; Ross, R. R.

    2006-08-01

    We discuss the expected X-ray spectral and variability properties of black hole accretion discs at high luminosity, under the hypothesis that radiation-pressure-dominated discs are subject to violent clumping instabilities and, as a result, have a highly inhomogeneous two-phase structure. After deriving the full accretion disc solutions explicitly in terms of the parameters of the model, we study their radiative properties both with a simple two-zone model, treatable analytically, and with radiative transfer simulations which account simultaneously for energy balance and Comptonization in the hot phase, together with reflection, reprocessing, ionization and thermal balance in the cold phase. We show that, if not only the density, but also the heating rate within these flows is inhomogeneous, then complex reflection-dominated spectra can be obtained for a high enough covering fraction of the cold phase. In general, large reflection components in the observed X-ray spectra should be associated with strong soft excesses, resulting from the combined emission of ionized atomic emission lines. The variability properties of such systems are such that, even when contributing to a large fraction of the hard X-ray spectrum, the reflection component is less variable than the power-law-like emission originating from the hot Comptonizing phase, in agreement with what is observed in many Narrow Line Seyfert 1 galaxies and bright Seyfert 1. Our model falls within the family of those trying to explain the complex X-ray spectra of bright AGN with ionized reflection, but presents an alternative, specific, physically motivated, geometrical set-up for the complex multiphase structure of the inner regions of near-Eddington accretion flows.

  19. X-RAY SPECTRA FROM MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS OF ACCRETING BLACK HOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Schnittman, Jeremy D.; Krolik, Julian H.; Noble, Scott C. E-mail: jhk@pha.jhu.edu

    2013-06-01

    We present the results of a new global radiation transport code coupled to a general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulation of an accreting, non-rotating black hole. For the first time, we are able to explain from first principles in a self-consistent way all the components seen in the X-ray spectra of stellar-mass black holes, including a thermal peak and all the features associated with strong hard X-ray emission: a power law extending to high energies, a Compton reflection hump, and a broad iron line. Varying only the mass accretion rate, we are able to reproduce a wide range of X-ray states seen in most galactic black hole sources. The temperature in the corona is T{sub e} {approx} 10 keV in a boundary layer near the disk and rises smoothly to T{sub e} {approx}> 100 keV in low-density regions far above the disk. Even as the disk's reflection edge varies from the horizon out to Almost-Equal-To 6M as the accretion rate decreases, we find that the shape of the Fe K{alpha} line is remarkably constant. This is because photons emitted from the plunging region are strongly beamed into the horizon and never reach the observer. We have also carried out a basic timing analysis of the spectra and find that the fractional variability increases with photon energy and viewer inclination angle, consistent with the coronal hot spot model for X-ray fluctuations.

  20. X-ray Measurements of Variable Accretion onto the Young Star TW Hydrae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brickhouse, Nancy S.; Cranmer, S. R.; Dupree, A. K.; Wolk, S. J.; Guenther, H. M.

    2013-06-01

    We report X-ray line ratio diagnostics of the electron temperature, electron density and hydrogen column density observed from the classical T Tauri star (CTTS) TW Hydrae using the High Energy Transmission Grating (HETG) spectrometer onboard Chandra. Applying a classical model of magnetically channeled flow from an accretion disk onto the stellar surface, and making the assumption that the absorber of the X-ray shock is the accreting stream itself, we are able to determine all the properties of the accretion, namely the mass accretion rate, stellar magnetic field strength, disk truncation radius, and surface filling factor. We find that the diagnostic ratios, and thus the accretion parameters, are variable, lending support to the absorption assumption. We also report X-ray and optical signatures that respond to the variable accretion, with timescales suggesting the response of the stellar atmosphere to the impact of accretion.

  1. Dynamical and Radiative Properties of X-Ray Pulsar Accretion Columns: Phase-averaged Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Brent F.; Wolfram, Kenneth D.; Becker, Peter A.

    2017-02-01

    The availability of the unprecedented spectral resolution provided by modern X-ray observatories is opening up new areas for study involving the coupled formation of the continuum emission and the cyclotron absorption features in accretion-powered X-ray pulsar spectra. Previous research focusing on the dynamics and the associated formation of the observed spectra has largely been confined to the single-fluid model, in which the super-Eddington luminosity inside the column decelerates the flow to rest at the stellar surface, while the dynamical effect of gas pressure is ignored. In a companion paper, we have presented a detailed analysis of the hydrodynamic and thermodynamic structure of the accretion column obtained using a new self-consistent model that includes the effects of both gas and radiation pressures. In this paper, we explore the formation of the associated X-ray spectra using a rigorous photon transport equation that is consistent with the hydrodynamic and thermodynamic structure of the column. We use the new model to obtain phase-averaged spectra and partially occulted spectra for Her X-1, Cen X-3, and LMC X-4. We also use the new model to constrain the emission geometry, and compare the resulting parameters with those obtained using previously published models. Our model sheds new light on the structure of the column, the relationship between the ionized gas and the photons, the competition between diffusive and advective transport, and the magnitude of the energy-averaged cyclotron scattering cross-section.

  2. Accretion X-ray ms pulsar as a probe of NS EOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shu; Ji, Long

    2016-07-01

    Equation state of NS is one of the core sciences for future mission. Regarding to the possible probes, apart from the bursting ms pulsars for which the relation between the spinning light curve and the mass/radius of NS is well established theoretically, the accretion X-ray ms pulsars are the potential alternatives. However, the emission mechanism of the latter is more complicated since one has to account for the corona on top of the NS surface which provides Comptonizations that mix/distort the black body underneath. Thus disentangling the model components between the black body and the Comptonization becomes a big challenge in case of relating the spinning light curve to the mass/radius of NS. This problem is hard to be handled even with a powerful telescope owning a very large detection area. X-ray polarimetry shows us a new insight on model discrimination, and we take the accretion X-ray ms pulsar XTEJ1751-305 as an example to show how this issue could be addressed with a polarization telescope.

  3. X-Ray Spectra from MHD Simulations of Accreting Black Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnittman, Jeremy D.; Krolik, Julian H.; Noble, Scott C.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a new global radiation transport code coupled to a general relativistic magneto-hydrodynamic simulation of an accreting, nonrotating black hole. For the first time, we are able to explain from first principles in a self-consistent way the X-ray spectra observed from stellar-mass black holes, including a thermal peak, Compton reflection hump, power-law tail, and broad iron line. Varying only the mass accretion rate, we are able to reproduce the low/hard, steep power-law, and thermal-dominant states seen in most galactic black hole sources. The temperature in the corona is T(sub e) 10 keV in a boundary layer near the disk and rises smoothly to T(sub e) greater than or approximately 100 keV in low-density regions far above the disk. Even as the disk's reflection edge varies from the horizon out to approximately equal to 6M as the accretion rate decreases, we find that the shape of the Fe Ka line is remarkably constant. This is because photons emitted from the plunging region are strongly beamed into the horizon and never reach the observer. We have also carried out a basic timing analysis of the spectra and find that the fractional variability increases with photon energy and viewer inclination angle, consistent with the coronal hot spot model for X-ray fluctuations.

  4. X-Ray Constraints on Accretion and Starburst Processes in Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ptak, Andrew Francis

    The results of X-ray observations of a sample of nearby low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGN), low-ionization nuclear emission line regions (LINERs), and starburst galaxies are presented. In general the 0.4-10.0 keV spectra of this heterogenous sample are fit well by a two-component model consisting of an optically-thin plasma with a temperature of ~0.7 keV and a power-law model with a photon index of ~1.7. Both the hot gas component and the hard, possibly nonthermal, X-ray emission appear to be common features of galaxies showing signs of nuclear activity. The spectrum of the hard component (roughly in the 2-10 keV bandpass) is most consistent with AGN, which are postulated to be accreting supermassive blackholes. X-ray binaries that are probably accreting blackhole candidates also appear to contribute significantly to the hard, and possibly to a lesser extent, the soft X-ray emission. Very hot (T~108 K) gas in a 'superwind' may also be contributing to the hard flux in some cases, probably concentrated in the nuclear regions of the galaxies. Another possible contributor to the featureless X-ray continuum may be inverse-Compton scattering of infrared photons, but the contribution of this component is sensitive to model assumptions. The soft emission appears to be supernovae-heated interstellar medium (ISM). In some cases, the SN-heating is actually in the form of a superwind, in which case ~90% of the X-ray emitting gas is 'swept-up' ISM and the remainder is (cooling) superwind emission out in the disks of the galaxies. Very low absolutes abundances are observed, but the uncertainties are large. Relative abundances are more secure and suggest that Fe is underabundant relative to α-process elements. The low relative Fe abundance may be due to enrichment by Type-II supernovae and∨ dust depletion, but non-equilibrium ionization may also be playing a part. Future observations by X-ray telescopes with high spatial and spectral resolution and improved

  5. X-ray deficiency on strongly accreting T Tauri stars. Comparing Orion with Taurus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustamante, I.; Merín, B.; Bouy, H.; Manara, C. F.; Ribas, Á.; Riviere-Marichalar, P.

    2016-03-01

    Context. Depending on whether a T Tauri star accretes material from its circumstellar disk or not, different X-ray emission properties can be found. The accretion shocks produce cool heating of the plasma, contributing to the soft X-ray emission from the star. Aims: Using X-ray data from the Chandra Orion Ultra-deep Project and accretion rates that were obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope/WFPC2 photometric measurements in the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC), we studied the relation between the accretion processes and the X-ray emissions of a coherent sample of T Tauri sources in the region. Methods: We performed regression and correlation analyses of our sample of T Tauri stars between the X-ray parameters, stellar properties, and the accretion measurements. Results: We find that a clear anti-correlation is present between the residual X-ray luminosity and the accretion rates in our samples in Orion that is consistent with that found on the XMM-Newton Extended Survey of the Taurus molecular cloud (XEST) study. A considerable number of classified non-accreting sources show accretion rates comparable to those of classical T Tauri Stars (CTTS). Our data do not allow us to confirm the classification between classical and weak-line T Tauri stars (WTTS), and the number of WTTS in this work is small compared to the complete samples. Thus, we have used the entire samples as accretors in our analysis. We provide a catalog with X-ray luminosities (corrected from distance) and accretion measurements of an ONC T Tauri stars sample. Conclusions: Although Orion and Taurus display strong differences in their properties (total gas and dust mass, star density, strong irradiation from massive stars), we find that a similar relation between the residual X-ray emission and accretion rate is present in the Taurus molecular cloud and in the accreting samples from the ONC. The spread in the data suggests dependencies of the accretion rates and the X-ray luminosities other than the

  6. X-ray Reflected Spectra from Accretion Disk Models. II. Diagnostic Tools for X-ray Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, J.; Kallman, T. R.; Mushotzky, R. F.

    2011-04-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the emission spectra from accreting sources. We use our new reflection code to compute the reflected spectra from an accretion disk illuminated by X-rays. This set of models covers different values of ionization parameter, solar iron abundance, and photon index for the illuminating spectrum. These models also include the most complete and recent atomic data for the inner shell of the iron and oxygen isonuclear sequences. We concentrate our analysis on the 2-10 keV energy region and in particular on the iron K-shell emission lines. We show the dependency of the equivalent width (EW) of the Fe Kα on the ionization parameter. The maximum value of the EW is ~800 eV for models with log ξ ~ 1.5 and decreases monotonically as ξ increases. For lower values of ξ, the Fe Kα EW decreases to a minimum near log ξ ~ 0.8. We produce simulated CCD observations based on our reflection models. For low-ionized, reflection-dominated cases, the 2-10 keV energy region shows a very broad, curving continuum that cannot be represented by a simple power law. We show that in addition to the Fe K-shell emission, there are other prominent features such as the Si and S Lα lines, a blend of Ar VIII-XI lines, and the Ca X Kα line. In some cases, the S XV blends with the He-like Si radiative recombination continua producing a broad feature that cannot be reproduced by a simple Gaussian profile. This could be used as a signature of reflection.

  7. X-RAY REFLECTED SPECTRA FROM ACCRETION DISK MODELS. II. DIAGNOSTIC TOOLS FOR X-RAY OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    GarcIa, J.; Kallman, T. R.; Mushotzky, R. F. E-mail: timothy.r.kallman@nasa.gov

    2011-04-20

    We present a comprehensive study of the emission spectra from accreting sources. We use our new reflection code to compute the reflected spectra from an accretion disk illuminated by X-rays. This set of models covers different values of ionization parameter, solar iron abundance, and photon index for the illuminating spectrum. These models also include the most complete and recent atomic data for the inner shell of the iron and oxygen isonuclear sequences. We concentrate our analysis on the 2-10 keV energy region and in particular on the iron K-shell emission lines. We show the dependency of the equivalent width (EW) of the Fe K{alpha} on the ionization parameter. The maximum value of the EW is {approx}800 eV for models with log {xi} {approx} 1.5 and decreases monotonically as {xi} increases. For lower values of {xi}, the Fe K{alpha} EW decreases to a minimum near log {xi} {approx} 0.8. We produce simulated CCD observations based on our reflection models. For low-ionized, reflection-dominated cases, the 2-10 keV energy region shows a very broad, curving continuum that cannot be represented by a simple power law. We show that in addition to the Fe K-shell emission, there are other prominent features such as the Si and S L{alpha} lines, a blend of Ar VIII-XI lines, and the Ca X K{alpha} line. In some cases, the S XV blends with the He-like Si radiative recombination continua producing a broad feature that cannot be reproduced by a simple Gaussian profile. This could be used as a signature of reflection.

  8. X-Ray Reflected Spectra from Accretion Disk Models. II. Diagnostic Tools for X-Ray Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, J.; Kallman, T. R.; Mushotzky, R. F.

    2011-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the emission spectra from accreting sources. We use our new reflection code to compute the reflected spectra from an accretion disk illuminated by X-rays. This set of models covers different values of ionization parameter, solar iron abundance and photon index for the illuminating spectrum. These models also include the most complete and recent atomic data for the inner-shell of the iron and oxygen isonuclear sequences. We concentrate our analysis to the 2 - 10 keV energy region, and in particular to the iron K-shell emission lines. We show the dependency of the equivalent width (EW) of the Fe Ka with the ionization parameter. The maximum value of the EW is approx. 800 eV for models with log Epsilon approx. 1.5, and decreases monotonically as Epsilon increases. For lower values of Epsilon the Fe K(alpha) EW decreases to a minimum near log Epsilon approx. 0.8. We produce simulated CCD observations based on our reflection models. For low ionized, reflection dominated cases, the 2 -10 keV energy region shows a very broad, curving continuum that cannot be represented by a simple power-law. We show that in addition to the Fe K-shell emission, there are other prominent features such as the Si and S L(alpha) lines, a blend of Ar VIII-XI lines, and the Ca x K(alpha) line. In some cases the S xv blends with the He-like Si RRC producing a broad feature that cannot be reproduced by a simple Gaussian profile. This could be used as a signature of reflection.

  9. THE QUIESCENT X-RAY PROPERTIES OF THE ACCRETING MILLISECOND X-RAY PULSAR AND ECLIPSING BINARY SWIFT J1749.4-2807

    SciTech Connect

    Degenaar, N.; Patruno, A.; Wijnands, R.

    2012-09-10

    Swift J1749.4-2807 is a transient neutron star low-mass X-ray binary that contains an accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar spinning at 518 Hz. It is the first of its kind that displays X-ray eclipses, which holds significant promise to precisely constrain the mass of the neutron star. We report on a {approx_equal} 105 ks long XMM-Newton observation performed when Swift J1749.4-2807 was in quiescence. We detect the source at a 0.5-10 keV luminosity of {approx_equal}1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 33}(D/6.7 kpc){sup 2} erg s{sup -1}. The X-ray light curve displays three eclipses that are consistent in orbital phase and duration with the ephemeris derived during outburst. Unlike most quiescent neutron stars, the X-ray spectrum can be adequately described with a simple power law, while a pure-hydrogen atmosphere model does not fit the data. We place an upper limit on the 0.01-100 keV thermal luminosity of the cooling neutron star of {approx}< 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 33} erg s{sup -1} and constrain its temperature to be {approx}< 0.1 keV (for an observer at infinity). Timing analysis does not reveal evidence for X-ray pulsations near the known spin frequency of the neutron star or its first overtone with a fractional rms of {approx}< 34% and {approx}< 28%, respectively. We discuss the implications of our findings for dynamical mass measurements, the thermal state of the neutron star, and the origin of the quiescent X-ray emission.

  10. Modeling the optical-X-ray accretion lag in LMC X-3: Insights into black-hole accretion physics

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, James F.; McClintock, Jeffrey E.; Orosz, Jerome A.; Buxton, Michelle M.; Bailyn, Charles D.; Remillard, Ronald A.; Kara, Erin

    2014-03-10

    The X-ray persistence and characteristically soft spectrum of the black hole X-ray binary LMC X-3 make this source a touchstone for penetrating studies of accretion physics. We analyze a rich, ten-year collection of optical/infrared (OIR) time-series data in conjunction with all available contemporaneous X-ray data collected by the All-Sky Monitor and Proportional Counter Array detectors aboard the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer. A cross-correlation analysis reveals an X-ray lag of ≈2 weeks. Motivated by this result, we develop a model that reproduces the complex OIR light curves of LMC X-3. The model is comprised of three components of emission: stellar light, accretion luminosity from the outer disk inferred from the time-lagged X-ray emission, and light from the X-ray-heated star and outer disk. Using the model, we filter a strong noise component out of the ellipsoidal light curves and derive an improved orbital period for the system. Concerning accretion physics, we find that the local viscous timescale in the disk increases with the local mass accretion rate; this in turn implies that the viscosity parameter α decreases with increasing luminosity. Finally, we find that X-ray heating is a strong function of X-ray luminosity below ≈50% of the Eddington limit, while above this limit X-ray heating is heavily suppressed. We ascribe this behavior to the strong dependence of the flaring in the disk upon X-ray luminosity, concluding that for luminosities above ≈50% of Eddington, the star lies fully in the shadow of the disk.

  11. Models of the hard X-ray spectrum of AM Herculis and implications for the accretion rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swank, J. H.; Fabian, A. C.; Ross, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    Phenomenological fits to the hard X-ray spectrum of AM Herculis left unexplained the high equivalent width (0.8 + or - 0.1 keV) of Fe K alpha emission. A purely thermal origin implies a much steeper spectrum than was observed. With Monte Carlo calculations, scattering and fluorescent line production in a cold or partially ionized accretion column of hard X-rays emitted at the base were investigated. The strength of the iron emission and the flat spectral continuum can be explained by the effects of fluorescence and absorption within the accretion column and the surface of the white dwarf on a thermal X-ray spectrum. Thomson optical depths across the column in the range 0.2 to 0.7 are acceptable. The accretion rate and gravitational power can be deduced from the optical depth across the column, if the column size is known, and, together with the observed hard X-ray and polarized light luminosities, imply a lower limit for the luminosity in the UV to soft X-ray range, for which the observations give model-dependent values. Estimates of the column size differ by a factor of 40. Small spot sizes and low luminosities would be consistent with the soft component being the expected reprocessed bremsstrahlung and cyclotron radiation, although the constraint of matching the spectrum confines one to solutions with fluxes exceeding 20% the Eddington limits.

  12. An accreting pulsar with extreme properties drives an ultraluminous x-ray source in NGC 5907

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Israel, Gian Luca; Belfiore, Andrea; Stella, Luigi; Esposito, Paolo; Casella, Piergiorgio; De Luca, Andrea; Marelli, Martino; Papitto, Alessandro; Perri, Matteo; Puccetti, Simonetta; Castillo, Guillermo A. Rodríguez; Salvetti, David; Tiengo, Andrea; Zampieri, Luca; D’Agostino, Daniele; Greiner, Jochen; Haberl, Frank; Novara, Giovanni; Salvaterra, Ruben; Turolla, Roberto; Watson, Mike; Wilms, Joern; Wolter, Anna

    2017-02-01

    Ultraluminous x-ray sources (ULXs) in nearby galaxies shine brighter than any x-ray source in our Galaxy. ULXs are usually modeled as stellar-mass black holes (BHs) accreting at very high rates or intermediate-mass BHs. We present observations showing that NGC 5907 ULX is instead an x-ray accreting neutron star (NS) with a spin period evolving from 1.43 seconds in 2003 to 1.13 seconds in 2014. It has an isotropic peak luminosity of ~1000 times the Eddington limit for a NS at 17.1 megaparsec. Standard accretion models fail to explain its luminosity, even assuming beamed emission, but a strong multipolar magnetic field can describe its properties. These findings suggest that other extreme ULXs (x-ray luminosity ≥ 1041 erg second‑1) might harbor NSs.

  13. An accreting pulsar with extreme properties drives an ultraluminous x-ray source in NGC 5907.

    PubMed

    Israel, Gian Luca; Belfiore, Andrea; Stella, Luigi; Esposito, Paolo; Casella, Piergiorgio; De Luca, Andrea; Marelli, Martino; Papitto, Alessandro; Perri, Matteo; Puccetti, Simonetta; Castillo, Guillermo A Rodríguez; Salvetti, David; Tiengo, Andrea; Zampieri, Luca; D'Agostino, Daniele; Greiner, Jochen; Haberl, Frank; Novara, Giovanni; Salvaterra, Ruben; Turolla, Roberto; Watson, Mike; Wilms, Joern; Wolter, Anna

    2017-02-24

    Ultraluminous x-ray sources (ULXs) in nearby galaxies shine brighter than any x-ray source in our Galaxy. ULXs are usually modeled as stellar-mass black holes (BHs) accreting at very high rates or intermediate-mass BHs. We present observations showing that NGC 5907 ULX is instead an x-ray accreting neutron star (NS) with a spin period evolving from 1.43 seconds in 2003 to 1.13 seconds in 2014. It has an isotropic peak luminosity of [Formula: see text]1000 times the Eddington limit for a NS at 17.1 megaparsec. Standard accretion models fail to explain its luminosity, even assuming beamed emission, but a strong multipolar magnetic field can describe its properties. These findings suggest that other extreme ULXs (x-ray luminosity [Formula: see text] 10(41) erg second[Formula: see text]) might harbor NSs.

  14. IGR J17062–6143 Is an Accreting Millisecond X-Ray Pulsar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strohmayer, Tod; Keek, Laurens

    2017-02-01

    We present the discovery of 163.65 Hz X-ray pulsations from IGR J17062‑6143 in the only observation obtained from the source with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer. This detection makes IGR J17062‑6143 the lowest-frequency accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar presently known. The pulsations are detected in the 2–12 keV band with an overall significance of 4.3σ and an observed pulsed amplitude of 5.54% ± 0.67% (in this band). Both dynamic power spectral and coherent phase timing analysis indicate that the pulsation frequency is decreasing during the ≈1.2 ks observation in a manner consistent with orbital motion of the neutron star. Because the observation interval is short, we cannot precisely measure the orbital period; however, periods shorter than 17 minutes are excluded at 90% confidence. For the range of acceptable circular orbits the inferred binary mass function substantially overlaps the observed range for the AMXP population as a whole.

  15. IGR J170626143 is an Accreting Millisecond X-Ray Pulsar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strohmayer, Tod E.; Keek, Laurens

    2017-01-01

    We present the discovery of 163.65 Hz X-ray pulsations from IGR J17062-6143 in the only observation obtained from the source with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer. This detection makes IGR J17062-6143 the lowest frequency accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar presently known. The pulsations are detected in the 2-12 keV band with an overall significance of 4.3sigma and an observed pulsed amplitude of 5.54% +/-0.67% (in this band). Both dynamic power spectral and coherent phase timing analysis indicate that the pulsation frequency is decreasing during the approx. =1.2 ks observation in a manner consistent with orbital motion of the neutron star. Because the observation interval is short, we cannot precisely measure the orbital period; however, periods shorter than 17 minutes are excluded at 90% confidence. For the range of acceptable circular orbits the inferred binary mass function substantially overlaps the observed range for the AMXP population as a whole.

  16. Dante Soft X-ray Power Diagnostic for NIF

    SciTech Connect

    Dewald, E; Campbell, K; Turner, R; Holder, J; Landen, O; Glenzer, S; Kauffman, R; Suter, L; Landon, M; Rhodes, M; Lee, D

    2004-04-15

    Soft x-ray power diagnostics are essential for measuring spectrally resolved the total x-ray flux, radiation temperature, conversion efficiency and albedo that are important quantities for the energetics of indirect drive hohlraums. At the Nova or Omega Laser Facilities, these measurements are performed mainly with Dante, but also with DMX and photo-conductive detectors (PCD's). The Dante broadband spectrometer is a collection of absolute calibrated vacuum x-ray diodes, thin filters and x-ray mirrors used to measure the soft x-ray emission for photon energies above 50 eV.

  17. Probing X-ray burst - accretion disk interaction in low mass X-ray binaries through kilohertz quasiperiodic oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peille, P.; Olive, J.-F.; Barret, D.

    2014-07-01

    The intense radiation flux of Type I X-ray bursts is expected to interact with the accretion flow around neutron stars. High frequency quasiperiodic oscillations (kHz QPOs), observed at frequencies matching orbital frequencies at tens of gravitational radii, offer a unique probe of the innermost disk regions. In this paper, we follow the lower kHz QPOs, in response to Type I X-ray bursts, in two prototypical QPO sources, namely 4U 1636-536 and 4U 1608-522, as observed by the Proportional Counter Array of the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer. We have selected a sample of 15 bursts for which the kHz QPO frequency can be tracked on timescales commensurable with the burst durations (tens of seconds). We find evidence that the QPOs are affected for over ~200 s during one exceptionally long burst and ~100 s during two others (although at a less significant level), while the burst emission has already decayed to a level that would enable the pre-burst QPO to be detected. On the other hand, for most of our burst-kHz QPO sample, we show that the QPO is detected as soon as the statistics allow and in the best cases, we are able to set an upper limit of ~20 s on the recovery time of the QPO. This diversity of behavior cannot be related to differences in burst peak luminosity. We discuss these results in the framework of recent findings that accretion onto the neutron star may be enhanced during Type I X-ray bursts. The subsequent disk depletion could explain the disappearance of the QPO for ~100 s, as possibly observed in two events. However, alternative scenarios would have to be invoked for explaining the short recovery timescales inferred from most bursts. Heating of the innermost disk regions would be a possibility, although we cannot exclude that the burst does not affect the QPO emission at all. Clearly the combination of fast timing and spectral information of Type I X-ray bursts holds great potential in the study of the dynamics of the inner accretion flow around neutron

  18. X-RAY OUTFLOWS AND SUPER-EDDINGTON ACCRETION IN THE ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCE HOLMBERG IX X-1

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, D. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Miller, J. M.; Reis, R. C.; Fabian, A. C.; Roberts, T. P.; Middleton, M. J.

    2013-08-10

    Studies of X-ray continuum emission and flux variability have not conclusively revealed the nature of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) at the high-luminosity end of the distribution (those with L{sub X} {>=} 10{sup 40} erg s{sup -1}). These are of particular interest because the luminosity requires either super-Eddington accretion onto a black hole of mass {approx}10 M{sub Sun} or more standard accretion onto an intermediate-mass black hole. Super-Eddington accretion models predict strong outflowing winds, making atomic absorption lines a key diagnostic of the nature of extreme ULXs. To search for such features, we have undertaken a long, 500 ks observing campaign on Holmberg IX X-1 with Suzaku. This is the most sensitive data set in the iron K bandpass for a bright, isolated ULX to date, yet we find no statistically significant atomic features in either emission or absorption; any undetected narrow features must have equivalent widths less than 15-20 eV at 99% confidence. These limits are far below the {approx}>150 eV lines expected if observed trends between mass inflow and outflow rates extend into the super-Eddington regime and in fact rule out the line strengths observed from disk winds in a variety of sub-Eddington black holes. We therefore cannot be viewing the central regions of Holmberg IX X-1 through any substantial column of material, ruling out models of spherical super-Eddington accretion. If Holmberg IX X-1 is a super-Eddington source, any associated outflow must have an anisotropic geometry. Finally, the lack of iron emission suggests that the stellar companion cannot be launching a strong wind and that Holmberg IX X-1 must primarily accrete via Roche-lobe overflow.

  19. Time-dependent spherically symmetric accretion onto compact X-ray sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowie, L. L.; Ostriker, J. P.; Stark, A. A.

    1978-01-01

    Analytical arguments and a numerical hydrodynamic code are used to investigate spherically symmetric accretion onto a compact object, in an attempt to provide some insight into gas flows heated by an outgoing X-ray flux. It is shown that preheating of spherically symmetric accretion flows by energetic radiation from an X-ray source results in time-dependent behavior for a much wider range of source parameters than was determined previously and that there are two distinct types of instability. The results are compared with observations of X-ray bursters and transients as well as with theories on quasars and active galactic nuclei that involve quasi-spherically symmetric accretion onto massive black holes. Models based on spherically symmetric accretion are found to be inconsistent with observations of bursters and transients.

  20. Discovery of a new accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar in the globular cluster NGC 2808

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanna, A.; Papitto, A.; Burderi, L.; Bozzo, E.; Riggio, A.; Di Salvo, T.; Ferrigno, C.; Rea, N.; Iaria, R.

    2017-01-01

    We report on the discovery of coherent pulsations at a period of 2.9 ms from the X-ray transient MAXI J0911-655 in the globular cluster NGC 2808. We observed X-ray pulsations at a frequency of 339.97 Hz in three different observations of the source performed with XMM-Newton and NuSTAR during the source outburst. This newly discovered accreting millisecond pulsar is part of an ultra-compact binary system characterised by an orbital period of 44.3 min and a projected semi-major axis of 17.6 lt-ms. Based on the mass function, we estimate a minimum companion mass of 0.024 M⊙, which assumes a neutron star mass of 1.4 M⊙ and a maximum inclination angle of 75° (derived from the lack of eclipses and dips in the light-curve of the source). We find that the Roche-lobe of the companion star could either be filled by a hot (5 × 106 K) pure helium white dwarf with a 0.028 M⊙ mass (implying i ≃ 58°) or an old (>5 Gyr) brown dwarf with metallicity abundances between solar/sub-solar and mass ranging in the interval 0.065 to 0.085 (16 < i < 21). During the outburst, the broad-band energy spectra are well described by a superposition of a weak black-body component (kT 0.5 keV) and a hard cut-off power-law with photon index Γ 1.7 and cut-off at a temperature kTe 130 keV. Up until the latest Swift-XRT observation performed on 19th July, 2016, the source had been observed in outburst for almost 150 days, which makes MAXI J0911-655 the second accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar with outburst duration longer than 100 days.

  1. A model of an X-ray-illuminated accretion disk and corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raymond, John C.

    1993-01-01

    The X-ray-illuminated surface of the accretion disk in a low-mass X-ray Binary (LMXRB) and the X-ray-heated corona above the disk produce optical, UV, and soft X-ray emission lines. This paper presents 1D models of the emission line spectra and the vertical temperature and density structures at different radii. The models include a detailed treatment of the important atomic processes and an escape probability treatment of radiative transfer. Soker and Raymond (1993) use the density structure predicted by these models for a 2D Monte Carlo simulation of the photon scattering in the accretion disk corona (ADC) to examine the effects of the ADC on the angular distribution of X-rays and the flux of X-rays incident on the outer disk. This paper concentrates on the emission line fluxes for various elemental abundances and disk parameters. The UV lines of the classic LMXRBs are consistent with the model predictions. Some CNO processing is necessary to account for the nitrogen and helium abundances in Sco X-1 and other LMXRBs. Comparison of the models with observed spectra also points to a soft X-ray component with luminosity comparable to the hard X-rays. The models predict a substantial luminosity in the group of highly ionized iron lines near 100 A.

  2. Accretion Disks in Supersoft X-ray Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popham, Robert; DiStefano, Rosanne

    1996-01-01

    We examine the role of the accretion disk in the steady-burning white dwarf model for supersoft sources. The accretion luminosity of the disk is quite small compared to the nuclear burning luminosity of the central source. Thus, in contrast to standard accretion disks, the main role of the disk is to reprocess the radiation from the white dwarf. We calculate models of accretion disks around luminous white dwarfs and compare the resulting disk fluxes to optical and UV observations of the LMC supersoft sources CAL 83, CAL 87, and RX J0513.9-6951. We find that if the white dwarf luminosity is near the upper end of the steady-burning region, and the flaring of the disk is included, then reprocessing by the disk can account for the UV fluxes and a substantial fraction of the optical fluxes of these systems. Reprocessing by the companion star can provide additional optical flux, and here too the disk plays an important role: since the disk is fairly thick, it shadows a significant fraction of the companion's surface.

  3. Binarity and Accretion: X-Ray Emission from AGB stars with FUV Excesses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahai, Raghvendra

    2012-10-01

    We propose a pilot survey for X-ray emission from AGB stars that are candidates for having binary companions with active accretion. These objects were identified via our innovative technique to search for FUV/NUV excesses in AGB stars using GALEX. The detection (or non-detection) of X-rays from this sample will enable us to begin testing models for the origin of the UV-excesses, leading to vital breakthroughs in our understanding of accretion-related phenomena and binarity in AGB stars. A larger survey, optimised using results fron this study, will be proposed in future cycles.

  4. Revealing the accretion disc corona in Mrk 335 with multi-epoch X-ray spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keek, L.; Ballantyne, D. R.

    2016-03-01

    Active galactic nuclei host an accretion disc with an X-ray producing corona around a supermassive black hole. In bright sources, such as the Seyfert 1 galaxy Mrk 335, reflection of the coronal emission off the accretion disc has been observed. Reflection produces spectral features such as an Fe Kα emission line, which allow for properties of the inner accretion disc and the corona to be constrained. We perform a multi-epoch spectral analysis of all XMM-Newton, Suzaku, and NuSTAR observations of Mrk 335, and we optimize our fitting procedure to unveil correlations between the Eddington ratio and the spectral parameters. We find that the disc's ionization parameter correlates strongly with the Eddington ratio: the inner disc is more strongly ionized at higher flux. The slope of the correlation is less steep than previously predicted. Furthermore, the cut-off of the power-law spectrum increases in energy with the Eddington ratio, whereas the reflection fraction exhibits a decrease. We interpret this behaviour as geometrical changes of the corona as a function of the accretion rate. Below ˜10 per cent of the Eddington limit, the compact and optically thick corona is located close to the inner disc, whereas at higher accretion rates the corona is likely optically thin and extends vertically further away from the disc surface. Furthermore, we find a soft excess that consists of two components. In addition to a contribution from reflection in low ionization states, a second component is present that traces the overall flux.

  5. Constraining black hole masses in low-accreting active galactic nuclei using X-ray spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, I.; Gliozzi, M.; Hughes, C.; Titarchuk, L.

    2014-09-01

    In a recent work we demonstrated that a novel X-ray scaling method, originally introduced for Galactic black holes (BHs), can be reliably extended to estimate the mass of supermassive BHs accreting at a moderate to high level. Here we investigate the limits of applicability of this method to low-accreting active galactic nuclei (AGN), using a control sample with good-quality X-ray data and dynamically measured mass. For low-accreting AGN (LX/LEdd ≤ 10-4), because the basic assumption that the photon index positively correlates with the accretion rate no longer holds the X-ray scaling method cannot be used. Nevertheless, the inverse correlation in the Γ-LX/LEdd diagram, found in several low-accreting BHs and confirmed by this sample, can be used to constrain MBH within a factor of ˜10 from the dynamically determined values. We provide a simple recipe to determine MBH using solely X-ray spectral data, which can be used as a sanity check for MBH determination based on indirect optical methods.

  6. Accretion states in X-ray binaries and their connection to GeV emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koerding, Elmar

    Accretion onto compact objects is intrinsically a multi-wavelength phenomenon: it shows emis-sion components visible from the radio to GeV bands. In X-ray binaries one can well observe the evolution of a single source under changes of the accretion rate and thus study the interplay between the different emission components.I will introduce the phenomenology of X-ray bina-ries and their accretion states and present our current understanding of the interplay between the optically thin and optically thick part of the accretion flow and the jet.The recent detection of the Fermi Large Area Telescope of a variable high-energy source coinciding with the position of the x-ray binary Cygnus X-3 will be presented. Its identification with Cygnus X-3 has been secured by the detection of its orbital period in gamma rays, as well as the correlation of the LAT flux with radio emission from the relativistic jets of Cygnus X-3. This will be interpreted in the context of the accretion states of the X-ray binary.

  7. Time-dependent X-ray emission from unstable accretion disks around black holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mineshige, Shin; Kim, Soon-Wook; Wheeler, J. Craig

    1990-01-01

    The spectral evolution of accretion disks in X-ray binaries containing black holes is studied, based on the disk instability model. The thermal transition of the outer portions of the disk controls the mass flow rate into the inner portions of the disk, thus modulating the soft X-ray flux which is thought to arise from the inner disk. Calculated soft X-ray spectra are consistent with the observations of the X-ray transient A0620 - 00 and especially ASM 2000 + 25, the soft X-ray spectra of which are well fitted by blackbody radiation with a fixed inner edge of the disk, Rin, and with monotonically decreasing temperature at Rin with time. Since the gas pressure is always dominant over the radiation pressure during the decay in these models, a two-temperature region is difficult to create. Instead, it is suggested that hard X-rays are generated in a hot (kT greater than 10 keV) accretion disk corona above the cool (kT less than 1 keV) disk.

  8. X-ray and UV correlation in the quiescent emission of Cen X-4, evidence of accretion and reprocessing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardini, F.; Cackett, E. M.; Brown, E. F.; D'Angelo, C.; Degenaar, N.; Miller, J. M.; Reynolds, M.; Wijnands, R.

    2014-01-01

    We conducted the first long-term (60 days), multiwavelength (optical, ultraviolet, and X-ray) simultaneous monitoring of Cen X-4 with daily Swift observations, with the goal of understanding variability in the low mass X-ray binary Cen X-4 during quiescence. We found Cen X-4 to be highly variable in all energy bands on timescales from days to months, with the strongest quiescent variability a factor of 22 drop in the X-ray count rate in only 4 days. The X-ray, UV and optical (V band) emission are correlated on timescales down to less than 110 s. The shape of the correlation is a power law with index γ about 0.2-0.6. The X-ray spectrum is well fitted by a hydrogen NS atmosphere (kT = 59 - 80 eV) and a power law (with spectral index Γ = 1.4 - 2.0), with the spectral shape remaining constant as the flux varies. Both components vary in tandem, with each responsible for about 50% of the total X-ray flux, implying that they are physically linked. We conclude that the X-rays are likely generated by matter accreting down to the NS surface. Moreover, based on the short timescale of the correlation, we also unambiguously demonstrate that the UV emission can not be due to either thermal emission from the stream impact point, or a standard optically thick, geometrically thin disc. The spectral energy distribution shows a small UV emitting region, too hot to arise from the accretion disk, that we identified as a hot spot on the companion star. Therefore, the UV emission is most likely produced by reprocessing from the companion star, indeed the vertical size of the disc is small and can only reprocess a marginal fraction of the X-ray emission. We also found the accretion disc in quiescence to likely be UV faint, with a minimal contribution to the whole UV flux.

  9. On the origin of power-law X-ray spectra of active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlosman, I.; Shaham, J.; Shaviv, G.

    1984-01-01

    In the present analytical model for a power law X-ray continuum production in active galactic nuclei, the dissipation of turbulent energy flux above the accretion disk forms an optically thin transition layer with an inverted temperature gradient. The emitted thermal radiation has a power law spectrum in the 0.1-100 keV range, with a photon energy spectral index gamma of about 0.4-1.0. Thermal X-ray contribution from the layer is 5-10 percent of the total disk luminosity. The gamma value of 0.75 is suggested as a 'natural' power law index for Seyfert galaxies and QSOs.

  10. Probing the Accretion Geometry of Black Holes with X-Ray Polarization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnitman, Jeremy D.

    2011-01-01

    In the coming years, new space missions will be able to measure X-ray polarization at levels of 1% or better in the approx.1-10 keV energy band. In particular, X-ray polarization is an ideal tool for determining the nature of black hole (BH) accretion disks surrounded by hot coronae. Using a Monte Carlo radiation transport code in full general relativity, we calculate the spectra and polarization features of these BH systems. At low energies, the signal is dominated by the thermal flux coming directly from the optically thick disk. At higher energies, the thermal seed photons have been inverse-Compton scattered by the corona, often reflecting back off the disk before reaching the observer, giving a distinctive polarization signature. By measuring the degree and angle of this X-ray polarization, we can infer the BH inclination, the emission geometry of the accretion flow, and also determine the spin of the black hole.

  11. MN Lup: X-RAYS FROM A WEAKLY ACCRETING T TAURI STAR

    SciTech Connect

    Guenther, H. M.; Wolk, S. J.; Wolter, U.; Robrade, J.

    2013-07-01

    Young T Tauri stars (TTS) are surrounded by an accretion disk, which over time disperses due to photoevaporation, accretion, and possibly planet formation. The accretion shock on the central star produces an UV/optical veiling continuum, line emission, and X-ray signatures. As the accretion rate decreases, the impact on the central star must change. In this article we study MN Lup, a young star where no indications of a disk are seen in IR observations. We present XMM-Newton and VLT/UVES observations, some of them taken simultaneously. The X-ray data show that MN Lup is an active star with L{sub X} /L{sub bol} close to the saturation limit. However, we find high densities (n{sub e} > 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} cm{sup -3}) in the X-ray grating spectrum. This can be well fitted using an accretion shock model with an accretion rate of 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -11} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. Despite the simple H{alpha} line profile which has a broad component, but no absorption signatures as typically seen on accreting TTS, we find rotational modulation in Ca II K and in photospheric absorption lines. These line profile modulations do not clearly indicate the presence of a localized hot accretion spot on the star. In the H{alpha} line we see a prominence in absorption about 2R{sub *} above the stellar surface-the first of its kind on a TTS. MN Lup is also the only TTS where accretion is seen, but no dust disk is detected that could fuel it. We suggest that MN Lup presents a unique and short-lived state in the disk evolution. It may have lost its dust disk only recently and is now accreting the remaining gas at a very low rate.

  12. Free-fall accretion and emitting caustics in wind-fed X-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illarionov, Andrei F.; Beloborodov, Andrei M.

    2001-05-01

    In wind-fed X-ray binaries the accreting matter is Compton-cooled and falls freely on to the compact object. The matter has a modest angular momentum l and accretion is quasi-spherical at large distances from the compact object. Initially small non-radial velocities grow in the converging supersonic flow and become substantial in the vicinity of the accretor. The streamlines with l>(GMR*)1/2 (where M and R* are the mass and radius of the compact object) intersect outside R* and form a two-dimensional caustic which emits X-rays. The streamlines with low angular momentum, l<(GMR*)1/2, run into the accretor. If the accretor is a neutron star, a large X-ray luminosity results. We show that the distribution of accretion rate/luminosity over the star surface is sensitive to the angular momentum distribution of the accreting matter. The apparent luminosity depends on the side from which the star is observed and can change periodically with the orbital phase of the binary. The accretor then appears as a `Moon-like' X-ray source.

  13. Quiescent accretion disks in black hole X-ray novae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orosz, Jerome A.; Bailyn, Charles D.; Remillard, Ronald A.; Mcclintock, Jeffrey E.; Foltz, Craig B.

    1994-01-01

    We present detailed time-resolved spectroscopy of the Balmer emission lines from two black hole binary systems in quiescence, A0620-00 and Nova Muscae 1991. We find extraordinary similarities between the two systems. There are 30-40 km/s velocity variations of the emission lines over the orbital period, the phases of which are not aligned with the expected phase of the motion of the compact primary. Detailed modeling of both systems is complicated by variable hot spot components, regions of optical thickness, and intermittent excess emission in the blue line wings of the H-alpha lines. Both sources also display low velocities at the outer edge of the accretion disk, implying a large primary Roche lobe and extreme mass ratios. These complications suggest that although simple optically thin, Keplerian alpha-disk models provide a useful parameterization of emission lines from these systems, the straightforward physical models they imply should be treated with great caution.

  14. X-rays and gamma-rays from accretion flows onto black holes in Seyferts and X-ray binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zdziarski, Andrzej A.; Johnson, W. Neil; Poutanen, Juri; Magdziarz, Pawel; Gierlinski, Marek

    1997-01-01

    Observations and theoretical models of X-ray/gamma ray spectra of radio quiet Seyfert galaxies and Galactic black hole candidates are reviewed. The spectra from these objects share the following characteristics: an underlying power law with a high energy cutoff above 200 keV; a Compton reflection component with a Fe K alpha line, and a low energy absorption by intervening cold matter. The X-ray energy spectral index, alpha, is typically in the range between 0.8 and 1 in Seyfert spectra, and that of the hard state spectra of the black hole candidates Cygnus X-1 and GX 339-4 is typically between 0.6 and 0.8. The Compton reflection component corresponds with cold matter covering a solid angle of between 0.8pi and 2pi as seen from the X-ray source. The broadband spectra of both classes of sources are well fitted by Compton upscattering of soft photons in thermal plasma. The fits yield a thermal plasma temperature of 100 keV and the Thomson optical depth of 1. All the spectra presented are cut off before the electron rest energy 511 keV, indicating that electron/positron pair production is an important process.

  15. Superorbital Periodic Modulation in Wind-Accretion High-Mass X-Ray Binaries from Swift Burst Alert Telescope Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corbet, Robin H. D.; Krimm, Hans A.

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery using data from the Swift-Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) of superorbital modulation in the wind-accretion supergiant high-mass X-ray binaries 4U 1909+07 (= X 1908+075), IGR J16418-4532, and IGR J16479-4514. Together with already known superorbital periodicities in 2S 0114+650 and IGR J16493-4348, the systems exhibit a monotonic relationship between superorbital and orbital periods. These systems include both supergiant fast X-ray transients and classical supergiant systems, and have a range of inclination angles. This suggests an underlying physical mechanism which is connected to the orbital period. In addition to these sources with clear detections of superorbital periods, IGR J16393-4643 (= AX J16390.4-4642) is identified as a system that may have superorbital modulation due to the coincidence of low-amplitude peaks in power spectra derived from BAT, Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array, and International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory light curves. 1E 1145.1-6141 may also be worthy of further attention due to the amount of low-frequency modulation of its light curve. However, we find that the presence of superorbital modulation is not a universal feature of wind-accretion supergiant X-ray binaries.

  16. Accretion-driven star formation in central dominant galaxies in X-ray clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarazin, C. L.; Oconnell, R. W.

    1983-05-01

    Analytical and observational evidence for the formation of low-mass stars in the gas accreting in the central dominant galaxies in clusters is presented. Observations of the (U-V) and (K-V) color gradients in accreting galaxies are suggested to reveal colors altered by the appearance of young stars, e.g., the excess blue and the A star spectrum detected in NGC 1275. Low-temperature X ray line emissions from accreting galaxies have been partially surveyed with the result that 10 pct of the brightest cluster galaxies in a magnitude-limited sample show evidence of significant accretion. Photometric data from the quasar 3C 48, located in a galaxy with a very blue population, also suggests low-mass star formation, especially when compared to measurements of NGC 1275, which has the highest accretion rate among observed central dominant cluster galaxies. The quasar, however, would not be accreting interstellar gas.

  17. Super-Eddington accretion disks in Ultraluminous X-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabrika, S.; Vinokurov, A.; Atapin, K.; Sholukhova, O.

    2016-06-01

    The origin of Ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) in external galaxies whose X-ray luminosities exceed those of the brightest black holes in our Galaxy hundreds and thousands times is mysterious. The most popular models for the ULXs involve either intermediate mass black holes (IMBHs) or stellar-mass black holes accreting at super-Eddington rates. Here we review the ULX properties, their X-ray spectra indicate the presence of hot winds in their accretion disks supposing the supercritical accretion. However, the strongest evidences come from optical spectroscopy. The spectra of the ULX counterparts are very similar to that of SS433, the only known supercritical accretor in our Galaxy. The spectra are apparently of WNL type (late nitrogen Wolf-Rayet stars) or LBV (luminous blue variables) in their hot state, which are very scarce stellar objects. We find that the spectra do not originate from WNL/LBV type donors but from very hot winds from the accretion disks, whose physical conditions are similar to those in stellar winds from these stars. The results suggest that bona-fide ULXs must constitute a homogeneous class of objects, which most likely have supercritical accretion disks.

  18. Thermal cycles from a two-zone accreting model - X-ray bursts and shell flashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regev, O.; Livio, M.

    1984-05-01

    The mechanisms of red-giant shell-flash emission and neutron-star X-ray bursts are investigated theoretically, extending the two-zone model of Barranco et al. (1980) by means of a third time-dependent nonlinear equation to account for the accretion process. The physical assumptions are explained, the equations are derived, and the results of numerical integration are presented graphically for a set of standard input parameters and several variants. Two types of limit-cycle oscillations are identified: thermal oscillations arising from nuclear burning in a thin shell of red giants (leading to shell flashes) and oscillations driven by both nuclear burning and mass accretion in the high-density thermonuclear-ignition region at the surface of neutron stars (leading to X-ray bursts). The two-zone model is shown to account for such burster properties as high-accretion rate stabilization, core heat-exchange effects, and double-peaked bursts.

  19. X-rays and Doppler imaging: Do soft emission and accretion coincide?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolter, Uwe

    2010-10-01

    Classical T Tauri stars (CTTS) are young, accreting systems. The accretion causes a variable soft X-ray excess and unusual line ratios in the He-like triplets. Accretion signatures can also be seen in optical Doppler images. However, the true correlation of these different signatures only accessible by simultaneous X-ray and ground-based observations has not been studied to date. We propose an 80 ksec XMM-Newton observation covering two full rotations of the CTTS MN Lup; furthermore, we propose simultaneous VLT/UVES spectral observations to obtain a Doppler image of its surface. With its short rotation period and fast rotation, MN Lup is a truly unique target for these observations.

  20. A jet emission model to probe the dynamics of accretion and ejection coupling in black hole X-ray binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malzac, Julien

    2016-07-01

    Compact jets are probably the most common form of jets in X-ray binaries and Active Galactic Nuclei. They seem to be present in all sources in the so-called hard X-ray spectral state. They are characterised by a nearly flat Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) extending from the radio to the infrared bands. This emission is usually interpreted as partially self absorbed synchrotron emission from relativistic leptons accelerated in the jet. The observed flat spectral shape requires energy dissipation and acceleration of particules over a wide range of distances along the jet. This distributed energy dissipation is likely to be powered by internal shocks caused by fluctuations of the outflow velocity. I will discuss such an internal shock model in the context of black hole binaries. I will show that internal shocks can produce the observed SEDs and also predict a strong, wavelength dependent, variability that resembles the observed one. The assumed velocity fluctuations of the jet must originate in the accretion flow. The model thus predicts a strong connection between the observable properties of the jet in the radio to IR bands, and the variability of the accretion flow as observed in X-rays. If the model is correct, this offers a unique possibility to probe the dynamics of the coupled accretion and ejection processes leading to the formation of compact jets.

  1. Modeling High-resolution Spectra from X-ray Illuminated Accretion Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Javier; Kallman, T.

    2010-01-01

    This work is focused on the study of X-ray illuminated accretion disks around compact objects by modeling their structure and reprocessed spectra. Use of low-accuracy and incomplete atomic data is a key limitation in models which have been calculated so far. We remedy this situation by incorporating data for line energies, transition probabilities and photoionization cross sections taken from various sources, most notably calculations using the R-matrix suite of codes. We also implement a self-consistent approach for the radiative transfer of X-rays and the heating and ionization of the gas. These promise to lead to significant improvements in the understanding of the X-ray observations of active galactic nuclei (AGN), X-ray binaries and galactic black holes. By performing detailed radiative transfer calculations we have computed the reflected spectra from constant density slabs for different input parameters (e.g., density, strength of incident X-rays, iron abundance), including the redistribution of photons due to Compton scattering. Although broad and skewed iron emission lines observed in many accreting systems are often attributed to the Doppler effect and gravitational redshift, our results show that Comptonization can be responsible for a significant fraction of the line broadening. By analyzing simulated Suzaku observations from our models, we provide equivalent and physical widths and line centroid energies for atomic lines, absorption edges and recombination continua (among other features). These are provided in tabular and graphical form that can be used directly in the interpretation of observational data.

  2. A MODEL FOR THE WAVEFORM BEHAVIOR OF ACCRETING MILLISECOND X-RAY PULSARS: NEARLY ALIGNED MAGNETIC FIELDS AND MOVING EMISSION REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, Frederick K.; Boutloukos, Stratos; Van Wassenhove, Sandor; Chamberlain, Robert T.; Lo, Ka Ho; Clare, Alexander; Yu Wenfei; Miller, M. Coleman

    2009-11-20

    We investigate further a model of the accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars we proposed earlier. In this model, the X-ray-emitting regions of these pulsars are near their spin axes but move. This is to be expected if the magnetic poles of these stars are close to their spin axes, so that accreting gas is channeled there. As the accretion rate and the structure of the inner disk vary, gas is channeled along different field lines to different locations on the stellar surface, causing the X-ray-emitting areas to move. We show that this 'nearly aligned moving spot model' can explain many properties of the accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars, including their generally low oscillation amplitudes and nearly sinusoidal waveforms; the variability of their pulse amplitudes, shapes, and phases; the correlations in this variability; and the similarity of the accretion- and nuclear-powered pulse shapes and phases in some. It may also explain why accretion-powered millisecond pulsars are difficult to detect, why some are intermittent, and why all detected so far are transients. This model can be tested by comparing with observations the waveform changes it predicts, including the changes with accretion rate.

  3. DETECTION OF ACCRETION X-RAYS FROM QS Vir: CATACLYSMIC OR A LOT OF HOT AIR?

    SciTech Connect

    Matranga, Marco; Drake, Jeremy J.; Kashyap, Vinay; Steeghs, Danny

    2012-03-10

    An XMM-Newton observation of the nearby 'pre-cataclysmic' short-period (P{sub orb} = 3.62 hr) binary QS Vir (EC 13471-1258) revealed regular narrow X-ray eclipses when the white dwarf passed behind its M2-4 dwarf companion. The X-ray emission provides a clear signature of mass transfer and accretion onto the white dwarf. The low-resolution XMM-Newton EPIC spectra are consistent with a cooling flow model and indicate an accretion rate of M-dot = 1.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -13} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}. At 48 pc distant, QS Vir is then the second nearest accreting cataclysmic variable known, with one of the lowest accretion rates found to date for a non-magnetic system. To feed this accretion through a wind would require a wind mass-loss rate of M-dot {approx}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -12} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} if the accretion efficiency is of the order of 10%. Consideration of likely mass-loss rates for M dwarfs suggests this is improbably high and pure wind accretion unlikely. A lack of accretion disk signatures also presents some difficulties for direct Roche lobe overflow. We speculate that QS Vir is on the verge of Roche lobe overflow, and that the observed mass transfer could be supplemented by upward chromospheric flows on the M dwarf, analogous to spicules and mottles on the Sun, that escape the Roche surface to be subsequently swept up into the white dwarf Roche lobe. If so, QS Vir would be in a rare evolutionary phase lasting only a million years. The X-ray luminosity of the M dwarf estimated during primary eclipse is L{sub X} = 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 28} erg s{sup -1}, which is consistent with that of rapidly rotating 'saturated' K and M dwarfs.

  4. Stronger Reflection from Black Hole Accretion Disks in Soft X-Ray States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, James F.; Remillard, Ronald A.; García, Javier A.; McClintock, Jeffrey E.

    2016-10-01

    We analyze 15,000 spectra of 29 stellar-mass black hole (BH) candidates collected over the 16 year mission lifetime of Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer using a simple phenomenological model. As these BHs vary widely in luminosity and progress through a sequence of spectral states, which we broadly refer to as hard and soft, we focus on two spectral components: the Compton power law and the reflection spectrum it generates by illuminating the accretion disk. Our proxy for the strength of reflection is the equivalent width of the Fe-K line as measured with respect to the power law. A key distinction of our work is that for all states we estimate the continuum under the line by excluding the thermal disk component and using only the component that is responsible for fluorescing the Fe-K line, namely, the Compton power law. We find that reflection is several times more pronounced (˜3) in soft compared to hard spectral states. This is most readily caused by the dilution of the Fe line amplitude from Compton scattering in the corona, which has a higher optical depth in hard states. Alternatively, this could be explained by a more compact corona in soft (compared to hard) states, which would result in a higher reflection fraction.

  5. Unveiling slim accretion disc in AGN through X-ray and Infrared observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelló-Mor, Núria; Kaspi, Shai; Netzer, Hagai; Du, Pu; Hu, Chen; Ho, Luis C.; Bai, Jin-Ming; Bian, Wei-Hao; Yuan, Ye-Fei; Wang, Jian-Min

    2017-01-01

    In this work, which is a continuation of Castello-Mor et al. (2016), we present new X-ray and infrared (IR) data for a sample of active galactic nuclei (AGN) covering a wide range in Eddington ratio over a small luminosity range. In particular, we rigorously explore the dependence of the optical-to-X-ray spectral index αOX and the IR-to-optical spectral index on the dimensionless accretion rate, dot{M}=dot{m}/η where dot{m}=LAGN/LEdd and η is the mass-to-radiation conversion efficiency, in low and high accretion rate sources. We find that the SED of the faster accreting sources are surprisingly similar to those from the comparison sample of sources with lower accretion rate. In particular: I) the optical-to-UV AGN SED of slow and fast accreting AGN can be fitted with thin AD models. II) The value of αOX is very similar in slow and fast accreting systems up to a dimensionless accretion rate dot{M}c ˜10. We only find a correlation between αOX and dot{M} for sources with dot{M}>dot{M}c. In such cases, the faster accreting sources appear to have systematically larger αOX values. III) We also find that the torus in the faster accreting systems seems to be less efficient in reprocessing the primary AGN radiation having lower IR-to-optical spectral slopes. These findings, failing to recover the predicted differences between the SEDs of slim and thin ADs within the observed spectral window, suggest that additional physical processes or very special geometry act to reduce the extreme UV radiation in fast accreting AGN. This may be related to photon trapping, strong winds, and perhaps other yet unknown physical processes.

  6. Theory of quasi-spherical accretion in X-ray pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakura, N.; Postnov, K.; Kochetkova, A.; Hjalmarsdotter, L.

    2012-02-01

    A theoretical model for quasi-spherical subsonic accretion on to slowly rotating magnetized neutron stars is constructed. In this model, the accreting matter subsonically settles down on to the rotating magnetosphere forming an extended quasi-static shell. This shell mediates the angular momentum removal from the rotating neutron star magnetosphere during spin-down episodes by large-scale convective motions. The accretion rate through the shell is determined by the ability of the plasma to enter the magnetosphere. The settling regime of accretion can be realized for moderate accretion rates ? g s-1. At higher accretion rates, a free-fall gap above the neutron star magnetosphere appears due to rapid Compton cooling, and accretion becomes highly non-stationary. From observations of the spin-up/spin-down rates (the angular rotation frequency derivative ?, and ? near the torque reversal) of X-ray pulsars with known orbital periods, it is possible to determine the main dimensionless parameters of the model, as well as to estimate the magnetic field of the neutron star. We illustrate the model by determining these parameters for three wind-fed X-ray pulsars GX 301-2, Vela X-1 and GX 1+4. The model explains both the spin-up/spin-down of the pulsar frequency on large time-scales and the irregular short-term frequency fluctuations, which can correlate or anticorrelate with the X-ray flux fluctuations in different systems. It is shown that in real pulsars an almost iso-angular-momentum rotation law with ω˜ 1/R2, due to strongly anisotropic radial turbulent motions sustained by large-scale convection, is preferred.

  7. EXPLAINING THE EARLY EXIT OF ETA CARINAE FROM ITS 2009 X-RAY MINIMUM WITH THE ACCRETION MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    Kashi, Amit; Soker, Noam E-mail: soker@physics.technion.ac.il

    2009-08-10

    We use the accretion model to explain the early exit of {eta} Car from its 2009 X-ray minimum. In the accretion model, the secondary star accretes mass from the primary wind near periastron passage, a process that suppresses the secondary wind. As the shocked secondary wind is responsible for most of the X-ray emission, the accretion process accounts for the X-ray minimum. The early exit from the 2009 X-ray minimum after four weeks, instead of 10 weeks as in the two previous minima, is attributed to the primary wind that during the last minimum was somewhat faster and of lower mass-loss rate than during the two previous X-ray minima. This results in a much lower mass accretion rate during the X-ray minimum. We show that using fluctuations in these quantities that are within the range deduced from fluctuations in the X-ray flux outside the minimum, can account for the short duration of the last X-ray minimum. The shorter X-ray minimum may have further implications on the recovery of the system from the spectroscopic event.

  8. Short-term Variability of X-Rays from Accreting Neutron Star Vela X-1. I. Suzaku Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odaka, Hirokazu; Khangulyan, Dmitry; Tanaka, Yasuyuki T.; Watanabe, Shin; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Makishima, Kazuo

    2013-04-01

    We have analyzed the time variability of the wide-band X-ray spectrum of Vela X-1, the brightest wind-fed accreting neutron star, on a short timescale of 2 ks by using Suzaku observations with an exposure of 100 ks. During the observation, the object showed strong variability, including several flares and so-called "low states," in which the X-ray luminosity decreases by an order of magnitude. Although the spectral hardness increases with the X-ray luminosity, the majority of the recorded flares do not show any significant changes in circumstellar absorption. However, a sign of heavy absorption was registered immediately before one short flare that showed a significant spectral hardening. In the low states, the flux level is modulated with the pulsar spin period, indicating that even at this state the accretion flow reaches the close proximity of the neutron star. Phenomenologically, the broadband X-ray spectra, which are integrated over the entire spin phase, are well represented by the "NPEX" function (a combination of negative and positive power laws with an exponential cutoff by a common folding energy) with a cyclotron resonance scattering feature at 50 keV. Fitting of the data allowed us to infer a correlation between the photon index and X-ray luminosity. Finally, the circumstellar absorption shows a gradual increase in the orbital phase interval 0.25-0.3, which can be interpreted as an impact of a bow shock imposed by the motion of the compact object in the supersonic stellar wind.

  9. SHORT-TERM VARIABILITY OF X-RAYS FROM ACCRETING NEUTRON STAR VELA X-1. I. SUZAKU OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Odaka, Hirokazu; Khangulyan, Dmitry; Watanabe, Shin; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Tanaka, Yasuyuki T.; Makishima, Kazuo

    2013-04-10

    We have analyzed the time variability of the wide-band X-ray spectrum of Vela X-1, the brightest wind-fed accreting neutron star, on a short timescale of 2 ks by using Suzaku observations with an exposure of 100 ks. During the observation, the object showed strong variability, including several flares and so-called 'low states', in which the X-ray luminosity decreases by an order of magnitude. Although the spectral hardness increases with the X-ray luminosity, the majority of the recorded flares do not show any significant changes in circumstellar absorption. However, a sign of heavy absorption was registered immediately before one short flare that showed a significant spectral hardening. In the low states, the flux level is modulated with the pulsar spin period, indicating that even at this state the accretion flow reaches the close proximity of the neutron star. Phenomenologically, the broadband X-ray spectra, which are integrated over the entire spin phase, are well represented by the 'NPEX' function (a combination of negative and positive power laws with an exponential cutoff by a common folding energy) with a cyclotron resonance scattering feature at 50 keV. Fitting of the data allowed us to infer a correlation between the photon index and X-ray luminosity. Finally, the circumstellar absorption shows a gradual increase in the orbital phase interval 0.25-0.3, which can be interpreted as an impact of a bow shock imposed by the motion of the compact object in the supersonic stellar wind.

  10. X-ray reflection from black-hole accretion discs with a radially stratified ionisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svoboda, J.; Domcek, V.; Dovčiak, M.; Guainazzi, M.; Marinucci, A.

    2015-07-01

    Recent X-ray observations have suggested a very high compactness of coronae in Active Galactic Nuclei as well as in X-ray Binaries. The compactness of the source implies that the black-hole accretion disc irradiation is a strong function of radius. We will show how the X-ray spectra are modified assuming the radially stratified ionisation according to the illumination by a point-like source on the black-hole rotational axis. We will discuss how this affects the measurements of the other model parameters, such as spin and radial emissivity. We will show the application of this model to the recent XMM-Newton/NUSTAR data of an active galaxy MCG-6-30-15.

  11. A search for X-ray reprocessing echoes in the power spectral density functions of AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmanoulopoulos, D.; Papadakis, I. E.; Epitropakis, A.; Pecháček, T.; Dovčiak, M.; McHardy, I. M.

    2016-09-01

    We present the results of a detailed study of the X-ray power spectral density (PSD) functions of 12 X-ray bright AGN, using almost all the archival XMM-Newton data. The total net exposure of the EPIC-pn light curves is larger than 350 ks in all cases (and exceeds 1 Ms in the case of 1H 0707-497). In a physical scenario in which X-ray reflection occurs in the inner part of the accretion disc of AGN, the X-ray reflection component should be a filtered echo of the X-ray continuum signal and should be equal to the convolution of the primary emission with the response function of the disc. Our primary objective is to search for these reflection features in the 5-7 keV (iron line) and 0.5-1 keV (soft) bands, where the X-ray reflection fraction is expected to be dominant. We fit to the observed periodograms two models: a simple bending power-law model (BPL) and a BPL model convolved with the transfer function of the accretion disc assuming the lamp-post geometry and X-ray reflection from a homogeneous disc. We do not find any significant features in the best-fitting BPL model residuals either in individual PSDs in the iron band, soft and full band (0.3-10 keV) or in the average PSD residuals of the brightest and more variable sources (with similar black hole mass estimates). The typical amplitude of the soft and full-band residuals is around 3-5 per cent. It is possible that the expected general relativistic effects are not detected because they are intrinsically lower than the uncertainty of the current PSDs, even in the strong relativistic case in which X-ray reflection occurs on a disc around a fast rotating black hole having an X-ray source very close above it. However, we could place strong constrains to the X-ray reflection geometry with the current data sets if we knew in advance the intrinsic shape of the X-ray PSDs, particularly its high-frequency slope.

  12. Puzzling accretion onto a black hole in the ultraluminous X-ray source M 101 ULX-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ji-Feng; Bregman, Joel N.; Bai, Yu; Justham, Stephen; Crowther, Paul

    2013-11-01

    There are two proposed explanations for ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) with luminosities in excess of 1039 erg s-1. They could be intermediate-mass black holes (more than 100-1,000 solar masses, ) radiating at sub-maximal (sub-Eddington) rates, as in Galactic black-hole X-ray binaries but with larger, cooler accretion disks. Alternatively, they could be stellar-mass black holes radiating at Eddington or super-Eddington rates. On its discovery, M 101 ULX-1 had a luminosity of 3 × 1039 erg s-1 and a supersoft thermal disk spectrum with an exceptionally low temperature--uncomplicated by photons energized by a corona of hot electrons--more consistent with the expected appearance of an accreting intermediate-mass black hole. Here we report optical spectroscopic monitoring of M 101 ULX-1. We confirm the previous suggestion that the system contains a Wolf-Rayet star, and reveal that the orbital period is 8.2 days. The black hole has a minimum mass of 5, and more probably a mass of 20-30, but we argue that it is very unlikely to be an intermediate-mass black hole. Therefore, its exceptionally soft spectra at high Eddington ratios violate the expectations for accretion onto stellar-mass black holes. Accretion must occur from captured stellar wind, which has hitherto been thought to be so inefficient that it could not power an ultraluminous source.

  13. ANISOTROPY OF X-RAY BURSTS FROM NEUTRON STARS WITH CONCAVE ACCRETION DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    He, C.-C.; Keek, L.

    2016-03-01

    Emission from neutron stars and accretion disks in low-mass X-ray binaries is anisotropic. The non-spherical shape of the disk as well as blocking of the neutron star by the disk make the observed flux dependent on the inclination angle of the disk with respect to the line of sight. This is of importance for the interpretation of thermonuclear X-ray bursts from neutron stars. Because part of the X-ray burst is reflected off the disk, the observed burst flux depends on the anisotropies for both direct emission from the neutron star and reflection off the disk. This influences measurements of source distance, mass accretion rate, and constraints on the neutron star’s equation of state. Previous predictions of the anisotropy factors assumed a geometrically flat disk. Detailed observations of two so-called superbursts allowed for the direct and the reflected burst fluxes to each be measured separately. The reflection fraction was much higher than what the anisotropies of a flat disk can account for. We create numerical models to calculate the anisotropy factors for different disk shapes, including concave disks. We present the anisotropy factors of the direct and reflected burst fluxes separately, as well as the anisotropy of the persistent flux. Reflection fractions substantially larger than unity are produced in the case where the inner accretion disk increases steeply in height, such that part of the star is blocked from view. Such a geometry could possibly be induced by the X-ray burst if X-ray heating causes the inner disk to puff up.

  14. Population synthesis of accreting white dwarfs - II. X-ray and UV emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hai-Liang; Woods, T. E.; Yungelson, L. R.; Gilfanov, M.; Han, Zhanwen

    2015-11-01

    Accreting white dwarfs (WDs) with non-degenerate companions are expected to emit in soft X-rays and the UV, if accreted H-rich material burns stably. They are an important component of the unresolved emission of elliptical galaxies, and their combined ionizing luminosity may significantly influence the optical line emission from warm interstellar medium (ISM). In an earlier paper, we modelled populations of accreting WDs, first generating WD with main-sequence, Hertzsprung gap and red giant companions with the population synthesis code BSE, and then following their evolution with a grid of evolutionary tracks computed with MESA. Now we use these results to estimate the soft X-ray (0.3-0.7 keV), H- and He II-ionizing luminosities of nuclear burning WDs and the number of supersoft X-ray sources for galaxies with different star formation histories. For the starburst case, these quantities peak at ˜1 Gyr and decline by ˜1-3 orders of magnitude by the age of 10 Gyr. For stellar ages of ˜10 Gyr, predictions of our model are consistent with soft X-ray luminosities observed by Chandra in nearby elliptical galaxies and He II 4686 Å/H β line ratio measured in stacked Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectra of retired galaxies, the latter characterizing the strength and hardness of the UV radiation field. However, the soft X-ray luminosity and He II 4686 Å/H β ratio are significantly overpredicted for stellar ages of ≲4-8 Gyr. We discuss various possibilities to resolve this discrepancy and tentatively conclude that it may be resolved by a modification of the typically used criteria of dynamically unstable mass-loss for giant stars.

  15. X-ray accretion signatures in the close CTTS binary V4046 Sagittarii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günther, H. M.; Liefke, C.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Robrade, J.; Ness, J.-U.

    2006-11-01

    We present Chandra HETGS observations of the classical T Tauri star (CTTS) V4046 Sgr. The He-like triplets of O VII, Ni IX, and Si XIII are clearly detected. Similar to the CTTS TW Hya and BP Tau, the forbidden lines of O VII and Ne IX are weak compared to the intercombination line, indicating high plasma densities in the X-ray emitting regions. The Si XIII triplet, however, is within the low-density limit, in agreement with the predictions of the accretion funnel infall model with an additional stellar corona. V4046 Sgr is the first close binary exhibiting these features. Together with previous high-resolution X-ray data on TW Hya and BP Tau, and in contrast to T Tau, now three out of four CTTS show evidence of accretion funnels.

  16. Restablished Accretion in Post-outburst Classical Novae Revealed by X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernanz, Margarita; Ferri, Carlo; Sala, Glòria

    2009-05-01

    Classical novae are explosions on accreting white dwarfs (hereinafter WDs) in cataclysmic variables (hereinafter CVs) a hydrogen thermonuclear runaway on top of the WD is responsible for the outburst. X-rays provide a unique way to study the turn-off of H-burning, because super soft X-rays reveal the hot WD photosphere, but also to understand how accretion is established again in the binary system. Observations with XMM-Newton of some post-outburst novae have revealed such a process, but a coverage up to larger energies -as Simbol-X will provide- is fundamental to well understand the characteristics of the binary system and of the nova ejecta. We present a brief summary of our results up to now and prospects for the Simbol-X mission.

  17. Pulse-to-pulse variations in accreting X-ray pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kretschmar, Peter; Marcu, Diana; Kühnel, Matthias; Klochkov, Dmitry; Pottschmidt, Katja; Staubert, Rüdiger; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Jenke, Peter A.; Caballero, Isabel; Fürst, Felix

    2014-01-01

    In most accreting X-ray pulsars, the periodic signal is very clear and easily shows up as soon as data covering sufficient pulse periods (a few ten) are available. The mean pulse profile is often quite typical for a given source and with minor variations repeated and recognisable across observations done years or even decades apart. At the time scale of individual pulses, significant pulse-to-pulse variations are commonly observed. While at low energies some of these variations might be explained by absorption, in the hard X-rays they will reflect changes in the accretion and subsequent emission. The amount of these variations appears to be quite different between sources and contains information about the surrounding material as well ass possibly interactions at the magnetosphere. We investigate such variations for a sample of well-known sources.

  18. Information about accretion flows from X-ray timing of pulsating sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamb, F. K.; Pines, D.; Shaham, J.

    1976-01-01

    The response was studied of a rotating neutron star to fluctuating torques and it was found that the observed variations in the pulsation periods of the compact X-ray sources Cen X-3 and Her X-1 could be caused by short time scale fluctuations in the accretion torques acting on the neutron stars. The sizes and rates of the required fluctuations are consistent with current accretion models. Such fluctuations can cause period variations either (a) directly, by causing a random walk of the star's angular velocity or (b) indirectly, by exciting a long-period mode of the neutron star, such as the Tkachenko mode of the rotating neutron superfluid. Phenomena in compact X-ray sources and cataclysmic variables which may be caused by fluctuating mass flow rates are also discussed.

  19. X-ray Reflected Spectra from Accretion Disk Models. I. Constant Density Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Javier; Kallman, Timothy R.

    2009-01-01

    We present new models for illuminated accretion disks, their structure and reprocessed emission. We consider the effects of incident X-rays on the surface of an accretion disk by solving simultaneously the equations of radiative transfer, energy balance and ionization equilibrium over a large range of column densities. We assume plane-parallel geometry and azimuthal symmetry, such that each calculation corresponds to a ring at a given distance from the central object. Our models include recent and complete atomic data for K-shell of the iron and oxygen isonuclear sequences. We examine the effect on the spectrum of fluorescent Ka line emission and absorption in the emitted spectrum. We also explore the dependence of the spectrum on the strength of the incident X-rays and other input parameters, and discuss the importance of Comptonization on the emitted spectrum.

  20. Radio upper limits for the accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar IGR J17511-3057

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Russell, D. M.; Migliari, S.

    2009-10-01

    We report on recent radio observations of the newly-detected accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar, IGR J17511-3057 (ATels #2196, #2197, #2198, #2199, #2215, #2216, #2220, #2221). We used the Very Large Array (VLA) to observe the source under observing program AM971. The array was in its relatively compact 'C' and 'DNC' configurations, and the observations were made at 8.46 GHz. In no case was the source significantly detected.

  1. HST UV observations of the accretion disk corona X-ray binary X1822-371

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puchnarewicz, E. M.; Mason, K. O.; Cordova, F. A.

    1995-01-01

    The Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has provided the first ultraviolet orbital light curve of the low-mass X-ray binary X1822-371. The shape of the UV light curve changes with wavelength providing the first direct clues to the temperature of the various system components. The data support the idea that the system contains a thick, structured accretion disk.

  2. Time dependent spectrum of an X-ray irradiated accretion disc with stochastic perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maqbool, Bari; Wani, Naveel; Iqbal, Naseer; Misra, Ranjeev

    2016-07-01

    The X-rays emitted by the inner regions of the accretion disk induce structural changes in the outer regions of the disk. We study here how the effective temperature and hence the corresponding spectrum of the disk is altered by stochastic perturbations in the outer regions and thereby try to study the long term variability which has been observed in some X-ray binaries. We use a time dependent global hydrodynamic code to study the variations in the effective temperature of the disk in response to sinusoidal accretion rate perturbations introduced at different radii and with different time periods. To quantify the results, we calculate the root mean square effective temperature at different radii and the root mean square flux at different frequencies. From our calculations of the time-lags in accretion rate, effective temperature and the different frequencies, we find that the time-lags in presence of X-ray irradiation is significantly smaller than the expected viscous time-scale.

  3. Soft X-Ray Excess from Shocked Accreting Plasma in Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukumura, Keigo; Hendry, Douglas; Clark, Peter; Tombesi, Francesco; Takahashi, Masaaki

    2016-08-01

    We propose a novel theoretical model to describe the physical identity of the soft X-ray excess that is ubiquitously detected in many Seyfert galaxies, by considering a steady-state, axisymmetric plasma accretion within the innermost stable circular orbit around a black hole (BH) accretion disk. We extend our earlier theoretical investigations on general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic accretion, which implied that the accreting plasma can develop into a standing shock under suitable physical conditions, causing the downstream flow to be sufficiently hot due to shock compression. We perform numerical calculations to examine, for sets of fiducial plasma parameters, the physical nature of fast magnetohydrodynamic shocks under strong gravity for different BH spins. We show that thermal seed photons from the standard accretion disk can be effectively Compton up-scattered by the energized sub-relativistic electrons in the hot downstream plasma to produce the soft excess feature in X-rays. As a case study, we construct a three-parameter Comptonization model of inclination angle θ obs, disk photon temperature kT in, and downstream electron energy kT e to calculate the predicted spectra in comparison with a 60 ks XMM-Newton/EPIC-pn spectrum of a typical radio-quiet Seyfert 1 active galactic nucleus, Ark 120. Our χ 2-analyses demonstrate that the model is plausible for successfully describing data for both non-spinning and spinning BHs with derived ranges of 61.3 keV ≲ kT e ≲ 144.3 keV, 21.6 eV ≲ kT in ≲ 34.0 eV, and 17.°5 ≲ θ obs ≲ 42.°6, indicating a compact Comptonizing region of three to four gravitational radii that resembles the putative X-ray coronae.

  4. Tracing the incidence of X-ray AGN and their distribution of accretion rates across the galaxy population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aird, James; Coil, Alison; Georgakakis, Antonis; Nandra, Kirpal

    2016-08-01

    X-ray selection provides a powerful method of identifying AGN across a variety of host galaxies and with a wide range of accretion rates. However, careful consideration of the underlying selection biases are vital to reveal the true underlying distribution of accretion rates and determine how the incidence of AGN is related to the properties of the galaxies that host them. I will present new measurements of the distribution of specific accretion rates (scaled relative to the total host galaxy mass, roughly tracing the Eddington ratio) within both star-forming and quiescent galaxy populations. We combine near-infrared selected samples of galaxies from the CANDELS/3D-HST and UltraVISTA surveys with deep Chandra X-ray data and use an advanced Bayesian technique to constrain the underlying distribution of specific accretion rates as a function of stellar mass and redshift. Our results reveal a broad distribution of accretion rates (reflecting long-term variability in the level of AGN fuelling) in both galaxy types. The probability of a star-forming galaxy hosting an AGN (above a fixed specific accretion rate) has a strong stellar mass dependence - revealing an intrinsically higher incidence of AGN in massive star-forming galaxies - and undergoes a stellar-mass-dependent evolution with redshift. The probability of a quiescent galaxy hosting an AGN is generally lower but does not depend on stellar mass and evolves differently with redshift. These results provide vital insights into the relationship between the growth of black hole and the physical properties of their host galaxies.

  5. Power colours: simple X-ray binary variability comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heil, L. M.; Uttley, P.; Klein-Wolt, M.

    2015-04-01

    We demonstrate a new method of variability classification using observations of black hole X-ray binaries. Using `power colours' - ratios of integrated power in different Fourier frequency bands - we can clearly differentiate different canonical black hole states as the objects evolve during outburst. We analyse (˜2400) Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer observations of 12 transient low-mass black hole X-ray binaries and find that the path taken around the power colour-colour diagram as the sources evolve is highly consistent from object to object. We discuss how the consistency observed in the power colour-colour diagram between different objects allows for easy state classification based on only a few observations, and show how the power-spectral shapes can be simply classified using a single parameter, the power-spectral `hue'. To illustrate the benefits of our simple model-independent approach, we show that the persistent high-mass X-ray binary Cyg X-1 shows very similar power-spectral evolution to the transient black hole sources, with the main difference being caused by a combination of a lack of quasi-periodic oscillations and an excess of low-frequency power-law noise in the Cyg X-1 power spectra during the transitional state. We also compare the transient objects to the neutron star atoll source Aquila X-1, demonstrating that it traces a different path in the power colour-colour plot. Thus, power colours could be an effective method to classify newly discovered X-ray binaries.

  6. Short-term variability of X-rays from accreting neutron star Vela X-1. II. Monte Carlo modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Odaka, Hirokazu; Khangulyan, Dmitry; Watanabe, Shin; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Tanaka, Yasuyuki T.; Makishima, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    We develop a Monte Carlo Comptonization model for the X-ray spectrum of accretion-powered pulsars. Simple, spherical, thermal Comptonization models give harder spectra for higher optical depth, while the observational data from Vela X-1 show that the spectra are harder at higher luminosity. This suggests a physical interpretation where the optical depth of the accreting plasma increases with the mass accretion rate. We develop a detailed Monte Carlo model of the accretion flow, including the effects of the strong magnetic field (∼10{sup 12} G), both in geometrically constraining the flow into an accretion column and in reducing the cross section. We treat bulk-motion Comptonization of the infalling material as well as thermal Comptonization. These model spectra can match the observed broadband Suzaku data from Vela X-1 over a wide range of mass accretion rates. The model can also explain the so-called 'low state' in which the luminosity decreases by an order of magnitude. Here, thermal Comptonization should be negligible, so the spectrum is instead dominated by bulk-motion Comptonization.

  7. NuSTAR Discovery of a Cyclotron Line in the Accreting X-Ray Pulsar IGR J16393-4643

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodaghee, Arash; Tomsick, John A.; Fornasini, Francesca M.; Krivonos, Roman; Stern, Daniel; Mori, Kaya; Rahoui, Farid; Boggs, Steven E.; Christensen, Finn E.; Craig, William W.; Hailey, Charles J.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Zhang, William W.

    2016-06-01

    The high-mass X-ray binary and accreting X-ray pulsar IGR J16393-4643 was observed by the Nuclear Spectroscope Telescope Array in the 3-79 keV energy band for a net exposure time of 50 ks. We present the results of this observation which enabled the discovery of a cyclotron resonant scattering feature with a centroid energy of {29.3}-1.3+1.1 keV. This allowed us to measure the magnetic field strength of the neutron star for the first time: B = (2.5 ± 0.1) × 1012 G. The known pulsation period is now observed at 904.0 ± 0.1 s. Since 2006, the neutron star has undergone a long-term spin-up trend at a rate of \\dot{P}=-2× {10}-8 s s-1 (-0.6 s per year, or a frequency derivative of \\dot{ν }=3× {10}-14 Hz s-1). In the power density spectrum, a break appears at the pulse frequency which separates the zero slope at low frequency from the steeper slope at high frequency. This addition of angular momentum to the neutron star could be due to the accretion of a quasi-spherical wind, or it could be caused by the transient appearance of a prograde accretion disk that is nearly in corotation with the neutron star whose magnetospheric radius is around 2 × 108 cm.

  8. X-ray Fe-lines from Relativistic Accretion Disks Around Neutron Stars and Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stella, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    The Gas Scintillation Proportional Counter (GSPC) on board the European X-ray Satellite EXOSAT (1983-1986) provided detections of Fe K-alpha emission features around 6-7 keV in the X-ray spectra of accreting neutron star and black hole candidates in X-ray binaries. Surprisingly the width of these lines was found to be broader than the GSPC resolution 10% at 6 keV): it could not be explained by thermal broadening, nor blending of (unresolved) lines from different ionization stages of Fe; very large Doppler shifts and, perhaps, thermal Comptonisation provided more promising interpretations. In 1989 Nick White and I developed the first general relativistic model for the Fe-line profile that is produced by matter orbiting in an accretion disk. By fitting the GSPC Fe-line of the black hole candidate Cyg X-1 with our model we inferred an emitting line region extending to a few tens Schwarzschild radii from the black hole, where matter orbits at ~0.1-0.2 the speed of light and effects such as relativistic Doppler shifts and boosting, as well as gravitational and transverse redshifts are conspicuous. We joined forces with Andy Fabian and Martin Rees, who were working on the same interpretation, and published the results in a MNRAS paper. The relativistic disk interpretation of the broad Fe-lines gave rise to much interest on the possibility of measuring black hole mass and spin and probing the innermost regions of accretion flows and the very strong gravitational fields close to compact objects. Very broad and sometimes highly redshifted Fe-lines have been studied by now in tens of X-ray binaries and bright Active Galactic Nuclei with the CCD detectors of the Chandra and XMM/Newton X-ray telescopes; in some cases the line profile implies the presence of a fast spinning black hole. The potential of the Fe-line diagnostics remains to be largely exploited. Moreover some alternative interpretations are not yet ruled out. An X-ray instrument with a broad energy response

  9. 10 micron detection of the hard X-ray transient GRO J0422+32: Free-free emission from an X-ray-driven accretion disk wind?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paradijs, Van J.; Telesco, C. M.; Kouveliotou, C.; Fishman, G. J.

    1994-01-01

    We report the detection of 10 micrometer emission from the transient low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) and optical nova GRO J0422+32 near the maximum of its outburst. We discuss this result in terms of (1) a 'standard' model according to which low-energy radiation of LMXB is caused by reprocessing of X-rays in an accretion disk; (2) emission from a cool secondary star; (3) emission from dust grains heated by the transient X-rays, and (4) free-free emission from an X-ray-driven wind from the accretion disk. Only the fourth alternative provides a viable explanation for the observed 10 micrometer emission, with a mass-loss rate in the disk wind that may be substantially higher than the rate of accretion onto the compact star. The presence of such a wind may have a profound effect on the evolution of the binary, and contribute to the solution of the 'birthrate problem' of millisecond ratio pulsars.

  10. Broad-band spectral analysis of the accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar SAX J1748.9-2021

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pintore, F.; Sanna, A.; Di Salvo, T.; Del Santo, M.; Riggio, A.; D'Aì, A.; Burderi, L.; Scarano, F.; Iaria, R.

    2016-04-01

    We analysed a 115-ks XMM-Newton observation and the stacking of 8 d of INTEGRAL observations, taken during the raise of the 2015 outburst of the accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar SAX J1748.9-2021. The source showed numerous type-I burst episodes during the XMM-Newton observation, and for this reason we studied separately the persistent and burst epochs. We described the persistent emission with a combination of two soft thermal components, a cold thermal Comptonization component (˜2 keV) and an additional hard X-ray emission described by a power law (Γ ˜ 2.3). The continuum components can be associated with an accretion disc, the neutron star (NS) surface and a thermal Comptonization emission coming out of an optically thick plasma region, while the origin of the high-energy tail is still under debate. In addition, a number of broad (σ = 0.1-0.4 keV) emission features likely associated with reflection processes have been observed in the XMM-Newton data. The estimated 1.0-50 keV unabsorbed luminosity of the source is ˜5 × 1037 erg s-1, about 25 per cent of the Eddington limit assuming a 1.4 M⊙ NS. We suggest that the spectral properties of SAX J1748.9-2021 are consistent with a soft state, differently from many other accreting X-ray millisecond pulsars which are usually found in the hard state. Moreover, none of the observed type-I burst reached the Eddington luminosity. Assuming that the burst ignition and emission are produced above the whole NS surface, we estimate an NS radius of ˜7-8 km, consistent with previous results.

  11. Measuring X-ray Binary Accretion State Distributions in Extragalactic Environments using XMM-Newton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Lacey; Lehmer, Bret; Yukita, Mihoko; Hornschemeier, Ann E.; Ptak, Andrew; Wik, Daniel R.; Zezas, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    X-ray binary systems (XRBs) in the MW can exist in several different accretion states, and many have been found to vary along specific tracks on intensity-color diagrams. Observationally measuring the distributions of these accretion states in a variety of environments can aid in population synthesis modeling and ultimately help us understand the formation and evolution of XRBs and their compact object components (i.e., black holes and neutron stars). Recent innovative studies with NuSTAR have demonstrated the utility of color-color and intensity-color diagrams in differentiating between XRB accretion states in extragalactic environments (NGC 253, M83, and M31). The key to NuSTAR’s success is its sensitivity above »10keV, where spectral differences between accretion states are most pronounced. However, due to the relatively low spatial resolution and large background of NuSTAR, the constraints from these diagrams is limited to only bright sources in nearby galaxies. In this poster, we present evidence that XMM-Newton observations of M83 in the 4.0-12.0 keV range can be used to create similar color-intensity and color-color diagrams and therefore differentiate between these accretion states. We will further discuss plans to leverage XMM-Newton’s vast archive and 17-year baseline to dramatically expand studies of accretion state distributions and state transitions for XRB populations in extragalactic environments.

  12. Probing the effects of a thermonuclear X-ray burst on the neutron star accretion flow with NuSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degenaar, N.; Koljonen, K. I. I.; Chakrabarty, D.; Kara, E.; Altamirano, D.; Miller, J. M.; Fabian, A. C.

    2016-03-01

    Observational evidence has been accumulating that thermonuclear X-ray bursts ignited on the surface of neutron stars influence the surrounding accretion flow. Here, we exploit the excellent sensitivity of NuSTAR up to 79 keV to analyse the impact of an X-ray burst on the accretion emission of the neutron star LMXB 4U 1608-52. The ≃200 s long X-ray burst occurred during a hard X-ray spectral state, and had a peak intensity of ≃30-50 per cent of the Eddington limit with no signs of photospheric radius expansion. Spectral analysis suggests that the accretion emission was enhanced up to a factor of ≃5 during the X-ray burst. We also applied a linear unsupervised decomposition method, namely non-negative matrix factorization (NMF), to study this X-ray burst. We find that the NMF performs well in characterizing the evolution of the burst emission and is a promising technique to study changes in the underlying accretion emission in more detail than is possible through conventional spectral fitting. For the burst of 4U 1608-52, the NMF suggests a possible softening of the accretion spectrum during the X-ray burst, which could potentially be ascribed to cooling of a corona. Finally, we report a small (≃3 per cent) but significant rise in the accretion emission ≃0.5 h before the X-ray burst, although it is unclear whether this was related to the X-ray burst ignition.

  13. REVISITING PUTATIVE COOL ACCRETION DISKS IN ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J. M.; King, A. L.; Reynolds, M. T.; Reis, R. C.; Walton, D. J.; Fabian, A. C.; Miller, M. C.

    2013-10-20

    Soft, potentially thermal spectral components observed in some ultra-luminous X-ray sources (ULXs) can be fit with models for emission from cool, optically thick accretion disks. If that description is correct, the low temperatures that are observed imply accretion onto 'intermediate-mass' black holes. Subsequent work has found that these components may follow an inverse relationship between luminosity and temperature, implying a non-blackbody origin for this emission. We have re-analyzed numerous XMM-Newton spectra of extreme ULXs. Crucially, observations wherein the source fell on a chip gap were excluded owing to their uncertain flux calibration, and the neutral column density along the line of sight to a given source was jointly determined by multiple spectra. The luminosity of the soft component is found to be positively correlated with temperature, and to be broadly consistent with L∝T {sup 4} in the measured band pass, as per blackbody emission from a standard thin disk. These results are nominally consistent with accretion onto black holes with masses above the range currently known in Galactic X-ray binaries, though there are important caveats. Emission from inhomogeneous or super-Eddington disks may also be consistent with the data.

  14. Soft x-ray diagnostics for pulsed power machines

    SciTech Connect

    Idzorek, G.C.; Coulter, W.L.; Walsh, P.J.; Montoya, R.R.

    1995-08-01

    A variety of soft x-ray diagnostics are being fielded on the Los Alamos National Laboratory Pegasus and Procyon pulsed power systems and also being fielded on joint US/Russian magnetized target fusion experiments known as MAGO (Magnitoye Obzhatiye). The authors have designed a low-cost modular photoemissive detector designated the XRD-96 that uses commercial 1100 series aluminum for the photocathode. In addition to photocathode detectors a number of designs using solid state silicon photodiodes have been designed and fielded. They also present a soft x-ray time-integrated pinhole camera system that uses standard type TMAX-400 photographic film that obviates the need for expensive and no longer produced zero-overcoat soft x-ray emulsion film. In a typical experiment the desired spectral energy cuts, signal intensity levels, and desired field of view will determine diagnostic geometry and x-ray filters selected. The authors have developed several computer codes to assist in the diagnostic design process and data deconvolution. Examples of the diagnostic design process and data analysis for a typical pulsed power experiment are presented.

  15. A New Two-fluid Radiation-hydrodynamical Model for X-Ray Pulsar Accretion Columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Brent F.; Wolfram, Kenneth D.; Becker, Peter A.

    2017-02-01

    Previous research centered on the hydrodynamics in X-ray pulsar accretion columns has largely focused on the single-fluid model, in which the super-Eddington luminosity inside the column decelerates the flow to rest at the stellar surface. This type of model has been relatively successful in describing the overall properties of the accretion flows, but it does not account for the possible dynamical effect of the gas pressure. On the other hand, the most successful radiative transport models for pulsars generally do not include a rigorous treatment of the dynamical structure of the column, instead assuming an ad hoc velocity profile. In this paper, we explore the structure of X-ray pulsar accretion columns using a new, self-consistent, “two-fluid” model, which incorporates the dynamical effect of the gas and radiation pressures, the dipole variation of the magnetic field, the thermodynamic effect of all of the relevant coupling and cooling processes, and a rigorous set of physical boundary conditions. The model has six free parameters, which we vary in order to approximately fit the phase-averaged spectra in Her X-1, Cen X-3, and LMC X-4. In this paper, we focus on the dynamical results, which shed new light on the surface magnetic field strength, the inclination of the magnetic field axis relative to the rotation axis, the relative importance of gas and radiation pressures, and the radial variation of the ion, electron, and inverse-Compton temperatures. The results obtained for the X-ray spectra are presented in a separate paper.

  16. Magnetic jets from accretion disks : field structure and X-ray emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Memola, Elisabetta

    2002-06-01

    Jets are highly collimated flows of matter. They are present in a large variety of astrophysical sources: young stars, stellar mass black holes (microquasars), galaxies with an active nucleus (AGN) and presumably also intense flashes of gamma-rays. In particular, the jets of microquasars, powered by accretion disks, are probably small-scale versions of the outflows from AGN. Beside observations of astrophysical jet sources, also theoretical considerations have shown that magnetic fields play an important role in jet formation, acceleration and collimation. Collimated jets seem to be systematically associated with the presence of an accretion disk around a star or a collapsed object. If the central object is a black hole, the surrounding accretion disk is the only possible location for a magnetic field generation. We are interested in the formation process of highly relativistic jets as observed from microquasars and AGN. We theoretically investigate the jet collimation region, whose physical dimensions are extremely tiny even compared to radio telescopes spatial resolution. Thus, for most of the jet sources, global theoretical models are, at the moment, the only possibility to gain information about the physical processes in the innermost jet region. For the first time, we determine the global two-dimensional field structure of stationary, axisymmetric, relativistic, strongly magnetized (force-free) jets collimating into an asymptotically cylindrical jet (taken as boundary condition) and anchored into a differentially rotating accretion disk. This approach allows for a direct connection between the accretion disk and the asymptotic collimated jet. Therefore, assuming that the foot points of the field lines are rotating with Keplerian speed, we are able to achieve a direct scaling of the jet magnetosphere in terms of the size of the central object. We find a close compatibility between the results of our model and radio observations of the M87 galaxy innermost jet

  17. Puzzling accretion onto a black hole in the ultraluminous X-ray source M 101 ULX-1.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ji-Feng; Bregman, Joel N; Bai, Yu; Justham, Stephen; Crowther, Paul

    2013-11-28

    There are two proposed explanations for ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) with luminosities in excess of 10(39) erg s(-1). They could be intermediate-mass black holes (more than 100-1,000 solar masses, M sun symbol) radiating at sub-maximal (sub-Eddington) rates, as in Galactic black-hole X-ray binaries but with larger, cooler accretion disks. Alternatively, they could be stellar-mass black holes radiating at Eddington or super-Eddington rates. On its discovery, M 101 ULX-1 had a luminosity of 3 × 10(39) erg s(-1) and a supersoft thermal disk spectrum with an exceptionally low temperature--uncomplicated by photons energized by a corona of hot electrons--more consistent with the expected appearance of an accreting intermediate-mass black hole. Here we report optical spectroscopic monitoring of M 101 ULX-1. We confirm the previous suggestion that the system contains a Wolf-Rayet star, and reveal that the orbital period is 8.2 days. The black hole has a minimum mass of 5 M sun symbol, and more probably a mass of 20 M sun symbol-30 M sun symbol, but we argue that it is very unlikely to be an intermediate-mass black hole. Therefore, its exceptionally soft spectra at high Eddington ratios violate the expectations for accretion onto stellar-mass black holes. Accretion must occur from captured stellar wind, which has hitherto been thought to be so inefficient that it could not power an ultraluminous source.

  18. Modeling X-ray Absorbers in AGNs with MHD-Driven Accretion-Disk Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukumura, Keigo; Kazanas, D.; Shrader, C. R.; Tombesi, F.; Contopoulos, J.; Behar, E.

    2013-04-01

    We have proposed a systematic view of the observed X-ray absorbers, namely warm absorbers (WAs) in soft X-ray and highly-ionized ultra-fast outflows (UFOs), in the context of magnetically-driven accretion-disk wind models. While potentially complicated by variability and thermal instability in these energetic outflows, in this simplistic model we have calculated 2D kinematic field as well as density and ionization structure of the wind with density profile of 1/r corresponding to a constant column distribution per decade of ionization parameter. In particular we show semi-analytically that the inner layer of the disk-wind manifests itself as the strongly-ionized fast outflows while the outer layer is identified as the moderately-ionized absorbers. The computed characteristics of these two apparently distinct absorbers are consistent with X-ray data (i.e. a factor of ~100 difference in column and ionization parameters as well as low wind velocity vs. near-relativistic flow). With the predicted contour curves for these wind parameters one can constrain allowed regions for the presence of WAs and UFOs.The model further implies that the UFO's gas pressure is comparable to that of the observed radio jet in 3C111 suggesting that the magnetized disk-wind with density profile of 1/r is a viable agent to help sustain such a self-collimated jet at small radii.

  19. A radiation-hydrodynamics model of accretion columns for ultra-luminous X-ray pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawashima, Tomohisa; Mineshige, Shin; Ohsuga, Ken; Ogawa, Takumi

    2016-10-01

    Prompted by the recent discovery of pulsed emission from an ultra-luminous X-ray source, M 82 X-2 ("ULX-pulsar"), we perform a two-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamics simulation of a supercritical accretion flow onto a neutron star through a narrow accretion column. We set an accretion column with a cone shape filled with tenuous gas with the density of 10-4 g cm-3 above a neutron star and solve the two-dimensional gas motion and radiative transfer within the column. The side boundaries are set such that radiation can freely escape, but gas cannot. Since the initial gas layer is not in a hydrostatic balance, the column gas falls onto the neutron-star surface, and thereby a shock is generated. As a result, the accretion column is composed of two regions: an upper, nearly free-fall region and a lower settling region, as noted by Basko and Sunyaev (1976, MNRAS, 175, 395). The average accretion rate is very high; dot{M}˜ 10^{2{-}3} L_E/c2 (with LE being the Eddington luminosity), and so radiation energy dominates over gas internal energy entirely within the column. Despite the high accretion rate, the radiation flux in the laboratory frame is kept barely below LE/(4πr2) at a distance r in the settling region so that matter can slowly accrete. This adjustment is made possible, since a large amount of photons produced via dissipation of kinetic energy of matter can escape through the side boundaries. The total luminosity can greatly exceed LE by several orders of magnitude, whereas the apparent luminosity observed from the top of the column is much less. Due to such highly anisotropic radiation fields, the observed flux should exhibit periodic variations with the rotation period, provided that the rotation and magnetic axes are misaligned.

  20. Accretion and ejection in black-hole X-ray transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kylafis, N. D.; Belloni, T. M.

    2015-02-01

    Context. A rich phenomenology has been accumulated over the years regarding accretion and ejection in black-hole X-ray transients (BHTs) and it needs an interpretation. Aims: Here we summarize the current observational picture of the outbursts of BHTs, based on the evolution traced in a hardness-luminosity diagram (HLD), and we offer a physical interpretation. Methods: The basic ingredient in our interpretation is the Poynting-Robertson cosmic battery (PRCB), which provides locally the poloidal magnetic field needed for the ejection of the jet. In addition, we make two assumptions, easily justifiable. The first is that the mass-accretion rate to the black hole in a BHT outburst has a generic bell-shaped form, whose characteristic time scale is much longer than the dynamical or the cooling ones. This is guaranteed by the observational fact that all BHTs start their outburst and end it at the quiescent state, i.e., at very low accretion rate, and that state transitions take place over long time scales (hours to days). The second assumption is that at low accretion rates the accretion flow is geometrically thick, ADAF-like, while at high accretion rates it is geometrically thin. Last, but not least, we demonstrate that the previous history of the system is absolutely necessary for the interpretation of the HLD. Results: Both, at the beginning and the end of an outburst, the PRCB establishes a strong poloidal magnetic field in the ADAF-like part of the accretion flow, and this explains naturally why a jet is always present in the right part of the HLD. In the left part of the HLD, the accretion flow is in the form of a thin disk, and such a disk cannot sustain a strong poloidal magnetic filed. Thus, no jet is expected in this part of the HLD. Finally, the counterclockwise traversal of the HLD is explained as follows: all outbursts start from the quiescent state, in which the inner part of the accretion flow is ADAF-like, threaded by a poloidal magnetic field. As the

  1. A HARD X-RAY POWER-LAW SPECTRAL CUTOFF IN CENTAURUS X-4

    SciTech Connect

    Chakrabarty, Deepto; Nowak, Michael A.; Tomsick, John A.; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W.; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Fürst, Felix; Harrison, Fiona A.; Rana, Vikram; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Bachetti, Matteo; Barret, Didier; Christensen, Finn E.; Hailey, Charles J.; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Miller, Jon M.; Stern, Daniel; Wik, Daniel R.; Zhang, William W.; Wilms, Jörn

    2014-12-20

    The low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) Cen X-4 is the brightest and closest (<1.2 kpc) quiescent neutron star transient. Previous 0.5-10 keV X-ray observations of Cen X-4 in quiescence identified two spectral components: soft thermal emission from the neutron star atmosphere and a hard power-law tail of unknown origin. We report here on a simultaneous observation of Cen X-4 with NuSTAR (3-79 keV) and XMM-Newton (0.3-10 keV) in 2013 January, providing the first sensitive hard X-ray spectrum of a quiescent neutron star transient. The 0.3-79 keV luminosity was 1.1×10{sup 33} D{sub kpc}{sup 2} erg s{sup –1}, with ≅60% in the thermal component. We clearly detect a cutoff of the hard spectral tail above 10 keV, the first time such a feature has been detected in this source class. We show that thermal Comptonization and synchrotron shock origins for the hard X-ray emission are ruled out on physical grounds. However, the hard X-ray spectrum is well fit by a thermal bremsstrahlung model with kT{sub e} = 18 keV, which can be understood as arising either in a hot layer above the neutron star atmosphere or in a radiatively inefficient accretion flow. The power-law cutoff energy may be set by the degree of Compton cooling of the bremsstrahlung electrons by thermal seed photons from the neutron star surface. Lower thermal luminosities should lead to higher (possibly undetectable) cutoff energies. We compare Cen X-4's behavior with PSR J1023+0038, IGR J18245–2452, and XSS J12270–4859, which have shown transitions between LMXB and radio pulsar modes at a similar X-ray luminosity.

  2. Accretion in young stars: measure of the stream velocity of TW Hya from the X-ray Doppler shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argiroffi, Costanza; Bonito, Rosaria; Orlando, Salvatore; Miceli, Marco; Peres, Giovanni

    2015-09-01

    High-resolution X-ray spectra are a unique tool to investigate the accretion process in young stars. In fact X-rays allow to investigate the accretion-shock region, where the infalling material is heated by strong shocks due to the impact with the denser stellar atmosphere. Here we show for the first time that it is possible to constrain the velocity of the accretion stream by measuring the Doppler shift of the emitted X-rays. To this aim we analyzed the deep Chandra/HETGS observation of the accreting young star TW Hya. We selected a sample of emission lines free from significant blends, fitted them with gaussian profiles, computed the radial velocity corresponding to each line, and averaged these velocities to obtain an accurate estimate of the global velocity of the X-ray emitting plasma. After correcting for Earth's motion, we compared this observed velocity with the photospheric radial velocity. In order to check this procedure we applied the same technique to other Chandra/HETGS spectra of single stars, whose X-rays are due only to coronal plasma. While spectra of pure coronal sources provide Doppler shifts in agreement with the known stellar radial velocity, we found that the X-ray spectrum of TW Hya is red-shifted by ~30-40 km/s with respect to the stellar photosphere. This proves that the X-ray emitting plasma on TW Hya is moving with respect to the stellar surface, definitively confirming that it originates in the accretion-shock region. The observed velocity suggests that the base of the accretion region is located at low latitudes of the stellar surface.

  3. Flash x-ray sources powered by Blumlein pulsers: review and prospect for x rays with 100-ps switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davanloo, Farzin; Collins, Carl B., Jr.; Agee, Forrest J.

    2002-11-01

    The flash x-ray systems developed at the University of Texas at Dallas (UTD) center around two critical subassemblies: (1) a Blumlein pulsed power source, and (2) an x-ray diode properly designed and matched to the pulse forming line. The pulse generator consists of either a single or several traxial Blumleins. For multiple lines, Blumleins are stacked in series at one end and charged in parallel and synchronously commutated with a single switching element at the other end. Extensive characterizations of these Blumlein pulsers have been performed over the past several years. Results indicate that they are capable of producing high power waveforms with risetimes and repetition rates in the range of 0.1-50 ns and 1-300 Hz, respectively, using a conventional thyratron, spark gap, or photoconductive switch. Blumlein pulsers switched by a thyratron or a spark gap have been used to drive x-ray diode loads with different characteristics and discharge geometries and high dose rates of x-rays with pulse durations in the range 3-20 ns have been obtained. In this report the technology and characteristics of these Blumlein based flash x-ray devices are reviewed. Prospects for producing ultra-fast x-ray pulses utilizing photoconductively-switched Blumlein devices are discussed.

  4. THE LONGEST TIMESCALE X-RAY VARIABILITY REVEALS EVIDENCE FOR ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN THE HIGH ACCRETION STATE

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Youhong

    2011-01-01

    The All Sky Monitor (ASM) on board the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer has continuously monitored a number of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with similar sampling rates for 14 years, from 1996 January to 2009 December. Utilizing the archival ASM data of 27 AGNs, we calculate the normalized excess variances of the 300-day binned X-ray light curves on the longest timescale (between 300 days and 14 years) explored so far. The observed variance appears to be independent of AGN black-hole mass and bolometric luminosity. According to the scaling relation of black-hole mass (and bolometric luminosity) from galactic black hole X-ray binaries (GBHs) to AGNs, the break timescales that correspond to the break frequencies detected in the power spectral density (PSD) of our AGNs are larger than the binsize (300 days) of the ASM light curves. As a result, the singly broken power-law (soft-state) PSD predicts the variance to be independent of mass and luminosity. Nevertheless, the doubly broken power-law (hard-state) PSD predicts, with the widely accepted ratio of the two break frequencies, that the variance increases with increasing mass and decreases with increasing luminosity. Therefore, the independence of the observed variance on mass and luminosity suggests that AGNs should have soft-state PSDs. Taking into account the scaling of the break timescale with mass and luminosity synchronously, the observed variances are also more consistent with the soft-state than the hard-state PSD predictions. With the averaged variance of AGNs and the soft-state PSD assumption, we obtain a universal PSD amplitude of 0.030 {+-} 0.022. By analogy with the GBH PSDs in the high/soft state, the longest timescale variability supports the standpoint that AGNs are scaled-up GBHs in the high accretion state, as already implied by the direct PSD analysis.

  5. X-ray selected Type-2 QSOs: ongoing star formation and obscured accretion.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainieri, Vincenzo; Cosmos Collaboration

    2009-09-01

    Although the fraction of obscured AGN is found to decrease with luminosity from several studies, a non-negligible population of obscured QSOs is still required by the X-ray background synthesis models. We present a large sample (121 objects) of X-ray selected Type-2 QSOs from the XMM-COSMOS survey: sources with high X-ray luminosity (LX>10^{44} erg s^{-1}) and heavy obscuration (NH>10^{22} cm^{-2}), as derived from a detailed X-ray spectral analysis (see Mainieri et al.,2007, ApJS, 172, 368) of the 1800 X-ray point-like sources in this survey. Few (˜5%) of the Type-2 QSOs are best fitted with a pure reflection model. We have performed optical spectroscopy for ˜ 30% of the sample and for the remaining sources we have derived accurate photometric redshifts. The redshift range covered is wide, 0.30.8).We compare the general properties of the host galaxies with the ongoing accretion in their nuclei. Morphology: using five non-parametric diagnostics (asymmetry, concentration, Gini coefficient, M20, ellipticity) we found that ˜10% of the Type-2 QSOs are in elliptical galaxies, ˜55% in disk galaxies and ˜35% in irregular galaxies. The majority of the irregular hosts can be described as undergoing merger activity or show tidal debris. Stellar masses have been derived from SED fitting to the observed photometry(from 0.3 to 4.5 micron) and star formation rates from the [OII] or Hα line fluxes. The majority (˜75%) of QSO-2 host galaxies have stellar masses above log(Mstar)˜10.5 MSun and have ongoing star formation (˜100 MSun/yr). The value of 10.5 MSun is similar to the characteristic mass for obscured AGN (Kauffmann et al. 2003) and radio-loud AGN (Best et al. 2005) in the SDSS. It is also consistent with the more general result that the fraction of galaxies hosting AGN increases with the stellar mass.

  6. Detection of a Cool, Accretion-Shock-Generated X-Ray Plasma in EX Lupi During the 2008 Optical Eruption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teets, William K.; Weintraub, David A.; Kastner, Joel H.; Grosso, Nicholas; Hamaguchi, Kenji; Richmond, Michael

    2012-01-01

    EX Lupi is the prototype for a class of young, pre-main-sequence stars which are observed to undergo irregular, presumably accretion-generated, optical outbursts that result in a several magnitude rise of the optical flux. EX Lupi was observed to optically erupt in 2008 January, triggering Chandra ACIS Target of Opportunity observations shortly thereafter. We find very strong evidence that most of the X-ray emission in the first few months after the optical outburst is generated by accretion of circumstellar material onto the stellar photosphere. Specifically, we find a strong correlation between the decreasing optical and X-ray fluxes following the peak of the outburst in the optical, which suggests that these observed declines in both the optical and X-ray fluxes are the result of declining accretion rate. In addition, in our models of the X-ray spectrum, we find strong evidence for an approx 0.4 keV plasma component, as expected for accretion shocks on low-mass, pre-main-sequence stars. From 2008 March through October, this cool plasma component appeared to fade as EX Lupi returned to its quiescent level in the optical, consistent with a decrease in the overall emission measure of accretion-shock-generated plasma. The overall small increase of the X-ray flux during the optical outburst of EX Lupi is similar to what was observed in previous X-ray observations of the 2005 optical outburst of the EX Lupi-type star V1118 Ori but contrasts with the large increase of the X-ray flux from the erupting young star V1647 Ori during its 2003 and 2008 optical outbursts.

  7. Chaotic and stochastic processes in the accretion flows of the black hole X-ray binaries revealed by recurrence analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suková, Petra; Grzedzielski, Mikolaj; Janiuk, Agnieszka

    2016-02-01

    Aims: Both the well known microquasar GRS 1915+105, as well as its recently discovered analogue, IGR J17091-3624, exhibit variability that is characteristic of a deterministic chaotic system. Their specific kind of quasi-periodic flares that are observed in some states is intrinsically connected with the global structure of the accretion flow, which are governed by the nonlinear hydrodynamics. One plausible mechanism that is proposed to explain this kind of variability is the thermal-viscous instability that operates in the accretion disk. The purely stochastic variability that occurs because of turbulent conditions in the plasma, is quantified by the power density spectra and appears in practically all types of sources and their spectral states. Methods: We pose a question as to whether these two microquasars are one of a kind, or if the traces of deterministic chaos, and hence the accretion disk instability, may also be hidden in the observed variability of other sources. We focus on the black hole X-ray binaries that accrete at a high rate and are, therefore, theoretically prone to the development of radiation pressure-induced instability. To study the nonlinear behaviour of the X-ray sources and distinguish between the chaotic and stochastic nature of their emission, we propose a novel method, which is based on recurrence analysis. Widely known in other fields of physics, this powerful method is used here for the first time in an astrophysical context. We estimate the indications of deterministic chaos quantitatively, such as the Rényi's entropy for the observed time series, and we compare them with surrogate data. Results: Using the observational data collected by the RXTE satellite, we reveal the oscillations pattern and the observable properties of six black hole systems. For five of them, we confirm the signatures of deterministic chaos being the driver of their observed variability. Conclusions: We test the method and confirm the deterministic nature of

  8. Accretion Column Structure of Magnetic Cataclysmic Variables from X-ray Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Hoogerwerf, R; Brickhouse, N S; Mauche, C W

    2006-02-27

    Using Chandra HETG data we present light curves for individual spectral lines of Mg XI and Mg XII for EX Hydrae, an intermediate-polar type cataclysmic variable. The Mg XI light curve, folded on the white dwarf spin period, shows two spikes that are not seen in the Mg XII or broad-band light curves. Occultation of the accretion column by the body of the white dwarf would produce such spikes for an angle between the rotation axis and the accretion columns of {alpha} = 18{sup o} and a height of the Mg XI emission above the white dwarf surface of {approx}< 0.0004 white dwarf radii or {approx}< 4 km. The absence of spikes in the Mg XII and broad-band light curves could then be explained if the bulk of its emission forms at much larger height, > 0.004 white dwarf radii or > 40 km, above the white dwarf surface. The technique described in this letter demonstrates that high signal-to-noise ratio and high spectral resolution X-ray spectra can be used to map the temperature and density structure of accretion flows in magnetic cataclysmic variables. The Mg XI and Mg XII light curves are not consistent with the temperature and density structure predicted by the standard Aizu model.

  9. Signs of magnetic accretion in the young Be/X-ray pulsar SXP 1062

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikhsanov, N. R.

    2012-07-01

    The spin behaviour of the neutron star in the newly discovered young Be/X-ray long-period pulsar SXP 1062 is discussed. The star is observed to rotate with the period of 1062 s, and spin down at the rate ˜-2.6 × 10-12 Hz s-1. I show that all of the conventional accretion scenarios encounter major difficulties in explaining the rapid spin-down of the pulsar. These difficulties can be, however, avoided within the magnetic accretion scenario in which the neutron star is assumed to accrete from a magnetized wind. The spin-down rate of the pulsar can be explained within this scenario provided the surface magnetic field of the neutron star is B*˜ 4 × 1013 G. I show that the age of the pulsar in this case lies in the range (2-4) × 104 yr, which is consistent with observations. The spin evolution of the pulsar is briefly discussed.

  10. A test of truncation in the accretion discs of X-ray Binaries.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckersall, A.

    2016-06-01

    The truncated-disc model is generally used to help explain the change between the soft and hard states in X-ray Binaries, where the standard accretion disc is truncated in the inner regions and replaced by a radiatively inefficient accretion flow. There is still disagreement though in the extent of this truncation, particularly in at what point truncation begins. Here we analyze XMM EPIC-pn spectra in both the soft and hard states for a number of galactic XRBs, along with RGS data and the latest absorption and emission models to get an independent fit for the ISM column densities for each source. Specifically, we assume the 'canonical' model where the luminous accretion disc extends down to the innermost stable orbit at 6r_g, and construct a spectral model accounting for thermal, reflection and Compton processes ensuring consistent geometrical properties of the models. Rather than attempting to infer the inner disc location from spectral fitting and/or reflection models, we instead attempt a direct test of whether a consistent model will fit assuming no truncation. We discuss the implications for emission models of XRBs.

  11. Hard X-ray emission from accretion shocks around galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushnir, Doron; Waxman, Eli

    2010-02-01

    We show that the hard X-ray (HXR) emission observed from several galaxy clusters is consistent with a simple model, in which the nonthermal emission is produced by inverse Compton scattering of cosmic microwave background photons by electrons accelerated in cluster accretion shocks: The dependence of HXR surface brightness on cluster temperature is consistent with that predicted by the model, and the observed HXR luminosity is consistent with the fraction of shock thermal energy deposited in relativistic electrons being lesssim0.1. Alternative models, where the HXR emission is predicted to be correlated with the cluster thermal emission, are disfavored by the data. The implications of our predictions to future HXR observations (e.g. by NuStar, Simbol-X) and to (space/ground based) γ-ray observations (e.g. by Fermi, HESS, MAGIC, VERITAS) are discussed.

  12. Hard X-ray emission from accretion shocks around galaxy clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Kushnir, Doron; Waxman, Eli E-mail: eli.waxman@weizmann.ac.il

    2010-02-01

    We show that the hard X-ray (HXR) emission observed from several galaxy clusters is consistent with a simple model, in which the nonthermal emission is produced by inverse Compton scattering of cosmic microwave background photons by electrons accelerated in cluster accretion shocks: The dependence of HXR surface brightness on cluster temperature is consistent with that predicted by the model, and the observed HXR luminosity is consistent with the fraction of shock thermal energy deposited in relativistic electrons being ∼<0.1. Alternative models, where the HXR emission is predicted to be correlated with the cluster thermal emission, are disfavored by the data. The implications of our predictions to future HXR observations (e.g. by NuStar, Simbol-X) and to (space/ground based) γ-ray observations (e.g. by Fermi, HESS, MAGIC, VERITAS) are discussed.

  13. The Origin of Warped, Precessing Accretion Disks in X-ray Binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maloney, Philip R.; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    1997-01-01

    The radiation-driven warping instability discovered by Pringle holds considerable promise as the mechanism responsible for producing warped, precessing accretion disks in X-ray binaries. This instability is an inherently global mode of the disk, thereby avoiding the difficulties with earlier models for the precession. Here we follow up on earlier work to study the linear behavior of the instability in the specific context of a binary system. We treat the influence of the companion as an orbit-averaged quadrupole torque on the disk. The presence of this external torque allows the existence of solutions in which the direction of precession of the warp is retrograde with respect to disk rotation, in addition to the prograde solutions that exist in the absence of external torques.

  14. Determination of Local Densities in Accreted Ice Samples Using X-Rays and Digital Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broughton, Howard; Sims, James; Vargas, Mario

    1996-01-01

    At the NASA Lewis Research Center's Icing Research Tunnel ice shapes, similar to those which develop in-flight icing conditions, were formed on an airfoil. Under cold room conditions these experimental samples were carefully removed from the airfoil, sliced into thin sections, and x-rayed. The resulting microradiographs were developed and the film digitized using a high resolution scanner to extract fine detail in the radiographs. A procedure was devised to calibrate the scanner and to maintain repeatability during the experiment. The techniques of image acquisition and analysis provide accurate local density measurements and reveal the internal characteristics of the accreted ice with greater detail. This paper will discuss the methodology by which these samples were prepared with emphasis on the digital imaging techniques.

  15. Assembly of NASA's Most Powerful X-Ray Telescope Completed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-03-01

    Assembly of the world's most powerful X-ray telescope, NASA's Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility, was completed last week with the installation of its power-generating twin solar panels. The observatory is scheduled for launch aboard Space Shuttle mission STS-93, in December 1998. The last major components of the observatory were bolted and pinned into place March 4 at TRW Space & Electronics Group in Redondo Beach, Calif., and pre-launch testing of the fully assembled observatory began March 7. "Completion of the observatory's assembly process is a big step forward toward launch scheduled for the end of this year," said Fred Wojtalik, manager of the Observatory Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. "With all the major components in place, we are now concentrating on a thorough pre-launch checkout of the observatory." "We're delighted to reach this major milestone for the program," said Craig Staresinich, TRW's Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility program manager. "The entire observatory team has worked hard to get to this point and will continue an exhaustive test program to ensure mission success. We're looking forward to delivering a truly magnificent new space capability to NASA later this summer." The first pre-launch test of the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility was an acoustic test, which simulated the sound pressure environment inside the Space Shuttle cargo bay during launch. A thorough electrical checkout before and after the acoustic test verifies that the observatory and its science instruments can withstand the extreme sound levels and vibrations that accompany launch. "With 10 times the resolution and 50-100 times the sensitivity of any previous X-ray telescope, this observatory will provide us with a new perspective of our universe," said the project's chief scientist, Dr. Martin Weisskopf of Marshall Center. "We'll be able to study sources of X-rays throughout the universe, like colliding galaxies and black

  16. The Accretion-Ejection Mechanisms in X-ray Binaries: an Unified View

    SciTech Connect

    Petrucci, P. O.; Foellmi, C.; Ferreira, J.; Henri, G.; Belmont, R.; Malzac, J.

    2009-05-11

    We present a new keplerian accretion disc solution, the so-called Jet Emitting Disc (JED hereafter), which is part of global self-consistent disc-jet MHD structure. In our framework, a large scale, organized vertical magnetic field is threading the JED giving birth, when conditions are met, to stationnary self-collimated non relativistic jets. The main condition is that the magnetic pressure P{sub mag} must be of the order of the total pressure P{sub tot} in the JED and a direct consequence is a jet torque largely dominating the viscuous torque. This in turn implies an accretion velocity of the order of the sound speed and then a density much lower than a standard accretion disc. Moreover, most of the accretion power P{sub acc} being extracted by the jet, only part of it (<50%) is liberated in the JED as heating power.

  17. The Accreting Black Hole Swift J1753.5-0127 from Radio to Hard X-Ray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomsick, John A.; Rahoui, Farid; Kolehmainen, Mari; Miller-Jones, James; Fürst, Felix; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Akitaya, Hiroshi; Corbel, Stéphane; Coriat, Mickael; Done, Chris; Gandhi, Poshak; Harrison, Fiona A.; Huang, Kuiyun; Kaaret, Philip; Kalemci, Emrah; Kanda, Yuka; Migliari, Simone; Miller, Jon M.; Moritani, Yuki; Stern, Daniel; Uemura, Makoto; Urata, Yuji

    2015-07-01

    We report on multiwavelength measurements of the accreting black hole Swift J1753.5-0127 in the hard state at low luminosity (L ˜ 2.7 × 1036 erg s-1 assuming a distance of d = 3 kpc) in 2014 April. The radio emission is optically thick synchrotron, presumably from a compact jet. We take advantage of the low extinction (E(B-V)=0.45 from earlier work) and model the near-IR to UV emission with a multitemperature disk model. Assuming a black hole mass of MBH = 5 M⊙ and a system inclination of i = 40°, the fits imply an inner radius for the disk of Rin/Rg > 212d3(MBH/5 M⊙)-1, where Rg is the gravitational radius of the black hole and d3 is the distance to the source in units of 3 kpc. The outer radius is Rout/Rg=90,000 d3(MBH/5 M⊙)-1, which corresponds to 6.6 × 1010 d3 cm, consistent with the expected size of the disk given previous measurements of the size of the companion's Roche lobe. The 0.5-240 keV energy spectrum measured by Swift/X-ray Telescope (XRT), Suzaku (XIS, PIN, and GSO), and Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array is relatively well characterized by an absorbed power law with a photon index of Γ = 1.722 ± 0.003 (90% confidence error), but a significant improvement is seen when a second continuum component is added. Reflection is a possibility, but no iron line is detected, implying a low iron abundance. We are able to fit the entire (radio to 240 keV) spectral energy distribution (SED) with a multitemperature disk component, a Comptonization component, and a broken power law, representing the emission from the compact jet. The broken power law cannot significantly contribute to the soft X-ray emission, and this may be related to why Swift J1753.5-0127 is an outlier in the radio/X-ray correlation. The broken power law (i.e., the jet) might dominate above 20 keV, which would constrain the break frequency to be between 2.4 × 1010 and 3.6 × 1012 Hz. Although the fits to the full SED do not include significant thermal emission in the X-ray band

  18. Contrasting Behaviour from Two Be/X-ray Binary Pulsars: Insights into Differing Neutron Star Accretion Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, L. J.; Drave, S. P.; Hill, A. B.; Coe, M. J.; Corbet, R. H. D.; Bird, A. J.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present the identification of two periodic X-ray signals coming from the direction of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). On detection with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), the 175.4 s and 85.4 s pulsations were considered to originate from new Be/X-ray binary (BeXRB) pulsars with unknown locations. Using rapid follow-up INTEGRAL and XMM-Newton observations, we show the first pulsar (designated SXP175) to be coincident with a candidate high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB) in the northern bar region of the SMC undergoing a small Type II outburst. The orbital period (87d) and spectral class (B0-B0.5IIIe) of this system are determined and presented here for the first time. The second pulsar is shown not to be new at all, but is consistent with being SXP91.1 - a pulsar discovered at the very beginning of the 13 year long RXTE key monitoring programme of the SMC. Whilst it is theoretically possible for accreting neutron stars to change spin period so dramatically over such a short time, the X-ray and optical data available for this source suggest this spin-up is continuous during long phases of X-ray quiescence, where accretion driven spin-up of the neutron star should be minimal.

  19. X-RAY DETERMINATION OF THE VARIABLE RATE OF MASS ACCRETION ONTO TW HYDRAE

    SciTech Connect

    Brickhouse, N. S.; Cranmer, S. R.; Dupree, A. K.; Guenther, H. M.; Wolk, S. J.; Luna, G. J. M.

    2012-12-01

    Diagnostics of electron temperature (T{sub e} ), electron density (n{sub e} ), and hydrogen column density (N{sub H}) from the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating spectrum of He-like Ne IX in TW Hydrae (TW Hya), in conjunction with a classical accretion model, allow us to infer the accretion rate onto the star directly from measurements of the accreting material. The new method introduces the use of the absorption of Ne IX lines as a measure of the column density of the intervening, accreting material. On average, the derived mass accretion rate for TW Hya is 1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, for a stellar magnetic field strength of 600 G and a filling factor of 3.5%. Three individual Chandra exposures show statistically significant differences in the Ne IX line ratios, indicating changes in N{sub H}, T{sub e} , and n{sub e} by factors of 0.28, 1.6, and 1.3, respectively. In exposures separated by 2.7 days, the observations reported here suggest a five-fold reduction in the accretion rate. This powerful new technique promises to substantially improve our understanding of the accretion process in young stars.

  20. X-Ray Evidence for the Accretion Disc-Outflow Connection in 3C 111

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tombesi, Frank; Sambruna, R. M.; Reeves, J. N.; Reynolds, C. S.; Braito, V.

    2011-01-01

    We present the spectral analysis of three Suzaku X-ray Imaging Spectrometer observations of 3C III requested to monitor the predicted variability of its ultrafast outflow on approximately 7 d time-scales. We detect an ionized iron emission line in the first observation and a blueshifted absorption line in the second, when the flux is approximately 30 per cent higher. The location of the material is constrained at less than 0.006 pc from the variability. Detailed modelling supports an identification with ionized reflection off the accretion disc at approximately 20-100rg from the black hole and a highly ionized and massive ultrafast outflow with velocity approximately 0.1c, respectively. The outflow is most probably accelerated by radiation pressure, but additional magnetic thrust cannot be excluded. The measured high outflow rate and mechanical energy support the claims that disc outflows may have a significant feedback role. This work provides the first direct evidence for an accretion disc-outflow connection in a radio-loud active galactic nucleus, possibly linked also to the jet activity.

  1. The Stochastic X-Ray Variability of the Accreting Millisecond Pulsar MAXI J0911-655

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bult, Peter

    2017-01-01

    In this work, I report on the stochastic X-ray variability of the 340 hertz accreting millisecond pulsar MAXI J0911-655. Analyzing pointed observations of the XMM-Newton and NuSTAR observatories, I find that the source shows broad band-limited stochastic variability in the 0.01-10 hertz range with a total fractional variability of approximately 24 percent root mean square timing residuals in the 0.4 to 3 kiloelectronvolt energy band that increases to approximately 40 percent root mean square timing residuals in the 3 to 10 kiloelectronvolt band. Additionally, a pair of harmonically related quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) are discovered. The fundamental frequency of this harmonic pair is observed between frequencies of 62 and 146 megahertz. Like the band-limited noise, the amplitudes of the QPOs show a steep increase as a function of energy; this suggests that they share a similar origin, likely the inner accretion flow. Based on their energy dependence and frequency relation with respect to the noise terms, the QPOs are identified as low-frequency oscillations and discussed in terms of the Lense-Thirring precession model.

  2. The Stochastic X-Ray Variability of the Accreting Millisecond Pulsar MAXI J0911–655

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bult, Peter

    2017-03-01

    In this work, I report on the stochastic X-ray variability of the 340 Hz accreting millisecond pulsar MAXI J0911–655. Analyzing pointed observations of the XMM-Newton and NuSTAR observatories, I find that the source shows broad band-limited stochastic variability in the 0.01{--}10 {Hz} range with a total fractional variability of ∼ 24 % rms in the 0.4{--}3 {keV} energy band that increases to ∼ 40 % rms in the 3–10 keV band. Additionally, a pair of harmonically related quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) are discovered. The fundamental frequency of this harmonic pair is observed between frequencies of 62 and 146 mHz. Like the band-limited noise, the amplitudes of the QPOs show a steep increase as a function of energy; this suggests that they share a similar origin, likely the inner accretion flow. Based on their energy dependence and frequency relation with respect to the noise terms, the QPOs are identified as low-frequency oscillations and discussed in terms of the Lense–Thirring precession model.

  3. Daily multiwavelength Swift monitoring of the neutron star low-mass X-ray binary Cen X-4: evidence for accretion and reprocessing during quiescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardini, F.; Cackett, E. M.; Brown, E. F.; D'Angelo, C.; Degenaar, N.; Miller, J. M.; Reynolds, M.; Wijnands, R.

    2013-12-01

    We conducted the first long-term (60 d), multiwavelength (optical, ultraviolet, UV, and X-ray) simultaneous monitoring of Cen X-4 with daily Swift observations from 2012 June to August, with the goal of understanding variability in the low-mass X-ray binary Cen X-4 during quiescence. We found Cen X-4 to be highly variable in all energy bands on time-scales from days to months, with the strongest quiescent variability a factor of 22 drop in the X-ray count rate in only 4 d. The X-ray, UV and optical (V band) emission are correlated on time-scales down to less than 110 s. The shape of the correlation is a power law with index γ about 0.2-0.6. The X-ray spectrum is well fitted by a hydrogen neutron star (NS) atmosphere (kT = 59-80 eV) and a power law (with spectral index Γ = 1.4-2.0), with the spectral shape remaining constant as the flux varies. Both components vary in tandem, with each responsible for about 50 per cent of the total X-ray flux, implying that they are physically linked. We conclude that the X-rays are likely generated by matter accreting down to the NS surface. Moreover, based on the short time-scale of the correlation, we also unambiguously demonstrate that the UV emission cannot be due to either thermal emission from the stream impact point, or a standard optically thick, geometrically thin disc. The spectral energy distribution shows a small UV emitting region, too hot to arise from the accretion disc, that we identified as a hotspot on the companion star. Therefore, the UV emission is most likely produced by reprocessing from the companion star, indeed the vertical size of the disc is small and can only reprocess a marginal fraction of the X-ray emission. We also found the accretion disc in quiescence to likely be UV faint, with a minimal contribution to the whole UV flux.

  4. Numerical Solution of the Radiative Transfer Equation: X-Ray Spectral Formation from Cylindrical Accretion onto a Magnetized Neutron Star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fairnelli, R.; Ceccobello, C.; Romano, P.; Titarchuk, L.

    2011-01-01

    Predicting the emerging X-ray spectra in several astrophysical objects is of great importance, in particular when the observational data are compared with theoretical models. This requires developing numerical routines for the solution of the radiative transfer equation according to the expected physical conditions of the systems under study. Aims. We have developed an algorithm solving the radiative transfer equation in the Fokker-Planck approximation when both thermal and bulk Comptonization take place. The algorithm is essentially a relaxation method, where stable solutions are obtained when the system has reached its steady-state equilibrium. Methods. We obtained the solution of the radiative transfer equation in the two-dimensional domain defined by the photon energy E and optical depth of the system pi using finite-differences for the partial derivatives, and imposing specific boundary conditions for the solutions. We treated the case of cylindrical accretion onto a magnetized neutron star. Results. We considered a blackbody seed spectrum of photons with exponential distribution across the accretion column and for an accretion where the velocity reaches its maximum at the stellar surface and at the top of the accretion column, respectively. In both cases higher values of the electron temperature and of the optical depth pi produce flatter and harder spectra. Other parameters contributing to the spectral formation are the steepness of the vertical velocity profile, the albedo at the star surface, and the radius of the accretion column. The latter parameter modifies the emerging spectra in a specular way for the two assumed accretion profiles. Conclusions. The algorithm has been implemented in the XPEC package for X-ray fitting and is specifically dedicated to the physical framework of accretion at the polar cap of a neutron star with a high magnetic field (approx > 10(exp 12) G). This latter case is expected to be of typical accreting systems such as X-ray

  5. The x ray variability of NGC6814: Power spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Done, C.; Madejski, G. M.; Mushotsky, R. F.; Turner, T. J.; Koyama, K.; Kunieda, H.

    1992-01-01

    Simulation techniques are used to obtain the X-ray variability power spectrum of unevenly sampled GINGA data from NGC6814. A simple power law is not an adequate description of the power spectrum, with the residuals showing excess power on timescales consistent with the periodicity seen in EXOSAT observations of this object. However the shape of the folded lightcurve is very different, with 3 main peaks, two of which are separated by an extremely sharp dip instead of the single peak and small harmonic structure observed by EXOSAT. Using the dip as a fiducial mark, a second GINGA observation of this source taken one year later is found to be consistent with being completely periodic and phase coherent with this first GINGA observation. Thus the period is consistent with being constant over a period of 6 years, but phase coherence is only maintained on timescales of approximately 1 year. Over 75 percent of the total source variability is due to the periodic component (r.m.s. amplitude of 36 percent). The residual variability can be described as the more usual 'flicker noise' f(exp -1.1) powerlaw. This shows no apparent high frequency break on timescales greater than 300 seconds. Subtle differences in the shape of the folded light curve with energy, and the very large amount of power in the periodic component suggest occultation as its origin, though amplification of variability from an X-ray emitting 'hot spot' at the disk inner radius through gravitational lensing is also possible. The former suffers from the very arbitrary nature of the periodic timescale, while the latter is unattractive as it cannot simply explain the lack of high frequency break in the residual power. That these models probably fail to provide an adequate explanation may be due to the added complexity of anisotropy of the X-ray emission, suggested by the discrepancy between the lack of soft photons implied by the flat spectrum and the copious source of soft photons available from reprocessing in

  6. X-ray and ultraviolet radiation from accreting white dwarfs. IV - Two-temperature treatment with electron thermal conduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imamura, J. N.; Durisen, R. H.; Lamb, D. Q.; Weast, G. J.

    1987-01-01

    Results are reported from two-temperature calculations of the structures and X-ray spectra of radiation shocks generated by accretion onto nonmagnetic white dwarfs. The approach was necessitated by the domination of bremsstrahlung in the emission region by Compton cooling. Features of the shock model, which includes steady, spherical infall of fully ionized plasma and dominance of the stand-off shock by collisional processes, are summarized. A maximum hard X-ray temperature of about 50 keV and a maximum hard X-ray luminosity of 2 x 10 to the 36th ergs/sec were obtained. The results prove that the bulk of accretion energy cannot be transported to the star by electron thermal conduction, provided that bremsstrahlung cooling is dominant over cyclotron cooling.

  7. Winds of Change: The Physics of Accretion, Ejection, and X-ray Variability in GRS1915+105

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neilsen, Joseph

    2013-04-01

    In the last twenty years, even as multiwavelength observations of black hole X-ray binaries have led to major advances, the microquasar GRS 1915+105 has continually challenged our understanding of the physics of accretion and ejection. With its relativistic jets, ionized winds, and myriad states of rapid, extreme variability, this remarkable black hole has been alternately seen as the black sheep of X-ray binaries and a Rosetta stone for black hole astrophysics. In this talk, I will present our efforts to use a decade of high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy of GRS 1915+105 to shed light on the processes that regulate its erratic behavior. I will highlight in particular the role of accretion disk winds on time scales ranging from seconds to years. Drawing on recent results, I will discuss the broader implications of these massive winds for the physics of inflows and outflows around black holes.

  8. ACCRETION DISK DYNAMO AS THE TRIGGER FOR X-RAY BINARY STATE TRANSITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Begelman, Mitchell C.; Armitage, Philip J.; Reynolds, Christopher S.

    2015-08-20

    Magnetohydrodynamic accretion disk simulations suggest that much of the energy liberated by the magnetorotational instability (MRI) can be channeled into large-scale toroidal magnetic fields through dynamo action. Under certain conditions, this field can dominate over gas and radiation pressure in providing vertical support against gravity, even close to the midplane. Using a simple model for the creation of this field, its buoyant rise, and its coupling to the gas, we show how disks could be driven into this magnetically dominated state and deduce the resulting vertical pressure and density profiles. Applying an established criterion for MRI to operate in the presence of a toroidal field, we show that magnetically supported disks can have two distinct MRI-active regions, separated by a “dead zone” where local MRI is suppressed, but where magnetic energy continues to flow upward from the dynamo region below. We suggest that the relative strengths of the MRI zones, and the local poloidal flux, determine the spectral states of X-ray binaries. Specifically, “intermediate” and “hard” accretion states occur when MRI is triggered in the hot, upper zone of the corona, while disks in “soft” states do not develop the upper MRI zone. We discuss the conditions under which various transitions should take place and speculate on the relationship of dynamo activity to the various types of quasi-periodic oscillations that sometimes appear in the hard spectral components. The model also explains why luminous accretion disks in the “soft” state show no signs of the thermal/viscous instability predicted by standard α-models.

  9. Accretion Disk Dynamo as the Trigger for X-Ray Binary State Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begelman, Mitchell C.; Armitage, Philip J.; Reynolds, Christopher S.

    2015-08-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic accretion disk simulations suggest that much of the energy liberated by the magnetorotational instability (MRI) can be channeled into large-scale toroidal magnetic fields through dynamo action. Under certain conditions, this field can dominate over gas and radiation pressure in providing vertical support against gravity, even close to the midplane. Using a simple model for the creation of this field, its buoyant rise, and its coupling to the gas, we show how disks could be driven into this magnetically dominated state and deduce the resulting vertical pressure and density profiles. Applying an established criterion for MRI to operate in the presence of a toroidal field, we show that magnetically supported disks can have two distinct MRI-active regions, separated by a “dead zone” where local MRI is suppressed, but where magnetic energy continues to flow upward from the dynamo region below. We suggest that the relative strengths of the MRI zones, and the local poloidal flux, determine the spectral states of X-ray binaries. Specifically, “intermediate” and “hard” accretion states occur when MRI is triggered in the hot, upper zone of the corona, while disks in “soft” states do not develop the upper MRI zone. We discuss the conditions under which various transitions should take place and speculate on the relationship of dynamo activity to the various types of quasi-periodic oscillations that sometimes appear in the hard spectral components. The model also explains why luminous accretion disks in the “soft” state show no signs of the thermal/viscous instability predicted by standard α-models.

  10. On the power spectra of the wind-fed X-ray binary pulsar GX 301 - 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orlandini, Mauro; Morfill, G. E.

    1992-01-01

    A phenomenological model of accretion which is applied to the wind-fed X-ray binary pulsar GX 301 - 2 is developed, assuming that the accretion onto the neutron star does not occur from a continuous flux of plasma, but from blobs of matter which are threaded by the magnetic field lines onto the magnetic polar caps of the neutron star. These 'lumps' are produced at the magnetospheric limit by magnetohydrodynamical instability, introducing a 'noise' in the accretion process, due to the discontinuity in the flux of matter onto the neutron star. This model is able to describe the change of slope observed in the continuum component of the power spectra of the X-ray binary pulsar GX 301 - 2, in the frequency range 0.01 - 0.1 Hz. The physical properties of the infalling blobs derived in the model are in agreement with the constraints imposed by observations.

  11. X-ray Dips Followed by Superluminal Ejections as Evidence for An Accretion Disc Feeding the Jet in A Radio Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marscher, Alan P.; Jorstad, Svetlana G.; Gomez, Jose-Luis; Aller, Margo F.; Terasranta, Harri; Lister, Matthew L.; Stirling, Alastair, M.

    2002-01-01

    Accretion onto black holes is thought to power the relativistic jets and other high-energy phenomena in both active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and the "microquasar" binary systems located in our Galaxy. However, until now there has been insufficient multifrequency monitoring to establish a direct observational link between the black hole and the jet in an AGE. This contrasts with the case of microquasars, in which superluminal features appear and propagate down the radio jet shortly after sudden decreases in the X-ray flux. Such an X-ray dip is most likely caused by the disappearance of a section of the inner accretion disc, part of which falls past the event horizon and the remainder of which is injected into the jet. This infusion of energy generates a disturbance that propagates down the jet, creating the appearance of a superluminal bright spot. Here we report the results of three years of intensive monitoring of the X-ray and radio emission of the Seyfert-like radio galaxy 3C 120. As in the case of microquasars, dips in the X-ray emission are followed by ejections of bright superluminal knots in the radio jet. Comparison of the characteristic length and time scales allows us to infer that the rotational states of the black holes in these two objects are different.

  12. PATCHY ACCRETION DISKS IN ULTRA-LUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J. M.; Bachetti, M.; Barret, D.; Webb, N. A.; Harrison, F. A.; Walton, D. J.; Rana, V.; Fabian, A. C.

    2014-04-10

    The X-ray spectra of the most extreme ultra-luminous X-ray sources—those with L ≥ 10{sup 40} erg s{sup –1}—remain something of a mystery. Spectral roll-over in the 5-10 keV band was originally detected in the deepest XMM-Newton observations of the brightest sources; this is confirmed in subsequent NuSTAR spectra. This emission can be modeled via Comptonization, but with low electron temperatures (kT{sub e} ≅ 2 keV) and high optical depths (τ ≅ 10) that pose numerous difficulties. Moreover, evidence of cooler thermal emission that can be fit with thin disk models persists, even in fits to joint XMM-Newton and NuSTAR observations. Using NGC 1313 X-1 as a test case, we show that a patchy disk with a multiple temperature profile may provide an excellent description of such spectra. In principle, a number of patches within a cool disk might emit over a range of temperatures, but the data only require a two-temperature profile plus standard Comptonization, or three distinct blackbody components. A mechanism such as the photon bubble instability may naturally give rise to a patchy disk profile, and could give rise to super-Eddington luminosities. It is possible, then, that a patchy disk (rather than a disk with a standard single-temperature profile) might be a hallmark of accretion disks close to or above the Eddington limit. We discuss further tests of this picture and potential implications for sources such as narrow-line Seyfert-1 galaxies and other low-mass active galactic nuclei.

  13. X-Ray and Near-infrared Observations of the Obscured Accreting Pulsar IGR J18179-1621

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, M. A.; Paizis, A.; Rodriguez, J.; Chaty, S.; Del Santo, M.; Grinberg, V.; Wilms, J.; Ubertini, P.; Chini, R.

    2012-10-01

    IGR J18179-1621 is an obscured accreting X-ray pulsar discovered by INTEGRAL on 2012 February 29. We report on our 20 ks Chandra-High Energy Transmission Gratings Spectrometer observation of the source performed on 2012 March 17, on two short contemporaneous Swift observations, and on our two near-infrared (Ks , Hn , and Jn ) observations performed on 2012 March 13 and 26. We determine the most accurate X-ray position of IGR J18179-1621, αJ2000 = 18h17m52.s18, δJ2000 = -16°21'31farcs68 (90% uncertainty of 0farcs6). A strong periodic variability at 11.82 s is clearly detected in the Chandra data, confirming the pulsating nature of the source, with the light-curve softening at the pulse peak. The quasi-simultaneous Chandra-Swift spectra of IGR J18179-1621 can be well fit by a heavily absorbed hard power law (N H = 2.2 ± 0.3 × 1023 cm-2 and photon index Γ = 0.4 ± 0.1) with an average absorbed 2-8 keV flux of 1.4 × 10-11 erg cm-2 s-1. At the Chandra-based position, a source is detected in our near-infrared (NIR) maps with Ks = 13.14 ± 0.04 mag, Hn = 16 ± 0.1 mag, and no Jn -band counterpart down to ~18 mag. The NIR source, compatible with 2MASS J18175218-1621316, shows no variability between 2012 March 13 and 26. Searches of the UKIDSS database show similar NIR flux levels at epochs six months prior to and after a 2007 February 11 archival Chandra observation where the source's X-ray flux was at least 87 times fainter. In many ways IGR J18179-1621 is unusual: its combination of a several week long outburst (without evidence of repeated outbursts in the historical record), high absorption column (a large fraction of which is likely local to the system), and 11.82 s period does not fit neatly into existing X-ray binary categories.

  14. X-RAY AND NEAR-INFRARED OBSERVATIONS OF THE OBSCURED ACCRETING PULSAR IGR J18179-1621

    SciTech Connect

    Nowak, M. A.; Paizis, A.; Rodriguez, J.; Chaty, S.; Grinberg, V.; Wilms, J.; Chini, R. E-mail: ada@iasf-milano.inaf.it

    2012-10-01

    IGR J18179-1621 is an obscured accreting X-ray pulsar discovered by INTEGRAL on 2012 February 29. We report on our 20 ks Chandra-High Energy Transmission Gratings Spectrometer observation of the source performed on 2012 March 17, on two short contemporaneous Swift observations, and on our two near-infrared (K{sub s} , H{sub n} , and J{sub n} ) observations performed on 2012 March 13 and 26. We determine the most accurate X-ray position of IGR J18179-1621, {alpha}{sub J2000} = 18{sup h}17{sup m}52.{sup s}18, {delta}{sub J2000} = -16 Degree-Sign 21'31.''68 (90% uncertainty of 0.''6). A strong periodic variability at 11.82 s is clearly detected in the Chandra data, confirming the pulsating nature of the source, with the light-curve softening at the pulse peak. The quasi-simultaneous Chandra-Swift spectra of IGR J18179-1621 can be well fit by a heavily absorbed hard power law (N{sub H} = 2.2 {+-} 0.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 23} cm{sup -2} and photon index {Gamma} = 0.4 {+-} 0.1) with an average absorbed 2-8 keV flux of 1.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -11} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. At the Chandra-based position, a source is detected in our near-infrared (NIR) maps with K{sub s} 13.14 {+-} 0.04 mag, H{sub n} = 16 {+-} 0.1 mag, and no J{sub n} -band counterpart down to {approx}18 mag. The NIR source, compatible with 2MASS J18175218-1621316, shows no variability between 2012 March 13 and 26. Searches of the UKIDSS database show similar NIR flux levels at epochs six months prior to and after a 2007 February 11 archival Chandra observation where the source's X-ray flux was at least 87 times fainter. In many ways IGR J18179-1621 is unusual: its combination of a several week long outburst (without evidence of repeated outbursts in the historical record), high absorption column (a large fraction of which is likely local to the system), and 11.82 s period does not fit neatly into existing X-ray binary categories.

  15. The optical counterparts of accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars during quiescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Avanzo, P.; Campana, S.; Casares, J.; Covino, S.; Israel, G. L.; Stella, L.

    2009-12-01

    Context: Eight accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars (AMXPs) are known to date. Although these systems are well studied at high energies, very little information is available for their optical/NIR counterparts. Up to now, only two of them, SAX J1808.4-3658 and IGR J00291+5934, have a secure multi-band detection of their optical counterparts in quiescence. Aims: All these systems are transient low-mass X-ray binaries. Optical and NIR observations carried out during quiescence give a unique opportunity to constrain the nature of the donor star and to investigate the origin of the observed quiescent luminosity at long wavelengths. In addition, optical observations can be fundamental as they ultimately allow us to estimate the compact object mass through mass function measurements. Methods: Using data obtained with the ESO-Very Large Telescope, we performed a deep optical and NIR photometric study of the fields of XTE J1814-338 and of the ultracompact systems XTE J0929-314 and XTE J1807-294 during quiescence in order to look for the presence of a variable counterpart. If suitable candidates were found, we also carried out optical spectroscopy. Results: We present here the first multi-band (VR) detection of the optical counterpart of XTE J1814-338 in quiescence together with its optical spectrum. The optical light curve shows variability in both bands consistent with a sinusoidal modulation at the known 4.3 h orbital period and presents a puzzling decrease of the V-band flux around superior conjunction that may be interpreted as a partial eclipse. The marginal detection of the very faint counterpart of XTE J0929-314 and deep upper limits for the optical/NIR counterpart of XTE J1807-294 are also reported. We also briefly discuss the results reported in the literature for the optical/NIR counterpart of XTE J1751-305. Conclusions: Our findings are consistent with AMXPs being systems containing an old, weakly magnetized neutron star, reactivated as a millisecond radio pulsar

  16. Soft x-ray transmission grating spectrometer for X-ray Surveyor and smaller missions with high resolving power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilmann, Ralf K.; Bruccoleri, Alexander; Schattenburg, Mark; Kolodziejczak, jeffery; Gaskin, Jessica; O'Dell, Stephen L.

    2017-01-01

    A number of high priority subjects in astrophysics are addressed by a state-of-the-art soft x-ray grating spectrometer, e.g. the role of Active Galactic Nuclei in galaxy and star formation, characterization of the WHIM and the “missing baryon” problem, characterization of halos around the Milky Way and nearby galaxies, and stellar coronae and surrounding winds and disks. An Explorer-scale, large-area (A > 1,000 cm2), high resolving power (R > 3,000) soft x-ray grating spectrometer is highly feasible based on Critical-Angle Transmission (CAT) grating technology, even for telescopes with angular resolution of 5-10 arcsec. Significantly higher performance could be provided by a CAT grating spectrometer on an X-ray-Surveyor-type mission (A > 4,000 cm2, R > 5,000). CAT gratings combine advantages of blazed reflection gratings (high efficiency, use of higher orders) with those of transmission gratings (low mass, relaxed alignment tolerances and temperature requirements, transparent at higher energies) with minimal mission resource requirements. Blazing is achieved through grazing-incidence reflection off the smooth silicon grating bar sidewalls. Silicon is well matched to the soft x-ray band, and 30% absolute diffraction efficiency has been acheived with clear paths for further improvement. CAT gratings with sidewalls made of high-Z elements allow extension of blazing to higher energies and larger dispersion angles, enabling higher resolving power at shorter wavelengths. X-ray data from CAT gratings coated with a thin layer of platinum using atomic layer deposition demonstrate efficient blazing to higher energies and much larger blaze angles than possible with silicon alone. Measurements of the resolving power of a breadboard CAT grating spectrometer consisting of a Wolter-I slumped-glass focusing optic from GSFC and CAT gratings, taken at the MSFC Stray Light Facility, have demonstrated resolving power > 10,000. Thus currently fabricated CAT gratings are compatible

  17. X-ray Fluctuation Power Spectral Density Survey of Six Seyfert 1 Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markowitz, A.

    2002-05-01

    By combining low-density RXTE long- and medium-term monitoring with high-density, short-term monitoring from XMM and Chandra long-looks, we have constructed X-ray fluctuation power spectral densities (PSDs) for six Seyfert 1 galaxies. These PSDs cover unprecedented dynamic ranges, continuously spanning up to or beyond 4 orders of magnitude in temporal frequency. The PSDs of four targets show significant flattening towards lower frequencies and bear remarkable similarity to X-ray Binary PSDs, strengthening the argument that similar emission processes occur in both types of compact accreting systems, spanning a factor of ~106-7 in luminosity and putative black hole mass. Assuming a linear mass-timescale relation, the resulting PSD break frequencies imply black hole masses which generally agree with reverberation-mapped mass estimates. If the geometric origin of the variability is close to the X-ray corona, then the physical timescales associated with thermal and acoustic disk variations may be relevant.

  18. UV And X-Ray Emission from Impacts of Fragmented Accretion Streams on Classical T Tauri Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombo, Salvatore; Orlando, Salvatore; Peres, Giovanni; Argiroffi, Costanza; Reale, Fabio

    2016-07-01

    According to the magnetoshperic accretion scenario, during their evo- lution, Classical T Tauri stars accrete material from their circumstellar disk. The accretion process is regulated by the stellar magnetic eld and produces hot and dense post-shocks on the stellar surface as a result of impacts of the downfalling material. The impact regions are expected to strongly radiate in UV and X-rays. Several lines of evidence support the magnetospheric accretion scenario, especially in optical and infrared bands. However several points still remain unclear as, for instance,where the complex-pro le UV lines originate, or whether and how UV and X-ray emission is produced in the same shock region. The analysis of a large solar eruption has shown that EUV excesses might be e ectively produced by the impact of dense fragments onto the stellar surface. Since a steady accretion stream does not reprouce observations, in this work we investi- gate the e ects of a fragmented accretion stream on the uxes and pro les of C IV and O VIII emission lines. To this end we model the impact of a fragmented accretion stream onto the chromosphere of a CTTS with 2D axysimmetric magneto-hydrodynamic simulations. Our model takes into account of the gravity, the stellar magnetic eld, the thermal conduction and the radiative cooling from an optically thin plasma. From the model results, we synthesize the UV and X-ray emission including the e ect of Doppler shift along the line of sight. We nd that a fragmented accretion stream produces complex pro les of UV emission lines which consists of multiple components with di erent Doppler shifts. Our model predicts line pro les that are consistent with those observed and explain their origin as due to the stream fragmentation.

  19. Improved reflection models of black hole accretion disks: Treating the angular distribution of X-rays

    SciTech Connect

    García, J.; Steiner, J. F.; McClintock, J. E.; Brenneman, L. E-mail: jsteiner@head.cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: lbrenneman@cfa.harvard.edu; and others

    2014-02-20

    X-ray reflection models are used to constrain the properties of the accretion disk, such as the degree of ionization of the gas and the elemental abundances. In combination with general relativistic ray tracing codes, additional parameters like the spin of the black hole and the inclination to the system can be determined. However, current reflection models used for such studies only provide angle-averaged solutions for the flux reflected at the surface of the disk. Moreover, the emission angle of the photons changes over the disk due to relativistic light bending. To overcome this simplification, we have constructed an angle-dependent reflection model with the XILLVER code and self-consistently connected it with the relativistic blurring code RELLINE. The new model, relxill, calculates the proper emission angle of the radiation at each point on the accretion disk and then takes the corresponding reflection spectrum into account. We show that the reflected spectra from illuminated disks follow a limb-brightening law highly dependent on the ionization of disk and yet different from the commonly assumed form I∝ln (1 + 1/μ). A detailed comparison with the angle-averaged model is carried out in order to determine the bias in the parameters obtained by fitting a typical relativistic reflection spectrum. These simulations reveal that although the spin and inclination are mildly affected, the Fe abundance can be overestimated by up to a factor of two when derived from angle-averaged models. The fit of the new model to the Suzaku observation of the Seyfert galaxy Ark 120 clearly shows a significant improvement in the constraint of the physical parameters, in particular by enhancing the accuracy in the inclination angle and the spin determinations.

  20. Accretion disk coronae of intermediate polar cataclysmic variables. 3D magnetohydrodynamic modelling and thermal X-ray emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbera, E.; Orlando, S.; Peres, G.

    2017-04-01

    Context. Intermediate polar cataclysmic variables (IPCV) contain a magnetic, rotating white dwarf surrounded by a magnetically truncated accretion disk. To explain their strong flickering X-ray emission, accretion has been successfully taken into account. Nevertheless, observations suggest that accretion phenomena might not be the only process behind it. An intense flaring activity occurring on the surface of the disk may generate a corona, contribute to the thermal X-ray emission, and influence the system stability. Aims: Our purposes are: investigating the formation of an extended corona above the accretion disk, due to an intense flaring activity occurring on the disk surface; studying the effects of flares on the disk and stellar magnetosphere; assessing its contribution to the observed thermal X-ray flux. Methods: We have developed a 3D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model of a IPCV system. The model takes into account gravity, disk viscosity, thermal conduction, radiative losses, and coronal flare heating through heat injection at randomly chosen locations on the disk surface. To perform a parameter space exploration, several system conditions have been considered, with different magnetic field intensity and disk density values. From the results of the evolution of the model, we have synthesized the thermal X-ray emission. Results: The simulations show the formation of an extended corona, linking disk and star. The flaring activity is capable of strongly influencing the disk configuration and possibly its stability, effectively deforming the magnetic field lines. Hot plasma evaporation phenomena occur in the layer immediately above the disk. The flaring activity gives rise to a thermal X-ray emission in both the [ 0.1-2.0 ] keV and the [ 2.0-10 ] keV X-ray bands. Conclusions: An intense coronal activity occurring on the disk surface of an IPCV can affect the structure of the disk depending noticeably on the density of the disk and the magnetic field of the central

  1. Black hole accretion disks - Electrodynamic coupling of accretion-disk coronae and the partitioning of soft and hard X-ray emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuperus, M.; Ionson, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    It is demonstrated that the observed large ratio of hard to soft X-ray emission and the bimodel behavior of black hole accreting X-ray sources such as Cygnus X-1 can be described in terms of a magnetically structured accretion disk corona which is electrodynamically coupled to the disk turbulent motions while the disk is thermodynamically coupled to the corona as described by a feedback parameter delta. The observed ratio of hard to soft X-ray emission is independent of the disk thickness, and weakly dependent of the disk parameter alpha relating the disk viscous stresses to the total pressure. Observed values of the luminosity ratio point towards strong differences of the feedback of the low state compared to the high state, in the sense that low state means small feedback (delta less than 0.2) and high state means strong feedback delta of about 0.5.

  2. Can the 62 Day X-ray Period of ULX M82 X-1 Be Due to a Precessing Accretion Disk?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasham, Dheeraj R.; Strohmayer, Tod E.

    2013-01-01

    We have analyzed all the archival RXTE/PCA monitoring observations of the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) M82 X-1 in order to study the properties of its previously discovered 62 day X-ray period (Kaaret & Feng 2007). Based on the high coherence of the modulation it has been argued that the observed period is the orbital period of the binary. Utilizing a much longer data set than in previous studies we find: (1) The phase-resolved X-ray (3-15 keV) energy spectra - modeled with a thermal accretion disk and a power-law corona - suggest that the accretion disk's contribution to the total flux is responsible for the overall periodic modulation while the power-law flux remains approximately constant with phase. (2) Suggestive evidence for a sudden phase shift-of approximately 0.3 in phase (20 days)-between the first and the second halves of the light curve separated by roughly 1000 days. If confirmed, the implied timescale to change the period is approx. = 10 yrs, which is exceptionally fast for an orbital phenomenon. These independent pieces of evidence are consistent with the 62 day period being due to a precessing accretion disk, similar to the so-called super-orbital periods observed in systems like Her X-1, LMC X-4, and SS433. However, the timing evidence for a change in the period needs to be confirmed with additional observations. This should be possible with further monitoring of M82 with instruments such as the X-ray telescope (XRT) on board Swift.

  3. Discovery of a soft X-ray 8 mHz QPO from the accreting millisecond pulsar IGR J00291+5934

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrigno, C.; Bozzo, E.; Sanna, A.; Pintore, F.; Papitto, A.; Riggio, A.; Burderi, L.; Di Salvo, T.; Iaria, R.; D'Aì, A.

    2017-04-01

    We report on the analysis of the peculiar X-ray variability displayed by the accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar IGR J00291+5934 in a 80 ks-long joint NuSTAR and XMM-Newton observation performed during the source outburst in 2015. The light curve of the source is characterized by a flaring-like behaviour, with typical rise and decay time-scales of ∼120 s. The flares are accompanied by a remarkable spectral variability, with the X-ray emission being generally softer at the peak of the flares. A strong quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) is detected at ∼8 mHz in the power spectrum of the source and clearly associated with the flaring-like behaviour. This feature has the strongest power at soft X-rays ( ≲ 3 keV). We carried out a dedicated hardness-ratio-resolved spectral analysis and a QPO phase-resolved spectral analysis, together with an in-depth study of the source-timing properties, to investigate the origin of this behaviour. We suggest that the unusual variability of IGR J00291+5934 observed by XMM-Newton and NuSTAR could be produced by a heartbeat-like mechanism, similar to that observed in black hole X-ray binaries. The possibility that this variability, and the associated QPO, are triggered by phases of quasi-stable nuclear burning, as sustained in the literature for a number of other neutron star binaries displaying a similar behaviour, cannot be solidly tested in the case of IGR J00291+5934 due to the paucity of type I X-ray bursts detected from this source.

  4. Strong Role of Non-stationary Accretion in Spectral Transitions of X-ray Binaries and Implications for Revealing the Accretion Geometry and Broadband Radiation Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Wenfei; Yan, Zhen; Tang, Jing; Wu, Yuxiang

    Observations of spectral transitions from the hard state to the soft state in bright X-ray binaries show strong evidence that the rate-of-change of the mass accretion rate plays a dominant role in determining the luminosity at which the spectral transition occurs. This indicates that in many cases, especially accretion in transients during outbursts, the rate-of-change of the mass accretion rate is the primary parameter driving high energy phenomena. Although this goes beyond the scope of current stationary model of disk and jet, it tells us that it is the rate-of-change of the mass accretion rate that we need to trace observationally. Since state transition is a broadband phenomenon, multi-wavelength observations of spectral transitions of different rate-of-changes of mass accretion rate are expect to reveal the accretion geometry and broadband radiation mechanisms.

  5. X-ray Reflected Spectra from Accretion Disk Models. III. A Complete Grid of Ionized Reflection Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, J.; Dauser, T.; Reynolds, C. S.; Kallman, T. R.; McClintock, J. E.; Wilms, J.; Ekmann, W.

    2013-01-01

    We present a new and complete library of synthetic spectra for modeling the component of emission that is reflected from an illuminated accretion disk. The spectra were computed using an updated version of our code xillver that incorporates new routines and a richer atomic data base. We offer in the form of a table model an extensive grid of reflection models that cover a wide range of parameters. Each individual model is characterized by the photon index Gamma of the illuminating radiation, the ionization parameter zeta at the surface of the disk (i.e., the ratio of the X-ray flux to the gas density), and the iron abundance A(sub Fe) relative to the solar value. The ranges of the parameters covered are: 1.2 <= Gamma <= 3.4, 1 <= zeta <= 104, and 0.5 <= A(sub Fe) <= 10. These ranges capture the physical conditions typically inferred from observations of active galactic nuclei, and also stellar-mass black holes in the hard state. This library is intended for use when the thermal disk flux is faint compared to the incident power-law flux. The models are expected to provide an accurate description of the Fe K emission line, which is the crucial spectral feature used to measure black hole spin. A total of 720 reflection spectra are provided in a single FITS file suitable for the analysis of X-ray observations via the atable model in xspec. Detailed comparisons with previous reflection models illustrate the improvements incorporated in this version of xillver.

  6. X-RAY REFLECTED SPECTRA FROM ACCRETION DISK MODELS. III. A COMPLETE GRID OF IONIZED REFLECTION CALCULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, J.; McClintock, J. E.; Dauser, T.; Wilms, J.; Eikmann, W.; Reynolds, C. S.; Kallman, T. R. E-mail: jem@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: thomas.dauser@sternwarte.uni-erlangen.de E-mail: wiebke.eikmann@sternwarte.uni-erlangen.de

    2013-05-10

    We present a new and complete library of synthetic spectra for modeling the component of emission that is reflected from an illuminated accretion disk. The spectra were computed using an updated version of our code XILLVER that incorporates new routines and a richer atomic database. We offer in the form of a table model an extensive grid of reflection models that cover a wide range of parameters. Each individual model is characterized by the photon index {Gamma} of the illuminating radiation, the ionization parameter {xi} at the surface of the disk (i.e., the ratio of the X-ray flux to the gas density), and the iron abundance A{sub Fe} relative to the solar value. The ranges of the parameters covered are 1.2 {<=} {Gamma} {<=} 3.4, 1 {<=} {xi} {<=} 10{sup 4}, and 0.5 {<=} A{sub Fe} {<=} 10. These ranges capture the physical conditions typically inferred from observations of active galactic nuclei, and also stellar-mass black holes in the hard state. This library is intended for use when the thermal disk flux is faint compared to the incident power-law flux. The models are expected to provide an accurate description of the Fe K emission line, which is the crucial spectral feature used to measure black hole spin. A total of 720 reflection spectra are provided in a single FITS file (http://hea-www.cfa.harvard.edu/{approx}javier/xillver/) suitable for the analysis of X-ray observations via the atable model in XSPEC. Detailed comparisons with previous reflection models illustrate the improvements incorporated in this version of XILLVER.

  7. SWIFT X-RAY TELESCOPE STUDY OF THE BLACK HOLE BINARY MAXI J1659–152: VARIABILITY FROM A TWO COMPONENT ACCRETION FLOW

    SciTech Connect

    Kalamkar, M.; Klis, M. van der; Heil, L.; Homan, J.

    2015-08-01

    We present an energy dependent X-ray variability study of the 2010 outburst of the black hole X-ray binary MAXI J1659–152 with the Swift X-ray Telescope (XRT). The broadband noise components and the quasi-periodic oscillations (QPO) observed in the power spectra show a strong and varied energy dependence. Combining Swift XRT data with data from the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer, we report, for the first time, an rms spectrum (fractional rms amplitude as a function of energy) of these components in the 0.5–30 keV energy range. We find that the strength of the low-frequency component (<0.1 Hz) decreases with energy, contrary to the higher frequency components (>0.1 Hz) whose strengths increase with energy. In the context of the propagating fluctuations model for X-ray variability, we suggest that the low-frequency component originates in the accretion disk (which dominates emission below ∼2 keV) and the higher frequency components are formed in the hot flow (which dominates emission above ∼2 keV). As the properties of the QPO suggest that it may have a different driving mechanism, we investigate the Lense–Thirring precession of the hot flow as a candidate model. We also report on the QPO coherence evolution for the first time in the energy band below 2 keV. While there are strong indications that the QPO is less coherent at energies below 2 keV than above 2 keV, the coherence increases with intensity similar to what is observed at energies above 2 keV in other black hole X-ray binaries.

  8. The clustering amplitude of X-ray-selected AGN at z ˜ 0.8: evidence for a negative dependence on accretion luminosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mountrichas, G.; Georgakakis, A.; Menzel, M.-L.; Fanidakis, N.; Merloni, A.; Liu, Z.; Salvato, M.; Nandra, K.

    2016-04-01

    The northern tile of the wide-area and shallow XMM-XXL X-ray survey field is used to estimate the average dark matter halo mass of relatively luminous X-ray-selected active galactic nucleus (AGN) [log {L}_X (2-10 keV)= 43.6^{+0.4}_{-0.4} erg s^{-1}] in the redshift interval z = 0.5-1.2. Spectroscopic follow-up observations of X-ray sources in the XMM-XXL field by the Sloan telescope are combined with the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey spectroscopic galaxy survey to determine the cross-correlation signal between X-ray-selected AGN (total of 318) and galaxies (about 20 000). We model the large scales (2-25 Mpc) of the correlation function to infer a mean dark matter halo mass of log M / (M_{{⊙}} h^{-1}) = 12.50 ^{+0.22} _{-0.30} for the X-ray-selected AGN sample. This measurement is about 0.5 dex lower compared to estimates in the literature of the mean dark matter halo masses of moderate-luminosity X-ray AGN [LX(2-10 keV) ≈ 1042-1043 erg s- 1] at similar redshifts. Our analysis also links the mean clustering properties of moderate-luminosity AGN with those of powerful ultraviolet/optically selected QSOs, which are typically found in haloes with masses few times 1012 M⊙. There is therefore evidence for a negative luminosity dependence of the AGN clustering. This is consistent with suggestions that AGN have a broad dark matter halo mass distribution with a high mass tail that becomes subdominant at high accretion luminosities. We further show that our results are in qualitative agreement with semi-analytic models of galaxy and AGN evolution, which attribute the wide range of dark matter halo masses among the AGN population to different triggering mechanisms and/or black hole fuelling modes.

  9. The ultraluminous X-ray source NGC 5643 ULX1: a large stellar mass black hole accreting at super-Eddington rates?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pintore, Fabio; Zampieri, Luca; Sutton, Andrew D.; Roberts, Timothy P.; Middleton, Matthew J.; Gladstone, Jeanette C.

    2016-06-01

    A sub-set of the brightest ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs), with X-ray luminosities well above 1040 erg s-1, typically have energy spectra which can be well described as hard power laws, and short-term variability in excess of ˜10 per cent. This combination of properties suggests that these ULXs may be some of the best candidates to host intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs), which would be accreting at sub-Eddington rates in the hard state seen in Galactic X-ray binaries. In this work, we present a temporal and spectral analysis of all of the available XMM-Newton data from one such ULX, the previously poorly studied 2XMM J143242.1-440939, located in NGC 5643. We report that its high-quality EPIC spectra can be better described by a broad, thermal component, such as an advection-dominated disc or an optically thick Comptonizing corona. In addition, we find a hint of a marginal change in the short-term variability which does not appear to be clearly related to the source unabsorbed luminosity. We discuss the implications of these results, excluding the possibility that the source may be host an IMBH in a low state, and favouring an interpretation in terms of super-Eddington accretion on to a black hole of stellar origin. The properties of NGC 5643 ULX1 allow us to associate this source to the population of the hard/ultraluminous ULX class.

  10. Potential cooling of an accretion-heated neutron star crust in the low-mass X-ray binary 1RXS J180408.9-342058

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parikh, A. S.; Wijnands, R.; Degenaar, N.; Ootes, L. S.; Page, D.; Altamirano, D.; Cackett, E. M.; Deller, A. T.; Gusinskaia, N.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Homan, J.; Linares, M.; Miller, J. M.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.

    2017-01-01

    We have monitored the transient neutron star low-mass X-ray binary 1RXS J180408.9-342058 in quiescence after its ˜4.5 month outburst in 2015. The source has been observed using Swift and XMM-Newton. Its X-ray spectra were dominated by a thermal component. The thermal evolution showed a gradual X-ray luminosity decay from ˜18 × 1032 to ˜4 × 1032 (D/5.8 kpc)2 erg s-1 between ˜8 to ˜379 days in quiescence and the inferred neutron star surface temperature (for an observer at infinity; using a neutron star atmosphere model) decreased from ˜100 to ˜71 eV. This can be interpreted as cooling of an accretion heated neutron star crust. Modeling the observed temperature curve (using NSCOOL) indicated that the source required ˜1.9 MeV per accreted nucleon of shallow heating in addition to the standard deep crustal heating to explain its thermal evolution. Alternatively, the decay could also be modelled without the presence of deep crustal heating, only having a shallow heat source (again ˜1.9 MeV per accreted nucleon was required). However, the XMM-Newton data statistically required an additional power-law component. This component contributed ˜30 per cent of the total unabsorbed flux in 0.5 - 10 keV energy range. The physical origin of this component is unknown. One possibility is that it arises from low-level accretion. The presence of this component in the spectrum complicates our cooling crust interpretation because it might indicate that the smooth luminosity and temperature decay curves we observed may not be due to crust cooling but due to some other process.

  11. Super-eddington accretion in the ultraluminous x-ray source NGC 1313 X-2: An ephemeral feast

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Shuang-Nan; Zhao, Hai-Hui E-mail: zhangsn@ihep.ac.cn

    2014-01-10

    We investigate the X-ray spectrum, variability, and the surrounding ionized bubble of NGC 1313 X-2 to explore the physics of super-Eddington accretion. Beyond the Eddington luminosity, the accretion disk of NGC 1313 X-2 is truncated at a large radius (∼50 times the innermost stable circular orbit), and displays the similar evolution track with both luminous Galactic black-hole and neutron star X-ray binaries (XRBs). In super-critical accretion, the speed of radiatively driven outflows from the inner disk is mildly relativistic. Such ultra-fast outflows would be overionized and might produce weak Fe K absorption lines, which may be detected by the coming X-ray mission Astro-H. If NGC 1313 X-2 is a massive stellar XRB, the high luminosity indicates that an ephemeral feast is held in the source. That is, the source must be accreting at a hyper-Eddington mass rate to give the super-Eddington emission over ∼10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} yr. The expansion of the surrounding bubble nebula with a velocity of ∼100 km s{sup –1} might indicate that it has existed over ∼10{sup 6} yr and is inflated by the radiatively driven outflows from the transient with a duty cycle of activity of ∼ a few percent. Alternatively, if the surrounding bubble nebula is produced by line-driven winds, less energy is required than the radiatively driven outflow scenario, and the radius of the Strömgren radius agrees with the nebula size. Our results are in favor of the line-driven winds scenario, which can avoid the conflict between the short accretion age and the apparently much longer bubble age inferred from the expansion velocity in the nebula.

  12. Impacts of fragmented accretion streams onto classical T Tauri stars: UV and X-ray emission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombo, S.; Orlando, S.; Peres, G.; Argiroffi, C.; Reale, F.

    2016-10-01

    Context. The accretion process in classical T Tauri stars (CTTSs) can be studied through the analysis of some UV and X-ray emission lines which trace hot gas flows and act as diagnostics of the post-shock downfalling plasma. In the UV-band, where higher spectral resolution is available, these lines are characterized by rather complex profiles whose origin is still not clear. Aims: We investigate the origin of UV and X-ray emission at impact regions of density structured (fragmented) accretion streams. We study if and how the stream fragmentation and the resulting structure of the post-shock region determine the observed profiles of UV and X-ray emission lines. Methods: We modeled the impact of an accretion stream consisting of a series of dense blobs onto the chromosphere of a CTTS through two-dimensional (2D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. We explored different levels of stream fragmentation and accretion rates. From the model results, we synthesize C IV (1550 Å) and O VIII (18.97 Å) line profiles. Results: The impacts of accreting blobs onto the stellar chromosphere produce reverse shocks propagating through the blobs and shocked upflows. These upflows, in turn, hit and shock the subsequent downfalling fragments. As a result, several plasma components differing for the downfalling velocity, density, and temperature are present altoghether. The profiles of C IV doublet are characterized by two main components: one narrow and redshifted to speed ≈ 50 km s-1 and the other broader and consisting of subcomponents with redshift to speed in the range 200-400 km s-1. The profiles of O VIII lines appear more symmetric than C IV and are redshifted to speed ≈ 150 km s-1. Conclusions: Our model predicts profiles of C IV line remarkably similar to those observed and explains their origin in a natural way as due to stream fragmentation. Movies are available at http://www.aanda.org

  13. The Causal Connection Between Disc and Power-Law Variability in Hard State Black Hole X-Ray Binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uttley, P.; Wilkinson, T.; Cassatella, P.; Wilms, J.; Pottschimdt, K.; Hanke, M.; Boeck, M.

    2010-01-01

    We use the XMM-Newton EPIC-pn instrument in timing mode to extend spectral time-lag studies of hard state black hole X-ray binaries into the soft X-ray band. \\Ve show that variations of the disc blackbody emission substantially lead variations in the power-law emission, by tenths of a second on variability time-scales of seconds or longer. The large lags cannot be explained by Compton scattering but are consistent with time-delays due to viscous propagation of mass accretion fluctuations in the disc. However, on time-scales less than a second the disc lags the power-law variations by a few ms, consistent with the disc variations being dominated by X-ray heating by the power-law, with the short lag corresponding to the light-travel time between the power-law emitting region and the disc. Our results indicate that instabilities in the accretion disc are responsible for continuum variability on time-scales of seconds or longer and probably also on shorter time-scales.

  14. X-ray and gamma-ray emission of Sagittarius A* as a wind-accreting black hole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mastichiadis, A.; Ozernoy, L. M.

    1994-01-01

    If, as many believe, Sgr A* is a massive black hole at the Galactic center, one should expect it to be a source of X-ray and gamma-ray activity, behaving basically as a scaled-down active galactic nucleus. An unavoidable source of accretion is the wind from IRS 16, a nearby group of hot, massive stars. Since the density and velocity of the accreting matter are known from observations, the accretion rate is basically a function of the putative black hole mass, M(sub h), only; this value represents a reliable lower limit to a real rate, given the other possible sources of accreting matter. Based on this and on the theories about shock acceleration in active galactic nuclei, we have estimated the expected production of relativistic particles and their hard radiation. These values turn out to be a function of M(sub h) as well. Comparing our results with available X-ray and gamma-ray observations which show Sgr A* to have a relatively low activity level, we conclude tentatively that the putative black hole in the Galactic center cannot have a mass greater than approximately 6 x 10(exp 3) solar mass. This conclusion is consistent with the upper limits to the black hole mass found by different methods earlier, although much more work is needed to make calculations of shock acceleration around black holes more reliable.

  15. Chandra Discovers the X-ray Signature of a Powerful Wind from a Galactic Microquasar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-11-01

    profiles have been observed for over one hundred years. "When you see a P Cygni profile, you immediately know the object you are observing is producing a powerful outflow," Brandt says. Chandra is the first X-ray observatory capable of capturing data of sufficiently high resolution to reveal an X-ray P Cygni profile. Brandt and Schulz say their discovery occurred because they were able to use Chandra continuously for one-third of a day to observe Circinus X-1, plus its signal in X rays is generally very bright, partly because it is relatively nearby in our own Galaxy. P Cygni lines at ultraviolet or optical wavelengths had not been previously seen from Circinus X-1 because a large amount of dust in the galactic plane lies between Earth and this system and this dust is an efficient absorber of ultraviolet and optical light. However, the energetic X rays created by Circinus X-1 could easily penetrate through the obscuring dust and gas--similar to the way medical X-rays on Earth can penetrate through people's bodies. "We were hoping to detect some kind of X-ray line emission from the accreting neutron star in Circinus X-1, but it caught us totally by surprise to observe a complex emission structure like a P Cygni profile in high-energy X rays." schulz says. "This detection clearly marks a new area in X-ray astrophysics, where we will be able to study dynamical structures in the universe like we currently do at ultraviolet or optical wavelengths." Brandt and Schulz used two of Chandra's instruments, known together as the High-Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETGS), to detect the X rays and produce a high-resolution X-ray spectrum of Circinus X-1. This spectrum is analogous to the rainbow we can see at optical wavelengths. "Chandra's X-ray spectrum is 50 times more detailed than previous X-ray observatories could obtain," Schulz says. First, the super-fine transmission gratings acted like a prism to separate the X-rays into discrete energy bands. Then, the Advanced

  16. X-ray Emission from YSOs, Protostellar Jets, and Accretion Eruptive Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stringfellow, Guy

    2010-10-01

    Imaging in X-rays has become an extremely useful tool to identify YSOs residing in star forming regions. X-ray emission is also being measured in eruptive young stars, the FUOr-EXOr type stars, and in protostellar jets. Recent deep near-IR imaging of the North American and Pelican nebulae in JHKs and narrowband emission lines of H2 and [FeII] have revealed one of the most active, richest star forming regions in the Galaxy. Within a single EPIC FOV lies dozens of resolved outflows, jets, clusters of YSOs, and even eruptive FUOR-EXOr stars currently undergoing outbursts. I propose to obtain XMM-Newton imaging of three regions rich in all three types of objects to render x-ray detections to assist with confirming the YSOs, and to measure the x-ray flux of the eruptive stars and shocked outflows.

  17. Most powerful X-ray telescope marks third anniversary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-08-01

    A black hole gobbles up matter in our own Milky Way Galaxy. A hot spot of X-rays pulsates from near Jupiter's poles. An intergalactic web of hot gas, hidden from view since the time galaxies formed, is finally revealed. These scenarios sound like science fiction - but to those familiar with the latest developments in X-ray astronomy, they are just a few of the real-life discoveries made by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory during its third year of operation. "Within the last year, Chandra has revealed another series of never-before-seen phenomena in our galaxy and beyond," said Chandra project scientist Dr. Martin Weisskopf of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. "When you combine recent discoveries with the secrets revealed during the observatory's first two years in orbit, it's amazing how much Chandra has told us about the universe in a relatively short period of time." One such discovery was an unprecedented view of a supermassive black hole devouring material in the Milky Way Galaxy - a spectacle witnessed for the first time when Chandra observed a rapid X-ray flare emitted from the direction of the black hole residing at our galaxy's center. In a just few minutes, Sagittarius A, a source of radio emission believed to be associated with the black hole, became 45 times brighter in X-rays, before declining to pre-flare levels a few hours later, offering astronomers a never-before-seen view of the energetic processes surrounding this supermassive black hole. "When we launched the Chandra Observatory, we attempted to explain its amazing capabilities in Earthly terms, such as the fact it can 'see' so well, it's like someone reading the letters of a stop sign 12 miles away," said Chandra Program Manager Tony Lavoie of the Marshall Center. "But now that the observatory has been in orbit for three years, we have unearthly proof of the technological marvel Chandra really is. Not only has it continued to operate smoothly and efficiently, it has

  18. Circinus X-1: a Laboratory for Studying the Accretion Phenomenon in Compact Binary X-Ray Sources. Ph.D. Thesis - Maryland Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson-Saba, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    Observations of the binary X-ray source Circinus X-1 provide samples of a range of spectral and temporal behavior whose variety is thought to reflect a broad continuum of accretion conditions in an eccentric binary system. The data support an identification of three or more X-ray spectral components, probably associated with distinct emission regions.

  19. X-ray orbital modulation of a white dwarf accreting from an L dwarf. The system SDSS J121209.31+013627.7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelzer, B.; de Martino, D.; Casewell, S. L.; Wynn, G. A.; Roy, M.

    2017-01-01

    In an XMM-Newton observation of the binary SDSS J121209.31+013627.7, consisting of a white dwarf and an L dwarf, we detect X-ray orbital modulation as proof of accretion from the substellar companion onto the magnetic white dwarf. We constrain the system geometry (inclination as well as magnetic and pole-cap angle) through modelling of the X-ray light curve, and we derive a mass accretion rate of 3.2 × 10-14M⊙/ yr from the X-ray luminosity ( 3 × 1029 erg/s). From X-ray studies of L dwarfs, a possible wind driven from a hypothesized corona on the substellar donor is orders of magnitude too weak to explain the observed accretion rate, while the radius of the L dwarf is comparable to its Roche lobe (0.1 R⊙), making Roche-lobe overflow the likely accretion mechanism in this system.

  20. The Radio/X-Ray Correlation and the Unification of Low Power Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Körding, E.; Falcke, H.

    We present a unification scheme for active galactic nuclei (AGN) and black hole X-ray binaries (XRBs) using a symbiotic disk/jet model. Scale invariance and energy conservation are used to derive analytical scaling laws for the emission of a jet and allow us to identify the main parameters of the system: the mass of the central black hole and the accretion rate. The developed model can be used to argue for a unifying view of all weakly accreting black holes: a unification of XRBs and AGN. We classify the zoo of AGN in jet and disk dominated sources and test the unification scheme of weakly accreting sources by establishing a universal radio/X-ray correlation for XRBs and AGN. We briefly discuss jets in highly accreting systems.

  1. A POPULATION OF ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCES WITH AN ACCRETING NEUTRON STAR

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Yong; Li, Xiang-Dong

    2015-04-01

    Most ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) are believed to be X-ray binary systems, but previous observational and theoretical studies tend to prefer a black hole rather than a neutron star (NS) accretor. The recent discovery of 1.37 s pulsations from the ULX M82 X-2 has established its nature as a magnetized NS. In this work we model the formation history of NS ULXs in an M82- or Milky Way (MW)-like Galaxy, by use of both binary population synthesis and detailed binary evolution calculations. We find that the birth rate is around 10{sup −4} yr{sup −1} for the incipient X-ray binaries in both cases. We demonstrate the distribution of the ULX population in the donor mass–orbital period plane. Our results suggest that, compared with black hole X-ray binaries, NS X-ray binaries may significantly contribute to the ULX population, and high-mass and intermediate-mass X-ray binaries dominate the NS ULX population in M82- and MW-like Galaxies, respectively.

  2. NuSTAR DETECTION OF HARD X-RAY PHASE LAGS FROM THE ACCRETING PULSAR GS 0834–430

    SciTech Connect

    Miyasaka, Hiromasa; Harrison, Fiona A.; Fürst, Felix; Bellm, Eric C.; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Madsen, Kristin K.; Walton, Dominic J.; Bachetti, Matteo; Barret, Didier; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W.; Tomsick, John A.; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Chenevez, Jerome; Christensen, Finn E.; Hailey, Charles J.; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Pottschmidt, Katja; Stern, Daniel; Wilms, Jörn; and others

    2013-09-20

    The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array hard X-ray telescope observed the transient Be/X-ray binary GS 0834–430 during its 2012 outburst—the first active state of this system observed in the past 19 yr. We performed timing and spectral analysis and measured the X-ray spectrum between 3-79 keV with high statistical significance. We find the phase-averaged spectrum to be consistent with that observed in many other magnetized, accreting pulsars. We fail to detect cyclotron resonance scattering features that would allow us to constrain the pulsar's magnetic field in either phase-averaged or phase-resolved spectra. Timing analysis shows a clearly detected pulse period of ∼12.29 s in all energy bands. The pulse profiles show a strong, energy-dependent hard phase lag of up to 0.3 cycles in phase, or about 4 s. Such dramatic energy-dependent lags in the pulse profile have never before been reported in high-mass X-ray binary pulsars. Previously reported lags have been significantly smaller in phase and restricted to low energies (E < 10 keV). We investigate the possible mechanisms that might produce this energy-dependent pulse phase shift. We find the most likely explanation for this effect is a complex beam geometry.

  3. THE TRANSIENT ACCRETING X-RAY PULSAR XTE J1946+274: STABILITY OF X-RAY PROPERTIES AT LOW FLUX AND UPDATED ORBITAL SOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Marcu-Cheatham, Diana M.; Pottschmidt, Katja; Kühnel, Matthias; Müller, Sebastian; Falkner, Sebastian; Kreykenbohm, Ingo; Caballero, Isabel; Jenke, Peter J.; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Fürst, Felix; Grinberg, Victoria; Hemphill, Paul B.; Rothschild, Richard E.; Klochkov, Dmitry; Terada, Yukikatsu; and others

    2015-12-10

    We present a timing and spectral analysis of the X-ray pulsar XTE J1946+274 observed with Suzaku during an outburst decline in 2010 October and compare with previous results. XTE J1946+274 is a transient X-ray binary consisting of a Be-type star and a neutron star with a 15.75 s pulse period in a 172 days orbit with 2–3 outbursts per orbit during phases of activity. We improve the orbital solution using data from multiple instruments. The X-ray spectrum can be described by an absorbed Fermi–Dirac cut-off power-law model along with a narrow Fe Kα line at 6.4 keV and a weak Cyclotron Resonance Scattering Feature (CRSF) at ∼35 keV. The Suzaku data are consistent with the previously observed continuum flux versus iron line flux correlation expected from fluorescence emission along the line of sight. However, the observed iron line flux is slightly higher, indicating the possibility of a higher iron abundance or the presence of non-uniform material. We argue that the source most likely has only been observed in the subcritical (non-radiation dominated) state since its pulse profile is stable over all observed luminosities and the energy of the CRSF is approximately the same at the highest (∼5 × 10{sup 37} erg s{sup −1}) and lowest (∼5 × 10{sup 36} erg s{sup −1}) observed 3–60 keV luminosities.

  4. High power X-ray welding of metal-matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, Richard A.; Goeppner, George A.; Noonan, John R.; Farrell, William J.; Ma, Qing

    1997-12-01

    A method for joining metal-matrix composites (MMCs) by using high power x-rays as a volumetric heat source is provided. The method involves directing an x-ray to the weld line between two adjacent MMCs materials to create an irradiated region or melt zone. The x-rays have a power density greater than about 10{sup 4} watts/cm{sup 2} and provide the volumetric heat required to join the MMC materials. Importantly, the reinforcing material of the metal-matrix composites remains uniformly distributed in the melt zone, and the strength of the MMCs are not diminished. In an alternate embodiment, high power x-rays are used to provide the volumetric heat required to weld metal elements, including metal elements comprised of metal alloys. In an alternate embodiment, high power x-rays are used to provide the volumetric heat required to weld metal elements, including metal elements comprised of metal alloys.

  5. High power x-ray welding of metal-matrix composites

    DOEpatents

    Rosenberg, Richard A.; Goeppner, George A.; Noonan, John R.; Farrell, William J.; Ma, Qing

    1999-01-01

    A method for joining metal-matrix composites (MMCs) by using high power x-rays as a volumetric heat source is provided. The method involves directing an x-ray to the weld line between two adjacent MMCs materials to create an irradiated region or melt zone. The x-rays have a power density greater than about 10.sup.4 watts/cm.sup.2 and provide the volumetric heat required to join the MMC materials. Importantly, the reinforcing material of the metal-matrix composites remains uniformly distributed in the melt zone, and the strength of the MMCs are not diminished. In an alternate embodiment, high power x-rays are used to provide the volumetric heat required to weld metal elements, including metal elements comprised of metal alloys. In an alternate embodiment, high power x-rays are used to provide the volumetric heat required to weld metal elements, including metal elements comprised of metal alloys.

  6. X-ray observations of XSS J12270-4859 in a new low state: A transformation to a disk-free rotation-powered pulsar binary

    SciTech Connect

    Bogdanov, Slavko; Patruno, Alessandro; Archibald, Anne M.; Bassa, Cees; Hessels, Jason W. T.; Janssen, Gemma H.; Stappers, Ben W.

    2014-07-01

    We present XMM-Newton and Chandra observations of the low-mass X-ray binary XSS J12270-4859, which experienced a dramatic decline in optical/X-ray brightness at the end of 2012, indicative of the disappearance of its accretion disk. In this new state, the system exhibits previously absent orbital-phase-dependent, large-amplitude X-ray modulations with a decline in flux at superior conjunction. The X-ray emission remains predominantly non-thermal but with an order of magnitude lower mean luminosity and significantly harder spectrum relative to the previous high flux state. This phenomenology is identical to the behavior of the radio millisecond pulsar (MSP) binary PSR J1023+0038 in the absence of an accretion disk, where the X-ray emission is produced in an intra-binary shock driven by the pulsar wind. This further demonstrates that XSS J12270-4859 no longer has an accretion disk and has transformed to a full-fledged eclipsing 'redback' system that hosts an active rotation-powered MSP. There is no evidence for diffuse X-ray emission associated with the binary that may arise due to outflows or a wind nebula. An extended source situated 1.'5 from XSS J12270-4859 is unlikely to be associated, and is probably a previously uncataloged galaxy cluster.

  7. Extremum seeking x-ray position feedback using power line harmonic leakage as the perturbation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zohar, S.; Kissick, D. J.; Venugopalan, N.; Ogata, C. M.; Makarov, O.; Stepanov, S.; Fischetti, R. F.

    2016-09-01

    Small x-ray beam sizes necessary for probing nanoscale phenomena require exquisite stability to prevent data corruption by noise. One source of instability at synchrotron radiation x-ray beamlines is the slow detuning of x-ray optics to marginal alignment where the onset of clipping increases the beam's susceptibility to higher frequency position oscillations. In this article, we show that a 1 μ m amplitude horizontal x-ray beam oscillation driven by power line harmonic leakage into the electron storage ring can be used as perturbation for horizontal position extremum seeking feedback. Feedback performance is characterized by convergence to 1.5% away from maximum intensity at optimal alignment.

  8. Search for a correlation between kHz quasi-periodic oscillation frequencies and accretion-related parameters in the ensemble of neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çatmabacak, Önder; Erkut, M. Hakan; Catmabacak, Onur; Duran, Sivan

    2016-07-01

    The distribution of neutron star sources in the ensemble of low-mass X-ray binaries shows no evidence for a correlation between kHz quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) frequencies and X-ray luminosity. Sources differing by orders of magnitude in luminosity can exhibit similar range of QPO frequencies. We study the possibility for the existence of a correlation between kHz QPO frequencies and accretion related parameters. The parameters such as the mass accretion rate and the size of the boundary region in the innermost disk are expected to be related to X-ray luminosity. Using the up-to-date data of neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries, we search for a possible correlation between lower kHz QPO frequencies and mass accretion rate through the mass and radius values predicted by different equations of state for the neutron star. The range of mass accretion rate for each source can be estimated if the accretion luminosity is assumed to be represented well by the X-ray luminosity of the source. Although we find no correlation between mass accretion rate and QPO frequencies, the source distribution seems to be in accordance with a correlation between kHz QPO frequencies and the parameter combining the neutron star magnetic field and the mas accretion rate. The model function we employ to descibe the correlation is able to account for the scattering of individual sources around a simple power law. The correlation argues disk-magnetosphere interaction as the origin of these millisecond oscillations.

  9. The 2005 Accretion Outburst in V1118 Ori: Evidence for A Spectral Change in X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audard, M.; Güdel, M.; Skinner, S. L.; Briggs, K. R.; Walter, F. M.; Stringfellow, G.; Hamilton, R. T.; Guinan, E. F.

    2005-12-01

    We present results from our X-ray monitoring campaign of the 2005 accretion outburst in the young low-mass star V1118 Ori. Optical and near-infrared photometry are presented as well. The X-ray data from early 2005 indicate that the X-ray flux and luminosity varied within a factor of two only, and were similar to the pre-outburst values measured in a serendipitous observation in 2002. Similarly, the hydrogen column density showed no evidence for significant excursions from the pre-outburst value of a few times 1021 cm-2. However, we observed a spectral change from a dominant hot plasma ( ˜ 25 MK) in 2002 and in January 2005 to a cooler plasma ( ˜ 8 MK) in February and March 2005. We argue that the closing in of the accretion disk during the outburst disrupted the hot magnetic loops high in the corona, whereas the lower cooler loops were less affected and became the dominant coronal component. We acknowledge support by NASA through Chandra award DD5-6029X and through XMM-Newton award NNG05GI96G to Columbia University. The Chandra X-ray Observatory Center is operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory for and on behalf of the NASA under contract NAS8-03060. Based on observations obtained with XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and NASA. The PSI group acknowledges support from the Swiss National Science Foundation (grants 20-58827.99 and 20-66875.01). Stony Brook's participation in SMARTS is made possible by support from the offices of the Provost and the Vice President for Research. We thank J. Allyn Smith, P. McGehee, J. Espinoza, and D. Gonzalez for doing the observations with the SMARTS telescopes. We also thank H. Tannanbaum, N. Schartel, and the VLA TOO panel for granting time to observe V1118 Ori.

  10. Jet power and feedback from the newly-discovered radio/optical/X-ray microquasar S26 in NGC 7793

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soria, Roberto; Corbel, Stephane; Pakull, Manfred; Motch, Christian

    2009-07-01

    We have discovered an exceptional radio/optical/X-ray microquasar in the Sculptor galaxy NGC7793 (distance of 3.4 Mpc), with a large (300 x 150 pc) shock-ionized bubble, and X-ray hot spots where the collimated jet hits the interstellar medium. The radio nebula has an integrated flux of 1.2 mJy at 6 cm (more luminous than Cas A). The system resembles the famous Galactic microquasar SS433, but on an even grander scale. We propose deeper radio observations at higher spatial resolution with the ATCA: to identify the radio hot spots; to infer the jet power from the synchrotron luminosity of the hot spots; to determine the shape of the radio cocoon and compare it with the H-alpha, HeII 4686 and X-ray nebulae; to estimate the total (integrated) energy injected in the nebula by the jet/wind, and constrain its age; to search for the radio core. Our combined radio, X-ray and optical study of this source will help us model the radiative and mechanical power budget of accreting black holes, and their feedback onto the interstellar or intergalactic medium.

  11. NUSTAR and SUZAKU X-ray spectroscopy of NGC 4151: Evidence for reflection from the inner accretion disk

    DOE PAGES

    Keck, M. L.; Brenneman, L. W.; Ballantyne, D. R.; ...

    2015-06-15

    We present X-ray timing and spectral analyses of simultaneous 150 ks Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) and Suzaku X-ray observations of the Seyfert 1.5 galaxy NGC 4151. We disentangle the continuum emission, absorption, and reflection properties of the active galactic nucleus (AGN) by applying inner accretion disk reflection and absorption-dominated models. With a time-averaged spectral analysis, we find strong evidence for relativistic reflection from the inner accretion disk. We find that relativistic emission arises from a highly ionized inner accretion disk with a steep emissivity profile, which suggests an intense, compact illuminating source. We find a preliminary, near-maximal black hole spinmore » $$a\\gt 0.9$$ accounting for statistical and systematic modeling errors. We find a relatively moderate reflection fraction with respect to predictions for the lamp post geometry, in which the illuminating corona is modeled as a point source. Through a time-resolved spectral analysis, we find that modest coronal and inner disk reflection (IDR) flux variation drives the spectral variability during the observations. As a result, we discuss various physical scenarios for the IDR model and we find that a compact corona is consistent with the observed features.« less

  12. NuSTAR and Suzaku X-ray Spectroscopy of NGC 4151: Evidence for Reflection from the Inner Accretion Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keck, M. L.; Brenneman, L. W.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Bauer, F.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Dauser, T.; Elvis, M.; Fabian, A. C.; Fuerst, F.; García, J.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Madejski, G.; Marinucci, A.; Matt, G.; Reynolds, C. S.; Stern, D.; Walton, D. J.; Zoghbi, A.

    2015-06-01

    We present X-ray timing and spectral analyses of simultaneous 150 ks Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) and Suzaku X-ray observations of the Seyfert 1.5 galaxy NGC 4151. We disentangle the continuum emission, absorption, and reflection properties of the active galactic nucleus (AGN) by applying inner accretion disk reflection and absorption-dominated models. With a time-averaged spectral analysis, we find strong evidence for relativistic reflection from the inner accretion disk. We find that relativistic emission arises from a highly ionized inner accretion disk with a steep emissivity profile, which suggests an intense, compact illuminating source. We find a preliminary, near-maximal black hole spin a\\gt 0.9 accounting for statistical and systematic modeling errors. We find a relatively moderate reflection fraction with respect to predictions for the lamp post geometry, in which the illuminating corona is modeled as a point source. Through a time-resolved spectral analysis, we find that modest coronal and inner disk reflection (IDR) flux variation drives the spectral variability during the observations. We discuss various physical scenarios for the IDR model and we find that a compact corona is consistent with the observed features.

  13. Testing the Paradigm that Ultra-Luminous X-Ray Sources as a Class Represent Accreting Intermediate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berghea, C. T.; Weaver, K. A.; Colbert, E. J. M.; Roberts, T. P.

    2008-01-01

    To test the idea that ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) in external galaxies represent a class of accreting Intermediate-Mass Black Holes (IMBHs), we have undertaken a program to identify ULXs and a lower luminosity X-ray comparison sample with the highest quality data in the Chandra archive. We establish a general property of ULXs that the most X-ray luminous objects possess the fattest X-ray spectra (in the Chandra band pass). No prior sample studies have established the general hardening of ULX spectra with luminosity. This hardening occurs at the highest luminosities (absorbed luminosity > or equals 5x10(exp 39) ergs/s) and is in line with recent models arguing that ULXs are actually stellar-mass black holes. From spectral modeling, we show that the evidence originally taken to mean that ULXs are IMBHs - i.e., the "simple IMBH model" - is nowhere near as compelling when a large sample of ULXs is looked at properly. During the last couple of years, XMM-Newton spectroscopy of ULXs has to some large extent begun to negate the simple IMBH model based on fewer objects. We confirm and expand these results, which validates the XMM-Newton work in a broader sense with independent X-ray data. We find (1) that cool disk components are present with roughly equal probability and total flux fraction for any given ULX, regardless of luminosity, and (2) that cool disk components extend below the standard ULX luminosity cutoff of 10(exp 39) ergs/s, down to our sample limit of 10(exp 38:3) ergs/s. The fact that cool disk components are not correlated with luminosity damages the argument that cool disks indicate IMBHs in ULXs, for which a strong statistical support was never made.

  14. Monitoring Accreting X-ray Pulsars with the GLAST Burst Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Colleen A.; Finger, Mark H.; Patel, Sandeep K.; Bhat, P. Narayana; Preece, Robert D.; Meegan, Charles A.

    2007-01-01

    Accreting pulsars are exceptionally good laboratories for probing the detailed physics of accretion onto magnetic stars. While similar accretion flows also occur in other types of astrophysical systems, e.g. magnetic CVs, only neutron stars have a small enough moment of inertia for the accretion of angular momentum to result in measurable changes in spin-frequency in a timescale of days. Long-term monitoring of accreting pulsar spin-frequencies and fluxes was demonstrated with the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. Here we present sample results from BATSE, discuss measurement techniques appropriate for GBM, and estimate the expected GBM sensitivity.

  15. MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC MODELING OF THE ACCRETION SHOCKS IN CLASSICAL T TAURI STARS: THE ROLE OF LOCAL ABSORPTION IN THE X-RAY EMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Bonito, R.; Argiroffi, C.; Peres, G.; Orlando, S.; Miceli, M.; Ibgui, L.; Matsakos, T.; Stehle, C.

    2014-11-10

    We investigate the properties of X-ray emission from accretion shocks in classical T Tauri stars (CTTSs), generated where the infalling material impacts the stellar surface. Both observations and models of the accretion process reveal several aspects that are still unclear: the observed X-ray luminosity in accretion shocks is below the predicted value, and the density versus temperature structure of the shocked plasma, with increasing densities at higher temperature, deduced from the observations, is at odds with that proposed in the current picture of accretion shocks. To address these open issues, we investigate whether a correct treatment of the local absorption by the surrounding medium is crucial to explain the observations. To this end, we describe the impact of an accretion stream on a CTTS by considering a magnetohydrodynamic model. From the model results, we synthesize the X-ray emission from the accretion shock by producing maps and spectra. We perform density and temperature diagnostics on the synthetic spectra, and we directly compare the results with observations. Our model shows that the X-ray fluxes inferred from the emerging spectra are lower than expected because of the complex local absorption by the optically thick material of the chromosphere and of the unperturbed stream. Moreover, our model, including the effects of local absorption, explains in a natural way the apparently puzzling pattern of density versus temperature observed in the X-ray emission from accretion shocks.

  16. The End of Accretion: The X-Ray Binary/Millisecond Pulsar Transition Object PSR J1023+0038

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archibald, Anne

    2015-04-01

    Millisecond radio pulsars (MSRPs), those spinning hundreds of times per second, have long been understood to be old pulsars that have been spun up by the accretion of matter from a companion in a low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) phase. Yet the details of this transformation, particularly the end of the accretion process and the birth of a radio pulsar, remain mysterious. I will describe the discovery and detailed study of the first object known to transition between MSRP and LMXB states, PSR J1023+0038. By dint of a multiwavelength campaign of observations in the RMSP state, we are able to measure all the key system parameters and show the existence of an X-ray shock close to the pulsar-facing side of the companion. Since the discovery of PSR J1023+0038, two more objects (XSS J12270-4859 and M28I) have been found to make the same transition, and the study of these transitioning objects has become an active field of research. Most interestingly, PSR J1023+0038 has transitioned back into an LMXB state, with an active accretion disk and a puzzling increase in gamma-ray flux. Our detailed picture of the system allows us to test models of accretion against the phenomena we observe in PSR J1023+0038, and in fact these observations challenge current models: in spite of the low luminosity of the system (and low inferred accretion rate) some material is penetrating the centrifugal barrier and falling on the neutron-star surface. Key evidence for explaining this puzzling behaviour will come when PSR J1023+0038 returns to an MSRP state and we are able to compare pulsar timing models from after the LMXB state with those we obtained in this work.

  17. Studies of the Origin of High-frequency Quasi-periodic Oscillations of Mass-accreting Black Holes in X-Ray Binaries with Next-generation X-Ray Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beheshtipour, Banafsheh; Hoormann, Janie K.; Krawczynski, Henric

    2016-08-01

    Observations with RXTE (Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer) revealed the presence of high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (HFQPOs) of the X-ray flux from several accreting stellar-mass black holes. HFQPOs (and their counterparts at lower frequencies) may allow us to study general relativity in the regime of strong gravity. However, the observational evidence today does not yet allow us to distinguish between different HFQPO models. In this paper we use a general-relativistic ray-tracing code to investigate X-ray timing spectroscopy and polarization properties of HFQPOs in the orbiting Hotspot model. We study observational signatures for the particular case of the 166 Hz quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) in the galactic binary GRS 1915+105. We conclude with a discussion of the observability of spectral signatures with a timing-spectroscopy experiment such as the LOFT (Large Observatory for X-ray Timing) and polarization signatures with space-borne X-ray polarimeters such as IXPE (Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer), PolSTAR (Polarization Spectroscopic Telescope Array), PRAXyS(Polarimetry of Relativistic X-ray Sources), or XIPE (X-ray Imaging Polarimetry Explorer). A mission with high count rate such as LOFT would make it possible to get a QPO phase for each photon, enabling the study of the QPO-phase-resolved spectral shape and the correlation between this and the flux level. Owing to the short periods of the HFQPOs, first-generation X-ray polarimeters would not be able to assign a QPO phase to each photon. The study of QPO-phase-resolved polarization energy spectra would thus require simultaneous observations with a first-generation X-ray polarimeter and a LOFT-type mission.

  18. The Effect of Deep Hydrogen Burning in the Accreted Envelope of a Neutron Star on the Properties of X-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taam, Ronald E.; Woosley, S. E.; Lamb, D. Q.

    1996-03-01

    The thermal and compositional evolution of a neutron star has been numerically followed to determine the long-term properties of X-ray bursts produced by thermonuclear shell flashes in its accreted hydrogen-rich envelope. Uniform burning over the entire neutron star surface is assumed and mass accretion rates greater than 0. 1MEdd (where MEdd is the critical mass accretion rate for which the accretion luminosity is equal to the Eddington luminosity) are considered. Specific attention is focused on the consequences of electron capture initiated burning of hydrogen at high densities ( 107 g cm -3). The degree of heating associated with the burning of the residual hydrogen (i.e., the matter which is not completely processed in the outburst) is a function of the mass accretion rate and the composition of the accreted matter. Heating of the neutron star envelope is found to be more important for greater mass accretion rates and for greater residual hydrogen abundances. Because of the higher envelope temperatures, the resulting bursts are weaker and recur more frequently, for a given mass accretion rate, than in situations where the deep hydrogen burning does not occur. The mass accretion rate, which delineates strong X-ray bursts (where the ratio of the peak burst lumi- nosity to the quiescent level of emission is greater than 3) from weak X-ray bursts, lies in the range of 0.1-0.2times the Eddington value. Weak burst activity is found for accretion rates extending to about the Eddington limit provided that the helium content of the accreted matter is greater than 0.23. The implications of our results with regard to the absence of regular, periodic X-ray bursting activity in the bright low-mass X-ray binary sources are briefly discussed.

  19. A possible 55-d X-ray period of the ultraluminous accreting pulsar M82 X-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Albert K. H.; Hu, Chin-Ping; Lin, Lupin Chun-Che; Li, K. L.; Jin, Ruolan; Liu, C. Y.; Yen, David Chien-Chang

    2016-10-01

    We report on the possible detection of a 55-d X-ray modulation for the ultraluminous accreting pulsar M82 X-2 from archival Chandra observations. Because M82 X-2 is known to have a 2.5-d orbital period, if the 55-d period is real, then it will be the superorbital period of the system. We also investigated variabilities of three other nearby ultraluminous X-ray sources in the central region of M82 with the Chandra data, and we did not find any evidence of periodicities. Furthermore, we re-examined the previously reported 62-d periodicity near the central region of M82 by performing a systematic timing study with all the archival Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer and Swift data. Using various dynamic timing analysis methods, we have confirmed that the 62-d period is not stable, suggesting that it is not the orbital period of M82 X-1; this is in agreement with previous work.

  20. DISCOVERY OF A 205.89 Hz ACCRETING MILLISECOND X-RAY PULSAR IN THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER NGC 6440

    SciTech Connect

    Altamirano, D.; Patruno, A.; Linares, M.; Wijnands, R.; Van der Klis, M.; Heinke, C. O.; Markwardt, C.; Strohmayer, T. E.; Swank, J. H.

    2010-03-20

    We report on the discovery of the second accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar (AMXP) in the globular cluster NGC 6440. Pulsations with a frequency of 205.89 Hz were detected with RXTE on 2009 August 30, October 1 and October 28, during the decays of {approx}<4 day outbursts of a newly X-ray transient source in NGC 6440. By studying the Doppler shift of the pulsation frequency, we find that the system is an ultra-compact binary with an orbital period of 57.3 minutes and a projected semimajor axis of 6.22 lt-ms. Based on the mass function, we estimate a lower limit to the mass of the companion to be 0.0067 M {sub sun} (assuming a 1.4 M {sub sun} neutron star). This new pulsar shows the shortest outburst recurrence time among AMXPs ({approx}1 month). If this behavior does not cease, this AMXP has the potential to be one of the best sources in which to study how the binary system and the neutron star spin evolve. Furthermore, the characteristics of this new source indicate that there might exist a population of AMXPs undergoing weak outbursts which are undetected by current all-sky X-ray monitors. NGC 6440 is the only globular cluster to host two known AMXPs, while no AMXPs have been detected in any other globular cluster.

  1. DISCOVERY OF ECLIPSES FROM THE ACCRETING MILLISECOND X-RAY PULSAR SWIFT J1749.4-2807

    SciTech Connect

    Markwardt, C. B.; Strohmayer, T. E.

    2010-07-10

    We report the discovery of X-ray eclipses in the recently discovered accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar SWIFT J1749.4-2807. This is the first detection of X-ray eclipses in a system of this type and should enable a precise neutron star mass measurement once the companion star is identified and studied. We present a combined pulse and eclipse timing solution that enables tight constraints on the orbital parameters and inclination and shows that the companion mass is in the range 0.6-0.8 M{sub sun} for a likely range of neutron star masses, and that it is larger than a main-sequence star of the same mass. We observed two individual eclipse egresses and a single ingress. Our timing model shows that the eclipse features are symmetric about the time of 90{sup 0} longitude from the ascending node, as expected. Our eclipse timing solution gives an eclipse duration (from the mid-points of ingress to egress) of 2172 {+-} 13 s. This represents 6.85% of the 8.82 hr orbital period. This system also presents a potential measurement of 'Shapiro' delay due to general relativity; through this technique alone, we set an upper limit to the companion mass of 2.2 M{sub sun}.

  2. Discovery of Eclipses from the Accreting Millisecond X-Ray Pulsar Swift J1749.4-2807

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markwardt, C. B.; Stromhmayer, T. E.

    2010-01-01

    We report the discovery of X-ray eclipses in the recently discovered accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar SWIFT J1749.4-2807. This is the first detection of X-ray eclipses in a system of this type and should enable a precise neutron star mass measurement once the companion star is identified and studied. We present a combined pulse and eclipse timing solution that enables tight constraints on the orbital parameters and inclination and shows that the companion mass is in the range 0.6-0.8 solar mass for a likely range of neutron star masses, and that it is larger than a main-sequence star of the same mass. We observed two individual eclipse egresses and a single ingress. Our timing model shows that the eclipse features are symmetric about the time of 90 longitude from the ascending node, as expected. Our eclipse timing solution gives an eclipse duration (from the mid-points of ingress to egress) of 2172+/-13 s. This represents 6.85% of the 8.82 hr orbital period. This system also presents a potential measurement of "Shapiro" delay due to general relativity; through this technique alone, we set an upper limit to the companion mass of 2.2 Solar mass .

  3. QPO and LFN in the power spectrum of rapid variability for the X-ray nova SWIFT J174510.8-262411

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prosvetov, A. V.; Grebenev, S. A.

    2015-10-01

    Results of the study of the X-ray nova SWIFT J174510.8-262411 by the INTEGRAL, SWIFT, and VLA observatories in September-October 2012 at the early outburst phase are presented. Attention is focused on analyzing the power spectrum of X-ray flux fluctuations of the source in which a powerful quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) peak has been detected. The evolution of the QPO peak parameters with time has been traced; a correlation between the QPO frequency, low-frequency noise (LFN) parameters, X-ray and radio fluxes, and fractional polarization of radio emission has been revealed. The fractal properties of the source's light curves in the standard X-ray band (<10 keV) are shown to change with QPO peak frequency. In the hard X-ray band (20-80 keV), the source's light curves have no fractal properties, despite the larger QPO and LFN amplitude than that in the standard X-ray band. The observational results can be explained by assuming that the source's X-ray emission is formed in a hot plasma cloud surrounding a black hole, while the QPOs are produced at its boundary, at the place of contact with the accretion disk; their frequency reflects the Keplerian rotation of matter at the corresponding radius.

  4. Revealing the Evolving Accretion Disk Corona in AGNs with Multi-Epoch X-ray Spectroscopy: the case of Mrk 335

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballantyne, David R.; Keek, Laurens

    2016-04-01

    Active galactic nuclei host an accretion disk with an X-ray producing corona around a supermassive black hole. In bright sources, such as the Seyfert 1 galaxy Mrk 335, reflection of the coronal emission off the accretion disk has been observed. Reflection produces numerous spectral features, such as the Fe Kα emission line and absorption edge, which allow various properties of the inner accretion disk and corona to be constrained. We perform a multi-epoch spectral analysis of a dozen XMM-Newton, Suzaku, and NuSTAR observations of Mrk 335, and optimize the fitting procedure to unveil correlations between the Eddington ratio and multiple spectral parameters. We find that the ionization parameter of the accretion disk correlates strongly with the Eddington ratio: the inner disk is more strongly ionized at higher flux. Interestingly, the slope of the correlation is less steep than previously predicted. Furthermore, the cut-off of the power-law spectrum increases in energy with the Eddington ratio, whereas the reflection fraction exhibits a decrease. We interpret this behaviour as geometrical changes of the corona as a function of the accretion rate. Below ~10% of the Eddington limit, the compact and optically thick corona is located close to the inner disk, whereas at higher accretion rates the corona is likely optically thin and extends vertically further away from the disk surface. Compared to previous work that considered individual spectra, we find that multi-epoch spectroscopy is essential for breaking degeneracies in the spectral fits and for obtaining accurate spectral parameters. Furthermore, we show that this method provides a powerful tool to study coronal evolution. The rich archives of XMM-Newton, Suzaku, and NuSTAR provide the opportunity to extend this investigation to include several other bright AGN, which will reveal whether the behaviour that we found is common or unique to Mrk 335.

  5. High-average-power water window soft X-rays from an Ar laser plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amano, Sho

    2016-07-01

    A high average power of 140 mW and high conversion efficiency of 14% were demonstrated in “water window” soft X-rays generated using a laser plasma source developed in-house, when a solid Ar target was irradiated by a commercial Nd:YAG Q-switched laser with an energy of 1 J at a repetition rate of 1 Hz. This soft X-ray power compared favorably with that produced using a synchrotron radiation source, and the developed laser plasma source can be used in various applications, such as soft X-ray microscopy, in place of synchrotron facilities.

  6. Miniature, low-power X-ray tube using a microchannel electron generator electron source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elam, Wm. Timothy (Inventor); Kelliher, Warren C. (Inventor); Hershyn, William (Inventor); DeLong, David P. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Embodiments of the invention provide a novel, low-power X-ray tube and X-ray generating system. Embodiments of the invention use a multichannel electron generator as the electron source, thereby increasing reliability and decreasing power consumption of the X-ray tube. Unlike tubes using a conventional filament that must be heated by a current power source, embodiments of the invention require only a voltage power source, use very little current, and have no cooling requirements. The microchannel electron generator comprises one or more microchannel plates (MCPs), Each MCP comprises a honeycomb assembly of a plurality of annular components, which may be stacked to increase electron intensity. The multichannel electron generator used enables directional control of electron flow. In addition, the multichannel electron generator used is more robust than conventional filaments, making the resulting X-ray tube very shock and vibration resistant.

  7. Accretion Properties of a Sample of Hard X-Ray (<60 keV) Selected Seyfert 1 Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Mao, Y. F.; Wei, J. Y.

    2009-02-01

    We examine the accretion properties in a sample of 42 hard (3-60 keV) X-ray selected nearby broad-line active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The energy range in the sample is harder than that usually used in similar previous studies. These AGNs are mainly complied from the RXTE All Sky Survey, and complemented by the released INTEGRAL AGN catalog. The black hole masses, bolometric luminosities of AGN, and Eddington ratios are derived from their optical spectra in terms of the broad Hβ emission line. The tight correlation between the hard X-ray (3-20 keV) and bolometric/line luminosity is well identified in our sample. Also identified is a strong inverse Baldwin relationship of the Hβ emission line. In addition, all of these hard X-ray AGNs are biased toward luminous objects with a high Eddington ratio (mostly between 0.01 and 0.1) and a low column density (<1022 cm-2), which is most likely due to the selection effect of the surveys. The hard X-ray luminosity is consequently found to be strongly correlated with the black hole mass. We believe the sample completeness will be improved in the next few years by the ongoing Swift and the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory missions, and by the next advanced missions, such as NuSTAR, Simbol-X, and NeXT. Finally, the correlation between RFe (= optical Fe II/Hβ) and disk temperature as assessed by T vprop (L/L Edd)M -1 BH leads us to suggest that the strength of the Fe II emission is mainly determined by the shape of the ionizing spectrum.

  8. The Behavior of Accretion Disks in Low Mass X-ray Binaries: Disk Winds and Alpha Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayless, Amanda J.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation presents research on two low mass X-ray binaries. The eclipsing low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1822-371 is the prototypical accretion disk corona (ADC) system. We have obtained new time-resolved UV spectroscopy with the ACS/SBC on the Hubble Space Telescope and new V- and J-band photometry with the 1.3-m SMARTS telescope at CTIO. We show that the accretion disk in the system has a strong wind with projected velocities up to 4000 km/s as determined from the Doppler width of the C IV emission line. The broad and shallow eclipse indicates that the disk has a vertically-extended, optically-thick component at optical wavelengths. This component extends almost to the edge of the disk and has a height equal to 50% of the disk radius. As it has a low brightness temperature, we identify it as the optically-thick base of the disk wind. V1408 Aql (=4U 1957+115) is a low mass X-ray binary which continues to be a black hole candidate. We have new photometric data of this system from the Otto Struve 2.1-m telescope's high speed CCD photometer at McDonald Observatory. The light curve is largely sinusoidal which we model with two components: a constant light source from the disk and a sinusoidal modulation at the orbital period from the irradiated face of the companion star. This is a radical re-interpretation of the orbital light curve. We do not require a large or asymmetric disk rim to account for the modulation in the light curve. Thus, the orbital inclination is unconstrained in our new model, removing the foundation for any claims of the compact object being a black hole.

  9. The XMM-Newton Bright Survey sample of absorbed quasars: X-ray and accretion properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballo, L.; Severgnini, P.; Della Ceca, R.; Caccianiga, A.; Vignali, C.; Carrera, F. J.; Corral, A.; Mateos, S.

    2014-11-01

    Although absorbed quasars are extremely important for our understanding of the energetics of the Universe, the main physical parameters of their central engines are still poorly known. In this work, we present and study a complete sample of 14 quasars (QSOs) that are absorbed in the X-rays (column density NH > 4 × 1021 cm-2 and X-ray luminosity L 2-10 keV > 1044 ergs-1; XQSO2) belonging to the XMM-Newton Bright Serendipitous Survey (XBS). From the analysis of their ultraviolet-to-mid-infrared spectral energy distribution, we can separate the nuclear emission from the host galaxy contribution, obtaining a measurement of the fundamental nuclear parameters, like the mass of the central supermassive black hole and the value of Eddington ratio, λ Edd. Comparing the properties of XQSO2s with those previously obtained for the X-ray unabsorbed QSOs in the XBS, we do not find any evidence that the two samples are drawn from different populations. In particular, the two samples span the same range in Eddington ratios, up to λ Edd ˜ 0.5; this implies that our XQSO2s populate the `forbidden region' in the so-called `effective Eddington limit paradigm'. A combination of low grain abundance, presence of stars inwards of the absorber, and/or anisotropy of the disc emission can explain this result.

  10. Normal incidence X-ray telescope power spectra of X-ray emission from solar active regions. I - Observations. II - Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomez, Daniel O.; Martens, Petrus C. H.; Golub, Leon

    1993-01-01

    Fourier analysis is applied to very high resolution image of coronal active regions obtained by the Normal Incidence X-Ray Telescope is used to find a broad isotropic power-law spectrum of the spatial distribution of soft X-ray intensities. Magnetic structures of all sizes are present down to the resolution limit of the instrument. Power spectra for the X-ray intensities of a sample of topologically different active regions are found which fall off with increasing wavenumber as 1/k-cubed. A model is presented that relates the basic features of coronal magnetic fluctuations to the subphotospheric hydrodynamic turbulence that generates them. The model is used to find a theoretical power spectrum for the X-ray intensity which falls off with increasing wavenumber as 1/k-cubed. The implications of a turbulent regime in active regions are discussed.

  11. X-RAYING AN ACCRETION DISK IN REALTIME: THE EVOLUTION OF IONIZED REFLECTION DURING A SUPERBURST FROM 4U 1636-536

    SciTech Connect

    Keek, L.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Kuulkers, E.; Strohmayer, T. E.

    2014-12-20

    When a thermonuclear X-ray burst ignites on an accreting neutron star, the accretion disk undergoes sudden strong X-ray illumination, which can drive a range of processes in the disk. Observations of superbursts, with durations of several hours, provide the best opportunity to study these processes and to probe accretion physics. Using detailed models of X-ray reflection, we perform time resolved spectroscopy of the superburst observed from 4U 1636-536 in 2001 with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer. The spectra are consistent with a blackbody reflecting off a photoionized accretion disk, with the ionization state dropping with time. The evolution of the reflection fraction indicates that the initial reflection occurs from a part of the disk at larger radius, subsequently transitioning to reflection from an inner region of the disk. Even though this superburst did not reach the Eddington limit, we find that a strong local absorber develops during the superburst. Including this event, only two superbursts have been observed by an instrument with sufficient collecting area to allow for this analysis. It highlights the exciting opportunity for future X-ray observatories to investigate the processes in accretion disks when illuminated by superbursts.

  12. REVEALING THE STRUCTURE OF AN ACCRETION DISK THROUGH ENERGY-DEPENDENT X-RAY MICROLENSING

    SciTech Connect

    Chartas, G.; Moore, D.; Kochanek, C. S.; Mosquera, A. M.; Blackburne, J. A.; Dai, X.

    2012-10-01

    We present results from monitoring observations of the gravitationally lensed quasar RX J1131-1231 performed with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. The X-ray observations were planned with relatively long exposures that allowed a search for energy-dependent microlensing in the soft (0.2-2 keV) and hard (2-10 keV) light curves of the images of RX J1131-1231. We detect significant microlensing in the X-ray light curves of images A and D, and energy-dependent microlensing of image D. The magnification of the soft band appears to be larger than that in the hard band by a factor of {approx}1.3 when image D becomes more magnified. This can be explained by the difference between a compact, softer-spectrum corona that is producing a more extended, harder spectrum reflection component off the disk. This is supported by the evolution of the fluorescent iron line in image D over three consecutive time-averaged phases of the light curve. In the first period, an Fe line at E = 6.35{sup +0.14}{sub -0.14} keV is detected (at >99% confidence). In the second period, two Fe lines are detected, one at E = 5.50{sup +0.03}{sub -0.08} keV (detected at >99% confidence) and another at E = 6.04{sup +0.10}{sub -0.07} keV (marginally detected at >90% confidence), and in the third period, a broadened Fe line at 6.42{sup +0.16}{sub -0.14} keV is detected (at >99% confidence). This evolution of the Fe line profile during the microlensing event is consistent with the line distortion expected when a caustic passes over the inner disk where the shape of the fluorescent Fe line is distorted by general relativistic and Doppler effects.

  13. Ultraluminous X-ray Sources.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabrika, S.; Sholukhova, O.; Abolmasov, P.

    2008-12-01

    We discuss a new type of X-ray sources discovered in galaxies -- ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs). They are of two order of magnitude brighter in X-rays than the brightest Galactic black holes. Two mod- els of ULXs are discussed: "intermediate mass" black holes, 100 - 10000 solar masses, with standard accretion disks, and "stellar mass" black holes with su- percritical accretion disks like that in the Galactic object SS 433. A study of gas nebulae surrounding these objects gives us a new important information on the central sources. The observed X-ray radiation of ULXs is not enough to power their nebulae. To understand both spectra and power of the nebulae one needs a powerful UV source. The ULXs must be such bright in UV range as they are in X-rays. Spectroscopy of gas filaments surrounding SS 433 proves that the intrinsic face-on luminosity of the supercritical accretion disk in the far UV region to be "sim; 10^40 erg/s. We expect that observations of ULXs with the WSO-UV Observatory, measurements their UV fluxes and spectral slopes solve the problem of ULXs between the two known models of these sources.

  14. A high-resolving-power x-ray spectrometer for the OMEGA EP Laser (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilson, P. M.; Ehrne, F.; Mileham, C.; Mastrosimone, D.; Jungquist, R. K.; Taylor, C.; Stillman, C. R.; Ivancic, S. T.; Boni, R.; Hassett, J.; Lonobile, D. J.; Kidder, R. W.; Shoup, M. J.; Solodov, A. A.; Stoeckl, C.; Theobald, W.; Froula, D. H.; Hill, K. W.; Gao, L.; Bitter, M.; Efthimion, P.; Meyerhofer, D. D.

    2016-11-01

    A high-resolving-power x-ray spectrometer has been developed for the OMEGA EP Laser System based on a spherically bent Si [220] crystal with a radius of curvature of 330 mm and a Spectral Instruments (SI) 800 Series charge-coupled device. The instrument measures time-integrated x-ray emission spectra in the 7.97- to 8.11-keV range, centered on the Cu Kα1 line. To demonstrate the performance of the spectrometer under high-power conditions, Kα1,2 emission spectra were measured from Cu foils irradiated by the OMEGA EP laser with 100-J, 1-ps pulses at focused intensities above 1018 W/cm2. The ultimate goal is to couple the spectrometer to a picosecond x-ray streak camera and measure temperature-equilibration dynamics inside rapidly heated materials. The plan for these ultrafast streaked x-ray spectroscopy studies is discussed.

  15. A high-resolving-power x-ray spectrometer for the OMEGA EP Laser (invited).

    PubMed

    Nilson, P M; Ehrne, F; Mileham, C; Mastrosimone, D; Jungquist, R K; Taylor, C; Stillman, C R; Ivancic, S T; Boni, R; Hassett, J; Lonobile, D J; Kidder, R W; Shoup, M J; Solodov, A A; Stoeckl, C; Theobald, W; Froula, D H; Hill, K W; Gao, L; Bitter, M; Efthimion, P; Meyerhofer, D D

    2016-11-01

    A high-resolving-power x-ray spectrometer has been developed for the OMEGA EP Laser System based on a spherically bent Si [220] crystal with a radius of curvature of 330 mm and a Spectral Instruments (SI) 800 Series charge-coupled device. The instrument measures time-integrated x-ray emission spectra in the 7.97- to 8.11-keV range, centered on the Cu Kα1 line. To demonstrate the performance of the spectrometer under high-power conditions, Kα1,2 emission spectra were measured from Cu foils irradiated by the OMEGA EP laser with 100-J, 1-ps pulses at focused intensities above 10(18) W/cm(2). The ultimate goal is to couple the spectrometer to a picosecond x-ray streak camera and measure temperature-equilibration dynamics inside rapidly heated materials. The plan for these ultrafast streaked x-ray spectroscopy studies is discussed.

  16. Wire array z-pinch insights for high x-ray power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Sanford, T.W.L.; Mock, R.C.; Nash, T.J.

    1998-08-01

    The discovery that the use of very large numbers of wires enables high x-ray power to be generated from wire-array z-pinches represents a breakthrough in load design for large pulsed power generators, and has permitted high temperatures to be generated in radiation cavities on Saturn. In this paper, changes in x-ray emission characteristics as a function of wire number, array mass, and load radius, for 20-mm-long aluminum arrays on Saturn that led to these breakthrough hohlraum results, are discussed and compared with a few related emission characteristics of high-wire-number aluminum and tungsten arrays on Z. X=ray measurement comparisons with analytic models and 2-D radiation-magnetohydrodynamic (RMHC) code simulations in the x-y and r-z planes provide confidence in the ability of the models and codes to predict future x-ray performance with very-large-number wire arrays.

  17. Wire array z-pinch insights for high x-ray power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Sanford, T.W.L.; Mock, R.C.; Marder, B.M.

    1997-12-31

    The discovery that the use of very large numbers of wires enables high x-ray power to be generated from wire-array z-pinches represents a breakthrough in load design for large pulsed power generators, and has permitted high temperatures to be generated in radiation cavities on Saturn and Z. In this paper, changes in x-ray emission characteristics as a function of wire number, array mass, and load radius, for 20-mm-long aluminum arrays on Saturn that led to these breakthrough hohlraum results, are discussed and compared with a few related emission characteristics of high-wire-number aluminum and tungsten arrays on Z. X-ray measurement comparisons with analytic models and 2-D radiation-magnetohydrodynamic (RMHC) code simulations in the x-y and r-z planes provide confidence in the ability of the models and codes to predict future x-ray performance with very-large-number wire arrays.

  18. Prospects for using high power x-rays as a volumetric heat source

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, R.A.; Farrell, W.; Ma, Q.

    1997-09-01

    Third-generation, high-intensity, x-ray synchrotron radiation sources are capable of producing high heat-flux x-ray beams. In many applications finding ways to handle these powers is viewed as a burden. However, there are some technological applications where the deep penetration length of the x-rays may find beneficial uses as a volumetric heat source. In this paper the authors discuss the prospects for using high power x-rays for volumetric heating and report some recent experimental results. The particular applications they focus on are welding and surface heat treatment. The radiation source is an undulator at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Results of preliminary tests on aluminum, aluminum metal matrix composites, and steel will be presented.

  19. Correlated X-ray/ultraviolet/optical variability and the nature of accretion disc in the bare Seyfert 1 galaxy Fairall 9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Main; Dewangan, Gulab C.; Connolly, S. D.; Misra, Ranjeev

    2017-04-01

    We study the multiwavelength variability of the bare Seyfert 1 galaxy Fairall 9 using Swift monitoring observations consisting of 165 usable pointings spanning nearly two years and covering six ultraviolet (UV)/optical bands and X-rays. Fairall 9 is highly variable in all bands though the variability amplitude decreases from X-ray to optical bands. The variations in the X-ray and UV/optical bands are strongly correlated. Our reverberation mapping analysis using the JAVALIN tool shows that the variation in the UV/optical bands lag behind the variations in the X-ray band by ∼2-10 d. These lag measurements strongly suggest that the optical/UV variations are mainly caused by variations in the X-rays, and the origin of most of the optical/UV emission is X-ray reprocessing. The observed lags are found to vary as τ ∝ λ1.36 ± 0.13, consistent with the prediction, τ ∝ λ4/3, for X-ray reprocessing in a standard accretion disc. However, the predicted lags for a standard accretion disc with X-ray reprocessing using the black hole mass (MBH ∼ 2.6 × 108 M⊙) estimated from the reverberation mapping of broad emission lines and the accretion rate relative to the Eddington rate (dot{m_E}=0.02) are shorter than the observed lags. These observations suggest that the accretion disc in Fairall 9 is larger than that predicted by the standard disc model, and confirm similar findings in a few other Seyfert 1 galaxies such as NGC 5548.

  20. Swings between rotation and accretion power in a binary millisecond pulsar.

    PubMed

    Papitto, A; Ferrigno, C; Bozzo, E; Rea, N; Pavan, L; Burderi, L; Burgay, M; Campana, S; Di Salvo, T; Falanga, M; Filipović, M D; Freire, P C C; Hessels, J W T; Possenti, A; Ransom, S M; Riggio, A; Romano, P; Sarkissian, J M; Stairs, I H; Stella, L; Torres, D F; Wieringa, M H; Wong, G F

    2013-09-26

    It is thought that neutron stars in low-mass binary systems can accrete matter and angular momentum from the companion star and be spun-up to millisecond rotational periods. During the accretion stage, the system is called a low-mass X-ray binary, and bright X-ray emission is observed. When the rate of mass transfer decreases in the later evolutionary stages, these binaries host a radio millisecond pulsar whose emission is powered by the neutron star's rotating magnetic field. This evolutionary model is supported by the detection of millisecond X-ray pulsations from several accreting neutron stars and also by the evidence for a past accretion disc in a rotation-powered millisecond pulsar. It has been proposed that a rotation-powered pulsar may temporarily switch on during periods of low mass inflow in some such systems. Only indirect evidence for this transition has hitherto been observed. Here we report observations of accretion-powered, millisecond X-ray pulsations from a neutron star previously seen as a rotation-powered radio pulsar. Within a few days after a month-long X-ray outburst, radio pulses were again detected. This not only shows the evolutionary link between accretion and rotation-powered millisecond pulsars, but also that some systems can swing between the two states on very short timescales.

  1. X-ray power and yield measurements at the refurbished Z machine

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, M. C.; Ampleford, D. J.; Cuneo, M. E.; Hohlfelder, R.; Jennings, C. A.; Johnson, D. W.; Jones, B.; Lopez, M. R.; MacArthur, J.; Mills, J. A.; Preston, T.; Rochau, G. A.; Savage, M.; Spencer, D.; Sinars, D. B.; Porter, J. L.

    2014-08-04

    Advancements have been made in the diagnostic techniques to measure accurately the total radiated x-ray yield and power from z-pinch loads at the Z Machine with high accuracy. The Z-accelerator is capable of outputting 2MJ and 330 TW of x-ray yield and power, and accurately measuring these quantities is imperative. We will describe work over the past several years which include the development of new diagnostics, improvements to existing diagnostics, and implementation of automated data analysis routines. A set of experiments were conducted on the Z machine where the load and machine configuration were held constant. During this shot series, it was observed that total z-pinch x-ray emission power determined from the two common techniques for inferring the x-ray power, Kimfol filtered x-ray diode diagnostic and the Total Power and Energy diagnostic gave 450 TW and 327 TW respectively. Our analysis shows the latter to be the more accurate interpretation. More broadly, the comparison demonstrates the necessity to consider spectral response and field of view when inferring xray powers from z-pinch sources.

  2. X-ray power and yield measurements at the refurbished Z machine

    DOE PAGES

    Jones, M. C.; Ampleford, D. J.; Cuneo, M. E.; ...

    2014-08-04

    Advancements have been made in the diagnostic techniques to measure accurately the total radiated x-ray yield and power from z-pinch loads at the Z Machine with high accuracy. The Z-accelerator is capable of outputting 2MJ and 330 TW of x-ray yield and power, and accurately measuring these quantities is imperative. We will describe work over the past several years which include the development of new diagnostics, improvements to existing diagnostics, and implementation of automated data analysis routines. A set of experiments were conducted on the Z machine where the load and machine configuration were held constant. During this shot series,more » it was observed that total z-pinch x-ray emission power determined from the two common techniques for inferring the x-ray power, Kimfol filtered x-ray diode diagnostic and the Total Power and Energy diagnostic gave 450 TW and 327 TW respectively. Our analysis shows the latter to be the more accurate interpretation. More broadly, the comparison demonstrates the necessity to consider spectral response and field of view when inferring xray powers from z-pinch sources.« less

  3. Evolutionary sequences of very hot, low-mass, accreting white dwarfs with application to symbiotic variables and ultrasoft/supersoft low-luminosity x-ray sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sion, Edward M.; Starrfield, Sumner G.

    1994-01-01

    We present the first detailed model results of quasi-static evolutionary sequences of very hot low-mass white dwarfs accreting hydrogen-rich material at rates between 1 x 10(exp -7) and 1 x 10(exp -9) solar mass/yr. Most of the sequences were generated from starting models whose core thermal structures were not thermally relaxed in the thermal pulse cycle-averaged sense of an asymptotic giant branch stellar core. Hence, the evolution at constant accretion rate was not invariably characterized by series of identical shell flashes. Sequences exhibiting stable steady state nuclear burning at the accretion supply rate as well as sequences exhibiting recurrent thermonuclear shell flashes are presented and discussed. In some cases, the white dwarf accretors remain small (less than 10(exp 11) cm) and very hot even during the shell flash episode. They then experience continued but reduced hydrogen shell burning during the longer quiescent intervals while their surface temperatures increase both because of compressional heating and envelope structure readjustment in response to accretion over thousands of years. Both accretion and continued hydrogen burning power these models with luminosities of a few times 10(exp 37) ergs/s. We suggest that the physical properties of these model sequences are of considerable relevance to the observed outburst and quiescent behavior of those symbiotic variables and symbiotic novae containing low-mass white dwarfs. We also suggest that our models are relevant to the observational characteristics of the growing class of low-luminosity, supersoft/ultrasoft X-ray sources in globular clusters, and the Magellanic Clouds.

  4. THE RADIATIVE X-RAY AND GAMMA-RAY EFFICIENCIES OF ROTATION-POWERED PULSARS

    SciTech Connect

    Vink, Jacco; Bamba, Aya; Yamazaki, Ryo

    2011-02-01

    We present a statistical analysis of the X-ray luminosity of rotation-powered pulsars and their surrounding nebulae using the sample of Kargaltsev and Pavlov, and we complement this with an analysis of the {gamma}-ray emission of Fermi-detected pulsars. We report a strong trend in the efficiency with which spin-down power is converted to X-ray and {gamma}-ray emission with characteristic age: young pulsars and their surrounding nebulae are efficient X-ray emitters, whereas in contrast old pulsars are efficient {gamma}-ray emitters. We divided the X-ray sample in a young ({tau}{sub c} < 1.7 x 10{sup 4} yr) and old sample and used linear regression to search for correlations between the logarithm of the X-ray and {gamma}-ray luminosities and the logarithms of the periods and period derivatives. The X-ray emission from young pulsars and their nebulae are both consistent with L{sub X}{proportional_to} P-dot{sup 3}/P{sup 6}. For old pulsars and their nebulae the X-ray luminosity is consistent with a more or less constant efficiency {eta}{identical_to}L{sub X}/ E-dot{sub rot}{approx}8x10{sup -5}. For the {gamma}-ray luminosity we confirm that L{sub {gamma}} {proportional_to} {radical}E-dot{sub rot}. We discuss these findings in the context of pair production inside pulsar magnetospheres and the striped wind model. We suggest that the striped wind model may explain the similarity between the X-ray properties of the pulsar wind nebulae and the pulsars themselves, which according to the striped wind model may both find their origin outside the light cylinder, in the pulsar wind zone.

  5. THERMAL analysis of high-power x-ray target: scaling effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xi; Robinson, Vance S.; Raber, Thomas R.; Frontera, Mark

    2015-08-01

    High resolution x-ray imaging systems require small focal spots ranging from 1 μm to 1 mm. In NDE applications, the demand for small spot sizes for high spatial resolution conflicts with the need for increased x-ray flux for faster scan times. In this paper, a finite element model is developed to compute the temperature of a stationary x-ray target exposed to micrometer-sized high power (10's to 100's of watts) electron beams. Such extremely high power densities at the focal spot are the limiting factor in both performance and life of many x-ray imaging system. This model is used to demonstrate the effect of focal spot size - diameter, on the heat dissipation capability. As the spot size reduces, a higher power density may be sustained by the target. This effect is explained by increased lateral heat conduction. The peak temperature of a small focal spot also becomes more sensitive to the current density distribution of the incident electron beam. The relationship of the peak power and electron beam profile, volumetric power deposition into the x-ray target and focal spot aspect ratio are discussed. Some experimental data demonstrating such scaling effects is included. General design rules for higher-flux capable targets leveraging these scaling effects are also proposed.

  6. Long-Term Properties of Accretion Discs in X-ray Binaries. 1; The Variable Third Period in SMC X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, P. A.; Clarkson, W. I.; Coe, M. J.; Laycock, S.; Tout, M.; Wilson, C.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Long term X-ray monitoring data from the RXTE All Sky Monitor (ASM) reveal that the third (superorbital) period in SMC X-1 is not constant but varies between 40-60 days. A dynamic power spectrum analysis indicates that the third period has been present continuously throughout the five years of ASM observations. This period changed smoothly from 60 days to 45 days and then returned to its former value, on a timescale of approximately 1600 days. During the nearly 4 years of overlap between the CGRO & RXTE missions, the simultaneous BATSE hard X-ray data confirm this variation in SMC X-1. Sources of systematic error and possible artefacts are investigated and found to be incapable of reproducing the results reported here. Our disco cry of such an instability in the superorbital period of SMC X-1 is interpreted in the context of recent theoretical studies of warped, precessing accretion discs. We find that the behaviour of SMC X-1 is consistent with a radiation - driven warping model.

  7. A New Comptonization Model for Weakly Magnetized, Accreting Neutron Stars in Low-Mass X-Ray Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farinelli, Ruben; Titarchuk, Lev; Paizis, Ada; Frontera, Filippo

    2008-06-01

    We have developed a new model for the X-ray spectral fitting package XSPEC that takes into account the effects of both thermal and dynamical (i.e., bulk) Comptonization. The model consists of two components: one is the direct blackbody-like emission due to seed photons that are not subjected to effective Compton scattering, while the other is a convolution of the Green's function of the energy operator with a blackbody-like seed photon spectrum. When combined thermal and bulk effects are considered, the analytical form of the Green's function may be obtained as a solution of the diffusion equation describing Comptonization. Using data from the BeppoSAX, INTEGRAL, and RXTE satellites, we test our model on the spectra of a sample of six bright neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries with low magnetic fields, covering three different spectral states. Particular attention is given to the transient power-law-like hard X-ray (gtrsim30 keV) tails, which we interpret in the framework of the bulk motion Comptonization process. We show that the values of the best-fit δ-parameter, which represents the importance of bulk with respect to thermal Comptonization, can be physically meaningful and can at least qualitatively describe the physical conditions of the environment in the innermost part of the system. Moreover, we show that in fitting the thermal Comptonization spectra to the X-ray spectra of these systems, the best-fit parameters of our model are in excellent agreement with those from compTT, a broadly used and well-established XSPEC model.

  8. XMM-Newton observations of UW CrB: detection of X-ray bursts and evidence for accretion disc evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakala, Pasi; Ramsay, Gavin; Muhli, Panu; Charles, Phil; Hannikainen, Diana; Mukai, Koji; Vilhu, Osmi

    2005-01-01

    UW CrB (MS 1603+2600) is a peculiar short-period X-ray binary that exhibits extraordinary optical behaviour. The shape of the optical light curve of the system changes drastically from night to night, without any changes in overall brightness. Here we report X-ray observations of UW CrB obtained with XMM-Newton. We find evidence for several X-ray bursts, confirming a neutron star primary. This considerably strengthens the case that UW CrB is an accretion disc corona system located at a distance of at least 5-7 kpc (3-5 kpc above the Galactic plane). The X-ray and Optical Monitor (ultraviolet-optical) light curves show remarkable shape variation from one observing run to another, which we suggest are due to large-scale variations in the accretion disc shape resulting from a warp that periodically obscures the optical and soft X-ray emission. This is also supported by the changes in phase-resolved X-ray spectra.

  9. X-rays and microwave RF power from high voltage laboratory sparks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanyà, Joan; Fabró, Ferran; March, Víctor; van der Velde, Oscar; Solà, Glòria; Romero, David; Argemí, Oriol

    2015-12-01

    Lightning flashes involve high energy processes that still are not well understood. In the laboratory, high voltage pulses are used to produce long sparks in open air allowing the production of energetic radiation. In this paper X-rays emitted by long sparks in air are simultaneously measured with the RF power radiation at 2.4 GHz. The experiment showed that the measured RF power systematically peaks at the time of the X-rays generation (in the microsecond time scale). All of the triggered sparks present peaks of RF radiation before the breakdown of the gap. The RF peaks are related to the applied voltage to the gap. RF peaks are also detected in discharges without breakdown. Cases where X-rays are detected presented higher RF power. The results indicate that at some stage of the discharge, before the breakdown, electrons are very fast accelerated letting in some cases to produce X-rays. Microwave radiation and X-rays may come from the same process.

  10. The X-ray variability of NGC 6814 - Power spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Done, C.; Madejski, G. M.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Turner, T. J.; Koyama, K.; Kunieda, H.

    1992-01-01

    The existence of the periodic component seen in NGC 6814 with Exosat at 12,000 +/- 100 s is confirmed by a power spectrum and folded light curve analysis of unevenly sampled Ginga data. A comparison of the power spectra produced from simulated light curves with that observed enables the intrinsic shape of the power spectrum of the source to be determined despite the distortions introduced by the window function. The best estimate for the period is 12,132 +/- 3 s, where the error is that derived from simulations. An upper limit to the rate of change of period of about 10 exp -9 is inferred if the light curves are truly phase-coherent, but as this is not required by the data, the conservative upper limit is not greater than 5 x 10 exp -7. The large amount of power in the periodic component and its stability both suggest occultation of the source as its origin.

  11. Total x-ray power measurements in the Sandia LIGA program.

    SciTech Connect

    Malinowski, Michael E. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Ting, Aili (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA)

    2005-08-01

    Total X-ray power measurements using aluminum block calorimetry and other techniques were made at LIGA X-ray scanner synchrotron beamlines located at both the Advanced Light Source (ALS) and the Advanced Photon Source (APS). This block calorimetry work was initially performed on the LIGA beamline 3.3.1 of the ALS to provide experimental checks of predictions of the LEX-D (LIGA Exposure- Development) code for LIGA X-ray exposures, version 7.56, the version of the code in use at the time calorimetry was done. These experiments showed that it was necessary to use bend magnet field strengths and electron storage ring energies different from the default values originally in the code in order to obtain good agreement between experiment and theory. The results indicated that agreement between LEX-D predictions and experiment could be as good as 5% only if (1) more accurate values of the ring energies, (2) local values of the magnet field at the beamline source point, and (3) the NIST database for X-ray/materials interactions were used as code inputs. These local magnetic field value and accurate ring energies, together with NIST database, are now defaults in the newest release of LEX-D, version 7.61. Three dimensional simulations of the temperature distributions in the aluminum calorimeter block for a typical ALS power measurement were made with the ABAQUS code and found to be in good agreement with the experimental temperature data. As an application of the block calorimetry technique, the X-ray power exiting the mirror in place at a LIGA scanner located at the APS beamline 10 BM was measured with a calorimeter similar to the one used at the ALS. The overall results at the APS demonstrated the utility of calorimetry in helping to characterize the total X-ray power in LIGA beamlines. In addition to the block calorimetry work at the ALS and APS, a preliminary comparison of the use of heat flux sensors, photodiodes and modified beam calorimeters as total X-ray power

  12. Reprocessing of Soft X-ray Emission Lines in Black Hole Accretion Disks

    SciTech Connect

    Mauche, C W; Liedahl, D A; Mathiesen, B F; Jimenez-Garate, M A; Raymond, J C

    2003-10-17

    By means of a Monte Carlo code that accounts for Compton scattering and photoabsorption followed by recombination, we have investigated the radiation transfer of Ly{alpha}, He{alpha}, and recombination continua photons of H- and He-like C, N, O, and Ne produced in the photoionized atmosphere of a relativistic black hole accretion disk. We find that photoelectric opacity causes significant attenuation of photons with energies above the O VIII K-edge; that the conversion efficiencies of these photons into lower-energy lines and recombination continua are high; and that accounting for this reprocessing significantly (by factors of 21% to 105%) increases the flux of the Ly{alpha} and He{alpha} emission lines of H- and He-like C and O escaping the disk atmosphere.

  13. Broadband X-Ray Spectra of GX 339-4 and the Geometry of Accreting Black Holes in the Hard State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomsick; Kalemci; Kaaret; Markoff; Corbel; Migliari; Fender; Bailyn; Buxton

    2008-01-01

    A major question in the study of black hole binaries involves our understanding of the accretion geometry when the sources are in the "hard" state. In this state, the X-ray energy spectrum is dominated by a hard power-law component and radio observations indicate the presence of a steady and powerful "compact" jet. Although the common hard state picture is that the accretion disk is truncated, perhaps at hundreds of gravitational radii (R(sub g)) from the black hole, recent results for the recurrent transient GX 339-4 by Miller and co-workers show evidence for optically thick material very close to the black hole's innermost stable circular orbit. That work focused on an observation of GX 339-4 at a luminosity of about 5% of the Eddington limit (L(sub Edd)) and used parameters from a relativistic reflection model and the presence of a soft, thermal component as diagnostics. In this work, we use similar diagnostics, but extend the study to lower luminosities (2.3% and 0.8% L(sub Edd)) using Swift and RXTE observations of GX 339-4. We detect a thermal component with an inner disk temperature of approx.0.2 keV at 2.3% L(sub Edd). At 0.8% L(sub Edd), the spectrum is consistent with the presence of such a component, but the component is not required with high confidence. At both luminosities, we detect broad features due to iron Ka that are likely related to reflection of hard X-rays off the optically thick material. If these features are broadened by relativistic effects, they indicate that optically thick material resides within 10 R(sub g) down to 0.8% L(sub Edd), and the measurements are consistent with the inner radius of the disk remaining at approx.4 R(sub g) down to this level. However, we also discuss an alternative model for the broadening, and we note that the evolution of the thermal component is not entirely consistent with the constant inner radius interpretation. Finally, we discuss the results in terms of recent theoretical work by Liu and co-workers on

  14. Hard x-ray micro(spectro)scopy : a powerful tool for the geomicrobiologist.

    SciTech Connect

    Kemner, K. M.; Biosciences Division

    2008-01-01

    During the past few decades, the use of electron microscopy approaches - many developed by Terry Beveridge - to probe the physiology of microorganisms has become a mainstay in fields including microbiology, human health, and geomicrobiology. Recent developments of third-generation synchrotron X-ray sources and X-ray-based microscopy approaches for studying microbial systems have proved their utility as complements to the very powerful approaches regularly employed by electron microscopists. In addition, in recent geomicrobiological studies, researchers have begun to take advantage of the strengths of each technique by using the superior spatial resolution of the electron microscope (relative to the X-ray microscope) and the superior elemental sensitivity of the X-ray microscope (relative to the electron microscope), along with the ability of the X-ray microscope to spatially probe the chemical speciation of elements. The benefits of integrating these two nanoprobes for investigating the same microenvironments within a geomicrobial system are far superior to those of independent studies separately employing each probe.

  15. A numerical investigation of wind accretion in persistent Supergiant X-ray Binaries I - Structure of the flow at the orbital scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Mellah, I.; Casse, F.

    2017-01-01

    Classical Supergiant X-ray Binaries host a neutron star orbiting a supergiant OB star and display persistent X-ray luminosities of 1035 to 1037 erg· s-1. The stellar wind from the massive companion is believed to be the main source of matter accreted by the compact object. With this first paper, we introduce a ballistic model to evaluate the influence of the orbital effects on the structure of the accelerating winds which participate to the accretion process. Thanks to the parametrization we retained and the numerical pipeline we designed, we can investigate the supersonic flow and the subsequent observables as a function of a reduced set of characteristic numbers and scales. We show that the shape of the permanent flow is entirely determined by the mass ratio, the filling factor, the Eddington factor and the α-force multiplier which drives the stellar wind acceleration. Provided scales such as the orbital period are known, we can trace back the observables to evaluate the mass accretion rates, the accretion mechanism, the shearing of the inflow and the stellar parameters. We discuss the likelihood of wind-formed accretion discs around the accretors in each case and confront our model to three persistent Supergiant X-ray Binaries (Vela X-1, IGR J18027-2016, XTE J1855-026).

  16. Young rotation-powered pulsars as ultraluminous X-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedev, Aleksei S.; Poutanen, Juri

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate a possible contribution of the rotation-powered pulsars and pulsar wind nebulae to the population of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs). We first develop an analytical model for the evolution of the distribution function of pulsars over the spin period and find both the steady-state and the time-dependent solutions. Using the recent results on the X-ray efficiency dependence on pulsar characteristic age, we then compute the X-ray luminosity function (XLF) of rotation-powered pulsars. In a general case, it has a broken power-law shape with a high-luminosity cutoff, which depends on the distributions of the birth spin period and the magnetic field. Using the observed XLF of sources in the nearby galaxies and the condition that the pulsar XLF does not exceed that, we find the allowed region for the parameters describing the birth period distribution. We find that the mean pulsar period should be greater than 10-40 ms. These results are consistent with the constraints obtained from the X-ray luminosity of core-collapse supernovae. We estimate that the contribution of the rotation-powered pulsars to the ULX population is at a level exceeding 3 per cent. For a wide birth period distribution, this fraction grows with luminosity and above 1040 erg s-1 pulsars can dominate the ULX population.

  17. Measuring the stellar wind parameters in IGR J17544-2619 and Vela X-1 constrains the accretion physics in supergiant fast X-ray transient and classical supergiant X-ray binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giménez-García, A.; Shenar, T.; Torrejón, J. M.; Oskinova, L.; Martínez-Núñez, S.; Hamann, W.-R.; Rodes-Roca, J. J.; González-Galán, A.; Alonso-Santiago, J.; González-Fernández, C.; Bernabeu, G.; Sander, A.

    2016-06-01

    two stars is their terminal velocities (ν∞ = 1500 km s-1 in IGR J17544-2619 and ν∞ = 700 km s-1 in Vela X-1), which have important consequences on the X-ray luminosity of these sources. Conclusions: The donors of IGR J17544-2619 and Vela X-1 have similar spectral types as well as similar parameters that physically characterize them and their spectra. In addition, the orbital parameters of the systems are similar too, with a nearly circular orbit and short orbital period. However, they show moderate differences in their stellar wind velocity and the spin period of their neutron star which has a strong impact on the X-ray luminosity of the sources. This specific combination of wind speed and pulsar spin favors an accretion regime with a persistently high luminosity in Vela X-1, while it favors an inhibiting accretion mechanism in IGR J17544-2619. Our study demonstrates that the relative wind velocity is critical in class determination for the HMXBs hosting a supergiant donor, given that it may shift the accretion mechanism from direct accretion to propeller regimes when combined with other parameters.

  18. Broadband X-Ray Spectra of GX 339-4 and the Geometry of Accreting Black Holes in the Hard State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomsick, John A.; Kalemci, Emrah; Kaaret, Philip; Markoff, Sera; Corbel, Stephane; Migliari, Simone; Fender, Rob; Bailyn, Charles D.; Buxton, Michelle M.

    2008-01-01

    A major question in the study of black hole binaries involves our understanding of the accretion geometry when the sources are in the "hard" state, with an X-ray energy spectrum dominated by a hard power-law component and radio emission coming from a steady "compact" jet. Although the common hard state picture is that the accretion disk is truncated, perhaps at hundreds of gravitational radii (Rg) from the black hole, recent results for the recurrent transient GX 339-4 by Miller and coworkers show evidence for disk material very close to the black hole's innermost stable circular orbit. That work studied GX 339-4 at a luminosity of approximately 5% of the Eddington limit (L(sub Edd) and used parameters from a relativistic reflection model and the presence of a thermal component as diagnostics. Here we use similar diagnostics but extend the study to lower luminosities (2.3% and 0.8% L(sub Edd)) using Swift and RXTE observations of GX 339-4. We detect a thermal component with an inner disk temperature of approximately 0.2 keV at 2.3% L (sub Edd). At both luminosities, we detect broad features due to iron K-alpha that are likely related to reflection of hard X-rays off disk material. If these features are broadened by relativistic effects, they indicate that the material resides within 10 Rg, and the measurements are consistent with the disk's inner radius remaining at approximately 4 Rg down to 0.8% L(sub Edd). However, we also discuss an alternative model for the broadening, and we note that the evolution of the thermal component is not entirely consistent with the constant inner radius interpretation. Finally, we discuss the results in terms of recent theoretical work by Liu and co-workers on the possibility that material may condense out of an Advection-Dominated Accretion Flow to maintain an inner optically thick disk.

  19. The effects of high density on the X-ray spectrum reflected from accretion discs around black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Javier A.; Fabian, Andrew C.; Kallman, Timothy R.; Dauser, Thomas; Parker, Michael L.; McClintock, Jeffrey E.; Steiner, James F.; Wilms, Jörn

    2016-10-01

    Current models of the spectrum of X-rays reflected from accretion discs around black holes and other compact objects are commonly calculated assuming that the density of the disc atmosphere is constant within several Thomson depths from the irradiated surface. An important simplifying assumption of these models is that the ionization structure of the gas is completely specified by a single, fixed value of the ionization parameter ξ, which is the ratio of the incident flux to the gas density. The density is typically fixed at ne = 1015 cm-3. Motivated by observations, we consider higher densities in the calculation of the reflected spectrum. We show by computing model spectra for ne ≳ 1017 cm-3 that high-density effects significantly modify reflection spectra. The main effect is to boost the thermal continuum at energies ≲ 2 keV. We discuss the implications of these results for interpreting observations of both active galactic nuclei and black hole binaries. We also discuss the limitations of our models imposed by the quality of the atomic data currently available.

  20. X-ray variability of 104 active galactic nuclei. XMM-Newton power-spectrum density profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Martin, Omaira; Vaughan, Simon; de la Cierva, Juan

    2012-09-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGN), powered by accretion onto supermassive black holes (SMBHs), are thought to be scaled up versions of Galactic black hole X-ray binaries (BH-XRBs). In the past few years evidence of such correspondence include similarities in the broadband shape of the X-ray variability power spectra, with characteristic bend times-cales scaling with mass. We have characterized the X-ray temporal properties of a sample of AGN to study the connection among different classes of AGN and their connection with BH-XRBs. We have performed a uniform analysis of the power spectrum densities (PSDs) of 104 nearby (z<0.4) AGN using 209 XMM-Newton/pn observations (Gonzalez-Martin & Vaughan 2012, A&A accepted). Among the entire sample, ~70% show significant variability in at least one of the three bands tested. A high percentage of low-luminosity AGN do not show any significant variability (~90% of LINERs). The PSD of the majority of the variable AGN was well described by a simple power-law with a mean index of ~2. In 15 sources we found that the bending power law model was preferred with a mean slope of 2.8 and a mean bend frequency of nu(break) = 2x 10E-04 Hz. Only KUG 1031+398 (RE J1034+396) shows evidence for quasi-periodic oscillations. The "fundamental plane" relating variability timescale, black hole mass, and luminosity is studied using the new X-ray timing results presented here together with a compilation of the previously detected timescales from the literature. Both quantitative (i.e. scaling with BH mass) and qualitative (overall PSD shapes) found in this sample of AGN are in agreement with the expectations for the SMBHs and BH-XRBs being the same phenomenon scaled-up with the size of the BH. The steep PSD slopes above the high frequency bend bear a closer resemblance to those of the "soft/thermal dominated" BH- XRB states than other states.

  1. THE STRUCTURE OF THE ACCRETION DISK IN THE ACCRETION DISK CORONA X-RAY BINARY 4U 1822-371 AT OPTICAL AND ULTRAVIOLET WAVELENGTHS

    SciTech Connect

    Bayless, Amanda J.; Robinson, Edward L.; Cornell, Mark E.; Hynes, Robert I.; Ashcraft, Teresa A.

    2010-01-20

    The eclipsing low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1822-371 is the prototypical accretion disk corona (ADC) system. We have obtained new time-resolved UV spectroscopy of 4U 1822-371 with the Advanced Camera for Surveys/Solar Blind Channel on the Hubble Space Telescope and new V- and J-band photometry with the 1.3 m SMARTS telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory. We use the new data to construct its UV/optical spectral energy distribution and its orbital light curve in the UV, V, and J bands. We derive an improved ephemeris for the optical eclipses and confirm that the orbital period is changing rapidly, indicating extremely high rates of mass flow in the system, and we show that the accretion disk in the system has a strong wind with projected velocities up to 4000 km s{sup -1}. We show that the disk has a vertically extended, optically thick component at optical wavelengths. This component extends almost to the edge of the disk and has a height equal to approx0.5 of the disk radius. As it has a low brightness temperature, we identify it as the optically thick base of a disk wind, not as the optical counterpart of the ADC. Like previous models of 4U 1822-371, ours needs a tall obscuring wall near the edge of the accretion disk, but we interpret the wall as a layer of cooler material at the base of the disk wind, not as a tall, luminous disk rim.

  2. X-Ray Lasers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapline, George; Wood, Lowell

    1975-01-01

    Outlines the prospects of generating coherent x rays using high-power lasers and indentifies problem areas in their development. Indicates possible applications for coherent x rays in the fields of chemistry, biology, and crystallography. (GS)

  3. Witnessing the Gradual Slowdown of Powerful Extragalactic Jets: The X-Ray-Optical-Radio Connection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georganopoulos, Markos; Kazanas, Demosthenes

    2004-01-01

    A puzzling feature of the Chandra-detected quasar jets is that their X-ray emission decreases faster along the jet than their radio emission, resulting from an outward-increasing radio-to-X-ray ratio. In some sources this behavior is so extreme that the radio emission peak is located clearly downstream of that of the X-rays. This is a rather unanticipated behavior given that the inverse Compton nature of the X-rays and the synchrotron radio emission are attributed to roughly the same electrons of the jet's nonthermal electron distribution. In this letter we show that this morphological behavior can result from the gradual deceleration of a relativistic flow and that the offsets in peak emission at different wavelengths carry the imprint of this deceleration. This notion is consistent with another recent finding, namely, that the jets feeding the terminal hot spots of powerful radio galaxies and quasars are still relativistic with Lorentz factors GAMMA approximately 2-3. The picture of the kinematics of powerful jets emerging from these considerations is that they remain relativistic as they gradually decelerate from kiloparsec scales to the hot spots, where, in a final collision with the intergalactic medium, they slow down rapidly to the subrelativistic velocities of the hot spot advance speed.

  4. Laser and Pulsed Power Electron Density Imaging Through Talbot-Lau X-ray Deflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdivia Leiva, Maria Pia; Stutman, Dan; Stoeckl, Christian; Mileham, Chad; Begischev, Ildar; Theobald, Wolfgang; Bromage, Jake; Regan, Sean; Klein, Salee; Muñoz-Cordovez, Gonzalo; Vescovi, Milenko; Valenzuela-Villaseca, Vicente; Veloso, Felipe

    2016-10-01

    A Talbot-Lau X-ray Deflectometer was deployed using laser driven and x-pinch x-ray backlighters. The Talbot-Lau X-ray Deflectometer is an ideal electron density diagnostic for High Energy Density plasmas with the potential to simultaneously deliver x-ray refraction, attenuation, elemental composition, and scatter information from a single image with source limited resolution. Grating survival and electron density mapping was demonstrated for 10-29 J, 8-30 ps laser pulses using Cu foil targets at the Multi-TeraWatt facility. An areal electron density of 0.050 g/cm2 was obtained at the center of a fluoro-nylon fiber of 300 mm diameter with a source FWHM of 80 µm and resolution of 50 µm. Grating survival and Moiré pattern formation was demonstrated using a Cu x-pinch plasma of FWHM 27 µm, driven by the 350 kA, 350 ns Llampudken pulsed power generator. These results closely match simulations and laboratory results. It was demonstrated that the technique can detect both sharp and smooth density gradients in the range of 2x1023 to 2x1025 cm-3, thus allowing implementation of the electron density technique as a HED plasma diagnostic in both laser and pulsed power experiments U.S. DoE/NNSA and DE-NA0002955.

  5. Diagnosing x-ray power and energy of tungsten wire array z-pinch with a flat spectral response x-ray diode

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Kun-lun; Ren, Xiao-dong; Huang, Xian-bin Zhang, Si-qun; Zhou, Shao-tong; Dan, Jia-kun; Li, Jing; Xu, Qiang; Ouyang, Kai; Cai, Hong-chun; Wei, Bing; Ji, Ce; Feng, Shu-ping; Wang, Meng; Xie, Wei-ping; Deng, Jian-jun

    2015-11-15

    Fast z-pinch is a very efficient way of converting electromagnetic energy to radiation. With an 8-10 MA current on primary test stand facility, about 1 MJ electromagnetic energy is delivered to vacuum chamber, which heats z-pinch plasma to radiate soft x-ray. To develop a pulsed high power x-ray source, we studied the applicability of diagnosing x-ray power from tungsten wire array z-pinch with a flat spectral response x-ray diode (FSR-XRD). The detector was originally developed to diagnose radiation of a hohlraum in SG-III prototype laser facility. It utilized a gold cathode XRD and a specially configured compound gold filter to yield a nearly flat spectral response in photon energy range of 0.1-4 keV. In practice, it was critical to avoid surface contamination of gold cathode. It is illustrated that an exposure of an XRD to multiple shots caused a significant change of response. Thus, in diagnosing x-ray power and energy, we used each XRD in only one shot after calibration. In a shot serial, output of FSR-XRD was compared with output of a nickel bolometer. In these shots, the outputs agreed with each other within their uncertainties which were about 12% for FSR-XRD and about 15% for bolometer. Moreover, the ratios between the FSR-XRD and the bolometer among different shots were explored. In 8 shots, the standard deviation of the ratio was 6%. It is comparable to XRD response change of 7%.

  6. Diagnosing x-ray power and energy of tungsten wire array z-pinch with a flat spectral response x-ray diode.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kun-lun; Ren, Xiao-dong; Huang, Xian-bin; Zhang, Si-qun; Zhou, Shao-tong; Dan, Jia-kun; Li, Jing; Xu, Qiang; Ouyang, Kai; Cai, Hong-chun; Wei, Bing; Ji, Ce; Feng, Shu-ping; Wang, Meng; Xie, Wei-ping; Deng, Jian-jun

    2015-11-01

    Fast z-pinch is a very efficient way of converting electromagnetic energy to radiation. With an 8-10 MA current on primary test stand facility, about 1 MJ electromagnetic energy is delivered to vacuum chamber, which heats z-pinch plasma to radiate soft x-ray. To develop a pulsed high power x-ray source, we studied the applicability of diagnosing x-ray power from tungsten wire array z-pinch with a flat spectral response x-ray diode (FSR-XRD). The detector was originally developed to diagnose radiation of a hohlraum in SG-III prototype laser facility. It utilized a gold cathode XRD and a specially configured compound gold filter to yield a nearly flat spectral response in photon energy range of 0.1-4 keV. In practice, it was critical to avoid surface contamination of gold cathode. It is illustrated that an exposure of an XRD to multiple shots caused a significant change of response. Thus, in diagnosing x-ray power and energy, we used each XRD in only one shot after calibration. In a shot serial, output of FSR-XRD was compared with output of a nickel bolometer. In these shots, the outputs agreed with each other within their uncertainties which were about 12% for FSR-XRD and about 15% for bolometer. Moreover, the ratios between the FSR-XRD and the bolometer among different shots were explored. In 8 shots, the standard deviation of the ratio was 6%. It is comparable to XRD response change of 7%.

  7. BOOK REVIEW: Rotation and Accretion Powered Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaspi, V. M.

    2008-03-01

    Pulsar astrophysics has come a long way in the 40 years since the discovery of the first pulsar by Bell and Hewish. From humble beginnings as bits of 'scruff' on the Cambridge University group's chart recorder paper, the field of pulsars has blossomed into a major area of mainstream astrophysics, with an unparalleled diversity of astrophysical applications. These range from Nobel-celebrated testing of general relativity in the strong-field regime to constraining the equation-of-state of ultradense matter; from probing the winds of massive stars to globular cluster evolution. Previous notable books on the subject of pulsars have tended to focus on some particular topic in the field. The classic text Pulsars by Manchester and Taylor (1977 San Francisco, CA: Freeman) targeted almost exclusively rotation-powered radio pulsars, while the Mészáros book High-Energy Radiation from Magnetized Neutron Stars (1992 Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press) considered both rotation- and accretion-powered neutron stars, but focused on their radiation at x-ray energies and above. The recent book Neutron Stars 1 by Haensel et al (2007 Berlin: Springer) considers only the equation of state and neutron-star structure. Into this context appears Rotation and Accretion Powered Pulsars, by Pranab Ghosh. In contrast to other books, here the author takes an encyclopedic approach and attempts to synthesize practically all of the major aspects of the two main types of neutron star. This is ambitious. The only comparable undertaking is the useful but more elementary Lyne and Graham-Smith text Pulsar Astronomy (1998 Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), or Compact Stellar X-ray Sources (eds Lewin and van der Klis, 2006 Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), an anthology of technical review articles that also includes black hole topics. Rotation and Accretion Powered Pulsars thus fills a clear void in the field, providing a readable, graduate-level book that covers nearly everything you

  8. Magnet power supply control of the NSLS VUV and x-ray storage rings transfer lines

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J.D.; Ramamoorthy, S.; Singh, O.; Smith, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    The transfer lines for NSLS VUV and x-ray storage rings have been split. New power supplies have been incorporated with existing ones. The existing microprocessor system has been upgraded in order to control the additional functions. This system expands the input/output port of the microprocessor to an addressable serial/parallel link to each magnet power supply. The implementation of this system will be discussed.

  9. Characterisation of flash X-ray source generated by Kali-1000 Pulse Power System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satyanarayana, N.; Durga Prasada Rao, A.; Mittal, K. C.

    2016-02-01

    The electron beam-driven Rod Pinch Diode (RPD) is presently fielded on KALI-1000 Pulse Power System at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Visakhapatnam and is a leading candidate for future flash X-ray radiographic sources. The diode is capable of producing less than 2-mm radiation spot sizes and greater than 350 milli rads of dose measured at 1 m from the X-ray source. KALI-1000 Pulse Power Source is capable of delivering up to 600 kV using a Tesla Transformer with Demineralized Insulated Transmission Line (DITL), the diode typically operates between 250-330 kV . Since the radiation dose has a power-law dependence on diode voltage, this limits the dose production on KALI-1000 system. Radiation dose with angular variation is measured using thermoluminescent detectors (TLD's) and the X-ray spot size is measured using pin hole arrangement with image plate (IP) to obtain the time-integrated source profile as well as a time-resolved spot diagnostic. An X-ray pinhole camera was used to pick out where the energetic e-beam connects to the anode. Ideally the diode should function such that the radiation is emitted from the tip. The camera was mounted perpendicular to the machine's axis to view the radiation from the tip. Comparison of the spot sizes of the X-ray sources obtained by the pin hole and rolled edge arrangements was carried and results obtained by both the techniques are with in ± 10% of the average values.

  10. X-RAY OBSERVATIONAL SIGNATURE OF A BLACK HOLE ACCRETION DISK IN AN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS RX J1633+4718

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, W.; Liu, B. F.; Zhou, H.; Wang, T. G.

    2010-11-01

    We report the discovery of a luminous ultra-soft X-ray excess in a radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy, RX J1633+4718, from archival ROSAT observations. The thermal temperature of this emission, when fitted with a blackbody, is as low as 32.5{sup +8.0}{sub -6.0} eV. This is in remarkable contrast to the canonical temperatures of {approx}0.1-0.2 keV found hitherto for the soft X-ray excess in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and is interestingly close to the maximum temperature predicted for a postulated accretion disk in this object. If this emission is indeed blackbody in nature, the derived luminosity (3.5{sup +3.3}{sub -1.5} x 10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1}) infers a compact emitting area with a size ({approx}5 x 10{sup 12} cm or 0.33 AU in radius) that is comparable to several times the Schwarzschild radius of a black hole (BH) at the mass estimated for this AGN ({approx}3 x 10{sup 6} M{sub sun}). In fact, this ultra-steep X-ray emission can be well fitted as the (Compton scattered) Wien tail of the multi-temperature blackbody emission from an optically thick accretion disk, whose inferred parameters (BH mass and accretion rate) are in good agreement with independent estimates using the optical emission-line spectrum. We thus consider this feature as a signature of the long-sought X-ray radiation directly from a disk around a supermassive BH, presenting observational evidence for a BH accretion disk in the AGN. Future observations with better data quality, together with improved independent measurements of the BH mass, may constrain the spin of the BH.

  11. High power, short pulses ultraviolet laser for the development of a new x-ray laser

    SciTech Connect

    Meixler, L.; Nam, C.H.; Robinson, J.; Tighe, W.; Krushelnick, K.; Suckewer, S.; Goldhar, J.; Seely, J.; Feldman, U.

    1989-04-01

    A high power, short pulse ultraviolet laser system (Powerful Picosecond-Laser) has been developed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) as part of experiments designed to generate shorter wavelength x-ray lasers. With the addition of pulse compression and a final KrF amplifier the laser output is expected to have reached 1/3-1/2 TW (10/sup 12/ watts) levels. The laser system, particularly the final amplifier, is described along with some initial soft x-ray spectra from laser-target experiments. The front end of the PP-Laser provides an output of 20--30 GW (10/sup 9/ watts) and can be focussed to intensities of /approximately/10/sup 16/ W/cm/sup 2/. Experiments using this output to examine the effects of a prepulse on laser-target interaction are described. 19 refs., 14 figs.

  12. Probing Accretion in Magnetic Cataclysmic Variables from High Time Resolution Optical Photometry and X-ray Observations from ASTROSAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, David; Marsh, Tom; Revnivtsev, Mikhail; Bonnet-Bidaud, Jean-Marc; Mouchet, Martine; Pal Singh, Kulinder; Semena, Andrey; Dhillon, Vik; Breytenbach, Hannes; Irawati, Puji; Potter, Stephen

    2016-07-01

    We present results from an on-going program of high speed CCD photometry of magnetic cataclysmic variables (mCVs) aimed at characterizing their high frequency (˜0.1-10 Hz) optical variability. In particular, we have been actively attempting to detect Quasi-Periodic Oscillations in many Polars, indicative of shock instabilities in their accretion columns. We have used a variety of instruments for this purpose, including the EM-CCD based SHOC camera on the SAAO 1.9-m telescope, SALTICAM and BVIT on SALT and Ultraspec on the TNO 2.5-m telescope. While we have detected QPOs seen before in the systems V834 Cen and VV Pup, we have only found evidence for one new detection, namely for 2MASS J19283247-5001344, an eclipsing polar. This may indicate that QPOs are somewhat of a rarity in Polars. We have also seen evidence for lower frequency QPOs, with characteristic timescales of 10s of seconds to several minutes. In addition, we have been investigating the nature of the breaks in the Power Density Spectra (νF_ν) power law for Intermediate Polars (e.g. EX Hya). This may give clues to the size of the inner radius of the accretion disc, where the magnetosphere begins to dominate the accretion flow. Finally, results of our recent ASTROSAT program on mCVs will be discussed.

  13. How DARHT Works - the World's Most Powerful X-ray Machine

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory is an essential scientific tool that supports Stockpile Stewardship at the Laboratory. The World's most powerful x-ray machine, it's used to take high-speed images of mock nuclear devices - data that is used to confirm and modify advanced computer codes in assuring the safety, security, and effectiveness of the U.S. nuclear deterrent.

  14. A New Deep, Hard X-ray Survey of M31: Monitoring Black Hole and Neutron Star Accretion States in the X-ray Binary Population of Our Nearest Neighbor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wik, Daniel R.; Hornschemeier, Ann E.; Yukita, Mihoko; Ptak, Andrew; Lehmer, Bret; Maccarone, Thomas J.; Antoniou, Vallia; Zezas, Andreas; Harrison, Fiona; Stern, Daniel; Venters, Tonia M.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Eracleous, Michael; Plucinsky, Paul P.; Pooley, David A.

    2016-01-01

    X-ray binaries (XRBs) trace old and new stellar populations in galaxies, and thus star formation history and star formation rate. X-ray emission from XRBs may be responsible for significant amounts of heating of the early Intergalactic Medium at Cosmic Dawn and may also play a significant role in reionization. Until recently, the hard emission from these populations could only be studied for XRBs in our own galaxy, where it is often difficult to measure accurate distances and thus luminosities. The launch of NuSTAR, the first focusing hard X-ray observatory, has allowed us to resolve the brightest XRBs (down to LX ~ few times 1038 erg/s) in galaxies like NGC 253, M83, and M82 up to 4 Mpc away. To reach much lower X-ray luminosities that are more typical of XRBs in the Milky Way (LX <~ 1037 erg/s), we have observed M31 in 3 NuSTAR fields, up to 5 visits apiece for more than 1 Ms total exposure, mostly within the footprint of the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury (PHAT) Survey. Our monitoring campaign reveals over 40 accreting black holes and neutron stars -- distinguished from each other by their spectral shape in the hard band -- some of which undergo state changes over the month-long timescales captured by our legacy survey to date. We also discuss implications for this updated understanding of XRB populations on early-Universe measurements in, e.g., the 7 Ms Chandra Deep Field survey.

  15. Measuring the X-ray Resolving Power of Bent Potassium Acid Phthalate Diffraction Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Haugh, M. J.; Wu, M.; Jacoby, K. D.; Loisel, G. P.

    2014-11-01

    This report presents the results from measuring the X-ray resolving power of a curved potassium acid phthalate (KAP(001)) spectrometer crystal using two independent methods. It is part of a continuing effort to measure the fundamental diffraction properties of bent crystals that are used to study various characteristics of high temperature plasmas. Bent crystals like KAP(001) do not usually have the same diffraction properties as corresponding flat crystals. Models that do exist to calculate the effect of bending the crystal on the diffraction properties have simplifying assumptions and their accuracy limits have not been adequately determined. The type of crystals that we measured is being used in a spectrometer on the Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The first technique for measuring the crystal resolving power measures the X-ray spectral line width of the characteristic lines from several metal anodes. The second method uses a diode X-ray source and a dual goniometer arrangement to measure the reflectivity curve of the KAP(001) crystal. The width of that curve is inversely proportional to the crystal resolving power. The measurement results are analyzed and discussed.

  16. Measuring the x-ray resolving power of bent potassium acid phthalate diffraction crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Haugh, M. J. Jacoby, K. D.; Wu, M.; Loisel, G. P.

    2014-11-15

    This report presents the results from measuring the X-ray resolving power of a curved potassium acid phthalate (KAP(001)) spectrometer crystal using two independent methods. It is part of a continuing effort to measure the fundamental diffraction properties of bent crystals that are used to study various characteristics of high temperature plasmas. Bent crystals like KAP(001) do not usually have the same diffraction properties as corresponding flat crystals. Models that do exist to calculate the effect of bending the crystal on the diffraction properties have simplifying assumptions and their accuracy limits have not been adequately determined. The type of crystals that we measured is being used in a spectrometer on the Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The first technique for measuring the crystal resolving power measures the X-ray spectral line width of the characteristic lines from several metal anodes. The second method uses a diode X-ray source and a double crystal diffractometer arrangement to measure the reflectivity curve of the KAP(001) crystal. The width of that curve is inversely proportional to the crystal resolving power. The measurement results are analyzed and discussed.

  17. Wire Array Z-pinch Insights for Intense X-ray Power Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanford, T. W. L.

    1998-11-01

    The discovery [1] that the use of very large numbers of wires enables high x- ray power to be generated from wire-array z-pinches represents a breakthrough in load design for large pulsed power generators, and has permitted high temperatures to be generated in radiation cavities [2] on Saturn [3] and Z [4]. In this paper, changes in x-ray emission characteristics as a function of wire number, array mass, and load radius, for 20-mm-long aluminum arrays on Saturn that led to these breakthrough hohlraum results, are discussed and compared with a few related emission characteristics of high-wire-number aluminum and tungsten arrays on Z. In this discussion, the detailed measurements made with bolometers, filtered XRDs and PCDs, time resolved filtered x-ray pinhole cameras and crystal spectrometers are given meaning by comparison with one, two, and three dimensional radiation-magnetohydrodynamic code simulations. [1] T. W. L. Sanford, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5063 (1996). [2] M. K. Matzen, Phys. Plasmas 4, 1519 (1997). [3] D. D. Bloomquist, et al., Proc. 6th Int. IEEE Pulsed Power Conf., (1987), p. 310. [4] R. B. Spielman, et al., Phys. Plasmas 5, 2105 (1998).

  18. Measuring the x-ray resolving power of bent potassium acid phthalate diffraction crystals.

    PubMed

    Haugh, M J; Wu, M; Jacoby, K D; Loisel, G P

    2014-11-01

    This report presents the results from measuring the X-ray resolving power of a curved potassium acid phthalate (KAP(001)) spectrometer crystal using two independent methods. It is part of a continuing effort to measure the fundamental diffraction properties of bent crystals that are used to study various characteristics of high temperature plasmas. Bent crystals like KAP(001) do not usually have the same diffraction properties as corresponding flat crystals. Models that do exist to calculate the effect of bending the crystal on the diffraction properties have simplifying assumptions and their accuracy limits have not been adequately determined. The type of crystals that we measured is being used in a spectrometer on the Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The first technique for measuring the crystal resolving power measures the X-ray spectral line width of the characteristic lines from several metal anodes. The second method uses a diode X-ray source and a double crystal diffractometer arrangement to measure the reflectivity curve of the KAP(001) crystal. The width of that curve is inversely proportional to the crystal resolving power. The measurement results are analyzed and discussed.

  19. Measuring the x-ray resolving power of bent potassium acid phthalate diffraction crystalsa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haugh, M. J.; Wu, M.; Jacoby, K. D.; Loisel, G. P.

    2014-11-01

    This report presents the results from measuring the X-ray resolving power of a curved potassium acid phthalate (KAP(001)) spectrometer crystal using two independent methods. It is part of a continuing effort to measure the fundamental diffraction properties of bent crystals that are used to study various characteristics of high temperature plasmas. Bent crystals like KAP(001) do not usually have the same diffraction properties as corresponding flat crystals. Models that do exist to calculate the effect of bending the crystal on the diffraction properties have simplifying assumptions and their accuracy limits have not been adequately determined. The type of crystals that we measured is being used in a spectrometer on the Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The first technique for measuring the crystal resolving power measures the X-ray spectral line width of the characteristic lines from several metal anodes. The second method uses a diode X-ray source and a double crystal diffractometer arrangement to measure the reflectivity curve of the KAP(001) crystal. The width of that curve is inversely proportional to the crystal resolving power. The measurement results are analyzed and discussed.

  20. On the Nature of the Variability Power Decay towards Soft Spectral States in X-Ray Binaries. Case Study in Cyg X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titarchuk, Lev; Shaposhinikov, Nikolai

    2007-01-01

    A characteristic feature of the Fourier Power Density Spectrum (PDS) observed from black hole X-ray binaries in low/hard and intermediate spectral states is a broad band-limited noise, characterized by a constant below some frequency (a "break" frequency) and a power law above this frequency. It has been shown that the variability of this type can be produced by the inward diffusion of the local driving perturbations in a bounded configuration (accretion disk or corona). In the framework of this model, the perturbation diffusion time to is related to the phenomenological break frequency, while the PDS power-law slope above the "break" is determined by the viscosity distribution over the configuration. The perturbation diffusion scenario explains the decay of the power of X-ray variability observed in a number of compact sources (containing black hole and neutron star) during an evolution of theses sources from low/hard to high/soft states. We compare the model predictions with the subset of data from Cyg X-1 collected by the Rossi X-ray Time Explorer (RXTE). Our extensive analysis of the Cyg X-1 PDSs demonstrates that the observed integrated power P(sub x), decreases approximately as a square root of the characteristic frequency of the driving oscillations v(sub dr). The RXTE observations of Cyg X-1 allow us to infer P(sub dr), and t(sub o) as a function of v(sub dr). We also apply the basic parameters of observed PDSs, power-law index and low frequency quasiperiodic oscillations. to infer Reynolds (Re) number from the observations using the method developed in our previous paper. Our analysis shows that Re-number increases from values about 10 in low/hard state to that about 70 during the high/soft state. Subject headings: accretion, accretion disks-black hole physics-stars:individual (Cyg X-1) :radiation mechanisms: nonthermal-physical data and processes

  1. The Power at the Heart of Symbiotic Stars - Interpreting a Megasecond of X-ray and UV Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokoloski, Jennifer

    The goal of the proposed research is to find the dominant source of power -- accretion or nuclear shell burning -- for a large sample of symbiotic binary stars. Symbiotic stars are interacting binary stars in which a white dwarf accretes from the wind of a red-giant companion. For many symbiotics, clarifying the fundamental source of power is necessary for the determination of almost every one of their other key characteristics, such as the rate at which is transfered between the two stars and the mass of the accreting white dwarf. In a symbiotic binary, the hot white dwarf ionizes the surrounding wind from the red giant, which then produces high excitation emission lines. At a basic level, the ionizing flux from the hot white dwarf is the product of mass transfer from the red-giant companion. In some systems, however, much of the luminosity is due to this material being burned quasi-steadily on the surface of the WD. And since nuclear burning on at the surface of a white dwarf releases approximately 50 times more energy per nucleon than accretion, shell-burning dominates the energetics when it is present. Without a grasp of whether accretion alone or shell burning drives the optical through X-ray emission, as well as the observed outflows and eruptions, it has been difficult to extract information about typical rates of mass transfer in these binaries, the origin of the shell burning, or the interpretation of many of the observables. Now, thanks to the Swift satellite, we have found a way to move forward. We recently discovered that the source of power can be gleaned from the amplitude of rapid variations in the ultraviolet (UV) brightness, which are referred to as flickering. For this project, we will therefore use Swift observations of an existing sample of 69 symbiotic stars to determine the source of power for the majority of these targets. UV flickering reveals the source of power because white-dwarf accretion disks produce UV flickering. When shell

  2. Jet and accretion power in the most powerful Fermi blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghisellini, G.; Tavecchio, F.; Ghirlanda, G.

    2009-11-01

    Among the blazars detected by the Fermi satellite, we have selected the 23 blazars that in the 3months of survey had an average γ-ray luminosity above 1048ergs-1. For 17 out of the 23 sources we found and analysed X-ray and optical-ultraviolet data taken by the Swift satellite. With these data, implemented by archival and not simultaneous data, we construct the spectral energy distributions, and interpreted them with a simple one-zone, leptonic, synchrotron and inverse Compton model. When possible, we also compare different high-energy states of single sources, like 0528+134 and 3C454.3, for which multiple good sets of multiwavelength data are available. In our powerful blazars the high energy emission always dominates the electromagnetic output, and the relatively low level of the synchrotron radiation often does not hide the accretion disc emission. We can then constrain the black hole mass and the disc luminosity. Both are large (i.e. masses equal or greater than 109M solar and disc luminosities above 10 per cent of Eddington). By modelling the non-thermal continuum we derive the power that the jet carries in the form of bulk motion of particles and fields. On average, the jet power is found to be slightly larger than the disc luminosity, and proportional to the mass accretion rate.

  3. Polarisation modulation in X-ray binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingram, Adam; Maccarone, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    X-ray polarimetry promises to provide a powerful new lever arm for studying accretion onto black holes with the next generation of X-ray telescopes. I will discuss how polarisation can be used to help constrain the physical origin of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) observed in the X-ray light curves of accreting black holes. QPOs may be signatures of the frame dragging effect: in General Relativity, a spinning black hole twists up the surrounding space-time, causing vertical precession of nearby orbits. In the truncated disc / precessing inner flow model, the entire inner accretion flow precesses as a solid body causing a modulation in the X-ray flux through solid angle and Doppler effects. This model also predicts the observed polarisation of the X-ray signal to vary quasi-periodically. I will summarise our work to model the polarisation signal from a precessing accretion flow, starting with simple assumptions about the emission mechanism but taking General Relativity fully into account. We find that it should be possible to measure the predicted modulation in polarisation degree for a reasonable region of parameter space with a polarimeter capable of detecting ~60 counts per second from a bright black hole binary. I will also show that sensitivity can be greatly improved by correlating the signal with a high count rate reference band signal.

  4. Spatial power-spectra from Yohkoh soft X-ray images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martens, Petrus C. H.; Gomez, Daniel O.

    1992-01-01

    We analyze three sequences of images from active regions, and a full disk image obtained by Yohkoh's Soft X-ray Telescope. Two sequences are from a region at center disk observed through different filters, and one sequence is from the limb. After Fourier-transforming the X-ray intensity of the images we find nearly isotropic power-spectra with an azimuthally integrated slope of -2.1 for the center disk, and -2.8 for the limb images. The full-disk picture yields a spectrum of -2.4. These results are different from the active region spectra obtained with the Normal Incidence X-ray Telescope which have a slope of the order of -3.0, and we ascribe this to the difference in temperature response between the instruments. However, both the SXT and NIXT results are consistent with coronal heating as the end result of a downward quasistatic cascade (in lengthscales) of free magnetic energy in the corona, driven by footpoint motions in the photosphere.

  5. The effect of accretion on the measurement of neutron star mass and radius in the low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1608-52

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poutanen, Juri; Nättilä, Joonas; Kajava, Jari J. E.; Latvala, Outi-Marja; Galloway, Duncan K.; Kuulkers, Erik; Suleimanov, Valery F.

    2014-08-01

    Spectral measurements of thermonuclear (type I) X-ray bursts from low-mass X-ray binaries have been used to measure neutron star (NS) masses and radii. A number of systematic issues affect such measurements and have raised concerns as to the robustness of the methods. We present analysis of the X-ray emission from bursts observed from 4U 1608-52 at various persistent fluxes. We find a strong dependence of the burst properties on the flux and spectral hardness of the persistent emission before burst. Bursts occurring during the low accretion rate (hard) state exhibit evolution of the blackbody normalization consistent with the theoretical predictions of NS atmosphere models. However, bursts occurring during the high accretion rate (soft) state show roughly constant normalization, which is inconsistent with the NS atmosphere models and therefore these bursts cannot be easily used to determine NS parameters. We analyse the hard-state burst to put the lower limit on the NS radius R in 4U 1608-52 of 12 km (for masses 1.0-2.4 M⊙). We constrain R to be between 13 and 16 km for masses 1.2-1.6 M⊙. The best agreement with the theoretical NS mass-radius relations is achieved for source distances in the range 3.1-3.7 kpc. We expect that the radius limit will be 10 per cent lower if spectral models including rapid rotation are used instead.

  6. Soft x-ray blazed transmission grating spectrometer with high resolving power and extended bandpass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilmann, Ralf K.; Bruccoleri, Alexander Robert; Schattenburg, Mark

    2016-04-01

    A number of high priority questions in astrophysics can be addressed by a state-of-the-art soft x-ray grating spectrometer, such as the role of Active Galactic Nuclei in galaxy and star formation, characterization of the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium and the “missing baryon” problem, characterization of halos around the Milky Way and nearby galaxies, as well as stellar coronae and surrounding winds and disks. An Explorer-scale, large-area (> 1,000 cm2), high resolving power (R = λ/Δλ > 3,000) soft x-ray grating spectrometer is highly feasible based on Critical-Angle Transmission (CAT) grating technology. Still significantly higher performance can be provided by a CAT grating spectrometer on an X-ray-Surveyor-type mission. CAT gratings combine the advantages of blazed reflection gratings (high efficiency, use of higher diffraction orders) with those of conventional transmission gratings (low mass, relaxed alignment tolerances and temperature requirements, transparent at higher energies) with minimal mission resource requirements. They are high-efficiency blazed transmission gratings that consist of freestanding, ultra-high aspect-ratio grating bars fabricated from silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers using advanced anisotropic dry and wet etch techniques. Blazing is achieved through grazing-incidence reflection off the smooth grating bar sidewalls. The reflection properties of silicon are well matched to the soft x-ray band. Nevertheless, CAT gratings with sidewalls made of higher atomic number elements allow extension of the CAT grating principle to higher energies and larger dispersion angles. We show x-ray data from metal-coated CAT gratings and demonstrate efficient blazing to higher energies and larger blaze angles than possible with silicon alone. We also report on measurements of the resolving power of a breadboard CAT grating spectrometer consisting of a Wolter-I slumped-glass focusing mirror pair from Goddard Space Flight Center and CAT gratings, to be

  7. NUSTAR and SUZAKU X-ray spectroscopy of NGC 4151: Evidence for reflection from the inner accretion disk

    SciTech Connect

    Keck, M. L.; Brenneman, L. W.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Bauer, F.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Dauser, T.; Elvis, M.; Fabian, A. C.; Fuerst, F.; García, J.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Madejski, G.; Marinucci, A.; Matt, G.; Reynolds, C. S.; Stern, D.; Walton, D. J.; Zoghbi, A.

    2015-06-15

    We present X-ray timing and spectral analyses of simultaneous 150 ks Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) and Suzaku X-ray observations of the Seyfert 1.5 galaxy NGC 4151. We disentangle the continuum emission, absorption, and reflection properties of the active galactic nucleus (AGN) by applying inner accretion disk reflection and absorption-dominated models. With a time-averaged spectral analysis, we find strong evidence for relativistic reflection from the inner accretion disk. We find that relativistic emission arises from a highly ionized inner accretion disk with a steep emissivity profile, which suggests an intense, compact illuminating source. We find a preliminary, near-maximal black hole spin $a\\gt 0.9$ accounting for statistical and systematic modeling errors. We find a relatively moderate reflection fraction with respect to predictions for the lamp post geometry, in which the illuminating corona is modeled as a point source. Through a time-resolved spectral analysis, we find that modest coronal and inner disk reflection (IDR) flux variation drives the spectral variability during the observations. As a result, we discuss various physical scenarios for the IDR model and we find that a compact corona is consistent with the observed features.

  8. A Direct Linkage between AGN Outflows in the Narrow-line Regions and the X-Ray Emission from the Accretion Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Xu, D. W.; Wei, J. Y.

    2016-03-01

    The origin of outflow in the narrow-line region (NLR) of the active galactic nucleus (AGN) is studied in this paper by focusing on the relationship between the [O iii]λ5007 line profile and the hard-X-ray (in a bandpass of 2-10 keV) emission from the central super-massive black hole (SMBH) in type-I AGNs. A sample of 47 local X-ray selected type-I AGNs at z\\lt 0.2 is extracted from the 2XMMi/SDSS-DR7 catalog, which was originally cross-matched by Pineau et al. The X-ray luminosities in an energy band from 2 to 10 keV of these luminous AGNs range from 1042 to {10}44 {erg} {{{s}}}-1. A joint spectral analysis is performed on their optical and X-ray spectra, in which the [O iii] line profile is modeled by a sum of several Gaussian functions to quantify its deviation from a pure Gaussian function. The statistics allow us to identify a moderate correlation with a significance level of 2.78σ: luminous AGNs with stronger [O iii] blue asymmetry tend to have steeper hard-X-ray spectra. By identifying the role of L/{L}{Edd} on the correlation at a 2-3σ significance level in both direct and indirect ways, we argue that the photon index versus the asymmetry correlation provides evidence that the AGN’s outflow commonly observed in its NLR is related to the accretion process occurring around the central SMBH, which favors the wind/radiation model as the origin of the outflow in luminous AGNs.

  9. Constraining high-redshift X-ray sources with next generation 21-cm power spectrum measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewall-Wice, Aaron; Hewitt, Jacqueline; Mesinger, Andrei; Dillon, Joshua S.; Liu, Adrian; Pober, Jonathan

    2016-05-01

    We use the Fisher matrix formalism and seminumerical simulations to derive quantitative predictions of the constraints that power spectrum measurements on next-generation interferometers, such as the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA) and the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), will place on the characteristics of the X-ray sources that heated the high-redshift intergalactic medium. Incorporating observations between z = 5 and 25, we find that the proposed 331 element HERA and SKA phase 1 will be capable of placing ≲ 10 per cent constraints on the spectral properties of these first X-ray sources, even if one is unable to perform measurements within the foreground contaminated `wedge' or the FM band. When accounting for the enhancement in power spectrum amplitude from spin temperature fluctuations, we find that the observable signatures of reionization extend well beyond the peak in the power spectrum usually associated with it. We also find that lower redshift degeneracies between the signatures of heating and reionization physics lead to errors on reionization parameters that are significantly greater than previously predicted. Observations over the heating epoch are able to break these degeneracies and improve our constraints considerably. For these two reasons, 21-cm observations during the heating epoch significantly enhance our understanding of reionization as well.

  10. In-Air X-Ray Detectors : A New Field of Simple and Powerful Beam Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Scheidt, Kees

    2006-11-20

    Crotch or beamport absorbers deal with the unused power of the synchrotron radiation generated by dipoles in electron storage rings. A tiny fraction of the very hard X-rays fully penetrate the absorber structure and enter the free air space behind it. Both at the ESRF (6GeV) and at ANKA (2.5GeV) it was shown that this tiny leakage power can be detected by a simple, compact and low-cost device consisting of a scintillator with optics and camera. Situated In-Air just behind the absorber it measures precisely the vertical electron beamsize. This imaging detector is also applied for 1 us, 5mA single shot measurements in the ESRF transfer-line. A 2nd detector type was developed, using the same leakage X-rays, that consists of a high-Z blade in combination with a small In-Air ionization volume. It generates a direct electric signal that is used for nanometer resolution measurements of vertical beam motion in a spectrum upto 1KHz. The concept and results of both types of detector used now in various applications are reported here that show their potential for simple and powerful beam diagnostics.

  11. Accretion Disk Spectra of the Ultra-luminous X-ray Sources in Nearby Spiral Galaxies and Galactic Superluminal Jet Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor); Ebisawa, Ken; Zycki, Piotr; Kubota, Aya; Mizuno, Tsunefumi; Watarai, Ken-ya

    2003-01-01

    Ultra-luminous Compact X-ray Sources (ULXs) in nearby spiral galaxies and Galactic superluminal jet sources share the common spectral characteristic that they have unusually high disk temperatures which cannot be explained in the framework of the standard optically thick accretion disk in the Schwarzschild metric. On the other hand, the standard accretion disk around the Kerr black hole might explain the observed high disk temperature, as the inner radius of the Kerr disk gets smaller and the disk temperature can be consequently higher. However, we point out that the observable Kerr disk spectra becomes significantly harder than Schwarzschild disk spectra only when the disk is highly inclined. This is because the emission from the innermost part of the accretion disk is Doppler-boosted for an edge-on Kerr disk, while hardly seen for a face-on disk. The Galactic superluminal jet sources are known to be highly inclined systems, thus their energy spectra may be explained with the standard Kerr disk with known black hole masses. For ULXs, on the other hand, the standard Kerr disk model seems implausible, since it is highly unlikely that their accretion disks are preferentially inclined, and, if edge-on Kerr disk model is applied, the black hole mass becomes unreasonably large (greater than or approximately equal to 300 Solar Mass). Instead, the slim disk (advection dominated optically thick disk) model is likely to explain the observed super- Eddington luminosities, hard energy spectra, and spectral variations of ULXs. We suggest that ULXs are accreting black holes with a few tens of solar mass, which is not unexpected from the standard stellar evolution scenario, and their X-ray emission is from the slim disk shining at super-Eddington luminosities.

  12. The ultrafast high-peak power lasers in future biomedical and medical x-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kieffer, J. C.; Fourmaux, S.; Krol, A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews recent progresses in ultrafast laser-based X-ray sources and their potential applications to high throughput X-ray imaging. Prospects for the utilization of X-rays sources related to the Laser Wakefield electron Acceleration (LWFA) are more specifically discussed with emphasis on application in diagnostic radiology.

  13. THE FIRST HARD X-RAY POWER SPECTRAL DENSITY FUNCTIONS OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS

    SciTech Connect

    Shimizu, T. Taro; Mushotzky, Richard F.

    2013-06-10

    We present results of our power spectral density (PSD) analysis of 30 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) using the 58 month light curves from Swift's Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) in the 14-150 keV band. PSDs were fit using a Monte Carlo based algorithm to take into account windowing effects and measurement error. All but one source were found to be fit very well using an unbroken power law with a slope of {approx} - 1, consistent at low frequencies with previous studies in the 2-10 keV band, with no evidence of a break in the PSD. For five of the highest signal-to-noise ratio sources, we tested the energy dependence of the PSD and found no significant difference in the PSD at different energies. Unlike previous studies of X-ray variability in AGNs, we do not find any significant correlations between the hard X-ray variability and different properties of the AGN including luminosity and black hole mass. The lack of break frequencies and correlations seem to indicate that AGNs are similar to the high state of Galactic black holes.

  14. X-ray Power and Energy output of Z-Machine Dynamic Hohlraums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idzorek, G.; Tierney, T.; Watt, R.

    2006-10-01

    Los Alamos performs radiation flow experiments at the Z-machine in order to verify their modelling codes. Critical input to these codes is the actual radiation power profile which flows into the experiment. Our standard diagnostic suite consists of X-ray Diodes (XRD), silicon photodiodes, and nickel thin film bolometers. Custom written computer software examines the raw data to determine the data quality, folds in detector spectral response, calculates a multi-detector spectral unfold, and yields an equivalent Planckian temperature profile. Sets of diagnostics view the dynamic hohlraum from the side, top axial anode side, and bottom axial cathode side. Results to date yield some interesting conclusions: Correlation between the various diagnostic views seems tenuous at best. Identical nickel foil bolometers usually agree within 10%. At low bolometer-foil temperature increases the bolometers agree with integrated XRD power unfolds but diverge at higher temperature increases. For identically filtered X-ray diodes the integrated response of photocathodes may vary an factor of two. XRD's usually unfold to yield a Planckian-like spectrum. Top axial measurements consistently yield higher temperatures than bottom axial diagnostics. In our presentation we will compare the diagnostic techniques, analysis, and results to establish drive conditions for our experiments.

  15. Determination of x-ray free electron laser power using a room-temperature calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, T.; Kato, M.; Saito, N.; Tono, K.; Yabashi, M.; Ishikawa, T.

    2016-02-01

    A room-temperature calorimeter was developed for the absolute laser power measurement of x-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) at the SPring-8 Angstrom Compact free electron LAser facility in Japan. In the photon energy range from 4.5 keV to 15 keV, this calorimeter was demonstrated to accurately measure laser powers of XFEL up to 6.9 mW. In addition, an online beam monitor, based on the detection of backscattered x-rays from a thin diamond film, was calibrated with the room-temperature calorimeter. The calibration results were compared with those obtained previously with a cryogenic radiometer (the primary standard detector for synchrotron radiations in Japan). The calibration results obtained with the two detectors agreed well within 1.2%, which is well below their combined relative standard uncertainty. Moreover, the spectral responsivity of the beam monitor was found to show a strong photon energy dependence owing to Debye-Scherrer diffraction patterns from the thin-film.

  16. Power-law X-ray and gamma-ray emission from relativistic thermal plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zdziarski, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    A common characteristic of cosmic sources is power-law X-ray emission. Extragalactic sources of this type include compact components of active galactic nuclei (AGN). The present study is concerned with a theoretical model of such sources, taking into account the assumption that the power-law spectra are produced by repeated Compton scatterings of soft photons by relativistic thermal electrons. This is one of several possible physical mechanisms leading to the formation of a power-law spectrum. Attention is given to the Comptonization of soft photon sources, the rates of pair processes, the solution of the pair equilibrium equation, and the constraints on a soft photon source and an energy source. It is concluded that the compactness parameters L/R of most of the cosmic sources observed to date lie below the maximum luminosity curves considered.

  17. Compact low power infrared tube furnace for in situ X-ray powder diffraction.

    PubMed

    Doran, A; Schlicker, L; Beavers, C M; Bhat, S; Bekheet, M F; Gurlo, A

    2017-01-01

    We describe the development and implementation of a compact, low power, infrared heated tube furnace for in situ powder X-ray diffraction experiments. Our silicon carbide (SiC) based furnace design exhibits outstanding thermal performance in terms of accuracy control and temperature ramping rates while simultaneously being easy to use, robust to abuse and, due to its small size and low power, producing minimal impact on surrounding equipment. Temperatures in air in excess of 1100 °C can be controlled at an accuracy of better than 1%, with temperature ramping rates up to 100 °C/s. The complete "add-in" device, minus power supply, fits in a cylindrical volume approximately 15 cm long and 6 cm in diameter and resides as close as 1 cm from other sensitive components of our experimental synchrotron endstation without adverse effects.

  18. X-ray Flashes Powered by the Spindown of Long-lived Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciolfi, Riccardo

    2016-10-01

    X-ray flashes (XRFs) are a class of high-energy transients whose nature is still open to question. Similar in many aspects to common gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), their strong X-ray emission is accompanied by very low or absent emission in the gamma-ray band. Despite this key difference, a number of indications have consolidated the idea that XRFs and GRBs share a common origin, including a number of potential XRF/supernova associations and the consistency of some XRFs with the Amati relation for long GRBs. However, the difficulties in explaining XRFs as off-axis or intrinsically weak GRBs still cast doubts on this interpretation. Here we explore the possibility that some XRFs are instead powered by the spindown of a long-lived neutron star (NS) formed in a binary NS (BNS) merger or, possibly, in a core-collapse supernova. Focusing on XRF 020903 and a few other cases observed by HETE-2, we show that their lack of gamma-ray emission, spectral properties, duration and X-ray luminosity find a natural explanation within our hypothesis. Moreover, we point out that the agreement of XRF 020903 with the Amati and Ghirlanda relations for long GRBs is respectively only marginal and problematic. Assuming a BNS merger origin for the long-lived NS, we use XRF observations to estimate a lower limit on the rate of BNS mergers accompanied by a potentially observable XRF signal. Within the reach of the advanced LIGO and Virgo gravitational wave detectors, we find \\gt 0.02{--}0.05 {{yr}}-1. Finally, we discuss the implications of a supernova association for the XRF events considered.

  19. Using Local Radiation MHD Simulations to Attempt to Understand the Very High/Steep Power Law State of Black Hole X-ray Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaes, Omer

    Stellar mass black holes in certain types of binary systems accrete matter from their companion stars through rotating, turbulent flows known as accretion disks. These disks are observed by space X-ray missions to have a number of distinct spectral/variability states, the most mysterious one being the very high/steep power law state that generally occurs at very high luminosities. This state is particularly interesting as it exhibits unique quasi-periodic oscillations observed in the X-rays that, if understood, might help us directly measure the properties of the black hole spacetime. Radiation pressure is an important physical process at such high luminosities, and modifies the character of the accretion disk in a number of unique ways. One of the ways that it does this is that it enables turbulent speeds in the disk to exceed thermal speeds of electrons, thereby introducing a completely new radiation process - turbulent Comptonization. This radiation process is promising for explaining the unique spectral characteristics of the very high/steep power law state. We will test this hypothesis by making detailed calculations of the emergent radiation spectrum from numerical simulation data of the turbulence in local patches of the disk at high levels of radiation pressure. These will be the first detailed theoretical calculations of turbulent Comptonization, which should be an important process for modeling NASA data from high luminosity black hole accretion. We hope that this will shed light on the nature of the mysterious very high/steep power law state. The research will form the basis of the PhD thesis of a graduate student, in line with NASA's educational and training objectives.

  20. Building a laboratory foundation for interpreting spectral emission from x-ray binary and black hole accretion disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loisel, Guillaume

    2016-10-01

    Emission from accretion powered objects accounts for a large fraction of all photons in the universe and is a powerful diagnostic for their behavior and structure. Quantitative interpretation of spectrum emission from these objects requires a spectral synthesis model for photoionized plasma, since the ionizing luminosity is so large that photon driven atomic processes dominate over collisions. This is a quandary because laboratory experiments capable of testing the spectral emission models are non-existent. The models must predict the photoionized charge state distribution, the photon emission processes, and the radiation transport influence on the observed emission. We have used a decade of research at the Z facility to achieve the first simultaneous measurements of emission and absorption from photoionized plasmas. The extraordinary spectra are reproducible to within +/-2% and the E/dE 500 spectral resolution has enabled unprecedented tests of atomic structure calculations. The absorption spectra enable determination of plasma density, temperature, and charge state distribution. The emission spectra then enable tests of spectral emission models. The emission has been measured from plasmas with varying size to elucidate the radiation transport effects. This combination of measurements will provide strong constraints on models used in astrophysics. Sandia is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  1. Chandra Reveals Twin X-ray Jets in the Powerful FR-II Radio Galaxy 3C353

    SciTech Connect

    Kataoka, J.; Stawarz, L.; Harris, D.E.; Siemiginowska, A.; Ostrowski, M.; Swain, M.R.; Hardcastle, M.J.; Goodger, J.L.; Iwasawa, K.; Edwards, P.G.

    2008-06-13

    We report X-ray imaging of the powerful FR II radio galaxy 3C 353 using the Chandra X-ray Observatory. 3C 353's two 4-inch wide and 2-feet long jets allow us to study in detail the internal structure of the large-scale relativistic outflows at both radio and X-ray photon energies with the sub-arcsecond spatial resolution provided by the VLA and Chandra instruments. In a 90 ks Chandra observation, we have detected X-ray emission from most radio structures in 3C 353, including the nucleus, the jet and the counterjet, the terminal jet regions (hotspots), and one radio lobe. We show that the detection of the X-ray emission associated with the radio knots and counterknots, which is most likely non-thermal in origin, puts several crucial constraints on the X-ray emission mechanisms in powerful large-scale jets of quasars and FR II sources. In particular, we show that this detection is inconsistent with the inverse-Compton model proposed in the literature, and instead implies a synchrotron origin of the X-ray jet photons. We also find that the width of the X-ray counterjet is possibly narrower than that measured in radio bands, that the radio-to-X-ray flux ratio decreases systematically downstream along the jets, and that there are substantial (kpc-scale) offsets between the positions of the X-ray and radio intensity maxima within each knot, whose magnitudes increase away from the nucleus. We discuss all these findings in the wider context of the physics of extragalactic jets, proposing some particular though not definitive solutions or interpretations for each problem. In general, we find that the synchrotron X-ray emission of extragalactic large-scale jets is not only shaped by the global hydrodynamical configuration of the outflows, but is also likely to be very sensitive to the microscopic parameters of the jet plasma. A complete, self-consistent model for the X-ray emission of extragalactic jets still remains elusive.

  2. Chandra Reveals Twin X-ray Jets in the Powerful FR II Radio Galaxy 3C 353

    SciTech Connect

    Kataoka, Jun

    2008-12-24

    We report X-ray imaging of the powerful FR II radio galaxy 3C 353 using the Chandra X-ray Observatory. 3C 353's two 4''-wide and 2'-long jets allow us to study in detail the internal structure of the large-scale relativistic outflows at both radio and X-ray photon energies with the sub-arcsecond spatial resolution provided by the VLA and Chandra instruments. In a 90 ks Chandra observation, we have detected X-ray emission from most radio structures in 3C 353, including the nucleus, the jet and the counterjet, the terminal jet regions (hotspots), and one radio lobe. We show that the detection of the X-ray emission associated with the radio knots and counterknots, which is most likely non-thermal in origin, puts several crucial constraints on the X-ray emission mechanisms in powerful large-scale jets of quasars and FR II sources. In particular, we show that this detection is inconsistent with the inverse-Compton model proposed in the literature, and instead implies a synchrotron origin of the X-ray jet photons. We also find that the width of the X-ray counterjet is possibly narrower than that measured in radio bands, that the radio-to-X-ray flux ratio decreases systematically downstream along the jets, and that there are substantial (kpc-scale) offsets between the positions of the X-ray and radio intensity maxima within each knot, whose magnitudes increase away from the nucleus. We discuss all these findings in the wider context of the physics of extragalactic jets, proposing some particular though not definitive solutions or interpretations for each problem. In general, we find that the synchrotron X-ray emission of extragalactic large-scale jets is not only shaped by the global hydrodynamical configuration of the outflows, but is also likely to be very sensitive to the microscopic parameters of the jet plasma. A complete, self-consistent model for the X-ray emission of extragalactic jets still remains elusive.

  3. Chandra Reveals Twin X-Ray Jets in the Powerful FR II Radio Galaxy 3C 353

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataoka, J.; Stawarz, Ł.; Harris, D. E.; Siemiginowska, A.; Ostrowski, M.; Swain, M. R.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Goodger, J. L.; Iwasawa, K.; Edwards, P. G.

    2008-10-01

    We report X-ray imaging of the powerful FR II radio galaxy 3C 353 using the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. Due to 3C 353's two 4' ' wide and 2' long jets we are able to study in detail the internal structure of the large-scale relativistic outflows at both radio and X-ray photon energies with the subarcsecond spatial resolution provided by the VLA and Chandra instruments. In a 90 ks Chandra observation, we have detected X-ray emission from most radio structures in 3C 353, including the nucleus, the jet and the counterjet, the terminal jet regions (hot spots), and one radio lobe. We show that the detection of the X-ray emission associated with the radio knots and counterknots, which is most likely nonthermal in origin, puts several crucial constraints on the X-ray emission mechanisms in powerful large-scale jets of quasars and FR II sources. In particular, we show that this detection is inconsistent with the inverse-Compton model proposed in the literature and instead implies a synchrotron origin of the X-ray jet photons. We also find that the width of the X-ray counterjet is possibly narrower than that measured in radio bands, that the radio to X-ray flux ratio decreases systematically downstream along the jets, and that there are substantial (kpc-scale) offsets between the positions of the X-ray and radio intensity maxima within each knot, whose magnitudes increase away from the nucleus. We discuss all these findings in the wider context of the physics of extragalactic jets, proposing some particular although not definitive solutions or interpretations for each problem. In general, we find that the synchrotron X-ray emission of extragalactic large-scale jets is not only shaped by the global hydrodynamical configuration of the outflows, but is also likely to be very sensitive to the microscopic parameters of the jet plasma. A complete, self-consistent model for the X-ray emission of extragalactic jets still remains elusive.

  4. NuSTAR observations of the supergiant X-ray pulsar IGR J18027-2016: accretion from the stellar wind and possible cyclotron absorption line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutovinov, Alexander A.; Tsygankov, Sergey S.; Postnov, Konstantin A.; Krivonos, Roman A.; Molkov, Sergey V.; Tomsick, John A.

    2017-04-01

    We report on the first focused hard X-ray view of the absorbed supergiant system IGR J18027-2016 performed with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array observatory. The pulsations are clearly detected with a period of Pspin = 139.866(1) s and a pulse fraction of about 50-60 per cent at energies from 3 to 80 keV. The source demonstrates an approximately constant X-ray luminosity on a time-scale of more than dozen years with an average spin-down rate of dot{P}≃ 6× 10^{-10} s s-1. This behaviour of the pulsar can be explained in terms of the wind accretion model in the settling regime. The detailed spectral analysis at energies above 10 keV was performed for the first time and revealed a possible cyclotron absorption feature at energy ∼23 keV. This energy corresponds to the magnetic field B ≃ 3 × 1012 G at the surface of the neutron star, which is typical for X-ray pulsars.

  5. A cold neutron star in the transient low-mass X-ray binary HETE J1900.1-2455 after 10 yr of active accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degenaar, N.; Ootes, L. S.; Reynolds, M. T.; Wijnands, R.; Page, D.

    2017-02-01

    The neutron star low-mass X-ray binary and intermittent millisecond X-ray pulsar HETE J1900.1-2455 returned to quiescence in late 2015, after a prolonged accretion outburst of ≃10 yr. Using a Chandra observation taken ≃180 d into quiescence, we detect the source at a luminosity of ≃4.5 × 1031 (D/4.7 kpc)2 erg s-1 (0.5-10 keV). The X-ray spectrum can be described by a neutron star atmosphere model with a temperature of ≃54 eV for an observer at infinity. We perform thermal evolution calculations based on the 2016 quiescent data and a ≲98 eV temperature upper limit inferred from a Swift observation taken during an unusually brief (≲2 weeks) quiescent episode in 2007. We find no evidence in the present data that the thermal properties of the crust, such as the heating rate and thermal conductivity, are different than those of non-pulsating neutron stars. Finding this neutron star so cold after its long outburst imposes interesting constraints on the heat capacity of the stellar core; these become even stronger if further cooling were to occur.

  6. Populations of supersoft X-ray sources: Novae, tidal disruption, Type Ia supernovae, accretion-induced collapse, ionization, and intermediate-mass black holes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Stefano, R.; Primini, F. A.; Liu, J.; Kong, A.; Patel, B.

    2010-02-01

    Observations of hundreds of supersoft X-ray sources (SSSs) in external galaxies have shed light on the diversity of the class and on the natures of the sources. SSSs are linked to the physics of Type Ia supernovae and accretion-induced collapse, ultraluminous X-ray sources and black holes, the ionization of the interstellar medium, and tidal disruption by supermassive black holes. The class of SSSs has an extension to higher luminosities: ultraluminous SSSs have luminosities above 1039 erg s-1. There is also an extension to higher energies: quasisoft X-ray sources (QSSs) emit photons with energies above 1 keV, but few or none with energies above 2 keV. Finally, a significant fraction of the SSSs found in external galaxies switch states between observations, becoming either quasisoft or hard. For many systems ``supersoft'' refers to a temporary state; SSSs are sources, possibly including a variety of fundamentally different system types, that pass through such a state. We review those results derived from extragalactic data and related theoretical work that are most surprising and that suggest directions for future research.

  7. High-Resolving-Power, Streaked X-Ray Spectroscopy on the OMEGA EP Laser System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilson, P. M.; Ehrne, F.; Mileham, C.; Mastrosimone, D.; Jungquist, R. K.; Taylor, C.; Boni, R.; Hassett, J.; Stillman, C. R.; Ivancic, S. T.; Lonobile, D. J.; Kidder, R. W.; Shoup, M. J., III; Solodov, A. A.; Stoeckl, C.; Theobald, W.; Froula, D. H.; Hill, K. W.; Gao, L.; Bitter, M.; Efthimion, P.; Meyerhofer, D. D.

    2016-10-01

    A high-resolving-power, streaked x-ray spectrometer is being developed and tested on the OMEGA EP Laser System to study temperature-equilibration dynamics in rapidly heated solid matter. Temporal spectral shifts of the Cu Kα line in isochorically heated solid targets provide a fairly simple system where the spectrometer performance will be validated. The goal is to achieve a resolving power of several thousand and 2-ps temporal resolution. A time-integrating survey spectrometer has been developed and deployed on OMEGA EP to evaluate the throughput, focusing fidelity, and spectral resolution of two different crystal geometries. The results from these measurements will be presented and used to justify the down-selected time-resolved spectrometer design. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  8. Thermometric- and Acoustic-Based Beam Power Monitor for Ultra-Bright X-Rays

    SciTech Connect

    Bentsen, Gregory; /Rochester U. /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    A design for an average beam power monitor for ultra-bright X-ray sources is proposed that makes simultaneous use of calorimetry and radiation acoustics. Radiation incident on a solid target will induce heating and ultrasonic vibrations, both of which may be measured to give a fairly precise value of the beam power. The monitor is intended for measuring ultra-bright Free-Electron Laser (FEL) X-ray beams, for which traditional monitoring technologies such as photo-diodes or scintillators are unsuitable. The monitor consists of a Boron Carbide (B{sub 4}C) target designed to absorb most of the incident beam's energy. Resistance temperature detectors (RTD) and piezoelectric actuators are mounted on the outward faces of the target to measure the temperature changes and ultrasonic vibrations induced by the incident beam. The design was tested using an optical pulsed beam (780 nm, 120 and 360 Hz) from a Ti:sapphire oscillator at several energies between 0.8 and 2.6 mJ. The RTDs measured an increase in temperature of about 10 K over a period of several minutes. The piezoelectric sensors recorded ringing acoustic oscillations at 580 {+-} 40 kHz. Most importantly, the amplitude of the acoustic signals was observed to scale linearly with beam power up to 2 mJ of pulse energy. Above this pulse energy, the vibrational signals became nonlinear. Several causes for this nonlinearity are discussed, including amplifier saturation and piezoelectric saturation. Despite this nonlinearity, these measurements demonstrate the feasibility of such a beam power measurement device. The advantage of two distinct measurements (acoustic and thermometric) provides a useful method of calibration that is unavailable to current LCLS diagnostics tools.

  9. OPTICAL EMISSION OF THE ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCE NGC 5408 X-1: DONOR STAR OR IRRADIATED ACCRETION DISK?

    SciTech Connect

    Grise, F.; Kaaret, P.; Corbel, S.; Cseh, D.

    2012-02-01

    We obtained three epochs of simultaneous Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Wide Field Camera 3 and Chandra observations of the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) NGC 5408 X-1. The counterpart of the X-ray source is seen in all HST filters, from the UV through the near-IR (NIR), and for the first time, we resolve the optical nebula around the ULX. We identified a small OB association near the ULX that may be the birthplace of the system. The stellar association is young, {approx}5 Myr, contains massive stars up to 40 M{sub Sun }, and is thus similar to associations seen near other ULXs, albeit younger. The UV/optical/NIR spectral energy distribution (SED) of the ULX counterpart is consistent with that of a B0I supergiant star. We are also able to fit the whole SED from the X-rays to the NIR with an irradiated disk model. The three epochs of data show only marginal variability and thus, we cannot firmly conclude on the nature of the optical emission.

  10. Silicon photodiode soft x-ray detectors for pulsed power experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Idzorek, G.C.; Bartlett, R.J.

    1997-10-01

    Silicon photodiodes offer a number of advantages over conventional photocathode type soft x-ray detectors in pulsed power experiments. These include a nominally flat response, insensitivity to surface contamination, low voltage biasing requirements, sensitivity to low energy photons, excellent detector to detector response reproducibility, and ability to operate in poor vacuum or gas backfilled experiments. Silicon photodiodes available from International Radiation Detectors (IRD), Torrance, California have been characterized for absolute photon response from 1 eV to 10 keV photon energy, time response, and signal saturation levels. The authors calibration measurements show factor of ten deviations from the silicon photodiode theoretical flat response due to diode sensitivity outside the center `sensitive area`. Detector response reproducibility between diodes appears to be better than 5%. Time response measurements show a 10-90% rise time of about 0.1 nanoseconds and a fall time of about 0.5 nanoseconds.

  11. X-Ray Emission from the Soft X-Ray Transient Aquila X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tavani, Marco

    1998-01-01

    Aquila X-1 is the most prolific of soft X-ray transients. It is believed to contain a rapidly spinning neutron star sporadically accreting near the Eddington limit from a low-mass companion star. The interest in studying the repeated X-ray outbursts from Aquila X-1 is twofold: (1) studying the relation between optical, soft and hard X-ray emission during the outburst onset, development and decay; (2) relating the spectral component to thermal and non-thermal processes occurring near the magnetosphere and in the boundary layer of a time-variable accretion disk. Our investigation is based on the BATSE monitoring of Aquila X-1 performed by our group. We observed Aquila X-1 in 1997 and re-analyzed archival information obtained in April 1994 during a period of extraordinary outbursting activity of the source in the hard X-ray range. Our results allow, for the first time for this important source, to obtain simultaneous spectral information from 2 keV to 200 keV. A black body (T = 0.8 keV) plus a broken power-law spectrum describe accurately the 1994 spectrum. Substantial hard X-ray emission is evident in the data, confirming that the accretion phase during sub-Eddington limit episodes is capable of producing energetic hard emission near 5 x 10(exp 35) ergs(exp -1). A preliminary paper summarizes our results, and a more comprehensive account is being written. We performed a theoretical analysis of possible emission mechanisms, and confirmed that a non-thermal emission mechanism triggered in a highly sheared magnetosphere at the accretion disk inner boundary can explain the hard X-ray emission. An anticorrelation between soft and hard X-ray emission is indeed prominently observed as predicted by this model.

  12. High ionisation absorption in low mass X-ray binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponti, G.; Bianchi, S.; Muñoz-Darias, T.; De, K.; Fender, R.; Merloni, A.

    2016-05-01

    The advent of the new generation of X-ray telescopes yielded a significant step forward in our understanding of ionised absorption generated in the accretion discs of X-ray binaries. It has become evident that these relatively weak and narrow absorption features, sporadically present in the X-ray spectra of some systems, are actually the signature of equatorial outflows, which might carry away more matter than that being accreted. Therefore, they play a major role in the accretion phenomenon. These outflows (or ionised atmospheres) are ubiquitous during the softer states but absent during the power-law dominated, hard states, suggesting a strong link with the state of the inner accretion disc, presence of the radio-jet and the properties of the central source. Here, we discuss the current understanding of this field.

  13. No Compton Reflection In a Chandra/RXTE Observation of Mkn 509: Implications for the Fe-K Line Emission From Accreting X-Ray Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yaqoob, Tahir; Padmanabhan, Urmila; Kraemer, Steven B.; Crenshaw, D. Michael; Mckernan, Barry; George, Ian M.; Turner, T. Jane; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We report the results of simultaneous Chandra and RXTE observations of the Seyfert 1 galaxy Mkn 509. We deconvolve the broad and narrow Fe-K emission-line components for which we measure rest-frame equivalent widths of 119+/-18 eV and 57+/-13 eV respectively. The broad line has a FWHM of 57,600((sup 14,400)(sub -21,000)) km/s and the narrow line is unresolved, with an upper limit on the FWHM of 4,940 km/s. Both components must originate in cool matter since we measure rest-frame center energies of 6.36((sup +0.13)(sub -0.12)) keV and 6.42+/-0.01 keV for the broad and narrow line respectively. This rules out He-like and H-like Fe for the origin of both the broad and narrow lines. If, as is widely accepted, the broad Fe-K line originates in Thomson-thick matter (such as an accretion disk), then one expects to observe spectral curvature above approximately 10 keV, (commensurate with the observed broad line), characteristic of the Compton-reflection continuum. However our data sets very stringent limits on deviations of the observed continuum from a power law. Light travel-time delays cannot be invoked to explain anomalies in the relative strengths of the broad Ferry line and Compton-reflection continuum since they are supposed to originate in the same physical location. We are forced to conclude that both the broad and narrow Fe-K lines had to originate in Thomson-thin matter during our observation. This result, for a single observation of just one source, means that our understanding of Fe K line emission and Compton reflection from accreting X-ray sources in general needs to be re-examined. For example, if an irradiated accretion disk existed in Mkn 509 at the time of the observations, the lack of spectral curvature above approximately 10 keV suggests two possibilities. Either the disk was Thomson-thick and highly ionized, having negligible Fe-K line emission and photoelectric absorption or the disk was Thomson-thin producing some or all of the broad Fe-K line

  14. X-Ray Fluctuation Power Spectral Densities of Seyfert 1 Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markowitz, A.; Edelson, R.; Vaughan, S.; Uttley, P.; George, I. M.; Griffiths, R. E.; Kaspi, S.; Lawrence, A.; McHandy, I.; Nandra, K.

    2003-01-01

    By combining complementary monitoring observations spanning long, medium and short time scales, we have constructed power spectral densities (PSDs) of six Seyfert 1 galaxies. These PSDs span approx. greater than 4 orders of magnitude in temporal frequency, sampling variations on time scales ranging from tens of minutes to over a year. In at least four cases, the PSD shows a "break," a significant departure from a power law, typically on time scales of order a few days. This is similar to the behavior of Galactic X-ray binaries (XRBs), lower mass compact systems with breaks on time scales of seconds. NGC 3783 shows tentative evidence for a doubly-broken power law, a feature that until now has only been seen in the (much better-defined) PSDs of low-state XRBs. It is also interesting that (when one previously-observed object is added to make a small sample of seven), an apparently significant correlation is seen between the break time scale T and the putative black hole mass M(sub BH), while none is seen between break time scale and luminosity. The data are consistent with the linear relation T = M(sub BH) /10(exp 6.5) solar mass; extrapolation over 6-7 orders of magnitude is in reasonable agreement with XRBs. All of this strengthens the case for a physical similarity between Seyfert 1s and XRBs.

  15. X-ray Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewin, Walter H. G.; van Paradijs, Jan; van den Heuvel, Edward Peter Jacobus

    1997-01-01

    Preface; 1. The properties of X-ray binaries, N. E. White, F. Nagase and A. N. Parmar; 2. Optical and ultraviolet observations of X-ray binaries J. van Paradijs and J. E. McClintock; 3. Black-hole binaries Y. Tanaka and W. H. G. Lewin; 4. X-ray bursts Walter H. G. Lewin, Jan Van Paradijs and Ronald E. Taam; 5. Millisecond pulsars D. Bhattacharya; 6. Rapid aperiodic variability in binaries M. van der Klis; 7. Radio properties of X-ray binaries R. M. Hjellming and X. Han; 8. Cataclysmic variable stars France Anne-Dominic Córdova; 9. Normal galaxies and their X-ray binary populations G. Fabbiano; 10. Accretion in close binaries Andrew King; 11. Formation and evolution of neutron stars and black holes in binaries F. Verbunt and E. P. J. van den Heuvel; 12. The magnetic fields of neutron stars and their evolution D. Bhattacharya and G. Srinivasan; 13. Cosmic gamma-ray bursts K. Hurley; 14. A catalogue of X-ray binaries Jan van Paradijs; 15. A compilation of cataclysmic binaries with known or suspected orbital periods Hans Ritter and Ulrich Kolb; References; Index.

  16. AN INTEGRATED MODEL FOR THE PRODUCTION OF X-RAY TIME LAGS AND QUIESCENT SPECTRA FROM HOMOGENEOUS AND INHOMOGENEOUS BLACK HOLE ACCRETION CORONAE

    SciTech Connect

    Kroon, John J.; Becker, Peter A. E-mail: pbecker@gmu.edu

    2016-04-20

    Many accreting black holes manifest time lags during outbursts, in which the hard Fourier component typically lags behind the soft component. Despite decades of observations of this phenomenon, the underlying physical explanation for the time lags has remained elusive, although there are suggestions that Compton reverberation plays an important role. However, the lack of analytical solutions has hindered the interpretation of the available data. In this paper, we investigate the generation of X-ray time lags in Compton scattering coronae using a new mathematical approach based on analysis of the Fourier-transformed transport equation. By solving this equation, we obtain the Fourier transform of the radiation Green’s function, which allows us to calculate the exact dependence of the time lags on the Fourier frequency, for both homogeneous and inhomogeneous coronal clouds. We use the new formalism to explore a variety of injection scenarios, including both monochromatic and broadband (bremsstrahlung) seed photon injection. We show that our model can successfully reproduce both the observed time lags and the time-averaged (quiescent) X-ray spectra for Cyg X-1 and GX 339-04, using a single set of coronal parameters for each source. The time lags are the result of impulsive bremsstrahlung injection occurring near the outer edge of the corona, while the time-averaged spectra are the result of continual distributed injection of soft photons throughout the cloud.

  17. An Integrated Model for the Production of X-Ray Time Lags and Quiescent Spectra from Homogeneous and Inhomogeneous Black Hole Accretion Coronae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroon, John J.; Becker, Peter A.

    2016-04-01

    Many accreting black holes manifest time lags during outbursts, in which the hard Fourier component typically lags behind the soft component. Despite decades of observations of this phenomenon, the underlying physical explanation for the time lags has remained elusive, although there are suggestions that Compton reverberation plays an important role. However, the lack of analytical solutions has hindered the interpretation of the available data. In this paper, we investigate the generation of X-ray time lags in Compton scattering coronae using a new mathematical approach based on analysis of the Fourier-transformed transport equation. By solving this equation, we obtain the Fourier transform of the radiation Green’s function, which allows us to calculate the exact dependence of the time lags on the Fourier frequency, for both homogeneous and inhomogeneous coronal clouds. We use the new formalism to explore a variety of injection scenarios, including both monochromatic and broadband (bremsstrahlung) seed photon injection. We show that our model can successfully reproduce both the observed time lags and the time-averaged (quiescent) X-ray spectra for Cyg X-1 and GX 339-04, using a single set of coronal parameters for each source. The time lags are the result of impulsive bremsstrahlung injection occurring near the outer edge of the corona, while the time-averaged spectra are the result of continual distributed injection of soft photons throughout the cloud.

  18. The rotation-powered nature of some soft gamma-ray repeaters and anomalous X-ray pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coelho, Jaziel G.; Cáceres, D. L.; de Lima, R. C. R.; Malheiro, M.; Rueda, J. A.; Ruffini, R.

    2017-03-01

    Context. Soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs) and anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs) are slow rotating isolated pulsars whose energy reservoir is still matter of debate. Adopting neutron star (NS) fiducial parameters; mass M = 1.4 M⊙, radius R = 10 km, and moment of inertia, I = 1045 g cm2, the rotational energy loss, Ėrot, is lower than the observed luminosity (dominated by the X-rays) LX for many of the sources. Aims: We investigate the possibility that some members of this family could be canonical rotation-powered pulsars using realistic NS structure parameters instead of fiducial values. Methods: We compute the NS mass, radius, moment of inertia and angular momentum from numerical integration of the axisymmetric general relativistic equations of equilibrium. We then compute the entire range of allowed values of the rotational energy loss, Ėrot, for the observed values of rotation period P and spin-down rate Ṗ. We also estimate the surface magnetic field using a general relativistic model of a rotating magnetic dipole. Results: We show that realistic NS parameters lowers the estimated value of the magnetic field and radiation efficiency, LX/Ėrot, with respect to estimates based on fiducial NS parameters. We show that nine SGRs/AXPs can be described as canonical pulsars driven by the NS rotational energy, for LX computed in the soft (2-10 keV) X-ray band. We compute the range of NS masses for which LX/Ėrot< 1. We discuss the observed hard X-ray emission in three sources of the group of nine potentially rotation-powered NSs. This additional hard X-ray component dominates over the soft one leading to LX/Ėrot > 1 in two of them. Conclusions: We show that 9 SGRs/AXPs can be rotation-powered NSs if we analyze their X-ray luminosity in the soft 2-10 keV band. Interestingly, four of them show radio emission and six have been associated with supernova remnants (including Swift J1834.9-0846 the first SGR observed with a surrounding wind nebula). These observations give

  19. COMPARING THE ACCRETION DISK EVOLUTION OF BLACK HOLE AND NEUTRON STAR X-RAY BINARIES FROM LOW TO SUPER-EDDINGTON LUMINOSITY

    SciTech Connect

    Weng Shanshan; Zhang Shuangnan E-mail: zhangsn@ihep.ac.cn

    2011-09-20

    Low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) are systems in which a low-mass companion transfers mass via Roche-lobe overflow onto a black hole (BH) or a weakly magnetized neutron star (NS). It is believed that both the solid surface and the magnetic field of an NS can affect the accretion flow and show some observable effects. Using the disk emission dominant data, we compare the disk evolution of the two types of systems from low luminosity to super-Eddington luminosity. As the luminosity decreases the disk in the NS LMXB 4U1608-522 begins to leave the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) at much higher luminosity ({approx}0.1 L{sub Edd}), compared with BH LMXBs at much lower luminosity ({approx}0.03 L{sub Edd}), due to the interaction between the NS magnetosphere and accretion flow. However, as the luminosity increases above a critical luminosity, the disks in BH and NS LMXBs trace the same evolutionary pattern, because the magnetosphere is restricted inside ISCO, and then both the NS surface emission and (dipole) magnetic field do not significantly affect the secular evolution of the accretion disk, which is driven by the increased radiation pressure in the inner region. We further suggest that the NS surface emission provides additional information about the accretion disk not available in BH systems. Through the observed NS surface emission, we argue that the disk thickness H/R is less than 0.3-0.4, and that the significant outflow from the inner disk edge exists at a luminosity close to Eddington luminosity.

  20. High-Frequency X-Ray Oscillations and X-Ray Spectral Evolution in Galactic Black Hole Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remillard, R. A.; Morgan, E. H.; Muno, M.

    2002-12-01

    There are now 5 Galactic black hole candidates that have exhibited quasi-periodic oscillations (QPO) in X-rays in the range of 67 to 300 Hz. The rms amplitudes are near 1 % of the average flux, and in two cases there are significant changes in the QPO frequency. The short timescales and origin in X-rays suggest that these QPOs signify inner accretion disk oscillations rooted in General Relativity, but the particular mechanism is uncertain. For two of these cases, GRO J1655-40 and GRS 1915+105, we trace the conditions under which these QPOs appear in terms of the division of luminosity between the X-ray components due to the accretion disk and the hard X-ray power law. In this context, the fast QPOs are most likely to occur when there is high luminosity in both the disk and the X-ray power-law component. On the other hand, the QPOs are not seen when the X-ray spectrum resembles either a pure disk or a dominant power-law component associated with a radio jet. The results imply a closer kinship for these QPOs than might be concluded from considerations of the gross shape of the X-ray spectrum.

  1. The Peculiar Galactic Center Neutron Star X-Ray Binary XMM J174457-2850.3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degenaar, N.; Wijnands, R.; Reynolds, M. T.; Miller, J. M.; Altamirano, D.; Kennea, J.; Gehrels, N.; Haggard, D.; Ponti, G.

    2014-01-01

    The recent discovery of a milli-second radio pulsar experiencing an accretion outburst similar to those seen in low mass X-ray binaries, has opened up a new opportunity to investigate the evolutionary link between these two different neutron star manifestations. The remarkable X-ray variability and hard X-ray spectrum of this object can potentially serve as a template to search for other X-ray binary radio pulsar transitional objects. Here we demonstrate that the transient X-ray source XMM J174457-2850.3 near the Galactic center displays similar X-ray properties. We report on the detection of an energetic thermonuclear burst with an estimated duration of 2 hr and a radiated energy output of 5E40 erg, which unambiguously demonstrates that the source harbors an accreting neutron star. It has a quiescent X-ray luminosity of Lx5E32 ergs and exhibits occasional accretion outbursts during which it brightens to Lx1E35-1E36 ergs for a few weeks (2-10 keV). However, the source often lingers in between outburst and quiescence at Lx1E33-1E34 ergs. This unusual X-ray flux behavior and its relatively hard X-ray spectrum, a power law with an index of 1.4, could possibly be explained in terms of the interaction between the accretion flow and the magnetic field of the neutron star.

  2. High-average-power, 100-Hz-repetition-rate, tabletop soft-x-ray lasers at sub-15-nm wavelengths

    SciTech Connect

    Reagan, Brendon; Berrill, Mark A; Wernsing, Keith; Baumgarten, Cory; Woolston, Mark; Rocca, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Efficient excitation of dense plasma columns at 100-Hz repetition rate using a tailored pump pulse profile produced a tabletop soft-x-ray laser average power of 0.1 mW at = 13.9 nm and 20 W at = 11.9 nm from transitions of Ni-like Ag and Ni-like Sn, respectively. Lasing on several other transitions with wavelengths between 10.9 and 14.7 nm was also obtained using 0.9-J pump pulses of 5-ps duration from a compact diode-pumped chirped pulse amplification Yb:YAG laser. Hydrodynamic and atomic plasma simulations show that the pump pulse profile, consisting of a nanosecond ramp followed by two peaks of picosecond duration, creates a plasma with an increased density of Ni-like ions at the time of peak temperature that results in a larger gain coefficient over a temporally and spatially enlarged space leading to a threefold increase in the soft-x-ray laser output pulse energy. The high average power of these compact soft-x-ray lasers will enable applications requiring high photon flux. These results open the path to milliwatt-average-power tabletop soft-x-ray lasers.

  3. Mass transfer in binary X-ray systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccray, R.; Hatchett, S.

    1975-01-01

    The influence of X-ray heating on gas flows in binary X-ray systems is examined. A simple estimate is obtained for the evaporative wind flux from a stellar atmosphere due to X-ray heating which agrees with numerical calculations by Alme and Wilson (1974) but disagrees with calculations by Arons (1973) and by Basko and Sunyaev (1974) for the Her X-1/HZ Her system. The wind flux is sensitive to the soft X-ray spectrum. The self-excited wind mechanism does not work. Mass transfer in the Hercules system probably occurs by flow of the atmosphere of HZ Her through the gravitational saddle point of the system. The accretion gas stream is probably opaque with atomic density of not less than 10 to the 15th power per cu cm and is confined to a small fraction of 4(pi) steradians. Other binary X-ray systems are briefly discussed.

  4. OSO-8 X-ray observations of AM Herculis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swank, J. H.; Lampton, M.; Boldt, E.; Holt, S. S.; Serlemitsos, P. J.

    1977-01-01

    Hard X-ray observations of the binary system AM Her were coincident with soft X-ray and ground-based optical measurements. In the 2-60 KeV band, variability was detected with an eclipse during phases 0.5 to 0.7 with respect to the 0. d 12892 period optical minima, synchronous with the known soft X-ray eclipse. The 2-60 KeV uneclipsed flux was 9.5 x 10 to the minus 10th power erg sq cm/sec, of which 86% lies above 10 keV. Thus AM Her contains a hard source located near the similarly eclipsed soft X-ray source. The X-ray data are interpreted in terms of thermal bremsstrahlung from accretion onto a white dwarf.

  5. High-resolution soft X-ray spectra of Scorpius X-1 - The structure of circumsource accreting material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, S. M.; Seward, F. D.; Chlebowski, T.

    1984-01-01

    Four observations of Scorpius X-1 with the Objective Grating Spectrometer of the Einstein Observatory have provided high-resolution spectra (lambda/Delta lambda = approximately 20-50) in the wavelength range 7-46 A. The spectra reveal the presence of absorption structure due to oxygen, nitrogen, and iron, and variable emission structure associated with ionized iron and nitrogen. The strengths of these features suggest that the N/O abundance ratio in the absorbing and line emitting gas is anomalously high, which might indicate that these spectral components are associated with processed material, probably accreting matter transferred from the surface of an evolved companion. Constraints on the inclination of the system, however, imply that this cool, dense, accreting material must be well out of the plane of the binary system. Possible models for the origin and nature of this circumsource medium are discussed. An extensive discussion of the calibration of the Objective Grating Spectrometer and of the analysis of spectra acquired by that instrument is also provided.

  6. BLACK HOLE POWERED NEBULAE AND A CASE STUDY OF THE ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCE IC 342 X-1

    SciTech Connect

    Cseh, David; Corbel, Stephane; Paragi, Zsolt; Tzioumis, Anastasios; Tudose, Valeriu; Feng Hua

    2012-04-10

    We present new radio, optical, and X-ray observations of three ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) that are associated with large-scale nebulae. We report the discovery of a radio nebula associated with the ULX IC 342 X-1 using the Very Large Array (VLA). Complementary VLA observations of the nebula around Holmberg II X-1, and high-frequency Australia Telescope Compact Array and Very Large Telescope spectroscopic observations of NGC 5408 X-1 are also presented. We study the morphology, ionization processes, and the energetics of the optical/radio nebulae of IC 342 X-1, Holmberg II X-1, and NGC 5408 X-1. The energetics of the optical nebula of IC 342 X-1 is discussed in the framework of standard bubble theory. The total energy content of the optical nebula is 6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 52} erg. The minimum energy needed to supply the associated radio nebula is 9.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 50} erg. In addition, we detected an unresolved radio source at the location of IC 342 X-1 at the VLA scales. However, our Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations using the European VLBI Network likely rule out the presence of any compact radio source at milliarcsecond (mas) scales. Using a simultaneous Swift X-ray Telescope measurement, we estimate an upper limit on the mass of the black hole in IC 342 X-1 using the 'fundamental plane' of accreting black holes and obtain M{sub BH} {<=} (1.0 {+-} 0.3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} M{sub Sun }. Arguing that the nebula of IC 342 X-1 is possibly inflated by a jet, we estimate accretion rates and efficiencies for the jet of IC 342 X-1 and compare with sources like S26, SS433, and IC 10 X-1.

  7. 53 W average power few-cycle fiber laser system generating soft x rays up to the water window.

    PubMed

    Rothhardt, Jan; Hädrich, Steffen; Klenke, Arno; Demmler, Stefan; Hoffmann, Armin; Gotschall, Thomas; Eidam, Tino; Krebs, Manuel; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2014-09-01

    We report on a few-cycle laser system delivering sub-8-fs pulses with 353 μJ pulse energy and 25 GW of peak power at up to 150 kHz repetition rate. The corresponding average output power is as high as 53 W, which represents the highest average power obtained from any few-cycle laser architecture so far. The combination of both high average and high peak power provides unique opportunities for applications. We demonstrate high harmonic generation up to the water window and record-high photon flux in the soft x-ray spectral region. This tabletop source of high-photon flux soft x rays will, for example, enable coherent diffractive imaging with sub-10-nm resolution in the near future.

  8. X-ray crystallography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    X-rays diffracted from a well-ordered protein crystal create sharp patterns of scattered light on film. A computer can use these patterns to generate a model of a protein molecule. To analyze the selected crystal, an X-ray crystallographer shines X-rays through the crystal. Unlike a single dental X-ray, which produces a shadow image of a tooth, these X-rays have to be taken many times from different angles to produce a pattern from the scattered light, a map of the intensity of the X-rays after they diffract through the crystal. The X-rays bounce off the electron clouds that form the outer structure of each atom. A flawed crystal will yield a blurry pattern; a well-ordered protein crystal yields a series of sharp diffraction patterns. From these patterns, researchers build an electron density map. With powerful computers and a lot of calculations, scientists can use the electron density patterns to determine the structure of the protein and make a computer-generated model of the structure. The models let researchers improve their understanding of how the protein functions. They also allow scientists to look for receptor sites and active areas that control a protein's function and role in the progress of diseases. From there, pharmaceutical researchers can design molecules that fit the active site, much like a key and lock, so that the protein is locked without affecting the rest of the body. This is called structure-based drug design.

  9. X-Ray and Radio Studies of Black Hole X-Ray Transients During Outburst Decay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomsick, John A.

    2005-01-01

    Black hole (BH) and black hole candidate (BHC) transients are X-ray binary systems that typically undergo bright outbursts that last a couple months with recurrence times of years to decades. For this ADP project, we are studying BH/BHC systems during the decaying phases of their outbursts using the Rossi X-ray Taming Explorer (RXTE), the Chandra X-ray Observatory, and multi-wavelength facilities. These systems usually undergo state transitions as they decay, and our observations are designed to catch the state transitions. The specific goals of this proposal include: 1. To determine the evolution of the characteristic frequencies present in the power spectrum (such as quasi-periodic oscillations, QPOs) during state transitions in order to place constraints on the accretion geometry; 2. To contemporaneously measure X-ray spectral and timing properties along with flux measurements in the radio band to determine the relationship between the accretion disk and radio jets; 3. To extend our studies of X-ray properties of BHCs to very low accretion rates using RXTE and Chandra. The work performed under this proposal has been highly successful, allowing the PI to lead, direct, or assist in the preparation of 7 related publications in refereed journals and 6 other conference presentations or reports. These items are listed below, and the abstracts for the refereed publications have also been included. Especially notable results include our detailed measurements of the characteristic frequencies and spectral parameters of BH/BHCs after the transition to the hard state (see All A3, and A5) and at low flux levels (see A4). Our measurements provide one of the strongest lines of evidence to date that the inner edge of the optically thick accretion disk gradually recedes from the black hole at low flux levels. In addition, we have succeeded in obtaining excellent multi-wavelength coverage of a BH system as its compact jet turned on (see Al). Our results show, somewhat

  10. X-ray variability patterns and radio/X-ray correlations in Cyg X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zdziarski, Andrzej A.; Skinner, Gerald K.; Pooley, Guy G.; Lubiński, Piotr

    2011-09-01

    We have studied the X-ray variability patterns and correlations of the radio and X-ray fluxes in all spectral states of Cyg X-1 using X-ray data from the All-Sky Monitor onboard the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer, Burst And Transient Source Experiment onboard the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory and the Burst Alert Telescope onboard Swift. In the hard state, the dominant spectral variability is a changing of normalization with a fixed spectral shape, while in the intermediate state, the slope changes, with a pivot point around 10 keV. In the soft state, the low-energy X-ray emission dominates the bolometric flux which is only loosely correlated with the high-energy emission. In black hole binaries in the hard state, the radio flux is generally found to depend on a power of the X-ray flux, FR∝FpX. We confirm this for Cyg X-1. Our new finding is that this correlation extends to the intermediate and soft states, provided the broad-band X-ray flux in the Comptonization part of the spectrum (excluding the blackbody component) is considered instead of a narrow-band medium-energy X-ray flux. We find an index p≃ 1.7 ± 0.1 for 15-GHz radio emission, decreasing to p≃ 1.5 ± 0.1 at 2.25 GHz. We conclude that the higher value at 15 GHz is due to the effect of free-free absorption in the wind from the companion. The intrinsic correlation index remains uncertain. However, based on a theoretical model of the wind in Cyg X-1, it may to be close to ≃1.3, which, in the framework of accretion/jet models, would imply that the accretion flow in Cyg X-1 is radiatively efficient. The correlation with the flux due to Comptonization emission indicates that the radio jet is launched by the hot electrons in the accretion flow in all spectral states of Cyg X-1. On the other hand, we are able to rule out the X-ray jet model. Finally, we find that the index of the correlation, when measured using the X-ray flux in a narrow energy band, strongly depends on the band chosen and is, in general

  11. Symbiotic Stars in X-Rays. III. Suzaku Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuñez, N. E.; Nelson, T.; Mukai, K.; Sokoloski, J. L.; Luna, G. J. M.

    2016-06-01

    We describe the X-ray emission as observed by Suzaku from five symbiotic stars that we selected for deep Suzaku observations after their initial detection with ROSAT, ASCA, and Swift. We find that the X-ray spectra of all five sources can be adequately fit with absorbed optically thin thermal plasma models, with either single- or multi-temperature plasmas. These models are compatible with the X-ray emission originating in the boundary layer between an accretion disk and a white dwarf. The high plasma temperatures of kT > 3 keV for all five targets were greater than expected for colliding winds. Based on these high temperatures as well as previous measurements of UV variability and UV luminosity and the large amplitude of X-ray flickering in 4 Dra, we conclude that all five sources are accretion-powered through predominantly optically thick boundary layers. Our X-ray data allow us to observe a small optically thin portion of the emission from these boundary layers. Given the time between previous observations and these observations, we find that the intrinsic X-ray flux and the intervening absorbing column can vary by factors of three or more on a timescale of years. However, the location of the absorber and the relationship between changes in accretion rate and absorption are still elusive.

  12. Cosmological constraints from the observed angular cross-power spectrum between Sunyaev-Zel'dovich and X-ray surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurier, G.; Douspis, M.; Aghanim, N.; Pointecouteau, E.; Diego, J. M.; Macias-Perez, J. F.

    2015-04-01

    We present the first detection of the cross-correlation angular power spectrum between the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) effect and the X-ray emission over the full sky. The tSZ effect and X-rays are produced by the same hot gas within groups and clusters of galaxies, which creates a naturally strong correlation between them that can be used to boost the joint signal and derive cosmological parameters. We computed the correlation between the ROSAT All Sky Survey in the 0.5-2 keV energy band and the tSZ effect reconstructed from six Planck all-sky frequency maps between 70 and 545 GHz. We detect a significant correlation over a wide range of angular scales. In the range 50 <ℓ< 2000, the cross-correlation of X-rays to tSZ is detected at an overall significance of 28σ. As part of our systematic study, we performed a multi-frequency modelling of the AGN contamination and the correlation between cosmic infra-red background and X-rays. Taking advantage of the strong dependence of the cross-correlation signal on the amplitude of the power spectrum, we constrained σ8 = 0.804 ± 0.037, where modelling uncertainties dominate statistical and systematic uncertainties. We also derived constraints on the mass indices of scaling relations between the halo mass and X-ray luminosity, L500 - M500, and SZ signal, Y500 - M500, asz + ax = 3.37 ± 0.09, and on the indices of the extra-redshift evolution, βsz + βx = 0.4+0.4_{-0.5}.

  13. X-ray irradiation of the winds in binaries with massive components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krtička, J.; Kubát, J.; Krtičková, I.

    2015-07-01

    Context. Binaries with hot massive components are strong X-ray sources. Besides the intrinsic X-ray emission of individual binary members originating in their winds, X-ray emission stems from the accretion on the compact companion or from wind collision. Since hot star winds are driven by the light absorption in the lines of heavier elements, wind acceleration is sensitive to the ionization state. Therefore, the over-ionization induced by external X-ray source strongly influences the winds of individual components. Aims: We studied the effect of external X-ray irradiation on hot star winds. Methods: We used our kinetic equilibrium (NLTE) wind models to estimate the influence of external X-ray ionization for different X-ray luminosities and source distances. The models are calculated for parameters typical of O stars. Results: The influence of X-rays is given by the X-ray luminosity, by the optical depth between a given point and the X-ray source, and by a distance to the X-ray source. Therefore, the results can be interpreted in the diagrams of X-ray luminosity vs. the optical depth parameter. X-rays are negligible in binaries with low X-ray luminosities or at large distances from the X-ray source. The influence of X-rays is stronger for higher X-ray luminosities and in closer proximity of the X-ray source. There is a forbidden area with high X-ray luminosities and low optical depth parameters, where the X-ray ionization leads to wind inhibition. There is excellent agreement between the positions of observed stars in these diagrams and our predictions. All wind-powered high-mass X-ray binary primaries lie outside the forbidden area. Many of them lie close to the border of the forbidden area, indicating that their X-ray luminosities are self-regulated. We discuss the implications of our work for other binary types. Conclusions: X-rays have a strong effect on the winds in binaries with hot components. The magnitude of the influence of X-rays can be estimated from the

  14. On the Nature of the Variability Power Decay toward Soft Spectral States in X-Ray Binaries: Case Study in Cygnus X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titarchuk, Lev; Shaposhnikov, Nikolai

    2008-05-01

    A characteristic feature of the Fourier power density spectrum (PDS) observed from black hole X-ray binaries in low/hard and intermediate spectral states is a broadband-limited noise characterized by a constant below some frequency (a "break" frequency) and a power law above this frequency. It has been shown that the variability of this type can be produced by the inward diffusion of the local driving perturbations in a bounded configuration (accretion disk or corona). In the framework of this model, the perturbation diffusion time t0 is related to the phenomenological break frequency, while the PDS power-law slope above the "break" is determined by the viscosity distribution over the configuration. The perturbation diffusion scenario explains the decay of the power of X-ray variability observed in a number of compact sources (containing black holes and neutron stars) during an evolution of these sources from low/hard to high/soft states. We compare the model predictions with the subset of data from Cyg X-1 collected by the Rossi X-Ray Time Explorer (RXTE). Our extensive analysis of the Cyg X-1 PDSs demonstrates that the observed integrated power Px decreases approximately as the square root of the characteristic frequency of the driving oscillations νdr. The RXTE observations of Cyg X-1 allow us to infer Pdr and t0 as a function of νdr. Using the inferred dependences of the integrated power of the driving oscillations Pdr and t0 on νdr we demonstrate that the power predicted by the model also decays as Px,diff propto ν-0.5dr, which is similar to the observed Px behavior. We also apply the basic parameters of observed PDSs, power-law indices, and low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations to infer the Reynolds number (Re) from the observations using the method developed in our previous paper. Our analysis shows that Re increases from values of about 10 in low/hard state to about 70 during the high/soft state.

  15. On the nature of the variability power decay towards soft spectral states in X-ray binaries. Case study in Cyg X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titarchuk, Lev; Shaposhnikov, Nikolai

    2008-01-01

    A characteristic feature of the Fourier Power Density Spectrum (PDS) observed from black hole X-ray binaries in low/hard and intermediate spectral states is a broad band-limited noise, characterized by a constant below some frequency (a ``break'' frequency) and a power law above this frequency. It has been shown that the variability of this type can be produced by the inward diffusion of the local driving perturbations in a bounded configuration (accretion disk or corona). In the framework of this model, the perturbation diffusion time t0 is related to the phenomenological break frequency, while the PDS power-law slope above the ``break'' is determined by the viscosity distribution over the configuration. The perturbation diffusion scenario explains the decay of the power of X-ray variability observed in a number of compact sources (containing black hole and neutron star) during an evolution of theses sources from low/hard to high/soft states. We compare the model predictions with the subset of data from Cyg X-1 collected by the Rossi X-ray Time Explorer (RXTE). Our extensive analysis of the Cyg X-1 PDSs demonstrates that the observed integrated power Px decreases approximately as a square root of the characteristic frequency of the driving oscillations νdr. The RXTE observations of Cyg X-1 allow us to infer Pdr and t0 as a function of νdr. Using the inferred dependences of the integrated power of the driving oscillations Pdr and t0 on νdr we demonstrate that the power predicted by the model also decays as Px,diff~νdr-0.5 that is similar to the observed Px behavior. We also apply the basic parameters of observed PDSs, power-law index and low frequency quasiperiodic oscillations, to infer Reynolds (Re) number from the observations using the method developed in our previous paper. Our analysis shows that Re-number increases from values about 10 in low/hard state to that about 70 during the high/soft state.

  16. Measuring x-ray spectra of flash radiographic sources [PowerPoint

    SciTech Connect

    Gehring, Amanda Elizabeth; Espy, Michelle A.; Haines, Todd Joseph; Mendez, Jacob; Moir, David C.; Sedillo, Robert; Shurter, Roger P.; Volegov, Petr Lvovich; Webb, Timothy J

    2015-11-02

    The x-ray spectra of flash radiographic sources are difficult to measure. The sources measured were Radiographic Integrated Test Stand-6 (370 rad at 1 m; 50 ns pulse) and Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility (DARHT) (550 rad at 1 m; 50 ns pulse). Features of the Compton spectrometer are described, and spectra are shown. Additional slides present data on instrumental calibration.

  17. Critical-angle x-ray transmission grating spectrometer with extended bandpass and resolving power > 10,000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilmann, Ralf K.; Bruccoleri, Alexander R.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery; Gaskin, Jessica A.; O'Dell, Stephen L.; Bhatia, Ritwik; Schattenburg, Mark L.

    2016-07-01

    A number of high priority subjects in astrophysics can be addressed by a state-of-the-art soft x-ray grating spectrometer, such as the role of Active Galactic Nuclei in galaxy and star formation, characterization of the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium and the missing baryon problem, characterization of halos around the Milky Way and nearby galaxies, as well as stellar coronae and surrounding winds and disks. An Explorer-scale, largearea (> 1,000 cm2), high resolving power (R =λ/Δλ > 3,000) soft x-ray grating spectrometer is highly feasible based on Critical-Angle Transmission (CAT) grating technology, even for telescopes with angular resolution of 5-10 arcsec. Still, significantly higher performance can be provided by a CAT grating spectrometer on an X-ray- Surveyor-type mission. CAT gratings combine the advantages of blazed reflection gratings (high efficiency, use of higher diffraction orders) with those of conventional transmission gratings (lowmass, relaxed alignment tolerances and temperature requirements, transparent at higher energies) with minimalmission resource requirements. They are high-efficiency blazed transmission gratings that consist of freestanding, ultra-high aspect-ratio grating bars fabricated from silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers using advanced anisotropic dry and wet etch techniques. Blazing is achieved through grazing-incidence reflection off the smooth grating bar sidewalls. The reflection properties of silicon are well matched to the soft x-ray band, and existing silicon CAT gratings can exceed 30% absolute diffraction efficiency, with clear paths for further improvement. Nevertheless, CAT gratings with sidewalls made of higher atomic number elements allow extension of the CAT grating principle to higher energies and larger dispersion angles, thus enabling higher resolving power at shorter wavelengths. We show x-ray data from CAT gratings coated with a thin layer of platinum using atomic layer deposition, and demonstrate efficient

  18. A low power X-ray diffractometer for soil analysis in remote locations employing a multiwire proportional counter detector array.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, J. C.; Parnell, T. A.

    1972-01-01

    A low power X-ray powder diffraction system suitable for remote mineralogical analysis of lunar, planetary, or asteroid soils has been designed. A one Curie Fe-55 source provides a monochromatic X-ray beam of 5.9 keV. Seeman-Bohlin focusing geometry is employed in the camera, allowing peak detection to proceed simultaneously at all angles and obviating the need for moving parts. The detector system is an array of 500-600 proportional counters with a wire-spacing of 1 mm. An electronics unit comprising preamplifier, postamplifier, window discriminators, and storage flip-flops requiring only 3.5 milliwatts has been designed and tested. Total instrument power is less than 5 W.

  19. Compact Flash X-Ray Units

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-07-01

    Flash x-ray units are used to diagnose pulsed power driven experiments on the Pegasus machine at Los Alamos. Several unique designs of Marx powered...employing an x-ray tube configuration which allows closely spaced x-ray emitting anodes. These units all emit a 10 ns FWHM x-ray pulse. Their Marx banks

  20. Injection and Propagation of Multiple Relativistic Electron Beams into Preformed Plasma Channels for High-Power X-Ray Production

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    and a surface - flashover prepulse switch were added to the focused-beam diodes. These changes have improved the pinch stability of the focused beam... plasma channel-front expansion velocities from the exploding wire as inferred from the experi- mental data are 0.8 mm per microsecond for the 760 Torr...27.3 INJECTION AND PROPAGATION OF ~1ULTIPLE RELATIVISTIC ELECTRON BEAMS INTO PREFORMED PLASMA CHANNELS FOR HIGH-POWER X-RAY PRODUCTION F. J

  1. A SYNCHROTRON SELF-COMPTON-DISK REPROCESSING MODEL FOR OPTICAL/X-RAY CORRELATION IN BLACK HOLE X-RAY BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Veledina, Alexandra; Poutanen, Juri; Vurm, Indrek E-mail: juri.poutanen@oulu.fi

    2011-08-10

    The physical picture of the emission mechanisms operating in the X-ray binaries was put under question by the simultaneous optical/X-ray observations with high time resolution. The light curves of the two energy bands appeared to be connected and the cross-correlation functions observed in three black hole binaries exhibited a complicated shape. They show a dip of the optical emission a few seconds before the X-ray peak and the optical flare just after the X-ray peak. This behavior could not be explained in terms of standard optical emission candidates (e.g., emission from the cold accretion disk or a jet). We propose a novel model, which explains the broadband optical to the X-ray spectra and the variability properties. We suggest that the optical emission consists of two components: synchrotron radiation from the non-thermal electrons in the hot accretion flow and the emission produced by reprocessing of the X-rays in the outer part of the accretion disk. The first component is anti-correlated with the X-rays, while the second one is correlated, but delayed and smeared relative to the X-rays. The interplay of the components explains the complex shape of the cross-correlation function, the features in the optical power spectral density as well as the time lags.

  2. Estimation of soft X-ray and EUV transition radiation power emitted from the MIRRORCLE-type tabletop synchrotron.

    PubMed

    Toyosugi, N; Yamada, H; Minkov, D; Morita, M; Yamaguchi, T; Imai, S

    2007-03-01

    The tabletop synchrotron light sources MIRRORCLE-6X and MIRRORCLE-20SX, operating at electron energies E(el) = 6 MeV and E(el) = 20 MeV, respectively, can emit powerful transition radiation (TR) in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and the soft X-ray regions. To clarify the applicability of these soft X-ray and EUV sources, the total TR power has been determined. A TR experiment was performed using a 385 nm-thick Al foil target in MIRRORCLE-6X. The angular distribution of the emitted power was measured using a detector assembly based on an NE102 scintillator, an optical bundle and a photomultiplier. The maximal measured total TR power for MIRRORCLE-6X is P(max) approximately equal 2.95 mW at full power operation. Introduction of an analytical expression for the lifetime of the electron beam allows calculation of the emitted TR power by a tabletop synchrotron light source. Using the above measurement result, and the theoretically determined ratio between the TR power for MIRRORCLE-6X and MIRRORCLE-20SX, the total TR power for MIRRORCLE-20SX can be obtained. The one-foil TR target thickness is optimized for the 20 MeV electron energy. P(max) approximately equal 810 mW for MIRRORCLE-20SX is obtained with a single foil of 240 nm-thick Be target. The emitted bremsstrahlung is negligible with respect to the emitted TR for optimized TR targets. From a theoretically known TR spectrum it is concluded that MIRRORCLE-20SX can emit 150 mW of photons with E > 500 eV, which makes it applicable as a source for performing X-ray lithography. The average wavelength, \\overline\\lambda = 13.6 nm, of the TR emission of MIRRORCLE-20SX, with a 200 nm Al target, could provide of the order of 1 W EUV.

  3. High average power, highly brilliant laser-produced plasma source for soft X-ray spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mantouvalou, Ioanna; Witte, Katharina; Grötzsch, Daniel; Neitzel, Michael; Günther, Sabrina; Baumann, Jonas; Jung, Robert; Stiel, Holger; Kanngiesser, Birgit; Sandner, Wolfgang

    2015-03-01

    In this work, a novel laser-produced plasma source is presented which delivers pulsed broadband soft X-radiation in the range between 100 and 1200 eV. The source was designed in view of long operating hours, high stability, and cost effectiveness. It relies on a rotating and translating metal target and achieves high stability through an on-line monitoring device using a four quadrant extreme ultraviolet diode in a pinhole camera arrangement. The source can be operated with three different laser pulse durations and various target materials and is equipped with two beamlines for simultaneous experiments. Characterization measurements are presented with special emphasis on the source position and emission stability of the source. As a first application, a near edge X-ray absorption fine structure measurement on a thin polyimide foil shows the potential of the source for soft X-ray spectroscopy.

  4. High average power, highly brilliant laser-produced plasma source for soft X-ray spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantouvalou, Ioanna; Witte, Katharina; Grötzsch, Daniel; Neitzel, Michael; Günther, Sabrina; Baumann, Jonas; Jung, Robert; Stiel, Holger; Kanngießer, Birgit; Sandner, Wolfgang

    2015-03-01

    In this work, a novel laser-produced plasma source is presented which delivers pulsed broadband soft X-radiation in the range between 100 and 1200 eV. The source was designed in view of long operating hours, high stability, and cost effectiveness. It relies on a rotating and translating metal target and achieves high stability through an on-line monitoring device using a four quadrant extreme ultraviolet diode in a pinhole camera arrangement. The source can be operated with three different laser pulse durations and various target materials and is equipped with two beamlines for simultaneous experiments. Characterization measurements are presented with special emphasis on the source position and emission stability of the source. As a first application, a near edge X-ray absorption fine structure measurement on a thin polyimide foil shows the potential of the source for soft X-ray spectroscopy.

  5. The dynamic X-ray nebula powered by the pulsar B1259-63

    SciTech Connect

    Kargaltsev, Oleg; Volkov, Igor; Hare, Jeremy; Pavlov, George G.; Durant, Martin

    2014-04-01

    We present observations of the eccentric γ-ray binary B1259-63/LS 2883 with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The images reveal a variable, extended (about 4'', or ∼1000 times the binary orbit size) structure, which appears to be moving away from the binary with the velocity of 0.05 of the speed of light. The observed emission is interpreted as synchrotron radiation from relativistic particles supplied by the pulsar. However, the fast motion through the circumbinary medium would require the emitting cloud to be loaded with a large amount of baryonic matter. Alternatively, the extended emission can be interpreted as a variable extrabinary shock in the pulsar wind outflow launched near binary apastron. The resolved variable X-ray nebula provides an opportunity to probe pulsar winds and their interaction with stellar winds in a previously inaccessible way.

  6. High average power, highly brilliant laser-produced plasma source for soft X-ray spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Mantouvalou, Ioanna; Grötzsch, Daniel; Neitzel, Michael; Günther, Sabrina; Baumann, Jonas; Kanngießer, Birgit; Witte, Katharina; Jung, Robert; Stiel, Holger; Sandner, Wolfgang

    2015-03-15

    In this work, a novel laser-produced plasma source is presented which delivers pulsed broadband soft X-radiation in the range between 100 and 1200 eV. The source was designed in view of long operating hours, high stability, and cost effectiveness. It relies on a rotating and translating metal target and achieves high stability through an on-line monitoring device using a four quadrant extreme ultraviolet diode in a pinhole camera arrangement. The source can be operated with three different laser pulse durations and various target materials and is equipped with two beamlines for simultaneous experiments. Characterization measurements are presented with special emphasis on the source position and emission stability of the source. As a first application, a near edge X-ray absorption fine structure measurement on a thin polyimide foil shows the potential of the source for soft X-ray spectroscopy.

  7. X-ray/UV variability and the origin of soft X-ray excess emission from II Zw 177

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Main

    We study a detailed broad-band X-ray/UV emission from the narrow line Seyfert 1 galaxy II Zw 177 based on two XMM-Newton and single Swift/XRT observations. Both XMM-Newton observations show the soft X-ray excess emission below 2 keV when the best-fit 2 - 10 keV power law is extrapolated down to 0.3 keV. We find the blurred reflection from an ionized accretion disc and Comptonized disc emission both describe the observed soft excess well. We find a remarkable trend of decreasing UV flux with increasing soft X-ray excess and power law emission. We suggest that this could be due to that the external edge of corona hide a fraction of accretion disk. Co-Author: Prof. Gulab C. Dewangan (IUCAA), Prof. Ranjeev Misra (IUCAA), Pramod Kumar (Nanded university)

  8. X-ray lithography source

    DOEpatents

    Piestrup, Melvin A.; Boyers, David G.; Pincus, Cary

    1991-01-01

    A high-intensity, inexpensive X-ray source for X-ray lithography for the production of integrated circuits. Foil stacks are bombarded with a high-energy electron beam of 25 to 250 MeV to produce a flux of soft X-rays of 500 eV to 3 keV. Methods of increasing the total X-ray power and making the cross section of the X-ray beam uniform are described. Methods of obtaining the desired X-ray-beam field size, optimum frequency spectrum and elminating the neutron flux are all described. A method of obtaining a plurality of station operation is also described which makes the process more efficient and economical. The satisfying of these issues makes transition radiation an exellent moderate-priced X-ray source for lithography.

  9. X-ray lithography source

    DOEpatents

    Piestrup, M.A.; Boyers, D.G.; Pincus, C.

    1991-12-31

    A high-intensity, inexpensive X-ray source for X-ray lithography for the production of integrated circuits is disclosed. Foil stacks are bombarded with a high-energy electron beam of 25 to 250 MeV to produce a flux of soft X-rays of 500 eV to 3 keV. Methods of increasing the total X-ray power and making the cross section of the X-ray beam uniform are described. Methods of obtaining the desired X-ray-beam field size, optimum frequency spectrum and eliminating the neutron flux are all described. A method of obtaining a plurality of station operation is also described which makes the process more efficient and economical. The satisfying of these issues makes transition radiation an excellent moderate-priced X-ray source for lithography. 26 figures.

  10. Soft X-Ray Emission Lines from a Relativistic Accretion Disk in MCG -6-30-15 and Mrk 766

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Sako, M.; Kahn, S. M.; Brinkman, A. C.; Kaastra, J. S.; Page, M. J.

    2000-01-01

    XMM-Newton Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) spectra of the Narrow Line Seyfert 1 galaxies MCG -6-30-15 and Mrk 766 are physically and spectroscopically inconsistent with standard models comprising a power-law continuum absorbed by either cold or ionized matter. We propose that the remarkably similar features detected in both objects in the 5 - 35 A band are H-like oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon emission lines, gravitation- ally redshifted and broadened by relativistic effects in the vicinity of a Kerr black hole. We discuss the implications of our interpretation, and demonstrate that the derived parameters can be physically self-consistent.

  11. Are the Galactic-bulge X-ray sources magnetized?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundt, W.; Ozel, M. E.; Ercan, E. N.

    1987-01-01

    This paper attempts to demonstrate that a better understanding of Galactic-bulge X-ray sources can be achieved if their magnetic moments are assumed to have the same values as those of young pulsars. It is argued that most of the matter leaving the inner edge of the accretion disk can reach the neutron star's surface in the form of massive clumps in quasi-Keplerian orbits. As a result, most of the accretion flow covers a broad equatorial belt rather than the polar caps, and the star shines as an almost unpulsed source. The liberation of half of the accretion power before the surface is reached can lead to the reported UHE pulses and bright infrared bursts. Spasmodic accretion is discussed as a model for gamma-ray bursts, and the observed low-energy X-ray absorption features are considered as an indication of strong magnetic fields shifted to lower energies during super-Eddington outbursts.

  12. Hitomi X-ray Astronomy Satellite: Power of High-Resolution Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odaka, Hirokazu; Aff001

    2017-01-01

    Hitomi (ASTRO-H) is an X-ray observatory developed by an international collaboration led by JAXA. An X-ray microcalorimeter onboard this satellite has opened a new window of high-resolution spectroscopy with an unprecedented energy resolution of 5 eV (FWHM) at 6 keV. The spacecraft was launched on February 17, 2016 from Tanegashima Island, Japan, and we completed initial operations including deployment of the hard X-ray imagers on the extensible optical bench. All scientific instruments had successfully worked until the sudden loss of the mission on March 26. We have obtained a spectrum showing fully resolved emission lines through the first-light observation of the Perseus Cluster. The line-of-sight velocity dispersion of 164 +/- 10 km s-1 reveals the quiescent environment of intracluster medium at the cluster core, implying that measured cluster mass requires little correction for the turbulent pressure. We also discuss observations to the Galactic Center which could be performed with Hitomi.

  13. Fast plasma discharge capillary design as a high power throughput soft x-ray emission source

    SciTech Connect

    Wyndham, E. S.; Favre, M.; Valdivia, M. P.; Valenzuela, J. C.; Chuaqui, H.; Bhuyan, H.

    2010-09-15

    We present the experimental details and results from a low energy but high repetition rate compact plasma capillary source for extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray research and applications. Two lengths of capillary are mounted in two versions of a closely related design. The discharge operates in 1.6 and 3.2 mm inner diameter alumina capillaries of lengths 21 and 36 mm. The use of water both as dielectric and as coolant simplifies the compact low inductance design with nanosecond discharge periods. The stored electrical energy of the discharge is approximately 0.5 J and is provided by directly charging the capacitor plates from an inexpensive insulated-gate bipolar transistor in 1 {mu}s or less. We present characteristic argon spectra from plasma between 30 and 300 A as well as temporally resolved x-ray energy fluence in discrete bands on axis. The spectra also allow the level of ablated wall material to be gauged and associated with useful capillary lifetime according to the chosen configuration and energy storage. The connection between the electron beams associated with the transient hollow cathode mechanism, soft x-ray output, capillary geometry, and capillary lifetime is reported. The role of these e-beams and the plasma as measured on-axis is discussed. The relation of the electron temperature and the ionization stages observed is discussed in the context of some model results of ionization in a non-Maxwellian plasma.

  14. Fast plasma discharge capillary design as a high power throughput soft x-ray emission source.

    PubMed

    Wyndham, E S; Favre, M; Valdivia, M P; Valenzuela, J C; Chuaqui, H; Bhuyan, H

    2010-09-01

    We present the experimental details and results from a low energy but high repetition rate compact plasma capillary source for extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray research and applications. Two lengths of capillary are mounted in two versions of a closely related design. The discharge operates in 1.6 and 3.2 mm inner diameter alumina capillaries of lengths 21 and 36 mm. The use of water both as dielectric and as coolant simplifies the compact low inductance design with nanosecond discharge periods. The stored electrical energy of the discharge is approximately 0.5 J and is provided by directly charging the capacitor plates from an inexpensive insulated-gate bipolar transistor in 1 μs or less. We present characteristic argon spectra from plasma between 30 and 300 Å as well as temporally resolved x-ray energy fluence in discrete bands on axis. The spectra also allow the level of ablated wall material to be gauged and associated with useful capillary lifetime according to the chosen configuration and energy storage. The connection between the electron beams associated with the transient hollow cathode mechanism, soft x-ray output, capillary geometry, and capillary lifetime is reported. The role of these e-beams and the plasma as measured on-axis is discussed. The relation of the electron temperature and the ionization stages observed is discussed in the context of some model results of ionization in a non-Maxwellian plasma.

  15. Diagnosing Pulsed Power Produced Plasmas with X-ray Thomson Scattering at the Nevada Terawatt Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenzuela, J. C.; Krauland, C.; Mariscal, D.; Krasheninnikov, I.; Beg, F. N.; Wiewior, P.; Covington, A.; Presura, R.; Ma, T.; Niemann, C.; Mabey, P.; Gregori, G.

    2015-11-01

    We present experimental results on X-ray Thomson scattering (XRTS) at the Nevada Terawatt Facility (NTF) to study current driven plasmas. Using the Leopard laser, ~ 30 J and pulse width of 0.8 ns, we generated He- α emission (4.75 keV) from a thin Ti foil. Initial parameter scans showed that the optimum intensity is ~ 1015W/cm2 with a foil thickness of 2 μm for forward X-ray production. Bandwidth measurements of the source, using a HAPG crystal in the Von Hamos configuration, were found to be ΔE/E ~ 0.01. Giving the scattering angle of our experimental setup of 129 degrees and X-ray probing energy, the non-collective regime was accessed. The ZEBRA load was a 3 mm wide, 500 μm thick, and 10 mm long graphite foil, placed at one of the six current return posts. Estimates of the plasma temperature, density and ionization state were made by fitting the scattering spectra with dynamic structure factor calculations based on the random phase approximation for the treatment of charged particle coupling. The work was partially funded by the Department of Energy grant number DE-NA0001995.

  16. X-ray bursters and the X-ray sources of the galactic bulge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewin, W. H. G.; Joss, P. C.

    1981-01-01

    An attempt is made to distill from observational and theoretical information on the galactic bulge X-ray sources in general, and on the X-ray burst sources in particular, those aspects which seem to have the greatest relevance to the understanding of these sources. Galactic bulge sources appear to be collapsed objects of roughly solar mass, in most cases neutron stars, which are accreting matter from low-mass stellar companions. Type I bursts seem to result from thermonuclear flashes in the surface layers of some of these neutron stars, while the type II bursts from the Rapid Burster are almost certainly due to an instability in the accretion flow onto a neutron star. It is concluded that the studies cited offer a new and powerful observational handle on the fundamental properties of neutron stars and of the interacting binary systems in which they are often contained.

  17. On the power-law distributions of X-ray fluxes from solar flares observed with GOES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, You-Ping; Feng, Li; Zhang, Ping; Liu, Si-Ming; Gan, Wei-Qun

    2016-10-01

    The power-law frequency distributions of the peak flux of solar flare X-ray emission have been studied extensively and attributed to a system having self-organized criticality (SOC). In this paper, we first show that, so long as the shape of the normalized light curve is not correlated with the peak flux, the flux histogram of solar flares also follows a power-law distribution with the same spectral index as the power-law frequency distribution of the peak flux, which may partially explain why power-law distributions are ubiquitous in the Universe. We then show that the spectral indexes of the histograms of soft X-ray fluxes observed by GOES satellites in two different energy channels are different: the higher energy channel has a harder distribution than the lower energy channel, which challenges the universal power-law distribution predicted by SOC models and implies a very soft distribution of thermal energy content of plasmas probed by the GOES satellites. The temperature (T) distribution, on the other hand, approaches a power-law distribution with an index of 2 for high values of T. Hence the application of SOC models to the statistical properties of solar flares needs to be revisited.

  18. Microscopic nonlinear relativistic quantum theory of absorption of powerful x-ray radiation in plasma.

    PubMed

    Avetissian, H K; Ghazaryan, A G; Matevosyan, H H; Mkrtchian, G F

    2015-10-01

    The microscopic quantum theory of plasma nonlinear interaction with the coherent shortwave electromagnetic radiation of arbitrary intensity is developed. The Liouville-von Neumann equation for the density matrix is solved analytically considering a wave field exactly and a scattering potential of plasma ions as a perturbation. With the help of this solution we calculate the nonlinear inverse-bremsstrahlung absorption rate for a grand canonical ensemble of electrons. The latter is studied in Maxwellian, as well as in degenerate quantum plasma for x-ray lasers at superhigh intensities and it is shown that one can achieve the efficient absorption coefficient in these cases.

  19. Quasimonochromatic x-ray backlighting on the COrnell Beam Research Accelerator (COBRA) pulsed power generator.

    PubMed

    Knapp, P F; Greenly, J B; Gourdain, P A; Hoyt, C L; Pikuz, S A; Shelkovenko, T A; Hammer, D A

    2010-10-01

    Monochromatic x-ray backlighting has been employed with great success for imaging of plasmas with strong self-emission such as x-pinches and wire array z-pinches. However, implementation of a monochromatic backlighting system typically requires extremely high quality spherically bent crystals which are difficult to manufacture and can be prohibitively expensive. Furthermore, the crystal must have a direct line of sight to the object, which typically emits copious amounts of radiation and debris. We present a quasimonochromatic x-ray backlighting system which employs an elliptically bent mica crystal as the dispersive element. In this scheme a narrow band of continuum radiation is selected for imaging, instead of line radiation in the case of monochromatic imaging. The flat piece of mica is bent using a simple four-point bending apparatus that allows the curvature of the crystal to be adjusted in situ for imaging in the desired wavelength band. This system has the advantage that it is very cost effective, has a large aperture, and is extremely flexible. The principles of operation of the system are discussed and its performance is analyzed.

  20. The energy spectrum of anomalous X-ray pulsars and soft gamma-ray repeaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trümper, J. E.; Zezas, A.; Ertan, Ü.; Kylafis, N. D.

    2010-07-01

    Context. Anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs) and soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs) exhibit characteristic X-ray luminosities (both soft and hard) of around 1035 erg s-1 and characteristic power-law, hard X-ray spectra extending to about 200 keV. Two AXPs also exhibit pulsed radio emission. Aims: Assuming that AXPs and SGRs accrete matter from a fallback disk, we attempt to explain both the soft and the hard X-ray emission as the result of the accretion process. We also attempt to explain their radio emission or the lack of it. Methods: We test the hypothesis that the power-law, hard X-ray spectra are produced in the accretion flow mainly by bulk-motion Comptonization of soft photons emitted at the neutron star surface. Fallback disk models invoke surface dipole magnetic fields of 1012 - 1013 G, which is what we assume here. Results: Unlike normal X-ray pulsars, for which the accretion rate is highly super-Eddington, the accretion rate is approximately Eddington in AXPs and SGRs and thus the bulk-motion Comptonization operates efficiently. As an illustrative example we reproduce both the hard and the soft X-ray spectra of AXP 4U 0142+61 well using the XSPEC package compTB. Conclusions: Our model seems to explain both the hard and the soft X-ray spectra of AXPs and SGRs, as well as their radio emission or the lack of it, in a natural way. It might also explain the short bursts observed in these sources. On the other hand, it cannot explain the giant X-ray outbursts observed in SGRs, which may result from the conversion of magnetic energy in local multipole fields.

  1. On the black hole masses in ultra-luminous X-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xin-Lin

    2015-05-01

    Ultra-luminous X-ray sources (ULXs) are off-nuclear X-ray sources in nearby galaxies with X-ray luminosities ⩾ 1039 erg s-1. The measurement of the black hole (BH) masses of ULXs is a long-standing problem. Here we estimate BH masses in a sample of ULXs with XMM-Newton observations using two different mass indicators, the X-ray photon index and X-ray variability amplitude based on the correlations established for active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The BH masses estimated from the two methods are compared and discussed. We find that some extreme high-luminosity (LX > 5 ×1040 erg s-1) ULXs contain the BH of 104-105 M⊙ . The results from X-ray variability amplitude are in conflict with those from X-ray photon indices for ULXs with lower luminosities. This suggests that these ULXs generally accrete at rates different from those of X-ray luminous AGNs, or they have different power spectral densities of X-ray variability. We conclude that most of ULXs accrete at super-Eddington rate, thus harbor stellar-mass BH.

  2. Symbiotic Stars in X-rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luna, G. J. M.; Sokoloski, J. L.; Mukai, K.; Nelson, T.

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, symbiotic binary systems in which a white dwarf accretes from a red giant were thought to be mainly a soft X-ray population. Here we describe the detection with the X-ray Telescope (XRT) on the Swift satellite of 9 white dwarf symbiotics that were not previously known to be X-ray sources and one that was previously detected as a supersoft X-ray source. The 9 new X-ray detections were the result of a survey of 41 symbiotic stars, and they increase the number of symbiotic stars known to be X-ray sources by approximately 30%. Swift/XRT detected all of the new X-ray sources at energies greater than 2 keV. Their X-ray spectra are consistent with thermal emission and fall naturally into three distinct groups. The first group contains those sources with a single, highly absorbed hard component, which we identify as probably coming from an accretion-disk boundary layer. The second group is composed of those sources with a single, soft X-ray spectral component, which likely arises in a region where low-velocity shocks produce X-ray emission, i.e. a colliding-wind region. The third group consists of those sources with both hard and soft X-ray spectral components. We also find that unlike in the optical, where rapid, stochastic brightness variations from the accretion disk typically are not seen, detectable UV flickering is a common property of symbiotic stars. Supporting our physical interpretation of the two X-ray spectral components, simultaneous Swift UV photometry shows that symbiotic stars with harder X-ray emission tend to have stronger UV flickering, which is usually associated with accretion through a disk. To place these new observations in the context of previous work on X-ray emission from symbiotic stars, we modified and extended the alpha/beta/gamma classification scheme for symbiotic-star X-ray spectra that was introduced by Muerset et al. based upon observations with the ROSAT satellite, to include a new sigma classification for sources with

  3. X-Ray Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.

    2000-01-01

    Dr. S. N. Zhang has lead a seven member group (Dr. Yuxin Feng, Mr. XuejunSun, Mr. Yongzhong Chen, Mr. Jun Lin, Mr. Yangsen Yao, and Ms. Xiaoling Zhang). This group has carried out the following activities: continued data analysis from space astrophysical missions CGRO, RXTE, ASCA and Chandra. Significant scientific results have been produced as results of their work. They discovered the three-layered accretion disk structure around black holes in X-ray binaries; their paper on this discovery is to appear in the prestigious Science magazine. They have also developed a new method for energy spectral analysis of black hole X-ray binaries; four papers on this topics were presented at the most recent Atlanta AAS meeting. They have also carried Monte-Carlo simulations of X-ray detectors, in support to the hardware development efforts at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). These computation-intensive simulations have been carried out entirely on the computers at UAH. They have also carried out extensive simulations for astrophysical applications, taking advantage of the Monte-Carlo simulation codes developed previously at MSFC and further improved at UAH for detector simulations. One refereed paper and one contribution to conference proceedings have been resulted from this effort.

  4. Longterm lightcurves of X-ray binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarkson, William

    The X-ray Binaries (XRB) consist of a compact object and a stellar companion, which undergoes large-scale mass-loss to the compact object by virtue of the tight ( P orb usually hours-days) orbit, producing an accretion disk surrounding the compact object. The liberation of gravitational potential energy powers exotic high-energy phenomena, indeed the resulting accretion/ outflow process is among the most efficient energy-conversion machines in the universe. The Burst And Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) and RXTE All Sky Monitor (ASM) have provided remarkable X-ray lightcurves above 1.3keV for the entire sky, at near-continuous coverage, for intervals of 9 and 7 years respectively (with ~3 years' overlap). With an order of magnitude increase in sensitivity compared to previous survey instruments, these instruments have provided new insight into the high-energy behaviour of XRBs on timescales of tens to thousands of binary orbits. This thesis describes detailed examination of the long-term X-ray lightcurves of the neutron star XRB X2127+119, SMC X-1, Her X- 1, LMC X-4, Cyg X-2 and the as yet unclassified Circinus X-1, and for Cir X-1, complementary observations in the IR band. Chapters 1 & 2 introduce X-ray Binaries in general and longterm periodicities in particular. Chapter 3 introduces the longterm datasets around which this work is based, and the chosen methods of analysis of these datasets. Chapter 4 examines the burst history of the XRB X2127+119, suggesting three possible interpretations of the apparently contradictory X-ray emission from this system, including a possible confusion of two spatially distinct sources (which was later vindicated by high-resolution imaging). Chapters 5 and 6 describe the characterisation of accretion disk warping, providing observational verification of the prevailing theoretical framework for such disk-warps. Chapters 7 & 8 examine the enigmatic XRB Circinus X-1 with high-resolution IR spectroscopy (chapter 7) and the RXTE

  5. Hard X-Ray Emission of X-Ray Bursters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaaret, P.

    1999-01-01

    The primary goal of this proposal was to perform an accurate measurement of the broadband x-ray spectrum of a neutron-star low-mass x-ray binary found in a hard x-ray state. This goal was accomplished using data obtained under another proposal, which has provided exciting new information on the hard x-ray emission of neutron-star low-mass x-ray binaries. In "BeppoSAX Observations of the Atoll X-Ray Binary 4U0614+091", we present our analysis of the spectrum of 4U0614+091 over the energy band from 0.3-150 keV. Our data confirm the presence of a hard x-ray tail that can be modeled as thermal Comptonization of low-energy photons on electrons having a very high temperature, greater than 220 keV, or as a non-thermal powerlaw. Such a very hard x-ray spectrum has not been previously seen from neutron-star low-mass x-ray binaries. We also detected a spectral feature that can be interpreted as reprocessing, via Compton reflection, of the direct emission by an optically-thick disk and found a correlation between the photon index of the power-law tail and the fraction of radiation reflected which is similar to the correlation found for black hole candidate x-ray binaries and Seyfert galaxies. A secondary goal was to measure the timing properties of the x-ray emission from neutronstar low-mass x-ray binaries in their low/hard states.

  6. A Cutoff in the X-Ray Fluctuation Power Density Spectrum of the Seyfert 1 Galaxy NGC 3516

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelson, Rick; Nandra, Kirpal

    1999-01-01

    During 1997 March-July, RXTE observed the bright, strongly variable Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 3516 once every approx. 12.8 hr for 4.5 months and nearly continuously (with interruptions due to SAA passage but not Earth occultation) for a 4.2 day period in the middle. These were followed by ongoing monitoring once every approx. 4.3 days. These data are used to construct the first well-determined X-ray fluctuation power density spectrum (PDS) of an active galaxy to span more than 4 decades of usable temporal frequency. The PDS shows no signs of any strict or quasi-periodicity, but does show a progressive flattening of the power-low slope from -1.74 at short time scales to -0.73 at longer time scales. This is the clearest observation to date of the long-predicted cutoff in the PDS. The characteristic variability time scale corresponding to this cutoff temporal frequency is approx. 1 month. Although it is unclear how this time scale may be interpreted in terms of a physical size or process, there are several promising candidate models. The PDS appears similar to those seen for Galactic black hole candidates such as Cyg X-1, suggesting that these two classes of objects with very different luminosities and putative black hole masses (differing by more than a factor of 10(exp 5)) may have similar X-ray generation processes and structures.

  7. A dual-mode phase-shift modulation control scheme for voltage multiplier based X-ray power supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, S.; Besar, R.; Venkataseshaiah, C.

    2010-05-01

    This paper proposes a dual-mode phase-shift modulation control scheme for series resonant inverter fed voltage multiplier (VM) based X-ray power supply. In this control scheme the outputs voltage of two parallel connected series resonant inverters are mixed before supplying to VM circuit. The output voltage of the power supply is controlled by varying the phase-shift between the output voltages of two inverters. In order to achieve quick rise of output voltage, the power supply is started with zero phase-shift and as the output voltage reaches 90% of the target voltage, the phase-shift is increased to a value which corresponds to target output voltage to prevent overshoot. The proposed control scheme has been shown to have good performance. Experimental results based on the scaled-down laboratory prototype are presented to validate the effectiveness of proposed dual-mode phase shift modulation control scheme.

  8. The anomalous X-ray pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Rui; Li, Xiangdong

    2002-03-01

    In the last few years it has been recognized that a group of X-ray pulsars have peculiar properties which set them apart from the majority of accreting pulars in X-ray binaries. They are called the Anomalous X-ray Pulsars (AXP). These objects are characterized by very soft X-ray spectra with low and steady X-ray fluxes, narrow-distributed spin periods, steady spin-down, no optical/infrared counterparts. Some of them may associate with supernova remnants. The nature of AXP remains mysterious. It has been suggested that AXP are accreting neutron stars, or solitary "magnetars", neutron stars with super strong magnetic fields (≍1010-1011T). In this paper we review the recent progress in the studies of AXP, and discuss the possible implications from comparison of AXP with other neutron stars, such as radio pulsars, radio quiet X-ray pulsar candidates and soft γ-ray repeaters.

  9. ON THE TRANSITION FROM ACCRETION-POWERED TO ROTATION-POWERED MILLISECOND PULSARS

    SciTech Connect

    Takata, J.; Cheng, K. S.; Taam, Ronald E. E-mail: hrspksc@hkucc.hku.h

    2010-11-01

    The heating associated with the deposition of {gamma}-rays in an accretion disk is proposed as a mechanism to facilitate the transformation of a low-mass X-ray binary to the radio millisecond pulsar (MSP) phase. The {gamma}-ray emission produced in the outer gap accelerator in the pulsar magnetosphere likely irradiates the surrounding disk, resulting in its heating and the possible escape of matter from the system. We apply the model to PSR J1023+0038, which has recently been discovered as a newly born rotation-powered MSP. The predicted {gamma}-ray luminosity {approx}6 x 10{sup 34} erg s{sup -1} can be sufficient to explain the disappearance of the truncated disk existing during the 8 month-2 yr period prior to the 2002 observations of J1023+0038 and the energy input required for the anomalously bright optical emission of its companion star.

  10. Compact x-ray source and panel

    SciTech Connect

    Sampayon, Stephen E.

    2008-02-12

    A compact, self-contained x-ray source, and a compact x-ray source panel having a plurality of such x-ray sources arranged in a preferably broad-area pixelized array. Each x-ray source includes an electron source for producing an electron beam, an x-ray conversion target, and a multilayer insulator separating the electron source and the x-ray conversion target from each other. The multi-layer insulator preferably has a cylindrical configuration with a plurality of alternating insulator and conductor layers surrounding an acceleration channel leading from the electron source to the x-ray conversion target. A power source is connected to each x-ray source of the array to produce an accelerating gradient between the electron source and x-ray conversion target in any one or more of the x-ray sources independent of other x-ray sources in the array, so as to accelerate an electron beam towards the x-ray conversion target. The multilayer insulator enables relatively short separation distances between the electron source and the x-ray conversion target so that a thin panel is possible for compactness. This is due to the ability of the plurality of alternating insulator and conductor layers of the multilayer insulators to resist surface flashover when sufficiently high acceleration energies necessary for x-ray generation are supplied by the power source to the x-ray sources.

  11. UV observations of x ray binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raymond, John C.

    1990-01-01

    IUE (International Ultraviolet Explorer) has observed both high and low mass x ray binaries throughout its life. The UV spectra of high mass systems reveal the nature of the massive companion star and the effects of the x ray illumination of the stellar wind. In loss mass systems, the x ray illuminated disk or companion star dominates the UV light. System parameters and the characteristics of the accretion disk can be inferred.

  12. Time Resolved Spectroscopy, High Sensitivity Power Spectrum & a Search for the X-Ray QPO in NGC 5548

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaqoob, Tahir

    1999-09-01

    Controversy surrounds the EXOSAT discovery of a QPO (period ~500 s) in NGC 5548 due to the data being plagued by high background and instrumental systematics. If the NGC 5548 QPO is real, the implications for the physics of the X-ray emission mechanism and inner-most disk/black-hole system are enormous. AXAF provides the first opportunity to settle the issue, capable of yielding power spectra with unprecedented sensitivity, pushing the limit on finding new features. Using HETG/ACIS we will also perform time-resolved spectroscopy of the ionized absorption features and Fe-K emission line, search for energy-dependent time lags in the continuum, between the continuum and spectral features, and between the spectral features. These data will provide powerful constraints on models of AGN.

  13. High-power Waveguide Dampers for the Short-Pulse X-Ray Project at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Waldschmidt, G J; Liu, J; Middendorf, M E; Nassiri, A; Smith, T L; Wu, G; Henry, J; Mammosser, J D; Rimmer, R A; Wiseman, M

    2012-07-01

    High-power waveguide dampers have been designed and prototyped for the Short-Pulse X-ray (SPX) cavities at the Advanced Photon Source. The cavities will operate at 2.815 GHz and utilize the TM110 dipole mode. As a result, higher-order (HOM) and lower-order mode (LOM) in-vacuum dampers have been designed to satisfy the demanding broadband damping requirements in the APS storage ring. The SPX single-cell cavity consists of two WR284 waveguides for damping the HOMs and one WR284 waveguide for primarily damping the LOM where up to 2kW will be dissipated in the damping material. The damper designs and high-power experimental results will be discussed in this paper.

  14. Optimization of x-ray sources for proximity lithography produced by a high average power Nd:glass laser

    SciTech Connect

    Celliers, P.; DaSilva, L.B.; Dane, C.B.

    1995-07-01

    We measured the conversion efficiency of laser pulse energy into x-rays from a variety of solid planar targets and a Xe gas puff target irradiated using a high average power Nd:glass slab laser capable of delivering 13 ns FWHM pulses at up to 20 J at 1.053 {mu}m and 12 J at 0.53 {mu}m. Targets where chosen to optimize emission in the 9-19 {Angstrom} wavelength band, including L-shell emission from materials with atomic numbers in the Z=24-30 and M-shell emission from Xe (Z=54). With 1.053 {mu}m a maximum conversion of 10% into 2{pi} sr was measured from solid Xe and type 302 stainless steel targets. At 0.527 {mu}m efficiencies of 12-18%/(2{pi} sr) were measured for all of the solid targets in the same wavelength band. The x-ray conversion efficiency from the Xe gas puff target was considerably lower, at about 3%/(2{pi} sr) when irradiated with 1.053 {mu}m.

  15. Get the Latest on the World's Most Powerful X-ray Telescope: NASA Experts Available to Talk About Chandra Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-07-01

    Media Advisory: 99-142 You could read a newspaper from half a mile away or see a stop sign from 12 miles. That’s the kind of strength packed into the world’s most powerful X-ray telescope. Its name is the Chandra X-ray observatory and it starts a five-year mission this week when the Space Shuttle’s first female commander, Eileen Collins, and her crew release the new observatory from the Shuttle’s payload bay. Chandra is the largest and heaviest payload ever launched by the Space Shuttle. Using Chandra, scientists will learn more about black holes, study quasars at the edge of the universe, analyze comets in our solar system, and more. Get the story on NASA’s newest great observatory from the experts at the Operations Control Center in Cambridge, Mass. Who: Chandra Experts When: Beginning Tuesday evening, July 20 through July 27 Time: 6 - 10 a.m.; 6 - 10 p.m. EDT Satellite Windows: 10 minutes Satellite Interview Information: Robert Drake, Producer (256) 544-4139 (256) 544-1183 (PIN 0022) Story Information: Tim Tyson, Media Relations (256) 544-0034

  16. Evolution of X-ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossj, B.

    1981-01-01

    The evolution of X-ray astronomy up to the launching of the Einstein observatory is presented. The evaluation proceeded through the following major steps: (1) discovery of an extrasolar X-ray source, Sco X-1, orders of magnitude stronger than astronomers believed might exist; (2) identification of a strong X-ray source with the Crab Nebula; (3) identification of Sco X-1 with a faint, peculiar optical object; (4) demonstration that X-ray stars are binary systems, each consisting of a collapsed object accreting matter from an ordinary star; (5) discovery of X-ray bursts; (6) discovery of exceedingly strong X-ray emission from active galaxies, quasars and clusters of galaxies; (7) demonstration that the principal X-ray source is a hot gas filling the space between galaxies.

  17. Compact Stellar X-ray Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewin, Walter H. G.; van der Klis, Michiel

    2006-04-01

    1. Accreting neutron stars and black holes: a decade of discoveries D. Psaltis; 2. Rapid X-ray variability M. van der Klis; 3. New views of thermonuclear bursts T. Strohmayer and L. Bildsten; 4. Black hole binaries J. McClintock and R. Remillard; 5. Optical, ultraviolet and infrared observations of X-ray binaries P. Charles and M. Coe; 6. Fast X-ray transients and X-ray flashes J. Heise and J. in 't Zand; 7. Isolated neutron stars V. Kaspi, M. Roberts and A. Harding; 8. Globular cluster X-ray sources F. Verbunt and W. Lewin; 9. Jets from X-ray binaries R. Fender; 10. X-Rays from cataclysmic variables E. Kuulkers, A. Norton, A. Schwope and B. Warner; 11. Super soft sources P. Kahabka and E. van den Heuvel; 12. Compact stellar X-ray sources in normal galaxies G. Fabbiano and N. White; 13. Accretion in compact binaries A. King; 14. Soft gamma repeaters and anomalous X-ray pulsars: magnetar candidates P. Woods and C. Thompson; 15. Cosmic gamma-ray bursts, their afterglows, and their host galaxies K. Hurley, R. Sari and S. Djorgovski; 16. Formation and evolution of compact stellar X-ray sources T. Tauris and E. van den Heuvel.

  18. Compact Stellar X-ray Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewin, Walter; van der Klis, Michiel

    2010-11-01

    1. Accreting neutron stars and black holes: a decade of discoveries D. Psaltis; 2. Rapid X-ray variability M. van der Klis; 3. New views of thermonuclear bursts T. Strohmayer and L. Bildsten; 4. Black hole binaries J. McClintock and R. Remillard; 5. Optical, ultraviolet and infrared observations of X-ray binaries P. Charles and M. Coe; 6. Fast X-ray transients and X-ray flashes J. Heise and J. in 't Zand; 7. Isolated neutron stars V. Kaspi, M. Roberts and A. Harding; 8. Globular cluster X-ray sources F. Verbunt and W. Lewin; 9. Jets from X-ray binaries R. Fender; 10. X-Rays from cataclysmic variables E. Kuulkers, A. Norton, A. Schwope and B. Warner; 11. Super soft sources P. Kahabka and E. van den Heuvel; 12. Compact stellar X-ray sources in normal galaxies G. Fabbiano and N. White; 13. Accretion in compact binaries A. King; 14. Soft gamma repeaters and anomalous X-ray pulsars: magnetar candidates P. Woods and C. Thompson; 15. Cosmic gamma-ray bursts, their afterglows, and their host galaxies K. Hurley, R. Sari and S. Djorgovski; 16. Formation and evolution of compact stellar X-ray sources T. Tauris and E. van den Heuvel.

  19. Cosmic x ray physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccammon, Dan; Cox, D. P.; Kraushaar, W. L.; Sanders, W. T.

    1990-01-01

    The annual progress report on Cosmic X Ray Physics is presented. Topics studied include: the soft x ray background, proportional counter and filter calibrations, the new sounding rocket payload: X Ray Calorimeter, and theoretical studies.

  20. Cosmic x ray physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccammon, Dan; Cox, D. P.; Kraushaar, W. L.; Sanders, W. T.

    1991-01-01

    The annual progress report on Cosmic X Ray Physics for the period 1 Jan. to 31 Dec. 1990 is presented. Topics studied include: soft x ray background, new sounding rocket payload: x ray calorimeter, and theoretical studies.

  1. Chest X-Ray

    MedlinePlus

    ... by Image/Video Gallery Your radiologist explains chest x-ray. Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, ... you about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x-rays are the most commonly performed ...

  2. Joint x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    X-ray - joint; Arthrography; Arthrogram ... x-ray technologist will help you position the joint to be x-rayed on the table. Once in place, pictures are taken. The joint may be moved into other positions for more ...

  3. A novel vacuum spectrometer for total reflection x-ray fluorescence analysis with two exchangeable low power x-ray sources for the analysis of low, medium, and high Z elements in sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Wobrauschek, P. Prost, J.; Ingerle, D.; Kregsamer, P.; Streli, C.; Misra, N. L.

    2015-08-15

    The extension of the detectable elemental range with Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF) analysis is a challenging task. In this paper, it is demonstrated how a TXRF spectrometer is modified to analyze elements from carbon to uranium. Based on the existing design of a vacuum TXRF spectrometer with a 12 specimen sample changer, the following components were renewed: the silicon drift detector with 20 mm{sup 2} active area and having a special ultra-thin polymer window allowing the detection of elements from carbon upwards. Two exchangeable X-ray sources guarantee the efficient excitation of both low and high Z elements. These X-ray sources were two light-weighted easily mountable 35 W air-cooled low-power tubes with Cr and Rh anodes, respectively. The air cooled tubes and the Peltier-cooled detector allowed to construct a transportable tabletop spectrometer with compact dimensions, as neither liquid nitrogen cooling for the detector nor a water cooling circuit and a bulky high voltage generator for the X-ray tubes are required. Due to the excellent background conditions as a result of the TXRF geometry, detection limits of 150 ng for C, 12 ng for F, and 3.3 ng for Na have been obtained using Cr excitation in vacuum. For Rh excitation, the detection limits of 90 pg could be achieved for Sr. Taking 10 to 20 μl of sample volume, extrapolated detection limits in the ng/g (ppb) range are resulting in terms of concentration.

  4. A novel vacuum spectrometer for total reflection x-ray fluorescence analysis with two exchangeable low power x-ray sources for the analysis of low, medium, and high Z elements in sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wobrauschek, P.; Prost, J.; Ingerle, D.; Kregsamer, P.; Misra, N. L.; Streli, C.

    2015-08-01

    The extension of the detectable elemental range with Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF) analysis is a challenging task. In this paper, it is demonstrated how a TXRF spectrometer is modified to analyze elements from carbon to uranium. Based on the existing design of a vacuum TXRF spectrometer with a 12 specimen sample changer, the following components were renewed: the silicon drift detector with 20 mm2 active area and having a special ultra-thin polymer window allowing the detection of elements from carbon upwards. Two exchangeable X-ray sources guarantee the efficient excitation of both low and high Z elements. These X-ray sources were two light-weighted easily mountable 35 W air-cooled low-power tubes with Cr and Rh anodes, respectively. The air cooled tubes and the Peltier-cooled detector allowed to construct a transportable tabletop spectrometer with compact dimensions, as neither liquid nitrogen cooling for the detector nor a water cooling circuit and a bulky high voltage generator for the X-ray tubes are required. Due to the excellent background conditions as a result of the TXRF geometry, detection limits of 150 ng for C, 12 ng for F, and 3.3 ng for Na have been obtained using Cr excitation in vacuum. For Rh excitation, the detection limits of 90 pg could be achieved for Sr. Taking 10 to 20 μl of sample volume, extrapolated detection limits in the ng/g (ppb) range are resulting in terms of concentration.

  5. Extremes of the jet–accretion power relation of blazars, as explored by NuSTAR

    DOE PAGES

    Sbarrato, T.; Ghisellini, G.; Tagliaferri, G.; ...

    2016-07-18

    Hard X-ray observations are crucial to study the non-thermal jet emission from high-redshift, powerful blazars. We observed two bright z > 2 flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) in hard X-rays to explore the details of their relativistic jets and their possible variability. S5 0014+81 (at z = 3.366) and B0222+185 (at z=2.690) have been observed twice by the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) simultaneously with Swift/XRT, showing different variability behaviors. We found that NuSTAR is instrumental to explore the variability of powerful high-redshift blazars, even when no gamma-ray emission is detected. The two sources have proven to have respectively themore » most luminous accretion disk and the most powerful jet among known blazars. Furthermore, thanks to these properties, they are located at the extreme end of the jet-accretion disk relation previously found for gamma-ray detected blazars, to which they are consistent.« less

  6. The Peculiar Galactic Center Neutron Star X-Ray Binary XMM J174457-2850.3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degenaar, N.; Wijnands, R.; Reynolds, M. T.; Miller, J. M.; Altamirano, D.; Kennea, J.; Gehrels, N.; Haggard, D.; Ponti, G.

    2014-09-01

    The recent discovery of a millisecond radio pulsar experiencing an accretion outburst similar to those seen in low mass X-ray binaries, has opened up a new opportunity to investigate the evolutionary link between these two different neutron star manifestations. The remarkable X-ray variability and hard X-ray spectrum of this object can potentially serve as a template to search for other X-ray binary/radio pulsar transitional objects. Here we demonstrate that the transient X-ray source XMM J174457-2850.3 near the Galactic center displays similar X-ray properties. We report on the detection of an energetic thermonuclear burst with an estimated duration of sime2 hr and a radiated energy output of ~= 5 × 1040 erg, which unambiguously demonstrates that the source harbors an accreting neutron star. It has a quiescent X-ray luminosity of L X ~= 5 × 1032(D/6.5 kpc)2 erg s-1 and exhibits occasional accretion outbursts during which it brightens to L X ~= 1035-1036(D/6.5 kpc)2 erg s-1 for a few weeks (2-10 keV). However, the source often lingers in between outburst and quiescence at L X ~= 1033-1034(D/6.5 kpc)2 erg s-1. This peculiar X-ray flux behavior and its relatively hard X-ray spectrum, a power law with an index of Γ ~= 1.4, could possibly be explained in terms of the interaction between the accretion flow and the magnetic field of the neutron star.

  7. SUZAKU AND BeppoSAX X-RAY SPECTRA OF THE PERSISTENTLY ACCRETING NEUTRON-STAR BINARY 4U 1705-44

    SciTech Connect

    Lin Dacheng; Remillard, Ronald A.; Homan, Jeroen

    2010-08-20

    We present an analysis of the broadband spectra of 4U 1705-44 obtained with Suzaku in 2006-2008 and by BeppoSAX in 2000. The source exhibits two distinct states: the hard state shows emission from 1 to 150 keV, while the soft state is mostly confined to be <40 keV. We model soft-state continuum spectra with two thermal components, one of which is a multicolor accretion disk and the other is a single-temperature blackbody (BB) to describe the boundary layer, with additional weak Comptonization represented by either a simple power law or the SIMPL model by Steiner et al. The hard-state continuum spectra are modeled by a single-temperature BB for the boundary layer plus strong Comptonization, modeled by a cutoff power law. While we are unable to draw firm conclusions about the physical properties of the disk in the hard state, the accretion disk in the soft state appears to approximately follow L {proportional_to} T {sup 3.2}. The deviation from L {proportional_to} T{sup 4}, as expected from a constant inner disk radius, might be caused by a luminosity-dependent spectral hardening factor and/or real changes of the inner disk radius in some part of the soft state. The boundary layer apparent emission area is roughly constant from the hard to the soft states, with a value of about 1/11 of the neutron star surface. The magnetic field on the surface of the neutron star in 4U 1705-44 is estimated to be less than about 1.9 x 10{sup 8} G, assuming that the disk is truncated by the innermost stable circular orbit or by the neutron star surface. Broad relativistic Fe lines are detected in most spectra and are modeled with the diskline model. The strength of the Fe lines is found to correlate well with the boundary layer emission in the soft state. In the hard state, the Fe lines are probably due to illumination of the accretion disk by the strong Comptonization emission.

  8. AGN jet power, formation of X-ray cavities, and FR I/II dichotomy in galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Yutaka; Kawakatu, Nozomu; Shlosman, Isaac

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the ability of jets in active galactic nuclei to break out of the ambient gas with sufficiently large advance velocities. Using observationally estimated jet power, we analyze 28 bright elliptical galaxies in nearby galaxy clusters. Because the gas density profiles in the innermost regions of galaxies have not been resolved so far, we consider two extreme cases for temperature and density profiles. We also follow two types of evolution for the jet cocoons: being driven by the pressure inside the cocoon [Fanaroff-Riley (FR) type I], and being driven by the jet momentum (FR type II). Our main result is that regardless of the assumed form of the density profiles, jets with observed powers of ≲1044 erg s-1 are not powerful enough to evolve as FR II sources. Instead, they evolve as FR I sources and appear to be decelerated below the buoyant velocities of the cocoons when jets were propagating through the central dense regions of the host galaxies. This explains why FR I sources are more frequent than FR II sources in clusters. Furthermore, we predict the sizes of X-ray cavities from the observed jet powers and compare them with the observed ones-they are consistent within a factor of two if the FR I type evolution is realized. Finally, we find that the jets with a power ≳1044 erg s-1 are less affected by the ambient medium, and some of them, but not all, could serve as precursors of the FR II sources.

  9. The X-ray Power Density Spectrum of the Seyfert 2 Galaxy NGC 4945: Analysis and Application of the Method of Light Curve Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Martin; /SLAC

    2010-12-16

    The study of the power density spectrum (PDS) of fluctuations in the X-ray flux from active galactic nuclei (AGN) complements spectral studies in giving us a view into the processes operating in accreting compact objects. An important line of investigation is the comparison of the PDS from AGN with those from galactic black hole binaries; a related area of focus is the scaling relation between time scales for the variability and the black hole mass. The PDS of AGN is traditionally modeled using segments of power laws joined together at so-called break frequencies; associations of the break time scales, i.e., the inverses of the break frequencies, with time scales of physical processes thought to operate in these sources are then sought. I analyze the Method of Light Curve Simulations that is commonly used to characterize the PDS in AGN with a view to making the method as sensitive as possible to the shape of the PDS. I identify several weaknesses in the current implementation of the method and propose alternatives that can substitute for some of the key steps in the method. I focus on the complications introduced by uneven sampling in the light curve, the development of a fit statistic that is better matched to the distributions of power in the PDS, and the statistical evaluation of the fit between the observed data and the model for the PDS. Using archival data on one AGN, NGC 3516, I validate my changes against previously reported results. I also report new results on the PDS in NGC 4945, a Seyfert 2 galaxy with a well-determined black hole mass. This source provides an opportunity to investigate whether the PDS of Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 galaxies differ. It is also an attractive object for placement on the black hole mass-break time scale relation. Unfortunately, with the available data on NGC 4945, significant uncertainties on the break frequency in its PDS remain.

  10. Discovery of the Accretion-Powered Millisecond Pulsar SWIFT 51756.9-2508 with a Low-Mass Companion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krimm, H.A.; Markwardt, C.B.; Deloye, C.J.; Romano, P.; Chakrabarty, S.; Campana. S.; Cummings, J.C.; Galloway, D.K.; Gehrels, N.; Hartman, J.M.; Kaaret, P.; Morgan, E.H.; Tueller, J

    2007-01-01

    We report on the discovery by the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer of the eighth known transient accretion-powered millisecond pulsar: SWIFT J1756.9-2508, as part of routine observations with the Swift Burst Alert Telescope hard X-ray transient monitor. The pulsar was subsequently observed by both the X-Ray Telescope on Swift and the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array. It has a spin frequency of 182 Hz (5.5 ms) and an orbital period of 54.7 minutes. The minimum companion mass is between 0.0067 and 0.0086 Solar Mass, depending on the mass of the neutron star, and the upper limit on the mass is 0.030 Solar Mass (95% confidence level). Such a low mass is inconsistent with brown dwarf models. and comparison with white dwarf models suggests that the companion is a He-dominated donor whose thermal cooling has been at least modestly slowed by irradiation from the accretion flux. No X-ray bursts. dips, eclipses or quasi-periodic oscillations were detected. The current outburst lasted approx. 13 days and no earlier outbursts were found in archival data.

  11. XMM-Newton reveals extreme winds in ultraluminous X-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, C.; Middleton, M.; Fabian, A.

    2016-06-01

    Ultraluminous X-ray sources are extragalactic, off-nucleus, point sources with X-ray luminosities above 10^{39} erg/s, thought to be powered by accretion onto compact objects. Viable solutions include accretion onto neutron stars with strong magnetic fields, stellar-mass black holes at or in excess of the Eddington limit or intermediate-mass black holes. The lack of sufficient energy resolution in previous analyses has prevented an unambiguous identification of any emission or absorption lines in the X-ray band, thereby precluding a detailed analysis of the accretion flow. In this talk, I will show the discovery of rest-frame emission and blueshifted (˜0.2c) absorption lines arising from highly ionized gas in the deep high-resolution XMM-Newton spectra of two ultraluminous X-ray sources. The blueshifted absorption lines occurs in a fast outflowing gas, whereas the emission lines originate in slow-moving gas around the source. The compact object is therefore surrounded by powerful winds with an outflow velocity of about 0.2c as predicted by models of hyper-accreting black holes. Further, deep, XMM-Newton observations will reveal powerful winds in many other ultraluminous X-ray sources and provide important hints to estimate the energetics of the wind, the geometry of the system, and the black hole masses.

  12. keV-energy x-rays from a low-pressure, low-power, low-field, capacitively coupled 27-MHz hydrogen plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jandovitz, Peter; Swanson, Charles; Matteucci, Jackson; Cohen, S. A.

    2015-11-01

    We report on the unexpected observation of 0.9-5 keV x-rays coming from a cool (bulk Te ~ 4 eV), tenuous (ne ~1010 cm-3) 5-cm-diameter hydrogen plasma column generated in a tandem high-mirror-ratio mirror machine by an external, capacitively-coupled RF (27 MHz) antenna operating at low power, 20-500 W. The x-rays, measured with an Amptek XR-100CR detector, are evidence of energetic electrons that have not been seen previously in experiment or theory in similar plasmas. In the neutral H2 gas pressure range of 0.4 to 1.5 mT, the x-ray emissivity increased with decreasing pressure. No x-rays were observed when operating with argon (or 30/70 argon/hydrogen mixtures) at similar powers and pressures in either capacitively-coupled or helicon modes. X-ray count rate smoothly increased as mirror ratio increased and reached a broad maximum near 80 G, central field. Time-dependent emissivity with pulsed RF power and spatial profiles over a limited axial range have been measured. Possible heating mechanisms, including Fermi acceleration, cyclotron resonance, double layers, and sheaths, are being considered. This work was supported by DOE contract DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  13. X-ray emission from hot subdwarfs with compact companions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mereghetti, S.; La Palombara, N.; Esposito, P.; Tiengo, A.

    2013-03-01

    We review the X-ray observations of hot subdwarf stars. While no X-ray emission has been detected yet from binaries containing B-type subdwarfs, interesting results have been obtained in the case of the two luminous O-type subdwarfs HD 49798 and BD + 37° 442. Both of them are members of binary systems in which the X-ray luminosity is powered by accretion onto a compact object: a rapidly spinning (13.2 s) and massive (1.28 M⊙) white dwarf in the case of HD 49798 and most likely a neutron star, spinning at 19.2 s, in the case of BD + 37° 442. Their study can shed light on the poorly known processes taking place during common envelope evolutionary phases and on the properties of wind mass loss from hot subdwarfs.

  14. Extended X-Ray Emission around Quasars at Intermediate Redshift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiore, Fabrizio

    1998-01-01

    We compare the optical to soft X-ray spectral energy distribution (SED) of a sample of bright low-redshift (0.048 less than z less than 0.155), radio-quiet quasars, with a range of thermal models which have been proposed to explain the optical/UV/soft X-ray quasar emission: (a) optically thin emission from an ionized plasma, (b) optically thick emission from the innermost regions of an accretion disk in Schwarzschild and Kerr geometries. We presented ROSAT PSPC observations of these quasars in an earlier paper. Here our goals are to search for the signature of thermal emission in the quasar SED, and to investigate whether a single component is dominating at different frequencies. We find that isothermal optically thin plasma models can explain the observed soft X-ray color and the mean OUV color. However, they predict an ultraviolet (1325 Angstrom) luminosity a factor of 3 to 10 times lower than observed. Pure disk models, even in a Kerr geometry, do not have the necessary flexibility to account for the observed OUV and soft X-ray luminosities. Additional components are needed both in the optical and in the soft X-rays (e.g. a hot corona can explain the soft X-ray color). The most constrained modification of pure disk models, is the assumption of an underlying power law component extending from the infrared (3 micrometers) to the X-ray. This can explain both the OUV and soft X-ray colors and luminosities and does not exceed the 3 micrometers luminosity, where a contribution from hot dust is likely to be important. We also discuss the possibility that the observed soft X-ray color and luminosity are dominated by reflection from the ionized surface of the accretion disk. While modifications of both optically thin plasma models and pure disk models might account for the observed SED, we do not find any strong evidence that the OUV bump and soft X-ray emission are one and the same component. Likewise, we do not find any strong argument which definitely argues in favor

  15. Hard X-ray emission of Sco X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revnivtsev, Mikhail G.; Tsygankov, Sergey S.; Churazov, Eugene M.; Krivonos, Roman A.

    2014-12-01

    We study hard X-ray emission of the brightest accreting neutron star Sco X-1 with INTEGRAL observatory. Up to now INTEGRAL have collected ˜4 Ms of deadtime corrected exposure on this source. We show that hard X-ray tail in time average spectrum of Sco X-1 has a power-law shape without cutoff up to energies ˜200-300 keV. An absence of the high energy cutoff does not agree with the predictions of a model, in which the tail is formed as a result of Comptonization of soft seed photons on bulk motion of matter near the compact object. The amplitude of the tail varies with time with factor more than 10 with the faintest tail at the top of the so-called flaring branch of its colour-colour diagram. We show that the minimal amplitude of the power-law tail is recorded when the component, corresponding to the innermost part of optically thick accretion disc, disappears from the emission spectrum. Therefore, we show that the presence of the hard X-ray tail may be related with the existence of the inner part of the optically thick disc. We estimate cooling time for these energetic electrons and show that they cannot be thermal. We propose that the hard X-ray tail emission originates as a Compton upscattering of soft seed photons on electrons, which might have initial non-thermal distribution.

  16. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE KINETIC POWER AND BOLOMETRIC LUMINOSITY OF JETS: LIMITATION FROM BLACK HOLE X-RAY BINARIES, ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI, AND GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Renyi; Hou, Shujin; Xie, Fu-Guo E-mail: fgxie@shao.ac.cn

    2014-01-01

    The correlation between the kinetic power P {sub jet} and intrinsic bolometric luminosity L {sub jet} of jets may reveal the underlying jet physics in various black hole systems. Based on the recent work by Nemmen et al., we re-investigate this correlation with additional sources of black hole X-ray binaries (BXBs) in hard/quiescent states and low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs). The new sample includes 29 sets of data from 7 BXBs and 20 LLAGNs, with P {sub jet} and L {sub jet} being derived from spectral modeling of the quasi-simultaneous multi-band spectra under the accretion jet scenario. Compared to previous works, the range of luminosity is now enlarged to more than 20 decades, i.e., from ∼10{sup 31} erg s{sup –1} to ∼10{sup 52} erg s{sup –1}, which allows for better constraining of the correlation. One notable result is that the jets in BXBs and LLAGNs almost follow the same P {sub jet}-L {sub jet} correlation that was obtained from blazars and gamma-ray bursts. The slope indices we derived are 1.03 ± 0.01 for the whole sample, 0.85 ± 0.06 for the BXB subsample, 0.71 ± 0.11 for the LLAGN subsample, and 1.01 ± 0.05 for the LLAGN-blazar subsample, respectively. The correlation index around unit implies the independence of jet efficiency on the luminosity or kinetic power. Our results may further support the hypothesis that similar physical processes exist in the jets of various black hole systems.

  17. Exploring Cosmic X-ray Source Polarization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swank, Jean Hebb; Jahodal, K.; Kallman, T. R.; Kaaret, P.

    2008-01-01

    Cosmic X-ray sources are expected to be polarized, either because of their asymmetry and the role of scattering in their emission or the role of magnetic fields. Polarization at other wavelengths has been useful. X-ray polarization will provide a new handle on black hole parameters, in particular the spin, on accretion flows and outflows, on neutron star spin orientations and emission mechanisms, on the quantum mechanical effects of super-strong magnetic fields of magnetars, and on the structure of supernovae shocks. The proposed Gravity and Extreme Magnetism SMEX (GEMS) will use high efficiency polarimeters behind thin foil mirrors. The statistical sensitivity and control of systematics will allow measurement of polarization fractions as small as 1% from many galactic and extragalactic sources. Targets which should be polarized at the level that GEMS can easily measure include stellar black holes, Seyfert galaxies and quasars, blazars, rotation-powered and accretion-powered pulsars, magnetars, shell supernova remnants and pulsar wind nebulae. The polarimeters are Time Projection Chambers that allow reconstruction of images of photoelectron tracks for 2-10 keV Xrays. They can be deep without sacrificing modulation. These polarimeters do not image the sky, but the telescope point spread function and detector collimation allow structure to be resolved at the 10 arcmin level. Rotation of the spacecraft is not needed for the signal measurement in the Time Projection Chambers, but provides for measurement and correction of systematic errors. It also allows a small Bragg reflection soft X-ray experiment to be included that can be used for isolated neutron stars and blazars.

  18. The X-ray Variability of NGC 4945: Characterizing the Power Spectrum through Light Curve Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, M

    2003-12-17

    For light curves sampled on an uneven grid of observation times, the shape of the power density spectrum (PDS) includes severe distortion effects due to the window function, and simulations of light curves are indispensable to recover the true PDS. We present an improved method for comparing light curves generated from a PDS model to the measured data and apply it to a 50-day long RXTE observations of NGC 4945, a Seyfert 2 galaxy with well-determined mass from megamaser observations. The improvements over previously reported investigations include the adjustment of the PDS model normalization for each simulated light curve in order to directly investigate how well the chosen PDS shape describes the source data. We furthermore implement a robust goodness-of-fit measure that does not depend on the form of the variable used to describe the power in the periodogram. We conclude that a knee-type function (smoothly broken power law) describes the data better than a simple power law; the best-fit break frequency is {approx} 10{sup -6} Hz.

  19. STATE TRANSITIONS IN LOW-MASS X-RAY BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, Charles K.; Frank, Juhan

    2009-10-10

    We investigate the model of disk/coronal accretion into a black hole. We show that the inner regions of an accretion disk in X-ray binaries can transform from a cool standard disk to an advection-dominated flow through the known properties of Coulomb interaction in a two-temperature plasma, viscous heating, radiative processes, and thermal conduction. A hot, diffuse corona covering the disk is powered by accretion, but it exchanges mass with the underlying cold disk. If the accretion rate in the system is low enough, we show that the corona evaporates the disk away, leaving an advective flow to continue toward the hole. In the soft/hard transition commonly seen in X-ray binaries, we show that this advective flow can recondense back onto the underlying disk if the change in the system's accretion rate is slow enough due to thermal conduction. Unabsorbed spectra are produced to test against observations as well as prediction of the location of truncation radii of the accretion disk.

  20. First limits on the 21 cm power spectrum during the Epoch of X-ray heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewall-Wice, A.; Dillon, Joshua S.; Hewitt, J. N.; Loeb, A.; Mesinger, A.; Neben, A. R.; Offringa, A. R.; Tegmark, M.; Barry, N.; Beardsley, A. P.; Bernardi, G.; Bowman, Judd D.; Briggs, F.; Cappallo, R. J.; Carroll, P.; Corey, B. E.; de Oliveira-Costa, A.; Emrich, D.; Feng, L.; Gaensler, B. M.; Goeke, R.; Greenhill, L. J.; Hazelton, B. J.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Jacobs, Daniel C.; Kaplan, D. L.; Kasper, J. C.; Kim, HS; Kratzenberg, E.; Lenc, E.; Line, J.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Lynch, M. J.; McKinley, B.; McWhirter, S. R.; Mitchell, D. A.; Morales, M. F.; Morgan, E.; Thyagarajan, Nithyanandan; Oberoi, D.; Ord, S. M.; Paul, S.; Pindor, B.; Pober, J. C.; Prabu, T.; Procopio, P.; Riding, J.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Roshi, A.; Shankar, N. Udaya; Sethi, Shiv K.; Srivani, K. S.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Sullivan, I. S.; Tingay, S. J.; Trott, C. M.; Waterson, M.; Wayth, R. B.; Webster, R. L.; Whitney, A. R.; Williams, A.; Williams, C. L.; Wu, C.; Wyithe, J. S. B.

    2016-08-01

    We present first results from radio observations with the Murchison Widefield Array seeking to constrain the power spectrum of 21 cm brightness temperature fluctuations between the redshifts of 11.6 and 17.9 (113 and 75 MHz). 3 h of observations were conducted over two nights with significantly different levels of ionospheric activity. We use these data to assess the impact of systematic errors at low frequency, including the ionosphere and radio-frequency interference, on a power spectrum measurement. We find that after the 1-3 h of integration presented here, our measurements at the Murchison Radio Observatory are not limited by RFI, even within the FM band, and that the ionosphere does not appear to affect the level of power in the modes that we expect to be sensitive to cosmology. Power spectrum detections, inconsistent with noise, due to fine spectral structure imprinted on the foregrounds by reflections in the signal-chain, occupy the spatial Fourier modes where we would otherwise be most sensitive to the cosmological signal. We are able to reduce this contamination using calibration solutions derived from autocorrelations so that we achieve an sensitivity of 104 mK on comoving scales k ≲ 0.5 h Mpc-1. This represents the first upper limits on the 21 cm power spectrum fluctuations at redshifts 12 ≲ z ≲ 18 but is still limited by calibration systematics. While calibration improvements may allow us to further remove this contamination, our results emphasize that future experiments should consider carefully the existence of and their ability to calibrate out any spectral structure within the EoR window.

  1. Inverse Compton X-Ray Halos Around High-z Radio Galaxies: A Feedback Mechanism Powered by Far-Infrared Starbursts or the Cosmic Microwave Background?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Small, Ian; Blundell, Katherine M.; Lehmer, B. D.; Alexander, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    We report the detection of extended X-ray emission around two powerful radio galaxies at z approx. 3.6 (4C 03.24 and 4C 19.71) and use these to investigate the origin of extended, inverse Compton (IC) powered X-ray halos at high redshifts. The halos have X-ray luminosities of L(sub X) approx. 3 x 10(exp 44) erg/s and sizes of approx.60 kpc. Their morphologies are broadly similar to the approx.60 kpc long radio lobes around these galaxies suggesting they are formed from IC scattering by relativistic electrons in the radio lobes, of either cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons or far-infrared photons from the dust-obscured starbursts in these galaxies. These observations double the number of z > 3 radio galaxies with X-ray-detected IC halos. We compare the IC X-ray-to-radio luminosity ratios for the two new detections to the two previously detected z approx. 3.8 radio galaxies. Given the similar redshifts, we would expect comparable X-ray IC luminosities if millimeter photons from the CMB are the dominant seed field for the IC emission (assuming all four galaxies have similar ages and jet powers). Instead we see that the two z approx. 3.6 radio galaxies, which are 4 fainter in the far-infrared than those at z 3.8, also have approx.4x fainter X-ray IC emission. Including data for a further six z > or approx. 2 radio sources with detected IC X-ray halos from the literature, we suggest that in the more compact, majority of radio sources, those with lobe sizes < or approx.100-200 kpc, the bulk of the IC emission may be driven by scattering of locally produced far-infrared photons from luminous, dust-obscured starbursts within these galaxies, rather than millimeter photons from the CMB. The resulting X-ray emission appears sufficient to ionize the gas on approx.100-200 kpc scales around these systems and thus helps form the extended, kinematically quiescent Ly(alpha) emission line halos found around some of these systems. The starburst and active galactic nucleus

  2. X-Ray Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, B. D.; Elsner, R. F.; Engelhaupt, D.; Kolodziejczak, J. J.; ODell, S. L.; Speegle, C. O.; Weisskopf, M. C.

    2004-01-01

    We are fabricating optics for the hard-x-ray region using electroless nickel replication. The attraction of this process, which has been widely used elsewhere, is that the resulting full shell optics are inherently stable and thus can have very good angular resolution. The challenge with this process is to develop lightweight optics (nickel has a relatively high density of 8.9 g/cu cm), and to keep down the costs of mandrel fabrication. We accomplished the former through the development of high-strength nickel alloys that permit very thin shells without fabrication- and handling-induced deformations. For the latter, we have utilized inexpensive grinding and diamond turning to figure the mandrels and then purpose-built polishing machines to finish the surface. In-house plating tanks and a simple water-bath separation system complete the process. To date we have built shells ranging in size from 5 cm diameter to 50 cm, and with thickness down to 100 micron. For our HERO balloon program, we are fabricating over 200 iridium-coated shells, 250 microns thick, for hard-x-ray imaging up to 75 keV. Early test results on these have indicated half-power-diameters of 15 arcsec. The status of these and other hard-x-ray optics will be reviewed.

  3. An X-Ray Reprocessing Model of Disk Thermal Emission in Type 1 Seyfert Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiang, James; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Using a geometry consisting of a hot central Comptonizing plasma surrounded by a thin accretion disk, we model the optical through hard X-ray spectral energy distributions of the type 1 Seyfert. galaxies NGC 3516 and NGC 7469. As in the model proposed by Poutanen, Krolik, and Ryde for the X-ray binary Cygnus X-1 and later applied to Seyfert galaxies by Zdziarski, Lubifiski, and Smith, feedback between the radiation reprocessed by the disk and the thermal Comptonization emission from the hot central plasma plays a pivotal role in determining the X-ray spectrum, and as we show, the optical and ultraviolet spectra as well. Seemingly uncorrelated optical/UV and X-ray light curves, similar to those which have been observed from these objects can, in principle, be explained by variations in the size, shape, and temperature of the Comptonizing plasma. Furthermore, by positing a disk mass accretion rate which satisfies a condition for global energy balance between the thermal Comptonization luminosity and the power available from accretion, one can predict the spectral properties of the heretofore poorly measured hard X-ray continuum above approximately 50 keV in type 1 Seyfert galaxies. Conversely, forthcoming measurements of the hard X-ray continuum by more sensitive hard X-ray and soft gamma-ray telescopes, such as those aboard the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) in conjunction with simultaneous optical, UV, and soft X-ray monitoring, will allow the mass accretion rates to be directly constrained for these sources in the context of this model.

  4. Meta-stable low-level accretion rate states or neutron star crust cooling in the Be/X-ray transients V0332+53 and 4U 0115+63

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijnands, R.; Degenaar, N.

    2016-11-01

    The Be/X-ray transients V0332+53 and 4U 0115+63 exhibited giant, type-II outbursts in 2015. Here we present Swift/XRT follow-up observations at the end of those outbursts. Surprisingly, the sources did not decay back to their known quiescent levels but stalled at a (slowly decaying) meta-stable state with luminosities a factor ˜10 above that observed in quiescence. The spectra in these states are considerably softer than the outburst spectra and appear to soften in time when the luminosity decreases. The physical mechanism behind these meta-stable states is unclear and they could be due to low-level accretion (either directly on to the neutron stars or on to their magnetospheres) or due to cooling of the accretion-heated neutron star crusts. Based on the spectra, the slowly decreasing luminosities, and the spectral softening, we favour the crust cooling hypothesis but we cannot exclude the accretion scenarios. On top of this meta-stable state, weak accretion events were observed that occurred at periastron passage and may thus be related to regular type-I outbursts.

  5. Enhanced x-ray emissions from Au-Gd mixture targets ablated by a high-power nanosecond laser

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Yunsong; Shang, Wanli; Yang, Jiamin Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Wenhai; Li, Zhichao; Guo, Liang; Zhan, Xiayu; Du, Huabing; Deng, Bo; Pu, Yikang

    2014-01-28

    As an important x-ray source, enhancement of x-ray emissions from laser-produced plasmas is imperative for various applications. High-Z Au-Gd mixture targets are proposed to enhance the laser to x-ray conversion efficiency compared to pure Au target. In the experiments, a 1 ns frequency-tripled (351 nm wavelength) laser light was used to obtain an intensity of 3×10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2} on the targets. The x-ray spectra, total absolute x-ray emissions of all space, M-band fraction and backscattering from pure Au and Au-Gd mixture have been measured, respectively. It is shown that the absolute laser to x-ray conversion efficiency for the Au-Gd mixture containing 60% gold by atom is 47.7%, which has a 15% enhancement compared with that of the pure Au target. The experimental results are consistent with the radiation hydrodynamic simulations.

  6. [Macromolecular aromatic network characteristics of Chinese power coal analyzed by synchronous fluorescence and X-ray diffraction].

    PubMed

    Ye, Cui-Ping; Feng, Jie; Li, Wen-Ying

    2012-07-01

    Coal structure, especially the macromolecular aromatic skeleton structure, has a strong influence on coke reactivity and coal gasification, so it is the key to grasp the macromolecular aromatic skeleton coal structure for getting the reasonable high efficiency utilization of coal. However, it is difficult to acquire their information due to the complex compositions and structure of coal. It has been found that the macromolecular aromatic network coal structure would be most isolated if small molecular of coal was first extracted. Then the macromolecular aromatic skeleton coal structure would be clearly analyzed by instruments, such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), fluorescence spectroscopy with synchronous mode (Syn-F), Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) etc. Based on the previous results, according to the stepwise fractional liquid extraction, two Chinese typical power coals, PS and HDG, were extracted by silica gel as stationary phase and acetonitrile, tetrahydrofuran (THF), pyridine and 1-methyl-2-pyrollidinone (NMP) as a solvent group for sequential elution. GPC, Syn-F and XRD were applied to investigate molecular mass distribution, condensed aromatic structure and crystal characteristics. The results showed that the size of aromatic layers (La) is small (3-3.95 nm) and the stacking heights (Lc) are 0.8-1.2 nm. The molecular mass distribution of the macromolecular aromatic network structure is between 400 and 1 130 amu, with condensed aromatic numbers of 3-7 in the structure units.

  7. Radiation Power Scaling of >75TW, >500kJ Tungsten Z-Pinch X-ray Sources.*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deeney, C.; Spielman, R. B.; Porter, J. L.; Chandler, G. A.; Nash, T. J.; Seamen, J. F.; Saturn; Pbfaz Z-Pinch Teams; Peterson, D.; Matuska, W.; Macfarlane, J. J.; Whitney, K. G.; Thornhill, J. W.

    1996-11-01

    For fusion applications, there are significant efforts being devoted to the optimization of high Z radiators. Experiments on the 20-TW, 7- MA Saturn generator with increased wire number (T. Sanford, this meeting, C. Deeney & K.G. Whitney , sub. to PRE) and radius scaling demonstrated that the power from tungsten Z-pinches could be increased from 20 TW to 75110 TW ( C. Deeney et al, sub. to PRE). Analyses of the data, coupled with two-dimensional radiation- hydrodynamic simulationsfootnote(D.L. Peterson et al, Phys Plasmas 3, 368, (1996)), indicate that the pinch becomes tighter (1 mm in diameter versus 1.5 mm) and more uniform : XRDs also show increased higher energy emissions (G. Chandler , this meeting). We will present these data and calculations along with similar measurements from tungsten wire implosions on the new, 20 MA PBFA Z generator. PBFA Z(R.B. Spielman, Proc Beams 96) is predicted to produce >150 TW and >1.5 MJ of X-rays. *Supported by DOE , Cont. DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  8. X-Ray Properties Of Hyper-Luminous Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piconcelli, Enrico; Martocchia, S.; Zappacosta, L.; Bischetti, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Duras, F.; Fiore, F.; Vietri, G.; Vignali, C.; Lanzuisi, G.; Brusa, M.; Bianchi, S.; Feruglio, C.; The Wissh Collaboration

    2016-10-01

    The systematic exploration of hyper-luminous (log LBol > 47) quasars shining at the golden epoch of AGN activity (i.e. z 2-4) offer the opportunity of overcoming the luminosity bias in the exploration of the accretion phenomenon. The WISE All-Sky Survey allowed to spot the most luminous quasars in the universe. In this talk, we will present the results of our on-going study of the XMM/Chandra/NuSTAR observations of WISE-selected hyper-luminous quasars regardless of the amount of their obscuration (i.e. both blue and heavily reddened). We report on the correlations between the X-ray and Optical, UV and MIR properties, and on the behavior of the X-ray bolometric correction at the brightest end of the luminosity function. We find that WISE-selected hyper-luminous quasars show much lower X/Opt flux and X/MIR luminosity ratios than those of AGN typically studied so far. This "X-ray weakness" can be a key ingredient for accelerating powerful ionized outflows (pervasively detected in the UV/optical band) and, furthermore, radiation-driven winds can be effective in destroying the X-ray corona and quenching the X-ray emission.

  9. X-ray (image)

    MedlinePlus

    X-rays are a form of ionizing radiation that can penetrate the body to form an image on ... will be shades of gray depending on density. X-rays can provide information about obstructions, tumors, and other ...

  10. Bone x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    ... not being scanned. Alternative Names X-ray - bone Images Skeleton Skeletal spine Osteogenic sarcoma - x-ray References ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  11. X-ray

    MedlinePlus

    ... think you might be pregnant. Alternative Names Radiography Images X-ray X-ray References Geleijns J, Tack ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  12. Extremity x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    ... sensitive to the risks of an x-ray. Images X-ray References Kelly DM. Congenital anomalies of ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  13. X-Ray Toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    2015-10-20

    Radiographic Image Acquisition & Processing Software for Security Markets. Used in operation of commercial x-ray scanners and manipulation of x-ray images for emergency responders including State, Local, Federal, and US Military bomb technicians and analysts.

  14. Blazars in Hard X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghisellini, Gabriele

    2009-05-01

    Although blazars are thought to emit most of their luminosity in the γ-ray band, there are subclasses of them very prominent in hard X-rays. These are the best candidates to be studied by Simbol-X. They are at the extremes of the blazar sequence, having very small or very high jet powers. The former are the class of TeV emitting BL Lacs, whose synchrotron emission often peaks at tens of keV or more. The latter are the blazars with the most powerful jets, have high black hole masses accreting at high (i.e. close to Eddington) rates. These sources are predicted to have their high energy peak even below the MeV band, and therefore are very promising candidates to be studied with Simbol-X.

  15. X-ray diagnostics of imploding plasmas from planar wire arrays composed of Cu and few tracer Al wires on the 1MA pulsed power generator at UNR.

    PubMed

    Safronova, A S; Kantsyrev, V L; Esaulov, A A; Ouart, N D; Yilmaz, M F; Williamson, K M; Shlyaptseva, V; Shrestha, I; Osborne, G C; Coverdale, C A; Jones, B; Deeney, C

    2008-10-01

    Tracer aluminum alloyed wires (Al5056) are used to provide additional information for x-ray diagnostics of implosions of Cu planar wire arrays (PWAs). Specifically, the analysis of combined PWA experiments using the extensive set of x-ray diagnostics is presented. In these experiments, which were conducted at the 1MA pulsed power generator at University of Nevada, Reno, the Z-pinch load consisted of several (eight) Cu alloyed (main material) and one to two Al alloyed (tracer) wires mounted in a single plane row or double parallel plane rows, single planar wire array (SPWA) or double planar wire array (DPWA), respectively. The analysis of x-ray spatially resolved spectra from the main material indicates the increase in the electron temperature T(e) near the cathode. In general, the axial gradients in T(e) are more pronounced for SPWA than for DPWA due to the more "columnlike" plasma formation for SPWA compared to "hot-spot-like" plasma formation for DPWA. In addition, x-ray spectra from tracer wires are studied, and estimated plasma parameters are compared with those from the main material. It is observed that the x-ray K-shell Al spectra manifest more opacity features for the case of SPWA with about 18% of Al mass (to the total load mass) compared to the case of DPWA with about 11% of Al mass. The analysis of time-gated spectra shows that the relative intensity of the most intense K-shell Al line, small before the x-ray burst, increases with time and peaks close to the maximum of the sub-keV signal.

  16. Sinus x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    Paranasal sinus radiography; X-ray - sinuses ... sinus x-ray is taken in a hospital radiology department. Or the x-ray may be taken ... Brown J, Rout J. ENT, neck, and dental radiology. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, Gillard JH Schaefer- ...

  17. Hand x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    X-ray - hand ... A hand x-ray is taken in a hospital radiology department or your health care provider's office by an ... technician. You will be asked to place your hand on the x-ray table, and keep it ...

  18. Surprise Discovery of an X-Ray Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-02-01

    Accreting, supermassive black holes that reside at galactic centers can power enormous jets, bright enough to be observed from vast distances away. The recent discovery of such a jet in X-ray wavelengths, without an apparent radio counterpart, has interesting implications for our understanding of how these distant behemoths shine.An Excess of X-RaysQuasar B3 0727+409 was serendipitously discovered to host an X-ray jet when a group of scientists, led by Aurora Simionescu (Institute of Space and Astronautical Sciences of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency), was examining Chandra observations of another object.The Chandra data reveal bright, compact, extended emission from the core of quasar B3 0727+409, with a projected length of ~100 kpc. There also appears to be further X-ray emission at a distance of ~280 kpc, which Simionescu and collaborators speculate may be the terminal hotspot of the jet.The quasar is located at a redshift of z=2.5 which makes this jet one of only a few high-redshift X-ray jets known to date. But what makes it especially intriguing is that, though the authors searched through both recent and archival radio observations of the quasar, the only radio counterpart they could find was a small feature close to the quasar core (which may be a knot in the jet). Unlike what is typical of quasar jets, there was no significant additional radio emission coinciding with the rest of the X-ray jet.Making Jets ShineX-ray-to-radio flux ratio vs. redshift, for X-ray quasar jets detected with Chandra. B3 0727+409 is shown in red (with and without the radio knot). The curves represent inverse-Compton scattering models with different magnetic field strengths. [Simionescu et al. 2016]What does this mean? To answer this, we must consider one of the outstanding questions about quasar jets: what radiation processes dominate their emission? One process possibly contributing to the X-ray emission is inverse-Compton scattering of low-energy cosmic microwave

  19. Resolved atomic lines reveal outflows in two ultraluminous X-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Ciro; Middleton, Matthew J.; Fabian, Andrew C.

    2016-05-01

    Ultraluminous X-ray sources are extragalactic, off-nucleus, point sources in galaxies, and have X-ray luminosities in excess of 3 × 1039 ergs per second. They are thought to be powered by accretion onto a compact object. Possible explanations include accretion onto neutron stars with strong magnetic fields, onto stellar-mass black holes (of up to 20 solar masses) at or in excess of the classical Eddington limit, or onto intermediate-mass black holes (103-105 solar masses). The lack of sufficient energy resolution in previous analyses has prevented an unambiguous identification of any emission or absorption lines in the X-ray band, thereby precluding a detailed analysis of the accretion flow. Here we report the presence of X-ray emission lines arising from highly ionized iron, oxygen and neon with a cumulative significance in excess of five standard deviations, together with blueshifted (about 0.2 times light velocity) absorption lines of similar significance, in the high-resolution X-ray spectra of the ultraluminous X-ray sources NGC 1313 X-1 and NGC 5408 X-1. The blueshifted absorption lines must occur in a fast-outflowing gas, whereas the emission lines originate in slow-moving gas around the source. We conclude that the compact object in each source is surrounded by powerful winds with an outflow velocity of about 0.2 times that of light, as predicted by models of accreting supermassive black holes and hyper-accreting stellar-mass black holes.

  20. Galaxies in the X-ray Band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornschemeier, Ann

    2008-01-01

    This talk will provide a brief review of progress on X-ray emission from normal (non-AGN) galaxy populations, including important constraints on the evolution of accreting binary populations over important cosmological timescales. We will also look to the future, anticipating constraints from near-term imaging hard X-ray missions such as NuSTAR, Simbol-X and NeXT and then the longer-term prospects for studying galaxies with the Generation-X mission.

  1. Galaxies in the X-Ray Band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornschemeier, Ann

    2008-01-01

    This talk will provide a brief review of progress an X-ray emission from normal (non-AGN) galaxy populations, including important constraints on the evolution of accreting binary populations over important cosmological timescales. We will also look to the future, anticipating constraints from near-term imaging hard X-ray missions such as NuSTAR, Simbol-X and NeXT and then the longer-term prospects for studying galaxies with the Generation-X mission,

  2. Be/X-Ray Pulsar Binary Science with LOFT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.

    2011-01-01

    Accretion disks are ubiquitous in astronomical sources. Accretion powered pulsars are a good test bed for accretion disk physics, because unlike for other objects, the spin of the neutron star is directly observable allowing us to see the effects of angular momentum transfer onto the pulsar. The combination of a sensitive wide-field monitor and the large area detector on LOFT will enable new detailed studies of accretion powered pulsars which I will review. RXTE observations have shown an unusually high number of Be/X-ray pulsar binaries in the SMC. Unlike binaries in the Milky Way, these systems are all at the same distance, allowing detailed population studies using the sensitive LOFT WFM, potentially providing connections to star formation episodes. For Galactic accreting pulsar systems, LOFT will allow measurement of spectral variations within individual pulses, mapping the accretion column in detail for the first time. LOFT will also provide better constraints on magnetic fields in accreting pulsars, allowing measurements of cyclotron features, observations of transitions into the centrifugal inhibition regime, and monitoring of spin-up rate vs flux correlations. Coordinated multi-wavelength observations are crucial to extracting the best science from LOFT from these and numerous other objects.

  3. Chilled disks in ultraluminous X-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soria, Roberto; Kuncic, Zdenka; Gonçalves, Anabela C.

    2007-04-01

    The "soft-excess" component fitted to the X-ray spectra of many ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) remains a controversial finding, which may reveal fundamental information either on the black hole (BH) mass or on the state of the accretion flow. In the simplest model, it was explained as thermal emission from a cool accretion disk around an intermediate-mass BH (about 1000 solar masses). We argue that this scenario is highly implausible, and discuss and compare the two most likely alternatives. 1) The soft-excess does come from a cool disk; however, the temperature is low not because of a high BH mass but because most of the accretion power is drained from the inner disk via magnetic torques, and channelled into jets and outflows ("chilled disk" scenario). Using a phenomenological model, we infer that ULXs contain BHs of about 50 solar masses accreting gas at about 10 times their Eddington rate. 2) The soft excess is in fact a soft deficit, if the power-law continuum is properly fitted. Such broad absorption features are caused by smeared absorption lines in fast, highly ionized outflows. This scenario has already been successfully applied to the soft excess in AGN. If so, this spectral feature reveals details of disk outflows,but is unrelated to the BH mass.

  4. Integration of the Two-Dimensional Power Spectral Density into Specifications for the X-ray Domain -- Problems and Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    McKinney, Wayne R.; Howells, M. R.; Yashchuk, V. V.

    2008-09-30

    An implementation of the two-dimensional statistical scattering theory of Church and Takacs for the prediction of scattering from x-ray mirrors is presented with a graphical user interface. The process of this development has clarified several problems which are of significant interest to the synchrotron community. These problems have been addressed to some extent, for example, for large astronomical telescopes, and at the National Ignition Facility for normal incidence optics, but not in the synchrotron community for grazing incidence optics. Since it is based on the Power Spectral Density (PSD) to provide a description of the deviations from ideal shape of the surface, accurate prediction of the scattering requires an accurate estimation of the PSD. Specifically, the spatial frequency range of measurement must be the correct one for the geometry of use of the optic--including grazing incidence and coherence effects, and the modifications to the PSD of the Optical Transfer Functions (OTF) of the measuring instruments must be removed. A solution for removal of OTF effects has been presented previously, the Binary Pseudo-Random Grating. Typically, the frequency range of a single instrument does not cover the range of interest, requiring the stitching together of PSD estimations. This combination generates its own set of difficulties in two dimensions. Fitting smooth functions to two dimensional PSDs, particularly in the case of spatial non-isotropy of the surface, which is often the case for optics in synchrotron beam lines, can be difficult. The convenient, and physically accurate fractal for one dimension does not readily transfer to two dimensions. Finally, a completely statistical description of scattering must be integrated with a deterministic low spatial frequency component in order to completely model the intensity near the image. An outline for approaching these problems, and our proposed experimental program is given.

  5. A PHOTOIONIZED NEBULA SURROUNDING AND VARIABLE OPTICAL CONTINUUM EMISSION FROM THE ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCE IN NGC 5408

    SciTech Connect

    Kaaret, Philip; Corbel, Stephane

    2009-05-20

    We obtained optical spectra of the counterpart of the ultraluminous X-ray source NGC 5408 X-1 using the FORS spectrograph on the Very Large Telescope. The spectra show strong high-excitation emission lines, He II {lambda}4686 and [Ne V] {lambda}3426, indicative of X-ray photoionization. Using the measured X-ray spectrum as input to a photoionization model, we calculated the relation between the He II and X-ray luminosities and found that the He II flux implies a lower bound on the X-ray luminosity of 3 x 10{sup 39} erg s{sup -1}. The [Ne V] flux requires a similar X-ray luminosity. After subtraction of the nebular emission, the continuum appears to have a power-law form with a spectral slope of -2.0{sup +0.1} {sub -0.2}. This is similar to low-mass X-ray binaries where the optical spectra are dominated by reprocessing of X-rays in the outer accretion disk. In one observation, the continuum, He II {lambda}4686, and [Ne V] {lambda}3426 fluxes are about 30% lower than in the other five observations. This implies that part of the line emission originates within 1 lt-day of the compact object. Fitting the optical continuum emission and archival X-ray data to an irradiated disk model, we find that (6.5 {+-} 0.7) x 10{sup -3} of the total bolometric luminosity is thermalized in the outer accretion disk. This is consistent with values found for stellar-mass X-ray binaries and larger than expected in models of super-Eddington accretion flows. We find no evidence for absorption lines that would permit measurement of the radial velocity of the companion star.

  6. Patterns of variability in Be/X-ray pulsars during giant outbursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reig, P.; Nespoli, E.

    2013-03-01

    Context. The discovery of source states in the X-ray emission of black-hole binaries and neutron-star low-mass X-ray binaries constituted a major step forward in the understanding of the physics of accretion onto compact objects. While there are numerous studies on the correlated timing and spectral variability of these systems, very little work has been done on high-mass X-ray binaries, the third major type of X-ray binaries. Accretion-powered pulsars with Be companions represent the most numerous group of high-mass X-ray binaries. When active, they are amongst the brightest extra-solar objects in the X-ray sky and are characterised by dramatic variability in brightness on timescales of days. Aims: The main goal of this work is to investigate whether Be accreting X-ray pulsars display source states and characterise those states through their spectral and timing properties. Methods: We have made a systematic study of the power spectra, energy spectra and X-ray hardness-intensity diagrams of nine Be/X-ray pulsars. Energy spectra were fitted with an absorbed power-law modified by an exponential cutoff. Discrete components such as iron emission lines and cyclotron lines were represented by Gaussian and pseudo-Lorentzian profiles, respectively. Power spectra were fitted by a combination of Lorentzian functions. The evolution of the timing and spectral parameters were monitored through changes over two orders of magnitude in luminosity. Results: We find that Be/X-ray pulsars trace two different branches in the hardness-intensity diagram: the horizontal branch corresponds to a low-intensity state of the source and it is characterised by fast colour and spectral changes and high X-ray variability. The diagonal branch is a high-intensity state that emerges when the X-ray luminosity exceeds a critical limit. The photon index anticorrelates with X-ray flux in the horizontal branch but correlates with it in the diagonal branch. The correlation between quasi

  7. Accretion-powered Pulsations in an Apparently Quiescent Neutron Star Binary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archibald, Anne M.; Bogdanov, Slavko; Patruno, Alessandro; Hessels, Jason W. T.; Deller, Adam T.; Bassa, Cees; Janssen, Gemma H.; Kaspi, Vicky M.; Lyne, Andrew G.; Stappers, Ben W.; Tendulkar, Shriharsh P.; D'Angelo, Caroline R.; Wijnands, Rudy

    2015-07-01

    Accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars (AMXPs) are an important subset of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) in which coherent X-ray pulsations can be observed during occasional, bright outbursts (X-ray luminosity {L}{{X}}˜ {10}36 {erg} {{{s}}}-1). These pulsations show that matter is being channeled onto the neutron star’s magnetic poles. However, such sources spend most of their time in a low-luminosity, quiescent state ({L}{{X}}≲ {10}34 {erg} {{{s}}}-1), where the nature of the accretion flow onto the neutron star (if any) is not well understood. Here we report that the millisecond pulsar/LMXB transition object PSR J1023+0038 intermittently shows coherent X-ray pulsations at luminosities nearly 100 times fainter than observed in any other AMXP. We conclude that in spite of its low luminosity, PSR J1023+0038 experiences episodes of channeled accretion, a discovery that challenges existing models for accretion onto magnetized neutron stars.

  8. High Power Experiment of X-Band Thermionic Cathode RF Gun for Compton Scattering X-ray Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Fumito; Uesaka, Mitsuru; Dobashi, Katsuhiro; Yamamoto, Tomohiko; Meng, De; Urakawa, Junji; Higo, Toshiyasu; Akemoto, Mitsuo; Matsuo, Kenichi; Sakae, Hisaharu; Yamamoto, Masashi

    2006-11-01

    We are currently developing a compact monochromatic X-ray source based on laser-electron collision. To realize remarkably compact-, high-intensity- and highly-stable-system, we adopt an X-band multi-bunch liner accelerator (linac) and reliable Q-switch laser. The X-ray yields by the multi-bunch electron beam and Q-switch Nd: YAG laser of 1.4 J/10 ns (FWHM) (532 nm, second harmonic) is 107 photons/RF-pulse (108 photons/sec for 10 Hz operation). The injector of the system consists of a 3.5-cell X-band thermionic cathode RF gun and an alpha magnet. So far we have achieved beam generation from the X-band thermionic cathode RF gun. The peak beam energy is 2 MeV. This experimental high energy (˜2 MeV) beam generation from the X-band thermionic cathode RF gun is the first in the world. In this paper, we describe the system of the Compton scattering X-ray source based on the X-band linac, experimental results of X-band thermionic cathode RF gun and the details of the experimental setup for Compton scattering X-ray generation that are under construction.

  9. Ablation of NIF Targets and Diagnostic Components by High Power Lasers and X-Rays from High Temperature Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Eder, D.C; Anderson, A.T.; Braun, D.G; Tobin, M.T.

    2000-04-19

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) will consist of 192 laser beams that have a total energy of up to 1.8 MJ in the 3rd harmonic ({lambda} = 0.35 {micro}m) with the amount of 2nd harmonic and fundamental light depending on the pulse shape. Material near best focus of the 3rd harmonic light will be vaporized/ablated very rapidly, with a significant fraction of the laser energy converted into plasma x rays. Additional plasma x rays can come from imploding/igniting capsule inside Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) hohlraums. Material from outer portions of the target, diagnostic components, first-wall material, and optical components, are ablated by the plasma x rays. Material out to a radius of order 3 cm from target center is also exposed to a significant flux of 2nd harmonic and fundamental laser light. Ablation can accelerate the remaining material to high velocities if it has been fragmented or melted. In addition, the high velocity debris wind of the initially vaporized material pushes on the fragments/droplets and increases their velocity. The high velocity shrapnel fragments/droplets can damage the fused silica shields protecting the final optics in NIF. We discuss modeling efforts to calculate vaporization/ablation, x-ray generation, shrapnel production, and ways to mitigate damage to the shields.

  10. Recent Results of VLBA Imaging of X-Ray Binaries: the Newest and Oldest Microquasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mioduszewski, A. J.; Dhawan, V.; Rupen, M. P.

    2005-12-01

    X-ray binaries are stellar systems in which X-ray emission results from accretion from a normal star onto a compact object, i.e., a neutron star or black hole. Radio emission is associated both with X-ray outbursts, and with more stable conditions when the X-rays are dominated by a persistent hard power-law component. The VLBA has played a crucial role in studying these systems, by allowing detailed AU-scale imaging. This has allowed direct measurements of morphologies, orientations, expansion speeds, and scattering sizes, as well as detailed astrometric and proper motion studies. We review results from our group in this area, namely observations of H1743-322 and SS433.

  11. Unwrapping the X-ray spectra of active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, C. S.

    2016-05-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGN) are complex phenomena. At the heart of an AGN is a relativistic accretion disk around a spinning supermassive black hole (SMBH) with an X-ray emitting corona and, sometimes, a relativistic jet. On larger scales, the outer accretion disk and molecular torus act as the reservoirs of gas for the continuing AGN activity. And on all scales from the black hole outwards, powerful winds are seen that probably affect the evolution of the host galaxy as well as regulate the feeding of the AGN itself. In this review article, we discuss how X-ray spectroscopy can be used to study each of these components. We highlight how recent measurements of the high-energy cutoff in the X-ray continuum by NuSTAR are pushing us to conclude that X-ray coronae are radiatively-compact and have electron temperatures regulated by electron-positron pair production. We show that the predominance of rapidly-rotating objects in current surveys of SMBH spin is entirely unsurprising once one accounts for the observational selection bias resulting from the spin-dependence of the radiative efficiency. We review recent progress in our understanding of fast (v˜ (0.1-0.3)c, highly-ionized (mainly visible in Fe XXV and Fe XXVI lines), high-column density winds that may dominate quasar-mode galactic feedback. Finally, we end with a brief look forward to the promise of Astro-H and future X-ray spectropolarimeters.

  12. X-ray binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Satellite X-ray experiments and ground-based programs aimed at observation of X-ray binaries are discussed. Experiments aboard OAO-3, OSO-8, Ariel 5, Uhuru, and Skylab are included along with rocket and ground-based observations. Major topics covered are: Her X-1, Cyg X-3, Cen X-3, Cyg X-1, the transient source A0620-00, other possible X-ray binaries, and plans and prospects for future observational programs.

  13. Multipeaked X-ray bursts from 4U/MXB 1636-53 - evidence against burst-induced accretion disk coronae

    SciTech Connect

    Penninx, W.; Lewin, W.H.G.; Van Paradijs, J.

    1987-10-01

    The burst-induced accretion-disk corona (BIADC) model proposed by Melia (1987) to explain the multiple-peak burst profiles of 4U/MXB 1636-53 in terms of direct and scattered components is examined critically. Published observational data (Sztajno et al., 1986, and Lewin et al., 1987) are presented in tables and graphs and analyzed. A number of possible BIADC scenarios are discussed, and it is argued that the observed characteristics of the 1636-53 bursts are not well accounted for by the BIADC model. 11 references.

  14. INTEGRAL/IBIS observations of a hard X-ray outburst in high-mass X-ray binary 4U 2206+54

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W.

    2010-09-01

    Aims: 4U 2206+54 is a wind-fed high-mass X-ray binary with a main-sequence donor star. The nature of its compact object has been recently identified as a slow-pulsation magnetized neutron star. Methods: INTEGRAL/IBIS observations have a long-term hard X-ray monitoring of 4U 2206+54 and detected a hard X-ray outburst around 15 December 2005 combined with the RXTE/ASM data. Results: The hard X-ray outburst had a double-flare feature with a duration of ~2 days. The first flare showed a fast rise and long-term decaying light curve about 15 h with a peak luminosity of ~4 × 1036 erg s-1 from 1.5-12 keV and a hard spectrum (only significantly seen above 5 keV). The second one had the mean hard X-ray luminosity of 1.3 × 1036 erg s-1 from 20-150 keV with a modulation period at ~5550 s which is the pulse period of the neutron star in 4U 2206+54. Its hard X-ray spectrum from 20-300 keV can be fitted by a broken power-law model with the photon indexes Γ1 ~ 2.3, and Γ2 ~ 3.3, and the break energy is Eb ~ 31 keV or by a bremsstrahlung model of kT ~ 23 keV. Conclusions: We suggest that the hard X-ray flare could be induced by suddenly enhanced accreting dense materials from stellar winds hitting the polar cap region of the neutron star. This hard X-ray outburst may be a link to supergiant fast X-ray transients though 4U 2206+54 has a different type of companion.

  15. X-ray Echo Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvyd'ko, Yuri

    2016-02-01

    X-ray echo spectroscopy, a counterpart of neutron spin echo, is being introduced here to overcome limitations in spectral resolution and weak signals of the traditional inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) probes. An image of a pointlike x-ray source is defocused by a dispersing system comprised of asymmetrically cut specially arranged Bragg diffracting crystals. The defocused image is refocused into a point (echo) in a time-reversal dispersing system. If the defocused beam is inelastically scattered from a sample, the echo signal acquires a spatial distribution, which is a map of the inelastic scattering spectrum. The spectral resolution of the echo spectroscopy does not rely on the monochromaticity of the x rays, ensuring strong signals along with a very high spectral resolution. Particular schemes of x-ray echo spectrometers for 0.1-0.02 meV ultrahigh-resolution IXS applications (resolving power >108 ) with broadband ≃5 - 13 meV dispersing systems are introduced featuring more than 103 signal enhancement. The technique is general, applicable in different photon frequency domains.

  16. X-rays surgical revolution.

    PubMed

    Toledo-Pereyra, Luis H

    2009-01-01

    Wilhelm Roentgen (1845-1923) created a surgical revolution with the discovery of the X-rays in late 1895 and the subsequent introduction of this technique for the management of surgical patients. No other physician or scientist had ever imagined such a powerful and worthwhile discovery. Other scientists paved the way for Roentgen to approach the use of these new X-rays for medical purposes. In this way, initially, and prior to Roentgen, Thompson, Hertz, and Lenard applied themselves to the early developments of this technology. They made good advances but never reached the clearly defined understanding brought about by Roentgen. The use of a Crookes tube, a barium platinocyanide screen, with fluorescent light and the generation of energy to propagate the cathode rays were the necessary elements for the conception of an X-ray picture. On November 8, 1895, Roentgen began his experiments on X-ray technology when he found that some kind of rays were being produced by the glass of the tube opposite to the cathode. The development of a photograph successfully completed this early imaging process. After six intense weeks of research, on December 22, he obtained a photograph of the hand of his wife, the first X-ray ever made. This would be a major contribution to the world of medicine and surgery.

  17. Comparison of x ray computed tomography number to proton relative linear stopping power conversion functions using a standard phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Moyers, M. F.

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Adequate evaluation of the results from multi-institutional trials involving light ion beam treatments requires consideration of the planning margins applied to both targets and organs at risk. A major uncertainty that affects the size of these margins is the conversion of x ray computed tomography numbers (XCTNs) to relative linear stopping powers (RLSPs). Various facilities engaged in multi-institutional clinical trials involving proton beams have been applying significantly different margins in their patient planning. This study was performed to determine the variance in the conversion functions used at proton facilities in the U.S.A. wishing to participate in National Cancer Institute sponsored clinical trials. Methods: A simplified method of determining the conversion function was developed using a standard phantom containing only water and aluminum. The new method was based on the premise that all scanners have their XCTNs for air and water calibrated daily to constant values but that the XCTNs for high density/high atomic number materials are variable with different scanning conditions. The standard phantom was taken to 10 different proton facilities and scanned with the local protocols resulting in 14 derived conversion functions which were compared to the conversion functions used at the local facilities. Results: For tissues within ±300 XCTN of water, all facility functions produced converted RLSP values within ±6% of the values produced by the standard function and within 8% of the values from any other facility's function. For XCTNs corresponding to lung tissue, converted RLSP values differed by as great as ±8% from the standard and up to 16% from the values of other facilities. For XCTNs corresponding to low-density immobilization foam, the maximum to minimum values differed by as much as 40%. Conclusions: The new method greatly simplifies determination of the conversion function, reduces ambiguity, and in the future could promote

  18. Portable X-Ray Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Portable x-ray instrument developed by NASA now being produced commercially as an industrial tool may soon find further utility as a medical system. The instrument is Lixiscope - Low Intensity X-Ray Imaging Scope -- a self-contained, battery-powered fluoroscope that produces an instant image through use of a small amount of radioactive isotope. Originally developed by Goddard Space Flight Center, Lixiscope is now being produced by Lixi, Inc. which has an exclusive NASA license for one version of the device.

  19. A CHANDRA/HETGS CENSUS OF X-RAY VARIABILITY FROM Sgr A* DURING 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Neilsen, J.; Nowak, M. A.; Houck, J. C.; Baganoff, F. K. E-mail: mnowak@space.mit.edu; and others

    2013-09-01

    We present the first systematic analysis of the X-ray variability of Sgr A* during the Chandra X-ray Observatory's 2012 Sgr A* X-ray Visionary Project. With 38 High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer observations spaced an average of 7 days apart, this unprecedented campaign enables detailed study of the X-ray emission from this supermassive black hole at high spatial, spectral and timing resolution. In 3 Ms of observations, we detect 39 X-ray flares from Sgr A*, lasting from a few hundred seconds to approximately 8 ks, and ranging in 2-10 keV luminosity from {approx}10{sup 34} erg s{sup -1} to 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 35} erg s{sup -1}. Despite tentative evidence for a gap in the distribution of flare peak count rates, there is no evidence for X-ray color differences between faint and bright flares. Our preliminary X-ray flare luminosity distribution dN/dL is consistent with a power law with index -1.9{sup +0.3}{sub -0.4}; this is similar to some estimates of Sgr A*'s near-IR flux distribution. The observed flares contribute one-third of the total X-ray output of Sgr A* during the campaign, and as much as 10% of the quiescent X-ray emission could be comprised of weak, undetected flares, which may also contribute high-frequency variability. We argue that flares may be the only source of X-ray emission from the inner accretion flow.

  20. X-Ray Absorbed, Broad-Lined, Red AGN and the Cosmic X-Ray Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor); Wilkes, Belinda

    2005-01-01

    We have obtained XMM spectra for five red, 2MASS AGN, selected from a sample observed by Chandra to be X-ray bright and to cover a range of hardness ratios. Our results confirm the presence of substantial absorbing material in three sources which have optical classifications ranging from Type 1 to Type 2, with an intrinsically flat (hard) power law continuum indicated in the other two. The presence of both X-ray absorption and broad optical emission lines with the usual strength suggests either a small (nuclear) absorber or a favored viewing angle so as to cover the X-ray source but not the broad emission line region (BELR). A soft excess is detected in all three Type 1 sources. We speculate that this soft X-ray emission may arise in an extended region of ionized gas, perhaps linked with the polarized (scattered) light which is a feature of these sources. The spectral complexity revealed by XMM emphasizes the limitations of the low S/N Chandra data. Overall, the new XMM results strengthen our conclusions (Wilkes et al. 2002) that the observed X-ray continua of red AGN are unusually hard at energies greater than 2 keV. Whether due to substantial line-of-sight absorption or to an intrinsically hard or reflection-dominated spectrum, these 'red' AGN have an observed spectral form consistent with contributing significantly to the missing had absorbed population of the Cosmic X-ray Background (CXRB). When absorption and or reflection is taken into account, all these AGN have power law slopes typical of broad-line (Type 1) AGN (Gamma approximately 1.9). This appears to resolve the spectral paradox which for so long has existed between the CXRB and the AGN thought to be the dominant contributors. It also suggests two scenarios whereby Type 1 AGN/QSOs may be responsible for a significant fraction of the CXRB at energies above 2 keV: 1) X-ray absorbed AGN/QSOs with visible broad emission lines; 2) AGN/QSOs with complex spectra whose hardness greater than 2 keV is not

  1. Compound refractive X-ray lens

    DOEpatents

    Nygren, David R.; Cahn, Robert; Cederstrom, Bjorn; Danielsson, Mats; Vestlund, Jonas

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and method for focusing X-rays. In one embodiment, his invention is a commercial-grade compound refractive X-ray lens. The commercial-grade compound refractive X-ray lens includes a volume of low-Z material. The volume of low-Z material has a first surface which is adapted to receive X-rays of commercially-applicable power emitted from a commercial-grade X-ray source. The volume of low-Z material also has a second surface from which emerge the X-rays of commercially-applicable power which were received at the first surface. Additionally, the commercial-grade compound refractive X-ray lens includes a plurality of openings which are disposed between the first surface and the second surface. The plurality of openings are oriented such that the X-rays of commercially-applicable power which are received at the first surface, pass through the volume of low-Z material and through the plurality openings. In so doing, the X-rays which emerge from the second surface are refracted to a focal point.

  2. Powerful radiative jets in supercritical accretion discs around non-spinning black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sądowski, Aleksander; Narayan, Ramesh

    2015-11-01

    We describe a set of simulations of supercritical accretion on to a non-rotating supermassive black hole (BH). The accretion flow takes the form of a geometrically thick disc with twin low-density funnels around the rotation axis. For accretion rates {gtrsim } 10 dot{M}_Edd, there is sufficient gas in the funnel to make this region optically thick. Radiation from the disc first flows into the funnel, after which it accelerates the optically thick funnel gas along the axis. The resulting jet is baryon loaded and has a terminal density-weighted velocity ≈0.3c. Much of the radiative luminosity is converted into kinetic energy by the time the escaping gas becomes optically thin. These jets are not powered by BHrotation or magnetic driving, but purely by radiation. Their characteristic beaming angle is ˜0.2 rad. For an observer viewing down the axis, the isotropic equivalent luminosity of total energy is as much as 1048 erg s- 1 for a 107 M⊙ BH accreting at 103 Eddington. Therefore, energetically, the simulated jets are consistent with observations of the most powerful tidal disruption events, e.g. Swift J1644. The jet velocity is, however, too low to match the Lorentz factor γ > 2 inferred in J1644. There is no such conflict in the case of other tidal disruption events. Since favourably oriented observers see isotropic equivalent luminosities that are highly super-Eddington, the simulated models can explain observations of ultraluminous X-ray sources, at least in terms of luminosity and energetics, without requiring intermediate-mass BHs.

  3. The Very Local Universe in X-Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ptak, A.

    2011-01-01

    There are many open questions in X-ray observations of the Galactic neighborhood and nearby galaxies, such as the properties of the hot ISM and accreting sources, the X-ray/star-formation rate correlation and how the X-ray luminosity function of starburst galaxies. We discuss how these would be addressed by very wide-area (> 100 sq. deg.) X-ray surveys and upcoming X-ray missions. In particular planned NuStar observations of the Galaxy and nearby galaxies will be highlighted.

  4. Talbot-Lau X-ray Deflectometer electron density diagnostic for laser and pulsed power high energy density plasma experiments

    DOE PAGES

    Valdivia, M. P.; Stutman, D.; Stoeckl, C.; ...

    2016-04-21

    Talbot-Lau X-ray Deflectometry has been developed as an electron density diagnostic for High Energy Density plasmas. The technique can deliver x-ray refraction, attenuation, elemental composition, and scatter information from a single Moiré image. An 8 keV Talbot-Lau interferometer was deployed using laser and x-pinch backlighters. Grating survival and electron density mapping was demonstrated for 25-29 J, 8-30 ps laser pulses using copper foil targets. Moire pattern formation and grating survival was also observed using a copper x-pinch driven at 400 kA, ~1 kA/ns. Lastly, these results demonstrate the potential of TXD as an electron density diagnostic for HED plasmas.

  5. Effective Contact Potential of Thin Film Metal-Insulator Nanostructures and Its Role in Self-Powered Nanofilm X-ray Sensors.

    PubMed

    Brivio, Davide; Ada, Earl; Sajo, Erno; Zygmanski, Piotr

    2017-03-29

    We studied the effective contact potential difference (ECPD) of thin film nanostructures and its role in self-powered X-ray sensors, which use the high-energy current detection scheme. We compared the response to kilovoltage X-rays of several nanostructures made of disparate combinations of conductors (Al, Cu, Ta, ITO) and oxides (SiO2, Ta2O5, Al2O3). We measured current-voltage curves in parallel-plate configuration separated by an air gap and determined three characteristic parameters: current at zero voltage bias I0, the voltage offset for zero current ECPD, and saturation current Isat. We found that the metals' ECPD values measured with our technique were higher than the CPD values measured with photoelectron spectroscopy in situ, i.e., no air contact. These differences are related to natural oxidization and to the presence of photo-/Auger-electron current leaking from the high-Z toward the low-Z electrode, as suggested by additional experiments carried out in vacuum. Further, the deposition of the 40-500 nm oxide layer on the surface of metallic substrates strongly affects their contact potential. This technique exploits ionization and charge carrier transport in both solid insulators and in air, and it opens the possibility of measuring the ECPD between metals separated by a solid insulator in a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) configuration. Additionally, we demonstrated that certain configurations of MIM structures are suitable for X-ray detection in self-powered mode.

  6. Characterizing X-Ray and Radio Emission in the Black Hole X-Ray Binary V404 Cygni during Quiescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rana, Vikram; Loh, Alan; Corbel, Stephane; Tomsick, John A.; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Walton, Dominic J.; Barret, Didier; Boggs, Steven E.; Christensen, Finn E.; Craig, William; Fuerst, Felix; Gandhi, Poshak; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Hailey, Charles; Harrison, Fiona A.; Madsen, Kristin K.; Rahoui, Farid; Stern, Daniel; Tendulkar, Shriharsh; Zhang, William W.

    2016-04-01

    We present results from multi-wavelength simultaneous X-ray and radio observations of the black hole X-ray binary V404 Cyg in quiescence. Our coverage with NuSTAR provides the very first opportunity to study the X-ray spectrum of V404 Cyg at energies above 10 keV. The unabsorbed broadband (0.3-30 keV) quiescent luminosity of the source is 8.9 × 1032 erg s-1 for a distance of 2.4 kpc. The source shows clear variability on short timescales (an hour to a couple of hours) in the radio, soft X-ray, and hard X-ray bands in the form of multiple flares. The broadband X-ray spectra obtained from XMM-Newton and NuSTAR can be characterized with a power-law model having a photon index of Γ = 2.12 ± 0.07 (90% confidence errors); however, residuals at high energies indicate spectral curvature significant at a 3σ confidence level with the e-folding energy of the cutoff as {20}-7+20 keV. Such curvature can be explained using synchrotron emission from the base of a jet outflow. Radio observations using the VLA reveal that the spectral index evolves on very fast timescales (as short as 10 minutes), switching between optically thick and thin synchrotron emission, possibly due to instabilities in the compact jet or stochastic instabilities in the accretion rate. We explore different scenarios to explain this very fast variability.

  7. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of negative electrodes from high-power lithium-ion cells showing various levels of power fade

    SciTech Connect

    Herstedt, Marie; Abraham, Daniel P.; Kerr, John B.

    2004-02-28

    High-power lithium-ion cells for transportation applications are being developed and studied at Argonne National Laboratory. The current generation of cells containing LiNi{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.15}Al{sub 0.05}O{sub 2}-based cathodes, graphite-based anodes, and LiPF6-based electrolytes show loss of capacity and power during accelerated testing at elevated temperatures. Negative electrode samples harvested from some cells that showed varying degrees of power and capacity fade were examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The samples exhibited a surface film on the graphite, which was thicker on samples from cells that showed higher fade. Furthermore, solvent-based compounds were dominant on samples from low power fade cells, whereas LiPF{sub 6}-based products were dominant on samples from high power fade cells. The effect of sample rinsing and air exposure is discussed. Mechanisms are proposed to explain the formation of compounds suggested by the XPS data.

  8. The Chandra X-Ray Observatory: Progress Report and Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 13 years, the Chandra X-ray Observatory's ability to provide high resolution X-ray images and spectra have established it as one of the most versatile and powerful tools for astrophysical research in the 21st century. Chandra explores the hot, high-energy regions of the universe, observing X-ray sources with fluxes spanning more than 10 orders of magnitude, from the X-ray brightest, Sco X-1, to the faintest sources in the Chandra Deep Field South survey. Thanks to its continuing operational life, the Chandra mission now also provides a long observing baseline which, in and of itself, is opening new research opportunities. Observations in the past few years alone have deepened our understanding of the co-evolution of supermassive black holes and galaxies, the details of black hole accretion, the nature of dark energy and dark matter, the details of supernovae and their progenitors, the interiors of neutron stars, the evolution of massive stars, and the high-energy environment of protoplanetary nebulae and the interaction of an exo-planet with its star. Here we update the technical status, highlight some of the scientific results, and very briefly discuss future prospects. We fully expect that the Observatory will continue to provide outstanding scientific results for many years to come.

  9. Highlights and discoveries from the Chandra X-ray Observatory.

    PubMed

    Tananbaum, H; Weisskopf, M C; Tucker, W; Wilkes, B; Edmonds, P

    2014-06-01

    Within 40 years of the detection of the first extra-solar x-ray source in 1962, NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has achieved an increase in sensitivity of 10 orders of magnitude, comparable to the gain in going from naked-eye observations to the most powerful optical telescopes over the past 400 years. Chandra is unique in its capabilities for producing sub-arcsecond x-ray images with 100-200 eV energy resolution for energies in the range 0.08 < E < 10 keV, locating x-ray sources to high precision, detecting extremely faint sources, and obtaining high-resolution spectra of selected cosmic phenomena. The extended Chandra mission provides a long observing baseline with stable and well-calibrated instruments, enabling temporal studies over timescales from milliseconds to years. In this report we present a selection of highlights that illustrate how observations using Chandra, sometimes alone, but often in conjunction with other telescopes, have deepened, and in some instances revolutionized, our understanding of topics as diverse as protoplanetary nebulae; massive stars; supernova explosions; pulsar wind nebulae; the superfluid interior of neutron stars; accretion flows around black holes; the growth of supermassive black holes and their role in the regulation of star formation and growth of galaxies; impacts of collisions, mergers, and feedback on growth and evolution of groups and clusters of galaxies; and properties of dark matter and dark energy.

  10. An Imaging X-Ray Polarimetry Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.; Bellazini, Ronaldo; Costa, Enrico; Ramsey, Brian; O'Dell, Steve; Tennant, Allyn; Elsner, Ronald; Pavlov, George; Matt, Girogio; Kaspi, Vicky; Coppi, Paolo; Wu, Kinwah; Siegmund, Oswald

    2008-01-01

    Technical progress both in x-ray optics and in polarization-sensitive x-ray detectors, which our groups have pioneered, enables a scientifically powerful - yet inexpensive - dedicated mission for imaging x-ray polarimetry. Such a mission is sufficiently sensitive to measure x-ray (linear) polarization for a broad range of cosmic sources --- particularly those involving neutron stars, stellar black holes, and supermassive black holes (active galactic nuclei). We describe the technical elements, discuss a mission concept, and synopsiz:e the important physical and astrophysical questions such as mission would address.

  11. An Imaging X-Ray Polarimetry Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.; Bellazini, Ronaldo; Costa, Enrico; Ramsey, Brian; O'Dell, Steve; Elsner, Ronald; Pavlov, George; Matt, Giorgio; Kaspi, Victoria; Tennant, Allyn; Coppi, Paolo; Wu, Kinwah; Siegmund, Oswald

    2008-01-01

    Technical progress both in x-ray optics and in polarization-sensitive x-ray detectors, which our groups have pioneered, enables a scientifically powerful---yet inexpensive---dedicated mission for imaging x-ray polarimetry. Such a mission is sufficiently sensitive to measure x-ray (linear) polarization for a broad range of cosmic sources --particularly those involving neutron stars, stellar black holes, and supermassive black holes (active galactic nuclei). We describe the technical elements, discuss a mission concept, and synopsize the important physical and astrophysical questions such a mission would address.

  12. Applications of Indirect Imaging Techniques in X-ray Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harlaftis, E. T.

    A review is given on aspects of indirect imaging techniques in X-ray binaries which are used as diagnostics tools for probing the X-ray dominated accretion disc physics. These techniques utilize observed properties such as the emission line profile variability, the time delays between simultaneous optical/X-ray light curves, the light curves of eclipsing systems and the pulsed emission from the compact object in order to reconstruct the accretion disc's line emissivity (Doppler tomography), the irradiated disc and heated secondary (echo mapping), the outer disc structure (modified eclipse mapping) and the accreting regions onto the compact object, respectively.

  13. Extremes of the jet–accretion power relation of blazars, as explored by NuSTAR

    SciTech Connect

    Sbarrato, T.; Ghisellini, G.; Tagliaferri, G.; Perri, M.; Madejski, G. M.; Stern, D.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Zhang, W. W.

    2016-07-18

    Hard X-ray observations are crucial to study the non-thermal jet emission from high-redshift, powerful blazars. We observed two bright z > 2 flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) in hard X-rays to explore the details of their relativistic jets and their possible variability. S5 0014+81 (at z = 3.366) and B0222+185 (at z=2.690) have been observed twice by the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) simultaneously with Swift/XRT, showing different variability behaviors. We found that NuSTAR is instrumental to explore the variability of powerful high-redshift blazars, even when no gamma-ray emission is detected. The two sources have proven to have respectively the most luminous accretion disk and the most powerful jet among known blazars. Furthermore, thanks to these properties, they are located at the extreme end of the jet-accretion disk relation previously found for gamma-ray detected blazars, to which they are consistent.

  14. X-Ray

    MedlinePlus

    ... of gray. For some types of X-ray tests, a contrast medium — such as iodine or barium — is introduced into your body to provide greater detail on the images. X-ray technology is used to examine many parts of the ...

  15. Chest X-Ray

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Site Index A-Z Spotlight Recently posted: Anal Cancer Facet Joint Block Video: Lung Cancer Screening Video: Upper GI Tract X-ray Video: ... of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A chest x-ray requires no special preparation. ...

  16. X-ray Spectrometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markowicz, Andrzej A.; Van Grieken, Rene E.

    1984-01-01

    Provided is a selective literature survey of X-ray spectrometry from late 1981 to late 1983. Literature examined focuses on: excitation (photon and electron excitation and particle-induced X-ray emission; detection (wavelength-dispersive and energy-dispersive spectrometry); instrumentation and techniques; and on such quantitative analytical…

  17. X-ray beamsplitter

    DOEpatents

    Ceglio, Natale M.; Stearns, Daniel S.; Hawryluk, Andrew M.; Barbee, Jr., Troy W.

    1989-01-01

    An x-ray beamsplitter which splits an x-ray beam into two coherent parts by reflecting and transmitting some fraction of an incident beam has applications for x-ray interferometry, x-ray holography, x-ray beam manipulation, and x-ray laser cavity output couplers. The beamsplitter is formed of a wavelength selective multilayer thin film supported by a very thin x-ray transparent membrane. The beamsplitter resonantly transmits and reflects x-rays through thin film interference effects. A thin film is formed of 5-50 pairs of alternate Mo/Si layers with a period of 20-250 A. The support membrane is 10-200 nm of silicon nitride or boron nitride. The multilayer/support membrane structure is formed across a window in a substrate by first forming the structure on a solid substrate and then forming a window in the substrate to leave a free-standing structure over the window.

  18. Dental x-rays

    MedlinePlus

    ... X-rays are a form of high energy electromagnetic radiation. The x-rays penetrate the body to form ... for detecting cavities, unless the decay is very advanced and deep. Many ... The amount of radiation given off during the procedure is less than ...

  19. X-ray beamsplitter

    DOEpatents

    Ceglio, N.M.; Stearns, D.G.; Hawryluk, A.M.; Barbee, T.W. Jr.

    1987-08-07

    An x-ray beamsplitter which splits an x-ray beam into two coherent parts by reflecting and transmitting some fraction of an incident beam has applications for x-ray interferometry, x-ray holography, x-ray beam manipulation, and x-ray laser cavity output couplers. The beamsplitter is formed of a wavelength selective multilayer thin film supported by a very thin x-ray transparent membrane. The beamsplitter resonantly transmits and reflects x-rays through thin film interference effects. A thin film is formed of 5--50 pairs of alternate Mo/Si layers with a period of 20--250 A. The support membrane is 10--200 nm of silicon nitride or boron nitride. The multilayer/support membrane structure is formed across a window in a substrate by first forming the structure on a solid substrate and then forming a window in the substrate to leave a free-standing structure over the window. 6 figs.

  20. LFN, QPO and fractal dimension of X-ray light curves from black hole binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prosvetov, Art; Grebenev, Sergey

    The origin of the low frequency noise (LFN) and quasi-periodic oscillations (QPO) observed in X-ray flux of Galactic black hole binaries is still not recognized in spite of multiple studies and attempts to model this phenomenon. There are known correlations between the QPO frequency, X-ray power density, X-ray flux and spectral state of the system, but there is no model that can do these dependences understandable. For the low frequency (~1 Hz) QPO we still have no even an idea capable to explain their production and don't know even what part of an accretion disc is responsible for them. Here we attempted to measure the fractal dimension of X-ray light curves of several black hole X-ray binaries and to study its correlation with the frequency of quasi periodic oscillations observed in their X-ray light-curves. The fractal dimension is a measure of the space-filling capacity of the light curves' profile. To measure the fractal dimension we used R/S method, which is fast enough and has good reputation in financial analytic and materials sciences. We found that if no QPO were observed in X-ray flux from the particular source, the fractal dimension is equal to the unique value which is independent on the source, its luminosity or its spectral state. On the other hand if QPO were detected in the flux, the fractal dimension deviated from its usual value. Also, we found a clear correlation between the QPO frequency and the fractal dimension of the emission. The relationship between these two parameters is solid but nonlinear. We believe that the analysis of X-ray light curves of black hole binaries using the fractal dimension has a good scientific potential and may provide an addition information on the geometry of accretion flow and fundamental physical parameters of the system.

  1. Variable X-Ray Absorption in the Mini-BAL QSO PG 1126-041

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giustini, M.; Cappi, M.; Chartas, G.; Dadina, M.; Eracleous, M.; Ponti, G.; Proga, D.; Tombesi, F.; Vignali, C.; Palumbo, G. G. C.

    2011-01-01

    Context. X-ray studies of AGN with powerful nuclear winds are important to constrain the physics of the inner accretion/ejection flow around SMBH, and to understand the impact of such winds on the AGN environment. Aims. Our main scientific goal is to constrain the properties of a variable outflowing absorber that is thought to be launched near the SMBH of the mini-BAL QSO PG 1126-041 using a multi-epoch observational campaign performed with XMM-Newton. Methods. We performed temporally resolved X-ray spectroscopy and simultaneous UV and X-ray photometry on the most complete set of observations and on the deepest X-ray exposure of a mini-BAL QSO to date. Results. We found complex X-ray spectral variability on time scales of both months and hours, best reproduced by means of variable massive ionized absorbers along the line of sight. As a consequence, the observed optical-to-X-ray spectral index is found to be variable with time. In the highest signal-to-noise observation we detected highly ionized X-ray absorbing material outflowing much faster (u(sub X) approx. 16 500 km/s) than the UV absorbing one (u(sub uv) approx. 5,000 km/s). This highly ionized absorber is found to be variable on very short (a few kiloseconds) time scales. Conclusions. Our findings are qualitatively consistent with line driven accretion disk winds scenarios. Our observations have opened the time-resolved X-ray spectral analysis field for mini-BAL QSOs; only with future deep studies will we be able to map the dynamics of the inner flow and understand the physics of AGN winds and their impact on the environment.

  2. Optical/IR - X-ray variability in black hole and neutron star X-ray binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandhi, Poshak; Casella, Piergiorgio; Marsh, Tom; Malzac, Julien; Russell, David; Littlefair, Stuart; Dallilar, Yigit; Eikenberry, Steve; Dhillon, Vik; Hardy, Liam

    2016-07-01

    Following 50+ years of X-ray studies, we are at the threshold of a new era of fast multiwavelength timing studies of X-ray binaries. The optical and infrared regimes can directly measure the peak emission of the jet and hot flow in many accretion systems. When combined with simultaneous X-ray observations, they can be a powerful tool to probe the accretion/outflow connection in 'real-time' and to measure key physical parameters of the various binary components. This field has long been handicapped by the lack of suitable detectors and the difficulty of multiwavelength coordination of observations, but this is set to change with new dedicated observatories becoming operational almost continually over the next decade. I will review advances made in this field, concentrating on results from multiwavelength observations of black hole binaries in the hard state and contrasting them with (the few) studies of neutron stars. I will also discuss prospects from upcoming missions, and argue that a concerted effort by the community is needed to make the next leap forward.

  3. The X-ray binary, UW CMa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    The UW CMa is a close, eclipsing binary composed of an O7f primary with a stron wind and a less luminous O-type companion. It was found that UW CMa a variable X-ray source, whose X-ray variations are in phase with its optical light curve. Since both components of the binary system are O stars, accretion by a compact object is ruled out as a mechanism for generating X-rays. The UW CMa represents a new class of X-ray binaries, in which X-rays result from the collision of a wind from one star with the surface or wind of the other star. It is hypothesised that the impact of a wind against a star generates a shock wave about 0.25 stellar radii above the stellar surface, and material behind the shock front, heated to bout 10 million degrees, radiates the X-ray apparent X-ray variability is due to its location between the two stars, where it undergoes eclipses. The high temperature region maintains an ionization cavity in the wind, as detected with IUE. The ionization cavity is the source of depletion of absorbing ions in the wind between the two stars.

  4. Next Generation X-ray Polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill-Kittle, Joe

    The emission regions of many types of X-ray sources are small and cannot be spatially resolved without interferometry techniques that haven't yet been developed. In order to understand the emission mechanisms and emission geometry, alternate measurement techniques are required. Most microphysical processes that affect X-rays, including scattering and magnetic emission processes are imprinted as polarization signatures. X-ray polarization also reveals exotic physical processes occurring in regions of very strong gravitational and magnetic fields. Observations of X-ray polarization will provide a measurement of the geometrical distribution of gas and magnetic fields without foreground depolarization that affects longer wavelengths (e.g. Faraday rotation in the radio). Emission from accretion disks has an inclination-dependent polarization. The polarization signature is modified by extreme gravitational forces, which bend light, essentially changing the contribution of each part of the disk to the integrated total intensity seen by distant observers. Because gravity has the largest effect on the innermost parts of the disk (which are the hottest, and thus contributes to more high energy photons), the energy dependent polarization is diagnostic of disk inclination, black hole mass and spin. Increasing the sensitive energy band will make these measurements possible. X-ray polarimetry will also enable the study of the origin of cosmic rays in the universe, the nature of black holes, the role of black holes in the evolution of galaxies, and the interaction of matter with the highest physically possible magnetic fields. These objectives address NASA's strategic interest in the origin, structure, and evolution of the universe. We propose a two-year effort to develop the Next Generation X-ray Polarimeter (NGXP) that will have more than ten times the sensitivity of the current state of the art. NGXP will make possible game changing measurements of classes of astrophysical

  5. X-ray generator

    DOEpatents

    Dawson, John M.

    1976-01-01

    Apparatus and method for producing coherent secondary x-rays that are controlled as to direction by illuminating a mixture of high z and low z gases with an intense burst of primary x-rays. The primary x-rays are produced with a laser activated plasma, and these x-rays strip off the electrons of the high z atoms in the lasing medium, while the low z atoms retain their electrons. The neutral atoms transfer electrons to highly excited states of the highly striped high z ions giving an inverted population which produces the desired coherent x-rays. In one embodiment, a laser, light beam provides a laser spark that produces the intense burst of coherent x-rays that illuminates the mixture of high z and low z gases, whereby the high z atoms are stripped while the low z ones are not, giving the desired mixture of highly ionized and neutral atoms. To this end, the laser spark is produced by injecting a laser light beam, or a plurality of beams, into a first gas in a cylindrical container having an adjacent second gas layer co-axial therewith, the laser producing a plasma and the intense primary x-rays in the first gas, and the second gas containing the high and low atomic number elements for receiving the primary x-rays, whereupon the secondary x-rays are produced therein by stripping desired ions in a neutral gas and transfer of electrons to highly excited states of the stripped ions from the unionized atoms. Means for magnetically confining and stabilizing the plasma are disclosed for controlling the direction of the x-rays.

  6. Optimization of X-ray sources from a high-average-power ND:Glass laser-produced plasma for proximity lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Celliers, P.; Da Silva, L.B.; Dane, C.B.

    1996-06-01

    The concept of a laser-based proximity lithography system for electronic microcircuit production has advanced to the point where a detailed design of a prototype system capable of exposing wafers at 40 wafer levels per hr is technically feasible with high-average-power laser technology. In proximity x-ray lithography, a photoresist composed of polymethyl- methacrylate (PMMA) or similar material is exposed to x rays transmitted through a mask placed near the photoresist, a procedure which is similar to making a photographic contact print. The mask contains a pattern of opaque metal features, with line widths as small as 0.12 {mu}m, placed on a thin (1-{mu}m thick) Si membrane. During the exposure, the shadow of the mask projected onto the resist produces in the physical and chemical properties of the resist a pattern of variation with the same size and shape as the features contained in the metal mask. This pattern can be further processed to produce microscopic structures in the Si substrate. The main application envisioned for this technology is the production of electronic microcircuits with spatial features significantly smaller than currently achievable with conventional optical lithographic techniques (0.12 {micro}m vs 0.25 {micro}m). This article describes work on optimizing a laser-produced plasma x-ray source intended for microcircuit production by proximity lithography.

  7. Continuous emission of keV x-rays from low-pressure, low-field, low-power-RF plasma columns and significance to mirror confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jandovitz, P.; Swanson, C.; Glasser, A.; Cohen, S. A.

    2016-10-01

    We report on observations of a continuous stream of 0.8-6.0 keV x-rays emitted from cool (bulk Te 4 eV), tenuous (ne 1010 cm-3), 4-cm-diameter hydrogen or argon plasma columns generated in an axisymmetric, high-mirror-ratio, tandem mirror machine heated in one end cell by an external RF (27 MHz) antenna operating at low power, 20-600 W. The continuous emission of x-rays is evidence of the steady production of energetic electrons. The source appears to be ion-induced secondary electron emission from a floating carbon cup in the vacuum system about 2 cm from the RF antenna. The cup is charged to a high negative potential, perhaps by other secondary electrons emitted from the self-biased Pyrex vessel under the antenna. X-ray emission in the central cell increases as the mirror ratio increases, an effect we attribute to increased trapping of passing particles due to non-adiabatic scattering at the midplane of the central cell. This work was supported, in part, by DOE Contract Number DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  8. The First Simultaneous X-Ray/Radio Detection of the First Be/BH System MWC 656

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribó, M.; Munar-Adrover, P.; Paredes, J. M.; Marcote, B.; Iwasawa, K.; Moldón, J.; Casares, J.; Migliari, S.; Paredes-Fortuny, X.

    2017-02-01

    MWC 656 is the first known Be/black hole (BH) binary system. Be/BH binaries are important in the context of binary system evolution and sources of detectable gravitational waves because they are possible precursors of coalescing neutron star/BH binaries. X-ray observations conducted in 2013 revealed that MWC 656 is a quiescent high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB), opening the possibility to explore X-ray/radio correlations and the accretion/ejection coupling down to low luminosities for BH HMXBs. Here we report on a deep joint Chandra/VLA observation of MWC 656 (and contemporaneous optical data) conducted in 2015 July that has allowed us to unambiguously identify the X-ray counterpart of the source. The X-ray spectrum can be fitted with a power law with Γ ∼ 2, providing a flux of ≃4 × 10‑15 erg cm‑2 s‑1 in the 0.5–8 keV energy range and a luminosity of LX ≃ 3 × 1030 erg s‑1 at a 2.6 kpc distance. For a 5 M⊙ BH this translates into ≃5 × 10‑9 LEdd. These results imply that MWC 656 is about 7 times fainter in X-rays than it was two years before and reaches the faintest X-ray luminosities ever detected in stellar-mass BHs. The radio data provide a detection with a peak flux density of 3.5 ± 1.1 μJy beam‑1. The obtained X-ray/radio luminosities for this quiescent BH HMXB are fully compatible with those of the X-ray/radio correlations derived from quiescent BH low-mass X-ray binaries. These results show that the accretion/ejection coupling in stellar-mass BHs is independent of the nature of the donor star.

  9. Different X-ray spectral evolution for black hole X-ray binaries in dual tracks of radio-X-ray correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Xiao-Feng; Wu, Qingwen; Dong, Ai-Jun

    2014-06-10

    Recently, an 'outlier' track of radio-X-ray correlation was found, which is much steeper than the former universal correlation, where dual tracks were speculated to be triggered by different accretion processes. In this work, we test this issue by exploring hard X-ray spectral evolution in four black-hole X-ray binaries with multiple, quasi-simultaneous radio and X-ray observations. First, we find that hard X-ray photon indices, Γ, are negatively and positively correlated with X-ray fluxes when the X-ray flux, F{sub 3-9} {sub keV}, is below and above a critical flux, F{sub X,} {sub crit}, which are consistent with predictions of the advection-dominated accretion flow and the disk-corona model, respectively. Second, and most importantly, we find that the radio-X-ray correlations are also clearly different when the X-ray fluxes are higher and lower than the critical flux as defined by X-ray spectral evolution. The data points with F{sub 3-9} {sub keV} ≳ F{sub X,} {sub crit} have a steeper radio-X-ray correlation (F{sub X}∝F{sub R}{sup b} and b ∼ 1.1-1.4), which roughly forms the ''outlier'' track. However, the data points with anti-correlation of Γ – F{sub 3-9} {sub keV} either stay in the universal track with b ∼ 0.61 or stay in the transition track (from the universal to 'outlier' tracks or vice versa). Therefore, our results support that the universal and ''outlier'' tracks of radio-X-ray correlations are regulated by radiatively inefficient and radiatively efficient accretion model, respectively.

  10. X-ray bursters and the X-ray sources of the galactic bulge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewin, W. H. G.; Joss, P. C.

    1980-01-01

    Type 1 X-ray bursts, optical, infrared, and radio properties of the galactic bulge sources, are discussed. It was proven that these burst sources are neutron stars in low mass, close binary stellar systems. Several burst sources are found in globular clusters with high central densities. Optical type 1 X-ray bursts were observed from three sources. Type 2 X-ray bursts, observed from the Rapid Burster, are due to an accretion instability which converts gravitational potential energy into heat and radiation, which makes them of a fundamentally different nature from Type 1 bursts.

  11. X-ray luminosity functions of clusters of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavaliere, A.; Burg, R.; Giacconi, R.

    1991-01-01

    Clusters of galaxies must have a considerable intrinsic spread in their X-ray luminosities at given mass if they are formed bottom-up by direct gravitational instability. The distributions of luminosities at given mass take on the general form of a flat power law with a sharp upper cutoff, consistent with the recently obtained luminosity functions for Abell clusters of given richness classes. The quantitative features depend on the specific hierarchical cosmogony, with models including mass accretion after first collapse providing the best agreement. The same clustering mechanism, after integrating over mass, yields a steep overall luminosity function consistent with existing measurements.

  12. Classical Accreting Pulsars with NICER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.

    2014-01-01

    Soft excesses are very common center dot Lx > 1038 erg/s - reprocessing by optically thick material at the inner edge of the accretion disk center dot Lx < 1036 erg/s - photoionized or collisionally heated diffuse gas or thermal emission from the NS surface center dot Lx 1037 erg/s - either or both types of emission center dot NICER observations of soft excesses in bright X-ray pulsars combined with reflection modeling will constrain the ionization state, metalicity and dynamics of the inner edge of the magnetically truncated accretion disk Reflection models of an accretion disk for a hard power law - Strong soft excess below 3 keV from hot X-ray heated disk - For weakly ionized case: strong recombination lines - Are we seeing changes in the disk ionization in 4U1626-26? 13 years of weekly monitoring with RXTE PCA center dot Revealed an unexpectedly large population of Be/X-ray binaries compared to the Milky Way center dot Plotted luminosities are typical of "normal" outbursts (once per orbit) center dot The SMC provides an excellent opportunity to study a homogenous population of HMXBs with low interstellar absorption for accretion disk studies. Monitoring with NICER will enable studies of accretion disk physics in X-ray pulsars center dot The SMC provides a potential homogeneous low-absorption population for this study center dot NICER monitoring and TOO observations will also provide measurements of spinfrequencies, QPOs, pulsed fluxes, and energy spectra.

  13. Unification of Low Luminosity AGN and Hard State X-ray Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly, S.

    2015-09-01

    We present X-ray spectral variability of four low accretion rate and low luminosity AGN (LLAGN)- M81, NGC 1097, NGC 1052 and NGC 3998 - as observed by Swift and RXTE. All four objects were selected due to having spectra which hardened with increasing count rate, converse to the 'softer when brighter' behaviour normally observed in AGN with higher accretion rates. The spectra were summed in flux bins and fitted with a variety of models. A simple absorbed power law model was found to fit the spectra of M81, NGC 1097 and NGC 3998 well, whilst NGC 1052 required a partially covered power law model. In all four cases, the most likely cause of spectral variability is found to be hardening of the photon index of the power law component with increasing luminosity. Such a correlation has been seen previously within samples of low accretion rate AGN but in only one case has it been seen within observations of a single AGN. Here we show that such behaviour may be very common in LLAGN. A similar anticorrelation is found in X-ray binary systems in the 'hard state', at low accretion rates similar to those of the LLAGN discussed here. Our observations thus imply that LLAGN are the active galaxy equivalent of hard state X-ray binaries.

  14. X-ray laser

    DOEpatents

    Nilsen, Joseph

    1991-01-01

    An X-ray laser (10) that lases between the K edges of carbon and oxygen, i.e. between 44 and 23 Angstroms, is provided. The laser comprises a silicon (12) and dysprosium (14) foil combination (16) that is driven by two beams (18, 20) of intense line focused (22, 24) optical laser radiation. Ground state nickel-like dysprosium ions (34) are resonantly photo-pumped to their upper X-ray laser state by line emission from hydrogen-like silicon ions (32). The novel X-ray laser should prove especially useful for the microscopy of biological specimens.

  15. X-ray superbubbles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cash, W.

    1983-01-01

    Four regions of the galaxy, the Cygnus Superbubble, the Eta Carina complex, the Orion/Eridanus complex, and the Gum Nebula, are discussed as examples of collective effects in the interstellar medium. All four regions share certain features, indicating a common structure. The selection effects which determine the observable X-ray properties of the superbubbles are discussed, and it is demonstrated that only a very few more in our Galaxy can be detected in X rays. X-ray observation of extragalactic superbubbles is shown to be possible but requires the capabilities of a large, high quality, AXAF class observatory.

  16. X-ray/UV variability and the origin of soft X-ray excess emission from II Zw 177

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Main; Dewangan, Gulab C.; Misra, Ranjeev; Pawar, Pramod K.

    2016-03-01

    We study X-ray and UV emission from the narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy II Zw 177 using a 137 ks long and another 13 ks short XMM-Newton observation performed in 2012 and 2001, respectively. Both observations show soft X-ray excess emission contributing 76.9 ± 4.9 per cent in 2012 and 58.8 ± 10.2 per cent in 2001 in the 0.3-2 keV band. We find that both blurred reflection from an ionized disc and Comptonized disc emission describe the observed soft excess well. Time-resolved spectroscopy on scales of ˜20 ks reveals strong correlation between the soft excess and the power-law components. The fractional variability amplitude Fvar derived from EPIC-pn light curves at different energy bands is nearly constant (Fvar ˜ 20 per cent). This is in contrast to other active galactic nuclei where the lack of short term variation in soft X-ray excess emission has been attributed to intense light bending in the framework of the `lamppost' model. Thus, the variations in power-law emission are most likely intrinsic to corona rather than just due to the changes of height of compact corona. The variable UV emission (Fvar ˜ 1 per cent) is uncorrelated to any of the X-ray components on short time-scales suggesting that the UV emission is not dominated by the reprocessed emission. The gradual observed decline in the UV emission in 2012 may be related to the secular decline due to the changes in the accretion rate. In this case, the short term X-ray variability is not due to the changes in the seed photons but intrinsic to the hot corona.

  17. Lumbosacral spine x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    X-ray - lumbosacral spine; X-ray - lower spine ... The test is done in a hospital x-ray department or your health care provider's office by an x-ray technician. You will be asked to lie on the x-ray table ...

  18. Thoracic spine x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    Vertebral radiography; X-ray - spine; Thoracic x-ray; Spine x-ray; Thoracic spine films; Back films ... The test is done in a hospital radiology department or in the health care provider's office. You will lie on the x-ray table in different positions. If the x-ray ...

  19. Chandra X-Ray Observations of the Hydra A Cluster: An Interaction between the Radio Source and the X-Ray-emitting Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, B. R.; Wise, M.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; David, L. P.; Sarazin, C. L.; Bautz, M.; Markevitch, M.; Vikhlinin, A.; Forman, W. R.; Jones, C.; Harris, D. E.

    2000-05-01

    We present Chandra X-ray observations of the Hydra A cluster of galaxies, and we report the discovery of structure in the central 80 kpc of the cluster's X-ray-emitting gas. The most remarkable structures are depressions in the X-ray surface brightness, ~25-35 kpc in diameter, that are coincident with Hydra A's radio lobes. The depressions are nearly devoid of X-ray-emitting gas, and there is no evidence for shock-heated gas surrounding the radio lobes. We suggest that the gas within the surface brightness depressions was displaced as the radio lobes expanded subsonically, leaving cavities in the hot atmosphere. The gas temperature declines from 4 keV at 70 kpc to 3 keV in the inner 20 kpc of the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG), and the cooling time of the gas is ~600 Myr in the inner 10 kpc. These properties are consistent with the presence of an ~34 Msolar yr-1 cooling flow within a 70 kpc radius. Bright X-ray emission is present in the BCG surrounding a recently accreted disk of nebular emission and young stars. The star formation rate is commensurate with the cooling rate of the hot gas within the volume of the disk, although the sink for the material that may be cooling at larger radii remains elusive. A bright, unresolved X-ray source is present in the BCG's nucleus, coincident with the radio core. Its X-ray spectrum is consistent with a power law absorbed by a foreground NH~=4×1022 cm-2 column of hydrogen. This column is roughly consistent with the hydrogen column seen in absorption toward the <~24 pc diameter VLBA radio source. Apart from the point source, no evidence for excess X-ray absorption above the Galactic column is found.

  20. Stellar x-ray flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haisch, B.; Uchida, Y.; Kosugi, T.; Hudson, H. S.

    1995-01-01

    What is the importance of stellar X-ray flares to astrophysics, or even more, to the world at large? In the case of the Sun, changes in solar activity at the two temporal extremes can have quite significant consequences. Longterm changes in solar activity, such as the Maunder Minimum, can apparently lead to non-negligible alterations of the earth's climate. The extreme short term changes are solar flares, the most energetic of which can cause communications disruptions, power outages and ionizing radiation levels amounting to medical X-ray dosages on long commercial flights and even potentially lethal exposures for unshielded astronauts. Why does the Sun exhibit such behaviour? Even if we had a detailed knowledge of the relevant physical processes on the Sun - which we may be on the way to having in hand as evidenced by these Proceedings- our understanding would remain incomplete in regard to fundamental causation so long as we could not say whether the Sun is, in this respect, unique among the stars. This current paper discusses the stellar x-ray flare detections and astronomical models (quasi-static cooling model and two-ribbon model) that are used to observe the x-ray emission.

  1. Analysis of Off-Nuclear X-Ray Sources in Galaxy NGC 4945

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Sarah M.; /MIT /SLAC

    2006-09-11

    Recently, X-ray astronomy has been used to investigate objects such as galaxies, clusters of galaxies, Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN), quasars, starburst superbubbles of hot gas, X-ray binary systems, stars, supernova remnants, and interstellar and intergalactic material. By studying the x-ray emission patterns of these objects, we can gain a greater understanding of their structure and evolution. We analyze X-ray emission from the galaxy NGC 4945 using data taken by the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The Chandra Interactive Analysis of Observations (CIAO) software package was used to extract and fit energy spectra and to extract light curves for the brightest off-nuclear sources in two different observations of NGC 4945 (January, 2000 and May, 2004). A majority of sources were closely fit by both absorbed power law and absorbed bremsstrahlung models, with a significantly poorer {chi}{sup 2}/dof for the absorbed blackbody model, and most sources had little variability. This indicates that the sources are accreting binary systems with either a neutron star or black hole as the compact object. The calculated luminosities were about 10{sup 38} erg/s, which implies that the mass of the accreting object is close to 10 solar masses and must be a black hole.

  2. The superslow pulsation X-ray pulsars in high mass X-ray binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei

    2013-03-01

    There exists a special class of X-ray pulsars that exhibit very slow pulsation of P spin > 1000 s in the high mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs). We have studied the temporal and spectral properties of these superslow pulsation neutron star binaries in hard X-ray bands with INTEGRAL observations. Long-term monitoring observations find spin period evolution of two sources: spin-down trend for 4U 2206+54 (P spin ~ 5560 s with Ṗ spin ~ 4.9 × 10-7 s s-1) and long-term spin-up trend for 2S 0114+65 (P spin ~ 9600 s with Ṗ spin ~ -1 × 10-6 s s-1) in the last 20 years. A Be X-ray transient, SXP 1062 (P spin ~ 1062 s), also showed a fast spin-down rate of Ṗ spin ~ 3 × 10-6 s s-1 during an outburst. These superslow pulsation neutron stars cannot be produced in the standard X-ray binary evolution model unless the neutron star has a much stronger surface magnetic field (B > 1014 G). The physical origin of the superslow spin period is still unclear. The possible origin and evolution channels of the superslow pulsation X-ray pulsars are discussed. Superslow pulsation X-ray pulsars could be younger X-ray binary systems, still in the fast evolution phase preceding the final equilibrium state. Alternatively, they could be a new class of neutron star system - accreting magnetars.

  3. X-ray - skeleton

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003381.htm X-ray - skeleton To use the sharing features on this page, ... ray views may be uncomfortable. If the whole skeleton is being imaged, the test usually takes 1 ...

  4. Cosmic x ray physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccammon, Dan; Cox, D. P.; Kraushaar, W. L.; Sanders, W. T.

    1992-01-01

    This final report covers the period 1 January 1985 - 31 March 1992. It is divided into the following sections: the soft x-ray background; proportional counter and filter calibrations; sounding rocket flight preparations; new sounding rocket payload: x-ray calorimeter; and theoretical studies. Staff, publications, conference proceedings, invited talks, contributed talks, colloquia and seminars, public service lectures, and Ph. D. theses are listed.

  5. Improved intensifying screen reduces X-ray exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchanan, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    X-ray intensifying screen may make possible radiographic procedures where detection speed and X-ray tube power have been the limiting factors. Device will reduce total population exposure to harmful radiation in the United States.

  6. X-ray variability in Galactic high-mass black hole binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Axelsson, Magnus

    The stars of the night sky can to the naked eye appear to be steady and unchanging, apart from the twinkling created by air moving in the atmosphere. However, when viewed in X-rays, the sky is far from constant, with detectable changes occurring on very short timescales. Black hole X-ray binaries are strong sources of X-rays. These systems contain a star and a black hole in orbit around each other. As matter from the companion star is accreted by the black hole, large amounts of gravitational energy are released, giving rise to strong X-ray emission. The accretion flow close to a black hole is characterized by strong gravity, high-energy radiation and variability on timescales down to milliseconds. These systems allow us to probe physics under conditions we cannot recreate in a laboratory, and provide some of the strongest observational indications of the existence of black holes. Temporal analysis is a powerful diagnostic of the geometry and physical processes of this environment. The bulk of this thesis concerns studies of the rapid variability of perhaps the most well-known of all black hole binaries: Cygnus X-1. By tapping into the large amount of archival data available, a systematic study of the variability, in the form of the power spectrum, is conducted. The results show that timing studies can indeed give valuable information on the emission mechanisms and accretion geometry. Tying characteristic frequencies to effects predicted by general relativity directly gives information about the parameters of the compact object. Using these results, the past evolution of the binary system is studied. In addition, results from temporal analysis of the possible black hole binary Cygnus X-3 are presented. The study of X-ray variability covers timescales from years to seconds, and shows that while temporal analysis provides clues to this complex system, it does not provide immediate insight into the accretion geometry, or the nature of the compact object

  7. WE-G-BRE-01: A High Power Nanotube X-Ray Microbeam Irradiator for Preclinical Brain Tumor Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Chtcheprov, P; Inscoe, C; Zhang, L; Lu, J; Zhou, O; Chang, S; Sprenger, F; Laganis, P

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is a new type of cancer treatment undergoing studies at various synchrotron facilities. The principle of MRT is using arrays of microscopically small, low-energy X-radiation for the treatment of various radio-resistant, deep-seated tumors. Our motivation is to develop a compact and inexpensive image guided MRT irradiator to use in the research lab setting. After a successful initial demonstration, here we report a second generation carbon nanotube (CNT) cathode based MRT tube, capable of producing multiple microbeam lines with an anticipated dose rate of 11 Gy/min per line. Methods: The system uses multiple line CNT source arrays to generate multiple focal lines on the anode. The increase in dose-rate, compared to our first generation system, is achieved by increasing the operating voltage from 160 kVp to 225kVp, adding multiple simultaneous focal lines on the anode, and a more efficient cooling mechanism using a 6kW oil-cooled anode. Results: This work will present the design and development process, challenges and solutions to meeting operating specifications, and the final design of the tube and collimator, along with optimization and stabilization of its use. A detailed characterization of its capabilities will be included with a comprehensive measurement of its X-ray focal line dimensions, an evaluation of its collimator alignment and microbeam dimensions, and phantom-based quantification of its dosimetric output. Conclusion: The development of a second generation, compact, multiple line MRT device using carbon nanotube (CNT) cathode based X-ray technology and a novel oil cooled anode design is presented here. With this new source, we are capable of delivering a total microbeam radiation dose comparable to the low end of the synchrotron based MRT systems for small animal brain tumor models.

  8. Radiative Signatures of Reconnection in X-ray Binary Spectral States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzdensky, Dmitri

    Accreting black holes (BHs) in Galactic X-ray Binary (XRB) systems represent some of the main targets of space-based high-energy observatories such as NASA s RXTE, Chandra, and NuSTAR, as well as the international observatories XMM Newton, INTEGRAL, Suzaku (Astro-E), and Astro-H. The overall radiative energy output (mostly X-rays) is ultimately powered by the conversion of the gravitational potential energy of the matter falling onto a black hole and forming an accretion disk or a hot accretion flow around it. Observationally, these systems are found to cycle between a few discrete spectral states, characterized by different overall X-ray power and spectral hardness: (1) the bright thermal high-soft state, dominated by a soft (1 keV) thermal component attributed to a thin dense accretion disk with a relatively weak corona producing a power-law tail emission to at least 1 MeV; (2) the low-hard state, showing no signs of a thin accretion disk and dominated by a single hard (with index ~ -1.7) power law truncating at about 100 keV; and (3) the bright Steep Power Law state with both a standard thin disk and a powerful coronal power-law (with index about -2.5) emission extending to at least 1 MeV. Explaining the key features of these nonthermal spectra, i.e., their power law indices and high-energy cutoffs, is one of the outstanding problems in high-energy astrophysics. The hard (10keV 1MeV) X-ray emission in these states is believed to be produced by inverse-Compton scattering in relativistically-hot gas, presumably heated by magnetic reconnection processes, and forming either an accretion disk corona or the hot accretion flow itself. Since the radiative cooling time of the energetic electrons in the intense radiation fields found in these systems is very short, the observed non-thermal hard X-ray spectra should directly reflect the instantaneous energy spectra of the electrons accelerated in reconnection events. Recent advances in kinetic simulations of reconnection

  9. The SAS-3 X-ray observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer, W. F.

    1975-01-01

    The experiment section of the Small Astronomy Satellite-3 (SAS-3) launched in May 1975 is an X-ray observatory intended to determine the location of bright X-ray sources to an accuracy of 15 arc-seconds; to study a selected set of sources over a wide energy range, from 0.1 to 55 keV, while performing very specific measurements of the spectra and time variability of known X-ray sources; and to monitor the sky continuously for X-ray novae, flares, and unexpected phenomena. The improvements in SAS-3 spacecraft include a clock accurate to 1 part in 10 billion, rotatable solar panels, a programmable data format, and improved nutation damper, a delayed command system, improved magnetic trim and azimuth control systems. These improvements enable SAS-3 to perform three-axis stabilized observations of any point on the celestial sphere at any time of the year. The description of the experiment section and the SAS-3 operation is followed by a synopsis of scientific results obtained from the observations of X-ray sources, such as Vela X-1 (supposed to be an accreting neutron star), a transient source of hard X-ray (less than 36 min in duration) detected by SAS-3, the Crab Nebula pulsar, the Perseus cluster of galaxies, and the Vela supernova remnant.

  10. The potential of X-ray polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamborra, F.

    2014-07-01

    Up-scattering of low-energy photons by Inverse Compton processes in a hot gas of electrons (i.e. Comptonization) is a common astrophysical mechanism particularly important in accreting systems like X-ray binaries (XRBs) and Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). Polarization signals produced by scattering strongly depend on the optical thickness and geometry of the scattering medium as well as on the observer's viewing angle. The polarization degree and angle can be used to constrain, for example, the still unknown parameters which characterize the hot corona responsible for the production of X-ray radiation in AGN or the dominant mechanism responsible for the broadening of the Iron K-alpha emission line whose origin is still a matter of debate in the case of low mass X-ray binaries with a neutron star. Conducting accurate Monte Carlo simulations we show the potential of X-ray polarimetry, a new perspective of X-ray astronomy. The spectroscopic part of our results can already be exploited today in the light of XMM-Newton and Chandra data and is even more appealing in the perspective of data from NuStar and future X-ray missions.

  11. On the magnetic fields of Be/X-ray pulsars in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikhsanov, N. R.; Mereghetti, S.

    2015-12-01

    We explore the possibility of explaining the properties of the Be/X-ray pulsars observed in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) within the magnetic levitation accretion scenario. This implies that their X-ray emission is powered by a wind-fed accretion on to a neutron star (NS) which captures matter from a magnetized stellar wind. The NS in this case is accreting matter from a non-Keplerian magnetically levitating disc which is surrounding its magnetosphere. This allows us to explain the observed periods of the pulsars in terms of spin equilibrium without the need of invoking dipole magnetic fields outside the usual range ˜1011-1013 G inferred from cyclotron features of Galactic high-mass X-ray binaries. We find that the equilibrium period of a NS, under certain conditions, depends strongly on the magnetization of the stellar wind of its massive companion and, correspondingly, on the magnetic field of the massive companion itself. This may help to explain why similar NSs in binaries with similar properties rotate with different periods yielding a large scatter of periods of the accretion-powered pulsar observed in SMC and our galaxy.

  12. Multi-wavelength Study of the Be/X-Ray Binary MXB 0656-072

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jingzhi; Zurita Heras, Juan Antonio; Chaty, Sylvain; Li, Hui; Liu, Qingzhong

    2012-07-01

    We present and analyze the optical photometric and spectroscopic data of the Be/X-ray binary MXB 0656-072 from 2006 to 2009. A 101.2 day orbital period is found, for the first time, from the present public X-ray data (Swift/BAT and RXTE/ASM). The anti-correlation between the Hα emission and the UBV brightness of MXB 0656-072 during our 2007 observations indicates that a mass ejection event took place in the system. After the mass ejection, a low-density region might develop around the Oe star. With the outward motion of the circumstellar disk, the outer part of the disk interacted with the neutron star around its periastron passage and a series of X-ray outbursts were triggered between MJD 54350 and MJD 54850. The Proportional Counter Array-HEXTE spectra during the 2007-2008 X-ray outbursts could be well fitted by a cutoff power law with low-energy absorption, together with an iron line around 6.4 keV, and a broad cyclotron resonance feature around 30 keV. The same variability of the soft and hard X-ray colors in 2.3-21 keV indicated that there were no overall changes in the spectral shape during the X-ray outbursts, which might only be connected with the changes of the mass accretion rate onto the neutron star.

  13. MULTI-WAVELENGTH STUDY OF THE Be/X-RAY BINARY MXB 0656-072

    SciTech Connect

    Yan Jingzhi; Li Hui; Liu Qingzhong; Zurita Heras, Juan Antonio; Chaty, Sylvain E-mail: hli@pmo.ac.cn E-mail: juan-antonio.zurita-heras@cea.fr

    2012-07-01

    We present and analyze the optical photometric and spectroscopic data of the Be/X-ray binary MXB 0656-072 from 2006 to 2009. A 101.2 day orbital period is found, for the first time, from the present public X-ray data (Swift/BAT and RXTE/ASM). The anti-correlation between the H{alpha} emission and the UBV brightness of MXB 0656-072 during our 2007 observations indicates that a mass ejection event took place in the system. After the mass ejection, a low-density region might develop around the Oe star. With the outward motion of the circumstellar disk, the outer part of the disk interacted with the neutron star around its periastron passage and a series of X-ray outbursts were triggered between MJD 54350 and MJD 54850. The Proportional Counter Array-HEXTE spectra during the 2007-2008 X-ray outbursts could be well fitted by a cutoff power law with low-energy absorption, together with an iron line around 6.4 keV, and a broad cyclotron resonance feature around 30 keV. The same variability of the soft and hard X-ray colors in 2.3-21 keV indicated that there were no overall changes in the spectral shape during the X-ray outbursts, which might only be connected with the changes of the mass accretion rate onto the neutron star.

  14. Investigating the reflection contribution to the X-ray emission of Ton S180

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nardini, E.; Fabian, A. C.; Walton, D. J.

    2012-07-01

    There is now growing evidence that the soft X-ray excess is almost ubiquitous among unobscured active galaxies. In spite of the various interpretations that have been considered in the past few years, the nature of this foremost spectral feature is not firmly established yet. In this context, we review from a reflection perspective the three highest quality X-ray observations of the narrow-line type 1 Seyfert galaxy Tonantzintla (Ton) S180, obtained by XMM-Newton and Suzaku. The X-ray spectrum of Ton S180 shows only moderate variations over a time span of several years, suggesting that the same physical process accounts for the bulk of the broad-band X-ray emission at the different epochs, and that the properties of the X-ray sourc