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Sample records for accretion prediction code

  1. Users manual for the NASA Lewis Ice Accretion Prediction Code (LEWICE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruff, Gary A.; Berkowitz, Brian M.

    1990-01-01

    LEWICE is an ice accretion prediction code that applies a time-stepping procedure to calculate the shape of an ice accretion. The potential flow field is calculated in LEWICE using the Douglas Hess-Smith 2-D panel code (S24Y). This potential flow field is then used to calculate the trajectories of particles and the impingement points on the body. These calculations are performed to determine the distribution of liquid water impinging on the body, which then serves as input to the icing thermodynamic code. The icing thermodynamic model is based on the work of Messinger, but contains several major modifications and improvements. This model is used to calculate the ice growth rate at each point on the surface of the geometry. By specifying an icing time increment, the ice growth rate can be interpreted as an ice thickness which is added to the body, resulting in the generation of new coordinates. This procedure is repeated, beginning with the potential flow calculations, until the desired icing time is reached. The operation of LEWICE is illustrated through the use of five examples. These examples are representative of the types of applications expected for LEWICE. All input and output is discussed, along with many of the diagnostic messages contained in the code. Several error conditions that may occur in the code for certain icing conditions are identified, and a course of action is recommended. LEWICE has been used to calculate a variety of ice shapes, but should still be considered a research code. The code should be exercised further to identify any shortcomings and inadequacies. Any modifications identified as a result of these cases, or of additional experimental results, should be incorporated into the model. Using it as a test bed for improvements to the ice accretion model is one important application of LEWICE.

  2. User's manual for the NASA Lewis ice accretion/heat transfer prediction code with electrothermal deicer input

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masiulaniec, Konstanty C.; Wright, William B.

    1994-01-01

    A version of LEWICE has been developed that incorporates a recently developed electrothermal deicer code, developed at the University of Toledo by William B. Wright. This was accomplished, in essence, by replacing a subroutine in LEWICE, called EBAL, which balanced the energies at the ice surface, with a subroutine called UTICE. UTICE performs this same energy balance, as well as handles all the time-timperature transients below the ice surface, for all of the layers of a composite blade as well as the ice layer itself. This new addition is set up in such a fashion that a user may specify any number of heaters, any heater chordwise length, and any heater gap desired. The heaters may be fired in unison, or they may be cycled with periods independent of each other. The heater intensity may also be varied. In addition, the user may specify any number of layers and thicknesses depthwise into the blade. Thus, the new addition has maximum flexibility in modeling virtually any electrothermal deicer installed into any airfoil. It should be noted that the model simulates both shedding and runback. With the runback capability, it can simulate the anti-icing mode of heater performance, as well as detect icing downstream of the heaters due to runback in unprotected portions of the airfoil. This version of LEWICE can be run in three modes. In mode 1, no conduction heat transfer is modeled (which would be equivalent to the original version of LEWICE). In mode 2, all heat transfer is considered due to conduction but no heaters are firing. In mode 3, conduction heat transfer where the heaters are engaged is modeled, with subsequent ice shedding. When run in the first mode, there is virtually identical agreement with the original version of LEWICE in the prediction of accreted ice shapes. The code may be run in the second mode to determine the effects of conduction on the ice accretion process.

  3. Additional Improvements to the NASA Lewis Ice Accretion Code LEWICE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, William B.; Bidwell, Colin S.

    1995-01-01

    Due to the feedback of the user community, three major features have been added to the NASA Lewis ice accretion code LEWICE. These features include: first, further improvements to the numerics of the code so that more time steps can be run and so that the code is more stable; second, inclusion and refinement of the roughness prediction model described in an earlier paper; third, inclusion of multi-element trajectory and ice accretion capabilities to LEWICE. This paper will describe each of these advancements in full and make comparisons with the experimental data available. Further refinement of these features and inclusion of additional features will be performed as more feedback is received.

  4. Update to the NASA Lewis Ice Accretion Code LEWICE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, William B.

    1994-01-01

    This report is intended as an update to NASA CR-185129 'User's Manual for the NASA Lewis Ice Accretion Prediction Code (LEWICE).' It describes modifications and improvements made to this code as well as changes to the input and output files, interactive input, and graphics output. The comparison of this code to experimental data is shown to have improved as a result of these modifications.

  5. LEWICE/E: An Euler based ice accretion code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potapczuk, Mark G.

    1992-01-01

    A new version of the LEWICE ice accretion computer code was developed which calculates the ice growth on two dimensional surfaces, incorporating the effects of compressibility through the solution of the Euler equations. The code is modular and contains separate stand-alone program elements that create a grid, calculate the flow field parameters, calculate the droplet trajectory paths, determine the amount of ice growth, and plot results. This code increases the applicability of ice accretion predictions by allowing calculations at higher Mach numbers. The new elements of the code are described. Calculated results are compared to experiment for several cases, including a LEWICE example case and a thin airfoil section at a Mach number of 0.58.

  6. LEWICE/E - An Euler based ice accretion code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potapczuk, Mark G.

    1992-01-01

    A new version of the LEWICE ice accretion computer code was developed which calculates the ice growth on two dimensional surfaces, incorporating the effects of compressibility through the solution of the Euler equations. The code is modular and contains separate stand-alone program elements that create a grid, calculate the flow field parameters, calculate the droplet trajectory paths, determine the amount of ice growth, and plot results. This code increases the applicability of ice accretion predictions by allowing calculations at higher Mach numbers. The new elements of the code are described. Calculated results are compared to experiment for several cases, including a LEWICE example case and a thin airfoil section at a Mach number of 0.58.

  7. Users manual for the improved NASA Lewis ice accretion code LEWICE 1.6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, William B.

    1995-01-01

    This report is intended as an update/replacement to NASA CR 185129 'User's Manual for the NASALewis Ice Accretion Prediction Code (LEWICE)' and as an update to NASA CR 195387 'Update to the NASA Lewis Ice Accretion Code LEWICE'. In addition to describing the changes specifically made for this version, information from previous manuals will be duplicated so that the user will not need three manuals to use this code.

  8. The Influence of Viscous Effects on Ice Accretion Prediction and Airfoil Performance Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreeger, Richard E.; Wright, William B.

    2005-01-01

    A computational study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of using a viscous flow solution in an ice accretion code and the resulting accuracy of aerodynamic performance prediction. Ice shapes were obtained for one single-element and one multi-element airfoil using both potential flow and Navier-Stokes flowfields in the LEWICE ice accretion code. Aerodynamics were then calculated using a Navier-Stokes flow solver.

  9. Ice Accretion Prediction for a Typical Commercial Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bidwell, C. S.

    1993-01-01

    Ice accretion calculations were made for a modern commercial transport using the NASA Lewis LEWICE3D ice accretion code. The ice accretion calculations were made for the wing and horizontal tail using both isolated flow models and flow models incorporating the entire airplane. The isolated flow model calculations were made to assess the validity of using these simplified models in lieu of the entire model in the ice accretion analysis of full aircraft. Ice shapes typifying a rime and a mixed ice shape were generated for a 30 minute hold condition. In general, the calculated ice shapes looked reasonable and appeared representative of a rime and a mixed ice conditions. The isolated flow model simplification was good for the main wing except at the root where it overpredicted the amount of accreted ice relative to the full aircraft flow model. For the horizontal tail the size and amount of predicted ice compared well for the two flow models, but the position of the accretions were more towards the upper surface for the aircraft flow model relative to the isolated flow model. This was attributed to downwash from the main wing which resulted in a lower effective angle of attack for the aircraft tail.

  10. Ice accretion prediction for a typical commercial transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bidwell, C. S.

    1993-01-01

    Ice accretion calculations were made for a modern commercial transport using the NASA Lewis LEWICE3D ice accretion code. The ice accretion calculations were made for the wing and horizonal tail using both isolated flow models and flow models incorporating the entire airplane. The isolated flow model calculations were made to assess the validity of using these simplified models in lieu of the entire model in the ice accretion analysis for full aircraft. Ice shapes typifying a rime and a mixed ice shape were generated for a 30 minute hold condition. In general, the calculated ice shapes looked reasonable and appeared representative of a rime and a mixed ice conditions. The isolated flow model simplification was good for the main wing except at the root where it overpredicted the amount of accreted ice relative to the full aircraft flow model. For the horizontal tail the size and amount of predicted ice compared well for the two flow models, but the position of the accretions were more towards the upper surface for the aircraft flow model relative to the isolated flow model. This was attributed to downwash from the main wing which resulted in a lower effective angle of attack for the aircraft tail.

  11. Aeroacoustic Prediction Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gliebe, P; Mani, R.; Shin, H.; Mitchell, B.; Ashford, G.; Salamah, S.; Connell, S.; Huff, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This report describes work performed on Contract NAS3-27720AoI 13 as part of the NASA Advanced Subsonic Transport (AST) Noise Reduction Technology effort. Computer codes were developed to provide quantitative prediction, design, and analysis capability for several aircraft engine noise sources. The objective was to provide improved, physics-based tools for exploration of noise-reduction concepts and understanding of experimental results. Methods and codes focused on fan broadband and 'buzz saw' noise and on low-emissions combustor noise and compliment work done by other contractors under the NASA AST program to develop methods and codes for fan harmonic tone noise and jet noise. The methods and codes developed and reported herein employ a wide range of approaches, from the strictly empirical to the completely computational, with some being semiempirical analytical, and/or analytical/computational. Emphasis was on capturing the essential physics while still considering method or code utility as a practical design and analysis tool for everyday engineering use. Codes and prediction models were developed for: (1) an improved empirical correlation model for fan rotor exit flow mean and turbulence properties, for use in predicting broadband noise generated by rotor exit flow turbulence interaction with downstream stator vanes: (2) fan broadband noise models for rotor and stator/turbulence interaction sources including 3D effects, noncompact-source effects. directivity modeling, and extensions to the rotor supersonic tip-speed regime; (3) fan multiple-pure-tone in-duct sound pressure prediction methodology based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis; and (4) low-emissions combustor prediction methodology and computer code based on CFD and actuator disk theory. In addition. the relative importance of dipole and quadrupole source mechanisms was studied using direct CFD source computation for a simple cascadeigust interaction problem, and an empirical combustor

  12. DRA/NASA/ONERA Collaboration on Icing Research. Part 2; Prediction of Airfoil Ice Accretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, William B.; Gent, R. W.; Guffond, Didier

    1997-01-01

    This report presents results from a joint study by DRA, NASA, and ONERA for the purpose of comparing, improving, and validating the aircraft icing computer codes developed by each agency. These codes are of three kinds: (1) water droplet trajectory prediction, (2) ice accretion modeling, and (3) transient electrothermal deicer analysis. In this joint study, the agencies compared their code predictions with each other and with experimental results. These comparison exercises were published in three technical reports, each with joint authorship. DRA published and had first authorship of Part 1 - Droplet Trajectory Calculations, NASA of Part 2 - Ice Accretion Prediction, and ONERA of Part 3 - Electrothermal Deicer Analysis. The results cover work done during the period from August 1986 to late 1991. As a result, all of the information in this report is dated. Where necessary, current information is provided to show the direction of current research. In this present report on ice accretion, each agency predicted ice shapes on two dimensional airfoils under icing conditions for which experimental ice shapes were available. In general, all three codes did a reasonable job of predicting the measured ice shapes. For any given experimental condition, one of the three codes predicted the general ice features (i.e., shape, impingement limits, mass of ice) somewhat better than did the other two. However, no single code consistently did better than the other two over the full range of conditions examined, which included rime, mixed, and glaze ice conditions. In several of the cases, DRA showed that the user's knowledge of icing can significantly improve the accuracy of the code prediction. Rime ice predictions were reasonably accurate and consistent among the codes, because droplets freeze on impact and the freezing model is simple. Glaze ice predictions were less accurate and less consistent among the codes, because the freezing model is more complex and is critically

  13. Prediction of ice accretion on a swept NACA 0012 airfoil and comparisons to flight test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reehorst, Andrew L.

    1992-01-01

    In the winter of 1989-90, an icing research flight project was conducted to obtain swept wing ice accretion data. Utilizing the NASA Lewis Research Center's DHC-6 DeHavilland Twin Otter aircraft, research flights were made into known icing conditions in Northeastern Ohio. The icing cloud environment and aircraft flight data were measured and recorded by an onboard data acquisition system. Upon entry into the icing environment, a 24 inch span, 15 inch chord NACA 0012 airfoil was extended from the aircraft and set to the desired sweep angle. After the growth of a well defined ice shape, the airfoil was retracted into the aircraft cabin for ice shape documentation. The ice accretions were recorded by ice tracings and photographs. Ice accretions were mostly of the glaze type and exhibited scalloping. The ice was accreted at sweep angles of 0, 30, and 45 degrees. A 3-D ice accretion prediction code was used to predict ice profiles for five selected flight test runs, which include sweep angle of zero, 30, and 45 degrees. The code's roughness input parameter was adjusted for best agreement. A simple procedure was added to the code to account for 3-D ice scalloping effects. The predicted ice profiles are compared to their respective flight test counterparts. This is the first attempt to predict ice profiles on swept wings with significant scalloped ice formations.

  14. Dopamine reward prediction error coding

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Wolfram

    2016-01-01

    Reward prediction errors consist of the differences between received and predicted rewards. They are crucial for basic forms of learning about rewards and make us strive for more rewards—an evolutionary beneficial trait. Most dopamine neurons in the midbrain of humans, monkeys, and rodents signal a reward prediction error; they are activated by more reward than predicted (positive prediction error), remain at baseline activity for fully predicted rewards, and show depressed activity with less reward than predicted (negative prediction error). The dopamine signal increases nonlinearly with reward value and codes formal economic utility. Drugs of addiction generate, hijack, and amplify the dopamine reward signal and induce exaggerated, uncontrolled dopamine effects on neuronal plasticity. The striatum, amygdala, and frontal cortex also show reward prediction error coding, but only in subpopulations of neurons. Thus, the important concept of reward prediction errors is implemented in neuronal hardware. PMID:27069377

  15. Global Time Dependent Solutions of Stochastically Driven Standard Accretion Disks: Development of Hydrodynamical Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wani, Naveel; Maqbool, Bari; Iqbal, Naseer; Misra, Ranjeev

    2016-07-01

    X-ray binaries and AGNs are powered by accretion discs around compact objects, where the x-rays are emitted from the inner regions and uv emission arise from the relatively cooler outer parts. There has been an increasing evidence that the variability of the x-rays in different timescales is caused by stochastic fluctuations in the accretion disc at different radii. These fluctuations although arise in the outer parts of the disc but propagate inwards to give rise to x-ray variability and hence provides a natural connection between the x-ray and uv variability. There are analytical expressions to qualitatively understand the effect of these stochastic variabilities, but quantitative predictions are only possible by a detailed hydrodynamical study of the global time dependent solution of standard accretion disc. We have developed numerical efficient code (to incorporate all these effects), which considers gas pressure dominated solutions and stochastic fluctuations with the inclusion of boundary effect of the last stable orbit.

  16. Three-dimensional hydrodynamic Bondi-Hoyle accretion. 1: Code validation and stationary accretors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruffert, Maximilian

    1994-01-01

    We investigate the hydrodynamics of three-dimensional classical Bondi-Hoyle accretion. Totally absorbing stationary spheres of varying sizes (from 10.0 down to 0.02 Bondi radii) accrete matter from a homogeneous and slightly perturbed medium, which is taken to be an ideal gas (gamma = 5/3 or 1.2). To accommodate the long-range gravitational forces, the extent of the computational volume is typically a factor of 100 larger than the radius of the accretor. We compare the numerical mass accretion rates with the theoretical predictions of Bondi, to assess the validity of the code. The hydrodynamics is modeled by the piecewise parabolic method. No energy sources (nuclear burning) or sinks (radiation, conduction) are included. The resolution in the vicinity of the accretor is increased by multiply nesting several (6-8) grids around the stationary sphere, each finer grid being a factor of 2 smaller spatially than the next coarser grid. This allows us to include a coarse model for the surface of the accretor (vacuum sphere) on the finest grid while at the same time evolving the gas on the coarser grids. The accretion rates derived numerically are in in very good agreement (to about 10% over several orders of magnitude) with the values given by Bondi for a stationary accretor within a hydrodynamic medium. However, the equations have to be changed in order to include the finite size of the accretor (in some cases very large compared to the sonic point or even to the Bondi radius).

  17. Structural coding versus free-energy predictive coding.

    PubMed

    van der Helm, Peter A

    2016-06-01

    Focusing on visual perceptual organization, this article contrasts the free-energy (FE) version of predictive coding (a recent Bayesian approach) to structural coding (a long-standing representational approach). Both use free-energy minimization as metaphor for processing in the brain, but their formal elaborations of this metaphor are fundamentally different. FE predictive coding formalizes it by minimization of prediction errors, whereas structural coding formalizes it by minimization of the descriptive complexity of predictions. Here, both sides are evaluated. A conclusion regarding competence is that FE predictive coding uses a powerful modeling technique, but that structural coding has more explanatory power. A conclusion regarding performance is that FE predictive coding-though more detailed in its account of neurophysiological data-provides a less compelling cognitive architecture than that of structural coding, which, for instance, supplies formal support for the computationally powerful role it attributes to neuronal synchronization. PMID:26407895

  18. Free-floating planets from core accretion theory: microlensing predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Sizheng; Mao, Shude; Ida, Shigeru; Zhu, Wei; Lin, Douglas N. C.

    2016-09-01

    We calculate the microlensing event rate and typical time-scales for the free-floating planet (FFP) population that is predicted by the core accretion theory of planet formation. The event rate is found to be ˜1.8 × 10-3 of that for the stellar population. While the stellar microlensing event time-scale peaks at around 20 d, the median time-scale for FFP events (˜0.1 d) is much shorter. Our values for the event rate and the median time-scale are significantly smaller than those required to explain the Sumi et al. result, by factors of ˜13 and ˜16, respectively. The inclusion of planets at wide separations does not change the results significantly. This discrepancy may be too significant for standard versions of both the core accretion theory and the gravitational instability model to explain satisfactorily. Therefore, either a modification to the planet formation theory is required or other explanations to the excess of short-time-scale microlensing events are needed. Our predictions can be tested by ongoing microlensing experiment such as Korean Microlensing Telescope Network, and by future satellite missions such as WFIRST and Euclid.

  19. GR-AMRVAC code applications: accretion onto compact objects, boson stars versus black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meliani, Z.; Grandclément, P.; Casse, F.; Vincent, F. H.; Straub, O.; Dauvergne, F.

    2016-08-01

    In the close vicinity of a compact object strong gravity imprints its signature onto matter. Systems that contain at least one compact object are observed to exhibit extreme physical properties and typically emit highly energetic radiation. The nature of the compact objects that produce the strongest gravitational fields is to date not settled. General relativistic numerical simulations of fluid dynamics around black holes, neutron stars, and other compact objects such as boson stars (BSs) may give invaluable insights into this fundamental question. In order to study the behavior of fluid in the strong gravity regime of an arbitrary compact object we develop a new general relativistic hydrodynamics code. To this end we extend the existing versatile adaptive mesh refinement code MPI-AMRVAC into a general relativistic hydrodynamics framework and adapt it for the use of numerically given spacetime metrics. In the present article we study accretion flows in the vicinity of various types of BSs whose numerical metrics are calculated by the KADATH spectral solver library. We design specific tests to check the reliability of any code intending to study BSs and compare the solutions with those obtained in the context of Schwarzschild black holes. We perform the first ever general relativistic hydrodynamical simulations of gas accretion by a BS. The behavior of matter at small distances from the center of a BS differs notably from the black hole case. In particular we demonstrate that in the context of Bondi spherical accretion the mass accretion rate onto non-rotating BSs remains constant whereas it increases for Schwarzschild black holes. We also address the scenario of non-spherical accretion onto BSs and show that this may trigger mass ejection from the interior of the BS. This striking feature opens the door to forthcoming investigations regarding accretion-ejection flows around such types of compact objects.

  20. Users manual for the NASA Lewis three-dimensional ice accretion code (LEWICE 3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bidwell, Colin S.; Potapczuk, Mark G.

    1993-01-01

    A description of the methodology, the algorithms, and the input and output data along with an example case for the NASA Lewis 3D ice accretion code (LEWICE3D) has been produced. The manual has been designed to help the user understand the capabilities, the methodologies, and the use of the code. The LEWICE3D code is a conglomeration of several codes for the purpose of calculating ice shapes on three-dimensional external surfaces. A three-dimensional external flow panel code is incorporated which has the capability of calculating flow about arbitrary 3D lifting and nonlifting bodies with external flow. A fourth order Runge-Kutta integration scheme is used to calculate arbitrary streamlines. An Adams type predictor-corrector trajectory integration scheme has been included to calculate arbitrary trajectories. Schemes for calculating tangent trajectories, collection efficiencies, and concentration factors for arbitrary regions of interest for single droplets or droplet distributions have been incorporated. A LEWICE 2D based heat transfer algorithm can be used to calculate ice accretions along surface streamlines. A geometry modification scheme is incorporated which calculates the new geometry based on the ice accretions generated at each section of interest. The three-dimensional ice accretion calculation is based on the LEWICE 2D calculation. Both codes calculate the flow, pressure distribution, and collection efficiency distribution along surface streamlines. For both codes the heat transfer calculation is divided into two regions, one above the stagnation point and one below the stagnation point, and solved for each region assuming a flat plate with pressure distribution. Water is assumed to follow the surface streamlines, hence starting at the stagnation zone any water that is not frozen out at a control volume is assumed to run back into the next control volume. After the amount of frozen water at each control volume has been calculated the geometry is modified by

  1. Predicting ice accretion and alleviating galloping on overhead power lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Mingliang

    2002-04-01

    Both the static and dynamic effects of an ice storm on an overhead power line are investigated fairly comprehensively in this thesis. To determine the static, extreme ice load as well as the combined ice and wind load, a systematic procedure is established based on extensive freezing rain experiments and a Monte Carlo simulation. On the other hand, a dynamic effect---galloping---is examined quite extensively with the objective of better understanding its behavior. A novel add-on device---the hybrid nutation damper (HND)---is proposed to control galloping. Its effectiveness is assessed numerically by using a modified, 3DOF based, galloping software. The present investigations lead to the following findings. (i) Goodwin's simple theoretical model surprisingly predicts, quite accurately, the temporally changing weight of not only a dry ice growth but also a wet ice growth for a fixed, unheated conductor sample. (ii) The maximum ice loading may vary significantly over a power line's planned lifetime because of the randomness of an ice storm and its characteristics as well as the uncertainty involved in identifying the extreme probability distribution of the ice loading. Consequently, backup protection is presently essential for a power line in an ice prone area. (iii) A conductor's torsional flexibility does not appear to affect the growth of the accreted ice weight but it modifies the ice shape significantly. (iv) Three representative ice shapes (a crescent, D-like and icicle pendant) can initiate galloping so that galloping may occur in any icing condition. (v) A noticeable swingback or twist appears to develop only when their respective natural frequencies coincide with the plunge's natural frequency. (vi) A hydraulic jump is the major source of energy dissipation in a nutation damper. A properly induced rotation can significantly enhance a nutation damper's performance. (vii) A hybrid nutation damper has been demonstrated to be a promising means of alleviating

  2. Predictive coding as a model of cognition.

    PubMed

    Spratling, M W

    2016-08-01

    Previous work has shown that predictive coding can provide a detailed explanation of a very wide range of low-level perceptual processes. It is also widely believed that predictive coding can account for high-level, cognitive, abilities. This article provides support for this view by showing that predictive coding can simulate phenomena such as categorisation, the influence of abstract knowledge on perception, recall and reasoning about conceptual knowledge, context-dependent behavioural control, and naive physics. The particular implementation of predictive coding used here (PC/BC-DIM) has previously been used to simulate low-level perceptual behaviour and the neural mechanisms that underlie them. This algorithm thus provides a single framework for modelling both perceptual and cognitive brain function. PMID:27118562

  3. The Influence of Accretion Rate and Metallicity on Thermonuclear Bursts: Predictions from KEPLER Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampe, Nathanael; Heger, Alexander; Galloway, Duncan K.

    2016-03-01

    Using the KEPLER hydrodynamics code, 464 models of thermonuclear X-ray bursters were performed across a range of accretion rates and compositions. We present the library of simulated burst profiles from this sample, and examine variations in the simulated light curve for different model conditions. We find that the recurrence time varies as a power law against accretion rate, and measure its slope while mixed H/He burning is occurring for a range of metallicities, finding the power law gradient to vary from η =1.1 to 1.24. We identify the accretion rates at which mixed H/He burning stops and a transition occurs to different burning regimes. We explore how varying the accretion rate and metallicity affects burst morphology in both the rise and tail.

  4. Fast prediction algorithm for multiview video coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelazim, Abdelrahman; Mein, Stephen James; Varley, Martin Roy; Ait-Boudaoud, Djamel

    2013-03-01

    The H.264/multiview video coding (MVC) standard has been developed to enable efficient coding for three-dimensional and multiple viewpoint video sequences. The inter-view statistical dependencies are utilized and an inter-view prediction is employed to provide more efficient coding; however, this increases the overall encoding complexity. Motion homogeneity is exploited here to selectively enable inter-view prediction, and to reduce complexity in the motion estimation (ME) and the mode selection processes. This has been accomplished by defining situations that relate macro-blocks' motion characteristics to the mode selection and the inter-view prediction processes. When comparing the proposed algorithm to the H.264/MVC reference software and other recent work, the experimental results demonstrate a significant reduction in ME time while maintaining similar rate-distortion performance.

  5. VADER: A flexible, robust, open-source code for simulating viscous thin accretion disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krumholz, M. R.; Forbes, J. C.

    2015-06-01

    The evolution of thin axisymmetric viscous accretion disks is a classic problem in astrophysics. While models based on this simplified geometry provide only approximations to the true processes of instability-driven mass and angular momentum transport, their simplicity makes them invaluable tools for both semi-analytic modeling and simulations of long-term evolution where two- or three-dimensional calculations are too computationally costly. Despite the utility of these models, the only publicly-available frameworks for simulating them are rather specialized and non-general. Here we describe a highly flexible, general numerical method for simulating viscous thin disks with arbitrary rotation curves, viscosities, boundary conditions, grid spacings, equations of state, and rates of gain or loss of mass (e.g., through winds) and energy (e.g., through radiation). Our method is based on a conservative, finite-volume, second-order accurate discretization of the equations, which we solve using an unconditionally-stable implicit scheme. We implement Anderson acceleration to speed convergence of the scheme, and show that this leads to factor of ∼5 speed gains over non-accelerated methods in realistic problems, though the amount of speedup is highly problem-dependent. We have implemented our method in the new code Viscous Accretion Disk Evolution Resource (VADER), which is freely available for download from

  6. Geometric prediction structure for multiview video coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seok; Wey, Ho-Cheon; Park, Du-Sik

    2010-02-01

    One of the critical issues to successful service of 3D video is how to compress huge amount of multi-view video data efficiently. In this paper, we described about geometric prediction structure for multi-view video coding. By exploiting the geometric relations between each camera pose, we can make prediction pair which maximizes the spatial correlation of each view. To analyze the relationship of each camera pose, we defined the mathematical view center and view distance in 3D space. We calculated virtual center pose by getting mean rotation matrix and mean translation vector. We proposed an algorithm for establishing the geometric prediction structure based on view center and view distance. Using this prediction structure, inter-view prediction is performed to camera pair of maximum spatial correlation. In our prediction structure, we also considered the scalability in coding and transmitting the multi-view videos. Experiments are done using JMVC (Joint Multiview Video Coding) software on MPEG-FTV test sequences. Overall performance of proposed prediction structure is measured in the PSNR and subjective image quality measure such as PSPNR.

  7. Predictions for microlensing planetary events from core accretion theory

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Wei; Mao, Shude; Penny, Matthew; Gould, Andrew; Gendron, Rieul

    2014-06-10

    We conduct the first microlensing simulation in the context of a planet formation model. The planet population is taken from the Ida and Lin core accretion model for 0.3 M {sub ☉} stars. With 6690 microlensing events, we find that for a simplified Korea Microlensing Telescopes Network (KMTNet), the fraction of planetary events is 2.9%, out of which 5.5% show multiple-planet signatures. The numbers of super-Earths, super-Neptunes, and super-Jupiters detected are expected to be almost equal. Our simulation shows that high-magnification events and massive planets are favored by planet detections, which is consistent with previous expectation. However, we notice that extremely high-magnification events are less sensitive to planets, which is possibly because the 10 minute sampling of KMTNet is not intensive enough to capture the subtle anomalies that occur near the peak. This suggests that while KMTNet observations can be systematically analyzed without reference to any follow-up data, follow-up observations will be essential in extracting the full science potential of very high magnification events. The uniformly high-cadence observations expected for KMTNet also result in ∼55% of all detected planets not being caustic crossing, and more low-mass planets even down to Mars mass being detected via planetary caustics. We also find that the distributions of orbital inclinations and planet mass ratios in multiple-planet events agree with the intrinsic distributions.

  8. User Manual for the NASA Glenn Ice Accretion Code LEWICE: Version 2.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, William B.

    1999-01-01

    A research project is underway at NASA Glenn to produce a computer code which can accurately predict ice growth under a wide range of meteorological conditions for any aircraft surface. This report will present a description of the code inputs and outputs from version 2.0 of this code, which is called LEWICE. This version differs from previous releases due to its robustness and its ability to reproduce results accurately for different spacing and time step criteria across computing platform. It also differs in the extensive effort undertaken to compare the results against the database of ice shapes which have been generated in the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) 1. This report will only describe the features of the code related to the use of the program. The report will not describe the inner working of the code or the physical models used. This information is available in the form of several unpublished documents which will be collectively referred to as a Programmers Manual for LEWICE 2 in this report. These reports are intended as an update/replacement for all previous user manuals of LEWICE. In addition to describing the changes and improvements made for this version, information from previous manuals may be duplicated so that the user will not need to consult previous manuals to use this code.

  9. Visual mismatch negativity: a predictive coding view.

    PubMed

    Stefanics, Gábor; Kremláček, Jan; Czigler, István

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of studies investigate the visual mismatch negativity (vMMN) or use the vMMN as a tool to probe various aspects of human cognition. This paper reviews the theoretical underpinnings of vMMN in the light of methodological considerations and provides recommendations for measuring and interpreting the vMMN. The following key issues are discussed from the experimentalist's point of view in a predictive coding framework: (1) experimental protocols and procedures to control "refractoriness" effects; (2) methods to control attention; (3) vMMN and veridical perception. PMID:25278859

  10. Visual mismatch negativity: a predictive coding view

    PubMed Central

    Stefanics, Gábor; Kremláček, Jan; Czigler, István

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of studies investigate the visual mismatch negativity (vMMN) or use the vMMN as a tool to probe various aspects of human cognition. This paper reviews the theoretical underpinnings of vMMN in the light of methodological considerations and provides recommendations for measuring and interpreting the vMMN. The following key issues are discussed from the experimentalist's point of view in a predictive coding framework: (1) experimental protocols and procedures to control “refractoriness” effects; (2) methods to control attention; (3) vMMN and veridical perception. PMID:25278859

  11. User Manual for the NASA Glenn Ice Accretion Code LEWICE. Version 2.2.2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, William B.

    2002-01-01

    A research project is underway at NASA Glenn to produce a computer code which can accurately predict ice growth under a wide range of meteorological conditions for any aircraft surface. This report will present a description of the code inputs and outputs from version 2.2.2 of this code, which is called LEWICE. This version differs from release 2.0 due to the addition of advanced thermal analysis capabilities for de-icing and anti-icing applications using electrothermal heaters or bleed air applications. An extensive effort was also undertaken to compare the results against the database of electrothermal results which have been generated in the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) as was performed for the validation effort for version 2.0. This report will primarily describe the features of the software related to the use of the program. Appendix A of this report has been included to list some of the inner workings of the software or the physical models used. This information is also available in the form of several unpublished documents internal to NASA. This report is intended as a replacement for all previous user manuals of LEWICE. In addition to describing the changes and improvements made for this version, information from previous manuals may be duplicated so that the user will not need to consult previous manuals to use this code.

  12. Can predictive coding explain repetition suppression?

    PubMed

    Grotheer, Mareike; Kovács, Gyula

    2016-07-01

    While in earlier work various local or bottom-up neural mechanisms were proposed to give rise to repetition suppression (RS), current theories suggest that top-down processes play a role in determining the repetition related reduction of the neural responses. In the current review we summarise those results, which support the role of these top-down processes, concentrating on the Bayesian models of predictive coding (PC). Such models assume that RS is related to the statistical probabilities of prior stimulus occurrences and to the future predictability of these stimuli. Here we review the current results that support or argue against this explanation. We point out that the heterogeneity of experimental manipulations that are thought to reflect predictive processes are likely to measure different processing steps, making their direct comparison difficult. In addition we emphasize the importance of identifying these sub-processes and clarifying their role in explaining RS. Finally, we propose a two-stage model for explaining the relationships of repetition and expectation phenomena in the human cortex. PMID:26861559

  13. The Helicopter Antenna Radiation Prediction Code (HARP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klevenow, F. T.; Lynch, B. G.; Newman, E. H.; Rojas, R. G.; Scheick, J. T.; Shamansky, H. T.; Sze, K. Y.

    1990-01-01

    The first nine months effort in the development of a user oriented computer code, referred to as the HARP code, for analyzing the radiation from helicopter antennas is described. The HARP code uses modern computer graphics to aid in the description and display of the helicopter geometry. At low frequencies the helicopter is modeled by polygonal plates, and the method of moments is used to compute the desired patterns. At high frequencies the helicopter is modeled by a composite ellipsoid and flat plates, and computations are made using the geometrical theory of diffraction. The HARP code will provide a user friendly interface, employing modern computer graphics, to aid the user to describe the helicopter geometry, select the method of computation, construct the desired high or low frequency model, and display the results.

  14. Heat transfer on accreting ice surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamaguchi, Keiko; Hansman, R. John, Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Based on previous observations of glaze ice accretion on aircraft surfaces, a multizone model with distinct zones of different surface roughness is demonstrated. The use of surface roughness in the LEWICE ice accretion prediction code is examined. It was found that roughness is used in two ways: (1) to determine the laminar to turbulent boundary-layer transition location; and (2) to calculate the convective turbulent heat-transfer coefficient. A two-zone version of the multizone model is implemented in the LEWICE code, and compared with experimental convective heat-transfer coefficient and ice accretion results. The analysis of the boundary-layer transition, surface roughness, and viscous flowfield effects significantly increased the accuracy in predicting heat-transfer coefficients. The multizone model was found to significantly improve the ice accretion prediction for the cases compared.

  15. Picturewise inter-view prediction selection for multiview video coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Junyan; Chang, Yilin; Li, Ming; Yang, Haitao

    2010-11-01

    Inter-view prediction is introduced in multiview video coding (MVC) to exploit the inter-view correlation. Statistical analyses show that the coding gain benefited from inter-view prediction is unequal among pictures. On the basis of this observation, a picturewise interview prediction selection scheme is proposed. This scheme employs a novel inter-view prediction selection criterion to determine whether it is necessary to apply inter-view prediction to the current coding picture. This criterion is derived from the available coding information of the temporal reference pictures. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme can improve the performance of MVC with a comprehensive consideration of compression efficiency, computational complexity, and random access ability.

  16. Improving Intra Prediction in High-Efficiency Video Coding.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haoming; Zhang, Tao; Sun, Ming-Ting; Saxena, Ankur; Budagavi, Madhukar

    2016-08-01

    Intra prediction is an important tool in intra-frame video coding to reduce the spatial redundancy. In current coding standard H.265/high-efficiency video coding (HEVC), a copying-based method based on the boundary (or interpolated boundary) reference pixels is used to predict each pixel in the coding block to remove the spatial redundancy. We find that the conventional copying-based method can be further improved in two cases: 1) the boundary has an inhomogeneous region and 2) the predicted pixel is far away from the boundary that the correlation between the predicted pixel and the reference pixels is relatively weak. This paper performs a theoretical analysis of the optimal weights based on a first-order Gaussian Markov model and the effects when the pixel values deviate from the model and the predicted pixel is far away from the reference pixels. It also proposes a novel intra prediction scheme based on the analysis that smoothing the copying-based prediction can derive a better prediction block. Both the theoretical analysis and the experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed intra prediction method. An average gain of 2.3% on all intra coding can be achieved with the HEVC reference software. PMID:27249831

  17. Predictive Bias and Sensitivity in NRC Fuel Performance Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Geelhood, Kenneth J.; Luscher, Walter G.; Senor, David J.; Cunningham, Mitchel E.; Lanning, Donald D.; Adkins, Harold E.

    2009-10-01

    The latest versions of the fuel performance codes, FRAPCON-3 and FRAPTRAN were examined to determine if the codes are intrinsically conservative. Each individual model and type of code prediction was examined and compared to the data that was used to develop the model. In addition, a brief literature search was performed to determine if more recent data have become available since the original model development for model comparison.

  18. Results and code predictions for ABCOVE aerosol code validation - Test AB5

    SciTech Connect

    Hilliard, R K; McCormack, J D; Postma, A K

    1983-11-01

    A program for aerosol behavior code validation and evaluation (ABCOVE) has been developed in accordance with the LMFBR Safety Program Plan. The ABCOVE program is a cooperative effort between the USDOE, the USNRC, and their contractor organizations currently involved in aerosol code development, testing or application. The first large-scale test in the ABCOVE program, AB5, was performed in the 850-m{sup 3} CSTF vessel using a sodium spray as the aerosol source. Seven organizations made pretest predictions of aerosol behavior using seven different computer codes (HAA-3, HAA-4, HAARM-3, QUICK, MSPEC, MAEROS and CONTAIN). Three of the codes were used by more than one user so that the effect of user input could be assessed, as well as the codes themselves. Detailed test results are presented and compared with the code predictions for eight key parameters.

  19. Repetition suppression and its contextual determinants in predictive coding.

    PubMed

    Auksztulewicz, Ryszard; Friston, Karl

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a review of theoretical and empirical work on repetition suppression in the context of predictive coding. Predictive coding is a neurobiologically plausible scheme explaining how biological systems might perform perceptual inference and learning. From this perspective, repetition suppression is a manifestation of minimising prediction error through adaptive changes in predictions about the content and precision of sensory inputs. Simulations of artificial neural hierarchies provide a principled way of understanding how repetition suppression - at different time scales - can be explained in terms of inference and learning implemented under predictive coding. This formulation of repetition suppression is supported by results of numerous empirical studies of repetition suppression and its contextual determinants. PMID:26861557

  20. System code requirements for SBWR LOCA predictions

    SciTech Connect

    Rohatgi, U.S.; Slovik, G.; Kroeger, P.

    1994-12-31

    The simplified boiling water reactor (SBWR) is the latest design in the family of boiling water reactors (BWRs) from General Electric. The concept is based on many innovative, passive, safety systems that rely on naturally occurring phenomena, such as natural circulation, gravity flows, and condensation. Reliability has been improved by eliminating active systems such as pumps and valves. The reactor pressure vessel (RPV) is connected to heat exchangers submerged in individual water tanks, which are open to atmosphere. These heat exchanger, or isolation condensers (ICs), provide a heat sink to reduce the RPV pressure when isolated. The RPV is also connected to three elevated tanks of water called the gravity-driven cooling system (GDCS). During a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA), the RPV is depressurized by the automatic depressurization system (ADS), allowing the gravity-driven flow from the GDCS tanks. The containment pressure is controlled by a passive containment cooling system (PCCS) and suppression pool. Similarly, there are new plant protection systems in the SBWR, such as fine-motion control rod drive, passive standby liquid control system, and the automatic feedwater runback system. These safety and plant protection systems respond to phenomena that are different from previous BWR designs. System codes must be upgraded to include models for the phenomena expected during transients for the SBWR.

  1. Roadmap Toward a Predictive Performance-based Commercial Energy Code

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, Michael I.; Hart, Philip R.

    2014-10-01

    Energy codes have provided significant increases in building efficiency over the last 38 years, since the first national energy model code was published in late 1975. The most commonly used path in energy codes, the prescriptive path, appears to be reaching a point of diminishing returns. The current focus on prescriptive codes has limitations including significant variation in actual energy performance depending on which prescriptive options are chosen, a lack of flexibility for designers and developers, and the inability to handle control optimization that is specific to building type and use. This paper provides a high level review of different options for energy codes, including prescriptive, prescriptive packages, EUI Target, outcome-based, and predictive performance approaches. This paper also explores a next generation commercial energy code approach that places a greater emphasis on performance-based criteria. A vision is outlined to serve as a roadmap for future commercial code development. That vision is based on code development being led by a specific approach to predictive energy performance combined with building specific prescriptive packages that are designed to be both cost-effective and to achieve a desired level of performance. Compliance with this new approach can be achieved by either meeting the performance target as demonstrated by whole building energy modeling, or by choosing one of the prescriptive packages.

  2. Heat transfer on accreting ice surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamaguchi, Keiko; Hansman, R. John, Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Based on previous observations of glaze ice accretion, a 'Multi-Zone' model with distinct zones of different surface roughness is demonstrated. The use of surface roughness in the LEWICE ice accretion prediction code is examined. It was found that roughness is used in two ways: to determine the laminar to turbulent transition location and to calculate the turbulent heat transfer coefficient. A two zone version of the Multi-Zone model is implemented in the LEWICE code, and compared with experimental heat transfer coefficient and ice accretin results. The analysis of the boundary layer transition, surface roughness, and viscous flow field effects significantly increased the accuracy in predicting heat transfer coefficients. The Multi-Zone model was found to greatly improve the ice accretion prediction for the cases compared.

  3. A trellis-searched APC (adaptive predictive coding) speech coder

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, K.T. ); Fischer, T.R. . Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering)

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we formulate a speech coding system that incorporates trellis coded vector quantization (TCVQ) and adaptive predictive coding (APC). A method for optimizing'' the TCVQ codebooks is presented and experimental results concerning survivor path mergings are reported. Simulation results are given for encoding rates of 16 and 9.6 kbps for a variety of coder parameters. The quality of the encoded speech is deemed excellent at an encoding rate of 16 kbps and very good at 9.6 kbps. 13 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. More About Vector Adaptive/Predictive Coding Of Speech

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedrey, Thomas C.; Gersho, Allen

    1992-01-01

    Report presents additional information about digital speech-encoding and -decoding system described in "Vector Adaptive/Predictive Encoding of Speech" (NPO-17230). Summarizes development of vector adaptive/predictive coding (VAPC) system and describes basic functions of algorithm. Describes refinements introduced enabling receiver to cope with errors. VAPC algorithm implemented in integrated-circuit coding/decoding processors (codecs). VAPC and other codecs tested under variety of operating conditions. Tests designed to reveal effects of various background quiet and noisy environments and of poor telephone equipment. VAPC found competitive with and, in some respects, superior to other 4.8-kb/s codecs and other codecs of similar complexity.

  5. Dream to Predict? REM Dreaming as Prospective Coding

    PubMed Central

    Llewellyn, Sue

    2016-01-01

    The dream as prediction seems inherently improbable. The bizarre occurrences in dreams never characterize everyday life. Dreams do not come true! But assuming that bizarreness negates expectations may rest on a misunderstanding of how the predictive brain works. In evolutionary terms, the ability to rapidly predict what sensory input implies—through expectations derived from discerning patterns in associated past experiences—would have enhanced fitness and survival. For example, food and water are essential for survival, associating past experiences (to identify location patterns) predicts where they can be found. Similarly, prediction may enable predator identification from what would have been only a fleeting and ambiguous stimulus—without prior expectations. To confront the many challenges associated with natural settings, visual perception is vital for humans (and most mammals) and often responses must be rapid. Predictive coding during wake may, therefore, be based on unconscious imagery so that visual perception is maintained and appropriate motor actions triggered quickly. Speed may also dictate the form of the imagery. Bizarreness, during REM dreaming, may result from a prospective code fusing phenomena with the same meaning—within a particular context. For example, if the context is possible predation, from the perspective of the prey two different predators can both mean the same (i.e., immediate danger) and require the same response (e.g., flight). Prospective coding may also prune redundancy from memories, to focus the image on the contextually-relevant elements only, thus, rendering the non-relevant phenomena indeterminate—another aspect of bizarreness. In sum, this paper offers an evolutionary take on REM dreaming as a form of prospective coding which identifies a probabilistic pattern in past events. This pattern is portrayed in an unconscious, associative, sensorimotor image which may support cognition in wake through being mobilized as a

  6. Dream to Predict? REM Dreaming as Prospective Coding.

    PubMed

    Llewellyn, Sue

    2015-01-01

    The dream as prediction seems inherently improbable. The bizarre occurrences in dreams never characterize everyday life. Dreams do not come true! But assuming that bizarreness negates expectations may rest on a misunderstanding of how the predictive brain works. In evolutionary terms, the ability to rapidly predict what sensory input implies-through expectations derived from discerning patterns in associated past experiences-would have enhanced fitness and survival. For example, food and water are essential for survival, associating past experiences (to identify location patterns) predicts where they can be found. Similarly, prediction may enable predator identification from what would have been only a fleeting and ambiguous stimulus-without prior expectations. To confront the many challenges associated with natural settings, visual perception is vital for humans (and most mammals) and often responses must be rapid. Predictive coding during wake may, therefore, be based on unconscious imagery so that visual perception is maintained and appropriate motor actions triggered quickly. Speed may also dictate the form of the imagery. Bizarreness, during REM dreaming, may result from a prospective code fusing phenomena with the same meaning-within a particular context. For example, if the context is possible predation, from the perspective of the prey two different predators can both mean the same (i.e., immediate danger) and require the same response (e.g., flight). Prospective coding may also prune redundancy from memories, to focus the image on the contextually-relevant elements only, thus, rendering the non-relevant phenomena indeterminate-another aspect of bizarreness. In sum, this paper offers an evolutionary take on REM dreaming as a form of prospective coding which identifies a probabilistic pattern in past events. This pattern is portrayed in an unconscious, associative, sensorimotor image which may support cognition in wake through being mobilized as a predictive

  7. The NASA-LeRC wind turbine sound prediction code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viterna, L. A.

    1981-01-01

    Since regular operation of the DOE/NASA MOD-1 wind turbine began in October 1979 about 10 nearby households have complained of noise from the machine. Development of the NASA-LeRC with turbine sound prediction code began in May 1980 as part of an effort to understand and reduce the noise generated by MOD-1. Tone sound levels predicted with this code are in generally good agreement with measured data taken in the vicinity MOD-1 wind turbine (less than 2 rotor diameters). Comparison in the far field indicates that propagation effects due to terrain and atmospheric conditions may be amplifying the actual sound levels by about 6 dB. Parametric analysis using the code has shown that the predominant contributions to MOD-1 rotor noise are: (1) the velocity deficit in the wake of the support tower; (2) the high rotor speed; and (3) off column operation.

  8. The NASA-LeRC wind turbine sound prediction code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viterna, L. A.

    1981-01-01

    Development of the wind turbine sound prediction code began as part of an effort understand and reduce the noise generated by Mod-1. Tone sound levels predicted with this code are in good agreement with measured data taken in the vicinity Mod-1 wind turbine (less than 2 rotor diameters). Comparison in the far field indicates that propagation effects due to terrain and atmospheric conditions may amplify the actual sound levels by 6 dB. Parametric analysis using the code shows that the predominant contributors to Mod-1 rotor noise are (1) the velocity deficit in the wake of the support tower, (2) the high rotor speed, and (3) off-optimum operation.

  9. Fast coding unit selection method for high efficiency video coding intra prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Jian

    2013-07-01

    The high efficiency video coding (HEVC) video coding standard under development can achieve higher compression performance than previous standards, such as MPEG-4, H.263, and H.264/AVC. To improve coding performance, a quad-tree coding structure and a robust rate-distortion (RD) optimization technique is used to select an optimum coding mode. Since the RD costs of all possible coding modes are computed to decide an optimum mode, high computational complexity is induced in the encoder. A fast learning-based coding unit (CU) size selection method is presented for HEVC intra prediction. The proposed algorithm is based on theoretical analysis that shows the non-normalized histogram of oriented gradient (n-HOG) can be used to help select CU size. A codebook is constructed offline by clustering n-HOGs of training sequences for each CU size. The optimum size is determined by comparing the n-HOG of the current CU with the learned codebooks. Experimental results show that the CU size selection scheme speeds up intra coding significantly with negligible loss of peak signal-to-noise ratio.

  10. Reflections on agranular architecture: predictive coding in the motor cortex

    PubMed Central

    Shipp, Stewart; Adams, Rick A.; Friston, Karl J.

    2013-01-01

    The agranular architecture of motor cortex lacks a functional interpretation. Here, we consider a ‘predictive coding’ account of this unique feature based on asymmetries in hierarchical cortical connections. In sensory cortex, layer 4 (the granular layer) is the target of ascending pathways. We theorise that the operation of predictive coding in the motor system (a process termed ‘active inference’) provides a principled rationale for the apparent recession of the ascending pathway in motor cortex. The extension of this theory to interlaminar circuitry also accounts for a sub-class of ‘mirror neuron’ in motor cortex – whose activity is suppressed when observing an action –explaining how predictive coding can gate hierarchical processing to switch between perception and action. PMID:24157198

  11. Predictive coding of music--brain responses to rhythmic incongruity.

    PubMed

    Vuust, Peter; Ostergaard, Leif; Pallesen, Karen Johanne; Bailey, Christopher; Roepstorff, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    During the last decades, models of music processing in the brain have mainly discussed the specificity of brain modules involved in processing different musical components. We argue that predictive coding offers an explanatory framework for functional integration in musical processing. Further, we provide empirical evidence for such a network in the analysis of event-related MEG-components to rhythmic incongruence in the context of strong metric anticipation. This is seen in a mismatch negativity (MMNm) and a subsequent P3am component, which have the properties of an error term and a subsequent evaluation in a predictive coding framework. There were both quantitative and qualitative differences in the evoked responses in expert jazz musicians compared with rhythmically unskilled non-musicians. We propose that these differences trace a functional adaptation and/or a genetic pre-disposition in experts which allows for a more precise rhythmic prediction. PMID:19054506

  12. TAS: A Transonic Aircraft/Store flow field prediction code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, D. S.

    1983-01-01

    A numerical procedure has been developed that has the capability to predict the transonic flow field around an aircraft with an arbitrarily located, separated store. The TAS code, the product of a joint General Dynamics/NASA ARC/AFWAL research and development program, will serve as the basis for a comprehensive predictive method for aircraft with arbitrary store loadings. This report described the numerical procedures employed to simulate the flow field around a configuration of this type. The validity of TAS code predictions is established by comparison with existing experimental data. In addition, future areas of development of the code are outlined. A brief description of code utilization is also given in the Appendix. The aircraft/store configuration is simulated using a mesh embedding approach. The computational domain is discretized by three meshes: (1) a planform-oriented wing/body fine mesh, (2) a cylindrical store mesh, and (3) a global Cartesian crude mesh. This embedded mesh scheme enables simulation of stores with fins of arbitrary angular orientation.

  13. Potential flow analysis of glaze ice accretions on an airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaguli, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    The results of an analytical/experimental study of the flow fields about an airfoil with leading edge glaze ice accretion shapes are presented. Tests were conducted in the Icing Research Tunnel to measure surface pressure distributions and boundary layer separation reattachment characteristics on a general aviation wing section to which was affixed wooden ice shapes which approximated typical glaze ice accretions. Comparisons were made with predicted pressure distributions using current airfoil analysis codes as well as the Bristow mixed analysis/design airfoil panel code. The Bristow code was also used to predict the separation reattachment dividing streamline by inputting the appropriate experimental surface pressure distribution.

  14. An integrative approach to predicting the functional effects of non-coding and coding sequence variation

    PubMed Central

    Shihab, Hashem A.; Rogers, Mark F.; Gough, Julian; Mort, Matthew; Cooper, David N.; Day, Ian N. M.; Gaunt, Tom R.; Campbell, Colin

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: Technological advances have enabled the identification of an increasingly large spectrum of single nucleotide variants within the human genome, many of which may be associated with monogenic disease or complex traits. Here, we propose an integrative approach, named FATHMM-MKL, to predict the functional consequences of both coding and non-coding sequence variants. Our method utilizes various genomic annotations, which have recently become available, and learns to weight the significance of each component annotation source. Results: We show that our method outperforms current state-of-the-art algorithms, CADD and GWAVA, when predicting the functional consequences of non-coding variants. In addition, FATHMM-MKL is comparable to the best of these algorithms when predicting the impact of coding variants. The method includes a confidence measure to rank order predictions. Availability and implementation: The FATHMM-MKL webserver is available at: http://fathmm.biocompute.org.uk Contact: H.Shihab@bristol.ac.uk or Mark.Rogers@bristol.ac.uk or C.Campbell@bristol.ac.uk Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:25583119

  15. The multiform motor cortical output: Kinematic, predictive and response coding.

    PubMed

    Sartori, Luisa; Betti, Sonia; Chinellato, Eris; Castiello, Umberto

    2015-09-01

    Observing actions performed by others entails a subliminal activation of primary motor cortex reflecting the components encoded in the observed action. One of the most debated issues concerns the role of this output: Is it a mere replica of the incoming flow of information (kinematic coding), is it oriented to anticipate the forthcoming events (predictive coding) or is it aimed at responding in a suitable fashion to the actions of others (response coding)? The aim of the present study was to disentangle the relative contribution of these three levels and unify them into an integrated view of cortical motor coding. We combined transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electromyography recordings at different timings to probe the excitability of corticospinal projections to upper and lower limb muscles of participants observing a soccer player performing: (i) a penalty kick straight in their direction and then coming to a full stop, (ii) a penalty kick straight in their direction and then continuing to run, (iii) a penalty kick to the side and then continuing to run. The results show a modulation of the observer's corticospinal excitability in different effectors at different times reflecting a multiplicity of motor coding. The internal replica of the observed action, the predictive activation, and the adaptive integration of congruent and non-congruent responses to the actions of others can coexist in a not mutually exclusive way. Such a view offers reconciliation among different (and apparently divergent) frameworks in action observation literature, and will promote a more complete and integrated understanding of recent findings on motor simulation, motor resonance and automatic imitation. PMID:25727547

  16. Deficits in Predictive Coding Underlie Hallucinations in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Schatz, Kelly C.; Abi-Dargham, Anissa

    2014-01-01

    The neural mechanisms that produce hallucinations and other psychotic symptoms remain unclear. Previous research suggests that deficits in predictive signals for learning, such as prediction error signals, may underlie psychotic symptoms, but the mechanism by which such deficits produce psychotic symptoms remains to be established. We used model-based fMRI to study sensory prediction errors in human patients with schizophrenia who report daily auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) and sociodemographically matched healthy control subjects. We manipulated participants' expectations for hearing speech at different periods within a speech decision-making task. Patients activated a voice-sensitive region of the auditory cortex while they experienced AVHs in the scanner and displayed a concomitant deficit in prediction error signals in a similar portion of auditory cortex. This prediction error deficit correlated strongly with increased activity during silence and with reduced volumes of the auditory cortex, two established neural phenotypes of AVHs. Furthermore, patients with more severe AVHs had more deficient prediction error signals and greater activity during silence within the region of auditory cortex where groups differed, regardless of the severity of psychotic symptoms other than AVHs. Our findings suggest that deficient predictive coding accounts for the resting hyperactivity in sensory cortex that leads to hallucinations. PMID:24920613

  17. Biocomputational prediction of small non-coding RNAs in Streptomyces

    PubMed Central

    Pánek, Josef; Bobek, Jan; Mikulík, Karel; Basler, Marek; Vohradský, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Background The first systematic study of small non-coding RNAs (sRNA, ncRNA) in Streptomyces is presented. Except for a few exceptions, the Streptomyces sRNAs, as well as the sRNAs in other genera of the Actinomyces group, have remained unstudied. This study was based on sequence conservation in intergenic regions of Streptomyces, localization of transcription termination factors, and genomic arrangement of genes flanking the predicted sRNAs. Results Thirty-two potential sRNAs in Streptomyces were predicted. Of these, expression of 20 was detected by microarrays and RT-PCR. The prediction was validated by a structure based computational approach. Two predicted sRNAs were found to be terminated by transcription termination factors different from the Rho-independent terminators. One predicted sRNA was identified computationally with high probability as a Streptomyces 6S RNA. Out of the 32 predicted sRNAs, 24 were found to be structurally dissimilar from known sRNAs. Conclusion Streptomyces is the largest genus of Actinomyces, whose sRNAs have not been studied. The Actinomyces is a group of bacterial species with unique genomes and phenotypes. Therefore, in Actinomyces, new unique bacterial sRNAs may be identified. The sequence and structural dissimilarity of the predicted Streptomyces sRNAs demonstrated by this study serve as the first evidence of the uniqueness of Actinomyces sRNAs. PMID:18477385

  18. AGR-1 Safety Test Predictions using the PARFUME code

    SciTech Connect

    Blaise Collin

    2012-05-01

    The PARFUME modeling code was used to predict failure probability of TRISO-coated fuel particles and diffusion of fission products through these particles during safety tests following the first irradiation test of the Advanced Gas Reactor program (AGR-1). These calculations support the AGR-1 Safety Testing Experiment, which is part of the PIE effort on AGR-1. Modeling of the AGR-1 Safety Test Predictions includes a 620-day irradiation followed by a 300-hour heat-up phase of selected AGR-1 compacts. Results include fuel failure probability, palladium penetration, and fractional release of fission products. Results show that no particle failure is predicted during irradiation or heat-up, and that fractional release of fission products is limited during irradiation but that it significantly increases during heat-up.

  19. Sonic boom predictions using a modified Euler code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siclari, Michael J.

    1992-04-01

    The environmental impact of a next generation fleet of high-speed civil transports (HSCT) is of great concern in the evaluation of the commercial development of such a transport. One of the potential environmental impacts of a high speed civilian transport is the sonic boom generated by the aircraft and its effects on the population, wildlife, and structures in the vicinity of its flight path. If an HSCT aircraft is restricted from flying overland routes due to excessive booms, the commercial feasibility of such a venture may be questionable. NASA has taken the lead in evaluating and resolving the issues surrounding the development of a high speed civilian transport through its High-Speed Research Program (HSRP). The present paper discusses the usage of a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) nonlinear code in predicting the pressure signature and ultimately the sonic boom generated by a high speed civilian transport. NASA had designed, built, and wind tunnel tested two low boom configurations for flight at Mach 2 and Mach 3. Experimental data was taken at several distances from these models up to a body length from the axis of the aircraft. The near field experimental data serves as a test bed for computational fluid dynamic codes in evaluating their accuracy and reliability for predicting the behavior of future HSCT designs. Sonic boom prediction methodology exists which is based on modified linear theory. These methods can be used reliably if near field signatures are available at distances from the aircraft where nonlinear and three dimensional effects have diminished in importance. Up to the present time, the only reliable method to obtain this data was via the wind tunnel with costly model construction and testing. It is the intent of the present paper to apply a modified three dimensional Euler code to predict the near field signatures of the two low boom configurations recently tested by NASA.

  20. Sonic boom predictions using a modified Euler code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siclari, Michael J.

    1992-01-01

    The environmental impact of a next generation fleet of high-speed civil transports (HSCT) is of great concern in the evaluation of the commercial development of such a transport. One of the potential environmental impacts of a high speed civilian transport is the sonic boom generated by the aircraft and its effects on the population, wildlife, and structures in the vicinity of its flight path. If an HSCT aircraft is restricted from flying overland routes due to excessive booms, the commercial feasibility of such a venture may be questionable. NASA has taken the lead in evaluating and resolving the issues surrounding the development of a high speed civilian transport through its High-Speed Research Program (HSRP). The present paper discusses the usage of a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) nonlinear code in predicting the pressure signature and ultimately the sonic boom generated by a high speed civilian transport. NASA had designed, built, and wind tunnel tested two low boom configurations for flight at Mach 2 and Mach 3. Experimental data was taken at several distances from these models up to a body length from the axis of the aircraft. The near field experimental data serves as a test bed for computational fluid dynamic codes in evaluating their accuracy and reliability for predicting the behavior of future HSCT designs. Sonic boom prediction methodology exists which is based on modified linear theory. These methods can be used reliably if near field signatures are available at distances from the aircraft where nonlinear and three dimensional effects have diminished in importance. Up to the present time, the only reliable method to obtain this data was via the wind tunnel with costly model construction and testing. It is the intent of the present paper to apply a modified three dimensional Euler code to predict the near field signatures of the two low boom configurations recently tested by NASA.

  1. Development of a massively parallel parachute performance prediction code

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, C.W.; Strickland, J.H.; Wolfe, W.P.; Sundberg, W.D.; McBride, D.D.

    1997-04-01

    The Department of Energy has given Sandia full responsibility for the complete life cycle (cradle to grave) of all nuclear weapon parachutes. Sandia National Laboratories is initiating development of a complete numerical simulation of parachute performance, beginning with parachute deployment and continuing through inflation and steady state descent. The purpose of the parachute performance code is to predict the performance of stockpile weapon parachutes as these parachutes continue to age well beyond their intended service life. A new massively parallel computer will provide unprecedented speed and memory for solving this complex problem, and new software will be written to treat the coupled fluid, structure and trajectory calculations as part of a single code. Verification and validation experiments have been proposed to provide the necessary confidence in the computations.

  2. Interpersonal predictive coding, not action perception, is impaired in autism

    PubMed Central

    von der Lühe, T.; Manera, V.; Barisic, I.; Becchio, C.; Vogeley, K.

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine interpersonal predictive coding in individuals with high-functioning autism (HFA). Healthy and HFA participants observed point-light displays of two agents (A and B) performing separate actions. In the ‘communicative’ condition, the action performed by agent B responded to a communicative gesture performed by agent A. In the ‘individual’ condition, agent A's communicative action was substituted by a non-communicative action. Using a simultaneous masking-detection task, we demonstrate that observing agent A's communicative gesture enhanced visual discrimination of agent B for healthy controls, but not for participants with HFA. These results were not explained by differences in attentional factors as measured via eye-tracking, or by differences in the recognition of the point-light actions employed. Our findings, therefore, suggest that individuals with HFA are impaired in the use of social information to predict others' actions and provide behavioural evidence that such deficits could be closely related to impairments of predictive coding. PMID:27069050

  3. DCT/DST-based transform coding for intra prediction in image/video coding.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Ankur; Fernandes, Felix C

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we present a DCT/DST based transform scheme that applies either the conventional DCT or type-7 DST for all the video-coding intra-prediction modes: vertical, horizontal, and oblique. Our approach is applicable to any block-based intra prediction scheme in a codec that employs transforms along the horizontal and vertical direction separably. Previously, Han, Saxena, and Rose showed that for the intra-predicted residuals of horizontal and vertical modes, the DST is the optimal transform with performance close to the KLT. Here, we prove that this is indeed the case for the other oblique modes. The optimal choice of using DCT or DST is based on intra-prediction modes and requires no additional signaling information or rate-distortion search. The DCT/DST scheme presented in this paper was adopted in the HEVC standardization in March 2011. Further simplifications, especially to reduce implementation complexity, which remove the mode-dependency between DCT and DST, and simply always use DST for the 4 × 4 intra luma blocks, were adopted in the HEVC standard in July 2012. Simulation results conducted for the DCT/DST algorithm are shown in the reference software for the ongoing HEVC standardization. Our results show that the DCT/DST scheme provides significant BD-rate improvement over the conventional DCT based scheme for intra prediction in video sequences. PMID:23744679

  4. Olfactory Predictive Codes and Stimulus Templates in Piriform Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Zelano, Christina; Mohanty, Aprajita; Gottfried, Jay A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Neuroscientific models of sensory perception suggest that the brain utilizes predictive codes in advance of a stimulus encounter, enabling organisms to infer forthcoming sensory events. However, it is poorly understood how such mechanisms are implemented in the olfactory system. Combining high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging with multivariate (pattern-based) analyses, we examined the spatiotemporal evolution of odor perception in the human brain during an olfactory search task. Ensemble activity patterns in anterior piriform cortex (APC) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) reflected the attended odor target both before and after stimulus onset. In contrast, pre-stimulus ensemble representations of the odor target in posterior piriform cortex (PPC) gave way to post-stimulus representations of the odor itself. Critically, the robustness of target-related patterns in PPC predicted subsequent behavioral performance. Our findings directly show that the brain generates predictive templates or “search images” in PPC, with physical correspondence to odor-specific pattern representations, to augment olfactory perception. PMID:21982378

  5. Fast motion prediction algorithm for multiview video coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelazim, Abdelrahman; Zhang, Guang Y.; Mein, Stephen J.; Varley, Martin R.; Ait-Boudaoud, Djamel

    2011-06-01

    Multiview Video Coding (MVC) is an extension to the H.264/MPEG-4 AVC video compression standard developed with joint efforts by MPEG/VCEG to enable efficient encoding of sequences captured simultaneously from multiple cameras using a single video stream. Therefore the design is aimed at exploiting inter-view dependencies in addition to reducing temporal redundancies. However, this further increases the overall encoding complexity In this paper, the high correlation between a macroblock and its enclosed partitions is utilised to estimate motion homogeneity, and based on the result inter-view prediction is selectively enabled or disabled. Moreover, if the MVC is divided into three layers in terms of motion prediction; the first being the full and sub-pixel motion search, the second being the mode selection process and the third being repetition of the first and second for inter-view prediction, the proposed algorithm significantly reduces the complexity in the three layers. To assess the proposed algorithm, a comprehensive set of experiments were conducted. The results show that the proposed algorithm significantly reduces the motion estimation time whilst maintaining similar Rate Distortion performance, when compared to both the H.264/MVC reference software and recently reported work.

  6. A CMOS Imager with Focal Plane Compression using Predictive Coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leon-Salas, Walter D.; Balkir, Sina; Sayood, Khalid; Schemm, Nathan; Hoffman, Michael W.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a CMOS image sensor with focal-plane compression. The design has a column-level architecture and it is based on predictive coding techniques for image decorrelation. The prediction operations are performed in the analog domain to avoid quantization noise and to decrease the area complexity of the circuit, The prediction residuals are quantized and encoded by a joint quantizer/coder circuit. To save area resources, the joint quantizerlcoder circuit exploits common circuitry between a single-slope analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and a Golomb-Rice entropy coder. This combination of ADC and encoder allows the integration of the entropy coder at the column level. A prototype chip was fabricated in a 0.35 pm CMOS process. The output of the chip is a compressed bit stream. The test chip occupies a silicon area of 2.60 mm x 5.96 mm which includes an 80 X 44 APS array. Tests of the fabricated chip demonstrate the validity of the design.

  7. Numerical Prediction of SERN Performance using WIND code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engblom, W. A.

    2003-01-01

    Computational results are presented for the performance and flow behavior of single-expansion ramp nozzles (SERNs) during overexpanded operation and transonic flight. Three-dimensional Reynolds-Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) results are obtained for two vehicle configurations, including the NASP Model 5B and ISTAR RBCC (a variant of X-43B) using the WIND code. Numerical predictions for nozzle integrated forces and pitch moments are directly compared to experimental data for the NASP Model 5B, and adequate-to-excellent agreement is found. The sensitivity of SERN performance and separation phenomena to freestream static pressure and Mach number is demonstrated via a matrix of cases for both vehicles. 3-D separation regions are shown to be induced by either lateral (e.g., sidewall) shocks or vertical (e.g., cowl trailing edge) shocks. Finally, the implications of this work to future preliminary design efforts involving SERNs are discussed.

  8. Comparison of GLIMPS and HFAST Stirling engine code predictions with experimental data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geng, Steven M.; Tew, Roy C.

    1992-01-01

    Predictions from GLIMPS and HFAST design codes are compared with experimental data for the RE-1000 and SPRE free piston Stirling engines. Engine performance and available power loss predictions are compared. Differences exist between GLIMPS and HFAST loss predictions. Both codes require engine specific calibration to bring predictions and experimental data into agreement.

  9. Comparison of GLIMPS and HFAST Stirling engine code predictions with experimental data

    SciTech Connect

    Geng, S.M.; Tew, R.C.

    1994-09-01

    Predictions from GLIMPS and HFAST design codes are compared with experimental data for the RE-1000 and SPRE free-piston Stirling engines. Engine performance and available power loss predictions are compared. Differences exist between GLIMPS and HFAST loss predictions. Both codes require engine-specific calibration to bring predictions and experimental data into agreement.

  10. AGR-2 Safety Test Predictions Using the PARFUME Code

    SciTech Connect

    Blaise Collin

    2014-09-01

    This report documents calculations performed to predict failure probability of TRISO-coated fuel particles and diffusion of fission products through these particles during safety tests following the second irradiation test of the Advanced Gas Reactor program (AGR-2). The calculations include the modeling of the AGR-2 irradiation that occurred from June 2010 to October 2013 in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and the modeling of a safety testing phase to support safety tests planned at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for a selection of AGR-2 compacts. The heat-up of AGR-2 compacts is a critical component of the AGR-2 fuel performance evaluation, and its objectives are to identify the effect of accident test temperature, burnup, and irradiation temperature on the performance of the fuel at elevated temperature. Safety testing of compacts will be followed by detailed examinations of the fuel particles to further evaluate fission product retention and behavior of the kernel and coatings. The modeling was performed using the particle fuel model computer code PARFUME developed at INL. PARFUME is an advanced gas-cooled reactor fuel performance modeling and analysis code (Miller 2009). It has been developed as an integrated mechanistic code that evaluates the thermal, mechanical, and physico-chemical behavior of fuel particles during irradiation to determine the failure probability of a population of fuel particles given the particle-to-particle statistical variations in physical dimensions and material properties that arise from the fuel fabrication process, accounting for all viable mechanisms that can lead to particle failure. The code also determines the diffusion of fission products from the fuel through the particle coating layers, and through the fuel matrix to the coolant boundary. The subsequent release of fission products is calculated at the compact level (release of fission products from the compact). PARFUME calculates the

  11. Results and code predictions for ABCOVE (aerosol behavior code validation and evaluation) aerosol code validation: Test AB6 with two aerosol species. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Hilliard, R K; McCormack, J C; Muhlestein, L D

    1984-12-01

    A program for aerosol behavior code validation and evaluation (ABCOVE) has been developed in accordance with the LMFBR Safety Program Plan. The ABCOVE program is a cooperative effort between the USDOE, the USNRC, and their contractor organizations currently involved in aerosol code development, testing or application. The second large-scale test in the ABCOVE program, AB6, was performed in the 850-m/sup 3/ CSTF vessel with a two-species test aerosol. The test conditions simulated the release of a fission product aerosol, NaI, in the presence of a sodium spray fire. Five organizations made pretest predictions of aerosol behavior using seven computer codes. Three of the codes (QUICKM, MAEROS and CONTAIN) were discrete, multiple species codes, while four (HAA-3, HAA-4, HAARM-3 and SOFIA) were log-normal codes which assume uniform coagglomeration of different aerosol species. Detailed test results are presented and compared with the code predictions for seven key aerosol behavior parameters.

  12. Predictive coding of depth images across multiple views

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morvan, Yannick; Farin, Dirk; de With, Peter H. N.

    2007-02-01

    A 3D video stream is typically obtained from a set of synchronized cameras, which are simultaneously capturing the same scene (multiview video). This technology enables applications such as free-viewpoint video which allows the viewer to select his preferred viewpoint, or 3D TV where the depth of the scene can be perceived using a special display. Because the user-selected view does not always correspond to a camera position, it may be necessary to synthesize a virtual camera view. To synthesize such a virtual view, we have adopted a depth image-based rendering technique that employs one depth map for each camera. Consequently, a remote rendering of the 3D video requires a compression technique for texture and depth data. This paper presents a predictivecoding algorithm for the compression of depth images across multiple views. The presented algorithm provides (a) an improved coding efficiency for depth images over block-based motion-compensation encoders (H.264), and (b), a random access to different views for fast rendering. The proposed depth-prediction technique works by synthesizing/computing the depth of 3D points based on the reference depth image. The attractiveness of the depth-prediction algorithm is that the prediction of depth data avoids an independent transmission of depth for each view, while simplifying the view interpolation by synthesizing depth images for arbitrary view points. We present experimental results for several multiview depth sequences, that result in a quality improvement of up to 1.8 dB as compared to H.264 compression.

  13. An experimental investigation of multi-element airfoil ice accretion and resulting performance degradation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potapczuk, Mark G.; Berkowitz, Brian M.

    1989-01-01

    An investigation of the ice accretion pattern and performance characteristics of a multi-element airfoil was undertaken in the NASA Lewis 6- by 9-Foot Icing Research Tunnel. Several configurations of main airfoil, slat, and flaps were employed to examine the effects of ice accretion and provide further experimental information for code validation purposes. The text matrix consisted of glaze, rime, and mixed icing conditions. Airflow and icing cloud conditions were set to correspond to those typical of the operating environment anticipated tor a commercial transport vehicle. Results obtained included ice profile tracings, photographs of the ice accretions, and force balance measurements obtained both during the accretion process and in a post-accretion evaluation over a range of angles of attack. The tracings and photographs indicated significant accretions on the slat leading edge, in gaps between slat or flaps and the main wing, on the flap leading-edge surfaces, and on flap lower surfaces. Force measurments indicate the possibility of severe performance degradation, especially near C sub Lmax, for both light and heavy ice accretion and performance analysis codes presently in use. The LEWICE code was used to evaluate the ice accretion shape developed during one of the rime ice tests. The actual ice shape was then evaluated, using a Navier-Strokes code, for changes in performance characteristics. These predicted results were compared to the measured results and indicate very good agreement.

  14. Direct social perception, mindreading and Bayesian predictive coding.

    PubMed

    de Bruin, Leon; Strijbos, Derek

    2015-11-01

    Mindreading accounts of social cognition typically claim that we cannot directly perceive the mental states of other agents and therefore have to exercise certain cognitive capacities in order to infer them. In recent years this view has been challenged by proponents of the direct social perception (DSP) thesis, who argue that the mental states of other agents can be directly perceived. In this paper we show, first, that the main disagreement between proponents of DSP and mindreading accounts has to do with the so-called 'sandwich model' of social cognition. Although proponents of DSP are critical of this model, we argue that they still seem to accept the distinction between perception, cognition and action that underlies it. Second, we contrast the sandwich model of social cognition with an alternative theoretical framework that is becoming increasingly popular in the cognitive neurosciences: Bayesian Predictive Coding (BPC). We show that the BPC framework renders a principled distinction between perception, cognition and action obsolete, and can accommodate elements of both DSP and mindreading accounts. PMID:25959592

  15. Advanced turboprop noise prediction: Development of a code at NASA Langley based on recent theoretical results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farassat, F.; Dunn, M. H.; Padula, S. L.

    1986-01-01

    The development of a high speed propeller noise prediction code at Langley Research Center is described. The code utilizes two recent acoustic formulations in the time domain for subsonic and supersonic sources. The structure and capabilities of the code are discussed. Grid size study for accuracy and speed of execution on a computer is also presented. The code is tested against an earlier Langley code. Considerable increase in accuracy and speed of execution are observed. Some examples of noise prediction of a high speed propeller for which acoustic test data are available are given. A brisk derivation of formulations used is given in an appendix.

  16. ACCRETION ONTO INTERMEDIATE-MASS BLACK HOLES REGULATED BY RADIATIVE FEEDBACK. I. PARAMETRIC STUDY FOR SPHERICALLY SYMMETRIC ACCRETION

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Kwang Ho; Ricotti, Massimo E-mail: ricotti@astro.umd.edu

    2011-09-20

    We study the effect of radiative feedback on accretion onto intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) using the hydrodynamical code ZEUS-MP with a radiative transfer algorithm. In this paper, the first of a series, we assume accretion from a uniformly dense gas with zero angular momentum and extremely low metallicity. Our one-dimensional (1D) and 2D simulations explore how X-ray and UV radiation emitted near the black hole regulates the gas supply from large scales. Both 1D and 2D simulations show similar accretion rates and periods between peaks in accretion, meaning that the hydro-instabilities that develop in 2D simulations do not affect the mean flow properties. We present a suite of simulations exploring accretion across a large parameter space, including different radiative efficiencies and radiation spectra, black hole masses, density, and temperature, T{sub {infinity}}, of the neighboring gas. In agreement with previous studies, we find regular oscillatory behavior of the accretion rate, with duty cycle {approx}6%, mean accretion rate 3% (T{sub {infinity}}/10{sup 4} K){sup 2.5} of the Bondi rate and peak accretion {approx}10 times the mean for T{sub {infinity}} ranging between 3000 K and 15, 000 K. We derive parametric formulae for the period between bursts, the mean accretion rate, and the peak luminosity of the bursts and thus provide a formulation of how feedback-regulated accretion operates. The temperature profile of the hot ionized gas is crucial in determining the accretion rate, while the period of the bursts is proportional to the mean size of the Stroemgren sphere, and we find qualitatively different modes of accretion in the high versus low density regimes. We also find that a softer radiation spectrum produces a higher mean accretion rate. However, it is still unclear what the effect of a significant time delay is between the accretion rate at our inner boundary and the output luminosity. Such a delay is expected in realistic cases with non

  17. Relativistic Jet Formation from Black Hole Magnetized Accretion Disks: Method, Tests, and Applications of a General RelativisticMagnetohydrodynamic Numerical Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koide, Shinji; Shibata, Kazunari; Kudoh, Takahiro

    1999-09-01

    Relativistic jets are observed in both active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and ``microquasars'' in our Galaxy. It is believed that these relativistic jets are ejected from the vicinity of black holes. To investigate the formation mechanism of these jets, we have developed a new general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) code. We report on the basic methods and test calculations to check whether the code reproduces some analytical solutions, such as a standing shock and a Keplerian disk with a steady state infalling corona or with a corona in hydrostatic equilibrium. We then apply the code to the formation of relativistic MHD jets, investigating the dynamics of an accretion disk initially threaded by a uniform poloidal magnetic field in a nonrotating corona (either in a steady state infall or in hydrostatic equilibrium) around a nonrotating black hole. The numerical results show the following: as time goes on, the disk loses angular momentum as a result of magnetic braking and falls into the black hole. The infalling motion of the disk, which is faster than in the nonrelativistic case because of general relativistic effects below 3rS (rS is the Schwarzschild radius), is strongly decelerated around r=2rS by centrifugal force to form a shock inside the disk. The magnetic field is tightly twisted by the differential rotation, and plasma in the shocked region of the disk is accelerated by the JXB force to form bipolar relativistic jets. In addition, and interior to, this magnetically driven jet, we also found a gas-pressure-driven jet ejected from the shocked region by the gas-pressure force. This two-layered jet structure is formed not only in the hydrostatic corona case but also in the steady state falling corona case.

  18. Multi-criterial coding sequence prediction. Combination of GeneMark with two novel, coding-character specific quantities.

    PubMed

    Almirantis, Yannis; Nikolaou, Christoforos

    2005-10-01

    This work applies two recently formulated quantities, strongly correlated with the coding character of a sequence, as an additional "module" on GeneMark, in a three-criterial method. The difference in the statistical approaches implicated by the methods combined here, is expected to contribute to an efficient assignment of functionality to unannotated genomic sequences. The developed combined algorithm is used to fractionalize a collection of GeneMark-predicted exons into sub-collections of different expectation to be coding. A further modification of the algorithm allows for the assignment of an improved estimation of the probability to be coding, to GeneMark-predicted exons. This is on the basis of a suitable training set of GeneMark-predicted exons of known functionality. PMID:15809100

  19. Bondi-like Accretion in Magnetized Supersonic Isothermal Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burleigh, Kaylan J.; McKee, Christopher F.; Klein, Richard I.

    2016-01-01

    The Bondi and Bondi-Hoyle-Lytlleton formulas give the order of magnitude steady-accretion rate onto a point mass at rest or moving, respectively, in a uniform density gas in the limit of negligible gas self-gravity. This applies in star-forming clouds where self-gravity is negligible near protostars and new-born stars, but instead of being uniform the gas is supersonically turbulent and threaded by dynamically important (Alven Mach number ˜ 1) large-scale magnetic fields. To determine the Bondi-like accretion rate in these environments, we used the ORION2 code to carry out grid-based 3D adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of accretion onto sink particles embedded in an environment of fully developed, magnetized supersonic isothermal turbulence. We evolved the models until the median and mean accretion rates, over particles, became steady. We present a simple semi-analytic model that predicts the median and mean accretion rate from the turbulent properties of the background medium, such as the 3D Mach number and RMS plasma-β, and show that it is highly consistent with our simulations. Numerical codes can use our semi-analytic model as an accurate sub-grid model for accretion in magnetized supersonic isothermal turbulence.

  20. Dynamic Forces in Spur Gears - Measurement, Prediction, and Code Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oswald, Fred B.; Townsend, Dennis P.; Rebbechi, Brian; Lin, Hsiang Hsi

    1996-01-01

    Measured and computed values for dynamic loads in spur gears were compared to validate a new version of the NASA gear dynamics code DANST-PC. Strain gage data from six gear sets with different tooth profiles were processed to determine the dynamic forces acting between the gear teeth. Results demonstrate that the analysis code successfully simulates the dynamic behavior of the gears. Differences between analysis and experiment were less than 10 percent under most conditions.

  1. Development of a shock noise prediction code for high-speed helicopters - The subsonically moving shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tadghighi, H.; Holz, R.; Farassat, F.; Lee, Yung-Jang

    1991-01-01

    A previously defined airfoil subsonic shock-noise prediction formula whose result depends on a mapping of the time-dependent shock surface to a time-independent computational domain is presently coded and incorporated in the NASA-Langley rotor-noise prediction code, WOPWOP. The structure and algorithms used in the shock-noise prediction code are presented; special care has been taken to reduce computation time while maintaining accuracy. Numerical examples of shock-noise prediction are presented for hover and forward flight. It is confirmed that shock noise is an important component of the quadrupole source.

  2. Development of code evaluation criteria for assessing predictive capability and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Shyi-Jang; Barson, S. L.; Sindir, M. M.; Prueger, G. H.

    1993-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), because of its unique ability to predict complex three-dimensional flows, is being applied with increasing frequency in the aerospace industry. Currently, no consistent code validation procedure is applied within the industry. Such a procedure is needed to increase confidence in CFD and reduce risk in the use of these codes as a design and analysis tool. This final contract report defines classifications for three levels of code validation, directly relating the use of CFD codes to the engineering design cycle. Evaluation criteria by which codes are measured and classified are recommended and discussed. Criteria for selecting experimental data against which CFD results can be compared are outlined. A four phase CFD code validation procedure is described in detail. Finally, the code validation procedure is demonstrated through application of the REACT CFD code to a series of cases culminating in a code to data comparison on the Space Shuttle Main Engine High Pressure Fuel Turbopump Impeller.

  3. Bondi-Hoyle accretion in an isothermal magnetized plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Aaron T.; McKee, Christopher F.; Klein, Richard I.; Cunningham, Andrew J.

    2014-03-01

    In regions of star formation, protostars and newborn stars will accrete mass from their natal clouds. These clouds are threaded by magnetic fields with a strength characterized by the plasma β—the ratio of thermal and magnetic pressures. Observations show that molecular clouds have β ≲ 1, so magnetic fields have the potential to play a significant role in the accretion process. We have carried out a numerical study of the effect of large-scale magnetic fields on the rate of accretion onto a uniformly moving point particle from a uniform, non-self-gravitating, isothermal gas. We consider gas moving with sonic Mach numbers of up to M≈45; magnetic fields that are either parallel, perpendicular, or oriented 45° to the flow; and β as low as 0.01. Our simulations utilize adaptive mesh refinement in order to obtain high spatial resolution where it is needed; this also allows the boundaries to be far from the accreting object to avoid unphysical effects arising from boundary conditions. Additionally, we show that our results are independent of our exact prescription for accreting mass in the sink particle. We give simple expressions for the steady-state accretion rate as a function of β and M for the parallel and perpendicular orientations. Using typical molecular cloud values of M∼5 and β ∼ 0.04 from the literature, our fits suggest that a 0.4 M {sub ☉} star accretes ∼4 × 10{sup –9} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, almost a factor of two less than accretion rates predicted by hydrodynamic models. This disparity can grow to orders of magnitude for stronger fields and lower Mach numbers. We also discuss the applicability of these accretion rates versus accretion rates expected from gravitational collapse, and under what conditions a steady state is possible. The reduction in the accretion rate in a magnetized medium leads to an increase in the time required to form stars in competitive accretion models, making such models less efficient than predicted by

  4. Assessment of 3D Codes for Predicting Liner Attenuation in Flow Ducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, W. R.; Nark, D. M.; Jones, M. G.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents comparisons of seven propagation codes for predicting liner attenuation in ducts with flow. The selected codes span the spectrum of methods available (finite element, parabolic approximation, and pseudo-time domain) and are collectively representative of the state-of-art in the liner industry. These codes are included because they have two-dimensional and three-dimensional versions and can be exported to NASA's Columbia Supercomputer. The basic assumptions, governing differential equations, boundary conditions, and numerical methods underlying each code are briefly reviewed and an assessment is performed based on two predefined metrics. The two metrics used in the assessment are the accuracy of the predicted attenuation and the amount of wall clock time to predict the attenuation. The assessment is performed over a range of frequencies, mean flow rates, and grazing flow liner impedances commonly used in the liner industry. The primary conclusions of the study are (1) predicted attenuations are in good agreement for rigid wall ducts, (2) the majority of codes compare well to each other and to approximate results from mode theory for soft wall ducts, (3) most codes compare well to measured data on a statistical basis, (4) only the finite element codes with cubic Hermite polynomials capture extremely large attenuations, and (5) wall clock time increases by an order of magnitude or more are observed for a three-dimensional code relative to the corresponding two-dimensional version of the same code.

  5. Computer code for the prediction of nozzle admittance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Thong V.

    1988-01-01

    A procedure which can accurately characterize injector designs for large thrust (0.5 to 1.5 million pounds), high pressure (500 to 3000 psia) LOX/hydrocarbon engines is currently under development. In this procedure, a rectangular cross-sectional combustion chamber is to be used to simulate the lower traverse frequency modes of the large scale chamber. The chamber will be sized so that the first width mode of the rectangular chamber corresponds to the first tangential mode of the full-scale chamber. Test data to be obtained from the rectangular chamber will be used to assess the full scale engine stability. This requires the development of combustion stability models for rectangular chambers. As part of the combustion stability model development, a computer code, NOAD based on existing theory was developed to calculate the nozzle admittances for both rectangular and axisymmetric nozzles. This code is detailed.

  6. Curved Duct Noise Prediction Using the Fast Scattering Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, M. H.; Tinetti, Ana F.; Farassat, F.

    2007-01-01

    Results of a study to validate the Fast Scattering Code (FSC) as a duct noise predictor, including the effects of curvature, finite impedance on the walls, and uniform background flow, are presented in this paper. Infinite duct theory was used to generate the modal content of the sound propagating within the duct. Liner effects were incorporated via a sound absorbing boundary condition on the scattering surfaces. Simulations for a rectangular duct of constant cross-sectional area have been compared to analytical solutions and experimental data. Comparisons with analytical results indicate that the code can properly calculate a given dominant mode for hardwall surfaces. Simulated acoustic behavior in the presence of lined walls (using hardwall duct modes as incident sound) is consistent with expected trends. Duct curvature was found to enhance weaker modes and reduce pressure amplitude. Agreement between simulated and experimental results for a straight duct with hard walls (no flow) was excellent.

  7. A predictive transport modeling code for ICRF-heated tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, C.K.; Hwang, D.Q. . Plasma Physics Lab.); Houlberg, W.; Attenberger, S.; Tolliver, J.; Hively, L. )

    1992-02-01

    In this report, a detailed description of the physic included in the WHIST/RAZE package as well as a few illustrative examples of the capabilities of the package will be presented. An in depth analysis of ICRF heating experiments using WHIST/RAZE will be discussed in a forthcoming report. A general overview of philosophy behind the structure of the WHIST/RAZE package, a summary of the features of the WHIST code, and a description of the interface to the RAZE subroutines are presented in section 2 of this report. Details of the physics contained in the RAZE code are examined in section 3. Sample results from the package follow in section 4, with concluding remarks and a discussion of possible improvements to the package discussed in section 5.

  8. Operation of the helicopter antenna radiation prediction code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braeden, E. W.; Klevenow, F. T.; Newman, E. H.; Rojas, R. G.; Sampath, K. S.; Scheik, J. T.; Shamansky, H. T.

    1993-01-01

    HARP is a front end as well as a back end for the AMC and NEWAIR computer codes. These codes use the Method of Moments (MM) and the Uniform Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (UTD), respectively, to calculate the electromagnetic radiation patterns for antennas on aircraft. The major difficulty in using these codes is in the creation of proper input files for particular aircraft and in verifying that these files are, in fact, what is intended. HARP creates these input files in a consistent manner and allows the user to verify them for correctness using sophisticated 2 and 3D graphics. After antenna field patterns are calculated using either MM or UTD, HARP can display the results on the user's screen or provide hardcopy output. Because the process of collecting data, building the 3D models, and obtaining the calculated field patterns was completely automated by HARP, the researcher's productivity can be many times what it could be if these operations had to be done by hand. A complete, step by step, guide is provided so that the researcher can quickly learn to make use of all the capabilities of HARP.

  9. Predictive codes of familiarity and context during the perceptual learning of facial identities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apps, Matthew A. J.; Tsakiris, Manos

    2013-11-01

    Face recognition is a key component of successful social behaviour. However, the computational processes that underpin perceptual learning and recognition as faces transition from unfamiliar to familiar are poorly understood. In predictive coding, learning occurs through prediction errors that update stimulus familiarity, but recognition is a function of both stimulus and contextual familiarity. Here we show that behavioural responses on a two-option face recognition task can be predicted by the level of contextual and facial familiarity in a computational model derived from predictive-coding principles. Using fMRI, we show that activity in the superior temporal sulcus varies with the contextual familiarity in the model, whereas activity in the fusiform face area covaries with the prediction error parameter that updated facial familiarity. Our results characterize the key computations underpinning the perceptual learning of faces, highlighting that the functional properties of face-processing areas conform to the principles of predictive coding.

  10. ICAN: A versatile code for predicting composite properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ginty, C. A.; Chamis, C. C.

    1986-01-01

    The Integrated Composites ANalyzer (ICAN), a stand-alone computer code, incorporates micromechanics equations and laminate theory to analyze/design multilayered fiber composite structures. Procedures for both the implementation of new data in ICAN and the selection of appropriate measured data are summarized for: (1) composite systems subject to severe thermal environments; (2) woven fabric/cloth composites; and (3) the selection of new composite systems including those made from high strain-to-fracture fibers. The comparisons demonstrate the versatility of ICAN as a reliable method for determining composite properties suitable for preliminary design.

  11. Monte Carlo Predictions of Prompt Fission Neutrons and Photons: a Code Comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talou, P.; Kawano, T.; Stetcu, I.; Vogt, R.; Randrup, J.

    2014-04-01

    This paper reports on initial comparisons between the LANL CGMF and LBNL/LLNL FREYA codes, which both aim at computing prompt fission neutrons and gammas. While the methodologies used in both codes are somewhat similar, the detailed implementations and physical assumptions are different. We are investigating how some of these differences impact predictions.

  12. Signature Product Code for Predicting Protein-Protein Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Shawn B.; Brown, William M.

    2004-09-25

    The SigProdV1.0 software consists of four programs which together allow the prediction of protein-protein interactions using only amino acid sequences and experimental data. The software is based on the use of tensor products of amino acid trimers coupled with classifiers known as support vector machines. Essentially the program looks for amino acid trimer pairs which occur more frequently in protein pairs which are known to interact. These trimer pairs are then used to make predictions about unknown protein pairs. A detailed description of the method can be found in the paper: S. Martin, D. Roe, J.L. Faulon. "Predicting protein-protein interactions using signature products," Bioinformatics, available online from Advance Access, Aug. 19, 2004.

  13. Fire aerosol experiment and comparisons with computer code predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, W. S.; Nichols, B. D.; White, B. W.; Smith, P. R.; Leslie, I. H.; Corkran, J. R.

    1988-08-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory, in cooperation with New Mexico State University, has carried on a series of tests to provide experimental data on fire-generated aerosol transport. These data will be used to verify the aerosol transport capabilities of the FIRAC computer code. FIRAC was developed by Los Alamos for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. It is intended to be used by safety analysts to evaluate the effects of hypothetical fires on nuclear plants. One of the most significant aspects of this analysis deals with smoke and radioactive material movement throughout the plant. The tests have been carried out using an industrial furnace that can generate gas temperatures to 300 C. To date, we have used quartz aerosol with a median diameter of about 10 microns as the fire aerosol simulant. We also plan to use fire-generated aerosols of polystyrene and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). The test variables include two nominal gas flow rates (150 and 300 cu ft/min) and three nominal gas temperatures (ambient, 150 C, and 300 C). The test results are presented in the form of plots of aerosol deposition vs length of duct. In addition, the mass of aerosol caught in a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter during the tests is reported. The tests are simulated with the FIRAC code, and the results are compared with the experimental data.

  14. Precise minds in uncertain worlds: predictive coding in autism.

    PubMed

    Van de Cruys, Sander; Evers, Kris; Van der Hallen, Ruth; Van Eylen, Lien; Boets, Bart; de-Wit, Lee; Wagemans, Johan

    2014-10-01

    There have been numerous attempts to explain the enigma of autism, but existing neurocognitive theories often provide merely a refined description of 1 cluster of symptoms. Here we argue that deficits in executive functioning, theory of mind, and central coherence can all be understood as the consequence of a core deficit in the flexibility with which people with autism spectrum disorder can process violations to their expectations. More formally we argue that the human mind processes information by making and testing predictions and that the errors resulting from violations to these predictions are given a uniform, inflexibly high weight in autism spectrum disorder. The complex, fluctuating nature of regularities in the world and the stochastic and noisy biological system through which people experience it require that, in the real world, people not only learn from their errors but also need to (meta-)learn to sometimes ignore errors. Especially when situations (e.g., social) or stimuli (e.g., faces) become too complex or dynamic, people need to tolerate a certain degree of error in order to develop a more abstract level of representation. Starting from an inability to flexibly process prediction errors, a number of seemingly core deficits become logically secondary symptoms. Moreover, an insistence on sameness or the acting out of stereotyped and repetitive behaviors can be understood as attempts to provide a reassuring sense of predictive success in a world otherwise filled with error. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25347312

  15. Signature Product Code for Predicting Protein-Protein Interactions

    2004-09-25

    The SigProdV1.0 software consists of four programs which together allow the prediction of protein-protein interactions using only amino acid sequences and experimental data. The software is based on the use of tensor products of amino acid trimers coupled with classifiers known as support vector machines. Essentially the program looks for amino acid trimer pairs which occur more frequently in protein pairs which are known to interact. These trimer pairs are then used to make predictionsmore » about unknown protein pairs. A detailed description of the method can be found in the paper: S. Martin, D. Roe, J.L. Faulon. "Predicting protein-protein interactions using signature products," Bioinformatics, available online from Advance Access, Aug. 19, 2004.« less

  16. The Use of Data-Containing Codes for Prediction of Yields of Radioactive Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chechenin, N. G.; Chuvilskaya, T. V.; Kadmenskii, A. G.; Shirokova, A. A.

    2015-11-01

    The capability of modern nuclear reaction codes to predict the yields of exotic nuclei in various reactions is discussed. Advanced data-containing codes EMPIRE and TALYS are considered. The yields of radioactive isotopes in high-energy p + 27Al and p + 183W collisions are calculated to illustrate the properties of the codes, their common elements and particular features. The calculations confirm a potentiality of the codes for estimation of yields of various isotopes in reactions induced by high-energy protons.

  17. Swept wing ice accretion modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potapczuk, Mark G.; Bidwell, Colin S.

    1990-01-01

    An effort to develop a three-dimensional modeling method was initiated. This first step towards creation of a complete aircraft icing simulation code builds on previously developed methods for calculating three-dimensional flow fields and particle trajectories combined with a two-dimensional ice accretion calculation along coordinate locations corresponding to streamlines. This work is a demonstration of the types of calculations necessary to predict a three-dimensional ice accretion. Results of calculations using the 3-D method for a MS-317 swept wing geometry are projected onto a 2-D plane normal to the wing leading edge and compared to 2-D results for the same geometry. It is anticipated that many modifications will be made to this approach, however, this effort will lay the groundwork for future modeling efforts. Results indicate that the flow field over the surface and the particle trajectories differed for the two calculations. This led to lower collection efficiencies, convective heat transfer coefficients, freezing fractions, and ultimately ice accumulation for the 3-D calculation.

  18. PARC Navier-Stokes code upgrade and validation for high speed aeroheating predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liver, Peter A.; Praharaj, Sarat C.; Seaford, C. Mark

    1990-01-01

    Applications of the PARC full Navier-Stokes code for hypersonic flowfield and aeroheating predictions around blunt bodies such as the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) and Aeroassisted Orbital Transfer Vehicle (AOTV) are evaluated. Two-dimensional/axisymmetric and three-dimensional perfect gas versions of the code were upgraded and tested against benchmark wind tunnel cases of hemisphere-cylinder, three-dimensional AFE forebody, and axisymmetric AFE and AOTV aerobrake/wake flowfields. PARC calculations are in good agreement with experimental data and results of similar computer codes. Difficulties encountered in flowfield and heat transfer predictions due to effects of grid density, boundary conditions such as singular stagnation line axis and artificial dissipation terms are presented together with subsequent improvements made to the code. The experience gained with the perfect gas code is being currently utilized in applications of an equilibrium air real gas PARC version developed at REMTECH.

  19. High Speed Research Noise Prediction Code (HSRNOISE) User's and Theoretical Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, Robert (Technical Monitor); Rawls, John W., Jr.; Yeager, Jessie C.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes a computer program, HSRNOISE, that predicts noise levels for a supersonic aircraft powered by mixed flow turbofan engines with rectangular mixer-ejector nozzles. It fully documents the noise prediction algorithms, provides instructions for executing the HSRNOISE code, and provides predicted noise levels for the High Speed Research (HSR) program Technology Concept (TC) aircraft. The component source noise prediction algorithms were developed jointly by Boeing, General Electric Aircraft Engines (GEAE), NASA and Pratt & Whitney during the course of the NASA HSR program. Modern Technologies Corporation developed an alternative mixer ejector jet noise prediction method under contract to GEAE that has also been incorporated into the HSRNOISE prediction code. Algorithms for determining propagation effects and calculating noise metrics were taken from the NASA Aircraft Noise Prediction Program.

  20. Properties of accretion disk coronae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilms, J.; Dove, J.; Staubert, R.; Begelman, M. C.

    1997-01-01

    The properties of accretion disk corona in a parameter regime suitable for Galactic black hole candidates are considered and the results of an analysis of these properties using a self-consistent Monte Carlo code are presented. Examples of the coronal temperature structure, the shape and angular dependency of the spectrum and the maximum temperature allowed for each optical depth of the corona are presented. It is shown that the observed spectrum of the Galactic black hole candidate Cygnus X-1 cannot be explained by accreting disk corona models with a slab geometry, where the accretion disk is sandwiched by the comptonizing medium.

  1. Ducted-Fan Engine Acoustic Predictions using a Navier-Stokes Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumsey, C. L.; Biedron, R. T.; Farassat, F.; Spence, P. L.

    1998-01-01

    A Navier-Stokes computer code is used to predict one of the ducted-fan engine acoustic modes that results from rotor-wake/stator-blade interaction. A patched sliding-zone interface is employed to pass information between the moving rotor row and the stationary stator row. The code produces averaged aerodynamic results downstream of the rotor that agree well with a widely used average-passage code. The acoustic mode of interest is generated successfully by the code and is propagated well upstream of the rotor; temporal and spatial numerical resolution are fine enough such that attenuation of the signal is small. Two acoustic codes are used to find the far-field noise. Near-field propagation is computed by using Eversman's wave envelope code, which is based on a finite-element model. Propagation to the far field is accomplished by using the Kirchhoff formula for moving surfaces with the results of the wave envelope code as input data. Comparison of measured and computed far-field noise levels show fair agreement in the range of directivity angles where the peak radiation lobes from the inlet are observed. Although only a single acoustic mode is targeted in this study, the main conclusion is a proof-of-concept: Navier-Stokes codes can be used both to generate and propagate rotor/stator acoustic modes forward through an engine, where the results can be coupled to other far-field noise prediction codes.

  2. OrfPredictor: predicting protein-coding regions in EST-derived sequences.

    PubMed

    Min, Xiang Jia; Butler, Gregory; Storms, Reginald; Tsang, Adrian

    2005-07-01

    OrfPredictor is a web server designed for identifying protein-coding regions in expressed sequence tag (EST)-derived sequences. For query sequences with a hit in BLASTX, the program predicts the coding regions based on the translation reading frames identified in BLASTX alignments, otherwise, it predicts the most probable coding region based on the intrinsic signals of the query sequences. The output is the predicted peptide sequences in the FASTA format, and a definition line that includes the query ID, the translation reading frame and the nucleotide positions where the coding region begins and ends. OrfPredictor facilitates the annotation of EST-derived sequences, particularly, for large-scale EST projects. OrfPredictor is available at https://fungalgenome.concordia.ca/tools/OrfPredictor.html. PMID:15980561

  3. Hierarchical Novelty-Familiarity Representation in the Visual System by Modular Predictive Coding

    PubMed Central

    Vladimirskiy, Boris; Urbanczik, Robert; Senn, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Predictive coding has been previously introduced as a hierarchical coding framework for the visual system. At each level, activity predicted by the higher level is dynamically subtracted from the input, while the difference in activity continuously propagates further. Here we introduce modular predictive coding as a feedforward hierarchy of prediction modules without back-projections from higher to lower levels. Within each level, recurrent dynamics optimally segregates the input into novelty and familiarity components. Although the anatomical feedforward connectivity passes through the novelty-representing neurons, it is nevertheless the familiarity information which is propagated to higher levels. This modularity results in a twofold advantage compared to the original predictive coding scheme: the familiarity-novelty representation forms quickly, and at each level the full representational power is exploited for an optimized readout. As we show, natural images are successfully compressed and can be reconstructed by the familiarity neurons at each level. Missing information on different spatial scales is identified by novelty neurons and complements the familiarity representation. Furthermore, by virtue of the recurrent connectivity within each level, non-classical receptive field properties still emerge. Hence, modular predictive coding is a biologically realistic metaphor for the visual system that dynamically extracts novelty at various scales while propagating the familiarity information. PMID:26670700

  4. Maneuvering Rotorcraft Noise Prediction: A New Code for a New Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brentner, Kenneth S.; Bres, Guillaume A.; Perez, Guillaume; Jones, Henry E.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the unique aspects of the development of an entirely new maneuver noise prediction code called PSU-WOPWOP. The main focus of the code is the aeroacoustic aspects of the maneuver noise problem, when the aeromechanical input data are provided (namely aircraft and blade motion, blade airloads). The PSU-WOPWOP noise prediction capability was developed for rotors in steady and transient maneuvering flight. Featuring an object-oriented design, the code allows great flexibility for complex rotor configuration and motion (including multiple rotors and full aircraft motion). The relative locations and number of hinges, flexures, and body motions can be arbitrarily specified to match the any specific rotorcraft. An analysis of algorithm efficiency is performed for maneuver noise prediction along with a description of the tradeoffs made specifically for the maneuvering noise problem. Noise predictions for the main rotor of a rotorcraft in steady descent, transient (arrested) descent, hover and a mild "pop-up" maneuver are demonstrated.

  5. Adaptive Prediction Error Coding in the Human Midbrain and Striatum Facilitates Behavioral Adaptation and Learning Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Diederen, Kelly M J; Spencer, Tom; Vestergaard, Martin D; Fletcher, Paul C; Schultz, Wolfram

    2016-06-01

    Effective error-driven learning benefits from scaling of prediction errors to reward variability. Such behavioral adaptation may be facilitated by neurons coding prediction errors relative to the standard deviation (SD) of reward distributions. To investigate this hypothesis, we required participants to predict the magnitude of upcoming reward drawn from distributions with different SDs. After each prediction, participants received a reward, yielding trial-by-trial prediction errors. In line with the notion of adaptive coding, BOLD response slopes in the Substantia Nigra/Ventral Tegmental Area (SN/VTA) and ventral striatum were steeper for prediction errors occurring in distributions with smaller SDs. SN/VTA adaptation was not instantaneous but developed across trials. Adaptive prediction error coding was paralleled by behavioral adaptation, as reflected by SD-dependent changes in learning rate. Crucially, increased SN/VTA and ventral striatal adaptation was related to improved task performance. These results suggest that adaptive coding facilitates behavioral adaptation and supports efficient learning. PMID:27181060

  6. A Predictive Approach to Eliminating Errors in Software Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    NASA s Metrics Data Program Data Repository is a database that stores problem, product, and metrics data. The primary goal of this data repository is to provide project data to the software community. In doing so, the Metrics Data Program collects artifacts from a large NASA dataset, generates metrics on the artifacts, and then generates reports that are made available to the public at no cost. The data that are made available to general users have been sanitized and authorized for publication through the Metrics Data Program Web site by officials representing the projects from which the data originated. The data repository is operated by NASA s Independent Verification and Validation (IV&V) Facility, which is located in Fairmont, West Virginia, a high-tech hub for emerging innovation in the Mountain State. The IV&V Facility was founded in 1993, under the NASA Office of Safety and Mission Assurance, as a direct result of recommendations made by the National Research Council and the Report of the Presidential Commission on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident. Today, under the direction of Goddard Space Flight Center, the IV&V Facility continues its mission to provide the highest achievable levels of safety and cost-effectiveness for mission-critical software. By extending its data to public users, the facility has helped improve the safety, reliability, and quality of complex software systems throughout private industry and other government agencies. Integrated Software Metrics, Inc., is one of the organizations that has benefited from studying the metrics data. As a result, the company has evolved into a leading developer of innovative software-error prediction tools that help organizations deliver better software, on time and on budget.

  7. Adaptive inter color residual prediction for efficient red-green-blue intra coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Jinwoo; Choe, Yoonsik; Kim, Yong-Goo

    2011-07-01

    Intra coding of an RGB video is important to many high fidelity multimedia applications because video acquisition is mostly done in RGB space, and the coding of decorrelated color video loses its virtue in high quality ranges. In order to improve the compression performance of an RGB video, this paper proposes an inter color prediction using adaptive weights. For making full use of spatial, as well as inter color correlation of an RGB video, the proposed scheme is based on a residual prediction approach, and thus the incorporated prediction is performed on the transformed frequency components of spatially predicted residual data of each color plane. With the aid of efficient prediction employing frequency domain inter color residual correlation, the proposed scheme achieves up to 24.3% of bitrate reduction, compared to the common mode of H.264/AVC high 4:4:4 intra profile.

  8. Beta- and gamma-band activity reflect predictive coding in the processing of causal events.

    PubMed

    van Pelt, Stan; Heil, Lieke; Kwisthout, Johan; Ondobaka, Sasha; van Rooij, Iris; Bekkering, Harold

    2016-06-01

    In daily life, complex events are perceived in a causal manner, suggesting that the brain relies on predictive processes to model them. Within predictive coding theory, oscillatory beta-band activity has been linked to top-down predictive signals and gamma-band activity to bottom-up prediction errors. However, neurocognitive evidence for predictive coding outside lower-level sensory areas is scarce. We used magnetoencephalography to investigate neural activity during probability-dependent action perception in three areas pivotal for causal inference, superior temporal sulcus, temporoparietal junction and medial prefrontal cortex, using bowling action animations. Within this network, Granger-causal connectivity in the beta-band was found to be strongest for backward top-down connections and gamma for feed-forward bottom-up connections. Moreover, beta-band power in TPJ increased parametrically with the predictability of the action kinematics-outcome sequences. Conversely, gamma-band power in TPJ and MPFC increased with prediction error. These findings suggest that the brain utilizes predictive-coding-like computations for higher-order cognition such as perception of causal events. PMID:26873806

  9. Application of TURBO-AE to Flutter Prediction: Aeroelastic Code Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyniak, Daniel; Simons, Todd A.; Stefko, George (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The TURBO-AE program has been evaluated by comparing the obtained results to cascade rig data and to prediction made from various in-house programs. A high-speed fan cascade, a turbine cascade, a turbine cascade and a fan geometry that shower flutter in torsion mode were analyzed. The steady predictions for the high-speed fan cascade showed the TURBO-AE predictions to match in-house codes. However, the predictions did not match the measured blade surface data. Other researchers also reported similar disagreement with these data set. Unsteady runs for the fan configuration were not successful using TURBO-AE .

  10. The Cortical Organization of Speech Processing: Feedback Control and Predictive Coding the Context of a Dual-Stream Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickok, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    Speech recognition is an active process that involves some form of predictive coding. This statement is relatively uncontroversial. What is less clear is the source of the prediction. The dual-stream model of speech processing suggests that there are two possible sources of predictive coding in speech perception: the motor speech system and the…

  11. Object-adaptive depth compensated inter prediction for depth video coding in 3D video system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Min-Koo; Lee, Jaejoon; Lim, Ilsoon; Ho, Yo-Sung

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, the 3D video system using the MVD (multi-view video plus depth) data format is being actively studied. The system has many advantages with respect to virtual view synthesis such as an auto-stereoscopic functionality, but compression of huge input data remains a problem. Therefore, efficient 3D data compression is extremely important in the system, and problems of low temporal consistency and viewpoint correlation should be resolved for efficient depth video coding. In this paper, we propose an object-adaptive depth compensated inter prediction method to resolve the problems where object-adaptive mean-depth difference between a current block, to be coded, and a reference block are compensated during inter prediction. In addition, unique properties of depth video are exploited to reduce side information required for signaling decoder to conduct the same process. To evaluate the coding performance, we have implemented the proposed method into MVC (multiview video coding) reference software, JMVC 8.2. Experimental results have demonstrated that our proposed method is especially efficient for depth videos estimated by DERS (depth estimation reference software) discussed in the MPEG 3DV coding group. The coding gain was up to 11.69% bit-saving, and it was even increased when we evaluated it on synthesized views of virtual viewpoints.

  12. Virtual Simulator: An infrastructure for design and performance-prediction of massively parallel codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perumalla, K.; Fujimoto, R.; Pande, S.; Karimabadi, H.; Driscoll, J.; Omelchenko, Y.

    2005-12-01

    Large parallel/distributed scientific simulations are very complex, and their dynamic behavior is hard to predict. Efficient development of massively parallel codes remains a computational challenge. For example, almost none of the kinetic codes in use in space physics today have dynamic load balancing capability. Here we present a new infrastructure for design and prediction of parallel codes. Performance prediction is useful to analyze, understand and experiment with different partitioning schemes, multiple modeling alternatives and so on, without having to run the application on supercomputers. Instrumentation of the model (with least perturbance to performance) is useful to glean key metrics and understand application-level behavior. Unfortunately, traditional approaches to virtual execution and instrumentation are limited by either slow execution speed or low resolution or both. We present a new framework that provides a high-resolution framework that provides a virtual CPU abstraction (with a full thread context per CPU), yet scales to thousands of virtual CPUs. The tool, called PDES2, presents different levels of modeling interfaces, from general purpose parallel simulations to parallel grid-based particle-in-cell (PIC) codes. The tool itself runs on multiple processors in order to accommodate the high-resolution by distributing the virtual execution across processors. Validation experiments of PIC models in the framework using a 1-D hybrid shock application show close agreement of results from virtual executions with results from actual supercomputer runs. The utility of this tool is further illustrated through an application to a parallel global hybrid code.

  13. A predictive coding framework for rapid neural dynamics during sentence-level language comprehension.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Ashley G; Bastiaansen, Marcel

    2015-07-01

    There is a growing literature investigating the relationship between oscillatory neural dynamics measured using electroencephalography (EEG) and/or magnetoencephalography (MEG), and sentence-level language comprehension. Recent proposals have suggested a strong link between predictive coding accounts of the hierarchical flow of information in the brain, and oscillatory neural dynamics in the beta and gamma frequency ranges. We propose that findings relating beta and gamma oscillations to sentence-level language comprehension might be unified under such a predictive coding account. Our suggestion is that oscillatory activity in the beta frequency range may reflect both the active maintenance of the current network configuration responsible for representing the sentence-level meaning under construction, and the top-down propagation of predictions to hierarchically lower processing levels based on that representation. In addition, we suggest that oscillatory activity in the low and middle gamma range reflect the matching of top-down predictions with bottom-up linguistic input, while evoked high gamma might reflect the propagation of bottom-up prediction errors to higher levels of the processing hierarchy. We also discuss some of the implications of this predictive coding framework, and we outline ideas for how these might be tested experimentally. PMID:25840879

  14. TRAP/SEE Code Users Manual for Predicting Trapped Radiation Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, T. W.; Colborn, B. L.

    2000-01-01

    TRAP/SEE is a PC-based computer code with a user-friendly interface which predicts the ionizing radiation exposure of spacecraft having orbits in the Earth's trapped radiation belts. The code incorporates the standard AP8 and AE8 trapped proton and electron models but also allows application of an improved database interpolation method. The code treats low-Earth as well as highly-elliptical Earth orbits, taking into account trajectory perturbations due to gravitational forces from the Moon and Sun, atmospheric drag, and solar radiation pressure. Orbit-average spectra, peak spectra per orbit, and instantaneous spectra at points along the orbit trajectory are calculated. Described in this report are the features, models, model limitations and uncertainties, input and output descriptions, and example calculations and applications for the TRAP/SEE code.

  15. User's manual for the ALS base heating prediction code, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reardon, John E.; Fulton, Michael S.

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Launch System (ALS) Base Heating Prediction Code is based on a generalization of first principles in the prediction of plume induced base convective heating and plume radiation. It should be considered to be an approximate method for evaluating trends as a function of configuration variables because the processes being modeled are too complex to allow an accurate generalization. The convective methodology is based upon generalizing trends from four nozzle configurations, so an extension to use the code with strap-on boosters, multiple nozzle sizes, and variations in the propellants and chamber pressure histories cannot be precisely treated. The plume radiation is more amenable to precise computer prediction, but simplified assumptions are required to model the various aspects of the candidate configurations. Perhaps the most difficult area to characterize is the variation of radiation with altitude. The theory in the radiation predictions is described in more detail. This report is intended to familiarize a user with the interface operation and options, to summarize the limitations and restrictions of the code, and to provide information to assist in installing the code.

  16. A 3-D Vortex Code for Parachute Flow Predictions: VIPAR Version 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    STRICKLAND, JAMES H.; HOMICZ, GREGORY F.; PORTER, VICKI L.; GOSSLER, ALBERT A.

    2002-07-01

    This report describes a 3-D fluid mechanics code for predicting flow past bluff bodies whose surfaces can be assumed to be made up of shell elements that are simply connected. Version 1.0 of the VIPAR code (Vortex Inflation PARachute code) is described herein. This version contains several first order algorithms that we are in the process of replacing with higher order ones. These enhancements will appear in the next version of VIPAR. The present code contains a motion generator that can be used to produce a large class of rigid body motions. The present code has also been fully coupled to a structural dynamics code in which the geometry undergoes large time dependent deformations. Initial surface geometry is generated from triangular shell elements using a code such as Patran and is written into an ExodusII database file for subsequent input into VIPAR. Surface and wake variable information is output into two ExodusII files that can be post processed and viewed using software such as EnSight{trademark}.

  17. A video coding scheme based on joint spatiotemporal and adaptive prediction.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wenfei; Latecki, Longin Jan; Liu, Wenyu; Liang, Hui; Gorman, Ken

    2009-05-01

    We propose a video coding scheme that departs from traditional Motion Estimation/DCT frameworks and instead uses Karhunen-Loeve Transform (KLT)/Joint Spatiotemporal Prediction framework. In particular, a novel approach that performs joint spatial and temporal prediction simultaneously is introduced. It bypasses the complex H.26x interframe techniques and it is less computationally intensive. Because of the advantage of the effective joint prediction and the image-dependent color space transformation (KLT), the proposed approach is demonstrated experimentally to consistently lead to improved video quality, and in many cases to better compression rates and improved computational speed. PMID:19342337

  18. Validation of Framework Code Approach to a Life Prediction System for Fiber Reinforced Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gravett, Phillip

    1997-01-01

    The grant was conducted by the MMC Life Prediction Cooperative, an industry/government collaborative team, Ohio Aerospace Institute (OAI) acted as the prime contractor on behalf of the Cooperative for this grant effort. See Figure I for the organization and responsibilities of team members. The technical effort was conducted during the period August 7, 1995 to June 30, 1996 in cooperation with Erwin Zaretsky, the LERC Program Monitor. Phil Gravett of Pratt & Whitney was the principal technical investigator. Table I documents all meeting-related coordination memos during this period. The effort under this grant was closely coordinated with an existing USAF sponsored program focused on putting into practice a life prediction system for turbine engine components made of metal matrix composites (MMC). The overall architecture of the NMC life prediction system was defined in the USAF sponsored program (prior to this grant). The efforts of this grant were focussed on implementing and tailoring of the life prediction system, the framework code within it and the damage modules within it to meet the specific requirements of the Cooperative. T'he tailoring of the life prediction system provides the basis for pervasive and continued use of this capability by the industry/government cooperative. The outputs of this grant are: 1. Definition of the framework code to analysis modules interfaces, 2. Definition of the interface between the materials database and the finite element model, and 3. Definition of the integration of the framework code into an FEM design tool.

  19. ACCRETION OUTBURSTS IN CIRCUMPLANETARY DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Lubow, S. H.; Martin, R. G.

    2012-04-20

    We describe a model for the long-term evolution of a circumplanetary disk that is fed mass from a circumstellar disk and contains regions of low turbulence (dead zones). We show that such disks can be subject to accretion-driven outbursts, analogous to outbursts previously modeled in the context of circumstellar disks to explain FU Ori phenomena. Circumplanetary disks around a proto-Jupiter can undergo outbursts for infall accretion rates onto the disks in the range M-dot{sub infall} approx. 10{sup -9} to 10{sup -7} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, typical of accretion rates in the T Tauri phase. During outbursts, the accretion rate and disk luminosity increases by several orders of magnitude. Most of the planet mass growth during planetary gas accretion may occur via disk outbursts involving gas that is considerably hotter than predicted by steady state models. For low infall accretion rates M-dot{sub infall} {approx}< 10{sup -10} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} that occur in late stages of disk accretion, disk outbursts are unlikely to occur, even if dead zones are present. Such conditions are favorable for the formation of icy satellites.

  20. Efficient Prediction Structures for H.264 Multi View Coding Using Temporal Scalability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guruvareddiar, Palanivel; Joseph, Biju K.

    2014-03-01

    Prediction structures with "disposable view components based" hierarchical coding have been proven to be efficient for H.264 multi view coding. Though these prediction structures along with the QP cascading schemes provide superior compression efficiency when compared to the traditional IBBP coding scheme, the temporal scalability requirements of the bit stream could not be met to the fullest. On the other hand, a fully scalable bit stream, obtained by "temporal identifier based" hierarchical coding, provides a number of advantages including bit rate adaptations and improved error resilience, but lacks in compression efficiency when compared to the former scheme. In this paper it is proposed to combine the two approaches such that a fully scalable bit stream could be realized with minimal reduction in compression efficiency when compared to state-of-the-art "disposable view components based" hierarchical coding. Simulation results shows that the proposed method enables full temporal scalability with maximum BDPSNR reduction of only 0.34 dB. A novel method also has been proposed for the identification of temporal identifier for the legacy H.264/AVC base layer packets. Simulation results also show that this enables the scenario where the enhancement views could be extracted at a lower frame rate (1/2nd or 1/4th of base view) with average extraction time for a view component of only 0.38 ms.

  1. Predictive Coding: A Possible Explanation of Filling-In at the Blind Spot

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Rajani; Sarkar, Sandip

    2016-01-01

    Filling-in at the blind spot is a perceptual phenomenon in which the visual system fills the informational void, which arises due to the absence of retinal input corresponding to the optic disc, with surrounding visual attributes. It is known that during filling-in, nonlinear neural responses are observed in the early visual area that correlates with the perception, but the knowledge of underlying neural mechanism for filling-in at the blind spot is far from complete. In this work, we attempted to present a fresh perspective on the computational mechanism of filling-in process in the framework of hierarchical predictive coding, which provides a functional explanation for a range of neural responses in the cortex. We simulated a three-level hierarchical network and observe its response while stimulating the network with different bar stimulus across the blind spot. We find that the predictive-estimator neurons that represent blind spot in primary visual cortex exhibit elevated non-linear response when the bar stimulated both sides of the blind spot. Using generative model, we also show that these responses represent the filling-in completion. All these results are consistent with the finding of psychophysical and physiological studies. In this study, we also demonstrate that the tolerance in filling-in qualitatively matches with the experimental findings related to non-aligned bars. We discuss this phenomenon in the predictive coding paradigm and show that all our results could be explained by taking into account the efficient coding of natural images along with feedback and feed-forward connections that allow priors and predictions to co-evolve to arrive at the best prediction. These results suggest that the filling-in process could be a manifestation of the general computational principle of hierarchical predictive coding of natural images. PMID:26959812

  2. How do accretion discs break?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogan, Suzan

    2016-07-01

    Accretion discs are common in binary systems, and they are often found to be misaligned with respect to the binary orbit. The gravitational torque from a companion induces nodal precession in misaligned disc orbits. In this study, we first calculate whether this precession is strong enough to overcome the internal disc torques communicating angular momentum. We compare the disc precession torque with the disc viscous torque to determine whether the disc should warp or break. For typical parameters precession wins: the disc breaks into distinct planes that precess effectively independently. To check our analytical findings, we perform 3D hydrodynamical numerical simulations using the PHANTOM smoothed particle hydrodynamics code, and confirm that disc breaking is widespread and enhances accretion on to the central object. For some inclinations, the disc goes through strong Kozai cycles. Disc breaking promotes markedly enhanced and variable accretion and potentially produces high-energy particles or radiation through shocks. This would have significant implications for all binary systems: e.g. accretion outbursts in X-ray binaries and fuelling supermassive black hole (SMBH) binaries. The behaviour we have discussed in this work is relevant to a variety of astrophysical systems, for example X-ray binaries, where the disc plane may be tilted by radiation warping, SMBH binaries, where accretion of misaligned gas can create effectively random inclinations and protostellar binaries, where a disc may be misaligned by a variety of effects such as binary capture/exchange, accretion after binary formation.

  3. Prediction of stochastic blade responses using a filtered noise turbulence model in the FLAP (Force and Loads Analysis Program) code

    SciTech Connect

    Thresher, R.W.; Holley, W.E.; Wright, A.D.

    1988-11-01

    Accurately predicting wind turbine blade loads and resulting stresses is important for predicting the fatigue life of components. There is a clear need within the wind industry for validated codes that can predict not only the deterministic loads from the mean wind velocity, wind shear, and gravity, but also the stochastic loads from turbulent inflow. The FLAP code has already been validated for predicting deterministic loads. This paper concentrates on validating the FLAP code for predicting stochastic turbulence loads using the filtered-noise turbulence model as input. 26 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Smoothed reference inter-layer texture prediction for bit depth scalable video coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zhan; Luo, Jiancong; Yin, Peng; Gomila, Cristina; Wang, Yao

    2010-01-01

    We present a smoothed reference inter-layer texture prediction mode for bit depth scalability based on the Scalable Video Coding extension of the H.264/MPEG-4 AVC standard. In our approach, the base layer encodes an 8-bit signal that can be decoded by any existing H.264/MPEG-4 AVC decoder and the enhancement layer encodes a higher bit depth signal (e.g. 10/12-bit) which requires a bit depth scalable decoder. The approach presented uses base layer motion vectors to conduct motion compensation upon enhancement layer reference frames. Then, the motion compensated block is tone mapped and summed with the co-located base layer residue block prior to being inverse tone mapped to obtain a smoothed reference predictor. In addition to the original inter-/intra-layer prediction modes, the smoothed reference prediction mode enables inter-layer texture prediction for blocks with inter-coded co-located block. The proposed method is designed to improve the coding efficiency for sequences with non-linear tone mapping, in which case we have gains up to 0.4dB over the CGS-based BDS framework.

  5. The basal ganglia select the expected sensory input used for predictive coding

    PubMed Central

    Colder, Brian

    2015-01-01

    While considerable evidence supports the notion that lower-level interpretation of incoming sensory information is guided by top-down sensory expectations, less is known about the source of the sensory expectations or the mechanisms by which they are spread. Predictive coding theory proposes that sensory expectations flow down from higher-level association areas to lower-level sensory cortex. A separate theory of the role of prediction in cognition describes “emulations” as linked representations of potential actions and their associated expected sensation that are hypothesized to play an important role in many aspects of cognition. The expected sensations in active emulations are proposed to be the top-down expectation used in predictive coding. Representations of the potential action and expected sensation in emulations are claimed to be instantiated in distributed cortical networks. Combining predictive coding with emulations thus provides a theoretical link between the top-down expectations that guide sensory expectations and the cortical networks representing potential actions. Now moving to theories of action selection, the basal ganglia has long been proposed to select between potential actions by reducing inhibition to the cortical network instantiating the desired action plan. Integration of these isolated theories leads to the novel hypothesis that reduction in inhibition from the basal ganglia selects not just action plans, but entire emulations, including the sensory input expected to result from the action. Basal ganglia disinhibition is hypothesized to both initiate an action and also allow propagation of the action’s associated sensory expectation down towards primary sensory cortex. This is a novel proposal for the role of the basal ganglia in biasing perception by selecting the expected sensation, and initiating the top-down transmission of those expectations in predictive coding. PMID:26441627

  6. Sequence Prediction With Sparse Distributed Hyperdimensional Coding Applied to the Analysis of Mobile Phone Use Patterns.

    PubMed

    Rasanen, Okko J; Saarinen, Jukka P

    2016-09-01

    Modeling and prediction of temporal sequences is central to many signal processing and machine learning applications. Prediction based on sequence history is typically performed using parametric models, such as fixed-order Markov chains ( n -grams), approximations of high-order Markov processes, such as mixed-order Markov models or mixtures of lagged bigram models, or with other machine learning techniques. This paper presents a method for sequence prediction based on sparse hyperdimensional coding of the sequence structure and describes how higher order temporal structures can be utilized in sparse coding in a balanced manner. The method is purely incremental, allowing real-time online learning and prediction with limited computational resources. Experiments with prediction of mobile phone use patterns, including the prediction of the next launched application, the next GPS location of the user, and the next artist played with the phone media player, reveal that the proposed method is able to capture the relevant variable-order structure from the sequences. In comparison with the n -grams and the mixed-order Markov models, the sparse hyperdimensional predictor clearly outperforms its peers in terms of unweighted average recall and achieves an equal level of weighted average recall as the mixed-order Markov chain but without the batch training of the mixed-order model. PMID:26285224

  7. [Prediction of litter moisture content in Tahe Forestry Bureau of Northeast China based on FWI moisture codes].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Heng; Jin, Sen; Di, Xue-Ying

    2014-07-01

    Canadian fire weather index system (FWI) is the most widely used fire weather index system in the world. Its fuel moisture prediction is also a very important research method. In this paper, litter moisture contents of typical forest types in Tahe Forestry Bureau of Northeast China were successively observed and the relationships between FWI codes (fine fuel moisture code FFMC, duff moisture code DMC and drought code DC) and fuel moisture were analyzed. Results showed that the mean absolute error and the mean relative error of models.established using FWI moisture code FFMC was 14.9% and 70.7%, respectively, being lower than those of meteorological elements regression model, which indicated that FWI codes had some advantage in predicting litter moisture contents and could be used to predict fuel moisture contents. But the advantage was limited, and further calibration was still needed, especially in modification of FWI codes after rainfall. PMID:25345057

  8. Star formation sustained by gas accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez Almeida, Jorge; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Muñoz-Tuñón, Casiana; Elmegreen, Debra Meloy

    2014-07-01

    Numerical simulations predict that metal-poor gas accretion from the cosmic web fuels the formation of disk galaxies. This paper discusses how cosmic gas accretion controls star formation, and summarizes the physical properties expected for the cosmic gas accreted by galaxies. The paper also collects observational evidence for gas accretion sustaining star formation. It reviews evidence inferred from neutral and ionized hydrogen, as well as from stars. A number of properties characterizing large samples of star-forming galaxies can be explained by metal-poor gas accretion, in particular, the relationship among stellar mass, metallicity, and star-formation rate (the so-called fundamental metallicity relationship). They are put forward and analyzed. Theory predicts gas accretion to be particularly important at high redshift, so indications based on distant objects are reviewed, including the global star-formation history of the universe, and the gas around galaxies as inferred from absorption features in the spectra of background sources.

  9. Controls on the Geometry of Accretion Reflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolovick, M.; Bell, R. E.; Buck, W. R.; Creyts, T. T.

    2012-12-01

    Basal accretion occurs when meltwater refreezes onto the base of an ice sheet. Thick packages (900-1100m) of accretion ice are identified in radio-echo sounding data as plume-shaped reflectors above the basal reflector and below isochronous layers of meteoric ice. Accretion reflectors have been imaged in both Antarctica and Greenland rising to a height of 1/3-1/2 of the ice sheet thickness and extending in the flow direction as far as 100 km. Here we use a two-dimensional thermomechanical higher order flowline model coupled to a basal hydrology model to investigate the freezing rates and energy budgets of basal accretion processes. Simple order-of-magnitude estimates for the freezing rate based on the observed height of the reflectors and the assumption that all ice under the observed reflector consists of accretion ice indicate very large freezing rates, on the order of 10-100 cm/yr. We test two end-member possibilities for the formation of the basal accretion bodies: high accretion rates and complex basal deformation. The first possibility is that the freezing rates are very large. The second possibility is that the ice under the observed reflector is a mixture of accreted and meteoric ice. If the ice below the accretion reflector is a mixture, the freezing rates can be much smaller than the simple estimates. If the freezing rates are small, then complex basal deformation must be invoked to cause accretion ice to override meteoric ice to a height of 1/3-1/2 the ice thickness. In the basal deformation case, low freezing rates predict a maximum thickness of 100-200m of accretion ice. The remaining ice beneath the reflector will be deformed meteoric ice. Both cases make testable predictions. If the accretion rates are very high and supercooling is the dominant process, accretion cannot use up all of the subglacial water. In this high rate scenario there will be water at the melting point exiting the accretion site. Alternatively if the accretion is part of a complex

  10. Severe accident source term characteristics for selected Peach Bottom sequences predicted by the MELCOR Code

    SciTech Connect

    Carbajo, J.J.

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to compare in-containment source terms developed for NUREG-1159, which used the Source Term Code Package (STCP), with those generated by MELCOR to identify significant differences. For this comparison, two short-term depressurized station blackout sequences (with a dry cavity and with a flooded cavity) and a Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) concurrent with complete loss of the Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) were analyzed for the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (a BWR-4 with a Mark I containment). The results indicate that for the sequences analyzed, the two codes predict similar total in-containment release fractions for each of the element groups. However, the MELCOR/CORBH Package predicts significantly longer times for vessel failure and reduced energy of the released material for the station blackout sequences (when compared to the STCP results). MELCOR also calculated smaller releases into the environment than STCP for the station blackout sequences.

  11. Prediction of material strength and fracture of glass using the SPHINX smooth particle hydrodynamics code

    SciTech Connect

    Mandell, D.A.; Wingate, C.A.

    1994-08-01

    The design of many military devices involves numerical predictions of the material strength and fracture of brittle materials. The materials of interest include ceramics, that are used in armor packages; glass that is used in truck and jeep windshields and in helicopters; and rock and concrete that are used in underground bunkers. As part of a program to develop advanced hydrocode design tools, the authors have implemented a brittle fracture model for glass into the SPHINX smooth particle hydrodynamics code. The authors have evaluated this model and the code by predicting data from one-dimensional flyer plate impacts into glass, and data from tungsten rods impacting glass. Since fractured glass properties, which are needed in the model, are not available, the authors did sensitivity studies of these properties, as well as sensitivity studies to determine the number of particles needed in the calculations. The numerical results are in good agreement with the data.

  12. Prediction of material strength and fracture of brittle materials using the SPHINX smooth particle hydrodynamics code

    SciTech Connect

    Mandell, D.A.; Wingate, C.A.; Stellingwwerf, R.F.

    1995-12-31

    The design of many devices involves numerical predictions of the material strength and fracture of brittle materials. The materials of interest include ceramics that are used in armor packages; glass that is used in windshields; and rock and concrete that are used in oil wells. As part of a program to develop advanced hydrocode design tools, the authors have implemented a brittle fracture model for glass into the SPHINX smooth particle hydrodynamics code. The authors have evaluated this model and the code by predicting data from tungsten rods impacting glass. Since fractured glass properties, which are needed in the model, are not available, they did sensitivity studies of these properties, as well as sensitivity studies to determine the number of particles needed in the calculations. The numerical results are in good agreement with the data.

  13. Dynamic Divisive Normalization Predicts Time-Varying Value Coding in Decision-Related Circuits

    PubMed Central

    LoFaro, Thomas; Webb, Ryan; Glimcher, Paul W.

    2014-01-01

    Normalization is a widespread neural computation, mediating divisive gain control in sensory processing and implementing a context-dependent value code in decision-related frontal and parietal cortices. Although decision-making is a dynamic process with complex temporal characteristics, most models of normalization are time-independent and little is known about the dynamic interaction of normalization and choice. Here, we show that a simple differential equation model of normalization explains the characteristic phasic-sustained pattern of cortical decision activity and predicts specific normalization dynamics: value coding during initial transients, time-varying value modulation, and delayed onset of contextual information. Empirically, we observe these predicted dynamics in saccade-related neurons in monkey lateral intraparietal cortex. Furthermore, such models naturally incorporate a time-weighted average of past activity, implementing an intrinsic reference-dependence in value coding. These results suggest that a single network mechanism can explain both transient and sustained decision activity, emphasizing the importance of a dynamic view of normalization in neural coding. PMID:25429145

  14. Structural Life and Reliability Metrics: Benchmarking and Verification of Probabilistic Life Prediction Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litt, Jonathan S.; Soditus, Sherry; Hendricks, Robert C.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    2002-01-01

    Over the past two decades there has been considerable effort by NASA Glenn and others to develop probabilistic codes to predict with reasonable engineering certainty the life and reliability of critical components in rotating machinery and, more specifically, in the rotating sections of airbreathing and rocket engines. These codes have, to a very limited extent, been verified with relatively small bench rig type specimens under uniaxial loading. Because of the small and very narrow database the acceptance of these codes within the aerospace community has been limited. An alternate approach to generating statistically significant data under complex loading and environments simulating aircraft and rocket engine conditions is to obtain, catalog and statistically analyze actual field data. End users of the engines, such as commercial airlines and the military, record and store operational and maintenance information. This presentation describes a cooperative program between the NASA GRC, United Airlines, USAF Wright Laboratory, U.S. Army Research Laboratory and Australian Aeronautical & Maritime Research Laboratory to obtain and analyze these airline data for selected components such as blades, disks and combustors. These airline data will be used to benchmark and compare existing life prediction codes.

  15. Structural Life and Reliability Metrics: Benchmarking and Verification of Probabilistic Life Prediction Codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litt, Jonathan S.; Soditus, Sherry; Hendricks, Robert C.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    2002-10-01

    Over the past two decades there has been considerable effort by NASA Glenn and others to develop probabilistic codes to predict with reasonable engineering certainty the life and reliability of critical components in rotating machinery and, more specifically, in the rotating sections of airbreathing and rocket engines. These codes have, to a very limited extent, been verified with relatively small bench rig type specimens under uniaxial loading. Because of the small and very narrow database the acceptance of these codes within the aerospace community has been limited. An alternate approach to generating statistically significant data under complex loading and environments simulating aircraft and rocket engine conditions is to obtain, catalog and statistically analyze actual field data. End users of the engines, such as commercial airlines and the military, record and store operational and maintenance information. This presentation describes a cooperative program between the NASA GRC, United Airlines, USAF Wright Laboratory, U.S. Army Research Laboratory and Australian Aeronautical & Maritime Research Laboratory to obtain and analyze these airline data for selected components such as blades, disks and combustors. These airline data will be used to benchmark and compare existing life prediction codes.

  16. Dynamic divisive normalization predicts time-varying value coding in decision-related circuits.

    PubMed

    Louie, Kenway; LoFaro, Thomas; Webb, Ryan; Glimcher, Paul W

    2014-11-26

    Normalization is a widespread neural computation, mediating divisive gain control in sensory processing and implementing a context-dependent value code in decision-related frontal and parietal cortices. Although decision-making is a dynamic process with complex temporal characteristics, most models of normalization are time-independent and little is known about the dynamic interaction of normalization and choice. Here, we show that a simple differential equation model of normalization explains the characteristic phasic-sustained pattern of cortical decision activity and predicts specific normalization dynamics: value coding during initial transients, time-varying value modulation, and delayed onset of contextual information. Empirically, we observe these predicted dynamics in saccade-related neurons in monkey lateral intraparietal cortex. Furthermore, such models naturally incorporate a time-weighted average of past activity, implementing an intrinsic reference-dependence in value coding. These results suggest that a single network mechanism can explain both transient and sustained decision activity, emphasizing the importance of a dynamic view of normalization in neural coding. PMID:25429145

  17. Real-time speech encoding based on Code-Excited Linear Prediction (CELP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leblanc, Wilfrid P.; Mahmoud, S. A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on the work proceeding with regard to the development of a real-time voice codec for the terrestrial and satellite mobile radio environments. The codec is based on a complexity reduced version of code-excited linear prediction (CELP). The codebook search complexity was reduced to only 0.5 million floating point operations per second (MFLOPS) while maintaining excellent speech quality. Novel methods to quantize the residual and the long and short term model filters are presented.

  18. Results from baseline tests of the SPRE I and comparison with code model predictions

    SciTech Connect

    Cairelli, J.E.; Geng, S.M.; Skupinski, R.C.

    1994-09-01

    The Space Power Research Engine (SPRE), a free-piston Stirling engine with linear alternator, is being tested at the NASA Lewis Research Center as part of the Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI) as a candidate for high capacity space power. This paper presents results of base-line engine tests at design and off-design operating conditions. The test results are compared with code model predictions.

  19. Linking pattern completion in the hippocampus to predictive coding in visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Hindy, Nicholas C; Ng, Felicia Y; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B

    2016-05-01

    Models of predictive coding frame perception as a generative process in which expectations constrain sensory representations. These models account for expectations about how a stimulus will move or change from moment to moment, but do not address expectations about what other, distinct stimuli are likely to appear based on prior experience. We show that such memory-based expectations in human visual cortex are related to the hippocampal mechanism of pattern completion. PMID:27065363

  20. Improvement of the predicted aural detection code ICHIN (I Can Hear It Now)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Arnold W.; Smith, Charles D.; Lemasurier, Phillip

    Acoustic tests were conducted to study the far-field sound pressure levels and aural detection ranges associated with a Sikorsky S-76A helicopter in straight and level flight at various advancing blade tip Mach numbers. The flight altitude was nominally 150 meters above ground level. This paper compares the normalized predicted aural detection distances, based on the measured far-field sound pressure levels, to the normalized measured aural detection distances obtained from sound jury response measurements obtained during the same test. Both unmodified and modified versions of the prediction code ICHIN-6 (I Can Hear It Now) were used to produce the results for this study.

  1. Predicting multi-wall structural response to hypervelocity impact using the hull code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schonberg, William P.

    1993-01-01

    Previously, multi-wall structures have been analyzed extensively, primarily through experiment, as a means of increasing the meteoroid/space debris impact protection of spacecraft. As structural configurations become more varied, the number of tests required to characterize their response increases dramatically. As an alternative to experimental testing, numerical modeling of high-speed impact phenomena is often being used to predict the response of a variety of structural systems under different impact loading conditions. The results of comparing experimental tests to Hull Hydrodynamic Computer Code predictions are reported. Also, the results of a numerical parametric study of multi-wall structural response to hypervelocity cylindrical projectile impact are presented.

  2. Modeling the Effects of Ice Accretion on the Low Pressure Compressor and the Overall Turbofan Engine System Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veres, Joseph P.; Jorgenson, Philip C. E.; Wright, William B.

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this study is on utilizing a mean line compressor flow analysis code coupled to an engine system thermodynamic code, to estimate the effects of ice accretion on the low pressure compressor, and quantifying its effects on the engine system throughout a notional flight trajectory. In this paper a temperature range in which engine icing would occur was assumed. This provided a mechanism to locate potential component icing sites and allow the computational tools to add blockages due to ice accretion in a parametric fashion. Ultimately the location and level of blockage due to icing would be provided by an ice accretion code. To proceed, an engine system modeling code and a mean line compressor flow analysis code were utilized to calculate the flow conditions in the fan-core and low pressure compressor and to identify potential locations within the compressor where ice may accrete. In this study, an "additional blockage" due to the accretion of ice on the metal surfaces, has been added to the baseline aerodynamic blockage due to boundary layer, as well as the blade metal blockage. Once the potential locations of ice accretion are identified, the levels of additional blockage due to accretion were parametrically varied to estimate the effects on the low pressure compressor blade row performance operating within the engine system environment. This study includes detailed analysis of compressor and engine performance during cruise and descent operating conditions at several altitudes within the notional flight trajectory. The purpose of this effort is to develop the computer codes to provide a predictive capability to forecast the onset of engine icing events, such that they could ultimately help in the avoidance of these events.

  3. Ice accretion modeling for wind turbine rotor blades

    SciTech Connect

    Chocron, D.; Brahimi, T.; Paraschivoiu, I.; Bombardier, J.A.

    1997-12-31

    The increasing application of wind energy in northern climates implies operation of wind turbines under severe atmospheric icing conditions. Such conditions are well known in the Scandinavian countries, Canada and most of Eastern European countries. An extensive study to develop a procedure for the prediction of ice accretion on wind turbines rotor blades appears to be essential for the safe and economic operation of wind turbines in these cold regions. The objective of the present paper is to develop a computer code capable of simulating the shape and amount of ice which may accumulate on horizontal axis wind turbine blades when operating in icing conditions. The resulting code is capable to predict and simulate the formation of ice in rime and glaze conditions, calculate the flow field and particle trajectories and to perform thermodynamic analysis. It also gives the possibility of studying the effect of different parameters that influence ice formation such as temperature, liquid water content, droplet diameter and accretion time. The analysis has been conducted on different typical airfoils as well as on NASA/DOE Mod-0 wind turbine. Results showed that ice accretion on wind turbines may reduce the power output by more than 20%.

  4. Why do you fear the bogeyman? An embodied predictive coding model of perceptual inference.

    PubMed

    Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2014-09-01

    Why are we scared by nonperceptual entities such as the bogeyman, and why does the bogeyman only visit us during the night? Why does hearing a window squeaking in the night suggest to us the unlikely idea of a thief or a killer? And why is this more likely to happen after watching a horror movie? To answer these and similar questions, we need to put mind and body together again and consider the embodied nature of perceptual and cognitive inference. Predictive coding provides a general framework for perceptual inference; I propose to extend it by including interoceptive and bodily information. The resulting embodied predictive coding inference permits one to compare alternative hypotheses (e.g., is the sound I hear generated by a thief or the wind?) using the same inferential scheme as in predictive coding, but using both sensory and interoceptive information as evidence, rather than just considering sensory events. If you hear a window squeaking in the night after watching a horror movie, you may consider plausible a very unlikely hypothesis (e.g., a thief, or even the bogeyman) because it explains both what you sense (e.g., the window squeaking in the night) and how you feel (e.g., your high heart rate). The good news is that the inference that I propose is fully rational and gives minds and bodies equal dignity. The bad news is that it also gives an embodiment to the bogeyman, and a reason to fear it. PMID:24307092

  5. A Model to Assess the Risk of Ice Accretion Due to Ice Crystal Ingestion in a Turbofan Engine and its Effects on Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgenson, Philip C. E.; Veres, Joseph P.; Wright, William B.; Struk, Peter M.

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of ice accretion within commercial high bypass aircraft turbine engines has been reported under certain atmospheric conditions. Engine anomalies have taken place at high altitudes that were attributed to ice crystal ingestion, partially melting, and ice accretion on the compression system components. The result was one or more of the following anomalies: degraded engine performance, engine roll back, compressor surge and stall, and flameout of the combustor. The main focus of this research is the development of a computational tool that can estimate whether there is a risk of ice accretion by tracking key parameters through the compression system blade rows at all engine operating points within the flight trajectory. The tool has an engine system thermodynamic cycle code, coupled with a compressor flow analysis code, and an ice particle melt code that has the capability of determining the rate of sublimation, melting, and evaporation through the compressor blade rows. Assumptions are made to predict the complex physics involved in engine icing. Specifically, the code does not directly estimate ice accretion and does not have models for particle breakup or erosion. Two key parameters have been suggested as conditions that must be met at the same location for ice accretion to occur: the local wet-bulb temperature to be near freezing or below and the local melt ratio must be above 10%. These parameters were deduced from analyzing laboratory icing test data and are the criteria used to predict the possibility of ice accretion within an engine including the specific blade row where it could occur. Once the possibility of accretion is determined from these parameters, the degree of blockage due to ice accretion on the local stator vane can be estimated from an empirical model of ice growth rate and time spent at that operating point in the flight trajectory. The computational tool can be used to assess specific turbine engines to their susceptibility to

  6. Validation of annual average air concentration predictions from the AIRDOS-EPA computer code

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.W.; Fields, D.E.; Cotter, S.J.

    1981-01-01

    The AIRDOS-EPA computer code is used to assess the annual doses to the general public resulting from releases of radionuclides to the atmosphere by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) facilities. This code uses a modified Gaussian plume equation to estimate air concentrations resulting from the release of a maximum of 36 radionuclides. Radionuclide concentrations in food products are estimated from the output of the atmospheric transport model using the terrestrial transport model described in US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guide 1.109. Doses to man at each distance and direction specified are estimated for up to eleven organs and five exposure modes. To properly use any environmental transport model, some estimate of the model's predictive accuracy must be obtained. Because of a lack of sufficient data for the ORNL site, one year of weekly average /sup 85/Kr concentrations observed at 13 stations located 30 to 150 km distant from an assumed-continuous point source at the Savannah River Plant, Aiken, South Carolina, have been used in a validation study of the atmospheric transport portion of AIRDOS-EPA. The predicted annual average concentration at each station exceeded the observed value in every case. The overprediction factor ranged from 1.4 to 3.4 with an average value of 2.4. Pearson's correlation between pairs of logarithms of observed and predicted values was r = 0.93. Based on a one-tailed students's test, we can be 98% confident that for this site under similar meteorological, release, and monitoring conditions no annual average air concentrations will be observed at the sampling stations in excess of those predicted by the code. As the averaging time of the prdiction decreases, however, the uncertainty in the prediction increases.

  7. Black hole accretion disc impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pihajoki, P.

    2016-04-01

    We present an analytic model for computing the luminosity and spectral evolution of flares caused by a supermassive black hole impacting the accretion disc of another supermassive black hole. Our model includes photon diffusion, emission from optically thin regions and relativistic corrections to the observed spectrum and time-scales. We test the observability of the impact scenario with a simulated population of quasars hosting supermassive black hole binaries. The results indicate that for a moderate binary mass ratio of 0.3, and impact distances of 100 primary Schwarzschild radii, the accretion disc impacts can be expected to equal or exceed the host quasar in brightness at observed wavelength λ = 510 nm up to z = 0.6. We conclude that accretion disc impacts may function as an independent probe for supermassive black hole binaries. We release the code used for computing the model light curves to the community.

  8. Comparison of Code Predictions to Test Measurements for Two Orifice Compensated Hydrostatic Bearings at High Reynolds Numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keba, John E.

    1996-01-01

    Rotordynamic coefficients obtained from testing two different hydrostatic bearings are compared to values predicted by two different computer programs. The first set of test data is from a relatively long (L/D=1) orifice compensated hydrostatic bearing tested in water by Texas A&M University (TAMU Bearing No.9). The second bearing is a shorter (L/D=.37) bearing and was tested in a lower viscosity fluid by Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell (Rocketdyne 'Generic' Bearing) at similar rotating speeds and pressures. Computed predictions of bearing rotordynamic coefficients were obtained from the cylindrical seal code 'ICYL', one of the industrial seal codes developed for NASA-LeRC by Mechanical Technology Inc., and from the hydrodynamic bearing code 'HYDROPAD'. The comparison highlights the difference the bearing has on the accuracy of the predictions. The TAMU Bearing No. 9 test data is closely matched by the predictions obtained for the HYDROPAD code (except for added mass terms) whereas significant differences exist between the data from the Rocketdyne 'Generic' bearing the code predictions. The results suggest that some aspects of the fluid behavior in the shorter, higher Reynolds Number 'Generic' bearing may not be modeled accurately in the codes. The ICYL code predictions for flowrate and direct stiffness approximately equal those of HYDROPAD. Significant differences in cross-coupled stiffness and the damping terms were obtained relative to HYDROPAD and both sets of test data. Several observations are included concerning application of the ICYL code.

  9. Pulsed Accretion onto Eccentric and Circular Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, Diego J.; Lai, Dong

    2016-08-01

    We present numerical simulations of circumbinary accretion onto eccentric and circular binaries using the moving-mesh code AREPO. This is the first set of simulations to tackle the problem of binary accretion using a finite-volume scheme on a freely moving mesh, which allows for accurate measurements of accretion onto individual stars for arbitrary binary eccentricity. While accretion onto a circular binary shows bursts with period of ∼ 5 times the binary period P b, accretion onto an eccentric binary is predominantly modulated at the period ∼ 1{P}{{b}}. For an equal-mass circular binary, the accretion rates onto individual stars are quite similar to each other, following the same variable pattern in time. By contrast, for eccentric binaries, one of the stars can accrete at a rate 10–20 times larger than its companion. This “symmetry breaking” between the stars, however, alternates over timescales of order 200P b and can be attributed to a slowly precessing, eccentric circumbinary disk. Over longer timescales, the net accretion rates onto individual stars are the same, reaching a quasi-steady state with the circumbinary disk. These results have important implications for the accretion behavior of binary T Tauri stars and supermassive binary black holes.

  10. Pulsed Accretion onto Eccentric and Circular Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, Diego J.; Lai, Dong

    2016-08-01

    We present numerical simulations of circumbinary accretion onto eccentric and circular binaries using the moving-mesh code AREPO. This is the first set of simulations to tackle the problem of binary accretion using a finite-volume scheme on a freely moving mesh, which allows for accurate measurements of accretion onto individual stars for arbitrary binary eccentricity. While accretion onto a circular binary shows bursts with period of ˜ 5 times the binary period P b, accretion onto an eccentric binary is predominantly modulated at the period ˜ 1{P}{{b}}. For an equal-mass circular binary, the accretion rates onto individual stars are quite similar to each other, following the same variable pattern in time. By contrast, for eccentric binaries, one of the stars can accrete at a rate 10–20 times larger than its companion. This “symmetry breaking” between the stars, however, alternates over timescales of order 200P b and can be attributed to a slowly precessing, eccentric circumbinary disk. Over longer timescales, the net accretion rates onto individual stars are the same, reaching a quasi-steady state with the circumbinary disk. These results have important implications for the accretion behavior of binary T Tauri stars and supermassive binary black holes.

  11. A high temperature fatigue life prediction computer code based on the total strain version of StrainRange Partitioning (SRP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgaw, Michael A.; Saltsman, James F.

    1993-01-01

    A recently developed high-temperature fatigue life prediction computer code is presented and an example of its usage given. The code discussed is based on the Total Strain version of Strainrange Partitioning (TS-SRP). Included in this code are procedures for characterizing the creep-fatigue durability behavior of an alloy according to TS-SRP guidelines and predicting cyclic life for complex cycle types for both isothermal and thermomechanical conditions. A reasonably extensive materials properties database is included with the code.

  12. Simulation study of HL-2A-like plasma using integrated predictive modeling code

    SciTech Connect

    Poolyarat, N.; Onjun, T.; Promping, J.

    2009-11-15

    Self-consistent simulations of HL-2A-like plasma are carried out using 1.5D BALDUR integrated predictive modeling code. In these simulations, the core transport is predicted using the combination of Multi-mode (MMM95) anomalous core transport model and NCLASS neoclassical transport model. The evolution of plasma current, temperature and density is carried out. Consequently, the plasma current, temperature and density profiles, as well as other plasma parameters, are obtained as the predictions in each simulation. It is found that temperature and density profiles in these simulations are peak near the plasma center. In addition, the sawtooth period is studied using the Porcilli model and is found that before, during, and after the electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) operation the sawtooth period are approximately the same. It is also observed that the mixing radius of sawtooth crashes is reduced during the ECRH operation.

  13. A modified prediction scheme of the H.264 multiview video coding to improve the decoder performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamadan, Ayman M.; Aly, Hussein A.; Fouad, Mohamed M.; Dansereau, Richard M.

    2013-02-01

    In this paper, we present a modified inter-view prediction scheme for the multiview video coding (MVC).With more inter-view prediction, the number of reference frames required to decode a single view increase. Consequently, the data size of decoding a single view increases, thus impacting the decoder performance. In this paper, we propose an MVC scheme that requires less inter-view prediction than that of the MVC standard scheme. The proposed scheme is implemented and tested on real multiview video sequences. Improvements are shown using the proposed scheme in terms of average data size required either to decode a single view, or to access any frame (i.e., random access), with comparable rate-distortion. It is compared to the MVC standard scheme and another improved techniques from the literature.

  14. Inter-bit prediction based on maximum likelihood estimate for distributed video coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klepko, Robert; Wang, Demin; Huchet, Grégory

    2010-01-01

    Distributed Video Coding (DVC) is an emerging video coding paradigm for the systems that require low complexity encoders supported by high complexity decoders. A typical real world application for a DVC system is mobile phones with video capture hardware that have a limited encoding capability supported by base-stations with a high decoding capability. Generally speaking, a DVC system operates by dividing a source image sequence into two streams, key frames and Wyner-Ziv (W) frames, with the key frames being used to represent the source plus an approximation to the W frames called S frames (where S stands for side information), while the W frames are used to correct the bit errors in the S frames. This paper presents an effective algorithm to reduce the bit errors in the side information of a DVC system. The algorithm is based on the maximum likelihood estimation to help predict future bits to be decoded. The reduction in bit errors in turn reduces the number of parity bits needed for error correction. Thus, a higher coding efficiency is achieved since fewer parity bits need to be transmitted from the encoder to the decoder. The algorithm is called inter-bit prediction because it predicts the bit-plane to be decoded from previously decoded bit-planes, one bitplane at a time, starting from the most significant bit-plane. Results provided from experiments using real-world image sequences show that the inter-bit prediction algorithm does indeed reduce the bit rate by up to 13% for our test sequences. This bit rate reduction corresponds to a PSNR gain of about 1.6 dB for the W frames.

  15. Rotor Wake/Stator Interaction Noise Prediction Code Technical Documentation and User's Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Topol, David A.; Mathews, Douglas C.

    2010-01-01

    This report documents the improvements and enhancements made by Pratt & Whitney to two NASA programs which together will calculate noise from a rotor wake/stator interaction. The code is a combination of subroutines from two NASA programs with many new features added by Pratt & Whitney. To do a calculation V072 first uses a semi-empirical wake prediction to calculate the rotor wake characteristics at the stator leading edge. Results from the wake model are then automatically input into a rotor wake/stator interaction analytical noise prediction routine which calculates inlet aft sound power levels for the blade-passage-frequency tones and their harmonics, along with the complex radial mode amplitudes. The code allows for a noise calculation to be performed for a compressor rotor wake/stator interaction, a fan wake/FEGV interaction, or a fan wake/core stator interaction. This report is split into two parts, the first part discusses the technical documentation of the program as improved by Pratt & Whitney. The second part is a user's manual which describes how input files are created and how the code is run.

  16. In silico prediction of long intergenic non-coding RNAs in sheep.

    PubMed

    Bakhtiarizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Hosseinpour, Batool; Arefnezhad, Babak; Shamabadi, Narges; Salami, Seyed Alireza

    2016-04-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are transcribed RNA molecules >200 nucleotides in length that do not encode proteins and serve as key regulators of diverse biological processes. Recently, thousands of long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs), a type of lncRNAs, have been identified in mammalians using massive parallel large sequencing technologies. The availability of the genome sequence of sheep (Ovis aries) has allowed us genomic prediction of non-coding RNAs. This is the first study to identify lincRNAs using RNA-seq data of eight different tissues of sheep, including brain, heart, kidney, liver, lung, ovary, skin, and white adipose. A computational pipeline was employed to characterize 325 putative lincRNAs with high confidence from eight important tissues of sheep using different criteria such as GC content, exon number, gene length, co-expression analysis, stability, and tissue-specific scores. Sixty-four putative lincRNAs displayed tissues-specific expression. The highest number of tissues-specific lincRNAs was found in skin and brain. All novel lincRNAs that aligned to the human and mouse lincRNAs had conserved synteny. These closest protein-coding genes were enriched in 11 significant GO terms such as limb development, appendage development, striated muscle tissue development, and multicellular organismal development. The findings reported here have important implications for the study of sheep genome. PMID:27002388

  17. Lyman edges - Signatures of accretion disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinney, A. L.

    1992-05-01

    Accretion disks are thought to provide the ultraviolet emission seen in the big blue bump of quasars. However, observations of the UV spectra of quasars do not show the additional signatures predicted by the accretion disk models. This paper will concentrate on just one of those signatures - the Lyman edge. Two studies are briefly discussed which explore the Lyman edge region of both high and low redshift quasars (Antonucci, Kinney, and Ford 1989 and Koratkar, Kinney, and Bohlin 1992). Both studies find that Lyman edges are not present in quasar spectra as frequently as predicted by the models or at the strength predicted by accretion disk models.

  18. Accurate rotor loads prediction using the FLAP (Force and Loads Analysis Program) dynamics code

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, A.D.; Thresher, R.W.

    1987-10-01

    Accurately predicting wind turbine blade loads and response is very important in predicting the fatigue life of wind turbines. There is a clear need in the wind turbine community for validated and user-friendly structural dynamics codes for predicting blade loads and response. At the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI), a Force and Loads Analysis Program (FLAP) has been refined and validated and is ready for general use. Currently, FLAP is operational on an IBM-PC compatible computer and can be used to analyze both rigid- and teetering-hub configurations. The results of this paper show that FLAP can be used to accurately predict the deterministic loads for rigid-hub rotors. This paper compares analytical predictions to field test measurements for a three-bladed, upwind turbine with a rigid-hub configuration. The deterministic loads predicted by FLAP are compared with 10-min azimuth averages of blade root flapwise bending moments for different wind speeds. 6 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Life Prediction for a CMC Component Using the NASALIFE Computer Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gyekenyesi, John Z.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Mital, Subodh K.

    2005-01-01

    The computer code, NASALIFE, was used to provide estimates for life of an SiC/SiC stator vane under varying thermomechanical loading conditions. The primary intention of this effort is to show how the computer code NASALIFE can be used to provide reasonable estimates of life for practical propulsion system components made of advanced ceramic matrix composites (CMC). Simple loading conditions provided readily observable and acceptable life predictions. Varying the loading conditions such that low cycle fatigue and creep were affected independently provided expected trends in the results for life due to varying loads and life due to creep. Analysis was based on idealized empirical data for the 9/99 Melt Infiltrated SiC fiber reinforced SiC.

  20. Natural Circulation of Lead-Bismuth in a One-Dimensional Loop: Experiments and Code Predictions

    SciTech Connect

    Agostini, P.; Bertacci, G.; Gherardi, G.; Bianchi, F.; Meloni, P.; Nicolini, D.; Ambrosini, W.; Forgione, F.; Fruttuoso, G.; Oriolo, F.

    2002-07-01

    The paper summarizes the results obtained by an experimental and computational study jointly performed by ENEA and University of Pisa. The study is aimed at assessing the capabilities of an available thermal-hydraulic system code in simulating natural circulation in a loop in which the working fluid is the eutectic lead-bismuth alloy as in the Italian proposal for Accelerator Driven System (ADS) reactor concepts. Experiments were performed in the CHEOPE facility installed at the ENEA Brasimone Research Centre and pre- and post-test calculations were run using a version of the RELAP5/Mod.3.2, purposely modified to account for Pb-Bi liquid alloy properties and behavior. The main results obtained by the experimental tests and by the code analyses are presented in the paper providing material to discuss the present predictive capabilities of transient and steady-state behavior in liquid Pb-Bi systems. (authors)

  1. Numerical Simulations of Viscous Accretion Flow around Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seong-Jae; Chattopadhyay, Indranil; Kumar, Rajiv; Hyung, Siek; Ryu, Dongsu

    2016-06-01

    We present shocked viscous accretion flow onto a black hole in a two dimensional cylindrical geometry, where initial conditions were chosen from analytical solutions. The simulation code used the Lagrangian Total Variation Diminishing (LTVD) and remap routine, which enabled us to attain high accuracy in capturing shocks and to handle the angular momentum distribution correctly. The steady state shocked solution in the inviscid, as well as in the viscous regime, matched theoretical predictions well, but increasing viscosity renders the accretion shock unstable. Large amplitude shock oscillation is accompanied by intermittent, transient inner multiple shocks. Such oscillation of the inner part of disk is interpreted as the source of QPO in hard X-rays observed in microquasars; and strong shock oscillation induces strong episodic jet emission. The periodicity of jets and shock oscillation are similar. Our simulation shows that the jets for higher viscosity parameter are evidently stronger and faster than that for lower viscosity.

  2. Predicted effects of sensorineural hearing loss on across-fiber envelope coding in the auditory nervea

    PubMed Central

    Swaminathan, Jayaganesh; Heinz, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Cross-channel envelope correlations are hypothesized to influence speech intelligibility, particularly in adverse conditions. Acoustic analyses suggest speech envelope correlations differ for syllabic and phonemic ranges of modulation frequency. The influence of cochlear filtering was examined here by predicting cross-channel envelope correlations in different speech modulation ranges for normal and impaired auditory-nerve (AN) responses. Neural cross-correlation coefficients quantified across-fiber envelope coding in syllabic (0–5 Hz), phonemic (5–64 Hz), and periodicity (64–300 Hz) modulation ranges. Spike trains were generated from a physiologically based AN model. Correlations were also computed using the model with selective hair-cell damage. Neural predictions revealed that envelope cross-correlation decreased with increased characteristic-frequency separation for all modulation ranges (with greater syllabic-envelope correlation than phonemic or periodicity). Syllabic envelope was highly correlated across many spectral channels, whereas phonemic and periodicity envelopes were correlated mainly between adjacent channels. Outer-hair-cell impairment increased the degree of cross-channel correlation for phonemic and periodicity ranges for speech in quiet and in noise, thereby reducing the number of independent neural information channels for envelope coding. In contrast, outer-hair-cell impairment was predicted to decrease cross-channel correlation for syllabic envelopes in noise, which may partially account for the reduced ability of hearing-impaired listeners to segregate speech in complex backgrounds. PMID:21682421

  3. A Predictive Coding Perspective on Beta Oscillations during Sentence-Level Language Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Ashley G.; Schoffelen, Jan-Mathijs; Schriefers, Herbert; Bastiaansen, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Oscillatory neural dynamics have been steadily receiving more attention as a robust and temporally precise signature of network activity related to language processing. We have recently proposed that oscillatory dynamics in the beta and gamma frequency ranges measured during sentence-level comprehension might be best explained from a predictive coding perspective. Under our proposal we related beta oscillations to both the maintenance/change of the neural network configuration responsible for the construction and representation of sentence-level meaning, and to top–down predictions about upcoming linguistic input based on that sentence-level meaning. Here we zoom in on these particular aspects of our proposal, and discuss both old and new supporting evidence. Finally, we present some preliminary magnetoencephalography data from an experiment comparing Dutch subject- and object-relative clauses that was specifically designed to test our predictive coding framework. Initial results support the first of the two suggested roles for beta oscillations in sentence-level language comprehension. PMID:26973500

  4. A Predictive Coding Perspective on Beta Oscillations during Sentence-Level Language Comprehension.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Ashley G; Schoffelen, Jan-Mathijs; Schriefers, Herbert; Bastiaansen, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Oscillatory neural dynamics have been steadily receiving more attention as a robust and temporally precise signature of network activity related to language processing. We have recently proposed that oscillatory dynamics in the beta and gamma frequency ranges measured during sentence-level comprehension might be best explained from a predictive coding perspective. Under our proposal we related beta oscillations to both the maintenance/change of the neural network configuration responsible for the construction and representation of sentence-level meaning, and to top-down predictions about upcoming linguistic input based on that sentence-level meaning. Here we zoom in on these particular aspects of our proposal, and discuss both old and new supporting evidence. Finally, we present some preliminary magnetoencephalography data from an experiment comparing Dutch subject- and object-relative clauses that was specifically designed to test our predictive coding framework. Initial results support the first of the two suggested roles for beta oscillations in sentence-level language comprehension. PMID:26973500

  5. Deterministic multi-zone ice accretion modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamaguchi, K.; Hansman, R. J., Jr.; Kazmierczak, M.

    1991-01-01

    The study focuses on a deterministic model of the surface roughness transition behavior of glaze ice and analyzes the initial smooth/rough transition location, bead formation, and the propagation of the transition location. Based on a hypothesis that the smooth/rough transition location coincides with the laminar/turbulent boundary-layer transition location, a multizone model is implemented in the LEWICE code. In order to verify the effectiveness of the model, ice accretion predictions for simple cylinders calculated by the multizone LEWICE are compared to experimental ice shapes. The glaze ice shapes are found to be sensitive to the laminar surface roughness and bead thickness parameters controlling the transition location, while the ice shapes are found to be insensitive to the turbulent surface roughness.

  6. Deterministic multi-zone ice accretion modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamaguchi, K.; Hansman, R. John, Jr.; Kazmierczak, Michael

    1991-01-01

    The focus here is on a deterministic model of the surface roughness transition behavior of glaze ice. The initial smooth/rough transition location, bead formation, and the propagation of the transition location are analyzed. Based on the hypothesis that the smooth/rough transition location coincides with the laminar/turbulent boundary layer transition location, a multizone model is implemented in the LEWICE code. In order to verify the effectiveness of the model, ice accretion predictions for simple cylinders calculated by the multizone LEWICE are compared to experimental ice shapes. The glaze ice shapes are found to be sensitive to the laminar surface roughness and bead thickness parameters controlling the transition location, while the ice shapes are found to be insensitive to the turbulent surface roughness.

  7. Non-coding RNAs Enabling Prognostic Stratification and Prediction of Therapeutic Response in Colorectal Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Perakis, Samantha O; Thomas, Joseph E; Pichler, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a heterogeneous disease and current treatment options for patients are associated with a wide range of outcomes and tumor responses. Although the traditional TNM staging system continues to serve as a crucial tool for estimating CRC prognosis and for stratification of treatment choices and long-term survival, it remains limited as it relies on macroscopic features and cases of surgical resection, fails to incorporate new molecular data and information, and cannot perfectly predict the variety of outcomes and responses to treatment associated with tumors of the same stage. Although additional histopathologic features have recently been applied in order to better classify individual tumors, the future might incorporate the use of novel molecular and genetic markers in order to maximize therapeutic outcome and to provide accurate prognosis. Such novel biomarkers, in addition to individual patient tumor phenotyping and other validated genetic markers, could facilitate the prediction of risk of progression in CRC patients and help assess overall survival. Recent findings point to the emerging role of non-protein-coding regions of the genome in their contribution to the progression of cancer and tumor formation. Two major subclasses of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), microRNAs and long non-coding RNAs, are often dysregulated in CRC and have demonstrated their diagnostic and prognostic potential as biomarkers. These ncRNAs are promising molecular classifiers and could assist in the stratification of patients into appropriate risk groups to guide therapeutic decisions and their expression patterns could help determine prognosis and predict therapeutic options in CRC. PMID:27573901

  8. Comparison of secondary flows predicted by a viscous code and an inviscid code with experimental data for a turning duct

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwab, J. R.; Povinelli, L. A.

    1984-01-01

    A comparison of the secondary flows computed by the viscous Kreskovsky-Briley-McDonald code and the inviscid Denton code with benchmark experimental data for turning duct is presented. The viscous code is a fully parabolized space-marching Navier-Stokes solver while the inviscid code is a time-marching Euler solver. The experimental data were collected by Taylor, Whitelaw, and Yianneskis with a laser Doppler velocimeter system in a 90 deg turning duct of square cross-section. The agreement between the viscous and inviscid computations was generally very good for the streamwise primary velocity and the radial secondary velocity, except at the walls, where slip conditions were specified for the inviscid code. The agreement between both the computations and the experimental data was not as close, especially at the 60.0 deg and 77.5 deg angular positions within the duct. This disagreement was attributed to incomplete modelling of the vortex development near the suction surface.

  9. Multisensor multipulse Linear Predictive Coding (LPC) analysis in noise for medium rate speech transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preuss, R. D.

    1985-12-01

    The theory of multipulse linear predictive coding (LPC) analysis is extended to include the possible presence of acoustic noise, as for a telephone near a busy road. Models are developed assuming two signals are provided: the primary signal is the output of a microphone which samples the combined acoustic fields of the noise and the speech, while the secondary signal is the output of a microphone which samples the acoustic field of the noise alone. Analysis techniques to extract the multipulse LPC parameters from these two signals are developed; these techniques are developed as approximations to maximum likelihood analysis for the given model.

  10. A novel feature extraction scheme with ensemble coding for protein-protein interaction prediction.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiuquan; Cheng, Jiaxing; Zheng, Tingting; Duan, Zheng; Qian, Fulan

    2014-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) play key roles in most cellular processes, such as cell metabolism, immune response, endocrine function, DNA replication, and transcription regulation. PPI prediction is one of the most challenging problems in functional genomics. Although PPI data have been increasing because of the development of high-throughput technologies and computational methods, many problems are still far from being solved. In this study, a novel predictor was designed by using the Random Forest (RF) algorithm with the ensemble coding (EC) method. To reduce computational time, a feature selection method (DX) was adopted to rank the features and search the optimal feature combination. The DXEC method integrates many features and physicochemical/biochemical properties to predict PPIs. On the Gold Yeast dataset, the DXEC method achieves 67.2% overall precision, 80.74% recall, and 70.67% accuracy. On the Silver Yeast dataset, the DXEC method achieves 76.93% precision, 77.98% recall, and 77.27% accuracy. On the human dataset, the prediction accuracy reaches 80% for the DXEC-RF method. We extended the experiment to a bigger and more realistic dataset that maintains 50% recall on the Yeast All dataset and 80% recall on the Human All dataset. These results show that the DXEC method is suitable for performing PPI prediction. The prediction service of the DXEC-RF classifier is available at http://ailab.ahu.edu.cn:8087/ DXECPPI/index.jsp. PMID:25046746

  11. Fast Prediction of HCCI Combustion with an Artificial Neural Network Linked to a Fluid Mechanics Code

    SciTech Connect

    Aceves, S M; Flowers, D L; Chen, J; Babaimopoulos, A

    2006-08-29

    We have developed an artificial neural network (ANN) based combustion model and have integrated it into a fluid mechanics code (KIVA3V) to produce a new analysis tool (titled KIVA3V-ANN) that can yield accurate HCCI predictions at very low computational cost. The neural network predicts ignition delay as a function of operating parameters (temperature, pressure, equivalence ratio and residual gas fraction). KIVA3V-ANN keeps track of the time history of the ignition delay during the engine cycle to evaluate the ignition integral and predict ignition for each computational cell. After a cell ignites, chemistry becomes active, and a two-step chemical kinetic mechanism predicts composition and heat generation in the ignited cells. KIVA3V-ANN has been validated by comparison with isooctane HCCI experiments in two different engines. The neural network provides reasonable predictions for HCCI combustion and emissions that, although typically not as good as obtained with the more physically representative multi-zone model, are obtained at a much reduced computational cost. KIVA3V-ANN can perform reasonably accurate HCCI calculations while requiring only 10% more computational effort than a motored KIVA3V run. It is therefore considered a valuable tool for evaluation of engine maps or other performance analysis tasks requiring multiple individual runs.

  12. The cortical organization of speech processing: feedback control and predictive coding the context of a dual-stream model.

    PubMed

    Hickok, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    Speech recognition is an active process that involves some form of predictive coding. This statement is relatively uncontroversial. What is less clear is the source of the prediction. The dual-stream model of speech processing suggests that there are two possible sources of predictive coding in speech perception: the motor speech system and the lexical-conceptual system. Here I provide an overview of the dual-stream model of speech processing and then discuss evidence concerning the source of predictive coding during speech recognition. I conclude that, in contrast to recent theoretical trends, the dorsal sensory-motor stream is not a source of forward prediction that can facilitate speech recognition. Rather, it is forward prediction coming out of the ventral stream that serves this function. PMID:22766458

  13. Techniques for the Enhancement of Linear Predictive Speech Coding in Adverse Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrench, Alan A.

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. The Linear Prediction model was first applied to speech two and a half decades ago. Since then it has been the subject of intense research and continues to be one of the principal tools in the analysis of speech. Its mathematical tractability makes it a suitable subject for study and its proven success in practical applications makes the study worthwhile. The model is known to be unsuited to speech corrupted by background noise. This has led many researchers to investigate ways of enhancing the speech signal prior to Linear Predictive analysis. In this thesis this body of work is extended. The chosen application is low bit-rate (2.4 kbits/sec) speech coding. For this task the performance of the Linear Prediction algorithm is crucial because there is insufficient bandwidth to encode the error between the modelled speech and the original input. A review of the fundamentals of Linear Prediction and an independent assessment of the relative performance of methods of Linear Prediction modelling are presented. A new method is proposed which is fast and facilitates stability checking, however, its stability is shown to be unacceptably poorer than existing methods. A novel supposition governing the positioning of the analysis frame relative to a voiced speech signal is proposed and supported by observation. The problem of coding noisy speech is examined. Four frequency domain speech processing techniques are developed and tested. These are: (i) Combined Order Linear Prediction Spectral Estimation; (ii) Frequency Scaling According to an Aural Model; (iii) Amplitude Weighting Based on Perceived Loudness; (iv) Power Spectrum Squaring. These methods are compared with the Recursive Linearised Maximum a Posteriori method. Following on from work done in the frequency domain, a time domain implementation of spectrum squaring is developed. In addition, a new method of power spectrum estimation is

  14. CCFL in hot legs and steam generators and its prediction with the CATHARE code

    SciTech Connect

    Geffraye, G.; Bazin, P.; Pichon, P.

    1995-09-01

    This paper presents a study about the Counter-Current Flow Limitation (CCFL) prediction in hot legs and steam generators (SG) in both system test facilities and pressurized water reactors. Experimental data are analyzed, particularly the recent MHYRESA test data. Geometrical and scale effects on the flooding behavior are shown. The CATHARE code modelling problems concerning the CCFL prediction are discussed. A method which gives the user the possibility of controlling the flooding limit at a given location is developed. In order to minimize the user effect, a methodology is proposed to the user in case of a calculation with a counter-current flow between the upper plenum and the SF U-tubes. The following questions have to be made clear for the user: when to use the CATHARE CCFL option, which correlation to use, and where to locate the flooding limit.

  15. Vector Sum Excited Linear Prediction (VSELP) speech coding at 4.8 kbps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerson, Ira A.; Jasiuk, Mark A.

    1990-01-01

    Code Excited Linear Prediction (CELP) speech coders exhibit good performance at data rates as low as 4800 bps. The major drawback to CELP type coders is their larger computational requirements. The Vector Sum Excited Linear Prediction (VSELP) speech coder utilizes a codebook with a structure which allows for a very efficient search procedure. Other advantages of the VSELP codebook structure is discussed and a detailed description of a 4.8 kbps VSELP coder is given. This coder is an improved version of the VSELP algorithm, which finished first in the NSA's evaluation of the 4.8 kbps speech coders. The coder uses a subsample resolution single tap long term predictor, a single VSELP excitation codebook, a novel gain quantizer which is robust to channel errors, and a new adaptive pre/postfilter arrangement.

  16. IN-MACA-MCC: Integrated Multiple Attractor Cellular Automata with Modified Clonal Classifier for Human Protein Coding and Promoter Prediction.

    PubMed

    Pokkuluri, Kiran Sree; Inampudi, Ramesh Babu; Nedunuri, S S S N Usha Devi

    2014-01-01

    Protein coding and promoter region predictions are very important challenges of bioinformatics (Attwood and Teresa, 2000). The identification of these regions plays a crucial role in understanding the genes. Many novel computational and mathematical methods are introduced as well as existing methods that are getting refined for predicting both of the regions separately; still there is a scope for improvement. We propose a classifier that is built with MACA (multiple attractor cellular automata) and MCC (modified clonal classifier) to predict both regions with a single classifier. The proposed classifier is trained and tested with Fickett and Tung (1992) datasets for protein coding region prediction for DNA sequences of lengths 54, 108, and 162. This classifier is trained and tested with MMCRI datasets for protein coding region prediction for DNA sequences of lengths 252 and 354. The proposed classifier is trained and tested with promoter sequences from DBTSS (Yamashita et al., 2006) dataset and nonpromoters from EID (Saxonov et al., 2000) and UTRdb (Pesole et al., 2002) datasets. The proposed model can predict both regions with an average accuracy of 90.5% for promoter and 89.6% for protein coding region predictions. The specificity and sensitivity values of promoter and protein coding region predictions are 0.89 and 0.92, respectively. PMID:25132849

  17. FDNS code to predict wall heat fluxes or wall temperatures in rocket nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karr, Gerald R.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the findings on the NASA contract NAG8-212, Task No. 3. The overall project consists of three tasks, all of which have been successfully completed. In addition, some supporting supplemental work, not required by the contract, has been performed and is documented herein. Task 1 involved the modification of the wall functions in the code FDNS to use a Reynolds Analogy-based method. Task 2 involved the verification of the code against experimentally available data. The data chosen for comparison was from an experiment involving the injection of helium from a wall jet. Results obtained in completing this task also show the sensitivity of the FDNS code to unknown conditions at the injection slot. Task 3 required computation of the flow of hot exhaust gases through the P&W 40K subscale nozzle. Computations were performed both with and without film coolant injection. The FDNS program tends to overpredict heat fluxes, but, with suitable modeling of backside cooling, may give reasonable wall temperature predictions. For film cooling in the P&W 40K calorimeter subscale nozzle, the average wall temperature is reduced from 1750 R to about 1050 R by the film cooling. The average wall heat flux is reduced by a factor of three.

  18. Status and Plans for the TRANSP Interpretive and Predictive Simulation Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaye, Stanley; Andre, Robert; Marina, Gorelenkova; Yuan, Xingqui; Hawryluk, Richard; Jardin, Steven; Poli, Francesca

    2015-11-01

    TRANSP is an integrated interpretive and predictive transport analysis tool that incorporates state of the art heating/current drive sources and transport models. The treatments and transport solvers are becoming increasingly sophisticated and comprehensive. For instance, the ISOLVER component provides a free boundary equilibrium solution, while the PT_SOLVER transport solver is especially suited for stiff transport models such as TGLF. TRANSP also incorporates such source models as NUBEAM for neutral beam injection, GENRAY, TORAY, TORBEAM, TORIC and CQL3D for ICRH, LHCD, ECH and HHFW. The implementation of selected components makes efficient use of MPI for speed up of code calculations. TRANSP has a wide international user-base, and it is run on the FusionGrid to allow for timely support and quick turnaround by the PPPL Computational Plasma Physics Group. It is being used as a basis for both analysis and development of control algorithms and discharge operational scenarios, including simulation of ITER plasmas. This poster will describe present uses of the code worldwide, as well as plans for upgrading the physics modules and code framework. Progress on implementing TRANSP as a component in the ITER IMAS will also be described. This research was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under contracts DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  19. Accretion flows govern black hole jet properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koljonen, K.; Russell, D.; Fernández Ontiveros, J.; Miller-Jones, J.; Russell, T.; Curran, P.; Soria, R.; Markoff, S.; van der Horst, A.; Casella, P.

    2015-07-01

    The process of jet formation in accreting black holes, and the conditions under which it occurs is currently hotly debated, with competing models predicting the jet power to be governed by black hole spin, the magnetic field strength, the location of the jet base, the mass accretion rate and/or the properties of the inner accretion flow. We present new results that show empirical correlations between the accretion flow properties and the spectral energy distribution of the jets launched from accreting black holes. The X-ray power law is directly related to the particle energy distribution in the hot accretion flow. We find that the photon index of this power law correlates with the characteristic break frequency in the jet spectrum emitted near the jet base, and the jet luminosity up to the break frequency. The observed correlations can be explained by the energy distribution of electrons in the hot accretion flow being subsequently channeled into the jet. These correlations represent a new inflow--outflow connection in accreting black holes, and demonstrate that the spectral properties of the jet rely most critically on the conditions in the inner accretion flow, rather than other parameters such as the black hole mass or spin.

  20. Structured Set Intra Prediction With Discriminative Learning in a Max-Margin Markov Network for High Efficiency Video Coding

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Wenrui; Xiong, Hongkai; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Chen, Chang Wen

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel model on intra coding for High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC), which simultaneously predicts blocks of pixels with optimal rate distortion. It utilizes the spatial statistical correlation for the optimal prediction based on 2-D contexts, in addition to formulating the data-driven structural interdependences to make the prediction error coherent with the probability distribution, which is desirable for successful transform and coding. The structured set prediction model incorporates a max-margin Markov network (M3N) to regulate and optimize multiple block predictions. The model parameters are learned by discriminating the actual pixel value from other possible estimates to maximize the margin (i.e., decision boundary bandwidth). Compared to existing methods that focus on minimizing prediction error, the M3N-based model adaptively maintains the coherence for a set of predictions. Specifically, the proposed model concurrently optimizes a set of predictions by associating the loss for individual blocks to the joint distribution of succeeding discrete cosine transform coefficients. When the sample size grows, the prediction error is asymptotically upper bounded by the training error under the decomposable loss function. As an internal step, we optimize the underlying Markov network structure to find states that achieve the maximal energy using expectation propagation. For validation, we integrate the proposed model into HEVC for optimal mode selection on rate-distortion optimization. The proposed prediction model obtains up to 2.85% bit rate reduction and achieves better visual quality in comparison to the HEVC intra coding. PMID:25505829

  1. Predictive coding in autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Gadea, Maria Luz; Chennu, Srivas; Bekinschtein, Tristan A; Rattazzi, Alexia; Beraudi, Ana; Tripicchio, Paula; Moyano, Beatriz; Soffita, Yamila; Steinberg, Laura; Adolfi, Federico; Sigman, Mariano; Marino, Julian; Manes, Facundo; Ibanez, Agustin

    2015-11-01

    Predictive coding has been proposed as a framework to understand neural processes in neuropsychiatric disorders. We used this approach to describe mechanisms responsible for attentional abnormalities in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We monitored brain dynamics of 59 children (8-15 yr old) who had ASD or ADHD or who were control participants via high-density electroencephalography. We performed analysis at the scalp and source-space levels while participants listened to standard and deviant tone sequences. Through task instructions, we manipulated top-down expectation by presenting expected and unexpected deviant sequences. Children with ASD showed reduced superior frontal cortex (FC) responses to unexpected events but increased dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) activation to expected events. In contrast, children with ADHD exhibited reduced cortical responses in superior FC to expected events but strong PFC activation to unexpected events. Moreover, neural abnormalities were associated with specific control mechanisms, namely, inhibitory control in ASD and set-shifting in ADHD. Based on the predictive coding account, top-down expectation abnormalities could be attributed to a disproportionate reliance (precision) allocated to prior beliefs in ASD and to sensory input in ADHD. PMID:26311184

  2. Affinity regression predicts the recognition code of nucleic acid binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Pelossof, Raphael; Singh, Irtisha; Yang, Julie L.; Weirauch, Matthew T.; Hughes, Timothy R.; Leslie, Christina S.

    2016-01-01

    Predicting the affinity profiles of nucleic acid-binding proteins directly from the protein sequence is a major unsolved problem. We present a statistical approach for learning the recognition code of a family of transcription factors (TFs) or RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) from high-throughput binding assays. Our method, called affinity regression, trains on protein binding microarray (PBM) or RNA compete experiments to learn an interaction model between proteins and nucleic acids, using only protein domain and probe sequences as inputs. By training on mouse homeodomain PBM profiles, our model correctly identifies residues that confer DNA-binding specificity and accurately predicts binding motifs for an independent set of divergent homeodomains. Similarly, learning from RNA compete profiles for diverse RBPs, our model can predict the binding affinities of held-out proteins and identify key RNA-binding residues. More broadly, we envision applying our method to model and predict biological interactions in any setting where there is a high-throughput ‘affinity’ readout. PMID:26571099

  3. Computer code to predict the heat of explosion of high energy materials.

    PubMed

    Muthurajan, H; Sivabalan, R; Pon Saravanan, N; Talawar, M B

    2009-01-30

    The computational approach to the thermochemical changes involved in the process of explosion of a high energy materials (HEMs) vis-à-vis its molecular structure aids a HEMs chemist/engineers to predict the important thermodynamic parameters such as heat of explosion of the HEMs. Such a computer-aided design will be useful in predicting the performance of a given HEM as well as in conceiving futuristic high energy molecules that have significant potential in the field of explosives and propellants. The software code viz., LOTUSES developed by authors predicts various characteristics of HEMs such as explosion products including balanced explosion reactions, density of HEMs, velocity of detonation, CJ pressure, etc. The new computational approach described in this paper allows the prediction of heat of explosion (DeltaH(e)) without any experimental data for different HEMs, which are comparable with experimental results reported in literature. The new algorithm which does not require any complex input parameter is incorporated in LOTUSES (version 1.5) and the results are presented in this paper. The linear regression analysis of all data point yields the correlation coefficient R(2)=0.9721 with a linear equation y=0.9262x+101.45. The correlation coefficient value 0.9721 reveals that the computed values are in good agreement with experimental values and useful for rapid hazard assessment of energetic materials. PMID:18513863

  4. Analysis of prediction algorithms for residual compression in a lossy to lossless scalable video coding system based on HEVC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heindel, Andreas; Wige, Eugen; Kaup, André

    2014-09-01

    Lossless image and video compression is required in many professional applications. However, lossless coding results in a high data rate, which leads to a long wait for the user when the channel capacity is limited. To overcome this problem, scalable lossless coding is an elegant solution. It provides a fast accessible preview by a lossy compressed base layer, which can be refined to a lossless output when the enhancement layer is received. Therefore, this paper presents a lossy to lossless scalable coding system where the enhancement layer is coded by means of intra prediction and entropy coding. Several algorithms are evaluated for the prediction step in this paper. It turned out that Sample-based Weighted Prediction is a reasonable choice for usual consumer video sequences and the Median Edge Detection algorithm is better suited for medical content from computed tomography. For both types of sequences the efficiency may be further improved by the much more complex Edge-Directed Prediction algorithm. In the best case, in total only about 2.7% additional data rate has to be invested for scalable coding compared to single-layer JPEG-LS compression for usual consumer video sequences. For the case of the medical sequences scalable coding is even more efficient than JPEG-LS compression for certain values of QP.

  5. Discrete coding of stimulus value, reward expectation, and reward prediction error in the dorsal striatum.

    PubMed

    Oyama, Kei; Tateyama, Yukina; Hernádi, István; Tobler, Philippe N; Iijima, Toshio; Tsutsui, Ken-Ichiro

    2015-11-01

    To investigate how the striatum integrates sensory information with reward information for behavioral guidance, we recorded single-unit activity in the dorsal striatum of head-fixed rats participating in a probabilistic Pavlovian conditioning task with auditory conditioned stimuli (CSs) in which reward probability was fixed for each CS but parametrically varied across CSs. We found that the activity of many neurons was linearly correlated with the reward probability indicated by the CSs. The recorded neurons could be classified according to their firing patterns into functional subtypes coding reward probability in different forms such as stimulus value, reward expectation, and reward prediction error. These results suggest that several functional subgroups of dorsal striatal neurons represent different kinds of information formed through extensive prior exposure to CS-reward contingencies. PMID:26378201

  6. Predictive coding and multisensory integration: an attentional account of the multisensory mind

    PubMed Central

    Talsma, Durk

    2015-01-01

    Multisensory integration involves a host of different cognitive processes, occurring at different stages of sensory processing. Here I argue that, despite recent insights suggesting that multisensory interactions can occur at very early latencies, the actual integration of individual sensory traces into an internally consistent mental representation is dependent on both top–down and bottom–up processes. Moreover, I argue that this integration is not limited to just sensory inputs, but that internal cognitive processes also shape the resulting mental representation. Studies showing that memory recall is affected by the initial multisensory context in which the stimuli were presented will be discussed, as well as several studies showing that mental imagery can affect multisensory illusions. This empirical evidence will be discussed from a predictive coding perspective, in which a central top–down attentional process is proposed to play a central role in coordinating the integration of all these inputs into a coherent mental representation. PMID:25859192

  7. Prediction of explosive cylinder tests using equations of state from the PANDA code

    SciTech Connect

    Kerley, G.I.; Christian-Frear, T.L.

    1993-09-28

    The PANDA code is used to construct tabular equations of state (EOS) for the detonation products of 24 explosives having CHNO compositions. These EOS, together with a reactive burn model, are used in numerical hydrocode calculations of cylinder tests. The predicted detonation properties and cylinder wall velocities are found to give very good agreement with experimental data. Calculations of flat plate acceleration tests for the HMX-based explosive LX14 are also made and shown to agree well with the measurements. The effects of the reaction zone on both the cylinder and flat plate tests are discussed. For TATB-based explosives, the differences between experiment and theory are consistently larger than for other compositions and may be due to nonideal (finite dimameter) behavior.

  8. A computer code (SKINTEMP) for predicting transient missile and aircraft heat transfer characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummings, Mary L.

    1994-09-01

    A FORTRAN computer code (SKINTEMP) has been developed to calculate transient missile/aircraft aerodynamic heating parameters utilizing basic flight parameters such as altitude, Mach number, and angle of attack. The insulated skin temperature of a vehicle surface on either the fuselage (axisymmetric body) or wing (two-dimensional body) is computed from a basic heat balance relationship throughout the entire spectrum (subsonic, transonic, supersonic, hypersonic) of flight. This calculation method employs a simple finite difference procedure which considers radiation, forced convection, and non-reactive chemistry. Surface pressure estimates are based on a modified Newtonian flow model. Eckert's reference temperature method is used as the forced convection heat transfer model. SKINTEMP predictions are compared with a limited number of test cases. SKINTEMP was developed as a tool to enhance the conceptual design process of high speed missiles and aircraft. Recommendations are made for possible future development of SKINTEMP to further support the design process.

  9. Prognostic and predictive values of long non-coding RNA LINC00472 in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yi; Katsaros, Dionyssios; Loo, Lenora W M; Hernandez, Brenda Y; Chong, Clayton; Canuto, Emilie Marion; Biglia, Nicoletta; Lu, Lingeng; Risch, Harvey; Chu, Wen-Ming; Yu, Herbert

    2015-04-20

    LINC00472 is a novel long intergenic non-coding RNA. We evaluated LINC00472 expression in breast tumor samples using RT-qPCR, performed a meta-analysis of over 20 microarray datasets from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, and investigated the effect of LINC00472 expression on cell proliferation and migration in breast cancer cells transfected with a LINC00472-expressing vector. Our qPCR results showed that high LINC00472 expression was associated with less aggressive breast tumors and more favorable disease outcomes. Patients with high expression of LINC00472 had significantly reduced risk of relapse and death compared to those with low expression. Patients with high LINC00472 expression also had better responses to adjuvant chemo- or hormonal therapy than did patients with low expression. Results of meta-analysis on multiple studies from the GEO database were in agreement with the findings of our study. High LINC00472 was also associated with favorable molecular subtypes, Luminal A or normal-like tumors. Cell culture experiments showed that up-regulation of LINC00472 expression could suppress breast cancer cell proliferation and migration. Collectively, our clinical and in vitro studies suggest that LINC00472 is a tumor suppressor in breast cancer. Evaluating this long non-coding RNA in breast tumors may have prognostic and predictive value in the clinical management of breast cancer. PMID:25865225

  10. Prognostic and predictive values of long non-coding RNA LINC00472 in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yi; Katsaros, Dionyssios; Loo, Lenora W. M.; Hernandez, Brenda Y.; Chong, Clayton; Canuto, Emilie Marion; Biglia, Nicoletta; Lu, Lingeng; Risch, Harvey; Chu, Wen-Ming; Yu, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    LINC00472 is a novel long intergenic non-coding RNA. We evaluated LINC00472 expression in breast tumor samples using RT-qPCR, performed a meta-analysis of over 20 microarray datasets from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, and investigated the effect of LINC00472 expression on cell proliferation and migration in breast cancer cells transfected with a LINC00472-expressing vector. Our qPCR results showed that high LINC00472 expression was associated with less aggressive breast tumors and more favorable disease outcomes. Patients with high expression of LINC00472 had significantly reduced risk of relapse and death compared to those with low expression. Patients with high LINC00472 expression also had better responses to adjuvant chemo- or hormonal therapy than did patients with low expression. Results of meta-analysis on multiple studies from the GEO database were in agreement with the findings of our study. High LINC00472 was also associated with favorable molecular subtypes, Luminal A or normal-like tumors. Cell culture experiments showed that up-regulation of LINC00472 expression could suppress breast cancer cell proliferation and migration. Collectively, our clinical and in vitro studies suggest that LINC00472 is a tumor suppressor in breast cancer. Evaluating this long non-coding RNA in breast tumors may have prognostic and predictive value in the clinical management of breast cancer. PMID:25865225

  11. Prediction and characterization of small non-coding RNAs related to secondary metabolites in Saccharopolyspora erythraea.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei-Bing; Shi, Yang; Yao, Li-Li; Zhou, Ying; Ye, Bang-Ce

    2013-01-01

    Saccharopolyspora erythraea produces a large number of secondary metabolites with biological activities, including erythromycin. Elucidation of the mechanisms through which the production of these secondary metabolites is regulated may help to identify new strategies for improved biosynthesis of erythromycin. In this paper, we describe the systematic prediction and analysis of small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) in S. erythraea, with the aim to elucidate sRNA-mediated regulation of secondary metabolite biosynthesis. In silico and deep-sequencing technologies were applied to predict sRNAs in S. erythraea. Six hundred and forty-seven potential sRNA loci were identified, of which 382 cis-encoded antisense RNA are complementary to protein-coding regions and 265 predicted transcripts are located in intergenic regions. Six candidate sRNAs (sernc292, sernc293, sernc350, sernc351, sernc361, and sernc389) belong to four gene clusters (tpc3, pke, pks6, and nrps5) that are involved in secondary metabolite biosynthesis. Deep-sequencing data showed that the expression of all sRNAs in the strain HL3168 E3 (E3) was higher than that in NRRL23338 (M), except for sernc292 and sernc361 expression. The relative expression of six sRNAs in strain M and E3 were validated by qRT-PCR at three different time points (24, 48, and 72 h). The results showed that, at each time point, the transcription levels of sernc293, sernc350, sernc351, and sernc389 were higher in E3 than in M, with the largest difference observed at 72 h, whereas no signals for sernc292 and sernc361 were detected. sernc293, sernc350, sernc351, and sernc389 probably regulate iron transport, terpene metabolism, geosmin synthesis, and polyketide biosynthesis, respectively. The major significance of this study is the successful prediction and identification of sRNAs in genomic regions close to the secondary metabolism-related genes in S. erythraea. A better understanding of the sRNA-target interaction would help to elucidate the

  12. Contribution to the Prediction of the Fold Code: Application to Immunoglobulin and Flavodoxin Cases

    PubMed Central

    Banach, Mateusz; Prudhomme, Nicolas; Carpentier, Mathilde; Duprat, Elodie; Papandreou, Nikolaos; Kalinowska, Barbara; Chomilier, Jacques; Roterman, Irena

    2015-01-01

    Background Folding nucleus of globular proteins formation starts by the mutual interaction of a group of hydrophobic amino acids whose close contacts allow subsequent formation and stability of the 3D structure. These early steps can be predicted by simulation of the folding process through a Monte Carlo (MC) coarse grain model in a discrete space. We previously defined MIRs (Most Interacting Residues), as the set of residues presenting a large number of non-covalent neighbour interactions during such simulation. MIRs are good candidates to define the minimal number of residues giving rise to a given fold instead of another one, although their proportion is rather high, typically [15-20]% of the sequences. Having in mind experiments with two sequences of very high levels of sequence identity (up to 90%) but different folds, we combined the MIR method, which takes sequence as single input, with the “fuzzy oil drop” (FOD) model that requires a 3D structure, in order to estimate the residues coding for the fold. FOD assumes that a globular protein follows an idealised 3D Gaussian distribution of hydrophobicity density, with the maximum in the centre and minima at the surface of the “drop”. If the actual local density of hydrophobicity around a given amino acid is as high as the ideal one, then this amino acid is assigned to the core of the globular protein, and it is assumed to follow the FOD model. Therefore one obtains a distribution of the amino acids of a protein according to their agreement or rejection with the FOD model. Results We compared and combined MIR and FOD methods to define the minimal nucleus, or keystone, of two populated folds: immunoglobulin-like (Ig) and flavodoxins (Flav). The combination of these two approaches defines some positions both predicted as a MIR and assigned as accordant with the FOD model. It is shown here that for these two folds, the intersection of the predicted sets of residues significantly differs from random selection

  13. A 3D-CFD code for accurate prediction of fluid flows and fluid forces in seals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athavale, M. M.; Przekwas, A. J.; Hendricks, R. C.

    1994-01-01

    Current and future turbomachinery requires advanced seal configurations to control leakage, inhibit mixing of incompatible fluids and to control the rotodynamic response. In recognition of a deficiency in the existing predictive methodology for seals, a seven year effort was established in 1990 by NASA's Office of Aeronautics Exploration and Technology, under the Earth-to-Orbit Propulsion program, to develop validated Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) concepts, codes and analyses for seals. The effort will provide NASA and the U.S. Aerospace Industry with advanced CFD scientific codes and industrial codes for analyzing and designing turbomachinery seals. An advanced 3D CFD cylindrical seal code has been developed, incorporating state-of-the-art computational methodology for flow analysis in straight, tapered and stepped seals. Relevant computational features of the code include: stationary/rotating coordinates, cylindrical and general Body Fitted Coordinates (BFC) systems, high order differencing schemes, colocated variable arrangement, advanced turbulence models, incompressible/compressible flows, and moving grids. This paper presents the current status of code development, code demonstration for predicting rotordynamic coefficients, numerical parametric study of entrance loss coefficients for generic annular seals, and plans for code extensions to labyrinth, damping, and other seal configurations.

  14. Plasma physics of accreting neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghosh, Pranab; Lamb, Frederick K.

    1991-01-01

    Plasma concepts and phenomena that are needed to understand X- and gamma-ray sources are discussed. The capture of material from the wind or from the atmosphere or envelope of a binary companion star is described and the resulting types of accretion flows discussed. The reasons for the formation of a magnetosphere around the neutron star are explained. The qualitative features of the magnetospheres of accreting neutron stars are then described and compared with the qualitative features of the geomagnetosphere. The conditions for stable flow and for angular and linear momentum conservation are explained in the context of accretion by magnetic neutron stars and applied to obtain rough estimates of the scale of the magnetosphere. Accretion from Keplerian disks is then considered in some detail. The radial structure of geometrically thin disk flows, the interaction of disk flows with the neutron star magnetosphere, and models of steady accretion from Keplerian disks are described. Accretion torques and the resulting changes in the spin frequencies of rotating neutron stars are considered. The predicted behavior is then compared with observations of accretion-powered pulsars. Magnetospheric processes that may accelerate particles to very high energies, producing GeV and, perhaps, TeV gamma-rays are discussed. Finally, the mechanisms that decelerate and eventually stop accreting plasma at the surfaces of strongly magnetic neutron stars are described.

  15. Pulsed accretion in a variable protostar.

    PubMed

    Muzerolle, James; Furlan, Elise; Flaherty, Kevin; Balog, Zoltan; Gutermuth, Robert

    2013-01-17

    Periodic increases in luminosity arising from variable accretion rates have been predicted for some pre-main-sequence close binary stars as they grow from circumbinary disks. The phenomenon is known as pulsed accretion and can affect the orbital evolution and mass distribution of young binaries, as well as the potential for planet formation. Accretion variability is a common feature of young stars, with a large range of amplitudes and timescales as measured from multi-epoch observations at optical and infrared wavelengths. Periodic variations consistent with pulsed accretion have been seen in only a few young binaries via optical accretion tracers, albeit intermittently with accretion luminosity variations ranging from zero to 50 per cent from orbit to orbit. Here we report that the infrared luminosity of a young protostar (of age about 10(5) years) increases by a factor of ten in roughly one week every 25.34 days. We attribute this to pulsed accretion associated with an unseen binary companion. The strength and regularity of this accretion signal is surprising; it may be related to the very young age of the system, which is a factor of ten younger than the other pulsed accretors previously studied. PMID:23283175

  16. On the efficiency of image completion methods for intra prediction in video coding with large block structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doshkov, Dimitar; Jottrand, Oscar; Wiegand, Thomas; Ndjiki-Nya, Patrick

    2013-02-01

    Intra prediction is a fundamental tool in video coding with hybrid block-based architecture. Recent investigations have shown that one of the most beneficial elements for a higher compression performance in high-resolution videos is the incorporation of larger block structures. Thus in this work, we investigate the performance of novel intra prediction modes based on different image completion techniques in a new video coding scheme with large block structures. Image completion methods exploit the fact that high frequency image regions yield high coding costs when using classical H.264/AVC prediction modes. This problem is tackled by investigating the incorporation of several intra predictors using the concept of Laplace partial differential equation (PDE), Least Square (LS) based linear prediction and the Auto Regressive model. A major aspect of this article is the evaluation of the coding performance in a qualitative (i.e. coding efficiency) manner. Experimental results show significant improvements in compression (up to 7.41 %) by integrating the LS-based linear intra prediction.

  17. Near-fault earthquake ground motion prediction by a high-performance spectral element numerical code

    SciTech Connect

    Paolucci, Roberto; Stupazzini, Marco

    2008-07-08

    Near-fault effects have been widely recognised to produce specific features of earthquake ground motion, that cannot be reliably predicted by 1D seismic wave propagation modelling, used as a standard in engineering applications. These features may have a relevant impact on the structural response, especially in the nonlinear range, that is hard to predict and to be put in a design format, due to the scarcity of significant earthquake records and of reliable numerical simulations. In this contribution a pilot study is presented for the evaluation of seismic ground-motions in the near-fault region, based on a high-performance numerical code for 3D seismic wave propagation analyses, including the seismic fault, the wave propagation path and the near-surface geological or topographical irregularity. For this purpose, the software package GeoELSE is adopted, based on the spectral element method. The set-up of the numerical benchmark of 3D ground motion simulation in the valley of Grenoble (French Alps) is chosen to study the effect of the complex interaction between basin geometry and radiation mechanism on the variability of earthquake ground motion.

  18. Testing Convergence for Global Accretion Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawley, John F.; Richers, Sherwood A.; Guan, Xiaoyue; Krolik, Julian H.

    2013-08-01

    Global disk simulations provide a powerful tool for investigating accretion and the underlying magnetohydrodynamic turbulence driven by magneto-rotational instability (MRI). Using them to accurately predict quantities such as stress, accretion rate, and surface brightness profile requires that purely numerical effects, arising from both resolution and algorithm, be understood and controlled. We use the flux-conservative Athena code to conduct a series of experiments on disks having a variety of magnetic topologies to determine what constitutes adequate resolution. We develop and apply several resolution metrics: langQz rang and langQ phirang, the ratio of the grid zone size to the characteristic MRI wavelength, αmag, the ratio of the Maxwell stress to the magnetic pressure, and \\langle B_R^2\\rangle /\\langle B_\\phi ^2\\rangle, the ratio of radial to toroidal magnetic field energy. For the initial conditions considered here, adequate resolution is characterized by langQz rang >= 15, langQ phirang >= 20, αmag ≈ 0.45, and \\langle B_R^2\\rangle /\\langle B_\\phi ^2\\rangle \\approx 0.2. These values are associated with >=35 zones per scaleheight H, a result consistent with shearing box simulations. Numerical algorithm is also important. Use of the Harten-Lax-van Leer-Einfeldt flux solver or second-order interpolation can significantly degrade the effective resolution compared to the Harten-Lax-van Leer discontinuities flux solver and third-order interpolation. Resolution at this standard can be achieved only with large numbers of grid zones, arranged in a fashion that matches the symmetries of the problem and the scientific goals of the simulation. Without it, however, quantitative measures important to predictions of observables are subject to large systematic errors.

  19. TESTING CONVERGENCE FOR GLOBAL ACCRETION DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Hawley, John F.; Richers, Sherwood A.; Guan Xiaoyue; Krolik, Julian H. E-mail: xg3z@virginia.edu

    2013-08-01

    Global disk simulations provide a powerful tool for investigating accretion and the underlying magnetohydrodynamic turbulence driven by magneto-rotational instability (MRI). Using them to accurately predict quantities such as stress, accretion rate, and surface brightness profile requires that purely numerical effects, arising from both resolution and algorithm, be understood and controlled. We use the flux-conservative Athena code to conduct a series of experiments on disks having a variety of magnetic topologies to determine what constitutes adequate resolution. We develop and apply several resolution metrics: (Q{sub z} ) and (Q{sub {phi}}), the ratio of the grid zone size to the characteristic MRI wavelength, {alpha}{sub mag}, the ratio of the Maxwell stress to the magnetic pressure, and /, the ratio of radial to toroidal magnetic field energy. For the initial conditions considered here, adequate resolution is characterized by (Q{sub z} ) {>=} 15, (Q{sub {phi}}) {>=} 20, {alpha}{sub mag} Almost-Equal-To 0.45, and /{approx}0.2. These values are associated with {>=}35 zones per scaleheight H, a result consistent with shearing box simulations. Numerical algorithm is also important. Use of the Harten-Lax-van Leer-Einfeldt flux solver or second-order interpolation can significantly degrade the effective resolution compared to the Harten-Lax-van Leer discontinuities flux solver and third-order interpolation. Resolution at this standard can be achieved only with large numbers of grid zones, arranged in a fashion that matches the symmetries of the problem and the scientific goals of the simulation. Without it, however, quantitative measures important to predictions of observables are subject to large systematic errors.

  20. The WISGSK: A computer code for the prediction of a multistage axial compressor performance with water ingestion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsuchiya, T.; Murthy, S. N. B.

    1982-01-01

    A computer code is presented for the prediction of off-design axial flow compressor performance with water ingestion. Four processes were considered to account for the aero-thermo-mechanical interactions during operation with air-water droplet mixture flow: (1) blade performance change, (2) centrifuging of water droplets, (3) heat and mass transfer process between the gaseous and the liquid phases and (4) droplet size redistribution due to break-up. Stage and compressor performance are obtained by a stage stacking procedure using representative veocity diagrams at a rotor inlet and outlet mean radii. The Code has options for performance estimation with (1) mixtures of gas and (2) gas-water droplet mixtures, and therefore can take into account the humidity present in ambient conditions. A test case illustrates the method of using the Code. The Code follows closely the methodology and architecture of the NASA-STGSTK Code for the estimation of axial-flow compressor performance with air flow.

  1. Integration of Expressed Sequence Tag Data Flanking Predicted RNA Secondary Structures Facilitates Novel Non-Coding RNA Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Krzyzanowski, Paul M.; Price, Feodor D.; Muro, Enrique M.; Rudnicki, Michael A.; Andrade-Navarro, Miguel A.

    2011-01-01

    Many computational methods have been used to predict novel non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), but none, to our knowledge, have explicitly investigated the impact of integrating existing cDNA-based Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) data that flank structural RNA predictions. To determine whether flanking EST data can assist in microRNA (miRNA) prediction, we identified genomic sites encoding putative miRNAs by combining functional RNA predictions with flanking ESTs data in a model consistent with miRNAs undergoing cleavage during maturation. In both human and mouse genomes, we observed that the inclusion of flanking ESTs adjacent to and not overlapping predicted miRNAs significantly improved the performance of various methods of miRNA prediction, including direct high-throughput sequencing of small RNA libraries. We analyzed the expression of hundreds of miRNAs predicted to be expressed during myogenic differentiation using a customized microarray and identified several known and predicted myogenic miRNA hairpins. Our results indicate that integrating ESTs flanking structural RNA predictions improves the quality of cleaved miRNA predictions and suggest that this strategy can be used to predict other non-coding RNAs undergoing cleavage during maturation. PMID:21698286

  2. Integration of expressed sequence tag data flanking predicted RNA secondary structures facilitates novel non-coding RNA discovery.

    PubMed

    Krzyzanowski, Paul M; Price, Feodor D; Muro, Enrique M; Rudnicki, Michael A; Andrade-Navarro, Miguel A

    2011-01-01

    Many computational methods have been used to predict novel non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), but none, to our knowledge, have explicitly investigated the impact of integrating existing cDNA-based Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) data that flank structural RNA predictions. To determine whether flanking EST data can assist in microRNA (miRNA) prediction, we identified genomic sites encoding putative miRNAs by combining functional RNA predictions with flanking ESTs data in a model consistent with miRNAs undergoing cleavage during maturation. In both human and mouse genomes, we observed that the inclusion of flanking ESTs adjacent to and not overlapping predicted miRNAs significantly improved the performance of various methods of miRNA prediction, including direct high-throughput sequencing of small RNA libraries. We analyzed the expression of hundreds of miRNAs predicted to be expressed during myogenic differentiation using a customized microarray and identified several known and predicted myogenic miRNA hairpins. Our results indicate that integrating ESTs flanking structural RNA predictions improves the quality of cleaved miRNA predictions and suggest that this strategy can be used to predict other non-coding RNAs undergoing cleavage during maturation. PMID:21698286

  3. Benchmarking and qualification of the NUFREQ-NPW code for best estimate prediction of multi-channel core stability margins

    SciTech Connect

    Taleyarkhan, R.; Lahey, R.T. Jr.; McFarlane, A.F.; Podowski, M.Z.

    1988-01-01

    The NUFREQ-NPW code was modified and set up at Westinghouse, USA for mixed fuel type multi-channel core-wide stability analysis. The resulting code, NUFREQ-NPW, allows for variable axial power profiles between channel groups and can handle mixed fuel types. Various models incorporated into NUFREQ-NPW were systematically compared against the Westinghouse channel stability analysis code MAZDA-NF, for which the mathematical model was developed, in an entirely different manner. Excellent agreement was obtained which verified the thermal-hydraulic modeling and coding aspects. Detailed comparisons were also performed against nuclear-coupled reactor core stability data. All thirteen Peach Bottom-2 EOC-2/3 low flow stability tests were simulated. A key aspect for code qualification involved the development of a physically based empirical algorithm to correct for the effect of core inlet flow development on subcooled boiling. Various other modeling assumptions were tested and sensitivity studies performed. Good agreement was obtained between NUFREQ-NPW predictions and data. Moreover, predictions were generally on the conservative side. The results of detailed direct comparisons with experimental data using the NUFREQ-NPW code; have demonstrated that BWR core stability margins are conservatively predicted, and all data trends are captured with good accuracy. The methodology is thus suitable for BWR design and licensing purposes. 11 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Predictive coding accounts of shared representations in parieto-insular networks.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Hiroaki; Suzuki, Keisuke; Grandi, Laura Clara

    2015-04-01

    The discovery of mirror neurons in the ventral premotor cortex (area F5) and inferior parietal cortex (area PFG) in the macaque monkey brain has provided the physiological evidence for direct matching of the intrinsic motor representations of the self and the visual image of the actions of others. The existence of mirror neurons implies that the brain has mechanisms reflecting shared self and other action representations. This may further imply that the neural basis self-body representations may also incorporate components that are shared with other-body representations. It is likely that such a mechanism is also involved in predicting other's touch sensations and emotions. However, the neural basis of shared body representations has remained unclear. Here, we propose a neural basis of body representation of the self and of others in both human and non-human primates. We review a series of behavioral and physiological findings which together paint a picture that the systems underlying such shared representations require integration of conscious exteroception and interoception subserved by a cortical sensory-motor network involving parieto-inner perisylvian circuits (the ventral intraparietal area [VIP]/inferior parietal area [PFG]-secondary somatosensory cortex [SII]/posterior insular cortex [pIC]/anterior insular cortex [aIC]). Based on these findings, we propose a computational mechanism of the shared body representation in the predictive coding (PC) framework. Our mechanism proposes that processes emerging from generative models embedded in these specific neuronal circuits play a pivotal role in distinguishing a self-specific body representation from a shared one. The model successfully accounts for normal and abnormal shared body phenomena such as mirror-touch synesthesia and somatoparaphrenia. In addition, it generates a set of testable experimental predictions. PMID:25447372

  5. Rhythmic complexity and predictive coding: a novel approach to modeling rhythm and meter perception in music

    PubMed Central

    Vuust, Peter; Witek, Maria A. G.

    2014-01-01

    Musical rhythm, consisting of apparently abstract intervals of accented temporal events, has a remarkable capacity to move our minds and bodies. How does the cognitive system enable our experiences of rhythmically complex music? In this paper, we describe some common forms of rhythmic complexity in music and propose the theory of predictive coding (PC) as a framework for understanding how rhythm and rhythmic complexity are processed in the brain. We also consider why we feel so compelled by rhythmic tension in music. First, we consider theories of rhythm and meter perception, which provide hierarchical and computational approaches to modeling. Second, we present the theory of PC, which posits a hierarchical organization of brain responses reflecting fundamental, survival-related mechanisms associated with predicting future events. According to this theory, perception and learning is manifested through the brain’s Bayesian minimization of the error between the input to the brain and the brain’s prior expectations. Third, we develop a PC model of musical rhythm, in which rhythm perception is conceptualized as an interaction between what is heard (“rhythm”) and the brain’s anticipatory structuring of music (“meter”). Finally, we review empirical studies of the neural and behavioral effects of syncopation, polyrhythm and groove, and propose how these studies can be seen as special cases of the PC theory. We argue that musical rhythm exploits the brain’s general principles of prediction and propose that pleasure and desire for sensorimotor synchronization from musical rhythm may be a result of such mechanisms. PMID:25324813

  6. Limiting Accretion onto Massive Stars by Fragmentation-Induced Starvation

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Thomas; Klessen, Ralf S.; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Banerjee, Robi; /ZAH, Heidelberg

    2010-08-25

    Massive stars influence their surroundings through radiation, winds, and supernova explosions far out of proportion to their small numbers. However, the physical processes that initiate and govern the birth of massive stars remain poorly understood. Two widely discussed models are monolithic collapse of molecular cloud cores and competitive accretion. To learn more about massive star formation, we perform simulations of the collapse of rotating, massive, cloud cores including radiative heating by both non-ionizing and ionizing radiation using the FLASH adaptive mesh refinement code. These simulations show fragmentation from gravitational instability in the enormously dense accretion flows required to build up massive stars. Secondary stars form rapidly in these flows and accrete mass that would have otherwise been consumed by the massive star in the center, in a process that we term fragmentation-induced starvation. This explains why massive stars are usually found as members of high-order stellar systems that themselves belong to large clusters containing stars of all masses. The radiative heating does not prevent fragmentation, but does lead to a higher Jeans mass, resulting in fewer and more massive stars than would form without the heating. This mechanism reproduces the observed relation between the total stellar mass in the cluster and the mass of the largest star. It predicts strong clumping and filamentary structure in the center of collapsing cores, as has recently been observed. We speculate that a similar mechanism will act during primordial star formation.

  7. LIMITING ACCRETION ONTO MASSIVE STARS BY FRAGMENTATION-INDUCED STARVATION

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Thomas; Klessen, Ralf S.; Banerjee, Robi; Low, Mordecai-Mark Mac

    2010-12-10

    Massive stars influence their surroundings through radiation, winds, and supernova explosions far out of proportion to their small numbers. However, the physical processes that initiate and govern the birth of massive stars remain poorly understood. Two widely discussed models are monolithic collapse of molecular cloud cores and competitive accretion. To learn more about massive star formation, we perform and analyze simulations of the collapse of rotating, massive, cloud cores including radiative heating by both non-ionizing and ionizing radiation using the FLASH adaptive-mesh refinement code. These simulations show fragmentation from gravitational instability in the enormously dense accretion flows required to build up massive stars. Secondary stars form rapidly in these flows and accrete mass that would have otherwise been consumed by the massive star in the center, in a process that we term fragmentation-induced starvation. This explains why massive stars are usually found as members of high-order stellar systems that themselves belong to large clusters containing stars of all masses. The radiative heating does not prevent fragmentation, but does lead to a higher Jeans mass, resulting in fewer and more massive stars than would form without the heating. This mechanism reproduces the observed relation between the total stellar mass in the cluster and the mass of the largest star. It predicts strong clumping and filamentary structure in the center of collapsing cores, as has recently been observed. We speculate that a similar mechanism will act during primordial star formation.

  8. Test results of a 40 kW Stirling engine and comparison with the NASA-Lewis computer code predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, D.; Cairelli, J.

    1985-12-01

    A Stirling engine was tested without auxiliaries at NASA-Lewis. Three different regenerator configurations were tested with hydrogen. The test objectives were (1) to obtain steady-state and dynamic engine data, including indicated power, for validation of an existing computer model for this engine; and (2) to evaluate structurally the use of silicon carbide regenerators. This paper presents comparisons of the measured brake performance, indicated mean effective pressure, and cyclic pressure variations with those predicted by the code. The measured data tended to be lower than the computer code predictions. The silicon carbide foam regenerators appear to be structurally suitable, but the foam matrix tested severely reduced performance.

  9. Test results of a 40 kW Stirling engine and comparison with the NASA-Lewis computer code predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, D.; Cairelli, J.

    1985-01-01

    A Stirling engine was tested without auxiliaries at NASA-Lewis. Three different regenerator configurations were tested with hydrogen. The test objectives were (1) to obtain steady-state and dynamic engine data, including indicated power, for validation of an existing computer model for this engine; and (2) to evaluate structurally the use of silicon carbide regenerators. This paper presents comparisons of the measured brake performance, indicated mean effective pressure, and cyclic pressure variations with those predicted by the code. The measured data tended to be lower than the computer code predictions. The silicon carbide foam regenerators appear to be structurally suitable, but the foam matrix tested severely reduced performance.

  10. Observations of accreting pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, Thomas A.; Bildsten, Lars; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Wilson, Robert B.; Finger, Mark H.

    1994-01-01

    We discuss recent observations of accreting binary pulsars with the all-sky BATSE instrument on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. BATSE has detected and studied nearly half of the known accreting pulsar systems. Continuous timing studies over a two-year period have yielded accurate orbital parameters for 9 of these systems, as well as new insights into long-term accretion torque histories.

  11. User's guide for a flat wake rotor inflow/wake velocity prediction code, DOWN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John C.

    1991-01-01

    A computer code named DOWN was created to implement a flat wake theory for the calculation of rotor inflow and wake velocities. A brief description of the code methodology and instructions for its use are given. The code will be available from NASA's Computer Software Management and Information Center (COSMIC).

  12. Bulbar Microcircuit Model Predicts Connectivity and Roles of Interneurons in Odor Coding

    PubMed Central

    Gilra, Aditya; Bhalla, Upinder S.

    2015-01-01

    Stimulus encoding by primary sensory brain areas provides a data-rich context for understanding their circuit mechanisms. The vertebrate olfactory bulb is an input area having unusual two-layer dendro-dendritic connections whose roles in odor coding are unclear. To clarify these roles, we built a detailed compartmental model of the rat olfactory bulb that synthesizes a much wider range of experimental observations on bulbar physiology and response dynamics than has hitherto been modeled. We predict that superficial-layer inhibitory interneurons (periglomerular cells) linearize the input-output transformation of the principal neurons (mitral cells), unlike previous models of contrast enhancement. The linearization is required to replicate observed linear summation of mitral odor responses. Further, in our model, action-potentials back-propagate along lateral dendrites of mitral cells and activate deep-layer inhibitory interneurons (granule cells). Using this, we propose sparse, long-range inhibition between mitral cells, mediated by granule cells, to explain how the respiratory phases of odor responses of sister mitral cells can be sometimes decorrelated as observed, despite receiving similar receptor input. We also rule out some alternative mechanisms. In our mechanism, we predict that a few distant mitral cells receiving input from different receptors, inhibit sister mitral cells differentially, by activating disjoint subsets of granule cells. This differential inhibition is strong enough to decorrelate their firing rate phases, and not merely modulate their spike timing. Thus our well-constrained model suggests novel computational roles for the two most numerous classes of interneurons in the bulb. PMID:25942312

  13. A 4.8 kbps code-excited linear predictive coder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tremain, Thomas E.; Campbell, Joseph P., Jr.; Welch, Vanoy C.

    1988-01-01

    A secure voice system STU-3 capable of providing end-to-end secure voice communications (1984) was developed. The terminal for the new system will be built around the standard LPC-10 voice processor algorithm. The performance of the present STU-3 processor is considered to be good, its response to nonspeech sounds such as whistles, coughs and impulse-like noises may not be completely acceptable. Speech in noisy environments also causes problems with the LPC-10 voice algorithm. In addition, there is always a demand for something better. It is hoped that LPC-10's 2.4 kbps voice performance will be complemented with a very high quality speech coder operating at a higher data rate. This new coder is one of a number of candidate algorithms being considered for an upgraded version of the STU-3 in late 1989. The problems of designing a code-excited linear predictive (CELP) coder to provide very high quality speech at a 4.8 kbps data rate that can be implemented on today's hardware are considered.

  14. Improving the Salammbo code modelling and using it to better predict radiation belts dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maget, Vincent; Sicard-Piet, Angelica; Grimald, Sandrine Rochel; Boscher, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    In the framework of the FP7-SPACESTORM project, one objective is to improve the reliability of the model-based predictions performed of the radiation belt dynamics (first developed during the FP7-SPACECAST project). In this purpose we have analyzed and improved the way the simulations using the ONERA Salammbô code are performed, especially in : - Better controlling the driving parameters of the simulation; - Improving the initialization of the simulation in order to be more accurate at most energies for L values between 4 to 6; - Improving the physics of the model. For first point a statistical analysis of the accuracy of the Kp index has been conducted. For point two we have based our method on a long duration simulation in order to extract typical radiation belt states depending on the solar wind stress and geomagnetic activity. For last point we have first improved separately the modelling of different processes acting in the radiation belts and then, we have analyzed the global improvements obtained when simulating them together. We'll discuss here on all these points and on the balance that has to be taken into account between modeled processes to globally improve the radiation belt modelling.

  15. Liner Optimization Studies Using the Ducted Fan Noise Prediction Code TBIEM3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, M. H.; Farassat, F.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate the usefulness of the ducted fan noise prediction code TBIEM3D as a liner optimization design tool. Boundary conditions on the interior duct wall allow for hard walls or a locally reacting liner with axially segmented, circumferentially uniform impedance. Two liner optimization studies are considered in which farfield noise attenuation due to the presence of a liner is maximized by adjusting the liner impedance. In the first example, the dependence of optimal liner impedance on frequency and liner length is examined. Results show that both the optimal impedance and attenuation levels are significantly influenced by liner length and frequency. In the second example, TBIEM3D is used to compare radiated sound pressure levels between optimal and non-optimal liner cases at conditions designed to simulate take-off. It is shown that significant noise reduction is achieved for most of the sound field by selecting the optimal or near optimal liner impedance. Our results also indicate that there is relatively large region of the impedance plane over which optimal or near optimal liner behavior is attainable. This is an important conclusion for the designer since there are variations in liner characteristics due to manufacturing imprecisions.

  16. CoRAL: predicting non-coding RNAs from small RNA-sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Leung, Yuk Yee; Ryvkin, Paul; Ungar, Lyle H; Gregory, Brian D; Wang, Li-San

    2013-08-01

    The surprising observation that virtually the entire human genome is transcribed means we know little about the function of many emerging classes of RNAs, except their astounding diversities. Traditional RNA function prediction methods rely on sequence or alignment information, which are limited in their abilities to classify the various collections of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). To address this, we developed Classification of RNAs by Analysis of Length (CoRAL), a machine learning-based approach for classification of RNA molecules. CoRAL uses biologically interpretable features including fragment length and cleavage specificity to distinguish between different ncRNA populations. We evaluated CoRAL using genome-wide small RNA sequencing data sets from four human tissue types and were able to classify six different types of RNAs with ∼80% cross-validation accuracy. Analysis by CoRAL revealed that microRNAs, small nucleolar and transposon-derived RNAs are highly discernible and consistent across all human tissue types assessed, whereas long intergenic ncRNAs, small cytoplasmic RNAs and small nuclear RNAs show less consistent patterns. The ability to reliably annotate loci across tissue types demonstrates the potential of CoRAL to characterize ncRNAs using small RNA sequencing data in less well-characterized organisms. PMID:23700308

  17. Temporal integration of multisensory stimuli in autism spectrum disorder: a predictive coding perspective.

    PubMed

    Chan, Jason S; Langer, Anne; Kaiser, Jochen

    2016-08-01

    Recently, a growing number of studies have examined the role of multisensory temporal integration in people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Some studies have used temporal order judgments or simultaneity judgments to examine the temporal binding window, while others have employed multisensory illusions, such as the sound-induced flash illusion (SiFi). The SiFi is an illusion created by presenting two beeps along with one flash. Participants perceive two flashes if the stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA) between the two flashes is brief. The temporal binding window can be measured by modulating the SOA between the beeps. Each of these tasks has been used to compare the temporal binding window in people with ASD and typically developing individuals; however, the results have been mixed. While temporal order and simultaneity judgment tasks have shown little temporal binding window differences between groups, studies using the SiFi have found a wider temporal binding window in ASD compared to controls. In this paper, we discuss these seemingly contradictory findings and suggest that predictive coding may be able to explain the differences between these tasks. PMID:27324803

  18. The effect of LPC (Linear Predictive Coding) processing on the recognition of unfamiliar speakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt-Nielsen, A.; Stern, K. R.

    1985-09-01

    The effect of narrowband digital processing, using a linear predictive coding (LPC) algorithm at 2400 bits/s, on the recognition of previously unfamiliar speakers was investigated. Three sets of five speakers each (two sets of males differing in rated voice distinctiveness and one set of females) were tested for speaker recognition in two separate experiments using a familiarization-test procedure. In the first experiment three groups of listeners each heard a single set of speakers in both voice processing conditions, and in the second two groups of listeners each heard all three sets of speakers in a single voice processing condition. There were significant differences among speaker sets both with and without LPC processing, with the low distinctive males generally more poorly recognized than the other groups. There was also an interaction of speaker set and voice processing condition; the low distinctive males were no less recognizable over LPC than they were unprocessed, and one speaker in particular was actually better recognized over LPC. Although it seems that on the whole LPC processing reduces speaker recognition, the reverse may be the case for some speakers in some contexts. This suggests that one should be cautious about comparing speaker recognition for different voi ce systems of the basis of a single set of speakers. It also presents a serious obstacle to the development of a reliable standardized test of speaker recognizability.

  19. Obscured accretion from AGN surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vignali, Cristian

    2014-07-01

    Recent models of super-massive black hole (SMBH) and host galaxy joint evolution predict the presence of a key phase where accretion, traced by obscured Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) emission, is coupled with powerful star formation. Then feedback processes likely self-regulate the SMBH growth and quench the star-formation activity. AGN in this important evolutionary phase have been revealed in the last decade via surveys at different wavelengths. On the one hand, moderate-to-deep X-ray surveys have allowed a systematic search for heavily obscured AGN, up to very high redshifts (z~5). On the other hand, infrared/optical surveys have been invaluable in offering complementary methods to select obscured AGN also in cases where the nuclear X-ray emission below 10 keV is largely hidden to our view. In this review I will present my personal perspective of the field of obscured accretion from AGN surveys.

  20. Simulation of transport in the ignited ITER with 1.5-D predictive code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, G.

    1995-01-01

    The confinement in the bulk and scrape-off layer plasmas of the ITER EDA and CDA is investigated with special versions of the 1.5-D BALDUR predictive transport code for the case of peaked density profiles (Cu=1.0). The code self-consistently computes 2-D equilibria and solves 1-D transport equations with empirical transport coefficients for the ohmic, L and ELMy H mode regimes. Self-sustained steady state thermonuclear burn is demonstrated for up to 500 s. It is shown to be compatible with the strong radiation losses for divertor heat load reduction caused by the seeded impurities iron, neon and argon. The corresponding global and local energy and particle transport are presented. The required radiation corrected energy confinement times of the EDA and CDA are found to be close to 4 s, which is attainable according to the ITER ELMy H mode scalings. In the reference cases, the steady state helium fraction is 7%, which already causes significant dilution of the DT fuel. The fractions of iron, neon and argon needed for the prescribed radiative power loss are given. It is shown that high radiative losses from the confinement zone, mainly by bremsstrahlung, cannot be avoided. The radiation profiles of iron and argon are found to be the same, with two thirds of the total radiation being emitted from closed flux surfaces. Fuel dilution due to iron and argon is small. The neon radiation is more peripheral, since only half of the total radiative power is lost within the separatrix. But neon is found to cause high fuel. Dilution. The combined dilution effect by helium and neon conflicts with burn control, self-sustained burn and divertor power reduction. Raising the helium fraction above 10% leads to the same difficulties owing to fuel dilution. The high helium levels of the present EDA design are thus unacceptable. For the reference EDA case, the self-consistent electron density and temperature at the separatrix are 5.6*1019 m-3 and 130 eV, respectively. The bootstrap

  1. Prediction of stochastic blade responses using measured wind-speed data as input to the FLAP code

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, A.D.; Thresher, R.W.

    1988-11-01

    Accurately predicting wind turbine blade loads and response is important in predicting the fatigue life of wind turbines. The necessity of including turbulent wind effects in structural dynamics model has long been recognized. At SERI, the structural dynamics model, or FLAP (Force and Loads Analysis Program), is being modified to include turbulent wind fluctuations in predicting rotor blade forces and moments. The objective of this paper is to show FLAP code predictions compared to measured blade loads, using actual anemometer array data and a curve-fitting routine to form series expansion coefficients as the turbulence input to FLAP. The predictions are performed for a three-blade upwind field test turbine. An array of nine anemometers was located 0.8 rotor diameters (D) upwind of the turbine, and data from each anemometer are used in a least-squares curve-fitting routine to obtain a series expansion of the turbulence field over the rotor disk. Three 10-min data cases are used to compare FLAP predictions to measured results. Each case represents a different mean wind speed and turbulence intensity. The time series of coefficients in the expansion of the turbulent velocity field are input to the FLAP code. Time series of predicted flap-bending, moments at two blade radial stations are obtained, and power spectra of the predictions are then compared to power spectra of the measured blade bending moments. Conclusions are then drawn about the FLAP code's ability to predict the blade loads for these three data cases. Recommendations for future work are also made. 9 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Prediction of stochastic blade responses using measured wind-speed data as input to the FLAP code

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, A.D.; Thresher, R.W. )

    1990-11-01

    Accurately predicting wind turbine blade loads and response is important in predicting the fatigue life of wind turbines. The necessity of including turbulent wind effects in structural dynamics models has long been recognized. At SERI, the structural dynamics model, or FLAP (Force and Loads Analysis Program), is being modified to include turbulent wind fluctuations in predicting rotor blade forces and moments. The objective of this paper is to show FLAP code predictions compared to measured blade loads using actual anemometer array data and a curve-fitting routine to form series expansion coefficients as the turbulence input to FLAP. The predictions are performed for a three-bladed upwind field test turbine. An array of nine anemometers was located 0.8 rotor diameters (D) upwind of the turbine, and data from each anemometer are used in a least-squares curve-fitting routine to obtain a series expansion of the turbulence field over the rotor disk. Three 10-min data cases are used to compare FLAP predictions to measured results. Each case represents a different mean wind speed and turbulence intensity. The time series of coefficients in the expansion of the turbulent velocity field are input to the FLAP code. Time series of predicted flap-bending moments at two blade radial stations are obtained, and power spectra of the predictions are then compared to power spectra of the measured blade bending moments. Conclusions are then drawn about the FLAP codes' ability to predict the blade loads for these three data cases. Recommendations for future work are also made.

  3. Frequency-domain stress prediction algorithm for the LIFE2 fatigue analysis code

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, H.J.

    1992-01-01

    The LIFE2 computer code is a fatigue/fracture analysis code that is specialized to the analysis of wind turbine components. The numerical formulation of the code uses a series of cycle mount matrices to describe the cyclic stress states imposed upon the turbine. However, many structural analysis techniques yield frequency-domain stress spectra and a large body of experimental loads (stress) data is reported in the frequency domain. To permit the analysis of this class of data, a Fourier analysis module has been added to the code. The module transforms the frequency spectrum to an equivalent time series suitable for rainflow counting by other modules in the code. This paper describes the algorithms incorporated into the code and uses experimental data to illustrate their use. 10 refs., 11 figs.

  4. ON THE ROLE OF DISKS IN THE FORMATION OF STELLAR SYSTEMS: A NUMERICAL PARAMETER STUDY OF RAPID ACCRETION

    SciTech Connect

    Kratter, Kaitlin M.; Matzner, Christopher D.; Krumholz, Mark R.; Klein, Richard I.

    2010-01-10

    We study rapidly accreting, gravitationally unstable disks with a series of idealized global, numerical experiments using the code ORION. Our numerical parameter study focuses on protostellar disks, showing that one can predict disk behavior and the multiplicity of the accreting star system as a function of two dimensionless parameters which compare the infall rate to the disk sound speed and orbital period. Although gravitational instabilities become strong, we find that fragmentation into binary or multiple systems occurs only when material falls in several times more rapidly than the canonical isothermal limit. The disk-to-star accretion rate is proportional to the infall rate and governed by gravitational torques generated by low-m spiral modes. We also confirm the existence of a maximum stable disk mass: disks that exceed approx50% of the total system mass are subject to fragmentation and the subsequent formation of binary companions.

  5. ICEG2D (v2.0) - An Integrated Software Package for Automated Prediction of Flow Fields for Single-Element Airfoils With Ice Accretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson David S.; Soni, Bharat K.

    2001-01-01

    An integrated geometry/grid/simulation software package, ICEG2D, is being developed to automate computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations for single- and multi-element airfoils with ice accretions. The current version, ICEG213 (v2.0), was designed to automatically perform four primary functions: (1) generate a grid-ready surface definition based on the geometrical characteristics of the iced airfoil surface, (2) generate high-quality structured and generalized grids starting from a defined surface definition, (3) generate the input and restart files needed to run the structured grid CFD solver NPARC or the generalized grid CFD solver HYBFL2D, and (4) using the flow solutions, generate solution-adaptive grids. ICEG2D (v2.0) can be operated in either a batch mode using a script file or in an interactive mode by entering directives from a command line within a Unix shell. This report summarizes activities completed in the first two years of a three-year research and development program to address automation issues related to CFD simulations for airfoils with ice accretions. As well as describing the technology employed in the software, this document serves as a users manual providing installation and operating instructions. An evaluation of the software is also presented.

  6. ICEG2D: An Integrated Software Package for Automated Prediction of Flow Fields for Single-Element Airfoils with Ice Accretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, David S.; Soni, Bharat K.

    2000-01-01

    An integrated software package, ICEG2D, was developed to automate computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations for single-element airfoils with ice accretion. ICEG2D is designed to automatically perform three primary functions: (1) generating a grid-ready, surface definition based on the geometrical characteristics of the iced airfoil surface, (2) generating a high-quality grid using the generated surface point distribution, and (3) generating the input and restart files needed to run the general purpose CFD solver NPARC. ICEG2D can be executed in batch mode using a script file or in an interactive mode by entering directives from a command line. This report summarizes activities completed in the first year of a three-year research and development program to address issues related to CFD simulations for aircraft components with ice accretion. Specifically, this document describes the technology employed in the software, the installation procedure, and a description of the operation of the software package. Validation of the geometry and grid generation modules of ICEG2D is also discussed.

  7. Speech coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gersho, Allen

    1990-05-01

    Recent advances in algorithms and techniques for speech coding now permit high quality voice reproduction at remarkably low bit rates. The advent of powerful single-ship signal processors has made it cost effective to implement these new and sophisticated speech coding algorithms for many important applications in voice communication and storage. Some of the main ideas underlying the algorithms of major interest today are reviewed. The concept of removing redundancy by linear prediction is reviewed, first in the context of predictive quantization or DPCM. Then linear predictive coding, adaptive predictive coding, and vector quantization are discussed. The concepts of excitation coding via analysis-by-synthesis, vector sum excitation codebooks, and adaptive postfiltering are explained. The main idea of vector excitation coding (VXC) or code excited linear prediction (CELP) are presented. Finally low-delay VXC coding and phonetic segmentation for VXC are described.

  8. COSAL: A black-box compressible stability analysis code for transition prediction in three-dimensional boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malik, M. R.

    1982-01-01

    A fast computer code COSAL for transition prediction in three dimensional boundary layers using compressible stability analysis is described. The compressible stability eigenvalue problem is solved using a finite difference method, and the code is a black box in the sense that no guess of the eigenvalue is required from the user. Several optimization procedures were incorporated into COSAL to calculate integrated growth rates (N factor) for transition correlation for swept and tapered laminar flow control wings using the well known e to the Nth power method. A user's guide to the program is provided.

  9. STGSTK: A computer code for predicting multistage axial flow compressor performance by a meanline stage stacking method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinke, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    A FORTRAN computer code is presented for off-design performance prediction of axial-flow compressors. Stage and compressor performance is obtained by a stage-stacking method that uses representative velocity diagrams at rotor inlet and outlet meanline radii. The code has options for: (1) direct user input or calculation of nondimensional stage characteristics; (2) adjustment of stage characteristics for off-design speed and blade setting angle; (3) adjustment of rotor deviation angle for off-design conditions; and (4) SI or U.S. customary units. Correlations from experimental data are used to model real flow conditions. Calculations are compared with experimental data.

  10. Verification of computational aerodynamic predictions for complex hypersonic vehicles using the INCA{trademark} code

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, J.L.; Walker, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a process of combining two state-of-the-art CFD tools, SPRINT and INCA, in a manner which extends the utility of both codes beyond what is possible from either code alone. The speed and efficiency of the PNS code, SPRING, has been combined with the capability of a Navier-Stokes code to model fully elliptic, viscous separated regions on high performance, high speed flight systems. The coupled SPRINT/INCA capability is applicable for design and evaluation of high speed flight vehicles in the supersonic to hypersonic speed regimes. This paper describes the codes involved, the interface process and a few selected test cases which illustrate the SPRINT/INCA coupling process. Results have shown that the combination of SPRINT and INCA produces correct results and can lead to improved computational analyses for complex, three-dimensional problems.

  11. Theory of wind accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakura, N. I.; Postnov, K. A.; Kochetkova, A. Yu.; Hjalmarsdotter, L.

    2014-01-01

    A review of wind accretion in high-mass X-ray binaries is presented. We focus attention to different regimes of quasi-spherical accretion onto the neutron star: the supersonic (Bondi) accretion, which takes place when the captured matter cools down rapidly and falls supersonically toward NS magnetospghere, and subsonic (settling) accretion which occurs when plasma remains hot until it meets the magnetospheric boundary. Two regimes of accretion are separated by an X-ray luminosity of about 4 × 1036 erg/s. In the subsonic case, which sets in at low luminosities, a hot quasi-spherical shell must be formed around the magnetosphere, and the actual accretion rate onto NS is determined by ability of the plasma to enter the magnetosphere due to Rayleigh-Taylor instability. We calculate the rate of plasma entry the magnetopshere and the angular momentum transfer in the shell due to turbulent viscosity appearing in the convective differentially rotating shell. We also discuss and calculate the structure of the magnetospheric boundary layer where the angular momentum between the rotating magnetosphere and the base of the differentially rotating quasi-spherical shell takes place. We show how observations of equilibrium X-ray pulsars Vela X-1 and GX 301-2 can be used to estimate dimensionless parameters of the subsonic settling accretion theory, and obtain the width of the magnetospheric boundary layer for these pulsars.

  12. Euler Technology Assessment for Preliminary Aircraft Design: Compressibility Predictions by Employing the Cartesian Unstructured Grid SPLITFLOW Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finley, Dennis B.; Karman, Steve L., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the second phase of the Euler Technology Assessment program was to evaluate the ability of Euler computational fluid dynamics codes to predict compressible flow effects over a generic fighter wind tunnel model. This portion of the study was conducted by Lockheed Martin Tactical Aircraft Systems, using an in-house Cartesian-grid code called SPLITFLOW. The Cartesian grid technique offers several advantages, including ease of volume grid generation and reduced number of cells compared to other grid schemes. SPLITFLOW also includes grid adaption of the volume grid during the solution to resolve high-gradient regions. The SPLITFLOW code predictions of configuration forces and moments are shown to be adequate for preliminary design, including predictions of sideslip effects and the effects of geometry variations at low and high angles-of-attack. The transonic pressure prediction capabilities of SPLITFLOW are shown to be improved over subsonic comparisons. The time required to generate the results from initial surface data is on the order of several hours, including grid generation, which is compatible with the needs of the design environment.

  13. Assessing the Predictive Capability of the LIFEIV Nuclear Fuel Performance Code using Sequential Calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Stull, Christopher J.; Williams, Brian J.; Unal, Cetin

    2012-07-05

    This report considers the problem of calibrating a numerical model to data from an experimental campaign (or series of experimental tests). The issue is that when an experimental campaign is proposed, only the input parameters associated with each experiment are known (i.e. outputs are not known because the experiments have yet to be conducted). Faced with such a situation, it would be beneficial from the standpoint of resource management to carefully consider the sequence in which the experiments are conducted. In this way, the resources available for experimental tests may be allocated in a way that best 'informs' the calibration of the numerical model. To address this concern, the authors propose decomposing the input design space of the experimental campaign into its principal components. Subsequently, the utility (to be explained) of each experimental test to the principal components of the input design space is used to formulate the sequence in which the experimental tests will be used for model calibration purposes. The results reported herein build on those presented and discussed in [1,2] wherein Verification & Validation and Uncertainty Quantification (VU) capabilities were applied to the nuclear fuel performance code LIFEIV. In addition to the raw results from the sequential calibration studies derived from the above, a description of the data within the context of the Predictive Maturity Index (PMI) will also be provided. The PMI [3,4] is a metric initiated and developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory to quantitatively describe the ability of a numerical model to make predictions in the absence of experimental data, where it is noted that 'predictions in the absence of experimental data' is not synonymous with extrapolation. This simply reflects the fact that resources do not exist such that each and every execution of the numerical model can be compared against experimental data. If such resources existed, the justification for numerical models

  14. Classification of Arabidopsis thaliana gene sequences: clustering of coding sequences into two groups according to codon usage improves gene prediction.

    PubMed

    Mathé, C; Peresetsky, A; Déhais, P; Van Montagu, M; Rouzé, P

    1999-02-01

    While genomic sequences are accumulating, finding the location of the genes remains a major issue that can be solved only for about a half of them by homology searches. Prediction methods are thus required, but unfortunately are not fully satisfying. Most prediction methods implicitly assume a unique model for genes. This is an oversimplification as demonstrated by the possibility to group coding sequences into several classes in Escherichia coli and other genomes. As no classification existed for Arabidopsis thaliana, we classified genes according to the statistical features of their coding sequences. A clustering algorithm using a codon usage model was developed and applied to coding sequences from A. thaliana, E. coli, and a mixture of both. By using it, Arabidopsis sequences were clustered into two classes. The CU1 and CU2 classes differed essentially by the choice of pyrimidine bases at the codon silent sites: CU2 genes often use C whereas CU1 genes prefer T. This classification discriminated the Arabidopsis genes according to their expressiveness, highly expressed genes being clustered in CU2 and genes expected to have a lower expression, such as the regulatory genes, in CU1. The algorithm separated the sequences of the Escherichia-Arabidopsis mixed data set into five classes according to the species, except for one class. This mixed class contained 89 % Arabidopsis genes from CU1 and 11 % E. coli genes, mostly horizontally transferred. Interestingly, most genes encoding organelle-targeted proteins, except the photosynthetic and photoassimilatory ones, were clustered in CU1. By tailoring the GeneMark CDS prediction algorithm to the observed coding sequence classes, its quality of prediction was greatly improved. Similar improvement can be expected with other prediction systems. PMID:9925779

  15. Using self-similarity compensation for improving inter-layer prediction in scalable 3D holoscopic video coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conti, Caroline; Nunes, Paulo; Ducla Soares, Luís.

    2013-09-01

    Holoscopic imaging, also known as integral imaging, has been recently attracting the attention of the research community, as a promising glassless 3D technology due to its ability to create a more realistic depth illusion than the current stereoscopic or multiview solutions. However, in order to gradually introduce this technology into the consumer market and to efficiently deliver 3D holoscopic content to end-users, backward compatibility with legacy displays is essential. Consequently, to enable 3D holoscopic content to be delivered and presented on legacy displays, a display scalable 3D holoscopic coding approach is required. Hence, this paper presents a display scalable architecture for 3D holoscopic video coding with a three-layer approach, where each layer represents a different level of display scalability: Layer 0 - a single 2D view; Layer 1 - 3D stereo or multiview; and Layer 2 - the full 3D holoscopic content. In this context, a prediction method is proposed, which combines inter-layer prediction, aiming to exploit the existing redundancy between the multiview and the 3D holoscopic layers, with self-similarity compensated prediction (previously proposed by the authors for non-scalable 3D holoscopic video coding), aiming to exploit the spatial redundancy inherent to the 3D holoscopic enhancement layer. Experimental results show that the proposed combined prediction can improve significantly the rate-distortion performance of scalable 3D holoscopic video coding with respect to the authors' previously proposed solutions, where only inter-layer or only self-similarity prediction is used.

  16. Bioinformatics Approach for Prediction of Functional Coding/Noncoding Simple Polymorphisms (SNPs/Indels) in Human BRAF Gene.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Mohamed M; Omer, Shaza E; Khalf-Allah, Rahma M; Mustafa, Razaz Y; Ali, Isra S; Mohamed, Sofia B

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out for Homo sapiens single variation (SNPs/Indels) in BRAF gene through coding/non-coding regions. Variants data was obtained from database of SNP even last update of November, 2015. Many bioinformatics tools were used to identify functional SNPs and indels in proteins functions, structures and expressions. Results shown, for coding polymorphisms, 111 SNPs predicted as highly damaging and six other were less. For UTRs, showed five SNPs and one indel were altered in micro RNAs binding sites (3' UTR), furthermore nil SNP or indel have functional altered in transcription factor binding sites (5' UTR). In addition for 5'/3' splice sites, analysis showed that one SNP within 5' splice site and one Indel in 3' splice site showed potential alteration of splicing. In conclude these previous functional identified SNPs and indels could lead to gene alteration, which may be directly or indirectly contribute to the occurrence of many diseases. PMID:27478437

  17. Bimodal gas accretion in the Horizon-MareNostrum galaxy formation simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocvirk, P.; Pichon, C.; Teyssier, R.

    2008-11-01

    The physics of diffuse gas accretion and the properties of the cold and hot modes of accretion on to proto-galaxies between z = 2 and 5.4 is investigated using the large cosmological simulation performed with the RAMSES code on the MareNostrum supercomputing facility. Galactic winds, chemical enrichment, ultraviolet background heating and radiative cooling are taken into account in this very high resolution simulation. Using accretion-weighted temperature histograms, we have performed two different measurements of the thermal state of the gas accreted towards the central galaxy. The first measurement, performed using accretion-weighted histograms on a spherical surface of radius 0.2Rvir centred on the densest gas structure near the halo centre of mass, is a good indicator of the presence of an accretion shock in the vicinity of the galactic disc. We define the hot shock mass, Mshock, as the typical halo mass separating cold dominated from hot dominated accretion in the vicinity of the galaxy. The second measurement is performed by radially averaging histograms between 0.2Rvir and Rvir, in order to detect radially extended structures such as gas filaments: this is a good proxy for detecting cold streams feeding the central galaxy. We define Mstream as the transition mass separating cold dominated from hot dominated accretion in the outer halo, marking the disappearance of these cold streams. We find a hot shock transition mass of Mshock = 1011.6Msolar (dark matter), with no significant evolution with redshift. Conversely, we find that Mstream increases sharply with z. Our measurements are in agreement with the analytical predictions of Birnboim & Dekel and Dekel & Birnboim, if we correct their model by assuming low metallicity (<=10-3Zsolar) for the filaments, correspondingly to our measurements. Metal enrichment of the intergalactic medium is therefore a key ingredient in determining the transition mass from cold to hot dominated diffuse gas accretion. We find that

  18. A temporal predictive code for voice motor control: Evidence from ERP and behavioral responses to pitch-shifted auditory feedback.

    PubMed

    Behroozmand, Roozbeh; Sangtian, Stacey; Korzyukov, Oleg; Larson, Charles R

    2016-04-01

    The predictive coding model suggests that voice motor control is regulated by a process in which the mismatch (error) between feedforward predictions and sensory feedback is detected and used to correct vocal motor behavior. In this study, we investigated how predictions about timing of pitch perturbations in voice auditory feedback would modulate ERP and behavioral responses during vocal production. We designed six counterbalanced blocks in which a +100cents pitch-shift stimulus perturbed voice auditory feedback during vowel sound vocalizations. In three blocks, there was a fixed delay (500, 750 or 1000ms) between voice and pitch-shift stimulus onset (predictable), whereas in the other three blocks, stimulus onset delay was randomized between 500, 750 and 1000ms (unpredictable). We found that subjects produced compensatory (opposing) vocal responses that started at 80ms after the onset of the unpredictable stimuli. However, for predictable stimuli, subjects initiated vocal responses at 20ms before and followed the direction of pitch shifts in voice feedback. Analysis of ERPs showed that the amplitudes of the N1 and P2 components were significantly reduced in response to predictable compared with unpredictable stimuli. These findings indicate that predictions about temporal features of sensory feedback can modulate vocal motor behavior. In the context of the predictive coding model, temporally-predictable stimuli are learned and reinforced by the internal feedforward system, and as indexed by the ERP suppression, the sensory feedback contribution is reduced for their processing. These findings provide new insights into the neural mechanisms of vocal production and motor control. PMID:26835556

  19. Doppler tomography of accretion in binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steeghs, D.

    2004-03-01

    Since its conception, Doppler tomography has matured into a versatile and widely used tool. It exploits the information contained in the highly-structured spectral line-profiles typically observed in mass-transferring binaries. Using inversion techniques akin to medical imaging, it permits the reconstruction of Doppler maps that image the accretion flow on micro-arcsecond scales. I summarise the basic concepts behind the technique and highlight two recent results; the use of donor star emission as a means to system parameter determination, and the real-time movies of the evolving accretion flow in the cataclysmic variable WZ Sge during its 2001 outburst. I conclude with future opportunities in Doppler tomography by exploiting the combination of superior data sets, second generation reconstruction codes and simulated theoretical tomograms to delve deeper into the physics of accretion flows.

  20. The accretion column of AE Aqr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Claudia; Costa, D. Joaquim; Luna, Gerardo; Lima, Isabel J.; Silva, Karleyne M. G.; De Araujo, Jose Carlos N.; Coelho, Jaziel

    2016-07-01

    AE Aqr is a magnetic cataclysmic variable, whose white dwarf rotates at the very fast rate of 33 s modulating the flux from high-energies to optical wavelengths. There are many studies of the origin of its emission, which consider emission from a rotating magnetic field or from an accretion column. Recently, MAGIC observations have discarded AE Aqr emission in very high energy gamma-rays discarding non-thermal emission. Furthermore, soft and hard X-ray data from Swift and NuSTAR were fitted using thermal models. Here we present the modelling of AE Aqr X-ray spectra and light curve considering the emission of a magnetic accretion column using the Cyclops code. The model takes into consideration the 3D geometry of the system, allowing to properly represent the white-dwarf auto eclipse, the pre-shock column absorption, and the varying density and temperature of a tall accretion column.

  1. Accretion disks in Algols: Progenitors and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Rensbergen, W.; De Greve, J. P.

    2016-08-01

    Context. There are only a few Algols with measured accretion disk parameters. These measurements provide additional constraints for tracing the origin of individual systems, narrowing down the initial parameter space. Aims: We investigate the origin and evolution of six Algol systems with accretion disks to find the initial parameters and evolutionary constraints for them. Methods: With a modified binary evolution code, series of close binary evolution are calculated to obtain the best match for observed individual systems. Results: Initial parameters for six Algol systems with accretion disks were determined matching both the present system parameters and the observed disk characteristics. Conclusions: When Roche lobe overflow (RLOF) starts during core hydrogen burning of the donor, the disk lifetime was found to be short. The disk luminosity is comparable to the luminosity of the gainer during a large fraction of the disk lifetime.

  2. Fe Kα Profiles from Simulations of Accreting Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinch, Brooks E.; Schnittman, Jeremy D.; Kallman, Timothy R.; Krolik, Julian H.

    2016-07-01

    We present the first results from a new technique for the prediction of Fe Kα profiles directly from general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulations. Data from a GRMHD simulation are processed by a Monte Carlo global radiation transport code, which determines the X-ray flux irradiating the disk surface and the coronal electron temperature self-consistently. With that irradiating flux and the disk’s density structure drawn from the simulation, we determine the reprocessed Fe Kα emission from photoionization equilibrium and solution of the radiation transfer equation. We produce maps of the surface brightness of Fe Kα emission over the disk surface, which—for our example of a 10{M}ȯ Schwarzschild black hole accreting at 1% the Eddington value—rises steeply one gravitational radius outside the radius of the innermost stable circular orbit and then falls ∝r ‑2 at larger radii. We explain these features of the Fe Kα radial surface brightness profile as consequences of the disk’s ionization structure and an extended coronal geometry, respectively. We also present the corresponding Fe Kα line profiles as would be seen by distant observers at several inclinations. Both the shapes of the line profiles and the equivalent widths of our predicted Kα lines are qualitatively similar to those typically observed from accreting black holes. Most importantly, this work represents a direct link between theory and observation: in a fully self-consistent way, we produce observable results—iron fluorescence line profiles—from the theory of black hole accretion with almost no phenomenological assumptions.

  3. The HART II International Workshop: An Assessment of the State-of-the-Art in Comprehensive Code Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vanderWall, Berend G.; Lim, Joon W.; Smith, Marilyn J.; Jung, Sung N.; Bailly, Joelle; Baeder, James D.; Boyd, D. Douglas, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Significant advancements in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and their coupling with computational structural dynamics (CSD, or comprehensive codes) for rotorcraft applications have been achieved recently. Despite this, CSD codes with their engineering level of modeling the rotor blade dynamics, the unsteady sectional aerodynamics and the vortical wake are still the workhorse for the majority of applications. This is especially true when a large number of parameter variations is to be performed and their impact on performance, structural loads, vibration and noise is to be judged in an approximate yet reliable and as accurate as possible manner. In this article, the capabilities of such codes are evaluated using the HART II International Workshop database, focusing on a typical descent operating condition which includes strong blade-vortex interactions. A companion article addresses the CFD/CSD coupled approach. Three cases are of interest: the baseline case and two cases with 3/rev higher harmonic blade root pitch control (HHC) with different control phases employed. One setting is for minimum blade-vortex interaction noise radiation and the other one for minimum vibration generation. The challenge is to correctly predict the wake physics-especially for the cases with HHC-and all the dynamics, aerodynamics, modifications of the wake structure and the aero-acoustics coming with it. It is observed that the comprehensive codes used today have a surprisingly good predictive capability when they appropriately account for all of the physics involved. The minimum requirements to obtain these results are outlined.

  4. An Assessment of Comprehensive Code Prediction State-of-the-Art Using the HART II International Workshop Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vanderWall, Berend G.; Lim, Joon W.; Smith, Marilyn J.; Jung, Sung N.; Bailly, Joelle; Baeder, James D.; Boyd, D. Douglas, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Despite significant advancements in computational fluid dynamics and their coupling with computational structural dynamics (= CSD, or comprehensive codes) for rotorcraft applications, CSD codes with their engineering level of modeling the rotor blade dynamics, the unsteady sectional aerodynamics and the vortical wake are still the workhorse for the majority of applications. This is especially true when a large number of parameter variations is to be performed and their impact on performance, structural loads, vibration and noise is to be judged in an approximate yet reliable and as accurate as possible manner. In this paper, the capabilities of such codes are evaluated using the HART II Inter- national Workshop data base, focusing on a typical descent operating condition which includes strong blade-vortex interactions. Three cases are of interest: the baseline case and two cases with 3/rev higher harmonic blade root pitch control (HHC) with different control phases employed. One setting is for minimum blade-vortex interaction noise radiation and the other one for minimum vibration generation. The challenge is to correctly predict the wake physics - especially for the cases with HHC - and all the dynamics, aerodynamics, modifications of the wake structure and the aero-acoustics coming with it. It is observed that the comprehensive codes used today have a surprisingly good predictive capability when they appropriately account for all of the physics involved. The minimum requirements to obtain these results are outlined.

  5. Fan Noise Prediction System Development: Source/Radiation Field Coupling and Workstation Conversion for the Acoustic Radiation Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, H. D.

    1993-01-01

    The Acoustic Radiation Code (ARC) is a finite element program used on the IBM mainframe to predict far-field acoustic radiation from a turbofan engine inlet. In this report, requirements for developers of internal aerodynamic codes regarding use of their program output an input for the ARC are discussed. More specifically, the particular input needed from the Bolt, Beranek and Newman/Pratt and Whitney (turbofan source noise generation) Code (BBN/PWC) is described. In a separate analysis, a method of coupling the source and radiation models, that recognizes waves crossing the interface in both directions, has been derived. A preliminary version of the coupled code has been developed and used for initial evaluation of coupling issues. Results thus far have shown that reflection from the inlet is sufficient to indicate that full coupling of the source and radiation fields is needed for accurate noise predictions ' Also, for this contract, the ARC has been modified for use on the Sun and Silicon Graphics Iris UNIX workstations. Changes and additions involved in this effort are described in an appendix.

  6. Positive predictive values of the coding for bisphosphonate therapy among cancer patients in the Danish National Patient Registry

    PubMed Central

    Nielsson, Malene Schou; Erichsen, Rune; Frøslev, Trine; Taylor, Aliki; Acquavella, John; Ehrenstein, Vera

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to estimate the positive predictive value (PPV) of the coding for bisphosphonate treatment in selected cancer patients from the Danish National Patient Registry (DNPR). Methods Through the DNPR, we identified all patients with recorded cancer of the breast, prostate, lung, kidney, and with multiple myeloma. We restricted the study sample to patients with bisphosphonate treatment recorded during an admission to Aalborg Hospital, Denmark, from 2005 through 2009. We retrieved and reviewed medical records of these patients from the initial cancer diagnosis onwards to confirm or rule out bisphosphonate therapy. We calculated the PPV of the treatment coding as the proportion of patients with confirmed bisphosphonate treatment. Results We retrieved and reviewed the medical records of 60 cancer patients with treatment codes corresponding to bisphosphonate therapy. Recorded code corresponded to treatment administered intravenously for 59 of 60 patients, corresponding to a PPV of 98.3% (95% confidence interval 92.5–99.8). In the remaining patient, bisphosphonate treatment was also confirmed but was an orally administered bisphosphonate; thus, the treatment for any bisphosphonate regardless of administration was confirmed for all 60 patients (PPV of 100%, 95% confidence interval 95.9–100.0). Conclusion The PPV of bisphosphonate treatment coding among cancer patients in the DNPR is very high and the recorded treatment nearly always corresponds to intravenous administration. PMID:22977313

  7. Rotating Bondi Accretion Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Myeong-Gu; Han, Du-Hwan

    2016-06-01

    The characteristics of accretion flow onto a black hole are determined by the physical condition of gas at large radius. When the gas has no angular momentum and is polytropic, the accretion flow becomes the classic Bondi flow. The mass accretion rate in such case is an eigenvalue and uniquely determined by the density and the temperature of the surrounding gas for a given black hole mass. When the gas has angular momentum above some critical value, the angular momentum of the gas should be removed by viscosity to reach the black hole horizon. We study, within the slim disk approximation, rotating polytropic accretion flow with alpha viscosity as an an extension of the Bondi flow. The characteristics of the accretion flow are now determined by the temperature, density, and angular momentum of the gas at the outer boundary. We explore the effects of the viscosity parameter and the outer boundary radius on the physical characteristic of the flow, especially on the mass accretion rate, and compare the result with previous works of Park (2009) and Narayan & Fabian (2011).

  8. Code requirements document: MODFLOW 2.1: A program for predicting moderator flow patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, P.F.; Paik, I.K.

    1992-03-01

    Sudden changes in the temperature of flowing liquids can result in transient buoyancy forces which strongly impact the flow hydrodynamics via flow stratification. These effects have been studied for the case of potential flow of stratified liquids to line sinks, but not for moderator flow in SRS reactors. Standard codes, such as TRAC and COMMIX, do not have the capability to capture the stratification effect, due to strong numerical diffusion which smears away the hot/cold fluid interface. A related problem with standard codes is the inability to track plumes injected into the liquid flow, again due to numerical diffusion. The combined effects of buoyant stratification and plume dispersion have been identified as being important in operation of the Supplementary Safety System which injects neutron-poison ink into SRS reactors to provide safe shutdown in the event of safety rod failure. The MODFLOW code discussed here provides transient moderator flow pattern information with stratification effects, and tracks the location of ink plumes in the reactor. The code, written in Fortran, is compiled for Macintosh II computers, and includes subroutines for interactive control and graphical output. Removing the graphics capabilities, the code can also be compiled on other computers. With graphics, in addition to the capability to perform safety related computations, MODFLOW also provides an easy tool for becoming familiar with flow distributions in SRS reactors.

  9. Code requirements document: MODFLOW 2. 1: A program for predicting moderator flow patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, P.F. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering); Paik, I.K. )

    1992-03-01

    Sudden changes in the temperature of flowing liquids can result in transient buoyancy forces which strongly impact the flow hydrodynamics via flow stratification. These effects have been studied for the case of potential flow of stratified liquids to line sinks, but not for moderator flow in SRS reactors. Standard codes, such as TRAC and COMMIX, do not have the capability to capture the stratification effect, due to strong numerical diffusion which smears away the hot/cold fluid interface. A related problem with standard codes is the inability to track plumes injected into the liquid flow, again due to numerical diffusion. The combined effects of buoyant stratification and plume dispersion have been identified as being important in operation of the Supplementary Safety System which injects neutron-poison ink into SRS reactors to provide safe shutdown in the event of safety rod failure. The MODFLOW code discussed here provides transient moderator flow pattern information with stratification effects, and tracks the location of ink plumes in the reactor. The code, written in Fortran, is compiled for Macintosh II computers, and includes subroutines for interactive control and graphical output. Removing the graphics capabilities, the code can also be compiled on other computers. With graphics, in addition to the capability to perform safety related computations, MODFLOW also provides an easy tool for becoming familiar with flow distributions in SRS reactors.

  10. Planetary migration, accretion, and atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbs-Dixon, Ian M.

    This dissertation explores three distinct projects in the field of planetary formation and evolution: type I migration, cessation of mass accretion, and the atmospheric dynamics of hot Jupiters. All three of these projects touch on outstanding or unresolved issues in the field. Each attempts to unify analytic and numerical approaches in order to physically motivate solutions while simultaneously probing areas currently inaccessible to purely analytic approaches. The first section, type I migration, explores the outstanding problem of the rapid inward migration of low mass planets embedded in protoplanetary disks. Analytic estimates of migration predict characteristic timescales that are much shorter then either observed disk lifetimes or theoretical core-accretion formation timescales. If migration is actually as efficient as these analytic estimates predict, planet formation across the observed range of masses and semimajor axis' is difficult. Here I introduce several new formalisms to both allow the disk to adiabatically adjust to the presence of a planet and include the effect of axisymmetric disk self-gravity. I find that these modifications increase migration timescales by approximately 4 times. In addition to these numerical improvements, I present simulations of migration in lower sound-speed regions of the disk on the grounds that self shadowing within the disk could yield substantially cooler gas temperatures then those derived by most irradiated disk models. In such regions the planetary perturbation excites a secondary instability, leading to the formation of vortices. These vortices cause a substantial reduction in the net torque, increasing migration timescales by up to approximately 200 times the analytically predicted rate. The second section addresses the mechanism for shutting off accretion onto giant planets. According to the conventional sequential accretion scenario, giant planets acquire a majority of their gas in a runaway phase. Conventional

  11. Thermal treatments of foods: a predictive general-purpose code for heat and mass transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barba, Anna Angela

    2005-05-01

    Thermal treatments of foods required accurate processing protocols. In this context, mathematical modeling of heat and mass transfer can play an important role in the control and definition of the process parameters as well as to design processing systems. In this work a code able to simulate heat and mass transfer phenomena within solid bodies has been developed. The code has been written with the ability of describing different geometries and it can account for any kind of different initial/boundary conditions. Transport phenomena within multi-layer bodies can be described, and time/position dependent material parameters can be implemented. Finally, the code has been validated by comparison with a problem for which the analytical solution is known, and by comparison with a differential scanning calorimetry signal that described the heating treatment of a raw potato (Solanum tuberosum).

  12. ACCRETION DISK TEMPERATURES OF QSOs: CONSTRAINTS FROM THE EMISSION LINES

    SciTech Connect

    Bonning, E. W.; Shields, G. A.; Stevens, A. C.; Salviander, S. E-mail: shields@astro.as.utexas.edu E-mail: triples@astro.as.utexas.edu

    2013-06-10

    We compare QSO emission-line spectra to predictions based on theoretical ionizing continua of accretion disks. The observed line intensities do not show the expected trend of higher ionization with theoretical accretion disk temperature as predicted from the black hole mass and accretion rate. Consistent with earlier studies, this suggests that the inner disk does not reach temperatures as high as expected from standard disk theory. Modified radial temperature profiles, taking account of winds or advection in the inner disk, achieve better agreement with observation. The emission lines of radio-detected and radio-undetected sources show different trends as a function of the theoretically predicted disk temperature.

  13. Performance Improvement of the Goertzel Algorithm in Estimating of Protein Coding Regions Using Modified Anti-notch Filter and Linear Predictive Coding Model

    PubMed Central

    Farsani, Mahsa Saffari; Sahhaf, Masoud Reza Aghabozorgi; Abootalebi, Vahid

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to improve the performance of the conventional Goertzel algorithm in determining the protein coding regions in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequences. First, the symbolic DNA sequences are converted into numerical signals using electron ion interaction potential method. Then by combining the modified anti-notch filter and linear predictive coding model, we proposed an efficient algorithm to achieve the performance improvement in the Goertzel algorithm for estimating genetic regions. Finally, a thresholding method is applied to precisely identify the exon and intron regions. The proposed algorithm is applied to several genes, including genes available in databases BG570 and HMR195 and the results are compared to other methods based on the nucleotide level evaluation criteria. Results demonstrate that our proposed method reduces the number of incorrect nucleotides which are estimated to be in the noncoding region. In addition, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve has improved by the factor of 1.35 and 1.12 in HMR195 and BG570 datasets respectively, in comparison with the conventional Goertzel algorithm. PMID:27563569

  14. Performance Improvement of the Goertzel Algorithm in Estimating of Protein Coding Regions Using Modified Anti-notch Filter and Linear Predictive Coding Model.

    PubMed

    Farsani, Mahsa Saffari; Sahhaf, Masoud Reza Aghabozorgi; Abootalebi, Vahid

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to improve the performance of the conventional Goertzel algorithm in determining the protein coding regions in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequences. First, the symbolic DNA sequences are converted into numerical signals using electron ion interaction potential method. Then by combining the modified anti-notch filter and linear predictive coding model, we proposed an efficient algorithm to achieve the performance improvement in the Goertzel algorithm for estimating genetic regions. Finally, a thresholding method is applied to precisely identify the exon and intron regions. The proposed algorithm is applied to several genes, including genes available in databases BG570 and HMR195 and the results are compared to other methods based on the nucleotide level evaluation criteria. Results demonstrate that our proposed method reduces the number of incorrect nucleotides which are estimated to be in the noncoding region. In addition, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve has improved by the factor of 1.35 and 1.12 in HMR195 and BG570 datasets respectively, in comparison with the conventional Goertzel algorithm. PMID:27563569

  15. The expression level of small non-coding RNAs derived from the first exon of protein-coding genes is predictive of cancer status

    PubMed Central

    Zovoilis, Athanasios; Mungall, Andrew J; Moore, Richard; Varhol, Richard; Chu, Andy; Wong, Tina; Marra, Marco; Jones, Steven JM

    2014-01-01

    Small non-coding RNAs (smRNAs) are known to be significantly enriched near the transcriptional start sites of genes. However, the functional relevance of these smRNAs remains unclear, and they have not been associated with human disease. Within the cancer genome atlas project (TCGA), we have generated small RNA datasets for many tumor types. In prior cancer studies, these RNAs have been regarded as transcriptional “noise,” due to their apparent chaotic distribution. In contrast, we demonstrate their striking potential to distinguish efficiently between cancer and normal tissues and classify patients with cancer to subgroups of distinct survival outcomes. This potential to predict cancer status is restricted to a subset of these smRNAs, which is encoded within the first exon of genes, highly enriched within CpG islands and negatively correlated with DNA methylation levels. Thus, our data show that genome-wide changes in the expression levels of small non-coding RNAs within first exons are associated with cancer. PMID:24534129

  16. Rime ice accretion and its effect on airfoil performance. Ph.D. Thesis. Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg, M. B.

    1982-01-01

    A methodology was developed to predict the growth of rime ice, and the resulting aerodynamic penalty on unprotected, subcritical, airfoil surfaces. The system of equations governing the trajectory of a water droplet in the airfoil flowfield is developed and a numerical solution is obtained to predict the mass flux of super cooled water droplets freezing on impact. A rime ice shape is predicted. The effect of time on the ice growth is modeled by a time-stepping procedure where the flowfield and droplet mass flux are updated periodically through the ice accretion process. Two similarity parameters, the trajectory similarity parameter and accumulation parameter, are found to govern the accretion of rime ice. In addition, an analytical solution is presented for Langmuir's classical modified inertia parameter. The aerodynamic evaluation of the effect of the ice accretion on airfoil performance is determined using an existing airfoil analysis code with empirical corrections. The change in maximum lift coefficient is found from an analysis of the new iced airfoil shape. The drag correction needed due to the severe surface roughness is formulated from existing iced airfoil and rough airfoil data. A small scale wind tunnel test was conducted to determine the change in airfoil performance due to a simulated rime ice shape.

  17. The Infrared Signature of Accretion Luminosity in Protostars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terebey, Susan; Villarama, Ethan G.; Flores-Rivera, Lizxandra

    2016-06-01

    Mass accretion from the disk onto the star is an important mechanism by which a star increases in mass during the formation phase. If the mass accretion rate is time variable then the brightness of the star should also change with time. We use the HOCHUNK3D radiative transfer code to investigate how disk accretion rate (Mdot) affects the protostar spectral energy distribution (SED). The biggest changes in brightness occur at infrared wavelengths ranging from approximately 5 to 100 microns. The results show that the protostar luminosity doubles from 1 to 2 L⊙ when the disk accretion rate is increased to Mdot=3.0e-7 M⊙/year. We conclude that the models are a useful tool to study mass accretion rates and time variability in protostars.

  18. A new code for predicting the thermo-mechanical and irradiation behavior of metallic fuels in sodium fast reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karahan, Aydın; Buongiorno, Jacopo

    2010-01-01

    An engineering code to predict the irradiation behavior of U-Zr and U-Pu-Zr metallic alloy fuel pins and UO2-PuO2 mixed oxide fuel pins in sodium-cooled fast reactors was developed. The code was named Fuel Engineering and Structural analysis Tool (FEAST). FEAST has several modules working in coupled form with an explicit numerical algorithm. These modules describe fission gas release and fuel swelling, fuel chemistry and restructuring, temperature distribution, fuel-clad chemical interaction, and fuel and clad mechanical analysis including transient creep-fracture for the clad. Given the fuel pin geometry, composition and irradiation history, FEAST can analyze fuel and clad thermo-mechanical behavior at both steady-state and design-basis (non-disruptive) transient scenarios. FEAST was written in FORTRAN-90 and has a simple input file similar to that of the LWR fuel code FRAPCON. The metal-fuel version is called FEAST-METAL, and is described in this paper. The oxide-fuel version, FEAST-OXIDE is described in a companion paper. With respect to the old Argonne National Laboratory code LIFE-METAL and other same-generation codes, FEAST-METAL emphasizes more mechanistic, less empirical models, whenever available. Specifically, fission gas release and swelling are modeled with the GRSIS algorithm, which is based on detailed tracking of fission gas bubbles within the metal fuel. Migration of the fuel constituents is modeled by means of thermo-transport theory. Fuel-clad chemical interaction models based on precipitation kinetics were developed for steady-state operation and transients. Finally, a transient intergranular creep-fracture model for the clad, which tracks the nucleation and growth of the cavities at the grain boundaries, was developed for and implemented in the code. Reducing the empiricism in the constitutive models should make it more acceptable to extrapolate FEAST-METAL to new fuel compositions and higher burnup, as envisioned in advanced sodium reactors

  19. The physics of the accretion process in the formation and evolution of Young Stellar Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manara, C. F.

    2014-07-01

    The formation of planets is thought to happen in protoplanetary disks surrounding young stars during the first few Myrs of their pre-main-sequence evolution. In order to understand planet formation a detailed knowledge of the disk evolution process is needed. By studying the interaction of the disk with the central star, which includes accretion of matter due to viscous processes in the disk, we can constrain the physical conditions of the inner gaseous disk in which planet formation takes place. With the recent advent of the X-Shooter spectrograph, a second generation instrument of the ESO/VLT, the excess emission due to accretion in the ultraviolet can be studied simultaneously with the accretion signatures in the visible and in the near-infrared, finally giving a complete view of this phenomenon. In this Thesis I have studied various X-Shooter datasets of young stars to determine the intensity and the properties of the accretion process at various phases of disk evolution and as a function of the central star mass and age. To fully exploit the potential of the X-Shooter spectra, I have developed an innovative method of analysis to derive accretion and stellar parameters with an automatic algorithm. This is based on a set of models, composed of a set of photospheric templates of young stars that I gathered and characterized, a set of slab models, that I have coded, to reproduce the emission due to the accretion shock, and a reddening law to take into account extinction effects. This method allows to accurately determine for the first time the stellar and accretion parameters of the targets self-consistently and with no prior assumptions, a significant improvement with respect to previous studies. I have applied this methodology to determine the correct stellar parameters of two objects in the Orion Nebula Cluster that were reported in the literature to have an anomalous old age. My analysis has shown why previous investigations could not resolve the degeneracy

  20. Lifting scheme-based method for joint coding 3D stereo digital cinema with luminace correction and optimized prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darazi, R.; Gouze, A.; Macq, B.

    2009-01-01

    Reproducing a natural and real scene as we see in the real world everyday is becoming more and more popular. Stereoscopic and multi-view techniques are used for this end. However due to the fact that more information are displayed requires supporting technologies such as digital compression to ensure the storage and transmission of the sequences. In this paper, a new scheme for stereo image coding is proposed. The original left and right images are jointly coded. The main idea is to optimally exploit the existing correlation between the two images. This is done by the design of an efficient transform that reduces the existing redundancy in the stereo image pair. This approach was inspired by Lifting Scheme (LS). The novelty in our work is that the prediction step is been replaced by an hybrid step that consists in disparity compensation followed by luminance correction and an optimized prediction step. The proposed scheme can be used for lossless and for lossy coding. Experimental results show improvement in terms of performance and complexity compared to recently proposed methods.

  1. Predictive coding of visual-auditory and motor-auditory events: An electrophysiological study.

    PubMed

    Stekelenburg, Jeroen J; Vroomen, Jean

    2015-11-11

    The amplitude of auditory components of the event-related potential (ERP) is attenuated when sounds are self-generated compared to externally generated sounds. This effect has been ascribed to internal forward modals predicting the sensory consequences of one's own motor actions. Auditory potentials are also attenuated when a sound is accompanied by a video of anticipatory visual motion that reliably predicts the sound. Here, we investigated whether the neural underpinnings of prediction of upcoming auditory stimuli are similar for motor-auditory (MA) and visual-auditory (VA) events using a stimulus omission paradigm. In the MA condition, a finger tap triggered the sound of a handclap whereas in the VA condition the same sound was accompanied by a video showing the handclap. In both conditions, the auditory stimulus was omitted in either 50% or 12% of the trials. These auditory omissions induced early and mid-latency ERP components (oN1 and oN2, presumably reflecting prediction and prediction error), and subsequent higher-order error evaluation processes. The oN1 and oN2 of MA and VA were alike in amplitude, topography, and neural sources despite that the origin of the prediction stems from different brain areas (motor versus visual cortex). This suggests that MA and VA predictions activate a sensory template of the sound in auditory cortex. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Prediction and Attention. PMID:25641042

  2. Computer code for predicting coolant flow and heat transfer in turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meitner, Peter L.

    1990-01-01

    A computer code was developed to analyze any turbomachinery coolant flow path geometry that consist of a single flow passage with a unique inlet and exit. Flow can be bled off for tip-cap impingement cooling, and a flow bypass can be specified in which coolant flow is taken off at one point in the flow channel and reintroduced at a point farther downstream in the same channel. The user may either choose the coolant flow rate or let the program determine the flow rate from specified inlet and exit conditions. The computer code integrates the 1-D momentum and energy equations along a defined flow path and calculates the coolant's flow rate, temperature, pressure, and velocity and the heat transfer coefficients along the passage. The equations account for area change, mass addition or subtraction, pumping, friction, and heat transfer.

  3. VISA: a computer code for predicting the probability of reactor pressure-vessel failure. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, D.L.; Simonen, F.A.; Strosnider, J. Jr.; Klecker, R.W.; Engel, D.W.; Johnson, K.I.

    1983-09-01

    The VISA (Vessel Integrity Simulation Analysis) code was developed as part of the NRC staff evaluation of pressurized thermal shock. VISA uses Monte Carlo simulation to evaluate the failure probability of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) pressure vessel subjected to a pressure and thermal transient specified by the user. Linear elastic fracture mechanics are used to model crack initiation and propagation. parameters for initial crack size, copper content, initial RT/sub NDT/, fluence, crack-initiation fracture toughness, and arrest fracture toughness are treated as random variables. This report documents the version of VISA used in the NRC staff report (Policy Issue from J.W. Dircks to NRC Commissioners, Enclosure A: NRC Staff Evaluation of Pressurized Thermal Shock, November 1982, SECY-82-465) and includes a user's guide for the code.

  4. One-dimensional code to predict the thermal behavior of the UTSI MHD radiant furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Galanga, F.L.

    1984-03-01

    An analytical model of the thermal behavior of the radiant furnace components installed in the CFFF has been developed. Efforts have been primarily directed towards obtaining a representative global evaluation of the heat recovery of the major downstream components. An overall review of the heat transfer code developed specifically for the DOE CFFF downstream components is presented. The basic methods by which the gas state, transport properties, and the thermal radiative and convective properties are calculated are delineated. Since the thermal behavior of the furnace is radiation dominated, a greater emphasis was placed on this mode of heat transfer. The heat transfer model employs a single zone approximation to the physical problem. The results of the code show good agreement with the experimental data. A more rigorous approach to the problem requires the use of a multi-zone analysis which is presently under consideration. 21 references. (WHK)

  5. APPLYING SPARSE CODING TO SURFACE MULTIVARIATE TENSOR-BASED MORPHOMETRY TO PREDICT FUTURE COGNITIVE DECLINE

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jie; Stonnington, Cynthia; Li, Qingyang; Shi, Jie; Bauer, Robert J.; Gutman, Boris A.; Chen, Kewei; Reiman, Eric M.; Thompson, Paul M.; Ye, Jieping; Wang, Yalin

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive brain disease. Accurate diagnosis of AD and its prodromal stage, mild cognitive impairment, is crucial for clinical trial design. There is also growing interests in identifying brain imaging biomarkers that help evaluate AD risk presymptomatically. Here, we applied a recently developed multivariate tensor-based morphometry (mTBM) method to extract features from hippocampal surfaces, derived from anatomical brain MRI. For such surface-based features, the feature dimension is usually much larger than the number of subjects. We used dictionary learning and sparse coding to effectively reduce the feature dimensions. With the new features, an Adaboost classifier was employed for binary group classification. In tests on publicly available data from the Alzheimers Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, the new framework outperformed several standard imaging measures in classifying different stages of AD. The new approach combines the efficiency of sparse coding with the sensitivity of surface mTBM, and boosts classification performance. PMID:27499829

  6. WINCOF-I code for prediction of fan compressor unit with water ingestion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, S. N. B.; Mullican, A.

    1990-01-01

    The PURDUE-WINCOF code, which provides a numerical method of obtaining the performance of a fan-compressor unit of a jet engine with water ingestion into the inlet, was modified to take into account: (1) the scoop factor, (2) the time required for the setting-in of a quasi-steady distribution of water, and (3) the heat and mass transfer processes over the time calculated under 2. The modified code, named WINCOF-I was utilized to obtain the performance of a fan-compressor unit of a generic jet engine. The results illustrate the manner in which quasi-equilibrium conditions become established in the machine and the redistribution of ingested water in various stages in the form of a film out of the casing wall, droplets across the span, and vapor due to mass transfer.

  7. Improved NASA-ANOPP Noise Prediction Computer Code for Advanced Subsonic Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kontos, K. B.; Janardan, B. A.; Gliebe, P. R.

    1996-01-01

    Recent experience using ANOPP to predict turbofan engine flyover noise suggests that it over-predicts overall EPNL by a significant amount. An improvement in this prediction method is desired for system optimization and assessment studies of advanced UHB engines. An assessment of the ANOPP fan inlet, fan exhaust, jet, combustor, and turbine noise prediction methods is made using static engine component noise data from the CF6-8OC2, E(3), and QCSEE turbofan engines. It is shown that the ANOPP prediction results are generally higher than the measured GE data, and that the inlet noise prediction method (Heidmann method) is the most significant source of this overprediction. Fan noise spectral comparisons show that improvements to the fan tone, broadband, and combination tone noise models are required to yield results that more closely simulate the GE data. Suggested changes that yield improved fan noise predictions but preserve the Heidmann model structure are identified and described. These changes are based on the sets of engine data mentioned, as well as some CFM56 engine data that was used to expand the combination tone noise database. It should be noted that the recommended changes are based on an analysis of engines that are limited to single stage fans with design tip relative Mach numbers greater than one.

  8. GeneValidator: identify problems with protein-coding gene predictions

    PubMed Central

    Drăgan, Monica-Andreea; Moghul, Ismail; Priyam, Anurag; Bustos, Claudio; Wurm, Yannick

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Genomes of emerging model organisms are now being sequenced at very low cost. However, obtaining accurate gene predictions remains challenging: even the best gene prediction algorithms make substantial errors and can jeopardize subsequent analyses. Therefore, many predicted genes must be time-consumingly visually inspected and manually curated. We developed GeneValidator (GV) to automatically identify problematic gene predictions and to aid manual curation. For each gene, GV performs multiple analyses based on comparisons to gene sequences from large databases. The resulting report identifies problematic gene predictions and includes extensive statistics and graphs for each prediction to guide manual curation efforts. GV thus accelerates and enhances the work of biocurators and researchers who need accurate gene predictions from newly sequenced genomes. Availability and implementation: GV can be used through a web interface or in the command-line. GV is open-source (AGPL), available at https://wurmlab.github.io/tools/genevalidator. Contact: y.wurm@qmul.ac.uk Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:26787666

  9. Inner Accretion Disk Regions of Black Hole X-ray Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvesen, Greg

    2015-01-01

    The innermost regions of accretion disks in black hole X-ray binaries dominate the observed X-ray emission, which is the main diagnostic that one uses to gain insights into the physics of black holes and accretion. The standard spectrum predicted from a geometrically thin, optically thick disk experiences non-trivial modification due to conspiring physical effects operating within the vertical disk structure such as Comptonization, free-free emission/absorption, bound-free opacities, and energy dissipation by magnetic processes. The complicated interplay of these effects cause the seed accretion disk spectrum to become hardened and it is this hardened emergent spectrum that we observe. To zeroth order, this hardening can be described by a phenomenological parameter called the spectral hardening factor.In practice, the adopted degree of spectral hardening is confined to lie within a rather restrictive range. I will discuss the following consequences of relaxing this criterion, while still requiring the spectral hardening factor to take on physically plausible values. Examining multiple state transitions of the black hole X-ray binary GX 339-4 with archival data from the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer, I will show that appealing to a spectral hardening factor that varies during state transitions provides a viable alternative to a truncated disk model for the evolution of the inner accretion disk. Having demonstrated that moderate degrees of accretion disk spectral hardening cannot be ruled out by observations, I will explore this possibility from a theoretical standpoint. Extending previous work on radiative transfer modeling coupled to the vertical disk structure, I present the impacts on the emergent accretion disk spectrum caused by disk inclination and by allowing accretion power to be dissipated in the corona. Using magnetohydrodynamic simulations of a localized patch of the accretion disk (i.e., shearing box) performed with the Athena code, I will present the

  10. Predictive Fallout Composition Modeling: Improvements and Applications of the Defense Land Fallout Interpretive Code

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper, David A; Jodoin, Vincent J; Lee, Ronald W; Monterial, Mateusz

    2012-01-01

    This paper outlines several improvements to the Particle Activity Module of the Defense Land Fallout Interpretive Code (DELFIC). The modeling of each phase of the fallout process is discussed within DELFIC to demonstrate the capabilities and limitations with the code for modeling and simulation. Expansion of the DELFIC isotopic library to include actinides and light elements is shown. Several key features of the new library are demonstrated, including compliance with ENDF/B-VII standards, augmentation of hardwired activated soil and actinide decay calculations with exact Bateman calculations, and full physical and chemical fractionation of all material inventories. Improvements to the radionuclide source term are demonstrated, including the ability to specify heterogeneous fission types and the ability to import source terms from irradiation calculations using the Oak Ridge Isotope Generation (ORIGEN) code. Additionally, the dose, kerma, and effective dose conversion factors are revised. Finally, the application of DELFIC for consequence management planning and forensic analysis is presented. For consequence management, DELFIC is shown to provide disaster recovery teams with simulations of real-time events, including the location, composition, time of arrival, activity rates, and dose rates of fallout, accounting for site-specific atmospheric effects. The results from DELFIC are also demonstrated for use by nuclear forensics teams to plan collection routes (including the determination of optimal collection locations), estimate dose rates to collectors, and anticipate the composition of material at collection sites. These capabilities give mission planners the ability to maximize their effectiveness in the field while minimizing risk to their collectors.

  11. VISA-II: a computer code for predicting the probability of reactor pressure vessel failure

    SciTech Connect

    Simonen, F.A.; Johnson, K.I.; Liebetrau, A.M.; Engel, D.W.; Simonen, E.P.

    1986-03-01

    The VISA-II (Vessel Integrity Simulation Analysis code was originally developed as part of the NRC staff evaluation of pressurized thermal shock. VISA-II uses Monte Carlo simulation to evaluate the failure probability of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) pressure vessel subjected to a pressure and thermal transient specified by the user. Linear elastic fracture mechanics methods are used to model crack initiation and propagation. Parameters for initial crack size and location, copper content, initial reference temperature of the nil-ductility transition, fluence, crack-initiation fracture toughness, and arrest fracture toughness are treated as random variables. This report documents an upgraded version of the original VISA code as described in NUREG/CR-3384. Improvements include a treatment of cladding effects, a more general simulation of flaw size, shape and location, a simulation of inservice inspection, an updated simulation of the reference temperature of the nil-ductility transition, and treatment of vessels with multiple welds and initial flaws. The code has been extensively tested and verified and is written in FORTRAN for ease of installation on different computers. 38 refs., 25 figs.

  12. A 2-D orientation-adaptive prediction filter in lifting structures for image coding.

    PubMed

    Gerek, Omer N; Cetin, A Enis

    2006-01-01

    Lifting-style implementations of wavelets are widely used in image coders. A two-dimensional (2-D) edge adaptive lifting structure, which is similar to Daubechies 5/3 wavelet, is presented. The 2-D prediction filter predicts the value of the next polyphase component according to an edge orientation estimator of the image. Consequently, the prediction domain is allowed to rotate +/-45 degrees in regions with diagonal gradient. The gradient estimator is computationally inexpensive with additional costs of only six subtractions per lifting instruction, and no multiplications are required. PMID:16435541

  13. Optimizing color fidelity for display devices using contour phase predictive coding for text, graphics, and video content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebowsky, Fritz

    2013-02-01

    High-end monitors and TVs based on LCD technology continue to increase their native display resolution to 4k2k and beyond. Subsequently, uncompressed pixel data transmission becomes costly when transmitting over cable or wireless communication channels. For motion video content, spatial preprocessing from YCbCr 444 to YCbCr 420 is widely accepted. However, due to spatial low pass filtering in horizontal and vertical direction, quality and readability of small text and graphics content is heavily compromised when color contrast is high in chrominance channels. On the other hand, straight forward YCbCr 444 compression based on mathematical error coding schemes quite often lacks optimal adaptation to visually significant image content. Therefore, we present the idea of detecting synthetic small text fonts and fine graphics and applying contour phase predictive coding for improved text and graphics rendering at the decoder side. Using a predictive parametric (text) contour model and transmitting correlated phase information in vector format across all three color channels combined with foreground/background color vectors of a local color map promises to overcome weaknesses in compression schemes that process luminance and chrominance channels separately. The residual error of the predictive model is being minimized more easily since the decoder is an integral part of the encoder. A comparative analysis based on some competitive solutions highlights the effectiveness of our approach, discusses current limitations with regard to high quality color rendering, and identifies remaining visual artifacts.

  14. Ringed Accretion Disks: Instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugliese, D.; Stuchlík, Z.

    2016-04-01

    We analyze the possibility that several instability points may be formed, due to the Paczyński mechanism of violation of mechanical equilibrium, in the orbiting matter around a supermassive Kerr black hole. We consider a recently proposed model of a ringed accretion disk, made up by several tori (rings) that can be corotating or counter-rotating relative to the Kerr attractor due to the history of the accretion process. Each torus is governed by the general relativistic hydrodynamic Boyer condition of equilibrium configurations of rotating perfect fluids. We prove that the number of the instability points is generally limited and depends on the dimensionless spin of the rotating attractor.

  15. Small Engine Technology (SET) Task 23 ANOPP Noise Prediction for Small Engines, Wing Reflection Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieber, Lysbeth; Brown, Daniel; Golub, Robert A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The work performed under Task 23 consisted of the development and demonstration of improvements for the NASA Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP), specifically targeted to the modeling of engine noise enhancement due to wing reflection. This report focuses on development of the model and procedure to predict the effects of wing reflection, and the demonstration of the procedure, using a representative wing/engine configuration.

  16. Test results of a 40-kW Stirling engine and comparison with the NASA Lewis computer code predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, David J.; Cairelli, James E.

    1988-01-01

    A Stirling engine was tested without auxiliaries at Nasa-Lewis. Three different regenerator configurations were tested with hydrogen. The test objectives were: (1) to obtain steady-state and dynamic engine data, including indicated power, for validation of an existing computer model for this engine; and (2) to evaluate structurally the use of silicon carbide regenerators. This paper presents comparisons of the measured brake performance, indicated mean effective pressure, and cyclic pressure variations from those predicted by the code. The silicon carbide foam generators appear to be structurally suitable, but the foam matrix showed severely reduced performance.

  17. The prediction of viscous hypersonic flows about complex configurations using an upwind parabolized Navier-Stokes code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narain, J. P.; Muramoto, K. K.; Lawrence, S. L.

    1991-01-01

    A three-dimensional parabolized Navier-Stokes computer code which employs an upwind algorithm is used to conduct a numerical study of an advanced maneuvering reentry vehicle configuration. Comparisons between numerical solutions and experimental data are presented for surface pressure, wall heat flux, and overall forces and moments. The effects of angle of attack, angle of yaw, and surface mass injection are investigated. Good agreement is observed between the calculated and measured data. The results of this investigation demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of an upwind scheme in predicting the hypersonic flow field characteristics about a complex configuration.

  18. Test results of a 40-kW Stirling engine and comparison with the NASA Lewis computer code predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, David J.; Cairelli, James E.

    1988-03-01

    A Stirling engine was tested without auxiliaries at Nasa-Lewis. Three different regenerator configurations were tested with hydrogen. The test objectives were: (1) to obtain steady-state and dynamic engine data, including indicated power, for validation of an existing computer model for this engine; and (2) to evaluate structurally the use of silicon carbide regenerators. This paper presents comparisons of the measured brake performance, indicated mean effective pressure, and cyclic pressure variations from those predicted by the code. The silicon carbide foam generators appear to be structurally suitable, but the foam matrix showed severely reduced performance.

  19. Simulations of accretion disks in pseudo-complex General Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, P. O.; Algalán B., M.; Schönenbach, T.; Greiner, W.

    2015-11-01

    After a summary on pseudo-complex General Relativity (pc-GR), circular orbits and stable orbits in general are discussed, including predictions compared to observations. Using a modified version of a model for accretions disks, presented by Page and Thorne in 1974, we apply the raytracing technique in order to simulate the appearance of an accretion disk as it should be observed in a detector. In pc-GR we predict a dark ring near a very massive, rapidly rotating object.

  20. The functional anatomy of schizophrenia: A dynamic causal modeling study of predictive coding.

    PubMed

    Fogelson, Noa; Litvak, Vladimir; Peled, Avi; Fernandez-del-Olmo, Miguel; Friston, Karl

    2014-09-01

    This paper tests the hypothesis that patients with schizophrenia have a deficit in selectively attending to predictable events. We used dynamic causal modeling (DCM) of electrophysiological responses - to predictable and unpredictable visual targets - to quantify the effective connectivity within and between cortical sources in the visual hierarchy in 25 schizophrenia patients and 25 age-matched controls. We found evidence for marked differences between normal subjects and schizophrenia patients in the strength of extrinsic backward connections from higher hierarchical levels to lower levels within the visual system. In addition, we show that not only do schizophrenia subjects have abnormal connectivity but also that they fail to adjust or optimize this connectivity when events can be predicted. Thus, the differential intrinsic recurrent connectivity observed during processing of predictable versus unpredictable targets was markedly attenuated in schizophrenia patients compared with controls, suggesting a failure to modulate the sensitivity of neurons responsible for passing sensory information of prediction errors up the visual cortical hierarchy. The findings support the proposed role of abnormal connectivity in the neuropathology and pathophysiology of schizophrenia. PMID:24998031

  1. Structure-aided prediction of mammalian transcription factor complexes in conserved non-coding elements.

    PubMed

    Guturu, Harendra; Doxey, Andrew C; Wenger, Aaron M; Bejerano, Gill

    2013-12-19

    Mapping the DNA-binding preferences of transcription factor (TF) complexes is critical for deciphering the functions of cis-regulatory elements. Here, we developed a computational method that compares co-occurring motif spacings in conserved versus unconserved regions of the human genome to detect evolutionarily constrained binding sites of rigid TF complexes. Structural data were used to estimate TF complex physical plausibility, explore overlapping motif arrangements seldom tackled by non-structure-aware methods, and generate and analyse three-dimensional models of the predicted complexes bound to DNA. Using this approach, we predicted 422 physically realistic TF complex motifs at 18% false discovery rate, the majority of which (326, 77%) contain some sequence overlap between binding sites. The set of mostly novel complexes is enriched in known composite motifs, predictive of binding site configurations in TF-TF-DNA crystal structures, and supported by ChIP-seq datasets. Structural modelling revealed three cooperativity mechanisms: direct protein-protein interactions, potentially indirect interactions and 'through-DNA' interactions. Indeed, 38% of the predicted complexes were found to contain four or more bases in which TF pairs appear to synergize through overlapping binding to the same DNA base pairs in opposite grooves or strands. Our TF complex and associated binding site predictions are available as a web resource at http://bejerano.stanford.edu/complex. PMID:24218641

  2. Chaotic cold accretion on to black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaspari, M.; Ruszkowski, M.; Oh, S. Peng

    2013-07-01

    Bondi theory is often assumed to adequately describe the mode of accretion in astrophysical environments. However, the Bondi flow must be adiabatic, spherically symmetric, steady, unperturbed, with constant boundary conditions. Using 3D adaptive mesh refinement simulations, linking the 50 kpc to the sub-parsec (sub-pc) scales over the course of 40 Myr, we systematically relax the classic assumptions in a typical galaxy hosting a supermassive black hole. In the more realistic scenario, where the hot gas is cooling, while heated and stirred on large scales, the accretion rate is boosted up to two orders of magnitude compared with the Bondi prediction. The cause is the non-linear growth of thermal instabilities, leading to the condensation of cold clouds and filaments when tcool/tff ≲ 10. The clouds decouple from the hot gas, `raining' on to the centre. Subsonic turbulence of just over 100 km s-1 (M > 0.2) induces the formation of thermal instabilities, even in the absence of heating, while in the transonic regime turbulent dissipation inhibits their growth (tturb/tcool ≲ 1). When heating restores global thermodynamic balance, the formation of the multiphase medium is violent, and the mode of accretion is fully cold and chaotic. The recurrent collisions and tidal forces between clouds, filaments and the central clumpy torus promote angular momentum cancellation, hence boosting accretion. On sub-pc scales the clouds are channelled to the very centre via a funnel. In this study, we do not inject a fixed initial angular momentum, though vorticity is later seeded by turbulence. A good approximation to the accretion rate is the cooling rate, which can be used as subgrid model, physically reproducing the boost factor of 100 required by cosmological simulations, while accounting for the frequent fluctuations. Since our modelling is fairly general (turbulence/heating due to AGN feedback, galaxy motions, mergers, stellar evolution), chaotic cold accretion may be common in

  3. Expression Quantitative Trait Loci Information Improves Predictive Modeling of Disease Relevance of Non-Coding Genetic Variation

    PubMed Central

    Raj, Towfique; McGeachie, Michael J.; Qiu, Weiliang; Ziniti, John P.; Stubbs, Benjamin J.; Liang, Liming; Martinez, Fernando D.; Strunk, Robert C.; Lemanske, Robert F.; Liu, Andrew H.; Stranger, Barbara E.; Carey, Vincent J.; Raby, Benjamin A.

    2015-01-01

    Disease-associated loci identified through genome-wide association studies (GWAS) frequently localize to non-coding sequence. We and others have demonstrated strong enrichment of such single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs), supporting an important role for regulatory genetic variation in complex disease pathogenesis. Herein we describe our initial efforts to develop a predictive model of disease-associated variants leveraging eQTL information. We first catalogued cis-acting eQTLs (SNPs within 100kb of target gene transcripts) by meta-analyzing four studies of three blood-derived tissues (n = 586). At a false discovery rate < 5%, we mapped eQTLs for 6,535 genes; these were enriched for disease-associated genes (P < 10−04), particularly those related to immune diseases and metabolic traits. Based on eQTL information and other variant annotations (distance from target gene transcript, minor allele frequency, and chromatin state), we created multivariate logistic regression models to predict SNP membership in reported GWAS. The complete model revealed independent contributions of specific annotations as strong predictors, including evidence for an eQTL (odds ratio (OR) = 1.2–2.0, P < 10−11) and the chromatin states of active promoters, different classes of strong or weak enhancers, or transcriptionally active regions (OR = 1.5–2.3, P < 10−11). This complete prediction model including eQTL association information ultimately allowed for better discrimination of SNPs with higher probabilities of GWAS membership (6.3–10.0%, compared to 3.5% for a random SNP) than the other two models excluding eQTL information. This eQTL-based prediction model of disease relevance can help systematically prioritize non-coding GWAS SNPs for further functional characterization. PMID:26474488

  4. Bioinformatics Approach for Prediction of Functional Coding/Noncoding Simple Polymorphisms (SNPs/Indels) in Human BRAF Gene

    PubMed Central

    Omer, Shaza E.; Khalf-allah, Rahma M.; Mustafa, Razaz Y.; Ali, Isra S.; Mohamed, Sofia B.

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out for Homo sapiens single variation (SNPs/Indels) in BRAF gene through coding/non-coding regions. Variants data was obtained from database of SNP even last update of November, 2015. Many bioinformatics tools were used to identify functional SNPs and indels in proteins functions, structures and expressions. Results shown, for coding polymorphisms, 111 SNPs predicted as highly damaging and six other were less. For UTRs, showed five SNPs and one indel were altered in micro RNAs binding sites (3′ UTR), furthermore nil SNP or indel have functional altered in transcription factor binding sites (5′ UTR). In addition for 5′/3′ splice sites, analysis showed that one SNP within 5′ splice site and one Indel in 3′ splice site showed potential alteration of splicing. In conclude these previous functional identified SNPs and indels could lead to gene alteration, which may be directly or indirectly contribute to the occurrence of many diseases. PMID:27478437

  5. Use of a commercial heat transfer code to predict horizontally oriented spent fuel rod surface temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Wix, S.D.; Koski, J.A.

    1993-03-01

    Radioactive spent fuel assemblies are a source of hazardous waste that will have to be dealt with in the near future. It is anticipated that the spent fuel assemblies will be transported to disposal sites in spent fuel transportation casks. In order to design a reliable and safe transportation cask, the maximum cladding temperature of the spent fuel rod arrays must be calculated. A comparison between numerical calculations using commercial thermal analysis software packages and experimental data simulating a horizontally oriented spent fuel rod array was performed. Twelve cases were analyzed using air and helium for the fill gas, with three different heat dissipation levels. The numerically predicted temperatures are higher than the experimental data for all levels of heat dissipation with air as the fill gas. The temperature differences are 4{degree}C and 23{degree}C for the low heat dissipation and high heat dissipation, respectively. The temperature predictions using helium as a fill gas are lower for the low and medium heat dissipation levels, but higher at the high heat dissipation. The temperature differences are 1{degree}C and 6{degree}C for the low and medium heat dissipation, respectively. For the high heat dissipation level, the temperature predictions are 16{degree}C higher than the experimental data. Differences between the predicted and experimental temperatures can be attributed to several factors. These factors include experimental uncertainty in the temperature and heat dissipation measurements, actual convection effects not included in the model, and axial heat flow in the experimental data. This work demonstrates that horizontally oriented spent fuel rod surface temperature predictions can be made using existing commercial software packages. This work also shows that end effects will be increasingly important as the amount of dissipated heat increases.

  6. lncRScan-SVM: A Tool for Predicting Long Non-Coding RNAs Using Support Vector Machine

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Lei; Liu, Hui; Zhang, Lin; Meng, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Functional long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been bringing novel insight into biological study, however it is still not trivial to accurately distinguish the lncRNA transcripts (LNCTs) from the protein coding ones (PCTs). As various information and data about lncRNAs are preserved by previous studies, it is appealing to develop novel methods to identify the lncRNAs more accurately. Our method lncRScan-SVM aims at classifying PCTs and LNCTs using support vector machine (SVM). The gold-standard datasets for lncRScan-SVM model training, lncRNA prediction and method comparison were constructed according to the GENCODE gene annotations of human and mouse respectively. By integrating features derived from gene structure, transcript sequence, potential codon sequence and conservation, lncRScan-SVM outperforms other approaches, which is evaluated by several criteria such as sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC) and area under curve (AUC). In addition, several known human lncRNA datasets were assessed using lncRScan-SVM. LncRScan-SVM is an efficient tool for predicting the lncRNAs, and it is quite useful for current lncRNA study. PMID:26437338

  7. Computational prediction of over-annotated protein-coding genes in the genome of Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain C58

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jia-Feng; Sui, Tian-Xiang; Wang, Hong-Mei; Wang, Chun-Ling; Jing, Li; Wang, Ji-Hua

    2015-12-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain C58 is a type of pathogen that can cause tumors in some dicotyledonous plants. Ever since the genome of A. tumefaciens strain C58 was sequenced, the quality of annotation of its protein-coding genes has been queried continually, because the annotation varies greatly among different databases. In this paper, the questionable hypothetical genes were re-predicted by integrating the TN curve and Z curve methods. As a result, 30 genes originally annotated as “hypothetical” were discriminated as being non-coding sequences. By testing the re-prediction program 10 times on data sets composed of the function-known genes, the mean accuracy of 99.99% and mean Matthews correlation coefficient value of 0.9999 were obtained. Further sequence analysis and COG analysis showed that the re-annotation results were very reliable. This work can provide an efficient tool and data resources for future studies of A. tumefaciens strain C58. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61302186 and 61271378) and the Funding from the State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics of Southeast University.

  8. The LIFE computer code: Fatigue life prediction for vertical axis wind turbine components

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, H.J.; Ashwill, T.D.; Slack, N.

    1987-08-01

    The LIFE computer code was originally written by Veers to analyze the fatigue life of a vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) blade. The basic assumptions built into this analysis tool are: the fatigue life of a blade component is independent of the mean stress; the frequency distribution of the vibratory stresses may be described adequately by a Rayleigh probability density function; and damage accumulates linearly (Miner's Rule). Further, the yearly distribution of wind is assumed to follow a Rayleigh distribution. The original program has been updated to run in an interactive mode on a personal computer with a BASIC interpreter and 256K RAM. Additional capabilities included in this update include: the generalization of the Rayleigh function for the wind speed distribution to a Weibull function; the addition of two constitutive rules for the evaluation of the effects of mean stress on fatigue life; interactive data input; and the inclusion of a stress concentration factor into the analysis.

  9. Evaluation of MOSTAS computer code for predicting dynamic loads in two-bladed wind turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaza, K. R. V.; Janetzke, D. C.; Sullivan, T. L.

    1979-01-01

    Calculated dynamic blade loads are compared with measured loads over a range of yaw stiffnesses of the DOE/NASA Mod-0 wind turbine to evaluate the performance of two versions of the MOSTAS computer code. The first version uses a time-averaged coefficient approximation in conjunction with a multiblade coordinate transformation for two-bladed rotors to solve the equations of motion by standard eigenanalysis. The results obtained with this approximate analysis do not agree with dynamic blade load amplifications at or close to resonance conditions. The results of the second version, which accounts for periodic coefficients while solving the equations by a time history integration, compare well with the measured data.

  10. Evaluation of MOSTAS computer code for predicting dynamic loads in two bladed wind turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaza, K. R. V.; Janetzke, D. C.; Sullivan, T. L.

    1979-01-01

    Calculated dynamic blade loads were compared with measured loads over a range of yaw stiffnesses of the DOE/NASA Mod-O wind turbine to evaluate the performance of two versions of the MOSTAS computer code. The first version uses a time-averaged coefficient approximation in conjunction with a multi-blade coordinate transformation for two bladed rotors to solve the equations of motion by standard eigenanalysis. The second version accounts for periodic coefficients while solving the equations by a time history integration. A hypothetical three-degree of freedom dynamic model was investigated. The exact equations of motion of this model were solved using the Floquet-Lipunov method. The equations with time-averaged coefficients were solved by standard eigenanalysis.

  11. Evaluation of the Sub-Channel Code COBRA-TF for Prediction of BWR Fuel Assembly Void Fraction Distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Aydogan, Fatih; Hochreiter, Lawrence E.; Ivanov, Kostadin; Rhee, Gene; Sartori, Enrico

    2006-07-01

    Good quality experimental data is needed to refine the thermal hydraulic models for the prediction of rod bundle void distribution and critical heat flux (CHF) or dry-out. The Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) has provided a valuable database to evaluate the thermal hydraulic codes [1]. Part of this database was selected for the NUPEC BWR Full-size Fine-Mesh Bundle Tests (BFBT) benchmark sponsored by US NRC, METI-Japan, NEA/OECD and Nuclear Engineering Program of the Pennsylvania State University (PSU). Twenty-five organizations from ten countries have confirmed their intention to participate and will provide code predictions to be compared to the measured data for a series of defined exercises within the framework of the BFBT benchmark. This benchmark data includes both the fine-mesh high quality sub-channel void fraction and critical power data. Using a full BWR rod bundle test facility, the void distribution was measured at mesh sizes smaller than the sub-channel by using a state-of-the-art computer tomography (CT) technology [1]. Experiments were performed for different pressures, flow rates, exit qualities, inlet sub-cooling, power distributions, spacer types and assembly designs. There are microscopic and sub-channel averaged void fraction data from the CT scanner at the bundle exit as well as X-ray densitometer void distribution data at different elevation levels in the rod bundle. Each sub-channel's loss coefficient was calculated with using the Rehme method [2,3], and a COBRA-TF sub-channel model was developed for the NUPEC facility. The BWR assembly that was modeled with COBRA-TF includes two water rods at the center. The predicted sub-channel void fraction values from COBRA-TF are compared with the bundle exit void fraction values measured using the CT-scanner void fraction from the BFBT benchmark data. Different plots are used to examine the code prediction of the void distribution at a sub-channel level for the different sub-channels within

  12. Simplified APC for Space Shuttle applications. [Adaptive Predictive Coding for speech transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchins, S. E.; Batson, B. H.

    1975-01-01

    This paper describes an 8 kbps adaptive predictive digital speech transmission system which was designed for potential use in the Space Shuttle Program. The system was designed to provide good voice quality in the presence of both cabin noise on board the Shuttle and the anticipated bursty channel. Minimal increase in size, weight, and power over the current high data rate system was also a design objective.

  13. Bit-rate prediction for look-ahead coding with AVC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beermann, Markus

    2004-01-01

    Compression of digitized video highly depends on, and varies with, the signal to be compressed. The relation of quantizer, distortion and rate needs to be modeled when control in a system involving video compression is asked for. An experimental analysis of the optimized video codec AVC of ITU-T and MPEG shows that its rate behavior can be modeled accurately enough to predict bit-rate on macroblock-level. Given information of allocated rates from a pre-encoding analysis step, the bit-rate profile at any different quantizer setting for the video can be predicted. Experiments, comparing predicted rate against actual encoding rate show good performance of the model.These reflect the performance of the model in rate-control schemes. A simple example pre-analysis rate-control based on the model will determine beforehand a possible rate-profile that the actual encoding should be able to follow with small quality variations. For a signal of varying complexity, a varying number of bits will be used to obtain constant quality. Such variations are limited by peak bit-rates and buffer-sizes that are defined by hypothetical reference decoders in AVC.

  14. Accretion onto Planetary Mass Companions of Low-mass Young Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yifan; Herczeg, Gregory J.; Kraus, Adam L.; Metchev, Stanimir; Cruz, Kelle L.

    2014-03-01

    Measurements of accretion rates onto planetary mass objects may distinguish between different planet formation mechanisms, which predict different accretion histories. In this Letter, we use Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/WFC3 UVIS optical photometry to measure accretion rates onto three accreting objects, GSC 06214-00210 b, GQ Lup b, and DH Tau b, that are at the planet/brown dwarf boundary and are companions to solar mass stars. The excess optical emission in the excess accretion continuum yields mass accretion rates of 10-9-10-11 M ⊙ yr-1 for these three objects. Their accretion rates are an order of magnitude higher than expected from the correlation between mass and accretion rates measured from the UV excess, which is applicable if these wide planetary mass companions formed by protostellar core fragmentation. The high accretion rates and large separation from the central star demonstrate the presence of massive disks around these objects. Models for the formation and evolution of wide planetary mass companions should account for their large accretion rates. High ratios of Hα luminosity over accretion luminosity for objects with low accretion rates suggest that searches for Hα emission may be an efficient way to find accreting planets.

  15. Hoyle-Lyttleton Accretion from a Planar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raymer, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of Hoyle-Lyttleton accretion have informed predictions about the evolution of wind-driven accretion systems for over two decades. These simulations frequently exhibit dramatic nonlinear behavior such as the flip-flop instability and the formation of transient accretion disks. During disk accretion, the mass accretion rate is suppressed and angular momentum accretion occurs at quasi-Keplerian rates. These results have been used to interpret neutron star accretion from the equatorially enhanced wind of a Be star in Be/X-ray Binaries. We employ large-scale hydrodynamic simulations to investigate whether the flip-flop instability is possible in three dimensions or is simply a consequence of the restrictions on a 2D flow. We do not observe the flip-flop instability in 3D for any values of the wind scale height or density. Moreover, the angular momentum vector of the accreting gas is typically found to be in the plane of the disk wind rather than perpendicular to it as one might expect based on the results of 2D planar simulations. We measure large-scale asymmetries about the plane of the disk wind that arise due to rotational flow near the accretor. Gas is driven above and below the plane, where it interacts with the bow shock and results in a time-varying shock structure. Winds with scale heights of 0.25 Ra enter locked rotation modes that remain stable for the duration of our computational runs. During this phase, the mass accretion rate is suppressed by up to two orders of magnitude below the analytical prediction and angular momentum accretion occurs at sub-Keplerian values.

  16. Magnetospheric accretion in EX Lupi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, Peter; Kospal, Agnes; Bouvier, Jerome

    2016-08-01

    We propose to observe EX Lup, the prototype of the EXor class of young eruptive stars, in order to understand how the accretion process works in the quiescent system. Here, we request 2.6 hours of telescope time on Spitzer, to carry out a mid-infrared photometric monitoring, which we will supplement with simultaneous ground-based optical and near-infrared data. The multi-wavelength light curves will allow us to reliably separate the effects of fluctuating accretion rate from the rotation of the star. By analyzing the variations of the accretion rate we will determine whether EX Lup accretes through a few stable accretion columns or several short-lived random accretion streams. With this campaign, EX Lup will become one of the T Tauri systems where the accretion process is best understood.

  17. Results and code prediction comparisons of lithium-air reaction and aerosol behavior tests

    SciTech Connect

    Jeppson, D.W.

    1986-03-01

    The Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) Fusion Safety Support Studies include evaluation of potential safety and environmental concerns associated with the use of liquid lithium as a breeder and coolant for fusion reactors. Potential mechanisms for volatilization and transport of radioactive metallic species associated with breeder materials are of particular interest. Liquid lithium pool-air reaction and aerosol behavior tests were conducted with lithium masses up to 100 kg within the 850-m/sup 3/ containment vessel in the Containment Systems Test Facility. Lithium-air reaction rates, aerosol generation rates, aerosol behavior and characterization, as well as containment atmosphere temperature and pressure responses were determined. Pool-air reaction and aerosol behavior test results were compared with computer code calculations for reaction rates, containment atmosphere response, and aerosol behavior. The volatility of potentially radioactive metallic species from a lithium pool-air reaction was measured. The response of various aerosol detectors to the aerosol generated was determined. Liquid lithium spray tests in air and in nitrogen atmospheres were conducted with lithium temperatures of about 427/sup 0/ and 650/sup 0/C. Lithium reaction rates, containment atmosphere response, and aerosol generation and characterization were determined for these spray tests.

  18. Wind-US Code Contributions to the First AIAA Shock Boundary Layer Interaction Prediction Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgiadis, Nicholas J.; Vyas, Manan A.; Yoder, Dennis A.

    2013-01-01

    This report discusses the computations of a set of shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interaction (SWTBLI) test cases using the Wind-US code, as part of the 2010 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) shock/boundary layer interaction workshop. The experiments involve supersonic flows in wind tunnels with a shock generator that directs an oblique shock wave toward the boundary layer along one of the walls of the wind tunnel. The Wind-US calculations utilized structured grid computations performed in Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes mode. Four turbulence models were investigated: the Spalart-Allmaras one-equation model, the Menter Baseline and Shear Stress Transport k-omega two-equation models, and an explicit algebraic stress k-omega formulation. Effects of grid resolution and upwinding scheme were also considered. The results from the CFD calculations are compared to particle image velocimetry (PIV) data from the experiments. As expected, turbulence model effects dominated the accuracy of the solutions with upwinding scheme selection indicating minimal effects.

  19. Massive star formation by accretion. I. Disc accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haemmerlé, L.; Eggenberger, P.; Meynet, G.; Maeder, A.; Charbonnel, C.

    2016-01-01

    Context. Massive stars likely form by accretion and the evolutionary track of an accreting forming star corresponds to what is called the birthline in the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram. The shape of this birthline is quite sensitive to the evolution of the entropy in the accreting star. Aims: We first study the reasons why some birthlines published in past years present different behaviours for a given accretion rate. We then revisit the question of the accretion rate, which allows us to understand the distribution of the observed pre-main-sequence (pre-MS) stars in the HR diagram. Finally, we identify the conditions needed to obtain a large inflation of the star along its pre-MS evolution that may push the birthline towards the Hayashi line in the upper part of the HR diagram. Methods: We present new pre-MS models including accretion at various rates and for different initial structures of the accreting core. We compare them with previously published equivalent models. From the observed upper envelope of pre-MS stars in the HR diagram, we deduce the accretion law that best matches the accretion history of most of the intermediate-mass stars. Results: In the numerical computation of the time derivative of the entropy, some treatment leads to an artificial loss of entropy and thus reduces the inflation that the accreting star undergoes along the birthline. In the case of cold disc accretion, the existence of a significant swelling during the accretion phase, which leads to radii ≳ 100 R⊙ and brings the star back to the red part of the HR diagram, depends sensitively on the initial conditions. For an accretion rate of 10-3M⊙ yr-1, only models starting from a core with a significant radiative region evolve back to the red part of the HR diagram. We also obtain that, in order to reproduce the observed upper envelope of pre-MS stars in the HR diagram with an accretion law deduced from the observed mass outflows in ultra-compact HII regions, the fraction of the

  20. Accretion of southern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hillhouse, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Paleomagnetic data from southern Alaska indicate that the Wrangellia and Peninsular terranes collided with central Alaska probably by 65 Ma ago and certainly no later than 55 Ma ago. The accretion of these terranes to the mainland was followed by the arrival of the Ghost Rocks volcanic assemblage at the southern margin of Kodiak Island. Poleward movement of these terranes can be explained by rapid motion of the Kula oceanic plate, mainly from 85 to 43 Ma ago, according to recent reconstructions derived from the hot-spot reference frame. After accretion, much of southwestern Alaska underwent a counterclockwise rotation of about 50 ?? as indicated by paleomagnetic poles from volcanic rocks of Late Cretaceous and Early Tertiary age. Compression between North America and Asia during opening of the North Atlantic (68-44 Ma ago) may account for the rotation. ?? 1987.

  1. Accretion disk electrodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coroniti, F. V.

    1985-01-01

    Accretion disk electrodynamic phenomena are separable into two classes: (1) disks and coronas with turbulent magnetic fields; (2) disks and black holes which are connected to a large-scale external magnetic field. Turbulent fields may originate in an alpha-omega dynamo, provide anomalous viscous transport, and sustain an active corona by magnetic buoyancy. The large-scale field can extract energy and angular momentum from the disk and black hole, and be dynamically configured into a collimated relativistic jet.

  2. Matter accreting neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meszaros, P.

    1981-01-01

    Some of the fundamental neutron star parameters, such as the mass and the magnetic field strength, were experimentally determined in accreting neutron star systems. Some of the relevant data and the models used to derive useful information from them, are reviewed concentrating mainly on X-ray pulsars. The latest advances in our understanding of the radiation mechanisms and the transfer in the strongly magnetized polar cap regions are discussed.

  3. Development of Computational Aeroacoustics Code for Jet Noise and Flow Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Hixon, Duane R.

    2002-07-01

    Accurate prediction of jet fan and exhaust plume flow and noise generation and propagation is very important in developing advanced aircraft engines that will pass current and future noise regulations. In jet fan flows as well as exhaust plumes, two major sources of noise are present: large-scale, coherent instabilities and small-scale turbulent eddies. In previous work for the NASA Glenn Research Center, three strategies have been explored in an effort to computationally predict the noise radiation from supersonic jet exhaust plumes. In order from the least expensive computationally to the most expensive computationally, these are: 1) Linearized Euler equations (LEE). 2) Very Large Eddy Simulations (VLES). 3) Large Eddy Simulations (LES). The first method solves the linearized Euler equations (LEE). These equations are obtained by linearizing about a given mean flow and the neglecting viscous effects. In this way, the noise from large-scale instabilities can be found for a given mean flow. The linearized Euler equations are computationally inexpensive, and have produced good noise results for supersonic jets where the large-scale instability noise dominates, as well as for the tone noise from a jet engine blade row. However, these linear equations do not predict the absolute magnitude of the noise; instead, only the relative magnitude is predicted. Also, the predicted disturbances do not modify the mean flow, removing a physical mechanism by which the amplitude of the disturbance may be controlled. Recent research for isolated airfoils' indicates that this may not affect the solution greatly at low frequencies. The second method addresses some of the concerns raised by the LEE method. In this approach, called Very Large Eddy Simulation (VLES), the unsteady Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations are solved directly using a high-accuracy computational aeroacoustics numerical scheme. With the addition of a two-equation turbulence model and the use of a relatively

  4. Development of Computational Aeroacoustics Code for Jet Noise and Flow Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Hixon, Duane R.

    2002-01-01

    Accurate prediction of jet fan and exhaust plume flow and noise generation and propagation is very important in developing advanced aircraft engines that will pass current and future noise regulations. In jet fan flows as well as exhaust plumes, two major sources of noise are present: large-scale, coherent instabilities and small-scale turbulent eddies. In previous work for the NASA Glenn Research Center, three strategies have been explored in an effort to computationally predict the noise radiation from supersonic jet exhaust plumes. In order from the least expensive computationally to the most expensive computationally, these are: 1) Linearized Euler equations (LEE). 2) Very Large Eddy Simulations (VLES). 3) Large Eddy Simulations (LES). The first method solves the linearized Euler equations (LEE). These equations are obtained by linearizing about a given mean flow and the neglecting viscous effects. In this way, the noise from large-scale instabilities can be found for a given mean flow. The linearized Euler equations are computationally inexpensive, and have produced good noise results for supersonic jets where the large-scale instability noise dominates, as well as for the tone noise from a jet engine blade row. However, these linear equations do not predict the absolute magnitude of the noise; instead, only the relative magnitude is predicted. Also, the predicted disturbances do not modify the mean flow, removing a physical mechanism by which the amplitude of the disturbance may be controlled. Recent research for isolated airfoils' indicates that this may not affect the solution greatly at low frequencies. The second method addresses some of the concerns raised by the LEE method. In this approach, called Very Large Eddy Simulation (VLES), the unsteady Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations are solved directly using a high-accuracy computational aeroacoustics numerical scheme. With the addition of a two-equation turbulence model and the use of a relatively

  5. Accretion disk coronae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, N. E.; Holt, S. S.

    1981-01-01

    Recent observations of partial X-ray eclipses from 4U1822-37 have shown that the central X-ray source in this system is diffused by a large Compton-thick accretion disk corona (ADC). Another binary, 4U2129-47, also displays a partial eclipse and contains an ADC. The possible origin of an ADC is discussed and a simple hydrostatic evaporated ADC model is developed which, when applied to 4U1822-37, 4U2129+47 and Cyg X-3, can explain their temporal and spectral properties. The quasi-sinusoidal modulation of all three sources can be reconciled with the partial occultation of the ADC by a bulge at the edge of the accretion disk which is caused by the inflowing material. The height of this bulge is an order of magnitude larger than the hydrostatic disk height and is the result of turbulence in the outer region of the disk. The spectral properties of all three sources can be understood in terms of Compton scattering of the original source spectrum by the ADC. Spectral variations with epoch in Cyg X-3 are probably caused by changes in the optical depth of the corona. A consequence of our model is that any accreting neutron star X-ray source in a semi-detached binary system which is close to its Eddington limit most likely contains an optically thick ADC.

  6. Predictions of bubbly flows in vertical pipes using two-fluid models in CFDS-FLOW3D code

    SciTech Connect

    Banas, A.O.; Carver, M.B.; Unrau, D.

    1995-09-01

    This paper reports the results of a preliminary study exploring the performance of two sets of two-fluid closure relationships applied to the simulation of turbulent air-water bubbly upflows through vertical pipes. Predictions obtained with the default CFDS-FLOW3D model for dispersed flows were compared with the predictions of a new model (based on the work of Lee), and with the experimental data of Liu. The new model, implemented in the CFDS-FLOW3D code, included additional source terms in the {open_quotes}standard{close_quotes} {kappa}-{epsilon} transport equations for the liquid phase, as well as modified model coefficients and wall functions. All simulations were carried out in a 2-D axisymmetric format, collapsing the general multifluid framework of CFDS-FLOW3D to the two-fluid (air-water) case. The newly implemented model consistently improved predictions of radial-velocity profiles of both phases, but failed to accurately reproduce the experimental phase-distribution data. This shortcoming was traced to the neglect of anisotropic effects in the modelling of liquid-phase turbulence. In this sense, the present investigation should be considered as the first step toward the ultimate goal of developing a theoretically sound and universal CFD-type two-fluid model for bubbly flows in channels.

  7. Prediction of Business Jet Airloads Using The Overflow Navier-Stokes Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bounajem, Elias; Buning, Pieter G.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the application of Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics technology, for the purpose of predicting off-design condition airloads on a business jet configuration in the transonic regime. The NASA Navier-Stokes flow solver OVERFLOW with Chimera overset grid capability, availability of several numerical schemes and convergence acceleration techniques was selected for this work. A set of scripts which have been compiled to reduce the time required for the grid generation process are described. Several turbulence models are evaluated in the presence of separated flow regions on the wing. Computed results are compared to available wind tunnel data for two Mach numbers and a range of angles-of-attack. Comparisons of wing surface pressure from numerical simulation and wind tunnel measurements show good agreement up to fairly high angles-of-attack.

  8. Positive predictive value of diagnosis coding for hemolytic anemias in the Danish National Patient Register

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Dennis Lund; Overgaard, Ulrik Malthe; Pedersen, Lars; Frederiksen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The nationwide public health registers in Denmark provide a unique opportunity for evaluation of disease-associated morbidity if the positive predictive values (PPVs) of the primary diagnosis are known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive values of hemolytic anemias registered in the Danish National Patient Register. Patients and methods All patients with a first-ever diagnosis of hemolytic anemia from either specialist outpatient clinic contact or inpatient admission at Odense University Hospital from January 1994 through December 2011 were considered for inclusion. Patients with mechanical reason for hemolysis such as an artificial heart valve, and patients with vitamin-B12 or folic acid deficiency were excluded. Results We identified 412 eligible patients: 249 with a congenital hemolytic anemia diagnosis and 163 with acquired hemolytic anemia diagnosis. In all, hemolysis was confirmed in 359 patients, yielding an overall PPV of 87.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 83.5%–90.2%). A diagnosis could be established in 392 patients of whom 355 patients had a hemolytic diagnosis. Diagnosis was confirmed in 197 of the 249 patients with congenital hemolytic anemia, yielding a PPV of 79.1% (95% CI: 73.5%–84.0%). Diagnosis of acquired hemolytic anemia could be confirmed in 136 of the 163 patients, resulting in a PPV of 83.4% (95% CI: 76.8%–88.8%). For hemoglobinopathy PPV was 84.1% (95% CI: 77.4%–89.4%), for hereditary spherocytosis PPV was 80.6% (95% CI: 69.5%–88.9%), and for autoimmune hemolytic anemia PPV was 78.4% (95% CI: 70.4%–85.0%). Conclusion The PPV of hemolytic anemias was moderately high. The PPVs were comparable in the three main categories of overall hemolysis, and congenital and acquired hemolytic anemia. PMID:27445504

  9. MASS ACCRETION RATE OF ROTATING VISCOUS ACCRETION FLOW

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Myeong-Gu

    2009-11-20

    The mass accretion rate of transonic spherical accretion flow onto compact objects such as black holes is known as the Bondi accretion rate, which is determined only by the density and the temperature of gas at the outer boundary. A rotating accretion flow has angular momentum, which modifies the flow profile from the spherical Bondi flow, and hence its mass accretion rate, but most work on disc accretion has taken the mass flux to be given with the relation between that parameter and external conditions left uncertain. Within the framework of a slim alpha disk, we have constructed global solutions of the rotating, viscous, hot accretion flow in the Paczynski-Wiita potential and determined its mass accretion rate as a function of density, temperature, and angular momentum of gas at the outer boundary. We find that the low angular momentum flow resembles the spherical Bondi flow and its mass accretion rate approaches the Bondi accretion rate for the same density and temperature at the outer boundary. The high angular momentum flow on the other hand is the conventional hot accretion disk with advection, but its mass accretion rate can be significantly smaller than the Bondi accretion rate with the same boundary conditions. We also find that solutions exist only within a limited range of dimensionless mass accretion rate m-dotident toM-dot/M-dot{sub B}, where M-dot is the mass accretion rate and M-dot{sub B} is the Bondi accretion rate: when the temperature at the outer boundary is equal to the virial temperature, solutions exist only for 0.05approxaccretion rate is roughly independent of the radius of the outer boundary but inversely proportional to the angular momentum at the outer boundary and proportional to the viscosity parameter, m-dotapprox =9.0 alphalambda{sup -1} when 0.1 approx

  10. Collection Efficiency and Ice Accretion Calculations for a Boeing 737-300 Inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bidwell, Colin S.

    1997-01-01

    Collection efficiency and ice accretion calculations have been made for a Boeing 737-300 inlet using a three-dimensional panel code, an adaptive grid code, the NASA Lewis LEWICE3D grid based ice accretion code. Flow solutions for the inlet were generated using the VSAERO panel code. Grids used in the ice accretion calculations were generated using the newly developed adaptive grid code ICEGRID3D. The LEWICE3D grid based ice accretion program was used to calculate impingement efficiency and ice shapes. Ice shapes typifying rime and mixed icing conditions were generated for a 30 minute hold condition. All calculations were performed on an SGI Power Challenge computer. The results have been compared to experimental flow and impingement data. In general, the calculated flow and collection efficiencies compared well with experiment, and the ice shapes looked reasonable and appeared representative of the rime and mixed icing conditions for which they were calculated.

  11. Accurate prediction of the toxicity of benzoic acid compounds in mice via oral without using any computer codes.

    PubMed

    Keshavarz, Mohammad Hossein; Gharagheizi, Farhad; Shokrolahi, Arash; Zakinejad, Sajjad

    2012-10-30

    Most of benzoic acid derivatives are toxic, which may cause serious public health and environmental problems. Two novel simple and reliable models are introduced for desk calculations of the toxicity of benzoic acid compounds in mice via oral LD(50) with more reliance on their answers as one could attach to the more complex outputs. They require only elemental composition and molecular fragments without using any computer codes. The first model is based on only the number of carbon and hydrogen atoms, which can be improved by several molecular fragments in the second model. For 57 benzoic compounds, where the computed results of quantitative structure-toxicity relationship (QSTR) were recently reported, the predicted results of two simple models of present method are more reliable than QSTR computations. The present simple method is also tested with further 324 benzoic acid compounds including complex molecular structures, which confirm good forecasting ability of the second model. PMID:22959133

  12. A computational model for the prediction of jet entrainment in the vicinity of nozzle boattails (the BOAT code)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dash, S. M.; Pergament, H. S.

    1978-01-01

    The development of a computational model (BOAT) for calculating nearfield jet entrainment, and its incorporation in an existing methodology for the prediction of nozzle boattail pressures, is discussed. The model accounts for the detailed turbulence and thermochemical processes occurring in the mixing layer formed between a jet exhaust and surrounding external stream while interfacing with the inviscid exhaust and external flowfield regions in an overlaid, interactive manner. The ability of the BOAT model to analyze simple free shear flows is assessed by comparisons with fundamental laboratory data. The overlaid procedure for incorporating variable pressures into BOAT and the entrainment correction employed to yield an effective plume boundary for the inviscid external flow are demonstrated. This is accomplished via application of BOAT in conjunction with the codes comprising the NASA/LRC patched viscous/inviscid methodology for determining nozzle boattail drag for subsonic/transonic external flows.

  13. Signalign: An Ontology of DNA as Signal for Comparative Gene Structure Prediction Using Information-Coding-and-Processing Techniques.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ning; Guo, Xuan; Gu, Feng; Pan, Yi

    2016-03-01

    Conventional character-analysis-based techniques in genome analysis manifest three main shortcomings-inefficiency, inflexibility, and incompatibility. In our previous research, a general framework, called DNA As X was proposed for character-analysis-free techniques to overcome these shortcomings, where X is the intermediates, such as digit, code, signal, vector, tree, graph network, and so on. In this paper, we further implement an ontology of DNA As Signal, by designing a tool named Signalign for comparative gene structure analysis, in which DNA sequences are converted into signal series, processed by modified method of dynamic time warping and measured by signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The ontology of DNA As Signal integrates the principles and concepts of other disciplines including information coding theory and signal processing into sequence analysis and processing. Comparing with conventional character-analysis-based methods, Signalign can not only have the equivalent or superior performance, but also enrich the tools and the knowledge library of computational biology by extending the domain from character/string to diverse areas. The evaluation results validate the success of the character-analysis-free technique for improved performances in comparative gene structure prediction. PMID:27046906

  14. Stacked Predictive Sparse Coding for Classification of Distinct Regions of Tumor Histopathology.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hang; Zhou, Yin; Spellman, Paul; Parvin, Bahram

    2013-01-01

    Image-based classification of tissue histology, in terms of distinct histopathology (e.g., tumor or necrosis regions), provides a series of indices for tumor composition. Furthermore, aggregation of these indices from each whole slide image (WSI) in a large cohort can provide predictive models of clinical outcome. However, the performance of the existing techniques is hindered as a result of large technical variations (e.g., fixation, staining) and biological heterogeneities (e.g., cell type, cell state) that are always present in a large cohort. We suggest that, compared with human engineered features widely adopted in existing systems, unsupervised feature learning is more tolerant to batch effect (e.g., technical variations associated with sample preparation) and pertinent features can be learned without user intervention. This leads to a novel approach for classification of tissue histology based on unsupervised feature learning and spatial pyramid matching (SPM), which utilize sparse tissue morphometric signatures at various locations and scales. This approach has been evaluated on two distinct datasets consisting of different tumor types collected from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), and the experimental results indicate that the proposed approach is (i) extensible to different tumor types; (ii) robust in the presence of wide technical variations and biological heterogeneities; and (iii) scalable with varying training sample sizes. PMID:24770492

  15. TFaNS Tone Fan Noise Design/Prediction System. Volume 1; System Description, CUP3D Technical Documentation and Manual for Code Developers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Topol, David A.

    1999-01-01

    TFaNS is the Tone Fan Noise Design/Prediction System developed by Pratt & Whitney under contract to NASA Lewis (presently NASA Glenn). The purpose of this system is to predict tone noise emanating from a fan stage including the effects of reflection and transmission by the rotor and stator and by the duct inlet and nozzle. These effects have been added to an existing annular duct/isolated stator noise prediction capability. TFaNS consists of: The codes that compute the acoustic properties (reflection and transmission coefficients) of the various elements and write them to files. Cup3D: Fan Noise Coupling Code that reads these files, solves the coupling problem, and outputs the desired noise predictions. AWAKEN: CFD/Measured Wake Postprocessor which reformats CFD wake predictions and/or measured wake data so it can be used by the system. This volume of the report provides technical background for TFaNS including the organization of the system and CUP3D technical documentation. This document also provides information for code developers who must write Acoustic Property Files in the CUP3D format. This report is divided into three volumes: Volume I: System Description, CUP3D Technical Documentation, and Manual for Code Developers; Volume II: User's Manual, TFaNS Vers. 1.4; Volume III: Evaluation of System Codes.

  16. Performance of RELAP/SCDAPSIM Code on Fission Products Transport Prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Honaiser, Eduardo

    2006-07-01

    Fission product transport in the piping system of primary circuits is an important area of study in field of the severe accidents. Fission product transport comprises all phenomenon occurring from the nuclear core to the containment release site. Once released in the flow channels, fission products can condense on the piping walls, nucleate aerosols, which can agglomerate and/or deposit on the piping walls. The phenomenology occurs in a steam-hydrogen convective environment. A model (FPTRAN) was developed for the program RELAP/SCDAPSIM that calculates all phenomenon related to the fission product transport through the piping system. The model solves a set of differential equations. The coefficients in these equations represent the processes at which several states change among them. The processes considered were vapor adsorption and condensation on the piping walls, aerosol formation and growth (condensation and agglomeration), and aerosol deposition. The model also controls the aerosol particle size distribution. The PHEBUS experiments compose the most complete experimental program ever conducted for the understanding of fission product behavior in Reactor Cooling System and containment. It employs a reactor to generate fission products, which are transported through a scaled piping system simulating the primary circuit of a pressurized water reactor (PWR). Along the piping system, several instruments are installed to measure the amount of fission products deposited and their states. This paper describes the modeling of the experiment Phebus FPT-01 using RELAP/SCDAPSIM and compares simulation and experimental results to assess the performance of the FPTRAN module on the fission products transport prediction. These results can be considered satisfactory, except for iodine. This inconsistency of iodine is probably due to an incorrect chemical form assumed for iodine. (author)

  17. Evolution and precession of accretion disk in tidal disruption events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, R.-F.; Matzner, C. D.

    2012-12-01

    In a supermassive black hole (BH) tidal disruption event (TDE), the tidally disrupted star feeds the BH via an accretion disk. Most often it is assumed that the accretion rate history, hence the emission light curve, tracks the rate at which new debris mass falls back onto the disk, notably the t-5/3 power law. But this is not the case when the disk evolution due to viscous spreading - the driving force for accretion - is carefully considered. We construct a simple analytical model that comprehensively describes the accretion rate history across 4 different phases of the disk evolution, in the presence of mass fallback and disk wind loss. Accretion rate evolves differently in those phases which are governed by how the disk heat energy is carried away, early on by advection and later by radiation. The accretion rate can decline as steeply as t-5/3 only if copious disk wind loss is present during the early advection-cooled phase. Later, the accretion rate history is t-8/7 or shallower. These have great implications on the TDE flare light curve. A TDE accretion disk is most likely misaligned with the equatorial plane of the spinning BH. Moreover, in the TDE the accretion rate is super- or near-Eddington thus the disk is geometrically thick, for which case the BH's frame dragging effect may cause the disk precess as a solid body, which may manifest itself as quasi-periodic signal in the TDE light curve. Our disk evolution model predicts the disk precession period increases with time, typically as ∝ t. The results are applied to the recently jetted TDE flare Swift transient J1644 + 57 which shows numerous, quasi-periodic dips in its long-term X-ray light curve. As the current TDE sample increases, the identification of the disk precession signature provides a unique way of measuring BH spin and studying BH accretion physics.

  18. Launching jets from accretion belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreier, Ron; Soker, Noam

    2016-05-01

    We propose that sub-Keplerian accretion belts around stars might launch jets. The sub-Keplerian inflow does not form a rotationally supported accretion disk, but it rather reaches the accreting object from a wide solid angle. The basic ingredients of the flow are a turbulent region where the accretion belt interacts with the accreting object via a shear layer, and two avoidance regions on the poles where the accretion rate is very low. A dynamo that is developed in the shear layer amplifies magnetic fields to high values. It is likely that the amplified magnetic fields form polar outflows from the avoidance regions. Our speculative belt-launched jets model has implications on a rich variety of astrophysical objects, from the removal of common envelopes to the explosion of core collapse supernovae by jittering jets.

  19. Discovery of an Accretion-Fed Corona in an Accreting Young Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brickhouse, Nancy; Cranmer, S. R.; Dupree, A. K.; Luna, G. J. M.; Wolk, S.

    2009-09-01

    A deep (489 ks) Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating spectrum of the classical T Tauri star TW Hydrae shows a new type of coronal structure that is produced by the accretion process. In the standard model for a stellar dipole, the magnetic field truncates the disk and channels the accreting material onto the star. The He-like diagnostic lines of Ne IX provide excellent agreement with the shock conditions predicted by this model, with an electron temperature of 2.5 MK and electron density of 3 × 10^{12} cm^{-3} (see also Kastner et al. 2002). However, the standard model completely fails to predict the post-shock conditions, significantly overpredicting both the density and absorption observed at O VII. Instead the observations require a second ``post-shock'' component with 30 times more mass and 1000 times larger volume than found at the shock itself. We note that in the standard model, the shocked plasma is conveniently located near both closed (coronal) and open (stellar wind) magnetic structures, as the magnetic field connecting the star and disk also separates the open and closed field regions on the stellar surface. The shocked plasma thus can provide the energy to heat not only the post-shock plasma, but also adjacent regions (i.e. an ``accretion-fed corona'') and drive stellar material into surrounding coronal structures. These observations provide new clues to the puzzling soft X-ray excess found in accreting systems, which depends on both the presence of accretion and the level of coronal activity (Guedel and Telleschi 2007). This Large Program with Chandra demonstrates the value of high signal-to-noise, high resolution spectroscopy for understanding the complex interaction of magnetic and accretion processes in late-type star formation.

  20. Where a Neutron Star's Accretion Disk Ends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-03-01

    In X-ray binaries that consist of a neutron star and a companion star, gas funnels from the companion into an accretion disk surrounding the neutron star, spiraling around until it is eventually accreted. How do the powerful magnetic fields threading through the neutron star affect this accretion disk? Recent observations provide evidence that they may push the accretion disk away from the neutron stars surface.Truncated DisksTheoretical models have indicated that neutron star accretion disks may not extend all the way in to the surface of a neutron star, but may instead be truncated at a distance. This prediction has been difficult to test observationally, however, due to the challenge of measuring the location of the inner disk edge in neutron-star X-ray binaries.In a new study, however, a team of scientists led by Ashley King (Einstein Fellow at Stanford University) has managed to measure the location of the inner edge of the disk in Aquila X-1, a neutron-star X-ray binary located 17,000 light-years away.Iron line feature detected by Swift (red) and NuSTAR (black). The symmetry of the line is one of the indicators that the disk is located far from the neutron star; if the inner regions of the disk were close to the neutron star, severe relativistic effects would skew the line to be asymmetric. [King et al. 2016]Measurements from ReflectionsKing and collaborators used observations made by NuSTAR and Swift/XRT both X-ray space observatories of Aquila X-1 during the peak of an X-ray outburst. By observing the reflection of Aquila X-1s emission off of the inner regions of the accretion disk, the authors were able to estimate the location of the inner edge of the disk.The authors find that this inner edge sits at ~15 gravitational radii. Since the neutron stars surface is at ~5 gravitational radii, this means that the accretion disk is truncated far from the stars surface. In spite of this truncation, material still manages to cross the gap and accrete onto the

  1. Accreting X-ray Pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation describes the behavior of matter in environments with extreme magnetic and gravitational fields, explains the instability/stability of accretion disks in certain systems, and discusses how emergent radiation affects accretion flow. Magnetic field measurements are obtained by measuring the lowest cyclotron absorption line energy, observing the cutoff of accretion due to centrifugal inhibition and measuring the spin-up rate at high luminosity.

  2. A Bipartite Network-based Method for Prediction of Long Non-coding RNA–protein Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Mengqu; Li, Ao; Wang, Minghui

    2016-01-01

    As one large class of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), long ncRNAs (lncRNAs) have gained considerable attention in recent years. Mutations and dysfunction of lncRNAs have been implicated in human disorders. Many lncRNAs exert their effects through interactions with the corresponding RNA-binding proteins. Several computational approaches have been developed, but only few are able to perform the prediction of these interactions from a network-based point of view. Here, we introduce a computational method named lncRNA–protein bipartite network inference (LPBNI). LPBNI aims to identify potential lncRNA–interacting proteins, by making full use of the known lncRNA–protein interactions. Leave-one-out cross validation (LOOCV) test shows that LPBNI significantly outperforms other network-based methods, including random walk (RWR) and protein-based collaborative filtering (ProCF). Furthermore, a case study was performed to demonstrate the performance of LPBNI using real data in predicting potential lncRNA–interacting proteins. PMID:26917505

  3. Long non-coding RNA MALAT-1 overexpression predicts tumor recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lai, Ming-chun; Yang, Zhe; Zhou, Lin; Zhu, Qian-qian; Xie, Hai-yang; Zhang, Feng; Wu, Li-ming; Chen, Lei-ming; Zheng, Shu-sen

    2012-09-01

    Metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1(MALAT1), a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), is up-regulated in many solid tumors and associated with cancer metastasis and recurrence. However, its role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains poorly understood. In the present study, we evaluated the expression of MALAT1 by quantitative real-time PCR in 9 liver cancer cell lines and 112 HCC cases including 60 cases who received liver transplantation (LT) with complete follow-up data. Moreover, small interfering RNA (siRNA) was used to inhibit MALAT1 expression to investigate its biological role in tumor progression. We found that MALAT1 was up-regulated in both cell lines and clinical tissue samples. Patients with high expression level of MALAT1 had a significantly increased risk of tumor recurrence after LT, particularly in patients who exceeded the Milan criteria. On multivariate analysis, MALAT1 was an independent prognostic factor for predicting HCC recurrence (hazard ratio, 3.280, P = 0.003).In addition, inhibition of MALAT1 in HepG2 cells could effectively reduce cell viability, motility, invasiveness, and increase the sensitivity to apoptosis. Our data suggest that lncRNA MALAT1 play an important role in tumor progression and could be a novel biomarker for predicting tumor recurrence after LT and serve as a promising therapeutic target. PMID:21678027

  4. Analytical determination of propeller performance degradation due to ice accretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, T. L.

    1986-01-01

    A computer code has been developed which is capable of computing propeller performance for clean, glaze, or rime iced propeller configurations, thereby providing a mechanism for determining the degree of performance degradation which results from a given icing encounter. The inviscid, incompressible flow field at each specified propeller radial location is first computed using the Theodorsen transformation method of conformal mapping. A droplet trajectory computation then calculates droplet impingement points and airfoil collection efficiency for each radial location, at which point several user-selectable empirical correlations are available for determining the aerodynamic penalities which arise due to the ice accretion. Propeller performance is finally computed using strip analysis for either the clean or iced propeller. In the iced mode, the differential thrust and torque coefficient equations are modified by the drag and lift coefficient increments due to ice to obtain the appropriate iced values. Comparison with available experimental propeller icing data shows good agreement in several cases. The code's capability to properly predict iced thrust coefficient, power coefficient, and propeller efficiency is shown to be dependent on the choice of empirical correlation employed as well as proper specification of radial icing extent.

  5. Application of an unstructured Navier-Stokes code to prediction of adiabatic effectiveness of endwall flush-slot-cooling for a stator vane passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, Evgueni M.; Smirnov, Paul E.

    2008-06-01

    A three-dimensional unstructured finite-volume code developed for RANS computations with the artificial compressibility approach is described. The code is applied to prediction of adiabatic effectiveness of endwall flush-slot-cooling for a stator vane passage. Results obtained with the Spalart-Allmaras and the Menter SST turbulence models are presented and discussed in comparison with measurements and with the data computed using the FLUENT commercial software package.

  6. Turbulent Distortion of Condensate Accretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hazoume, R.; Orou Chabi, J.; Johnson, J. A., III

    1997-01-01

    When a simple model for the relationship between the density-temperature fluctuation correlation and mean values is used, we determine that the rate of change of turbulent intensity can influence directly the accretion rate of droplets. Considerable interest exists in the accretion rate for condensates in nonequilibrium flow with icing and the potential role which reactant accretion can play in nonequilibrium exothermic reactant processes. Turbulence is thought to play an important role in such flows. It has already been experimentally determined that turbulence influences the sizes of droplets in the heterogeneous nucleation of supersaturated vapors. This paper addresses the issue of the possible influence of turbulence on the accretion rate of droplets.

  7. Magnetically driven accretion in protoplanetary discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Jacob B.; Lesur, Geoffroy; Kunz, Matthew W.; Armitage, Philip J.

    2015-11-01

    We characterize magnetically driven accretion at radii between 1 and 100 au in protoplanetary discs, using a series of local non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. The simulations assume a minimum mass solar nebula (MMSN) disc that is threaded by a net vertical magnetic field of specified strength. Confirming previous results, we find that the Hall effect has only a modest impact on accretion at 30 au, and essentially none at 100 au. At 1-10 au the Hall effect introduces a pronounced bimodality in the accretion process, with vertical magnetic fields aligned to the disc rotation supporting a strong laminar Maxwell stress that is absent if the field is anti-aligned. In the anti-aligned case, we instead find evidence for bursts of turbulent stress at 5-10 au, which we tentatively identify with the non-axisymmetric Hall-shear instability. The presence or absence of these bursts depends upon the details of the adopted chemical model, which suggests that appreciable regions of actual protoplanetary discs might lie close to the borderline between laminar and turbulent behaviour. Given the number of important control parameters that have already been identified in MHD models, quantitative predictions for disc structure in terms of only radius and accretion rate appear to be difficult. Instead, we identify robust qualitative tests of magnetically driven accretion. These include the presence of turbulence in the outer disc, independent of the orientation of the vertical magnetic fields, and a Hall-mediated bimodality in turbulent properties extending from the region of thermal ionization to 10 au.

  8. Comparison of the PLTEMP code flow instability predictions with measurements made with electrically heated channels for the advanced test reactor.

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, E.

    2011-06-09

    fuel element burnout is due to a form of flow instability. Whittle and Forgan provide a formula that predicts when this flow instability will occur. This formula is included in the PLTEMP/ANL code.Error! Reference source not found. Olson has shown that the PLTEMP/ANL code accurately predicts the powers at which flow instability occurs in the Whittle and Forgan experiments. He also considered the electrically heated tests performed in the ANS Thermal-Hydraulic Test Loop at ORNL and report by M. Siman-Tov et al. The purpose of this memorandum is to demonstrate that the PLTEMP/ANL code accurately predicts the Croft and the Waters tests. This demonstration should provide sufficient confidence that the PLTEMP/ANL code can adequately predict the onset of flow instability for the converted MURR. The MURR core uses light water as a coolant, has a 24-inch active fuel length, downward flow in the core, and an average core velocity of about 7 m/s. The inlet temperature is about 50 C and the peak outlet is about 20 C higher than the inlet for reactor operation at 10 MW. The core pressures range from about 4 to about 5 bar. The peak heat flux is about 110 W/cm{sup 2}. Section 2 describes the mechanism that causes flow instability. Section 3 describes the Whittle and Forgan formula for flow instability. Section 4 briefly describes both the Croft and the Waters experiments. Section 5 describes the PLTEMP/ANL models. Section 6 compares the PLTEMP/ANL predictions based on the Whittle and Forgan formula with the Croft measurements. Section 7 does the same for the Waters measurements. Section 8 provides the range of parameters for the Whittle and Forgan tests. Section 9 discusses the results and provides conclusions. In conclusion, although there is no single test that by itself closely matches the limiting conditions in the MURR, the preponderance of measured data and the ability of the Whittle and Forgan correlation, as implemented in PLTEMP/ANL, to predict the onset of flow

  9. Neutron star accretion and the neutrino fireball

    SciTech Connect

    Colgate, S.A.; Herant, M.E.; Benz, W.

    1991-11-26

    The mixing necessary to explain the ``Fe`` line widths and possibly the observed red shifts of 1987A is explained in terms of large scale, entropy conserving, up and down flows (calculated with a smooth particle 2-D code) taking place between the neutron star and the explosion shock wave due to the gravity and neutrino deposition. Depending upon conditions of entropy and mass flux further accretion takes place in single events, similar to relaxation oscillator, fed by the downward flows of low entropy matter. The shock, in turn, is driven by the upflow of the buoyant high entropy bubbles. Some accretion events will reach a temperature high enough to create a neutrino ``fireball,`` a region hot enough, 11 Mev, so as to be partially opaque to its own (neutrino) radiation. The continuing neutrino deposition drives the explosion shock until the entropy of matter flowing downwards onto the neutron star is high enough to prevent further accretion. This process should result in a robust supernova explosion.

  10. Formation of Primordial Supermassive Stars by Rapid Mass Accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosokawa, Takashi; Yorke, Harold W.; Inayoshi, Kohei; Omukai, Kazuyuki; Yoshida, Naoki

    2013-12-01

    Supermassive stars (SMSs) forming via very rapid mass accretion (\\dot{M}_*\\gtrsim 0.1 \\,M_\\odot \\,yr^{-1}) could be precursors of supermassive black holes observed beyond a redshift of about six. Extending our previous work, here we study the evolution of primordial stars growing under such rapid mass accretion until the stellar mass reaches 104 - 5 M ⊙. Our stellar evolution calculations show that a star becomes supermassive while passing through the "supergiant protostar" stage, whereby the star has a very bloated envelope and a contracting inner core. The stellar radius increases monotonically with the stellar mass until ~= 100 AU for M * >~ 104 M ⊙, after which the star begins to slowly contract. Because of the large radius, the effective temperature is always less than 104 K during rapid accretion. The accreting material is thus almost completely transparent to the stellar radiation. Only for M * >~ 105 M ⊙ can stellar UV feedback operate and disturb the mass accretion flow. We also examine the pulsation stability of accreting SMSs, showing that the pulsation-driven mass loss does not prevent stellar mass growth. Observational signatures of bloated SMSs should be detectable with future observational facilities such as the James Webb Space Telescope. Our results predict that an inner core of the accreting SMS should suffer from the general relativistic instability soon after the stellar mass exceeds 105 M ⊙. An extremely massive black hole should form after the collapse of the inner core.

  11. RADIATIVELY EFFICIENT MAGNETIZED BONDI ACCRETION

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, Andrew J.; Klein, Richard I.; McKee, Christopher F.; Krumholz, Mark R.; Teyssier, Romain

    2012-01-10

    We have carried out a numerical study of the effect of large-scale magnetic fields on the rate of accretion from a uniform, isothermal gas onto a resistive, stationary point mass. Only mass, not magnetic flux, accretes onto the point mass. The simulations for this study avoid complications arising from boundary conditions by keeping the boundaries far from the accreting object. Our simulations leverage adaptive refinement methodology to attain high spatial fidelity close to the accreting object. Our results are particularly relevant to the problem of star formation from a magnetized molecular cloud in which thermal energy is radiated away on timescales much shorter than the dynamical timescale. Contrary to the adiabatic case, our simulations show convergence toward a finite accretion rate in the limit in which the radius of the accreting object vanishes, regardless of magnetic field strength. For very weak magnetic fields, the accretion rate first approaches the Bondi value and then drops by a factor of {approx}2 as magnetic flux builds up near the point mass. For strong magnetic fields, the steady-state accretion rate is reduced by a factor of {approx}0.2 {beta}{sup 1/2} compared to the Bondi value, where {beta} is the ratio of the gas pressure to the magnetic pressure. We give a simple expression for the accretion rate as a function of the magnetic field strength. Approximate analytic results are given in the Appendices for both time-dependent accretion in the limit of weak magnetic fields and steady-state accretion for the case of strong magnetic fields.

  12. Two-dimensional vortices and accretion disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nauta, Michiel Doede

    2000-01-01

    Observations show that there are disks around certain stars that slowly rain down on the central (compact) object: accretion disks. The rate of depletion of the disk might be slow but is still larger than was expected on theoretical grounds. That is why it has been suggested that the disks are turbulent. Because the disk is thin and rotating this turbulence might be related to two-dimensional (2D) turbulence which is characterized by energy transfers towards small wave numbers and the formation of 2D-vortices. This hypothesis is investigated in this thesis by numerical simulations. After an introduction, the numerical algorithm that was inplemented is discussed together with its relation to an accretion disk. It performs well under the absence of discontinuities. The code is used to study 2D-turbulence under the influence of background rotation with compressibility and a shearing background flow. The first is found to be of little consequence but the shear flow alters 2D-turbulence siginificantly. Only prograde vortices of enough strength are able to withstand the shear flow. The size of the vortices in the cross stream direction is also found to be smaller than the equivalent of the thickness of an accretion disk. These circulstances imply that the assumption of two-dimensionality is questionable so that 2D-vortices might not abound in accretion disks. However, the existence of such vortices is not ruled out and one such a cortex is studied in detail in chapter 4. The internal structure of the vortex is well described by a balance between Coriolis, centrifugal and pressure forces. The vortex is also accompanied by two spiral compressible waves. These are not responsible for the azimuthal drift of the vortex, which results from secondary vortices, but they might be related to the small radial drift that is observed. Radial drift leads to accretion but it is not very efficient. Multiple vortex interactions are the topic of tha last chapter and though interesting the

  13. Magnetic dynamos in accreting planetary bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golabek, Gregor; Labrosse, Stéphane; Gerya, Taras; Morishima, Ryuji; Tackley, Paul

    2013-04-01

    Laboratory measurements revealed ancient remanent magnetization in meteorites [1] indicating the activity of magnetic dynamos in the corresponding meteorite parent body. To study under which circumstances dynamo activity is possible, we use a new methodology to simulate the internal evolution of a planetary body during accretion and differentiation. Using the N-body code PKDGRAV [2] we simulate the accretion of planetary embryos from an initial annulus of several thousand planetesimals. The growth history of the largest resulting planetary embryo is used as an input for the thermomechanical 2D code I2ELVIS [3]. The thermomechanical model takes recent parametrizations of impact processes [4] and of the magnetic dynamo [5] into account. It was pointed out that impacts can not only deposit heat deep into the target body, which is later buried by ejecta of further impacts [6], but also that impacts expose in the crater region originally deep-seated layers, thus cooling the interior [7]. This combination of impact effects becomes even more important when we consider that planetesimals of all masses contribute to planetary accretion. This leads occasionally to collisions between bodies with large ratios between impactor and target mass. Thus, all these processes can be expected to have a profound effect on the thermal evolution during the epoch of planetary accretion and may have implications for the magnetic dynamo activity. Results show that late-formed planetesimals do not experience silicate melting and avoid thermal alteration, whereas in early-formed bodies accretion and iron core growth occur almost simultaneously and a highly variable magnetic dynamo can operate in the interior of these bodies. [1] Weiss, B.P. et al., Science, 322, 713-716, 2008. [2] Richardson, D. C. et al., Icarus, 143, 45-59, 2000. [3] Gerya, T.V and Yuen, D.J., Phys. Earth Planet. Int., 163, 83-105, 2007. [4] Monteux, J. et al., Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L24201, 2007. [5] Aubert, J. et al

  14. Slim accretion discs with different viscosity prescriptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szuszkiewicz, Ewa

    1990-05-01

    The variability of X-ray sources powered by accretion may be connected to thermal instabilities in the innermost parts of slim disks. The time-scales of variability predicted by the theory with the standard alpha-viscosity prescription agree with those observed in a wide range of sources. The amplitudes (3-4 orders of magnitude in luiminosity) are correctly predicted for X-ray transient sources, but in general are too big for quasars, Seyferts, galactic blackhole candidates and LMXBs. It is shown that a slight modification of the viscosity prescription can offer a much better agreement with observations.

  15. Spherical Accretion in a Uniformly Expanding Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colpi, Monica; Shapiro, Stuart L.; Wasserman, Ira

    1996-10-01

    We consider spherically symmetric accretion of material from an initially homogeneous, uniformly expanding medium onto a Newtonian point mass M. The gas is assumed to evolve adiabatically with a constant adiabatic index F, which we vary over the range Γ ɛ [1, 5/3]. We use a one-dimensional Lagrangian code to follow the spherical infall of material as a function of time. Outflowing shells gravitationally bound to the point mass fall back, giving rise to a inflow rate that, after a rapid rise, declines as a power law in time. If there were no outflow initially, Bondi accretion would result, with a characteristic accretion time-scale ta,0. For gas initially expanding at a uniform rate, with a radial velocity U = R/t0 at radius R, the behavior of the flow at all subsequent times is determined by ta,0/t0. If ta,0/t0 ≫ 1, the gas has no time to respond to pressure forces, so the fluid motion is nearly collisionless. In this case, only loosely bound shells are influenced by pressure gradients and are pushed outward. The late-time evolution of the mass accretion rate Mdot is close to the result for pure dust, and we develop a semianalytic model that accurately accounts for the small effect of pressure gradients in this limit. In the opposite regime, ta,0/t0 ≪ 1, pressure forces significantly affect the motion of the gas. At sufficiently early times, t ≤ ttr, the flow evolved along a sequence of quasi-stationary, Bondi-like states, with a time-dependent Mdot determined by the slowly varying gas density at large distances. However, at later times, t ≥ ttr, the fluid flow enters a dustllke regime; ttr is the time when the instantaneous Bondi accretion radius reaches the marginally bound radius. The transition time ttr depends sensitively on ta,0/t0 for a given Γ and can greatly exceed t0. We show that there exists a critical value Γ = 11/9, below which the transition from fluid to ballistic motion disappears. As one application of our calculations, we consider the

  16. Ice Accretions and Full-Scale Iced Aerodynamic Performance Data for a Two-Dimensional NACA 23012 Airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Addy, Harold E., Jr.; Broeren, Andy P.; Potapczuk, Mark G.; Lee, Sam; Guffond, Didier; Montreuil, Emmanuel; Moens, Frederic

    2016-01-01

    in the IRT. From these molds, castings were made that closely replicated the features of the accreted ice. The castings were then mounted on the full-scale model in the F1 tunnel, and aerodynamic performance measurements were made using model surface pressure taps, the facility force balance system, and a large wake rake designed specifically for these tests. Tests were run over a range of Reynolds and Mach numbers. For each run, the model was rotated over a range of angles-of-attack that included airfoil stall. The benchmark data collected during these campaigns were, and continue to be, used for various purposes. The full-scale data form a unique, ice-accretion and associated aerodynamic performance dataset that can be used as a reference when addressing concerns regarding the use of subscale ice-accretion data to assess full-scale icing effects. Further, the data may be used in the development or enhancement of both ice-accretion prediction codes and computational fluid dynamic codes when applied to study the effects of icing. Finally, as was done in the wider study, the data may be used to help determine the level of geometric fidelity needed for artificial ice used to assess aerodynamic degradation due to aircraft icing. The structured, multifaceted approach used in this research effort provides a unique perspective on the aerodynamic effects of aircraft icing. The data presented in this report are available in electronic form upon formal approval by proper NASA and ONERA authorities.

  17. LUNAR ACCRETION FROM A ROCHE-INTERIOR FLUID DISK

    SciTech Connect

    Salmon, Julien; Canup, Robin M. E-mail: robin@boulder.swri.edu

    2012-11-20

    We use a hybrid numerical approach to simulate the formation of the Moon from an impact-generated disk, consisting of a fluid model for the disk inside the Roche limit and an N-body code to describe accretion outside the Roche limit. As the inner disk spreads due to a thermally regulated viscosity, material is delivered across the Roche limit and accretes into moonlets that are added to the N-body simulation. Contrary to an accretion timescale of a few months obtained with prior pure N-body codes, here the final stage of the Moon's growth is controlled by the slow spreading of the inner disk, resulting in a total lunar accretion timescale of {approx}10{sup 2} years. It has been proposed that the inner disk may compositionally equilibrate with the Earth through diffusive mixing, which offers a potential explanation for the identical oxygen isotope compositions of the Earth and Moon. However, the mass fraction of the final Moon that is derived from the inner disk is limited by resonant torques between the disk and exterior growing moons. For initial disks containing <2.5 lunar masses (M{sub Last-Quarter-Moon }), we find that a final Moon with mass > 0.8 M{sub Last-Quarter-Moon} contains {<=}60% material derived from the inner disk, with this material preferentially delivered to the Moon at the end of its accretion.

  18. AGN flickering and chaotic accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Andrew; Nixon, Chris

    2015-10-01

    Observational arguments suggest that the growth phases of the supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei have a characteristic time-scale ˜105 yr. We show that this is the time-scale expected in the chaotic accretion picture of black hole feeding, because of the effect of self-gravity in limiting the mass of any accretion-disc feeding event.

  19. Morphodynamics of Accreting Beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggiero, P.; Gelfenbaum, G.; Sherwood, C. R.; Kaminsky, G. M.

    2002-12-01

    Beaches along the Pacific Northwest coast of the US have been shown to have large seasonal variability in shoreline position with several 10's of meters of recession occurring during the winter (high-energy waves) and typically similar scales of beach recovery during the summer (low-energy waves). However, many beaches along the Columbia River littoral cell (northwest Oregon and southwest Washington) have exhibited net residual progradation of several meters per year over decades, resulting in significant shoreline realignment. This historical shoreline advance has been primarily due to the dispersal of sand from the flanks of the ebb-tidal deltas following jetty construction at the entrances to the Columbia River and Grays Harbor. The installation of jetties removed the shallow shoals from the influence of tidal currents, resulting in a shoreface profile that was too shallow for the inherent wave energy. Onshore transport of large quantities of sand occurred over the next several decades, decreasing through time. While much of the original source material is now exhausted, many beaches today are still rapidly accreting on inter-annual time scales. Gradients in alongshore sediment transport, net onshore directed cross-shore sediment transport within the surf zone, and cross-shore feeding from a shoreface out of equilibrium with forcing conditions may each be partially responsible for this continued accretion. The primary morphodynamic mechanism for sub-aerial beach growth, and shoreline progradation on a seasonal scale, is hypothesized to be the development, onshore migration, and welding of inter-tidal (swash) bars to the upper beach face. To investigate the processes and morphodynamics associated with accreting beaches we have completed two field experiments and are applying computational models that link measured sediment transport to wave and current forcing. Experiments completed in Spring 2001 and Summer 2002 combined process measurements with observations of

  20. Accretion of planetary matter and the lithium problem in the 16 Cygni stellar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deal, Morgan; Richard, Olivier; Vauclair, Sylvie

    2015-12-01

    Context. The 16 Cygni system is composed of two solar analogues with similar masses and ages. A red dwarf is in orbit around 16 Cygni A, and 16 Cygni B hosts a giant planet. The abundances of heavy elements are similar in the two stars, but lithium is much more depleted in 16 Cygni B than in 16 Cygni A, by a factor of at least 4.7. Aims: The interest of studying the 16 Cygni system is that the two star have the same age and the same initial composition. The differences currently observed must be due to their different evolution, related to the fact that one of them hosts a planet while the other does not. Methods: We computed models of the two stars that precisely fit the observed seismic frequencies. We used the Toulouse Geneva Evolution Code (TGEC), which includes complete atomic diffusion (including radiative accelerations). We compared the predicted surface abundances with the spectroscopic observations and confirm that another mixing process is needed. We then included the effect of accretion-induced fingering convection. Results: The accretion of planetary matter does not change the metal abundances but leads to lithium destruction, which depends upon the accreted mass. A fraction of the Earth's mass is enough to explain the lithium surface abundances of 16 Cygni B. We also checked the beryllium abundances. Conclusions: In the case of accretion of heavy matter onto stellar surfaces, the accreted heavy elements do not remain in the outer convective zones, but are mixed downwards by fingering convection induced by the unstable μ-gradient. Depending on the accreted mass, this mixing process may transport lithium down to its nuclear destruction layers and lead to an extra lithium depletion at the surface. A fraction of the Earth's mass is enough to explain a lithium ratio of 4.7 in the 16 Cygni system. In this case beryllium is not destroyed. Such a process may be frequent in planet-hosting stars and should be studied in other cases in the future.

  1. Compton heated winds and coronae above accretion disks. I Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begelman, M. C.; Mckee, C. F.; Shields, G. A.

    1983-01-01

    X rays emitted in the inner part of an accretion disk system can heat the surface of the disk farther out, producing a corona and possibly driving off a strong wind. The dynamics of Compton-heated coronae and winds are analyzed using an approximate two-dimensional technique to estimate the mass loss rate as a function of distance from the source of X rays. The findings have important dynamical implications for accretion disks in quasars, active galactic nuclei, X ray binaries, and cataclysmic variables. These include: mass loss from the disk possibly comparable with or exceeding the net accretion rate onto the central compact object, which may lead to unstable accretion; sufficient angular momentum loss in some cases to truncate the disk in a semidetached binary at a smaller radius than that predicted by tidal truncation theories; and combined static plus ram pressure in the wind adequate to confine line-emitting clouds in quasars and Seyfert galaxies.

  2. Gas accretion from halos to disks: observations, curiosities, and problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmegreen, Bruce G.

    2016-08-01

    Accretion of gas from the cosmic web to galaxy halos and ultimately their disks is a prediction of modern cosmological models but is rarely observed directly or at the full rate expected from star formation. Here we illustrate possible large-scale cosmic HI accretion onto the nearby dwarf starburst galaxy IC10, observed with the VLA and GBT. We also suggest that cosmic accretion is the origin of sharp metallicity drops in the starburst regions of other dwarf galaxies, as observed with the 10-m GTC. Finally, we question the importance of cosmic accretion in normal dwarf irregulars, for which a recent study of their far-outer regions sees no need for, or evidence of, continuing gas buildup.

  3. Microwave ice accretion meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magenheim, Bertram (Inventor); Rocks, James K. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A system for indicating ice thickness and rate of ice thickness growth on surfaces is disclosed. The region to be monitored for ice accretion is provided with a resonant surface waveguide which is mounted flush, below the surface being monitored. A controlled oscillator provides microwave energy via a feed point at a controllable frequency. A detector is coupled to the surface waveguide and is responsive to electrical energy. A measuring device indicates the frequency deviation of the controlled oscillator from a quiescent frequency. A control means is provided to control the frequency of oscillation of the controlled oscillator. In a first, open-loop embodiment, the control means is a shaft operated by an operator. In a second, closed-loop embodiment, the control means is a processor which effects automatic control.

  4. Accuracy of Single Frequency GPS Observations Processing In Near Real-time With Use of Code Predicted Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wielgosz, P. A.

    In this year, the system of active geodetic GPS permanent stations is going to be estab- lished in Poland. This system should provide GPS observations for a wide spectrum of users, especially it will be a great opportunity for surveyors. Many of surveyors still use cheaper, single frequency receivers. This paper focuses on processing of single frequency GPS observations only. During processing of such observations the iono- sphere plays an important role, so we concentrated on the influence of the ionosphere on the positional coordinates. Twenty consecutive days of GPS data from 2001 year were processed to analyze the accuracy of a derived three-dimensional relative vec- tor position between GPS stations. Observations from two Polish EPN/IGS stations: BOGO and JOZE were used. In addition to, a new test station - IGIK was created. In this paper, the results of single frequency GPS observations processing in near real- time are presented. Baselines of 15, 27 and 42 kilometers and sessions of 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 hours long were processed. While processing we used CODE (Centre for Orbit De- termination in Europe, Bern, Switzerland) predicted products: orbits and ionosphere info. These products are available in real-time and enable near real-time processing. Software Bernese v. 4.2 for Linux and BPE (Bernese Processing Engine) mode were used. These results are shown with a reference to dual frequency weekly solution (the best solution). Obtained GPS positional time and GPS baseline length dependency accuracy is presented for single frequency GPS observations.

  5. Guide to AERO2S and WINGDES Computer Codes for Prediction and Minimization of Drag Due to Lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, Harry W.; Chu, Julio; Ozoroski, Lori P.; McCullers, L. Arnold

    1997-01-01

    The computer codes, AER02S and WINGDES, are now widely used for the analysis and design of airplane lifting surfaces under conditions that tend to induce flow separation. These codes have undergone continued development to provide additional capabilities since the introduction of the original versions over a decade ago. This code development has been reported in a variety of publications (NASA technical papers, NASA contractor reports, and society journals). Some modifications have not been publicized at all. Users of these codes have suggested the desirability of combining in a single document the descriptions of the code development, an outline of the features of each code, and suggestions for effective code usage. This report is intended to supply that need.

  6. Discovery of an Accretion-Fed Corona in an Accreting Young Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolk, Scott J.; Brickhouse, N.; Cranmer, S.; Dupree, A.; Luna, G. J. M.

    2010-01-01

    A deep (489 ks) Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating spectrum of the classical T Tauri star TW Hydrae shows a new type of coronal structure that is produced by the accretion process. In the standard model for a stellar dipole, the magnetic field truncates the disk and channels the accreting material onto the star. The He-like diagnostic lines of Ne IX provide excellent agreement with the shock conditions predicted by this model, with an electron temperature of 2.5 MK and electron density of 3 times 1012 cm-3 (see also Kastner et al. 2002). However, the standard model completely fails to predict the post-shock conditions, significantly overpredicting both the density and absorption observed at O VII. Instead the observations require a second "post-shock" component with 30 times more mass and 1000 times larger volume than found at the shock itself. We note that in the standard model, the shocked plasma is conveniently located near both closed (coronal) and open (stellar wind) magnetic structures, as the magnetic field connecting the star and disk also separates the open and closed field regions on the stellar surface. The shocked plasma thus can provide the energy to heat not only the post-shock plasma, but also adjacent regions (i.e. an "accretion-fed corona") and drive stellar material into surrounding coronal structures. These observations provide new clues to the puzzling soft X-ray excess found in accreting systems, which depends on both the presence of accretion and the level of coronal activity (Guedel and Telleschi 2007). This work is partially supported by CXO grant G07-8018X.

  7. A Database of Supercooled Large Droplet Ice Accretions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZante, Judith Foss

    2007-01-01

    A unique, publicly available database regarding supercooled large droplet ice accretions has been developed in NASA Glenn's Icing Research Tunnel. Identical cloud and flight conditions were generated for five different airfoil models. The models chosen represent a variety of aircraft types from the horizontal stabilizer of a large trans-port aircraft to the wings of regional, business, and general aviation aircraft. In addition to the standard documentation methods of 2D ice shape tracing and imagery, ice mass measurements were also taken. This database will also be used to validate and verify the extension of the ice accretion code, LEWICE, into the SLD realm.

  8. A Database of Supercooled Large Droplet Ice Accretions [Supplement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZante, Judith Foss

    2007-01-01

    A unique, publicly available database regarding supercooled large droplet (SLD) ice accretions has been developed in NASA Glenn's Icing Research Tunnel. Identical cloud and flight conditions were generated for five different airfoil models. The models chosen represent a variety of aircraft types from the horizontal stabilizer of a large transport aircraft to the wings of regional, business, and general aviation aircraft. In addition to the standard documentation methods of 2D ice shape tracing and imagery, ice mass measurements were also taken. This database will also be used to validate and verify the extension of the ice accretion code, LEWICE, into the SLD realm.

  9. Systemizers Are Better Code-Breakers: Self-Reported Systemizing Predicts Code-Breaking Performance in Expert Hackers and Naïve Participants

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, India; Bolgan, Samuela; Mosca, Daniel; McLean, Colin; Rusconi, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Studies on hacking have typically focused on motivational aspects and general personality traits of the individuals who engage in hacking; little systematic research has been conducted on predispositions that may be associated not only with the choice to pursue a hacking career but also with performance in either naïve or expert populations. Here, we test the hypotheses that two traits that are typically enhanced in autism spectrum disorders—attention to detail and systemizing—may be positively related to both the choice of pursuing a career in information security and skilled performance in a prototypical hacking task (i.e., crypto-analysis or code-breaking). A group of naïve participants and of ethical hackers completed the Autism Spectrum Quotient, including an attention to detail scale, and the Systemizing Quotient (Baron-Cohen et al., 2001, 2003). They were also tested with behavioral tasks involving code-breaking and a control task involving security X-ray image interpretation. Hackers reported significantly higher systemizing and attention to detail than non-hackers. We found a positive relation between self-reported systemizing (but not attention to detail) and code-breaking skills in both hackers and non-hackers, whereas attention to detail (but not systemizing) was related with performance in the X-ray screening task in both groups, as previously reported with naïve participants (Rusconi et al., 2015). We discuss the theoretical and translational implications of our findings. PMID:27242491

  10. Systemizers Are Better Code-Breakers: Self-Reported Systemizing Predicts Code-Breaking Performance in Expert Hackers and Naïve Participants.

    PubMed

    Harvey, India; Bolgan, Samuela; Mosca, Daniel; McLean, Colin; Rusconi, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Studies on hacking have typically focused on motivational aspects and general personality traits of the individuals who engage in hacking; little systematic research has been conducted on predispositions that may be associated not only with the choice to pursue a hacking career but also with performance in either naïve or expert populations. Here, we test the hypotheses that two traits that are typically enhanced in autism spectrum disorders-attention to detail and systemizing-may be positively related to both the choice of pursuing a career in information security and skilled performance in a prototypical hacking task (i.e., crypto-analysis or code-breaking). A group of naïve participants and of ethical hackers completed the Autism Spectrum Quotient, including an attention to detail scale, and the Systemizing Quotient (Baron-Cohen et al., 2001, 2003). They were also tested with behavioral tasks involving code-breaking and a control task involving security X-ray image interpretation. Hackers reported significantly higher systemizing and attention to detail than non-hackers. We found a positive relation between self-reported systemizing (but not attention to detail) and code-breaking skills in both hackers and non-hackers, whereas attention to detail (but not systemizing) was related with performance in the X-ray screening task in both groups, as previously reported with naïve participants (Rusconi et al., 2015). We discuss the theoretical and translational implications of our findings. PMID:27242491

  11. Geometry Modeling and Grid Generation for "Icing Effects" and "Ice Accretion" Simulations on Airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choo, Yung; Vickerman, Mary; Lee, Ki D.; Thompson, David S.

    2000-01-01

    There are two distinct icing-related problems for airfoils that can be simulated. One is predicting the effects of ice on the aerodynamic performance of airfoils when ice geometry is known ("icing effects" study). The other is simulating ice accretion under specified icing conditions ("ice accretion" simulation). This paper will address development of two different software packages for two-dimensional geometry preparation and grid generation for both "icing effects" and "ice accretion" studies.

  12. Accretion shock geometries in the magnetic variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stockman, H. S.

    1988-01-01

    The first self consistent shock models for the AM Herculis-type systems successfully identified the dominant physical processes and their signatures. These homogenous shock models predict unpolarized, Rayleigh-Jeans optical spectra with sharp cutoffs and rising polarizations as the shocks become optically thin in the ultraviolet. However, the observed energy distributions are generally flat with intermediate polarizations over a broad optical band. These and other observational evidence support a non-homogenous accretion profile which may extend over a considerable fraction of the stellar surface. Both the fundamental assumptions underlying the canonical 1-D shock model and the extension of this model to inhomogenous accretion shocks were identified, for both radial and linear structures. The observational evidence was also examined for tall shocks and little evidence was found for relative shock heights in excess of h/R(1) greater than or equal to 0.1. For several systems, upper limits to the shock height can be obtained from either x ray or optical data. These lie in the region h/R(1) is approximately 0.01 and are in general agreement with the current physical picture for these systems. The quasi-periodic optical variations observed in several magnetic variables may eventually prove to be a major aid in further understanding their accretion shock geometries.

  13. Adapting hierarchical bidirectional inter prediction on a GPU-based platform for 2D and 3D H.264 video coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Sánchez, Rafael; Martínez, José Luis; Cock, Jan De; Fernández-Escribano, Gerardo; Pieters, Bart; Sánchez, José L.; Claver, José M.; de Walle, Rik Van

    2013-12-01

    The H.264/AVC video coding standard introduces some improved tools in order to increase compression efficiency. Moreover, the multi-view extension of H.264/AVC, called H.264/MVC, adopts many of them. Among the new features, variable block-size motion estimation is one which contributes to high coding efficiency. Furthermore, it defines a different prediction structure that includes hierarchical bidirectional pictures, outperforming traditional Group of Pictures patterns in both scenarios: single-view and multi-view. However, these video coding techniques have high computational complexity. Several techniques have been proposed in the literature over the last few years which are aimed at accelerating the inter prediction process, but there are no works focusing on bidirectional prediction or hierarchical prediction. In this article, with the emergence of many-core processors or accelerators, a step forward is taken towards an implementation of an H.264/AVC and H.264/MVC inter prediction algorithm on a graphics processing unit. The results show a negligible rate distortion drop with a time reduction of up to 98% for the complete H.264/AVC encoder.

  14. Wind accretion: Theory and observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakura, N. I.; Postnov, K. A.; Kochetkova, A. Yu.; Hjalmarsdotter, L.; Sidoli, L.; Paizis, A.

    2015-07-01

    A review of wind accretion in high-mass X-ray binaries is presented. We focus on different regimes of quasi-spherical accretion onto the neutron star (NS): the supersonic (Bondi) accretion, which takes place when the captured matter cools down rapidly and falls supersonically towards the NS magnetosphere, and subsonic (settling) accretion which occurs when plasma remains hot until it meets the magnetospheric boundary. These two regimes of accretion are separated by an X-ray luminosity of about 4 × 1036 erg s-1. In the subsonic case, which sets in at lower luminosities, a hot quasi-spherical shell must form around the magnetosphere, and the actual accretion rate onto NS is determined by the ability of the plasma to enter the magnetosphere due to Rayleigh-Taylor instability. In turn, two regimes of subsonic accretion are possible, depending on plasma cooling mechanism (Compton or radiative) near the magnetopshere. The transition from the high-luminosity with Compton cooling to the lowluminosity (Lx ≲ 3 × 1035 erg s-1) with radiative cooling can be responsible for the onset of the off states repeatedly observed in several low-luminosity slowly accreting pulsars, such as Vela X-1, GX 301-2, and 4U 1907+09. The triggering of the transitionmay be due to a switch in the X-ray beam pattern in response to a change in the optical depth in the accretion column with changing luminosity. We also show that in the settling accretion theory, bright X-ray flares (~1038-1040 erg) observed in supergiant fast X-ray transients (SFXT) can be produced by sporadic capture of magnetized stellar wind plasma. At sufficiently low accretion rates, magnetic reconnection can enhance the magnetospheric plasma entry rate, resulting in copious production of X-ray photons, strong Compton cooling and ultimately in unstable accretion of the entire shell. A bright flare develops on the free-fall time scale in the shell, and the typical energy released in an SFXT bright flare corresponds to the mass

  15. An evaluation of a computer code based on linear acoustic theory for predicting helicopter main rotor noise. [CH-53A and S-76 helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, S. J.; Egolf, T. A.

    1980-01-01

    Acoustic characteristics predicted using a recently developed computer code were correlated with measured acoustic data for two helicopter rotors. The analysis, is based on a solution of the Ffowcs-Williams-Hawkings (FW-H) equation and includes terms accounting for both the thickness and loading components of the rotational noise. Computations are carried out in the time domain and assume free field conditions. Results of the correlation show that the Farrassat/Nystrom analysis, when using predicted airload data as input, yields fair but encouraging correlation for the first 6 harmonics of blade passage. It also suggests that although the analysis represents a valuable first step towards developing a truly comprehensive helicopter rotor noise prediction capability, further work remains to be done identifying and incorporating additional noise mechanisms into the code.

  16. To accrete or not accrete, that is the question

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    von, Huene R.

    1986-01-01

    Along modern convergent margins tectonic processes span a spectrum from accretion to erosion. The process of accretion is generally recognized because it leaves a geologic record, whereas the process of erosion is generally hypothetical because it produces a geologic hiatus. Major conditions that determine the dominance of accretion or erosion at modern convergent margins are: 1) rate and direction of plate convergence, 2) sediment supply and type in the trench, and 3) topography of the subducting ocean floor. Most change in structure has been ascribed to plate motion, but both erosion and accretion are observed along the same convergence margin. Thus sediment supply and topography are probably of equivalent importance to plate motion because both erosion and accretion are observed under constant conditions of plate convergence. The dominance of accretion or erosion at a margin varies with the thickness of trench sediment. In a sediment flooded trench, the proportions of subducted and accreted sediment are commonly established by the position of a decollement along a weak horizon in the sediment section. Thus, the vertical variation of sediment strength and the distribution of horizontal stress are important factors. Once deformation begins, the original sediment strength is decreased by sediment remolding and where sediment thickens rapidly, increases in pore fluid pressure can be pronounced. In sediment-starved trenches, where the relief of the subducting ocean floor is not smoothed over, the front of the margin must respond to the topography subducted as well as that accreted. The hypothesized erosion by the drag of positive features against the underside of the upper plate (a high stress environment) may alternate with erosion due to the collapse of a margin front into voids such as graben (a low stress environment). ?? 1986 Ferdinand Enke Verlag Stuttgart.

  17. He-accreting white dwarfs: accretion regimes and final outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piersanti, L.; Tornambé, A.; Yungelson, L. R.

    2014-12-01

    The behaviour of carbon-oxygen (CO) white dwarfs (WDs) subject to direct helium accretion is extensively studied. We aim to analyse the thermal response of an accreting WD to mass deposition at different timescales. The analysis has been performed for initial WD masses and accretion rates in the range 0.60-1.02 M⊙ and 10-9-10-5 M⊙ yr-1, respectively. Thermal regimes in the parameter space MWD-dot{M}_He leading to formation of red-giant-like structures, steady burning of He, and mild, strong and dynamical flashes have been identified and the transition between these regimes has been studied in detail. In particular, the physical properties of WDs experiencing the He-flash accretion regime have been investigated to determine the mass retention efficiency as a function of the accretor total mass and accretion rate. We also discuss to what extent the building up of a He-rich layer via H burning could be described according to the behaviour of models accreting He-rich matter directly. Polynomial fits to the obtained results are provided for use in binary population synthesis computations. Several applications for close binary systems with He-rich donors and CO WD accretors are considered and the relevance of the results for interpreting He novae is discussed.

  18. Reciprocal Changes of Circulating Long Non-Coding RNAs ZFAS1 and CDR1AS Predict Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Sun, Lihua; Xuan, Lina; Pan, Zhenwei; Li, Kang; Liu, Shuangshuang; Huang, Yuechao; Zhao, Xuyun; Huang, Lihua; Wang, Zhiguo; Hou, Yan; Li, Junnan; Tian, Ye; Yu, Jiahui; Han, Hui; Liu, Yanhong; Gao, Fei; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Shu; Du, Zhimin; Lu, Yanjie; Yang, Baofeng

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate the potential of circulating long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) as biomarkers for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We measured the circulating levels of 15 individual lncRNAs, known to be relevant to cardiovascular disease, using the whole blood samples collected from 103 AMI patients, 149 non-AMI subjects, and 95 healthy volunteers. We found that only two of them, Zinc finger antisense 1 (ZFAS1) and Cdr1 antisense (CDR1AS), showed significant differential expression between AMI patients and control subjects. Circulating level of ZFAS1 was significantly lower in AMI (0.74 ± 0.07) than in non-AMI subjects (1.0 ± 0.05, P < 0.0001), whereas CDR1AS showed the opposite changes with its blood level markedly higher in AMI (2.18 ± 0.24) than in non-AMI subjects (1.0 ± 0.05, P < 0.0001). When comparison was made between AMI and non-AMI, the area under ROC curve was 0.664 for ZFAS1 alone or 0.671 for CDR1AS alone, and 0.691 for ZFAS1 and CDR1AS combination. Univariate and multivariate analyses identified these two lncRNAs as independent predictors for AMI. Similar changes of circulating ZFAS1 and CDR1AS were consistently observed in an AMI mouse model. Reciprocal changes of circulating ZFAS1 and CDR1AS independently predict AMI and may be considered novel biomarkers of AMI. PMID:26928231

  19. Reciprocal Changes of Circulating Long Non-Coding RNAs ZFAS1 and CDR1AS Predict Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Sun, Lihua; Xuan, Lina; Pan, Zhenwei; Li, Kang; Liu, Shuangshuang; Huang, Yuechao; Zhao, Xuyun; Huang, Lihua; Wang, Zhiguo; Hou, Yan; Li, Junnan; Tian, Ye; Yu, Jiahui; Han, Hui; Liu, Yanhong; Gao, Fei; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Shu; Du, Zhimin; Lu, Yanjie; Yang, Baofeng

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate the potential of circulating long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) as biomarkers for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We measured the circulating levels of 15 individual lncRNAs, known to be relevant to cardiovascular disease, using the whole blood samples collected from 103 AMI patients, 149 non-AMI subjects, and 95 healthy volunteers. We found that only two of them, Zinc finger antisense 1 (ZFAS1) and Cdr1 antisense (CDR1AS), showed significant differential expression between AMI patients and control subjects. Circulating level of ZFAS1 was significantly lower in AMI (0.74 ± 0.07) than in non-AMI subjects (1.0 ± 0.05, P < 0.0001), whereas CDR1AS showed the opposite changes with its blood level markedly higher in AMI (2.18 ± 0.24) than in non-AMI subjects (1.0 ± 0.05, P < 0.0001). When comparison was made between AMI and non-AMI, the area under ROC curve was 0.664 for ZFAS1 alone or 0.671 for CDR1AS alone, and 0.691 for ZFAS1 and CDR1AS combination. Univariate and multivariate analyses identified these two lncRNAs as independent predictors for AMI. Similar changes of circulating ZFAS1 and CDR1AS were consistently observed in an AMI mouse model. Reciprocal changes of circulating ZFAS1 and CDR1AS independently predict AMI and may be considered novel biomarkers of AMI. PMID:26928231

  20. TEMPERATURE STRUCTURE OF PROTOPLANETARY DISKS UNDERGOING LAYERED ACCRETION

    SciTech Connect

    Lesniak, M. V.; Desch, S. J.

    2011-10-20

    We calculate the temperature structures of protoplanetary disks (PPDs) around T Tauri stars heated by both incident starlight and viscous dissipation. We present a new algorithm for calculating the temperatures in disks in hydrostatic and radiative equilibrium, based on Rybicki's method for iteratively calculating the vertical temperature structure within an annulus. At each iteration, the method solves for the temperature at all locations simultaneously, and converges rapidly even at high (>>10{sup 4}) optical depth. The method retains the full frequency dependence of the radiation field. We use this algorithm to study for the first time disks evolving via the magnetorotational instability. Because PPD midplanes are weakly ionized, this instability operates preferentially in their surface layers, and disks will undergo layered accretion. We find that the midplane temperatures T{sub mid} are strongly affected by the column density {Sigma}{sub a} of the active layers, even for fixed mass accretion rate M-dot . Models assuming uniform accretion predict midplane temperatures in the terrestrial planet forming region several x 10{sup 2} K higher than our layered accretion models do. For M-dot < 10{sup -7} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} and the column densities {Sigma}{sub a} < 10 g cm{sup -2} associated with layered accretion, disk temperatures are indistinguishable from those of a passively heated disk. We find emergent spectra are insensitive to {Sigma}{sub a}, making it difficult to observationally identify disks undergoing layered versus uniform accretion.

  1. Ice accretion and performance degradation calculations with LEWICE/NS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potapczuk, Mark G.; Al-Khalil, Kamel M.; Velazquez, Matthew T.

    1993-01-01

    The LEWICE ice accretion computer code has been extended to include the solution of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. The code is modular and contains separate stand-alone program elements that create a grid, calculate the flow field parameters, calculate the droplet trajectory paths, determine the amount of ice growth, calculate aeroperformance changes, and plot results. The new elements of the code are described. Calculated results are compared to experiment for several cases, including both ice shape and drag rise.

  2. Ice Accretion and Performance Degradation Calculations with LEWICE/NS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potapczuk, Mark G.; Al-Khalil, Kamel M.; Velazquez, Matthew T.

    1993-01-01

    The LEWICE ice accretion computer code has been extended to include the solution of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. The code is modular and contains separate stand-alone program elements that create a grid, calculate the flow field parameters, calculate the droplet trajectory paths, determine the amount of ice growth, calculate aeroperformance changes, and plot results. The new elements of the code are described. Calculated results are compared to experiment for several cases, including both ice shape and drag rise.

  3. A computational model for the prediction of jet entrainment in the vicinity of nozzle boattails (The BOAT code)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dash, S. M.; Pergament, H. S.

    1978-01-01

    The basic code structure is discussed, including the overall program flow and a brief description of all subroutines. Instructions on the preparation of input data, definitions of key FORTRAN variables, sample input and output, and a complete listing of the code are presented.

  4. Dynamics of continental accretion.

    PubMed

    Moresi, L; Betts, P G; Miller, M S; Cayley, R A

    2014-04-10

    Subduction zones become congested when they try to consume buoyant, exotic crust. The accretionary mountain belts (orogens) that form at these convergent plate margins have been the principal sites of lateral continental growth through Earth's history. Modern examples of accretionary margins are the North American Cordilleras and southwest Pacific subduction zones. The geologic record contains abundant accretionary orogens, such as the Tasmanides, along the eastern margin of the supercontinent Gondwana, and the Altaïdes, which formed on the southern margin of Laurasia. In modern and ancient examples of long-lived accretionary orogens, the overriding plate is subjected to episodes of crustal extension and back-arc basin development, often related to subduction rollback and transient episodes of orogenesis and crustal shortening, coincident with accretion of exotic crust. Here we present three-dimensional dynamic models that show how accretionary margins evolve from the initial collision, through a period of plate margin instability, to re-establishment of a stable convergent margin. The models illustrate how significant curvature of the orogenic system develops, as well as the mechanism for tectonic escape of the back-arc region. The complexity of the morphology and the evolution of the system are caused by lateral rollback of a tightly arcuate trench migrating parallel to the plate boundary and orthogonally to the convergence direction. We find geological and geophysical evidence for this process in the Tasmanides of eastern Australia, and infer that this is a recurrent and global phenomenon. PMID:24670638

  5. Code System for Real-Time Prediction of Radiation Dose to the Public Due to an Accidental Release from a Nuclear Power Plant.

    1987-01-20

    Version 00 The suite of computer codes, SPEEDI, predicts the dose to the public from a plume released from a nuclear power plant. The main codes comprising SPEEDI are: WIND04, PRWDA, and CIDE. WIND04 calculates three-dimensional mass-conservative windfields. PRWDA calculates concentration distributions, and CIDE estimates the external and internal doses. These models can take into account the spatial and temporal variation of wind, variable topography, deposition and variable source intensity for use in real-time assessment.more » We recommend that you also review the emergency response supporting system CCC-661/ EXPRESS documentation.« less

  6. Aeroelastic loads prediction for an arrow wing. Task 3: Evaluation of the Boeing three-dimensional leading-edge vortex code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manro, M. E.

    1983-01-01

    Two separated flow computer programs and a semiempirical method for incorporating the experimentally measured separated flow effects into a linear aeroelastic analysis were evaluated. The three dimensional leading edge vortex (LEV) code is evaluated. This code is an improved panel method for three dimensional inviscid flow over a wing with leading edge vortex separation. The governing equations are the linear flow differential equation with nonlinear boundary conditions. The solution is iterative; the position as well as the strength of the vortex is determined. Cases for both full and partial span vortices were executed. The predicted pressures are good and adequately reflect changes in configuration.

  7. Galactic Fountains and Gas Accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinacci, F.; Binney, J.; Fraternali, F.; Nipoti, C.; Ciotti, L.; Londrillo, P.

    2010-06-01

    Star-forming disc galaxies such as the Milky Way need to accrete >~1 Msolar of gas each year to sustain their star formation. This gas accretion is likely to come from the cooling of the hot corona, however it is still not clear how this process can take place. We present simulations supporting the idea that this cooling and the subsequent accretion are caused by the passage of cold galactic-fountain clouds through the hot corona. The Kelvin-Helmholtz instability strips gas from these clouds and the stripped gas causes coronal gas to condense in the cloud's wake. For likely parameters of the Galactic corona and of typical fountain clouds we obtain a global accretion rate of the order of that required to feed the star formation.

  8. ACCRETING CIRCUMPLANETARY DISKS: OBSERVATIONAL SIGNATURES

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Zhaohuan

    2015-01-20

    I calculate the spectral energy distributions of accreting circumplanetary disks using atmospheric radiative transfer models. Circumplanetary disks only accreting at 10{sup –10} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} around a 1 M{sub J} planet can be brighter than the planet itself. A moderately accreting circumplanetary disk ( M-dot ∼10{sup −8} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}; enough to form a 10 M{sub J} planet within 1 Myr) around a 1 M{sub J} planet has a maximum temperature of ∼2000 K, and at near-infrared wavelengths (J, H, K bands), this disk is as bright as a late-M-type brown dwarf or a 10 M{sub J} planet with a ''hot start''. To use direct imaging to find the accretion disks around low-mass planets (e.g., 1 M{sub J} ) and distinguish them from brown dwarfs or hot high-mass planets, it is crucial to obtain photometry at mid-infrared bands (L', M, N bands) because the emission from circumplanetary disks falls off more slowly toward longer wavelengths than those of brown dwarfs or planets. If young planets have strong magnetic fields (≳100 G), fields may truncate slowly accreting circumplanetary disks ( M-dot ≲10{sup −9} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}) and lead to magnetospheric accretion, which can provide additional accretion signatures, such as UV/optical excess from the accretion shock and line emission.

  9. Ice Accretion Calculations for a Commercial Transport Using the LEWICE3D, ICEGRID3D and CMARC Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bidwell, Colin S.; Pinella, David; Garrison, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Collection efficiency and ice accretion calculations were made for a commercial transport using the NASA Lewis LEWICE3D ice accretion code, the ICEGRID3D grid code and the CMARC panel code. All of the calculations were made on a Windows 95 based personal computer. The ice accretion calculations were made for the nose, wing, horizontal tail and vertical tail surfaces. Ice shapes typifying those of a 30 minute hold were generated. Collection efficiencies were also generated for the entire aircraft using the newly developed unstructured collection efficiency method. The calculations highlight the flexibility and cost effectiveness of the LEWICE3D, ICEGRID3D, CMARC combination.

  10. Predicting radiative heat transfer in thermochemical nonequilibrium flow fields. Theory and user's manual for the LORAN code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, Lin Hartung

    1994-01-01

    The theory for radiation emission, absorption, and transfer in a thermochemical nonequilibrium flow is presented. The expressions developed reduce correctly to the limit at equilibrium. To implement the theory in a practical computer code, some approximations are used, particularly the smearing of molecular radiation. Details of these approximations are presented and helpful information is included concerning the use of the computer code. This user's manual should benefit both occasional users of the Langley Optimized Radiative Nonequilibrium (LORAN) code and those who wish to use it to experiment with improved models or properties.

  11. The derivation of a chiral substituent code for secondary alcohols and its application to the prediction of enantioselectivity.

    PubMed

    Suo, Jing-Jie; Zhang, Qing-You; Li, Jing-Ya; Zhou, Yan-Mei; Xu, Lu

    2013-06-01

    A chiral substituent code was proposed based on the features of secondary alcohols, in which a chiral center is attached to two substituents in addition to OH and H substituents. The new chirality code, which was generated by predefining positional information of four substituents attached to stereocenter, was applied to two datasets composed of secondary alcohols as the enantioselective products of asymmetric reactions. In the first dataset, the chemical reaction was catalyzed by a biocatalyst, lipase from Candida rugosa. The catalyst for the second dataset was (-)-diisopinocampheylchloroborane. The structure-enantioselectivity relationship models were constructed using random forests with the chiral substituent code as the input. The resulting models were assessed both in terms of single enantiomers and pairs of enantiomers. Satisfactory results were obtained for both datasets. Although the chiral substituent code was specifically developed for secondary alcohols, it can easily be extended to represent chiral compounds possessing a specific chiral center bonded to two variable substituents. PMID:23666031

  12. Verification and sensitivity of the calculational methods used in the PATHRAE code to predict subsurface contaminant transport for risk assessments of SRP waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Fjeld, R.A.; Elzerman, A.W.; Overcamp, T.J.; Giannopoulos, N.; Crider, S.; Sill, B.L.

    1986-10-01

    Presented in this report are an independent verification of the subsurface contaminant transport calculations contained in the code and an assessment of the sensitivity of predicted contaminant concentrations to uncertainties in transport parameters. The subsurface transport approximation incorporated in the PATHRAE risk assessment code was compared with alternate two-dimensional and three-dimensional approximations and with the EPA VHS model. Agreement between the PATHRAE approximation and the alternate two-dimensional approximation was good. Due to its neglect of vertical dispersion, the PATHRAE model predicted higher groundwater (undiluted) concentrations than the three-dimensional approximation and, for EPA parameters, the VHS model. The use of a value of zero for horizontal dispersivity, as specified for 1 m and 100 m wells in SPR waste site analyses, was found to add an additional degree of conservatism to PATHRAE estimates of groundwater concentration, yielding levels that were more than three orders of magnitude higher than those of the three-dimensional model for a 100 m well. Implementation of the transport approximation in the PATHRAE code was verified by comparing code generated concentrations with those of an independent calculation for wide ranges of the input parameters. Agreement between PATHRAE and the independent calculations was excellent.

  13. Classical Accreting Pulsars with NICER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.

    2014-01-01

    Soft excesses are very common center dot Lx > 1038 erg/s - reprocessing by optically thick material at the inner edge of the accretion disk center dot Lx < 1036 erg/s - photoionized or collisionally heated diffuse gas or thermal emission from the NS surface center dot Lx 1037 erg/s - either or both types of emission center dot NICER observations of soft excesses in bright X-ray pulsars combined with reflection modeling will constrain the ionization state, metalicity and dynamics of the inner edge of the magnetically truncated accretion disk Reflection models of an accretion disk for a hard power law - Strong soft excess below 3 keV from hot X-ray heated disk - For weakly ionized case: strong recombination lines - Are we seeing changes in the disk ionization in 4U1626-26? 13 years of weekly monitoring with RXTE PCA center dot Revealed an unexpectedly large population of Be/X-ray binaries compared to the Milky Way center dot Plotted luminosities are typical of "normal" outbursts (once per orbit) center dot The SMC provides an excellent opportunity to study a homogenous population of HMXBs with low interstellar absorption for accretion disk studies. Monitoring with NICER will enable studies of accretion disk physics in X-ray pulsars center dot The SMC provides a potential homogeneous low-absorption population for this study center dot NICER monitoring and TOO observations will also provide measurements of spinfrequencies, QPOs, pulsed fluxes, and energy spectra.

  14. Jets from magnetized accretion disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Ryoji

    When an accretion disk is threaded by large scale poloidal magnetic fields, the injection of magnetic helicity from the accretion disk drives bipolar outflows. We present the results of global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of jet formation from a torus initially threaded by vertical magnetic fields. After the torsional Alfvén waves generated by the injected magnetic twists propagate along the large-scale magnetic field lines, magnetically driven jets emanate from the surface of the torus. Due to the magnetic pinch effect, the jets are collimated along the rotation axis. Since the jet formation process extracts angular momentum from the disk, it enhances the accretion rate of the disk material. Through three-dimensional (3D) global MHD simulations, we confirmed previous 2D results that the magnetically braked surface of the disk accretes like an avalanche. Owing to the growth of non-axisymmetric perturbations, the avalanche flow breaks up into spiral channels. Helical structure also appears inside the jet. When magnetic helicity is injected into closed magnetic loops connecting the central object and the accretion disk, it drives recurrent magnetic reconnection and outflows.

  15. Characterizing Accreting White Dwarf Pulsators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szkody, Paula; Mukadam, Anjum

    2014-02-01

    Understanding the population, mass distribution, and evolution of accreting white dwarfs impacts the entire realm of binary interaction, including the creation of Type Ia supernovae. We are concentrating on accreting white dwarf pulsators, as the pulsation properties allow us a view of how the accretion affects the interior of the star. Our ground- based photometry on 11 accreting pulsators with corresponding temperatures from HST UV spectra suggest a broad instability strip in the range of 10500 to 16000K. Additionally, tracking a post-outburst heated white dwarf as it cools and crosses the blue edge and resumes pulsation provides an independent method to locate the empirical instability strip. Determining a post-outburst cooling curve yields an estimate of the amount of heating and the accreted mass during the outburst. We request additional photometry of 2 objects that present unique properties: GW Lib which has not yet returned to its pre-outburst pulsation spectrum after 6 yrs, and EQ Lyn which returned to its pre- outburst pulsation after 3 yrs but is now turning on and off without ongoing outbursts. Following the pulsation spectrum changes over stretches of several nights in a row will provide specific knowledge of the stability of the observed modes.

  16. Modeling Layered Accretion and the Magnetorotational Instability in Protoplanetary Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesniak, Michael V., III

    2012-05-01

    Understanding the temperature structure of protoplanetary disks (PPDs) is paramount to modeling disk evolution and future planet formation. PPDs around T Tauri stars have two primary heating sources, protostellar irradiation, which depends on the flaring of the disk, and accretional heating as viscous coupling between annuli dissipate energy. I have written a "1.5-D" radiative transfer code to calculate disk temperatures assuming hydrostatic and radiative equilibrium. The model solves for the temperature at all locations simultaneously using Rybicki's method, converges rapidly at high optical depth, and retains full frequency dependence. The likely cause of accretional heating in PPDs is the magnetorotational instability (MRI), which acts where gas ionization is sufficiently high for gas to couple to the magnetic field. This will occur in surface layers of the disk, leaving the interior portions of the disk inactive ("dead zone"). I calculate temperatures in PPDs undergoing such "layered accretion." Since the accretional heating is concentrated far from the midplane, temperatures in the disk's interior are lower than in PPDs modeled with vertically uniform accretion. The method is used to study for the first time disks evolving via the magnetorotational instability, which operates primarily in surface layers. I find that temperatures in layered accretion disks do not significantly differ from those of "passive disks," where no accretional heating exists. Emergent spectra are insensitive to active layer thickness, making it difficult to observationally identify disks undergoing layered vs. uniform accretion. I also calculate the ionization chemistry in PPDs, using an ionization network including multiple charge states of dust grains. Combined with a criterion for the onset of the MRI, I calculate where the MRI can be initiated and the extent of dead zones in PPDs. After accounting for feedback between temperature and active layer thickness, I find the surface

  17. Evolution of Massive Protostars Via Disk Accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosokawa, Takashi; Yorke, Harold W.; Omukai, Kazuyuki

    2010-09-01

    Mass accretion onto (proto-)stars at high accretion rates \\dot{M}_* > 10^{-4} M_{⊙} yr^{-1} is expected in massive star formation. We study the evolution of massive protostars at such high rates by numerically solving the stellar structure equations. In this paper, we examine the evolution via disk accretion. We consider a limiting case of "cold" disk accretion, whereby most of the stellar photosphere can radiate freely with negligible backwarming from the accretion flow, and the accreting material settles onto the star with the same specific entropy as the photosphere. We compare our results to the calculated evolution via spherically symmetric accretion, the opposite limit, whereby the material accreting onto the star contains the entropy produced in the accretion shock front. We examine how different accretion geometries affect the evolution of massive protostars. For cold disk accretion at 10-3 M sun yr-1, the radius of a protostar is initially small, R *sime a few R sun. After several solar masses have accreted, the protostar begins to bloat up and for M * ~= 10 M sun the stellar radius attains its maximum of 30-400 R sun. The large radius ~100 R sun is also a feature of spherically symmetric accretion at the same accreted mass and accretion rate. Hence, expansion to a large radius is a robust feature of accreting massive protostars. At later times, the protostar eventually begins to contract and reaches the zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) for M * ~= 30 M sun, independent of the accretion geometry. For accretion rates exceeding several 10-3 M sun yr-1, the protostar never contracts to the ZAMS. The very large radius of several hundreds R sun results in the low effective temperature and low UV luminosity of the protostar. Such bloated protostars could well explain the existence of bright high-mass protostellar objects, which lack detectable H II regions.

  18. Formation of primordial supermassive stars by rapid mass accretion

    SciTech Connect

    Hosokawa, Takashi; Yoshida, Naoki; Yorke, Harold W.; Inayoshi, Kohei; Omukai, Kazuyuki E-mail: hosokwtk@gmail.com

    2013-12-01

    Supermassive stars (SMSs) forming via very rapid mass accretion ( M-dot {sub ∗}≳0.1 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}) could be precursors of supermassive black holes observed beyond a redshift of about six. Extending our previous work, here we study the evolution of primordial stars growing under such rapid mass accretion until the stellar mass reaches 10{sup 4–5} M {sub ☉}. Our stellar evolution calculations show that a star becomes supermassive while passing through the 'supergiant protostar' stage, whereby the star has a very bloated envelope and a contracting inner core. The stellar radius increases monotonically with the stellar mass until ≅ 100 AU for M {sub *} ≳ 10{sup 4} M {sub ☉}, after which the star begins to slowly contract. Because of the large radius, the effective temperature is always less than 10{sup 4} K during rapid accretion. The accreting material is thus almost completely transparent to the stellar radiation. Only for M {sub *} ≳ 10{sup 5} M {sub ☉} can stellar UV feedback operate and disturb the mass accretion flow. We also examine the pulsation stability of accreting SMSs, showing that the pulsation-driven mass loss does not prevent stellar mass growth. Observational signatures of bloated SMSs should be detectable with future observational facilities such as the James Webb Space Telescope. Our results predict that an inner core of the accreting SMS should suffer from the general relativistic instability soon after the stellar mass exceeds 10{sup 5} M {sub ☉}. An extremely massive black hole should form after the collapse of the inner core.

  19. X-Ray Spectroscopy of Accretion Shocks in Young Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brickhouse, Nancy S.

    2011-01-01

    High resolution X-ray spectroscopy of accreting young stars is providing new insights into the physical conditions of the shocked plasma. While young stars exhibit exceedingly active coronae (>10 MK) with highly energetic flares, the relatively low temperature ( 3 MK), high density (>1012 cm-3) accretion shock can only be clearly distinguished at high spectral resolution. The nearby Classical T Tauri star TW Hydrae was the first to show evidence of accretion using 50 ks with the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating (HETG). More recently a Chandra HETG Large Program (489 ks obtained over the course of one month) on TW Hydrae has found evidence for a new type of coronal structure. In the standard model, the accreting gas shocks near the atmosphere of the star and gently settles onto the surface as it slows down and cools. On TW Hydrae the observed post-shock region is not this predicted settling flow, since its mass is 30 times the mass of material that passes through the shock. Instead the stellar atmosphere must be heated to soft X-ray emitting temperatures. Of the CTTS systems observed with the gratings on Chandra and XMM-Newton not all show the accretion shock signature; however, all of them show excess soft X-ray emission related to accretion. The production of highly charged ions in the proximity of both open and closed magnetic field lines has important implications for coronal heating, winds and jets in the presence of accretion. This work is supported by the Chandra X-ray Observatory through a NASA contract with the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory.

  20. Understanding Accretion Disks through Three Dimensional Radiation MHD Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yan-Fei

    I study the structures and thermal properties of black hole accretion disks in the radiation pressure dominated regime. Angular momentum transfer in the disk is provided by the turbulence generated by the magneto-rotational instability (MRI), which is calculated self-consistently with a recently developed 3D radiation magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD) code based on Athena. This code, developed by my collaborators and myself, couples both the radiation momentum and energy source terms with the ideal MHD equations by modifying the standard Godunov method to handle the stiff radiation source terms. We solve the two momentum equations of the radiation transfer equations with a variable Eddington tensor (VET), which is calculated with a time independent short characteristic module. This code is well tested and accurate in both optically thin and optically thick regimes. It is also accurate for both radiation pressure and gas pressure dominated flows. With this code, I find that when photon viscosity becomes significant, the ratio between Maxwell stress and Reynolds stress from the MRI turbulence can increase significantly with radiation pressure. The thermal instability of the radiation pressure dominated disk is then studied with vertically stratified shearing box simulations. Unlike the previous results claiming that the radiation pressure dominated disk with MRI turbulence can reach a steady state without showing any unstable behavior, I find that the radiation pressure dominated disks always either collapse or expand until we have to stop the simulations. During the thermal runaway, the heating and cooling rates from the simulations are consistent with the general criterion of thermal instability. However, details of the thermal runaway are different from the predictions of the standard alpha disk model, as many assumptions in that model are not satisfied in the simulations. We also identify the key reasons why previous simulations do not find the instability. The thermal

  1. Hypercritical accretion phase and neutrino expectation in the evolution of Cassiopeia A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraija, N.; Bernal, C. G.

    2015-07-01

    Cassiopeia A, the youngest supernova remnant known in the Milky Way, is one of the brightest radio sources in the sky and a unique laboratory for supernova physics. Although its compact remnant was discovered in 1999 by the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, nowadays it is widely accepted that a neutron star lies in the centre of this supernova remnant. In addition, new observations suggest that such a neutron star with a low magnetic field and evidence of a carbon atmosphere could have suffered a hypercritical accretion phase seconds after the explosion. Considering this hypercritical accretion episode, we compute the neutrino cooling effect, the number of events and neutrino flavour ratios expected on Hyper-Kamiokande Experiment. The neutrino cooling effect (the emissivity and luminosity of neutrinos) is obtained through numerical simulations performed in a customized version of the FLASH code. Based on these simulations, we forecast that the number of events expected on the Hyper-Kamiokande Experiment is around 3195. Similarly, we estimate the neutrino flavour ratios to be detected considering the neutrino effective potential due to the thermal and magnetized plasma and thanks to the envelope of the star. It is worth noting that our estimates correspond to the only trustworthy method for verifying the hypercritical phase and although this episode took place 330 years ago, at present supernova remnants with these similarities might occur thus confirming our predictions for this phase.

  2. Self-Consistent Simulations of Accretion-Induced Collapse of White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleiser, Io; Ott, Christian; Abdikamalov, Ernazar; O'Connor, Evan

    2013-04-01

    Accreting white dwarfs and white dwarf mergers are commonly thought to end in thermonuclear explosions that produce Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). However, there is an alternative outcome for these systems that has not been theoretically explored as thoroughly, nor has it been securely identified observationally. Some white dwarfs, rather than exploding, should undergo electron capture and collapse to neutron stars. This accretion-induced collapse (AIC) scenario is expected to be intrinsically rare compared to SNe Ia, and past studies indicate that the associated optical transient would be faint and short-lived, near the detection limits of current surveys. However, until now there have not been self-consistent numerical studies of AIC that examine the explosion dynamics, subsequent evolution, and all resulting observables. We use GR1D, a one-dimensional general-relativistic hydrodynamics code, to follow AIC through collapse, core bounce, explosion, and shock breakout and to present new results on its neutrino signature and nucleosynthetic yields. This study is preliminary to the goal of developing fully self-consistent three-dimensional models that will yield predictions for electromagnetic, neutrino, and gravitational-wave signals form AIC events.

  3. Self-Consistent Simulations of Accretion-Induced Collapse of White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleiser, Io; Ott, C. D.

    2013-01-01

    Accreting white dwarfs and white dwarf mergers are commonly thought to end in thermonuclear explosions that produce Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). However, there is an alternative outcome for these systems that has not been theoretically explored as thoroughly, nor has it been securely identified observationally. Some white dwarfs, rather than exploding, should undergo electron capture and collapse to neutron stars. This accretion-induced collapse (AIC) scenario is expected to be intrinsically rare compared to SNe Ia, and past studies indicate that the associated optical transient would be faint and short-lived, near the detection limits of current surveys. However, until now there have not been self-consistent numerical studies of AIC that examine the explosion dynamics, subsequent evolution, and all resulting observables. We use GR1D, a one-dimensional general-relativistic hydrodynamics code, to follow AIC through collapse, core bounce, explosion, and shock breakout and to present new results on its neutrino signature. This study is preliminary to the goal of developing fully self-consistent three-dimensional models that will yield predictions for electromagnetic, neutrino, and gravitational-wave signals form AIC events.

  4. FUV Emission from AGB Stars: Modeling Accretion Activity Associated with a Binary Companion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, Alyx Catherine; Sahai, Raghvendra

    2012-01-01

    It is widely believed that the late stages of evolution for Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars are influenced by the presence of binary companions. Unfortunately, there is a lack of direct observational evidence of binarity. However, more recently, strong indirect evidence comes from the discovery of UV emission in a subsample of these objects (fuvAGB stars). AGB stars are comparatively cool objects (< or =3000 K), thus their fluxes falls off drastically for wavelengths 3000 Angstroms and shorter. Therefore, ultraviolet observations offer an important, new technique for detecting the binary companions and/or associated accretion activity. We develop new models of UV emission from fuvAGB stars constrained by GALEX photometry and spectroscopy of these objects. We compare the GALEX UV grism spectra of the AGB M7 star EY Hya to predictions using the spectral synthesis code Cloudy, specifically investigating the ultraviolet wavelength range (1344-2831 Angstroms). We investigate models composed of contributions from a photoionized "hot spot" due to accretion activity around the companion, and "chromospheric" emission from collisionally ionized plasma, to fit the UV observations.

  5. Navier-Stokes analysis of airfoils with leading edge ice accretions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potapczuk, Mark G.

    1993-01-01

    A numerical analysis of the flowfield characteristics and the performance degradation of an airfoil with leading edge ice accretions was performed. The important fluid dynamic processes were identified and calculated. Among these were the leading edge separation bubble at low angles of attack, complete separation on the low pressure surface resulting in premature shell, drag rise due to the ice shape, and the effects of angle of attack on the separated flow field. Comparisons to experimental results were conducted to confirm these calculations. A computer code which solves the Navier-Stokes equations in two dimensions, ARC2D, was used to perform the calculations. A Modified Mixing Length turbulence model was developed to produce grids for several ice shape and airfoil combinations. Results indicate that the ability to predict overall performance characteristics, such as lift and drag, at low angles of attack is excellent. Transition location is important for accurately determining separation bubble shape. Details of the flowfield in and downstream of the separated regions requires some modifications. Calculations for the stalled airfoil indicate periodic shedding of vorticity that was generated aft of the ice accretion. Time averaged pressure values produce results which compare favorably with experimental information. A turbulence model which accounts for the history effects in the flow may be justified.

  6. A review of ice accretion data from a model rotor icing test and comparison with theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Randall K.; Bond, Thomas H.

    1991-01-01

    An experiment was conducted by the Helicopter Icing Consortium (HIC) in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) in which a 1/6 scale fuselage model of a UH-60A Black Hawk helicopter with a generic rotor was subjected to a wide range of icing conditions. The HIC consists of members from NASA, Bell Helicopter, Boeing Helicopter, McDonnell Douglas Helicopters, Sikorsky Aircraft, and Texas A&M University. Data was taken in the form of rotor torque, internal force balance measurements, blade strain gage loading, and two dimensional ice shape tracings. A review of the ice shape data is performed with special attention given to repeatability and correctness of trends in terms of radial variation, rotational speed, icing time, temperature, liquid water content, and volumetric median droplet size. Moreover, an indepth comparison between the experimental data and the analysis of NASA's ice accretion code LEWICE is given. Finally, conclusions are drawn as to the quality of the ice accretion data and the predictability of the data base as a whole. Recommendations are also given for improving data taking technique as well as potential future work.

  7. A review of ice accretion data from a model rotor icing test and comparison with theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Randall K.; Bond, Thomas H.

    1991-01-01

    An experiment was conducted by the Helicopter Icing Consortium (HIC) in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) in which a 1/6 scale fuselage model of a UH-60A Black Hawk helicopter with a generic rotor was subjected to a wide range of icing conditions. The HIC consists of members from NASA, Bell Helicopter, Boeing Helicopter, McDonnell Douglas Helicopters, Sikorsky Aircraft, and Texas A&M University. Data was taken in the form of rotor torque, internal force balance measurements, blade strain gage loading, and two dimensional ice shape tracings. A review of the ice shape data is performed with special attention given to repeatability and correctness of trends in terms of radial variation, rotational speed, icing time, temperature, liquid water content, and volumetric median droplet size. Moreover, an indepth comparison between the experimental data and the analysis of NASA's ice accretion code LEWICE is given. Finally, conclusions are shown as to the quality of the ice accretion data and the predictability of the data base as a whole. Recommendations are also given for improving data taking technique as well as potential future work.

  8. Population synthesis of accreting white dwarfs - II. X-ray and UV emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hai-Liang; Woods, T. E.; Yungelson, L. R.; Gilfanov, M.; Han, Zhanwen

    2015-11-01

    Accreting white dwarfs (WDs) with non-degenerate companions are expected to emit in soft X-rays and the UV, if accreted H-rich material burns stably. They are an important component of the unresolved emission of elliptical galaxies, and their combined ionizing luminosity may significantly influence the optical line emission from warm interstellar medium (ISM). In an earlier paper, we modelled populations of accreting WDs, first generating WD with main-sequence, Hertzsprung gap and red giant companions with the population synthesis code BSE, and then following their evolution with a grid of evolutionary tracks computed with MESA. Now we use these results to estimate the soft X-ray (0.3-0.7 keV), H- and He II-ionizing luminosities of nuclear burning WDs and the number of supersoft X-ray sources for galaxies with different star formation histories. For the starburst case, these quantities peak at ˜1 Gyr and decline by ˜1-3 orders of magnitude by the age of 10 Gyr. For stellar ages of ˜10 Gyr, predictions of our model are consistent with soft X-ray luminosities observed by Chandra in nearby elliptical galaxies and He II 4686 Å/H β line ratio measured in stacked Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectra of retired galaxies, the latter characterizing the strength and hardness of the UV radiation field. However, the soft X-ray luminosity and He II 4686 Å/H β ratio are significantly overpredicted for stellar ages of ≲4-8 Gyr. We discuss various possibilities to resolve this discrepancy and tentatively conclude that it may be resolved by a modification of the typically used criteria of dynamically unstable mass-loss for giant stars.

  9. Analytical ice shape predictions for flight in natural icing conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkowitz, Brian M.; Riley, James T.

    1988-01-01

    LEWICE is an analytical ice prediction code that has been evaluated against icing tunnel data, but on a more limited basis against flight data. Ice shapes predicted by LEWICE is compared with experimental ice shapes accreted on the NASA Lewis Icing Research Aircraft. The flight data selected for comparison includes liquid water content recorded using a hot wire device and droplet distribution data from a laser spectrometer; the ice shape is recorded using stereo photography. The main findings are as follows: (1) An equivalent sand grain roughness correlation different from that used for LEWICE tunnel comparisons must be employed to obtain satisfactory results for flight; (2) Using this correlation and making no other changes in the code, the comparisons to ice shapes accreted in flight are in general as good as the comparisons to ice shapes accreted in the tunnel (as in the case of tunnel ice shapes, agreement is least reliable for large glaze ice shapes at high angles of attack); (3) In some cases comparisons can be somewhat improved by utilizing the code so as to take account of the variation of parameters such as liquid water content, which may vary significantly in flight.

  10. Episodic Accretion in Young Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audard, M.; Ábrahám, P.; Dunham, M. M.; Green, J. D.; Grosso, N.; Hamaguchi, K.; Kastner, J. H.; Kóspál, Á.; Lodato, G.; Romanova, M. M.; Skinner, S. L.; Vorobyov, E. I.; Zhu, Z.

    In the last 20 years, the topic of episodic accretion has gained significant interest in the star-formation community. It is now viewed as a common, although still poorly understood, phenomenon in low-mass star formation. The FU Orionis objects (FUors) are long-studied examples of this phenomenon. FU Orionis objects are believed to undergo accretion outbursts during which the accretion rate rapidly increases from typically 10-7 to a few 10-4 M⊙ yr-1, and remains elevated over several decades or more. EXors, a loosely defined class of pre-main-sequence stars, exhibit shorter and repetitive outbursts, associated with lower accretion rates. The relationship between the two classes, and their connection to the standard pre-main-sequence evolutionary sequence, is an open question: Do they represent two distinct classes, are they triggered by the same physical mechanism, and do they occur in the same evolutionary phases? Over the past couple of decades, many theoretical and numerical models have been developed to explain the origin of FUor and EXor outbursts. In parallel, such accretion bursts have been detected at an increasing rate, and as observing techniques improve, each individual outburst is studied in increasing detail. We summarize key observations of pre-main-sequence star outbursts, and review the latest thinking on outburst triggering mechanisms, the propagation of outbursts from star/disk to disk/jet systems, the relation between classical EXors and FUors, and newly discovered outbursting sources — all of which shed new light on episodic accretion. We finally highlight some of the most promising directions for this field in the near- and long-term.

  11. Adherence to Honor Code Mediates the Prediction of Adolescent Boys' Conduct Problems by Callousness and Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somech, Lior Y.; Elizur, Yoel

    2009-01-01

    Although there is considerable evidence that culture-related factors are associated with aggressive behavior, their effect on the development of conduct problems (CP) has been insufficiently studied. This study focused on adherence to honor code (AHC), defined by the endorsement of honor culture attitudes at the identity narrative level of…

  12. Use of WIMS-E lattice code for prediction of the transuranic source term for spent fuel dose estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Schwinkendorf, K.N.

    1996-04-15

    A recent source term analysis has shown a discrepancy between ORIGEN2 transuranic isotopic production estimates and those produced with the WIMS-E lattice physics code. Excellent agreement between relevant experimental measurements and WIMS-E was shown, thus exposing an error in the cross section library used by ORIGEN2.

  13. The structure and appearance of winds from supercritical accretion disks. I - Numerical models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meier, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    Equations for the structure and appearance of supercritical accretion disks and the radiation-driven winds which emanate from them are derived and solved by a steady-state hydrodynamic computer code with a relaxation technique used in stellar structure problems. The present model takes into account the mass of the accreting star, the total accretion rate, a generalization of the disk alpha parameter which accounts for heating by processes in addition to viscosity, and the ratio of the total luminosity to the Eddington luminosity. Solutions indicate that for accretion onto a hard-surfaced star, steady, optically thick winds result for even slightly supercritical accretion, and the object will appear as a supergiant star with a high mass loss rate and a nonblackbody spectrum. Winds from black hole accretion disks are expected to depend on the form of the accretion interior to the critical radius, possibly consisting of no ejection at all, a wind similar to that of a hard-surfaced star, or a column of material ejected from a hole in the accretion disk.

  14. Thermonuclear bursts from slowly and rapidly accreting neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linares, Manuel

    2012-07-01

    Models of thermonuclear burning on accreting neutron stars predict different ignition regimes, depending mainly on the mass accretion rate per unit area. For more than three decades, testing these regimes observationally has met with only partial success. I will present recent results from the Fermi-GBM all-sky X-ray burst monitor, which is yielding robust measurements of recurrence time of rare and highly energetic thermonuclear bursts at the lowest mass accretion rates. I will also present RXTE observations of thermonuclear bursts at high mass accretion rates, including the discovery of millihertz quasi-periodic oscillations and several bursting regimes in a neutron star transient and 11 Hz X-ray pulsar. This unusual neutron star, with higher magnetic field and slower rotation than any other known burster, showed copious bursting activity when the mass accretion rate varied between 10% and 50% of the Eddington rate. I will discuss the role of fuel composition and neutron star spin in setting the burst properties of this system, and the possible implications for the rest of thermonuclear bursters.

  15. Evolutionary Action Score of TP53 Coding Variants (EAp53) is Predictive of Platinum Response in Head and Neck Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Osman, Abdullah A.; Neskey, David M.; Katsonis, Panagiotis; Patel, Ameeta A.; Ward, Alexandra M.; Hsu, Teng-Kuei; Hicks, Stephanie C.; McDonald, Thomas O.; Ow, Thomas J.; Alves, Marcus Ortega; Pickering, Curtis R.; Skinner, Heath D.; Zhao, Mei; Sturgis, Eric M.; Kies, Merrill S.; El-Naggar, Adel; Perrone, Federica; Licitra, Lisa; Bossi, Paolo; Kimmel, Marek; Frederick, Mitchell J.; Lichtarge, Olivier; Myers, Jeffrey N.

    2015-01-01

    TP53 is the most frequently altered gene in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) with mutations occurring in over two third of cases, however, the predictive response of these mutations to cisplatin based therapy remains elusive. In the current study, we evaluate the ability of the Evolutionary Action score of TP53 coding variants (EAp53) to predict the impact of TP53 mutations on response to chemotherapy. The EAp53 approach clearly identifies a subset of high risk TP53 mutations associated with decreased sensitivity to cisplatin both in vitro and in vivo in pre-clinical models of HNSCC. Furthermore, EAp53 can predict response to treatment and more importantly a survival benefit for a subset of head and neck cancer patients treated with platinum based therapy. Prospective evaluation of this novel scoring system should enable more precise treatment selection for patients with HNSCC. PMID:25691460

  16. Application of a multi-block CFD code to investigate the impact of geometry modeling on centrifugal compressor flow field predictions

    SciTech Connect

    Hathaway, M.D.; Wood, J.R.

    1997-10-01

    CFD codes capable of utilizing multi-block grids provide the capability to analyze the complete geometry of centrifugal compressors. Attendant with this increased capability is potentially increased grid setup time and more computational overhead with the resultant increase in wall clock time to obtain a solution. If the increase in difficulty of obtaining a solution significantly improves the solution from that obtained by modeling the features of the tip clearance flow or the typical bluntness of a centrifugal compressor`s trailing edge, then the additional burden is worthwhile. However, if the additional information obtained is of marginal use, then modeling of certain features of the geometry may provide reasonable solutions for designers to make comparative choices when pursuing a new design. In this spirit a sequence of grids were generated to study the relative importance of modeling versus detailed gridding of the tip gap and blunt trailing edge regions of the NASA large low-speed centrifugal compressor for which there is considerable detailed internal laser anemometry data available for comparison. The results indicate: (1) There is no significant difference in predicted tip clearance mass flow rate whether the tip gap is gridded or modeled. (2) Gridding rather than modeling the trailing edge results in better predictions of some flow details downstream of the impeller, but otherwise appears to offer no great benefits. (3) The pitchwise variation of absolute flow angle decreases rapidly up to 8% impeller radius ratio and much more slowly thereafter. Although some improvements in prediction of flow field details are realized as a result of analyzing the actual geometry there is no clear consensus that any of the grids investigated produced superior results in every case when compared to the measurements. However, if a multi-block code is available, it should be used, as it has the propensity for enabling better predictions than a single block code.

  17. Integrated modelling of toroidal rotation with the 3D non-local drift-kinetic code and boundary models for JT-60U analyses and predictive simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, M.; Satake, S.; Suzuki, Y.; Yoshida, M.; Hayashi, N.; Kamiya, K.; Matsuyama, A.; Shinohara, K.; Matsunaga, G.; Nakata, M.; Ide, S.; Urano, H.

    2015-07-01

    The integrated simulation framework for toroidal momentum transport is developed, which self-consistently calculates the neoclassical toroidal viscosity (NTV), the radial electric field {{E}r} and the resultant toroidal rotation {{V}φ} together with the scrape-off-layer (SOL) physics-based boundary model. The coupling of three codes, the 1.5D transport code TOPICS, the three-dimensional (3D) equilibrium code VMEC and the 3D δ f drift-kinetic equation solver FORTEC-3D, makes it possible to calculate the NTV due to the non-axisymmetric perturbed magnetic field caused by toroidal field coils. Analyses reveal that the NTV significantly influences {{V}φ} in JT-60U and {{E}r} holds the key to determine the NTV profile. The sensitivity of the {{V}φ} profile to the boundary rotation necessitates a boundary condition modelling for toroidal momentum. Owing to the high-resolution measurement system in JT-60U, the {{E}r} gradient is found to be virtually zero at the separatrix regardless of toroidal rotation velocities. Focusing on {{E}r} , the boundary model of toroidal momentum is developed in conjunction with the SOL/divertor plasma code D5PM. This modelling realizes self-consistent predictive simulations for operation scenario development in ITER.

  18. Enhanced Accretion Rates of Stars on Supermassive Black Holes by Star-Disk Interactions in Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Just, Andreas; Yurin, Denis; Makukov, Maxim; Berczik, Peter; Omarov, Chingis; Spurzem, Rainer; Vilkoviskij, Emmanuil Y.

    2012-10-01

    We investigate the dynamical interaction of a central star cluster surrounding a supermassive black hole (SMBH) and a central accretion disk (AD). The dissipative force acting on stars in the disk leads to an enhanced mass flow toward the SMBH and to an asymmetry in the phase space distribution due to the rotating AD. The AD is considered as a stationary Keplerian rotating disk, which is vertically extended in order to employ a fully self-consistent treatment of stellar dynamics including the dissipative force originating from star-gas ram pressure effects. The stellar system is treated with a direct high-accuracy N-body integration code. A star-by-star representation, desirable in N-body simulations, cannot be extended to real particle numbers yet. Hence, we carefully discuss the scaling behavior of our model with regard to particle number and tidal accretion radius. The main idea is to find a family of models for which the ratio of two-body relaxation time and dissipation time (for kinetic energy of stellar orbits) is constant, which then allows us to extrapolate our results to real parameters of galactic nuclei. Our model is derived from basic physical principles and as such it provides insight into the role of physical processes in galactic nuclei, but it should be regarded as a first step toward more realistic and more comprehensive simulations. Nevertheless, the following conclusions appear to be robust: the star accretion rate onto the AD and subsequently onto the SMBH is enhanced by a significant factor compared to purely stellar dynamical systems neglecting the disk. This process leads to enhanced fueling of central disks in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and to an enhanced rate of tidal stellar disruptions. Such disruptions may produce electromagnetic counterparts in the form of observable X-ray flares. Our models improve predictions for their rates in quiescent galactic nuclei. We do not yet model direct stellar collisions in the gravitational potential

  19. ENHANCED ACCRETION RATES OF STARS ON SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES BY STAR-DISK INTERACTIONS IN GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Just, Andreas; Yurin, Denis; Makukov, Maxim; Berczik, Peter; Omarov, Chingis; Spurzem, Rainer; Vilkoviskij, Emmanuil Y.

    2012-10-10

    We investigate the dynamical interaction of a central star cluster surrounding a supermassive black hole (SMBH) and a central accretion disk (AD). The dissipative force acting on stars in the disk leads to an enhanced mass flow toward the SMBH and to an asymmetry in the phase space distribution due to the rotating AD. The AD is considered as a stationary Keplerian rotating disk, which is vertically extended in order to employ a fully self-consistent treatment of stellar dynamics including the dissipative force originating from star-gas ram pressure effects. The stellar system is treated with a direct high-accuracy N-body integration code. A star-by-star representation, desirable in N-body simulations, cannot be extended to real particle numbers yet. Hence, we carefully discuss the scaling behavior of our model with regard to particle number and tidal accretion radius. The main idea is to find a family of models for which the ratio of two-body relaxation time and dissipation time (for kinetic energy of stellar orbits) is constant, which then allows us to extrapolate our results to real parameters of galactic nuclei. Our model is derived from basic physical principles and as such it provides insight into the role of physical processes in galactic nuclei, but it should be regarded as a first step toward more realistic and more comprehensive simulations. Nevertheless, the following conclusions appear to be robust: the star accretion rate onto the AD and subsequently onto the SMBH is enhanced by a significant factor compared to purely stellar dynamical systems neglecting the disk. This process leads to enhanced fueling of central disks in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and to an enhanced rate of tidal stellar disruptions. Such disruptions may produce electromagnetic counterparts in the form of observable X-ray flares. Our models improve predictions for their rates in quiescent galactic nuclei. We do not yet model direct stellar collisions in the gravitational potential

  20. Stellar X-ray accretion signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, C.; Guenther, M.

    2016-06-01

    Accretion is observed in a wide range objects with partially overlapping properties. In this contribution, we study accretion in young stars, where we can directly observe the accretion shock on the stellar surface in the X-ray regime. High-resolution grating spectroscopy allows us to infer the properties of the accretion streams. I will present results from our recent 250 ks XMM-Newton/Chandra program targeting the prototypical T Tau system such as strong X-ray variability despite constant mass accretion, abundances typical for accreting stars, but line ratios typically not found in accreting stars. Finally, I will compare these results with other systems focusing on potentially different accretion modes.

  1. Theoretical Researches on Hot Accretion Flows around Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, F. G.

    2010-10-01

    efficiency should be significantly increased, due to the strong global Compton scattering in hot accretion flows; (3) the global Compton heating effect in the outer regions may cause the "oscillation" of the accretion flow in AGN between active and non-active phases. The duration of the active phase approximately equals to the accretion timescale at the virial radius, while the duration of the non-active phase may be comparable to the cooling timescale at the virial radius. Subsequently in Chapter 4, the more accurate Monte Carlo simulations are used to uniformly deal with the Compton scattering process and explore the Compton cooling effect in the inner regions (r≲300rs) of the hot accretion flows. The results by using this approach are consistent with those in Chapter 3. Besides that, it is found that the radiative efficiency is increased by a factor of 5 at 0.05dot{M}_{Edd}, much higher than the expected; the spectral shape is also modified due to the existence of global Comptonization. We then discuss the contribution of the outflowing material to the observed spectrum. We find that the temperature and column density of outflow can partly help to explain one of the major difficulties in accretion fields, i.e., the temperature and optical depth from observational fittings deviate from what are predicted by ADAF theories. We also confirm the previous analysis (Yuan 2001, 2003) that the inner regions of hot accretion flow is thermally instable. One consequence is that the flow will collapse to form a thin disk. The other possibility predicted by LHAF is that the hot accretion flow will be filled with cold clumps/clouds. Disappointedly, we cannot rule out any of these two possibilities at present. The latter, namely two-phase accretion mode, could explain the steep power-law state in XRBs. In Chapter 5, a brief discussion of conceived researches related to this thesis is presented.

  2. Viscosity in spherically symmetric accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Arnab K.

    2003-10-01

    The influence of viscosity on the flow behaviour in spherically symmetric accretion has been studied here. The governing equation chosen has been the Navier-Stokes equation. It has been found that at least for the transonic solution, viscosity acts as a mechanism that detracts from the effectiveness of gravity. This has been conjectured to set up a limiting scale of length for gravity to bring about accretion, and the physical interpretation of such a length scale has been compared with the conventional understanding of the so-called `accretion radius' for spherically symmetric accretion. For a perturbative presence of viscosity, it has also been pointed out that the critical points for inflows and outflows are not identical, which is a consequence of the fact that under the Navier-Stokes prescription, there is a breakdown of the invariance of the stationary inflow and outflow solutions - an invariance that holds good under inviscid conditions. For inflows, the critical point gets shifted deeper within the gravitational potential well. Finally, a linear stability analysis of the stationary inflow solutions, under the influence of a perturbation that is in the nature of a standing wave, has indicated that the presence of viscosity induces greater stability in the system than has been seen for the case of inviscid spherically symmetric inflows.

  3. Counter-rotating accretion discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyda, S.; Lovelace, R. V. E.; Ustyugova, G. V.; Romanova, M. M.; Koldoba, A. V.

    2015-01-01

    Counter-rotating discs can arise from the accretion of a counter-rotating gas cloud on to the surface of an existing corotating disc or from the counter-rotating gas moving radially inwards to the outer edge of an existing disc. At the interface, the two components mix to produce gas or plasma with zero net angular momentum which tends to free-fall towards the disc centre. We discuss high-resolution axisymmetric hydrodynamic simulations of viscous counter-rotating discs for the cases where the two components are vertically separated and radially separated. The viscosity is described by an isotropic α-viscosity including all terms in the viscous stress tensor. For the vertically separated components, a shear layer forms between them and the middle part of this layer free-falls to the disc centre. The accretion rates are increased by factors of ˜102-104 over that for a conventional disc rotating in one direction with the same viscosity. The vertical width of the shear layer and the accretion rate are strongly dependent on the viscosity and the mass fraction of the counter-rotating gas. In the case of radially separated components where the inner disc corotates and the outer disc rotates in the opposite direction, a gap between the two components opens and closes quasi-periodically. The accretion rates are ≳25 times larger than those for a disc rotating in one direction with the same viscosity.

  4. Perturbation growth in accreting filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, S. D.; Whitworth, A. P.; Hubber, D. A.

    2016-05-01

    We use smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations to investigate the growth of perturbations in infinitely long filaments as they form and grow by accretion. The growth of these perturbations leads to filament fragmentation and the formation of cores. Most previous work on this subject has been confined to the growth and fragmentation of equilibrium filaments and has found that there exists a preferential fragmentation length-scale which is roughly four times the filament's diameter. Our results show a more complicated dispersion relation with a series of peaks linking perturbation wavelength and growth rate. These are due to gravo-acoustic oscillations along the longitudinal axis during the sub-critical phase of growth. The positions of the peaks in growth rate have a strong dependence on both the mass accretion rate onto the filament and the temperature of the gas. When seeded with a multiwavelength density power spectrum, there exists a clear preferred core separation equal to the largest peak in the dispersion relation. Our results allow one to estimate a minimum age for a filament which is breaking up into regularly spaced fragments, as well as an average accretion rate. We apply the model to observations of filaments in Taurus by Tafalla & Hacar and find accretion rates consistent with those estimated by Palmeirim et al.

  5. Development of an efficient computer code to solve the time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations. [for predicting viscous flow fields about lifting bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harp, J. L., Jr.; Oatway, T. P.

    1975-01-01

    A research effort was conducted with the goal of reducing computer time of a Navier Stokes Computer Code for prediction of viscous flow fields about lifting bodies. A two-dimensional, time-dependent, laminar, transonic computer code (STOKES) was modified to incorporate a non-uniform timestep procedure. The non-uniform time-step requires updating of a zone only as often as required by its own stability criteria or that of its immediate neighbors. In the uniform timestep scheme each zone is updated as often as required by the least stable zone of the finite difference mesh. Because of less frequent update of program variables it was expected that the nonuniform timestep would result in a reduction of execution time by a factor of five to ten. Available funding was exhausted prior to successful demonstration of the benefits to be derived from the non-uniform time-step method.

  6. Fueling galaxy growth through gas accretion in cosmological simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Dylan Rubaloff

    Despite significant advances in the numerical modeling of galaxy formation and evolution, it is clear that a satisfactory theoretical picture of how galaxies acquire their baryons across cosmic time remains elusive. In this thesis we present a computational study which seeks to address the question of how galaxies get their gas. We make use of new, more robust simulation techniques and describe the first investigations of cosmological gas accretion using a moving-mesh approach for solving the equations of continuum hydrodynamics. We focus first on a re-examination of past theoretical conclusions as to the relative importance of different accretion modes for galaxy growth. We study the rates and nature of gas accretion at z=2, comparing our new simulations run with the Arepo code to otherwise identical realizations run with the smoothed particle hydrodynamics code Gadget. We find significant physical differences in the thermodynamic history of accreted gas, explained in terms of numerical inaccuracies in SPH. In contrast to previous results, we conclude that hot mode accretion generally dominates galaxy growth, while cold gas filaments experience increased heating and disruption. Next, we consider the impact of feedback on our results, including models for galactic-scale outflows driven by stars as well as the energy released from supermassive black holes. We find that feedback strongly suppresses the inflow of "smooth" mode gas at all redshifts, regardless of its temperature history. Although the geometry of accretion at the virial radius is largely unmodified, strong galactic-fountain recycling motions dominate the inner halo. We measure a shift in the characteristic timescale of accretion, and discuss implications for semi-analytical models of hot halo gas cooling. To overcome the resolution limitations of cosmological volumes, we simulate a suite of eight individual 1012 solar mass halos down to z=2. We quantify the thermal and dynamical structure of the gas in

  7. Development of Reduced-Order Models for Aeroelastic and Flutter Prediction Using the CFL3Dv6.0 Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, Walter A.; Bartels, Robert E.

    2002-01-01

    A reduced-order model (ROM) is developed for aeroelastic analysis using the CFL3D version 6.0 computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, recently developed at the NASA Langley Research Center. This latest version of the flow solver includes a deforming mesh capability, a modal structural definition for nonlinear aeroelastic analyses, and a parallelization capability that provides a significant increase in computational efficiency. Flutter results for the AGARD 445.6 Wing computed using CFL3D v6.0 are presented, including discussion of associated computational costs. Modal impulse responses of the unsteady aerodynamic system are then computed using the CFL3Dv6 code and transformed into state-space form. Important numerical issues associated with the computation of the impulse responses are presented. The unsteady aerodynamic state-space ROM is then combined with a state-space model of the structure to create an aeroelastic simulation using the MATLAB/SIMULINK environment. The MATLAB/SIMULINK ROM is used to rapidly compute aeroelastic transients including flutter. The ROM shows excellent agreement with the aeroelastic analyses computed using the CFL3Dv6.0 code directly.

  8. Numerical Prediction of the Performance of Integrated Planar Solid-Oxide Fuel Cells, with Comparisons of Results from Several Codes

    SciTech Connect

    G. L. Hawkes; J. E. O'Brien; B. A. Haberman; A. J. Marquis; C. M. Baca; D. Tripepi; P. Costamagna

    2008-06-01

    A numerical study of the thermal and electrochemical performance of a single-tube Integrated Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (IP-SOFC) has been performed. Results obtained from two finite-volume computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes FLUENT and SOHAB and from a two-dimensional inhouse developed finite-volume GENOA model are presented and compared. Each tool uses physical and geometric models of differing complexity and comparisons are made to assess their relative merits. Several single-tube simulations were run using each code over a range of operating conditions. The results include polarization curves, distributions of local current density, composition and temperature. Comparisons of these results are discussed, along with their relationship to the respective imbedded phenomenological models for activation losses, fluid flow and mass transport in porous media. In general, agreement between the codes was within 15% for overall parameters such as operating voltage and maximum temperature. The CFD results clearly show the effects of internal structure on the distributions of gas flows and related quantities within the electrochemical cells.

  9. Improved NASA-ANOPP Noise Prediction Computer Code for Advanced Subsonic Propulsion Systems. Volume 2; Fan Suppression Model Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kontos, Karen B.; Kraft, Robert E.; Gliebe, Philip R.

    1996-01-01

    The Aircraft Noise Predication Program (ANOPP) is an industry-wide tool used to predict turbofan engine flyover noise in system noise optimization studies. Its goal is to provide the best currently available methods for source noise prediction. As part of a program to improve the Heidmann fan noise model, models for fan inlet and fan exhaust noise suppression estimation that are based on simple engine and acoustic geometry inputs have been developed. The models can be used to predict sound power level suppression and sound pressure level suppression at a position specified relative to the engine inlet.

  10. Accretion Disk Outflows from Compact Object Mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, Brian

    Nuclear reactions play a key role in the accretion disks and outflows associated with the merger of binary compact objects and the central engines of gamma-ray bursts and supernovae. The proposed research program will investigate the impact of nucleosynthesis on these events and their observable signatures by means of analytic calculations and numerical simulations. One focus of this research is rapid accretion following the tidal disruption of a white dwarf (WD) by a neutron star (NS) or black hole (BH) binary companion. Tidal disruption shreds the WD into a massive torus composed of C, O, and/or He, which undergoes nuclear reactions and burns to increasingly heavier elements as it flows to smaller radii towards the central compact object. The nuclear energy so released is comparable to that released gravitationally, suggesting that burning could drastically alter the structure and stability of the accretion flow. Axisymmetric hydrodynamic simulations of the evolution of the torus including nuclear burning will be performed to explore issues such as the mass budget of the flow (accretion vs. outflows) and its thermal stability (steady burning and accretion vs. runaway explosion). The mass, velocity, and composition of outflows from the disk will be used in separate radiative transfer calculations to predict the lightcurves and spectra of the 56Ni-decay powered optical transients from WD-NS/WD-BH mergers. The possible connection of such events to recently discovered classes of sub-luminous Type I supernovae will be assessed. The coalescence of NS-NS/NS-BH binaries also results in the formation of a massive torus surrounding a central compact object. Three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the long-term evolution of such accretion disks will be performed, which for the first time follow the effects of weak interactions and the nuclear energy released by Helium recombination. The nucleosynthetic yield of disk outflows will be calculated using a detailed

  11. MAGNETICALLY REGULATED GAS ACCRETION IN HIGH-REDSHIFT GALACTIC DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Birnboim, Yuval

    2009-09-10

    Disk galaxies are in hydrostatic equilibrium along their vertical axis. The pressure allowing for this configuration consists of thermal, turbulent, magnetic, and cosmic-ray components. For the Milky Way the thermal pressure contributes {approx}10% of the total pressure near the plane, with this fraction dropping toward higher altitudes. Out of the rest, magnetic fields contribute {approx}1/3 of the pressure to distances of {approx}3 kpc above the disk plane. In this Letter, we attempt to extrapolate these local values to high-redshift, rapidly accreting, rapidly star-forming disk galaxies and study the effect of the extra pressure sources on the accretion of gas onto the galaxies. In particular, magnetic field tension may convert a smooth cold-flow accretion to clumpy, irregular star formation regions and rates. The infalling gas accumulates on the edge of the magnetic fields, supported by magnetic tension. When the mass of the infalling gas exceeds some threshold mass, its gravitational force cannot be balanced by magnetic tension anymore, and it falls toward the disk's plane, rapidly making stars. Simplified estimations of this threshold mass are consistent with clumpy star formation observed in SINS, UDF, GOODS, and GEMS surveys. We discuss the shortcomings of pure hydrodynamic codes in simulating the accretion of cold flows into galaxies, and emphasize the need for magnetohydrodynamic simulations.

  12. Materietransport in Akkretionsscheiben %t Transport of matter in accretion discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Christof Martin

    2003-07-01

    Time-scales that need to be considered in time-dependent computations of accretion discs are many orders of magnitude larger than stable time-step sizes of common numerical codes. Therefore, theoretical investigation of these objects is severely limited by present-day computational resources, unless more efficient algorithms are found. Due to large differences in the underlying physics of cosmic accretion discs, algorithms need to be adjusted to the particular problem. During the course of this thesis, several algorithms have been implemented and tested. One of the implemented splitting-methods could efficiently be employed to 1D-simulations of supersonic accretion flows onto black holes. Another splitting method and a pressure correction scheme were applied to simulate two-dimensional protostellar accretion flows, which have been investigated more elaborately in this thesis. With these methods, performance in simulating protostellar discs could be improved in at least some cases. Numerical simulations of flow-structures in protostellar discs could thus be conducted and compared to higher order analytical approximations. Disc models using an α-description of the viscosity produced meridional flow-structures that have already been observed by several authors. Unlike flow-structures resulting from stationary one-zone-approximations, meridional flows exhibit outward directed velocities in the midplane of the disc. Test cases showed, that meridional flows can play an important role in the mixing processes of protostellar disc material that is reflected in the composition of cometary and meteorite material.

  13. Small Seed Black Hole Growth in Various Accretion Regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerling-Dunsmore, Hannalore J.; Hopkins, Philip F.

    2016-03-01

    Observational evidence indicates a population of super massive black holes (SMBHs) (~109 -1010M⊙) formed within 1 Gyr after the Big Bang. One proposed means of SMBH formation is accretion onto small seed black holes (BHs) (~ 100M⊙). However, the existence of SMBHs within 1 Gyr requires rapid growth, but conventional models of accretion fail to grow the seed BHs quickly enough. Super Eddington accretion (Ṁ >ṀEddington) may aid in improving growth efficiency. We study small seed BH growth via accretion in 3D, using the magneto-hydrodynamics+gravity code GIZMO. In particular, we consider a BH in a high density turbulent star-forming cloud, and ask whether or not the BH can capture sufficient gas to grow rapidly. We consider both Eddington-limited and super Eddington regimes, and resolve physics on scales from 0.1 pc to 1 kpc while including detailed models for stellar feedback physics, including stellar winds, supernovae, radiation pressure, and photo-ionization. We present results on the viability of different small seed BHs growing into SMBH candidates.

  14. Shocks in the low angular momentum accretion flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suková, Petra; Janiuk, Agnieszka

    2015-04-01

    We address the variability of low luminous galactic nuclei including the Sgr A* or other transient accreting systems, e.g. the black hole X-ray binaries, such as GX 339-4 or IGR J17091. These sources exhibit bright X-ray flares and quasi-periodical oscillations and are theoretically interpreted as the quasi-spherical accretion flows, formed instead of or around Keplerianaccretion disks. In low angular momentum flows the existence of shocks for some range of leading parameters (energy, angular momentum and adiabatic constant of the gas) was studied semi-analytically. The possible hysteresis effect, caused by the fact that the evolution of the flow and the formation of the shock depends on its own history, was discovered. The presence of the shock in the accreted material is important for the observable properties of the out-coming radiation. In the shocked region the gas is dense and hot, thus much more luminous than in the other case. We study the appearance of standing shocks in low angular momentum gas accreting onto a black hole with numerical hydrodynamicalsimulations, using the ZEUS code with Paczynski-Wiitapseudo-Newtonian potential.

  15. Three-dimensional Hydrodynamic Simulations of Accretion in High-mass X-ray Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raymer, Eric John

    Wind accretion in high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs) often results in highly variable X-ray behavior, the nature of which is not well understood. Most models of wind accretion are based on the analytical predictions of Hoyle-Lyttleton accretion (HLA), which assumes a steady axisymmetric flow. Surprisingly little is known about the structure, stability, and time-evolution of HLA in three dimensions, particularly in the presence of non-uniform winds. This work describes hydrodynamic simulations of idealized HLA in three-dimensions, then applies these simulations to two HMXB subclasses that exhibit unexplained X-ray behavior. Our idealized HLA models show that the accretion flow remains steady and stable in two-dimensional axisymmetric and three dimensional grid geometries, assuming a uniform upstream flow. We test the stability of the model with linear upstream density gradients and find that they are able to induce rotational flow around the accretor that reduces the mass accretion rate by up to an order of magnitude. We apply our 3D model to accretion in the context of Be/X-ray binaries, in which the accreting neutron star is immersed in the dense decretion disk of the Be donor star. These systems have traditionally been described with 2D models that exhibit the flip-flop instability. This instability results in the formation and destruction of transient accretion disks with accompanying bursts of mass accretion. Our 3D models show no sign of the flip-flop instability, but instead display rotation about the neutron star directed primarily out of the plane of the decretion disk. This rotation generates large-scale asymmetries in the bow shock and suppresses mass accretion by up to two orders of magnitude. The accretion of a clumped stellar wind is one of the primary mechanisms proposed to explain the high-luminosity X-ray flares of supergiant fast X-ray transients. We model clump accretion in 3D to determine whether the impact of a clump can produce flares with a

  16. The Event Horizon Telescope: exploring strong gravity and accretion physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricarte, Angelo; Dexter, Jason

    2015-01-01

    The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT), a global sub-millimetre wavelength very long baseline interferometry array, is now resolving the innermost regions around the supermassive black holes Sgr A* and M87. Using black hole images from both simple geometric models and relativistic magnetohydrodynamical accretion flow simulations, we perform a variety of experiments to assess the promise of the EHT for studying strong gravity and accretion physics during the stages of its development. We find that (1) the addition of the Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT) and Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array along with upgraded instrumentation in the `Complete' stage of the EHT allow detection of the photon ring, a signature of Kerr strong gravity, for predicted values of its total flux; (2) the inclusion of coherently averaged closure phases in our analysis dramatically improves the precision of even the current array, allowing (3) significantly tighter constraints on plausible accretion models and (4) detections of structural variability at the levels predicted by the models. While observations at 345 GHz circumvent problems due to interstellar electron scattering in line of sight to the galactic centre, short baselines provided by CARMA (Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy) and/or the LMT could be required in order to constrain the overall shape of the accretion flow. Given the systematic uncertainties in the underlying models, using the full complement of two observing frequencies (230 and 345 GHz) and sources (Sgr A* and M87) may be critical for achieving transformative science with the EHT experiment.

  17. Acoustic Predictions of Manned and Unmanned Rotorcraft Using the Comprehensive Analytical Rotorcraft Model for Acoustics (CARMA) Code System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, D. Douglas, Jr.; Burley, Casey L.; Conner, David A.

    2005-01-01

    The Comprehensive Analytical Rotorcraft Model for Acoustics (CARMA) is being developed under the Quiet Aircraft Technology Project within the NASA Vehicle Systems Program. The purpose of CARMA is to provide analysis tools for the design and evaluation of efficient low-noise rotorcraft, as well as support the development of safe, low-noise flight operations. The baseline prediction system of CARMA is presented and current capabilities are illustrated for a model rotor in a wind tunnel, a rotorcraft in flight and for a notional coaxial rotor configuration; however, a complete validation of the CARMA system capabilities with respect to a variety of measured databases is beyond the scope of this work. For the model rotor illustration, predicted rotor airloads and acoustics for a BO-105 model rotor are compared to test data from HART-II. For the flight illustration, acoustic data from an MD-520N helicopter flight test, which was conducted at Eglin Air Force Base in September 2003, are compared with CARMA full vehicle flight predictions. Predicted acoustic metrics at three microphone locations are compared for limited level flight and descent conditions. Initial acoustic predictions using CARMA for a notional coaxial rotor system are made. The effect of increasing the vertical separation between the rotors on the predicted airloads and acoustic results are shown for both aerodynamically non-interacting and aerodynamically interacting rotors. The sensitivity of including the aerodynamic interaction effects of each rotor on the other, especially when the rotors are in close proximity to one another is initially examined. The predicted coaxial rotor noise is compared to that of a conventional single rotor system of equal thrust, where both are of reasonable size for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV).

  18. BAG: A code for predicting the performance of a gas bag impact attenuation system for the PATHFINDER lander

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, J.K.; Waye, D.E.

    1993-11-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is planning to launch a network of scientific probes to Mars beginning in late 1996. The precursor to this network will be PATHFINDER. Decelerating PATHFINDER from the high speed of its approach to Mars will require the use of several deceleration techniques working in series. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has proposed that gas bags be used to cushion the payload`s ground impact on Mars. This report presents the computer code, BAG, which has been developed to calculate the pneumatic performance of gas bag impact attenuators and the one-dimensional rigid-body dynamic performance of a payload during ground impact.

  19. BIODOSE: a code for predicting the dose to man from radionuclides released from underground nuclear waste repositories

    SciTech Connect

    Bonner, N.A.; Ng, Y.C.

    1980-03-01

    The BIODOSE computer program simulates the environmental transport of radionuclides released to surface water and predicts the resulting dosage to humans. This report describes the program and discusses its use in the evaluation of nuclear waste repositories. The methods used to estimate dose are examined critically, and the most important parameters in each stage of the calculations are identified as an aid in planning for measurements in the field. Dose predictions from releases of nuclear waste to a large northwestern river (the baseline river) are presented to point out the nuclides, compartments and pathways that contribute most to the hazard as a function of waste storage time. Predictions for five other water systems are presented to identify the most important system parameters that determine the concentrations of individual nuclides in compartments and the resultant dose. The uncertainties in the biological parameters for dose prediction are identified, and changes in current values are suggested. Various ways of reporting dose estimates for radiological safety assessments are discussed. Additional work needed to improve the dose predictions from BIODOSE and specific areas and steps to improve our capabilities to assess the environmental transport of nuclides released from nuclear waste repositories and the resultant dose to man are suggested.

  20. Evolution of Accreting White Dwarfs: Some of Them Continue to Grow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newsham, G.; Starrfield, S.; Timmes, F. X.

    2014-12-01

    Novae are cataclysmic variable binary systems in which a white dwarf (WD) primary is accreting material from a low mass companion. The importance of this accretion takes on added significance if the WD can increase its mass to reach the Chandrasekhar limit thus exploding as a Type Ia supernova. In this study we accrete material of Solar composition onto carbon/oxygen (CO) WDs of 0.70, 1.00 and 1.35 M⊙ with accretion rates from 1.6×10-10 to 1.6×10-6 M⊙ yr-1. We have utilized the MESA stellar evolution code for our modeling and evolve them for many nova cycles or, in some cases, evolution to a red giant stage. Differing behaviors occur as a function of both the WD mass and the accretion rate. For the lower WD masses, the models undergo recurrent hydrogen flashes at low accretion rates; for higher accretion rates, steady-burning of hydrogen occurs and eventually gives way to recurrent hydrogen flashes. At the highest accretion rates, these models go through a steady-burning phase but eventually transition into red giants. For the highest WD mass recurrent hydrogen flashes occur at lower accretion rates but for higher rates the models exhibit steady-burning interspersed with helium flashes. We find that for all our models that undergo recurrent hydrogen flashes, as well as the steady-burning models that exhibit helium flashes, the mass of the WD continues to grow toward the Chandrasekhar limit. These results suggest that the accretion of Solar abundance material onto CO WDs in cataclysmic variable systems, the single degenerate scenario, is a viable channel for progenitors of Type Ia supernova explosions.

  1. ACCRETION RATES FOR T TAURI STARS USING NEARLY SIMULTANEOUS ULTRAVIOLET AND OPTICAL SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Ingleby, Laura; Calvet, Nuria; Blaty, Alex; Herczeg, Gregory; Walter, Frederick; Ardila, David; Alexander, Richard; Edwards, Suzan; Espaillat, Catherine; Gregory, Scott G.; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Brown, Alexander E-mail: ncalvet@umich.edu

    2013-04-20

    We analyze the accretion properties of 21 low-mass T Tauri stars using a data set of contemporaneous near-UV (NUV) through optical observations obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph and the ground-based Small and Medium Aperture Research Telescope System, a unique data set because of the nearly simultaneous broad wavelength coverage. Our data set includes accreting T Tauri stars in Taurus, Chamaeleon I, {eta} Chamaeleon, and the TW Hydra Association. For each source we calculate the accretion rate (M-dot ) by fitting the NUV and optical excesses above the photosphere, produced in the accretion shock, introducing multiple accretion components characterized by a range in energy flux (or density) for the first time. This treatment is motivated by models of the magnetospheric geometry and accretion footprints, which predict that high-density, low filling factor accretion spots coexist with low-density, high filling factor spots. By fitting the UV and optical spectra with multiple accretion components, we can explain excesses which have been observed in the near-IR. Comparing our estimates of M-dot to previous estimates, we find some discrepancies; however, they may be accounted for when considering assumptions for the amount of extinction and variability in optical spectra. Therefore, we confirm many previous estimates of the accretion rate. Finally, we measure emission line luminosities from the same spectra used for the M-dot estimates, to produce correlations between accretion indicators (H{beta}, Ca II K, C II], and Mg II) and accretion properties obtained simultaneously.

  2. A statistical framework to predict functional non-coding regions in the human genome through integrated analysis of annotation data.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qiongshi; Hu, Yiming; Sun, Jiehuan; Cheng, Yuwei; Cheung, Kei-Hoi; Zhao, Hongyu

    2015-01-01

    Identifying functional regions in the human genome is a major goal in human genetics. Great efforts have been made to functionally annotate the human genome either through computational predictions, such as genomic conservation, or high-throughput experiments, such as the ENCODE project. These efforts have resulted in a rich collection of functional annotation data of diverse types that need to be jointly analyzed for integrated interpretation and annotation. Here we present GenoCanyon, a whole-genome annotation method that performs unsupervised statistical learning using 22 computational and experimental annotations thereby inferring the functional potential of each position in the human genome. With GenoCanyon, we are able to predict many of the known functional regions. The ability of predicting functional regions as well as its generalizable statistical framework makes GenoCanyon a unique and powerful tool for whole-genome annotation. The GenoCanyon web server is available at http://genocanyon.med.yale.edu. PMID:26015273

  3. Conservative GRMHD simulations of moderately thin, tilted accretion disks

    SciTech Connect

    Teixeira, Danilo Morales; Fragile, P. Chris; Zhuravlev, Viacheslav V.; Ivanov, Pavel B.

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents our latest numerical simulations of accretion disks that are misaligned with respect to the rotation axis of a Kerr black hole. In this work, we use a new, fully conservative version of the Cosmos++ general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (GRMHD) code, coupled with an ad hoc cooling function designed to control the thickness of the disk. Together these allow us to simulate the thinnest tilted accretion disks ever using a GRMHD code. In this way, we are able to probe the regime where the dimensionless stress and scale height of the disk become comparable. We present results for both prograde and retrograde cases. The simulated prograde tilted disk shows no sign of Bardeen-Petterson alignment even in the innermost parts of the disk. The simulated retrograde tilted disk, however, does show modest alignment. The implication of these results is that the parameter space associated with Bardeen-Petterson alignment for prograde disks may be rather small, only including very thin disks. Unlike our previous work, we find no evidence for standing shocks in our simulated tilted disks. We ascribe this to the black hole spin, tilt angle, and disk scale height all being small in these simulations. We also add to the growing body of literature pointing out that the turbulence driven by the magnetorotational instability in global simulations of accretion disks is not isotropic. Finally, we provide a comparison between our moderately thin, untilted reference simulation and other numerical simulations of thin disks in the literature.

  4. Toward quantifying the source term for predicting global climatic effects of nuclear war: applications of urban fire codes

    SciTech Connect

    Reitter, T.A.; Kang, S.W.; Takata, A.N.

    1985-06-15

    Calculating urban-area fire development is critical to estimating global smoke production effects due to nuclear warfare. To improve calculations of fire starts and spread in urban areas, we performed a parameter-sensitivity analysis using three codes from IIT Research Institute. We applied improved versions of the codes to two urban areas: an infinite ''uniform city'' with only one type of building and the ''San Jose urban area'' as of the late 1960s. We varied parameters and compared affected fuel consumption and areas with a baseline case. The dominant parameters for the uniform city were wind speed, atmospheric visibility, frequency of secondary fire starts, building density, and window sizes. For San Jose (1968), they were wind speed, building densities, location of ground zero (GZ), height of burst (HOB), window sizes, and brand range. Because some results are very sensitive to actual fuel-distribution characteristics and the attack scenario, it is not possible to use a uniform city to represent actual urban areas. This was confirmed by a few calculations for the Detroit area as of the late 1960s. Many improvements are needed, such as inclusion of fire-induced winds and debris fires, before results can be extrapolated to the global scale.

  5. Assessment of a 3-D boundary layer code to predict heat transfer and flow losses in a turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, O. L.

    1984-01-01

    Zonal concepts are utilized to delineate regions of application of three-dimensional boundary layer (DBL) theory. The zonal approach requires three distinct analyses. A modified version of the 3-DBL code named TABLET is used to analyze the boundary layer flow. This modified code solves the finite difference form of the compressible 3-DBL equations in a nonorthogonal surface coordinate system which includes coriolis forces produced by coordinate rotation. These equations are solved using an efficient, implicit, fully coupled finite difference procedure. The nonorthogonal surface coordinate system is calculated using a general analysis based on the transfinite mapping of Gordon which is valid for any arbitrary surface. Experimental data is used to determine the boundary layer edge conditions. The boundary layer edge conditions are determined by integrating the boundary layer edge equations, which are the Euler equations at the edge of the boundary layer, using the known experimental wall pressure distribution. Starting solutions along the inflow boundaries are estimated by solving the appropriate limiting form of the 3-DBL equations.

  6. Accretion Discs Show Their True Colours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-07-01

    Quasars are the brilliant cores of remote galaxies, at the hearts of which lie supermassive black holes that can generate enough power to outshine the Sun a trillion times. These mighty power sources are fuelled by interstellar gas, thought to be sucked into the hole from a surrounding 'accretion disc'. A paper in this week's issue of the journal Nature, partly based on observations collected with ESO's Very Large Telescope, verifies a long-standing prediction about the intensely luminous radiation emitted by these accretion discs. Uncovering the disc ESO PR Photo 21/08 Uncovering the inner disc "Astronomers were puzzled by the fact that the best models of these discs couldn't quite be reconciled with some of the observations, in particular, with the fact that these discs did not appear as blue as they should be," explains lead-author Makoto Kishimoto. Such a discrepancy could be the signal that there was something very wrong with the models. With his colleagues, he investigated this discrepancy by studying the polarised light from six quasars. This enabled them to demonstrate that the disc spectrum is as blue as predicted. "The crucial observational difficulty here has been that the disc is surrounded by a much larger torus containing hot dust, whose light partly outshines that of the disc," says Kishimoto. "Because the light coming from the disc is scattered in the disc vicinity and thus polarised, by observing only polarised light from the quasars, one can uncover the buried light from the disc." In a similar way that a fisherman would wear polarised sunglasses to help get rid of the glare from the water surface and allow him to see more clearly under the water, the filter on the telescope allowed the astronomers to see beyond surrounding clouds of dust and gas to the blue colour of the disc in infrared light. The observations were done with the FORS and ISAAC instruments on one of the 8.2-m Unit Telescopes of ESO's Very Large Telescope, located in the Atacama

  7. Cyclotron Resonance in Accreting Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Dipankar

    2016-07-01

    Cyclotron Resonance Absorption/Scattering features provide direct measurement of magnetic field strength in the line forming region. This has enabled the estimation of magnetic field strengths of nearly two dozen neutron stars in accreting high mass binary systems. With improved spectroscopic sensitivity, new X-ray observatories such as NuSTAR, Astrosat and Hitomi are opening the doors to studying detailed features such as the line shape and phase dependence with high significance. Such studies will help understand the nature of matter accumulation in, and outflow from, the magnetically confined accretion column on the neutron star. This talk will describe the results of MHD simulations of the matter flow in such systems, the diagnostics of such flows using cyclotron lines, and comparison with recent observations from NuSTAR and Astrosat.

  8. A wind accretion model for HLX-1

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M. Coleman; Farrell, Sean A.; Maccarone, Thomas J.

    2014-06-20

    The brightest ultraluminous X-ray source currently known, HLX-1, has been observed to undergo five outburst cycles. The periodicity of these outbursts, and their high inferred maximum accretion rates of ∼few × 10{sup –4} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, naturally suggest Roche lobe overflow at the pericenter of an eccentric orbit. It is, however, difficult for the Roche lobe overflow model to explain the apparent trend of decreasing decay times over the different outbursts while the integrated luminosity also drops. Thus, if the trend is real rather than simply being a reflection of the complex physics of accretion disks, a different scenario may be necessary. We present a speculative model in which, within the last decade, a high-mass giant star had most of its envelope tidally stripped by the ∼10{sup 4–5} M {sub ☉} black hole in HLX-1, and the remaining core plus low-mass hydrogen envelope now feeds the hole with a strong wind. This model can explain the short decay time of the disk, and could explain the fast decrease in decay time if the wind speed changes with time. A key prediction of this model is that there will be excess line absorption due to the wind; our analysis does in fact find a flux deficit in the ∼0.9-1.1 keV range that is consistent with predictions, albeit at low significance. If this idea is correct, we also expect that within years to dacades the bound material from the original disruption will return and will make HLX-1 a persistently bright source.

  9. Persistent Patterns in Accretion Disks

    SciTech Connect

    Amin, Mustafa A.; Frolov, Andrei V.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2006-04-03

    We present a set of new characteristic frequencies associated with accretion disks around compact objects. These frequencies arise from persistent rotating patterns in the disk that are finite in radial extent and driven purely by the gravity of the central body. Their existence depends on general relativistic corrections to orbital motion and, if observed, could be used to probe the strong gravity region around a black hole. We also discuss a possible connection to the puzzle of quasi-periodic oscillations.

  10. Spiral Waves in Accretion Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harlaftis, Emilios

    A review with the most characteristic spiral waves in accretion disks of cataclysmic variables will be presented. Recent work on experiments targeting the detection of spiral waves from time lapse movies of real disks and the study of permanent spiral waves will be discussed. The relevance of spiral waves with other systems such as star-planet X-ray binaries and Algols will be reviewed.

  11. Binary black hole accretion from a circumbinary disk: Gas dynamics inside the central cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Farris, Brian D.; Duffell, Paul; MacFadyen, Andrew I.; Haiman, Zoltan

    2014-03-10

    We present the results of two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamical simulations of circumbinary disk accretion using the finite-volume code DISCO. This code solves the 2D viscous Navier-Stokes equations on a high-resolution moving mesh which shears with the fluid flow, greatly reducing advection errors in comparison with a fixed grid. We perform a series of simulations for binary mass ratios in the range 0.026 ≤ q ≤ 1.0, each lasting longer than a viscous time so that we reach a quasi-steady accretion state. In each case, we find that gas is efficiently stripped from the inner edge of the circumbinary disk and enters the cavity along accretion streams, which feed persistent 'mini disks' surrounding each black hole. We find that for q ≳ 0.1, the binary excites eccentricity in the inner region of the circumbinary disk, creating an overdense lump which gives rise to enhanced periodicity in the accretion rate. The dependence of the periodicity on mass ratio may provide a method for observationally inferring mass ratios from measurements of the accretion rate. We also find that for all mass ratios studied, the magnitude of the accretion onto the secondary is sufficient to drive the binary toward larger mass ratio. This suggests a mechanism for biasing mass-ratio distributions toward equal mass.

  12. Binary Black Hole Accretion from a Circumbinary Disk: Gas Dynamics inside the Central Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farris, Brian D.; Duffell, Paul; MacFadyen, Andrew I.; Haiman, Zoltan

    2014-03-01

    We present the results of two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamical simulations of circumbinary disk accretion using the finite-volume code DISCO. This code solves the 2D viscous Navier-Stokes equations on a high-resolution moving mesh which shears with the fluid flow, greatly reducing advection errors in comparison with a fixed grid. We perform a series of simulations for binary mass ratios in the range 0.026 <= q <= 1.0, each lasting longer than a viscous time so that we reach a quasi-steady accretion state. In each case, we find that gas is efficiently stripped from the inner edge of the circumbinary disk and enters the cavity along accretion streams, which feed persistent "mini disks" surrounding each black hole. We find that for q >~ 0.1, the binary excites eccentricity in the inner region of the circumbinary disk, creating an overdense lump which gives rise to enhanced periodicity in the accretion rate. The dependence of the periodicity on mass ratio may provide a method for observationally inferring mass ratios from measurements of the accretion rate. We also find that for all mass ratios studied, the magnitude of the accretion onto the secondary is sufficient to drive the binary toward larger mass ratio. This suggests a mechanism for biasing mass-ratio distributions toward equal mass.

  13. Compression of matter in the center of accreting neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bejger, M.; Zdunik, J. L.; Haensel, P.; Fortin, M.

    2011-12-01

    Aims: To estimate the feasibility of dense-matter phase transition, we studied the evolution of the central density as well as the baryon chemical potential of accreting neutron stars. We compared the thin-disk accretion with and without the magnetic field torque with the spin-down scenario for a selection of recent equations of state. Methods: We compared the prevalent (in the recycled-pulsar context) Keplerian thin-disk model, in which the matter is accreted from the marginally-stable circular orbit, with the recent magnetic-torque model that takes into account the influence of stellar magnetic field on the effective inner boundary of the disk. Calculations were performed using a multi-domain spectral methods code in the framework of General Relativity. We considered three equations of state consistent with the recently measured mass of PSR J1614-2230, 1.97 ± 0.04 M⊙ (one of them softened by the appearance of hyperons). Results: If there is no magnetic torque and efficient angular momentum transfer from the disk to the star, substantial central compression is limited to the region of initial stellar masses close to the maximum mass. Outside the maximum mass vicinity, accretion-induced central compression is significant only if the angular momentum transfer is inefficient. Accounting for the magnetic field effectively decreases the efficiency of angular momentum transfer and implies a significant central compression. Conclusions: An efficient angular momentum transfer from a thin disk onto a non-magnetized neutron star does not provide a good mechanism for the central compression and possible phase transition. Substantial central compression is possible for a broad range of masses of slowly-rotating initial configurations for magnetized neutron stars. Accretion-induced central compression is particularly strong for stiff equation of state with a high-density softening.

  14. ROTATING ACCRETION FLOWS: FROM INFINITY TO THE BLACK HOLE

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jason; Ostriker, Jeremiah; Sunyaev, Rashid

    2013-04-20

    Accretion onto a supermassive black hole of a rotating inflow is a particularly difficult problem to study because of the wide range of length scales involved. There have been broadly utilized analytic and numerical treatments of the global properties of accretion flows, but detailed numerical simulations are required to address certain critical aspects. We use the ZEUS code to run hydrodynamical simulations of rotating, axisymmetric accretion flows with Bremsstrahlung cooling, considering solutions for which the centrifugal balance radius significantly exceeds the Schwarzschild radius, with and without viscous angular momentum transport. Infalling gas is followed from well beyond the Bondi radius down to the vicinity of the black hole. We produce a continuum of solutions with respect to the single parameter M-dot{sub B}/ M-dot{sub Edd}, and there is a sharp transition between two general classes of solutions at an Eddington ratio of M-dot{sub B}/M-dot{sub Edd}{approx}few Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2}. Our high inflow solutions are very similar to the standard Shakura and Sunyaev results. But our low inflow results are to zeroth order the stationary Papaloizou and Pringle solution, which has no accretion. To next order in the small, assumed viscosity they show circulation, with disk and conical wind outflows almost balancing inflow. These solutions are characterized by hot, vertically extended disks, and net accretion proceeds at an extremely low rate, only of order {alpha} times the inflow rate. Our simulations have converged with respect to spatial resolution and temporal duration, and they do not depend strongly on our choice of boundary conditions.

  15. Development of a computer code to predict a ventilation requirement for an underground radioactive waste storage tank

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.J.; Dalpiaz, E.L.

    1997-08-01

    Computer code, WTVFE (Waste Tank Ventilation Flow Evaluation), has been developed to evaluate the ventilation requirement for an underground storage tank for radioactive waste. Heat generated by the radioactive waste and mixing pumps in the tank is removed mainly through the ventilation system. The heat removal process by the ventilation system includes the evaporation of water from the waste and the heat transfer by natural convection from the waste surface. Also, a portion of the heat will be removed through the soil and the air circulating through the gap between the primary and secondary tanks. The heat loss caused by evaporation is modeled based on recent evaporation test results by the Westinghouse Hanford Company using a simulated small scale waste tank. Other heat transfer phenomena are evaluated based on well established conduction and convection heat transfer relationships. 10 refs., 3 tabs.

  16. Long Non-Coding RNA LSINCT5 Predicts Negative Prognosis and Exhibits Oncogenic Activity in Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Mi-Die; Qi, Peng; Weng, Wei-Wei; Shen, Xiao-Han; Ni, Shu-Juan; Dong, Lei; Huang, Dan; Tan, Cong; Sheng, Wei-Qi; Zhou, Xiao-Yan; Du, Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are recently discovered RNA transcripts that are aberrantly expressed in many tumor types. Numerous studies have suggested that lncRNAs can be utilized for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. LSINCT5 (long stress-induced non-coding transcript 5) is dramatically upregulated in breast and ovarian cancer and affects cellular proliferation. However, the expression pattern of LSINCT5 in gastrointestinal cancer and the association between aberrant expression of LSINCT5 in gastrointestinal cancer and malignancy, metastasis, or prognosis remain unknown. LSINCT5 expression was detected in gastrointestinal cancer and paired adjacent normal tissue samples or cell lines using reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). We also investigated the potential relationship between tumor LSINCT5 levels and clinicopathological features of gastrointestinal cancer. Finally, we assessed whether LSINCT5 influences in vitro cell proliferation. The expression of LSINCT5 is significantly upregulated in gastrointestinal cancer tissues and cell lines relative to their normal counterparts. In addition, increased LSINCT5 expression was correlated with a larger tumor size, deeper tumor depth, and advanced clinical stage. Kaplan–Meier analysis indicated that gastric cancer (GC) and colorectal cancer (CRC) patients with higher LSINCT5 expression levels have worse disease-free survival (DFS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) rates. Moreover, multivariate analysis revealed that increased expression of LSINCT5 is an independent predictor of DFS and DSS rates in GC patients. The ectopic expression of LSINCT5 in gastrointestinal cancer cell lines resulted in an increase in cellular proliferation; conversely, knock down of LSINCT5 significantly inhibited proliferation. These results suggest that LSINCT5 may represent a novel prognostic indicator and a target for gene therapy in gastrointestinal cancer. PMID:25526476

  17. A model for neutrino emission from nuclear accretion disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deaton, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Compact object mergers involving at least one neutron star can produce short-lived black hole accretion engines. Over tens to hundreds of milliseconds such an engine consumes a disk of hot, nuclear-density fluid, and drives changes to its surrounding environment through luminous emission of neutrinos. The neutrino emission may drive an ultrarelativistic jet, may peel off the disk's outer layers as a wind, may irradiate those winds or other forms of ejecta and thereby change their composition, may change the composition and thermodynamic state of the disk itself, and may oscillate in its flavor content. We present the full spatial-, angular-, and energy-dependence of the neutrino distribution function around a realistic model of a nuclear accretion disk, to inform future explorations of these types of behaviors. Spectral Einstein Code (SpEC).

  18. Accretion disks around black holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abramowicz, M. A.

    1994-01-01

    The physics of accretion flow very close to a black hole is dominated by several general relativistic effects. It cannot be described by the standard Shakura Sunyaev model or by its relativistic version developed by Novikov and Thome. The most important of these effects is a dynamical mass loss from the inner edge of the disk (Roche lobe overflow). The relativistic Roche lobe overflow induces a strong advective cooling, which is sufficient to stabilize local, axially symmetric thermal and viscous modes. It also stabilizes the non-axially-symmetric global modes discovered by Papaloizou and Pringle. The Roche lobe overflow, however, destabilizes sufficiently self-gravitating accretion disks with respect to a catastrophic runaway of mass due to minute changes of the gravitational field induced by the changes in the mass and angular momentum of the central black hole. One of the two acoustic modes may become trapped near the inner edge of the disk. All these effects, absent in the standard model, have dramatic implications for time-dependent behavior of the accretion disks around black holes.

  19. Magnetically Torqued Thin Accretion Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kluźniak, W.; Rappaport, S.

    2007-12-01

    We compute the properties of a geometrically thin, steady accretion disk surrounding a central rotating, magnetized star. The magnetosphere is assumed to entrain the disk over a wide range of radii. The model is simplified in that we adopt two (alternate) ad hoc, but plausible, expressions for the azimuthal component of the magnetic field as a function of radial distance. We find a solution for the angular velocity profile tending to corotation close to the central star and smoothly matching a Keplerian curve at a radius where the viscous stress vanishes. The value of this ``transition'' radius is nearly the same for both of our adopted B-field models. We then solve analytically for the torques on the central star and for the disk luminosity due to gravity and magnetic torques. When expressed in a dimensionless form, the resulting quantities depend on one parameter alone, the ratio of the transition radius to the corotation radius. For rapid rotators, the accretion disk may be powered mostly by spin-down of the central star. These results are independent of the viscosity prescription in the disk. We also solve for the disk structure for the special case of an optically thick alpha disk. Our results are applicable to a range of astrophysical systems including accreting neutron stars, intermediate polar cataclysmic variables, and T Tauri systems.

  20. The transport of angular momentum by gravitational instabilities and Rossby vortices in accretion disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currier, Nathaniel W.

    We propose a model for the birth of spiral galaxies and the supermassive black holes (SMBHs) at their centers. It all starts when a galaxy-mass gas condensation collapses to ~ 200 × the background density. It experiences weak tidal torques from similar condensations, which establish its spin parameter l. It forms a Lyman-a (Lya) cloud, then undergoes an inviscid, angular-momentum- preserving collapse to a Mestel disk with a flat rotation curve (FRCD). A FRCD has v ~ const, M predict infant galaxy FRCs go all the way to the center. Following the FRCD, the black hole's mass ( MBH ~- 3 × 10 7 [Special characters omitted.] ) comes from the galaxy's innermost 3 pc, which is the radius where gas retains heat long enough to form an accretion disk instead of stars. We invoke two mechanisms to drive accretion: The self- gravity instability (SGI) and the Rossby vortex instability (RVI). Both mechanisms transport angular momentum coherently, so they easily dominate turbulent mechanisms wherever the disk is thin. The popular magneto-rotational instability (MRI) is semi-coherent, but it's not required for our model, so we leave it for further study. We use a 2-D Eulerian hydro code to simulate the SGI and RVI in both FRCDs and Keplerian disks. We explore the triggers of these instabilities, namely, the Toomre parameter Q in SGI-unstable FRCDs and pressure jumps in RVI-unstable Keplerian disks. We confirm that Q [Special characters omitted.] 1 triggers the SGI in FRCDs and that D P/P [Special characters omitted.] 5 generates robust Rossby vortices in Keplerian disks. We also find that these instabilities interact in the transition region between these two types of disks. We relate all this to our self-consistent model

  1. Cold, clumpy accretion onto an active supermassive black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, Grant R.; Oonk, J. B. Raymond; Combes, Françoise; Salomé, Philippe; O'Dea, Christopher P.; Baum, Stefi A.; Voit, G. Mark; Donahue, Megan; McNamara, Brian R.; Davis, Timothy A.; McDonald, Michael A.; Edge, Alastair C.; Clarke, Tracy E.; Galván-Madrid, Roberto; Bremer, Malcolm N.; Edwards, Louise O. V.; Fabian, Andrew C.; Hamer, Stephen; Li, Yuan; Maury, Anaëlle; Russell, Helen R.; Quillen, Alice C.; Urry, C. Megan; Sanders, Jeremy S.; Wise, Michael W.

    2016-06-01

    Supermassive black holes in galaxy centres can grow by the accretion of gas, liberating energy that might regulate star formation on galaxy-wide scales. The nature of the gaseous fuel reservoirs that power black hole growth is nevertheless largely unconstrained by observations, and is instead routinely simplified as a smooth, spherical inflow of very hot gas. Recent theory and simulations instead predict that accretion can be dominated by a stochastic, clumpy distribution of very cold molecular clouds—a departure from the ‘hot mode’ accretion model—although unambiguous observational support for this prediction remains elusive. Here we report observations that reveal a cold, clumpy accretion flow towards a supermassive black hole fuel reservoir in the nucleus of the Abell 2597 Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG), a nearby (redshift z = 0.0821) giant elliptical galaxy surrounded by a dense halo of hot plasma. Under the right conditions, thermal instabilities produce a rain of cold clouds that fall towards the galaxy’s centre, sustaining star formation amid a kiloparsec-scale molecular nebula that is found at its core. The observations show that these cold clouds also fuel black hole accretion, revealing ‘shadows’ cast by the molecular clouds as they move inward at about 300 kilometres per second towards the active supermassive black hole, which serves as a bright backlight. Corroborating evidence from prior observations of warmer atomic gas at extremely high spatial resolution, along with simple arguments based on geometry and probability, indicate that these clouds are within the innermost hundred parsecs of the black hole, and falling closer towards it.

  2. Cold, clumpy accretion onto an active supermassive black hole.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Grant R; Oonk, J B Raymond; Combes, Françoise; Salomé, Philippe; O'Dea, Christopher P; Baum, Stefi A; Voit, G Mark; Donahue, Megan; McNamara, Brian R; Davis, Timothy A; McDonald, Michael A; Edge, Alastair C; Clarke, Tracy E; Galván-Madrid, Roberto; Bremer, Malcolm N; Edwards, Louise O V; Fabian, Andrew C; Hamer, Stephen; Li, Yuan; Maury, Anaëlle; Russell, Helen R; Quillen, Alice C; Urry, C Megan; Sanders, Jeremy S; Wise, Michael W

    2016-06-01

    Supermassive black holes in galaxy centres can grow by the accretion of gas, liberating energy that might regulate star formation on galaxy-wide scales. The nature of the gaseous fuel reservoirs that power black hole growth is nevertheless largely unconstrained by observations, and is instead routinely simplified as a smooth, spherical inflow of very hot gas. Recent theory and simulations instead predict that accretion can be dominated by a stochastic, clumpy distribution of very cold molecular clouds--a departure from the 'hot mode' accretion model--although unambiguous observational support for this prediction remains elusive. Here we report observations that reveal a cold, clumpy accretion flow towards a supermassive black hole fuel reservoir in the nucleus of the Abell 2597 Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG), a nearby (redshift z = 0.0821) giant elliptical galaxy surrounded by a dense halo of hot plasma. Under the right conditions, thermal instabilities produce a rain of cold clouds that fall towards the galaxy's centre, sustaining star formation amid a kiloparsec-scale molecular nebula that is found at its core. The observations show that these cold clouds also fuel black hole accretion, revealing 'shadows' cast by the molecular clouds as they move inward at about 300 kilometres per second towards the active supermassive black hole, which serves as a bright backlight. Corroborating evidence from prior observations of warmer atomic gas at extremely high spatial resolution, along with simple arguments based on geometry and probability, indicate that these clouds are within the innermost hundred parsecs of the black hole, and falling closer towards it. PMID:27279215

  3. Towards combined modeling of planetary accretion and differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golabek, G. J.; Gerya, T.; Morishima, R.; Tackley, P. J.; Labrosse, S.

    2011-12-01

    Results of current 1D models on planetesimal accretion yield an onion-like thermal structure with very high internal temperatures due to powerful short-lived radiogenic heating in the planetesimals. These lead to extensive silicate melting in the parent bodies. Yet, magma ocean and impact processes are not considered in these models and core formation is, if taken into account, assumed to be instantaneous with no feedback on the mantle evolution. It was pointed out that impacts can not only deposit heat deep into the target body, which is later buried by ejecta of further impacts [1], but also that impacts expose in the crater region originally deep-seated layers, thus cooling the interior [2]. This combination of impact effects becomes even more important when we consider that planetesimals of all masses contribute to planetary accretion. This leads occasionally to collisions between bodies with large ratios between impactor and target mass. Thus, all these processes can be expected to have a profound effect on the thermal evolution during the epoch of planetary accretion and may have implications for the onset of mantle convection and cannot be described properly in 1D geometry. Here we present a new methodology, which can be used to simulate the internal evolution of a planetary body during accretion and differentiation: Using the N-body code PKDGRAV [3] we simulate the accretion of planetary embryos from an initial annulus of several thousand planetesimals. The growth history of the largest resulting planetary embryo is used as an input for the thermomechanical 2D code I2ELVIS [4]. The thermomechanical model takes recent parametrizations of impact processes like impact heating and crater excavation [5] into account. The model also includes both long- and short-lived radiogenic isotopes and a more realistic treatment of largely molten silicates [6]. Results show that late-formed planetesimals do not experience silicate melting and avoid thermal alteration

  4. Towards combined modeling of planetary accretion and differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golabek, G. J.; Gerya, T. V.; Morishima, R.; Tackley, P. J.; Labrosse, S.

    2012-09-01

    accretion yield an onion-like thermal structure with very high internal temperatures due to powerful short-lived radiogenic heating in the planetesimals. These lead to extensive silicate melting in the parent bodies. Yet, magma ocean and impact processes are not considered in these models and core formation is, if taken into account, assumed to be instantaneous with no feedback on the mantle evolution. It was pointed out that impacts can not only deposit heat deep into the target body, which is later buried by ejecta of further impacts [1], but also that impacts expose in the crater region originally deep-seated layers, thus cooling the interior [2]. This combination of impact effects becomes even more important when we consider that planetesimals of all masses contribute to planetary accretion. This leads occasionally to collisions between bodies with large ratios between impactor and target mass. Thus, all these processes can be expected to have a profound effect on the thermal evolution during the epoch of planetary accretion and may have implications for the onset of mantle convection and cannot be described properly in 1D geometry. Here we present a new methodology, which can be used to simulate the internal evolution of a planetary body during accretion and differentiation: Using the N-body code PKDGRAV[3] we simulate the accretion of planetary embryos from an initial annulus of several thousand planetesimals. The growth history of the largest resulting planetary embryo is used as an input for the thermomechanical 2D code I2ELVIS [4]. The thermomechanical model takes recent parametrizations of impact processes like impact heating and crater excavation [5] into account. The model also includes both long- and short-lived radiogenic isotopes and a more realistic treatment of largely molten silicates [6]. Results show that late-formed planetesimals do not experience silicate melting and avoid thermal alteration, whereas in early-formed bodies accretion and iron

  5. Time-dependent spherically symmetric accretion onto compact X-ray sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowie, L. L.; Ostriker, J. P.; Stark, A. A.

    1978-01-01

    Analytical arguments and a numerical hydrodynamic code are used to investigate spherically symmetric accretion onto a compact object, in an attempt to provide some insight into gas flows heated by an outgoing X-ray flux. It is shown that preheating of spherically symmetric accretion flows by energetic radiation from an X-ray source results in time-dependent behavior for a much wider range of source parameters than was determined previously and that there are two distinct types of instability. The results are compared with observations of X-ray bursters and transients as well as with theories on quasars and active galactic nuclei that involve quasi-spherically symmetric accretion onto massive black holes. Models based on spherically symmetric accretion are found to be inconsistent with observations of bursters and transients.

  6. Thin accretion discs are stabilized by a strong magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sądowski, Aleksander

    2016-07-01

    By studying three-dimensional, radiative, global simulations of sub-Eddington, geometrically thin (H/R ≈ 0.15) black hole accretion flows we show that thin discs which are dominated by magnetic pressure are stable against thermal instability. Such discs are thicker than predicted by the standard model and show significant amount of dissipation inside the marginally stable orbit. Radiation released in this region, however, does not escape to infinity but is advected into the black hole. We find that the resulting accretion efficiency (5.5 ± 0.5 per cent for the simulated 0.8dot{M}_Edd disc) is very close to the predicted by the standard model (5.7 per cent).

  7. MiRPara: a SVM-based software tool for prediction of most probable microRNA coding regions in genome scale sequences

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs are a family of ~22 nt small RNAs that can regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Identification of these molecules and their targets can aid understanding of regulatory processes. Recently, HTS has become a common identification method but there are two major limitations associated with the technique. Firstly, the method has low efficiency, with typically less than 1 in 10,000 sequences representing miRNA reads and secondly the method preferentially targets highly expressed miRNAs. If sequences are available, computational methods can provide a screening step to investigate the value of an HTS study and aid interpretation of results. However, current methods can only predict miRNAs for short fragments and have usually been trained against small datasets which don't always reflect the diversity of these molecules. Results We have developed a software tool, miRPara, that predicts most probable mature miRNA coding regions from genome scale sequences in a species specific manner. We classified sequences from miRBase into animal, plant and overall categories and used a support vector machine to train three models based on an initial set of 77 parameters related to the physical properties of the pre-miRNA and its miRNAs. By applying parameter filtering we found a subset of ~25 parameters produced higher prediction ability compared to the full set. Our software achieves an accuracy of up to 80% against experimentally verified mature miRNAs, making it one of the most accurate methods available. Conclusions miRPara is an effective tool for locating miRNAs coding regions in genome sequences and can be used as a screening step prior to HTS experiments. It is available at http://www.whiov.ac.cn/bioinformatics/mirpara PMID:21504621

  8. Genome Wide Identification and Functional Prediction of Long Non-Coding RNAs Responsive to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Infection in Brassica napus

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Raj Kumar; Megha, Swati; Basu, Urmila; Rahman, Muhammad H.; Kav, Nat N. V.

    2016-01-01

    Sclerotinia stem rot caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum affects canola production worldwide. Emerging evidence suggests that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in the regulation of gene expression in plants, in response to both abiotic and biotic stress. So far, identification of lncRNAs has been limited to a few model plant species, and their roles in mediating responses to biotic stresses are yet to be characterized in Brassica napus. The present study reports the identification of novel lncRNAs responsive to S. sclerotiorum infection in B. napus at two time points after infection (24 hpi and 48 hpi) using a stranded RNA-Sequencing technique and a detection pipeline for lncRNAs. Of the total 3,181 lncRNA candidates, 2,821 lncRNAs were intergenic, 111 were natural antisense transcripts, 76 possessed exonic overlap with the reference coding transcripts while the remaining 173 represented novel lnc- isoforms. Forty one lncRNAs were identified as the precursors for microRNAs (miRNAs) including miR156, miR169 and miR394, with significant roles in mediating plant responses to fungal phytopathogens. A total of 931 differentially expressed lncRNAs were identified in response to S. sclerotiorum infection and the expression of 12 such lncRNAs was further validated using qRT-PCR. B. napus antisense lncRNA, TCONS_00000966, having 90% overlap with a plant defensin gene, showed significant induction at both infection stages, suggesting its involvement in the transcriptional regulation of defense responsive genes under S. sclerotiorum infection. Additionally, nine lncRNAs showed overlap with cis-regulatory regions of differentially expressed genes of B. napus. Quantitative RT-PCR verification of a set of S. sclerotiorum responsive sense/antisense transcript pairs revealed contrasting expression patterns, supporting the hypothesis that steric clashes of transcriptional machinery may lead to inactivation of sense promoter. Our findings highlight the potential

  9. Genome Wide Identification and Functional Prediction of Long Non-Coding RNAs Responsive to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Infection in Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Raj Kumar; Megha, Swati; Basu, Urmila; Rahman, Muhammad H; Kav, Nat N V

    2016-01-01

    Sclerotinia stem rot caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum affects canola production worldwide. Emerging evidence suggests that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in the regulation of gene expression in plants, in response to both abiotic and biotic stress. So far, identification of lncRNAs has been limited to a few model plant species, and their roles in mediating responses to biotic stresses are yet to be characterized in Brassica napus. The present study reports the identification of novel lncRNAs responsive to S. sclerotiorum infection in B. napus at two time points after infection (24 hpi and 48 hpi) using a stranded RNA-Sequencing technique and a detection pipeline for lncRNAs. Of the total 3,181 lncRNA candidates, 2,821 lncRNAs were intergenic, 111 were natural antisense transcripts, 76 possessed exonic overlap with the reference coding transcripts while the remaining 173 represented novel lnc- isoforms. Forty one lncRNAs were identified as the precursors for microRNAs (miRNAs) including miR156, miR169 and miR394, with significant roles in mediating plant responses to fungal phytopathogens. A total of 931 differentially expressed lncRNAs were identified in response to S. sclerotiorum infection and the expression of 12 such lncRNAs was further validated using qRT-PCR. B. napus antisense lncRNA, TCONS_00000966, having 90% overlap with a plant defensin gene, showed significant induction at both infection stages, suggesting its involvement in the transcriptional regulation of defense responsive genes under S. sclerotiorum infection. Additionally, nine lncRNAs showed overlap with cis-regulatory regions of differentially expressed genes of B. napus. Quantitative RT-PCR verification of a set of S. sclerotiorum responsive sense/antisense transcript pairs revealed contrasting expression patterns, supporting the hypothesis that steric clashes of transcriptional machinery may lead to inactivation of sense promoter. Our findings highlight the potential

  10. ACCURATE UNIVERSAL MODELS FOR THE MASS ACCRETION HISTORIES AND CONCENTRATIONS OF DARK MATTER HALOS

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, D. H.; Jing, Y. P.; Mo, H. J.; Boerner, G.

    2009-12-10

    , when cosmological parameters and the power index of the initial density fluctuation spectrum have changed dramatically. Our model predictions also match the PINOCCHIO mass accretion histories very well, which are much independent of our numerical simulations and our definitions of halo merger trees. These models are also simple and easy to implement, making them very useful in modeling the growth and structure of dark matter halos. We provide appendices describing the step-by-step implementation of our models. A calculator which allows one to interactively generate data for any given cosmological model is provided on the Web, together with a user-friendly code to make the relevant calculations and some tables listing the expected concentration as a function of halo mass and redshift in several popular cosmological models. We explain why LAMBDACDM and open CDM halos on nearly all mass scales show two distinct phases in their mass growth histories. We discuss implications of the universal relations we find in connection to the formation of dark matter halos in the cosmic density field.

  11. Software Released by LEWICE 2.0 Ice Accretion Software Development Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potapczuk, Mark G.

    2000-01-01

    Computational icing simulation methods are making the transition from the realm of research to commonplace use in design and certification. As such, standards of software management, design, validation, and documentation must be adjusted to accommodate the increased expectations of the user community with respect to accuracy, reliability, capability, and usability. With this in mind, in collaboration with Glenn's Engineering Design and Analysis Division, the Icing Branch of the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field began a software improvement project focused on the two-dimensional ice accretion simulation tool LEWICE. This project is serving as an introduction to the concepts of software management and is intended to serve as a pilot project for future icing simulation code development. The LEWICE 2.0 Software Development Project consisted of two major elements: software management and software validation. The software management element consisted of identifying features of well-designed and well-managed software that are appropriate for an analytical prediction tool such as LEWICE and applying them to a revised version of the code. This element included tasks such as identification of software requirements, development and implementation of coding standards, and implementation of software revision control practices. With the application of these techniques, the LEWICE ice accretion code became a more stable and reliable software product. In addition, the lessons learned about software development and maintenance can be factored into future software projects at the outset. The software validation activity was an integral part of our effort to make LEWICE a more accurate and reliable analysis tool. Because of the efforts taken to extensively validate this software, LEWICE 2.0 is more robust than previous releases and can reproduce results accurately across several computing platforms. It also differs from previous versions in the extensive quantitative

  12. NMR-assisted prediction of RNA secondary structure: identification of a probable pseudoknot in the coding region of an R2 retrotransposon.

    PubMed

    Hart, James M; Kennedy, Scott D; Mathews, David H; Turner, Douglas H

    2008-08-01

    As the rate of functional RNA sequence discovery escalates, high-throughput techniques for reliable structural determination are becoming crucial for revealing the essential features of these RNAs in a timely fashion. Computational predictions of RNA secondary structure quickly generate reasonable models but suffer from several approximations, including overly simplified models and incomplete knowledge of significant interactions. Similar problems limit the accuracy of predictions for other self-folding polymers, including DNA and peptide nucleic acid (PNA). The work presented here demonstrates that incorporating unassigned data from simple nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments into a dynamic folding algorithm greatly reduces the potential folding space of a given RNA and therefore increases the confidence and accuracy of modeling. This procedure has been packaged into an NMR-assisted prediction of secondary structure (NAPSS) algorithm that can produce pseudoknotted as well as non-pseudoknotted secondary structures. The method reveals a probable pseudoknot in the part of the coding region of the R2 retrotransposon from Bombyx mori that orchestrates second-strand DNA cleavage during insertion into the genome. PMID:18613678

  13. The thing that should not be: predictive coding and the uncanny valley in perceiving human and humanoid robot actions.

    PubMed

    Saygin, Ayse Pinar; Chaminade, Thierry; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Driver, Jon; Frith, Chris

    2012-04-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) repetition suppression, we explored the selectivity of the human action perception system (APS), which consists of temporal, parietal and frontal areas, for the appearance and/or motion of the perceived agent. Participants watched body movements of a human (biological appearance and movement), a robot (mechanical appearance and movement) or an android (biological appearance, mechanical movement). With the exception of extrastriate body area, which showed more suppression for human like appearance, the APS was not selective for appearance or motion per se. Instead, distinctive responses were found to the mismatch between appearance and motion: whereas suppression effects for the human and robot were similar to each other, they were stronger for the android, notably in bilateral anterior intraparietal sulcus, a key node in the APS. These results could reflect increased prediction error as the brain negotiates an agent that appears human, but does not move biologically, and help explain the 'uncanny valley' phenomenon. PMID:21515639

  14. Reaction rate and composition dependence of the stability of thermonuclear burning on accreting neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Keek, L.; Cyburt, R. H.; Heger, A.

    2014-06-01

    The stability of thermonuclear burning of hydrogen and helium accreted onto neutron stars is strongly dependent on the mass accretion rate. The burning behavior is observed to change from Type I X-ray bursts to stable burning, with oscillatory burning occurring at the transition. Simulations predict the transition at a 10 times higher mass accretion rate than observed. Using numerical models we investigate how the transition depends on the hydrogen, helium, and CNO mass fractions of the accreted material, as well as on the nuclear reaction rates of 3α and the hot-CNO breakout reactions {sup 15}O(α, γ){sup 19}Ne and {sup 18}Ne(α, p){sup 21}Na. For a lower hydrogen content the transition is at higher accretion rates. Furthermore, most experimentally allowed reaction rate variations change the transition accretion rate by at most 10%. A factor 10 decrease of the {sup 15}O(α, γ){sup 19}Ne rate, however, produces an increase of the transition accretion rate of 35%. None of our models reproduce the transition at the observed rate, and depending on the true {sup 15}O(α, γ){sup 19}Ne reaction rate, the actual discrepancy may be substantially larger. We find that the width of the interval of accretion rates with marginally stable burning depends strongly on both composition and reaction rates. Furthermore, close to the stability transition, our models predict that X-ray bursts have extended tails where freshly accreted fuel prolongs nuclear burning.

  15. Fast Coding Unit Encoding Mechanism for Low Complexity Video Coding

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yueying; Jia, Kebin; Gao, Guandong

    2016-01-01

    In high efficiency video coding (HEVC), coding tree contributes to excellent compression performance. However, coding tree brings extremely high computational complexity. Innovative works for improving coding tree to further reduce encoding time are stated in this paper. A novel low complexity coding tree mechanism is proposed for HEVC fast coding unit (CU) encoding. Firstly, this paper makes an in-depth study of the relationship among CU distribution, quantization parameter (QP) and content change (CC). Secondly, a CU coding tree probability model is proposed for modeling and predicting CU distribution. Eventually, a CU coding tree probability update is proposed, aiming to address probabilistic model distortion problems caused by CC. Experimental results show that the proposed low complexity CU coding tree mechanism significantly reduces encoding time by 27% for lossy coding and 42% for visually lossless coding and lossless coding. The proposed low complexity CU coding tree mechanism devotes to improving coding performance under various application conditions. PMID:26999741

  16. Lithium synthesis in microquasar accretion.

    PubMed

    Iocco, Fabio; Pato, Miguel

    2012-07-13

    We study the synthesis of lithium isotopes in the hot tori formed around stellar mass black holes by accretion of the companion star. We find that sizable amounts of both stable isotopes 6Li and 7Li can be produced, the exact figures varying with the characteristics of the torus and reaching as much as 10(-2) M⊙ for each isotope. This mass output is enough to contaminate the entire Galaxy at a level comparable with the original, pregalactic amount of lithium and to overcome other sources such as cosmic-ray spallation or stellar nucleosynthesis. PMID:23030150

  17. Identification of Predictive Markers for Response to Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation in Rectal Carcinomas by Proteomic Isotope Coded Protein Label (ICPL) Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Croner, Roland S.; Sevim, Müzeyyen; Metodiev, Metodi V.; Jo, Peter; Ghadimi, Michael; Schellerer, Vera; Brunner, Maximillian; Geppert, Carol; Rau, Tilman; Stürzl, Michael; Naschberger, Elisabeth; Matzel, Klaus E.; Hohenberger, Werner; Lottspeich, Friedrich; Kellermann, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Neoadjuvant chemoradiation (nCRT) is an established procedure in stage union internationale contre le cancer (UICC) II/III rectal carcinomas. Around 53% of the tumours present with good tumor regression after nCRT, and 8%–15% are complete responders. Reliable selection markers would allow the identification of poor or non-responders prior to therapy. Tumor biopsies were harvested from 20 patients with rectal carcinomas, and stored in liquid nitrogen prior to therapy after obtaining patients’ informed consent (Erlangen-No.3784). Patients received standardized nCRT with 5-Fluoruracil (nCRT I) or 5-Fluoruracil ± Oxaliplatin (nCRT II) according to the CAO/ARO/AIO-04 protocol. After surgery, regression grading (Dworak) of the tumors was performed during histopathological examination of the specimens. Tumors were classified as poor (Dworak 1 + 2) or good (Dworak 3 + 4) responders. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) for tumor enrichment was performed on preoperative biopsies. Differences in expressed proteins between poor and good responders to nCRT I and II were identified by proteomic analysis (Isotope Coded Protein Label, ICPL™) and selected markers were validated by immunohistochemistry. Tumors of 10 patients were classified as histopathologically poor (Dworak 1 or 2) and the other 10 tumor samples as histopathologically good (Dworak 3 or 4) responders to nCRT after surgery. Sufficient material in good quality was harvested for ICPL analysis by LCM from all biopsies. We identified 140 differentially regulated proteins regarding the selection criteria and the response to nCRT. Fourteen of these proteins were synchronously up-regulated at least 1.5-fold after nCRT I or nCRT II (e.g., FLNB, TKT, PKM2, SERINB1, IGHG2). Thirty-five proteins showed a complete reciprocal regulation (up or down) after nCRT I or nCRT II and the rest was regulated either according to nCRT I or II. The protein expression of regulated proteins such as PLEC1, TKT, HADHA and TAGLN was

  18. Evaluating the performance of the LPC (Linear Predictive Coding) 2.4 kbps (kilobits per second) processor with bit errors using a sentence verification task

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt-Nielsen, Astrid; Kallman, Howard J.

    1987-11-01

    The comprehension of narrowband digital speech with bit errors was tested by using a sentence verification task. The use of predicates that were either strongly or weakly related to the subjects (e.g., A toad has warts./ A toad has eyes.) varied the difficulty of the verification task. The test conditions included unprocessed and processed speech using a 2.4 kb/s (kilobits per second) linear predictive coding (LPC) voice processing algorithm with random bit error rates of 0 percent, 2 percent, and 5 percent. In general, response accuracy decreased and reaction time increased with LPC processing and with increasing bit error rates. Weakly related true sentences and strongly related false sentences were more difficult than their counterparts. Interactions between sentence type and speech processing conditions are discussed.

  19. Bondi accretion onto cosmological black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karkowski, Janusz; Malec, Edward

    2013-02-01

    In this paper we investigate a steady accretion within the Einstein-Straus vacuole, in the presence of the cosmological constant. The dark energy damps the mass accretion rate and—above a certain limit—completely stops the steady accretion onto black holes, which, in particular, is prohibited in the inflation era and after (roughly) 1012 years from the big bang (assuming the presently known value of the cosmological constant). Steady accretion would not exist in the late phases of the Penrose’s scenario—known as the Weyl curvature hypothesis—of the evolution of the Universe.

  20. Constraining the Accretion Mode in LINER 1.9s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabra, Bassem; Der Sahaguian, Elias; Badr, Elie

    2016-01-01

    The accretion mode and the dominant power source in low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions (LINERs), a class of active galactic nuclei (AGN), are still elusive. We focus on a sample of 22 LINER 1.9s (Ho et al. 1997), a subclass of LINERs that show broad Halpha lines, a signature of blackhole-powered accretion, to test the hypothesis that the ionizing continuum emitted by a radiatively inefficient accretion flow (RIAF) could lead to the LINER ultraviolet (UV) emission-line ratios. Optical line-ratio diagrams are a weak diagnostic tool in distinguishing between possible power sources (Sabra et al. 2003). We search the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST) for UV spectra of the objects in the above sample and also perform photoionization simulations using CLOUDY (Ferland et al. 2013). Unfortunately, only one object (NGC 1052; Gabel et al. 2000) of the 22 LINER 1.9s has UV spectra that cover many emission lines; the rest of the objects either do not have any UV spectra, the spectral coverage is in-adequate, or the spectra have very low signal-to-noise ratios. Our photoionization simulations set up two identical grids of clouds with a range of densities and ionization parameters. We illuminate one grid with radiation emitted by a thin accretion disk (AD) and we illuminate the other grid with radiation from a RIAF. We overplot the UV emission-line ratio predictions for AD and RIAF illumination, together with the available line ratios for NGC 1052. Initial results show that UV lines could be used as diagnostics for the accretion mode in AGN. More UV spectral coverage of LINER 1.9s is needed in order to more fully utilize the diagnostic powers of UV emission line ratios.

  1. Star Formation in Massive Clusters via Bondi Accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Norman; Chang, Philip

    2012-02-01

    Essentially all stars form in giant molecular clouds (GMCs). However, inside GMCs, most of the gas does not participate in star formation; rather, denser gas accumulates in clumps in the GMC, with the bulk of the stars in a given GMC forming in a few of the most massive clumps. In the Milky Way, these clumps have masses M cl <~ 5 × 10-2 of the GMC, radii r cl ~ 1 pc, and free-fall times τcl ~ 2 × 105 yr. We show that clumps inside GMCs should accrete at a modified Bondi accretion rate, which depends on clump mass as \\dot{M}_{cl}\\sim M_{cl}^{5/4}. This rate is initially rather slow, usually slower than the initial star formation rate inside the clump (we adopt the common assumption that inside the clump, \\dot{M}_*=\\epsilon _ffM_{cl}/\\tau _{cl}, with epsilonff ≈ 0.017). However, after ~2 GMC free-fall times τGMC, the clump accretion rate accelerates rapidly; formally, the clump can accrete the entire GMC in ~3τGMC. At the same time, the star formation rate accelerates, tracking the Bondi accretion rate. If the GMC is disrupted by feedback from the largest clump, half the stars in that clump form in the final τGMC before the GMC is disrupted. The theory predicts that the distribution of effective star formation rates, measured per GMC free-fall time, is broad, ranging from ~0.001 up to 0.1 or larger and that the mass spectrum of star clusters is flatter than that of clumps, consistent with observations.

  2. [Cloning of full-length coding sequence of tree shrew CD4 and prediction of its molecular characteristics].

    PubMed

    Tian, Wei-Wei; Gao, Yue-Dong; Guo, Yan; Huang, Jing-Fei; Xiao, Chang; Li, Zuo-Sheng; Zhang, Hua-Tang

    2012-02-01

    The tree shrews, as an ideal animal model receiving extensive attentions to human disease research, demands essential research tools, in particular cellular markers and monoclonal antibodies for immunological studies. In this paper, a 1 365 bp of the full-length CD4 cDNA encoding sequence was cloned from total RNA in peripheral blood of tree shrews, the sequence completes two unknown fragment gaps of tree shrews predicted CD4 cDNA in the GenBank database, and its molecular characteristics were analyzed compared with other mammals by using biology software such as Clustal W2.0 and so forth. The results showed that the extracellular and intracellular domains of tree shrews CD4 amino acid sequence are conserved. The tree shrews CD4 amino acid sequence showed a close genetic relationship with Homo sapiens and Macaca mulatta. Most regions of the tree shrews CD4 molecule surface showed positive charges as humans. However, compared with CD4 extracellular domain D1 of human, CD4 D1 surface of tree shrews showed more negative charges, and more two N-glycosylation sites, which may affect antibody binding. This study provides a theoretical basis for the preparation and functional studies of CD4 monoclonal antibody. PMID:22345010

  3. SANDRAG: a computer code for predicting drag of bodies of revolution at zero angle of attack in incompressible flow

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, W.P.; Oberkampf, W.L.

    1985-04-01

    A design method is presented for calculating the flow field and drag of bodies of revolution at zero angle of attack in compressible flow. The body pressure distribution, viscous shear stress, and boundary layer separation point are calculated by a combination of a potential flow method and boundary layer techniques. The potential solution is obtained by modeling the body with an axial distribution of source/sink elements whose strengths vary linearly along their length. Both the laminar and turbulent boundary layer solutions use momentum integral techniques which have been modified to account for the effects of surface roughness. An existing technique for estimating the location of transition was also modified to include surface roughness. Empirical correlations are developed to estimate the base pressure coefficient on a wide variety of geometries. Body surface pressure distributions and drag predictions are compared with experimental data for artillery projectiles, conical, and flared bodies. Very good agreement between the present method and experiment is obtained. 30 refs., 31 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. The thing that should not be: predictive coding and the uncanny valley in perceiving human and humanoid robot actions

    PubMed Central

    Chaminade, Thierry; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Driver, Jon; Frith, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) repetition suppression, we explored the selectivity of the human action perception system (APS), which consists of temporal, parietal and frontal areas, for the appearance and/or motion of the perceived agent. Participants watched body movements of a human (biological appearance and movement), a robot (mechanical appearance and movement) or an android (biological appearance, mechanical movement). With the exception of extrastriate body area, which showed more suppression for human like appearance, the APS was not selective for appearance or motion per se. Instead, distinctive responses were found to the mismatch between appearance and motion: whereas suppression effects for the human and robot were similar to each other, they were stronger for the android, notably in bilateral anterior intraparietal sulcus, a key node in the APS. These results could reflect increased prediction error as the brain negotiates an agent that appears human, but does not move biologically, and help explain the ‘uncanny valley’ phenomenon. PMID:21515639

  5. Temporal Uncertainty and Temporal Estimation Errors Affect Insular Activity and the Frontostriatal Indirect Pathway during Action Update: A Predictive Coding Study

    PubMed Central

    Limongi, Roberto; Pérez, Francisco J.; Modroño, Cristián; González-Mora, José L.

    2016-01-01

    Action update, substituting a prepotent behavior with a new action, allows the organism to counteract surprising environmental demands. However, action update fails when the organism is uncertain about when to release the substituting behavior, when it faces temporal uncertainty. Predictive coding states that accurate perception demands minimization of precise prediction errors. Activity of the right anterior insula (rAI) is associated with temporal uncertainty. Therefore, we hypothesize that temporal uncertainty during action update would cause the AI to decrease the sensitivity to ascending prediction errors. Moreover, action update requires response inhibition which recruits the frontostriatal indirect pathway associated with motor control. Therefore, we also hypothesize that temporal estimation errors modulate frontostriatal connections. To test these hypotheses, we collected fMRI data when participants performed an action-update paradigm within the context of temporal estimation. We fit dynamic causal models to the imaging data. Competing models comprised the inferior occipital gyrus (IOG), right supramarginal gyrus (rSMG), rAI, right presupplementary motor area (rPreSMA), and the right striatum (rSTR). The winning model showed that temporal uncertainty drove activity into the rAI and decreased insular sensitivity to ascending prediction errors, as shown by weak connectivity strength of rSMG→rAI connections. Moreover, temporal estimation errors weakened rPreSMA→rSTR connections and also modulated rAI→rSTR connections, causing the disruption of action update. Results provide information about the neurophysiological implementation of the so-called horse-race model of action control. We suggest that, contrary to what might be believed, unsuccessful action update could be a homeostatic process that represents a Bayes optimal encoding of uncertainty. PMID:27445737

  6. Temporal Uncertainty and Temporal Estimation Errors Affect Insular Activity and the Frontostriatal Indirect Pathway during Action Update: A Predictive Coding Study.

    PubMed

    Limongi, Roberto; Pérez, Francisco J; Modroño, Cristián; González-Mora, José L

    2016-01-01

    Action update, substituting a prepotent behavior with a new action, allows the organism to counteract surprising environmental demands. However, action update fails when the organism is uncertain about when to release the substituting behavior, when it faces temporal uncertainty. Predictive coding states that accurate perception demands minimization of precise prediction errors. Activity of the right anterior insula (rAI) is associated with temporal uncertainty. Therefore, we hypothesize that temporal uncertainty during action update would cause the AI to decrease the sensitivity to ascending prediction errors. Moreover, action update requires response inhibition which recruits the frontostriatal indirect pathway associated with motor control. Therefore, we also hypothesize that temporal estimation errors modulate frontostriatal connections. To test these hypotheses, we collected fMRI data when participants performed an action-update paradigm within the context of temporal estimation. We fit dynamic causal models to the imaging data. Competing models comprised the inferior occipital gyrus (IOG), right supramarginal gyrus (rSMG), rAI, right presupplementary motor area (rPreSMA), and the right striatum (rSTR). The winning model showed that temporal uncertainty drove activity into the rAI and decreased insular sensitivity to ascending prediction errors, as shown by weak connectivity strength of rSMG→rAI connections. Moreover, temporal estimation errors weakened rPreSMA→rSTR connections and also modulated rAI→rSTR connections, causing the disruption of action update. Results provide information about the neurophysiological implementation of the so-called horse-race model of action control. We suggest that, contrary to what might be believed, unsuccessful action update could be a homeostatic process that represents a Bayes optimal encoding of uncertainty. PMID:27445737

  7. Implosive accretion and outbursts of active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovelace, R. V. E.; Romanova, M. M.; Newman, W. I.

    1994-01-01

    A model and simulation code have been developed for time-dependent axisymmetric disk accretion onto a compact object including for the first time the influence of an ordered magnetic field. The accretion rate and radiative luminosity of the disk are naturally coupled to the rate of outflow of energy and angular momentum in magnetically driven (+/- z) winds. The magnetic field of the wind is treated in a phenomenological way suggested by self-consistent wind solutions. The radial accretion speed u(r, t) of the disk matter is shown to be the sum of the usual viscous contribution and a magnetic contribution proportional to r(exp 3/2)(B(sub p exp 2))/sigma, where B(sub p)(r,t) is the poloidal field threading the disk and sigma(r,t) is the disk's surface mass density. An enhancement or variation in B(sub p) at a large radial distance leads to the formation of a soliton-like structure in the disk density, temperature, and B-field which propagates implosively inward. The implosion gives a burst in the power output in winds or jets and a simultaneous burst in the disk radiation. The model is pertinent to the formation of discrete fast-moving components in jets observed by very long baseline interferometry. These components appear to originate at times of optical outbursts of the active galactic nucleus.

  8. Ringed Accretion Disks: Equilibrium Configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugliese, D.; Stuchlík, Z.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate a model of a ringed accretion disk, made up by several rings rotating around a supermassive Kerr black hole attractor. Each toroid of the ringed disk is governed by the general relativity hydrodynamic Boyer condition of equilibrium configurations of rotating perfect fluids. Properties of the tori can then be determined by an appropriately defined effective potential reflecting the background Kerr geometry and the centrifugal effects. The ringed disks could be created in various regimes during the evolution of matter configurations around supermassive black holes. Therefore, both corotating and counterrotating rings have to be considered as being a constituent of the ringed disk. We provide constraints on the model parameters for the existence and stability of various ringed configurations and discuss occurrence of accretion onto the Kerr black hole and possible launching of jets from the ringed disk. We demonstrate that various ringed disks can be characterized by a maximum number of rings. We present also a perturbation analysis based on evolution of the oscillating components of the ringed disk. The dynamics of the unstable phases of the ringed disk evolution seems to be promising in relation to high-energy phenomena demonstrated in active galactic nuclei.

  9. A Simple test for the existence of two accretion modes in active galactic nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Jester, Sebastian; /Fermilab

    2005-02-01

    By analogy to the different accretion states observed in black-hole X-ray binaries (BHXBs), it appears plausible that accretion disks in active galactic nuclei (AGN) undergo a state transition between a radiatively efficient and inefficient accretion flow. If the radiative efficiency changes at some critical accretion rate, there will be a change in the distribution of black hole masses and bolometric luminosities at the corresponding transition luminosity. To test this prediction, the author considers the joint distribution of AGN black hole masses and bolometric luminosities for a sample taken from the literature. The small number of objects with low Eddington-scaled accretion rates m < 0.01 and black hole masses M{sub BH} < 10{sup 9} M{sub {circle_dot}} constitutes tentative evidence for the existence of such a transition in AGN. Selection effects, in particular those associated with flux-limited samples, systematically exclude objects in particular regions of the (M{sub BH}, L{sub bol}) plane. Therefore, they require particular attention in the analysis of distributions of black hole mass, bolometric luminosity, and derived quantities like the accretion rate. The author suggests further observational tests of the BHXB-AGN unification scheme which are based on the jet domination of the energy output of BHXBs in the hard state, and on the possible equivalence of BHXB in the very high (or steep power-law) state showing ejections and efficiently accreting quasars and radio galaxies with powerful radio jets.

  10. The physics and chemistry of terrestrial planet and satellite accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasem, Christina A. Dwyer

    This dissertation examines the influence which a geophysical process (giant impacts) has on a geochemical marker (composition) during terrestrial planet formation. Simultaneously studying all planets maximizes the available constraints and permits examination of controls on the overall composition of the Earth. I also examine the Galilean satellite system to determine the universality of the terrestrial conclusions. The late stages of planetary accretion involve stochastic, large collisions. Impact-related erosion and fragmentation can have profound consequences for the rate and style of accretion and the bulk chemistries of terrestrial planets. However, the previous predominate assumption in computer models of accretion was that all collisions resulted in perfect merging despite the likelihood of these collisions producing a range of outcomes (e.g., hit-and-run, removal of material from target, or production of several post-collision bodies). In this work, I investigate the effects of late-stage accretion with multiple collision types and the consequences on the bulk (mantle/core) and isotopic (Hf--W) composition. My model is composed of two parts: (1) N-body accretion code tracks orbital and collisional evolution of the bodies and (2) geochemical post-processing evolves composition in light of impact-related mixing, partial equilibration and radioactive decay. For terrestrial planets, Part (1) is Chambers (2013, Icarus) and incorporates multiple collisional outcomes. For Galilean satellites, Part (1) is Ogihara & Ida (2012, Icarus) and assumes perfect merging for all collisions thus the model is not self-consistent (it likely overestimates compositional changes). For the terrestrial planets, the results are consistent with observed mantle/core ratios and tungsten isotopic anomalies. A moderate (approx. 0.4) core equilibration factor is preferred due to protracted accretion time. It is important to include multi-modal collisions when modeling planet formation if

  11. Infall of Planetesimals onto Growing Giant Planets: Onset of Runaway Gas Accretion and Metallicity of Their Gas Envelopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraishi, Masakazu; Ida, Shigeru

    2008-09-01

    We have investigated the planetesimal accretion rate onto giant planets that are growing through gas accretion, using numerical simulations and analytical arguments. We derived the condition for the opening of a gap in the planetesimal disk, which is determined by a competition between the expansion of the planet's Hill radius due to the planet's growth and the damping of planetesimal eccentricity due to gas drag. We also derived the semianalytical formula for the planetesimal accretion rate as a function of the ratios of the rates of the Hill radius expansion, the damping, and planetesimal scattering by the planet. The predicted low planetesimal accretion rate due to the opening of the gap in early gas accretion stages quantitatively shows that "phase 2," which is a long (more than a Myr), slow gas accretion phase before the onset of runaway gas accretion, is not likely to occur. In late stages, rapid Hill radius expansion fills the gap, resulting in significant planetesimal accretion, which is as large as several M⊕ for Jupiter and Saturn. The efficient onset of runaway gas accretion and the late pollution may reconcile the ubiquity of extrasolar giant planets with the metal-rich envelopes of Jupiter and Saturn inferred from interior structure models. These formulae will give deep insights into the formation of extrasolar gas giants and the diversity in the metallicities of transiting gas giants.

  12. Combining N-body accretion simulations with partitioning experiments in a statistical model of terrestrial planet accretion and core formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, R. A.; Ciesla, F.; Campbell, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    The terrestrial planets accreted in a series of increasingly large and violent collisions. Simultaneously, metallic cores segregated from their silicate mantles, acquiring their modern compositions through high pressure (P), high temperature (T) partitioning reactions. Here we present a model that couples these aspects of early planetary evolution, building on recent accretion simulations and experimental results. We have run 100 N-body simulations of terrestrial planet accretion, with Jupiter and Saturn on either circular (CJS) or eccentric (EJS) orbits, to gain insight into the statistics of this highly stochastic process (Fischer and Ciesla, 2014). An Earth (Mars) analogue forms in 84-92% (2-10%) of our simulations. We draw on our recent high P-T metal-silicate partitioning experiments of Ni, Co, V, Cr, Si, and O in a diamond anvil cell to 100 GPa and 5500 K. In our model, N-body simulations describe the delivery, masses, and original locations of planetary building blocks. As planets accrete, their core and mantle compositions are modified by high P-T reactions with each collision (Rubie et al., 2011). By utilizing a large number of N-body simulations, we obtain a statistical view and observe a wide range of outcomes. We use this model to predict the core compositions of Earth-like planets. For partial equilibration of the mantle at 50% of the core-mantle boundary (CMB) pressure, we find that their cores contain 6.9 ± 1.8 wt% Si and 4.8 ± 2.3 wt% O (Figure), with this uncertainty due entirely to variations in accretion history in our 100 simulations. This composition is consistent with the seismologically-inferred density of Earth's core, based on comparisons to high P-T equations of state (Fischer et al., 2011, 2014). Earth analogues experience 0.7 ± 0.1 or 0.9 ± 0.2 log units of oxidation during accretion in EJS or CJS simulations respectively, which is due to both the effects of high P-T partitioning and the temporal evolution of the Earth analogue

  13. Self-Consistent Thermal Accretion Disk Corona Models for Compact Objects. I: Properties of the Corona and the Spectrum of Escaping Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dove, James B.; Wilms, Jorn; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    1997-01-01

    We present the properties of accretion disk corona (ADC) models in which the radiation field, the temperature, and the total opacity of the corona are determined self-consistently. We use a nonlinear Monte Carlo code to perform the calculations. As an example, we discuss models in which the corona is situated above and below a cold accretion disk with a plane-parallel (slab) geometry, similar to the model of Haardt & Maraschi. By Comptonizing the soft radiation emitted by the accretion disk, the corona is responsible for producing the high-energy component of the escaping radiation. Our models include the reprocessing of radiation in the accretion disk. Here the photons either are Compton-reflected or photoabsorbed, giving rise to fluorescent line emission and thermal emission. The self- consistent coronal temperature is determined by balancing heating (due to viscous energy dissipation) with Compton cooling, determined using the fully relativistic, angle-dependent cross sections. The total opacity is found by balancing pair productions with annihilations. We find that, for a disk temperature kT(sub BB) approx. less than 200 eV, these coronae are unable to have a self-consistent temperature higher than approx. 140 keV if the total optical depth is approx. less than 0.2, regardless of the compactness parameter of the corona and the seed opacity. This limitation corresponds to the angle-averaged spectrum of escaping radiation having a photon index approx. greater than 1.8 within the 5-30 keV band. Finally, all models that have reprocessing features also predict a large thermal excess at lower energies. These constraints make explaining the X-ray spectra of persistent black hole candidates with ADC models very problematic.

  14. Proposed modifications to ice accretion/icing scaling theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilanin, Alan J.

    1988-01-01

    The difficulty of conducting full-scale icing tests has long been appreciated. Testing in an icing wind tunnel has been undertaken for decades. While aircraft size and speeds have increased, tunnel facilities have not, thus making subscale geometric tests a necessity. Scaling laws governing these tests are almost exclusively based on analysis performed over 30 years ago and have not been rigorously validated. The following work reviews past scaling analyses and suggests revision to these analyses based on recent experimental observation. It is also suggested, based on the analysis contained herein, that current ice accretion predictive technologies, such as LEWICE when utilized in the glaze ice accretion regime, may need upgrading to more accurately estimate the rate of ice build-up on aerodynamic surfaces.

  15. A brown dwarf mass donor in an accreting binary.

    PubMed

    Littlefair, S P; Dhillon, V S; Marsh, T R; Gänsicke, Boris T; Southworth, John; Watson, C A

    2006-12-01

    A long-standing and unverified prediction of binary star evolution theory is the existence of a population of white dwarfs accreting from substellar donor stars. Such systems ought to be common, but the difficulty of finding them, combined with the challenge of detecting the donor against the light from accretion, means that no donor star to date has a measured mass below the hydrogen burning limit. We applied a technique that allowed us to reliably measure the mass of the unseen donor star in eclipsing systems. We were able to identify a brown dwarf donor star, with a mass of 0.052 +/- 0.002 solar mass. The relatively high mass of the donor star for its orbital period suggests that current evolutionary models may underestimate the radii of brown dwarfs. PMID:17158322

  16. Accretion disks and particle emission from black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saifullah, Khalid

    2014-07-01

    Black holes are among the most interesting predictions of the general theory of relativity. The Thirty Meter Telescope will extend our ability to measure the masses of central black holes more accurately and to study the orbits of stars in the vicinity of these supermassive dark objects and warping of spacetime around them. Thus they will provide further evidence in favour of general relativity. This will help us resolve the accretion disks for these black holes also. The study of interaction of these accretion disks and the production and emission of particles from black holes is significant from the point of view of investigating the environment surrounding the dark objects hosted in the centre of many galaxies. The emission probabilities of particles including scalars and Dirac particles from black holes are calculated.

  17. Modeling of surface roughness effects on glaze ice accretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansman, R. John, Jr.; Yamaguchi, Keiko; Berkowitz, Brian; Potapczuk, M.

    1989-01-01

    The cause and effects of roughness on accreting glaze ice surfaces were studied with microvideo observations. Distinct zones of surface water behavior were observed, including a smooth wet zone in the stagnation region with a uniform water film, a rough zone where surface tension effects caused coalescence of surface water into stationary beads, and a zone where roughness elements grow into horn shapes. In addition, a zone where surface water ran back as rivulets and a dry zone where rime feathers formed were observed. The locations and behaviors of these zones are discussed. A simple multizone modification to the glaze ice accretion model is proposed to include spatial variability in surface roughness. Two test cases using the multizone model showed significant improvements for the prediction of glaze ice shapes.

  18. Testing accretion disk instabilities in X-ray binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagińska, Patrycja; Różańska, Agata; Janiuk, Agnieszka; Czerny, Bożena

    2014-12-01

    We study disk instabilities in black hole binaries in which X-ray novae outbursts were observed. Typically, one outburst occurs in each light curve, with total duration from 30 up to 400 days. The shape of an outburst can be very regular fast rise exponential decay (FRED) characteristic for ionisation instability mechanism that occurs in accretion disks, or irregular suggesting that, beside FRED, additional flickering occurs. We use the model which predicts time dependent evolution of ionisation instability in an accretion disk around black hole, assuming viscosity parameter to be proportional to the total pressure. We test it in detail for two objects: GX 339-4 and XTE J1818-245. The modelled light curves agree with the collected RXTE light curves, indicating that disk instability works in those objects.

  19. Evolution of accretion discs around a kerr black hole using extended magnetohydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foucart, Francois; Chandra, Mani; Gammie, Charles F.; Quataert, Eliot

    2016-02-01

    Black holes accreting well below the Eddington rate are believed to have geometrically thick, optically thin, rotationally supported accretion discs in which the Coulomb mean free path is large compared to GM/c2. In such an environment, the disc evolution may differ significantly from ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) predictions. We present non-ideal global axisymmetric simulations of geometrically thick discs around a rotating black hole. The simulations are carried out using a new code GRIM, which evolves a covariant extended magnetohydrodynamics model derived by treating non-ideal effects as a perturbation of ideal MHD. Non-ideal effects are modelled through heat conduction along magnetic field lines, and a difference between the pressure parallel and perpendicular to the field lines. The model relies on an effective collisionality in the disc from wave-particle scattering and velocity-space (mirror and firehose) instabilities. We find that the pressure anisotropy grows to match the magnetic pressure, at which point it saturates due to the mirror instability. The pressure anisotropy produces outward angular momentum transport with a magnitude comparable to that of MHD turbulence in the disc, and a significant increase in the temperature in the wall of the jet. We also find that, at least in our axisymmetric simulations, conduction has a small effect on the disc evolution because (1) the heat flux is constrained to be parallel to the field and the field is close to perpendicular to temperature gradients, and (2) the heat flux is choked by an increase in effective collisionality associated with the mirror instability.

  20. Accretion in the galactic halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, Alex Courtney

    2000-10-01

    The Milky Way disk is enveloped in a diffuse, dynamically-hot collection of stars and star clusters collectively known as the ``stellar halo''. Photometric and chemical analyses suggest that these stars are ancient fossils of the galaxy formation epoch. Yet, little is known about the origin of this trace population. Is this system merely a vestige of the initial burst of star formation within the decoupled proto-Galaxy, or is it the detritus of cannibalized satellite galaxies? In an attempt to unravel the history of the Milky Way's stellar halo, I performed a detailed spectroscopic analysis of 55 metal-poor stars possessing ``extreme'' kinematic properties. It is thought that stars on orbits that either penetrate the remote halo or exhibit large retrograde velocities could have been associated with assimilated (or ``accreted'') dwarf galaxies. The hallmark of an accreted halo star is presumed to be a deficiency (compared with normal stars) of the α-elements (O, Mg, Si, Ca, Ti) with respect to iron, a consequence of sporadic bursts of star formation within the diminutive galaxies. Abundances for a select group of light metals (Li, Na, Mg, Si, Ca, Ti), iron-peak nuclides (Cr, Fe, Ni), and neutron-capture elements (Y, Ba) were calculated using line-strengths measured from high-resolution, high signal-to-noise spectral observations collected with the Keck I 10-m and KPNO 4-m telescopes. The abundances extracted from the spectra reveal: (1)The vast majority of outer halo stars possess supersolar [α/Fe] > 0.0) ratios. (2)The [α/Fe] ratio appears to decrease with increasing metallicity. (3)The outer halo stars have lower ratios of [α/Fe] than inner halo stars at a given metallicity. (4)At the largest metallicities, there is a large spread in the observed [α/Fe] ratios. (5)[α/Fe] anti-correlates with RAPO. (6)Only one star (BD+80° 245) exhibits the peculiar abundances expected of an assimilated star. The general conclusion extracted from these data is that the

  1. CONSTRAINTS ON THE VISCOSITY AND MAGNETIC FIELD IN HOT ACCRETION FLOWS AROUND BLACK HOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, B. F.; Taam, Ronald E. E-mail: r-taam@northwestern.edu

    2013-07-15

    The magnitude of the viscosity and magnetic field parameters in hot accretion flows is investigated in low luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs). Theoretical studies show that a geometrically thin, optically thick disk is truncated at mass accretion rates less than a critical value by mass evaporated vertically from the disk to the corona, with the truncated region replaced by an advection dominated accretion flow (ADAF). The critical accretion rate for such a truncation is a function of the viscosity and magnetic field. Observations of X-ray photon indices and spectral fits of a number of LLAGNs published in the literature provide an estimate of the critical rate of mass accretion and the truncation radius, respectively. By comparing the observational results with theoretical predictions, the viscosity and magnetic field parameters in the hot accretion flow region are estimated. Specifically, the mass accretion rates inferred in different sources constrain the viscosity parameter, whereas the truncation radii of the disk, as inferred from spectral fits, further constrain the magnetic field parameter. It is found that the value of the viscosity parameter in the corona/ADAF ranges from 0.17 to 0.5, with values clustered about 0.2-0.3. Magnetic pressure is required by the relatively small truncation radii for some LLAGNs and is found to be as high as its equipartition value with the gas pressure. The inferred values of the viscosity parameter are in agreement with those obtained from the observations of non-stationary accretion in stellar mass black hole X-ray transients. This consistency provides support for the paradigm that a geometrically thin disk is truncated by means of a mass evaporation process from the disk to the corona at low mass accretion rates.

  2. Linking channel hydrology with riparian wetland accretion in tidal rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ensign, Scott H.; Noe, Gregory B.; Hupp, Cliff R.

    2014-01-01

    hydrologic processes by which tide affects river channel and riparian morphology within the tidal freshwater zone are poorly understood yet are fundamental to predicting the fate of coastal rivers and wetlands as sea level rises. We investigated patterns of sediment accretion in riparian wetlands along the nontidal through oligohaline portion of two coastal plain rivers in Maryland, U.S., and how flow velocity, water level, and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) in the channel may have contributed to those patterns. Sediment accretion was measured over a 1 year period using artificial marker horizons, channel hydrology was measured over a 1 month period using acoustic Doppler current profilers, and SSC was predicted from acoustic backscatter. Riparian sediment accretion was lowest at the nontidal sites (mean and standard deviation = 8 ± 8 mm yr-1), highest at the upstream tidal freshwater forested wetlands (TFFW) (33 ± 28 mm yr-1), low at the midstream TFFW (12 ± 9 mm yr-1), and high at the oligohaline (fresh-to-brackish) marshes (19 ± 8 mm yr-1). Channel maximum flood and ebb velocity was twofold faster at the oligohaline than tidal freshwater zone on both tidal rivers, corresponding with the differences in in-channel SSC: The oligohaline zone's SSC was more than double the tidal freshwater zone's and was greater than historical SSC at the nontidal gages. The tidal wave characteristics differed between rivers, leading to significantly greater in-channel SSC during floodplain inundation in the weakly convergent than the strongly convergent tidal river. High sediment accretion at the upstream TFFW was likely due to high river discharge following a hurricane.

  3. Precession and accretion in circumbinary discs: the case of HD 104237

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunhill, A. C.; Cuadra, J.; Dougados, C.

    2015-04-01

    We present the results of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of the disc around the young, eccentric stellar binary HD 104237. We find that the binary clears out a large cavity in the disc, driving a significant eccentricity at the cavity edge. This then precesses around the binary at a rate of dot{\\varpi } = 0.48°Tb^{-1}, which for HD 104237 corresponds to a precession period of 40 years. We find that the accretion pattern into the cavity and on to the binary changes with this precession, resulting in a periodic accretion variability driven purely by the physical parameters of the binary and its orbit. For each star we find that this results in order of magnitude changes in the accretion rate. We also find that the accretion variability allows the primary to accrete gas at a higher rate than the secondary for approximately half of each precession period. Using a large number of three-body integrations of test particles orbiting different binaries, we find good agreement between the precession rate of a test particle and our SPH disc precession. These rates also agree very well with the precession rates predicted by the analytic theory of Leung & Lee, showing that their prescription can be accurately used to predict long-term accretion variability time-scales for eccentric binaries accreting from a disc. We discuss the implications of our result, and suggest that this process provides a viable way of preserving unequal-mass ratios in accreting eccentric binaries in both the stellar and supermassive black hole regimes.

  4. Clinical coding. Code breakers.

    PubMed

    Mathieson, Steve

    2005-02-24

    --The advent of payment by results has seen the role of the clinical coder pushed to the fore in England. --Examinations for a clinical coding qualification began in 1999. In 2004, approximately 200 people took the qualification. --Trusts are attracting people to the role by offering training from scratch or through modern apprenticeships. PMID:15768716

  5. Magnetospheric Accretion in Close Pre-main-sequence Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardila, David R.; Jonhs-Krull, Christopher; Herczeg, Gregory J.; Mathieu, Robert D.; Quijano-Vodniza, Alberto

    2015-10-01

    The transfer of matter between a circumbinary disk and a young binary system remains poorly understood, obscuring the interpretation of accretion indicators. To explore the behavior of these indicators in multiple systems, we have performed the first systematic time-domain study of young binaries in the ultraviolet. We obtained far- and near-ultraviolet HST/COS spectra of the young spectroscopic binaries DQ Tau and UZ Tau E. Here we focus on the continuum from 2800 to 3200 Å and on the C iv doublet (λλ1548.19, 1550.77 Å) as accretion diagnostics. Each system was observed over three or four consecutive binary orbits, at phases ∼0, 0.2, 0.5, and 0.7. Those observations are complemented by ground-based U-band measurements. Contrary to model predictions, we do not detect any clear correlation between accretion luminosity and phase. Further, we do not detect any correlation between C iv flux and phase. For both stars the appearance of the C iv line is similar to that of single Classical T Tauri Stars (CTTSs), despite the lack of stable long-lived circumstellar disks. However, unlike the case in single CTTSs, the narrow and broad components of the C iv lines are uncorrelated, and we argue that the narrow component is powered by processes other than accretion, such as flares in the stellar magnetospheres and/or enhanced activity in the upper atmosphere. We find that both stars contribute equally to the narrow component C iv flux in DQ Tau, but the primary dominates the narrow component C iv emission in UZ Tau E. The C iv broad component flux is correlated with other accretion indicators, suggesting an accretion origin. However, the line is blueshifted, which is inconsistent with its origin in an infall flow close to the star. It is possible that the complicated geometry of the region, as well as turbulence in the shock region, are responsible for the blueshifted line profiles.

  6. Effects of ice accretions on aircraft aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Frank T.; Khodadoust, Abdollah

    2001-11-01

    This article is a systematic and comprehensive review, correlation, and assessment of test results available in the public domain which address the aerodynamic performance and control degradations caused by various types of ice accretions on the lifting surfaces of fixed wing aircraft. To help put the various test results in perspective, overviews are provided first of the important factors and limitations involved in computational and experimental icing simulation techniques, as well as key aerodynamic testing simulation variables and governing flow physics issues. Following these are the actual reviews, assessments, and correlations of a large number of experimental measurements of various forms of mostly simulated in-flight and ground ice accretions, augmented where appropriate by similar measurements for other analogous forms of surface contamination and/or disruptions. In-flight icing categories reviewed include the initial and inter-cycle ice accretions inherent in the use of de-icing systems which are of particular concern because of widespread misconceptions about the thickness of such accretions which can be allowed before any serious consequences occur, and the runback/ridge ice accretions typically associated with larger-than-normal water droplet encounters which are of major concern because of the possible potential for catastrophic reductions in aerodynamic effectiveness. The other in-flight ice accretion category considered includes the more familiar large rime and glaze ice accretions, including ice shapes with rather grotesque features, where the concern is that, in spite of all the research conducted to date, the upper limit of penalties possible has probably not been defined. Lastly, the effects of various possible ground frost/ice accretions are considered. The concern with some of these is that for some types of configurations, all of the normally available operating margins to stall at takeoff may be erased if these accretions are not

  7. Ice accretion on structures in a marine environment

    SciTech Connect

    Lozowski, E.P.; Gates, E.M.

    1984-02-01

    A model of the icing of an unheated, non-rotating cylinder has been developed. The model can predict both the shape of the ice accretion and its mass as a function of time, at least for relatively short periods during which deviations from the initial airflow and droplet trajectories are not too significant. These predictions are compared with the results of icing wind tunnel experiments over a range of icing conditions - from cases in which the entire surface is dry (surface temperature below freezing everywhere) to ones in which it is entirely wet (surface temperature equal to 0/sup 0/C everywhere). Techniques for recording and analyzing the surface profile experimentally as a function of time are described and assessed. It is found that the model-predicted accretion profiles are quantitatively quite accurate for dry icing. In wet cases, the profiles are qualitatively right, but the model is unable at present to simulate the details of surface roughness which arise. Nevertheless, the model's mass predictions are found to be quite acceptable, even when the profiles are not.

  8. Accreting binary population synthesis and feedback prescriptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragos, Tassos

    2016-04-01

    Studies of extagalactic X-ray binary populations have shown that the characteristics of these populations depend strongly on the characteristics of the host galaxy's parent stellar population (e.g. star-formation history and metallicity). These dependencies not only make X-ray binaries promising for aiding in the measurement of galaxy properties themselves, but they also have important astrophysical and cosmological implications. For example, due to the relatively young stellar ages and primordial metallicities in the early Universe (z > 3), it is predicted that X-ray binaries were more luminous than today. The more energetic X-ray photons, because of their long mean-free paths, can escape the galaxies where they are produced, and interact at long distances with the intergalactic medium. This could result in a smoother spatial distribution of ionized regions, and more importantly in an overall warmer intergalactic medium. The energetic X-ray photons emitted from X-ray binaries dominate the X-ray radiation field over active galactic nuclei at z > 6 - 8, and hence Χ-ray binary feedback can be a non-negligible contributor to the heating and reionization of the inter-galactic medium in the early universe. The spectral energy distribution shape of the XRB emission does not change significantly with redshift, suggesting that the same XRB subpopulation, namely black-hole XRBs in the high-soft state, dominates the cumulative emission at all times. On the contrary, the normalization of the spectral energy distribution does evolve with redshift. To zeroth order, this evolution is driven by the cosmic star-formation rate evolution. However, the metallicity evolution of the universe and the mean stellar population age are two important factors that affect the X-ray emission from high-mass and low-mass XRBs, respectively. In this talk, I will review recent studies on the potential feedback from accreting binary populations in galactic and cosmological scales. Furthermore, I

  9. Super-spinning compact objects generated by thick accretion disks

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zilong; Bambi, Cosimo E-mail: bambi@fudan.edu.cn

    2013-03-01

    If astrophysical black hole candidates are the Kerr black holes predicted by General Relativity, the value of their spin parameter must be subject to the theoretical bound |a{sub *}| ≤ 1. In this work, we consider the possibility that these objects are either non-Kerr black holes in an alternative theory of gravity or exotic compact objects in General Relativity. We study the accretion process when their accretion disk is geometrically thick with a simple version of the Polish doughnut model. The picture of the accretion process may be qualitatively different from the one around a Kerr black hole. The inner edge of the disk may not have the typical cusp on the equatorial plane any more, but there may be two cusps, respectively above and below the equatorial plane. We extend previous work on the evolution of the spin parameter and we estimate the maximum value of a{sub *} for the super-massive black hole candidates in galactic nuclei. Since measurements of the mean radiative efficiency of AGNs require η > 0.15, we infer the ''observational'' bound |a{sub *}|∼<1.3, which seems to be quite independent of the exact nature of these objects. Such a bound is only slightly weaker than |a{sub *}|∼<1.2 found in previous work for thin disks.

  10. ESTIMATION OF THE VISCOSITY PARAMETER IN ACCRETION DISKS OF BLAZARS

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Z. H.; Ma, L.; Zhang, X.; Du, L. M.; Hao, J. M.; Yi, T. F.; Qiao, E. L.

    2009-12-20

    For an optical monitoring blazar sample set whose typical minimum variability timescale is about 1 hr, we estimate a mean value of the viscosity parameter in their accretion disk. We assume that optical variability on timescales of hours is caused by local instabilities in the inner accretion disk. Comparing the observed variability timescales to the thermal timescales of alpha-disk models, we could obtain constraints on the viscosity parameter (alpha) and the intrinsic Eddington ratio (L{sup in}/L{sub Edd}=m-dot), 0.104 <= alpha <= 0.337, and 0.0201 <= L {sup in}/L{sub Edd} <= 0.1646. These narrow ranges suggest that all these blazars are observed in a single state, and thus provide a new evidence for the unification of flat-spectrum radio quasars and BL Lacs into a single blazar population. The values of alpha we derive are consistent with the theoretical expectation alpha approx 0.1-0.3 of Narayan and Mcclintock for advection-dominated accretion flow and are also compatible with Pessah et al.'s predictions (alpha >= 0.1) by numerical simulations in which magnetohydrodynamic turbulence is driven by the saturated magnetorotational instability.

  11. Tidal-Force-Induced Precessions of Accretion Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Hajime

    2012-04-01

    The preccession of an accretion disk around a compact star in a close binary has been studied. When the accretion disk tilts, the tidal force from the companion star induces a torque on it, which causes a preccession of the disk. We firstly consider the properties of a preccessing motion of a ring, which is circularly rotating around a compact star, and is preccessing with a slightly tilting angle under the influence of a tidal force from a companion star. We next compare the predicted behaviors of the preccessing ring with observations, and find that several observational facts from Her X-1, SS 433, and some other X-ray binaries can be explained by a tidal-force-induced precession scheme quite reasonably. We further examine the energetics of the preccessing ring as a function of the tilting angle. It is shown that the kinetic and potential energies of the orbiting motions of the ring matter around the compact star increases as the tilting angle increases, while the thermal and effective potential energies for hydro-static balance in the meridian cross section of the ring decreases through adiabatic expansion. Quantitative estimations have shown that when the ring has sufficient thermal energy, the decrease of the energy for the hydro-static balance can be larger than the increase of the energy for circular motion around the compact star until the tilting angle reaches a certain value. It is strongly suggested that preccessions of accretion disks are often realized in close binaries.

  12. Neutron and antineutron production in accretion onto compact objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dermer, Charles D.; Ramaty, Reuven

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear reactions in the hot accretion plasma surrounding a collapsed star are a source of neutrons, primarily through spallation and pion-producing reactions, and antineutrons, principally through the reaction p+p yields p+p+n+anti-n. We calculate spectra of neutrons and antineutrons produced by a variety of nonthermal energetic particle distributions in which the target particles are either at rest or in motion. If only neutral particles are free to escape the interaction site, a component of the proton and antiproton fluxes in the cosmic radiation results from the neutrons and antineutrons which leave the accretion plasma and subsequently decay in the interstellar medium. This additional antiproton component could account for the enhanced flux of antiprotons in the cosmic radiation, compared to values expected from the standard leaky-box model of cosmic-ray propagation and confinement. Moreover, the low-energy antiproton flux measured by Buffington et al. (1981) could result from target-particle motion in the accretion plasma. This model for the origin of antiprotons predicts a narrow 2.223 MeV line which could be observable.

  13. Accreting Neutron Stars as Astrophysical Laboratories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakrabarty, Deepto

    2004-01-01

    In the last year, we have made an extremely important breakthrough in establishing the relationship between thermonuclear burst oscillations in accreting neutron stars and the stellar spin. More broadly, we have continued t o make significant scientific progress in all four of the key focus areas identified in our original proposal: (1) the disk-magnetosphere interaction in neutron stars, (2) rapid variability in accreting neutron stars, (3) physics of accretion flows, and (4) fundamental properties of neutron stars. A list of all publications that have arising from this work since the start of our program is given.

  14. Discovery of potential prognostic long non-coding RNA biomarkers for predicting the risk of tumor recurrence of breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Meng; Zhong, Lei; Xu, Wanying; Sun, Yifan; Zhang, Zhaoyue; Zhao, Hengqiang; Yang, Lei; Sun, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Deregulation of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) expression has been proven to be involved in the development and progression of cancer. However, expression pattern and prognostic value of lncRNAs in breast cancer recurrence remain unclear. Here, we analyzed lncRNA expression profiles of breast cancer patients who did or did not develop recurrence by repurposing existing microarray datasets from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, and identified 12 differentially expressed lncRNAs that were closely associated with tumor recurrence of breast cancer patients. We constructed a lncRNA-focus molecular signature by the risk scoring method based on the expression levels of 12 relapse-related lncRNAs from the discovery cohort, which classified patients into high-risk and low-risk groups with significantly different recurrence-free survival (HR = 2.72, 95% confidence interval 2.07-3.57; p = 4.8e-13). The 12-lncRNA signature also represented similar prognostic value in two out of three independent validation cohorts. Furthermore, the prognostic power of the 12-lncRNA signature was independent of known clinical prognostic factors in at least two cohorts. Functional analysis suggested that the predicted relapse-related lncRNAs may be involved in known breast cancer-related biological processes and pathways. Our results highlighted the potential of lncRNAs as novel candidate biomarkers to identify breast cancer patients at high risk of tumor recurrence. PMID:27503456

  15. Discovery of potential prognostic long non-coding RNA biomarkers for predicting the risk of tumor recurrence of breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Meng; Zhong, Lei; Xu, Wanying; Sun, Yifan; Zhang, Zhaoyue; Zhao, Hengqiang; Yang, Lei; Sun, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Deregulation of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) expression has been proven to be involved in the development and progression of cancer. However, expression pattern and prognostic value of lncRNAs in breast cancer recurrence remain unclear. Here, we analyzed lncRNA expression profiles of breast cancer patients who did or did not develop recurrence by repurposing existing microarray datasets from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, and identified 12 differentially expressed lncRNAs that were closely associated with tumor recurrence of breast cancer patients. We constructed a lncRNA-focus molecular signature by the risk scoring method based on the expression levels of 12 relapse-related lncRNAs from the discovery cohort, which classified patients into high-risk and low-risk groups with significantly different recurrence-free survival (HR = 2.72, 95% confidence interval 2.07–3.57; p = 4.8e-13). The 12-lncRNA signature also represented similar prognostic value in two out of three independent validation cohorts. Furthermore, the prognostic power of the 12-lncRNA signature was independent of known clinical prognostic factors in at least two cohorts. Functional analysis suggested that the predicted relapse-related lncRNAs may be involved in known breast cancer-related biological processes and pathways. Our results highlighted the potential of lncRNAs as novel candidate biomarkers to identify breast cancer patients at high risk of tumor recurrence. PMID:27503456

  16. Genome-Wide Detection of Predicted Non-coding RNAs Related to the Adhesion Process in Vibrio alginolyticus Using High-Throughput Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lixing; Hu, Jiao; Su, Yongquan; Qin, Yingxue; Kong, Wendi; Zhao, Lingmin; Ma, Ying; Xu, Xiaojin; Lin, Mao; Zheng, Jiang; Yan, Qingpi

    2016-01-01

    The ability of bacteria to adhere to fish mucus can be affected by environmental conditions and is considered to be a key virulence factor of Vibrio alginolyticus. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this ability remains unclear. Our previous study showed that stress conditions such as exposure to Cu, Pb, Hg, and low pH are capable of reducing the adhesion ability of V. alginolyticus. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) play a crucial role in the intricate regulation of bacterial gene expression, thereby affecting bacterial pathogenicity. Thus, we hypothesized that ncRNAs play a key role in the V. alginolyticus adhesion process. To validate this, we combined high-throughput sequencing with computational techniques to detect ncRNA dynamics in samples after stress treatments. The expression of randomly selected novel ncRNAs was confirmed by QPCR. Among the significantly altered ncRNAs, 30 were up-regulated and 2 down-regulated by all stress treatments. The QPCR results reinforced the reliability of the sequencing data. Target prediction and KEGG pathway analysis indicated that these ncRNAs are closely related to pathways associated with in vitro adhesion, and our results indicated that chemical stress-induced reductions in the adhesion ability of V. alginolyticus might be due to the perturbation of ncRNA expression. Our findings provide important information for further functional characterization of ncRNAs during the adhesion process of V. alginolyticus. PMID:27199948

  17. Improved atomic data for electron-transport predictions by the codes TIGER and TIGERP. I. Inner-shell ionization by electron collision

    SciTech Connect

    Peek, J.M.; Halbleib, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    The inner-shell ionization data for electron-target collisions now in use in the TIGER and TIGERP electron-transport codes are extracted and compared with other data for these processes. The TIGER cross sections for K-shell ionization by electron collisions are found to be seriously in error for large-Z targets and incident electron energies greater than 1 MeV. A series of TIGER and TIGERP runs were carried out with and without improved K-shell electron ionization cross section data replacing that now in use. The relative importance of electron-impact and photon ionization of the various subshells was also extracted from these runs. In general, photon ionization dominated in the examples studied so the sensitivity of many predicted properties to errors in the electron-impact subshell ionization data was not large. However, some differences were found and, as all possible applications were not covered in this study, it is recommended that these electron-impact data now in TIGER and TIGERP be replaced. Cross section data for the processes under study are reviewed and those that are most suitable for this application are identified. 19 references, 9 figures, 2 tables.

  18. The effect of catastrophic collisional fragmentation and diffuse medium accretion on a computational interstellar dust system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liffman, Kurt

    1990-01-01

    The effects of catastrophic collisional fragmentation and diffuse medium accretion on a the interstellar dust system are computed using a Monte Carlo computer model. The Monte Carlo code has as its basis an analytic solution of the bulk chemical evolution of a two-phase interstellar medium, described by Liffman and Clayton (1989). The model is subjected to numerous different interstellar processes as it transfers from one interstellar phase to another. Collisional fragmentation was found to be the dominant physical process that shapes the size spectrum of interstellar dust. It was found that, in the diffuse cloud phase, 90 percent of the refractory material is locked up in the dust grains, primarily due to accretion in the molecular medium. This result is consistent with the observed depletions of silicon. Depletions were found to be affected only slightly by diffuse cloud accretion.

  19. The power of relativistic jets is larger than the luminosity of their accretion disks.

    PubMed

    Ghisellini, G; Tavecchio, F; Maraschi, L; Celotti, A; Sbarrato, T

    2014-11-20

    Theoretical models for the production of relativistic jets from active galactic nuclei predict that jet power arises from the spin and mass of the central supermassive black hole, as well as from the magnetic field near the event horizon. The physical mechanism underlying the contribution from the magnetic field is the torque exerted on the rotating black hole by the field amplified by the accreting material. If the squared magnetic field is proportional to the accretion rate, then there will be a correlation between jet power and accretion luminosity. There is evidence for such a correlation, but inadequate knowledge of the accretion luminosity of the limited and inhomogeneous samples used prevented a firm conclusion. Here we report an analysis of archival observations of a sample of blazars (quasars whose jets point towards Earth) that overcomes previous limitations. We find a clear correlation between jet power, as measured through the γ-ray luminosity, and accretion luminosity, as measured by the broad emission lines, with the jet power dominating the disk luminosity, in agreement with numerical simulations. This implies that the magnetic field threading the black hole horizon reaches the maximum value sustainable by the accreting matter. PMID:25409827

  20. Timescales for planetary accretion and the structure of the protoplanetary disk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.

    1987-01-01

    Models of planetary accretion which assume the mass of condensable matter in the protoplanetary disk was equal to that present in the planets today predict accretion timescales for the outer planets approximately or less than 10 to the 8th years. Such timescales are inconsistent with observations of star forming regions, which suggest that most of the gas in disks around one solar mass is removed in a few x 10 to the 6th years. A unified scenario was outlined for solar system formation consistent with astrophysical constraints. Jupiter's core could have grown by runaway accretion of planetesimals to a mass sufficient to initiate rapid accretion of gas in times of order of 500,000 to 5,000,000 years, provided the surface density of solids in its accretion zone was at least 5 to 10 times greater than that required by minimum mass models of the protoplanetary disk. The inner planets and the asteroids can be accounted for in this picture if the surface density of the solar nebula was relatively uniform out to Jupiter's orbit. The formation of such a protoplanetary disk requires significant transport of mass and angular momentum, and is consistent with viscous accretion disk models of the solar nebula.