Morawa, Eva; Erim, Yesim
The present study explores the impact of acculturation on depressive symptoms among Turkish immigrants in Germany, taking into account different dimensions of cultural orientation. A total of 471 patients from two selected samples (254 primary care patients and 217 outpatients of a psychosomatic department) participated. Levels of acculturation were measured as orientation towards culture of origin (CO), and orientation towards the host culture (HC). Acculturation strategies (integration, assimilation, separation, and marginalization) were also assessed as well as their association with depressive symptoms (BDI). Furthermore, gender- and migration-related differences in terms of acculturation and levels of depressive symptomatology were analyzed. Integration was the acculturation strategy associated with the lowest level of depressive symptoms (M = 14.6, SD = 11.9), while marginalization was associated with the highest (M = 23.5, SD = 14.7). Gender was not found to have a significant impact on acculturation but influenced depressive symptoms, with women (M = 21.8, SD = 13.3) reporting higher levels of depressive symptomatology than men (M = 15.1, SD = 14.0; p < 0.001). In first generation immigrants, significantly higher CO (M = 46.6, SD = 8.3; p < 0.001), lower HC (M = 31.0, SD = 9.6; p < 0.001), and higher levels of depressive symptoms (M = 20.2, SD = 14.1; p < 0.001) were found in comparison to second generation immigrants (CO: M = 41.3, SD = 7.4; HC: M = 36.2, SD = 8.8; depressive symptoms: M = 14.0, SD = 12.9). Our results suggest that orientation towards both the heritage and the host culture has a positive effect on the mental health status of immigrants. Future research needs to include representative samples of migrants from different cultures to further explore the association between acculturation and mental health.
Morawa, Eva; Erim, Yesim
The present study explores the impact of acculturation on depressive symptoms among Turkish immigrants in Germany, taking into account different dimensions of cultural orientation. A total of 471 patients from two selected samples (254 primary care patients and 217 outpatients of a psychosomatic department) participated. Levels of acculturation were measured as orientation towards culture of origin (CO), and orientation towards the host culture (HC). Acculturation strategies (integration, assimilation, separation, and marginalization) were also assessed as well as their association with depressive symptoms (BDI). Furthermore, gender- and migration-related differences in terms of acculturation and levels of depressive symptomatology were analyzed. Integration was the acculturation strategy associated with the lowest level of depressive symptoms (M = 14.6, SD = 11.9), while marginalization was associated with the highest (M = 23.5, SD = 14.7). Gender was not found to have a significant impact on acculturation but influenced depressive symptoms, with women (M = 21.8, SD = 13.3) reporting higher levels of depressive symptomatology than men (M = 15.1, SD = 14.0; p < 0.001). In first generation immigrants, significantly higher CO (M = 46.6, SD = 8.3; p < 0.001), lower HC (M = 31.0, SD = 9.6; p < 0.001), and higher levels of depressive symptoms (M = 20.2, SD = 14.1; p < 0.001) were found in comparison to second generation immigrants (CO: M = 41.3, SD = 7.4; HC: M = 36.2, SD = 8.8; depressive symptoms: M = 14.0, SD = 12.9). Our results suggest that orientation towards both the heritage and the host culture has a positive effect on the mental health status of immigrants. Future research needs to include representative samples of migrants from different cultures to further explore the association between acculturation and mental health. PMID:25222474
González, Patricia; González, Gerardo M
The mental health of individuals of Mexican origin may vary as a function of native status (i.e., Mexican born or U.S.A. born). Some have reported that Mexican Americans tend to display more depressive symptoms than Mexican immigrants. The present goal was to estimate the associations among acculturation and native status, and explore relative deprivation in the prevalence of depression. Participants included 153 individuals of Mexican origin who completed the Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans, the Beck Depression Inventory-II, the Revised Generalized Expectancy for Success Scale, and relative deprivation questions. Analyses indicated women and those scoring low on acculturation were significantly more likely to report depressive symptoms. Participants who felt they had relatively better family happiness than Euro-Americans reported lower depressive symptoms. So participants' sex, acculturation, and relative lack of depressive symptoms allow better understanding of depressive symptoms among these Mexican Americans and Mexican immigrants.
Bernstein, Kunsook Song; Park, So-Youn; Shin, Jinah; Cho, Sunhee; Park, Yeddi
Immigrant mental health issues, especially depression in relation to discrimination and acculturation, are reported to be serious problems in the United States. The current study examines the prevalence of depressive symptoms among Korean immigrants in New York City (NYC) and its relation to self-reported discrimination and acculturation. A sample of 304 Korean immigrants residing in NYC completed a survey utilizing the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale-Korean version, Discrimination Scale, and Acculturation Stress Scale. Results indicated that 13.2% of the sample population demonstrated some symptoms of depression and that variable such as living alone, marital status, education, years in US and income impact high depression scores. Results also indicate that higher self-reported exposure to discrimination and lower self-reported language proficiency were related to higher depressive symptoms. In a regression analysis, discrimination and English language proficiency were significant predictors of depression, but acculturation stress was not significantly related to depression.
Cano, Miguel Ángel; Schwartz, Seth J; Castillo, Linda G; Unger, Jennifer B; Huang, Shi; Zamboanga, Byron L; Romero, Andrea J; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Córdova, David; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Lizzi, Karina M; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Soto, Daniel W; Villamar, Juan Andres; Pattarroyo, Monica; Szapocznik, José
Drawing from a theory of bicultural family functioning 2 models were tested to examine the longitudinal effects of acculturation-related variables on adolescent health risk behaviors and depressive symptoms (HRB/DS) mediated by caregiver and adolescent reports of family functioning. One model examined the effects of caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies in relation to family functioning and HRB/DS. A second model examined the individual effects of caregiver and adolescent acculturation components in relation to family functioning and HRB/DS. A sample of 302 recently immigrated Hispanic caregiver-child dyads completed measures of Hispanic and U.S. cultural practices, values, and identities at baseline (predictors); measures of family cohesion, family communications, and family involvement 6 months postbaseline (mediators); and only adolescents completed measures of smoking, binge drinking, inconsistent condom use, and depressive symptoms 1 year postbaseline (outcomes). Measures of family cohesion, family communications, and family involvement were used to conduct a confirmatory factor analysis to estimate the fit of a latent construct for family functioning. Key findings indicate that (a) adolescent acculturation components drove the effect of caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies in relation to family functioning; (b) higher levels of adolescent family functioning were associated with less HRB/DS, whereas higher levels of caregiver family functioning were associated with more adolescent HRB/DS; (c) and only adolescent reports of family functioning mediated the effects of acculturation components and caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies on HRB/DS.
Cano, Miguel Ángel; Schwartz, Seth J.; Castillo, Linda G.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Huang, Shi; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Romero, Andrea J.; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I.; Córdova, David; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E.; Lizzi, Karina M.; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Soto, Daniel W.; Villamar, Juan Andres; Pattarroyo, Monica; Szapocznik, José
Drawing from a theory of bicultural family functioning two models were tested to examine the longitudinal effects of acculturation-related variables on adolescent health risk behaviors and depressive symptoms (HRB/DS) mediated by caregiver and adolescent reports of family functioning. One model examined the effects of caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies in relation to family functioning and HRB/DS. A second model examined the individual effects of caregiver and adolescent acculturation components in relation to family functioning and HRB/DS. A sample of 302 recently immigrated Hispanic caregiver-child dyads completed measures of Hispanic and U.S. cultural practices, values, and identities at baseline (predictors); measures of family cohesion, family communications, and family involvement six months post-baseline (mediators); and only adolescents completed measures of smoking, binge drinking, inconsistent condom use, and depressive symptoms one year post-baseline (outcomes). Measures of family cohesion, family communications, and family involvement were used to conduct a confirmatory factor analysis to estimate the fit of a latent construct for family functioning. Key findings indicate that (a) adolescent acculturation components drove the effect of caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies in relation to family functioning, (b) higher levels of adolescent family functioning were associated with less HRB/DS, whereas higher levels of caregiver family functioning were associated with more adolescent HRB/DS, (c) and only adolescent reports of family functioning mediated the effects of acculturation components and caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies on HRB/DS. PMID:26301514
D’Anna-Hernandez, Kimberly L.; Garcia, Esmeralda; Coussons-Read, Mary; Laudenslager, Mark L.; Ross, Randal G.
Purpose Greater acculturation is associated with adverse perinatal outcomes in Mexican-American women, but the mechanisms by which acculturation influences perinatal outcomes are unclear. Pregnant acculturated Mexican-American women are more likely to engage in unhealthy prenatal behaviors relative to those less acculturated, including poor sleep. As sleep disruptions are associated with acculturation and negative perinatal outcomes, particularly maternal depression, alterations in sleep may adversely affect pregnant Mexican-American women. Methods Sixty pregnant women of Mexican descent completed surveys about sleep, acculturation, depressive symptoms and potential protective factor of social support. Results Acculturation, but not social support, significantly predicted increased sleep disruptions as well as overall feeling less refreshed upon waking across pregnancy. Moderation analysis indicated that more acculturated women who took longer to fall asleep reported increased depressive symptoms. Feeling refreshed upon waking also mediated the relationship between increased acculturation and elevated maternal depressive symptoms. Conclusions Acculturation and altered sleep contribute to greater risk in Mexican-American women for maternal depressive symptoms in the perinatal period. These findings have implications for prevention and treatment of maternal mental health disorders, which may adversely affect perinatal outcomes in the vulnerable Mexican-American population. PMID:26728897
Zvolensky, Michael J; Jardin, Charles; Garey, Lorra; Robles, Zuzuky; Sharp, Carla
Although college campuses represent strategic locations to address mental health disparity among minorities in the US, there has been strikingly little empirical work on risk processes for anxiety/depression among this population. The present investigation examined the interactive effects of acculturative stress and experiential avoidance in relation to anxiety and depressive symptoms among minority college students (n = 1,095; 78.1% female; Mage = 21.92, SD = 4.23; 15.1% African-American (non-Hispanic), 45.3% Hispanic, 32.5% Asian, and 7.1% other races/ethnicities. Results provided empirical evidence of an interaction between acculturative stress and experiential avoidance for suicidal, social anxiety, and anxious arousal symptoms among the studied sample. Inspection of the significant interactions revealed that acculturative stress was related to greater levels of suicidal symptoms, social anxiety, and anxious arousal among minority college students with higher, but not lower, levels of experiential avoidance. However, in contrast to prediction, there was no significant interaction for depressive symptoms. Together, these data provide novel empirical evidence for the clinically-relevant interplay between acculturative stress and experiential avoidance in regard to a relatively wide array of negative emotional states among minority college students.
Kim, Su Yeong; Chen, Qi; Li, Jing; Huang, Xuan; Moon, Ui Jeong
Using a sample of 388 father-adolescent and 399 mother-adolescent dyads in Chinese immigrant families, the current investigation tested Portes and Rumbaut's (1996) assertion that generational dissonance may indicate a family context that places children at increased risk for adverse outcomes. Study findings suggest that a high discrepancy in father-adolescent acculturation levels relates significantly to more adolescent depressive symptoms. The study further demonstrates that the quality of the parenting relationship between fathers and adolescents operates as a mediator between father-adolescent acculturation discrepancy and adolescent depressive symptoms. Specifically, a high level of discrepancy in American orientation between fathers and adolescents is associated with unsupportive parenting practices, which, in turn, are linked to more adolescent depressive symptoms. These relationships are significant even after controlling for the influence of family socioeconomic status and parents' and adolescents' sense of discrimination within the larger society.
Frazer, Andrew L.; Rubens, Sonia; Johnson-Motoyama, Michelle; DiPierro, Moneika; Fite, Paula J.
Background: Two risk factors for negative outcomes in Latina/o youth are acculturation dissonance (i.e., discrepant family cultural orientations) and the endorsement of an assimilation strategy of acculturation (i.e., valuing dominant mainstream culture over culture of origin). Though these have been uniquely studied as risk factors for…
Kim, Su Yeong; Shen, Yishan; Huang, Xuan; Wang, Yijie; Orozco-Lapray, Diana
This study examined whether Chinese American parents' acculturation and enculturation were related to parenting practices (punitive parenting, democratic child participation, and inductive reasoning) indirectly through the mediation of parents' bicultural management difficulty and parental depressed mood. Data came from a two-wave study of Chinese American families in Northern California. Mothers and fathers were assessed when their children were in early adolescence and then again in middle adolescence (407 mothers and 381 fathers at Wave 1; 308 mothers and 281 fathers at Wave 2). For both waves, we examined cross-sectional models encompassing both direct and indirect links from parental cultural orientations to parenting practices. We also used individual fixed-effects techniques to account for selection bias in testing model relationships at Wave 2. At Wave 1, via bicultural management difficulty and depressive symptoms, American orientation was related to less punitive parenting and more inductive reasoning for both parents, and Chinese orientation was related to more punitive parenting and less inductive reasoning for fathers. The findings indicate that bicultural management difficulty and parental depressed mood are important mechanisms to be considered when studying the relation between Chinese American parents' acculturation/enculturation and parenting.
Kim, Su Yeong; Shen, Yishan; Huang, Xuan; Wang, Yijie; Orozco-Lapray, Diana
This study examined whether Chinese American parents’ acculturation and enculturation were related to parenting practices (punitive parenting, democratic child participation, and inductive reasoning) indirectly through the mediation of parents’ bicultural management difficulty and parental depressed mood. Data came from a two-wave study of Chinese American families in Northern California. Mothers and fathers were assessed when their children were in early adolescence and then again in middle adolescence (407 mothers and 381 fathers at Wave 1; 308 mothers and 281 fathers at Wave 2). For both waves, we examined cross-sectional models encompassing both direct and indirect links from parental cultural orientations to parenting practices. We also used individual fixed-effects techniques to account for selection bias in testing model relationships at Wave 2. At Wave 1, via bicultural management difficulty and depressive symptoms, American orientation was related to less punitive parenting and more inductive reasoning for both parents, and Chinese orientation was related to more punitive parenting and less inductive reasoning for fathers. The findings indicate that bicultural management difficulty and parental depressed mood are important mechanisms to be considered when studying the relation between Chinese American parents’ acculturation/enculturation and parenting. PMID:25678944
Zeiders, Katharine H.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Jahromi, Laudan B.
Mexican-origin adolescent mothers face numerous social challenges during dual-cultural adaptation that are theorized to contribute to greater depressive symptoms. Alongside challenges, there are familial resources that may offer protection. As such, the current study examined the trajectories of depressive symptoms among 204 Mexican-origin adolescent mothers (Mage = 16.80, SD = 1.00) across a 4-year period (3rd trimester of pregnancy, and 10, 24, and 36 months postpartum). Further, we examined the within-person relations of two unique sources of stress experienced during the dual-cultural adaptation process, acculturative and enculturative stress, and youths’ depressive symptoms; we also tested whether adolescent mothers’ perceptions of warmth from their own mothers emerged as protective. Adolescent mothers reported a decline in depressive symptoms after the transition to parenthood. Acculturative and enculturative stress emerged as significant positive within-person predictors of depressive symptoms. Maternal warmth emerged as a protective factor in the relation between enculturative stressors and depressive symptoms; however, for acculturative stressors, the protective effect of maternal warmth only emerged for U.S.-born youth. Findings illustrate the multi-dimensionality of stress experienced during the cultural adaptation process and a potential mechanism for resilience among Mexican-origin adolescent mothers. PMID:25004391
This study examined the relationship between attachment, travel experiences, and English proficiency and international students' acculturative stress and depressive symptoms. A total of 91 graduate international students completed online surveys. Pearson correlations showed that both attachment anxiety and avoidance were positively correlated with…
Gonidakis, Fragiskos; Korakakis, Panagiotis; Ploumpidis, Dimitris; Karapavlou, Dafni-Alexandra; Rogakou, Efi; Madianos, Michael G
The process of acculturation observed in immigrants is part of an adjustment to the values and norms of a new society, and possibly the loss of norms of the society of origin. Acculturation has been linked to stress-related psychological disorders such as depression. The present study investigates the relationship between three acculturation domains (everyday life behaviors, wishful orientation/nostos, and ethnic identity) and symptoms of depression in a sample of foreign immigrants living in Athens, Greece. The sample consisted of 317 immigrants who visited two non-governmental organization polyclinics. All participants were interviewed using the Immigrant Acculturation Scale (IAS) and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). The results showed that 133 (42%) out of the 317 interviewees were in a depressive state (CES-D > 15). The main finding was that high CES-D scores were related to low scores in the IAS Everyday Life and Wishful Orientation factors, while no relationship was found between depressive symptomatology and the IAS Identity factor. Short duration of stay in Greece, lack of steady job, and lack of residence permit were also related to high CES-D scores. In conclusion, adaptation to mainstream culture daily behaviors as well as the wish to integrate with individuals from the mainstream culture and settle permanently in the new country could be seen as part of an adaptive mechanism that protects the individual from experiencing depressive symptomatology.
Fernandez, Alejandra; Loukas, Alexandra
Although perceived discrimination has been associated with depressive symptoms among Hispanic adults, not all individuals who report discrimination will report elevated levels of depression. This study examined whether acculturation and religious coping would moderate the association between past-year perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms in a sample of 247 Mexican-American post-secondary vocational students (59.6 % males; mean age = 26.81). Results from hierarchical regression analyses indicated that perceived discrimination, positive religious coping, and negative religious coping were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Further analyses indicated that positive religious coping moderated the perceived discrimination-depressive symptoms association. Students reporting using positive religious coping were protected from experiencing heightened levels of depressive symptoms when faced with discrimination. Acculturation was not directly associated with depressive symptoms nor did it function as a moderator. The salutary influences of positive religious coping for Mexican-American students are discussed. Study limitations and future directions for research are also discussed.
Juang, Linda P.; Cookston, Jeffrey T.
This study focused on the perceptions of discrimination for Chinese American adolescents: how perceptions changed over time, how generational status and acculturation were related to these changes, and whether earlier discrimination experiences were related to subsequent depressive symptomatology. The sample included 309 Chinese American…
Kartal, Dzenana; Kiropoulos, Litza
Background Research indicates that exposure to war-related traumatic events impacts on the mental health of refugees and leads to higher rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anxiety symptoms. Furthermore, stress associated with the migration process has also been shown to impact negatively on refugees' mental health, but the extent of these experiences is highly debatable as the relationships between traumatic events, migration, and mental health outcomes are complex and poorly understood. Objective This study aimed to examine the influence of trauma-related and post-migratory factors on symptoms of PTSD, depression, and anxiety in two samples of Bosnian refugees that have resettled in two different host nations—Austria and Australia. Method Using multiple recruitment methods, 138 participants were recruited to complete self-report measures assessing acculturative stress, PTSD, depressive, and anxiety symptoms. Results Hierarchical regressions indicated that after controlling for age, sex, and exposure to traumatic events, acculturative stress associated with post-migratory experiences predicted severity of PTSD and anxiety symptoms, while depressive symptoms were only predicted by exposure to traumatic events. This model, however, was only significant for Bosnian refugees resettled in Austria, as PTSD, depressive, and anxiety symptoms were only predicted by traumatic exposure in the Bosnian refugees resettled in Australia. Conclusion These findings point toward the importance of assessing both psychological and social stressors when assessing mental health of refugees. Furthermore, these results draw attention to the influence of the host society on post-migratory adaptation and mental health of refugees. Further research is needed to replicate these findings among other refugee samples in other host nations. PMID:26886488
Past research has noted that aspects of living in the United States place Latinos at risk for experiencing psychological problems. However, the specific features of the adaptation process that contribute to depression remain unclear. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the ability of acculturation, acculturative stress, and coping to predict membership into low, medium, and high groups of depression among Latinos. Within a group of 148 Latino adults from the community, a multinomial logistic regression revealed that an Anglo orientation, English competency pressures, and active coping differentiated high from low depression and that a Latino orientation and, to some extent, the pressure to acculturate distinguished medium from low depression. These results highlight a pattern of characteristics that function as risk and protective factors in relation to level of symptom severity. The findings are discussed in terms of implications for Latino mental health, including considerations for intervention and prevention.
Cano, Miguel Ángel; de Dios, Marcel A; Castro, Yessenia; Vaughan, Ellen L; Castillo, Linda G; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Piña-Watson, Brandy; Berger Cardoso, Jodi; Ojeda, Lizette; Cruz, Rick A; Correa-Fernandez, Virmarie; Ibañez, Gladys; Auf, Rehab; Molleda, Lourdes M
Research has indicated that Hispanics have high rates of heavy drinking and depressive symptoms during late adolescence. The purpose of this study was to test a bicultural transaction model composed of two enthnocultural orientations (acculturation and enculturation); and stressful cultural transactions with both the U.S. culture (perceived ethnic discrimination) and Hispanic culture (perceived intragroup marginalization) to predict alcohol use severity and depressive symptoms among a sample of 129 (men=39, women=90) late adolescent Hispanics (ages 18-21) enrolled in college. Results from a path analysis indicated that the model accounted for 18.2% of the variance in alcohol use severity and 24.3% of the variance in depressive symptoms. None of the acculturation or enculturation domains had statistically significant direct effects with alcohol use severity or depressive symptoms. However, higher reports of ethnic discrimination were associated with higher reports of alcohol use severity and depressive symptoms. Similarly, higher reports of intragroup marginalization were associated with higher depressive symptoms. Further, both ethnic discrimination and intragroup marginalization functioned as mediators of multiple domains of acculturation and enculturation. These findings highlight the need to consider the indirect effects of enthnocultural orientations in relation to health-related outcomes.
Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Oshri, Assaf; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Soto, Daniel
Latino/a youth are at risk for symptoms of depression and cigarette smoking but this risk varies by acculturation and gender. To understand why some youth are at greater risk than others, we identified profiles of diverse community experiences (perceived discrimination, bullying victimization, social support, perceived school safety) and examined associations between profiles of community experience and depressive symptoms, cigarette smoking, acculturation, and gender. Data came from Project Red (Reteniendo y Entendiendo Diversidad para Salud), a school-based longitudinal study of acculturation among 1919 Latino/a adolescents (52% female; 84% 14 years old; 87% U.S. born). Latent profile analysis (LPA) revealed four distinct profiles of community experience which varied by gender and acculturation. Boys were overrepresented in profile groups with high perceived discrimination, some bullying, and lack of positive experiences, while girls were overrepresented in groups with high bullying victimization in the absence and presence of other community experiences. Youth low on both U.S. and Latino/a cultural orientation described high perceived discrimination and lacked positive experiences, and were predominantly male. Profiles characterized by high perceived discrimination and/or high bullying victimization in the absence of positive experiences had higher levels of depressive symptoms and higher risk of smoking, relative to the other groups. Findings suggest that acculturation comes with diverse community experiences that vary by gender and relate to smoking and depression risk. Results from this research can inform the development of tailored intervention and prevention strategies to reduce depression and/or smoking for Latino/a youth at risk for depression and/or smoking. PMID:26752445
Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Unger, Jennifer B; Oshri, Assaf; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Soto, Daniel
Latino/a youth are at risk for symptoms of depression and cigarette smoking but this risk varies by acculturation and gender. To understand why some youth are at greater risk than others, we identified profiles of diverse community experiences (perceived discrimination, bullying victimization, social support, perceived school safety) and examined associations between profiles of community experience and depressive symptoms, cigarette smoking, acculturation, and gender. Data came from Project Red (Reteniendo y Entendiendo Diversidad para Salud), a school-based longitudinal study of acculturation among 1,919 Latino/a adolescents (52% female; 84% 14 years old; 87% U.S. born). Latent profile analysis (LPA) revealed 4 distinct profiles of community experience that varied by gender and acculturation. Boys were overrepresented in profile groups with high perceived discrimination, some bullying, and lack of positive experiences, while girls were overrepresented in groups with high bullying victimization in the absence and presence of other community experiences. Youth low on both U.S. and Latino/a cultural orientation described high perceived discrimination and lacked positive experiences, and were predominantly male. Profiles characterized by high perceived discrimination and /or high bullying victimization in the absence of positive experiences had higher levels of depressive symptoms and higher risk of smoking, relative to the other groups. Findings suggest that acculturation comes with diverse community experiences that vary by gender and relate to smoking and depression risk. Results from this research can inform the development of tailored intervention and prevention strategies to reduce depression and/or smoking for Latino/a youth.
Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Unger, Jennifer B
Latino youth can experience a range of cultural (i.e., ethnic discrimination and acculturative stress) and familial (i.e. family conflict) risk factors that can contribute to their perceived stress, thereby increasing their risk for depressive symptoms and cigarette smoking. To understand the mechanisms by which ethnic discrimination, acculturative stress and family conflict influence the risk for depressive symptoms and cigarette smoking of youth, the current study investigated the mediating role of perceived stress in these associations. The data came from a longitudinal study of acculturation and substance use with 1919 Latino adolescents (52% female; 84% 14 year-olds; 87% U.S. born). Structural equation modeling indicated that discrimination and family conflict (Time 1) related with higher perceived stress (Time 2), which, in turn, related with more depressive symptoms and smoking (Time 3). The results suggest that perceived stress might be one mechanism by which ethnic discrimination and family conflict contribute to Latino youth symptoms of depression and cigarette smoking. The findings highlight the need for prevention and intervention strategies that help youth manage their general perceived stress and/or focus on stress reduction techniques.
Chen, Hung-Hui; Hwang, Fang-Ming; Tai, Chen-Jei; Chien, Li-Yin
This cohort study assessed the structural relationships among social support, acculturation, and postpartum depressive symptoms experienced by marriage-based immigrant mothers in Taiwan. Data were collected at 1 and 6 months postpartum from 203 immigrant mothers married to Taiwanese men in Taipei, Taiwan. The structural equation modeling results showed that social support and postpartum depression were directly and negatively related. Higher social support and lower depression at 1 month postpartum were related to a positive social attitude (i.e., accepting attitude toward mainstream society). Social attitude was a moderator of the relationship between depression at 1 month and social support at 6 months postpartum, where a positive social attitude decreased the negative effect of depression at 1 month on social support at 6 months. Social support in the early postpartum period not only directly decreased postpartum depression, but also indirectly decreased postpartum depression through improving social attitude.
Mui, Ada C.; Kang, Suk-Young
This study examines the association between acculturation stress and depressive symptoms in a regional probability sample (n = 407) of six groups of Asian immigrant elders (Chinese, Korean, Indian, Filipino, Vietnamese, and Japanese). Findings suggest that about 40 percent of the sample were depressed, indicating higher depression rates than found…
Lee, Christina S.; Almeida, Joanna; Colby, Suzanne M.; Tavares, Tonya; Rohsenow, Damaris J.
Background Among Hispanics in the U.S., lower acculturation level has been found to be protective against alcohol abuse and depression. However, this relationship may not hold within at-risk samples. The prevalence and co-occurrence of hazardous drinking and depressive symptoms and their relationship to acculturation were examined among Hispanics enrolled in a study to reduce heavy drinking. At enrollment, all participants reported past-month heavy drinking (one or more occasions of >4/5 drinks for females/males, and average weekly consumption >7/14 drinks per week). We explored whether gender moderated the effects of acculturation on hazardous drinking and depressive symptoms. Methods Participants (N = 100) completed measures at baseline. Results Eighty-nine percent of participants met criteria for hazardous alcohol use as assessed by the AUDIT and of those, 55% (n=49) also reported elevated depressive symptoms. Of those who reported elevated depressive symptoms, nearly all (94%) met AUDIT criteria for hazardous drinking. Acculturation was not related to hazardous drinking or depressive symptoms in the full sample. Highly acculturated women reported more hazardous drinking than less acculturated women. Acculturation was not associated with hazardous drinking in men, but less acculturated men reported higher levels of depression than highly acculturated men. Discussion Depression should be assessed in alcohol interventions for Hispanics. Alcohol interventions should be tailored for acculturation level and gender to improve relevance and efficacy. Clinical Trial Registration #NCT01996280. PMID:26819573
Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Soto, Daniel; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes
Hispanic youth are at risk for experiencing depressive symptoms and smoking cigarettes, and risk for depressive symptoms and cigarette use increase as Hispanic youth acculturate to U.S. culture. The mechanism by which acculturation leads to symptoms of depression and cigarette smoking is not well understood. The present study examined whether…
Hwang, Wei-Chin; Wood, Jeffrey J.; Fujimoto, Ken
Objective Our knowledge of acculturative processes and their impact on immigrant families remains quite limited. Acculturative Family Distancing (AFD) is the distancing that occurs between immigrant parents and their children, and is caused by breakdowns in communication and cultural value differences. It is a more proximal and problem-focused formulation of the acculturation gap and is hypothesized to increase depression via family conflict. Method Data were collected from 105 Chinese American high school students and their mothers. Rasch modeling was used to refine the AFD measure and structural equation modeling was used to determine the effects of AFD on youth and maternal depression. Results Findings indicate that greater AFD was associated with higher depressive symptoms and risk for clinical depression. Family conflict partially mediated this relation for youth, whereas for mothers, AFD directly increased risk for depression. Greater mother-child heritage enculturation discrepancies were associated with greater mother and child AFD. Mainstream acculturation discrepancies and language gaps between mothers and youth were not significantly associated with any of the primary outcome variables. Conclusions Results highlight the need to better understand how AFD and other acculturation-gap phenomena affect immigrant mental health. They also underscore the need to develop prevention and intervention programs that target communication difficulties and intergenerational cultural value differences. PMID:20873901
Unger, Jennifer B.; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Soto, Daniel; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes
Hispanic youth are at risk for experiencing depressive symptoms and smoking cigarettes, and risk for depressive symptoms and cigarette use increase as Hispanic youth acculturate to U.S. culture. The mechanism by which acculturation leads to symptoms of depression and cigarette smoking is not well understood. The present study examined whether perceived discrimination explained the associations of acculturation with depressive symptoms and cigarette smoking among 1,124 Hispanic youth (54% female). Youth in Southern California completed surveys in 9th–11th grade. Separate analyses by gender showed that perceived discrimination explained the relationship between acculturation and depressive symptoms for girls only. There was also evidence that discrimination explained the relationship between acculturation and cigarette smoking among girls, but the effect was only marginally significant. Acculturation was associated with depressive symptoms and smoking among girls only. Perceived discrimination predicted depressive symptoms in both genders, and discrimination was positively associated with cigarette smoking for girls but not boys. These results support the notion that, although Hispanic boys and girls experience acculturation and discrimination, their mental health and smoking behaviors are differentially affected by these experiences. Moreover, the results indicate that acculturation, gender, and discrimination are important factors to consider when addressing Hispanic youth’s mental health and substance use behaviors. PMID:21293915
Ramos, Blanca M.
The relationship between acculturation and depression in a sample of 1,510 Puerto Ricans residing in the U.S. was examined. Acculturation was measured by assessing subjects' spoken, preferred, read, and written language. Depression was evaluated by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. The scale yielded a three-factor structure…
Gowen, L. Kris; Hayward, Chris; Killen, Joel D.; Robinson, Thomas N.; Taylor, C. Barr
Examined relationship between acculturation and eating-disorder symptoms in normative samples of 920 adolescents girls of high school age. Found that acculturation was positively associated with structured-interview defined partial syndrome eating disorders in Hispanic girls, but not in Asian or European-American girls. There was no relation…
Katsiaficas, Dalal; Suárez-Orozco, Carola; Sirin, Selcuk R; Gupta, Taveeshi
The present study examines the generational differences in the relation between acculturative stress and internalizing symptoms (i.e., anxiety and depression) with a sample of 304 urban residing first- and second-generation immigrant adolescents. In addition, the role of perceptions of social support-a critical element to healthy immigrant adolescent adaptation-is explored as a mediator of this relation. Results indicate that first-generation adolescents report more acculturative stress and internalizing symptoms than do second generation. Employing a moderated mediation framework (Preacher, Rucker, & Hayes, 2007), we find that perceptions of both emotional and academic social support mediate the relation between acculturative stress and internalizing symptoms for the first generation but not for the second. Our findings serve to expand the discourse of the "immigrant paradox" (García Coll & Marks, 2011).
The mutually reinforcing dyad of depressive symptoms and erectile dysfunction is scientifically established. The cure of depression improves sexual dysfunction (SD) and the treatment of SD induces improvement of depression. Most of anti-depressants induce negative sexual side effects that lead to non-compliance of these treatments. The knowledge of interrelation between depression, anti-depressants and sexuality is of great importance in clinical practice.
Vasquez, Elias Provencio; Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa M.; De Santis, Joseph P.
The demographics of the United States are rapidly changing as a result of immigration from Latin America. Predictions indicate that by the year 2050, one of every four persons in the United States will be of Hispanic ethnicity. If health disparities relating to substance abuse and related mental health conditions among Hispanics are not fully understood and addressed, these will continue grow along with this population. The purpose of this pilot study was to describe the relationships among acculturation, depression, self-esteem, and substance abuse among a community sample of Hispanic men in South Florida (N = 164, 82 heterosexual men and 82 men who have sex with men). Standardized instruments measuring acculturation, depression, self-esteem, and substance abuse were administered in English or Spanish in a face-to-face interview format. Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression were used to illustrate participant characteristics and test relationships among the variables. Despite the fact that the majority of participants were more acculturated to the Hispanic culture than US culture, reported low levels of education and income, were depressed, and used substances, this group of men reported high levels of self-esteem. However, age and depression were the only predictors of substance abuse. Acculturation and self-esteem were not predictors of substance abuse. Clinicians need to be aware of the high rates of depression and substance abuse in this population and screen frequently for signs and symptoms of depression and substance abuse during health care encounters. PMID:21247274
Masten, William G.
It has been postulated that the result of the Mexican woman's inability to live up to the stiff requirements of her culture should show itself in depressive trends. These theories are often applied to the Mexican-American female as well. The aim of this study was to determine if acculturation is related to depression in Mexican-American females. A…
Kim, Wooksoo; Chen, Ya-Ling
Depression in old age significantly decreases the quality of life and may lead to serious consequences, such as suicide. Existing literature indicates that elderly Korean immigrants may experience higher levels of depression than other racial ethnic group elders. The purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate factors that influence depression among older Korean immigrants in Toronto. A total of 148 participants, ages 60 years or older (mean age = 74.01, SD = 8.24), completed face-to-face interviews in Korean language. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted by adding variables in three steps: (1) demographic variables; (2) acculturation variables (years of immigration and English proficiency); and (3) social determinants (social integration variables, physical health, and financial satisfaction). Results showed that acculturation factors were not associated with depression. Instead, social determinants variables, including lower physical health status and lower financial status, living alone, and lower level of social activity, predicted higher level of depressive symptoms, along with lower education. The final regression model explained about 37% of variance of depression in the sample. These results suggest that social determinants, not acculturation, are important factors explaining the levels of depression in Korean immigrant elders living in a metropolitan city in Canada. Implications for practice are discussed.
Nakash, Ora; Nagar, Maayan; Shoshani, Anat; Lurie, Ido
Past research has documented the role acculturation plays in the process of adjustment to new cultures among migrants. Yet little attention has been paid thus far to the role of acculturation in the context of forced migration. In this study we examined the association between acculturation patterns and mental health symptoms among a convenience sample of Eritrean and Sudanese asylum seekers (n = 118) who accessed health services at the Physicians for Human Rights Open-Clinic in Israel. Participants completed measures on sociodemographic information as well as detention history, mental health symptoms, exposure to traumatic events, and acculturation pattern, in their native language upon accessing services. Consistent with our predictions, findings showed that acculturation predicted depressive symptoms among asylum seekers beyond the effect of history of detention and reports of experiences of traumatic events. Assimilated compared with integrated asylum seekers reported higher depressive symptoms. Findings draw attention to the paradox of assimilation, and the mental health risks it poses among those wishing to integrate into the new culture at the expanse of their original culture. Asylum seekers may be particularly vulnerable to the risks of assimilation in the restrictive policies that characterize many industrial countries in recent years.
Wang, Cixin; Atwal, Kavita
The current study examined a multidimensional, developmental, and transactional model for depressive symptoms among Asian American adolescents using longitudinal data from 1,664 Asian American adolescents in the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study (CILS). Specifically, the relationships among school climate, acculturation, perceived…
Roley, Michelle E; Kawakami, Ryoko; Baker, Jessica; Hurtado, Gabriela; Chin, Andrew; Hovey, Joseph D
Acculturative stress is a risk factor for depression, and may be important in the risk for depression among acculturating Japanese adolescents. However, little to no research has been published on the mental health of acculturating Japanese adolescents. Further, although family cohesion has been shown to be protective against depression across ethnic groups, no prior research has examined family cohesion as a protective factor for Japanese adolescents. To examine these relationships, 26 Japanese temporary resident adolescents and 76 parents in the Midwest were recruited to participate. Moderate to strong correlations between acculturative stress, depression, likelihood for and seriousness of family conflict were found. A regression analysis found that likelihood for family conflict moderated the relationship between acculturative stress and depression. Findings broaden our understanding of the role of acculturative stress and family conflict on depression risk for Japanese adolescent immigrants.
Kroon Van Diest, Ashley M; Tartakovsky, Margarita; Stachon, Caitlin; Pettit, Jeremy W; Perez, Marisol
The purpose of the current study was to expand upon the literature examining the relationship between acculturative stress and eating disorder symptoms among different ethnic groups. Specifically, acculturative stress was explored as a moderator of the relationship between body dissatisfaction and eating disorder symptoms among ethnic minority women. Additionally, the distinction between acculturative stress and general life stress in predicting eating disorder symptoms was assessed. Participants consisted of 247 undergraduate women, all of whom were members of an ethnic minority group including African Americans, Asian Americans, and Latinas. Acculturative stress was found to moderate the relationship between body dissatisfaction and eating disorder symptoms, but only among African American women. Acculturative stress was also found to significantly predict bulimic symptoms above and beyond general life stress among African American, Asian American, and Latina women.
Alamilla, Saul G.; Kim, Bryan S. K.; Walker, Tamisha; Sisson, Frederick Riley
This study examined the potential moderating influences of behavioral and values acculturation and enculturation in a sample of 113 Asian Americans. Findings from regression analyses revealed that acculturation to European American cultural values, alone and in interaction with perceived racism, was related to less psychological symptoms, whereas…
Gupta, Arpana; Leong, Frederick; Valentine, Jeffrey C; Canada, Dericka D
Acculturation is an important and popular cultural research variable among specific ethnic populations that is used to explain the process of assimilating into the host culture. Acculturation has often been used to account for psychosocial changes and health outcomes and has been used to explain health disparities among ethnic groups. Using Asian Americans as an illustrative ethnic group, the authors see that researchers have highlighted the influence of acculturation on health outcomes. Some researchers suggest that this relationship is positive, whereas others postulate that the opposite is true. Because of the highly complex and divergent findings in the literature, this meta-analysis addresses the question of how acculturation (as measured by acculturation scales) is related to depression (a specific mental health outcome) among the Asian American population living in North America. Analyses were based on 38 studies. The meta-analyses reveal that when acculturation is measured as assimilation to the American culture, there is a small but statistically significant negative relationship between acculturation and depression scores. When acculturation is measured as orientation to the Asian culture, the relationship between acculturation and depression scores is also negative, but not statistically significant.
McCabe, Brian E.; Vermeesch, Amber L.; Hall, Rosemary F.; Peragallo, Nilda P.; Mitrani, Victoria B.
Background Culturally valid measures of depression for Spanish-speaking Hispanic women are important for developing and implementing effective interventions to reduce health disparities. The Center for Epidemiological Studies--Depression Scale (CES-D) is a widely used measure of depression. Differential item functioning has been studied using language preference as a proxy for acculturation, but it is unknown if the results were due to acculturation or the language of administration. Objective To evaluate the relationship of acculturation, defined with a dimensional measure, to Spanish CES-D item responses. Method Spanish-speaking Hispanic women (n = 504) were recruited for a randomized controlled trial of Salud, Educación, Prevención y Autocuidado (Health, Education, Prevention and Self-care). Acculturation, an important dimension of variation within the diverse United States Hispanic community, was defined by high or low scores on the Americanism subscale of the Bidimensional Acculturation Scale. Differential item functioning for each of the 20 CES-D items between more acculturated and less acculturated women was tested using ordinal logistic regression. Results No items on the Depressed Affect, Somatic Activity, or Positive Affect subscales showed meaningful differential item functioning, but one item (“People were unfriendly”) on the Interpersonal subscale had small results (R2 = 1.1%). Discussion The majority of CES-D items performed similarly for Spanish-speaking Hispanic women with high and low acculturation. Less acculturated women responded more positively to “People were unfriendly,” despite having an equivalent level of depression, than more acculturated women. Possibilities for improving this item are proposed. PMID:21677596
Sirin, Selcuk R; Ryce, Patrice; Gupta, Taveeshi; Rogers-Sirin, Lauren
Immigrant-origin adolescents represent the fastest growing segment of youth population in the United States, and in many urban schools they represent the majority of students. In this 3-wave longitudinal study, we explored trajectories of internalizing mental health symptoms (depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms). The participants included 332 urban-residing first-and second-generation immigrant adolescents (44% male). Participants were recruited in 10th grade (Mage = 16.20 years, SD = 1.19), and 2 additional waves of data were gathered in 12-month intervals. Both generational and racial/ethnic background of the participants reflected the general demographics of urban centers in the United States. With individual growth curve modeling, the results show significant decline in internalizing mental health problems during the high school years. At the same time, greater exposure to acculturative stress predicted significantly more withdrawn, somatic, and anxious/depressed symptoms. Gender and generation status differences in internalizing mental health problems were also identified.
Cano, Miguel Ángel; Castillo, Linda G.; Castro, Yessenia; de Dios, Marcel A.; Roncancio, Angelica M.
This study examined associations of intragroup marginalization and cultural incongruity with acculturative stress and depressive symptoms among 155 undergraduate U.S. college students of Mexican heritage. Findings indicate that perceived interpersonal distancing by the family (intragroup marginalization) and perceived lack of cultural fit between…
Gozdzik-Zelazny, A; Borecki, L; Pokorski, M
Distinction between true negative and depressive symptoms in schizophrenia is difficult. In the present study we seek to establish the psychological profile of depression-prone schizophrenic patients. We addressed the issue by comparing the expression of psychological indices, such as the feelings of being in control of events, anxiety, mood, and the style of coping with stress in depressive and non-depressive schizophrenics. We also analyzed the strength of the association of these indices with the presence of depressive symptoms. A total of 49 patients (18 women and 31 men, aged 23-59) were enrolled into the study, consisting of a self-reported psychometric survey. We found that the prevalence of clinically significant depression in schizophrenic patients was 61%. The factors which contributed to the intensification of depressive symptoms were the external locus of control, anxiety, gloomy mood, and the emotion-oriented coping with stress. We conclude that psychological testing may discern those schizophrenic patients who would be at risk of depression development and may help separate the blurred boundaries between depressive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia.
Butler, Amy C
Longitudinal data on non-Hispanic White children from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (N = 1,056) were used to examine whether the relationship between poverty (early childhood poverty, poverty persistence, and current poverty) and adolescent depressive symptoms (measured by the Children's Depression Inventory and the Internalizing Index) can be explained by the mother's own childhood depression and family characteristics measured during the child's first year of life. Associations between poverty and depressive symptoms among adolescents were explained by mother's childhood depression and whether the adolescent had lived with both parents during the first year of life. The findings highlight the need for appropriate treatment of childhood depression so as to reduce the adverse consequences in adulthood and for the next generation.
Ashby, Jeffrey S.; Rice, Kenneth G.; Martin, James L.
The authors examined the relationship between depression, maladaptive perfectionism, and shame. Regression analyses were used to replicate a model in which maladaptive perfectionism was negatively associated with self-esteem and positively associated with symptoms of depression, with self-esteem mediating the effects of maladaptive perfectionism…
Kinsinger, Stuart; Puhl, Aaron Anthony; Reinhart, Christine J.
Background: The intensive training associated with health care education has been suggested to have unintended negative consequences on students’ mental or emotional health that may interfere with the development of qualities deemed essential for proficient health care professionals. This longitudinal study examined the prevalence and severity of depressive symptoms among students at a chiropractic educational institution. Methods: Chiropractic students at all levels of training were surveyed at Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College during the academic years of 2000/2001, 2001/2002, and 2002/2003. The measurement tool employed was the Beck Depression Inventory, 2nd edition (BDI-II). Previously established BDI-II cutoff scores were used to assess the severity of reported depression symptoms, and these were compared by sex and year of training. Results: The survey was completed by 1303 students (70%) over the 3 years of the study. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was nearly 25%, with 13.7% of respondents indicating a rating of mild depression, 7.1% indicating moderate depressive symptoms, and 2.8% indicating severe symptoms. Significant differences were found between years of training, with 2nd-year students having the highest prevalence of depressive symptoms, and sex, with females having a higher rate of symptoms. Conclusions: Chiropractic students surveyed at Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College had high rates of depression similar to those measured in other health care profession students. Chiropractic educational institutions should be aware of this situation and are encouraged to emphasize students’ awareness of their own personal health and well-being and their access to appropriate care, in addition to the same concerns for their future patients. PMID:22069339
Du, Hongfei; Li, Xiaoming; Lin, Danhua; Tam, Cheuk Chi
The current study examined the longitudinal relationship of collectivistic orientation and depression and the mediating effects of acculturative stress and cultural self-efficacy between collectivistic orientation and depression. We expect that collectivistic orientation would decrease acculturative stress and increase cultural self-efficacy, and in turn, improve depression. Using data from 641 Chinese internal migrants during a 1-year period, the results supported the hypothesis that collectivistic orientation predicted decreased depression. Moreover, collectivistic orientation alleviated depression through reducing acculturative stress. Although cultural self-efficacy was also a significant mediator, collectivistic orientation relieved depression through decreasing cultural self-efficacy. Implications for future research directions and counseling are discussed.
Du, Hongfei; Li, Xiaoming; Lin, Danhua; Tam, Cheuk Chi
The current study examined the longitudinal relationship of collectivistic orientation and depression and the mediating effects of acculturative stress and cultural self-efficacy between collectivistic orientation and depression. We expect that collectivistic orientation would decrease acculturative stress and increase cultural self-efficacy, and in turn, improve depression. Using data from 641 Chinese internal migrants during a one-year period, the results supported the hypothesis that collectivistic orientation predicted decreased depression. Moreover, collectivistic orientation alleviated depression through reducing acculturative stress. Although cultural self-efficacy was also a significant mediator, collectivistic orientation relieved depression through decreasing cultural self-efficacy. Implications for future research directions and counseling are discussed. PMID:25480108
Goforth, Anisa N; Pham, Andy V; Chun, Heejung; Castro-Olivo, Sara M; Yosai, Erin R
Although the numbers of Arab American immigrant youth in schools is increasing, there is little understanding of their mental health and the sociocultural factors that might influence it. This study examined the relationship between 2 sociocultural factors (i.e., acculturative stress and religious practices) and internalizing symptoms in first- and second-generation Muslim Arab American adolescents. Adolescents (n = 88) ages 11 to 18 completed measures related to acculturative stress, religious practices, internalizing symptoms, and general demographic information. Results of multiple regression analyses found that acculturative stress significantly predicted internalizing symptoms. Gender was found to moderate this association. No differences in the reported acculturative stress and internalizing symptoms were found between youth of different generational status (i.e., first- vs. second-generation). Finally, adolescents' organizational religious practices, but not their private religious practices, were found to be associated with lower acculturative stress. Implications are discussed related to how school psychologists can provide culturally responsive services to this population. (PsycINFO Database Record
Suarez-Morales, Lourdes; Lopez, Barbara
Acculturative stress in relation to anxiety symptoms has not been examined empirically in young Hispanic populations. The present study, conducted with 138 pre-adolescent Hispanic youngsters, investigated this relationship. The findings suggested that acculturative stress was related to physiological, concentration, and worrisome symptoms of…
Liu, Yang; Chen, Xinguang; Li, Shiyue; Yu, Bin; Wang, Yan; Yan, Hong
Acculturative stress prevents international students from adapting to the host culture, increasing their risk for depression. International students in China are a growing and at-risk population for acculturative stress and depression. With data from the International Student Health and Behaviour Survey (Yu et al., ) in China, seven acculturative stress components were detected in a previous study (Yu et al., ), including a central component (self-confidence), three distal components (value conflict, identity threat and rejection) and three proximal components (poor cultural competence, opportunity deprivation and homesickness). The current study extended the previous study to investigate the relationship between these components and depression with data also from International Student Health and Behaviour Survey. Participants were 567 students (59% male, 40.4% African, mean age = 22.75, SD = 4.11) recruited in Wuhan, China. The sample scored high on the Acculturative Stress Scale for International Students (M = 92.81, SD = 23.93) and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale (M = 0.97, SD = 0.53). Acculturative stress was positively associated with depression; the association between the three distal stress components and depression was fully mediated through self-confidence, while the three proximal components had a direct effect and a self-confidence-mediated indirect effect. These findings extended the value of the previous study, highlighted the central role of self-confidence in understanding acculturative stress and depression and provided new data supporting more effective counselling for international students in China. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Thomas, Justin; O'Hara, Lily; Quadflieg, Susanne; Weissgerber, Sophia Christin
Western acculturation has been implicated in the development of eating disorders among populations living outside Europe and North America. This study explored the relationship between Western acculturation, in-group/out-group evaluations and eating disorders symptoms among female citizens of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Emirati college women (N = 209) completed an affective priming task, designed to implicitly assess in-group (Emirati) and out-group (American) evaluations. Participants also completed the Westernization Survey, a widely used self-report measure of acculturation, and the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26). Across the whole sample, out-group positivity was correlated with higher levels of eating disorder symptoms. Participants classified as at risk for eating disorders showed a clear out-group preference (out-group positivity greater than in-group positivity). Western acculturation was also positively correlated with eating disorder symptoms. Overall, these findings lend further support to the acculturation hypothesis of eating disorders in the context of Emirati college women.
Polanco-Roman, Lillian; Miranda, Regina
Culturally related experiences are seldom considered in assessing risk for suicidal behavior among emerging adults, despite racial/ethnic differences in suicide attempts. The present study examined the impact of culturally related stressors on hopelessness, symptoms of depression, and suicidal ideation-well-known predictors of suicidal behavior-among emerging adults over time, and whether hopelessness would mediate the relation between culturally related stressors and both depression and ideation. An ethnically diverse sample of 143 emerging adults, ages 18 to 25, completed self-report measures of acculturative stress, perceived discrimination, and depressive symptoms at 1 time point, and self-report measures of ethnic identity, hopelessness, depressive symptoms, and suicidal ideation 2 to 3years later. Higher baseline acculturative stress and perceived discrimination predicted hopelessness, but not symptoms of depression, when entered simultaneously into a regression analysis. However, there was an indirect relation between these culturally related stressors and depressive symptoms through hopelessness. There was also a direct relation between acculturative stress at baseline and suicidal ideation at follow-up, and hopelessness mediated this relation. However, the indirect relations between culturally related stressors and depression and suicidal ideation through hopelessness were only present at low levels of ethnic identity, but not at average or high levels of ethnic identity. Acculturative stress and perceived discrimination may thus increase vulnerability to depression and suicidal ideation to the extent that they increase hopelessness, but a strong ethnic identity may buffer against this relation. This study highlights the need for incorporating culturally related experiences in assessing risk for suicidal ideation and behavior, particularly among emerging adults from diverse backgrounds.
Goforth, Anisa N.; Pham, Andy V.; Chun, Heejung; Castro-Olivo, Sara M.; Yosai, Erin R.
Although the numbers of Arab American immigrant youth in schools is increasing, there is little understanding of their mental health and the sociocultural factors that might influence it. This study examined the relationship between 2 sociocultural factors (i.e., acculturative stress and religious practices) and internalizing symptoms in first-…
Smokowski, Paul Richard; Bacallao, Martica; Buchanan, Rachel Lee
The specific aim of this study was to examine pathways leading to internalizing symptoms and self-esteem in Latino adolescents. Adolescent feelings of interpersonal humiliation, family conflict and commitment, and friendships with peers were investigated as potential mediators linking acculturation stress to subsequent adolescent self-esteem and…
Chen, Wei-Ti; Guthrie, Barbara; Shiu, Cheng-Shi; Yang, Joyce P; Weng, Zhongqi; Wang, Lixuan; Kamitani, Emiko; Fukuda, Yumiko; Luu, Binh Vinh
Asians and Pacific Islanders (API) are among the fastest growing minority groups within the USA, and this growth has been accompanied by an increase in HIV incidence. Between 2000 and 2010, the API HIV infection rate increased from 4.5% to 8.7%; however, there is a paucity of HIV-related research for this group, and even less is known about the prevalence and correlates of antiretroviral therapy adherence behavior, quality of life, impact of stress, and efficacious self-management among HIV+ API Americans. This paper examines how acculturation and perceived stress affect depression symptomatology and treatment seeking in the HIV+ API population. A series of cross-sectional audio computer-assisted self-interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 50 HIV+ API (29 in San Francisco and 21 in New York City). The relationship between acculturation and perceived stress was analyzed, and the results indicate that for those HIV+ API who reported low or moderate acculturation (as compared to those who reported high acculturation), stress was significantly mediated by depression symptomology. Interventions to address acculturation and reduce perceived stress among API generally and Asians specifically are therefore needed.
Wei, Meifen; Heppner, P. Paul; Mallen, Michael J.; Ku, Tsun-Yao; Liao, Kelly Yu-Hsin; Wu, Tsui-Feng
The present study examined whether maladaptive perfectionism (i.e., discrepancy between expectations and performance) and length of time in the United States moderated the association between acculturative stress and depression. Data were collected through online surveys from 189 Chinese international students from China and Taiwan attending a…
Hamamura, Toshitaka; Laird, Philip G.
This study examined relationships among acculturative stress, grade point average satisfaction, maladaptive perfectionism, and depression in 52 East Asian international students and 126 North American students. Results indicated that a combined effect of perfectionism and acculturative stress accounted for more than 30% of the variance related to…
Cristancho, P.; Lenze, E. J.; Avidan, M. S.; Rawson, K. S.
Background Hip fracture is often complicated by depressive symptoms in older adults. We sought to characterize trajectories of depressive symptoms arising after hip fracture and examine their relationship with functional outcomes and walking ability. We also investigated clinical and psychosocial predictors of these trajectories. Method We enrolled 482 inpatients, aged ≥60 years, who were admitted for hip fracture repair at eight St Louis, MO area hospitals between 2008 and 2012. Participants with current depression diagnosis and/or notable cognitive impairment were excluded. Depressive symptoms and functional recovery were assessed with the Montgomery–Asberg Depression Rating Scale and Functional Recovery Score, respectively, for 52 weeks after fracture. Health, cognitive, and psychosocial variables were gathered at baseline. We modeled depressive symptoms using group-based trajectory analysis and subsequently identified correlates of trajectory group membership. Results Three trajectories emerged according to the course of depressive symptoms, which we termed ‘resilient’, ‘distressed’, and ‘depressed’. The depressed trajectory (10% of participants) experienced a persistently high level of depressive symptoms and a slower time to recover mobility than the other trajectory groups. Stressful life events prior to the fracture, current smoking, higher anxiety, less social support, antidepressant use, past depression, and type of implant predicted membership of the depressed trajectory. Conclusions Depressive symptoms arising after hip fracture are associated with poorer functional status. Clinical and psychosocial variables predicted membership of the depression trajectory. Early identification and intervention of patients in a depressive trajectory may improve functional outcomes after hip fracture. PMID:27032698
Pradeep, Neeti; Sutin, Angelina R
Depressive symptoms may co-occur within couples and follow similar trajectories, but relatively little is known about this process in old age. This study thus examined the association between some spousal characteristics (spouse's depressive symptoms, age difference between spouses) and the trajectory of depressive symptoms in older adults. Participants ≥ 65 years old were drawn from the Health and Retirement Study (N = 12,010; Mean age = 70.60 and 69.16 for target husbands and wives, respectively). Depressive symptoms were measured with a short form of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) scale. Hierarchical Linear Modeling was used to model up to 9 assessments of depressive symptoms of target spouses (Mean number of CESD assessments per target spouse = 3, range 1-9). Depressive symptoms between spouses were correlated; convergence over time was modest. For both husbands and wives, having a younger spouse was associated with more depressive symptoms at age 65. These results suggest that there is concordance between spouses' depressive symptoms and that the age difference between spouses contribute to depressive symptoms as couples enter old age. The association between spouses' depressive symptoms is nearly as strong as the effect of each decade increase in age.
Logan, Jeongok G; Barksdale, Debra J; James, Sherman A; Chien, Lung-Chang
This study aimed to explore the levels of John Henryism (JH) active coping and its association with acculturation status and psychological health (specifically perceived stress, acculturative stress, anxiety, and depression) in Korean immigrants to the United States. In 102 Korean immigrants, JH active coping was measured by the JH Scale; acculturation by the Bidimensional Acculturation Scale; perceived stress by the Perceived Stress Scale; acculturative stress by the Social, Attitudinal, Familial, and Environmental Scale; anxiety by the State Anxiety Subscale of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory; and depression by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. The levels of JH active coping in this sample of Korean immigrants appear to be lower than the levels reported in other racial groups. Independent of demographic factors, JH active coping was a significant predictor of higher acculturation status and better psychological health as indicated by lower levels of perceived stress, acculturative stress, anxiety, and depressive symptoms.
Cole, Susan A.; Eamon, Mary Keegan
Objectives: The main purposes of this study were to determine (1) the prevalence of depressive symptoms among foster caregivers, (2) the social-demographics, risk factors, and social support predicting depressive symptoms, and (3) whether social support buffered the effects of the risk factors in the Illinois Foster Caregivers Study. Method:…
Garvey, Michael J.; Goodes, Mike; Furlong, Candy; Tollefson, Gary D.
To examine whether harsh winter weather is associated with depressive symptoms, 45 healthy subjects from Minnesota were compared to 42 subjects from California near the end of the winter season. No differences in the prevalence of depressive symptoms were found between the two groups.
... Loss of a Loved One Symptoms of major depression and complicated grief Depression It’s common for people to have sadness, pain, ... might be getting worse—going into a major depression. About 1 in 5 bereaved people will develop ...
Mooreville, Mira; Shomaker, Lauren B; Reina, Samantha A; Hannallah, Louise M; Adelyn Cohen, L; Courville, Amber B; Kozlosky, Merel; Brady, Sheila M; Condarco, Tania; Yanovski, Susan Z; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Yanovski, Jack A
Depressive symptoms in youth may be a risk factor for obesity, with altered eating behaviors as one possible mechanism. We tested whether depressive symptoms were associated with observed eating patterns expected to promote excessive weight gain in two separate samples. In Study 1, 228 non-treatment-seeking youth, ages 12-17y (15.3±1.4y; 54.7% female), self-reported depressive symptoms using the Beck Depression Inventory. Energy intake was measured as consumption from a 10,934-kcal buffet meal served at 11:00am after an overnight fast. In Study 2, 204 non-treatment-seeking youth, ages 8-17y (13.0±2.8y; 49.5% female), self-reported depressive symptoms using the Children's Depression Inventory. Energy intake was measured as consumption from a 9835-kcal buffet meal served at 2:30pm after a standard breakfast. In Study 1, controlling for body composition and other relevant covariates, depressive symptoms were positively related to total energy intake in girls and boys. In Study 2, adjusting for the same covariates, depressive symptoms among girls only were positively associated with total energy intake. Youth high in depressive symptoms and dietary restraint consumed the most energy from sweets. In both studies, the effects of depressive symptoms on intake were small. Nevertheless, depressive symptoms were associated with significantly greater consumption of total energy and energy from sweet snack foods, which, over time, could be anticipated to promote excess weight gain.
Keenan, Kate; Feng, Xin; Hipwell, Alison; Klostermann, Susan
Background: The high comorbidity between depressive and anxiety disorders, especially among females, has called into question the independence of these two symptom groups. It is possible that childhood anxiety typically precedes depression in girls. Comparing of the predictive utility of symptoms of anxiety with the predictive utility of symptoms…
Crockett, Lisa J; Iturbide, Maria I; Torres Stone, Rosalie A; McGinley, Meredith; Raffaelli, Marcela; Carlo, Gustavo
This study examined the relations between acculturative stress and psychological functioning, as well as the protective role of social support and coping style, in a sample of 148 Mexican American college students (67% female, 33% male; mean age = 23.05 years, SD = 3.33). In bivariate analyses, acculturative stress was associated with higher levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Moreover, active coping was associated with better adjustment (lower depression), whereas avoidant coping predicted poorer adjustment (higher levels of depression and anxiety). Tests of interaction effects indicated that parental support and active coping buffered the effects of high acculturative stress on anxiety symptoms and depressive symptoms. In addition, peer support moderated the relation between acculturative stress and anxiety symptoms. Implications for reducing the effects of acculturative stress among Mexican American college students are discussed.
Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Garber, Judy
The current prospective study investigated transactional relations between maternal depressive symptoms and children's depressive and externalizing symptoms. Participants included 240 children (M age = 11.86 years, SD = 0.56; 53.9% female) and their mothers who were part of a 6-year longitudinal study. Measures of maternal depression (Beck…
Gold, Stefan M; Irwin, Michael R
There is strong evidence that depression involves alterations in multiple aspects of immunity that may contribute to the development or exacerbation of a number of medical disorders and also may play a role in the pathophysiology of depressive symptoms. Accordingly, aggressive management of depressive disorders in medically ill populations or individuals at risk for disease may improve disease outcome or prevent disease development. On the other hand, in light of data suggesting that immune processes may interact with the pathophysiologic pathways known to contribute to depression, novel approaches to the treatment of depression may target relevant aspects of the immune response. Taken together, the data provide compelling evidence that a psychoimmunologic frame of reference may have profound implications regarding the consequences and treatment of depression. In addition, this approach may be used to investigate the possibility that peripheral and central production of cytokines may account for neuropsychiatric symptoms in inflammatory diseases. This article summarizes evidence for a cytokine-mediated pathogenesis of depression and fatigue in MS. The effects of central inflammatory processes may account for some of the behavioral symptoms seen in patients who have MS that cannot be explained by psychosocial factors or CNS damage. This immune-mediated hypothesis is supported by indirect evidence from experimental and clinical studies of the effect of cytokines on behavior, which have found that both peripheral and central cytokines may cause depressive symptoms. Emerging clinical data from patients who have MS support an association of central inflammation (as measured by MRI) and inflammatory markers with depressive symptoms and fatigue. Based on the literature reviewed in this article, subtypes of MS fatigue and depression may exist that are caused by different pathogenetic mechanisms, including inflammation and CNS damage as well as psychosocial factors or
Albeg, Loren J.; Castro-Olivo, Sara M.
This study evaluated the relationship between acculturative stress, symptoms of internalizing mental health problems, and academic performance in a sample of 94 Latino middle school students. Students reported on symptoms indicative of depression and anxiety related problems and acculturative stress. Teachers reported on students' academic…
Santiago, Lívia Maria; Mattos, Inês Echenique
OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of depressive symptoms among institutionalized elderly individuals and to analyze factors associated with this condition. METHODS This was a cross-sectional study involving 462 individuals aged 60 or older, residents in long stay institutions in four Brazilian municipalities. The dependent variable was assessed using the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale. Poisson’s regression was used to evaluate associations with co-variables. We investigated which variables were most relevant in terms of presence of depressive symptoms within the studied context through factor analysis. RESULTS Prevalence of depressive symptoms was 48.7%. The variables associated with depressive symptoms were: regular/bad/very bad self-rated health; comorbidities; hospitalizations; and lack of friends in the institution. Five components accounted for 49.2% of total variance of the sample: functioning, social support, sensory deficiency, institutionalization and health conditions. In the factor analysis, functionality and social support were the components which explained a large part of observed variance. CONCLUSIONS A high prevalence of depressive symptoms, with significant variation in distribution, was observed. Such results emphasize the importance of health conditions and functioning for institutionalized older individuals developing depression. They also point to the importance of providing opportunities for interaction among institutionalized individuals. PMID:24897042
Rozzini, Renzo; And Others
Investigated the relationship between somatic symptoms, depression, and life events (health status, function, social satisfaction, income) in a population of 1,201 elderly persons living at home. Found depression was the most important factor in the appearance of somatic complaints; however, life events were important cofactors in defining…
Taylor, Julie Lounds; Warren, Zachary E.
The current study examined depressive symptoms, concerning the week following autism spectrum diagnosis and an average of 1.4 years later, in mothers (n = 75) of young children diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Over three-quarters of mothers (78.7%) provided retrospective reports of clinically significant depressive symptoms…
Shimada, Hiroyuki; Park, Hyuntae; Makizako, Hyuma; Doi, Takehiko; Lee, Sangyoon; Suzuki, Takao
Many longitudinal studies have found that older adults with depressive symptoms or depression have increased risk of cognitive impairment. We investigated the relationships between depressive symptoms or depression, cognitive function, serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and volumetric MRI measurements in older adults. A total of 4352 individuals aged 65 years or older (mean age 72 years) participated in the study. We investigated medical history and geriatric depression scale-15 (GDS-15) items to determine depression and depressive symptoms. Cognitive tests included the mini-mental state examination (MMSE), story memory, word list memory, trail-making tests, and the symbol digit substitution task. Of the 4352 participants, 570 (13%) fulfilled the criteria for depressive symptoms (GDS-15: 6 + points) and 87 (2%) were diagnosed with depression. All cognitive tests showed significant differences between the 'no depressive symptoms', 'depressive symptoms', and 'depression' groups. The 'depressive symptoms' and 'depression' groups showed lower serum BDNF (p < 0.001) concentrations than the 'no depressive symptoms' group. The 'depressive symptoms' group exhibited greater atrophy of the right medial temporal lobe than did the 'no depressive symptoms' group (p = 0.023). These results suggest that memory, executive function, and processing speed examinations are useful to identify cognitive decline in older adults who have depressive symptoms and depression. Serum BDNF concentration and atrophy of the right medial temporal lobe may in part mediate the relationships between depressive symptoms and cognitive decline.
Gold, Stefan M; Irwin, Michael R
An increasing body of evidence suggests that patients who have major depressive disorder show alterations in immunologic markers including increases in proinflammatory cytokine activity and inflammation. Inflammation of the central nervous system is a pathologic hallmark of multiple sclerosis (MS). Patients affected by this disease also show a high incidence of depression. Accumulating evidence from animal studies suggests that some aspects of depression and fatigue in MS may be linked to inflammatory markers. This article reviews the current knowledge in the field and illustrates how the sickness behavior model may be applied to investigate depressive symptoms in inflammatory neurologic diseases.
Keenan, Kate; Hipwell, Alsion; Feng, Xin; Babinski, Dara; Hinze, Amanda; Rischall, Michal; Henneberger, Angela
Symptoms of depression are investigated among 232 preadolescent girls to study if they were predictive and stable of depression. Findings show that early symptoms of depression among preadolescent girls predict depressive disorders. Implications for preventive measures are discussed.
Ayers, John W; Hofstetter, C Richard; Usita, Paula; Irvin, Veronica L; Kang, Sunny; Hovell, Melbourne F
This research identifies stressors that correlate with depression, focusing on acculturation, among female Korean immigrants in California. Telephone interviews were conducted with female adults of Korean descent (N = 592) from a probability sample from 2006 to 2007. Sixty-five percent of attempted interviews were completed, of which over 90% were conducted in Korean. Analyses include descriptive reports, bivariate correlations, and structural equation modeling. Findings suggest that acculturation did not have a direct impact on depression and was not associated with social support. However, acculturation was associated with reduced immigrant stress which, in turn, was related to decreased levels of depression. Immigrant stress and social support were the principal direct influences on depression, mediating the effect for most other predictors. Stressful experiences associated with immigration may induce depressive feelings. Interventions should facilitate acculturation thereby reducing immigrant stress and expand peer networks to increase social support to assuage depression.
Sirin, Selcuk R.; Ryce, Patrice; Gupta, Taveeshi; Rogers-Sirin, Lauren
Immigrant-origin adolescents represent the fastest growing segment of youth population in the United States, and in many urban schools they represent the majority of students. In this 3-wave longitudinal study, we explored trajectories of internalizing mental health symptoms (depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms). The participants included…
Henkin, Stanislav; Tucker, Katherine L; Gao, Xiang; Falcon, Luis M; Qawi, Imrana; Brugge, Doug
To assess associations between acculturation, depression, and self-reported stress score with reported diagnosis of respiratory disease (RD) in Puerto Rican adults, participants (N = 1,168) were identified from areas of high Hispanic density in the Boston, MA metropolitan area. Eligible participants were interviewed in the home by bilingual interviewers in either Spanish or English. Scales included topics ranging from general background to depressive symptomatology. Respiratory disease was self-reported and checked against prescribed medication. More than one-third (37.8%) of subjects reported doctor-diagnosed RD. A final binary logistical regression model (N = 850), which was adjusted for potential confounders (sex, age, education, poverty) showed that RD was significantly associated with psychological acculturation (OR = 1.97, P = 0.005), depressive symptomatology (OR = 1.52, P = 0.03) high perceived stress score (OR = 1.97, P = 0.009), and current smoking (OR = 1.61, P = 0.03). Significant inverse associations included a high level of language acculturation (OR = 0.65, P = 0.03), light (OR = 0.67, P = 0.01) and moderate to heavy physical activity versus sedentary physical activity (OR = 0.40, P = 0.03). We found self reported physician diagnosed RD was associated with high perceived stress and depression, as well as higher levels of psychological acculturation. Longitudinal research is needed to determine if there is a causal pathway for these associations.
Given the changing racial/ethnic composition of the United States, the impact of culture on adolescent health risk behaviors is an emerging and important issue. The purpose of the present study was to examine acculturation and ethnic identity and its impact on substance use, depression, and self-esteem in a sample of middle school students.…
Bámaca-Colbert, Mayra Y.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Gayles, Jochebed G.
The current study tested a developmental-contextual model of depressive symptomatology among early and middle adolescent Mexican-origin females and their mothers. The final sample was comprised of 271 dyads. We examined the interrelations among cultural (i.e., acculturation dissonance), developmental (i.e., pubertal development and autonomy expectation discrepancies), and interpersonal (i.e., mother-daughter conflict and maternal supportive parenting) factors in predicting adolescents’ depressive symptoms. For both early and middle adolescents, maternal support was negatively associated with mother-daughter conflict and depressive symptoms. Importantly, mother-daughter autonomy expectation discrepancies were positively associated with mother-daughter conflict, but this association was found only among early adolescents. Further, mother-daughter acculturation dissonance was positively associated with mother-daughter conflict, but only among middle adolescents. Findings call for concurrently examining the interface of developmental, relational, and cultural factors in predicting female adolescents’ depressive symptomatology and the potential differences by developmental stage (e.g., early vs. middle adolescence) PMID:21967564
Bámaca-Colbert, Mayra Y; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Gayles, Jochebed G
The current study tested a developmental-contextual model of depressive symptomatology among Mexican-origin, female early and middle adolescents and their mothers. The final sample comprised 271 dyads. We examined the interrelations among cultural (i.e., acculturation dissonance), developmental (i.e., pubertal development and autonomy expectation discrepancies), and interpersonal (i.e., mother-daughter conflict and maternal supportive parenting) factors in predicting adolescents' depressive symptoms. For both early and middle adolescents, maternal support was negatively associated with mother-daughter conflict and depressive symptoms. Mother-daughter autonomy expectation discrepancies were positively associated with mother-daughter conflict, but this association was found only among early adolescents. Further, mother-daughter acculturation dissonance was positively associated with mother-daughter conflict but only among middle adolescents. Findings call for concurrently examining the interface of developmental, relational, and cultural factors in predicting female adolescents' depressive symptomatology and the potential differences by developmental stage (e.g., early vs. middle adolescence).
Sabia, Joseph J.
A recent study by the Heritage Foundation (Rector, Johnson, & Noyes, 2003) found evidence of a positive relationship between early sexual intercourse and depressive symptoms. This finding has been used to bolster support for funding abstinence only sex education. However, promoting abstinence will only yield mental health benefits if there is…
Siener, Shannon; Kerns, Kathryn A.
This study examined associations among several measures of emotion regulation, and their links to depressive symptoms, in a sample of children ages 10-12 years old (N = 87). Both temporal features of emotion regulation and regulation processes involved in the evaluation, monitoring, and modification of emotion were assessed through parent and…
Boylan, Khrista; Georgiades, Katholiki; Szatmari, Peter
Objective: Symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and depression show high rates of co-occurrence, both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. This study examines the extent to which variation in oppositional symptoms predict, variation in depressive symptoms over time, accounting for co-occurring depressive symptoms and measurement error.…
Iliadis, S I; Koulouris, P; Gingnell, M; Sylvén, S M; Sundström-Poromaa, I; Ekselius, L; Papadopoulos, F C; Skalkidou, A
Postpartum depression (PPD) is a common childbirth complication, affecting 10-15 % of newly delivered mothers. This study aims to assess the association between personality factors and PPD. All pregnant women during the period September 2009 to September 2010, undergoing a routine ultrasound at Uppsala University Hospital, were invited to participate in the BASIC study, a prospective study designed to investigate maternal well-being. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) while the Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS) was used as a diagnostic tool for major depression. Personality traits were evaluated using the Swedish Universities Scale of Personality (SSP). One thousand thirty-seven non-depressed pregnant women were included in the study. Non-depressed women reporting high levels of neuroticism in late pregnancy were at high risk of developing postpartum depressive symptoms (PPDSs) at 6 weeks and 6 months after delivery, even after adjustment for confounders (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 3.4, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.8-6.5 and adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 3.9, 95 % CI 1.9-7.9). The same was true for a DSRS-based diagnosis of major depression at 6 months postpartum. Somatic trait anxiety and psychic trait anxiety were associated with increased risk for PPDS at 6 weeks (aOR = 2.1, 95 % CI 1.2-3.5 and aOR = 1.9, 95 % CI 1.1-3.1), while high scores of mistrust were associated with a twofold increased risk for PPDS at 6 months postpartum (aOR 1.9, 95 % CI 1.1-3.4). Non-depressed pregnant women with high neuroticism scores have an almost fourfold increased risk to develop depressive symptoms postpartum, and the association remains robust even after controlling for most known confounders. Clinically, this could be of importance for health care professionals working with pregnant and newly delivered women.
Krieger, Tobias; Altenstein, David; Baettig, Isabelle; Doerig, Nadja; Holtforth, Martin Grosse
Self-compassion involves being kind to oneself when challenged with personal weaknesses or hardship and has been claimed to be associated with resilience in various areas. So far, there are only a handful of studies that investigate self-compassion and its relation to clinical depression. Therefore, the principal goals of the present study were (a) to compare self-compassion in clinically depressed patients and never-depressed subjects, (b) to investigate self-compassion and its relation to cognitive-behavioral avoidance and rumination in depressed outpatients, and (c) to investigate rumination and avoidance as mediators of the relationship between self-compassion and depressive symptoms. One hundred and forty-two depressed outpatients and 120 never-depressed individuals from a community sample completed a self-report measure of self-compassion along with other measures. Results indicate that depressed patients showed lower levels of self-compassion than never-depressed individuals, even when controlled for depressive symptoms. In depressed outpatients, self-compassion was negatively related to depressive symptoms, symptom-focused rumination, as well as cognitive and behavioral avoidance. Additionally, symptom-focused rumination and cognitive and behavioral avoidance mediated the relationship between self-compassion and depressive symptoms. These findings extend previous research on self-compassion, its relation to depression, as well as processes mediating this relationship, and highlight the importance of self-compassion in clinically depressed patients. Since depressed patients seem to have difficulties adopting a self-compassionate attitude, psychotherapists are well advised to explore and address how depressed patients treat themselves.
Abramowitz, Amy C; Ginger, Emily J; Gollan, Jackie K; Smith, Matthew J
Empathy deficits have been associated with schizophrenia and depression. We compared whether individuals with schizophrenia with and without co-occurring depressive symptoms differed on self-reported and performance-based measures of empathy and social functioning. We also examined the relationships among depressive symptoms, empathy, clinical symptoms, and social functioning. Twenty-eight individuals with schizophrenia and depressive symptoms, 32 individuals with schizophrenia without depressive symptoms, and 44 control subjects were compared on assessments of depressive symptoms, empathy, global neurocognition, clinical symptoms, and social functioning. Both groups of individuals with schizophrenia scored higher than controls on the Interpersonal Reactivity Index personal distress subscale. Individuals with schizophrenia and co-occurring depressive symptoms scored significantly higher than individuals with schizophrenia without depressive symptoms on the personal distress subscale. Personal distress and depressive symptoms were significantly correlated among individuals with schizophrenia and co-occurring depressive symptoms, while both measures negatively correlated with social functioning. Emotional empathy was related to clinical symptoms in both groups of individuals with schizophrenia. Personal distress partially mediated the relationship between co-occurring depressive symptoms and social functioning. Personal distress may be an important implication for social functioning among individuals with schizophrenia and co-occurring depressive symptoms, and should be examined further as a potential treatment target.
Rousseau, Cécile; Drapeau, Aline; Platt, Robert
For young refugees, the turmoil of adolescence is exacerbated by the acculturation process that sometimes places them at odds with the traditional culture of their ethnic group. The family environment can affect how adolescents cross that pivotal period. This paper focuses on the influence of family environment, gender and acculturation on the mental health of young refugees from early to mid-adolescence. Sixty-seven Cambodian adolescents were followed up from early to mid-adolescence. The effects of the youths' acculturation level, gender, and family environment and structure on internalising and externalising symptoms were analysed through linear regression analyses. Family conflict tends to increase from early to mid-adolescence. The association between family environment and mental health changes over time and, overall, family environment is associated with externalisation whereas gender, acculturation level, and family structure influence internalisation. Cambodian girls and boys cope differently with the challenges of adolescence in the host country, adopting traditional strategies and borrowing new ones from the host culture. Family therapy may help the parents and their adolescents address this process of change, which is both a source of vulnerability and of fulfilment, and enhances the ability of the family to negotiate between the cultural worlds of the home and of the host countries.
Noh, Marianne S; Rueda, Sergio; Bekele, Tsegaye; Fenta, Haile; Gardner, Sandra; Hamilton, Hayley; Hart, Trevor A; Li, Alan; Noh, Samuel; Rourke, Sean B
Investigation on the mental health of HIV-positive immigrants is severely limited. We examine the independent and combined effects of HIV symptom and coping resources on depressive symptoms among HIV-positive immigrants (n = 259). Ordinary Least Squares regression models were estimated with data from a survey of clinical and social-psychological outcomes in people receiving treatment for HIV infection. We tested for the impact of two HIV-related stressors, one life events stressor and three buffering resources on depressive symptoms, controlling for thirteen demographic, clinical and acculturative factors. HIV-related stressors were found to be positively related to depressive symptom severity. Coping resources, namely self-mastery, mediate the relationships between HIV-related stressors and depressive symptoms. Results from this study provide the first empirical assessment of stress processes for immigrants living with HIV. Although more research is needed to understand mental health among HIV-positive immigrants, the study results suggest that health care providers focus on self-mastery enhancement among HIV-positive immigrants.
Li, Yueling; Hofstetter, C Richard; Irving, Veronica; Chhay, Doug; Hovell, Melbourne F
This study documents the indirect effects of social and environmental variables as mediated by immigrant stress and physical health. Using data from a large dual frame sample of first generation mandarin speaking Chinese immigrants in metropolitan Los Angeles counties with the largest groups of Chinese immigrants, this study uses a path analytic approach to trace how predictors are related to depressive symptoms and to measure direct and indirect influences of variables. Although bivariate analyses suggested that many predictors were associated with depressive symptoms, multivariate path analysis revealed a more complex structure of mediated associations. In the multivariate path analysis only reports of physical health and immigrant stress were directly related to depressive symptoms (P < 0.05), while acculturation, time in the US, income, US citizenship, and distance of persons on whom one could rely were related to stress (but not to physical health status) and only to depressive symptoms as mediated by stress. Age and educational attainment were related to health status (and to stress as mediated by physical health) and to depressive symptoms as mediated by both health and stress. These variables were also unrelated directly to health status and to depressive symptoms. Associations were evaluated using statistical significance, P < 0.05. This study demonstrates the significance of stress and health as mediators of variables in the larger context of the physical environment and suggests that the mechanisms linking ecological characteristics of immigrants to depressive symptoms may be stress and physical health among immigrants.
Murberg, Terje A.
This study examines the relation between shyness, social support and depressive symptoms in a sample of 259 students (aged 14-16 years) in two secondary schools. Results at both time-points showed positive associations of depressive symptoms with shyness and with being female and negative associations of depressive symptoms with social support and…
Peitl, Vjekoslav; Vidrih, Branka; Karlović, Zoran; Getaldić, Biserka; Peitl, Milena; Karlović, Dalibor
Depressive symptoms seem to be frequent in schizophrenia, but so far they have received less attention than other symptom domains. Impaired serotonergic neurotransmission has been implicated in the pathogenesis of depression and schizophrenia. The objectives of this study were to investigate platelet serotonin concentrations in schizophrenic patients with and without depressive symptoms, and to investigate the association between platelet serotonin concentrations and symptoms of schizophrenia, mostly depressive symptoms. A total of 364 patients were included in the study, 237 of which had significant depressive symptoms. Significant depressive symptoms were defined by the cut-off score of 7 or more on Calgary Depression Rating Scale (CDSS). Platelet serotonin concentrations were assessed by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Prevalence of depression in patients with schizophrenia was 65.1%. Schizophrenic patients with depressive symptoms showed lower platelet serotonin concentrations (mean±SD; 490.6±401.2) compared to schizophrenic patients without depressive symptoms (mean±SD; 660.9±471.5). An inverse correlation was established between platelet serotonin concentration and depressive symptoms, with more severe symptoms being associated with lower platelet serotonin concentrations. Depressive symptoms in schizophrenic patients may be associated with reduced concentrations of platelet serotonin.
Wu, Yelena P.; Selig, James P.; Roberts, Michael C.; Steele, Ric G.
The vast majority of new mothers experience at least some depressive symptoms. Postpartum maternal depressive symptoms can greatly influence children's outcomes (e.g., emotional, cognitive, language, and social development). However, there have been relatively few longitudinal studies of how maternal depressive symptoms may influence children's…
Agoston, Anna M.; Rudolph, Karen D.
This research examined two pathways through which depressive symptoms contribute to low social status (i.e., neglect and rejection) within the peer group over time: (a) depressive symptoms promote socially helpless behavior and consequent neglect by peers; and (b) depressive symptoms promote aggressive behavior and consequent rejection by peers.…
Ellis, B Heidi; MacDonald, Helen Z; Klunk-Gillis, Julie; Lincoln, Alisa; Strunin, Lee; Cabral, Howard J
This study examines the role of social identity (acculturation and gender) in moderating the association between discrimination and Somali adolescent refugees' mental health. Participants were English-speaking Somali adolescent refugees between the ages of 11 and 20 (N = 135). Perceived discrimination, trauma history, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depressive symptoms, and behavioral acculturation were assessed in structured interviews. Fourteen in-depth qualitative interviews and 3 focus groups were also conducted. Results indicated that discrimination was common and associated with worse mental health. For girls, greater Somali acculturation was associated with better mental health. Also, the association between discrimination and PTSD was less strong for girls who showed higher levels of Somali acculturation. For boys, greater American acculturation was associated with better mental health, and the association between discrimination and depression was less strong for boys with higher levels of American acculturation.
Shim, Gayoung; Freund, Henning; Stopsack, Malte; Kämmerer, Annette; Barnow, Sven
The present study explores acculturation and its associated aspects of two East Asian student groups with different levels of exposure to German culture (100 international students from East Asian countries [IS]; 61 second generation students of East Asian descent [SGS]). First, we investigated the relationships between acculturation, self-construal, depressive and somatic symptoms, and differences between the student groups in these variables. Second, the four acculturation types (integration, assimilation, separation and marginalization) were examined regarding their relationship to self-construal and health outcomes. The results showed that the acculturation dimensions (mainstream, heritage) were relevant to the level of depressive symptoms for IS which was not the case for SGS. Furthermore, IS reported more somatic symptoms whereas there was no difference between the two groups in the level of depressive symptoms. In the analysis of acculturation types, assimilated and integrated students were characterized by high independent self-construal, while separated and integrated students showed high interdependent self-construal. Assimilated students displayed the least depressive symptoms of all acculturation groups. This study highlights different characteristics of East Asian students in acculturation, self-construal and health outcomes, and discusses the complexity of the relationships between acculturation types and health.
Bennett, David S.; Sullivan, Margaret Wolan; Lewis, Michael
Neglected children may be at increased risk for depressive symptoms. This study examines shame-proneness as an outcome of child neglect and as a potential explanatory variable in the relation between neglect and depressive symptoms. Participants were 111 children (52 with a Child Protective Services [CPS] allegation of neglect) seen at age 7. Neglected children reported more shame-proneness and more depressive symptoms than comparison children. Guilt-proneness, in contrast, was unrelated to neglect and depressive symptoms, indicating specificity for shame-proneness. The potential role of shame as a process variable that can help explain how some neglected children exhibit depressive symptoms is discussed. PMID:20724372
Forster, Myriam; Dyal, Stephanie R.; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Chou, Chih-Ping; Soto, Daniel W.; Unger, Jennifer B.
Objectives This article examines the antecedents and consequences of bullying victimization among a sample of Hispanic high school students. Although cultural and familial variables have been examined as potential risk or protective factors for substance use and depression, previous studies have not examined the role of peer victimization in these processes. We evaluated a conceptual model in which cultural and familial factors influenced the risk of victimization, which in turn influenced the risk of substance use and depression. Design Data were collected as part of a longitudinal survey study of 9th and 10th grade Hispanic/Latino students in Southern California (n=1167). The student bodies were at least 70% Hispanic/Latino with a range of socioeconomic characteristics represented. We used linear and logistic regression models to test hypothesized relationships between cultural and familial factors and depression and substance and a meditational model to assess whether bullying victimization mediated these associations. Results Acculturative stress and family cohesion were significantly associated with bullying victimization. Family cohesion was associated with depression and substance use. Social support was associated with alcohol use. Acculturative stress was associated with higher depression. The associations between acculturative stress and depression, family cohesion and depression, and family cohesion and cigarette use were mediated by bullying victimization. Conclusion These findings provide valuable information to the growing, but still limited, literature about the cultural barriers and strengths that are intrinsic to the transition from adolescence to emerging adulthood among Hispanic youth. Our findings are consistent with a mediational model in which cultural/familial factors influence the risk of peer victimization, which in turn influences depressive symptoms and smoking, suggesting the potential positive benefits of school based programs that
Nezami, Elahe; Unger, Jennifer; Tan, Sylvia; Mahaffey, Caitlin; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Sussman, Steve; Nguyen-Michel, Selena; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Azen, Stan; Johnson, C Anderson
Numerous studies have shown associations between smoking and depression, but the generalizability of the relationship across ethnic groups remains unknown. The present study assessed the association between depression and smoking intention and experimentation among adolescents from four ethnic groups in the Los Angeles area-Chinese/Chinese American, Latino/Hispanic, Persian/Iranian, and White. Over 800 7th graders in the Los Angeles area completed measures of depressive symptoms, experimentation with smoking, intention to smoke, and sociodemographic covariates. Chinese/Chinese American students had the lowest levels of depressive symptoms, whereas Latinos/Hispanics had the highest levels. Latinos/Hispanics also were the most likely to intend to smoke in the next year and were the most likely to have started experimenting with cigarette smoking. Depressive symptoms were significantly associated with intention to smoke even after controlling for language use acculturation, socioeconomic status, gender, and ethnicity. The association between depressive symptoms and intention to smoke did not vary significantly across ethnic groups. These results indicate that the association between depressive symptoms and adolescent smoking generalizes across diverse ethnic groups.
Pedrelli, Paola; Blais, Mark A.; Alpert, Jonathan E.; Shelton, Richard C.; Walker, Rosemary S. W.; Fava, Maurizio
Current measures for major depressive disorder focus primarily on the assessment of depressive symptoms, while often omitting other common features. However, the presence of comorbid features in the anxiety spectrum influences outcome and may effect treatment. More comprehensive measures of depression are needed that include the assessment of symptoms in the anxiety–depression spectrum. This study examines the reliability and validity of the Symptoms of Depression Questionnaire (SDQ), which assesses irritability, anger attacks, and anxiety symptoms together with the commonly considered symptoms of depression. Analysis of the factor structure of the SDQ identified 5 subscales, including one in the anxiety–depression spectrum, with adequate internal consistency and concurrent validity. The SDQ may be a valuable new tool to better characterize depression and identify and administer more targeted interventions. PMID:25275853
Lai, Betty S.; Auslander, Beth A.; Fitzpatrick, Stephanie L.; Podkowirow, Valentina
Background: Disasters are destructive, potentially traumatic events that affect millions of youth each year. Objective: The purpose of this paper was to review the literature on depressive symptoms among youth after disasters. Specifically, we examined the prevalence of depression, risk factors associated with depressive symptoms, and theories…
Depression is an important problem in multiple sclerosis (MS), but the diagnosis is challenging since symptoms of depression overlap with those of MS. In the past, the main strategy has been to remove physical symptoms from scales assessing depressive symptoms in MS, but these attempts have not been successful. Depression and overlapping MS symptoms may actually share pathophysiological mechanisms, so the strategy of attempting to exclude such symptoms may be fundamentally flawed. Current diagnostic criteria provide a pragmatic solution, but it may be possible to develop improved definitions.
Zhang, Amy Y.; Gary, Faye; Zhu, Hui
Background Accurately assessing depression in African American cancer patients is difficult because of the similarities of physical symptoms observed in cancer and depression. Aim To identify universal and distinctive depressive symptoms in African American cancer patients. Methods Seventy-four cancer patients (34 depressed and 23 nondepressed African Americans, and 17 depressed Whites) were interviewed. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were conducted. Results Compared to nondepressed African Americans, depressed African Americans reported irritability, social isolation, insomnia, fatigue, and crying (p ≤ .05) more frequently over time. Compared to depressed Whites, they reported sadness, frustration, and intrusive thoughts less frequently (p ≤ .05), but insomnia and fatigue more frequently (p ≤ .05) during cancer treatment. There was little racial difference at the time of interview. Conclusion Depressed African American cancer patients may benefit from more culturally sensitive depression measures that consider symptoms of irritability, social isolation, and altered expressions of depressive mood. PMID:25564890
Kennard, Betsy D.; Hughes, Jennifer L.; Stewart, Sunita M.; Mayes, Taryn; Nightingale-Teresi, Jeanne; Tao, Rongrong; Carmody, Thomas; Emslie, Graham J.
A study examined maternal depressive symptoms at the beginning and end of acute pediatric treatment of children with major depressive disorder (MDD). Results suggested a direct and possible reciprocal association between maternal and child depression severity.
García-Peña, Carmen; Wagner, Fernando A.; Sánchez-García, Sergio; Espinel-Bermúdez, Claudia; Juárez-Cedillo, Teresa; Pérez-Zepeda, Mario; Arango-Lopera, Victoria; Franco-Marina, Francisco; Ramírez-Aldana, Ricardo; Gallo, Joseph
Background Depression is a well-recognised problem in the elderly. The aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with predictors of change in depressive symptoms, both in subjects with and without baseline significant depressive symptoms. Methods Longitudinal study of community-dwelling elderly people (>60 years or older), baseline evaluations, and two additional evaluations were reported. Depressive symptoms were measured using a 30-item Geriatric Depression Scale, and a score of 11 was used as cutoff point for significant depressive symptoms in order to stratify the analyses in two groups: with significant depressive symptoms and without significant depressive symptoms. Sociodemographic data, social support, anxiety, cognition, positive affect, control locus, activities of daily living, recent traumatic life events, physical activity, comorbidities, and quality of life were evaluated. Multi-level generalised estimating equation model was used to assess the impact on the trajectory of depressive symptoms. Results 7,882 subjects were assessed, with 29.42% attrition. At baseline assessment, mean age was 70.96 years, 61.15% were women. Trajectories of depressive symptoms had a decreasing trend. Stronger associations in those with significant depressive symptoms, were social support (OR .971, p<.001), chronic pain (OR 2.277, p<.001) and higher locus of control (OR .581, p<.001). In contrast for those without baseline significant depressive symptoms anxiety and a higher locus of control were the strongest associations. Conclusions New insights into late-life depression are provided, with special emphasis in differentiated factors influencing the trajectory when stratifying regarding basal status of significant depressive symptoms. Limitations The study has not included clinical evaluations and nutritional assessments PMID:23731940
Wisdom, Jennifer P.; Barker, Ellen C.
Most depressed adolescents do not access medical care for symptoms, yet many improve without professional intervention. While several self-help interventions have empirical support, teens' non-directed efforts to reduce symptoms are not documented. We reviewed 14 depressed adolescents' reports of attempts to reduce depressive symptoms. Results…
Didehbani, Nyaz; Munro Cullum, C.; Mansinghani, Sethesh; Conover, Heather; Hart, John
We examined the relationship between a remote history of concussions with current symptoms of depression in retired professional athletes. Thirty retired National Football League (NFL) athletes with a history of concussion and 29 age- and IQ-matched controls without a history of concussion were recruited. We found a significant correlation between the number of lifetime concussions and depressive symptom severity using the Beck Depression Inventory II. Upon investigating a three-factor model of depressive symptoms (affective, cognitive, and somatic; Buckley et al., 2001) from the BDI-II, the cognitive factor was the only factor that was significantly related to concussions. In general, NFL players endorsed more symptoms of depression on all three Buckley factors compared with matched controls. Findings suggest that the number of self-reported concussions may be related to later depressive symptomology (particularly cognitive symptoms of depression). PMID:23644673
Didehbani, Nyaz; Munro Cullum, C; Mansinghani, Sethesh; Conover, Heather; Hart, John
We examined the relationship between a remote history of concussions with current symptoms of depression in retired professional athletes. Thirty retired National Football League (NFL) athletes with a history of concussion and 29 age- and IQ-matched controls without a history of concussion were recruited. We found a significant correlation between the number of lifetime concussions and depressive symptom severity using the Beck Depression Inventory II. Upon investigating a three-factor model of depressive symptoms (affective, cognitive, and somatic; Buckley et al., 2001) from the BDI-II, the cognitive factor was the only factor that was significantly related to concussions. In general, NFL players endorsed more symptoms of depression on all three Buckley factors compared with matched controls. Findings suggest that the number of self-reported concussions may be related to later depressive symptomology (particularly cognitive symptoms of depression).
Schwartz-Mette, Rebecca A; Rose, Amanda J
This multi-method, longitudinal study considered the interplay among depressive symptoms, aversive interpersonal behavior, and interpersonal rejection in early and middle adolescents' friendships. In particular, the study examined a newly identified interpersonal process, conversational self-focus (i.e., the tendency to redirect conversations about problems to focus on the self). Traditional interpersonal theories of depression suggest that individuals with depressive symptoms engage in aversive behaviors (such as conversational self-focus) and are rejected by others. However, in the current study, not all adolescents with depressive symptoms engaged in conversational self-focus and were rejected by friends. Instead, conversational self-focus moderated prospective relations of depressive symptoms and later friendship problems such that only adolescents with depressive symptoms who engaged in conversational self-focus were rejected by friends. These findings are consistent with current conceptualizations of the development of psychopathology that highlight heterogeneity among youth who share similar symptoms and the possibility of multifinality of outcomes.
Pearson, Rahel; Palmer, Rohan H C; Brick, Leslie A; McGeary, John E; Knopik, Valerie S; Beevers, Christopher G
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a phenotypically heterogeneous disorder with a complex genetic architecture. In this study, genomic-relatedness-matrix restricted maximum-likelihood analysis (GREML) was used to investigate the extent to which variance in depression symptoms/symptom dimensions can be explained by variation in common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a sample of individuals with MDD (N = 1,558) who participated in the National Institute of Mental Health Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) study. A principal components analysis of items from the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) obtained prior to treatment revealed 4 depression symptom components: (a) appetite, (b) core depression symptoms (e.g., depressed mood, anhedonia), (c) insomnia, and (d) anxiety. These symptom dimensions were associated with SNP-based heritability (hSNP2) estimates of 30%, 14%, 30%, and 5%, respectively. Results indicated that the genetic contribution of common SNPs to depression symptom dimensions were not uniform. Appetite and insomnia symptoms in MDD had a relatively strong genetic contribution whereas the genetic contribution was relatively small for core depression and anxiety symptoms. While in need of replication, these results suggest that future gene discovery efforts may strongly benefit from parsing depression into its constituent parts. (PsycINFO Database Record
Jinnin, Ran; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Takagaki, Koki; Nishiyama, Yoshiko; Yamamura, Takanao; Okamoto, Yuri; Miyake, Yoshie; Takebayashi, Yoshitake; Tanaka, Keisuke; Sugiura, Yoshinori; Shimoda, Haruki; Kawakami, Norito; Furukawa, Toshi A; Yamawaki, Shigeto
Purpose Despite its clinical importance, adolescent subthreshold depression remains a largely neglected topic. The aims of this study were to accurately identify the natural course of depressive symptoms and the risk for developing major depressive episode (MDE) in late adolescents with subthreshold depression over 1 year. Patients and methods One hundred and seventy-two participants <20 years of age (mean age: 18.32 years, standard deviation: 0.50), who did not meet the full criteria for an MDE, were selected from 2,494 screened freshmen based on the Beck Depression Inventory, 2nd edition (BDI-II). We conducted a cohort study of three groups (low-, middle-, and high-symptom groups) divided based on BDI-II scores, over a 1 year period with the use of bimonthly assessments. Temporal changes of depressive symptoms were analyzed using linear mixed modeling and growth mixture modeling. Results First, we found that late adolescents with subthreshold depression (high depressive symptoms) were split between the increasing and decreasing depressive symptoms groups, whereas the majority of the less-symptoms group remained stable during 1 year. Second, in comparison with late adolescents with less depressive symptoms, those with subthreshold depression had an elevated risk of later depression. Conclusion Some late adolescents with subthreshold depression had increased depressive symptoms and developed an MDE during 1 year. Therefore, it is necessary for us to rigorously assess the changes in subthreshold depressive symptoms over time in late adolescents. PMID:28053534
Noguchi, Rituna; Hiraoka, Mami; Watanabe, Yoshinori; Kagawa, Yasuo
Although several studies have reported associations of depressive state with specific nutrients and foods, few have examined the associations with dietary patterns in adults. We investigated the association between major dietary patterns and depressive symptoms in Japanese patients with depression. Subjects were 166 Japanese patients (104 men and 62 women), aged 22-74 y, who were treated at a hospital psychiatry clinic in Tokyo. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Himorogi Self-rating Depression Scale (H-SDS) and Himorogi Self-rating Anxiety Scale (H-SAS). We categorized depressive symptoms into 3 types: physical, psychiatric, and anxiety symptoms. Dietary patterns were derived using principal component analysis of the consumption of 59 food and beverage items, which was assessed by a validated brief diet history questionnaire. Three dietary patterns were identified: 1) "plant foods and fish products," 2) "fish," and 3) "Western/meat." We calculated the correlation coefficients for the relationship between each dietary pattern score and depressive symptom score in unipolar depression vs. bipolar depression and in men vs. women. In bipolar depression, the plant foods and fish products pattern showed an inverse relationship with physical and psychiatric symptoms, and in men, this pattern showed an inverse relationship with psychiatric symptoms. The fish pattern and Western/meat pattern were not significantly associated with the 3 types of depressive symptoms. In conclusion, we identified 3 dietary patterns and found that associations between these patterns and depressive symptoms were observed only in bipolar depression and only in men.
Ruiz, Roberta J; Stowe, Raymond P; Brown, Adama; Wommack, Joel
In Hispanics, acculturation may lead to negative health outcomes. This study used a cross-sectional design to investigate the psychosocial and biological risks in acculturating pregnant women of Hispanic origin (n = 470). Psychosocial risks-depressive symptoms, anxiety, and stress-were assessed by self-report, whereas biological measures included stress-related and reproductive hormones. Mental health deteriorated across generations, with worsening depression, anxiety, and stress with successive generations. Stress and reproductive hormone levels decreased across generations, whereas body mass index and number of sexual partners increased. These data provide potential biobehavioral explanations of the relationship between acculturation and declining health among Hispanic women in the United States.
Titzmann, Peter F; Jugert, Philipp
Immigrant adolescents have to navigate through a complex social environment consisting of, at least, both a native and a co-ethnic community. This study used a multi-level framework to consider two research questions involving this complexity. The individual-level associations of acculturation orientations and acculturative hassles (language and sociocultural adaptation) was assessed in immigrant youths, and whether this association differs depending on the school-level acculturation orientations held by co-ethnic peers, and the school-level orientations toward immigrants held by native German peers. We then investigated whether acculturative hassles are associated with the psychosocial functioning (self-efficacy, depressive symptoms) of immigrant adolescents. The sample comprised 650 ethnic German Diaspora migrant adolescents (mean age 15.6 years, 53.7 % female) and their 787 native German peers (mean age 15.05 years, 51 % female). The results showed that contextual factors (co-ethnic acculturation orientation, native friendship preferences) moderated the association between the acculturation orientations of adolescent immigrants and both types of acculturative hassles. Acculturative hassles, in turn, were associated with the psychosocial functioning of adolescents. This research demonstrates that a person-by-context perspective is needed to better understand the adaptation of adolescent immigrants. This perspective has to take into account both the native and the co-ethnic peer environment.
Dallaire, Danielle H.; Pineda, Ashley Q.; Cole, David A.; Ciesla, Jeffrey A.; Jacquez, Farrah; LaGrange, Beth; Bruce, Alanna E.
This study examined the combined and cumulative effects of supportive-positive and harsh-negative parenting behaviors on children's depressive symptoms. A diverse sample of 515 male and female elementary and middle school students (ages 7 to 11) and their parents provided reports of the children's depressive symptoms. Parents provided self-reports…
Kistner, Janet A.; David-Ferdon, Corinne F.; Lopez, Cristina M.; Dunkel, Stephanie B.
This study examined ethnic and sex differences in children's depressive symptoms, along with hypothesized mediators of those differences (academic achievement, peer acceptance), in a follow-up of African American (n = 179) and Euro-American (n= 462) children in Grades 3 to 5. African American boys reported more depressive symptoms than African…
Lee, Min-Ah; Song, Rira
This study examined associations among childhood abuse, personality traits, and depressive symptoms in adulthood, and whether and how the effects of childhood abuse on depressive symptoms are mediated by the Big Five personality traits (i.e., extraversion, conscientiousness, emotional stability, agreeableness, and openness). The data were drawn from the 2012 Korean General Social Survey, a nationally representative survey using a multistage area proportional probability sampling method. Random effects regression and the Sobel test were used. Random effects models showed that physical and emotional abuse in childhood significantly increased depressive symptoms in adulthood, even after controlling for personality traits and socio-demographic factors. The coefficients of childhood abuse slightly decreased when personality traits were controlled, suggesting that personality traits mediated the relationship between childhood abuse and depressive symptoms. Among the personality traits, extraversion and emotional stability were negatively associated with depressive symptoms whereas agreeableness was positively associated with depressive symptoms. The results of the Sobel test showed that only emotional stability significantly mediated the effects of childhood abuse on depressive symptoms. Those who were exposed to childhood abuse had lower levels of emotional stability, which, in turn, led to depressive symptoms in adulthood. The findings suggest that childhood abuse may have a long lasting effect on mental health over the life course by influencing the formation of personality traits through developmental periods.
VanBoven, Amy M.; Espelage, Dorothy L.
In a 2-phase study with a total of 392 participants, depressive symptoms mediated the association between disordered eating and lower problem-solving confidence and an avoidance problem-solving style. Depressive symptoms did not mediate the association between the ability to generate competent solutions to hypothetical stressful situations and…
Kenney, Brent A.; Holahan, Charles J.
Objective and Participants: The authors examined (1) the relationship between depressive symptoms and cigarette smoking in a college sample and (2) the role of smoking self-efficacy (one's perceived ability to abstain from smoking) in explaining the relationship between depressive symptoms and cigarette smoking. Methods: Predominantly first-year…
Weinfield, Nancy S.; Ingerski, Lisa; Moreau, Stacey Coffey
In this study we explored the relation between maternal and paternal depressive symptoms and toddler adjustment in a community sample, testing direct, additive, and interactive models of parental depressive symptoms and child adjustment. Participants were 49 families with 30-month-old children. Data were collected on maternal and paternal…
Chaffin, Mark; Bard, David
Objectives: Parental depression symptoms often change over the course of child welfare family preservation and parenting services. This raises the question of whether certain processes in family preservation services might be associated with depression symptom change. This study tests three correlational models of change among family preservation…
Weisz, John R.; Francis, Sarah E.; Bearman, Sarah Kate
Extensive research has linked youth depression symptoms to low levels of perceived control, using measures that reflect "primary control" (i.e., influencing objective conditions to make them fit one's wishes). We hypothesized that depressive symptoms are also linked to low levels of "secondary control" (i.e., influencing the psychological impact…
Brose, Annette; Schmiedek, Florian; Koval, Peter; Kuppens, Peter
The autocorrelation or inertia of negative affect reflects how much negative emotions carry over from moment to moment and has been associated with increased depressive symptoms. In this study, we posed three challenges to this association by examining: (1) whether emotional inertia is relevant for depressive symptoms when assessed on a longer timescale than usual; (2) whether inertia is uniquely related to depressive symptoms after controlling for perseverative thoughts; and (3) whether inertia is related to depressive symptoms over and above the within-person association between affect and perseverative thoughts. Participants (N = 101) provided ratings of affect and perseverative thoughts for 100 days; depressive symptoms were reported before and after the study, and again after 2.5 years. Day-to-day emotional inertia was related to depressive symptoms over and above trait and state perseverative thoughts. Moreover, inertia predicted depressive symptoms when adjusting for its association with perseverative thoughts. These findings establish the relevance of emotional inertia in depressive symptoms independent of perseverative thoughts.
Varner, Derrick F; Foutch, Brian K
This study investigated the prevalence of depression and burnout symptoms among family medicine providers on active duty in the US Air Force. Results demonstrated that 84% of those surveyed scored positive for degrees of depression symptoms; only sex differences were significant.
Wei, Meifen; Mallinckrodt, Brent; Larson, Lisa M.; Zakalik, Robyn A.
Attachment working models of self and others may govern adults' preferences for internal vs. external sources of reassurance, which, if unavailable, lead to depressive symptoms. This study examined a model in which the link between depressive symptoms and attachment anxiety is mediated by (a) capacity for self-reinforcement and (b) need for…
Monahan, Kathryn C.; Lee, Joanna M.
Little is known about the impact of the relational context of adolescent sexual activity on depressive symptoms. The present study examined trajectories of depressive symptoms among 6,602 adolescents (44% male, 60% White) taken from a nationally representative study (Add Health). Sexually active youth in romantic and casual relationships were…
Tissot, Hervé; Favez, Nicolas; Frascarolo, France; Despland, Jean-Nicolas
Postpartum parental depression, even of mild intensity and short duration, has negative consequences on child development, including increased externalizing and internalizing symptoms. Studies revealed that the links between parental depression and child development are mediated by parenting difficulties. On the other hand, the mediating role of problematic family-level relationships, such as low coparenting support and high conflict between the parents, has rarely been considered, although coparenting difficulties have been linked with both increased depressive symptoms in parents and increased symptoms in toddlers. In the present study, we proposed testing a comprehensive mediation model linking parental depression, coparenting, and child symptoms. At 3 months postpartum, a convenience sample of 69 parental couples completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. In addition, we assessed levels of coparenting support and conflict during a mother–father–infant play situation, the Lausanne Trilogue Play. At 18 months postpartum, both parents assessed child symptoms with the Symptom Checklist Questionnaire. The results showed that coparenting support mediated the links between parental depressive symptoms and child symptoms, but only for mothers: Maternal depressive symptoms were linked with lower coparenting support, which in turn predicted increased psychofunctional symptoms and behavior problems assessed by mothers. Although coparenting conflict behaviors were not predicted by parents’ depressive symptoms, higher conflict was unexpectedly linked with fewer behavior problems assessed by both parents. The present study allowed us to unveil complex pathways between mild parental mood disturbances, family-level relationships, and child development in the first months of the child’s life. PMID:28018259
Munson, Michelle R; McMillen, Curtis
The purpose of this study was to determine the trajectories of depressive symptoms as older youths from the foster care system mature while also examining the correlates of these trajectories. Data came from a longitudinal study of 404 youths from the foster care system in Missouri, who were interviewed nine times between their 17th and 19th birthdays. Depression was assessed with the Depression Outcomes Module and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for DSM-IV. Data best fit a model of three trajectory classes, describing young people (1) maintaining low levels of depressive symptoms (never depressed class, 78%), (2) with increasing symptoms (increasing class, 6%), and (3) with decreasing symptoms (decreasing class, 15%). The increasing depression group was mostly male youths who were working or in school; the decreasing class was mostly highly maltreated female youths exiting the foster care system from residential care, with low levels of employment, and in school. Implications for social work practice are discussed.
Kenney, Brent A.; Holahan, Charles J.; Holahan, Carole K.; Brennan, Penny L.; Schutte, Kathleen K.; Moos, Rudolf H.
This study modeled the predictive association between depressive symptoms and smoking cessation in a sample of 442 late-middle-aged smokers; assessments occurred at four time-points across a 10-year period. In addition, the study examined the role of baseline drinking problems in moderating the relationship between depressive symptoms and smoking cessation. Findings supported hypotheses. More depressive symptoms prospectively predicted a lower likelihood of smoking cessation. In addition, the presence of baseline drinking problems strengthened the relationship between depressive symptoms and a lower likelihood of smoking cessation. Understanding the mechanisms underlying depression and cigarette smoking among older adults is applicable to secondary prevention and treatment and suggests additional public health benefits from treating depression in older persons. PMID:19372009
Feng, Xin; Forbes, Erika E.; Kovacs, Maria; George, Charles J.; Lopez-Duran, Nestor L.; Fox, Nathan A.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.
This study examined the relations of school-age children's depressive symptoms, frontal EEG asymmetry, and maternal history of childhood-onset depression (COD). Participants were 73 children, 43 of whom had mothers with COD. Children's EEG was recorded at baseline and while watching happy and sad film clips. Depressive symptoms were measured using…
Emmert-Aronson, Benjamin O; Brown, Timothy A
This study examines the psychometric properties of a major depressive episode using a large sample (N = 2,907) of outpatients with mood and anxiety disorders. A two-parameter logistic model yielded item threshold and discrimination parameters. A two-group confirmatory factor analysis was used to evaluate gender bias. Item thresholds fell along a continuum with the core features of depressed mood and anhedonia, along with fatigue, endorsed at lower levels of depression, and change in appetite and suicidal ideation endorsed at more severe levels. Item discriminations were highest for depressed mood and anhedonia, and lowest for change in appetite and suicidal ideation. The data indicate that the symptoms of depression assess a range of severity, with varying precision in discriminating depression. No gender differences were observed. Three exploratory symptom sets were compared with the full symptom set for depression, offering quantitative evidence that can be used to modify the psychiatric classification system.
Yilmaz, Adviye Esin; Gençöz, Tülin; Wells, Adrian
This study attempts to examine the unique contributions of "cognitions" or "metacognitions" to depressive symptoms while controlling for their intercorrelations and comorbid anxiety. Two-hundred-and-fifty-one university students participated in the study. Two complementary hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed, in which symptoms of depression were regressed on the dysfunctional attitudes (DAS-24 subscales) and metacognition scales (Negative Beliefs about Rumination Scale [NBRS] and Positive Beliefs about Rumination Scale [PBRS]). Results showed that both NBRS and PBRS individually explained a significant amount of variance in depressive symptoms above and beyond dysfunctional schemata while controlling for anxiety. Although dysfunctional attitudes as a set significantly predicted depressive symptoms after anxiety and metacognitions were controlled for, they were weaker than metacognitive variables and none of the DAS-24 subscales contributed individually. Metacognitive beliefs about ruminations appeared to contribute more to depressive symptoms than dysfunctional beliefs in the "cognitive" domain.
Yoo-Jeong, Moka; Waldrop-Valverde, Drenna; McCoy, Katryna; Ownby, Raymond L
Adherence to combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) remains critical in management of HIV infection. This study evaluated depression as a potential mechanism by which HIV-related symptoms affect medication adherence and explored if particular clusters of HIV symptoms are susceptible to this mechanism. Baseline data from a multi-visit intervention study were analyzed among 124 persons living with HIV (PLWH). A bifactor model showed two clusters of HIV-related symptom distress: general HIV-related symptoms and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. Structural equation modeling showed that both general HIV-related symptoms and GI symptoms were related to higher levels of depressive symptoms, and higher levels of depressive symptoms were related to lower levels of medication adherence. Although general HIV-related symptoms and GI symptoms were not directly related to adherence, they were indirectly associated with adherence via depression. The findings highlight the importance of early recognition and evaluation of symptoms of depression, as well as the underlying physical symptoms that might cause depression, to improve medication adherence. PMID:27695710
Campellone, Timothy R; Elis, Ori; Mote, Jasmine; Sanchez, Amy H; Kring, Ann M
People high in schizotypy, a risk factor for schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, can have negative symptoms, including diminished experience of motivation/pleasure (MAP) and emotional expressivity (EXP). Additionally, people high in schizotypy often report elevated depressive symptoms, which are also associated with diminished MAP and EXP. In this study, we examined whether negative symptoms were related to schizotypy above and beyond the presence of depressive symptoms. Thirty-one people high in schizotypy and 24 people low in schizotypy were administered the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS), an interview-based measure of MAP and EXP negative symptoms and completed a self-report measure of cognitive and somatic-affective depressive symptoms. People high in schizotypy had more MAP negative symptoms than people low in schizotypy, but we found no group differences in EXP negative symptoms. Importantly, the relationship between MAP negative symptoms and schizotypy was fully mediated by cognitive depressive symptoms. These findings suggest that depressive symptoms, specifically cognitive depressive symptoms, may be a pathway for motivation and pleasure impairment, in people at elevated risk for developing schizophrenia-spectrum disorders.
Hooper, Lisa M.; Caroline R. Newman
Building on previous research, the current study examined the relations between parent depressive symptoms, family religious involvement, and adolescent depressive symptoms in a convenience sample of 74 parent-adolescent dyads of southern U.S. families. We used hierarchical regression analysis to explore whether family religious involvement…
Kamysheva, Ekaterina; Skouteris, Helen; Wertheim, Eleanor H; Paxton, Susan J; Milgrom, Jeannette
The aim of this study was to examine the prospective relationship between pregnancy physical discomforts experienced during the second trimester and late pregnancy depressive symptoms, as well as the mediating effect of sleep quality on antenatal depressive symptomatology. Healthy pregnant women (N=257) completed the Physical Symptoms Questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Inventory at early-mid second trimester, and then again at late third trimester. Physical symptoms and sleep quality at the first time point were both correlated moderately with depressive symptoms at late pregnancy. Discomfort associated with physical symptoms was a better predictor of depressive symptoms than Frequency of symptoms, although a score combining Frequency, Discomfort and Effect of symptoms on life was the strongest predictor of depressive symptoms. Results of the hierarchical regression analyses of the mediation model indicated that physical symptoms at early-mid second trimester predicted depressive symptoms in the last trimester both directly, and via poor sleep quality (prospectively), which mediated the relationship. The clinical implications of these findings for antenatal care are discussed.
Thompson, Renee J.; Mata, Jutta; Jaeggi, Susanne M.; Buschkuehl, Martin; Jonides, John; Gotlib, Ian H.
Rumination has consistently been found to be associated with the onset and duration of major depressive episodes. Little research, however, has examined factors that may weaken the association between maladaptive coping, such as rumination, and depressive symptoms. In three samples of participants, including 149 never-depressed adolescent girls, 41 never-depressed women, and 39 depressed women, we examined whether generally adaptive forms of coping interacted with generally maladaptive coping to predict depressive symptoms. Age-appropriate measures of coping and depression were administered to participants in each sample. In never-depressed females, maladaptive coping / rumination were more strongly related to depressive symptoms in the presence of lower levels of adaptive coping. The relation between depression and maladaptive coping / rumination was weaker in the context of higher levels of adaptive coping. In contrast, for the depressed females, we found main effects for rumination and adaptive coping, with higher levels of rumination and lower levels of adaptive coping being associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms. The present findings highlight how adaptive coping and maladaptive coping, including rumination, differentially relate to each other and depressive symptoms depending on individuals’ current depressive state. PMID:20211463
Choi, Heejeong; Marks, Nadine F
Guided by a stress process perspective, we investigated (a) whether marital conflict might directly lead to changes in depression and functional impairment, (b) whether marital conflict might indirectly lead to changes in functional impairment via depression, and (c) whether marital conflict might indirectly lead to changes in depression via…
Air, Tracy; Weightman, Michael J; Baune, Bernhard T
The aim of the present study was to investigate the social cognitive functioning of participants with depression when compared with healthy controls, and to assess the impact of symptom severity. One hundred and eight patients with depression (66 remitted and 42 current) and 52 healthy controls were assessed using the Wechsler Advanced Clinical Solutions: Social Perception Subtest, measuring facial affect recognition in isolation and in combination with prosody and body language interpretation. When healthy controls, remitted depression and currently depressed groups were compared, no associations were found on any of the social cognition subscales. Severity of depressive and anxious symptoms predicted performance on all social cognition subscales in currently depressed participants, controlling for age, gender, education and psychotropic medication. Affective depressive symptoms were inversely related to ACS Pairs and Prosody subscales, while somatic symptoms were inversely related to the ACS Affect Recognition and Total scores. There was no association between severity and the WAIS ACS in remitted depression participants. People with MDD exhibiting more severe depressive and anxious symptoms and a cluster of affective symptoms have greater difficulty undertaking complex social cognitive tasks. Given the state like nature to these deficits, these impairments may cause problems with day to day functioning and have implications in targeted therapeutic interventions.
Air, Tracy; Weightman, Michael J.; Baune, Bernhard T.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the social cognitive functioning of participants with depression when compared with healthy controls, and to assess the impact of symptom severity. One hundred and eight patients with depression (66 remitted and 42 current) and 52 healthy controls were assessed using the Wechsler Advanced Clinical Solutions: Social Perception Subtest, measuring facial affect recognition in isolation and in combination with prosody and body language interpretation. When healthy controls, remitted depression and currently depressed groups were compared, no associations were found on any of the social cognition subscales. Severity of depressive and anxious symptoms predicted performance on all social cognition subscales in currently depressed participants, controlling for age, gender, education and psychotropic medication. Affective depressive symptoms were inversely related to ACS Pairs and Prosody subscales, while somatic symptoms were inversely related to the ACS Affect Recognition and Total scores. There was no association between severity and the WAIS ACS in remitted depression participants. People with MDD exhibiting more severe depressive and anxious symptoms and a cluster of affective symptoms have greater difficulty undertaking complex social cognitive tasks. Given the state like nature to these deficits, these impairments may cause problems with day to day functioning and have implications in targeted therapeutic interventions. PMID:26300814
Nyamathi, Adeline; Marfisee, Mary; Slagle, Alexandra; Greengold, Barbara; Liu, Yihang; Leake, Barbara
Adolescent homelessness has received increasing attention due to its fast growth throughout the United States and the poor mental outcomes experienced by homeless young people. This cross-sectional study (N = 156) identified correlates of depressive symptomatology among homeless young adults and investigated how depressive symptoms are influenced by the coping strategies these young adults employ. The findings are based on analysis of baseline data collected for a hepatitis vaccination intervention pilot study conducted in partnership with a young adult’s drop-in center in Santa Monica, California. Standardized tools assessed drug use history, coping ability, and psychiatric symptomatology. Linear regression modeling was used to identify correlates of depressive symptom severity. Poor perceived physical health, recent crack cocaine use and recent use of tranquilizers were significantly associated with increased severity of depressive symptoms. Self-destructive escape, non-disclosure/avoidance, passive problem-solving and thoughts of harming self were also associated with increased severity of depressive symptoms. PMID:21131507
Lancaster, Christie A; Gold, Katherine J; Flynn, Heather A; Yoo, Harim; Marcus, Sheila M; Davis, Matthew M
The purpose of this study was to evaluate risk factors for antepartum depressive symptoms that can be assessed in routine obstetric care. We evaluated articles in the English-language literature from 1980 through 2008. Studies were selected if they evaluated the association between antepartum depressive symptoms and > or =1 risk factors. For each risk factor, 2 blinded, independent reviewers evaluated the overall trend of evidence. In total, 57 studies met eligibility criteria. Maternal anxiety, life stress, history of depression, lack of social support, unintended pregnancy, Medicaid insurance, domestic violence, lower income, lower education, smoking, single status, and poor relationship quality were associated with a greater likelihood of antepartum depressive symptoms in bivariate analyses. Life stress, lack of social support, and domestic violence continued to demonstrate a significant association in multivariate analyses. Our results demonstrate several correlates that are consistently related to an increased risk of depressive symptoms during pregnancy.
Besharat, Mohammad Ali; Issazadegan, Ali; Etemadinia, Mahin; Golssanamlou, Safar; Abdolmanafi, Atefe
The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship of several cognitive and emotional variables including perfectionism, rumination, and attachment quality with depressive symptoms in a sample of Iranian undergraduate students. Two hundred and ninety nine undergraduate students (144 males, 156 females) from Urmia University of Technology, Urmia University, and Urmia University of Medical Sciences participated in this study. Participants were asked to complete Tehran Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (TMPS), Ruminative Responses Scale (RRS), Revised Adult Attachment Scale (RAAS), and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). The results demonstrated that insecurity of attachment, socially prescribed perfectionism, and rumination could significantly predict the depressive symptoms in undergraduate students. Confirming predictive risk factors of depressive symptoms, results of the present study can produce an empirical basis for designing educational and health programs for people at risk. Accordingly, proper assessment of the risk factors of depressive symptoms in health care settings may provide invaluable information for prevention and management programs.
Atherton, Brennan D; Nevels, Robert M; Moore, Michael T
The literature examining social anhedonia, emotion regulation, and symptoms of depression in psychiatric inpatients has been limited. However, some studies have shown that difficulties in emotion regulation and social anhedonia were independently associated with depression. The current study attempted to examine the effects of these two potential predictors of unipolar depressed mood. Fifty-nine (73% female) psychiatric inpatients were given the measures of emotion regulation, symptoms of anxiety and depression, and social anhedonia. Results showed that difficulties in emotion regulation, specifically dysfunctional emotion regulation strategies and emotional clarity, served as significant predictors of depressive symptoms above and beyond contributions from social anhedonia. These results highlight the importance of attending to emotion regulation in the study and treatment of depression in inpatient samples.
Mills, Paul J.; Wilson, Kathleen; Iqbal, Navaid; Iqbal, Fatima; Alvarez, Milagros; Pung, Meredith A.; Wachmann, Katherine; Rutledge, Thomas; Maglione, Jeanne; Zisook, Sid; Dimsdale, Joel E.; Lunde, Ottar; Greenberg, Barry H.; Maisel, Alan; Raisinghani, Ajit; Natarajan, Loki; Jain, Shamini; Hufford, David J.; Redwine, Laura
Depression adversely predicts prognosis in individuals with symptomatic heart failure. In some clinical populations, spiritual wellness is considered to be a protective factor against depressive symptoms. This study examined associations among depressive symptoms, spiritual wellbeing, sleep, fatigue, functional capacity, and inflammatory biomarkers in 132 men and women with asymptomatic stage B heart failure (age 66.5 years ±10.5). Approximately 32% of the patients scored ≥10 on the Beck Depression Inventory, indicating potentially clinically relevant depressive symptoms. Multiple regression analysis predicting f ewer depressive symptoms included the following significant variables: a lower inflammatory score comprised of disease-relevant biomarkers (p<0.02), less fatigue (p<0.001), better sleep (p<0.04), and more spiritual wellbeing (p<0.01) (overall model F=26.6, p<0.001, adjusted R square = 0.629). Further analyses indicated that the meaning (p<0.01) and peace (p<0.01) subscales, but not the faith (p=0.332) subscale, of spiritual wellbeing were independently associated with fewer depressive symptoms. Interventions aimed at increasing spiritual wellbeing in patients lives, and specifically meaning and peace, may be a potential treatment target for depressive symptoms asymptomatic heart failure. PMID:25533643
Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Mendez-Tellez, Pedro A.; Dinglas, Victor D.; Shanholtz, Carl; Husain, Nadia; Dennison, Cheryl R.; Herridge, Margaret S.; Pronovost, Peter J.; Needham, Dale M.
Rationale: Survivors of acute lung injury (ALI) frequently have substantial depressive symptoms and physical impairment, but the longitudinal epidemiology of these conditions remains unclear. Objectives: To evaluate the 2-year incidence and duration of depressive symptoms and physical impairment after ALI, as well as risk factors for these conditions. Methods: This prospective, longitudinal cohort study recruited patients from 13 intensive care units (ICUs) in four hospitals, with follow-up 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after ALI. The outcomes were Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale depression score greater than or equal to 8 (“depressive symptoms”) in patients without a history of depression before ALI, and two or more dependencies in instrumental activities of daily living (“impaired physical function”) in patients without baseline impairment. Measurements and Main Results: During 2-year follow-up of 186 ALI survivors, the cumulative incidences of depressive symptoms and impaired physical function were 40 and 66%, respectively, with greatest incidence by 3-month follow-up; modal durations were greater than 21 months for each outcome. Risk factors for incident depressive symptoms were education 12 years or less, baseline disability or unemployment, higher baseline medical comorbidity, and lower blood glucose in the ICU. Risk factors for incident impaired physical function were longer ICU stay and prior depressive symptoms. Conclusions: Incident depressive symptoms and impaired physical function are common and long-lasting during the first 2 years after ALI. Interventions targeting potentially modifiable risk factors (e.g., substantial depressive symptoms in early recovery) should be evaluated to improve ALI survivors’ long-term outcomes. PMID:22161158
Rice, Kenneth G.; Choi, Chun-Chung; Zhang, Yanmei; Morero, Yanina Ines; Anderson, Debra
The authors tested a classic diathesis-stress, stress-enhancement model of perfectionism with subgroups of Chinese (N = 129) and Asian Indian (N = 166) international graduate students attending a major U.S. university. More specifically, the authors tested whether self-critical perfectionism, acculturative stress, and their interaction accounted…
Dorn, Lorah D.; Negriff, Sonya; Huang, Bin; Pabst, Stephanie; Hillman, Jennifer; Braverman, Paula; Susman, Elizabeth J.
Purpose Dysmenorrhea affects quality of life and contributes to absenteeism from school and work diminishing opportunities for successful psychosocial and cognitive development during adolescence. In adults, depression, anxiety, and smoking have an impact on menstrual cycles and dysmenorrhea. Associations between these potential problems have not been examined in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between depressive symptoms and anxiety with menstrual symptoms. Smoking was examined as a moderator of this relationship. Methods This study enrolled 154 post-menarcheal girls from a sample of 207 girls age 11, 13, 15, and 17 years [M = 15.4 years (± 1.9)]. Self-reported measures included the Menstrual Symptom Questionnaire (MSQ), Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and smoking behavior. Generalized linear regression modeled MSQ outcomes separately for depressive symptoms and anxiety. Results More depressive symptoms/anxiety were related to higher numbers of menstrual symptoms (r = 0.23–0.44, p < .05). Smoking status (ever) was related to higher MSQ scores. Moderating effects of smoking and depressive symptoms or anxiety on menstrual symptoms were consistent across most MSQ factors where effects were stronger in never smokers. Conclusion This is the first study in adolescents showing smoking status and depressive symptoms/anxiety are related to menstrual symptoms and that the impact of depressive symptoms/anxiety on menstrual symptoms is stronger in never smokers. The dynamic and complex nature of smoking, moods, and dysmenorrhea cannot be disentangled without longitudinal analyses. Efforts to reduce menstrual symptoms should begin at a young gynecological age and include consideration of mood and smoking status. PMID:19237109
Bathla, Manish; Singh, Manpreet; Relan, Pankaj
Context: The association between depression and thyroid function is well known. Both conditions express many similar symptoms, thus making the diagnosis and treatment difficult. Aims: To find the prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms among patients with hypothyroid. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional study. Materials and Methodology: A total of 100 patients diagnosed as hypothyroidism were evaluated using Hamilton depression rating scale (HDRS) and Hamilton scale for anxiety (HAM-A). Statistical Analysis Used: The data were analyzed using the SPSS for Windows version 17.0 software. The quantitative data were expressed in number and percentage. The results obtained were compared using the Chi-square test. Results: Females constituted 70% of the sample. A total of 60% reported some degree of depression based on HDRS (males – 56.63% and females – 64.29%) whereas about 63% out of the total patients screened showed some degree of anxiety (males –56.66% and females – 65.72%) based on HAM-A. The most common depressive symptom among the males was depressed mood (73.33%) and among females was gastrointestinal somatic symptoms (68.54%). The most common anxiety symptom among the males was depressed mood (70.0%) and among females was anxious mood (92.85%). Conclusions: Psychiatric symptoms/disorders are common in patients with thyroid dysfunction. PMID:27366712
Agoston, Anna M.; Rudolph, Karen D.
This research examined two pathways through which depressive symptoms contribute to low social status (i.e., neglect and rejection) within the peer group over time: (a) depressive symptoms promote socially helpless behavior and consequent neglect by peers; and (b) depressive symptoms promote aggressive behavior and consequent rejection by peers. These pathways were investigated in independent samples of youth at two developmental stages: middle childhood (2nd – 4th grade) and early adolescence (5th – 7th grade). In both Study 1 (M age = 7.97, SD = .37; 338 girls, 298 boys) and Study 2 (M age = 11.74, SD = .68; 305 girls, 300 boys), youth and their teachers completed questionnaires at three waves. Multi-group comparison path analyses were conducted to examine sex differences in the models. Consistent with expectations, two pathways emerged through which depressive symptoms undermined subsequent social status. Support was not found for the reverse direction of effect nor for developmental or sex differences in the pathways with one exception: In early adolescence, neglect directly predicted depressive symptoms. These findings suggest specificity but also heterogeneity in the effects of depressive symptoms on social status, and identify behaviors that may be targeted for preventing the persistence of depression and its interpersonal consequences. PMID:22945342
Agoston, Anna M; Rudolph, Karen D
This research examined two pathways through which depressive symptoms contribute to low social status (i.e., neglect and rejection) within the peer group over time: (a) depressive symptoms promote socially helpless behavior and consequent neglect by peers; and (b) depressive symptoms promote aggressive behavior and consequent rejection by peers. These pathways were investigated in independent samples of youth at two developmental stages: middle childhood (2nd-4th grade) and early adolescence (5th-7th grade). In both Study 1 (M age = 7.97, SD = 0.37; 338 girls, 298 boys) and Study 2 (M age = 11.74, SD = 0.68; 305 girls, 300 boys), youth and their teachers completed questionnaires at three waves. Multi-group comparison path analyses were conducted to examine sex differences in the models. Consistent with expectations, two pathways emerged through which depressive symptoms undermined subsequent social status. Support was not found for the reverse direction of effect nor for developmental or sex differences in the pathways with one exception: In early adolescence, neglect directly predicted depressive symptoms. These findings suggest specificity but also heterogeneity in the effects of depressive symptoms on social status, and identify behaviors that may be targeted for preventing the persistence of depression and its interpersonal consequences.
Vermeer, Julianne; Rice, Danielle; McIntyre, Amanda; Viana, Ricardo; Macaluso, Steven; Teasell, Robert
Background and purpose Depressive symptoms are common post-stroke. We examined stroke deficits and lifestyle factors that are independent predictors for depressive symptomology. Methods A retrospective chart review was performed for patients' post-stroke who attended outpatient clinics at a hospital in Southwestern Ontario between 1 January 2014 and 30 September 2014. Demographic variables, stroke deficits, secondary stroke risk factors and disability study measures [Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA)] were analyzed. Results Of the 221 outpatients who attended the stroke clinics (53% male; mean age = 65.2 ± 14.9 years; mean time post-stroke 14.6 ± 20.1 months), 202 patients were used in the final analysis. About 36% of patients (mean = 5.17 ± 5.96) reported mild to severe depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 ≥ 5). Cognitive impairment (CI), smoking, pain and therapy enrollment (p < 0.01) were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Patients reporting CI were 4 times more likely to score highly on the PHQ-9 than those who did not report CI (OR = 4.72). While controlling for age, MoCA scores negatively related to depressive symptoms with higher PHQ-9 scores associated with lower MoCA scores (r= -0.39, p < 0.005). Conclusions High levels of depressive symptoms are common in the chronic phase post-stroke and were partially related to cognition, pain, therapy enrollment and lifestyle factors. Implications for Rehabilitation Stroke patients who report cognitive deficits, pain, tobacco use or being enrolled in therapy may experience increased depressive symptoms. A holistic perspective of disease and lifestyle factors should be considered while assessing risk of depressive symptoms in stroke patients. Patients at risk for depressive symptoms should be monitored at subsequent outpatient visits.
Diniz, D H M P; Blay, S L; Schor, N
Several studies have reported that symptoms of anxiety and depression are significantly associated with diseases characterized by painful crises. However, there is little information about the psychological aspects of recurrent painful episodes of renal stone disease. Our objective was to evaluate the association of symptoms of anxiety, depression and recurrent painful renal colic in a case-control study involving 64 subjects (32 cases/32 controls) matched for age and sex. Cases were outpatients with a confirmed diagnosis of nephrolithiasis as per their case history, physical examination, image examination and other laboratory exams. Patients had a history of at least two episodes within a 3-year period, and were currently in an intercrisis interval. The control group consisted of subjects seen at the Ophthalmology Outpatient Clinic of this University Hospital with only eye refraction symptoms, and no other associated disease. Symptoms of anxiety were evaluated by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and symptoms of depression by the Beck Depression Inventory. Statistically significant differences were observed between patients with nephrolithiasis and controls for anxiety state (P = 0.001), anxiety trait (P = 0.005) and symptoms of depression (odds ratio = 3.74; 95%CI = 1.31-10.62). The Beck Depression Inventory showed 34.5% of respondents with moderate and 6% with severe levels of depression. There was a significant linear correlation between symptoms of anxiety (P = 0.002) and depression (P < 0.001) and the number of recurrent colic episodes (anxiety-state: P = 0.016 and anxiety-trait: P < 0.001). These data suggest an association between recurrent renal colic and symptoms of both anxiety and depression.
Wagner, Fernando A.; Sánchez-Garcia, Sergio; Juárez-Cedillo, Teresa; Espinel-Bermúdez, Claudia; García-Gonzalez, José Juan; Gallegos-Carrillo, Katia; Franco-Marina, Francisco; Gallo, Joseph J.
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Ageing and depression are associated with disability and have significant consequences for health systems in many other developing countries. Depression prevalence figures among the elderly are scarce in developing countries. OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of depressive symptoms and their cross-sectional association with selected covariates in a community sample of Mexico City older adults affiliated to the main healthcare provider. DESIGN Cross-sectional, multistage community survey. PARTICIPANTS A total of 7,449 persons aged 60 years and older. MEASUREMENTS Depression was assessed using the 30-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS); cognitive impairment, using the Mini-Mental State Examination; and health-related quality of life with the SF-36 questionnaire. MAIN RESULTS The prevalence of significant depressive symptoms was estimated to be 21.7%, and 25.3% in those aged 80 and older. After correcting for GDS sensitivity and specificity, major depression prevalence was estimated at 13.2%. Comparisons that follow are adjusted for age, sex, education and stressful life events. The prevalence of cognitive impairment was estimated to be 18.9% in depressed elderly and 13.7% in non-depressed. SF-36 overall scores were 48.0 in depressed participants and 68.2 in non-depressed (adjusted mean difference = −20.2, 95% CI = −21.3, −19.1). Compared to non-depressed elderly, the odds of healthcare utilization were higher among those depressed, both for any health problem (aOR 1.4, 95% CI = 1.1, 1.7) and for emotional problems (aOR 2.7, 95% CI = 2.2, 3.2). CONCLUSIONS According to GDS estimates, one of every eight Mexican older adults had major depressive symptoms. Detection and management of older patients with depression should be a high priority in developing countries. PMID:18818976
Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Meca, Alan; Unger, Jennifer B; Romero, Andrea; Gonzales-Backen, Melinda; Piña-Watson, Brandy; Cano, Miguel Ángel; Zamboanga, Byron L; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Soto, Daniel W; Villamar, Juan A; Lizzi, Karina M; Pattarroyo, Monica; Schwartz, Seth J
Latino parents can experience acculturation stressors, and according to the Family Stress Model (FSM), parent stress can influence youth mental health and substance use by negatively affecting family functioning. To understand how acculturation stressors come together and unfold over time to influence youth mental health and substance use outcomes, the current study investigated the trajectory of a latent parent acculturation stress factor and its influence on youth mental health and substance use via parent-and youth-reported family functioning. Data came from a 6-wave, school-based survey with 302 recent (<5 years) immigrant Latino parents (74% mothers, Mage = 41.09 years) and their adolescents (47% female, Mage = 14.51 years). Parents' reports of discrimination, negative context of reception, and acculturative stress loaded onto a latent factor of acculturation stress at each of the first 4 time points. Earlier levels of and increases in parent acculturation stress predicted worse youth-reported family functioning. Additionally, earlier levels of parent acculturation stress predicted worse parent-reported family functioning and increases in parent acculturation stress predicted better parent-reported family functioning. While youth-reported positive family functioning predicted higher self-esteem, lower symptoms of depression, and lower aggressive and rule-breaking behavior in youth, parent-reported family positive functioning predicted lower youth alcohol and cigarette use. Findings highlight the need for Latino youth preventive interventions to target parent acculturation stress and family functioning. (PsycINFO Database Record
Technow, Jessica R; Hazel, Nicholas A; Abela, John R Z; Hankin, Benjamin L
Predictors of depressive symptoms may differ before and after the first onset of major depression due to stress sensitization. Dependent stressors, or those to which characteristics of individuals contribute, have been shown to predict depressive symptoms in youth. The current study sought to clarify how stressors' roles may differ before and after the first depressive episode. Adolescents (N = 382, aged 11 to 15 at baseline) were assessed at baseline and every 3 months over the course of 2 years with measures of stressors and depressive symptoms. Semi-structured interviews were conducted every 6 months to assess for clinically significant depressive episodes. Hierarchical linear modeling showed a significant interaction between history of depression and idiographic fluctuations in dependent stressors to predict prospective elevations of symptoms, such that dependent stressors were more predictive of depressive symptoms after onset of disorder. Independent stressors predicted symptoms, but the strength of the association did not vary by depression history. These results suggest a synthesis of dependent stress and stress sensitization processes that might maintain inter-episode depressive symptoms among youth with a history of clinical depression.
Pankratz, Nathan; Marder, Karen S; Halter, Cheryl A; Rudolph, Alice; Shults, Cliff W; Nichols, William C; Foroud, Tatiana
Depression is one of the most common nonmotor complications of Parkinson's disease (PD) and has a major impact on quality of life. Although several clinical factors have been associated with depression in PD, the relationship between depression and stage of illness as well as between depression and degree of disability remains controversial. We have collected clinical data on 1,378 PD cases from 632 families, using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) Parts II (activities of daily living) & III (motor), the Mini-Mental State Exam, the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), and the Blessed Functional Activity Scale (Blessed). Analyses were performed using the 840 individuals with verified PD and without evidence of cognitive decline. Logistic regression was used to identify study variables that individually and collectively best predicted the presence of depressive symptoms (GDS >or= 10). After correcting for multiple tests, depressive symptoms were significantly associated with Hoehn and Yahr stage and other clinical measures but not with any genetic variant (parkin, LRRK2, APOE). The Blessed score, education, presence of a first degree relative with signs of depression, and UPDRS Part II were found to best predict depressive symptomatology (R(2) = 0.33; P = 4 x 10(-48)). Contrary to several reports, the results from this large study indicate that stage of illness, motor impairment, and functional disability are strongly correlated with depressive symptoms.
Kim, S Y; Ge, X
This study examined parenting practices and adolescent depressive symptoms among Chinese Americans. First, confirmatory factor analyses revealed that self-reported parenting practices by mothers and fathers and adolescent perception of parenting practices loaded adequately on three subscales: Inductive Reasoning, Monitoring, and Harsh Discipline. Second, parents' depressive symptoms were related to disrupted parenting practices, which, in turn, were significantly related to the negative evaluation of these behaviors by the adolescents. Adolescents' perceptions of such parenting practices were significantly associated with their depressive symptoms. Third, the relationships were robust even after parental income, education, and generation status were statistically controlled. Overall, the relationships between parenting practices and adolescent depressive symptoms among Chinese Americans seemed to echo those found among European Americans.
This paper reports the findings of research on relationships between depression and participation in learning using data from a large sample of older adults. The objective was to establish whether learning can reduce the risk of depression. Data were obtained from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, a nationally-representative sample of…
Robakis, Thalia K.; Williams, Katherine E.; Crowe, Susan; Kenna, Heather; Gannon, Jamie; Rasgon, Natalie L.
Purpose The transition to motherhood is a time of elevated risk for clinical depression. Dispositional optimism may be protective against depressive symptoms; however the arrival of a newborn presents numerous challenges that may be at odds with initially positive expectations, and which may contribute to depressed mood. We have explored the relative contributions of antenatal and postnatal optimism regarding maternity to depressive symptoms in the postnatal period. Methods 98 pregnant women underwent clinician interview in the third trimester to record psychiatric history, antenatal depressive symptoms, and administer a novel measure of optimism towards maternity. Measures of depressive symptoms, attitudes to maternity, and mother-to-infant bonding were obtained from 97 study completers at monthly intervals through three months postpartum. Results We found a positive effect of antenatal optimism, and a negative effect of postnatal disconfirmation of expectations, on depressive mood postnatally. Postnatal disconfirmation, but not antenatal optimism, was associated with more negative attitudes toward maternity postnatally. Antenatal optimism, but not postnatal disconfirmation, was associated with reduced scores on a mother-to-infant bonding measure. The relationships between antenatal optimism, postnatal disconfirmation of expectations, and postnatal depression held true among primigravidas and multigravidas, as well as among women with prior histories of mood disorders, although antenatal optimism tended to be lower among women with mental health histories. Conclusions We conclude that cautious antenatal optimism, rather than immoderate optimism or frank pessimism, is the approach that is most protective against postnatal depressive symptoms, and that this is true irrespective of either mood disorder history or parity. Factors predisposing to negative cognitive assessments and impaired mother-to-infant bonding may be substantially different than those associated
Ngai, Shirley Pui-Ching; He, Wanjia; Chow, Jason Ka-Wing; Tsang, Hector Wing-Hong
Background. Depression is one of the greatest health concerns affecting 350 million people globally. Aromatherapy is a popular CAM intervention chosen by people with depression. Due to the growing popularity of aromatherapy for alleviating depressive symptoms, in-depth evaluation of the evidence-based clinical efficacy of aromatherapy is urgently needed. Purpose. This systematic review aims to provide an analysis of the clinical evidence on the efficacy of aromatherapy for depressive symptoms on any type of patients. Methods. A systematic database search was carried out using predefined search terms in 5 databases: AMED, CINHAL, CCRCT, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO. Outcome measures included scales measuring depressive symptoms levels. Results. Twelve randomized controlled trials were included and two administration methods for the aromatherapy intervention including inhaled aromatherapy (5 studies) and massage aromatherapy (7 studies) were identified. Seven studies showed improvement in depressive symptoms. Limitations. The quality of half of the studies included is low, and the administration protocols among the studies varied considerably. Different assessment tools were also employed among the studies. Conclusions. Aromatherapy showed potential to be used as an effective therapeutic option for the relief of depressive symptoms in a wide variety of subjects. Particularly, aromatherapy massage showed to have more beneficial effects than inhalation aromatherapy. PMID:28133489
Kalil, Ariel; Kunz, James
This longitudinal study tested the contribution of age and marital status at first birth to depressive symptomatology in early adulthood. Findings indicated that unmarried teenage childbearers displayed higher levels of depressive symptoms than women who first gave birth as married adults. The psychological health of married teenage mothers in…
Mohanraj, Rani; Subbaiah, Karunanidhi
Aim: This study aimed to find the prevalence of depressive symptoms among adolescents studying in schools in Chennai. Settings and Design: The study was a school based cross-sectional survey in which data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire from adolescents studying in classes X, XI and XII. Material: Beck Depression Inventory…
Kiuru, Noona; Leskinen, Esko; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Salmela-Aro, Katariina
To examine whether learning difficulties play a role in depressive symptoms, 658 Finnish adolescents were asked to complete scales for depression three times during the transition to post-comprehensive education. They also reported on their learning difficulties and feelings of inadequacy as a student. The results showed that learning difficulties…
Diaz, Naelys; Green, Diane; Horton, Eloise G.
The existing literature indicates high comorbidity rates between depressive disorders and substance abuse disorders. Despite these elevated rates, there is limited empirical work devoted to understanding predictors of depressive symptoms among substance abusers. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of spirituality, believing in God's…
Georgiades, Katholiki; Lewinsohn, Peter M.; Monroe, Scott M.; Seeley, John R.
Objective: To examine the longitudinal association between individual subthreshold symptoms and onset of major depressive disorder (MDD) in adolescence. Method: Data for analysis come from the Oregon Adolescent Depression Project, a prospective epidemiological study of psychological disorders among adolescents, ages 14 to 18 years, from the…
Dunne, Erin; Wrosch, Carsten; Miller, Gregory E.
Objectives This longitudinal study examined the associations between older adults’ goal adjustment capacities (i.e., goal disengagement and goal reengagement capacities), functional disability, and depressive symptoms. It was expected that goal disengagement capacities would prevent an adverse effect of heightened functional disability on increases in depressive symptoms. Methods Multivariate regression analyses were conducted, using four waves of data from a 6-yr longitudinal study of 135 community-dwelling older adults (> 60 years old). Results Depressive symptoms and functionality disability increased over time. Moreover, poor goal disengagement capacities and high levels of functional disability forecasted six-year increases in depressive symptoms. Finally, goal disengagement buffered the association of functional disability with increases in depressive symptoms. No associations were found for goal reengagement capacities. Conclusion The findings suggest an adaptive role for goal disengagement capacities in older adulthood. When confronted with increases in functional disability, the capacity to withdraw effort and commitment from unattainable goals can help protect older adults from experiencing long-term increases in depressive symptoms. PMID:21604877
Schwartz-Mette, Rebecca A.; Rose, Amanda J.
This multi-method, longitudinal study considered the interplay among depressive symptoms, aversive interpersonal behavior, and interpersonal rejection in early and middle adolescents’ friendships. In particular, the study examined a newly identified interpersonal process, conversational self-focus (i.e., the tendency to redirect conversations about problems to focus on the self). Traditional interpersonal theories of depression suggest that individuals with depressive symptoms engage in aversive behaviors (such as conversational self-focus) and are rejected by others. However, in the current study, not all adolescents with depressive symptoms engaged in conversational self-focus and were rejected by friends. Instead, conversational self-focus moderated prospective relations of depressive symptoms and later friendship problems such that only adolescents with depressive symptoms who engaged in conversational self-focus were rejected by friends. These findings are consistent with current conceptualizations of the development of psychopathology that highlight heterogeneity among youth who share similar symptoms and the possibility of multifinality of outcomes. PMID:25640911
Surkan, Pamela J.; Kawachi, Ichiro; Ryan, Louise M.; Berkman, Lisa F.; Carvalho Vieira, Lina M.; Peterson, Karen E.
Objectives. We assessed whether maternal depressive symptoms and parenting self-efficacy were associated with child growth delay. Methods. We collected data from a random sample of 595 low-income mothers and their children aged 6 to 24 months in Teresina, Piauí, Brazil, including information on sociodemographic characteristics, mothers’ depressive symptoms and parenting self-efficacy, and children’s anthropometric characteristics. We used adjusted logistic regression models in our analyses. Results. Depressive symptoms among mothers were associated with 1.8 times higher odds (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1, 2.9) of short stature among children. Parenting self-efficacy was not associated with short stature, nor did it mediate or modify the relationship between depressive symptoms and short stature. Maternal depressive symptoms and self-efficacy were not related to child underweight. Conclusions. Our results showed that among low-income Brazilian families maternal depressive symptoms, but not self-efficacy, were associated with short stature in children aged 6 to 24 months after adjustment for known predictors of growth. PMID:18048782
Contreras, Mónica Yicette Sánchez; Vargas, Paula Alejandra Osorio; Ramos, Lucero Rengifo; Velandia, Rafael Alarcón
The authors describe a family group studied by the Centro de Biología Molecular y Biotecnología, and the Clínica de la Memoria, las Demencias y el Envejecimiento (Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira, Colombia), and evaluate the association of depressive symptoms with Alzheimer's disease (AD). This family presented a hereditary pattern for AD characterized by an early onset of dementia symptoms, a long preclinical depressive course, and, once the first symptoms of dementia appeared, a rapid progression to severe cognitive function impairment. The authors found a high prevalence of depressive symptoms in this family and propose that the symptoms could be an important risk factor for developing AD in the presence of other risk factors such as the APOE E4 allele.
Williamson, J Austin; O'Hara, Michael W; Stuart, Scott; Hart, Kimberly J; Watson, David
Assessing postpartum depressive symptoms is complicated by the fact that irritability, fatigue, insomnia, and appetite disruptions are also related to normative aspects of the childbearing process. We used multigroup confirmatory factor analysis to compare symptoms in 271 postpartum women with those of 820 non-postpartum women. We found that (a) irritability, insomnia, fatigue, and appetite loss were substantially associated with depressed mood among postpartum women whereas increased appetite was not; (b) irritability, insomnia, fatigue, and appetite changes were as strongly related to depression among postpartum women as they were among non-postpartum women; and (c) after controlling for overall depressed mood, postpartum women reported more irritability, insomnia, and appetite loss than the non-postpartum women. Irritability, fatigue, insomnia, and appetite loss are valid indicators and should be used to measure postpartum depressive symptoms. However, scores on these symptoms should be adjusted downward to account for their higher baseline rates in the postpartum population.
Skarupski, K.A.; Tangney, C.C.; Li, H.; Evans, D.A.; Morris, M.C.
Objective To examine whether adherence to a Mediterranean-based dietary pattern is predictive of depressive symptoms among older adults. Design Generalized estimating equation models were used to test the association between a Mediterranean-based dietary pattern and depressive symptoms over time. Models were adjusted for age, sex, race, education, income, widowhood, antidepressant use, total calorie intake, body mass index, smoking, alcohol consumption, number of self-reported medical conditions, cognitive function, and physical disability. Setting Chicago, Illinois. Participants Community-dwelling participants (n=3502) of the Chicago Health and Aging Project aged 65+ years (59% African American) who had no evidence of depression at the baseline. Measurements Adherence to a Mediterranean-based dietary pattern was assessed by the MedDietScore. Dietary evaluation was performed with a food frequency questionnaire at baseline and related to incident depression as measured by the presence of four or more depressive symptoms from the 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale. Results Over an average follow-up of 7.2 years, greater adherence to a Mediterranean-based diet was associated with a reduced number of newly occurring depressive symptoms (parameter estimate = -0.002, standard error = 0.001; p = 0.04). The annual rate of developing depressive symptoms was 98.6% lower among persons in the highest tertile of a Mediterranean-based dietary pattern compared with persons in the lowest tertile group. Conclusion Our results support the hypothesis that adherence to a diet comprised of vegetables, fruits, whole grains, fish, and legumes may protect against the development of depressive symptoms in older age. PMID:23636545
Background The strategies that parents use to guide and discipline their children may influence their emotional health. Relatively little research has been conducted examining the association of parenting practices to depressive symptoms among Caribbean adolescents. This project examines the association of parenting styles to levels of depressive symptoms among adolescents in Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Kitts and Nevis, and St. Vincent. Methods Adolescents attending grade ten of academic year 2006/2007 in Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Vincent, and St. Kitts and Nevis were administered the Parenting Practices Scale along with the BDI-II. Authoritative, Authoritarian, Permissive and Neglectful parenting styles were created using a median split procedure of the monitoring and nurturance subscales of the Parenting Practices Scale. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the relationships of parenting styles to depressive symptoms. Results A wide cross-section of tenth grade students in each nation was sampled (n = 1955; 278 from Jamaica, 217 from the Bahamas, 737 St. Kitts and Nevis, 716 from St. Vincent; 52.1% females, 45.6% males and 2.3% no gender reported; age 12 to 19 years, mean = 15.3 yrs, sd = .95 yrs). Nearly half (52.1%) of all adolescents reported mild to severe symptoms of depression with 29.1% reporting moderate to severe symptoms of depression. In general, authoritative and permissive parenting styles were both associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms in adolescents. However, the relationship of parenting styles to depression scores was not consistent across countries (p < .05). In contrast to previous research on Caribbean parenting, caregivers in this study used a mixture of different parenting styles with the two most popular styles being authoritative and neglectful parenting. Conclusions There appears to be an association between parenting styles and depressive symptoms that is differentially manifested across the
Torske, Magnhild Oust; Hilt, Bjørn; Glasscock, David; Lundqvist, Peter; Krokstad, Steinar
ABSTRACT Agriculture has undergone profound changes, and farmers face a wide variety of stressors. Our aim was to study the levels of anxiety and depression symptoms among Norwegian farmers compared with other occupational groups. Working participants in the HUNT3 Survey (The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, 2006–2008), aged 19–66.9 years, were included in this cross-sectional study. We compared farmers (women, n = 317; men, n = 1,100) with HUNT3 participants working in other occupational groups (women, n = 13,429; men, n = 10,026), classified according to socioeconomic status. We used the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to measure anxiety and depression symptoms. Both male and female farmers had higher levels of depression symptoms than the general working population, but the levels of anxiety symptoms did not differ. The differences in depression symptom levels between farmers and the general working population increased with age. In an age-adjusted logistic regression analysis, the odds ratio (OR) for depression caseness (HADS-D ≥8) when compared with the general working population was 1.49 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22–1.83) in men and 1.29 (95% CI: 0.85–1.95) in women. Male farmers had a higher OR of depression caseness than any other occupational group (OR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.52–2.49, using higher-grade professionals as reference). Female farmers had an OR similar to men (2.00, 95% CI: 1.26–3.17), but lower than other manual occupations. We found that farmers had high levels of depression symptoms and average levels of anxiety symptoms compared with other occupational groups. PMID:26488439
McCaffery, Jeanne M.; Papandonatos, George D.; Faulconbridge, Lucy F.; Erar, Bahar; Peter, Inga; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Pajewski, Nicholas M.; Anderson, Andrea; Wadden, Thomas A.; Wing, Rena R.
Objective Numerous studies find elevated depressive symptoms among individuals with type 2 diabetes, yet the mechanisms remain unclear. We examined whether genetic loci previously associated with depressive symptoms predict depressive symptoms among overweight/obese individuals with type 2 diabetes or change in depressive symptoms during behavioral weight loss. Methods The Illumina CARe iSelect (IBC) chip and Cardiometabochip were characterized in 2,118 overweight or obese participants with type 2 diabetes from Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes), a randomized trial to determine the effects of intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) and Diabetes Support and Education (DSE) on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Primary analyses focused on baseline Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scores and depressive symptom change at one year. Results Of eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in six loci, three a priori SNPs in two loci (Chr5: rs60271; LBR: rs2230419, rs1011319) were associated with baseline BDI scores, but in the opposite direction of prior research. In joint analysis of 90,003 IBC and Cardiometabochip SNPs, rs1543654 in the region of KCNE1 predicted change in BDI scores at year 1 in DSE (beta= −1.05, SE=0.21, p=6.9 × 10−7) at the level of chip-wide significance, while also showing a nominal association with baseline BDI (beta=0.35, SE=0.16, p=0.026). Adjustment for antidepressant medication and/or limiting analyses to Non-Hispanic White individuals did not meaningfully alter results. Conclusions Previously reported genetic associations with depressive symptoms did not replicate in this cohort of overweight/obese individuals with type 2 diabetes. We identified KCNE1 as a potential novel locus associated with depressive symptoms. PMID:26489030
Smith, Bruce W.; Ortiz, J. Alexis; Steffen, Laurie E.; Tooley, Erin M.; Wiggins, Kathryn T.; Yeater, Elizabeth A.; Montoya, John D.; Bernard, Michael L.
Objective: This study investigated the association between mindfulness, other resilience resources, and several measures of health in 124 urban firefighters. Method: Participants completed health measures of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depressive symptoms, physical symptoms, and alcohol problems and measures of resilience…
Premo, Julie E; Kiel, Elizabeth J
Although many studies have examined how maternal depressive symptoms relate to parenting outcomes, less work has examined how symptoms affect emotion socialization, a parenting construct linked to a myriad of socioemotional outcomes in early childhood. In line with a transactional perspective on the family, it is also important to understand how children contribute to these emotional processes. The current study examined how toddler emotion regulation strategies moderated the relation between maternal depressive symptoms and emotion socialization responses, including nonsupportive responses (e.g., minimizing, responding punitively to children's negative emotions) and wish-granting, or the degree to which mothers give in to their children's demands in order to decrease their children's and their own distress. Mothers (n = 91) and their 24-month-old toddlers participated in laboratory tasks from which toddler emotion regulation behaviors were observed. Mothers reported depressive symptoms and use of maladaptive emotion socialization strategies concurrently and at a 1-year follow-up. The predictive relation between maternal depressive symptoms and emotion socialization was then examined in the context of toddlers' emotion regulation. Toddlers' increased use of caregiver-focused regulation interacted with depressive symptoms in predicting increased wish-granting socialization responses at 36 months. At high levels of toddlers' caregiver-focused regulation, depressive symptoms related to increased wish-granting socialization at 36 months. There was no relation for nonsupportive socialization responses. Results suggest that toddler emotional characteristics influence how depressive symptoms may put mothers at risk for maladaptive parenting. Family psychologists must strive to understand the role of both parent and toddler characteristics within problematic emotional interactions.
Premo, Julie E.; Kiel, Elizabeth J.
Although many studies have examined how maternal depressive symptoms relate to parenting outcomes, less work has examined how symptoms affect emotion socialization, a parenting construct linked to a myriad of socioemotional outcomes in early childhood. In line with a transactional perspective on the family, it is also important to understand how children contribute to these emotional processes. The current study examined how toddler emotion regulation strategies moderated the relation between maternal depressive symptoms and emotion socialization responses, including non-supportive responses (e.g., minimizing, responding punitively to children’s negative emotions) and wish-granting, or the degree to which mothers give in to their children’s demands in order to decrease their children’s and their own distress. Mothers (n = 91) and their 24-month-old toddlers participated in laboratory tasks from which toddler emotion regulation behaviors were observed. Mothers reported depressive symptoms and use of maladaptive emotion socialization strategies concurrently and at a 1-year follow-up. The predictive relation between maternal depressive symptoms and emotion socialization was then examined in the context of toddlers’ emotion regulation. Toddlers’ increased use of caregiver-focused regulation interacted with depressive symptoms in predicting increased wish-granting socialization responses at 36 months. At high levels of toddlers’ caregiver-focused regulation, depressive symptoms related to increased wish granting socialization at 36 months. There was no relation for non-supportive socialization responses. Results suggest that toddler emotional characteristics influence how depressive symptoms may put mothers at risk for maladaptive parenting. Family psychologists must strive to understand the role of both parent and toddler characteristics within problematic emotional interactions. PMID:26461486
Jerez-Roig, Javier; de Oliveira, Nayara Priscila Dantas; de Lima Filho, Bartolomeu Fagundes; de Farias Bezerra, Maria Amanda; Matias, Monayane Grazielly Leite; Ferreira, Lidiane Macedo; Dos Santos Amaral, Fabienne Louise Juvêncio; Souza, Dyego Leandro Bezerra; Lima, Kenio Costa
Background/Study Context: Depression is a common psychiatric disorder in the elderly that leads to a decrease in quality of life and functional impairment, among other health problems. The study of depressive symptoms in institutionalized elderly is scarce in Latin America and can contribute to plan prevention and treatment actions in order to improve health conditions for the residents as well as quality of life. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of depressive symptoms and identify its associated factors in institutionalized elderly.
Dix, Theodore; Meunier, Leah N; Lusk, Kathryn; Perfect, Michelle M
Vibrant expression of emotion is the principal means infants and young children use to elicit appropriate and timely caregiving, stimulation, and support. This study examined the depression-inhibition hypothesis: that declines in mothers' support as their depressive symptoms increase inhibit children's emotional communication. Ninety-four mothers and their 14- to 27-month-olds interacted in a university playroom. Based on microanalytic coding of discrete facial displays, results supported three components of the hypothesis. (a) As mothers' depressive symptoms increased, children displayed less facial emotion (more flat affect, less joy, less sadness, less negative). (b) Mothers' low emotional and behavioral support predicted children's low facial communication and mediated relations between mothers' depressive symptoms and children's infrequent emotion. (c) Children who were passive with mothers behaviorally expressed emotion infrequently. Children's passivity mediated relations between mothers' depressive symptoms and children's infrequent emotion displays. Contrary to modeling and contagion theories, mothers' facial displays did not mediate relations between their depressive symptoms and children's facial displays. Nor were the outcomes children experienced regulating their facial displays. Rather, findings suggest that, even when depressive symptoms are modest, young children inhibit emotion as mothers' depressive symptoms increase to withdraw from unresponsive mothers, which may adversely affect children's subsequent relationships and competencies.
Hawkins, Misty A. W.; Dolansky, Mary A.; Schaefer, Julie T.; Fulcher, Michael J.; Gunstad, John; Redle, Joseph D.; Josephson, Richard; Hughes, Joel W.
Background Patients with heart failure (HF) have high rates of cognitive impairment and depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms have been associated with greater cognitive impairments in HF; however, it is not known whether particular clusters of depressive symptoms are more detrimental to cognition than others. Objective To identify whether somatic and/or nonsomatic depressive symptom clusters were associated with cognitive function in persons with HF. Methods Participants were 326 HF patients (40.5% female, 26.7% race-ethnicity, aged 68.6±9.7 years). Depressive symptoms were measured using a depression questionnaire commonly used in medical populations: the Patient Health Questionnatire-9 (PHQ-9). Somatic and Nonsomatic subscales scores were created using previous factor analytic results. A neuropsychological battery tested attention, executive function, and memory. Composites were created using averages of age-adjusted scaled scores. Regressions adjusting for demographic and clinical factors were conducted. Results Regressions revealed that PHQ-9 Total was associated with Attention (β=−.14, p=.008) and Executive Function (β=−.17, p=.001). When analyzed separately, the Nonsomatic subscale – but not the Somatic symptoms subscale (ps ≥.092) – was associated with Attention scores (β=−.15, p=.004) and Memory (β=−.11, p=.044). Both Nonsomatic (β=−.18, p<.001) and Somatic symptoms (β=−.11, p=.048) were related to Executive Function. When included together, only the Nonsomatic symptom cluster was associated with Attention (β=−.15, p=.020) and Executive Function (β=−.19, p=.003). Conclusions Greater overall depressive symptom severity was associated with poorer performance on multiple cognitive domains, an effect driven primarily by the nonsomatic symptoms of depression. Clinical Implications These findings suggest that screening explicitly for nonsomatic depressive symptoms may be warranted and that the mechanisms underlying the
Jeffers, Amy J; Cotter, Elizabeth W; Snipes, Daniel J; Benotsch, Eric G
Obese and overweight individuals experience higher risk for depression and emotional distress. One factor that may contribute to depression in obese or overweight individuals is exposure to unrealistic images in the media. Indeed, overall media consumption is associated with body image dissatisfaction in adolescents and young adults. Despite these compelling links, prior work has not examined the mediating effect of media pressures on the link between BMI and depression. In the present study, young adults (N = 743) completed an online survey assessing demographic information, perceived pressure from the media to conform to a certain body standard, and symptoms of depression. Structural equation modeling analyses indicated a direct effect of BMI on media pressure, a direct effect of media pressure on depressive symptoms, and an indirect effect of BMI on depressive symptoms mediated by media pressures. Findings indicate that higher BMI levels are associated with greater depressive symptoms when there is greater perceived media pressure on body image. Results suggest the need for clinicians to assess media consumption and perceived pressure to conform to physical appearance standards in individuals who are obese or overweight as well as individuals at risk for eating disorders.
Klier, Claudia M.; Rosenblum, Katherine L.; Zeller, Maria; Steinhardt, Kornelia; Bergemann, Niels; Muzik, Maria
Background Persistence of postpartum depression (PPD) carries potential adverse implications for the emerging mother–child relationship and for child development. Methods This study was designed to investigate factors related to the onset and persistence of PPD; in particular, we examined the cumulative effect of a range of psychosocial risk factors in predicting chronic PPD symptoms. One hundred and five women were interviewed at three assessment periods: within the first days after childbirth, at 6 months, and at 18 months postpartum. Results Depressive symptoms at 6 months predicted 18 months depressive symptoms, even when controlling for the contribution of maternal depression at birth. Psychosocial risk had a moderating influence on the stability of depressive symptomatology. Women with two or more risk factors at birth were more likely to have stable depressive symptomatology across the infants’ first 18 months of life. Conclusion To prevent a chronic course of PPD it may be necessary to identify both depressive symptoms and relevant psychosocial risk factors. PMID:18729148
Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Meca, Alan; Unger, Jennifer B; Romero, Andrea; Szapocznik, José; Piña-Watson, Brandy; Cano, Miguel Ángel; Zamboanga, Byron L; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Soto, Daniel W; Villamar, Juan A; Lizzi, Karina M; Pattarroyo, Monica; Schwartz, Seth J
U.S. Latino parents can face cultural stressors in the form of acculturative stress, perceived discrimination, and a negative context of reception. It stands to reason that these cultural stressors may negatively impact Latino youth's emotional well-being and health risk behaviors by increasing parents' depressive symptoms and compromising the overall functioning of the family. To test this possibility, we analyzed data from a six-wave longitudinal study with 302 recently immigrated (<5 years in the United States) Latino parents (74% mothers, Mage = 41.09 years) and their adolescent children (47% female, Mage = 14.51 years). Results of a cross-lagged analysis indicated that parent cultural stress predicted greater parent depressive symptoms (and not vice versa). Both parent cultural stress and depressive symptoms, in turn, predicted lower parent-reported family functioning, which mediated the links from parent cultural stress and depressive symptoms to youth alcohol and cigarette use. Parent cultural stress also predicted lower youth-reported family functioning, which mediated the link from parent cultural stress to youth self-esteem. Finally, mediation analyses indicated that parent cultural stress predicted youth alcohol use by a way of parent depressive symptoms and parent-reported family functioning. Our findings point to parent depressive symptoms and family functioning as key mediators in the links from parent cultural stress to youth emotional well-being and health risk behaviors. We discuss implications for research and preventive interventions.
Arnold, S E; Xie, S X; Leung, Y-Y; Wang, L-S; Kling, M A; Han, X; Kim, E J; Wolk, D A; Bennett, D A; Chen-Plotkin, A; Grossman, M; Hu, W; Lee, V M-Y; Mackin, R Scott; Trojanowski, J Q; Wilson, R S; Shaw, L M
The pathophysiology of negative affect states in older adults is complex, and a host of central nervous system and peripheral systemic mechanisms may play primary or contributing roles. We conducted an unbiased analysis of 146 plasma analytes in a multiplex biochemical biomarker study in relation to number of depressive symptoms endorsed by 566 participants in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) at their baseline and 1-year assessments. Analytes that were most highly associated with depressive symptoms included hepatocyte growth factor, insulin polypeptides, pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A and vascular endothelial growth factor. Separate regression models assessed contributions of past history of psychiatric illness, antidepressant or other psychotropic medicine, apolipoprotein E genotype, body mass index, serum glucose and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) τ and amyloid levels, and none of these values significantly attenuated the main effects of the candidate analyte levels for depressive symptoms score. Ensemble machine learning with Random Forests found good accuracy (∼80%) in classifying groups with and without depressive symptoms. These data begin to identify biochemical biomarkers of depressive symptoms in older adults that may be useful in investigations of pathophysiological mechanisms of depression in aging and neurodegenerative dementias and as targets of novel treatment approaches. PMID:22832727
Several new studies have documented high rates of sexual identity mobility among young adults, but little work has investigated the links between identity change and mental health. This study uses the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (N = 11,727) and employs multivariate regression and propensity score matching to investigate the impact of identity change on depressive symptoms. The results reveal that only changes in sexual identity toward more same-sex-oriented identities are associated with increases in depressive symptoms. Moreover, the negative impacts of identity change are concentrated among individuals who at baseline identified as heterosexual or had not reported same-sex romantic attraction or relationships. No differences in depressive symptoms by sexual orientation identity were found among respondents who reported stable identities. Future research should continue to investigate the factors that contribute to the relationship between identity change and depression, such as stigma surrounding sexual fluidity. PMID:25690912
Padilla Paredes, Patricia; Calvete, Esther
This study tested whether childhood parental emotional abuse and peer emotional bullying serve as antecedents of depression in adolescence and identified the cognitive mechanisms involved in this process. It was hypothesized that the experience of emotional abuse would predict depressive symptoms via development of rumination and negative inferences. A 3-wave longitudinal study was carried out with 998 adolescents (471 girls and 526 boys) between 13 and 17 years of age. Results showed that emotional abuse by parents and peers at Time 1 predicted a worsening of several cognitive vulnerabilities at Time 2. In addition, brooding mediated between the experiences of abuse and the increase of depressive symptoms at Time 3. Thus, findings suggest that the experiences of childhood emotional abuse by parents and peers serve as antecedents to develop a negative cognitive style, vulnerability that, once developed, is a risk factor for the onset of depressive symptoms in adolescence.
Romans, Sarah E; Tyas, Jeanette; Cohen, Marsha M; Silverstone, Trevor
Data from the Canadian Community Health Survey 1.2 were used for a gender analysis of individual symptoms and overall rates of depression in the preceding 12 months. Major depressive disorder was assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview in this national, cross-sectional survey. The female to male ratio of major depressive disorder prevalence was 1.64:1, with n = 1766 having experienced depression (men 668, women 1098). Women reported statistically more depressive symptoms than men (p < 0.001). Depressed women were more likely to report "increased appetite" (15.5% vs. 10.7%), being "often in tears" (82.6% vs. 44.0%), "loss of interest" (86.9% vs. 81.1%), and "thoughts of death" (70.3% vs. 63.4%). No significant gender differences were found for the remaining symptoms. The data are interpreted against women's greater tendency to cry and to restrict food intake when not depressed. The question is raised whether these items preferentially bias assessment of gender differences in depression, particularly in nonclinic samples.
Chen, Jie; Li, Xinying; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Leve, Leslie D.; Harold, Gordon T.
Adolescent depression is common and has become a major public health concern in China, yet little research has examined the etiology of depression in Chinese adolescents. In the present study, genetic and environmental influences on Chinese adolescent depressive symptoms were investigated in 1181 twin pairs residing in Beijing, China (ages 11 to 19 years). Child- and parent-versions of the Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI) were used to measure adolescents’ depressive symptoms. For self-reports, genetic factors, shared environmental factors, and non-shared environmental factors accounted for 50%, 5%, and 45% of the variation in depressive symptoms, respectively; for parent-reports, genetic factors, shared environmental factors, and non-shared environmental factors accounted for 51%, 18%, and 31% of the variation, respectively. These estimates are generally consistent with previous findings in Western adolescents, supporting the cross-cultural generalizability of etiological model of adolescent depression. Neither qualitative nor quantitative sex differences were found in the etiological model. Future studies are needed to investigate how genes and environments work together (gene-environment interaction, gene-environment correlation) to influence depression in Chinese adolescents. PMID:24311200
Dietz, Laura J.; Matthews, Karen A.
Purpose To examine the association between depressive symptoms and subclinical markers of cardiovascular disease (CVD), specifically arterial stiffness, as indexed by pulse wave velocity (PWV), and carotid artery intima thickening (IMT), in a sample of healthy adolescents, and to explore adolescent hostility as a potential moderator of depression on subclinical markers of CVD. Methods One hundred and fifty-seven (n = 157) black and white adolescents between the ages of 16-21 completed a follow-up study of psychosocial stress and cardiovascular risk factors that included measures of PWV and carotid IMT. Psychosocial measures included the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D; divided into tertiles), and the Cook-Medley Hostility Inventory subscales. Linear regression models controlled for sociodemographic variables, health behaviors, blood pressure, body mass index, and heart rate. Results Results show that more severe depressive symptoms were associated with higher levels of PWV (B = 0.17, R2 = 0.30, ΔR2 = 0.03, CI = 2.2 – 47.0, p = .03) but not with higher IMT. Adolescent depression remained a significant predictor of PWV when controlling for adolescent hostility; hostility did not moderate the relationship between adolescent depression and PWV. Conclusions Depression may be important in the development of arterial stiffness in adolescence. Further research is needed to delineate the relationship in adolescence and young adulthood between depressive symptoms and the pathogenesis of CVD. PMID:21575817
El-Anzi, Freih O
A sample of 358 Kuwaiti volunteer college students responded to the Insomnia Scale, the Somatic Symptoms Inventory, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale. The only significant sex difference was in somatic symptoms on which women had a higher mean score than the men. Correlations between scores on the Insomnia Scale and both Depression scales were .51 and .54 and for Somatic Symptoms were .53 and .61 (p < .01) among men and women, respectively. The factor analysis of the intercorrelations yielded a highly loaded general factor for Psychological Disorder in both samples.
Tummala-Narra, Pratyusha; Claudius, Milena
Although discrimination has been found to contribute to psychological distress among immigrant populations, there are few studies that have examined the relationship between racial and ethnic discrimination in the school setting among foreign-born immigrant and U.S.-born immigrant-origin adolescents. This study examined the relationship between perceived discrimination by adults and peers in the school setting and depressive symptoms in a sample (N = 95) of racial minority immigrant-origin adolescents (13 to 19 years of age) attending an urban high school. We examined the relation between perceived discrimination and depressive symptomology across gender and nativity status (foreign born vs. U.S. born), and the potential moderating role of ethnic identity and social support. Consistent with previous research, girls reported higher levels of depressive symptomology than boys, although the relationship between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms was significant for both boys and girls. Perceived discrimination by adults and by peers at school was positively related to depressive symptoms for U.S.-born adolescents. For U.S.-born adolescents, ethnic identity mitigated the negative effects of perceived adult discrimination on depressive symptoms. However, ethnic identity did not moderate the relationship between perceived peer discrimination and depressive symptoms. Social support did not moderate the relationship between adult and peer discrimination and depressive symptoms for either foreign-born or U.S.-born adolescents. The findings support previous research concerning the immigrant paradox and highlight the importance of context in the relationship between perceived discrimination and mental health. Implications for future research and intervention are discussed.
Golden, Sherita Hill; Lazo, Mariana; Carnethon, Mercedes; Bertoni, Alain G.; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Roux, Ana V. Diez; Lee, Hochang Benjamin; Lyketsos, Constantine
Context Depressive symptoms are associated with development of type 2 diabetes, but it is unclear whether type 2 diabetes is a risk factor for elevated depressive symptoms. Objective To examine the bidirectional association between depressive symptoms and type 2 diabetes. Design, Setting, and Participants Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, a longitudinal, ethnically diverse cohort study of US men and women aged 45 to 84 years enrolled in 2000-2002 and followed up until 2004-2005. Main Outcome Measures Elevated depressive symptoms defined by Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) score of 16 or higher, use of antidepressant medications, or both. The CES-D score was also modeled continuously. Participants were categorized as normal fasting glucose (<100 mg/dL), impaired fasting glucose (100-125 mg/dL), or type 2 diabetes (≥126 mg/dL or receiving treatment). Analysis 1 included 5201 participants without type 2 diabetes at baseline and estimated the relative hazard of incidenttype2diabetesover3.2yearsforthosewithandwithoutdepressivesymptoms.Analysis 2 included 4847 participants without depressive symptoms at baseline and calculated the relative odds of developing depressive symptoms over 3.1 years for those with and without type 2 diabetes. Results In analysis 1, the incidence rate of type 2 diabetes was 22.0 and 16.6 per 1000 person-years for those with and without elevated depressive symptoms, respectively. The risk of incident type 2 diabetes was 1.10 times higher for each 5-unit increment in CES-D score (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.19) after adjustment for demographic factors and body mass index. This association persisted following adjustment for metabolic, inflammatory, socioeconomic, or lifestyle factors, although it was no longer statistically significant following adjustment for the latter (relative hazard, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.99-1.19). In analysis 2, the incidence rates of elevated depressive symptoms per 1000-person years were
Mendoza, Natasha S; Trinidad, Jonathan R; Nochajski, Thomas H; Farrell, Mark C
The majority of drug abusing offenders who need substance abuse treatment do not receive it. Although interventions like drug court increase the probability of offender success, little is known about how co-occurring psychological symptoms impact drug court treatment outcomes. Based on previous research, we hypothesized that co-occurring psychological symptoms would have a significant relationship with successful drug court completion. Using a sample of suburban drug court enrollees (n = 122), multivariate logistic regression was conducted with successful drug court completion as the outcome variable. Predictor variables included symptom counts of depression, post-traumatic stress, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, psychosis, generalized anxiety, and social phobia. Results indicated that participants with fewer symptoms of depression were more likely to successfully complete drug court than participants with more symptoms. The present study extends previous research by demonstrating that symptoms of depression are related to poorer outcomes for drug court enrollees. Accordingly, drug courts need to address participants' symptoms of depression to maximize success.
Field, T; Pickens, J; Prodromidis, M; Malphurs, J; Fox, N; Bendell, D; Yando, R; Schanberg, S; Kuhn, C
Infants of mothers with depressive symptoms show developmental delays if symptoms persist over the first 6 months of the infant's life, thus highlighting the importance of identifying those mothers for early intervention. In Study 1, mothers with depressive symptoms (n = 160) and mothers without depressive symptoms (n = 100) and their infants were monitored to identify variables from the first 3 months that predict which mothers would still be symptomatic at 6 months. A "dysregulation" profile was noted for the infants of depressed mothers, including lower Brazelton scores, more indeterminate sleep, and elevated norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine levels at the neonatal period, and greater right frontal EEG activation, lower vagal tone, and negative interactions at the 3- and 6-month periods. A group of maternal variables from the neonatal and 3-month assessments accounted for 51% of the variance in the mothers' continuing depressive symptoms. These variables included greater right frontal EEG activation, lower vagal tone, and less positive interactions at 3 months, and elevated norepinephrine, serotonin, and cortisol levels at the neonatal stage. In Study 2, a similar sample of mothers with depressive symptoms (n = 160) and without depressive symptoms (n = 100) was recruited and followed to 3 months. Those symptomatic mothers who had values above (or below) the median (depending on the negative direction) on the predictor variables identified in Study 1 (taken from the first 3 months) were then randomly assigned to an intervention or a control group at 3 months. These groups were then compared with each other, as well as with the group without depressive symptoms, at 6 and 12 months. The intervention, conducted from 3 to 6 months, consisted of free day care for the infants and a rehab program (social, educational, and vocational) plus several mood induction interventions for the mothers, including relaxation therapy, music mood induction, massage therapy
Gonzalez, Patricia; Castañeda, Sheila F.; Dale, Jennifer; Medeiros, Elizabeth A.; Buelna, Christina; Nuñez, Alicia; Espinoza, Rebeca; Talavera, Gregory A.
Purpose Depression is common among patients diagnosed with cancer and may be inversely associated with spiritual well-being. While numerous strategies are employed to manage and cope with illness, spiritual well-being has become increasingly important in cancer survivorship research. This study examined the association between spiritual well-being and depressive symptoms. Methods This cross-sectional study utilized self-report data from 102 diverse cancer survivors recruited from peer-based cancer support groups in San Diego County. Depression was measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire-8 (PHQ-8) and spiritual well-being was measured with the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy--Spiritual Well-being (FACIT-Sp) comprised of two subscales (Meaning/Peace and Faith). Results Hierarchal regression analysis indicated that Meaning/Peace significantly predicted depressive symptoms after adjusting for socio-demographics, cancer stage, time since diagnosis, and Faith (p < .001). Conclusions Findings suggest that spiritual well-being is a valuable coping mechanism and that Meaning/Peace has a unique advantage over Faith in protecting cancer survivors from the effects of depression symptoms; therefore, turning to Meaning/Peace as source of strength may improve psychological well-being during survivorship. Implications Future programs and healthcare providers should be cognizant of the influential role of spiritual well-being in depression symptoms in an effort to improve psychological well-being among cancer survivors. PMID:24691887
Lopez Molina, Mariane Acosta; Jansen, Karen; Drews, Cláudio; Pinheiro, Ricardo; Silva, Ricardo; Souza, Luciano
This research aimed to compare the prevalence rates of major depressive disorder (MDD) and to differentiate the presence and severity of depressive symptoms between women and men aged 18-24 years. In this population-based, cross-sectional study (n = 1560), young adults were screened with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for MDD (n = 137). Participants then completed a self-report questionnaire to gather sociodemographic data, and the presence of each symptom of depression was assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory. The proportion of women (12.2%) with MDD was higher than that of men (5.3%). The symptoms of depression found to be significantly more prevalent in women were sadness, crying, difficulty making decisions, and lack of energy, as well as self-criticism, irritability, changes in self-image, work difficulty, and loss of interest in sex. Sadness and self-criticism were significantly more severe in women than in men. The presentation of depressive symptoms in young adults with MDD differed between men and women.
Chen, Ying-Yeh; Subramanian, S V; Acevedo-Garcia, Doloros; Kawachi, Ichiro
The effects of state-level women's status and autonomy on individual-level women's depressive symptoms were examined. We conducted a multi-level analysis of the 1991 longitudinal follow up of the 1988 National Maternal Infant Health Survey (NMIHS), with 7789 women nested within the fifty American states. State-level women's status was assessed by four composite indices measuring women's political participation, economic autonomy, employment & earnings, and reproductive rights. The main outcome measure was symptoms of depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, CES-D). The participants were a nationally representative stratified random sample of women in the USA aged between 17 and 40 years old who gave birth to live babies in 1988, were successfully contacted again in 1991 and provided complete information on depressive symptoms. Women who were younger, non-white, not currently married, less educated or had lower household income tended to report higher levels of depressive symptoms. Compared with states ranking low on the employment & earnings index, women residing in states that were high on the same index scored 0.85 points lower on the CES-D (p<0.01). Women who lived in states that were high on the economic autonomy index scored 0.83 points lower in depressive symptoms (p<0.01), compared with women who lived in states low on the same index. Finally, women who resided in states with high reproductive rights scored 0.62 points lower on the CES-D (p<0.05) compared with women who lived in states with lower reproductive rights. Gender inequality appears to contribute to depressive symptoms in women.
Background This study examined (1) the factor structure of a depressive symptoms scale (DSS), (2) the sex and longitudinal invariance of the DSS, and (3) the predictive validity of the DSS scale during adolescence in terms of predicting depression and anxiety symptoms in early adulthood. Methods Data were drawn from the Nicotine Dependence in Teens (NDIT) study, an ongoing prospective cohort study of 1,293 adolescents. Results The analytical sample included 527 participants who provided complete data or had minimal missing data over follow-up. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that an intercorrelated three-factor model with somatic, depressive, and anxiety factors provided the best fit. Further, this model was invariant across sex and time. Finally, DSS scores at Time 3 correlated significantly with depressive and anxiety symptoms measured at Time 4. Conclusions Results suggest that the DSS is multidimensional and that it is a suitable instrument to examine sex differences in somatic, depressive, and anxiety symptoms, as well as changes in these symptoms over time in adolescents. In addition, it could be used to identify individuals at-risk of psychopathology during early adulthood. PMID:24679136
Buckner, Julia D; Bernert, Rebecca A; Cromer, Kiara R; Joiner, Thomas E; Schmidt, Norman B
Anxiety is commonly associated with insomnia. Given that social anxiety disorder is one of the most prevalent anxiety disorders, socially anxious individuals may be particularly vulnerable to insomnia. However, there is currently very little empirical work on this relationship. This study used bivariate correlations to examine whether social anxiety was related to insomnia in an undergraduate sample (n=176) using the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and the Insomnia Severity Index. Further, we utilized responses from the Beck Depression Inventory to investigate the role of depressive symptoms in the association between social anxiety and insomnia. Hierarchical linear regressions were used to examine the moderational and mediational role of depressive symptoms in the link between social anxiety and insomnia. To increase generalizability to clinical samples, analyses were repeated on a subset of the sample with clinically significant social anxiety symptoms (n=23) compared to a matched control group (n=23). Consistent with expectation, social anxiety was associated with increased insomnia symptoms. Specifically, social anxiety was correlated with sleep dissatisfaction, sleep-related functional impairment, perception of a sleep problem to others, and distress about sleep problems. Importantly, depressive symptoms mediated the relationship between social anxiety and insomnia, thereby at least partially accounting for insomnia among socially anxious individuals. Our data support the contention that social anxiety is associated with insomnia and suggest that depression may play a vital role in this co-occurrence.
Nyamathi, Adeline; Leake, Barbara; Albarran, Cynthia; Zhang, Sheldon; Hall, Elizabeth; Farabee, David; Marlow, Elizabeth; Marfisee, Mary; Khalilifard, Farinaz; Faucette, Mark
This study describes correlates of high levels of depressive symptoms among recently paroled men in Los Angeles who reside in a community substance abuse treatment program and report homelessness. Cross-sectional data were obtained from male residents who were released on parole within the last 30 days (N =157) to assess parental relationship, self-esteem, social support, coping behaviors, drug and alcohol use behaviors, depressive symptoms, and sociodemographic information. Results indicated that 40% of the participants were classified as experiencing high levels of depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥ 10). Results of a logistic regression analysis showed that the following were predictors of depressive symptoms (p <.05): physical abuse in childhood, non-residential alcohol treatment, violent behaviors, low self-esteem, and disengagement coping. Being Mexican-American, Mexican, American Indian, or Asian, and not displaying cognitive problems was inversely related to depressive symptoms in the final model (B =-2.39, p <.05). Findings support proper use of both prison and community assessment services to at-risk individuals eligible for parole to increase self-esteem and coping.
Tomitaka, Shinichiro; Kawasaki, Yohei; Ide, Kazuki; Yamada, Hiroshi; Miyake, Hirotsugu; Furukaw, Toshiaki A.
Background In a previous study, we reported that the distribution of total depressive symptoms scores according to the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) in a general population is stable throughout middle adulthood and follows an exponential pattern except for at the lowest end of the symptom score. Furthermore, the individual distributions of 16 negative symptom items of the CES-D exhibit a common mathematical pattern. To confirm the reproducibility of these findings, we investigated the distribution of total depressive symptoms scores and 16 negative symptom items in a sample of Japanese employees. Methods We analyzed 7624 employees aged 20–59 years who had participated in the Northern Japan Occupational Health Promotion Centers Collaboration Study for Mental Health. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the CES-D. The CES-D contains 20 items, each of which is scored in four grades: “rarely,” “some,” “much,” and “most of the time.” The descriptive statistics and frequency curves of the distributions were then compared according to age group. Results The distribution of total depressive symptoms scores appeared to be stable from 30–59 years. The right tail of the distribution for ages 30–59 years exhibited a linear pattern with a log-normal scale. The distributions of the 16 individual negative symptom items of the CES-D exhibited a common mathematical pattern which displayed different distributions with a boundary at “some.” The distributions of the 16 negative symptom items from “some” to “most” followed a linear pattern with a log-normal scale. Conclusions The distributions of the total depressive symptoms scores and individual negative symptom items in a Japanese occupational setting show the same patterns as those observed in a general population. These results show that the specific mathematical patterns of the distributions of total depressive symptoms scores and individual negative symptom items
Kandel, D B; Davies, M
We examined sequelae of depressive mood, experienced at ages 15 to 16 years, nine years later at ages 24 to 25 years in subjects formerly enrolled in New York State public high schools. Feelings of dysphoria in adolescence predict most strongly a similar experience in adulthood. Such feelings also predict psychiatric hospitalization for women but not for men, at least up to the period we investigated. In addition, adolescent depression is associated with heavy cigarette smoking, increased use of minor prescription tranquilizers (among women), more deviant activities and accidents as young adults, and selective effects on interpersonal relationships. The long-term effects of adolescent depression manifest themselves in a reduced ability to establish an intimate relationship with a member of the opposite sex rather than the ability to maintain a circle of male and female friends. The distance from spouse (or partner) repeats within the marital dyad the lack of closeness to parents experienced in adolescence. Dysphoric mood seems to be associated with a deficiency to establish close interpersonal relationships within the family that expresses itself differently at different stages of the life cycle: toward parents in adolescence, and toward spouses and parents in young adulthood.
Sambunaris, Angelo; Edwards, John; Ruth, Adam; Robinson, Donald S.
Vilazodone is a potent selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and serotonin 1A receptor partial agonist approved for the treatment of major depressive disorder in adults. To assess the efficacy of vilazodone across a range of symptoms and severities of depression, data from two phase III, 8-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials were pooled for analysis. Overall improvement in depressive symptoms measured using the Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale was statistically significant (P<0.05) for vilazodone treatment compared with placebo as early as Week 1 and continued throughout double-blind treatment. Vilazodone treatment compared with placebo showed significant improvement on all 10 individual MADRS symptom items at end of treatment (P<0.01). Rates of response and remission were significantly greater in the vilazodone group relative to the placebo group, with numbers needed to treat ranging from eight to nine for response and 12–17 for remission. Between-group treatment differences in MADRS and the other outcome measures were similar among all depression subgroups, with no consistent pattern associated with depression severity. These findings support the efficacy of vilazodone across a broad range of depressive symptoms and severities for the treatment of major depressive disorder. PMID:24247740
Khan, Arif; Sambunaris, Angelo; Edwards, John; Ruth, Adam; Robinson, Donald S
Vilazodone is a potent selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and serotonin 1A receptor partial agonist approved for the treatment of major depressive disorder in adults. To assess the efficacy of vilazodone across a range of symptoms and severities of depression, data from two phase III, 8-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials were pooled for analysis. Overall improvement in depressive symptoms measured using the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale was statistically significant (P<0.05) for vilazodone treatment compared with placebo as early as Week 1 and continued throughout double-blind treatment. Vilazodone treatment compared with placebo showed significant improvement on all 10 individual MADRS symptom items at end of treatment (P<0.01). Rates of response and remission were significantly greater in the vilazodone group relative to the placebo group, with numbers needed to treat ranging from eight to nine for response and 12-17 for remission. Between-group treatment differences in MADRS and the other outcome measures were similar among all depression subgroups, with no consistent pattern associated with depression severity. These findings support the efficacy of vilazodone across a broad range of depressive symptoms and severities for the treatment of major depressive disorder.
The financial difficulty of dementia caregivers and its effects on mental health has gained increasing attention from researchers. The present study examines the longitudinal relationship between financial difficulty and the depressive symptoms of dementia caregivers using matching methods to account for potential selection bias. Propensity score matching methods and mixed-effects models were used to determine the effects of financial difficulty on depressive symptoms among caregivers participating in the Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer's Caregiver Health (REACH) intervention program. Propensity score matching confirmed that caregivers experiencing financial difficulty were more likely to have depressive symptoms. The results suggest that dementia caregivers require support for their financial difficulty. Future research should fully examine the complex relationship between financial difficulty and the mental health of caregivers and how this issue can be addressed through assessment and intervention methods.
Adams, Richard E; Boscarino, Joseph A
A number of studies have assessed the association between acculturation and psychological outcomes following a traumatic event. Some suggest that low acculturation is associated with poorer health outcomes, while others show no differences or that low acculturation is associated with better outcomes. One year after the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center, we surveyed a multi-ethnic population of New York City adults (N= 2,368). We assessed posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depression, panic attack, anxiety symptoms, and general physical and mental health status. We classified study respondents into "low," "moderate," or "high" acculturation, based on survey responses. Bivariate results indicated that low acculturation individuals were more likely to experience negative life events, have low social support, and less likely to have pre-disaster mental health disorders. Those in the low acculturation group were also more likely to experience post-disaster perievent panic attacks, have higher anxiety, and have poorer mental health status. However, using logistic regression to control for confounding, and adjusting for multiple comparisons, we found that none of these outcomes were associated with acculturation status. Thus, our study suggests that acculturation was not associated with mental health outcomes following a major traumatic event.
Haasen, C; Demiralay, C; Reimer, J
Several studies have stressed a correlation between difficulties in acculturation and mental distress or even mental disorders. The stress related to the process of acculturation can lead to depressive symptoms by way of changes in the activity of the HPA axis. However, it remains difficult to measure acculturation stress, as difficulties in acculturation strongly depend on subjective interpretations of every day experiences. The association between acculturation stress and mental distress was examined in two different migrant groups in Germany, 202 migrants of Russian and 100 of Iranian origin. In both migrant groups a significant correlation between acculturation stress and mental distress was found, yet no significant association between acculturation stress and length of residency in Germany. These findings will have to be replicated with representative samples and also with other migrant groups, both in and out of treatment. Considering the fact that the Russian sample was younger and nonetheless had relatively high acculturation stress scores, prevention of future mental health problems among migrants will have to focus on easing the process of integration into the host society.
Bijlenga, Denise; van der Heijden, Kristiaan B.; Breuk, Minda; van Someren, Eus J. W.; Lie, Maria E. H.; Boonstra, A. Marije; Swaab, Hanna J. T.; Kooij, J. J. Sandra
Objective: The authors explored associations between ADHD symptoms, seasonal depressive symptoms, lifestyle, and health. Method: Adult ADHD patients ("n" = 202) and controls ("n" = 189) completed the ASESA questionnaire involving lifestyle, eating pattern, and physical and psychological health, and validated measures on ADHD…
Rose, Amanda J.; Carlson, Wendy; Luebbe, Aaron M.; Schwartz-Mette, Rebecca A.; Smith, Rhiannon R.; Swenson, Lance P.
Youth's friendships serve important functions in development; however, internalizing symptoms may undermine these relationships. Two studies are presented that examine the association of depressive and anxiety symptoms with friendship adjustment. Study 1 tested concurrent effects and Study 2 tested prospective effects over 6 months. Like past…
Jackson, Corrie L.; Ciciolla, Lucia; Crnic, Keith A.; Luecken, Linda J.; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Coonrod, Dean V.
Although research examining intimate partner violence (IPV) has expanded in recent years, there has been relatively little examination of the related demographic and psychosocial factors, as well as mental health outcomes, for IPV before and during pregnancy, especially in a Mexican American population. The current study provides a snapshot of the occurrence of IPV in a community sample of low-income, perinatal Mexican American women (n = 320). Results indicated that 13.1% of the women reported IPV before pregnancy and 11.3% reported IPV during pregnancy. For both IPV before and during pregnancy, women born in the U.S. were more likely to report IPV than foreign born women. For IPV before pregnancy, women who were not in a serious romantic relationship or reported a history of childhood trauma were also more likely to report IPV. For IPV during pregnancy, women who reported higher general stress and lower social support were also more likely to report IPV. Finally, the current study provided strong evidence that a history of IPV predicted elevated postpartum depressive symptoms, above and beyond the impact of prenatal depressive symptoms. This study brings greater awareness to a complex and harmful situation in an understudied population. Results are discussed in terms of the relation between demographic and psychosocial risk for IPV before and during pregnancy, acculturation, and postpartum depressive symptoms, as well as the implications for the development of future prevention and intervention programs. PMID:24958135
Gruhn, Meredith A; Dunbar, Jennifer P; Watson, Kelly H; Reising, Michelle M; McKee, Laura; Forehand, Rex; Cole, David A; Compas, Bruce E
The present study examined the specificity in relations between observed withdrawn and intrusive parenting behaviors and children's internalizing and externalizing symptoms in an at-risk sample of children (ages 9 to 15 years old) of parents with a history of depression (N = 180). Given past findings that parental depression and parenting behaviors may differentially impact boys and girls, gender was examined as a moderator of the relations between these factors and child adjustment. Correlation and linear regression analyses showed that parental depressive symptoms were significantly related to withdrawn parenting for parents of boys and girls and to intrusive parenting for parents of boys only. When controlling for intrusive parenting, preliminary analyses demonstrated that parental depressive symptoms were significantly related to withdrawn parenting for parents of boys, and this association approached significance for parents of girls. Specificity analyses yielded that, when controlling for the other type of problem (i.e., internalizing or externalizing), withdrawn parenting specifically predicted externalizing problems but not internalizing problems in girls. No evidence of specificity was found for boys in this sample, suggesting that impaired parenting behaviors are diffusely related to both internalizing and externalizing symptoms for boys. Overall, results highlight the importance of accounting for child gender and suggest that targeting improvement in parenting behaviors and the reduction of depressive symptoms in interventions with parents with a history of depression may have potential to reduce internalizing and externalizing problems in this high-risk population.
Gruhn, Meredith A.; Dunbar, Jennifer P.; Watson, Kelly H.; Reising, Michelle M.; McKee, Laura; Forehand, Rex; Cole, David A.; Compas, Bruce E.
The present study examined the specificity in relations between observed withdrawn and intrusive parenting behaviors and children's internalizing and externalizing symptoms in an at risk sample of children (ages 9 to 15-years-old) of parents with a history of depression (N = 180). Given past findings that parental depression and parenting behaviors may differentially impact boys and girls, gender was examined as a moderator of the relations between these factors and child adjustment. Correlation and linear regression analyses showed that parental depressive symptoms were significantly related to withdrawn parenting for parents of boys and girls and to intrusive parenting for parents of boys only. When controlling for intrusive parenting, preliminary analyses demonstrated that parental depressive symptoms were significantly related to withdrawn parenting for parents of boys, and this association approached significance for parents of girls. Specificity analyses yielded that, when controlling for the other type of problem (i.e., internalizing or externalizing), withdrawn parenting specifically predicted externalizing problems but not internalizing problems in girls. No evidence of specificity was found for boys in this sample, suggesting that impaired parenting behaviors are diffusely related to both internalizing and externalizing symptoms for boys. Overall, results highlight the importance of accounting for child gender and suggest that targeting improvement in parenting behaviors and the reduction of depressive symptoms in interventions with parents with a history of depression may have potential to reduce internalizing and externalizing problems in this high-risk population. PMID:26882467
Crowley, Shannon K.; Wilkinson, Larrell L.; Wigfall, Lisa T.; Reynolds, Alexandria M.; Muraca, Stephanie T.; Glover, Saundra H.; Wooten, Nikki R.; Sui, Xuemei; Beets, Michael W.; Durstine, J. Larry; Newman-Norlund, Roger D.; Youngstedt, Shawn D.
Introduction Mental health-related problems are a significant cause of attrition during Basic Combat Training (BCT). Evidence in civilian populations suggests that physical fitness is associated with psychological benefits in civilians, but little is known about the association between physical fitness and psychological adjustment during BCT. Methods This study prospectively examined the association between physical fitness and depressive symptoms in 300 BCT soldiers from May to July, 2012 at Fort Jackson, Columbia, SC. Soldiers completed a baseline Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) and survey within one week of arriving at BCT, and an end of cycle survey after eight weeks of BCT. Soldiers were assigned to the “high” fitness category if they had a passing score on the standard APFT of greater than or equal to 180 points out of 300 points. Soldiers scoring less than 180 points on the APFT were assigned to the “ low” fitness category. Depressive symptoms were measured using the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Results In multivariate analyses, adjusting for baseline demographics, self-reported sleep prior to BCT, BCT confidence, Army identification, and depressive symptoms, the odds of reporting depressive symptoms were 60% lower for soldiers in the high fitness category (odds ratio, OR 0.40; 95% confidence interval, CI 0.19–0.84), compared to soldiers in the low fitness category. Conclusions Analogous to other positive outcomes of soldier fitness, improvement of soldier physical fitness prior to BCT might improve soldiers' psychological health outcomes. PMID:24870581
Klostermann, Keith; Chen, Rui; Kelley, Michelle L; Schroeder, Valarie M; Braitman, Abby L; Mignone, Theresa
This paper examined whether adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) would report more depressive mood symptoms as compared to non-ACOAs, whether coping behaviors differed as a function of ACOA status, and whether specific coping behaviors were related to depressive mood symptoms in ACOAs. Participants were 136 college students categorized as ACOAs and 436 college students categorized as non-ACOAs as determined by scores on the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test (CAST; J.W.Jones, 1983 The children of alcoholics screening test: test manual. Chicago: Camelot). As compared to non-ACOAs, ACOAs reported significantly more symptoms of depressive mood as measured by the Profile of Mood States (POMS; McNair, Lorr, and Droppleman, 1992 POMS manual: profile of mood states. San Diego, CA: Edits). On the COPE Inventory (Carver, Scheier, and Weintraub, 1989 Assessing coping strategies: a theoretically based approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56:267-283), ACOAs reported higher use of the following coping strategies: Behavior Disengagement, Denial, Focus on and Venting of Emotions, Humor, and Substance Use. For both the ACOA and non-ACOA groups, the use of Positive Reinterpretation and Growth and the use of Planning were significantly associated with fewer depressive symptoms, whereas Mental Disengagement, Focus on and Venting of Emotions, Denial, Behavior Disengagement, Substance Use, and Suppression of Competing Activities were associated with higher depressive mood scores.
Neri, G; Serrati, C; Zolo, P; Cataldo, N; Ripellino, C
The assessment of cognition is an important part of major depressive disorder (MDD) evaluation and a crucial issue is the physicians' perception of cognitive dysfunction in MDD that remains nowadays a little known matter. The present study aims at investigating the understanding of neurologists' perception about cognitive dysfunction in MDD. An on-line survey addressed to 85 Italian neurologists in the period between May and June 2015 was performed. The questionnaire comprised three sections: the first section collecting information on neurologists' socio-demographic profile, the second investigating cognitive symptoms relevance in relation with different aspects and the third one explicitly focusing on cognitive symptoms in MDD. Cognitive symptoms are considered most significant among DSM-5 symptoms to define the presence of a Major Depressive Episode in a MDD, to improve antidepressant therapy adherence, patients' functionality and concurrent neurological condition, once resolved. Furthermore, an incongruity came to light from this survey: the neurologists considered cognitive symptoms a not relevant aspect to choose the antidepressant treatment in comparison with the other DSM-5 symptoms on one side, but they declared the opposite in the third part of the questionnaire focused on cognitive symptoms. Cognitive symptoms appeared to be a relevant aspect in MDD and neurologists have a clear understanding of this issue. Nevertheless, the discrepancy between neurologists' perception on cognitive symptoms and the antidepressant treatment highlights the feeling of an unmet need that could be filled increasing the awareness of existing drugs with pro-cognitive effects.
Lim, Youn-Hee; Kim, Ho; Kim, Jin Hee; Bae, Sanghyuk; Park, Hye Yin
Background: Although the effect of air pollution on various diseases has been extensively investigated, few studies have examined its effect on depression. Objectives: We investigated the effect of air pollution on symptoms of depression in an elderly population. Methods: We enrolled 537 participants in the study who regularly visited a community center for the elderly located in Seoul, Korea. The Korean version of the Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form (SGDS-K) was used to evaluate depressive symptomatology during a 3-year follow-up study. We associated ambient air pollutants with SGDS-K results using generalized estimating equations (GEE). We also conducted a factor analysis with items on the SGDS-K to determine which symptoms were associated with air pollution. Results: SGDS-K scores were positively associated with interquartile range (IQR) increases in the 3-day moving average concentration of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm (PM10) [17.0% increase in SGDS-K score, 95% confidence interval (CI): 4.9%, 30.5%], the 0–7 day moving average of nitrogen dioxide [NO2; 32.8% (95% CI: 12.6%, 56.6%)], and the 3-day moving average of ozone [O3; 43.7% (95% CI: 11.5%, 85.2%)]. For these three pollutants, factor analysis showed that air pollution was more strongly associated with emotional symptoms such as feeling happy and satisfied than with somatic or affective symptoms. Conclusions: Our study suggests that increases in PM10, NO2, and O3 may increase depressive symptoms among the elderly. Of the symptoms evaluated, ambient air pollution was most strongly associated with emotional symptoms. PMID:22514209
Snyder, James; Bullard, Lisa; Wagener, Alexandra; Leong, Pek Kuan; Snyder, John; Jenkins, Melissa
The development of child anxiety and depressive symptoms from mean ages 5.3 to 9.3 years was examined in a community sample of 133 girls and 134 boys, using parent and teacher ratings. Reliable individual differences in anxiety and depressive symptoms at mean age 5.3 and in their change to mean age 9.3 were observed, with significant correlations…
Moscou-Jackson, Gyasi; Allen, Jerilyn; Kozachik, Sharon; Smith, Michael T.; Budhathoki, Chakra; Haywood, Carlton
Background No studies to-date have systematically investigated insomnia symptoms among adults with sickle cell disease (SCD). The purpose of this study was to 1) describe the prevalence of insomnia symptoms and 2) identify bio-psychosocial predictors in community-dwelling adults with Sickle Cell Disease. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from 263 African-American adults with SCD (aged 18 years or older). Measures included the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Center for Epidemiologic Studies in Depression scale, Urban Life Stress Scale, Brief Pain Inventory, and a chronic pain item. SCD genotype was extracted from the medical record. Results A slight majority (55%) of the sample reported clinically significant insomnia symptomatology (ISI ≥10), which suggests that insomnia symptoms are prevalent among community-dwelling African-American adults with SCD. While insomnia symptoms were associated with a number of bio-psychosocial characteristics, depressive symptoms and acute pain were the only independent predictors. Conclusion Given the high number of participants reporting clinically significant insomnia symptoms, nurses should screen for insomnia symptoms and to explore interventions to promote better sleep among adults with SCD with an emphasis on recommending treatment for pain and depression. In addition, current pain and depression interventions in this population could add insomnia measures and assess the effect of the intervention on insomnia symptomatology as a secondary outcome. PMID:26673730
Lewis, Gemma; Rice, Frances; Harold, Gordon T.; Collishaw, Stephan; Thapar, Anita
Objective: Links between maternal and offspring depression symptoms could arise from inherited factors, direct environmental exposure, or shared adversity. A novel genetically sensitive design was used to test the extent of environmental links between maternal depression symptoms and child depression/anxiety symptoms, accounting for inherited…
Morgan, Amy J; Jorm, Anthony F
Background Research suggests that depressive disorders exist on a continuum, with subthreshold symptoms causing considerable population burden and increasing individual risk of developing major depressive disorder. An alternative strategy to professional treatment of subthreshold depression is population promotion of effective self-help interventions that can be easily applied by an individual without professional guidance. The evidence for self-help interventions for depressive symptoms is reviewed in the present work, with the aim of identifying promising interventions that could inform future health promotion campaigns or stimulate further research. Methods A literature search for randomised controlled trials investigating self-help interventions for depressive disorders or depressive symptoms was performed using PubMed, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Reference lists and citations of included studies were also checked. Studies were grouped into those involving participants with depressive disorders or a high level of depressive symptoms, or non-clinically depressed participants not selected for depression. A number of exclusion criteria were applied, including trials with small sample sizes and where the intervention was adjunctive to antidepressants or psychotherapy. Results The majority of interventions searched had no relevant evidence to review. Of the 38 interventions reviewed, the ones with the best evidence of efficacy in depressive disorders were S-adenosylmethionine, St John's wort, bibliotherapy, computerised interventions, distraction, relaxation training, exercise, pleasant activities, sleep deprivation, and light therapy. A number of other interventions showed promise but had received less research attention. Research in non-clinical samples indicated immediate beneficial effects on depressed mood for distraction, exercise, humour, music, negative air ionisation, and singing; while potential for helpful longer-term effects
Vermeesch, Amber L.; Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa M.; Hall, Rosemary; McCabe, Brian E.; Cianelli, Rosina; Peragallo, Nilda P.
U.S. Hispanics, especially women, experience a disproportionate amount of disease burden for depression. This disparity among Hispanic women necessitates examination of factors associated with depression. The objective of this study was to use an adaptation of the Stress Process Model to test whether self-esteem mediated the relationship between Hispanic stress and depressive symptoms. Data for this secondary analysis were from a previous randomized-control HIV prevention trial. Participants were 548 Hispanic women (19–52 years). Data collection measures included the Center for Epidemiological Studies–Depression Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and Hispanic Stress Scale. The bootstrap method in Mplus 6 was used to test mediation. Results indicated that self-esteem was inversely related to depression, and Hispanic stress was found to be positively related to depression. Self-esteem partially mediated the relationship between stress and depression. Strategies to improve/maintain self-esteem should be considered in future interventions for Hispanic women with depression. PMID:23858067
Watkins, Daphne C.; Hudson, Darrell L.; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Siefert, Kristine; Jackson, James S.
Purpose: This study examines the influence of discrimination and mastery on depressive symptoms for African American men at young (18-34), middle (35-54), and late (55+) adulthood. Method: Analyses are based on responses from 1,271 African American men from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). Results: Discrimination was significantly…
Davis, Gwendolyn Y.; Stevenson, Howard C.
Ecological barriers like racism and discrimination can weigh heavily on the shifting emotions of adolescents. We investigated the relationship of racial socialization experiences to the depression symptoms of 160 Black adolescents, including lethargy, low self-esteem, cognitive difficulties, social introversion, irritability, guilt, pessimism, sad…
Elliot, Catherine A.; Kennedy, Catherine; Morgan, George; Anderson, Sharon K.; Morris, Debra
Objective: To study the effects of college students' physical activity and gender on depressive and suicidal symptoms. Method: The National College Health Assessment survey was administered to college students nationwide. Data were analyzed with 4x2 ANOVAs and Games-Howell post hoc tests when appropriate. Results: More frequent physical activity…
Kim, Sangmoon; Thibodeau, Ryan; Jorgensen, Randall S.
Recent theoretical and empirical work has facilitated the drawing of sharp conceptual distinctions between shame and guilt. A clear view of these distinctions has permitted development of a research literature aimed at evaluating the differential associations of shame and guilt with depressive symptoms. This study quantitatively summarized the…
Munson, Michelle R.; McMillen, Curtis
The purpose of this study was to determine the trajectories of depressive symptoms as older youths from the foster care system mature while also examining the correlates of these trajectories. Data came from a longitudinal study of 404 youths from the foster care system in Missouri, who were interviewed nine times between their 17th and 19th…
Aneshensel, Carol S.; Botticello, Amanda L.; Yamamoto-Mitani, Noriko
This study describes depressive symptoms among caregivers following bereavement and connects these trajectories to earlier features of caregiving using life course and stress process theory. Data are from a six-wave longitudinal survey (five years) of spouses and adult children caring for someone with Alzheimer's Disease. The analytic subsample (N…
Chen, Mandy; Johnston, Charlotte; Sheeber, Lisa; Leve, Craig
This study examined whether negative parental attributions for adolescent behaviour mediate the association between parental and adolescent depressive symptoms, and whether this relationship is moderated by adolescent gender. Mothers and fathers and 124 adolescents (76 girls and 48 boys; ages 14 to 18) participated. Adolescents were primarily…
Lincoln, Karen D.; Chatters, Linda M.; Taylor, Robert Joseph
Structural equation modeling was used to examine the relationships among stress, social support, negative interaction, and mental health in a sample of African American men and women between ages 18 and 54 (N = 591) from the National Comorbidity Study. The study findings indicated that social support decreased the number of depressive symptoms,…
Ramsey, Jaimi L.; DiLalla, Lisabeth F.; McCrary, Megan K.
This study investigated the relations between sexual orientation, cyber victimization, and depressive symptoms in college students. Study aims were to determine whether sexual minority college students are at greater risk for cyber victimization and to examine whether recent cyber victimization (self-reported cyber victimization over the last…
Fleming, Lila C.; Jacobsen, Kathryn H.
Background: The goal of this study was to assess the association between bullying and symptoms of depression among middle school students in Chile. Methods: Secondary data analysis of Chile's 2004 Global School-Based Health Survey. Results: A total of 8131 middle school students participated in the study. Forty-seven percent of students reported…
Black, Maureen M.; Baqui, Abdullah H.; Zaman, K.; McNary, Scot W.; Le, Katherine; El Arifeen, Shams; Hamadani, Jena D.; Parveen, Monowara; Yunus, Md.; Black, Robert E.
Objective: To examine how maternal depressive symptoms are related to infant development among low-income infants in rural Bangladesh and to examine how the relationship is affected by maternal perceptions of infant irritability and observations of caregiving practices. Methods: Development was measured among 221 infants at 6 and 12 months with…
Vélez, Clorinda E.; Krause, Elizabeth D.; McKinnon, Allison; Brunwasser, Steven M.; Freres, Derek R.; Abenavoli, Rachel M.; Gillham, Jane E.
This study examined how social support seeking and rumination interacted to predict depression and anxiety symptoms 6 months later in early adolescents (N = 118; 11-14 years at baseline). We expected social support seeking would be more helpful for adolescents engaging in low rather than high levels of rumination. Adolescents self-reported on all…
Flett, Gordon L.; Coulter, Lisa-Marie; Hewitt, Paul L.; Nepon, Taryn
The present study examined trait perfectionism, automatic perfectionistic thoughts, rumination, worry, and depressive symptoms in early adolescents. A group of 81 elementary school students in Grades 7 and 8 completed 5 questionnaires: the Child-Adolescent Perfectionism Scale, the Perfectionism Cognitions Inventory, the Children's Response Styles…
Kim, Wooksoo; Chen, Ya-Ling
Depression in old age significantly decreases the quality of life and may lead to serious consequences, such as suicide. Existing literature indicates that elderly Korean immigrants may experience higher levels of depression than other racial ethnic group elders. The purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate factors that influence…
Depression is the most common psychiatric disorder worldwide. The burden of disease for depression goes beyond functioning and quality of life and extends to somatic health. Depression has been shown to subsequently increase the risk of, for example, cardiovascular, stroke, diabetes and obesity morbidity. These somatic consequences could partly be due to metabolic, immuno-inflammatory, autonomic and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis dysregulations which have been suggested to be more often present among depressed patients. Evidence linking depression to metabolic syndrome abnormalities indicates that depression is especially associated with its obesity-related components (for example, abdominal obesity and dyslipidemia). In addition, systemic inflammation and hyperactivity of the HPA-axis have been consistently observed among depressed patients. Slightly less consistent observations are for autonomic dysregulation among depressed patients. The heterogeneity of the depression concept seems to play a differentiating role: metabolic syndrome and inflammation up-regulations appear more specific to the atypical depression subtype, whereas hypercortisolemia appears more specific for melancholic depression. This review finishes with potential treatment implications for the downward spiral in which different depressive symptom profiles and biological dysregulations may impact on each other and interact with somatic health decline. PMID:23672628
Johnson, Lesley E.; Greenberg, Mark T.
This community-based study examined differences in parenting quality and parent symptoms for youth in four categories: anxious (elevated anxiety symptoms), depressed (elevated depressive symptoms), comorbid (elevated anxiety and depressive symptoms), and nonelevated (elevations of neither type). Respondents were 976 young adolescents (mean age =…
Strang, John F.; Kenworthy, Lauren; Daniolos, Peter; Case, Laura; Wills, Meagan C.; Martin, Alex; Wallace, Gregory L.
Recent studies have shown that rates of depression and anxiety symptoms are elevated among individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) of various ages and IQs and that depression/anxiety symptoms are associated with higher IQ and fewer ASD symptoms. In this study which examined correlates of depression and anxiety symptoms in the full…
Marchetti, Igor; Van de Putte, Eowyn; Koster, Ernst H. W.
Human minds often engage in thoughts and feelings that are self-generated rather than stimulus-dependent, such as daydreaming. Recent research suggests that under certain circumstances, daydreaming is associated with adverse effects on cognition and affect. Based on recent literature about the influence of resting mind in relation to rumination and depression, this questionnaire study investigated mechanisms linking daydreaming to depressive symptoms. Specifically, an indirect effect model was tested in which daydreaming influences depressive symptoms through enhancing self-focus and ruminative thought. Results were in line with the hypothesis and several alternative pathways were ruled out. The results provide initial supportive evidence that daydreaming can influence depressive symptoms through influences on self-focus and rumination. Further research should use prospective or experimental designs to further validate and strengthen these conclusions. PMID:24672458
Fan, L.-B.; Blumenthal, J. A.; Watkins, L. L.
Background In the evolving work environment of global competition, the associations between work and home stress and psychological well-being are not well understood. Aims To examine the impact of psychosocial stress at work and at home on anxiety and depression. Methods In medically healthy employed men and women (aged 30–60), serial regression analyses were used to determine the independent association of psychosocial stress at work and at home with depression symptoms, measured using the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), and anxiety symptoms, measured using the Spielberger Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Psychosocial stress at work was measured using the Job Content Questionnaire to assess job psychological demands, job control, job social support and job insecurity. Psychosocial stress at home was assessed by 12 questions including stress at home, personal problems, family demands and feelings about home life. Results Serial regression analyses in 129 subjects revealed that job insecurity and home stress were most strongly associated with depression and anxiety symptoms. Job insecurity accounted for 9% of the variation both in BDI-II scores and in STAI scores. Home stress accounted for 13 and 17% of the variation in BDI-II scores and STAI scores, respectively. In addition, job social support was significantly and independently associated with STAI scores but not BDI-II scores. Conclusions Work and home stress were associated with anxiety and depression symptoms in both men and women. Both work and home stress should be considered in studies evaluating anxiety and depression in working populations. PMID:25589707
Parisi, Jeanine M; Xia, Jin; Spira, Adam P; Xue, Qian-Li; Rieger, Marin L; Rebok, George W; Carlson, Michelle C
The association between lifestyle activities and incident depressive symptoms was examined within the Women's Health and Aging Study II. Measures of activity and depressive symptoms were collected on four occasions, spanning six-years. Discrete-time Cox proportional hazards models were employed to examine the effects of baseline activity on depressive symptoms over time. Overall, activity was not associated with incident depressive symptoms. When specific activity domains were examined, greater participation in creative activities was associated with a reduced risk of depressive symptoms (hazard ratio = 0.92; CI 95% 0.87, 0.98). Further longitudinal research between diverse activities and incident depressive symptoms is warranted.
Valencia-Garcia, Dellanira; Simoni, Jane M.; Alegria, Margarita; Takeuchi, David T.
Objective: We examined whether individual-level social capital--the intangible resources in a community available through membership in social networks or other social structures and perceived trust in the community--was associated with acculturation, depression and anxiety symptoms, and perceived access to services among women of Mexican…
Jeon, Hong Jin; Walker, Rosemary S; Inamori, Aya; Hong, Jin Pyo; Cho, Maeng Je; Baer, Lee; Clain, Alisabet; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David
Previous epidemiologic studies have revealed that East-Asian populations experience fewer depressive symptoms than American populations do. However, it is unclear whether this difference applies to clinical patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). This present study included 1592 Korean and 3744 American outpatients who were 18 years of age or older and met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. criteria for single or recurrent episodes of nonpsychotic MDD, and evaluated their symptoms of depression using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire Short Form. Korean patients scored significantly lower for guilt and depressed mood items, and higher for hypochondriasis and suicidality items than American patients did, after adjusting for total Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores. Conversely, no significant differences were found in quality and function of daily life between groups. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that Korean patients experienced less frequent depressed mood and guilt, including verbal and nonverbal expression of depressed mood [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.08-0.23] and feelings of punishment (AOR = 0.036, 95% CI 0.025-0.054) when compared with Americans after adjusting for age and sex. Conversely, Korean patients experienced more frequent suicidality and hypochondriasis, including suicidal ideas or gestures (AOR = 2.10, 95% CI 1.60-2.76) and self-absorption of hypochondriasis (AOR = 1.94, 95% CI 1.70-2.20). In conclusion, decreased expression of depressed mood and guilt may cause underdiagnosis of MDD in Korean patients. Early diagnosis of and intervention for depression and suicide may be delayed because of this specific cross-cultural difference in depression symptoms.
Grigoriou, Stefania S.; Karatzaferi, Christina; Sakkas, Giorgos K.
Depression is a mental disorder with a high prevalence among patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD). It is reported that depression afflicts approximately 20-30% of this patient population, being associated, amongst other, with high mortality rate, low adherence to medication and low perceived quality of life. There is a variety of medications known to be effective for the treatment of depression but due to poor adherence to treatment as well as due to the high need for medications addressing other ESRD comorbidities, depression often remains untreated. According to the literature, depression is under-diagnosed and undertreated in the majority of the patients with chronic kidney disease. In the current review the main pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches and research outcomes for the management of depressive symptoms in hemodialysis patients are discussed. PMID:26973957
Hilgenberg, P B; Saldanha, A D D; Cunha, C O; Rubo, J H; Conti, P C R
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and otologic symptoms in patients with and without tinnitus. The influence of the level of depression was also addressed. The tinnitus group was comprised of 100 patients with tinnitus, and control group was comprised of 100 individuals without tinnitus. All subjects were evaluated using the research diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders (RDC/TMD) to determine the presence of TMD and depression level. Chi-square, Spearman Correlation and Mann-Whitney tests were used in statistical analysis, with a 5% significance level. TMD signs and symptoms were detected in 85% of patients with tinnitus and in 55% of controls (P≤0·001). The severity of pain and higher depression levels were positively associated with tinnitus (P≤0·001). It was concluded that tinnitus is associated with TMD and with otalgia, dizziness/vertigo, stuffy sensations, hypoacusis sensation and hyperacusis, as well as with higher depression levels.
Raji, Mukaila A; Reyes-Ortiz, Carlos A; Kuo, Yong-Fang; Markides, Kyriakos S; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J
To examine the association between presence of clinically relevant depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale [CES-D] score >or= 16) and subsequent cognitive function (Mini-Mental State Examination [MMSE]) over a 7-year period in older Mexican Americans, a prospective cohort study was performed. Five south-western states contributed data to the Hispanic Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly. Participants included 2812 noninstitutionalized Mexican Americans aged 65 and older followed from 1993-1994 until 2000-2001. Cognitive change was assessed using the MMSE at baseline and at 2, 5, and 7 years of follow-up. Independent variables were sociodemographics, CES-D >or= 16, medical conditions (hypertension, diabetes, coronary artery disease, and stroke), and activities of daily living (ADL) status. A general linear mixed model was used to estimate cognitive change. There was a cross-sectional association between CES-D >or= 16 and lower MMSE score (estimate = -0.48; standard error [SE] = 0.15; P < .01), independent of age, gender, education, marital status, time of interview, ADL limitations, vision impairment, and medical conditions. In the fully adjusted longitudinal model, subjects with clinically relevant depressive symptoms had a greater decline in MMSE score over 7 years than those without clinically relevant depressive symptoms (estimate = -0.17; SE = 0.05; P < .001), adjusting for sociodemographics, ADL and medical conditions. Each point increase in the CES-D score was associated with a decline of 0.010 point in MMSE score per year (SE = 0.002; P < 0.0001), adjusting for relevant confounders. Presence of clinically relevant depressive symptoms was associated with subsequent decline in cognitive function over 7 years in older Mexican Americans, independent of demographic and health factors.
Herres, Joanna; Ohannessian, Christine McCauley
The purpose of the study was to identify groups of adolescents based on their reported use of different coping strategies and compare levels of depression and anxiety symptoms across the groups. Tenth and eleventh grade public school students (N = 982; 51% girls; 66% Caucasian; M age =16.04, SD = .73) completed a battery of self-report measures that assessed their use of different coping strategies, depressive symptoms, and anxiety symptoms. Latent profile analysis (LPA) classified the participants into four distinct groups based on their responses on subscales of the COPE inventory (Carver, Scheier, & Weintraub, 1989). Groups differed in amount of coping with participants in each group showing relative preference for engaging in certain strategies over others. Disengaged copers reported the lowest amounts of coping with a preference for avoidance strategies. Independent copers reported moderate levels of coping with relatively less use of support-seeking. Social support-seeking copers and active copers reported the highest levels of coping with a particular preference for support-seeking strategies. The independent copers reported the lowest levels of depressive symptoms compared to the three other groups. The Social Support Seeking and Active Coping Groups reported the highest levels of anxiety. Although distinct coping profiles were observed, findings showed that adolescents between the ages of 14 and 16 engage in multiple coping strategies and are more likely to vary in their amount of coping than in their use of specific strategies. PMID:26275359
Hansen, Melissa Voigt
Biological rhythms are essential for the regulation of many life processes. Disturbances of the circadian rhythm are known to affect human health, performance and well-being and the negative consequences are numerous and widespread. Cognitive dysfunction, fatigue, pain, sleep disturbances and mood disorders, such as anxiety and depression, are common problems arising around the time of surgery or in the course of a cancer diagnosis and subsequent treatment period. The importance of investigating prevention or treatment possibilities in these populations is significant due to the extent of the problems and the derived consequences on morbidity and mortality. Genetic predisposition to these problems is also an issue in focus. In this thesis we initially investigated whether the specific clock gene genotype PER(5/5) was associated with the development of postoperative cognitive dysfunction one week after non-cardiac surgery. We did not find any association, although this could have been due to the size of the study. Yet, if PER3(5/5) is associated with a higher incidence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction, the risk seems to be only modestly increased and by less than 10%. Melatonin is a hormone with well-known chronobiotic and hypnotic effects. In addition, exogenous melatonin is also known to have anxiolytic, analgesic, antidepressant and positive cognitive effects. Based on the lack of studies investigating these effects of melatonin, we conducted the MELODY trial in which we investigated the effect of 6 mg oral melatonin on depressive symptoms, anxiety, sleep, cognitive function and fatigue in patients with breast cancer in a three month time period after surgery. Melatonin had an effect on reducing the risk of developing depressive symptoms and also increased sleep efficiency perioperatively and total sleep time postoperatively. No effect was found on anxiety, sleep quality, sleepiness, general well-being or pain, however melatonin seemed to positively
Anand, Vibha; Downs, Stephen M; Bauer, Nerissa S; Carroll, Aaron E.
Background Early TV viewing has been linked with maternal depression and has adverse health effects in children. However it is not known how early TV viewing occurs. We evaluated the prevalence at which parents report television (TV) viewing for their children if asked in the first two years of life and whether TV viewing is associated with maternal depression symptoms. Methods Using a cross-sectional design, we evaluated TV viewing in children 0 – 2 years of age in 4 pediatric clinics in Indianapolis, IN between January 2011 and April 2012. Families were screened for any parental report of depression symptoms (0 – 15 months) and for parental report of TV viewing (before 2 years of age) using a computerized clinical decision support system (CDSS) linked to the patient’s electronic health record (EHR). Results There were 3,254 children in the study. By parent report 50% of children view TV by 2 months of age, 75% by 4 months of age and 90% by 2 years of age. Complete data for both TV viewing and maternal depression symptoms were available for 2,397 (74%) of children. In regression models, the odds of parental report of TV viewing increased by 27% for each additional month of child’s age (OR: 1.27, CI: 1.25 – 1.30, p < 0.001). The odds of TV viewing increased by almost half with parental report of depression symptoms (OR: 1.47, CI: 1.07 – 2.00, p = 0.016). Publicly insured children had three times the odds of TV viewing compared to children with private insurance (OR: 3.00, CI: 1.60 – 5.63, p = 0.001). Black children had almost four times the odds (OR: 3.75, CI: 2.70 – 5.21, p < 0.001) and White children had one and a half times the odds (OR: 1.55, CI: 1.04 – 2.30, p = 0.032) of TV viewing when compared to Latino children. Conclusions By parental report TV viewing occurs at a very young age in infancy, usually between 0 to 3 months and varies by insurance and race/ethnicity. Children whose parents report depression symptoms are especially at risk
Mata, Douglas A.; Ramos, Marco A.; Bansal, Narinder; Khan, Rida; Guille, Constance; Angelantonio, Emanuele Di; Sen, Srijan
IMPORTANCE Physicians in training are at high risk for depression. However, the estimated prevalence of this disorder varies substantially between studies. OBJECTIVE To provide a summary estimate of depression or depressive symptom prevalence among resident physicians. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SELECTION Systematic search of EMBASE, ERIC, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO for studies with information on the prevalence of depression or depressive symptoms among resident physicians published between January 1963 and September 2015. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they were published in the peer-reviewed literature and used a validated method to assess for depression or depressive symptoms. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS Information on study characteristics and depression or depressive symptom prevalence was extracted independently by 2 trained investigators. Estimates were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Differences by study-level characteristics were estimated using meta-regression. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Point or period prevalence of depression or depressive symptoms as assessed by structured interview or validated questionnaire. RESULTS Data were extracted from 31 cross-sectional studies (9447 individuals) and 23 longitudinal studies (8113 individuals). Three studies used clinical interviews and 51 used self-report instruments. The overall pooled prevalence of depression or depressive symptoms was 28.8% (4969/17 560 individuals, 95% CI, 25.3%-32.5%), with high between-study heterogeneity (Q = 1247, τ2 = 0.39, I2 = 95.8%, P < .001). Prevalence estimates ranged from 20.9% for the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire with a cutoff of 10 or more (741/3577 individuals, 95% CI, 17.5%-24.7%, Q = 14.4, τ2 = 0.04, I2 = 79.2%) to 43.2% for the 2-item PRIME-MD (1349/2891 individuals, 95% CI, 37.6%-49.0%, Q = 45.6, τ2 = 0.09, I2 = 84.6%). There was an increased prevalence with increasing calendar year (slope = 0.5% increase per year, adjusted for assessment modality
Corona, Rosalie; Lefkowitz, Eva S.; Sigman, Marian; Romo, Laura F.
This study examined associations between adolescent behaviors, maternal depressive symptoms, and mother-adolescent relationships. Latina mothers and adolescents (111 dyads) completed questionnaires and participated in videotaped discussions. Mothers' depressive symptoms related to adolescents' internalizing and externalizing behaviors and family…
Meinzer, Michael C; Pettit, Jeremy W; Waxmonsky, James G; Gnagy, Elizabeth; Molina, Brooke S G; Pelham, William E
Little is known about the development and course of depressive symptoms through emerging adulthood among individuals with a childhood history of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The aim of this study was to examine if a history of ADHD in childhood significantly predicted depressive symptoms during emerging adulthood (i.e., ages 18-25 years), including the initial level of depressive symptoms, continued levels of depressive symptoms at each age year, and the rate of change in depressive symptoms over time. 394 participants (205 with ADHD and 189 without ADHD; 348 males and 46 females) drawn from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS) completed annual self-ratings of depressive symptoms between the ages of 18 and 25 years. Childhood history of ADHD significantly predicted a higher initial level of depressive symptoms at age 18, and higher levels of depressive symptoms at every age year during emerging adulthood. ADHD did not significantly predict the rate of change in depressive symptoms from age 18 to age 25. Childhood history of ADHD remained a significant predictor of initial level of depressive symptoms at age 18 after controlling for comorbid psychiatric diagnoses, but not after controlling for concurrent ADHD symptoms and psychosocial impairment. Participants with childhood histories of ADHD experienced significantly higher levels of depressive symptoms than non-ADHD comparison participants by age 18 and continued to experience higher, although not increasing, levels of depressive symptoms through emerging adulthood. Clinical implications and directions for future research are discussed.
Zunzunegui, M. V.; Beland, F.; Llacer, A.; Keller, I.
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To explain the variations in depressive symptomatology among primary caregivers of community dwelling activities of daily living disabled elderly and to evaluate the role of family and religiosity on the mental health consequences of caregiving in Spain. DESIGN: Cross sectional study. SETTING: City of Leganes in the metropolitan area of Madrid, Spain. PARTICIPANTS: All caregivers of a representative sample of community dwelling activities of daily living disabled persons, aged 65 and over were approached. The response rate was 85% (n = 194). Depression was assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale. MAIN RESULTS: Controlling for caregivers' income, education, health status, and caregiving stress, religiosity was associated with more depressive symptoms among children caregivers while for spouses the association was negative. Emotional support was negatively associated with depression, but instrumental support was not significant. CONCLUSIONS: Depressive symptomatology is frequent among Spanish caregivers of disabled elderly. This study concludes that religiosity and family emotional support play an important part in the mental health of Spanish caregivers. The role of religiosity may be different according to kinship tie and needs further investigation. PMID:10396484
Park, Subin; Park, Min-Hyeon; Kim, Hyo Jin; Yoo, Hee Jeong
The objective of this study was to examine (a) anxiety and depression symptoms in children with Asperger syndrome (AS) compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and children with depressive disorder; (b) parental anxiety and depressive symptoms in the three groups; and (c) the association between the anxiety and…
Colletti, Christina J. M.; Forehand, Rex; Garai, Emily; McKee, Laura; Potts, Jennifer; Haker, Kelly; Champion, Jennifer; Compas, Bruce E.
We examined the associations between parent and child anxious and depressive symptoms controlling for co-occurring symptoms in both. One hundred and four families participated, including 131 9-15 year old children considered at risk for anxiety and/or depression due to a history of depression in a parent. Parents and children completed…
Seglem, Karoline B; Oppedal, Brit; Raeder, Sabine
This study investigated the level and predictors of depressive symptoms among unaccompanied refugee minors after resettlement in Norway. Participants (N = 414) were resettled in 26 municipalities from all regions of the country. The average length of resettlement time was 3.4 years. They originated from 33 different countries, mainly Afghanistan (n = 116), Somalia (n = 74), Sri Lanka (n = 41) and Iraq (n = 43). Participants completed a self-report questionnaire administered in groups. Findings show that unaccompanied minors are a high-risk group for mental health problems also after resettlement in a new country. A multilevel model predicting depressive symptoms from individual and contextual demographic factors indicated that, controlling for post-traumatic stress, females had more symptoms than males and Somalis had fewer symptoms than participants from other countries. Variation in symptom levels as a function of gender and ethnic background indicates that some groups may have inherent protective or vulnerability factors that need to be further studied to understand differences in psychosocial adaptation among unaccompanied minors. Further, findings imply that researchers, policy makers and mental health care workers need to expand their attention beyond the first phases of arrival of unaccompanied asylum seeking and refugee minors to the continuing experience of mental health problems after resettlement.
Schmeer, Kammi K.; Kroeger, Rhiannon A.
Diversity in union type is increasing around the world as cohabitation and higher order unions become more prevalent in developing and developed countries. This necessitates a more nuanced understanding of how different union types relate to individual well-being across social settings. In this study, the authors analyze nationally-representative data from Mexico in cross-sectional and change models to evaluate differences in depressive symptoms across union type (marital vs. cohabiting and first vs. higher order unions) among Mexican men and women. The findings suggest that cohabiting unions do not provide the same mental health benefits as marital unions (especially for men). Repartnering is also associated with higher depressive symptoms (especially for women), which indicates possible lasting mental health disadvantages of divorce/separation or entrance into lower quality second unions. These results suggest that the changing family context in Mexico, which includes increasing cohabitation and union instability, may have important consequences for individuals’ psychological well-being. PMID:22822284
Pelaez, Martha; Virues-Ortega, Javier; Field, Tiffany M; Amir-Kiaei, Yalda; Schnerch, Gabriel
The present study examined the acquisition of social referencing skills in infants of mothers with symptoms of depression (n = 44). We aimed to determine if a short discrimination training could facilitate infants' social referencing. Mothers were instructed to pose either joyful or fearful facial expressions to cue infants' approach/avoidance responses toward an ambiguous object. Maternal expressions were correlated with pleasant or unpleasant events occurring after the infant's response. The results showed that after the intervention, infants looked at their mothers more frequently and reached or avoided the ambiguous object based on the preceding maternal expression. The results suggest that discrimination training procedures can establish social referencing in infants of mothers with symptoms of depression.
Lantrip, Crystal; Mazzetti, Francesco; Grasso, Joseph; Gill, Sara; Miller, Janna; Haner, Morgynn; Rude, Stephanie; Awad, Germine
This study underscored the importance of addressing the well-being of college students of Asian descent, because these students had higher rates of depression and lower positive feelings about their ethnic group compared with students of European descent, as measured by the Affirmation subscale of the Ethnic Identity Scale. Affirmation mediated…
Gross, Katharina M; Schote, Andrea B; Schneider, Katja Kerstin; Schulz, André; Meyer, Jobst
Primary hyperhidrosis is defined as excessive sweating of certain body areas without physiological reasons. Hyperhidrotic individuals report a high psychological strain and an impairment of their quality of life. Thus, the aim of the study is to investigate the relation between hyperhidrosis and different psychological as well as physiological aspects of chronic stress as a co-factor for the etiology of depression. In this study, forty hyperhidrotic subjects were compared to forty age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. The Trier Inventory of Chronic Stress ('Trierer Inventar zum chronischen Stress': TICS), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and the Screening for Somatoform Disorders (SOMS-2) were used to examine the correlation between primary hyperhidrosis and stress as well as accompanying depressive and somatic symptoms. The cortisol awakening response of each subject was analyzed as a physiological stress correlate. In hyperhidrotics, we found a significant lack of social recognition as well as significantly more depressive symptoms compared to the control subjects. A subgroup of patients with axillary hyperhidrosis had the highest impact on these increased issues of chronic stress, pointing to a higher embarrassment in these subjects. Especially in social situations, hyperhidrotics showed higher stress levels, whereby a vicious circle of stress and sweating is triggered. However, the cortisol awakening response did not significantly differ between hyperhidrotics and controls. Moreover, affected persons suffer from more depressive symptoms, which may be caused by feelings of shame and a lack of self-confidence. This initial study provides an impetus for further investigation to reveal a causative relationship between hyperhidrosis and its psychological concomitants.
Vázquez, Fernando L; Otero, Patricia; Díaz, Olga; Sánchez, Teresa; Pomar, Carmen
The emotional intelligence of a sample of 59 women caregivers (M age = 51.1 yr.) with depressive symptoms was compared with that of a sample of adult women from the general population (M age = 50.7 yr.). No group differences were observed on the Trait Meta-Mood Scale's three dimensions of emotional intelligence across age, socioeconomic status, or education level. Compared with the general population sample, the caregivers group scored significantly lower on Attention to Feelings and Mood Repair.
Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Garber, Judy
Depressive syndrome and disorders increase substantially during adolescence. Little is known, however, about how "individual" symptoms of depression change over the course of this developmental period. The present study examined within-person changes in symptom severity of each individual symptom of depression, utilizing longitudinal…
Bitsika, Vicki; Sharpley, Christopher F.; Mills, Richard
The association between Sensory Processing Features (SPF) and depressive symptoms was investigated at two levels in 150 young males (6-18 years) with an ASD. First, a significant correlation was found between SPF and total depressive symptom scores. Second, different aspects of SPF significantly predicted different depressive symptom factors, with…
Anderson, Samantha F; Salk, Rachel H; Hyde, Janet S
It is well known that stressful life events can play a role in the development of adolescent depressive symptoms; however, there has been little research on romantic stress specifically. The relationship between romantic stress and depressive symptoms is particularly salient in adolescence, as adolescence often involves the onset of dating. This and other stressors are often dealt with in the context of the family. The present study examined the relationship between romantic stress and depressive symptoms both concurrently and prospectively, controlling for preexisting depressive symptoms. We then explored whether support from parents buffers the negative effects of romantic stress on depressive symptoms. In addition, the study sought to determine whether the benefits of support vary by parent and child gender. A community sample of 375 adolescents completed self-report measures of parental support (both maternal and paternal), romantic stress, and depressive symptoms. A behavioral measure of maternal support was also obtained. For boys and girls, romantic stress at age 15 predicted depressive symptoms at ages 15 and 18, even when controlling for age 13 depressive symptoms. Perceived maternal support buffered the stress-depressive symptom relationship for both genders at age 15, even when controlling for age 13 depressive symptoms. Higher perceived paternal support was associated with lower adolescent depressive symptoms; however, it did not have a buffering effect. These results have implications for the development of effective family-centered methods to prevent the development of depressive symptoms in adolescents.
Presnell, Katherine; Stice, Eric; Tristan, Jennifer
Prospective studies suggest that dieting increases risk for bulimic symptoms, but experimental trials indicate dieting reduces bulimic symptoms. However, these experiments may be unrepresentative of real-world weight loss dieting. In addition, the fact that most dieters do not develop eating disorders suggests moderating factors may be important. Accordingly, we randomly assigned 157 female intermittent dieters to either diet as they usually do for weight loss or eat as they normally do when not dieting for 4 weeks. Naturalistic dieting halted the weight gain shown by controls, but did not result in significant weight loss. Although there was no main effect of the dieting manipulation on bulimic symptoms, moderation analyses indicated that naturalistic dieting decreased bulimic symptoms among participants with initially low depressive symptoms. Results suggest that self-initiated weight loss dieting is not particularly effective, which appears to explain several discrepancies in the literature. Additionally, depressive symptoms may be an important determinant of bulimic symptoms that eclipses the effects of naturalistic dieting on this outcome.
Three hypotheses are evaluated in this study. The first predicts that feelings of gratitude will offset (i.e., moderate) the deleterious effects of chronic financial strain on depressive symptoms over time. The second hypothesis specifies that people who go to church more often will be more likely to feel grateful. The third hypothesis predicts that individuals with a strong sense of God-mediated control will also feel more grateful. Data from a nationwide longitudinal study of older adults in the United States (N = 818) provide support for all three hypotheses. The data suggest that the effects of ongoing economic difficulty on depressive symptoms are especially pronounced for older people who are less grateful. But in contrast, persistent financial difficulties fail to exert a statistically significant effect on depressive symptoms over time for older individuals who are especially grateful. The results further reveal that more frequent church attendance and stronger God-mediated control beliefs are associated with positive changes in gratitude over time.
Vergara-Lopez, Chrystal; Lopez-Vergara, Hector I; Colder, Craig R
We investigated the association between adolescent depressive symptoms and components of executive functioning (EF), including planning (Tower of London), set-shifting (Wisconsin Card Sorting Task), and inhibition (Stop Signal Task) in a community sample of 12-14 year olds. Further, EF was tested as a moderator of motivation (as operationalized by revised Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory) effects on depressive symptoms. Results suggested that planning ability was associated with depressive symptoms. Furthermore, planning ability moderated the relationship between motivation (fight-flight- freeze system; FFFS) and depressive symptoms, such that among adolescents with poor planning ability the FFFS positively predicted depressive symptoms, but among adolescents with strong planning ability the FFFS negatively predicts depressive symptoms. Neither set-shifting nor inhibition was associated with depressive symptoms. Findings highlight the need to consider multiple components of EF and to integrate motivational and executive dysfunction models to the study of depression.
Smokowski, Paul R.; Bacallao, Martica L.
This investigation examined acculturation risk factors and cultural assets, internalizing behavioral problems, and self-esteem in 323 Latino adolescents living in North Carolina. Multiple regression analyses revealed two risk factors--perceived discrimination and parent-adolescent conflict--as highly significant predictors of adolescent…
Hwang, Wei-Chin; Ting, Julia Y
This study examines the impact of level of acculturation and acculturative stress on the mental health of Asian American college students. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to clarify the relation between level of acculturation, acculturative stress, and mental health outcomes (psychological distress and clinical depression). Being less identified with mainstream United States culture was associated with higher psychological distress and clinical depression, but lost significance when acculturative stress was introduced into the model. Retention or relinquishing of identification with one's heritage culture was not associated with mental health outcomes. Although understanding level of acculturation can help us identify those at risk, findings suggest that acculturative stress is a more proximal risk factor and increases risk for mental health problems independently of global perceptions of stress.
Krogh, Jesper; Benros, Michael E; Jørgensen, Martin Balslev; Vesterager, Lone; Elfving, Betina; Nordentoft, Merete
The purpose of this study was to assess the association between IL-6 and CRP with depressive items and cognitive function. We included 112 outpatients with major depression from an exercise trial and 57 healthy controls. IL-6, high sensitive CRP (hsCRP), and cognitive function were assessed in all subjects. After baseline assessment, patients were randomised to either a 3months exercise intervention or an exercise control group. Post-intervention IL-6, hsCRP, depressive symptoms, and cognitive function were reassessed in the patient group. IL-6 and hsCRP were significantly increased in depressed patients compared to healthy controls (p=0.02 and 0.04). These differences were no longer significant after adjustment for lifestyle associated variables. We found no association between immune markers and specific depressive symptoms at baseline or as change over time. Regarding the cognitive tests, IL-6 was positively associated with Serial sevens (p=0.008) and hsCRP was inversely associated with Trail making A (p=0.02) and design fluency (p=0.001) at baseline. At 3months follow-up IL-6 and hsCRP levels did not significantly change from baseline and did not differ between the two patient groups. Depression scores was lower compared to baseline but did not differ between groups. Combining the two groups, a decrease in IL-6 was associated to decreased verbal fluency (p=0.02), and a decrease in hsCRP was associated with improvement in Trail making A (p=0.005). In conclusion, the level of IL-6 and hsCRP was increased in depressed outpatients but was not associated to specific depressive symptoms. In terms of cognitive function, we found that higher hsCRP levels were associated to lower psychomotor speed both at baseline and at follow-up.
Nicholson, Lisa M; Miller, Arlene Michaels; Schwertz, Dorie; Sorokin, Olga
Post-immigration adaptation is characterized by chronic and acute acculturative stressors. Salivary cortisol is a commonly used hormonal marker of stress, but few studies have investigated its use as an indicator of acculturative stress and adjustment in immigrants. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among predictors of adjustment (environmental and language mastery), self-reported stress outcomes (depressive symptoms, perceived stress, alienation), and salivary cortisol response in immigrants from the former Soviet Union. The sample included 137 married men and women aged 42-80 who lived in the U.S. for 1-13 years. Results indicated that while men and women had similar values for cortisol response, relationships among adjustment measures, stress outcomes, and cortisol differed by gender. Among men, environmental mastery significantly reduced depressive symptoms, perceived stress, and cortisol response. Among women, environmental mastery also reduced depressive symptoms, perceived stress, and alienation, but language mastery increased cortisol response and decreased alienation.
Iseki, Chifumi; Furuta, Taiga; Suzuki, Masao; Koyama, Shingo; Suzuki, Keiji; Suzuki, Tomoko; Kaneko, Akiyo
A woman started to feel intractable pain on her lower legs when she was 76. At the age of 78, she was diagnosed as having Parkinson's disease (PD). The leg pain was suspected to be a symptom of PD after eliminating other causes. The patient also suffered from nonmotor symptoms, depression, anxiety, hot flashes, and paroxysmal sweating. Though the patient had received pharmacotherapy including levodopa for 5 years, she still suffered from the nonmotor symptoms and was referred to our department. We treated her with acupuncture based on the Chinese traditional medicine and electroacupuncture five times per week. After the 2-week treatment, the assessment for the symptoms was as follows; visual analogue scale (VAS) score of the leg pain was 16 mm (70 mm, before), Hamilton's rating scales for depression (HAM-D) score was 9 (18, before), timed 3 m Up and Go took 20 steps in 30 sec (24 steps in 38 sec, before), and the Movement Disorder Society-sponsored revision of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS) Part 1 score was 13 (21, before). Autonomic symptoms, hot flashes and paroxysmal sweating, were also alleviated. Acupuncture may be a good treatment modality for nonmotor symptoms in PD. PMID:25628905
Iseki, Chifumi; Furuta, Taiga; Suzuki, Masao; Koyama, Shingo; Suzuki, Keiji; Suzuki, Tomoko; Kaneko, Akiyo; Mitsuma, Tadamichi
A woman started to feel intractable pain on her lower legs when she was 76. At the age of 78, she was diagnosed as having Parkinson's disease (PD). The leg pain was suspected to be a symptom of PD after eliminating other causes. The patient also suffered from nonmotor symptoms, depression, anxiety, hot flashes, and paroxysmal sweating. Though the patient had received pharmacotherapy including levodopa for 5 years, she still suffered from the nonmotor symptoms and was referred to our department. We treated her with acupuncture based on the Chinese traditional medicine and electroacupuncture five times per week. After the 2-week treatment, the assessment for the symptoms was as follows; visual analogue scale (VAS) score of the leg pain was 16 mm (70 mm, before), Hamilton's rating scales for depression (HAM-D) score was 9 (18, before), timed 3 m Up and Go took 20 steps in 30 sec (24 steps in 38 sec, before), and the Movement Disorder Society-sponsored revision of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS) Part 1 score was 13 (21, before). Autonomic symptoms, hot flashes and paroxysmal sweating, were also alleviated. Acupuncture may be a good treatment modality for nonmotor symptoms in PD.
Nava, Angeles; McFarlane, Judith; Gilroy, Heidi; Maddoux, John
Intimate partner violence has negative effects on women's safety and wellbeing. When immigrant women are victimized the danger and poor health may intensify. The purpose was to determine the impact of acculturation on severity of violence, danger for murder, mental health functioning, and safety behaviors of abused immigrant women. Entry data of a 7-year prospective study of 106 abused immigrant women who were first time users of safe shelter or justice services is presented. The interview included the Severity of Violence Against Women Scale, Danger Assessment, Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), Safety Behavior Checklist, and Acculturation for Hispanics instruments. A significant (p < 0.05) positive correlation between acculturation and safety behaviors and BSI scores was established. Higher acculturation scores were associated with significantly more practiced safety behaviors and higher levels of depression. Understanding the specific needs of abuse immigrant women associated with acculturation is imperative to develop interventions to interrupt abuse and promote safety and mental well-being.
Diop, Hafsatou; Declercq, Eugene; Cabral, Howard J.; Fox, Matthew P.; Wise, Lauren A.
Abstract Background: Understanding the influence of perinatal stressors on the prevalence of postpartum depressive symptoms (PDS) and help-seeking for PDS using surveillance data can inform service provision and improve health outcomes. Methods: We used Massachusetts Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (MA-PRAMS) 2007–2010 data to evaluate associations between selected perinatal stressors and PDS and with subsequent help-seeking behaviors. We categorized 12 stressors into 4 groups: partner, traumatic, financial, and emotional. We defined PDS as reporting “always” or “often” to any depressive symptoms on PRAMS Phase 5, or to a composite score ≥10 on PRAMS Phase 6 depression questions, compared with women reporting “sometimes,” “rarely” or “never” to all depressive symptoms. The median response time to MA-PRAMS survey was 3.2 months (interquartile range, 2.9–4.0 months). We estimated prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) using modified Poisson regression models, controlling for socioeconomic status indicators, pregnancy intention and prior mental health visits. Results: Among 5,395 participants, 58% reported ≥1 stressor (partner=26%, traumatic=16%, financial=29% and emotional=30%). Reporting of ≥1 stressor was associated with increased prevalence of PDS (PR=1.68, 95% CI: 1.42–1.98). The strongest association was observed for partner stress (PR=1.90, 95% CI: 1.51–2.38). Thirty-eight percent of mothers with PDS sought help. Mothers with partner-related stressors were less likely to seek help, compared with mothers with other grouped stressors. Conclusions: Women who reported perinatal common stressors—particularly partner-related stressors—had an increased prevalence of PDS. These data suggest that women should be routinely screened during pregnancy for a range of stressors and encouraged to seek help for PDS. PMID:25751609
Mellick, William; Kalpakci, Allison; Sharp, Carla
Prior studies have examined critical expressed emotion (EE-Crit) in mothers in the intergenerational transmission of depression. However, the potential moderating effect of maternal depression diagnostic status in relation to EE-Crit and youth depressive symptoms has yet to be determined. A total of N=121 biological mother/daughter dyads that differed in maternal depression diagnostic status were recruited for the present study: (1) currently depressed mothers (current depression, n=29); (2) formerly depressed mothers (past depression, n=39); and (3) mothers free from any psychiatric history (healthy controls, n=53). Mothers were administered structured clinical interviews and completed self-report measures of EE-Crit and psychopathology, and daughters self-reported depressive symptoms. Results indicated no significant group differences in EE-Crit; however, current maternal depression status moderated EE-Crit such that the magnitude of the relation between EE-Crit and adolescent depressive symptoms was significantly greater in daughters of currently depressed mothers. These findings highlight the importance of considering current maternal depression, rather than a history of maternal depression, in relation to EE-Crit and adolescent depressive symptoms, providing impetus for future investigations.
Klinedinst, N Jennifer; Resnick, Barbara
This descriptive study examined the relationship between volunteer activities, depressive symptoms, and feelings of usefulness among older adults using path analysis. Survey data was collected via interview from residents of a continuing care retirement community. Neither feelings of usefulness nor volunteering were directly associated with depressive symptoms. Volunteering was directly associated with feelings of usefulness and indirectly associated with depressive symptoms through total physical activity. Age, fear of falling, pain, physical activity, and physical resilience explained 31% of the variance in depressive symptoms. Engaging in volunteer work may be beneficial for increasing feelings of usefulness and indirectly improving depressive symptoms among older adults.
Records, Kathie; Keller, Colleen; Coonrod, Dean; Ainsworth, Barbara; Todd, Michael; Belyea, Michael; Nagle-Williams, Allison; Permana, Paska; Vega Lopez, Sonia
Depression symptoms and overweight/obesity are common concerns during childbearing. Both conditions are associated with poor outcomes at birth and can have long-lasting consequences. Predictors of depressive symptoms among overweight and obese low-income and ethnically diverse women are not known. Data are from the Madres para la Salud trial with 139 postpartum Latinas. Depressive symptoms during a prior pregnancy were positively related, while social support and moderate intensity physical activity (PA) were negatively related to depressive symptoms after birth. Social support and PA may be effective interventions, particularly for women who have experienced depressive symptoms in a prior pregnancy.
Herman, Sandra L.; Lester, David
Examined depression among 97 adolescents with and without psychosomatic stress symptoms and explored relationship between psychosomatic stress symptoms and preoccupation with suicide. Found that occurrence of minor physical symptoms of stress, but not major psychosomatic disorders, was associated with depression. Physical symptoms were not…
Rodgers, Rachel F; Paxton, Susan J; Chabrol, Henri
This study aimed to explore the role of depression as a moderator of sociocultural influences on eating disorder symptoms. A sample of 509 adolescents (56% female) completed self-report questionnaires assessing depression, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, bulimic symptoms and sociocultural influences on appearance from family, peers and the media. Both girls and boys displaying high levels of depressive symptoms perceived stronger media and peer influences on appearance. Among girls, eating disorder symptoms were directly affected by sociocultural influences, in particular media influences, as well as by depression. However, depression played only a limited role as a moderator of these relationships. Among boys, sociocultural influences and depression revealed fewer direct effects on eating disorder symptoms. However, depression had a greater moderating effect on these relationships. Future research into the role of depression may increase the understanding of gender differences in body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness and bulimic symptoms.
VanZomeren-Dohm, Adrienne A.; Pitula, Clio E.; Koss, Kalsea J.; Thomas, Kathleen; Gunnar, Megan R.
The purpose of this study was to examine whether FKBP5 rs1360780 moderates relations between different forms of life stress/adversity (early institutional rearing and peer victimization) and depressive symptoms in adolescents. As reported previously, PI youth were at risk for being victimized by peers. Here, victimization was associated with elevated depressive symptoms. While FKBP5 did not moderate the association between early life adversity and depressive symptoms for either sex, it moderated the association between current adversity and depressive symptoms for victimized girls carrying the minor allele. Consistent with a differential susceptibility model, girls with the minor allele exhibited more depressive symptoms at higher levels of victimization, but fewer depressive symptoms at lower levels of victimization. Interestingly, boys with the CC genotype had higher rates of depressive symptoms compared to girls with the CC genotype in the context of heightened victimization. PMID:25462914
Witvliet, Miranda; Brendgen, Mara; van Lier, Pol A C; Koot, Hans M; Vitaro, Frank
This study examined whether clique isolation predicted an increase in depressive symptoms and whether this association was mediated by loneliness and perceived social acceptance in 310 children followed from age 11-14 years. Clique isolation was identified through social network analysis, whereas depressive symptoms, loneliness, and perceived social acceptance were assessed using self ratings. While accounting for initial levels of depressive symptoms, peer rejection, and friendlessness at age 11 years, a high probability of being isolated from cliques from age 11 to 13 years predicted depressive symptoms at age 14 years. The link between clique isolation and depressive symptoms was mediated by loneliness, but not by perceived social acceptance. No sex differences were found in the associations between clique isolation and depressive symptoms. These results suggest that clique isolation is a social risk factor for the escalation of depressive symptoms in early adolescence. Implications for research and prevention are discussed.
Frazer, Andrew L; Fite, Paula J
The current study, operating from a stress-process framework, examined the interactive effects of supportive parenting practices (i.e., mothers' use of positive communication, positive parenting, and parental involvement) and maternal psychological control on mother- and child-reported child depressive symptoms in a community-recruited sample of 9-12 year-olds. Discrepancies between reports of depressive symptoms were also examined. Maternal psychological control was uniquely associated with child-, not mother-, reported depressive symptoms. Parental involvement was uniquely associated with mother-, not child-, reported depressive symptoms. Positive parent-child communication was associated with both reports of child depressive symptoms at the bivariate level, but not when unique associations were examined. Positive parenting was unrelated to either report of depressive symptoms. No interaction effects were detected. The current findings highlight the differential importance of parenting practices on child depressive symptoms, and also indicate the necessity of gathering both parent and child reports of symptomatology and family functioning.
Gavin, Amelia R.; Holzman, Claudia; Siefert, Kristine; Tian, Yan
Purpose This study examined associations among maternal depression, measured in several ways, psychiatric medication use in pregnancy, and preterm delivery (PTD). Methods Data were from 3,019 women enrolled in the Pregnancy Outcomes and Community Health Study (1998–2004), a prospective study of pregnant women in five Michigan communities. Information on depressive symptoms, history of depression and psychiatric medication use was ascertained through interviews at mid-pregnancy. These variables and other relevant covariates were incorporated into regression models with a binary outcome, i.e., term (≥ 37 weeks’ gestation) as referent and PTD (< 37 weeks’ gestation). A second set of models used a multi-category outcome, i.e., term as referent and PTD further subdivided by gestational weeks and clinical circumstances. Main Findings The odds of overall PTD was increased among women who used psychiatric medication during pregnancy and had either elevated levels of depressive symptoms at mid-pregnancy (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.0 [95% CI 1.1, 3.6]) or a history of depression prior to pregnancy (AOR= 1.6 [95% CI 1.1, 2.5]). The combination of psychiatric medication use in pregnancy and depression, prior to pregnancy or within pregnancy, was most strongly linked to a medically indicated delivery at < 35 weeks’ gestation (AOR 2.9 and 3.6 respectively). Conclusions There are at least two plausible explanations for these findings. First, psychiatric medication use in pregnancy may pose an excess risk of PTD. Second, medication use may be an indicator of depressive symptom severity, which is a direct or indirect (i.e., alters behavior) contributing factor to PTD. PMID:19733802
Schwartz, Seth J; Benet-Martínez, Verónica; Knight, George P; Unger, Jennifer B; Zamboanga, Byron L; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Stephens, Dionne P; Huang, Shi; Szapocznik, José
The present study used a randomized design, with fully bilingual Hispanic participants from the Miami area, to investigate 2 sets of research questions. First, we sought to ascertain the extent to which measures of acculturation (Hispanic and U.S. practices, values, and identifications) satisfied criteria for linguistic measurement equivalence. Second, we sought to examine whether cultural frame switching would emerge--that is, whether latent acculturation mean scores for U.S. acculturation would be higher among participants randomized to complete measures in English and whether latent acculturation mean scores for Hispanic acculturation would be higher among participants randomized to complete measures in Spanish. A sample of 722 Hispanic students from a Hispanic-serving university participated in the study. Participants were first asked to complete translation tasks to verify that they were fully bilingual. Based on ratings from 2 independent coders, 574 participants (79.5% of the sample) qualified as fully bilingual and were randomized to complete the acculturation measures in either English or Spanish. Theoretically relevant criterion measures--self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and personal identity--were also administered in the randomized language. Measurement equivalence analyses indicated that all of the acculturation measures--Hispanic and U.S. practices, values, and identifications-met criteria for configural, weak/metric, strong/scalar, and convergent validity equivalence. These findings indicate that data generated using acculturation measures can, at least under some conditions, be combined or compared across languages of administration. Few latent mean differences emerged. These results are discussed in terms of the measurement of acculturation in linguistically diverse populations.
Schwartz, Seth J.; Benet-Martínez, Verónica; Knight, George P.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E.; Stephens, Dionne; Huang, Shi; Szapocznik, José
The present study used a randomized design, with fully bilingual Hispanic participants from the Miami area, to investigate two sets of research questions. First, we sought to ascertain the extent to which measures of acculturation (heritage and U.S. practices, values, and identifications) satisfied criteria for linguistic measurement equivalence. Second, we sought to examine whether cultural frame switching would emerge – that is, whether latent acculturation mean scores for U.S. acculturation would be higher among participants randomized to complete measures in English, and whether latent acculturation mean scores for Hispanic acculturation would be higher among participants randomized to complete measures in Spanish. A sample of 722 Hispanic students from a Hispanic-serving university participated in the study. Participants were first asked to complete translation tasks to verify that they were fully bilingual. Based on ratings from two independent coders, 574 participants (79.5% of the sample) qualified as fully bilingual and were randomized to complete the acculturation measures in either English or Spanish. Theoretically relevant criterion measures – self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and personal identity – were also administered in the randomized language. Measurement equivalence analyses indicated that all of the acculturation measures – Hispanic and U.S. practices, values, and identifications – met criteria for configural, weak/metric, strong/scalar, and convergent validity equivalence. These findings indicate that data generated using acculturation measures can, at least under some conditions, be combined or compared across languages of administration. Few latent mean differences emerged. These results are discussed in terms of the measurement of acculturation in linguistically diverse populations. PMID:24188146
Peitl, Marija Vučić; Prološčić, Joško; Blažević-Zelić, Sandra; Skarpa-Usmiani, Ivona; Peitl, Vjekoslav
Akathisia is a syndrome characterized by the unpleasant sensation of "inner" restlessness that manifests itself in the inability of sitting still or not moving. Many types of medicaments can cause akathisia as an adverse event of their use and they include: antipsychotics, antidepressants, antiemetics, antihistamines, and psychoactive substances. We will present the case of a 50 year old patient, treated on two occasions for psychotic depression. During the second hospitalization it is possible that antipsychotic treatment combined with an antidepressant caused akathisia or there were symptoms of agitated depression and akathisia present at the same time, which is very difficult to determine in everyday clinical practice. We can conclude that in this case, as in many others, akathisia as a possible adverse effect of psychopharmacs was very hard to identify. Therefore, it is necessary to have akathisia in mind when using certain medicaments, especially when combining several that use the same enzymatic system and consequently raise levels of at least one of them.
García-Fernández, Gloria; Secades-Villa, Roberto; García-Rodríguez, Olaya; Peña-Suárez, Elsa; Sánchez-Hervás, Emilio
Despite depressive symptoms being very common among patients seeking treatment for cocaine dependence, few studies have examined the effects of depressive symptoms on cocaine outpatient treatment outcomes, and there is even less research in the context of Contingency Management (CM). The purpose of this study was to assess the main and interactive effects of co-occurring depressive symptoms on CM outcomes. Cocaine-dependent individuals (N = 108) were randomized to Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA) or CRA plus CM in two outpatient community clinical settings. Participants were categorized according to depression symptoms, self-reported by means of the BDI at treatment entry. Outcome measures included treatment retention and documented cocaine abstinence over a 6-month treatment period. Depressive symptoms were more commonly found in females and in unemployed participants, and were associated with more drug-related, social, and psychiatric problems at treatment entry. Individuals with baseline depressive symptoms had poorer treatment outcomes than patients without depressive symptoms. The addition of CM to CRA made the program more effective than with CRA alone, regardless of depressive symptoms. CM was associated with better abstinence treatment outcomes, while the interaction between unemployment and depressive symptoms was associated with negative retention treatment outcomes. This study supports the efficacy of CM for cocaine-dependent outpatients with and without depressive symptoms, and highlights its importance for improving treatment for unemployed and depressed cocaine-dependent individuals.
Salazar-Villanea, Monica; Liebmann, Edward; Garnier-Villarreal, Mauricio; Montenegro-Montenegro, Esteban; Johnson, David K.
older adults was similar to US-age and education matched peers. CFA and SEM found that increased depressive symptomatology had deleterious effects on Working Memory made up of subtest scores sampling simple attention and vigilance for numbers. Verbal Memory, Verbal Reasoning, and Processing Speed were not affected by self-reported Positive Affect, Negative Affect or Depressive symptoms. Conclusion Costa Rican older adults were happy, as evidenced by the high ratio of positive affect to relatively low negative affect. Thus, we were somewhat surprised to find that depressive symptoms were selectively correlated to decrements in working memory and that negative and positive affect contributed negligible amounts of variance to any of the cognitive factors. Because of the methodological rigor of latent variable analysis, these results are very specific. The Working Memory factor is not contaminated with Speed of Processing or other measured cognitive factors. Likewise, the measured Geriatric Depression represents symptoms that are richly cognitive, not overtly affective. PMID:27104091
Olino, Thomas M; McMakin, Dana L; Nicely, Terri A; Forbes, Erika E; Dahl, Ronald E; Silk, Jennifer S
Although multiple studies find that offspring of depressed mothers are at risk for depressive disorders, there is uncertainty about the specific mechanisms that are at work--particularly with respect to modifiable factors that might be targeted for early intervention. The present work examines that parenting behaviors may operate as mediators, moderators, or independent influences on the development of youth depressive symptoms. One hundred one mothers and their early adolescent children participated in positive and negative interaction tasks. Maternal and youth self-reports of youth depressive symptoms were collected at baseline, 9-month, and 18-month assessments. Maternal history of depression was significantly associated with maternal-reported, but not youth self-reported, depressive symptomatology. Maternal positive and negative interaction behaviors in positive contexts were associated with higher youth self-reported depressive symptoms. Maternal positive interaction behaviors in positive contexts and maternal negative interactive behaviors in conflict contexts were associated with higher youth self-reported depressive symptoms. We found no evidence for maternal interaction behaviors serving as a mediator and little evidence of maternal interaction behaviors serving as a moderator of the relationship between maternal and offspring depression. Low maternal positive engagement tended to be more consistently associated with maternal- and self-reported youth depressive symptoms. The present findings suggest that characteristics of mother-child interactions that are associated with youth depressive symptomatology are pertinent to youth with and without a mother with a history of depression.
Perrino, Tatiana; Beardslee, William; Bernal, Guillermo; Brincks, Ahnalee; Cruden, Gracelyn; Howe, George; Murry, Velma; Pantin, Hilda; Prado, Guillermo; Sandler, Irwin; Brown, C Hendricks
Certain subgroups of youth are at high risk for depression and elevated depressive symptoms, and experience limited access to quality mental health care. Examples are socioeconomically disadvantaged, racial/ethnic minority, and sexual minority youth. Research shows that there are efficacious interventions to prevent youth depression and depressive symptoms. These preventive interventions have the potential to play a key role in addressing these mental health disparities by reducing youth risk factors and enhancing protective factors. However, there are comparatively few preventive interventions directed specifically to these vulnerable subgroups, and sample sizes of diverse subgroups in general prevention trials are often too low to assess whether preventive interventions work equally well for vulnerable youth compared to other youth. In this paper, we describe the importance and need for "scientific equity," or equality and fairness in the amount of scientific knowledge produced to understand the potential solutions to such health disparities. We highlight possible strategies for promoting scientific equity, including the following: increasing the number of prevention research participants from vulnerable subgroups, conducting more data synthesis analyses and implementation science research, disseminating preventive interventions that are efficacious for vulnerable youth, and increasing the diversity of the prevention science research workforce. These strategies can increase the availability of research evidence to determine the degree to which preventive interventions can help address mental health disparities. Although this paper utilizes the prevention of youth depression as an illustrative case example, the concepts are applicable to other health outcomes for which there are disparities, such as substance use and obesity.
Eller, L S; Rivero-Mendez, M; Voss, J; Chen, W-T; Chaiphibalsarisdi, P; Iipinge, S; Johnson, M O; Portillo, C J; Corless, I B; Sullivan, K; Tyer-Viola, L; Kemppainen, J; Rose, C Dawson; Sefcik, E; Nokes, K; Phillips, J C; Kirksey, K; Nicholas, P K; Wantland, D; Holzemer, W L; Webel, A R; Brion, J M
The aims of this study were to examine differences in self-schemas between persons living with HIV/AIDS with and without depressive symptoms, and the degree to which these self-schemas predict depressive symptoms in this population. Self-schemas are beliefs about oneself and include self-esteem, HIV symptom management self-efficacy, and self-compassion. Beck's cognitive theory of depression guided the analysis of data from a sample of 1766 PLHIV from the USA and Puerto Rico. Sixty-five percent of the sample reported depressive symptoms. These symptoms were significantly (p ≤ 0.05), negatively correlated with age (r = -0.154), education (r = -0.106), work status (r = -0.132), income adequacy (r = -0.204, self-esteem (r = -0.617), HIV symptom self-efficacy (r = - 0.408), and self-kindness (r = - 0.284); they were significantly, positively correlated with gender (female/transgender) (r = 0.061), white or Hispanic race/ethnicity (r = 0.047) and self-judgment (r = 0.600). Fifty-one percent of the variance (F = 177.530 (df = 1524); p < 0.001) in depressive symptoms was predicted by the combination of age, education, work status, income adequacy, self-esteem, HIV symptom self-efficacy, and self-judgment. The strongest predictor of depressive symptoms was self-judgment. Results lend support to Beck's theory that those with negative self-schemas are more vulnerable to depression and suggest that clinicians should evaluate PLHIV for negative self-schemas. Tailored interventions for the treatment of depressive symptoms in PLHIV should be tested and future studies should evaluate whether alterations in negative self-schemas are the mechanism of action of these interventions and establish causality in the treatment of depressive symptoms in PLHIV.
Friedmann, Jordan S; Lumley, Margaret N; Lerman, Bethany
Given that depression risk intensifies in adolescence, examining associates of depressive symptoms during the shift from childhood to adolescence is important for expanding knowledge about the etiology of depression symptoms and disorder. A longitudinal youth report was employed to examine the trajectory of both the content and structure of positive and negative schemas in adolescence and also whether these schemas could prospectively predict depressive symptoms and youth-reported resilience. One hundred and ninety-eight participants (aged 9 to 14) were recruited from four schools to complete measures of youth depressive symptoms, resilience, and schema content and structure. Those who consented to a follow-up study completed the same measures online (50 participants completed). Negative and positive schema content and structure were related over time. After controlling depressive symptoms/resilience at Time 1, negative schema content was the only significant predictor (trend level) of depressive symptoms and resilience at Time 2. Implications for cognitive theories and clinical practice are discussed.
Ferro, Mark A; Boyle, Michael H
The present study extends earlier research identifying an increased risk of anxiety among children with chronic physical illness (CwCPI) by examining a more complete model that explains how physical illness leads to increased symptoms of anxiety and depression. We tested a stress-generation model linking chronic physical illness to symptoms of anxiety and depression in a population-based sample of children aged 10 to 15 years. We hypothesized that having a chronic physical illness would be associated with more symptoms of anxiety and depression, increased levels of maternal depressive symptoms, more family dysfunction, and lower self-esteem; and, that maternal depressive symptoms, family dysfunction, and child self-esteem would mediate the influence of chronic physical illness on symptoms of anxiety and depression. Data came from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (N = 10,646). Mediating processes were analyzed using latent growth curve modeling. Childhood chronic physical illness was associated with increases in symptoms of anxiety and depression, β = 0.20, p < 0.001. Mediating effects were also observed such that chronic physical illness resulted in increases in symptoms of maternal depression and family dysfunction, leading to declines in child self-esteem, and in turn, increases in symptoms of anxiety and depression. CwCPI are at-risk for symptoms of anxiety and depression. Some of this elevated risk appears to work through family processes and child self-esteem. This study supports the use of family-centered care approaches among CwCPI to minimize burden on families and promote healthy psychological development for children.
Cassie, Kimberly M.; Cassie, William E.
Purpose: To examine the effect of organizational culture and climate on depressive symptoms among nursing home residents. Design and Methods: Using a pooled cross-sectional design, this study examines a sample of 23 nursing homes, 1,114 employees, and 5,497 residents. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Minimum Data Set, Depression Rating…
Vujeva, Hana M.; Furman, Wyndol
Research has consistently demonstrated the negative consequences of depression on adolescents' functioning in peer and family relationships, but little work has examined how depressive symptoms affect the quality of adolescents' and emerging adults' romantic relationships. Five waves of data on depressive symptoms, romantic relationship conflict,…
Balkin, Richard S.; Tietjen-Smith, Tara; Caldwell, Charmaine; Shen, Yu-Pei
Depression is a prevalent issue for women on college campuses. Undergraduate women participated in (a) an aerobic exercise class, (b) a weight-lifting class, or (c) a control group to determine the effect of exercise on depressive symptoms. Participants in the aerobic exercise group exhibited a significant decrease in depressive symptoms.…
Chabrol, Henri; Rodgers, Rachel; Rousseau, Amelie
The aim of the study was to evaluate the link between the different dimensions of depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation in adolescents. A sample of 1057 adolescents completed the CES-D (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale) and three additional items measuring suicidal ideation. The four dimensions of depressive symptoms on the…
Chan, Siu Mui; Oi Poon, Scarlet Fung
This study examined child cognitive-behavioural factors and parenting factors related to childhood depressive symptoms. Results indicate that positive and negative attributional styles were protective and vulnerable factors of depression symptoms, respectively, and the attribution-depression link was mediated by self-esteem and coping responses.…
Bracken, Bruce A.; Reintjes, Cristina
This study considered depressive symptoms among a normative sample of 1,900 children, adolescents, and adults (950 males and 950 females) divided across four age-levels to investigate the developmental progression of depressive symptoms by age, race/ethnicity, and gender. The national normative sample of the Clinical Assessment of Depression (CAD)…
Neblett, Enrique W., Jr.; Hammond, Wizdom Powell; Seaton, Eleanor K.; Townsend, Tiffany G.
This study examines underlying mechanisms in the relationship between an Africentric worldview and depressive symptoms. Participants were 112 African American young adults. An Africentric worldview buffered the association between perceived stress and depressive symptoms. The relationship between an Africentric worldview and depressive symptoms…
Morgan, Judith K.; Olino, Thomas M.; McMakin, Dana L.; Ryan, Neal D.; Forbes, Erika E.
Adolescence is a developmental period characterized by significant increases in the onset of depression, but also by increases in depressive symptoms, even among psychiatrically healthy youth. Disrupted reward function has been postulated as a critical factor in the development of depression, but it is still unclear which adolescents are particularly at risk for rising depressive symptoms. We provide a conceptual stance on gender, pubertal development, and reward type as potential moderators of the association between neural response to reward and rises in depressive symptoms. In addition, we describe preliminary findings that support claims of this conceptual stance. We propose that (1) status-related rewards may be particularly salient for eliciting neural response relevant to depressive symptoms in boys, whereas social rewards may be more salient for eliciting neural response relevant to depressive symptoms in girls and (2) the pattern of reduced striatal response and enhanced medial prefrontal response to reward may be particularly predictive of depressive symptoms in pubertal adolescents. We found that greater vmPFC activation when winning rewards predicted greater increases in depressive symptoms over two years, for boys only, and less striatal activation when anticipating rewards predicted greater increases in depressive symptoms over two years, for adolescents in mid to late pubertal stages but not those in pre to early puberty. We also propose directions for future studies, including the investigation of social vs. monetary reward directly and the longitudinal assessment of parallel changes in pubertal development, neural response to reward, and depressive symptoms. PMID:22521464
Byrne, Kaileigh A.; Norris, Dominique D.; Worthy, Darrell A.
Depressive symptomatology has been associated with alterations in decision-making, although conclusions have been mixed with depressed individuals showing impairments in some contexts, but advantages in others. The dopaminergic system may link depressive symptoms with decision-making performance. We assessed the role of striatal dopamine D2 receptor density, using spontaneous eyeblink rate, in moderating the relationship between depressive symptoms and decision-making performance in a large undergraduate sample that had not been screened for mental illness (N=104). Regression results revealed that eyeblink rate moderated the relationship between depressive symptoms and advantageous decisions on the IGT in which individuals with more depressive symptomatology and high blink rates (higher striatal dopamine D2 receptor density) performed better on the task. Computational modeling results demonstrated that depressive symptoms alone were associated with enhanced loss aversive behavior, while individuals with high blink rates and elevated depressive symptoms tended to persevere in selecting options that led to net gains (avoiding options with net losses). These findings suggest that variation in striatal dopamine D2 receptor availability in individuals with depressive symptoms may contribute to differences in decision-making behavior. PMID:26383904
Birman, Dina; Simon, Corrina D; Chan, Wing Yi; Tran, Nellie
The study articulates a contextual approach to research on acculturation of immigrants, suggesting that the relationship between acculturation and adjustment is dependent on the cultural demands of the life domains considered. Specifically, the study investigated the mediating effects of adjustment in occupational and social life domains on the relationship between acculturation and psychological adjustment for 391 refugees from the former Soviet Union. The study used bilinear measures of acculturation to the host (American) and heritage (Russian) cultures. Using Structural Equation Modeling, the study confirmed the hypothesized relationships, such that the positive effects of American acculturation on psychological adjustment were mediated by occupational adjustment, and the effects of Russian acculturation on psychological adjustment were mediated by satisfaction with co-ethnic social support. Psychological adjustment was measured in two ways, as psychological well-being, using a measure of life satisfaction, and as symptoms of depression and anxiety, using the Hopkins symptom checklist (HSCL). Life satisfaction served as a mediator between adjustment in occupational and social domains and HSCL, suggesting that it may be an intervening variable through which environmental stress associated with immigration contributes to the development of symptoms of mental disorder.
Sidebottom, Abbey C; Hellerstedt, Wendy L; Harrison, Patricia A; Hennrikus, Deborah
We characterized depressive symptoms in the prenatal and/or postpartum periods and examined associated risk factors among 594 women who received care at community health care centers. Women were screened with comprehensive risk assessments, which included the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 depression screen, during pregnancy and at least 4 weeks after delivery. Fifteen percent had depressive symptoms in the prenatal period only; 6 % in the postpartum period only, and 8 % had depressive symptoms in both periods. Risk markers varied for women who reported depressive symptoms at one period only compared with those who reported persistent depressive symptoms. Age (25 years versus younger), having experienced abuse, not living with the infant's father, and cigarette smoking were associated with depressive symptoms at both periods; being US-born, lacking social support, and experiencing food insecurity were associated with reporting symptoms only in the prenatal period, and lack of phone access was associated with risk only in the postpartum period. Our findings confirm the importance of repeated screenings for depressive symptoms during the perinatal period. The variability in risk markers associated with periods of reported depressive symptoms may reflect their varying associations with persistence, new onset, or recovery from depressive symptoms.
Eller, L S; Bunch, E H; Wantland, D J; Portillo, C J; Reynolds, N R; Nokes, K M; Coleman, C L; Kemppainen, J K; Kirksey, K M; Corless, I B; Hamilton, M J; Dole, P J; Nicholas, P K; Holzemer, W L; Tsai, Y-F
Depressive symptoms are highly prevalent yet undertreated in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHAs). As part of a larger study of symptom self-management (N=1217), this study examined the prevalence, correlates, and characteristics (intensity, distress, and impact) of depressive symptoms, and the self-care strategies used to manage those symptoms in PLHAs in five countries. The proportion of respondents from each country in the total sample reporting depressive symptoms in the past week varied and included Colombia (44%), Norway (66%), Puerto Rico (57%), Taiwan (35%), and the USA (56%). Fifty-four percent (n=655) of the total sample reported experiencing depressive symptoms in the past week, with a mean of 4.1 (SD 2.1) days of depression. Mean depression intensity 5.4 (SD 2.7), distressfulness 5.5 (SD 2.86), and impact 5.5 (SD 3.0) were rated on a 1-10 scale. The mean Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale score for those reporting depressive symptoms was 27 (SD 11; range 3-58), and varied significantly by country. Respondents identified 19 self-care behaviors for depressive symptoms, which fell into six categories: complementary therapies, talking to others, distraction techniques, physical activity, medications, and denial/avoidant coping. The most frequently used strategies varied by country. In the US sample, 33% of the variance in depressive symptoms was predicted by the combination of education, HIV symptoms, psychological and social support, and perceived consequences of HIV disease.
Müller, Sina; Rohde, Paul; Gau, Jeff M.; Stice, Eric
We investigated factors hypothesized to moderate the effects of cognitive behavioral group-based (CB group) and bibliotherapy depression prevention programs. Using data from two trials (N = 631) wherein adolescents (M age = 15.5, 62% female, 61% Caucasian) with depressive symptoms were randomized into CB group, CB bibliotherapy, or an educational brochure control condition, we evaluated the moderating effects of individual, demographic, and environmental factors on depressive symptom reductions and major depressive disorder (MDD) onset over 2-year follow-up. CB group and bibliotherapy participants had lower depressive symptoms than controls at posttest but these effects did not persist. No MDD prevention effects were present in the merged data. Relative to controls, elevated depressive symptoms and motivation to reduce depression amplified posttest depressive symptom reduction for CB group, and elevated baseline symptoms amplified posttest symptom reduction effects of CB bibliotherapy. Conversely, elevated substance use mitigated the effectiveness of CB group relative to controls on MDD onset over follow-up. Findings suggest that both CB prevention programs are more beneficial for youth with at least moderate depressive symptoms, and that CB group is more effective for youth motivated to reduce their symptoms. Results also imply that substance use reduces the effectiveness of CB group-based depression prevention. PMID:26480199
Müller, Sina; Rohde, Paul; Gau, Jeff M; Stice, Eric
We investigated factors hypothesized to moderate the effects of cognitive behavioral group-based (CB group) and bibliotherapy depression prevention programs. Using data from two trials (N = 631) wherein adolescents (M age = 15.5, 62% female, 61% Caucasian) with depressive symptoms were randomized into CB group, CB bibliotherapy, or an educational brochure control condition, we evaluated the moderating effects of individual, demographic, and environmental factors on depressive symptom reductions and major depressive disorder (MDD) onset over 2-year follow-up. CB group and bibliotherapy participants had lower depressive symptoms than controls at posttest but these effects did not persist. No MDD prevention effects were present in the merged data. Relative to controls, elevated depressive symptoms and motivation to reduce depression amplified posttest depressive symptom reduction for CB group, and elevated baseline symptoms amplified posttest symptom reduction effects of CB bibliotherapy. Conversely, elevated substance use mitigated the effectiveness of CB group relative to controls on MDD onset over follow-up. Findings suggest that both CB prevention programs are more beneficial for youth with at least moderate depressive symptoms, and that CB group is more effective for youth motivated to reduce their symptoms. Results also imply that substance use reduces the effectiveness of CB group-based depression prevention.
Demartini, Benedetta; Ranieri, Rebecca; Masu, Annamaria; Selle, Valerio; Scarone, Silvio; Gambini, Orsola
The relationship between subclinical hypothyroidism and depression is still controversial. Our objective was to compare the prevalence of depressive symptoms and major depressive disorder in a population of patients affected by subclinical hypothyroidism and a control group without thyroid disease. The authors enrolled 123 consecutive outpatients affected by subclinical hypothyroidism undergoing follow-up at the endocrinology department of San Paolo Hospital in Milan and 123 controls without thyroid disease under the charge of general physicians.All patients and controls underwent an evaluation by means of a psychiatric interview; Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D); Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS); and serum thyroid stimulating hormone, free T4, and free T3 levels. Patients were also screened for thyroid peroxidase antibodies and thyroglobulin antibodies. Patients affected by subclinical hypothyroidism had a prevalence of depressive symptoms of 63.4% at HAM-D and 64.2% at MADRS; 22 patients (17.9%) had a diagnosis of depressive episode (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision criteria). The control group had a prevalence of depressive symptoms of 27.6% at HAM-D and 29.3% at MADRS, and only seven controls had a diagnosis of depressive episode. The prevalence of depressive symptoms between these two groups was statistically different. This study underlines a strong association between subclinical hypothyroidism and depressive symptoms, which could have some important diagnostic and therapeutic implications in the clinical practice.
Whited, Matthew C; Schneider, Kristin L; Appelhans, Bradley M; Ma, Yunsheng; Waring, Molly E; DeBiasse, Michele A; Busch, Andrew M; Oleski, Jessica L; Merriam, Philip A; Olendzki, Barbara C; Crawford, Sybil L; Ockene, Ira S; Lemon, Stephenie C; Pagoto, Sherry L
An elevation in symptoms of depression has previously been associated with greater accuracy of reported dietary intake, however this association has not been investigated among individuals with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder. The purpose of this study was to investigate reporting accuracy of dietary intake among a group of women with major depressive disorder in order to determine if reporting accuracy is similarly associated with depressive symptoms among depressed women. Reporting accuracy of dietary intake was calculated based on three 24-hour phone-delivered dietary recalls from the baseline phase of a randomized trial of weight loss treatment for 161 obese women with major depressive disorder. Regression models indicated that higher severity of depressive symptoms was associated with greater reporting accuracy, even when controlling for other factors traditionally associated with reporting accuracy (coefficient = 0.01 95% CI = 0.01 - 0.02). Seventeen percent of the sample was classified as low energy reporters. Reporting accuracy of dietary intake increases along with depressive symptoms, even among individuals with major depressive disorder. These results suggest that any study investigating associations between diet quality and depression should also include an index of reporting accuracy of dietary intake as accuracy varies with the severity of depressive symptoms.
Garcia, Danilo; Kerekes, Nóra; Andersson Arntén, Ann-Christine; Archer, Trevor
Positive (PA) and negative affect (NA) are two separate systems markers of subjective well-being and measures of the state depression (low PA combined with high NA). The present study investigated differences in temperament, character, locus of control, and depressive symptoms (sleep quality, stress, and lack of energy) between affective profiles in an adolescent sample. Participants (N = 304) were categorized into four affective profiles: “self-fulfilling” (high PA, low NA), “high affective” (high PA, high NA), “low affective” (low PA, low NA), and “self-destructive” (low PA, high NA). Personality was measured by the Temperament and Character Inventory and affective profiles by the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule. The “self-fulfilling” profile was characterized by, compared to the other affective profiles, higher levels of sleep quality, less stress and more energy and also higher levels of persistence and a mature character (i.e., high scores in self-directedness and cooperativeness). “Self-destructive” adolescents reported higher levels of external locus of control, high scores in harm avoidance and reward dependence combined with less mature character. The results identify the importance of character maturity in well-being and suggest that depressive state can be positively influenced by promoting positive emotions which appears to be achieved by character development. PMID:22844588
Myles-Worsley, Marina; Weaver, Starla; Blailes, Francisca
Aim Depressive symptoms are common in the early prodromal phase of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. The objectives of the present study were to retrospectively examine the severity of depressive symptoms and their relationship to positive symptoms over the developmental course of adolescent-onset psychosis (AO-PSY). Methods The subjects were 62 unmedicated adolescents with DSM-IV psychosis and 104 normal controls from a Pacific island isolate with an elevated prevalence of schizophrenia. We used a modified K-SADS-PL to assess adolescents for a full range of Axis I psychopathology and quantified severity of depressive and positive symptoms over the adolescent’s lifespan. Results Among AO-PSY subjects, 84% reported abnormal levels of depressive symptoms with mean onset 1.3 years prior to transition to psychosis. In 60% of the AO-PSY subjects with depressive symptoms, positive symptoms began first. A continuous linear increase in depressive symptom severity over the developmental course of illness mirrored the steady rise in positive symptom severity as psychosis emerged. Conclusions We found that it is typically a combination of positive symptoms and depressive symptoms building in parallel that leads from the prodrome to frank psychosis. These results suggest that depressive symptoms represent more of an integral component of disease progression than an independent risk factor that predicts transition to early onset psychosis. PMID:19079763
Crisson, James; And Others
Presents two studies designed to examine the self-report of depressive symptoms in low back pain patients (N=134). Both studies found that patients were more likely to report somatic than cognitive symptoms of depression. Patients with multiple physical findings were not more likely to report somatic symptoms than patients with few physical…
Mezulis, Amy; Vander Stoep, Ann; Stone, Andrea L.; McCauley, Elizabeth
Both depressive and externalizing symptoms are common in adolescence and often co-occur. The purpose of this study was to examine whether adolescents' patterns of depressive and externalizing symptoms can be differentiated into discrete classes and whether these classes are best distinguished by the number or type of symptoms. We examined whether…
Rusch, Dana; Reyes, Karina
This study examined the role of parent-child separations during serial migration to the United States in predicting individual- and family-level outcomes in Mexican immigrant families. We assessed parents' subjective appraisals of their family's separation and reunion experiences to explore associations with self-reported acculturative stress,…
Kassam-Adams, Nancy; Marsac, Meghan L.; Cirilli, Carla
Objective: To examine the factor structure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in children and adolescents who have experienced an acute single-incident trauma, associations between PTSD symptom clusters and functional impairment, and the specificity of PTSD symptoms in relation to depression and general distress. Method: Examined…
Klinedinst, N. Jennifer; Resnick, Barbara; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M.; Dorsey, Susan G.
Purpose of Study: About 25% of older adults suffer from depressive symptoms. Commonly studied candidate genes associated with depression include those that influence serotonin (SLC6A4), dopamine (COMT), or neuroplasticity (BDNF, NTRK3). However, the majority of candidate gene studies do not consider the interplay of genetics, demographic, clinical, and behavioral factors and how they jointly contribute to depressive symptoms among older adults. The purpose of this study was to gain a more comprehensive understanding of depressive symptoms among older adults. Design and methods: In this descriptive study, demographic, behavioral, and clinical characteristics (age, gender, comorbidities, volunteering, physical activity, pain, and fear of falling) were obtained via interview of 114 residents in a continuing care retirement community. Peripheral whole blood was collected for DNA extraction. We examined common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the aforementioned genes using path analyses. Results: SNPs in the NTRK3 gene, pain, physical activity, and fear of falling were directly associated with depressive symptoms in older adults. Those who had polymorphisms in the NTRK3 gene, pain, fear of falling, and were less physically active were more likely to exhibit depressive symptoms. None of the SNPs in SLC6A4, COMT, or BDNF genes were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Implications: Our use of a path analysis to examine a biopsychosocial model of depressive symptoms provided the opportunity to describe a comprehensive clinical picture of older adults at risk for depressive symptoms. Thus, interventions could be implemented to identify older adults at risk for depressive symptoms. PMID:26055783
Edwards, Renee C; Thullen, Matthew J; Isarowong, Nucha; Shiu, Cheng-Shi; Henson, Linda; Hans, Sydney L
The purpose of this longitudinal study was to examine changes in young mothers' depressive symptoms from pregnancy through the first two postpartum years and how supportive relationships with key individuals were related to mothers' depressive symptoms over time. Data were collected from young, low-income African American mothers (N = 248) during pregnancy and at 4, 12, and 24 months postpartum. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) analyses revealed that depressive symptoms were highest during pregnancy and declined through 24 months postpartum. Supportive relationships with the father of the baby and the mother's parent figure were related to lower levels of depressive symptoms. Although the association between father support and the mother's depressive symptoms remained consistent over time, support from the parent figure became increasingly more important during the young mother's transition to parenting. Further analyses also revealed that the association between support and depressive symptoms depended on other aspects of these relationships. Greater support from the baby's father was only related to fewer depressive symptoms for mothers who were partnered with the father of the baby. Greater support from the parent figure was only related to fewer depressive symptoms for mothers who were coresiding with the parent. Finally, having a repeat pregnancy during the early postpartum years was related to higher levels of depressive symptoms during the subsequent pregnancy. These findings suggest that screening and interventions for depression in young mothers should begin during pregnancy and include a focus on her proximal social relationships.
Reed-Knight, Bonney; Lobato, Debra; Hagin, Sarah; McQuaid, Elizabeth L.; Seifer, Ronald; Kopel, Sheryl J.; Boergers, Julie; Nassau, Jack H.; Suorsa, Kristina; Bancroft, Barbara; Shapiro, Jason; LeLeiko, Neal S.
Background Previous investigations have produced mixed findings on whether youth with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) experience elevated rates of depressive symptoms. Our first aim was to compare self-report of depressive symptoms by youth with IBD to a community sample. The second aim was to examine the relationship between symptoms of depression and measures of disease activity. Methods Item-level responses on the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) among a sample of 78 youth diagnosed with IBD were compared to responses from a community sample using one-sample t-tests. Particular attention was given to items assessing somatic symptoms of depression given the potential overlap with IBD disease symptoms. The relationship between depressive symptoms and IBD disease activity was evaluated using Spearman's rank correlation coefficients and linear regression. Results Youth with IBD reported lower levels of depressive symptoms compared to the community sample on the CDI Total Score, and similar or lower levels of difficulty on items assessing somatic symptoms. The majority of the sample had inactive or mild disease activity at the time of participation, with 14% experiencing moderate/severe disease activity. Higher ratings of disease activity were related to greater depressive symptoms. Responses on somatic items from the CDI were not differentially related to disease activity. Conclusions As a group, pediatric patients with IBD did not experience clinical levels of depressive symptoms or elevations in depressive symptoms when compared to a community sample. Somatic symptoms of depression do not differentiate youth with IBD experiencing elevations in disease activity from youth experiencing non-somatic symptoms of depression. PMID:24518604
Lara, María Asunción; Navarrete, Laura; Nieto, Lourdes
Prospective studies on the predictors of postpartum depression (PPD) in Latin America are scarce, which is a matter of importance, since the significance of PPD risk factors may vary according to the level of development of a country, the types of measurement and the time periods assessed. This study identifies the prenatal predictors for PPD (diagnostic interview) and postpartum depressive symptoms (PPDS) (self-report scale) in Mexican mothers at 6 weeks and 6 months postpartum. Two hundred and ten women were interviewed using the Structured Clinical Interview (SCID-I), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and various risk factor scales. Univariate logistic regressions showed that social support, marital satisfaction, life events, a history of psychopathology, anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms, the traditional female role, previous miscarriages/termination of pregnancy and unplanned/unwanted pregnancy were significant predictors for both PPD and PPDS at both assessment times in the postpartum. Education, age, marital status, income, occupation, parity, C-section and resilience were significant for only one of the measurements and/or at just one assessment time. General findings replicate a high- and low-income country observed psychosocial risk profile and confirm a sociodemographic and obstetric profile of vulnerability that is more prevalent in resource-constrained countries. PPD constitutes a high burden for new mothers, particularly for those living in low-middle-income countries who face social disadvantages (such as low educational attainment and income).
Rodriguez, Erin M; Donenberg, Geri R; Emerson, Erin; Wilson, Helen W; Javdani, Shabnam
Adolescents' interpersonal skills are associated with fewer teen depressive symptoms and more positive parenting, but little is known about how teens' externalizing problems moderate these relationships. This study examines links among teens' interpersonal skills, parenting, and withdrawn-depressed symptoms in adolescents seeking outpatient psychiatric treatment with elevated or non-elevated externalizing problems. Adolescents (N = 346; 42 % female; 61 % African-American) ages 12-19 years old (M = 14.9; SD = 1.8) and parents completed assessments at baseline and 6 months. At baseline parents and teens reported on teen withdrawn-depressed and externalizing symptoms, and were observed interacting to assess teen interpersonal skills. At 6 months adolescents reported on parenting, and parents and teens reported on teen withdrawn-depressed symptoms. Structural equation modeling tested two models (one with teen reported symptoms and one with parent reported symptoms). Model fit was better for youth with elevated externalizing problems regardless of reporter. For youth with elevated externalizing problems, baseline teen positive interpersonal skills were not directly associated with 6-month withdrawn-depressed symptoms, but more positive parenting was associated with fewer withdrawn-depressed symptoms. In the teen report model, more positive teen interpersonal skills were associated with more positive parenting, and there was a trend for parenting to indirectly account for the relationship between interpersonal skills and withdrawn-depressed symptoms. The findings extend research on the role of externalizing problems in teens' depression risk. Interventions for depression that target interpersonal skills may be particularly effective in youth with elevated externalizing problems.
Kamp Dush, Claire M.
The consequences of divorce are pronounced for parents of young children, and cohabitation dissolution is increasing in this population and has important implications. The mental health consequences of union dissolution were examined, by union type and parental gender, using the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (n = 1,998 for mothers and 1,764 for fathers). Overall, cohabitation and marital dissolution were both associated with increased maternal and paternal depressive symptoms, though for married mothers, depressive symptoms returned to predissolution levels with time. Difference-in-difference estimates indicated no differences in the magnitude of the increase in depressive symptoms by type of dissolution, though pooled difference models suggested that married fathers increased in depressive symptoms more than cohabiting fathers. Potential time-variant mediators did not account for these associations, though greater family chaos was associated with increased maternal depressive symptoms, and decreased social support and father – child contact were associated with increased paternal depressive symptoms. PMID:23671351
Liu, Yangyang; Lu, Zuhong
In a sample of 368 Chinese high school students, the present study examined the different effects of Chinese high school students' academic stress on their depressive symptoms and the moderating effects of gender and students' perceptions of school climate on the relationships between their academic stress and depressive symptoms. Regression mixture model identified two different kinds of subgroups in the effects of students' academic stress on their depressive symptoms. One subgroup contained 90% of the students. In this subgroup, the students' perceptions of academic stress from lack of achievement positively predicted their depressive symptoms. For the other 10% of the students, academic stress did not significantly predict their depressive symptoms. Next, multinomial regression analysis revealed that girls or students who had high levels of achievement orientation were more likely to be in the first subgroup. The findings suggested that gender and students' perceptions of school climate could moderate the relationships between Chinese high school students' academic stress and their depressive symptoms.
Calvete, Esther; Camara, Maria; Estevez, Ana; Villardón, Lourdes
This study examined the role of coping with social stressors in the development of depressive symptoms, as well as gender differences in this process. Participants included 978 adolescents (aged 14-18 years), who completed measures of social stressors, coping responses, and depressive symptoms at the beginning of the study and measures of depressive symptoms at a six-month follow-up. High levels of disengagement and low levels of secondary control coping predicted a residual increase in depressive symptoms at follow-up. Interactive effects were weak and moderated by gender: among female adolescents, the use of disengagement coping exacerbated the impact of social stressors on depressive symptoms, whereas the use of secondary control reduced these effects. Female adolescents scored higher than male adolescents on perceived social stress, disengagement, and primary control coping. Moreover, differences in perceived social stress and disengagement coping contributed to explain the female adolescents' higher scores on depressive symptoms. These findings have important implications for interventions.
Schweingruber, H A; Kalil, A
This study investigated correlates of depressive symptoms among 56 (30 Black and 26 White) low-income, coresiding teenage mothers and their mothers (referred to as grandmothers). Racial differences in teenage mothers' and grandmothers' reports of decision making and depressive symptoms and in the association of decision making with depressive symptoms were explored. Racial differences in levels of depressive symptoms emerged for grandmothers but not for teens. There were no significant differences in levels of decision making; however, the relation of decision making to depressive symptoms differed by racial group. Among White families, greater teen participation in decision making was negatively associated with teenage mothers' depressive symptoms. Among Black families, the opposite was found. A similar pattern of effects was observed for grandmothers.
Rodin, Gary; Walsh, Andrew; Zimmermann, Camilla; Gagliese, Lucia; Jones, Jennifer; Shepherd, Frances A; Moore, Malcolm; Braun, Michal; Donner, Allan; Mikulincer, Mario
The present study examines the association between disease-related factors, perceived social support, attachment security (i.e. attachment anxiety and avoidance), and the occurrence of depressive symptoms in a sample of patients with metastatic gastrointestinal or lung cancer. Results from a sample of 326 cancer outpatients with advanced disease indicate that disease-related factors are significantly associated with the occurrence of depressive symptoms, and the latter are inversely related to the degree of attachment anxiety and avoidance, and perceived social support. Attachment security (on the dimension of anxious attachment) significantly buffered the effect of disease-related factors on depressive symptoms, and perceived social support mediated the relationship between attachment security and depressive symptoms. The buffering effect of attachment security on depressive symptoms and its partial mediation through social support suggest that the interaction of individual, social, and disease-related factors contribute to the emergence of depressive symptoms in patients with metastatic cancer.
Background The quality and quantity of social relationships are associated with depression but there is less evidence regarding which aspects of social relationships are most predictive. We evaluated the relative magnitude and independence of the association of four social relationship domains with major depressive disorder and depressive symptoms. Methods We analyzed a cross-sectional telephone interview and postal survey of a probability sample of adults living in Switzerland (N = 12,286). Twelve-month major depressive disorder was assessed via structured interview over the telephone using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). The postal survey assessed depressive symptoms as well as variables representing emotional support, tangible support, social integration, and loneliness. Results Each individual social relationship domain was associated with both outcome measures, but in multivariate models being lonely and perceiving unmet emotional support had the largest and most consistent associations across depression outcomes (incidence rate ratios ranging from 1.55-9.97 for loneliness and from 1.23-1.40 for unmet support, p’s < 0.05). All social relationship domains except marital status were independently associated with depressive symptoms whereas only loneliness and unmet support were associated with depressive disorder. Conclusions Perceived quality and frequency of social relationships are associated with clinical depression and depressive symptoms across a wide adult age spectrum. This study extends prior work linking loneliness to depression by showing that a broad range of social relationship domains are associated with psychological well-being. PMID:24656048
Hamilton, Jessica L; Potter, Carrie M; Olino, Thomas M; Abramson, Lyn Y; Heimberg, Richard G; Alloy, Lauren B
Social anxiety and depressive symptoms dramatically increase and frequently co-occur during adolescence. Although research indicates that general interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and familial emotional maltreatment predict symptoms of social anxiety and depression, it remains unclear how these stressors contribute to the sequential development of these internalizing symptoms. Thus, the present study examined the sequential development of social anxiety and depressive symptoms following the occurrence of interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and familial emotional maltreatment. Participants included 410 early adolescents (53% female; 51% African American; Mean age =12.84 years) who completed measures of social anxiety and depressive symptoms at three time points (Times 1-3), as well as measures of general interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and emotional maltreatment at Time 2. Path analyses revealed that interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and emotional maltreatment predicted both depressive and social anxiety symptoms concurrently. However, depressive symptoms significantly mediated the pathway from interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and familial emotional maltreatment to subsequent levels of social anxiety symptoms. In contrast, social anxiety did not mediate the relationship between these stressors and subsequent depressive symptoms. There was no evidence of sex or racial differences in these mediational pathways. Findings suggest that interpersonal stressors, including the particularly detrimental stressors of peer victimization and familial emotional maltreatment, may predict both depressive and social anxiety symptoms; however, adolescents who have more immediate depressogenic reactions may be at greater risk for later development of symptoms of social anxiety.
Beydoun, Hind A; Beydoun, May A; Kaufman, Jay S; Lo, Bruce; Zonderman, Alan B
To date, few systematic reviews of observational studies have been conducted to comprehensively evaluate the co-morbidity of intimate partner violence (IPV) and specific depression outcomes in women. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we summarize the extant literature and estimate the magnitude of the association between IPV and key depressive outcomes (elevated depressive symptoms, diagnosed major depressive disorder and postpartum depression). PubMed (January 1, 1980-December 31, 2010) searches of English-language observational studies were conducted. Most of the selected 37 studies had cross-sectional population-based designs, focused on elevated depressive symptoms and were conducted in the United States. Most studies suggested moderate or strong positive associations between IPV and depression. Our meta-analysis suggested two to three-fold increased risk of major depressive disorder and 1.5-2-fold increased risk of elevated depressive symptoms and postpartum depression among women exposed to intimate partner violence relative to non-exposed women. A sizable proportion (9%-28%) of major depressive disorder, elevated depressive symptoms, and postpartum depression can be attributed to lifetime exposure to IPV. In an effort to reduce the burden of depression, continued research is recommended for evaluating IPV preventive strategies.
Brown, H M; Lester, K J; Jassi, A; Heyman, I; Krebs, G
Depression frequently co-occurs with paediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), yet the clinical correlates and impact of depression on CBT outcomes remain unclear. The prevalence and clinical correlates of depression were examined in a paediatric specialist OCD-clinic sample (N = 295; Mean = 15 [7 - 18] years, 42 % female), using both dimensional (Beck Depression Inventory-youth; n = 261) and diagnostic (Development and Wellbeing Assessment; n = 127) measures of depression. The impact of depressive symptoms and suspected disorders on post-treatment OCD severity was examined in a sub-sample who received CBT, with or without SSRI medication (N = 100). Fifty-one per-cent of patients reported moderately or extremely elevated depressive symptoms and 26 % (95 % CI: 18 - 34) met criteria for a suspected depressive disorder. Depressive symptoms and depressive disorders were associated with worse OCD symptom severity and global functioning prior to CBT. Individuals with depression were more likely to be female, have had a psychiatric inpatient admission and less likely to be attending school (ps < 0.01). OCD and depressive symptom severity significantly decreased after CBT. Depressive symptoms and depressive disorders predicted worse post-treatment OCD severity (βs = 0.19 and 0.26, ps < 0.05) but became non-significant when controlling for pre-treatment OCD severity (βs = 0.05 and 0.13, ns). Depression is common in paediatric OCD and is associated with more severe OCD and poorer functioning. However, depression severity decreases over the course of CBT for OCD and is not independently associated with worse outcomes, supporting the recommendation for treatment as usual in the presence of depressive symptoms.
Vromans, Lynette P; Schweitzer, Robert D
This study investigated depressive symptom and interpersonal relatedness outcomes from eight sessions of manualized narrative therapy for 47 adults with major depressive disorder. Post-therapy, depressive symptom improvement (d=1.36) and proportions of clients achieving reliable improvement (74%), movement to the functional population (61%), and clinically significant improvement (53%) were comparable to benchmark research outcomes. Post-therapy interpersonal relatedness improvement (d=.62) was less substantial than for symptoms. Three-month follow-up found maintenance of symptom, but not interpersonal gains. Benchmarking and clinical significance analyses mitigated repeated measure design limitations, providing empirical evidence to support narrative therapy for adults with major depressive disorder.
Khoury, Jennifer E; Gonzalez, Andrea; Levitan, Robert; Masellis, Mario; Basile, Vincenzo; Atkinson, Leslie
Three basic findings have emerged from research on maternal depressive symptoms and offspring hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal functioning: (a) Mothers' depressive symptoms are positively associated with their offsprings' cortisol stress response, (b) numerous individual and interpersonal maternal characteristics moderate this association, and (c) maternal and infant cortisol levels are highly correlated. In combination, these findings have suggested that maternal cortisol levels may moderate the relation between maternal depressive symptoms and infant cortisol responsivity; the current study assessed this hypothesis. Participants were 297 mother-infant dyads who were recruited from the community. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed via self-report. Dyads participated in two differentially stressful infant challenges when infants were 16 and 17 months old. Mother and infant salivary cortisol was collected before and after challenges. Results indicate that maternal cortisol levels moderated associations between maternal depressive symptoms and infant cortisol levels across both challenges. Infants showed higher cortisol levels if their mothers had both higher depressive symptoms and higher cortisol levels, as compared to infants of mothers with higher depressive symptoms and lower cortisol, and to infants of mothers with lower depressive symptoms and either higher or lower cortisol levels. We discuss findings in relation to environmental and biological factors that may contribute to the intergenerational transmission of depressive symptoms.
Toly, Valerie Boebel; Musil, Carol M
Mothers caring for technology-dependent children at home often suffer clinically significant and unrecognized depressive symptoms. The study aim was to determine factors related to elevated depressive symptoms and provide information to target interventions that assists mothers in self-management of their mental health. Secondary data analysis from a descriptive, correlational study of 75 mothers was performed. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis results indicate that younger, unpartnered mothers with lower normalization efforts and personal resourcefulness, and less care hours, had increased depressive symptoms. The importance of personal resourcefulness and the potential for a resourcefulness training intervention to reduce depressive symptoms are discussed.
Longmore, Monica A.; Manning, Wendy D.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Copp, Jennifer E.
Examining longitudinal data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (TARS) (n = 927), we assessed associations between physical victimization by an intimate partner, indicators of poor relationship quality, and depressive symptoms among young adult men and women in casually dating, exclusively dating, cohabiting, and marital relationships. In zero-order models, we found that physical victimization increased depressive symptoms. In multivariate models, victimization was a risk factor for depressive symptoms with the inclusion of prior depressive symptoms, family factors reflecting the intergenerational transmission of violence, sociodemographic background, and relationship characteristics including union status. Yet with the additional inclusion of indicators of poor relational quality, victimization was not a significant predictor of depressive symptoms. Arguing and poor communication influenced victimization and depressive symptoms. The associations between victimization and depressive symptoms did not differ by gender, nor were the effects of poor relationship quality on depressive symptoms conditional on gender. Thus, depressive symptoms are similarly responsive to intimate partner victimization, and for both women and men these associations were not significant with the inclusion of indicators of poor relationship quality. Findings underscored that victimization often occurs within relationship contexts characterized by a range of negative dynamics; thus multifaceted relationship-centered prevention and intervention efforts are likely to be more useful than those focusing only on negative messages about the use of aggression with an intimate partner. PMID:25131276
Wong, Jessie J; Gonzales, Nancy A; Montaño, Zorash; Dumka, Larry; Millsap, Roger E
Parental depression is a major risk factor in child development. Growing research suggests parenting programs can positively impact parental depressive symptoms, although the specific mechanisms that explain these effects are unknown. The current study examined parenting mediated effects of a parenting program on mothers' and fathers' depressive symptoms, as well as the role of child behavior in linking parenting to reductions in depressive symptoms. The study samples included 494 mothers and 288 fathers of Mexican origin adolescents who participated in a randomized trial of the Bridges to High School Program/Proyecto Puentes a la Secundaria, a universal prevention and promotion intervention that included parent training but did not directly target parental depressive symptoms. Parenting mediator models tested program effects on parental depressive symptoms through changes in harsh and supportive parenting. Results showed a significant indirect intervention effect on maternal depressive symptoms through changes in mothers' harsh parenting. Next, child behavior models revealed a partial mediation effect of harsh parenting and a full mediation effect of supportive parenting on maternal depressive symptoms through mothers' reports of child externalizing symptoms. Indirect effects of fathers' harsh and supportive parenting on paternal depressive symptoms were also found through fathers' reports of child behavior.
Evans, Lindsay D.; Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Samanez-Larkin, Silvia; Garber, Judy
Objective The present short-term longitudinal study examined the concurrent and prospective relations among executive functioning (i.e., working memory and cognitive flexibility), coping (primary and secondary control coping), and depressive symptoms in children. Method Participants were 192 children between 9 and 15 years old (mean age = 12.36 years, SD = 1.77) recruited from the community. Youth were individually administered neuropsychological measures of executive functioning and intelligence, and completed self-report measures of executive dysfunction, coping, and depressive symptoms in small groups; the latter two measures were completed again four months later (Time 2). Linear regression analyses were used to examine direct associations among executive functions, coping, and depressive symptoms, and a bootstrapping procedure was used to test indirect effects of executive functioning on depressive symptoms through coping. Results Significant prospective relations were found between working memory measured at Time 1 (T1) and both primary and secondary control coping measured at Time 2 (T2), controlling for T1 coping. T1 cognitive flexibility significantly predicted T2 secondary control coping, controlling for T1 coping. Working memory deficits significantly predicted increases in depressive symptoms four months later, controlling for T1 depressive symptoms. Bootstrap analyses revealed that primary and secondary control coping each partially mediated the relation between working memory and depressive symptoms; secondary control coping partially mediated the relation between cognitive flexibility and depressive symptoms. Conclusion Coping may be one pathway through which deficits in executive functioning contribute to children's symptoms of depression. PMID:25651455
Foster, Dawn W; Young, Chelsie M; Steers, Mai-Ly; Quist, Michelle C; Bryan, Jennifer L; Neighbors, Clayton
This study evaluates associations between coping drinking motives (CDM; drinking to regulate negative affect), depressive symptoms, and drinking behavior and extends the literature by also taking into account gender differences. Two hundred forty-three college students (Mean age = 22.93, SD = 6.29, 82% female) participated. Based on previous research, we expected that CDM would be positively associated with drinking and problems, particularly among those higher in depressive symptoms, as individuals experiencing higher levels of negative affect (i.e. depressive symptoms) and who drink to cope are likely to drink more and experience more alcohol-related problems. Lastly, based on established gender differences, we expected that CDM would be positively associated with drinking and problems, especially among females higher in depressive symptoms. Unexpectedly, findings suggested that CDMs were positively related to peak drinking, especially among those lower in depressive symptoms. Results further revealed a significant three-way interaction between CDM, depressive symptoms, and gender when predicting alcohol-related problems and drinking frequency. Specifically, we found that CDM were more strongly associated with problems among women who were lower in depressive symptoms; whereas CDM were more strongly associated with problems among men who were higher in depressive symptoms. These findings offer a more comprehensive depiction of the relationship between depressive symptoms, CDM, and drinking behavior by taking into account the importance of gender differences. These results provide additional support for considering gender when designing and implementing alcohol intervention strategies.
Foster, Dawn W.; Young, Chelsie M.; Steers, Mai-Ly; Quist, Michelle C.; Bryan, Jennifer L.; Neighbors, Clayton
This study evaluates associations between coping drinking motives (CDM; drinking to regulate negative affect), depressive symptoms, and drinking behavior and extends the literature by also taking into account gender differences. Two hundred forty-three college students (Mean age = 22.93, SD = 6.29, 82% female) participated. Based on previous research, we expected that CDM would be positively associated with drinking and problems, particularly among those higher in depressive symptoms, as individuals experiencing higher levels of negative affect (i.e. depressive symptoms) and who drink to cope are likely to drink more and experience more alcohol-related problems. Lastly, based on established gender differences, we expected that CDM would be positively associated with drinking and problems, especially among females higher in depressive symptoms. Unexpectedly, findings suggested that CDMs were positively related to peak drinking, especially among those lower in depressive symptoms. Results further revealed a significant three-way interaction between CDM, depressive symptoms, and gender when predicting alcohol-related problems and drinking frequency. Specifically, we found that CDM were more strongly associated with problems among women who were lower in depressive symptoms; whereas CDM were more strongly associated with problems among men who were higher in depressive symptoms. These findings offer a more comprehensive depiction of the relationship between depressive symptoms, CDM, and drinking behavior by taking into account the importance of gender differences. These results provide additional support for considering gender when designing and implementing alcohol intervention strategies. PMID:25525419
Ross, Anthony G; Shochet, Ian M; Bellair, Rachael
In the current study, we tested whether school connectedness mediates more distal deficits in social skills in influencing depressive symptoms in a sample of 127 sixth- and seventh-grade students. Results demonstrated that school connectedness and social skills accounted for 44% and 26% of variance in depressive symptoms respectively and 49% in a combined model. Although the full mediation model hypothesis was not supported, follow-up analyses revealed that school connectedness partially mediated the link between social skills and preadolescent depressive symptoms. Thus, school connectedness appears to play as strong a role in depressive symptoms in this younger preadolescent age group.
Dinger, Ulrike; Ehrenthal, Johannes C; Nikendei, Christoph; Schauenburg, Henning
Reduced self-esteem is a core symptom of depression, but few studies have investigated within-treatment change of self-esteem as a predictor of long-term outcome in depression. This study investigated change in self-esteem during 8 weeks of multimodal, psychodynamically oriented psychotherapy for 40 depressed patients and tested whether it would predict outcome 6 months after termination. Data was drawn from a randomized clinical pilot trial on day-clinic versus inpatient psychotherapy for depression. Findings supported the association between change in self-esteem and follow-up depression severity, even when controlling for within-treatment symptom change. Change in self-esteem was not related to overall symptoms and interpersonal problems at follow-up. Thus, change in self-esteem may be an important variable in preventing relapse for depression.
Fried, Eiko I; Nesse, Randolph M
Previous studies have established that scores on Major Depressive Disorder scales are correlated with measures of impairment of psychosocial functioning. It remains unclear, however, whether individual depressive symptoms vary in their effect on impairment, and if so, what the magnitude of these differences might be. We analyzed data from 3,703 depressed outpatients in the first treatment stage of the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) study. Participants reported on the severity of 14 depressive symptoms, and stated to what degree their depression impaired psychosocial functioning (in general, and in the five domains work, home management, social activities, private activities, and close relationships). We tested whether symptoms differed in their associations with impairment, estimated unique shared variances of each symptom with impairment to assess the degree of difference, and examined whether symptoms had variable impacts across impairment domains. Our results show that symptoms varied substantially in their associations with impairment, and contributed to the total explained variance in a range from 0.7% (hypersomnia) to 20.9% (sad mood). Furthermore, symptoms had significantly different impacts on the five impairment domains. Overall, sad mood and concentration problems had the highest unique associations with impairment and were among the most debilitating symptoms in all five domains. Our findings are in line with a growing chorus of voices suggesting that symptom sum-scores obfuscate relevant differences between depressed patients and that substantial rewards will come from close attention to individual depression symptoms.
Huang, Cong; Momma, Haruki; Cui, Yufei; Chujo, Masahiko; Otomo, Atsushi; Sugiyama, Shota; Ren, Zhongyu; Niu, Kaijun; Nagatomi, Ryoichi
Background Unhealthy eating has been found to be associated with the prevalence of depressive symptoms. However, prospective evidence of the combined effects of unhealthy eating and depressive symptoms has not been reported. This study aimed to elucidate the prospective relationship between habitual unhealthy eating habits and depressive symptoms. Methods A 2-year prospective cohort study of 376 Japanese adults aged 24–83 years without depressive symptoms at baseline was conducted. Information about participants' eating behaviors was obtained via a self-administered questionnaire, in which skipping breakfast, eating dinner shortly before bedtime, and snacking after dinner were recorded. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Japanese version of the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale. Results The 2-year incidence of depressive symptoms was found to be 23.7% (89/376). Covariate-adjusted multivariate Poisson regression analyses showed that habitual snacking after dinner was significantly associated with the incidence of depressive symptoms (relative risk [RR] 1.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00–3.14, p = 0.049), whereas no relationship was found between skipping breakfast or eating dinner shortly before bedtime and depressive symptoms. On the other hand, there was an interaction effect of snacking after dinner and dinner before bedtime on depressive symptoms (p for the interaction = 0.044). Participants with more than two unhealthy eating behaviors had a higher incidence of depressive symptoms compared to those with fewer than two unhealthy eating behaviors (RR 1.71; 95% CI, 1.06–2.77, p = 0.028). Conclusions This prospective study is the first to reveal the combined relationship between unhealthy eating and the incidence of depressive symptoms. PMID:28135197
Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Curby, Timothy W.; Renshaw, Keith D.
Depression has a heightened prevalence in adolescence, with approximately 15 % of adolescents experiencing a major depressive episode by age 18. Depression in adolescence also poses a risk for future distress and impairment. Despite treatment advances, many adolescents relapse after initial remission. Family context may be an important factor in the developmental trajectory of adolescent depression, and thus in enhancing treatment. This study examined concurrent change over time in adolescent and maternal depressive symptoms in the context of the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents study. Participants were 334 adolescents (mean age: 16; SD: 1.6; 70 % female, 84 % Caucasian), and their mothers (n = 241). All adolescents were clinically depressed when they entered the study and had received previous selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment. Adolescents received acute treatment for 12 weeks and additional treatment for 12 more weeks. Adolescent depression and suicidal ideation were assessed at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 weeks, while maternal depressive symptoms were assessed at 0, 12, 24, 48 and 72 weeks. Latent basis growth curve analyses showed a significant correlation over 72 weeks between trajectories of maternal and adolescent depressive symptoms, supporting the hypothesis of concurrent patterns of change in these variables. The trajectories were correlated more strongly in a subsample that included only dyads in which mothers reported at least one depressive symptom at baseline. Results did not show a correlation between trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms and adolescent suicidal ideation. These findings suggest that adolescent and maternal depressive symptoms change in tandem, and that treatment for adolescent depression can benefit the wider family system. Notably, most mothers in this sample had subclinical depressive symptoms. Future research might explore these trajectories in dyads with more severely depressed mothers
Morse, Melanie C.; Benson, Kari; Flory, Kate
OBJECTIVE The present study sought to examine the relations among disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs; ie, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], conduct disorder [CD], oppositional defiant disorder [ODD]), depressive symptoms, and marijuana use among a sample of late adolescents and emerging adults. METHOD A total of 900 students (75.8% female, 80.3% Caucasian, Mage = 20) from a large public university completed an online survey. RESULTS Findings indicated that depressive symptoms mediated the relation between the marijuana use and past symptoms of ADHD, past diagnosis of ADHD, CD symptoms, CD diagnosis, and ODD diagnosis. CONCLUSION Depressive symptoms represent a link between DBDs and marijuana use that is suggested, but not well documented in the existing literature. The current findings add to this evidence and suggest a need to assess individuals presenting with symptoms of DBDs for depressive symptoms, as this symptom pattern may result in a greater likelihood of marijuana use. PMID:27594786
Blazer, Dan G.; Hybels, Celia F.
Objectives Physical symptoms are known to be associated with late life depression both cross-sectionally and over time. We attempted to determine if self-reported shortness of breath (SoB) is associated with depressive symptoms at long-term (3-year) follow-up in a community sample of older (65+) adults. Methods A sample of 2926 elderly subjects from the Duke Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (EPESE) were evaluated at baseline and at 3-year follow-up. Depressive symptoms were assessed by a modified version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies—Depression Scale (CES-D) and SoB was assessed by a three-item scale administered at baseline. The analyses were controlled for factors known to be associated with depressive symptoms and SoB. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Results Eighty-three percent of subjects who experienced SoB survived for three years. Within the analysis sample of those participating at follow-up, 36 percent experienced SoB at baseline. In biavriate analyses, SoB, older age, female sex, history of a heart attack, higher body mass index (BMI), depressive symptoms at baseline, cognitive impairment, and functional impairment were associated with follow-up depressive symptoms. When controlled variables were included in a linear regression model, SoB was a significant predictor of depressive symptoms at follow-up (p <0.0001) as well as baseline depressive symptoms, sex, BMI, and functional status. No two-way interaction terms with SoB were significant. Conclusions SoB is a significant predictor of depressive symptoms at 3-year follow-up. Given that SoB is a symptom that is responsive to therapeutic intervention, active intervention to relieve the symptom when identified could reduce the incidence of depressive symptoms. PMID:20872930
Cernvall, Martin; Skogseid, Ellen; Carlbring, Per; Ljungman, Lisa; Ljungman, Gustaf; von Essen, Louise
We conducted a cross-sectional survey study to investigate whether there is a relationship between experiential avoidance (EA), rumination, post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), and symptoms of depression, in parents of children on cancer treatment. Data from 79 parents (55 mothers) of 79 children with a median of three months since their cancer diagnosis were included in cross-sectional analyses. EA and rumination were positively correlated with PTSS and symptoms of depression. EA and rumination did not provide incremental explained variance in PTSS over and above that explained by symptoms of depression, while controlling for symptoms of anxiety and demographic characteristics. However, EA and rumination provided incremental explained variance in symptoms of depression over and above that explained by PTSS, while controlling for symptoms of anxiety and demographic characteristics. Rumination and EA are important constructs in the understanding of PTSS and symptoms of depression in parents of children on cancer treatment. Future research should delineate the temporal relationships between these constructs.
Frost, Allison; Hoyt, Lindsay T; Chung, Alissa Levy; Adam, Emma K
Depression is a prevalent and debilitating illness facing many adolescents, especially adolescent girls, whose risk for this disorder is approximately twice that of boys. Many studies have identified mechanisms that place girls at higher risk for depression during adolescence. Few, however, have examined differences in the everyday emotional experiences of boys and girls with varying levels of depressive symptoms. Using the Experience Sampling Method, this study investigated the roles of gender and depressive symptomatology in the emotional experiences of a community sample of youth (11-18 year-olds) from the Sloan 500 Family Study. Females with higher levels of depressive symptoms were more likely than females with fewer depressive symptoms and all males to experience strong negative emotions and to attribute the cause of these emotions to other people. These results suggest that emotional reactivity in interpersonal contexts is especially important to understand gender differences in the daily experience of depressive symptoms.
Seymour, Karen E; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Halldorsdottir, Thorhildur; Stupica, Brandi; Owens, Kristian; Sacks, Talia
A significant literature suggests that youth diagnosed with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for later depression relative to youth without ADHD. Youth with co-occurring ADHD and depression experience more serious impairments and worse developmental outcomes than those with either disorder alone, including increased rates of suicidal ideation and suicide completion. Despite these very serious outcomes, few studies have examined the mechanisms underlying the relationship between ADHD and depression in youth. The present study examined emotion regulation (ER) as a mediator of the relationship between ADHD and depressive symptoms in 69 youth between the ages of 10 and 14, with (n = 37) and without (n = 32) ADHD. Parent and youth ratings of depressive symptoms and ER were collected. Youth with ADHD reported significantly more depressive symptoms and poorer ER ability relative to youth without ADHD. ER fully mediated the relationship between ADHD and depressive symptoms. Limitations and clinical implications are discussed.
Houston, E; Sandfort, T; Dolezal, C; Carballo-Diéguez, A
Much research has examined the relationship between depressive symptoms and unprotected sex among men who have sex with men (MSM), but little is known about how depression is related to the sexual behavior of men who intentionally engage in unprotected anal intercourse, or bareback sex. In this study, we explored the extent to which depressive symptoms were associated with rates of unprotected sex among barebackers, and whether this relationship was dependent upon HIV serostatus. Using a sample of 120 MSM who engage in intentional condomless sex, we found that for HIV-negative participants, depressive symptoms were associated with the overall frequency of unprotected anal intercourse as well as unprotected anal intercourse with a serodiscordant partner. For HIV-positive participants, depressive symptoms were not associated unprotected intercourse. Additional research is needed to better understand depression among men who bareback and how interventions could be designed to address depression and reduce sexual risk behaviors.
Bracke, Piet; Pattyn, Elise; von dem Knesebeck, Olaf
In general, well-educated people enjoy better mental health than those with less education. As a result, some wonder whether there are limits to the mental health benefits of education. Inspired by the literature on the expansion of tertiary education, this article explores marginal mental health returns to education and studies the mental health status of overeducated people. To enhance the validity of the findings we use two indicators of educational attainment - years of education and ISCED97 categories - and two objective indicators of overeducation (the realised matches method and the job analyst method) in a sample of the working population of 25 European countries (unweighted sample N = 19,089). Depression is measured using an eight-item version of the CES-D scale. We find diminishing mental health returns to education. In addition, overeducated people report more depression symptoms. Both findings hold irrespective of the indicators used. The results must be interpreted in the light of the enduring expansion of education, as our findings show that the discussion of the relevance of the human capital perspective, and the diploma disease view on the relationship between education and modern society, is not obsolete.
Lim, Hyo Jin; Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa
Little attention has been paid to the individual, family, friends, and school profiles of depressed children during the transition from childhood to adolescence. This study aimed to describe the evolution of factors associated with depressive symptoms among elementary, middle, and high school students. This was a secondary analytic study using three datasets of a cohort of Korean children or adolescents. Children or adolescents with depressed symptoms reported lower self-esteem, peer attachment, academic performance, and adaptability in school. Other risk factors for depressive symptoms that included gender, obesity, family conflict, and with whom they discussed personal issues showed different patterns from the elementary school years to high school years. A sex difference (female>male) of depressive symptoms was evident only among high school students. Influences including individuals, family, friends, and school factors for adolescents varied depending upon school years. Understanding the correlates/risk factors could guide the screening and management of depressive symptoms.
Moss, Kathryn; Scogin, Forrest; Di Napoli, Elizabeth; Presnell, Andrew
This study investigated behavioral activation (BA) bibliotherapy as a treatment for late-life depressive symptoms. BA bibliotherapy was administered using Addis and Martell's Overcoming depression one step at a time as a stand-alone treatment that was completed by participants (N=26) over a 4-week period [Addis, M.E., & Martell, C.R. (2004). Overcoming depression one step at a time. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications, Inc.]. Results of an immediate intervention group were compared with those of a delayed treatment control group and treatment response for both groups was evaluated at 1-month follow-up. Primary outcome results showed that symptoms on a clinician-rated measure of depressive symptoms, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, were significantly lower at post-treatment for those who received immediate BA bibliotherapy compared with those who were in the delayed treatment control condition. However, self-reported depressive symptoms (a secondary outcome measured via the Geriatric Depression Scale), were not significantly different at this period. Because study control was lost after the delayed treatment group received the intervention, within-subjects analyses examining both treatment groups combined showed that clinician-rated depressive symptoms significantly decreased from pre-treatment to both post-treatment and 1-month follow-up. Self-reported depressive symptoms were significantly lower from pre-treatment to 1-month follow-up. These findings suggest that BA may be useful in treating mild or subthreshold depressive symptoms in an older adult population.
Han, Kihwan; Chapman, Sandra B.; Krawczyk, Daniel C.
Depression is one of the most common psychiatric conditions in individuals with chronic traumatic brain injury (TBI). Though depression has detrimental effects in TBI and network dysfunction is a “hallmark” of TBI and depression, there have not been any prior investigations of connectivity-based neuroimaging biomarkers for comorbid depression in TBI. We utilized resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify altered amygdala connectivity in individuals with chronic TBI (8 years post-injury on average) exhibiting comorbid depressive symptoms (N = 31), relative to chronic TBI individuals having minimal depressive symptoms (N = 23). Connectivity analysis of these participant sub-groups revealed that the TBI-plus-depressive symptoms group showed relative increases in amygdala connectivity primarily in the regions that are part of the salience, somatomotor, dorsal attention, and visual networks (pvoxel < 0.01, pcluster < 0.025). Relative increases in amygdala connectivity in the TBI-plus-depressive symptoms group were also observed within areas of the limbic–cortical mood-regulating circuit (the left dorsomedial and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortices and thalamus) and the brainstem. Further analysis revealed that spatially dissociable patterns of correlation between amygdala connectivity and symptom severity according to subtypes (Cognitive and Affective) of depressive symptoms (pvoxel < 0.01, pcluster < 0.025). Taken together, these results suggest that amygdala connectivity may be a potentially effective neuroimaging biomarker for comorbid depressive symptoms in chronic TBI. PMID:26581959
Avis, Nancy E; Levine, Beverly; Naughton, Michelle J; Case, L Douglas; Naftalis, Elizabeth; Van Zee, Kimberly J
Younger women being treated for breast cancer consistently show greater depression shortly after diagnosis than older women. In this longitudinal study, we examine whether these age differences persist over the first 26 months following diagnosis and identify factors related to change in depressive symptoms. A total of 653 women within 8 months of a first time breast cancer diagnosis completed questionnaires at baseline and three additional timepoints (6, 12, and 18 months after baseline) on contextual/patient characteristics, symptoms, and psychosocial variables. Chart reviews provided cancer and treatment-related data. The primary outcome was depressive symptomatology assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory. Among women younger than age 65, depressive symptoms were highest soon after diagnosis and significantly decreased over time. Depressive symptoms remained stable and low for women aged 65 and older. Age was no longer significantly related to depressive symptoms in multivariable analyses controlling for a wide range of covariates. The primary factors related to levels of and declines in depressive symptomatology were the ability to pay for basics; completing chemotherapy with doxorubicin; and decreases in pain, vasomotor symptoms, illness intrusiveness, and passive coping. Increased sense of meaning/peace and social support were related to decreased depression. Interventions to reduce symptoms and illness intrusiveness, improve a sense of meaning and peace, and increase social support, may help reduce depression and such interventions may be especially relevant for younger women.
Steer, Robert A
To ascertain whether self-reported inability to cry would be associated with symptoms of anhedonic depression, the 21-item Beck Depression Inventory-II was administered to 1,050 outpatients diagnosed with a DSM-IV-TR major depressive disorder. 219 (21%) patients reported on the BDI-II Crying item that they were unable to cry, and 831 (79%) patients reported they were able to cry. Only BDI-II Loss of Interest was significantly associated with the inability to cry after the other BDI-II symptoms were controlled for using a multiple logistic-regression analysis. The inability to cry was discussed as an indicator of anhedonic depression.
Whittle, Sarah; Yücel, Murat; Lorenzetti, Valentina; Byrne, Michelle L; Simmons, Julian G; Wood, Stephen J; Pantelis, Christos; Allen, Nicholas B
Early timing of puberty (i.e., advanced pubertal maturation relative to peers) has been linked to the onset of depressive symptoms during the early adolescent phase. However, the precise neurobiological mechanisms linking early pubertal timing to adolescent depressive symptoms are not clear. We investigated whether the volume of the pituitary gland, a key component of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axes, mediated the relationship between pubertal timing and depressive symptoms in 155 adolescents (72 females) both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. At baseline (M age 12.7, SD 0.5 years), early pubertal timing predicted larger pituitary gland volume and higher depressive symptoms (especially for girls), but there was no mediation effect. Longitudinally, however, larger pituitary gland volume at baseline was found to mediate the relationship between early pubertal timing and increased depressive symptoms over time (M follow-up period=2.57 years, SD=0.26) for both boys and girls. Our findings suggest that neurobiological mechanisms are partly responsible for the link between early pubertal timing and depressive symptoms in adolescents. We speculate that an enlarged pituitary gland in adolescents with early pubertal timing might be associated with hyperactivation of the hormonal stress response, leading to increased susceptibility to environmental stressors, and subsequent development of depressive symptoms. Given the well-established relationship between increasing depressive symptoms in adolescence and later disorder, these findings have implications for targeted prevention and early intervention strategies for depressive disorders in adolescence.
Wilkinson, Paul O; Trzaskowski, Maciej; Haworth, Claire M A; Eley, Thalia C
Depression is known to be associated with a wide array of environmental factors. Such associations are due at least in part to genetic influences on both. This issue has been little explored with preadolescent children. Measures of family chaos and parenting style at age 9 and child depressive symptoms at age 12 were completed by 3,258 twin pairs from the Twins Early Development Study and their parents. Quantitative genetic modeling was used to explore common and unique genetic and environmental influences on both family environment and later depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms at age 12 were significantly heritable. Moderate genetic effects influenced parenting style and family chaos at the age of 9, indicating gene-environment correlation. There were significant genetic correlations between family environment and depressive symptoms. There was some evidence of a Gene × Environment interaction, with stronger genetic effects on depressive symptoms for children with more suboptimal family environment. There was an Environment × Environment interaction, with effects of nonshared environment on depressive symptoms stronger for twins with more adverse parenting experiences. There is some evidence for gene-environment correlation between aspects of family environment in middle childhood and subsequent depressive symptoms. This suggests that one of the mechanisms by which genes lead to depressive symptoms may be by themselves influencing depressogenic environments.
Vinci, Christine; Spears, Claire A; Peltier, MacKenzie R; Copeland, Amy L
The relationship between cigarette smoking and depressive symptoms is well-established. Dispositional mindfulness has been associated with lower depressive symptoms, lower smoking dependence, and higher odds of smoking cessation. Given that mindfulness is multi-faceted, the current study examined which facets of mindfulness might mediate the relationship between depressive symptoms and smoking behavior. Participants (n = 72) completed the Smoking Consequences Questionnaire (SCQ), Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD), and Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills (KIMS; subscales-Observe, Describe, Acting with Awareness, Accepting without Judgment), and indicated number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD). Simple mediation models (followed by multiple mediation when more than one facet was significant) tested whether mindfulness facets mediated the relationship between CESD and smoking behavior (CPD and SCQ subscales). Results indicated that 1) lower depressive symptoms were associated with higher Accepting without Judgment, which was related to lower Negative Reinforcement expectancies, 2) lower depressive symptoms were associated with increased Describe, which was associated with greater perceived Negative Consequences, 3) lower depressive symptoms were associated with higher Accepting without Judgment, which was associated with lower Negative Consequences expectancies, and 4) higher depressive symptoms were associated with higher scores on Observe, which related to both greater Positive Reinforcement and Negative Consequences expectancies. Greater Accepting without Judgment and Describe aspects of mindfulness may serve as protective factors in the relationship of depressive symptoms and smoking.
Mohiyeddini, Changiz; Opacka-Juffry, Jolanta
The links between plasma oxytocin and depression are controversial, ranging from negative to positive associations. The present study was conducted to reconcile those conflicting findings; amongst the features of depression, we considered rumination and hypothesised that rumination would function as moderator between depressive symptoms and oxytocin. Seventy five clinically normal adult male volunteers were assessed for depressive characteristics by means of the Ruminative Responses Scale and Beck's Depression Inventory-II; plasma oxytocin was measured by means of competitive enzyme immunoassay. The results demonstrate that high depressive symptoms were negatively associated with oxytocin concentrations at high rumination levels while such an association did not exist at low levels of rumination. The present findings suggest there are complex associations between oxytocin and brooding rumination, the latter being an important feature among depressive symptoms observed in clinically normal individuals. This complexity can underlie the current lack of consensus on the role of oxytocin in depression.
Chung, Jun Ku; Plitman, Eric; Nakajima, Shinichiro; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Caravaggio, Fernando; Gerretsen, Philip; Iwata, Yusuke; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel
Depressive symptoms are frequently seen in patients with dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Evidence suggests that there may be a link between current depressive symptoms and Alzheimer disease (AD)-associated pathological changes, such as an increase in cortical amyloid-β (Aβ). However, limited in vivo studies have explored the relationship between current depressive symptoms and cortical Aβ in patients with MCI and AD. Our study, using a large sample of 455 patients with MCI and 153 patients with AD from the Alzheimer's disease Neuroimaging Initiatives, investigated whether current depressive symptoms are related to cortical Aβ deposition. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale and Neuropsychiatric Inventory-depression/dysphoria. Cortical Aβ was quantified using positron emission tomography with the Aβ probe(18)F-florbetapir (AV-45).(18)F-florbetapir standardized uptake value ratio (AV-45 SUVR) from the frontal, cingulate, parietal, and temporal regions was estimated. A global AV-45 SUVR, defined as the average of frontal, cingulate, precuneus, and parietal cortex, was also used. We observed that current depressive symptoms were not related to cortical Aβ, after controlling for potential confounds, including history of major depression. We also observed that there was no difference in cortical Aβ between matched participants with high and low depressive symptoms, as well as no difference between matched participants with the presence and absence of depressive symptoms. The association between depression and cortical Aβ deposition does not exist, but the relationship is highly influenced by stressful events in the past, such as previous depressive episodes, and complex interactions of different pathways underlying both depression and dementia.
Wenze, Susan J; Gunthert, Kathleen C; German, Ramaris E
The authors used experience sampling to investigate biases in affective forecasting and recall in individuals with varying levels of depression and anxiety symptoms. Participants who were higher in depression symptoms demonstrated stronger (more pessimistic) negative mood prediction biases, marginally stronger negative mood recall biases, and weaker (less optimistic) positive mood prediction and recall biases. Participants who were higher in anxiety symptoms demonstrated stronger negative mood prediction biases, but positive mood prediction biases that were on par with those who were lower in anxiety. Anxiety symptoms were not associated with mood recall biases. Neither depression symptoms nor anxiety symptoms were associated with bias in event prediction. Their findings fit well with the tripartite model of depression and anxiety. Results are also consistent with the conceptualization of anxiety as a "forward-looking" disorder, and with theories that emphasize the importance of pessimism and general negative information processing in depressive functioning.
Linares, Leticia; Jauregui, Paula; Herrero-Fernández, David; Estévez, Ana
Attachment styles and dysfunctional symptoms have been associated. This relationship could be affected by metacognitive capacity. The aim of this study is to clarify the relationship between depressive symptoms, attachment styles, and metacognitive capacity. In addition, the mediating role of metacognition between attachment and depressive symptoms has been studied. A total of 505 participants recruited from the general population of the province of Bizkaia (Spain) completed questionnaires regarding depression, anxiety, mindfulness, decentering, and attachment. Results showed positive and significant relations between (a) dysfunctional symptoms and insecure attachment styles and (b) metacognitive capacity and secure attachment style. Additionally, the mediating role of metacognition between attachment and depressive symptoms was confirmed. Intervention in metacognitive abilities such as mindfulness could be a useful therapeutic tool for depressive symptoms.
Atukunda, Ruth; Imakit, Richard; Memiah, Peter
There is limited data on the prevalence of depression in HIV and AIDS patients in Sub-Saharan Africa and little resources have been allocated to address this issue. Depression affects patient adherence to treatment and predisposes patients to resistance which poses a public health threat. It also affects quality of life and productivity of patients. From August 2008 to March 2009, 731 patient adherence surveys were administered to assess disease, treatment knowledge and services received. The primary variable of interest was patients’ level of depressive symptoms score, constructed using factor analysis from five survey questions relating to: sadness, need to be alone, hopelessness and confusion and was categorized as no depressive symptoms (score 0), low depressive symptoms (score 1-2), moderate depressive symptoms (score 3-4) and high depressive symptoms (score 5-10). Majority of the patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) (59%) were found to have depressive symptoms and this was more among women than men (66% vs 43%). There was some association of depressive symptoms with non-disclosure (70% of those who had not disclosed had depressive symptoms compared to 53% among those who had disclosed). There is a high prevalence of depressive symptoms among adult patients on HAART. There is need for in-depth evaluation to find out the root causes of depressive symptoms among HAART patients in AIDSRelief clinics. There is need to integrate mental health management in HIV care and treatment as well as training the existing health workers on mental health management. PMID:28299108
SUNG, Vivian W.; WEST, Delia S.; HERNANDEZ, Alexandra L.; WHEELER, Thomas L.; MYERS, Deborah L.; SUBAK, Leslee L.
OBJECTIVE Determine the association between urinary incontinence (UI) and depressive symptoms. STUDY DESIGN Cross-sectional study of 338 incontinent and overweight women at baseline in the Program to Reduce Incontinence by Diet and Exercise trial. Depressive symptoms were defined as a Beck Depression Inventory score ≥ 10. UI frequency was determined by 7-day voiding diary. Symptom bother and quality of life were determined using the Urogenital Distress Inventory (UDI) and the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (IIQ). Multivariable regression was used to estimate the association between UI and depressive symptoms. RESULTS Women with depressive symptoms (N=101) reported a higher mean number of UI episodes per week (28 vs. 23, P=.005) and higher (worse) mean scores on the UDI (176 vs. 162, P=.02) and IIQ (136 vs. 97, P<.001) compared to women without depressive symptoms. The risk of having depressive symptoms increased with each 7-episode increase in UI per week (AOR 1.10, 95% CI 1.01–1.21), each 50-point increase in UDI (AOR 1.27, 95% CI 1.01–1.60) and each 50-point increase in IIQ (AOR 1.44, 95% CI 1.22–1.71). CONCLUSIONS Urinary incontinence frequency, symptom bother, and quality of life are independently associated with depressive symptoms in overweight and obese women. PMID:19236869
Gress-Smith, Jenna L; Roubinov, Danielle S; Andreotti, Charissa; Compas, Bruce E; Luecken, Linda J
Although the college years represent a high-risk period for depressive symptoms and insomnia, little research has explored their prevalence, comorbidities and risk factors within this developmental period. Two studies were conducted; the first evaluated the prevalence and comorbidity of depressive symptoms and insomnia in 1338 students (ages 18-23 years) from a large Southwestern University. Mild depressive symptoms were endorsed by 19% of students and 14.5% reported moderate to severe symptoms. Forty-seven percent of students reported mild insomnia and 22.5% endorsed moderate to severe insomnia severity. A second study investigated perceived stress as a potential mediator of the relation between self-reported childhood adversity and concurrent depressive symptoms and insomnia. Undergraduates (N = 447) from a Southwestern and Southeastern University reported prior childhood adversity, current perceived stress, insomnia and depressive symptoms. Self-reported childhood adversity predicted higher levels of depressive symptoms and insomnia severity, partially mediated by perceived stress. Results support the high prevalence of depressive symptoms and insomnia among undergraduates. The risk for depressive and insomnia symptoms may be increased among students who experienced greater levels of childhood adversity.
van Harmelen, Anne-Laura; Gibson, Jenny L.; St Clair, Michelle C.; Owens, Matt; Brodbeck, Jeannette; Dunn, Valerie; Lewis, Gemma; Croudace, Tim; Jones, Peter B.; Kievit, Rogier A.; Goodyer, Ian M.
Background Early life stress (ELS) consists of child family adversities (CFA: negative experiences that happened within the family environment) and/or peer bullying. ELS plays an important role in the development of adolescent depressive symptoms and clinical disorders. Identifying factors that may reduce depressive symptoms in adolescents with ELS may have important public mental health implications. Methods We used structural equation modelling and examined the impact of adolescent friendships and/or family support at age 14 on depressive symptoms at age 17 in adolescents exposed to ELS before age 11. To this end, we used structural equation modelling in a community sample of 771 adolescents (322 boys and 477 girls) from a 3 year longitudinal study. Significant paths in the model were followed-up to test whether social support mediated or moderated the association between ELS and depressive symptoms at age 17. Results We found that adolescent social support in adolescence is negatively associated with subsequent depressive symptoms in boys and girls exposed to ELS. Specifically, we found evidence for two mediational pathways: In the first pathway family support mediated the link between CFA and depressive symptoms at age 17. Specifically, CFA was negatively associated with adolescent family support at age 14, which in turn was negatively associated with depressive symptoms at age 17. In the second pathway we found that adolescent friendships mediated the path between peer bullying and depressive symptoms. Specifically, relational bullying was negatively associated with adolescent friendships at age 14, which in turn were negatively associated with depressive symptoms at age 17. In contrast, we did not find a moderating effect of friendships and family support on the association between CFA and depressive symptoms. Conclusions Friendships and/or family support in adolescence mediate the relationship between ELS and late adolescent depressive symptoms in boys and
Reinke, Wendy M; Eddy, J Mark; Dishion, Thomas J; Reid, John B
The joint, longitudinal trajectories of symptoms of disruptive behavior problems and of depression were examined in a community sample drawn from neighborhoods with elevated rates of delinquency. Growth mixture modeling was applied to a 6 year transition period from childhood to adolescence, age 10 to 16 years, to identify latent classes of trajectories for each symptom type. Several classes emerged for the two types of symptoms, namely a group of youth with high levels of disruptive behavior, a group with increasing levels, and a group with low levels, as well as a group with increasing levels of depression, a group with high levels, a group with decreasing levels, and a group with low levels. Within each symptom type, membership in either the high or in the increasing classes was related to a variety of problematic outcomes during emerging adulthood. The co-occurrence of the disruptive behavior and depression classes was then evaluated using parallel process analysis. Youth exhibiting high depressive symptoms were at increased risk for disruptive behavior problems, and youth with increasing disruptive behavior problems were at risk for depressive symptoms. However, only a very small number of youth had both a high depression trajectory and a high disruptive behavior trajectory. Implications of the findings for the design of prevention and treatment programs are discussed.
Our study aimed to establish the relationship between the number of depressive symptoms and the clinical characteristics of major depressive disorder (MDD). This would enable us to predict the clinical significance of the number of depressive symptoms in MDD patients. Using data from the Clinical Research Center for Depression (CRESCEND) study in Korea, 853 patients with DSM-IV MDD were recruited. The baseline and clinical characteristics of groups with different numbers of depressive symptoms were compared using the χ2 test for discrete variables and covariance (ANCOVA) for continuous variables. In addition, the scores of these groups on the measurement tools were compared by ANCOVA after adjusting the potential effects of confounding variables. After adjusting the effects of monthly income and history of depression, a larger number of depressive symptoms indicated higher overall severity of depression (F [4, 756] = 21.458, P < 0.001) and higher levels of depressive symptoms (F [4, 767] = 19.145, P < 0.001), anxiety symptoms (F [4, 765] = 12.890, P < 0.001) and suicidal ideation (F [4, 653] = 6.970, P < 0.001). It also indicated lower levels of social function (F [4, 760] = 13.343, P < 0.001), and quality of life (F [4, 656] = 11.975, P < 0.001). However, there were no significant differences in alcohol consumption (F [4, 656] = 11.975, P < 0.001). The number of depressive symptoms can be used as an index of greater illness burden in clinical psychiatry. PMID:27051248
Park, Seon-Cheol; Sakong, Jeongkyu; Koo, Bon Hoon; Kim, Jae-Min; Jun, Tae-Youn; Lee, Min-Soo; Kim, Jung-Bum; Yim, Hyeon-Woo; Park, Yong Chon
Our study aimed to establish the relationship between the number of depressive symptoms and the clinical characteristics of major depressive disorder (MDD). This would enable us to predict the clinical significance of the number of depressive symptoms in MDD patients. Using data from the Clinical Research Center for Depression (CRESCEND) study in Korea, 853 patients with DSM-IV MDD were recruited. The baseline and clinical characteristics of groups with different numbers of depressive symptoms were compared using the χ(2) test for discrete variables and covariance (ANCOVA) for continuous variables. In addition, the scores of these groups on the measurement tools were compared by ANCOVA after adjusting the potential effects of confounding variables. After adjusting the effects of monthly income and history of depression, a larger number of depressive symptoms indicated higher overall severity of depression (F [4, 756] = 21.458, P < 0.001) and higher levels of depressive symptoms (F [4, 767] = 19.145, P < 0.001), anxiety symptoms (F [4, 765] = 12.890, P < 0.001) and suicidal ideation (F [4, 653] = 6.970, P < 0.001). It also indicated lower levels of social function (F [4, 760] = 13.343, P < 0.001), and quality of life (F [4, 656] = 11.975, P < 0.001). However, there were no significant differences in alcohol consumption (F [4, 656] = 11.975, P < 0.001). The number of depressive symptoms can be used as an index of greater illness burden in clinical psychiatry.
Heckman, Timothy G; Heckman, Bernadette D; Anderson, Timothy; Lovejoy, Travis I; Markowitz, John C; Shen, Ye; Sutton, Mark
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive rural individuals carry a 1.3-times greater risk of a depressive diagnosis than their urban counterparts. This randomized clinical trial tested whether telephone-administered interpersonal psychotherapy (tele-IPT) acutely relieved depressive symptoms in 132 HIV-infected rural persons from 28 states diagnosed with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV major depressive disorder (MDD), partially remitted MDD, or dysthymic disorder. Patients were randomized to either 9 sessions of one-on-one tele-IPT (n = 70) or standard care (SC; n = 62). A series of intent-to-treat (ITT), therapy completer, and sensitivity analyses assessed changes in depressive symptoms, interpersonal problems, and social support from pre- to postintervention. Across all analyses, tele-IPT patients reported significantly lower depressive symptoms and interpersonal problems than SC controls; 22% of tele-IPT patients were categorized as a priori "responders" who reported 50% or higher reductions in depressive symptoms compared to only 4% of SC controls in ITT analyses. Brief tele-IPT acutely decreased depressive symptoms and interpersonal problems in depressed rural people living with HIV.
Schäfer, Johanna Özlem; Naumann, Eva; Holmes, Emily Alexandra; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna; Samson, Andrea Christiane
The role of emotion regulation in subclinical symptoms of mental disorders in adolescence is not yet well understood. This meta-analytic review examines the relationship between the habitual use of prominent adaptive emotion regulation strategies (cognitive reappraisal, problem solving, and acceptance) and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies (avoidance, suppression, and rumination) with depressive and anxiety symptoms in adolescence. Analyzing 68 effect sizes from 35 studies, we calculated overall outcomes across depressive and anxiety symptoms as well as psychopathology-specific outcomes. Age was examined as a continuous moderator via meta-regression models. The results from random effects analyses revealed that the habitual use of all emotion regulation strategies was significantly related to depressive and anxiety symptoms overall, with the adaptive emotion regulation strategies showing negative associations (i.e., less symptoms) with depressive and anxiety symptoms whereas the maladaptive emotion regulation strategies showed positive associations (i.e., more symptoms). A less frequent use of adaptive and a more frequent use of maladaptive emotion regulation strategies were associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms comparably in the respective directions. Regarding the psychopathology-specific outcomes, depressive and anxiety symptoms displayed similar patterns across emotion regulation strategies showing the strongest negative associations with acceptance, and strongest positive associations with avoidance and rumination. The findings underscore the relevance of adaptive and also maladaptive emotion regulation strategies in depressive and anxiety symptoms in youth, and highlight the need to further investigate the patterns of emotion regulation as a potential transdiagnostic factor.
Wosu, Adaeze C.; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A.
Purpose The objective of this review is to summarize the literature (and to the extent possible, report the magnitude and direction of the association) concerning history of CSA and depression or depressive symptoms among pregnant and postpartum women. Methods Publications were identified through literature searches of seven databases (PubMed, EMBASE, PyscINFO, CINAHL, Web of Science, BIOSIS, and Science Direct) using keywords including “child abuse,” “depression,” “pregnancy,” “prenatal,” “pregnancy,” and “postpartum”. Results The literature search yielded seven eligible studies on the prenatal period and another seven studies on the postpartum period. All, but one prenatal study observed statistically significant positive associations of CSA with depression or depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Findings on the association of CSA with postpartum depression or depressive symptoms were inconsistent; pooled unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios were 1.82 (95% CI 0.92, 3.60) and 1.20 (95% CI 0.81, 1.76). Conclusions In sum, findings suggest a positive association of history of CSA with depression and depressive symptoms in the prenatal period. Findings on the postpartum period were inconsistent. Clinical and public health implications of evidence from the available literature are discussed, as are desirable study design characteristics of future research. PMID:25956589
Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Morris, Matthew C.; Garber, Judy
The current longitudinal study examined which individual symptoms of depression uniquely predicted a subsequent Major Depressive Episode (MDE) in adolescents, and whether these relations differed by sex. Adolescents (N=240) were first interviewed in grade 6 (M=11.86 years old; SD = 0.56; 54% female; 81.5% Caucasian) and then annually through grade 12 regarding their individual symptoms of depression as well as the occurrence of MDEs. Individual symptoms of depression were assessed with the Children’s Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R) and depressive episodes were assessed with the Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation (LIFE). Results showed that within-person changes in sleep problems and low self-esteem/excessive guilt positively predicted an increased likelihood of an MDE for both boys and girls. Significant sex differences also were found. Within-person changes in anhedonia predicted an increased likelihood of a subsequent MDE among boys, whereas irritability predicted a decreased likelihood of a future MDE among boys, and concentration difficulties predicted a decreased likelihood of an MDE in girls. These results identified individual depressive symptoms that predicted subsequent depressive episodes in male and female adolescents, and may be used to guide the early detection, treatment, and prevention of depressive disorders in youth. PMID:26105209
Liu, Yansong; Zhang, Fuquan; Wang, Zhiqiang; Cao, Leiming; Wang, Jun; Na, Aiguo; Sun, Yujun; Zhao, Xudong
Previous studies have shown that overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is a characteristic of depression. However, there are no studies to explore the association between baseline OGM and depressive symptoms at follow-up in patients with first-episode depression (FE). This study investigated whether baseline OGM predicts depressive symptoms at follow-up in patients with FE. We recruited 125 patients with FE. The participants were divided into remitted group and non-remitted group according to the severity of their depression at 12 months follow-up. The measures consisted of the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Ruminative Response Scale, and Autobiographical Memory Test. Hierarchical linear regression analyses and bootstrap mediation analyses were conducted. The results showed that non-remitted patients had more OGM at baseline. Baseline OGM predicted depressive symptoms at follow-up in patients with FE. Rumination mediated the relationship between baseline OGM and depressive symptoms at follow-up. Our findings highlight OGM as a vulnerability factor involved in the maintenance of depression in patients with FE.
Wosu, Adaeze C; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A
The objective of this review is to summarize the literature (and to the extent possible, report the magnitude and direction of the association) concerning history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and depression or depressive symptoms among pregnant and postpartum women. Publications were identified through literature searches of seven databases (PubMed, EMBASE, PyscINFO, CINAHL, Web of Science, BIOSIS, and Science Direct) using keywords including "child abuse," "depression," "pregnancy," "prenatal," "pregnancy," and "postpartum." The literature search yielded seven eligible studies on the prenatal period and another seven studies on the postpartum period. All but one prenatal study observed statistically significant positive associations of CSA with depression or depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Findings on the association of CSA with postpartum depression or depressive symptoms were inconsistent; pooled unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios were 1.82 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.92, 3.60) and 1.20 (95 % CI 0.81, 1.76). In sum, findings suggest a positive association of history of CSA with depression and depressive symptoms in the prenatal period. Findings on the postpartum period were inconsistent. Clinical and public health implications of evidence from the available literature are discussed, as are desirable study design characteristics of future research.
Hilliard, Marisa E.; Eakin, Michelle N.; Borrelli, Belinda; Green, Angela; Riekert, Kristin A.
Objective Depression is a known barrier to regimen adherence for chronic conditions. Despite elevated depression rates and complex regimens for people with cystic fibrosis (CF), little is known about associations between depressive symptoms and CF adherence. One possibility is that depressive symptoms distort beliefs about medications, which may influence adherence. Method Adolescents and adults (N = 128; mean age = 29 ± 11 years, range = 16–63, 93% Caucasian) with CF reported on depressive symptoms and medication beliefs (self-efficacy, motivation, perceived importance, and outcome expectancies related to taking medications). Medication adherence was assessed objectively through pharmacy refill data. Cross-sectional structural equation models evaluated medication beliefs as a mediator between depressive symptoms and medication adherence. Results Twenty-three percent of participants exceeded clinical cutoffs for depressive symptoms. Participants took less than half of prescribed pulmonary medications (mean adherence rate = 44.4 ± 26.7%). Depressive symptoms were correlated with adherence (r = −.22, p < .05), and medication beliefs (b = −0.13, 95% CI [−0.24, −0.03]) significantly mediated this relation. Higher depressive symptoms were associated with less positive medication beliefs (b = −0.27, p < .01), which were associated with lower medication adherence (b = 0.49, p < .01). Conclusions Depressive symptoms are related to beliefs about and adherence to CF medications. Monitoring depressive symptoms and medication beliefs in routine CF care may help identify risks for nonadherence and facilitate interventions to reduce depression, adaptive medication beliefs, and ultimately improve adherence and CF management. PMID:25110847
Wang, Xu; Shen, Biyu; Wang, Xueqin
Aim. To assess the depressive symptoms status of chronic kidney diseases in Nantong, China, with type 2 diabetes and to identify factors associated with depressive symptoms. Methods. In this cross-sectional analytic study, 210 type 2 diabetic patients were recruited from the Second Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the depression subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD-D). The quality of life was measured with the RAND 36-Item Health Survey (SF-36). And the independent risk factors of depressive symptoms were assessed by using a stepwise forward model of logistic regression analysis. Results. The mean age of the study subjects was 57.66 years (SD: 11.68). Approximately 21.4% of subjects reported depressive symptoms (n = 45). Forward stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that female gender (P = 0.010), hypertension (P = 0.022), Stage IV (P = 0.003), and Stage V (P < 0.001) were significant risk factors for depressive symptoms. The quality of life of individuals with HAD-D score <11 was significantly better compared with individuals with HAD-D score ≥ 11. Conclusions. These results indicate that clinicians should be aware that female patients with chronic kidney diseases with T2DM in their late stage with hypertension are at a marked increased risk of depressive symptoms. Providing optimal care for the psychological health of this population is vital. PMID:28261621
Assogna, Francesca; Fagioli, Sabrina; Cravello, Luca; Meco, Giuseppe; Pierantozzi, Mariangela; Stefani, Alessandro; Imperiale, Francesca; Caltagirone, Carlo; Pontieri, Francesco E; Spalletta, Gianfranco
Background Patients with neurological and non-neurological medical illnesses very often complain of depressive symptoms that are associated with cognitive and functional impairments. We compared the profile of depressive symptoms in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients with that of control subjects (CS) suffering from non-neurological medical illnesses. Methods One-hundred PD patients and 100 CS were submitted to a structured clinical interview for identification of major depressive disorder (MDD) and minor depressive disorder (MIND), according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, text revision (DSM-IV-TR), criteria. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were also administered to measure depression severity. Results When considering the whole groups, there were no differences in depressive symptom frequency between PD and CS apart from worthlessness/guilt, and changes in appetite reduced rates in PD. Further, total scores and psychic and somatic subscores of HDRS and BDI did not differ between PD and CS. After we separated PD and CS in those with MDD, MIND, and no depression (NODEP), comparing total scores and psychic/somatic subscores of HDRS and BDI, we found increased total depression severity in NODEP PD and reduced severity of the psychic symptoms of depression in MDD PD, with no differences in MIND. However, the severity of individual symptom frequency of depression was not different between PD and CS in MDD, MIND, and NODEP groups. Conclusion Although MDD and MIND phenomenology in PD may be very similar to that of CS with non-neurological medical illnesses, neurological symptoms of PD may worsen (or confound) depression severity in patients with no formal/structured DSM-IV-TR, diagnosis of depressive mood disorders. Thus, a thorough assessment of depression in PD should take into consideration the different impacts of neurological manifestations on MDD, MIND, and NODEP. PMID
Fandrem, Hildegunn; Sam, David L.; Roland, Erling
The study investigates depressive symptoms among 3,431 adolescents aged 13-15 years. The sample comprises both native Norwegian and immigrant adolescents living in Norway. The main finding of the study is that the level of depressive symptoms is significantly higher among the immigrant adolescents than their Norwegian counterparts. When analysed…
Vaughan, Christine A.; Halpern, Carolyn T.
A theoretical model of gender differences in depressive symptoms during adolescence was evaluated using data from Waves I and II of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The theoretical model under examination was primarily informed by the gender-additive model of gender differences in depressive symptoms during adolescence…
Kim, Jungmeen; Cicchetti, Dante
This study used latent growth modeling to investigate longitudinal relationships between self-system processes and depressive symptoms among maltreated (n=142) and nonmaltreated children (n=109) aged 6--11 years. On average, self-esteem and self-agency increased and depressive symptoms decreased over time. Multivariate growth modeling indicated…
Raudsepp, Lennart; Neissaar, Inga
This study examined the relationships between changes in physical activity and depressive symptoms in adolescent girls. Participants were 277 urban adolescent girls. Physical activity was measured using the 3-Day Physical Activity Recall and depressive symptoms were assessed using questionnaire. Data were collected on three occasions over a 3-year…
Lansford, Jennifer E.; Capanna, Cristina; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Bates, John E.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Pastorelli, Concetta
This study examined the role of low social preference in relation to subsequent depressive symptoms, with particular attention to prior depressive symptoms, prior and concurrent aggression, mutual friendships, and peer victimization. Italian children (N = 288) were followed from grade 6 through grade 8, and American children (N = 585) were…
Bilek, Emily L.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill
The current study investigates the feasibility and preliminary outcomes associated with a transdiagnostic emotion-focused group protocol for the treatment of anxiety disorders and depressive symptoms in youth. Twenty-two children (ages 7 to 12; M = 9.79) with a principal anxiety disorder and varying levels of comorbid depressive symptoms were…
Dix, Theodore; Meunier, Leah N.
Mechanisms that lead depressive symptoms to undermine parenting are poorly understood. This review examines cognitive, affective, and motivational processes thought to be responsible for the impact of depressive symptoms on parenting. We present a five-step, action-control model and review 152 studies relevant to 13 regulatory processes. Evidence…
Lamis, Dorian A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Lochman, John E.
Objective: The current study addressed a gap in the literature by investigating the association between maternal depressive symptoms and subsequent timing of their children's alcohol use onset and heavy episodic drinking (HED). Childhood depression/dysthymia symptoms, harsh discipline, and parental positive regard were examined as potential…
Olson, Jonathan R.; Goddard, H. Wallace
The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of depressive symptoms among adolescents using concepts drawn from two theoretical models that underlie popular youth-focused programs. Specifically, we assessed the degree to which family-level risk factors increase the likelihood of depressive symptoms, and the degree to which community and/or…
Machmutow, Katja; Perren, Sonja; Sticca, Fabio; Alsaker, Francoise D.
This longitudinal study investigated whether cybervictimisation is an additional risk factor for depressive symptoms over and beyond traditional victimisation in adolescents. Furthermore, it explored whether certain coping strategies moderate the impact of cybervictimisation on depressive symptoms. A total of 765 Swiss seventh graders (mean age at…
Bilican, F. Isil; Yapici, Asim; Kutlu, M. Oguz
This study aimed to examine which values predicted depressive symptoms and hopelessness in Turkey. While it was hypothesized that values emphasizing universalism, benevolence, conformity, security, tradition, spirituality, self-direction, and achievement would predict lower levels of depressive symptoms and hopelessness, those values emphasizing…
Shochet, Ian M.; Smith, Coral L.
School connectedness and classroom environment have both been strongly linked to depressive symptoms, but their interrelation is unclear. We tested whether school connectedness mediated the link between classroom environment and depressive symptoms. A sample of 504 Australian seventh-and eighth-grade students completed the Classroom Environment…
Tran, Cong V.; Cole, David A.; Weiss, Bahr
A 2-wave longitudinal study of young adolescents was used to test whether peer victimization predicts depressive symptoms, depressive symptoms predict peer victimization, or the 2 constructs show reciprocal relations. Participants were 598 youths in Grades 3 through 6, ages 8 to 14 (M = 10.9, SD = 1.2) at Wave 1. The sample was 50.7% female and…
Meltzer, Lisa J.
Parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have higher rates of depressive symptoms than parents of typically developing (TD) children or parents of children with other developmental disorders. The purpose of this study was to examine child and parent sleep as factors associated with depressive symptoms in parents of children with…
Andover, Margaret S.; Pepper, Carolyn M.; Ryabchenko, Karen A.; Orrico, Elizabeth G.; Gibb, Brandon E.
The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between self-mutilation and symptoms of depression and anxiety in a nonclinical population. Self-mutilators reported significantly more symptoms of depression and anxiety than did the control group. When the group of self-mutilators was divided into individuals who cut themselves and…
Laurence, Brian; Williams, Carla; Eiland, Derrick
Objective: The authors measured the prevalence of depressive symptoms among dental students at a historically black college in the United States to determine how depressive symptoms, stress, and social support influence each other within this student population. Participants: Dental students (n = 143) completed a self-administered survey to assess…
Lee, Adabel; Hankin, Benjamin L.; Mermelstein, Robin J.
The current study examined whether negative interactions with parents and peers would mediate the longitudinal association between perceived social competence and depressive symptoms and whether a negative cognitive style would moderate the longitudinal association between negative interactions with parents and increases in depressive symptoms.…
Dekker, Marielle C.; Ferdinand, Robert F.; van Lang, Natasja D. J.; Bongers, Ilja L.; van der Ende, Jan; Verhulst, Frank C.
Background: Limited information is available on gender differences and young-adult poor outcome in children and adolescents following distinct developmental trajectories of depressive symptoms. Methods: Parent information on depressive symptoms of 4- to 18-year-olds from an ongoing Dutch community-based longitudinal multiple-cohort study (N =…
Brunwasser, Steven M.; Gillham, Jane E.; Kim, Eric S.
The purpose of this review was to evaluate whether the Penn Resiliency Program (PRP), a group cognitive-behavioral intervention, is effective in targeting depressive symptoms in youths. We identified 17 controlled evaluations of PRP (N = 2,498) in which depressive symptoms had been measured via an online search of PsycInfo, Medline, ERIC, and…
Jacobsen, Juliet C.; Zhang, Baohui; Block, Susan D.; Maciejewski, Paul K.; Prigerson, Holly G.
Several studies have shown that the symptoms of grief are different from symptoms of depression among bereaved family members. This study is an attempt to replicate this finding among advanced cancer patients and examine clinical correlates of patient grief and depression. Analyses were conducted on data from interviews with 123 advanced cancer…
Murray, Aja L.; McKenzie, Karen; Murray, Kara R.; Richelieu, Marc
Depressive symptoms, a lack of close supportive relationships and suicidal ideation are important risk factors for suicidal acts. Previous studies have primarily focused on the additive effects of close relationships and depressive symptoms on suicide risk. Here we explored whether, in addition, close relationships moderated the impact of…
Leung, Debbie W.; Slep, Amy M. Smith
Relations among 'parents' psychological difficulties (i.e., depressive symptoms, overt anger), dysfunctional attributions for child misbehavior, and inept discipline were investigated in a representative community sample of 451 mothers and 449 fathers. Depressive symptoms and anger were hypothesized to relate to discipline via their link with…
Witvliet, Miranda; Brendgen, Mara; van Lier, Pol A. C.; Koot, Hans M.; Vitaro, Frank
This study examined whether clique isolation predicted an increase in depressive symptoms and whether this association was mediated by loneliness and perceived social acceptance in 310 children followed from age 11-14 years. Clique isolation was identified through social network analysis, whereas depressive symptoms, loneliness, and perceived…
Stone, Andrea L.; Vander Stoep, Ann; McCauley, Elizabeth
This study investigates whether co-occurring depressive and conduct symptoms in early adolescence are associated with an elevated occurrence of early onset substance. Five hundred twenty-one sixth graders were assessed for depressive symptoms and conduct problems and underwent five substance use assessments during middle school. Logistic…
Diaz, Naelys; Horton, E. Gail; Green, Diane; McIlveen, John; Weiner, Michael; Mullaney, Donald
This study aims to examine the relationship between spirituality and believing in God's presence and depressive symptoms among 160 inpatient individuals who abuse substances. Findings indicated that both spirituality and believing in God's presence were significant predictors of depressive symptoms, whereby spirituality was inversely related to…
Teti, Douglas M.; Crosby, Brian
Mechanisms were examined to clarify relations between maternal depressive symptoms, dysfunctional cognitions, and infant night waking among 45 infants (1-24 months) and their mothers. A mother-driven mediational model was tested in which maternal depressive symptoms and dysfunctional cognitions about infant sleep predicted infant night waking via…
Sugimura, Niwako; Rudolph, Karen D; Agoston, Anna M
The way in which children cope with peer aggression may determine their subsequent adjustment, but different forms of coping may be more or less effective for particular children. This research examined whether the contribution of children's coping to subsequent depressive symptoms was contingent on children's temperament (i.e., level of negative emotionality; NE) and gender. Children (N = 235, 102 boys, 133 girls, M = 7.94 years, SD = 0.33) reported on exposure to peer victimization. Parents rated children's NE and depressive symptoms, and teachers rated children's coping. For girls with high NE, problem solving protected against depressive symptoms whereas seeking retaliation heightened risk for depressive symptoms. Advice seeking protected children with low NE against depressive symptoms whereas ignoring protected children with high NE against depressive symptoms. Humor predicted fewer depressive symptoms in boys with high NE but more depressive symptoms in boys with low NE. This research helps to elucidate individual differences in the effects of coping on adjustment, and has implications for interventions aimed at reducing risk resulting from exposure to peer aggression.
McLean, Leigh; Connor, Carol McDonald
This study investigated associations among third-grade teachers' (N = 27) symptoms of depression, quality of the classroom-learning environment (CLE), and students' (N = 523, M[subscript age] = 8.6 years) math and literacy performance. teachers' depressive symptoms in the winter negatively predicted students' spring mathematics achievement. This…
Rodgers, Rachel F.; Paxton, Susan J.; Chabrol, Henri
This study aimed to explore the role of depression as a moderator of sociocultural influences on eating disorder symptoms. A sample of 509 adolescents (56% female) completed self-report questionnaires assessing depression, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, bulimic symptoms and sociocultural influences on appearance from family, peers and…
Garrison, Angela M.; Kahn, Jeffrey H.; Sauer, Eric M.; Florczak, Michael A.
Individuals with high levels of depression symptoms and individuals with insecure attachment orientations have been shown to limit their use of emotional disclosure as a means of emotion regulation. However, little is known about how depression symptoms and insecure attachment orientations might jointly predict whether individuals engage in…
Vaillancourt, Tracy; Duku, Eric; Becker, Suzanna; Schmidt, Louis A.; Nicol, Jeffrey; Muir, Cameron; MacMillan, Harriet
The predictive relations of peer victimization, depressive symptoms, and salivary cortisol on memory in 168 children aged 12 at Time 1 (T1) were examined using a longitudinal design in which data were collected on four occasions over a 2-year period. Results indicated that: (1) peer victimization, depressive symptoms, and evening cortisol were…
Webb, Marcia; Heisler, Dawn; Call, Steve; Chickering, Sarah A.; Colburn, Trina A.
Objective: The purpose of the present study was to provide preliminary data extending earlier research on shame and guilt, examining their relationships both to symptoms of depression and to psychological maltreatment. Symptoms of depression were expected to correlate positively with shame, but not with guilt. Psychological maltreatment was also…
Davis, Kelly A.; Epkins, Catherine C.
We extended past research that focused on the relation between family conflict and preadolescents' depressive and anxiety symptoms. In a sample of 160 11- to 12-year-olds, we examined whether private religious practices moderated the relations between family conflict and preadolescents' depressive and anxiety symptoms. Although preadolescents'…
Roben, Caroline K P; Moore, Ginger A; Cole, Pamela M; Molenaar, Peter; Leve, Leslie D; Shaw, Daniel S; Reiss, David; Neiderhiser, Jenae M
Transactional models of analysis can examine both moment-to-moment interactions within a dyad and dyadic patterns of influence across time. This study used data from a prospective adoption study to test a transactional model of parental depressive symptoms and mutual negativity between mother and child over time, utilizing contingency analysis of second-by-second behavioral data. To consider both genetic and environmental influences on mutual negativity, depressive symptoms were examined in both adoptive and birth mothers. Adoptive mother depressive symptoms at 9 months increased the likelihood that, at 18 months, children reacted negatively to their mothers' negative behavior, which in turn predicted higher levels of adoptive mother depressive symptoms at 27 months, suggesting that over time, mothers' depressive symptoms influence and are influenced by moment-to-moment mutual negativity with their toddlers. Birth mother depressive symptoms moderated the association between mutual negativity at 18 months and adoptive mother depressive symptoms at 27 months, suggesting a child-driven contribution to maternal depressive symptoms that can be measured by a genetic sensitivity.
Kratochvil, Christopher J.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Duesenberg, David; Emslie, Graham J.; Quintana, Humberto; Sarkis, Elias H.; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Gao, Haitao; Michelson, David; Biederman, Joseph
Objective: Symptoms of depression and anxiety are commonly comorbid with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The authors assessed the safety and effectiveness of atomoxetine monotherapy compared with combined atomoxetine/fluoxetine therapy in a population of children and adolescents with ADHD and concurrent symptoms of depression or…
Mudric, Mary Beth
Depressive symptoms among college students have major implications for higher education institutions across the country. First-year college students are particularly susceptible to the various impacts that the college experience may produce during the transitional first year of college. The effects of depressive symptoms among college students in…
Karraker, Katherine Hildebrandt; Young, Marion
Relations between night waking in infants and depressive symptoms in their mothers at 6 months postpartum were examined using the data from the National Institute for Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care. Although more depressive symptoms were only weakly correlated with a higher frequency of infant waking, longer wake…
Watson, David; O'Hara, Michael W.; Simms, Leonard J.; Kotov, Roman; Chmielewski, Michael; McDade-Montez, Elizabeth A.; Gamez, Wakiza; Stuart, Scott
The authors describe a new self-report instrument, the Inventory of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms (IDAS), which was designed to assess specific symptom dimensions of major depression and related anxiety disorders. They created the IDAS by conducting principal factor analyses in 3 large samples (college students, psychiatric patients, community…
Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Savolainen, Hannu; Holopainen, Leena
The main purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which middle and late adolescents' depressive symptoms predict their later school burnout and, in turn, the extent to which school burnout predicts depressive symptoms. Drawing on data gathered at ages 15-19 in two-three-wave longitudinal studies, we investigated cross-lagged paths…
Ross, Anthony G.; Shochet, Ian M.; Bellair, Rachael
In the current study, we tested whether school connectedness mediates more distal deficits in social skills in influencing depressive symptoms in a sample of 127 sixth- and seventh-grade students. Results demonstrated that school connectedness and social skills accounted for 44% and 26% of variance in depressive symptoms respectively and 49% in a…
Kochel, Karen P.; Ladd, Gary W.; Rudolph, Karen D.
A longitudinal investigation was conducted to explicate the network of associations between depressive symptoms and peer difficulties among 486 fourth through sixth graders (M = 9.93 years). Parent and teacher reports of depressive symptoms; peer, self, and teacher reports of victimization; and peer reports of peer acceptance were obtained. A…
Effrig, Jessica C.; Maloch, Janelle K.; McAleavey, Andrew; Locke, Benjamin D.; Bieschke, Kathleen J.
Changes in students' depressive symptoms during the course of treatment at college counseling centers were examined by sexual orientation. In Study 1, results showed that depressive symptoms decreased similarly across sexual orientation groups during the course of treatment. In Study 2, family support did not moderate the relationship between…
Moritz Rudasill, Kathleen; Pössel, Patrick; Winkeljohn Black, Stephanie; Niehaus, Kate
The combination of changes occurring at the transition to middle school may be a catalyst for the onset of depressive symptoms, yet teacher support at this transition is protective. Research points to certain temperamental traits as risk factors for developing depressive symptoms. This study examines student reports of teacher support and teacher…
Vasilenko, Sara A.
Research has demonstrated associations between adolescent sexual behavior and depressive symptoms, but no single study has examined individuals at different ages throughout adolescence and young adulthood in order to determine at what ages sexual behavior may be associated with higher or lower levels of depressive symptoms. Using nationally…
Mehr, Kristin E.; Adams, Aimee C.
The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships among maladaptive perfectionism, self-compassion, and depressive symptoms in college students. It was hypothesized that self-compassion would mediate the relationship between maladaptive perfectionism and depressive symptoms, with maladaptive perfectionism related to lower levels of…
Tracy, Melissa; Zimmerman, Frederick J; Galea, Sandro; McCauley, Elizabeth; Stoep, Ann Vander
The relation between low socioeconomic status (SES) and depression has been well documented in adult populations. A number of studies suggest that family SES may be associated with depression among children and adolescents as well, although the evidence is mixed. We assessed the relation between family income and depressive symptoms among 457 children aged 11-13 years and examined pathways that may explain this relation. In-person interviews of children and their caregivers were conducted, including assessment of family income and administration of the Computer-based Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (C-DISC). Family income was significantly associated with depressive symptoms, with children in the lowest income group (<$35,000) reporting a mean of 8.12 symptoms compared to 6.27 symptoms in the middle income group ($35,000-$74,999) and 5.13 symptoms in the highest income group (> or = $75,000; p<0.001). Controlling for the number of stressful life events experienced in the past 6 months attenuated the effect of low family income on depressive symptoms by 28%. Indicators of the family environment explained 45% and neighborhood median household income and aggravated assault rate explained 12% of the relation. The family environment, including parental divorce or separation and perceived parental support, appears to explain most of the relation between low family income and childhood depressive symptoms. Further exploration of the pathways between family SES and depression may suggest potential interventions to reduce the occurrence and persistence of depressive symptoms in children.
Waxmonsky, James; Wood, Beatrice L.; Stern, Trudy; Ballow, Mark; Lillis, Kathleen; Cramer-Benjamin, Darci; Mador, Jeffrey; Miller, Bruce D.
Objective: This study was designed to assess the prevalence of depressive symptoms in children with asthma and the association between depression and asthma activity. Method: Children ages 7 to 17 (n = 129) were recruited from a hospital emergency department after presenting for asthma symptoms. The majority of subjects were from disadvantaged,…
Banks, Kira Hudson; Singleton, Jennifer L.; Kohn-Wood, Laura P.
This study investigated how hope influences the relationship between discrimination and depressive symptoms. Results from participants' (N = 318) responses suggest that increased levels of hope were directly related to decreased levels of depressive symptoms. However, increased levels of hope were also related to a stronger relationship between…
Silberg, Judy L.; Bulik, Cynthia M.
Objective: We investigated the role of genetic and environmental factors in the developmental association among symptoms of eating disorders, depression, and anxiety syndromes in 8-13-year-old and 14-17-year-old twin girls. Methods: Multivariate genetic models were fitted to child-reported longitudinal symptom data gathered from clinical interview…
Beaudreau, Sherry A.; O’Hara, Ruth
We examined the association of anxiety, depressive symptoms, and their co-occurrence on cognitive processes in 102 community-dwelling older adults. Participants completed anxiety and depression questionnaires, and measures of episodic and semantic memory, word fluency, processing speed/shifting attention, and inhibition. Participants with only increased anxiety had poorer processing speed/shifting attention, and inhibition, but depressive symptoms alone were not associated with any cognitive deficits. Although co-existing anxiety and depressive symptoms was associated with deficits in 3 cognitive domains, reductions in inhibition were solely attributed to anxiety. Findings suggest an excess cognitive load on inhibitory ability in normal older adults reporting mild anxiety. PMID:19485667
Tran, Thanh V.
Investigated relationships among premigration stresses, nightmares, acculturation stresses, personal efficacy and depression in 147 adult Vietnamese Americans. Found that premigration stresses, nightmares, and acculturation stresses had significant indirect effects on depression. Acculturation stresses diminished personal efficacy, and weakness of…
Hoth, Karin F; Christensen, Alan J; Ehlers, Shawna L; Raichle, Katherine A; Lawton, William J
Research examining the role of social support in patient adjustment to chronic illness has been inconsistent suggesting that patient individual differences play a moderating role. This study examined the hypothesis that the relationship between social support and depressive symptoms would differ as a function of individual differences in trait Agreeableness. Fifty-nine patients with chronic kidney disease were assessed using the Social Provisions Scale, Beck Depression Inventory and NEO-Five-Factor Inventory and were followed-up a year and a half later. After controlling for baseline depressive symptoms and clinical characteristics, regression analyses revealed a significant interaction between social support and Agreeableness predicting change in depressive symptoms. Greater social support among individuals high in Agreeableness was associated with a decrease in depressive symptoms over time, while support had little effect on depression change for individuals low in Agreeableness. These findings underscore the importance of individual difference variables in understanding adjustment to chronic illness.
Hintsa, Taina; Jokela, Markus; Elovainio, Marko; Määttänen, Ilmari; Swan, Heikki; Hintsanen, Mirka; Toivonen, Lauri; Kontula, Kimmo; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa
We examined whether long QT syndrome status moderates the association between stressful life events and depressive symptoms. Participants were 562 (n= 246 symptomatic) long QT syndrome mutation carriers. Depressive symptoms were measured with a modified version of the Beck's Depression Inventory. There was an interaction between long QT syndrome status and stressful life events on depressive symptoms. In the symptomatic long QT syndrome patients, stressful life events were associated with depressive symptoms (B= 0.24, p< 0.001). In the asymptomatic long QT syndrome mutation carriers, this association was 62.5 percent weaker (B= 0.09, p= 0.057). Compared to asymptomatic long QT syndrome mutation carriers, symptomatic long QT syndrome patients are more sensitive to the depressive effects of stressful life events.
Jessee, Allison; Mangelsdorf, Sarah C.; Shigeto, Aya; Wong, Maria S.
Parental depressive symptomatology has consistently been linked to child maladjustment, but these effects are not universal. This investigation examined the role of child temperament as a moderator of the effects of parental depression on behavior problems in five-year-old children. Parents reported on their own depressive symptoms, and both…
Karmen, Christian; Hsiung, Robert C; Wetter, Thomas
Depression is a disease that can dramatically lower quality of life. Symptoms of depression can range from temporary sadness to suicide. Embarrassment, shyness, and the stigma of depression are some of the factors preventing people from getting help for their problems. Contemporary social media technologies like Internet forums or micro-blogs give people the opportunity to talk about their feelings in a confidential anonymous environment. However, many participants in such networks may not recognize the severity of their depression and their need for professional help. Our approach is to develop a method that detects symptoms of depression in free text, such as posts in Internet forums, chat rooms and the like. This could help people appreciate the significance of their depression and realize they need to seek help. In this work Natural Language Processing methods are used to break the textual information into its grammatical units. Further analysis involves detection of depression symptoms and their frequency with the help of words known as indicators of depression and their synonyms. Finally, similar to common paper-based depression scales, e.g., the CES-D, that information is incorporated into a single depression score. In this evaluation study, our depressive mood detection system, DepreSD (Depression Symptom Detection), had an average precision of 0.84 (range 0.72-1.0 depending on the specific measure) and an average F measure of 0.79 (range 0.72-0.9).
Jacobson, Colleen M.; Marrocco, Frank; Kleinman, Marjorie; Gould, Madelyn S.
Depression and suicidal thoughts and behaviors are prevalent among youth today. The current study sought to further our understanding of the correlates of depression and suicidality by assessing the relationship between restrictive emotionality (difficulty understanding and expressing emotions) and depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation and…
Foster, Cynthia J. Ewell; Garber, Judy; Durlak, Joseph A.
Relations among past maternal depressive disorder, current depressive symptoms, current maternal interaction behaviors, and children's adjustment were examined in a sample of 204 women and their young adolescent offspring (mean age = 11.86, SD = 0.55). Mothers either had (n = 157) or had not (n = 57) experienced at least one depressive disorder…
Alloy, Lauren B.; Black, Shimrit K.; Young, Mathew E.; Goldstein, Kim E.; Shapero, Benjamin G.; Stange, Jonathan P.; Boccia, Angelo S.; Matt, Lindsey M.; Boland, Elaine M.; Moore, Lauren C.; Abramson, Lyn Y.
We examined the concurrent associations between multiple cognitive vulnerabilities to depression featured in hopelessness theory, Beck's theory, and response styles theory and depressive symptoms and diagnoses in a sample of early adolescents. We also examined the specificity of these cognitive vulnerabilities to depression versus anxiety and…
Peris, Tara S.; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Asarnow, Joan R.; Langley, Audra; McCracken, James T.; Piacentini, John
Depression is the most common comorbidity among adults with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), yet little is known about depressive symptoms in childhood OCD. This study examined clinical and cognitive variables associated with depressive symptomatology in 71 youths (62% male, M age = 12.7 years) with primary OCD. Youths presented with a range…
Sohr-Preston, Sara L.; Scaramella, Laura V.
Statistically, women, particularly pregnant women and new mothers, are at heightened risk for depression. The present review describes the current state of the research linking maternal depressed mood and children's cognitive and language development. Exposure to maternal depressive symptoms, whether during the prenatal period, postpartum period,…
Larsen, Junilla K.; Vermulst, Ad A.; Geenen, Rinie; van Middendorp, Henriet; English, Tammy; Gross, James J.; Ha, Thao; Evers, Catharine; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.
Cross-sectional studies have shown a positive association between expressive suppression and depressive symptoms. These results have been interpreted as reflecting the impact of emotion regulation efforts on depression. However, it is also possible that depression may alter emotion regulation tendencies. The goal of the present study was to…
Sannes, Timothy S.; Jensen, Sally E.; Dodd, Stacy M.; Kneipp, Shawn M.; Garey, Stephanie L.; Patidar, Seema M.; Marsiske, Michael M.; Lutgendorf, Susan M.; Morgan, Linda S.; Pereira, Deidre B.
Summary Endometrial cancer (EC) is the most common type of gynecologic cancer affecting women; however, very little research has examined relationships between psychological factors and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation in this population. The current study examined relations between depressive/anxious symptoms and salivary cortisol diurnal rhythm and variability in women undergoing surgery for suspected endometrial cancer. Depressive and anxious symptoms were measured prior to surgery using the Structured Interview Guide for the Hamilton Depression Inventory (SIGH-AD). Saliva was collected four times a day for the three days prior to surgery and then assayed by ELISA to obtain cortisol concentrations. Cortisol slopes and intraindividual variability were then calculated across subjects. Relations between depressive/anxious symptoms and cortisol indices were examined using multilevel modeling and linear regression analyses. Participants were 82 women with nonmetastatic endometrial cancer. Anxious symptoms were not associated with either cortisol slope or intraindividual variability, and depressive symptoms were unrelated to cortisol slope. However, after controlling for presence of poorer prognosis cancer subtypes, greater depressive symptoms (excluding symptoms possibly/definitely due to health/treatment factors) in the week preceding surgery were significantly related to greater cortisol intraindividual variability (β=.214; p<.05). These results suggest that depressive symptoms prior to surgery for suspected endometrial cancer are related to greater cortisol intraindividual variability, which is suggestive of more erratic HPA axis arousal. Future research should examine whether mood symptoms may be associated with compromised health outcomes via erratic HPA axis arousal in this population. PMID:22762895
Zalewski, Maureen; Thompson, Stephanie F.; Lengua, Liliana J.
Objective The purpose of this study was to examine whether parenting moderated the association between maternal depressive symptoms and initial levels and growth of preadolescent internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Method This study used a community sample of pre-adolescent children (N=214; 8–12 years old at Time 1), measuring maternal depressive symptoms and parenting at Time 1, and preadolescent internalizing and externalizing symptoms at each year for 3 years. Results After modeling latent growth curves of internalizing and externalizing symptoms, growth factors were conditioned on maternal depressive symptoms, positive (acceptance and consistent discipline) and negative (rejection and physical punishment) parenting, and the interactions of depression and parenting. Maternal rejection moderated the relation of maternal depression with internalizing symptoms, such that high rejection exacerbated the effects of maternal depressive symptoms on initial levels of preadolescent internalizing problems. There were no significant interactions predicting externalizing problems. Conclusion The findings highlight how specific parenting behaviors may alter the way in which maternal depressive symptoms confer risk for behavior problems. PMID:25915593
Zalewski, Maureen; Thompson, Stephanie F; Lengua, Liliana J
The purpose of this study was to examine whether parenting moderated the association between maternal depressive symptoms and initial levels and growth of preadolescent internalizing and externalizing symptoms. This study used a community sample of preadolescent children (N = 214; 8-12 years old at Time 1), measuring maternal depressive symptoms and parenting at Time 1, and preadolescent internalizing and externalizing symptoms at each year for 3 years. After modeling latent growth curves of internalizing and externalizing symptoms, growth factors were conditioned on maternal depressive symptoms, positive (acceptance and consistent discipline) and negative (rejection and physical punishment) parenting, and the interactions of depression and parenting. Maternal rejection moderated the relation of maternal depression with internalizing symptoms, such that high rejection exacerbated the effects of maternal depressive symptoms on initial levels of preadolescent internalizing problems. There were no significant interactions predicting externalizing problems. The findings highlight how specific parenting behaviors may alter the way in which maternal depressive symptoms confer risk for behavior problems.
Geisner, Irene Markman; Mallett, Kimberly; Kilmer, Jason R.
Depression and alcohol use are often found in college students, particularly during their first year. The current study assessed the interrelationship of alcohol use and specific depression symptoms. A large sample (n = 869) of first year students were invited to participate via the Internet Results indicated that specific depression symptoms correlated with alcohol consumption. Self-reported heavy, problem drinkers experienced significantly higher Beck Depression Inventory scores than all other groups. Our findings higlight the importance of screening for both alcohol use and depressed mood in college students. PMID:22545634
Minami, Haruka; Kahler, Christopher W; Bloom, Erika Litvin; Prince, Mark A; Abrantes, Ana M; Strong, David R; Niaura, Raymond; Miller, Ivan W; Palm Reed, Kathleen M; Price, Lawrence H; Brown, Richard A
Although the important roles of postquit affect and withdrawal symptoms in the process of smoking cessation have been well established, little is known about the relations between prequit affective trajectories and cessation outcome on the target quit date (TQD). This study examined whether a 16-week course of fluoxetine initiated 8 weeks prequit ("sequential" fluoxetine) improved TQD abstinence relative to placebo through its effects on prequit depressive symptoms, affect (withdrawal-relevant negative affect, general negative affect, and positive affect), and craving to smoke among 206 smokers with elevated depressed symptoms. The moderating effects of gender were also examined. In total, 83 smokers (40%) failed to achieve abstinence on TQD, with no difference between treatment conditions or gender. Overall structural equation models showed that fluoxetine had significant indirect effects on TQD abstinence through changes in prequit withdrawal-relevant negative affect and craving, but not depressive symptoms. However, multigroup analyses revealed gender differences. Sequential fluoxetine reduced prequit depressive symptoms, withdrawal-relevant negative affect, and craving only among women. Reduction in prequit depressive symptoms and craving among women, and withdrawal-relevant negative affect among men was associated with TQD abstinence. Moreover, exploratory analysis showed negative trend-level indirect effects of fluoxetine on TQD abstinence via increased side effects, regardless of gender. This study demonstrated the importance of considering gender when examining treatment efficacy. Identifying ways to further reduce prequit depressive symptoms and craving for women and withdrawal-relevant negative affect for men whereas alleviating side effects may help smokers with elevated depressed symptoms achieve the first smoking cessation milestone.
McCarty, Carolyn A.; Stoep, Ann Vander; Kuo, Elena S.; McCauley, Elizabeth
The high prevalence of depression among incarcerated youth indicates a need to better understand factors that contribute to depression within this vulnerable subgroup. Previous research in general community samples has suggested that high levels of stress and low levels of parental support are associated with depression in young people, but it is unclear whether or how they might be associated with depression among incarcerated youth who are already vulnerable. Using a sample of 228 adolescents (aged 13–18 years) who were detained in the juvenile justice system, stress and support were modeled as independent main effects and as interactive risk factors in relation to depressive symptoms. More stressful life events and less caregiver support were each independently associated with depressive symptoms, but no evidence was found for the buffering hypothesis in this sample. Stressful life events were more strongly associated with depressive symptoms among boys compared to girls. PMID:18084634
Conradt, Elisabeth; Hawes, Katheleen; Guerin, Dylan; Armstrong, David A.; Marsit, Carmen J.; Tronick, Edward; Lester, Barry M.
This study tested whether maternal responsiveness may buffer the child to the effects of maternal depressive symptoms on DNA methylation of NR3C1, 11β-HSD2, and neuroendocrine functioning. DNA was derived from buccal epithelial cells and pre-stress cortisol was obtained from the saliva of 128 infants. Mothers with depressive symptoms who were more responsive and who engaged in more appropriate touch during face-to-face play had infants with less DNA methylation of NR3C1 and 11β-HSD2 compared to mothers with depressive symptoms who were also insensitive. The combination of exposure to maternal depressive symptoms and maternal sensitivity was related to the highest pre-stress cortisol levels whereas exposure to maternal depressive symptoms and maternal insensitivity was related to the lowest pre-stress cortisol levels. PMID:26822444
Sze, Tat-Ming; Hsieh, Pei-Jung; Lin, Sieh-Hwa; Chen, I-Jung
This study investigates the progression of family cohesion perceptions and depressive symptoms during the character development stage in adolescents. Data were used from the Taiwan Youth Project. The final sample comprised 2,690 adolescents with 1,312 girls (48.8%; M age = 13.0 yr., SD = 0.5). Latent curve growth analysis was employed to explore these developments. Seventh-grade girls reported greater family cohesion and more depressive symptoms than boys, and boys reported greater growth in family cohesion than girls. However, progression of depressive symptoms was not associated with the child's sex. Higher perceived family cohesion in Grade 7 correlated with less increase of depressive symptoms from Grades 9 to 11. The long-term positive influence of family cohesion on depressive symptoms is discussed.
Ybema, Jan F; van den Bos, Kees
A longitudinal three-wave study among a large representative sample of 1519 employees of various companies in The Netherlands examined how organizational justice (as measured by distributive and procedural justice) was related to depressive symptoms and sickness absence. It was predicted that perceived justice would contribute to lower depressive symptoms and sickness absence, whereas depressive symptoms and absenteeism in turn would contribute to lower perceptions of organizational justice. In line with the predictions, we found that both distributive and procedural justice contributed to lower depressive symptoms, and distributive justice contributed to lower sickness absence in the following year. With regard to reversed effects, sickness absence contributed to lower perceptions of distributive justice to some extent. Moreover, sickness absence was related to higher depressive symptoms a year later. This research shows the importance of justice in organizations as a means to enhance the wellbeing of people at work and to prevent absenteeism.
Hammash, Muna H; Lennie, Terry A; Crawford, Timothy; Heo, Seongkum; Chung, Misook L; Biddle, Martha J; Dekker, Rebecca; Wu, Jia-Rong; Rayens, Mary Kay; Moser, Debra K
Depressive symptoms and poor health perceptions are predictors of higher hospitalization and mortality rates (heart failure [HF]). However, the association between depressive symptoms and health perceptions as they affect event-free survival outcomes in patients with HF has not been studied. The purpose of this secondary analysis was to determine whether depressive symptoms mediate the relationship between health perceptions and event-free survival in patients with HF. A total of 458 HF patients (61.6 ± 12 years, 55% New York Heart Association Class III/IV) responded to one-item health perception question and completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Event-free survival data were collected for up to 4 years. Multiple regression and Cox proportional hazards regression analysis showed that depressive symptoms mediated the relationship between health perceptions and event-free survival. Decreasing depressive symptoms is essential to improve event-free survival in patients with HF.
O’Neil, Jennifer; Shaw, Daniel S.; Dishion, Thomas J.
We examined the relationship between parental efficacy and depressive symptoms in a diverse sample of low income mothers. The sample consisted of 607 European American, African American, and Hispanic mothers who participated in The Early Steps Project, a multi-site, longitudinal, preventative intervention study. Parental efficacy was found to be significantly associated with depressive symptoms in the entire sample of low income mothers. Ethnicity moderated results, however, such that parental efficacy was significantly associated with depressive symptoms for European American mothers but was not for the African American and Hispanic mothers. Ethnic differences in the various categories of depressive symptoms (i.e., total, somatic, and psychological) were also explored, with the results showing that African American mothers reported higher levels of depressive symptoms than both European American and Hispanic mothers in each of the categories. The theoretical and clinical implications of these results are discussed. PMID:20057924
Ensari, Ipek; Adamson, Brynn C; Motl, Robert W
Worsening depressive symptoms and walking impairment are significant burdens in multiple sclerosis. We explored the reciprocal relationship between depressive symptoms and walking impairment in a cohort of 269 people with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis over 2 years. The data were examined using longitudinal panel analysis in Mplus. Baseline depressive symptoms predicted change in walking impairment at 1-year follow-up (path coefficient = .074), and change in walking impairment at 1-year follow-up predicted change in depressive symptoms at 2-year follow-up (path coefficient = .177). Our study provides preliminary evidence for initiation of a reciprocal relationship between depressive symptoms and walking impairment in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.
Chang, Shun-Chiao; Wang, Wei; Pan, An; Jones, Richard N.; Kawachi, Ichiro; Okereke, Olivia I.
Objectives To assess racial variation in depression risk factors and symptom trajectories among older women. Design Nurses’ Health Study participants aged ≥60 years, free of depression in 2000, were followed until 2012. Setting Prospective cohort. Participants 29,483 non-Hispanic white and 288 black women. Measurements Data on race and risk factors, selected a priori, were obtained from biennial questionnaires. Incident depression was defined as depression diagnosis, antidepressant use, or presence of severe depressive symptoms. Group-based trajectories of depressive symptoms were determined using latent variable modeling approaches. Results Black participants had lower risk (hazard ratio=0.76, 95% confidence interval[CI]=0.57-0.99) of incident late-life depression compared to whites. Although blacks had higher prevalence than whites of some risk factors at study baseline, distributions of major contributors to late-life depression risk (low exercise, sleep difficulty, physical/functional limitation, pain) were comparable. There was evidence of effect modification by race for relations of region of birth (Southern birthplace), smoking and medical comorbidity to depression risk; however, there were wide CIs among blacks, due to smaller sample size. Four trajectories were identified: minimal symptoms-stable (58.3%); mild symptoms-worsening (31.4%); sub-threshold symptoms-worsening (4.8%); sub-threshold symptoms-improving (5.5%); probabilities of trajectory types were similar for blacks and whites. Conclusion While overall trajectories of late-life depressive symptoms were comparable by race, there was racial variation in depression risk estimates associated with less-studied factors, such as US region of birth. Future work may address unmeasured health and resilience determinants that may underlie observed findings and that could inform clinical assessment of late-life depression risk factors. PMID:27639290
Toda, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Takeshi; Tsunoda, Tomoya; Nakai, Yukiei; Tanichi, Masaaki; Tanaka, Teppei; Hashimoto, Naoki; Takaesu, Yoshikazu; Nakagawa, Shin; Kitaichi, Yuji; Boku, Shuken; Tanabe, Hajime; Nibuya, Masashi; Yoshino, Aihide; Kusumi, Ichiro
Previous studies have shown that various factors, such as genetic and environmental factors, contribute to the development of major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of this study is to clarify how multiple factors, including affective temperaments, childhood abuse and adult life events, are involved in the severity of depressive symptoms in MDD. A total of 98 participants with MDD were studied using the following self-administered questionnaire surveys: Patient Health Questionnaire-9 measuring the severity of depressive symptoms; Life Experiences Survey (LES) measuring negative and positive adult life events; Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego auto-questionnaire (TEMPS-A) measuring affective temperaments; and the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale (CATS) measuring childhood abuse. The data were analyzed using single and multiple regression analyses and structural equation modeling (SEM). The neglect score reported by CATS indirectly predicted the severity of depressive symptoms through affective temperaments measured by TEMPS-A in SEM. Four temperaments (depressive, cyclothymic, irritable, and anxious) directly predicted the severity of depressive symptoms. The negative change in the LES score also directly predicted severity. This study suggests that childhood abuse, especially neglect, indirectly increases the severity of depressive symptoms through increased scores of affective temperaments in MDD.
OBJECTIVES The present study examines the relationship between depressive symptoms and subjective chewing and pronunciation ability in Korean seniors. Our goal is to provide the data required to develop appropriate oral health interventions programs for seniors. METHODS The Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) is widely used depressive symptoms assessment. A Korean version was used for the 2009 Community Health Survey, which was consulted to extract the present study’s participants comprising 50,694 Korean seniors (males, 20,582; females, 30,112) aged ≥65 years. Those with a CES-D score ≥16 were rated ‘depressed.’ SAS version 9.3 was used for the data analysis. RESULTS Prevalence of depressive symptoms increased as the participants socioeconomic status decreased, number of health issues increased, health behavior worsened, and chewing and pronunciation discomfort increased. Males with chewing difficulties were found to have 1.45 times (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.29 to 1.63) greater risk of depressive symptoms than those without, while males with pronunciation discomfort were found to have 1.97 times greater risk of depressive symptoms than those without (95% CI, 1.76 to 2.20). Females with chewing difficulty were found to have 1.50 times (95% CI, 1.39 to 1.61) greater risk of depressive symptoms than those without, and females with pronunciation discomfort were found to have 1.55 times greater risk of depressive symptoms than those without (95% CI, 1.44 to 1.67). CONCLUSIONS Intervention programs designed to help with oral health management and alleviate depressive symptoms in seniors are urgently needed. As the prevalence of depressive symptoms may vary geographically, research examining potential variance at city, district, and town levels would be beneficial. PMID:27457065
Stuke, Heiner; Hanken, Katrin; Hirsch, Jochen; Klein, Jan; Wittig, Fabian; Kastrup, Andreas; Hildebrandt, Helmut
Introduction: Depressive symptoms are a frequent and distressing phenomenon in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients. Cross-sectional research links these symptoms to reduced brain gray matter volumes in parts of the prefrontal and temporal lobe as well as subcortical structures like the hippocampus, nucleus caudatus and globus pallidus. Nevertheless, prospective relationships between regional gray matter volume and the course of depressive symptoms are poorly understood. Methods: Forty-four patients with relapsing–remitting or secondary progressive MS participated in a prospective study with two assessments of depressive symptoms and high-resolution MRI with an inter-test-interval of 17 months. Relationships between baseline gray matter volume and baseline depressive symptoms, as well as prospective associations between the development of atrophy and depression were assessed using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Results: Cross-sectional analyses revealed an association between depressive symptoms and gray matter loss in the left temporal lobe. Prospective analysis showed that gray matter losses in the right middle cingulate and middle frontal gyrus at baseline predicted increasing depressive symptoms during follow-up. Increase in depressive symptoms was related to a concomitant increase in atrophy in the left thalamus and right globus pallidus. Discussion: Our results fit well into the concept of a disturbed cortico–striatal–pallido–thalamic loop in depression. In this framework, progressive gray matter loss in limbic basal ganglia structures including globus pallidus and thalamus may lead to depression-typical deficits in hedonic motivation, whereas atrophy of the prefrontal cortex may contribute to maladaptive coping strategies, promoting an unfavorable development of depressive symptoms. PMID:28018194
Im, Eun-Ok; Chang, Sun Ju; Chee, Wonshik; Chee, Eunice; Mao, Jun James
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between immigration transition and depressive symptoms among 1,054 midlife women in the United States. This was a secondary analysis of the data from two national Internet survey studies. Questions on background characteristics and immigration transition and the Depression Index for Midlife Women were used to collect the data. The data were analyzed using inferential statistics including multiple regressions. Immigrants reported lower numbers of symptoms and less severe symptoms than nonimmigrants (p <.01). When controlling for background characteristics, self-reported racial/ethnic identity and immigration status were significant predictors of depressive symptoms (R(2) =.01, p <.05).
Bredemeier, Keith; Spielberg, Jeffery M.; Silton, Rebecca Levin; Berenbaum, Howard; Heller, Wendy; Miller, Gregory A.
The present study examined the utility of the anhedonic depression scale from the Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire (MASQ-AD scale) as a way to screen for depressive disorders. Using receiver-operating characteristic analysis, we examined the sensitivity and specificity of the full 22-item MASQ-AD scale, as well as the 8- and 14-item…
Müller, Matthias Johannes; Olschinski, Christiane; Kundermann, Bernd; Cabanel, Nicole
The stable and persisting preference for activities in the late evening (i.e. eveningness) is associated with a higher risk for depression, suicidality, and non-remission in major depression. The present study investigated symptom patterns in hospitalized patients with depressive syndromes in relation to morningness-eveningness (chronotypes). Depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory [BDI-II]) and chronotype (German version of the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire [D-MEQ]) were assessed after admission and before discharge in inpatients with mainly major depression. Group differences of BDI-II single items and three BDI-II factors (cognitive, affective, somatic) between patients divided at the D-MEQ sample median into "morning preference" (MP) and "evening preference" (EP) were calculated. Data from 64 consecutively admitted patients (31MP/33EP) were analyzed. Both groups (MP/EP) were comparable regarding age, sex, diagnosis, length of stay, and subjective sleep quality, BDI-II scores were significantly higher in EP than in MP at admission. At admission and discharge, cognitive symptoms were significantly more pronounced in EP vs. MP; non-significant differences between EP and MP were found for affective and somatic symptoms. The results underline the importance of the trait-like chronotype for severity and symptomatology in patients with depressive disorders. The patients' chronotype should be taken into account in diagnostics and treatment of depressive disorders.
Sohn, Jee Hoon; Ahn, Seung Hee; Seong, Su Jeong; Ryu, Ji Min; Cho, Maeng Je
The nationwide prevalence of major depressive disorder in Korea is lower than most countries, despite the high suicide rate. To explain this unexpectedly low prevalence, we examined the functional disability and quality of life in community-dwelling subjects with significant depressive symptoms not diagnosable as depressive disorder. A total of 1,029 subjects, randomly chosen from catchment areas, were interviewed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale, Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, WHO Quality of Life scale, and the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule. Those with scores over 21 on the depression scale were interviewed by a psychiatrist for diagnostic confirmation. Among community-dwelling subjects, the 1-month prevalence of major depressive disorder was 2.2%, but the 1-month prevalence of depressive symptoms not diagnosable as depressive disorder was 14.1%. Depressive disorders were the cause of 24.7% of work loss days, while depressive symptoms not diagnosable as depressive disorder were the cause of 17.2% of work loss days. These findings support the dimensional or spectrum approach to depressive disorder in the community and might be the missing link between the apparent low prevalence of depressive disorder and high suicide rate in Korea.
Dotson, Vonetta M.; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Langaee, Taimour Y.; McDonough, Caitrin W.; King, Abby C.; Cohen, Ronald A.; Newman, Anne B.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Myers, Valerie; Manini, Todd M.; Pahor, Marco
Background Converging evidence suggests that physical activity is an effective intervention for both clinical depression and sub-threshold depressive symptoms; however, findings are not always consistent. These mixed results might reflect heterogeneity in response to physical activity, with some subgroups of individuals responding positively, but not others. Objectives 1) To examine the impact of genetic variation and sex on changes in depressive symptoms in older adults after a physical activity (PA) intervention, and 2) determine if PA differentially improves particular symptom dimensions of depression. Design Randomized controlled trial. Setting Four field centers (Cooper Institute, Stanford University, University of Pittsburgh, and Wake Forest University). Participants 396 community-dwelling adults aged 70–89 years who participated in the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders Pilot Study (LIFE-P). Intervention 12-month PA intervention compared to an education control. Measurements Polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter (5-HTT), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genes; 12-month change in the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale total score, as well as scores on the depressed affect, somatic symptoms, and lack of positive affect subscales. Results Men randomized to the PA arm showed the greatest decreases in somatic symptoms, with a preferential benefit in male carriers of the BDNF Met allele. Symptoms of lack of positive affect decreased more in men compared to women, particularly in those possessing the 5-HTT L allele, but the effect did not differ by intervention arm. APOE status did not affect change in depressive symptoms. Conclusions Results of this study suggest that the impact of PA on depressive symptoms varies by genotype and sex, and that PA may mitigate somatic symptoms of depression more than other symptoms. The results suggest that a targeted approach to recommending PA therapy for
Neissaar, Inga; Raudsepp, Lennart
The purpose of this study was to examine the longitudinal relationships between naturally occurring changes in leisure-time physical activity, depressive symptoms and self-efficacy in adolescent girls. We also aimed to test whether depressive symptoms would moderate the self-efficacy-physical activity relationship. Participants were 181 urban adolescent girls. Physical activity was measured using the 3-Day Physical Activity Recall. Self-efficacy and depressive symptoms were assessed using questionnaires. Body height and body mass were measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Data were collected on three occasions over a 2-year period. There was a decrease in physical activity and self-efficacy and increase in depressive symptoms across three measurement occasions. There were statistically significant and negative relationships between initial level and change for physical activity and depressive symptoms. Initially higher levels of physical activity were related with initially lower levels of depressive symptoms, and change in physical activity across time was inversely associated with change in levels of depressive symptoms across measurements. There were statistically significant and positive relationships between initial level and change for physical activity and self-efficacy after controlling effect of BMI. Latent growth modeling (LGM) also indicated a moderating effect of depressive symptoms on the self-efficacy-physical activity relationship. Girls who had high initial levels of self-efficacy and smaller increases in depressive symptoms had the lowest decline in physical activity participation. Our results encourage the design of interventions that reduce depressive symptoms and increase self-efficacy as a possible of means of increasing adolescent girls' physical activity.
van Leeuwen, Nikki; Rodgers, Rachel; Régner, Isabelle; Chabrol, Henri
This study explored the contributions of sociocultural and psychopathological factors to suicidal ideation among adolescents. A sample of 292 French high school students with an immigrant background completed a questionnaire assessing suicidal ideation, borderline personality traits, depressive symptoms, parental attachment, life events, acculturation orientations, ethnic identity, cannabis and alcohol consumption, socioeconomic status and academic failure. Although stressful life events, depressive symptoms, and individualism were risk factors, and attachment to parents a protective factor for both boys and girls, some gender differences emerged. Borderline traits (risk factor), assimilation and marginalization (both protective factors) were significant predictors only among girls.
Benson, S; Arck, P C; Blois, S; Schedlowski, M; Elsenbruch, S
Subclinical depressive symptoms constitute a primary risk factor for major depression as well as for cardiovascular conditions, which may be mediated by endocrine or immune alterations. The aim of this study was to assess the association between the extent of subclinical depressive symptoms and neuroendocrine and immune cell responses to acute psychosocial stress in healthy females. In N = 33 healthy premenopausal women, state anxiety, plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone and serum cortisol, and interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentration responses to public speaking stress were assessed. Beck depression inventory (BDI) scores were entered as a covariate in the analyses. The IL-6 response was significantly associated with BDI scores (p < 0.05). Secondary analyses revealed that women with more subclinical depressive symptoms demonstrated a reduced stress-induced increase in circulating IL-6 level (p < 0.05). By contrast, stress-induced neuroendocrine activation was not associated with depressive symptoms. Hence, subclinical depressive symptoms were associated with IL-6 responses to stress in young, healthy women. Unexpectedly, there was a reduced increase of serum IL-6 level in response to stress. Effects of depressive symptoms on the IL-6 response to stress may differ between subclinical and major depression.
Driscoll, Richard; Bernard, Bruce; West, Christine
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health conducted an evaluation regarding physical and psychological health symptoms among New Orleans firefighters 13 weeks after Hurricane Katrina struck the U.S. Gulf Coast on August 29, 2005. This report examines associations between depressive symptoms and concurrent comorbidity. Depressive symptoms were twice as likely among those with either lower respiratory symptoms or skin rash. Firefighters housed with their families were less likely to report depressive symptoms compared to those not living with their families. Perceived low supervisor support was associated with depressive symptoms, whereas participating in group counseling was not. The results underscore the need for the incorporation of physical and psychological health follow-up of emergency responders after natural disasters to better understand, monitor, and treat their health conditions. PMID:17216569
Schalet, Benjamin D.; Tang, Tony Z.; DeRubeis, Robert J.; Hollon, Steven D.; Amsterdam, Jay D.; Shelton, Richard C.
Background Meta-analyses of placebo-controlled trials of SSRIs suggest that only a small portion of the observable change in depression may be attributed to "true" pharmacological effects. But depression is a multidimensional construct, so treatment effects may differ by symptom cluster. We tested the hypothesis that SSRIs uniquely alter psychological rather than somatic symptoms of depression and anxiety. Method Outpatients with moderate to severe MDD were randomly assigned to receive paroxetine (n = 120) or placebo (n = 60). Results Paroxetine significantly outperformed placebo on all psychological subscales of the syndrome measures, but not on any of the somatic subscales. The difference in score reduction between paroxetine and placebo was more than twice as great for the psychological symptoms compared to the somatic symptoms. Conclusions Paroxetine appears to have a “true” pharmacological effect on the psychological but not on the somatic symptoms of depression and anxiety. Paroxetine's influence on somatic symptoms appears to be mostly duplicated by placebo. PMID:27438078
Dal-Bó, Márcio José; Manoel, André Luciano; Filho, Arthur Onofre Beltram; Silva, Bibiana Quatrin Tiellet da; Cardoso, Yuri Souza; Cortez, Josué; Tramujas, Lucas; Silva, Rosemeri Maurici da
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of depressive symptoms and associated variables among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in a specialized treatment center in a city located in southern Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted using the Beck Depression Inventory to assess the presence of depressive symptoms. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 53.5% among the surveyed population, which supports the idea that depressive symptoms are more common among PLWHA, mainly if compared with the general population. It was observed that 57.7% of the study participants were with depressive symptoms and did not take any psychiatric medication and 100% did not undergo psychotherapy, which indicates undertreatment. There was no statistically significant difference in the mean CD4 count between patients with depressive symptoms (484.1 ± 353) and patients without depressive symptoms (528.4 ± 263). Further actions should be taken to improve the care for PLWHA. The interface between psychology, psychiatry, and internal medicine is of utmost importance to provide a more humanized care, in which the psychosocial, psychological, and psychiatric aspects are not neglected.
Qualter, Pamela; Brown, Stephen L; Munn, Penny; Rotenberg, Ken J
Childhood loneliness is characterised by children's perceived dissatisfaction with aspects of their social relationships. This 8-year prospective study investigates whether loneliness in childhood predicts depressive symptoms in adolescence, controlling for early childhood indicators of emotional problems and a sociometric measure of peer social preference. 296 children were tested in the infant years of primary school (T1 5 years of age), in the upper primary school (T2 9 years of age) and in secondary school (T3 13 years of age). At T1, children completed the loneliness assessment and sociometric interview. Their teachers completed externalisation and internalisation rating scales for each child. At T2, children completed a loneliness assessment, a measure of depressive symptoms, and the sociometric interview. At T3, children completed the depressive symptom assessment. An SEM analysis showed that depressive symptoms in early adolescence (age 13) were predicted by reports of depressive symptoms at age 8, which were themselves predicted by internalisation in the infant school (5 years). The interactive effect of loneliness at 5 and 9, indicative of prolonged loneliness in childhood, also predicted depressive symptoms at age 13. Parent and peer-related loneliness at age 5 and 9, peer acceptance variables, and duration of parent loneliness did not predict depression. Our results suggest that enduring peer-related loneliness during childhood constitutes an interpersonal stressor that predisposes children to adolescent depressive symptoms. Possible mediators are discussed.
Chaiton, Michael; Contreras, Gisèle; Brunet, Jennifer; Sabiston, Catherine M.; O’Loughlin, Erin; Low, Nancy C. P.; Karp, Igor; Barnett, Tracie A.; O’Loughlin, Jennifer
Objective: This study describes developmental trajectories of depressive symptoms in adolescents and examines the association between trajectory group and mental health outcomes in young adulthood. Methods: Depressive symptoms were self-reported every three months from grade seven through grade 11 by 1293 adolescents in the Nicotine Dependence in Teens (NDIT) study and followed in young adulthood (average age 20.4, SD=0.7, n=865). Semi-parametric growth modeling was used to identify sex-specific trajectories of depressive symptoms. Results: Three distinct trajectory groups were identified: 50% of boys and 29% of girls exhibited low, decreasing levels of depressive symptoms; 14% of boys and 28% of girls exhibited high and increasing levels; and 36% of boys and 43% of girls exhibited moderate levels with linear increase. Trajectory group was a statistically significant independent predictor of depression, stress, and self-rated mental health in young adulthood in boys and girls. Boys, but not girls, in the high trajectory group had a statistically significant increase in the likelihood of seeking psychiatric care. Conclusions: Substantial heterogeneity in changes in depressive symptoms over time was found. Because early depressive symptoms predict mental health problems in young adulthood, monitoring adolescents for depressive symptoms may help identify those most at risk and in need of intervention. PMID:23667355
Chaudhry, Haroon Rashid; Arshad, Nadia; Javed, Faeza; Asif, Aftab
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the most commonly encountered psychiatric disorders in primary care. Depression is primarily a psychological illness; however, patients usually present with somatic symptoms. This pattern of presentation quite often poses a risk for patients with MDD due to the fact that general practitioners commonly attribute the cause of somatic symptoms to organic illnesses, thereby misdiagnosing patients. The current study focuses on the frequency of psychological and somatic symptoms in patients with major depressive disorder. The study is a cross-sectional survey using non-probability purposive sampling technique. The authors administered a self-developed questionnaire on 900 patients (male and female) diagnosed with major depressive disorder based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV-TR (DSM-IV-TR). The data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences-10 (SPSS-10). Females presented with a higher frequency of somatic symptoms as compared to psychological symptoms, whereas males presented with a higher frequency of psychological symptoms as compared to somatic symptoms. These findings emphasize the imperative need for health care professionals to have a thorough understanding of major depressive disorder. The disabling effects of depression can be minimized and prognosis of such patients improved to the point of remission if depression is promptly diagnosed without ambiguity, and intensively treated based on the physician's comprehensive knowledge of the symptomatology of major depressive disorder.
Werner, Lente L A A; der Graaff, Jolien Van; Meeus, Wim H J; Branje, Susan J T
Building on self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan in Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227-268. doi: 10.1207/S15327965PLI1104_01 , 2000), the aim of the current study was to examine the role of maternal affective and cognitive empathy in predicting adolescents' depressive symptoms, through mothers' psychological control use. Less empathic mothers may be less sensitive to adolescents' need for psychological autonomy, and thus prone to violating this need using psychological control, which may in turn predict adolescents' depressive symptoms. Moreover, according to interpersonal theory of depression (Coyne in Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 85, 186-193. doi: 10.1037/0021-843x.85.2.186 , 1976), adolescents' depressive symptoms may elicit rejecting responses, such as mothers' psychological control. For six waves, 497 adolescents (57 % boys, M age T1 = 13.03) annually completed questionnaires on depressive symptoms and maternal psychological control, while mothers reported on their empathy. Cross-lagged path analyses showed that throughout adolescence, both mothers' affective and cognitive empathy indirectly predicted boys' and girls' depressive symptoms, through psychological control. Additionally, depressive symptoms predicted psychological control for boys, and early adolescent girls. These results highlight the importance of (1) mothers' affective and cognitive empathy in predicting adolescents' depressive symptoms, and (2) taking gender into account when examining adolescent-effects.
Liu, Li; Wang, Lie; Chen, Jie
Although underground coal miners are quite susceptible to depressive symptoms due to a highly risky and stressful working environment, few studies have focused on this issue. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of depressive symptoms and to explore its associated factors in this population. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a coal-mining population in northeast China. A set of self-administered questionnaires was distributed to 2500 underground coal miners (1,936 effective respondents). Depressive symptoms, effort-reward imbalance (ERI), overcommitment (OC), perceived physical environment (PPE), work-family conflict (WFC), and some demographic and working characteristics were measured anonymously. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 62.8%, and the mean level was 20.00 (9.99). Hierarchical linear regression showed that marital status, education, monthly income, and weekly working time were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. A high level of depressive symptoms was significantly associated with high ERI, PPE, WFC, and OC. Accordingly, most Chinese underground coal miners probably have depressive symptoms that are mainly predicted by some occupational psychosocial factors. Efforts should be made to develop strategies to reduce ERI and OC, improve physical working environment, and care for workers' family well-being, thereby mitigating the risk of depression among Chinese underground coal miners.
This study aimed at exploring the psychometric characteristics of the Korean Version of the Depression and Somatic Symptoms Scale (DSSS) in a clinical sample, and investigating the impact of somatic symptoms on the severity of depression. Participants were 203 consecutive outpatients with current major depressive disorders (MDD) or lifetime diagnosis of MDD. The DSSS was compared with the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and the 17-items Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD). The DSSS showed a two-factor structure that accounted for 56.8% of the variance, as well as excellent internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.95), concurrent validity (r = 0.44–0.82), and temporal stability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.79). The DSSS had a high ability to identify patients in non-remission (area under receiver operating characteristic [ROC] curve = 0.887). Maximal discrimination between remission and non-full remission was obtained at a cut-off score of 22 (sensitivity = 82.1%, specificity = 81.4%). The number of somatic symptoms (the range of somatic symptoms) and the scores on the somatic subscale (SS, the severity of somatic symptoms) in non-remission patients were greater than those in remission patients. The number of somatic symptoms (slope = 0.148) and the SS score (slope = 0.472) were confirmed as excellent predictors of the depression severity as indicated by the MADRS scores. The findings indicate that the DSSS is a useful tool for simultaneously, rapidly, and accurately measuring depression and somatic symptoms in clinical practice settings and in consultation fields. PMID:27822942
Reinschmidt, Kerstin M.; Moreno, Francisco A.
Objective: To describe somatic and psychiatric symptoms reported by Hispanic primary care patients with and without depression and/or chronic medical illnesses. Method: Adult Hispanic patients (n = 104) in a Mobile Health Program in underserved southern Arizona participated in a survey conducted between September 2006 and February 2007 to obtain information about the somatic and psychiatric symptoms that they were experiencing. They were asked to rate the severity of their symptoms listed in the depression screen Personal Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R), and 5 new symptoms described by patients in focus groups conducted in the first phase of the project. Patients were categorized as depressed if their PHQ-9 scores were 10 or above, and they were further categorized as having or not having chronic illnesses based on self-report. Analyses of variance were conducted for each SCL-90-R symptom dimension to compare across the 4 groups (group 1: not depressed and not medically ill; group 2: medically ill but not depressed; group 3: depressed but not medically ill; and group 4: depressed and medically ill). Results: Patients with chronic medical illnesses comorbid with depression were found to report significantly more somatic symptoms than those with only chronic medical illnesses or depression alone (P ≤ .001). They also reported significantly more psychopathology than patients with depression alone (P ≤ .05 or better). Conclusions: Patients with medical illnesses comorbid with depression are more likely to exhibit psychopathology than patients with medical illnesses or depression alone. PMID:20944771
Sherry, Simon B; Mackinnon, Sean P; Macneil, Matthew A; Fitzpatrick, Skye
Discrepancies (i.e., a subjective sense of falling short of one's own standards) are a key part of the perfectionism construct. Theory suggests discrepancies confer vulnerability to depressive symptoms. Since most research in this area is cross-sectional, longitudinal research is needed to disentangle directionality of relationships and to permit stronger causal inferences. Determining whether discrepancies are an antecedent of depressive symptoms, a consequence of depressive symptoms, or both is critical to understanding the discrepancies-depressive symptoms relationship. Knowledge about the temporal stability of discrepancies is also only starting to emerge, and it is unclear whether discrepancies predict incremental variance in depressive symptoms above and beyond neuroticism (i.e., a dispositional tendency to experience negative emotional states). The present study tested relationships among discrepancies, neuroticism, and depressive symptoms in 127 1st-year undergraduates using a 3-wave longitudinal design. Results suggest discrepancies may be understood as a trait-state where people are both highly consistent in their rank order on discrepancies and fluctuate somewhat in the level of discrepancies they experience at a particular point in time. As hypothesized, discrepancies predicted increases in depressive symptoms, even after controlling for neuroticism. Contrary to hypotheses, depressive symptoms did not predict changes in discrepancies. This study extends a long tradition of theory noting the depressing consequences of believing that one has fallen short of one's own standards. Harsh self-criticism and unobtainable self-expectations involving a strong sense of imperfection may be part of the premorbid personality of people vulnerable to depressive symptoms.
Tissot, Hervé; Favez, Nicolas; Ghisletta, Paolo; Frascarolo, France; Despland, Jean-Nicolas
Although the negative impact of postpartum depression on parenting behaviors has been well established-albeit separately-for mothers and fathers, the respective and joint impact of both parents' mood on family-group interactive behaviors, such as coparenting support and conflict behaviors between the parents, have not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to examine the association between parental depressive symptoms and coparenting behaviors in a low-risk sample of families with infants, exploring reciprocity between the variables, as well as gender differences between mothers and fathers regarding these links. At 3 (T1), 9 (T2), and 18 months postpartum (T3), we assessed both parents' depressive symptoms with a self-report questionnaire and observed coparenting support and conflict during triadic mother-father-child interactions. The results revealed that higher maternal depressive symptoms at T1 were associated with lower support at T1 and T2. Conflict at T3 was associated with higher maternal depressive symptoms at T3 and, more surprisingly, with less depressive symptoms in mothers at T2 and fathers at T3. Cross-lagged associations suggested that parental depressive symptoms were more likely to influence coparenting than the reverse. Moreover, maternal depressive symptoms were more likely to be linked to coparenting behaviors than were paternal depressive symptoms. These results confirm that parental-mostly maternal-depressive symptoms, even of mild intensity, may jeopardize the development of healthy family-level relations, which previous research has shown to be crucial for child development.
Wei, Jingkai; Pimple, Pratik; Shah, Amit J.; Rooks, Cherie; Bremner, J. Douglas; Nye, Jonathon A.; Ibeanu, Ijeoma; Murrah, Nancy; Shallenberger, Lucy; Raggi, Paolo; Vaccarino, Viola
Objectives Depression is an adverse prognostic factor after an acute myocardial infarction (MI), and an increased propensity toward emotionally-driven myocardial ischemia may play a role. We aimed to examine the association between depressive symptoms and mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia in young survivors of an MI. Methods We studied 98 patients (49 women and 49 men) age 38–60 years who were hospitalized for acute MI in the previous 6 months. Patients underwent myocardial perfusion imaging at rest, after mental stress (speech task), and after exercise or pharmacological stress. A summed difference score (SDS), obtained with observer-independent software, was used to quantify myocardial ischemia under both stress conditions. The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) was used to measure depressive symptoms, which were analyzed as overall score, and as separate somatic and cognitive depressive symptom scores. Results There was a significant positive association between depressive symptoms and SDS with mental stress, denoting more ischemia. After adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors, disease severity and medications, each incremental depressive symptom was associated with 0.14 points higher SDS. When somatic and cognitive depressive symptoms were examined separately, both somatic [β = 0.17, 95% CI: (0.04, 0.30), p = 0.01] and cognitive symptoms [β = 0.31, 95% CI: (0.07, 0.56), p = 0.01] were significantly associated with mental stress-induced ischemia. Depressive symptoms were not associated with ischemia induced by exercise or pharmacological stress. Conclusion Among young post-MI patients, higher levels of both cognitive and somatic depressive symptoms are associated with a higher propensity to develop myocardial ischemia with mental stress, but not with physical (exercise or pharmacological) stress. PMID:25061993
Marron, Megan M.; Anderson, Stewart J.; Garrity, Jessica; Reynolds, Charles F.; Lotrich, Francis E.
Objective Some patients with hepatitis C (HCV) starting interferon-α (IFN-α) experience depression, although many patients do not develop depressive symptoms. We have found that poor sleep is associated with increased depressive symptoms on average. It is unknown whether this association holds generally or is driven by a specific, distinct subgroup. This investigation first determined whether patterns of change in depressive symptoms form clinically meaningful, distinct sub-groups; and then tested the extent to which sleep disturbances are associated with a less favorable depression trajectory. Method Group-based trajectory modeling was used on 124 HCV patients who started IFN-α therapy. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) assessed pre-treatment sleep, the Beck Depression Inventory minus the sleep question (BDI-s) assessed depression over time, and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV provided categorical diagnoses. Results Three distinct subgroups were found, where each subgroup shared similar patterns of depressive symptoms over time. The groups were characterized as “non-depressed”, “slow increase”, and “rapid increase”. The non-depressed subgroup (44.4%) experienced low depressive symptoms with little change over time. In comparison, all rapid increasers (11.3%) were diagnosed with a mood disorder by 12 weeks of treatment. The PSQI was strongly associated with group membership,. where the odds of developing a rapid increase was elevated 39% for every unit score increase in the PSQI compared to individuals who remained non-depressed (OR=1.39, 95%CI=1.07–1.80, adjusted for depression at baseline). Conclusion Only a distinct sub-population of people is notably vulnerable to a developing a rapid increase in depression symptoms during IFN-α therapy. This group may be identifiable by their markedly poor sleep prior to IFN-α therapy. PMID:26407225
Yalch, Matthew M; Lannert, Brittany K; Hopwood, Christopher J; Levendosky, Alytia A
Over a quarter of young women have experienced some form of violence within a dating relationship. The experience of dating violence is associated with problems in psychological functioning, including symptoms of anxiety and depression. However, not all women who experience dating violence exhibit anxious or depressive symptoms. One factor that may influence symptom expression is interpersonal styl