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Sample records for acculturation ethnic identity

  1. Relating Ethnic Identity, Acculturation, and Attitudes toward Treating Minority Clients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurung, Regan A. R.; Mehta, Vivek

    2001-01-01

    The attitudes of medical students of Indian decent (N=150) toward treating minority clients and using alternative therapies were assessed in relationship to the students' ethnic identity, acculturation, and self-concept. Students with strong ethnic identity and acculturation were more likely to treat minority patients and use alternative…

  2. Ethnic Identity and Acculturation of English as Second Language Learners: Implications for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maldonado, Jose M.; Kushner, Jason D.; Barr, Jason; Korz, Kelly

    2009-01-01

    Ethnic identity and acculturation are significant issues of English as Second Language students in the intermediate grades. Research has encompassed acculturation and ethnic identity as two distinct elements that differentiate particular ethnic groups. The present study investigates acculturation and ethnic identity and their correlation across…

  3. Relationship of Ethnic Identity, Acculturation, and Psychological Well-Being among Chinese, Japanese, and Korean Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chae, Mark H.; Foley, Pamela F.

    2010-01-01

    The current investigation examined the relationship of ethnic identity, acculturation, and psychological functioning among 334 Chinese, Japanese, and Korean American participants. Multiple regression analyses revealed that ethnic identity and acculturation differentially predicted well-being on the basis of ethnic group membership. Results also…

  4. Counseling Adolescents toward Wellness: The Roles of Ethnic Identity, Acculturation, and Mattering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayle, Andrea Dixon; Myers, Jane E.

    2004-01-01

    The influence of ethnic identity, acculturation, and mattering on wellness was examined for 176 minority and 286 non-minority adolescents attending a public high school. Participants completed the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure, the Stephenson Multigroup Acculturation Scale, the General Mattering Scale, the Mattering to Others Questionnaire,…

  5. Education, Ethnic Identity, and Acculturation as Predictors of Self-Esteem in Latino Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A.; DeLucia-Waack, Janice L.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the self-esteem, acculturation, and ethnic identity of 150 Latino adolescents enrolled in either a bilingual or traditional education program. Bilingual education programs were established to ensure that academic failure was not the product of limited English proficiency. Grade point average (GPA), acculturation, and ethnic…

  6. Ethnic Identity and Acculturation Attitudes among Indigenous Norwegian Sami and Ethnocultural Kven Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kvernmo, Siv; Heyerdahl, Sonja

    2004-01-01

    Ethnic identity and acculturation attitudes were studied in indigenous Sami (earlier named Lapps) and ethnocultural Kvens (descendants of early Finnish-speaking immigrants from the northern part of Sweden and Finland) in Northern Norway. The sample consisted of 674 Sami and 347 Kven high school students ages 16 to 19 years. Ethnic identity was…

  7. Gender Identity, Ethnicity, Acculturation, and Drug Use: Exploring Differences among Adolescents in the Southwest.

    PubMed

    Kulis, Stephen; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Hurdle, Donna

    2003-03-01

    This article presents the findings of a survey completed by 1351 predominantly Mexican American middle school students residing in a large urban center in the U.S. Southwest. The study explores possible associations between drug use attitudes and behaviors and gender (biological sex), gender identity, ethnicity, and acculturation status. Based on the concepts of "machismo" and "marianismo" that have been used to describe Mexican populations, four dimensions of gender identity were measured: aggressive masculinity, assertive masculinity, affective femininity, and submissive femininity. In explaining a variety of indicators of drug use behaviors and anti-drug norms, gender alone had limited explanatory power, while gender identity-often regardless of gender-was a better predictor. Aggressive masculinity was generally associated with higher risk of drug use, while the other three gender identity measures had selected protective effects. However, the impact of gender identity was strongly mediated by acculturation. Less acculturated Mexican American students reported lower aggressive masculinity scores than non-Latinos. Less acculturated Mexican American girls reported both the lowest aggressive masculinity scores and the highest submissive femininity scores. More acculturated Mexican American students, along with the less acculturated Mexican American boys, did not appear to be following a polarized approach to gender identity (machismo and marianismo) as was expected. The findings suggest that some aspects of culturally prescribed gender roles can have a protective effect against drug use behaviors and attitudes, possibly for both girls and boys.

  8. Gender Identity, Ethnicity, Acculturation, and Drug Use: Exploring Differences among Adolescents in the Southwest

    PubMed Central

    Kulis, Stephen; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Hurdle, Donna

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a survey completed by 1351 predominantly Mexican American middle school students residing in a large urban center in the U.S. Southwest. The study explores possible associations between drug use attitudes and behaviors and gender (biological sex), gender identity, ethnicity, and acculturation status. Based on the concepts of “machismo” and “marianismo” that have been used to describe Mexican populations, four dimensions of gender identity were measured: aggressive masculinity, assertive masculinity, affective femininity, and submissive femininity. In explaining a variety of indicators of drug use behaviors and anti-drug norms, gender alone had limited explanatory power, while gender identity—often regardless of gender—was a better predictor. Aggressive masculinity was generally associated with higher risk of drug use, while the other three gender identity measures had selected protective effects. However, the impact of gender identity was strongly mediated by acculturation. Less acculturated Mexican American students reported lower aggressive masculinity scores than non-Latinos. Less acculturated Mexican American girls reported both the lowest aggressive masculinity scores and the highest submissive femininity scores. More acculturated Mexican American students, along with the less acculturated Mexican American boys, did not appear to be following a polarized approach to gender identity (machismo and marianismo) as was expected. The findings suggest that some aspects of culturally prescribed gender roles can have a protective effect against drug use behaviors and attitudes, possibly for both girls and boys. PMID:21359134

  9. Attitudes toward Seeking Professional Counseling Services among Chinese International Students: Acculturation, Ethnic Identity, and English Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jiaqi; Marbley, Aretha Faye; Bradley, Loretta J.; Lan, William

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined the help-seeking attitudes of 109 Chinese international students studying in the United States. Results revealed that significant relationships exist among acculturation, ethnic identity, English proficiency, and attitudes toward seeking professional counseling services. Limitations and recommendations for future research are…

  10. Misogyny, acculturation, and ethnic identity: relation to rape-supportive attitudes in Asian American college men.

    PubMed

    Koo, Kelly H; Stephens, Kari A; Lindgren, Kristen P; George, William H

    2012-08-01

    Asian Americans have been understudied with respect to sexuality and rape and its contributory factors. Some attitudinal research has shown that Asian American college males tend to hold more rape-supportive beliefs than their White counterparts. Generally, this research treats ethnicity as a proxy for culture rather than examining specific facets of culture per se. The current study incorporated measures of misogynistic beliefs, acculturation, and ethnic identity to investigate these ethnic differences in rape-supportive attitudes. White (n = 222) and Asian American (n = 155) college men read an acquaintance rape vignette and evaluated it on four judgments: how much they blamed the perpetrator and the victim, how credible they viewed the victim's refusal, and to what degree they defined the event as rape. Consistent with previous research, Asian American men made more rape-supportive judgments than Whites. This relationship was partially mediated by misogynistic beliefs for all judgments except the extent to which they defined the vignette as rape. Among Asian Americans, acculturation was negatively associated with all four rape vignette judgments above and beyond generational status, and ethnic identity was positively associated with two of the four judgments above and beyond acculturation and generational status. These findings suggest that cultural constructs are relevant to understanding rape-supportive attitudes among Asian American men, and may be useful for promoting culturally enhanced theoretical models of rape and sexual assault prevention efforts, as well as a deeper understanding of cultural influences on sexuality.

  11. Impact of Acculturation, Ethnic Identity and Peer Influence on Substance Use, Depression, and Self-Esteem in Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    Given the changing racial/ethnic composition of the United States, the impact of culture on adolescent health risk behaviors is an emerging and important issue. The purpose of the present study was to examine acculturation and ethnic identity and its impact on substance use, depression, and self-esteem in a sample of middle school students.…

  12. Ethnic Identity Development and Acculturation: A Longitudinal Analysis of Mexican-Heritage Youth in the Southwest United States.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Masaki; Hecht, Michael L; Elek, Elvira; Ndiaye, Khadidiatou

    2010-05-01

    Utilizing part of the survey data collected for a National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)-funded project from 29 public elementary schools in Phoenix, Arizona (N = 1,600), this study explored the underlying structure of Mexican-heritage youths' ethnic identity and cultural/linguistic orientation. Latent profile and transition analyses identified four distinct orientation profiles endorsed by the early adolescents and their developmental trends across four time points. Most Mexican and Mexican American adolescents endorsed bicultural profiles with developmental trends characterized by widespread stasis and transitions toward greater ethnic identity exploration. Multinominal logistic regression analyses revealed associations between profile endorsement and adolescents' gender, socioeconomic status, parents' birthplace, and visits outside the United States. These findings are discussed in regard to previous findings on acculturation and ethnic identity development. Individuals' adaptation to the immediate local environment is noted as a possible cause of prevalent biculturalism. Limitations and future directions for the research on ethnic identity development and acculturation are also discussed.

  13. Acculturation, Enculturation, Ethnic Identity, and Conscientiousness as Predictors of Latino Boys' and Girls' Career Decision Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojeda, Lizette; Pina-Watson, Brandy; Castillo, Linda G.; Castillo, Rosalinda; Khan, Noshaba; Leigh, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the role of culture and personality on the career decision self-efficacy of 338 Latino seventh-grade public middle school students. Specifically, we examined the role of acculturation, enculturation, ethnic identity, and conscientiousness on career decision self-efficacy. Findings indicated Latina girls were more acculturated…

  14. Dynamics of Acculturation, Enculturation, and Ethnic Identity: Influence of Psychocultural Constructs on Conscientiousness and Expectations of Higher Education among Latinos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cano, Miguel Angel; Castillo, Linda G.; Davis, Matthew J.; Lopez-Arenas, Araceli; Vaquero, Juana; Thompson, Keisha V.; Saldivar, Isaac M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of psychocultural variables (e.g., acculturation, enculturation, ethnic identity) and personality characteristics in relation to educational expectations among 345 Latino middle school students in the U.S. Results from a path model indicate that 24.4% of the variance of educational expectations was accounted…

  15. Self-disclosure in Latinos' intercultural and intracultural friendships and acquaintanceships: Links with collectivism, ethnic identity, and acculturation.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Audrey L; Galliher, Renée V; Domenech Rodríguez, Melanie M

    2011-01-01

    Relationships among collectivism, ethnic identity, acculturation, and self-disclosure rates in Latinos' intercultural and intracultural friendships and acquaintanceships were examined. An online survey collected data from 59 international Latinos and 73 Latino American nationals. Results revealed that relationship type (friend vs. acquaintance) and relationship partner ethnicity (Latino vs. White American) had significant relationships with self-disclosure. Participants disclosed more personal information to friends than acquaintances, and they disclosed more to Latino than to White American persons. Higher collectivism was related to increased self-disclosure across all relationship types. Acculturation exerted a significant main effect only in the context of friendships but interacted significantly with ethnicity in both friendships and acquaintanceships. Ethnic identity did not display any significant direct or interaction effects. PMID:21341904

  16. Ethnic Identity Development and Acculturation: A Longitudinal Analysis of Mexican-Heritage Youth in the Southwest United States

    PubMed Central

    Matsunaga, Masaki; Hecht, Michael L.; Elek, Elvira; Ndiaye, Khadidiatou

    2010-01-01

    Utilizing part of the survey data collected for a National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)–funded project from 29 public elementary schools in Phoenix, Arizona (N = 1,600), this study explored the underlying structure of Mexican-heritage youths’ ethnic identity and cultural/linguistic orientation. Latent profile and transition analyses identified four distinct orientation profiles endorsed by the early adolescents and their developmental trends across four time points. Most Mexican and Mexican American adolescents endorsed bicultural profiles with developmental trends characterized by widespread stasis and transitions toward greater ethnic identity exploration. Multinominal logistic regression analyses revealed associations between profile endorsement and adolescents’ gender, socioeconomic status, parents’ birthplace, and visits outside the United States. These findings are discussed in regard to previous findings on acculturation and ethnic identity development. Individuals’ adaptation to the immediate local environment is noted as a possible cause of prevalent biculturalism. Limitations and future directions for the research on ethnic identity development and acculturation are also discussed. PMID:20740051

  17. Situational variations in ethnic identity across immigration generations: Implications for acculturative change and cross-cultural adaptation.

    PubMed

    Noels, Kimberly A; Clément, Richard

    2015-12-01

    This study examined whether the acculturation of ethnic identity is first evident in more public situations with greater opportunity for intercultural interaction and eventually penetrates more intimate situations. It also investigated whether situational variations in identity are associated with cross-cultural adaptation. First-generation (G1), second-generation (G2) and mixed-parentage second-generation (G2.5) young adult Canadians (n = 137, n = 169, and n = 91, respectively) completed a questionnaire assessing their heritage and Canadian identities across four situational domains (family, friends, university and community), global heritage identity and cross-cultural adaptation. Consistent with the acculturation penetration hypothesis, the results showed Canadian identity was stronger than heritage identity in public domains, but the converse was true in the family domain; moreover, the difference between the identities in the family domain was attenuated in later generations. Situational variability indicated better adaptation for the G1 cohort, but poorer adaptation for the G2.5 cohort. For the G2 cohort, facets of global identity moderated the relation, such that those with a weaker global identity experienced greater difficulties and hassles with greater identity variability but those with a stronger identity did not. These results are interpreted in light of potential interpersonal issues implied by situational variation for each generation cohort. PMID:26271917

  18. Situational variations in ethnic identity across immigration generations: Implications for acculturative change and cross-cultural adaptation.

    PubMed

    Noels, Kimberly A; Clément, Richard

    2015-12-01

    This study examined whether the acculturation of ethnic identity is first evident in more public situations with greater opportunity for intercultural interaction and eventually penetrates more intimate situations. It also investigated whether situational variations in identity are associated with cross-cultural adaptation. First-generation (G1), second-generation (G2) and mixed-parentage second-generation (G2.5) young adult Canadians (n = 137, n = 169, and n = 91, respectively) completed a questionnaire assessing their heritage and Canadian identities across four situational domains (family, friends, university and community), global heritage identity and cross-cultural adaptation. Consistent with the acculturation penetration hypothesis, the results showed Canadian identity was stronger than heritage identity in public domains, but the converse was true in the family domain; moreover, the difference between the identities in the family domain was attenuated in later generations. Situational variability indicated better adaptation for the G1 cohort, but poorer adaptation for the G2.5 cohort. For the G2 cohort, facets of global identity moderated the relation, such that those with a weaker global identity experienced greater difficulties and hassles with greater identity variability but those with a stronger identity did not. These results are interpreted in light of potential interpersonal issues implied by situational variation for each generation cohort.

  19. Ethnic Identity and Acculturative Stress as Mediators of Depression in Students of Asian Descent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lantrip, Crystal; Mazzetti, Francesco; Grasso, Joseph; Gill, Sara; Miller, Janna; Haner, Morgynn; Rude, Stephanie; Awad, Germine

    2015-01-01

    This study underscored the importance of addressing the well-being of college students of Asian descent, because these students had higher rates of depression and lower positive feelings about their ethnic group compared with students of European descent, as measured by the Affirmation subscale of the Ethnic Identity Scale. Affirmation mediated…

  20. Identity and Acculturation: Interethnic Relations in the Basque Autonomous Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larrañaga, Nekane; Garcia, Iñaki; Azurmendi, Maria-Jose; Bourhis, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This study analyses the influence of ethnic identity on the acculturation orientations of Basque undergraduates, towards groups in traditional contact (native Basques and native Spaniards) and towards recent immigrant groups. Five dimensions were used to measure the Basque and/or Spanish identities: linguistic, cultural, political, global, and the…

  1. Thirty Years of Racial/Ethnic Identity Development Research: An Examination of Black College Students Racial/Ethnic Identity Development and Acculturation and How It Affects Their Attitudes toward Professional Help-Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbour, Edwanike C.

    2009-01-01

    After thirty years of racial/ethnic identity development (R/EID) studies, research has shown little other than how racial identity is a reflection of one's political affiliation with a racial group. Recent research has shown that R/EID of college students affects psychological well-being (Kwan & Sodowsky, 1997; Yoo & Lee, 2005). However, Black…

  2. African American Acculturation and Black Racial Identity: A Preliminary Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope-Davis, Donald B.; Liu, William M.; Ledesma-Jones, Shannon; Nevitt, Jonathan

    2000-01-01

    Examines the relationship between acculturation and racial identity among African Americans. One hundred eighty-seven African American students completed the Black Racial Identity Attitude Scale and the African American Acculturation Scale (AAAS). Acculturation was associated with three of the five AAAS subscales: Dissonance, Immersion, and…

  3. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CULTURAL IDENTITY AND SELF-ESTEEM AMONG CHINESE UYGHUR COLLEGE STUDENTS: THE MEDIATING ROLE OF ACCULTURATION ATTITUDES.

    PubMed

    Dong, Li; Lin, Chongde; Li, Tsingan; Dou, Donghui; Zhou, Liqing

    2015-08-01

    Most acculturation research throughout the world has been conducted in immigrant settings. In order to examine the generalizability of the previous conclusions in immigrant settings, the present study tried to explore the relationship between cultural identity and self-esteem and the mediating role of acculturation attitudes in China. Using the cross-sectional design, a total number of 342 Uyghur college students were asked to complete a survey comprising the Multi-Group Ethnic/National Identity Measure-Revised Scale, the Acculturation Attitudes Scale, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Using hierarchical multiple regression, the results indicated that cultural identity was positively correlated with self-esteem. A significant mediation of acculturation was observed between cultural identity and self-esteem. These findings demonstrated the significance of cultural identity and acculturation attitudes in the adaptation of Chinese Uyghur college students, in which integration is an optimal acculturation attitude.

  4. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CULTURAL IDENTITY AND SELF-ESTEEM AMONG CHINESE UYGHUR COLLEGE STUDENTS: THE MEDIATING ROLE OF ACCULTURATION ATTITUDES.

    PubMed

    Dong, Li; Lin, Chongde; Li, Tsingan; Dou, Donghui; Zhou, Liqing

    2015-08-01

    Most acculturation research throughout the world has been conducted in immigrant settings. In order to examine the generalizability of the previous conclusions in immigrant settings, the present study tried to explore the relationship between cultural identity and self-esteem and the mediating role of acculturation attitudes in China. Using the cross-sectional design, a total number of 342 Uyghur college students were asked to complete a survey comprising the Multi-Group Ethnic/National Identity Measure-Revised Scale, the Acculturation Attitudes Scale, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Using hierarchical multiple regression, the results indicated that cultural identity was positively correlated with self-esteem. A significant mediation of acculturation was observed between cultural identity and self-esteem. These findings demonstrated the significance of cultural identity and acculturation attitudes in the adaptation of Chinese Uyghur college students, in which integration is an optimal acculturation attitude. PMID:26226499

  5. Ethnic, gender, and acculturation influences on sexual behaviors.

    PubMed

    Meston, Cindy M; Ahrold, Tierney

    2010-02-01

    Much research has been conducted on ethnic differences in sexuality, but few studies have systematically assessed the importance of acculturation in sexual behavior. The present study assessed general differences in normative sexual practices in healthy Euro-American, Asian, and Hispanic populations, using measures of acculturation to analyze the relative effects of heritage and mainstream cultures within each group. A total of 1,419 undergraduates (67% Euro-American, 17% Hispanic, 16% Asian; 33% men, 67% women) completed questionnaires which assessed sexual experience and causal sexual behaviors. In concordance with previous studies, Asians reported more conservative levels of sexual experience and frequency of sexual behaviors, fewer lifetime partners, and later ages of sexual debut than Euro-American or Hispanic counterparts. Hispanic reported sexual experiences similar to that of Euro-Americans. There was a significant interaction between mainstream and heritage acculturation in predicting number of lifetime sexual partners in Asian women such that the relationship between heritage acculturation and casual sexual behavior was stronger at lower levels of mainstream acculturation. On the other hand, in Hispanic men, higher levels of mainstream acculturation predicted more casual sexual behavior (one-time sexual encounters and number of lifetime sexual partners) when heritage acculturation was low but less casual sexual behavior when heritage acculturation was high. These results suggest that, for sexual behavior, Hispanic men follow an "ethnogenesis" model of acculturation while Asian women follow an "assimilation" model of acculturation.

  6. Asian American Identity and Drug Consumption: From Acculturation to Normalization

    PubMed Central

    Moloney, Molly; Hunt, Geoffrey; Evans, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    This article analyzes the relationship between substance use and ethnic identity in the narratives of 206 young Asian Americans in a dance club/rave scene. We examine the meaning of drug use and found three types of narratives invoked to explain their drug use. The first noted difficulties arising from their Asian-American identities, the experience of culture clash and stresses associated with acculturation and Americanization. The second viewed their drug consumption as unusual among Asian Americans and saw their drug use as indicative of the degree to which they've grown apart from Asian culture and toward white/American culture. The final group saw neither their identities as Asian Americans, as drug users, nor as Asian American drug users as problematic. Drug use was a normal, accepted, and mundane part of their leisure time, not something they viewed as problematic or unusual. PMID:19064437

  7. Protective Effects of Ethnic Identity on Mexican American College Students' Psychological Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iturbide, Maria I.; Raffaelli, Marcela; Carlo, Gustavo

    2009-01-01

    The current study investigated whether different ethnic identity components moderate the associations between acculturative stress and psychological adjustment among Mexican American college students (N = 148; 67% female) who completed self-report surveys. For women, ethnic affirmation/belonging and ethnic identity achievement moderated the…

  8. Converging identities: dimensions of acculturation and personal identity status among immigrant college students.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Seth J; Kim, Su Yeong; Whitbourne, Susan Krauss; Zamboanga, Byron L; Weisskirch, Robert S; Forthun, Larry F; Vazsonyi, Alexander T; Beyers, Wim; Luyckx, Koen

    2013-04-01

    The present study was designed to ascertain the extent to which dimensions of acculturation would differ across personal identity statuses in a sample of 2,411 first- and second-generation, immigrant, college-attending emerging adults. Participants from 30 colleges and universities around the United States completed measures of personal identity processes, as well as of heritage and American cultural practices, values, and identifications. Cluster-analytic procedures were used to classify participants into personal identity statuses based on the personal identity processes. Results indicated that, across ethnic groups, individuals in the achieved and searching moratorium statuses reported the greatest endorsement of heritage and American cultural practices, values, and identifications; and individuals in the carefree diffusion status reported the lowest endorsement of all the cultural variables under study. These results are discussed in terms of the convergence between personal identity and cultural identity processes.

  9. Discrimination History, Backlash Fear, and Ethnic Identity among Arab Americans: Post-9/11 Snapshots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nassar-McMillan, Sylvia C.; Lambert, Richard G.; Hakim-Larson, Julie

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined discrimination history, backlash fear, and ethnic identity of Arab Americans nationally at 3 times, beginning shortly after September 11, 2001. Relations between variables were moderate, and discrimination history and backlash fear were statistically significant predictors of ethnic identity. Implications for acculturation and…

  10. Measuring ethnic identity in the Ethnic Identity Scale and the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure-Revised.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Eunju

    2011-04-01

    This study examined the newly developed ethnic identity measures of the Ethnic Identity Scale (EIS) and the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure-Revised (MEIM-R) from psychometric and theoretical perspectives. Survey data from 289 counseling students in California were analyzed. Confirmatory factor analyses supported three correlated factors of the EIS (exploration, resolution, and affirmation) and two correlated factors of the MEIM-R (exploration, commitment) for both European American and minority students. Consistent with the theories of Erikson's and Marcia's identity development, the EIS and the MEIM-R nicely depicted (a) Marcia's 4 (2 × 2) identity statuses of diffusion, foreclosure, moratorium, and achievement and (b) the hierarchy of identity statuses in relation to subjective well-being as an indicator of adjustment, especially for minority students. Additionally, European American and minority students revealed differences as to the salience and importance of ethnic identity. Recommendations for using the EIS and the MEIM-R are provided.

  11. Acculturation orientations mediate the link between religious identity and adjustment of Turkish-Bulgarian and Turkish-German adolescents.

    PubMed

    Dimitrova, Radosveta; Aydinli-Karakulak, Arzu

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing recognition of the need to examine religiousness and conduct research on its influence on acculturation and adjustment among ethnic minorities (Güngör et al. in Int J Behav Dev 36:367-373, 2012. doi:10.1177/0165025412448357). The present study compares Turkish minority youth in Bulgaria and Germany by examining relationships among religious identity, acculturation orientations (i.e., cultural maintenance and adoption) and acculturation outcomes (i.e., life satisfaction and socio-cultural adjustment to the Turkish and mainstream cultures). Participants were 161 youth in Bulgaria and 155 in Germany who completed measures on religious identity, acculturation orientations and adjustment. Results revealed that religious identity and Turkish culture maintenance are more important for Turkish-German, than for Turkish-Bulgarian youth. A multigroup path model showed that for both samples acculturation orientations partially mediated the link between religious identity and adjustment to the Turkish culture, whereas religious identity was directly related both to adjustment to the mainstream culture and to life satisfaction. Findings highlight the centrality of religious identity and Turkish domains of acculturation for positive adjustment outcomes for Turkish youth in Bulgaria and Germany.

  12. Naxi Intellectuals and Ethnic Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haibo, Yu

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the role of Naxi intellectuals in the ethnic identity resurgence of the Naxi since the 1980s in China. The article illustrates 3 aspects of Naxi intellectuals' approach to the identity construction of the Naxi: researching the Naxi, engaging in cultural activities and exhibitions, and teaching the Naxi culture to the younger…

  13. Culture change and ethnic-minority health behavior: an operant theory of acculturation.

    PubMed

    Landrine, Hope; Klonoff, Elizabeth A

    2004-12-01

    Data on acculturation and ethnic-minority health indicate that acculturation has opposite effects on the same health behavior among different ethnic groups; opposite effects on different health behaviors within an ethnic group; opposite effects on the same health behavior for the women vs. the men of most ethnic groups; and no effect whatsoever on some health behaviors for some ethnic groups. This evidence is so incoherent that it is unintelligible, and hence it continues to be largely useless to health psychology and behavioral medicine. This paper presents a new theory of acculturation that renders these confusing data coherent by predicting such changes in minority health behavior a priori. By so doing, the operant model of acculturation has the potential to improve health promotion and disease prevention and thereby reduce ethnic health disparities.

  14. Socialization and Ethnic Identity Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinreich, Peter

    A study of identity development was carried out in Bristol, England, with Asian, West Indian, and indigenous British adolescents. Ethnic and gender differences in patterns of identification conflict with others were found between minority group boys and girls. Both sexes from both minority groups, however, had substantial identification conflicts…

  15. Self-Esteem, Cultural Identity, and Generation Status as Determinants of Hispanic Acculturation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentine, Sean

    2001-01-01

    A survey of 110 Hispanic college students found that self-esteem and generation status (generational distance from immigration) were positively related to acculturation, whereas Hispanic cultural identity negatively affected acculturation. Contains 33 references. (Author/SV)

  16. Mexican American Youth of the Southwest Borderlands: Perceptions of Ethnicity, Acculturation, and Race.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holleran, Lori K.

    2003-01-01

    A study examined young Mexican Americans' perspectives concerning their own ethnicity. Observations and focus groups with 30 Mexican American youths from a Southwest barrio indicate that respondents used racial terms to understand acculturation differences. Intense negative feelings were expressed about less- acculturated, Spanish-speaking…

  17. Boundaries of American Identity: Relations between Ethnic Group Prototypicality and Policy Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Huynh, Que-Lam; Devos, Thierry; Altman, Hannah R.

    2014-01-01

    We sought to document that the extent to which different ethnic groups are perceived as embodying the American identity is more strongly linked to anti-minority policy attitudes and acculturation ideologies among majority group members (European Americans) than among minority group members (Asian Americans or Latino/as). Participants rated 13 attributes of the American identity as they pertain to different ethnic groups, and reported their endorsement of policy attitudes and acculturation ideologies. We found a relative consensus across ethnic groups regarding defining components of the American identity. However, European Americans were perceived as more prototypical of this American identity than ethnic minorities, especially by European American raters. Moreover, for European Americans but not for ethnic minorities, relative ingroup prototypicality was related to anti-minority policy attitudes and acculturation ideologies. These findings suggest that for European Americans, perceptions of ethnic group prototypicality fulfill an instrumental function linked to preserving their group interests and limiting the rights afforded to ethnic minorities. PMID:26347578

  18. The Role of Identity in Acculturation among Immigrant People: Theoretical Propositions, Empirical Questions, and Applied Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Montgomery, Marilyn J.; Briones, Ervin

    2006-01-01

    The present paper advances theoretical propositions regarding the relationship between acculturation and identity. The most central thesis argued is that acculturation represents changes in cultural identity and that personal identity has the potential to "anchor" immigrant people during their transition to a new society. The article emphasizes…

  19. Ethnicity, ethnic identity, self-esteem, and at-risk eating disordered behavior differences of urban adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Rhea, Deborah J; Thatcher, W Gregory

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was two-fold: to determine the relationship between ethnic identity and self-esteem as dimensions of one's self-concept; and to determine if differences exist among one's ethnicity, ethnic identity, and/or self-esteem when examining at-risk eating disordered behaviors. A total of 893 urban adolescent females completed three behavioral subscales: the Eating Disorder Inventory, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale, and Phinney's Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure. As hypothesized, ethnic identity was significantly associated with self-esteem to form one's self-concept. When compared to Mexican American and White females, only Black females who were in the higher ethnic identity and self-esteem categories had significantly lower at-risk eating disordered scores. Our findings suggest eating disorder status in Mexican American and White females may not be associated as much with ethnic identity as with other acculturation and self-concept factors. Further, this study demonstrated ethnicity, self-esteem, and ethnic identity play significant roles in eating disorder risks.

  20. Developmental Assets and Ethnic Identity as Predictors of Thriving in Hispanic Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarado, Melissa; Ricard, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the confluence of developmental assets, ethnic identity, and acculturative stress in the prediction of thriving among Hispanic adolescents. Thriving is used to encompass youth who are not only doing well now but who are also on the trajectory toward overall success. Study participants included 130 self-reported Hispanic middle…

  1. Racial and Ethnic Identities in American Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Robert K.

    The investigation of race relations, of social problems related to race and ethnicity, and of different racial and social groups, all presume prior information about the definition of racial or ethnic group identity, about the formation, maintenance, and dissolution of such identities, and about the importance of such identities in American…

  2. Racial-Ethnic Self-Schemas and Segmented Assimilation: Identity and the Academic Achievement of Hispanic Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altschul, Inna; Oyserman, Daphna; Bybee, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    How are racial-ethnic identity and acculturation processes linked, and when do they have positive consequences for academic achievement and assimilation trajectory? To address these issues this study integrates two frameworks--segmented assimilation (Portes and Rumbaut 2001) and racial-ethnic self-schema (Oyserman et al. 2003)--that focus on how…

  3. The Relationship between Racial Identity and Acculturative Stress among African American Students in Counselor Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Tiffany A.; Owens, Delila; Queener, John E.; Reynolds, Cynthia A.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examined racial identity and acculturative stress among 116 African American counselor education graduate students in Council for the Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP) accredited programs. Results indicated that racial identity and acculturative stress remain viable variables to take into…

  4. Relations among Ethnic Identity, Parenting Style, and Adolescent Psychosocial Outcomes in European American and East Indian Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhadha, Bakhtawar

    The challenges of identity formation are particularly difficult for minority youth because of the clash of traditional culture and the host culture. This study examined the effects of parenting style, acculturation, and parent and adolescent ethnic identity on the self-esteem and school performance of East Indian and European American adolescents.…

  5. Cultural Mistrust, Ethnic Identity, Racial Identity, and Self-Esteem among Ethnically Diverse Black University Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, Rosemary E.; Taylor, Janice D.; Gerard, Phyllis A.

    2001-01-01

    Examines cultural mistrust, ethnic identity, racial identity, and self-esteem among Black university students (N=160). African American students' scores were statistically different from those of African and West Indian/Caribbean students on cultural mistrust, racial identity, and ethnic identity measures. There were no statistically significant…

  6. Ethnic identity of older Chinese in Canada.

    PubMed

    Lai, Daniel W L

    2012-06-01

    In Canada's multicultural society, ethnic identity is important to the elderly and can influence areas such as access to services, health promotion and care. Often, the complex nature of ethnic identity is underestimated when looking at cultural groups. This study aims to: (a) validate the factor structure of a Chinese ethnic identity measure for older Chinese in Canada, (b) examine the level of ethnic identity of the participants, and (c) examine the correlates of ethnic identity in these older individuals. Using data from a large, national research project on the elderly Chinese in Canada, this study analyzed the results gathered from a total of 2,272 participants. Principal component analysis, maximum-likelihood confirmatory factor analysis, and multiple regression analysis were performed. The results indicated that ethnic identity of the older Chinese is a multi-dimensional construct made up of three factors: (a) culture related activities, (b) community ties, (c) linkage with country of origin, and (d) cultural identification. The findings have provided a better understanding of how ethnic identity can be measured among the aging Chinese population in Canada.

  7. Implications of Ethnic Identity Exploration and Ethnic Identity Affirmation and Belonging for Intergroup Attitudes among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Kevin A.; Ainsworth, Andrew T.; Wittig, Michele A.; Gadino, Brandy

    2009-01-01

    The present paper develops and tests two temporal models of the relationships among adolescents' ethnic identity exploration, ethnic identity affirmation and belonging, and attitudes toward their racial/ethnic ingroup and outgroups. Structural equation models for Euro-Americans, Asian Americans, and Latinos revealed that all hypothesized…

  8. Mexican-American Acculturation, Counselor Ethnicity, Counseling Style, and Perceived Counselor Credibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponce, Francisco Q.; Atkinson, Donald R.

    1989-01-01

    Used 3 X 2 X 2 factorial design to study effects of acculturation (low, medium, or high), counselor ethnicity (Anglo-American or Mexican-American) and counseling style (directive or nondirective) on 169 Mexican-American subjects' perceptions of and willingness to see counselor. Subjects gave higher credibility ratings and were more willing to see…

  9. Characterizing Fatigue: The Effects of Ethnicity and Acculturation

    PubMed Central

    Cordero, Elizabeth D.; Loredo, Jose S.; Murray, Kate E.; Dimsdale, Joel E.

    2012-01-01

    It is unknown if fatigue measures like the Multidimensional Fatigue Symptom Inventory-Short Form (MFSI-SF; Stein, Jacobsen, Blanchard, & Thors, 2004) appropriately describe fatigue in Hispanics or if acculturation plays a role in fatigue. This study compared fatigue in community samples of Hispanics and Anglos. The MFSI-SF and pertinent questionnaires were administered to adults in San Diego County via telephone survey. Some differences in fatigue were observed in initial comparisons between Hispanics and Anglos, including when acculturation was considered. When age and education were controlled, Hispanics reported less general fatigue than Anglos, regardless of acculturation status, p = < .01. Exploratory factor analyses indicate that the MFSI-SF general-fatigue subscale was problematic for Hispanics. Implications, limitations, and future directions are discussed. PMID:22773899

  10. Normative changes in ethnic and American identities and links with adjustment among Asian American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kiang, Lisa; Witkow, Melissa R; Champagne, Mariette C

    2013-09-01

    Identity development is a highly salient task for adolescents, especially those from immigrant backgrounds, yet longitudinal research that tracks simultaneous change in ethnic identity and American identity over time has been limited. With a focus on 177 Asian American adolescents recruited from an emerging immigrant community, in the current study, we used hierarchical linear modeling and found that ethnic identity tends to remain fairly stable across the 4 years of high school, whereas American identity increases over time. When ethnic identity and American identity were examined simultaneously, consistent with existing research, ethnic identity was positively associated with positive relationships, high self-esteem, academic motivation, and lower levels of depression over time. Although American identity was not significantly associated with depression, positive links with relationships, self-esteem, and academic motivation were found. Both identities were interactively associated with academic motivation. Acculturative implications and the importance of considering the dual construction of ethnic identity and American identity in light of adolescent adjustment are discussed. PMID:23231687

  11. Interethnic Romantic Relationships: Enacting Affiliative Ethnic Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yodanis, Carrie; Lauer, Sean; Ota, Risako

    2012-01-01

    Through in-depth interviews with respondents who were in interethnic relationships (N = 28), the authors extended and refined a new approach to mate selection based on affiliative ethnic identities (T. Jimenez, 2010). Rather than assimilation and a breakdown of ethnic group boundaries, they found that people pursued interethnic relationships…

  12. Ethnic variations in parental ethnic socialization and adolescent ethnic identity: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Else-Quest, Nicole M; Morse, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Achievement of a positive ethnic identity has been linked to positive outcomes for ethnic minority youth and is fostered by parental ethnic socialization practices. In light of findings of variability in developmental trajectories and outcomes, we examined ethnic group variations in parents' ethnic socialization practices and adolescents' ethnic identity. Within a sample of 370 adolescents who self-identified as White, African American, Latino/a, or Asian American, and their parents, parental ethnic socialization practices (including preparation for bias, promotion of mistrust, and cultural socialization) and adolescent ethnic identity development (including identity exploration and commitment) were assessed at 10th and 11th grades. Consistent with predictions, African American youth reported higher levels of ethnic identity exploration and commitment than youth from other ethnic groups, and parents of African American youth tended to report higher levels of ethnic socialization than other parents. Parental cultural socialization significantly predicted adolescent ethnic identity exploration and commitment 1 year later; ethnicity did not moderate this link. Findings are discussed in the context of the schools and urban community from which the sample was recruited, highlighting the importance of sociocultural context in development.

  13. Intermarriages: Effects on the Ethnic Identity of the Offspring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsonson, Karen

    1987-01-01

    The relationship between family ethnic homogeneity or heterogeneity and children's identity was examined. Students from four ethnic groups completed a questionnaire. A strong relationship was found between ethnic identity and desire to marry in their own ethnic group. The relationship between children's ethnic identity and parents' marriage was…

  14. Acculturation and Plasma Fatty Acid Concentrations in Hispanic and Chinese-American Adults: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Diep, Cassandra S.; Lemaitre, Rozenn N.; Chen, Tzu-An; Baranowski, Tom; Lutsey, Pamela L.; Manichaikul, Ani W.; Rich, Stephen S.; St-Jules, David E.; Steffen, Brian T.; Tsai, Michael Y.; Siscovick, David S.; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Acculturation to the U.S. is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the etiologic pathways are not fully understood. Plasma fatty acid levels exhibit ethnic differences and are emerging as biomarkers and predictors of cardiovascular disease risk. Thus, plasma fatty acids may represent one pathway underlying the association between acculturation and cardiovascular disease. We investigated the cross-sectional relationship between acculturation and plasma phospholipid fatty acids in a diverse sample of Hispanic- and Chinese-American adults. Methods and Findings Participants included 377 Mexican, 320 non-Mexican Hispanic, and 712 Chinese adults from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, who had full plasma phospholipid assays and acculturation information. Acculturation was determined from three proxy measures: nativity, language spoken at home, and years in the U.S., with possible scores ranging from 0 (least acculturated) to 5 (most acculturated) points. α-Linolenic acid, linoleic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and arachidonic acid were measured in fasting plasma. Linear regression models were conducted in race/ethnicity-stratified analyses, with acculturation as the predictor and plasma phospholipid fatty acids as the outcome variables. We ran secondary analyses to examine associations between acculturation and dietary fatty acids for comparison. Covariates included age, gender, education, and income. Contrary to our hypothesis, no statistically significant associations were detected between acculturation and plasma phospholipid fatty acids for Chinese, non-Mexican Hispanic, or Mexican participants. However, acculturation was related to dietary total n-6 fatty acids and dietary n-3/n-6 ratios in expected directions for Mexican, non-Mexican Hispanic, and combined Hispanic participants. In Chinese individuals, acculturation was unexpectedly associated with lower arachidonic acid intake. Conclusion Absence of

  15. Ethnic Differences in Sexual Attitudes of U.S. College Students: Gender, Acculturation, and Religiosity Factors

    PubMed Central

    Ahrold, Tierney K.

    2015-01-01

    Although it has been hypothesized that culture and religion play an important role in sexuality, the relative roles of acculturation and religiosity on ethnic differences in sexual attitudes have not been often empirically explored. The present study assessed differences in sexual attitudes in Euro-American, Asian, and Hispanic American populations using measures of acculturation to analyze the relative effects of heritage and mainstream cultures, as well as religiosity, within each ethnic group. A total of 1,415 college students (67% Euro-American, 16% Hispanic, 17% Asian; 32% men, 68% women) completed questionnaires which assessed attitudes towards homosexuality, gender role traditionality, casual sex, and extramarital sex. In concordance with previous studies, Asians reported more conservative sexual attitudes than did their Hispanic and Euro-American peers. Hispanics reported sexual attitudes similar to that of Euro-Americans. For both Hispanic and Asians, higher acculturation predicted sexual attitudes similar to that of Euro-Americans. For Asian, Hispanic, and Euro-American women, there was a significant interaction between intrinsic religiosity and spirituality such that the relationship between conservativism of sexual attitudes and intrinsic religiosity was stronger at higher levels of spirituality. In Euro-Americans and Asians, intrinsic religiosity and religious fundamentalism strongly predicted conservative sexual attitudes; while still significant, these relationships were not as pronounced in the Hispanic sample, implying an ethnic-by-religious effect. Novel to this study, acculturation did not mediate the relationship between religiosity and sexual attitudes, indicating that ethnic differences in religiosity effects were distinct from acculturation. PMID:18839302

  16. Toward a reconciliation of "assimilation" and "pluralism": the interplay of acculturation and ethnic retention.

    PubMed

    Gans, H J

    1997-01-01

    "The reconciliation between ¿assimilation' and ¿pluralism' is sought to help prevent further polarization among immigration researchers and is based mainly on two arguments. First, if assimilation and acculturation are distinguished, acculturation has proceeded more quickly than assimilation in both ¿old' and ¿new' immigrations. This reconciles traditional assimilationist theory with current pluralist--or ethnic retention--theory, which admits that acculturation (and accommodation) are occurring but without assimilation. Second, the reconciliation can also be advanced by the recognition that the researchers of the old and new immigrations have studied different generations of newcomers and have approached their research with ¿outsider' and ¿insider' values, respectively." The geographical focus is on the United States.

  17. The Relationship of Acculturation Strategies to Resilience: The Moderating Impact of Social Support among Qiang Ethnicity following the 2008 Chinese Earthquake

    PubMed Central

    Han, Li; Berry, John W.; Zheng, Yong

    2016-01-01

    International research has mostly confirmed the positive association between acculturation strategies and resilience in ethnic groups, but the mediating and moderating mechanisms underlying the relationships are still under-investigated. The present study aimed to investigate the associations between acculturation strategies (based on two cultural identities) and resilience of 898 Qiang ethnicity volunteers (mean age = 29.5), especially exploring the mediating and moderating effects of personality, spiritual belief and social support on the relationship between acculturation strategy (using two cultural identities as latent variables in model analysis) and resilience following the occurrence of 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in Sichuan, taking such mechanisms into account. Results were as follows: (1) All variable presented significant positive correlations; (2) Consistent with the mediating hypotheses, personality and spiritual beliefs played a partial mediating role in the relationship between two cultural identities and resilience; (3) High or low level of perceived social support had a moderating effect on cultural identities and resilience; (4) The integration strategy was the most optimal style to promote the development of resilience, but marginalization was the least effective style. PMID:27741274

  18. The Role of Identity Gaps, Discrimination, and Acculturation in International Students' Educational Satisfaction in American Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsworth, Brooke Chapman; Hecht, Michael L.; Jung, Eura

    2008-01-01

    This study examined a model of international students' educational satisfaction in the U.S. Using Communication Theory of Identity as a framework, the authors proposed that personal-enacted identity gaps and personal-relational identity gaps contribute to international students' educational satisfaction. Furthermore, acculturation and perceived…

  19. A Review of Ethnicity, Culture, and Acculturation Among Asian Caregivers of Older Adults (2000-2012)

    PubMed Central

    Miyawaki, Christina E.

    2015-01-01

    This review identified domains of care experiences among studies of Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese caregivers in the United States and Canada between 2000 and 2012. Using a narrative approach, 46 peer-reviewed journal articles were found through electronic databases and references. Considering caregivers’ assimilation to host countries, attention was given to their culture, socioeconomic resources, immigrant status, filial responsibility, generation, and acculturation. Three primary domains were identified across subgroups. The caregivers’ experiences domain was a strong sense of filial responsibility and its varied effects on caregiving experience; in the cultural values domain, reciprocity, and familism. In the acculturation domain, caregivers’ generations influenced their experiences. Because our society is rapidly changing demographically and culturally, studies of older adults and their caregivers that are not only inclusive of all racial/ethnic groups but also sensitive to specific racial/ethnic and cultural subgroup differences are necessary to inform policy and practice. PMID:26229736

  20. Evidence of Self-Informant Agreement in Ethnic Identity.

    PubMed

    Yap, Stevie C Y; Anusic, Ivana; Donnellan, M Brent; Lucas, Richard E

    2014-11-01

    Ethnic identity is considered to be a psychologically important characteristic that is associated with adjustment outcomes. However, little is known about the degree to which ethnic identity manifests itself in characteristics that are observable to others. This study is the first to evaluate self-other agreement in ethnic identity and to use a multi-method approach for testing the associations between ethnic identity and adjustment outcomes. Results provide evidence of agreement across self and informant reports of the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure, the most widely used measure of ethnic identity in the literature. We also find evidence for shared method effects across informant reports of life satisfaction and ethnic identity. Finally, we find evidence for an association between latent ethnic identity and latent life satisfaction and self esteem scores, indicating that the association between ethnic identity and both life satisfaction and self esteem is more than just shared method variance.

  1. Association of Filial Responsibility, Ethnicity, and Acculturation Among Japanese American Family Caregivers of Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Miyawaki, Christina E.

    2015-01-01

    Challenges of filial caregiving practices by 1st-generation immigrants due to differences in caregiving values between their home and host countries are well documented. This study explored the filial responsibility of later generation Japanese American caregivers of older adults. Acculturation and filial responsibility were measured using the Suinn-Lew Asian Self Identity Acculturation scale and Filial Values Index, respectively. A qualitative interview guide was developed using Gordon’s assimilation theory, and 21 caregivers (M age = 68 years, 86% female, seven in each generation) were interviewed. Despite the 3rd-generation caregivers’ high acculturation level, their filial responsibility scores remained high. Qualitative interviews also revealed later generation caregivers’ strong filial responsibility and continued caregiving involvement. Unexpectedly, caregivers’ own future expectancy of care included placement in mainstream residential facilities rather than ethnicspecific settings. Findings point to the need to develop caregiver services that consider later generation caregivers’ culture and level of assimilation. PMID:25883044

  2. On Psychology of Ethnic Identity and Behavioral Tendency of Ethnic Minority College Students in Southwest China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Huiying; Zhang, Qinglin; Chen, Peifeng; Fan, Fenghui

    2008-01-01

    In China, ethnic identity refers to both one's own ethnic identity and the identity of the Chinese nation. It is of great significance not only to individuals' mental health and full play of psychological functions but also to ethnic solidarity and regional and national stability. On the whole, ethnic minority college students in the Southwestern…

  3. Change in ethnic identity across the college transition.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Kim M; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2012-01-01

    This article examined changes in ethnic identity as a function of college type and residential status and whether differences due to college type could be explained by involvement in extracurricular activities and college ethnic composition. Although no changes in ethnic labeling or belonging were found, there was a normative decrease in ethnic search, independent of residential status. Moreover, the decline in ethnic search was significantly greater at 2- than 4-year colleges, and this difference was mediated by higher rates of participation in extracurricular activities at 4-year colleges. Ethnic identity did not vary by college ethnic composition. There were no ethnic or generation differences in ethnic identity change; however, women were more likely to include an American term in their ethnic label than were men, over time. Averaging across time, students at 4-year colleges also had a greater preference for the American term in their ethnic labels. Findings illuminate the importance of context in shaping ethnic identity.

  4. Ethnic Identity of Minority No-Fee Preservice Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Shuhan; Li, Ling; Yalikunjiang, Aisige; Tao, Xunyu; Li, Quan; Gong, Siyuan

    2013-01-01

    This study used a questionnaire to survey ethnic identity among 329 ethnic minority no-fee preservice students at Southwest University. The results indicated that: (1) Ethnic minority no-fee students have a relatively strong sense of identity with both their ethnicity and the Chinese nation, and the correlation between the two is positive. Their…

  5. The many faces of self: ego and ethnic identities.

    PubMed

    Branch, C W

    2001-12-01

    This study addressed how adolescents come to develop a sense of ethnic identity. The author examined ethnic identity development as a process that occurs simultaneously with the development of ego identity and attitudes toward groups other than one's own. A multiethnic sample of 297 adolescents and young adults (aged 13 to 26 years) completed the Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Scale Revision 2 (EOMEIS2; L. Bennion & G. Adams, 1986), the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM; J. Phinney, 1992), and the Other Group Orientation Scale (J. Phinney, 1992). An Age x Ethnic Group x Gender experimental design was used to determine whether these factors contributed differently to ethnic identity and ego identity. Analyses showed significant differences in the level of ethnic identity development among the ethnic groups. More pronounced age differences were found at the lower levels of ego identity development than at the more advanced levels.

  6. The Individual and Ethnic Identity: A Guide for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownstein, Henry H.; And Others

    This guide to teaching ethnicity from the ethnic individual's point of view is designed to accompany the student sourcebook, The Individual and Ethnic Identity (see SO 013 157). The sourcebook, suitable for secondary and higher education, contains quotations of 51 individuals from varying ethnic backgrounds and varying degrees of ethnicity. It…

  7. Ethnic identity, thin-ideal internalization, and eating pathology in ethnically diverse college women.

    PubMed

    Rakhkovskaya, Liya M; Warren, Cortney S

    2014-09-01

    Although much research suggests that ethnic identity is positively correlated with psychological health for ethnic minority women, research examining ethnic identity's relationships to thin-ideal internalization, weight concerns, and eating concerns is sparse. Consequently, this study examined these relationships in European American, African American, Latina, and Asian American college women (N=816). As expected, univariate analyses of variance indicated that European American women scored lowest on ethnic identity and highest on eating and weight concerns, whereas African American women scored lowest on thin-ideal internalization. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that ethnic identity was negatively associated with eating and weight concerns, while body mass index and thin-ideal internalization were positively associated. Ethnic identity moderated the relationship between thin-ideal internalization and eating concerns such that the relationship was stronger for participants with lower ethnic identity. These results suggest ethnic identity may be a direct or interactive protective factor against eating concerns in ethnically diverse college women.

  8. Ethnic identity, thin-ideal internalization, and eating pathology in ethnically diverse college women.

    PubMed

    Rakhkovskaya, Liya M; Warren, Cortney S

    2014-09-01

    Although much research suggests that ethnic identity is positively correlated with psychological health for ethnic minority women, research examining ethnic identity's relationships to thin-ideal internalization, weight concerns, and eating concerns is sparse. Consequently, this study examined these relationships in European American, African American, Latina, and Asian American college women (N=816). As expected, univariate analyses of variance indicated that European American women scored lowest on ethnic identity and highest on eating and weight concerns, whereas African American women scored lowest on thin-ideal internalization. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that ethnic identity was negatively associated with eating and weight concerns, while body mass index and thin-ideal internalization were positively associated. Ethnic identity moderated the relationship between thin-ideal internalization and eating concerns such that the relationship was stronger for participants with lower ethnic identity. These results suggest ethnic identity may be a direct or interactive protective factor against eating concerns in ethnically diverse college women. PMID:25079012

  9. Ethnic Pride, Traditional Family Values, and Acculturation in Early Cigarette and Alcohol Use Among Latino Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Judith A.; Bentler, Peter M.

    2010-01-01

    A structural equations model examined the influence of three cultural variables of ethnic pride, traditional family values and acculturation, along with the mediating variables of avoidance self-efficacy and perceptions of the “benefits” of cigarette smoking, on cigarette and alcohol use in a sample of Latino middle school students in the Southwest. Girls (N = 585) and boys (N = 360) were analyzed separately. In both groups, higher ethnic pride and traditional family values exerted indirect effects on less cigarette smoking and alcohol use when mediated through greater self-efficacy and less endorsement of the “benefits” of cigarette smoking. Among the girls, greater ethnic pride also had a direct effect on less cigarette and alcohol use. Also, greater acculturation directly predicted more cigarette and alcohol use among the girls, but not among the boys. However, differences between the boys and girls were generally nonsignificant as revealed by multiple group latent variable models. These results offer implications for incorporating cultural variables into the design of culturally relevant prevention interventions that discourage cigarette and alcohol use among Latino adolescents. PMID:19415497

  10. Cultural Identity and Acculturation Preferences among South Asian Adolescents in Britain: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Lena

    2009-01-01

    The study reported in this article is part of a wider research project on the adaptation of South Asians in Britain. It examines and compares the acculturation attitudes and cultural identity of Indian and Pakistani second-generation adolescents Indian (Punjabi Sikh and Gujarati Hindu) and Pakistani (Muslim) in Britain. The research project…

  11. Family ethnic socialization and ethnic identity: a family-driven, youth-driven, or reciprocal process?

    PubMed

    Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Zeiders, Katharine H; Updegraff, Kimberly A

    2013-02-01

    The current study examined the longitudinal associations between family ethnic socialization and youths' ethnic identity among a sample of Mexican-origin youth (N = 178, Mage = 18.17, SD = .46). Findings from multiple-group cross lagged panel models over a 2-year period indicated that for U.S.-born youth with immigrant parents, the process appeared to be family driven: Youths' perceptions of family ethnic socialization in late adolescence were associated with significantly greater ethnic identity exploration and resolution in emerging adulthood, while youths' ethnic identity during late adolescence did not significantly predict youths' future perceptions of family ethnic socialization. Conversely, for U.S.-born youth with U.S. born parents, youths' ethnic identity significantly predicted their future perceptions of family ethnic socialization but perceptions of family ethnic socialization did not predict future levels of youths' ethnic identity, suggesting a youth-driven process. Findings were consistent for males and females.

  12. Racial-Ethnic Identity and Adjustment in Canadian Indigenous Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gfellner, Barbara M.; Armstrong, Helen D.

    2013-01-01

    This study supported associations between three theoretically driven conceptualizations of racial and ethnic identity (REI; Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure; Multidimensional Racial Identity Measure; Bicultural Identity Measure) and with adaptive functioning among Canadian indigenous adolescents in middle school to high school. Age differences…

  13. Birds of an Ethnic Feather? Ethnic Identity Homophily among College-Age Friends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syed, Moin; Juan, Mary Joyce D.

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the degree to which pairs of friends report similar levels of ethnic identity. College-age friends (n=107 pairs; N=214 overall) completed measures of ethnic identity exploration and commitment, identity synthesis, relationship closeness, and frequency of talking to friends and family about ethnicity-related issues. Participants…

  14. Early adolescents' psychosocial adjustment and weight status change: the moderating roles of gender, ethnicity, and acculturation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yiting; Halgunseth, Linda C

    2015-04-01

    According to many public health experts, obesity is the most serious health threat facing today's early adolescents. This study examined the relationship between psychosocial adjustment (i.e., internalizing behaviors, externalizing behaviors, interpersonal skills) and weight status change during early adolescence and possible moderating roles of gender, ethnicity, and acculturation. Data came from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K), a US nationally representative sample of children who entered kindergarten during 1998-1999 and were followed through eighth grade. The current study was initiated in the fifth grade (n = 6,860; 51 % female). At fifth grade, parents reported on household routines; children and teachers reported on indicators of psychosocial adjustment. At fifth and eighth grade, children's weight was measured. Girls' weight status stability and change was more likely than boys' to be associated with psychosocial adjustment, after accounting for household/child routines and demographic variables. Compared to non-Hispanic White, Hispanic girls who exhibited higher levels of externalizing behaviors at fifth grade were more likely to become or stay obese at eighth grade. Hispanic girls who exhibited higher levels of internalizing behaviors at fifth grade were more likely to become or stay at a healthy weight at eighth grade, especially if they reported lower levels of acculturation. Lastly, African American girls with better interpersonal skills at fifth grade were more likely to stay obese at eighth grade. Implications for obesity prevention programs with early adolescents are discussed in the contexts of gender, ethnicity and acculturation.

  15. Mexican-origin Early Adolescents' Ethnic Socialization, Ethnic Identity, and Psychosocial Functioning.

    PubMed

    Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; O'Donnell, Megan; Knight, George P; Roosa, Mark W; Berkel, Cady; Nair, Rajni

    2014-02-01

    The current study examined how parental ethnic socialization informed adolescents' ethnic identity development and, in turn, youths' psychosocial functioning (i.e., mental health, social competence, academic efficacy, externalizing behaviors) among 749 Mexican-origin families. In addition, school ethnic composition was examined as a moderator of these associations. Findings indicated that mothers' and fathers' ethnic socialization were significant longitudinal predictors of adolescents' ethnic identity, although fathers' ethnic socialization interacted significantly with youths' school ethnic composition in 5(th) grade to influence ethnic identity in 7(th) grade. Furthermore, adolescents' ethnic identity was significantly associated with increased academic self-efficacy and social competence, and decreased depressive symptoms and externalizing behaviors. Findings support theoretical predictions regarding the central role parents play in Mexican-origin adolescents' normative developmental processes and adjustment and, importantly, underscore the need to consider variability that is introduced into these processes by features of the social context such as school ethnic composition.

  16. Perceptions of parents' ethnic identities and the personal ethnic-identity and racial attitudes of biracial adults.

    PubMed

    Stepney, Cesalie T; Sanchez, Diana T; Handy, Phillip E

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship of perceived parental closeness and parental ethnic identity on personal ethnic identity and colorblindness beliefs in 275 part-White biracial Americans (M age = 23.88). Respondents completed online measures of their personal ethnic identity (minority, White, and multiracial), perceived parental ethnic identity, parental closeness, and attitudes about the state of race relations and the need for social action in the United States. Using path modeling, results show that part-White biracial individuals perceive their ethnic identity to be strongly linked to their parental racial identities, especially when they had closer parental relationships. Moreover, stronger minority identity was linked to less colorblind attitudes, and greater White identity was linked to greater colorblind attitudes suggesting that patterns of identity may influence how biracial individuals view race-relations and the need for social action. Implications for biracial well-being and their understanding of prejudice and discrimination are discussed. PMID:25090151

  17. Acculturation and plasma fatty acid concentrations in Hispanic and Chinese-American adults: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acculturation to the U.S. is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the etiologic pathways are not fully understood. Plasma fatty acid levels exhibit ethnic differences and are emerging as biomarkers and predictors of cardiovascular disease risk. Thus, plasma fatty acids may...

  18. Longitudinal Trajectories of Ethnic Identity during the College Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syed, Moin; Azmitia, Margarita

    2009-01-01

    The goals of this study were to examine trajectories of change in ethnic identity during the college years and to explore group-level and individual-level variations. Participants were 175 diverse college students who completed indices of ethnic identity exploration and commitment, self-esteem, and domain-general identity resolution. Multilevel…

  19. Ethnic Identity, Bicultural Identity Integration, and Psychological Well-Being among Transracial Adoptees: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrari, Laura; Rosnati, Rosa; Manzi, Claudia; Benet-Martínez, Verònica

    2015-01-01

    The ethnic identity development plays a crucial role in adolescence and emerging adulthood and may be more complex for adoptees who do not share their ethnic identity with their adoptive families. Evidence from the studies was mixed, with strong ethnic identity not always found to be indicative of improved psychological adjustment. Recently…

  20. National and ethnic identity in the face of discrimination: ethnic minority and majority perspectives.

    PubMed

    Molina, Ludwin E; Phillips, Nia L; Sidanius, Jim

    2015-04-01

    Does the United States afford people of different backgrounds a sense of equal identification with the nation? Past research has documented ethnic/racial group differences on levels of national identity but there has been little research examining what psychologically moderates these disparities. The present research investigates how perceived group discrimination is associated with national and ethnic identification among ethnic majority and minority groups. Study 1 examines whether perceived group discrimination moderates subgroup differences on national and ethnic identification. Study 2 makes salient group discrimination--via an item order manipulation--and examines the effects on national and ethnic identification. In general, the 2 studies demonstrate that for most ethnic minorities higher perceptions of group discrimination are related to lower levels of national identity and higher ethnic identity. Conversely, among majority group members, higher levels of perceived discrimination predict higher levels of national identity with little influence on ethnic identification.

  1. Change in Ethnic Identity across the College Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Kim M.; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    This article examined changes in ethnic identity as a function of college type and residential status and whether differences due to college type could be explained by involvement in extracurricular activities and college ethnic composition. Although no changes in ethnic labeling or belonging were found, there was a normative decrease in ethnic…

  2. Sexual Identity Development among Ethnic Sexual-Minority Male Youths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Eric M.; Savin-Williams, Ritch C.

    1999-01-01

    This study explored how ethnicity influenced sexual identity development in 139 sexual-minority males. Findings demonstrated that participants, regardless of ethnicity, experienced most identity milestones at developmentally appropriate ages, had moderately low internalized homophobia, and became romantically and sexually involved with other males…

  3. Ethnic Identity at a Majority Hispanic-Serving Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Roger Geertz

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the ethnic identity of Cuban American and non-Hispanic White college students at Florida International University (FIU) in Miami, Florida. Current Latino/a and White college student ethnic identity theories are limited regarding a variety of contextual considerations such as immigration, majority-minority demographics, student…

  4. The Relationship between Ethnic Identity and Residence Hall Preference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Danny Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between students' residence hall preference and ethnic identity. The study explored differences in ethnic identity development among first-year Chicano/Latino college students who actively requested to live on a culturally themed living learning community and were placed there; Chicano/Latino students who…

  5. Acculturation and Eating Disorders in a Mexican American Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cachelin, Fary M.; Phinney, Jean S.; Schug, Robert A.; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.

    2006-01-01

    Our purpose was to investigate acculturation and eating disorders by examining the role of ethnic identity and by utilizing a bidimensional perspective toward two cultures. We predicted that orientation toward European American culture and lower ethnic identity would be positively associated with eating disorders. Participants were 188 Mexican…

  6. Racial and Ethnic Identity. Psychological Development and Creative Expression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Herbert W., Ed.; And Others

    Racial and ethnic identity must be understood as an important determinant of the creative process and social dynamics, as well as understood as individual psychology. This collection of papers examines identity issues in the following chapters: (1) "Roots and Routes: Black Identity as an Outernational Project" (Paul Gilroy); (2) "Identity as…

  7. School Belonging, Ethnic Identity, and Psychological Adjustment among Ethnic Minority College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gummadam, Praveena; Pittman, Laura D.; Ioffe, Micah

    2016-01-01

    This study considers how the psychological adjustment of ethnic minority college students may be linked to a sense of school belonging and ethnic identity, two constructs related to individuals feeling like they belong to a larger group. Using self-reports from 311 undergraduates from ethnic minority backgrounds, school belonging was found to be…

  8. A Preliminary Analysis of Associations among Ethnic-Racial Socialization, Ethnic Discrimination, and Ethnic Identity among Urban Sixth Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivas-Drake, Deborah; Hughes, Diane; Way, Niobe

    2009-01-01

    Drawing from cultural ecological models of adolescent development, the present research investigates how early adolescents received ethnic-racial socialization from parents as well as how experiences of ethnic and racial discrimination are associated with their ethnic identity (i.e., centrality, private regard, and public regard). Data for this…

  9. Effect of ethnic group membership on ethnic identity, race-related stress, and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Utsey, Shawn O; Chae, Mark H; Brown, Christa F; Kelly, Deborah

    2002-11-01

    This study examined the effect of ethnic group membership on ethnic identity, race-related stress, and quality of life (QOL). The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure, the Index of Race Related Stress--Brief Version, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life--Brief Version were administered to 160 male and female participants from 3 ethnic groups (African American, Asian American, and Latino American). Results indicated that African American participants had significantly higher race-related stress, ethnic identity, and psychological QOL scores than did Asian and Latino American participants. A stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that ethnic identity and cultural racism were significant predictors of QOL and accounted for 16% of the total variance for the entire sample.

  10. The Everyday Implications of Ethnic-Racial Identity Processes: Exploring Variability in Ethnic-Racial Identity Salience Across Situations.

    PubMed

    Douglass, Sara; Wang, Yijie; Yip, Tiffany

    2016-07-01

    Given the social and developmental relevance of ethnicity-race during adolescence, it is important to understand the meaning of ethnic-racial identity in adolescents' everyday lives. The current study considered how individual differences in ethnic-racial identity exploration (i.e., the extent to which individuals have explored their ethnicity-race), and commitment (i.e., the extent which they have a clear sense of what it means to them) influenced variability versus stability in the awareness of ethnicity-race in a given situation (i.e., salience), and how this variability is related to mood in that situation. Within an ethnic/racially diverse sample of 395 adolescents (M age = 15; 63 % female; 12 % Black, 26 % Latino, 34 % Asian, 23 % White), results indicated that ethnic-racial identity exploration was unrelated to variability in salience, while commitment promoted stability in salience across situations. Further, among adolescents who were generally very aware of their ethnicity-race, increases in situational salience were related to decreased negative and anxious mood. Among adolescents who were generally not aware of their ethnicity-race, increases in situational salience were related to increased positive and decreased negative mood. Implications for understanding the developmental and everyday experiences of ethnic-racial identity are discussed. PMID:26662047

  11. Race, Ethnicity, and Self: Identity in Multicultural Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salett, Elizabeth Pathy, Ed.; Koslow, Diane R., Ed.

    The impact that race and ethnicity have on an individual's identity development in the United States are explored through the theoretical framework, issues of dominance, identity development, and questions of biraciality. The following chapters address these issues: (1) "Identity, Self, and Individualism in a Multicultural Perspective" (Alan…

  12. Development of racial-ethnic identity among First Nation children.

    PubMed

    Corenblum, Barry

    2014-03-01

    Elements of racial-ethnic identity, often found among adolescents from racial-ethnic minority groups, have their origins in middle childhood and pre-adolescence. The present study explored the developmental trajectory of some of those components among Native Canadian children living on relatively remote First Nation communities. Children and young adolescents (N = 414,209 female) between the ages of 6-11 completed measures assessing their level of racial-ethnic identity, concrete operational thought, implicit and explicit self-esteem, implicit and explicit in-group attitudes, and the importance of their racial-ethnic identity each year for 5 years. Consistent with predictions from cognitive developmental theory, trajectory modeling revealed significant increases over time in explicit and implicit in-group attitudes, level of concrete operational thought and the importance of children's racial-ethnic identity. However, level of racial-ethnic identity remained unchanged over time. The results are discussed in terms of cognitive-developmental theory, and the influence of living in a racially homogeneous environment on the development of racial-ethnic identity among minority group children. Studies are also suggested for future research. PMID:23982921

  13. Development of racial-ethnic identity among First Nation children.

    PubMed

    Corenblum, Barry

    2014-03-01

    Elements of racial-ethnic identity, often found among adolescents from racial-ethnic minority groups, have their origins in middle childhood and pre-adolescence. The present study explored the developmental trajectory of some of those components among Native Canadian children living on relatively remote First Nation communities. Children and young adolescents (N = 414,209 female) between the ages of 6-11 completed measures assessing their level of racial-ethnic identity, concrete operational thought, implicit and explicit self-esteem, implicit and explicit in-group attitudes, and the importance of their racial-ethnic identity each year for 5 years. Consistent with predictions from cognitive developmental theory, trajectory modeling revealed significant increases over time in explicit and implicit in-group attitudes, level of concrete operational thought and the importance of children's racial-ethnic identity. However, level of racial-ethnic identity remained unchanged over time. The results are discussed in terms of cognitive-developmental theory, and the influence of living in a racially homogeneous environment on the development of racial-ethnic identity among minority group children. Studies are also suggested for future research.

  14. Ethnic Identity and Subjective Well-Being of Bully Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vera, Elizabeth M.; Kordesh, Kathy; Polanin, Megan; Adams, Kristen; Aydin, Fatma; Knoll, Mike; Oh, Jennifer; Wade, James; Roche, Meghan; Hughes, Kelly; Eisenberg, Corry; Camacho, Daniel; Jeremie-Brink, Gihane

    2015-01-01

    Relationships among bully victimization, bully perpetration, ethnic identity, and subjective well-being (i.e., life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect) were examined in a group of urban, ethnically diverse early adolescents. Indices of subjective well-being correlated with participants' scores on bully victimization and…

  15. Ethnic Identity and Young Migrants in the Netherlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermeulen, Hans; Pels, Trees

    1984-01-01

    The situational approach to ethnic identity with regard to migrants in the Netherlands is examined. This approach says that ethnicity is continuously created and can only be understood in relation to both past experience and specific political, economic, and social processes. (RM)

  16. Ethnic Identity and Psychosocial Functioning in Navajo Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Matthew D.; Galliher, Renee V.

    2007-01-01

    The current study assessed associations among theoretically driven measures of ethnic identity and psychosocial adjustment among 137 Navajo adolescents. For both sexes, measures of students' sense of affirmation and belonging to their ethnic heritage emerged as a strong predictor of positive psychosocial functioning. Less-consistent patterns of…

  17. Bridging Multidimensional Models of Ethnic-Racial and Gender Identity Among Ethnically Diverse Emerging Adults.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Antoinette R; Leaper, Campbell

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to integrate and validate a multidimensional model of ethnic-racial identity and gender identity borrowing constructs and measures based on social identity and gender identity theories. Participants included 662 emerging adults (M age  = 19.86 years; 75 % female) who self-identified either as Asian American, Latino/a, or White European American. We assessed the following facets separately for ethnic-racial identity and gender identity: centrality, in-group affect, in-group ties, self-perceived typicality, and felt conformity pressure. Within each identity domain (gender or ethnicity/race), the five dimensions generally indicated small-to-moderate correlations with one another. Also, correlations between domains for each dimension (e.g., gender typicality and ethnic-racial typicality) were mostly moderate in magnitude. We also noted some group variations based on participants' ethnicity/race and gender in how strongly particular dimensions were associated with self-esteem. Finally, participants who scored positively on identity dimensions for both gender and ethnic-racial domains indicated higher self-esteem than those who scored high in only one domain or low in both domains. We recommend the application of multidimensional models to study social identities in multiple domains as they may relate to various outcomes during development. PMID:26142190

  18. Bridging Multidimensional Models of Ethnic-Racial and Gender Identity Among Ethnically Diverse Emerging Adults.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Antoinette R; Leaper, Campbell

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to integrate and validate a multidimensional model of ethnic-racial identity and gender identity borrowing constructs and measures based on social identity and gender identity theories. Participants included 662 emerging adults (M age  = 19.86 years; 75 % female) who self-identified either as Asian American, Latino/a, or White European American. We assessed the following facets separately for ethnic-racial identity and gender identity: centrality, in-group affect, in-group ties, self-perceived typicality, and felt conformity pressure. Within each identity domain (gender or ethnicity/race), the five dimensions generally indicated small-to-moderate correlations with one another. Also, correlations between domains for each dimension (e.g., gender typicality and ethnic-racial typicality) were mostly moderate in magnitude. We also noted some group variations based on participants' ethnicity/race and gender in how strongly particular dimensions were associated with self-esteem. Finally, participants who scored positively on identity dimensions for both gender and ethnic-racial domains indicated higher self-esteem than those who scored high in only one domain or low in both domains. We recommend the application of multidimensional models to study social identities in multiple domains as they may relate to various outcomes during development.

  19. Sexual and Ethnic Identity Development among Gay/Bisexual/Questioning (GBQ) Male Ethnic Minority Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jamil, Omar B.; Harper, Gary W.; Fernandez, M. Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Identity development is a critical task of adolescence and occurs across multiple areas of self identification. Though research on the identity development process among individuals who are ethnic and sexual minorities has been conducted for individuals who have one minority status or the other, few studies have examined these processes in persons who are both ethnic and sexual minorities. This qualitative study examined the dual identity development processes related to ethnic and sexual identity among gay/bisexual/questioning (GBQ) Latino and African American male adolescents. Results indicated that the processes associated with the development of sexual orientation and ethnic identity occur concurrently. However, the actual processes involved with the development of each identity not only differed, but seemed to be independent of each other since neither process was referenced in the development of the other. Overall, the process of ethnic identity development involved the process of becoming aware of one’s ethnic and cultural heritage, while sexual identity development involved finding one’s own personally relevant sexual orientation label and connecting to that community. The implications of these findings for the development of interventions to assist in the healthy development of GBQ adolescents are discussed. PMID:19594249

  20. Racial and ethnic identity in nursing research.

    PubMed

    Gennaro, Susan; Fantasia, Heidi Collins; Keshinover, Tayra; Garry, David; Wilcox, Wendy; Uppal, Elyse

    2013-01-01

    Nurse researchers need to be able to identify the race and ethnicity of participants in their studies for several reasons including addressing health disparities, ensuring adequate representation from under-represented minorities, and making sure other nurses can understand how findings may or may not pertain to their own patient population. However, obtaining accurate information about race and ethnicity requires careful attention to norms of study participants. Race and ethnicity are not always viewed as 2 separate constructs and the definition of both changes over time. In fact, a random sample of 100 patients in 1 hospital found an 11% discrepancy between patients' self-identification of race using 2 different methodologies of self-identification. To optimize accuracy of self-identification of race and ethnicity, this paper discusses techniques learned in practice and in the literature for improving self-identification of these 2 constructs.

  1. Perceived Discrimination and Ethnic Identity Among Breast Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Campesino, Maureen; Saenz, Delia S.; Choi, Myunghan; Krouse, Robert S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives To examine ethnic identity and sociodemographic factors in minority patients' perceptions of healthcare discrimination in breast cancer care. Design Mixed methods. Setting Participants' homes in the metropolitan areas of Phoenix and Tucson, AZ. Sample 39 women treated for breast cancer in the past six years: 15 monolingual Spanish-speaking Latinas, 15 English-speaking Latinas, and 9 African Americans. Methods Two questionnaires were administered. Individual interviews with participants were conducted by nurse researchers. Quantitative, qualitative, and matrix analytic methods were used. Main Research Variables Ethnic identity and perceptions of discrimination. Findings Eighteen women (46%) believed race and spoken language affected the quality of health care. Perceived disrespect from providers was attributed to participant's skin color, income level, citizenship status, and ability to speak English. Discrimination was more likely to be described in a primary care context, rather than cancer care. Ethnic identity and early-stage breast cancer diagnosis were the only study variables significantly associated with perceived healthcare discrimination. Conclusions This article describes the first investigation examining ethnic identity and perceived discrimination in cancer care delivery. Replication of this study with larger samples is needed to better understand the role of ethnic identity and cancer stage in perceptions of cancer care delivery. Implications for Nursing Identification of ethnic-specific factors that influence patient's perspectives and healthcare needs will facilitate development of more effective strategies for the delivery of cross-cultural patient-centered cancer care. PMID:22374505

  2. Perceived Ethnic Discrimination versus Acculturation Stress: Influences on Substance Use among Latino Youth in the Southwest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulis, Stephen; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Nieri, Tanya

    2009-01-01

    Using a predominately Mexican-origin Latino sample of 5th grade students from the Southwestern United States, this study examined the relative effects of perceived discrimination and acculturation stress on substance use, and it assessed whether these effects were moderated by linguistic acculturation or time in the United States. Although rates…

  3. Ethnic Identity and Language Choice across Online Forums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birnie-Smith, Jessica Rae

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the language choice and ethnic identity construction online of four young Chinese Indonesians from West Kalimantan, Indonesia. The study draws on a combination of Social Identity model of De-individuation Effects (SIDE) theory and audience design theory to formulate a hypothesis about participants' linguistic behaviour within…

  4. Ethnic Identity and the Polish Immigrant in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mostwin, Danuta

    1988-01-01

    Examines the ethnic identity of Polish Americans, and the issues that Polish immigrants face. The following are components of the conceptual structure of identity: (1) genetically inherited characteristics; (2) characteristics acquired through family socialization; and (3) characteristics acquired through re-socialization. (BJV)

  5. The Relationship of Ethnicity-Related Stressors and Latino Ethnic Identity to Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Sabine Elizabeth; Chavez, Noe R.

    2010-01-01

    Based on the risk and resilience model, the current study examined the effect of ethnicity-related stressors (perceived discrimination, stereotype confirmation concern, and own-group conformity pressure) and ethnic identity (centrality, private regard, public regard, and other-group orientation) on the well-being of 171 Latino American college…

  6. Patient satisfaction and ethnic identity among American Indian older adults.

    PubMed

    Garroutte, Eva Marie; Kunovich, Robert M; Jacobsen, Clemma; Goldberg, Jack

    2004-12-01

    Work in the field of culturally competent medical care draws on studies showing that minority Americans often report lower satisfaction with care than White Americans and recommends that providers should adapt care to patients' cultural needs. However, empirical evidence in support of cultural competence models is limited by reliance upon measurements of racial rather than ethnic identity and also by a near-total neglect of American Indians. This project explored the relationship between ethnic identity and satisfaction using survey data collected from 115 chronically ill American Indian patients >or=50 years at a Cherokee Nation clinic. Satisfaction scores were high overall and comparable to those found in the general population. Nevertheless, analysis using hierarchical linear modeling showed that patients' self-rated American Indian ethnic identity was significantly associated with satisfaction. Specifically, patients who rated themselves high on the measure of American Indian ethnic identity reported reduced scores on satisfaction with health care providers' social skill and attentiveness, as compared to those who rated themselves lower. Significant associations remained after controlling for patients' sex, age, education, marital status, self-reported health, wait time, and number of previous visits. There were no significant associations between patients' American Indian ethnic identity and satisfaction with provider's technical skill and shared decision-making. Likewise, there were no significant associations between satisfaction and a separate measure of White American ethnic identity, although a suggestive trend was observed for satisfaction with provider's social skill. Our findings demonstrate the importance of including measures of ethnic identity in studies of medical satisfaction in racial minority populations. They support the importance of adapting care to patient's cultural needs, and they highlight the particular significance of interpersonal

  7. Patient satisfaction and ethnic identity among American Indian older adults.

    PubMed

    Garroutte, Eva Marie; Kunovich, Robert M; Jacobsen, Clemma; Goldberg, Jack

    2004-12-01

    Work in the field of culturally competent medical care draws on studies showing that minority Americans often report lower satisfaction with care than White Americans and recommends that providers should adapt care to patients' cultural needs. However, empirical evidence in support of cultural competence models is limited by reliance upon measurements of racial rather than ethnic identity and also by a near-total neglect of American Indians. This project explored the relationship between ethnic identity and satisfaction using survey data collected from 115 chronically ill American Indian patients >or=50 years at a Cherokee Nation clinic. Satisfaction scores were high overall and comparable to those found in the general population. Nevertheless, analysis using hierarchical linear modeling showed that patients' self-rated American Indian ethnic identity was significantly associated with satisfaction. Specifically, patients who rated themselves high on the measure of American Indian ethnic identity reported reduced scores on satisfaction with health care providers' social skill and attentiveness, as compared to those who rated themselves lower. Significant associations remained after controlling for patients' sex, age, education, marital status, self-reported health, wait time, and number of previous visits. There were no significant associations between patients' American Indian ethnic identity and satisfaction with provider's technical skill and shared decision-making. Likewise, there were no significant associations between satisfaction and a separate measure of White American ethnic identity, although a suggestive trend was observed for satisfaction with provider's social skill. Our findings demonstrate the importance of including measures of ethnic identity in studies of medical satisfaction in racial minority populations. They support the importance of adapting care to patient's cultural needs, and they highlight the particular significance of interpersonal

  8. The multigroup ethnic identity measure-revised: measurement invariance across racial and ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Brown, Susan D; Unger Hu, Kirsten A; Mevi, Ashley A; Hedderson, Monique M; Shan, Jun; Quesenberry, Charles P; Ferrara, Assiamira

    2014-01-01

    The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure-Revised (MEIM-R), a brief instrument assessing affiliation with one's ethnic group, is a promising advance in the ethnic identity literature. However, equivalency of its measurement properties across specific racial and ethnic groups should be confirmed before using it in diverse samples. We examined (a) the psychometric properties of the MEIM-R, including factor structure, measurement invariance, and internal consistency reliability, and (b) levels of and differences in ethnic identity across multiple racial and ethnic groups and subgroups. Asian (n = 630), Black/African American (n = 58), Hispanic (n = 240), multiethnic (n = 160), and White (n = 375) women completed the MEIM-R as part of the "Gestational diabetes' Effect on Moms" diabetes prevention trial in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California health care setting (N = 1,463; M age = 32.5 years, SD = 4.9). Multiple-groups confirmatory factor analyses provided provisional evidence of measurement invariance, i.e., an equal, correlated 2-factor structure, equal factor loadings, and equal item intercepts across racial and ethnic groups. Latent factor means for the 2 MEIM-R subscales, exploration and commitment, differed across groups; effect sizes ranging from small to large generally supported the notion of ethnic identity as more salient among people of color. Pending replication, good psychometric properties in this large and diverse sample of women support the future use of the MEIM-R. Preliminary evidence of measurement invariance suggests that the MEIM-R could be used to measure and compare ethnic identity across multiple racial and ethnic groups.

  9. The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure-Revised: Measurement invariance across racial and ethnic groups

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Susan D.; Unger Hu, Kirsten A.; Mevi, Ashley A.; Hedderson, Monique M.; Shan, Jun; Quesenberry, Charles P.; Ferrara, Assiamira

    2014-01-01

    The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure-Revised (MEIM-R), a brief instrument assessing affiliation with one’s ethnic group, is a promising advance in the ethnic identity literature. However, equivalency of its measurement properties across specific racial and ethnic groups should be confirmed before using it in diverse samples. We examined a) the psychometric properties of the MEIM-R including factor structure, measurement invariance, and internal consistency reliability, and b) levels of and differences in ethnic identity across multiple racial and ethnic groups and subgroups. Asian (n = 630), Black/African American (n = 58), Hispanic (n = 240), multiethnic (n = 160), and White (n = 375) women completed the MEIM-R as part of the “Gestational diabetes’ Effect on Moms” diabetes prevention trial in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California health care setting (N = 1,463; M age 32.5 years, SD = 4.9). Multiple-groups confirmatory factor analyses provided provisional evidence of measurement invariance, i.e., an equal, correlated two-factor structure, equal factor loadings, and equal item intercepts across racial and ethnic groups. Latent factor means for the two MEIM-R subscales, exploration and commitment, differed across groups; effect sizes ranging from small to large generally supported the notion of ethnic identity as more salient among people of color. Pending replication, good psychometric properties in this large and diverse sample of women support the future use of the MEIM-R. Preliminary evidence of measurement invariance suggests that the MEIM-R could be used to measure and compare ethnic identity across multiple racial and ethnic groups. PMID:24188656

  10. Poverty, Ethnic Identity, and Health Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullough, Bonnie; Bullough, Vern L.

    This book tries to present the health care problems of the major ethnic minority groups in perspective. Although poverty is probably the most crucial variable in the genesis of these problems, there are still many subtle and not so subtle forms of discrimination operating in the health field. Unfortunately, discrimination in other aspects of…

  11. The development and validation of the Taiwanese Ethnic Identity Scale (TEIS): a "derived etic" approach.

    PubMed

    Tsai, G; Curbow, B

    2001-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to design a multidimensional measure of ethnic identity (EI) that would be appropriate for research on acculturating and modernizing cultural groups. Four qualitative approaches were utilized: in-depth interviews, free-listing exercise, card-sorting technique, and cognitive interviews. Qualitative interviews conducted with Taiwanese American subjects identified ten major domains related to EI. Fifty items were generated from the four qualitative approaches and the psychometric properties of the Taiwanese Ethnic Identity Scale (TEIS) were tested with two samples: 305 Taiwanese American (TA) and 354 Taiwanese (T) women. Factor analysis yielded a 26-item TEIS with six factors. The six factors and the percentage of variance accounted for by each factor were: rituals and traditions (22.8%), language (10.3%), family dynamics/good child (7.1%), parental opinion (6.0%), individualism (4.5%), and collectivism (4.5%). Components of content, construct, and known groups validity were assessed, as well as reliability.

  12. DIFFERENCES BY GENDER, ETHNICITY, AND ACCULTURATION IN THE EFFICACY OF THE keepin’ it REAL MODEL PREVENTION PROGRAM*

    PubMed Central

    KULIS, STEPHEN; YABIKU, SCOTT T.; MARSIGLIA, FLAVIO F.; NIERI, TANYA; CROSSMAN, ASHLEY

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether the efficacy of keepin’ it REAL, a model program for substance use prevention in schools, was moderated by gender, ethnicity, and acculturation. Gender differences in program efficacy may arise through boys’ higher risk of drug use, inadequate attention to girls’ developmental issues, or cultural factors like polarized gender expectations. Data came from a randomized trial in 35 Phoenix, Arizona, middle schools involving 4,622 mostly Latino 7th graders. Using multi-level mixed models and multiple imputation missing techniques, results for the total sample showed no gender differences in program effects on recent substance use, but the program was more effective in fostering boys’ than girls’ anti-drug norms. Subgroup analyses demonstrated several more beneficial program effects for boys than girls (less alcohol and cigarette use and stronger anti-drug norms), but only among less acculturated Latinos. There were no gender differences in program effects among more acculturated Latinos, nor among non-Latino whites. PMID:17977237

  13. Ethnic Identity and Reconciliation: Two Main Tasks for the Young in Bosnia-Herzegovina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hjort, Hanna; Frisen, Ann

    2006-01-01

    The saliency of ethnicity and ethnic identity is influenced by contextual circumstances. In Bosnia-Herzegovina, due to the current ethno-political situation, ethnicity and ethnic identity most likely are important aspects of adolescents' lives. The main purpose of this study is to describe a group of young Mostarians in relation to ethnic identity…

  14. Ethnicity and Acculturation: Influences on Asian American Consumers' Purchase Decision Making for Social Clothes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Jikyeong; Kim, Youn-Kyung

    1998-01-01

    Responses from 172 Chinese Americans, 185 Japanese Americans, and 144 Korean Americans revealed distinct reference group, media, and store attribute influences on clothing purchases. Patterns differed depending on degree of acculturation. (SK)

  15. Shades of American Identity: Implicit Relations between Ethnic and National Identities

    PubMed Central

    Devos, Thierry; Mohamed, Hafsa

    2015-01-01

    The issue of ethnic diversity and national identity in an immigrant nation such as the USA is a recurrent topic of debate. We review and integrate research examining the extent to which the American identity is implicitly granted or denied to members of different ethnic groups. Consistently, European Americans are implicitly conceived of as being more American than African, Asian, Latino, and even Native Americans. This implicit American = White effect emerges when explicit knowledge or perceptions point in the opposite direction. The propensity to deny the American identity to members of ethnic minorities is particularly pronounced when targets (individuals or groups) are construed through the lenses of ethnic identities. Implicit ethnic–national associations fluctuate as a function of perceivers’ ethnic identity and political orientation, but also contextual or situational factors. The tendency to equate being American with being White accounts for the strength of national identification (among European Americans) and behavioral responses including hiring recommendations and voting intentions. The robust propensity to deny the American identity to ethnic minority groups reflects an exclusionary national identity. PMID:27011765

  16. A Model of Asian and Pacific Islander Sexual Minority Acculturation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Adkins, Chris

    2009-01-01

    In the United States, the interplay of racism, sexism, and acculturation creates psychological and social stressors that may affect the development of positive ethnic/sexual identities among Asian and Pacific Islander (API) adolescents. This article proposes a new model of identity formation theory for API gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender…

  17. New Trends and Directions in Ethnic Identity among Internationally Transracially Adopted Persons: Summary of Special Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosnati, Rosa; Pinderhughes, Ellen E.; Baden, Amanda L.; Grotevant, Harold D.; Lee, Richard M.; Mohanty, Jayashree

    2015-01-01

    The collective findings of the six articles in this special issue highlight the importance of ethnic-racial socialization and ethnic identity among international transracial adoptees (ITRAs). A multidimensional developmental phenomenon, ethnic identity intersects with other identities, notably adoptive identity. Family, peers, community, and host…

  18. An Examination of Biracial College Youths’ Family Ethnic Socialization, Ethnic Identity, and Adjustment: Do Self-Identification Labels and University Context Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Brittian, Aerika S.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Derlan, Chelsea L.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined family ethnic socialization, ethnic identity, and adjustment among Latino/White and Asian/White biracial college students (n = 507), with special attention to how ethnic self-identification and university ethnic composition informed the ethnic identity process. Findings indicated that family ethnic socialization was positively related to participants’ ethnic identity exploration and resolution, but not ethnic identity affirmation. Furthermore, ethnic identity resolution and affirmation were associated with higher self-acceptance and self-esteem, and lower depressive symptoms. Importantly, university ethnic composition moderated the association between ethnic identity resolution and anxiety, such that resolution promoted adjustment in contexts that were relatively more ethnically diverse. University ethnic composition also moderated the association between ethnic identity affirmation and both self-esteem and self-acceptance, such that affirmation was associated with better adjustment but only in schools that were less ethnically diverse. PMID:22905967

  19. An examination of biracial college youths' family ethnic socialization, ethnic identity, and adjustment: do self-identification labels and university context matter?

    PubMed

    Brittian, Aerika S; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Derlan, Chelsea L

    2013-04-01

    This study examined family ethnic socialization, ethnic identity, and adjustment among Latino/White and Asian/White biracial college students (n = 507), with special attention to how ethnic self-identification and university ethnic composition informed the ethnic identity process. Findings indicated that family ethnic socialization was positively related to participants' ethnic identity exploration and resolution, but not ethnic identity affirmation. Furthermore, ethnic identity resolution and affirmation were associated with higher self-acceptance and self-esteem, and lower depressive symptoms. Importantly, university ethnic composition moderated the association between ethnic identity resolution and anxiety, such that resolution promoted adjustment in contexts that were relatively more ethnically diverse. University ethnic composition also moderated the association between ethnic identity affirmation and both self-esteem and self-acceptance, such that affirmation was associated with better adjustment but only in schools that were less ethnically diverse.

  20. Asian American Ethnic Options: How Cambodian Students Negotiate Ethnic Identities in a U.S. Urban School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chhuon, Vichet; Hudley, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Research suggests that Cambodian students often endure conflicting ethnic stereotypes from larger society and their school and communities. We examine the ways in which Cambodian youth negotiated their ethnic identities in response to these stereotypes and argue that Cambodian students adopted, rejected, and affirmed certain ethnic identities in…

  1. Citizenship, Education, and Identity: A Comparative Study of Ethnic Chinese in Korea and Ethnic Koreans in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Sheena

    2004-01-01

    The crux of this study lies in the consideration of the manner in which rights to citizenship are granted or denied, and in which the ensuing educational policy toward an ethnic minority influences identity formation. In this article the author first introduces a brief background of the two ethnic groups, ethnic Chinese in Korea and ethnic Koreans…

  2. The Moderating Role of Centrality on Associations between Ethnic Identity Affirmation and Ethnic Minority College Students' Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brittian, Aerika S.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Lee, Richard M.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Kim, Su Yeong; Weisskirch, Robert S.; Castillo, Linda G.; Whitbourne, Susan Krauss; Hurley, Eric A.; Huynh, Que-Lam; Brown, Elissa J.; Caraway, S. Jean

    2013-01-01

    Background: Prior literature has shown that ethnic affirmation, one aspect of ethnic identity, is positively associated with mental health. However, the associations between ethnic affirmation and mental health may vary depending how much importance individuals place on their ethnic group membership (ie, centrality). Methods: Using path analysis,…

  3. Beyond Race and Ethnicity: Exploring the Effects of Ethnic Identity and Its Implications for Cancer Communication Efforts.

    PubMed

    Hovick, Shelly R; Holt, Lanier F

    2016-01-01

    Within the health communication literature there has been an increased focus on the use of cultural and identity-based message tailoring to enhance the effectiveness of messages and interventions, particularly among minority and underserved populations. Although this approach may be promising, little is known about the effect of ethnic identity on health behaviors and beliefs or how the effects of ethnic identity differ from those of race or ethnicity. This study is among the first to explore relationships between ethnic identity and cancer-related risk factors, knowledge characteristics, and cognitive and affective appraisals. This study utilized a national online sample of Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics (N = 1,452). Higher ethnic identity was associated with increased physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake and decreased body mass index among Whites (p < .05). Higher ethnic identity was also associated with increased cancer risk knowledge (p < .05) but not cancer risk perceptions or self-efficacy (p > .05). Hispanics and Blacks with higher ethnic identity had greater cancer worry. Our results suggest that the effect of ethnic identity is often distinct from that of race/ethnicity and that health communication interventions based solely on race/ethnicity may not be as effective as those that also take ethnic identity into account.

  4. Integrating Identities: Ethnic and Academic Identities among Diverse College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Lovey H. M.; Syed, Moin

    2013-01-01

    Background/Context: Students of Color continue to be underrepresented at the undergraduate level. Recent research has demonstrated the importance of non-academic psychosocial factors for understanding college experiences. One factor, identity, is a broad, multidimensional construct that comprises numerous distinct domains, including political,…

  5. Levels of Acculturation of Chinese Older Adults in the Greater Chicago Area - The Population Study of Chinese Elderly in Chicago.

    PubMed

    Dong, XinQi; Bergren, Stephanie M; Chang, E-Shien

    2015-09-01

    Acculturation is a difficult process for minority older adults for a variety of reasons, including access and exposure to mainstream culture, competing ethnic identities, and linguistic ability and preference. There is a paucity of research regarding overall level of acculturation for Chinese older adults in the United States. This study aimed to provide an overall estimate of level of acculturation of Chinese older adults in the United States and to examine correlations between sociodemographic characteristics, self-reported health measures, and level of acculturation. Data were collected through the Population Study of Chinese Elderly in Chicago (PINE) study. This community-based participatory research study surveyed 3,159 Chinese older adults aged 60 and older. The PINE Study Acculturation Scale was used to assess level of acculturation in three dimensions: language preference, media use, and ethnic social relations. Mean acculturation level for all items was 15.3 ± 5.1, indicating low levels of acculturation. Older age, more offspring, lower income, fewer years living in the United States, lower overall health status, and lower quality of life were associated with lower levels of acculturation. Level of acculturation was low in Chinese older adults, and certain subsets of the population were more likely to have a lower level of acculturation. Future research should investigate causality and effects of level of acculturation.

  6. Prospective links between ethnic socialization, ethnic and American identity, and well-being among Asian-American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gartner, Meaghan; Kiang, Lisa; Supple, Andrew

    2014-10-01

    Ethnic socialization and ethnic identity have been related to positive outcomes, but little research has examined these associations longitudinally. This three-wave study prospectively linked socialization messages at Time 1, ethnic identity and American identity at Time 2, and self-esteem and depressive symptoms at Time 3 in 147 (58% female; 25% first-generation) Asian-American adolescents. The results indicated positive links between cultural socialization messages and ethnic and American identity, though the latter association was significant only for females. Ethnic identity was positively related to self-esteem, and mediated the positive effect of cultural socialization on self-esteem. The promotion of mistrust was positively linked to self-esteem and negatively related to ethnic identity, though this latter association was significant for foreign-born youth only. Our findings highlight the importance of elucidating prospective links in identity development, and examining gender and generational differences within them.

  7. Sociocultural and identity predictors of body dissatisfaction in ethnically diverse college women.

    PubMed

    Rakhkovskaya, Liya M; Warren, Cortney S

    2016-03-01

    Emerging research suggests that ethnic identity and American identity are associated with mental health in ethnic minorities and European Americans, respectively. Furthermore, although ethnic identity is associated with diminished body dissatisfaction in minority women, the relationship between American identity and body dissatisfaction is unexplored in all ethnic groups. Accordingly, this study examined the relationships among ethnic identity, American identity, thin-ideal internalization, pressures for thinness, and body dissatisfaction in 1018 ethnically diverse college women. Ethnic identity negatively predicted body dissatisfaction for African Americans, and attenuated the relationship between pressures for thinness and body dissatisfaction for African Americans and Asian Americans, but not European Americans or Latina Americans. Results for American identity were inconclusive. Findings suggest that ethnic identity may be a protective factor against eating pathology for Asian American and African American women.

  8. Ethnic Identity in Everyday Life: The Influence of Identity Development Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Tiffany

    2014-01-01

    The current study explores the intersection of ethnic identity development and significance in a sample of 354 diverse adolescents (mean age 14). Adolescents completed surveys five times a day for 1 week. Cluster analyses revealed four identity clusters: diffused, foreclosed, moratorium, and achieved. Achieved adolescents reported the highest…

  9. Family Cultural Socialization Practices and Ethnic Identity in College-Going Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juang, Linda; Syed, Moin

    2010-01-01

    We examined how family cultural socialization related to the ethnic identity of Asian American, Latino, White, and Mixed-Ethnic emerging adults (N = 225). Greater family cultural socialization was related to greater ethnic identity exploration and commitment. Ethnic minority students reported higher levels of family cultural socialization and…

  10. Japanese-American Acculturation, Counseling Style, Counselor Ethnicity, and Perceived Counselor Credibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Donald R.; Matsushita, Yoshiko J.

    1991-01-01

    Japanese Americans (N=68) completed acculturation scale and rated credibility and attractiveness of counselor in tape-recorded simulated counseling session. Bicultural participants rated counselor as more attractive than did Western-identified participants. Japanese-American counselor was rated as more attractive than white-American counselor when…

  11. Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' stressors and psychosocial functioning: examining ethnic identity affirmation and familism as moderators.

    PubMed

    Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Gonzales-Backen, Melinda A

    2011-02-01

    Mexican-origin adolescent mothers are at increased risk for poor psychosocial functioning as a result of various stressors with which they must contend; however, existing theory suggests that cultural strengths may help mitigate the negative effects of stress. As such, the current study examined the associations between cultural and economic stressors and Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' (N = 207; M age = 16.23 years, SD = 1.0) internalizing and externalizing behaviors, as well as the degree to which ethnic identity affirmation and familism values moderated these links. Adolescent mothers who reported higher levels of discrimination, acculturative stress, and economic stress also reported higher depressive symptoms and greater involvement in risky behaviors. Importantly, ethnic identity affirmation minimized the negative associations between cultural stressors and adolescents' involvement in risky behaviors, with the associations being weakest among adolescents with high levels of ethnic identity. Familism appeared to serve a protective function under conditions of low levels of discrimination, but not under conditions of high levels of discrimination. Findings are discussed with special attention to the developmental and cultural contexts in which these adolescent mothers' lives are embedded, and implications for future research and practice are presented.

  12. Peer Status in an Ethnic Context: Associations with African American Adolescents' Ethnic Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rock, Patrick F.; Cole, Daphne J.; Houshyar, Shadi; Lythcott, Mawiyah; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2011-01-01

    This investigation examined the association between ethnic identity centrality and peer status for African American adolescents who represented a sizable proportion, yet numerical minority within a high school context. Initial analyses indicated that a traditional sociometric nomination procedure did not adequately characterize peer status for…

  13. Nonsuicidal Self-Injury: Exploring the Connection among Race, Ethnic Identity, and Ethnic Belonging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wester, Kelly L.; Trepal, Heather C.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined race and ethnic identity in relation to nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). Participants included freshmen at 2 universities, who were predominantly female. Final inferential statistics examined differences across Caucasian, African American, Hispanic, Asian American, and Multiracial students, finding African Americans and Asian…

  14. Internalized Racism, Perceived Racism, and Ethnic Identity: Exploring Their Relationship in Latina/o Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hipolito-Delgado, Carlos P.

    2016-01-01

    For Latina/o undergraduates, ethnic identity is an important construct linked to self-esteem and educational attainment. Internalized and perceived racism have been hypothesized to hinder ethnic identity development in Latina/o undergraduates. To assess if internalized and perceived racism were inversely related to ethnic identity, the author…

  15. A two-factor model of ethnic identity exploration: Implications for identity coherence and well-being.

    PubMed

    Syed, Moin; Walker, Lovey H M; Lee, Richard M; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Zamboanga, Byron L; Schwartz, Seth J; Armenta, Brian E; Huynh, Que-Lam

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the multidimensional nature of ethnic identity exploration and its relevance for a broader sense of identity and well-being. Participants were 3,637 ethnic minority college students who completed survey measures of ethnic identity exploration, general identity coherence, general identity confusion, and well-being. Consistent with our 3 hypotheses, the results indicated that (a) ethnic identity exploration comprised 2 dimensions, participation and search; (b) participation was positively associated with well-being, whereas search was negatively associated with well-being; and (c) identity coherence and identity confusion mediated the associations between participation and search, respectively, and well-being. These findings have important theoretical implications for conceptualization and measurement of ethnic identity exploration and its association with well-being.

  16. Ethnic identity development and ethnic discrimination: examining longitudinal associations with adjustment for Mexican-origin adolescent mothers.

    PubMed

    Toomey, Russell B; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Jahromi, Laudan B

    2013-10-01

    Few studies examine normative developmental processes among teenage mothers. Framed from a risk and resilience perspective, this prospective study examined the potential for ethnic identity status (e.g., diffuse, achieved), a normative developmental task during adolescence, to buffer the detrimental effects of discrimination on later adjustment and self-esteem in a sample of 204 Mexican-origin adolescent mothers. Ethnic discrimination was associated with increases in depressive symptoms and decreases in self-esteem over time, regardless of ethnic identity status. However, ethnic discrimination was only associated with increases in engagement in risky behavior among diffuse adolescents, suggesting that achieved or foreclosed identities buffered the risk of ethnic discrimination on later risky behavior. Findings suggest that ethnic identity resolution (i.e., the component shared by those in foreclosed and achieved statuses) may be a key cultural factor to include in prevention and intervention efforts aimed to reduce the negative effects of ethnic discrimination on later externalizing problems.

  17. Ethnic identity development and ethnic discrimination: examining longitudinal associations with adjustment for Mexican-origin adolescent mothers.

    PubMed

    Toomey, Russell B; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Jahromi, Laudan B

    2013-10-01

    Few studies examine normative developmental processes among teenage mothers. Framed from a risk and resilience perspective, this prospective study examined the potential for ethnic identity status (e.g., diffuse, achieved), a normative developmental task during adolescence, to buffer the detrimental effects of discrimination on later adjustment and self-esteem in a sample of 204 Mexican-origin adolescent mothers. Ethnic discrimination was associated with increases in depressive symptoms and decreases in self-esteem over time, regardless of ethnic identity status. However, ethnic discrimination was only associated with increases in engagement in risky behavior among diffuse adolescents, suggesting that achieved or foreclosed identities buffered the risk of ethnic discrimination on later risky behavior. Findings suggest that ethnic identity resolution (i.e., the component shared by those in foreclosed and achieved statuses) may be a key cultural factor to include in prevention and intervention efforts aimed to reduce the negative effects of ethnic discrimination on later externalizing problems. PMID:24011098

  18. An exploration of ethnic, immigration and acculturation differences on tobacco smoking among public high school girls in Hawai'i.

    PubMed

    Pobutsky, Ann; St John, Tonya Lowery; Urabe, Chelsi N; Li, Fenfang; Johnson, Lila

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study explores the differences in ethnicity, sex, immigration (place of birth of student and parents), and acculturation (based on language spoken at home) on current cigarette smoking among public high school students in Hawai'i, and especially examine if this affected smoking among girls. Previous behavior risk surveys of youth in Hawai'i showed higher smoking rates among girls, although these were not found to be statistically significant differences. Multiple years of data were compiled from the Hawai'i Youth Tobacco Survey (YTS) for years 2005, 2007, 2009, and 2011, for a total sample size of N=5,527. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate the likelihood of current cigarette smoking (in the past 30 days) in relation to a variety of factors. The analysis revealed that Hawai'i-specific ethnicity, grade, and sex were all significant predictors of smoking. Girls whose mothers were born in Hawai'i or in another United States state were more likely to smoke than those whose mothers were born in a foreign country. The model showed girls were more likely to smoke than boys. Eleventh and twelfth graders were more likely to smoke than ninth graders. Whites, Filipinos, Native Hawaiians, Pacific Islanders, and Other ethnic groups were more likely to smoke than those who identified themselves as Japanese. PMID:24470981

  19. An exploration of ethnic, immigration and acculturation differences on tobacco smoking among public high school girls in Hawai'i.

    PubMed

    Pobutsky, Ann; St John, Tonya Lowery; Urabe, Chelsi N; Li, Fenfang; Johnson, Lila

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study explores the differences in ethnicity, sex, immigration (place of birth of student and parents), and acculturation (based on language spoken at home) on current cigarette smoking among public high school students in Hawai'i, and especially examine if this affected smoking among girls. Previous behavior risk surveys of youth in Hawai'i showed higher smoking rates among girls, although these were not found to be statistically significant differences. Multiple years of data were compiled from the Hawai'i Youth Tobacco Survey (YTS) for years 2005, 2007, 2009, and 2011, for a total sample size of N=5,527. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate the likelihood of current cigarette smoking (in the past 30 days) in relation to a variety of factors. The analysis revealed that Hawai'i-specific ethnicity, grade, and sex were all significant predictors of smoking. Girls whose mothers were born in Hawai'i or in another United States state were more likely to smoke than those whose mothers were born in a foreign country. The model showed girls were more likely to smoke than boys. Eleventh and twelfth graders were more likely to smoke than ninth graders. Whites, Filipinos, Native Hawaiians, Pacific Islanders, and Other ethnic groups were more likely to smoke than those who identified themselves as Japanese.

  20. The impact of ethnic identity on changes in high risk HIV behaviors in sexually active migrant workers.

    PubMed

    Shehadeh, Nancy; Virginia McCoy, H; Rubens, Muni; Batra, Anamica; Renfrew, Roderick; Winter, Kelly

    2012-02-01

    Among migrant workers (MWs) in the US, HIV/AIDS prevalence may be as high as 13.5%. This serial cross-sectional study examines associations between Ethnic Identity (EI) in African American and Hispanic MWs and short-term changes in high-risk sexual behaviors. Baseline and 3-month follow-up data was collected from a larger HIV intervention study among MWs in Immokalee, Florida (n = 119) who reported unprotected sex in the past 30 days. The Multigroup Identity Measure was used to assess EI. A high EI score indicates less acculturation to one's new surroundings. Females had higher levels of positive behavior change. Lower EI was associated with higher levels of positive change in relation to HIV/AIDS risk behavior. Among Hispanics, education was negatively correlated with EI. Education was a predictor of behavior change. Future interventions should focus on reducing acculturation stress, which may prompt harmful coping behaviors, such as high-risk sex and substance abuse.

  1. "American" or "Multiethnic"? Family Ethnic Identity among Transracial Adoptive Families, Ethnic-Racial Socialization, and Children's Self-Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinderhughes, Ellen E.; Zhang, Xian; Agerbak, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on a model of ethnic-racial socialization (E-RS; Pinderhughes, 2013), this study examined hypothesized relations among parents' role variables (family ethnic identity and acknowledgment of cultural and racial differences), cultural socialization (CS) behaviors, and children's self-perceptions (ethnic self-label and feelings about…

  2. Dietary intakes of preschool-aged children in relation to caregivers' race/ethnicity, acculturation, and demographic characteristics: results from the 2007 California Health Interview Survey.

    PubMed

    Erinosho, Temitope O; Berrigan, David; Thompson, Frances E; Moser, Richard P; Nebeling, Linda C; Yaroch, Amy L

    2012-12-01

    Few studies have examined the influence of acculturation on dietary behaviors of young children while controlling for other demographic variables. The purpose of this study was to assess reported dietary intakes of preschool-aged children (3-5 years) and subsequent associations with caregivers' race/ethnicity, acculturation and demographic characteristics, using data from the 2007 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS). Analysis was restricted to Hispanic and non-Hispanic white caregivers and their preschool-aged children (n = 1,105). Caregivers' acculturation was assessed using place of birth, duration of United States residence, and language spoken at home. Proxy-reports by caregivers to a dietary screener were used to estimate children's intakes of fruit, 100% fruit juice, vegetables, sweets, and sugar-sweetened beverages consumed. In multivariate analyses, Hispanic caregivers reported their children consumed fewer servings of vegetables than did the children of non-Hispanic white caregivers; there were no other statistically significant differences in children's dietary intakes by caregivers' race/ethnicity. Caregivers' acculturation was associated with caregiver-reported consumption of sweets by children (β = 0.09, 95%CI = 0.01-0.18). Demographic characteristics that were associated with reported dietary intakes of children included caregivers' age, education, and geographic region of residence. In contrast to past studies of acculturation and diet in older children and adults, this study suggests that for 3-5 year olds, caregivers' level of acculturation does not play as strong a role in the dietary intakes of the younger children under their care.

  3. Acculturation and Communicative Mobility Among Former Soviet Nationalities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haarmann, Harald; Holman, Eugene

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the strategies that the former Soviet states are evolving to balance the interests of dominant ethnic groups with those of linguistic minorities while constructing a national identity, highlighting language policy in action and focusing on acculturation processes and geographic mobility among groups. A case study of Estonia is also…

  4. Latino Adolescents' Ethnic Identity: Is There a Developmental Progression and Does Growth in Ethnic Identity Predict Growth in Self-Esteem?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Gonzales-Backen, Melinda A.; Guimond, Amy B.

    2009-01-01

    The current longitudinal study of 323 Latino adolescents (50.5% male; M age = 15.31 years) examined whether ethnic identity exploration, resolution, and affirmation demonstrated significant growth over a 4-year period and whether growth in ethnic identity predicted growth in self-esteem. Findings from multiple-group latent growth curve models…

  5. Examining the Role of Physical Appearance in Latino Adolescents' Ethnic Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales-Backen, Melinda A.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.

    2011-01-01

    Guided by ecological theory, the current study examined physical appearance as a moderator of the relation between familial ethnic socialization (FES) and ethnic identity among 167 Latino adolescents. Results indicated that FES was positively associated with ethnic identity exploration and resolution. Furthermore, as expected, physical appearance…

  6. Examining Ethnic Identity among Mexican-Origin Adolescents Living in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Fine, Mark A.

    2004-01-01

    This study used structural equation modeling to test a model of ethnic identity development among 513 Mexican-origin adolescents living in the United States. The model examined the influence of ecological factors, familial ethnic socialization, and autonomy on adolescents' ethnic identity achievement. Findings indicated that lower percentages of…

  7. Resilience against Discrimination: Ethnic Identity and Other-Group Orientation as Protective Factors for Korean Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Richard M.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the resilience of 84 Korean American college students in the context of perceived ethnic discrimination. Two cultural resources, multidimensional ethnic identity and other-group orientation, were hypothesized as protective factors that moderate the negative effects of discrimination. Only 1 aspect of ethnic identity was…

  8. When acculturation hurts: the case of immunization.

    PubMed

    Prislin, R; Suarez, L; Simpson, D M; Simspon, D M; Dyer, J A

    1998-12-01

    The study examined the relationship between the acculturation of Mexican American mothers in Texas and immunization status of their children between 3 and 24 months of age. Mothers' acculturation, demographic characteristics, and immunization status of their children were assessed in in-person interviews with a sample of Mexican American respondents representative for Texas (n = 2193). Acculturation was measured with ten scales assessing oral and written language use, proficiency, and preference, music and TV viewing preferences, ethnic identity, place where a person was reared, and contacts with Mexico. Immunization status, defined according to the recommendation of the CDC Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, was determined from official shot records obtained directly from respondents or, for respondents without records, obtained from their health care providers. Regression analysis revealed that acculturation significantly contributed to inadequate immunization status, even when socioeconomic status and other demographic covariates of acculturation were statistically controlled. Mediational analysis revealed that acculturation contributed to inadequate immunization through less positive attitudes toward immunization, a diminished sense of parental responsibility for children's immunization, and more perceived barriers to immunization. It is concluded that culture-specific beliefs encouraging childhood immunization should be fostered among Mexican Americans.

  9. Ethnic Identity and Power: Cultural Contexts of Political Action in School and Society. SUNY Series, Power, Social Identity, and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zou, Yali, Ed.; Trueba, Enrique T., Ed.

    The essays in this collection provide insights into the dilemmas faced by immigrants and ethnic minorities and by school personnel and policy makers. The first part of the book consists of comparative studies of ethnic identity, and the second part focuses on some lessons learned from studies of ethnic identification and equity, with implications…

  10. Ethnic Discrimination, Acculturative Stress, and Family Conflict as Predictors of Depressive Symptoms and Cigarette Smoking Among Latina/o Youth: The Mediating Role of Perceived Stress.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Unger, Jennifer B

    2015-10-01

    Latino youth can experience a range of cultural (i.e., ethnic discrimination and acculturative stress) and familial (i.e. family conflict) risk factors that can contribute to their perceived stress, thereby increasing their risk for depressive symptoms and cigarette smoking. To understand the mechanisms by which ethnic discrimination, acculturative stress and family conflict influence the risk for depressive symptoms and cigarette smoking of youth, the current study investigated the mediating role of perceived stress in these associations. The data came from a longitudinal study of acculturation and substance use with 1919 Latino adolescents (52% female; 84% 14 year-olds; 87% U.S. born). Structural equation modeling indicated that discrimination and family conflict (Time 1) related with higher perceived stress (Time 2), which, in turn, related with more depressive symptoms and smoking (Time 3). The results suggest that perceived stress might be one mechanism by which ethnic discrimination and family conflict contribute to Latino youth symptoms of depression and cigarette smoking. The findings highlight the need for prevention and intervention strategies that help youth manage their general perceived stress and/or focus on stress reduction techniques.

  11. Ethnic Discrimination, Acculturative Stress, and Family Conflict as Predictors of Depressive Symptoms and Cigarette Smoking Among Latina/o Youth: The Mediating Role of Perceived Stress.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Unger, Jennifer B

    2015-10-01

    Latino youth can experience a range of cultural (i.e., ethnic discrimination and acculturative stress) and familial (i.e. family conflict) risk factors that can contribute to their perceived stress, thereby increasing their risk for depressive symptoms and cigarette smoking. To understand the mechanisms by which ethnic discrimination, acculturative stress and family conflict influence the risk for depressive symptoms and cigarette smoking of youth, the current study investigated the mediating role of perceived stress in these associations. The data came from a longitudinal study of acculturation and substance use with 1919 Latino adolescents (52% female; 84% 14 year-olds; 87% U.S. born). Structural equation modeling indicated that discrimination and family conflict (Time 1) related with higher perceived stress (Time 2), which, in turn, related with more depressive symptoms and smoking (Time 3). The results suggest that perceived stress might be one mechanism by which ethnic discrimination and family conflict contribute to Latino youth symptoms of depression and cigarette smoking. The findings highlight the need for prevention and intervention strategies that help youth manage their general perceived stress and/or focus on stress reduction techniques. PMID:26294041

  12. Ethnic Identity as a Moderator against Discrimination for Transracially and Transnationally Adopted Korean American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joyce P.; Lee, Richard M.; Hu, Alison W.; Kim, Oh Myo

    2014-01-01

    Despite the growing practice of international adoption over the past 60 years, the racial and ethnic experiences of adopted youth are not well known. This study examined the moderating role of ethnic identity in the association between racial/ethnic discrimination and adjustment among transracially, transnationally adopted Korean American adolescents (N = 136). Building on self-categorization theory and past empirical research on Asian Americans, it was hypothesized that ethnic identity would exacerbate negative outcomes associated with discrimination. The moderating role of ethnic identity was found to vary by specific ethnic identity dimensions. For individuals with more pride in their ethnic group (affective dimension of ethnic identity), discrimination was positively associated with externalizing problems. For individuals with greater engagement with their ethnic group (behavioral dimension of ethnic identity), discrimination was positively associated with substance use. By contrast, clarity regarding the meaning and importance of one’s ethnic group (cognitive dimension of ethnic identity) did not moderate the relationship between discrimination and negative outcomes. PMID:26273427

  13. Transracial adoptees bridging heritage and national cultures: Parental socialisation, ethnic identity and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Laura; Ranieri, Sonia; Barni, Daniela; Rosnati, Rosa

    2015-12-01

    Transracial adoptees represent a specific group of immigrants who experience unique immigration processes that bring them face-to-face with two cultural backgrounds: that of their heritage culture on one hand and that of their national culture on the other hand. However, there is a scarcity of studies focused on the way these processes unfold within adoptive families. This study was aimed at exploring how transracial adoptees cope with the construction of their ethnic identity. Administering a self-report questionnaire to 127 transracial adoptees and their mothers, for a total of 254 participants, we first investigated the association between mothers' cultural socialisation (enculturation and preparation for bias strategies) and adoptees' ethnic identity (i.e. ethnic identity exploration and ethnic identity affirmation dimensions). We then investigated whether ethnic identity affects self-esteem by testing the hypothesis that national identity moderates the relationship between ethnic identity and self-esteem. Results revealed that mothers' enculturation (but not their preparation for bias) supported adoptees' ethnic identity exploration, which in turn was positively associated with ethnic identity affirmation. Moreover, we confirmed the moderation effect: ethnic identity affirmation enhanced the level of self-esteem, but only for those adoptees who perceived a higher degree of national identity affirmation.

  14. Transracial adoptees bridging heritage and national cultures: Parental socialisation, ethnic identity and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Laura; Ranieri, Sonia; Barni, Daniela; Rosnati, Rosa

    2015-12-01

    Transracial adoptees represent a specific group of immigrants who experience unique immigration processes that bring them face-to-face with two cultural backgrounds: that of their heritage culture on one hand and that of their national culture on the other hand. However, there is a scarcity of studies focused on the way these processes unfold within adoptive families. This study was aimed at exploring how transracial adoptees cope with the construction of their ethnic identity. Administering a self-report questionnaire to 127 transracial adoptees and their mothers, for a total of 254 participants, we first investigated the association between mothers' cultural socialisation (enculturation and preparation for bias strategies) and adoptees' ethnic identity (i.e. ethnic identity exploration and ethnic identity affirmation dimensions). We then investigated whether ethnic identity affects self-esteem by testing the hypothesis that national identity moderates the relationship between ethnic identity and self-esteem. Results revealed that mothers' enculturation (but not their preparation for bias) supported adoptees' ethnic identity exploration, which in turn was positively associated with ethnic identity affirmation. Moreover, we confirmed the moderation effect: ethnic identity affirmation enhanced the level of self-esteem, but only for those adoptees who perceived a higher degree of national identity affirmation. PMID:26264672

  15. In the eyes of the beholder: National identification predicts differential reactions to ethnic identity expressions.

    PubMed

    Yogeeswaran, Kumar; Adelman, Levi; Parker, Michael T; Dasgupta, Nilanjana

    2014-07-01

    Two studies examined how perceivers' national identification influences their implicit and explicit attitudes toward White and non-White ethnic groups whose members express their ethnic identity overtly in public or discreetly in private spaces. Results revealed that at a conscious level, White American perceivers' national identification elicited more negative attitudes toward both White and non-White ethnic groups when members embraced their ethnic heritage in public rather than in private. However, at an unconscious level, White perceivers' identification with the national group led to less favorable attitudes toward non-White ethnic groups, but not White ethnic groups, when their group members embraced ethnic identity in public. By integrating research on national identification, ethnic identity expression, and prejudice, the present research highlights some conditions under which majority group members' national identification affects how they perceive ethnic subgroups within the nation.

  16. "We Are in This Together": Common Group Identity Predicts Majority Members' Active Acculturation Efforts to Integrate Immigrants.

    PubMed

    Kunst, Jonas R; Thomsen, Lotte; Sam, David L; Berry, John W

    2015-10-01

    Although integration involves a process of mutual accommodation, the role of majority groups is often downplayed to passive tolerance, leaving immigrants with the sole responsibility for active integration. However, we show that common group identity can actively involve majority members in this process across five studies. Study 1 showed that common identity positively predicted support of integration efforts; Studies 2 and 3 extended these findings, showing that it also predicted real behavior such as monetary donations and volunteering. A decrease in modern racism mediated the relations across these studies, and Studies 4 and 5 further demonstrated that it indeed mediated these effects over and above acculturation expectations and color-blindness, which somewhat compromised integration efforts. Moreover, the last two studies also demonstrated that common, but not dual, groups motivated integration efforts. Common identity appears crucial for securing majorities' altruistic efforts to integrate immigrants and, thus, for achieving functional multiculturalism.

  17. Ethnic Identity, Gender, and Adolescent Attitude toward School: Adaptive Perspectives in Diverse Settings

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Margaret Zoller; Curran, Erin M.; Frey, Christopher J.; Gerard, Jean M.; Collet, Bruce; Bartimole, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The relationships between adolescent ethnic identity and attitudes toward school and school climate are investigated in a small, multiracial/multiethnic city in the Great Lakes region with ethnically diverse adolescents taught by primarily White teachers. The mixed methods investigation of 986 eighth through eleventh grade students during the 2010–2011 academic year suggests that the relationship between ethnic identity and attitude toward school is a complex interaction among individual characteristics of ethnicity/race, ethnic identity, gender, and ecological context. Quantitative results reveal that White female and Hispanic and African American male students exhibit strong ethnic identity that correlates positively with school attitude; however, qualitative results indicate very different paths in getting to those outcomes. Hispanic students appear to benefit from a strong ethnic identity that assists with positive relationships at school, while African American male students utilize parental cultural socialization as a protective function in school. The results emphasize the implications of positive school climates for all students. PMID:25866457

  18. Ethnic identity and racial attitudes in a minority group of mixed racial origin.

    PubMed

    Smith, Timothy B; Stratton, Joy; Stones, Christopher R; Naidoo, Anthony

    2003-02-01

    Limited information exists on the racial attitudes and ethnic identities of groups of mixed racial origin. The present research tested the hypotheses that the construct of ethnic identity is valid among such groups and that ethnic identity is related to out-group prejudice, as predicted by social identity theory. The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure, the Anti-White Scale, and the Subtle Racism Scale were administered to 70 South Africans of mixed racial descent, the so-called Coloureds. A factor analysis supported the structural validity of the 12-item measure of ethnic identity with this sample, but correlations between scales did not support the prediction that group identity would be positively associated with out-group prejudice. Group identity was positively related .27 to positive attitudes toward Whites consistent with the tenets of social dominance theory.

  19. 29 CFR 1602.13 - Records as to racial or ethnic identity of employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Records as to racial or ethnic identity of employees. 1602... Employers § 1602.13 Records as to racial or ethnic identity of employees. Employers may acquire the... force, or at their option, by the maintenance of post-employment records as to the identity of...

  20. 29 CFR 1602.13 - Records as to racial or ethnic identity of employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Records as to racial or ethnic identity of employees. 1602... Employers § 1602.13 Records as to racial or ethnic identity of employees. Employers may acquire the... force, or at their option, by the maintenance of post-employment records as to the identity of...

  1. 29 CFR 1602.13 - Records as to racial or ethnic identity of employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Records as to racial or ethnic identity of employees. 1602... Employers § 1602.13 Records as to racial or ethnic identity of employees. Employers may acquire the... force, or at their option, by the maintenance of post-employment records as to the identity of...

  2. 29 CFR 1602.13 - Records as to racial or ethnic identity of employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Records as to racial or ethnic identity of employees. 1602... Employers § 1602.13 Records as to racial or ethnic identity of employees. Employers may acquire the... force, or at their option, by the maintenance of post-employment records as to the identity of...

  3. Implications of adolescents' acculturation strategies for personal and collective self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Giang, Michael T; Wittig, Michele A

    2006-10-01

    Berry, Trimble, and Olmedo's (1986) acculturation model was used to investigate the relationship among adolescents' acculturation strategies, personal self-esteem, and collective self-esteem. Using data from 427 high school students, factor analysis results distinguished Collective Self-esteem Scale constructs (Luhtanen & Crocker, 1992) from both ethnic identity and outgroup orientation subscales of the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (Phinney, 1992). Subsequent results showed that: 1) both acculturation dimensions were correlated with personal and collective self-esteems, 2) integrationists shared similar levels of personal and collective self-esteems with assimilationists and/or separationists, and 3) marginalizationists generally had the lowest levels of personal and collective self-esteems. Implications are drawn for understanding acculturation among adolescents and for the utility of group-level measures of self-esteem. PMID:17087532

  4. Implications of Adolescents’ Acculturation Strategies for Personal and Collective Self-esteem

    PubMed Central

    Giang, Michael T.; Wittig, Michele A.

    2008-01-01

    Berry, Trimble, and Olmedo’s (1986) acculturation model was used to investigate the relationship among adolescents’ acculturation strategies, personal self-esteem, and collective self-esteem. Using data from 427 high school students, factor analysis results distinguished Collective Self-esteem Scale constructs (Luhtanen & Crocker, 1992) from both ethnic identity and outgroup orientation subscales of the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (Phinney, 1992). Subsequent results showed that: 1) both acculturation dimensions were correlated with personal and collective self-esteems, 2) integrationists shared similar levels of personal and collective self-esteems with assimilationists and/or separationists, and 3) marginalizationists generally had the lowest levels of personal and collective self-esteems. Implications are drawn for understanding acculturation among adolescents and for the utility of group-level measures of self-esteem. PMID:17087532

  5. Risky sexual behaviors: The role of ethnic identity in HIV risk in migrant workers.

    PubMed

    Shehadeh, Nancy; McCoy, H Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Migrant workers have been shown to be at a heightened level of risk for HIV, and ethnic identity has been posited to have an impact on engagement in risky sexual behaviors. Our longitudinal study examined associations between baseline and short-term changes in ethnic identity and high-risk sexual behaviors. Baseline (n = 431) and 6-month assessment (n = 270) data were obtained from a larger HIV prevention study conducted among African American and Hispanic migrant workers. Repeated-measures multivariate analysis of covariance and multiple linear regressions were used. Ethnic identity explore, a subscale of ethnic identity, was a significant predictor of overall sexual risk [F(8, 422) = 6.953, p < .001] and unprotected vaginal acts [F(8, 422) = 8.444, p < .001] at baseline. However, ethnic identity had no bearing on changes in risky sexual behaviors. Ethnic identity explore was associated with safer sexual behaviors.

  6. An examination of ethnic identity and self-esteem with diverse populations: exploring variation by ethnicity and geography.

    PubMed

    Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Shin, Nana

    2007-04-01

    The current study examined the relationships among ethnic identity and self-esteem across multiple ethnic groups within two distinct geographical locations (N = 1,344). In the current study, for same ethnic group members, the components of ethnic identity (i.e., exploration, resolution, and affirmation) were differentially related to self-esteem based on geographical context. Furthermore, within each geographical context, the strength of the relation between each ethnic identity component and self-esteem varied based on group membership, suggesting that the variables may be more or less influential on self-esteem depending on one's group membership. Based on these results, the exploration and resolution subscales of the Ethnic Identity scale (EIS) appear to be valid and reliable with diverse samples, whereas support for the affirmation subscale of the EIS is more tenuous. Finally, these findings suggest that ethnic identity may have varying salience and meaning for same ethnic group members in different geographical contexts (e.g., Asian Americans in California vs. Asian Americans in the Midwest). PMID:17500607

  7. An examination of ethnic identity and self-esteem with diverse populations: exploring variation by ethnicity and geography.

    PubMed

    Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Shin, Nana

    2007-04-01

    The current study examined the relationships among ethnic identity and self-esteem across multiple ethnic groups within two distinct geographical locations (N = 1,344). In the current study, for same ethnic group members, the components of ethnic identity (i.e., exploration, resolution, and affirmation) were differentially related to self-esteem based on geographical context. Furthermore, within each geographical context, the strength of the relation between each ethnic identity component and self-esteem varied based on group membership, suggesting that the variables may be more or less influential on self-esteem depending on one's group membership. Based on these results, the exploration and resolution subscales of the Ethnic Identity scale (EIS) appear to be valid and reliable with diverse samples, whereas support for the affirmation subscale of the EIS is more tenuous. Finally, these findings suggest that ethnic identity may have varying salience and meaning for same ethnic group members in different geographical contexts (e.g., Asian Americans in California vs. Asian Americans in the Midwest).

  8. Ethnic differences in endorsement of the Protestant work ethic: the role of ethnic identity and perceptions of social class.

    PubMed

    Cokley, Kevin; Komarraju, Meera; Pickett, Rachel; Shen, Frances; Patel, Nima; Belur, Vinetha

    2007-02-01

    The authors examined ethnic differences in endorsement of the Protestant work ethic (PWE; M. Weber, 1905) among Black (n = 96) and White (n = 149) college students and tested whether differences in ethnic identity and perceptions of social class mediated the relationship between ethnicity and the endorsement of PWE values. Blacks were higher in levels of ethnic identity, more likely to see themselves as working or middle class, and less likely to endorse the PWE. Only perceptions of social class partially mediated the relationship between ethnicity and PWE values. The authors concluded that perception of social class is an important construct that might influence the cultural psychology of different ethnic groups. The authors recommended further research involving PWE and other cultural variables.

  9. Ethnic identity, intergroup contact, and outgroup orientation among diverse groups of adolescents on the Internet.

    PubMed

    Tynes, Brendesha M; Giang, Michael T; Thompson, Geneene N

    2008-08-01

    The relationship among adolescents' (N = 228) ethnic identity, outgroup orientation, and online intergroup experiences was examined across three groups: European Americans, ethnic minorities (i.e., Latino and African Americans), and multiracials. Similar to previous studies, ethnic minorities reported significantly higher ethnic identity than European Americans and multiracials. Although outgroup orientation did not differ among ethnic groups, European Americans reported that they had more online intergroup contact than the other ethnic groups; greater intergroup contact was also related to higher outgroup orientation for this group. These results show that ethnic identity remains stronger for ethnic minorities, but intergroup interaction has become a salient and influential aspect of the online experience for European Americans. Implications are drawn for understanding and improving online and offline intergroup relations.

  10. The association between family meals and early-adolescents' weight status change in the context of parental discipline practices: the moderating roles of ethnicity and acculturation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yiting; Halgunseth, Linda C

    2015-04-01

    This study examines the interactions among family meals, parental discipline practices, ethnicity, and acculturation on weight status change in a diverse sample of early-adolescents. Data were obtained from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K), a nationally representative sample of children who entered kindergarten during 1998-1999. In fifth grade, parents reported on child and household routines. In fifth and eighth grade, children were weighed and measured at school. Above and beyond covariates, less acculturated Hispanic adolescents who ate more family meals and experienced low parental behavioral control in fifth grade were less likely to make a healthy change (γ = -0.15, OR = 0.86, p < 0.05) and more likely to make an unhealthy change (γ = 0.32, OR = 1.38, p < 0.05) in their weight status by eighth grade, when compared to White Non-Hispanic adolescents. The implications of interactions among family meals, parental discipline practices, and healthy weight promotion are discussed in the context of ethnicity and acculturation. PMID:25138136

  11. The Protective Influence of Family Connectedness, Ethnic Identity, and Ethnic Engagement for New Zealand Ma¯ori Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Jaimee; Jose, Paul E.

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the associations among family connectedness, ethnic identity, and ethnic engagement on changes in well-being over time for the understudied population of Ma¯ori (indigenous New Zealand) youth. Data were collected as part of a longitudinal study of youth connectedness in New Zealand using self-report measures at 3…

  12. Negotiating Ethnic Identity in Canada: The Case of the "Satellite Children."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsang, A. Ka Tat; Irving, Howard; Alaggia, Ramona; Chau, Shirley B. Y.; Benjamin, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Examined the concept of ethnic identity through the experience of Canada's satellite children (children of ethnically Chinese immigrants to North America who have returned to their country of origin after immigration). Interviews with 68 adolescent satellite children highlighted multiple ways of ethnic negotiation, ranging from an essentialist…

  13. Experiences and Beliefs as Predictors of Ethnic Identity and Intergroup Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Margaret O'Dougherty; Littleford, Linh Nguyen

    2002-01-01

    Factors affecting ethnic identity and other group orientation were assessed in 115 college students from 5 ethnic groups. Ethnic group self-identification, negative and positive interracial experiences, perceptions of racial bias, social support, just-world beliefs, and psychological distress were each associated with various components of ethnic…

  14. The Ebb and Flow of Ethnicity: Constructing Identity in Varied School Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Ann Locke; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examines the effects of ethnicity on students, discussing how the meaning and practice of ethnic identity are shaped by school experiences. The article suggests ethnicity is negotiated across time and social situations, rather than solely from group membership. Daily social interaction mediates and reshapes institutionally produced social or…

  15. Influences on Adolescent African American Females' Global Self-Esteem: Body Image and Ethnic Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnage, Barbara F.

    2004-01-01

    This study of 105 senior high school Southern African American adolescent females examined the relationship between global self-esteem, appearance evaluation (body image), and ethnic identity. As predicted, the relationship between global self-esteem, appearance evaluation (r = 0.46, p less than 0.001), and ethnic identity (r = 40, p less than…

  16. Examining the Perceived Role of Teachers' Ethnic Identity, Empathy, and Multicultural Sensitivity on Teacher Burnout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Alex Clement

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between ethnic identity, emotional empathy, multicultural sensitivity and dimensions of burnout among schoolteachers working with students from diverse ethnic groups. Based on the self-stereotyping principles and tendencies for ingroup favoritism of social identity approaches, it was hypothesized that…

  17. Ethnic Identity and Offending Trajectories among Mexican American Juvenile Offenders: Gang Membership and Psychosocial Maturity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, George P.; Losoya, Sandra H.; Cho, Young Il; Chassin, Laurie; Williams, Joanna Lee; Cota-Robles, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    We examined the association of joint trajectories of ethnic identity and criminal offending to psychosocial maturity, gang membership, and Mexican American affiliation among 300 Mexican American male juvenile offenders from ages 14 to 22. There were two low-offending groups: one was the highest in ethnic identity and changing slightly with age and…

  18. Beyond Affirmation: How the School Context Facilitates Racial/Ethnic Identity among Mexican American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Rosemary

    2009-01-01

    Identity development is a dynamic process which involves reconciling multiple messages. While ethnic minority adolescents' development is affected profoundly by discrimination, positive racial/ethnic encounters can also transform one's identity. Questionnaire data were gathered from 122 tenth-grade Mexican Americans in a low-performing school that…

  19. Ethnic Identity and Social-Cognitive Maturity in a Multicultural Group Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jennifer M.; Lambie, Glenn W.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined a multicultural group experience on students' ("N"= 94) ethnic identity development and social-cognitive maturity. Although no differences were identified between treatment and comparison group participants, group therapeutic factors scores were predictive of ethnic identity development and social-cognitive…

  20. Enculturation of Korean American Adolescents within Familial and Cultural Contexts: The Mediating Role of Ethnic Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim Park, Irene J.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to test a socialization model in which ethnic identity mediated the relationship between 3 domains of family processes and 1 key aspect of enculturation: native language fluency. Data from a sample of 112 Korean American adolescents living in the Midwest revealed that adolescent ethnic identity partially…

  1. A Longitudinal Examination of Latino Adolescents' Ethnic Identity, Coping with Discrimination, and Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Vargas-Chanes, Delfino; Garcia, Cristal D.; Gonzales-Backen, Melinda

    2008-01-01

    The current longitudinal study tested the premise that Latino adolescents' (N = 323) proactive coping with discrimination would mediate the relationship between ethnic identity and self-esteem. Each component of ethnic identity (i.e., exploration, resolution, and affirmation) was positively associated with concurrent assessments of adolescents'…

  2. Ethnic and Racial Identity during Adolescence and into Young Adulthood: An Integrated Conceptualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Quintana, Stephen M.; Lee, Richard M.; Cross, William E., Jr.; Rivas-Drake, Deborah; Schwartz, Seth J.; Syed, Moin; Yip, Tiffany; Seaton, Eleanor

    2014-01-01

    Although ethnic and racial identity (ERI) are central to the normative development of youth of color, there have been few efforts to bring scholars together to discuss the theoretical complexities of these constructs and provide a synthesis of existing work. The Ethnic and Racial Identity in the 21st Century Study Group was assembled for this…

  3. Ethnic Identity, Sense of Community, and Psychological Well-Being among Northern Plains American Indian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenyon, DenYelle Baete; Carter, Jessica S.

    2011-01-01

    Limited research has examined how ethnic identity and sense of community may be associated with psychological well-being in American Indian adolescents. Via survey data, we examined the relationships among ethnic identity, sense of community, psychosomatic symptoms, positive affect, and feelings of depression with students from a tribal high…

  4. Factors Influencing the Ethnic Identity Development of Latino Fraternity Members at a Hispanic Serving Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guardia, Juan R.; Evans, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    Higher education scholars have examined Latino/a student experiences and ethnic identity, yet there is no research describing the ethnic identity development of Latino fraternity members at a Hispanic Serving Institution (HSI). The purpose of this phenomenological study was to understand how membership in a Latino fraternity at an HSI enhanced…

  5. The Relationships of Personal and Ethnic Identity Exploration to Indices of Adaptive and Maladaptive Psychosocial Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Weisskirch, Robert S.; Rodriguez, Liliana

    2009-01-01

    Identity exploration has often been associated with maladaptive aspects of psychosocial functioning such as anxiety and depression. It is not known, however, whether maladaptive psychosocial functioning is related to both personal and ethnic identity exploration. In the present study, we examined the relationships of personal and ethnic identity…

  6. National, Ethnic or Civic? Contesting Paradigms of Memory, Identity and Culture in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ram, Uri

    2000-01-01

    States that Zionist national identity in Israel today is split between a liberal, secular, Post-Zionist civic identity and an ethnic, religious, Neo-Zionist nationalistic identity. Describes the historical underpinnings of the two mutually antagonistic identities and reflects upon how each affects the perceptions of the boundaries of the…

  7. Heritage language fluency, ethnic identity, and school effort of immigrant Chinese and Mexico adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su Yeong; Chao, Ruth K

    2009-01-01

    The assumption that heritage language fluency is an essential component of ethnic identity, and that both factors are important predictors of school effort, was tested across two ethnic groups spanning multiple generations of immigrants. The sample consisted of 207 immigrant Chinese (first- and second-generation) and 354 Mexican (first-, second-, and third-generation) adolescents. The findings demonstrate that heritage language fluency is an important component of ethnic identity for second-generation Mexican adolescents, but not for second-generation Chinese adolescents. Thus, for this latter group, it may not be appropriate to use identity measures that assess heritage language fluency as a part of the general dimension of ethnic identity. The findings also show that higher reading and writing skills in Spanish are significant predictors of school effort for all three generations of Mexican adolescents; in addition, higher ethnic identity exploration is related to the school effort of second-generation Mexican adolescents.

  8. Ethnicity and gender in late childhood and early adolescence: group identity and awareness of bias.

    PubMed

    Brown, Christia Spears; Alabi, Basirat O; Huynh, Virginia W; Masten, Carrie L

    2011-03-01

    The current study examined awareness of gender and ethnic bias and gender and ethnic identity in 350 African American, White/European American, and Latino/Hispanic students (Mage = 11.21 years, SD = 1.59) from the 4th, 6th, and 8th grades of diverse middle and elementary schools. The study collected (a) qualitative data to best capture the types of bias that were most salient to children and (b) daily diaries and individual measures to examine the multiple components of children's gender and ethnic identities. Results revealed ethnic, gender, and grade-level differences in awareness of ethnic and gender bias. Overall, more children were aware of gender bias than ethnic bias. This effect was most pronounced among White/European American youths. Among those in 4th grade, African American and Latino youths were more likely to be aware of ethnic bias than were White/European American youths. Analyses also examined how awareness of bias was related to gender and ethnic identity. For example, children who had a salient and important gender identity, and a devalued ethnic identity, were less likely than other children to be aware of ethnic bias.

  9. Individualism, collectivism and ethnic identity: cultural assumptions in accounting for caregiving behaviour in Britain.

    PubMed

    Willis, Rosalind

    2012-09-01

    Britain is experiencing the ageing of a large number of minority ethnic groups for the first time in its history, due to the post-war migration of people from the Caribbean and the Indian subcontinent. Stereotypes about a high level of provision of informal caregiving among minority ethnic groups are common in Britain, as in the US, despite quantitative studies refuting this assumption. This paper reports on a qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews with older people from five different ethnic groups about their conceptualisation of their ethnic identity, and their attributions of motivations of caregiving within their own ethnic group and in other groups. It is argued that ethnic identity becomes salient after migration and becoming a part of an ethnic minority group in the new country. Therefore, White British people who have never migrated do not have a great sense of ethnic identity. Further, a strong sense of ethnic identity is linked with identifying with the collective rather than the individual, which explains why the White British participants gave an individualist account of their motivations for informal care, whereas the minority ethnic participants gave a collectivist account of their motivations of care. Crucially, members of all ethnic groups were providing or receiving informal care, so it was the attribution and not the behaviour which differed.

  10. Individualism, collectivism and ethnic identity: cultural assumptions in accounting for caregiving behaviour in Britain.

    PubMed

    Willis, Rosalind

    2012-09-01

    Britain is experiencing the ageing of a large number of minority ethnic groups for the first time in its history, due to the post-war migration of people from the Caribbean and the Indian subcontinent. Stereotypes about a high level of provision of informal caregiving among minority ethnic groups are common in Britain, as in the US, despite quantitative studies refuting this assumption. This paper reports on a qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews with older people from five different ethnic groups about their conceptualisation of their ethnic identity, and their attributions of motivations of caregiving within their own ethnic group and in other groups. It is argued that ethnic identity becomes salient after migration and becoming a part of an ethnic minority group in the new country. Therefore, White British people who have never migrated do not have a great sense of ethnic identity. Further, a strong sense of ethnic identity is linked with identifying with the collective rather than the individual, which explains why the White British participants gave an individualist account of their motivations for informal care, whereas the minority ethnic participants gave a collectivist account of their motivations of care. Crucially, members of all ethnic groups were providing or receiving informal care, so it was the attribution and not the behaviour which differed. PMID:22869345

  11. Parental feeding practices and concerns related to child underweight, picky eating, and using food to calm differ according to ethnicity/race, acculturation, and income.

    PubMed

    Evans, Alexandra; Seth, Jennifer Greenberg; Smith, Shanna; Harris, Karol Kaye; Loyo, Jennifer; Spaulding, Carol; Van Eck, Mary; Gottlieb, Nell

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine differences in parental feeding practices according to ethnicity/race, household income, parent education level, acculturation (for Hispanic participants only), and participation in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program among parents living in a southern state in the United States. For this cross-sectional study, parents of children ages 1-5 years living throughout Texas were recruited through random digit dialing with screening questions during Fall 2006. Eligible parents who agreed to participate completed the Preschooler Feeding Questionnaire (PFQ) and a demographic questionnaire over the phone in either English or Spanish. The PFQ included five subscales: child overeating concerns, child underweight concerns, difficulty with picky eating, using food to calm, and pushing child to eat. Demographic questions assessed ethnicity/race, household income, parent education level, acculturation, and WIC participation. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), with the demographic variables as predictors, was used to predict the five PFQ subscales. Complete data were obtained from 721 parents, 50% of whom were Hispanic. Significant differences for the PFQ subscales were noted for ethnicity/race, acculturation, and income level. Spanish-speaking Hispanic participants were significantly more worried about their child being underweight than English-speaking Hispanic participants. High-income non-WIC respondents were more likely to report that they have difficulty with picky eaters compared to WIC respondents. Spanish-speaking Hispanics and Black respondents were more likely than English-speaking Hispanics to use food to calm the child. Health practitioners need to be aware of differences in parental feeding practices and concerns among parents of diverse demographic backgrounds. Results from this study can be used to tailor health programs that promote healthy feeding practices among

  12. The protective influence of family connectedness, ethnic identity, and ethnic engagement for New Zealand Ma̅ori adolescents.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Jaimee; Jose, Paul E

    2014-06-01

    The present study examined the associations among family connectedness, ethnic identity, and ethnic engagement on changes in well-being over time for the understudied population of Ma̅ori (indigenous New Zealand) youth. Data were collected as part of a longitudinal study of youth connectedness in New Zealand using self-report measures at 3 measurement occasions separated by 1 year each. Participants in the current study were 431 self-identified Ma̅ori (ages 10-15 years at Time 1). As expected, the variables of family connectedness, ethnic identity, and well-being were all positively related to each other. Results of a latent growth curve model showed that, following normative trends for adolescents of this age, well-being diminished over time for Ma̅ori youth; however, high levels of family connectedness were found to mitigate this general decline in well-being over time. Furthermore, in a longitudinal path analysis, ethnic engagement was found to exert a positive indirect effect on residualized Time 3 well-being through Time 2 ethnic identity. These findings indicate that the quality of family relationships and affiliation with one's ethnic group are important predictors of positive adjustment for Ma̅ori youth over time. These results are discussed in the context of positive youth development for ethnic minority and indigenous youth.

  13. The Role of Acculturation, Parenting, and Family in Hispanic/Latino Adolescent Substance Use: Findings From a Qualitative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Soto, Daniel W.; Rodriguez, Yaneth L.; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Unger, Jennifer B.

    2008-01-01

    Focus groups were conducted with adolescents and parents as part of a larger study to understand the connection between acculturation and Hispanic/Latino adolescent substance use. Parents (n = 18) were all mothers and had an average age of 42 years. Students (n = 16) were 62% female and had an average age of 14 years. Results are summarized in five categories: culture/ethnic identity, acculturation, parent-child conflict/relationships, gender, and adolescent substance use. Parents and adolescents held similar views in some areas (e.g., pride in ethnic identity and changes in language use), but diverged in others (e.g., indicators of acculturation, gender differences in parenting, and ideas of freedom and independence). Participants in the focus groups did not endorse the association between acculturation and substance use that has been detected in quantitative studies. Implications for substance use prevention and treatment programs are discussed. PMID:18985171

  14. Ethnic identity, achievement, and psychological adjustment: Examining risk and resilience among youth from immigrant Chinese families in Canada.

    PubMed

    Costigan, Catherine L; Koryzma, Céline M; Hua, Josephine M; Chance, Lauren J

    2010-04-01

    Ethnic identity, achievement, and psychological adjustment were examined among 95 youth from immigrant Chinese families in Canada (mean age 12 years). Utilizing cross-sectional data, promotive effects of ethnic identity were observed; higher ethnic identity was associated with above average achievement and self-esteem and below average levels of depressive symptoms. Vulnerability effects of ethnic identity were fewer; lower ethnic identity was associated with above average depressive symptoms and, for males only, below average self-esteem. Findings also suggested that higher ethnic identity might buffer the stress of poor achievement, indicating a possible protective effect of ethnic identity. Although requiring replication, these preliminary findings illustrate the utility of adopting a risk and resilience framework and suggest the value of promoting strong ethnic identities.

  15. Educations in Ethnic Violence: Identity, Educational Bubbles, and Resource Mobilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    In "Educations in Ethnic Violence", Matthew Lange explores the effects education has on ethnic violence. Lange contradicts the widely-held belief that education promotes peace and tolerance. Rather, Lange finds that education commonly contributes to aggression, especially in environments with ethnic divisions, limited resources, and ineffective…

  16. Intergenerational transmission of ethnic identity and life satisfaction of Roma minority adolescents and their parents.

    PubMed

    Dimitrova, Radosveta; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Trost, Kari

    2015-12-01

    This study investigates intergeneration transmission of ethnic identity as a resource for life satisfaction of Roma adolescents and their parents. Historically, Roma represent the largest ethnic minority in Europe. They have been exposed to severe discrimination, social exclusion, and poverty. Therefore, identifying resources for their life satisfaction is theoretically and practically important. The present study included 1093 participants, of which there were 171 Roma adolescents (age: M = 14.96 years, SD = 1.85), 155 mothers (age: M = 36.16 years, SD = 5.77) and 123 fathers (age: M = 39.68 years, SD = 6.06). Further, a comparison group of 248 mainstream adolescents with their mothers (n = 221) and fathers (n = 175) was also included in the study. Adolescents and their parents provided data on ethnic identity (MEIM; Phinney, 1992) and life satisfaction (SWLS; Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985). Results indicated that Roma youth were lower on endorsement of ethnic identity and average on life satisfaction compared to their mainstream peers. A structural equation model showed that ethnic identity was a positive predictor of life satisfaction for both adolescents and their Roma parents. Furthermore, parents' ethnic identity was a predictor of adolescent life satisfaction. We concluded that for Roma youth and their parents, ethnic identity represents a salient source for life satisfaction and an intergenerational continuity of identity and life satisfaction exists.

  17. The formation and development of individual and ethnic identity: insights from psychiatry and psychoanalytic theory.

    PubMed

    Mann, Mali A

    2006-09-01

    This paper describes the concept of identity formation, examining the historical development of identity, particularly ethnic identity. The author distinguishes the normative developmental achievement of self and group identity with pathological identity diffusion due to an earlier attachment disorder. The clinical case of a young male's experience of his Persian family's immigration to a new host country details the challenges encountered in ethnic identity formation and its interference in consolidating this ongoing process. The complicated task of self identity formation during this phase of development in the face of parental unresolved and ambivalent attitudes toward their own sense of threatened self and group identity diffusion is discussed. Parental intrapsychic conflict combined with environmental conflict such as racism, prejudice, and more recent paranoia toward Middle Eastern immigrant families interferes further with the normal identity formation process. The paper elaborates the compromised bicultural identity of a youngster who struggles through his developmental life phases.

  18. Ethnic Identity in African American and European American Preadolescents: Relation to Self-Worth, Social Goals, and Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Khiela J.; Lochman, John E.

    2009-01-01

    The current study tested models to determine the extent to which self-worth and social goals mediate the influence of ethnic identity on aggression among aggressive European and African American preadolescents. Ethnic identity emerged as important for both groups, but in different ways. Different patterns of influence of ethnic identity and of…

  19. Multiple Identities of Jewish Immigrant Adolescents from the Former Soviet Union: An Exploration of Salience and Impact of Ethnic Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birman, Dina; Persky, Irena; Chan, Wing Yi

    2010-01-01

    The current paper explores the salience and impact of ethnic and national identities for immigrants that are negotiating more than two cultures. Specifically, we were interested in the ways in which Jewish immigrant adolescents from the former Soviet Union integrate their Russian, Jewish, and American identities, and to what extent identification…

  20. American Identity Revisited: The Relation between National, Ethnic, and Personal Identity in a Multiethnic Sample of Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Liliana; Schwartz, Seth J.; Whitbourne, Susan Krauss

    2010-01-01

    The present mixed-methods study investigated meanings and affective valences ascribed to "American identity" and the ways in which these meanings and valences relate to ethnic and personal identity. The data were collected from 2004 to 2006 and used a multiethnic sample of 287 college students residing in Miami, Florida. Subjective meanings of…

  1. The Relation of Racial Identity, Ethnic Identity, and Racial Socialization to Discrimination-Distress: A Meta-Analysis of Black Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Debbiesiu L.; Ahn, Soyeon

    2013-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized the results of 27 studies examining the relations of racial identity, ethnic identity, and racial socialization to discrimination-distress for Black Americans. The purpose was to uncover which constructs connected to racial identity, ethnic identity, and racial socialization most strongly correlate with racial…

  2. Normative Changes in Ethnic and American Identities and Links with Adjustment among Asian American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiang, Lisa; Witkow, Melissa R.; Champagne, Mariette C.

    2013-01-01

    Identity development is a highly salient task for adolescents, especially those from immigrant backgrounds, yet longitudinal research that tracks simultaneous change in ethnic identity and American identity over time has been limited. With a focus on 177 Asian American adolescents recruited from an emerging immigrant community, in the current…

  3. The Racial and Ethnic Identity Formation Process of Second-Generation Asian Indian Americans: A Phenomenological Study

    PubMed Central

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Negi, Nalini Junko; Partiali, Rachel Negar; Creswell, John W.

    2014-01-01

    This phenomenological study elucidates the identity development processes of 12 second-generation adult Asian Indian Americans. The results identify salient sociocultural factors and multidimensional processes of racial and ethnic identity development. Discrimination, parental, and community factors seemed to play a salient role in influencing participants’ racial and ethnic identity development. The emergent Asian Indian American racial and ethnic identity model provides a contextualized overview of key developmental periods and turning points within the process of identity development. PMID:25298617

  4. A Transactional/Ecological Perspective on Ethnic-Racial Identity, Socialization, and Discrimination.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Diane L; Watford, Jon Alexander; Del Toro, Juan

    2016-01-01

    We first review current literature on three ethnic-racial dynamics that are considered to be resources and stressors in the lives of ethnic-minority youth: ethnic-racial identity, socialization, and discrimination. Next, we propose that a more contextualized view of these ethnic-racial dynamics reveals that they are interdependent, inseparable, and mutually defining and that an ecological/transactional perspective on these ethnic-racial dynamics shifts researchers' gaze from studying them as individual-level processes to studying the features of settings that produce them. We describe what is known about how identity, socialization, and discrimination occur in four microsystems-families, peers, schools, and neighborhoods-and argue that focusing on specific characteristics of these microsystems in which particular types of identity, socialization, and discrimination processes cooccur would be informative. PMID:27474421

  5. A Transactional/Ecological Perspective on Ethnic-Racial Identity, Socialization, and Discrimination.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Diane L; Watford, Jon Alexander; Del Toro, Juan

    2016-01-01

    We first review current literature on three ethnic-racial dynamics that are considered to be resources and stressors in the lives of ethnic-minority youth: ethnic-racial identity, socialization, and discrimination. Next, we propose that a more contextualized view of these ethnic-racial dynamics reveals that they are interdependent, inseparable, and mutually defining and that an ecological/transactional perspective on these ethnic-racial dynamics shifts researchers' gaze from studying them as individual-level processes to studying the features of settings that produce them. We describe what is known about how identity, socialization, and discrimination occur in four microsystems-families, peers, schools, and neighborhoods-and argue that focusing on specific characteristics of these microsystems in which particular types of identity, socialization, and discrimination processes cooccur would be informative.

  6. National Unity and Ethnic Identity in a Vietnamese University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Linh T.; Walter, Pierre G.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss the ways in which Vietnam's educational policies for ethnic minorities are enacted in the bachelor of arts (BA) program in ethnic minority cultures (EMC) at the Hanoi University of Culture (HUC). Hanoi University of Culture is one of only two universities in Vietnam that offer this program. Although the BA is…

  7. A daily diary investigation of Latino ethnic identity, discrimination, and depression.

    PubMed

    Torres, Lucas; Ong, Anthony D

    2010-10-01

    The objectives of the current study were to document the effects of discrimination on Latino mental health and to identify the circumstances by which ethnic identity serves a protective function. Instances of discrimination and depressive symptoms were measured every day for 13 days in a sample of Latino adults (N = 91). Multilevel random coefficient modeling showed a 1-day lagged effect in which increases in depression were observed the day following a discriminatory event. The findings also revealed differential effects of ethnic identity exploration and commitment. Whereas ethnic identity exploration was found to exacerbate the influence of daily discrimination on next-day depression, ethnic identity commitment operated as a stress buffer, influencing the intensity of and recovery from daily discrimination. The findings are discussed within a stress and coping perspective that identifies appropriate cultural resources for decreasing the psychological consequences associated with daily discrimination.

  8. Ego development and ethnic identity formation in rural American Indian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Newman, Denise L

    2005-01-01

    Ethnic identity development was assessed in the context of ego development in 12- to 15-year-old students from a Southeastern American Indian community. Self-protective was the modal level and was characterized by awareness of ethnic group membership but little exploration or self-reflection. Impulsive adolescents had the least developed ethnic identities and highest levels of interpersonal vulnerability. Conformist adolescents expressed positive feelings about ethnic group affiliation, described relationships as harmonious, but demonstrated moderate social anxiety. Postconformist adolescents had the highest levels of agency, social competence, and identity achievement, but also had high levels of psychological distress and family conflict. Adolescent identity strivings may be understood in context with the level and timing of psychosocial maturity, for which ego development appears a useful marker.

  9. Discrimination, ethnic identity, and academic outcomes of Mexican immigrant children: the importance of school context.

    PubMed

    Brown, Christia Spears; Chu, Hui

    2012-01-01

    This study examined ethnic identity, perceptions of discrimination, and academic attitudes and performance of primarily first- and second-generation Mexican immigrant children living in a predominantly White community (N=204, 19 schools, mean age=9years). The study also examined schools' promotion of multiculturalism and teachers' attitudes about the value of diversity in predicting immigrant youth's attitudes and experiences. Results indicated that Latino immigrant children in this White community held positive and important ethnic identities and perceived low overall rates of discrimination. As expected, however, school and teacher characteristics were important in predicting children's perceptions of discrimination and ethnic identity, and moderated whether perceptions of discrimination and ethnic identity were related to attitudes about school and academic performance.

  10. Disordered eating in African American and Caucasian women: the role of ethnic identity.

    PubMed

    Shuttlesworth, Mary E; Zotter, Deanne

    2011-01-01

    The influential roles of culture and ethnic identity are frequently cited in developing disordered eating and body dissatisfaction, constituting both protective and risk factors. For African American women, strongly identifying with African American cultural beauty ideals may protect against disordered eating to lose weight, but may actually increase risk in development of disordered eating directed at weight gain, such as binge eating. This study compares African American and Caucasian women on disordered eating measures, positing that African American women show greater risk for binge eating due to the impact of ethnic identity on body dissatisfaction. Findings indicate low levels of ethnic identity represent a risk factor for African American women, increasing the likelihood of showing greater binge eating and bulimic pathology. In Caucasian women, high levels of ethnic identity constitute a risk factor, leading to higher levels of both binge eating and global eating pathology. Implications for prevention and treatment are discussed. PMID:22073427

  11. Contextual Factors Contributing to Ethnic Identity Development of Second-Generation Iranian American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daha, Maryam

    2011-01-01

    The data drawn from interviews with 55 second-generation Iranian American adolescents revealed that pride in ancient Persian culture, the adolescents' physical characteristics, perceived stereotypes, and community point of reference all combined to affect ethnic identity as well as to reinforce a sense of ethnic loyalty. The contextual factors…

  12. Ethnic Identity and the Daily Psychological Well-Being of Adolescents from Mexican and Chinese Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiang, Lisa; Yip, Tiffany; Gonzales-Backen, Melinda; Witkow, Melissa; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2006-01-01

    Protective effects of ethnic identity on daily psychological well-being were examined in a sample of 415 ninth graders from Mexican and Chinese backgrounds. Utilizing daily diary assessments and multilevel modeling, adolescents with a greater regard for their ethnic group exhibited greater levels of daily happiness and less daily anxiety averaged…

  13. Ethnic-Racial Socialization Messages in the Identity Development of Second-Generation Haitians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Nancy; Hunter, Carla D.

    2011-01-01

    This study utilized qualitative inquiry to investigate the role of ethnic-racial socialization messages on ethnic and racial identity development among second-generation Haitians. Nine participants, ranging in age from 15 to 26, took part in individual semistructured qualitative interviews. The data were reviewed for emergent themes, as well as…

  14. Ethnic Identity and Psychological Well-Being of International Transracial Adoptees: A Curvilinear Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohanty, Jayashree

    2015-01-01

    Research in general has shown a beneficial effect of ethnic identity on adoptees' psychological well-being. However, studies also indicate that overemphasis on birth culture and racial/ethnic differences may negatively impact adoptees' overall adjustment. Using Rojewski's (2005) and Brodzinsky's (1987) propositions of a balanced approach to…

  15. Still Warm but Getting Colder: Changing Ethnic Identity of Post-Soviet Jewry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nosenko-Stein, Elena

    2014-01-01

    For many centuries, "being a Jew" was equivalent to "performing the ceremonial laws of Judaism." Thus, ethnic and confessional principles coincided and reinforced the cultural identity of Jewry as an entity. Strong self-identification and in-group solidarity supported the high "ethnic temperature" of this group. The…

  16. Do Ethnic Identity and Other-Group Orientation Protect against Discrimination for Asian Americans?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Richard M.

    2003-01-01

    Ethnic identity and other-group orientation were examined as possible moderators and mediators on the effects of personal ethnic discrimination and minority group discrimination in 2 studies of Asian Americans. Results demonstrated that discrimination, particularly when directed personally at an individual, correlated negatively with psychological…

  17. Ethnic Identity, Gender, and Adolescent Attitude toward School: Adaptive Perspectives in Diverse Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Margaret Zoller; Curran, Erin M.; Frey, Christopher J.; Gerard, Jean M.; Collet, Bruce; Bartimole, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The relationships between adolescent ethnic identity and attitudes toward school and school climate are investigated in a small, multiracial/multiethnic city in the Great Lakes region with ethnically diverse adolescents taught by primarily White teachers. The mixed methods investigation of 986 eighth through eleventh grade students during the…

  18. The 1978 U.S. Medical School Graduates: Career Plans by Racial/Ethnic Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuca, Janet Melei

    1980-01-01

    Career plans, based on responses to the Association of American Medical Colleges' first annual graduation questionnaire concerning the racial/ethnic identity of 1978 U.S. medical graduates, are reported. The data show that the six racial/ethnic groups follow similar general trends, though group differences do appear. (MLW)

  19. Importance of race and ethnicity: an exploration of Asian, Black, Latino, and multiracial adolescent identity.

    PubMed

    Charmaraman, Linda; Grossman, Jennifer M

    2010-04-01

    This mixed-method study used a grounded theory approach to explore the meanings underlying the importance that adolescents attach to their racial-ethnic identities. The sample consisted of 923 9th- to 12th-grade students from Black, Latino, Asian, and multiracial backgrounds. Thematic findings identified a broad range of explanations for adolescents' racial-ethnic centrality, ranging from pride and cultural connection to ambivalence and colorblind attitudes. While racial-ethnic groups differed in reported levels of racial-ethnic centrality, few group differences were identified in participants' thematic explanations, with the exception of racial-ethnic and gender differences for Positive Regard and Disengagement. These findings highlight the diversity of meanings that adolescents attribute to their racial-ethnic centrality as well as the many commonalities among adolescents across gender and racial-ethnic groups. PMID:20438152

  20. Importance of race-ethnicity: An exploration of Asian, Black, Latino, and Multiracial adolescent identity

    PubMed Central

    Charmaraman, Linda; Grossman, Jennifer M.

    2010-01-01

    This mixed-method study used a grounded theory approach to explore the meanings underlying the importance adolescents attach to their racial-ethnic identities. The sample consisted of 923 9th–12th grade students from Black, Latino, Asian, and Multiracial backgrounds. Thematic findings identified a broad range of explanations for adolescents’ racial-ethnic centrality, ranging from pride and cultural connection to ambivalence and colorblind attitudes. While racial-ethnic groups differed in reported levels of racial-ethnic centrality, few group differences were identified in participants’ thematic explanations, with the exception of racial-ethnic and gender differences for Positive Regard and Disengagement. These findings highlight the diversity of meanings adolescents attribute to their racial-ethnic centrality as well as the many commonalities among adolescents across gender and racial-ethnic groups. PMID:20438152

  1. Ethnic identity, drinking motives, and alcohol consequences among Alaska Native and non-Native college students.

    PubMed

    Skewes, Monica C; Blume, Arthur W

    2015-01-01

    This research involves the examination of drinking motives, alcohol consequences, and ethnic identity in a sample of Native and non-Native college student drinkers in Alaska. Although more Alaska Native students are abstinent from alcohol compared to any other ethnic group, Native students who do drink experience greater alcohol consequences and dependence symptoms. Therefore, we attempted to examine the influence of ethnic identity on alcohol consequences in a diverse sample of Native and non-Native students in Alaska. Findings showed that drinking motives, as measured by the Drinking Motives Questionnaire (social, coping, enhancement, and conformity), significantly predicted alcohol consequences after controlling for frequency of monthly binge drinking. In addition, after controlling for depression, binge drinking, and drinking motives, one aspect of ethnic identity (Affirmation, Belonging, and Commitment) was significantly negatively related to alcohol consequences, whereas another aspect of ethnic identity (Ethnic Identity Search) was not. Taken together, these findings suggest that interventions for college student alcohol misuse that target Native students should be culturally grounded and focused on enhancing the Affirmation, Belonging, and Commitment to one's ethnic heritage and should address drinking motives, especially drinking to cope, as a way to reduce alcohol related harm.

  2. Racial/ethnic socialization mediates perceived racism and the racial identity of African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Howard C; Arrington, Edith G

    2009-04-01

    Racism and racial/ethnic socialization are proposed as interactive risk and resilience factors that promote the development of multiple dimensions of racial identity among African American youth are the focus of this study. One-hundred and eight African American students responded to questions about their racial identity and socialization. Controlling for demographic characteristics of ecological support (from family, friends, and neighbors), neighborhood racial composition, and gender, findings revealed that racism exposure significantly explained the variance of several racial identity components and ideologies but that racial/ethnic socialization mediated that influence. We discuss the implications for future study of racism experience on the racial identity development of African American youth.

  3. An Examination of Culturally Relevant Stressors, Coping, Ethnic Identity, and Subjective Well-Being in Urban, Ethnic Minority Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vera, Elizabeth M.; Vacek, Kimberly; Coyle, Laura D.; Stinson, Jennifer; Mull, Megan; Doud, Katherine; Buchheit, Christine; Gorman, Catherine; Hewitt, Amber; Keene, Chesleigh; Blackmon, Sha'kema; Langrehr, Kimberly J.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored relations between culturally relevant stressors (i.e., urban hassles, perceived discrimination) and subjective well-being (SWB; i.e., positive/ negative affect, life satisfaction) to examine whether ethnic identity and/or coping strategies would serve as moderators of the relations between stress and SWB for 157 urban, ethnic…

  4. Raising Ethnic-Racial Consciousness: The Relationship between Intergroup Dialogues and Adolescents' Ethnic-Racial Identity and Racism Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldana, Adriana; Rowley, Stephanie J.; Checkoway, Barry; Richards-Schuster, Katie

    2012-01-01

    Empirical evidence shows that intergroup dialogue programs promote changes in ethnic-racial identity and racism awareness among college students. Expanding on this research, this study examines the effects of intergroup dialogues on adolescents' racial consciousness. Self-reports of 147 adolescents (13-19 years old), of various racial and ethnic…

  5. Ethnic identity and personal well-being of people of color: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Smith, Timothy B; Silva, Lynda

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes research examining the relationship between the constructs of ethnic identity and personal well-being among people of color in North America. Data from 184 studies analyzed with random effects models yielded an omnibus effect size of r = .17, suggesting a modest relationship between the 2 constructs. The relationship was somewhat stronger among adolescents and young adults than among adults over age 40. No differences were observed across participant race, gender, or socioeconomic status, which findings support the general relevance of ethnic identity across people of color. Studies correlating ethnic identity with self-esteem and positive well-being yielded average effect sizes twice as large as those from studies correlating ethnic identity with personal distress or mental health symptoms. Ethnic identity was thus more strongly related to positive well-being than to compromised well-being. Overall, the corpus of research reviewed consisted of correlational designs; limited scholarship has addressed causal mechanisms, mediating factors, or psychological functions of ethnic identity across different social contexts.

  6. Sociosexual Identity Development and Sexual Risk Taking of Acculturating Collegiate Gay and Bisexual Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkerson, J. Michael; Brooks, Ann K.; Ross, Michael W.

    2010-01-01

    How collegiate gay and bisexual men acquire a sociosexual identity appears to affect their sexual health. Analysis of interview data from 25 self-identified collegiate gay or bisexual men resulted in the development of a collective sexual script for men acquiring a sociosexual identity. Changes in an individual's acting out of a cultural scenario…

  7. Mastering developmental transitions in immigrant adolescents: the longitudinal interplay of family functioning, developmental and acculturative tasks.

    PubMed

    Reitz, Anne K; Motti-Stefanidi, Frosso; Asendorpf, Jens B

    2014-03-01

    Immigrant youth differ in their adaptation, which is judged on the basis of how well they deal with developmental and acculturative tasks. While immigrant adolescents are faced with the realities of 2 different cultures, they also have to master age-salient tasks, such as self-efficacy and identity development. To get a better insight into the interplay of developmental and acculturative tasks and their relationship with family functioning, we used 3-wave longitudinal data over a 2-year period from 13-year-old immigrant students (N = 609) in Athens, Greece. Cross-lagged models revealed that family functioning and acculturation were resources for the mastery of developmental tasks. Involvement in the host culture prospectively predicted self-efficacy beliefs, and involvement in the ethnic culture prospectively predicted ethnic identity. These effects increased over time. Family functioning prospectively predicted self-efficacy and ethnic identity. These effects decreased over time. The findings suggest that a well-functioning family, for early adolescents, and being involved in the host culture and in ethnic cultures, for middle adolescents, are particularly important resources to master the tasks of their developmental period. Our findings underscore the importance of developmentally sensitive approaches and the need to account for acculturative challenges in order to understand individual differences in immigrant youth adaptation.

  8. Acculturation or Development? Autonomy Expectations among Ethnic German Immigrant Adolescents and Their Native German Age-Mates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titzmann, Peter F.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study compared immigrant and native adolescents' expectations concerning the timing of conventional socially acceptable and oppositional less socially acceptable forms of autonomy. Based on normative development and a collectivist background among immigrants, both developmental and acculturative change was expected. The sample…

  9. A Qualitative Approach to the Intersection of Sexual, Ethnic, and Gender Identities

    PubMed Central

    Narvaez, Rafael F.; Meyer, Ilan H.; Kertzner, Robert M.; Ouellette, Suzanne C.; Gordon, Allegra R.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we report on a new qualitative instrument designed to study the intersection of identities related to sexuality and race/ethnicity, and how people who hold those identities interact with social contexts. Researchers often resort to using separate measures to assess race/ethnicity, sexual orientation, and other target identities. But this approach can miss elements of a self-system that stem from the intersection of identities, the interactions between identities and social contexts, related shifts in identity over time, and related changes in the prominence and valence of identities. Using a small sub-sample, we demonstrate how our instrument can help researchers overcome these limitations. Our instrument was also designed for economy in administration and analysis, so that it could be used as a qualitative complement in large survey research PMID:27683200

  10. A Qualitative Approach to the Intersection of Sexual, Ethnic, and Gender Identities

    PubMed Central

    Narvaez, Rafael F.; Meyer, Ilan H.; Kertzner, Robert M.; Ouellette, Suzanne C.; Gordon, Allegra R.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we report on a new qualitative instrument designed to study the intersection of identities related to sexuality and race/ethnicity, and how people who hold those identities interact with social contexts. Researchers often resort to using separate measures to assess race/ethnicity, sexual orientation, and other target identities. But this approach can miss elements of a self-system that stem from the intersection of identities, the interactions between identities and social contexts, related shifts in identity over time, and related changes in the prominence and valence of identities. Using a small sub-sample, we demonstrate how our instrument can help researchers overcome these limitations. Our instrument was also designed for economy in administration and analysis, so that it could be used as a qualitative complement in large survey research

  11. Minority stress, ethnic identity, and depression among Latino/a college students.

    PubMed

    Arbona, Consuelo; Jimenez, Carolina

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of the study was to examine among Latino/a college students the extent to which dimensions of minority stress related to ethnic group membership (college climate, academic achievement, ethnic discrimination, and intra-ethnic pressure stress) were uniquely associated with depression symptoms when general college stress was taken into account. The study also examined if ethnic identity moderated the relation of minority stress to depression symptoms. Participants were 309 Latino/a undergraduate students (53% women; 69% of Mexican descent) enrolled in a diverse, major research, urban, public university in the southwestern United States. Findings revealed that minority stress in the areas of academic concerns and negative perceptions of the campus climate contributed unique variance to depression symptoms when controlling for gender and students' general college stress. Ethnic identity did not moderate the relation of any of the minority stress dimensions to depression. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  12. Ethnic Identity and Its Relationship to Self-Esteem, Perceived Efficacy and Prosocial Attitudes in Early Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Emilie Phillips; Walker, Katrina; Fields, Laurie; Brookins, Craig C.; Seay, Robert C.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the relationship of ethnic identity to self-esteem, perceived self-efficacy, and prosocial attitudes in early adolescents (N=100) from different ethnic backgrounds. Self-esteem and ethnic identity factors emerged as related and provided evidence of efficacy-mediated effects on prosocial attitudes. (Author/MKA)

  13. Do Labels Matter? Attitudinal and Behavioral Correlates of Ethnic and Racial Identity Choices among Asian American Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kodama, Corinne M.; Ebreo, Angela

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between Asian American students' choices of racial and ethnic identity labels, their attitudes toward racial and ethnic issues, and involvement in campus organizations. The findings suggest complex relationships between racial and ethnic self-identification and attitudes for some identity groups and no…

  14. Cultural Resources and School Engagement among African American Youths: The Role of Racial Socialization and Ethnic Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, M. Daniel, Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Racial socialization and ethnic identity are emerging, albeit atheoretical, constructs that have been argued to promote prosocial outcomes among ethnic minority youths. Using structural equation modeling, the author explored the influence of racial socialization and ethnic identity on school engagement in a sample of 131 African American youths.…

  15. Coming out of the Ethnic Closet: Perspectives on Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Ikumi

    2013-01-01

    In the context of identity politics, identity has been perceived as something substantial, inborn and essential--an unchangeable quality of self that waits to be explored and expressed. Its dynamic aspect could be nurtured through enlightenment and experience as one grows up. In this essay, the author wants to explore the dilemma that identity as…

  16. Personal and Ethnic Identity in Swedish Adolescents and Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Trost, Kari; Lorente, Carolyn Cass; Mansoory, Shahram

    2012-01-01

    The chapter describes empirical evidence about identity development in Swedish adolescents and emerging adults and highlights cultural and contextual influences that may be specific to coming of age in Sweden. Broad trends in identity options are evident in the lives of many youth living in Sweden. Although research on identity and diversity is in…

  17. Ethnic identity and the daily psychological well-being of adolescents from Mexican and Chinese backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Kiang, Lisa; Yip, Tiffany; Gonzales-Backen, Melinda; Witkow, Melissa; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2006-01-01

    Protective effects of ethnic identity on daily psychological well-being were examined in a sample of 415 ninth graders from Mexican and Chinese backgrounds. Utilizing daily diary assessments and multilevel modeling, adolescents with a greater regard for their ethnic group exhibited greater levels of daily happiness and less daily anxiety averaged over the 2-week study period. Ethnic regard moderated the daily association between normative stressful demands and happiness, and between stressful demands and happiness experienced 1 day after stressors occurred. Moderating effects were significant even after controlling for self-esteem. Although no buffering effects of ethnic centrality were found, the results point to the positive influence of ethnic regard in the daily lives of adolescents from ethnic minority backgrounds.

  18. Ethnic identity and the daily psychological well-being of adolescents from Mexican and Chinese backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Kiang, Lisa; Yip, Tiffany; Gonzales-Backen, Melinda; Witkow, Melissa; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2006-01-01

    Protective effects of ethnic identity on daily psychological well-being were examined in a sample of 415 ninth graders from Mexican and Chinese backgrounds. Utilizing daily diary assessments and multilevel modeling, adolescents with a greater regard for their ethnic group exhibited greater levels of daily happiness and less daily anxiety averaged over the 2-week study period. Ethnic regard moderated the daily association between normative stressful demands and happiness, and between stressful demands and happiness experienced 1 day after stressors occurred. Moderating effects were significant even after controlling for self-esteem. Although no buffering effects of ethnic centrality were found, the results point to the positive influence of ethnic regard in the daily lives of adolescents from ethnic minority backgrounds. PMID:16999802

  19. Social Identity Complexity, Cross-Ethnic Friendships, and Intergroup Attitudes in Urban Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knifsend, Casey A.; Juvonen, Jaana

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated contextual antecedents (i.e., cross-ethnic peers and friends) and correlates (i.e., intergroup attitudes) of social identity complexity in seventh grade. Social identity complexity refers to the perceived overlap among social groups with which youth identify. Identifying mostly with out-of-school sports, religious…

  20. The Politics of Arabic Language Education: Moroccan Immigrant Children's Language Socialization into Ethnic and Religious Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Sanchez, Inmaculada M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on issues of reproduction and the manufacturing of national/ethnic and religious identities in the deterritorialized space of the Moroccan immigrant diaspora. More specifically, this paper examines Moroccan immigrant children's language socialization into pan-Arabic and Islamic identities in relation to the teaching of the…

  1. "How Asian Am I?": Asian American Youth Cultures, Drug Use, and Ethnic Identity Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Geoffrey; Moloney, Molly; Evans, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes the construction of ethnic identity in the narratives of 100 young Asian Americans in a dance club/rave scene. Authors examine how illicit drug use and other consuming practices shape their understanding of Asian American identities, finding three distinct patterns. The first presents a disjuncture between Asian American…

  2. The Family as a Site for Gendered Ethnic Identity Work among Asian Indian Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehrotra, Meeta; Calasanti, Toni M.

    2010-01-01

    Research on immigrants often points to the family as a source of support and a location for oppression. Using in-depth interviews with 38 first-generation immigrant Indians, this study adds to this literature by exploring families as sites of identity work where first-generation immigrants manage their gendered ethnic identities. Relocation into a…

  3. Prolegomena for the Connotation of Construct Use in the Measurement of Ethnic and Racial Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trimble, Joseph E.

    2007-01-01

    There is considerable confusion about ethnic and racial identity, multicultural constructs, and the tools available to assess them. The conceptualization and measurement of the constructs in the field also are complicated by the increasing observation that human beings have multiple, intertwined identities that influence one another in ways that…

  4. Who Am I? Ethnic Identity Formation of Arab Muslim Children in Contemporary U.S. Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britto, Pia Rebello

    2008-01-01

    The ethnic identity development of Arab Muslim children is discussed with an aim to understand and promote healthy development of the next generation of them growing up in the United States. Since local context plays a powerful role in identity development, the study has focused on the role of two central influences namely, schools and peer groups.

  5. The Role of Mothers' and Adolescents' Perceptions of Ethnic-Racial Socialization in Shaping Ethnic-Racial Identity among Early Adolescent Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Diane; Hagelskamp, Carolin; Way, Niobe; Foust, Monica D.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined relationships between adolescents' and mothers' reports of ethnic-racial socialization and adolescents' ethnic-racial identity. The sample included 170 sixth graders (49% boys, 51% girls) and their mothers, all of whom identified as Black, Puerto Rican, Dominican, or Chinese. Two dimensions of ethnic-racial socialization…

  6. Links between Alcohol and Other Drug Problems and Maltreatment among Adolescent Girls: Perceived Discrimination, Ethnic Identity, and Ethnic Orientation as Moderators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Calonie M. K.; Montgomery, Marilyn J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined the links between maltreatment, posttraumatic stress symptoms, ethnicity-specific factors (i.e., perceived discrimination, ethnic identity, and ethnic orientation), and alcohol and/or other drug (AOD) problems among adolescent girls. Methods: These relations were examined using archived data from a community sample…

  7. Ethnic identity and risky health behaviors in school-age Mexican-American children.

    PubMed

    Love, Ashley S; Yin, Zenong; Codina, Edward; Zapata, Jesse T

    2006-06-01

    The study examined the relationship between ethnic identity and risky health behaviors in 1,892 Mexican-American students (M age= 14.6, SD= 1.35; 50.3% male) in South Texas. The Ethnic Identity Scale assessed ethnic identity and questions from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey measured risky health behaviors (mixed use of alcohol and drugs, heavy drinking, driving under the influence, regular marijuana use, regular cigarette smoking, lack of regular exercise, not eating breakfast regularly, and carrying a gun or knife to school). Logistic regression tested the relationships between ethnic identity and report of risky health behaviors controlling for potential confounders (sex, free school lunch status, grade, and self-reported school grade). Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) and confidence intervals were calculated. Results indicated that being associated with Mexican-American cultural identity was significantly associated with a decreased mixed use of alcohol and drugs (AOR= .97), heavy drinking (AOR= .98), and regular marijuana use (AOR= .97). A stronger ethnic identity was protective against engaging in risky health behaviors among these Mexican-American adolescents.

  8. Multiple pathways to identification: exploring the multidimensionality of academic identity formation in ethnic minority males.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Jamaal S

    2014-04-01

    Empirical trends denote the academic underachievement of ethnic minority males across various academic domains. Identity-based explanations for this persistent phenomenon describe ethnic minority males as disidentified with academics, alienated, and oppositional. The present work interrogates these theoretical explanations and empirically substantiates a multidimensional lens for discussing academic identity formation within 330 African American and Latino early-adolescent males. Both hierarchical and iterative person-centered methods were utilized and reveal 5 distinct profiles derived from 6 dimensions of academic identity. These profiles predict self-reported classroom grades, mastery orientation, and self-handicapping in meaningful and varied ways. The results demonstrate multiple pathways to motivation and achievement, challenging previous oversimplified stereotypes of marginalized males. This exploratory study triangulates unique interpersonal and intrapersonal attributes for promoting healthy identity development and academic achievement among ethnic minority adolescent males.

  9. Identities and Education: New Myths and New Ethnicities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Bruce

    1998-01-01

    Explores the position of blacks in British society and considers the role schools might play in a new acceptance of ethnicity and the clarification of values appropriate for the new multicultural society. British society must value and celebrate all its peoples rather than continue current social injustices. (SLD)

  10. Speaking of Race and Ethnic Identities: Exploring Multicultural Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arber, Ruth Eileen

    2005-01-01

    New demographic patterns as well as new communication and information technologies and administrative and marketing practices have irrevocably altered schools in Australia's large cities. This study examines the ways that teachers and parents in one urban school speak about race and ethnicity in the midst of these changes. Beneath the ironic…

  11. Ecological Determinants of "White Ethnic" Identity in St. Louis, Missouri.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabrowski, Irene

    1983-01-01

    Conducted a comparative analysis to investigate the relationship between voluntary group participation and geographical sites of respective ethnic centers of the Croatian and Czech communities of St. Louis. Utilizing an ecological framework, the findings suggested organizational activity is strongly dependent on the environmental adequacy of the…

  12. Self, Situation and Escape from Stigmatized Ethnic Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berreman, Gerald D.

    Anyone familiar with current internal political problems in India cannot remain sanguine about the passivity of her oppressed ethnic minorities, be they defined by caste, religion, or heritage; nor can anyone be, who looks at the long history of religious conversion and reform in India, for every success along these lines in the past 2500 years…

  13. Italian Neo-Ethnicity: The Search for Self-Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aversa, Alfred, Jr.

    1978-01-01

    After a review of how Blacks went about constructing a new self-identity, an analysis of the Italian-American case reveals three motifs to be introduced as a potential frame of reference for identity building: the grandeur of Renaissance Italy; pastoralism; and the immigrant experience (family and work). (Author/EB)

  14. Identity threat at work: how social identity threat and situational cues contribute to racial and ethnic disparities in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Emerson, Katherine T U; Murphy, Mary C

    2014-10-01

    Significant disparities remain between racial and ethnic minorities' and Whites' experiences of American workplaces. Traditional prejudice and discrimination approaches explain these gaps in hiring, promotion, satisfaction, and well-being by pointing to the prejudice of people within organizations such as peers, managers, and executives. Grounded in social identity threat theory, this theoretical review instead argues that particular situational cues-often communicated by well-meaning, largely unprejudiced employees and managers-signal to stigmatized groups whether their identity is threatened and devalued or respected and affirmed. First, we provide an overview of how identity threat shapes the psychological processes of racial and ethnic minorities by heightening vigilance to certain situational cues in the workplace. Next, we outline several of these cues and their role in creating and sustaining perceptions of identity threat (or safety). Finally, we provide empirically grounded suggestions that organizations may use to increase identity safety among their employees of color. Taken together, the research demonstrates how situational cues contribute to disparate psychological experiences for racial and ethnic minorities at work, and suggests that by altering threatening cues, organizations may create more equitable, respectful, and inclusive environments where all people may thrive. PMID:25133411

  15. Identity threat at work: how social identity threat and situational cues contribute to racial and ethnic disparities in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Emerson, Katherine T U; Murphy, Mary C

    2014-10-01

    Significant disparities remain between racial and ethnic minorities' and Whites' experiences of American workplaces. Traditional prejudice and discrimination approaches explain these gaps in hiring, promotion, satisfaction, and well-being by pointing to the prejudice of people within organizations such as peers, managers, and executives. Grounded in social identity threat theory, this theoretical review instead argues that particular situational cues-often communicated by well-meaning, largely unprejudiced employees and managers-signal to stigmatized groups whether their identity is threatened and devalued or respected and affirmed. First, we provide an overview of how identity threat shapes the psychological processes of racial and ethnic minorities by heightening vigilance to certain situational cues in the workplace. Next, we outline several of these cues and their role in creating and sustaining perceptions of identity threat (or safety). Finally, we provide empirically grounded suggestions that organizations may use to increase identity safety among their employees of color. Taken together, the research demonstrates how situational cues contribute to disparate psychological experiences for racial and ethnic minorities at work, and suggests that by altering threatening cues, organizations may create more equitable, respectful, and inclusive environments where all people may thrive.

  16. Development of a Measure of “Acculturation” for Ethnic Fijians: Methodologic and Conceptual Considerations for Application to Eating Disorders Research

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Anne E.; Fay, Kristen; Agnew-Blais, Jessica; Guarnaccia, Peter M.; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Gilman, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    Acculturation has been examined as a risk factor for eating disorders, but interpretation of findings has been limited by inconsistent operationalization of this construct across studies. The study aim was to develop and evaluate a population-specific measure of acculturation for ethnic Fijian adolescent schoolgirls, to use in future analyses related to eating disorders. Our findings suggest that acculturation is a multidimensional construct characterized by distinct, though related, dimensions of orientation to ethnic Fijian and/or western/global culture with respect to a range of behaviors and attitudes. In contrast to theoretical models positing uni-dimensional, orthogonal, or oblique relations between cultural identities in individuals undergoing acculturation, our study findings support a heterogeneous pattern among correlations of dimensions across contrasting cultural identities. We suggest multidimensional measures of acculturation are optimal — and socio-demographic proxies inadequate — for characterization of this complex process for health research. PMID:21088103

  17. Acculturation and violence in minority adolescents: a review of the empirical literature.

    PubMed

    Smokowski, Paul R; David-Ferdon, Corinne; Stroupe, Nancy

    2009-07-01

    Although seminal reviews have been published on acculturation and mental health in adults and adolescents, far less is known about how acculturation influences adolescent interpersonal and self-directed violence. This article aims to fill this gap by providing a comprehensive review of research linking acculturation and violence behavior for adolescents of three minority populations: Latino, Asian/Pacific Islander (A/PI), and American Indian/Alaskan Native (AI/AN). The preponderance of evidence from studies on Latino and A/PI youth indicate that higher levels of adolescent assimilation (i.e., measured by time in the United States, English language use, U.S. cultural involvement, or individualism scales) were a risk factor for youth violence. Ethnic group identity or culture-of-origin involvement appear to be cultural assets against youth violence with supporting evidence from studies on A/PI youth; however, more studies are needed on Latino and AI/AN youth. Although some evidence shows low acculturation or cultural marginality to be a risk factor for higher levels of fear, victimization, and being bullied, low acculturation also serves as a protective factor against dating violence victimization for Latino youth. An important emerging trend in both the Latino and, to a lesser extent, A/PI youth literature shows that the impact of acculturation processes on youth aggression and violence can be mediated by family dynamics. The literature on acculturation and self-directed violence is extremely limited and has conflicting results across the examined groups, with high acculturation being a risk factor for Latinos, low acculturation being a risk factor of A/PI youth, and acculturation-related variables being unrelated to suicidal behavior among AI/AN youth. Bicultural skills training as a youth violence and suicide prevention practice is discussed. PMID:19387835

  18. Acculturation and violence in minority adolescents: a review of the empirical literature.

    PubMed

    Smokowski, Paul R; David-Ferdon, Corinne; Stroupe, Nancy

    2009-07-01

    Although seminal reviews have been published on acculturation and mental health in adults and adolescents, far less is known about how acculturation influences adolescent interpersonal and self-directed violence. This article aims to fill this gap by providing a comprehensive review of research linking acculturation and violence behavior for adolescents of three minority populations: Latino, Asian/Pacific Islander (A/PI), and American Indian/Alaskan Native (AI/AN). The preponderance of evidence from studies on Latino and A/PI youth indicate that higher levels of adolescent assimilation (i.e., measured by time in the United States, English language use, U.S. cultural involvement, or individualism scales) were a risk factor for youth violence. Ethnic group identity or culture-of-origin involvement appear to be cultural assets against youth violence with supporting evidence from studies on A/PI youth; however, more studies are needed on Latino and AI/AN youth. Although some evidence shows low acculturation or cultural marginality to be a risk factor for higher levels of fear, victimization, and being bullied, low acculturation also serves as a protective factor against dating violence victimization for Latino youth. An important emerging trend in both the Latino and, to a lesser extent, A/PI youth literature shows that the impact of acculturation processes on youth aggression and violence can be mediated by family dynamics. The literature on acculturation and self-directed violence is extremely limited and has conflicting results across the examined groups, with high acculturation being a risk factor for Latinos, low acculturation being a risk factor of A/PI youth, and acculturation-related variables being unrelated to suicidal behavior among AI/AN youth. Bicultural skills training as a youth violence and suicide prevention practice is discussed.

  19. Migration, Acculturation and Family Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colleran, Kevin J.; Gurak, Douglas; Kritz, Mary

    1984-01-01

    Two articles are presented in this research bulletin. The first, entitled "Acculturation in Puerto Rican Families," assesses the degree of acculturation of 100 sets of married children of 100 Puerto Rican families living in New York City. Attitudes toward language, identity, and values are used as criteria. The specific values the study…

  20. Ethnicity and Gender in Late Childhood and Early Adolescence: Group Identity and Awareness of Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Christia Spears; Alabi, Basirat O.; Huynh, Virginia W.; Masten, Carrie L.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined awareness of gender and ethnic bias and gender and ethnic identity in 350 African American, White/European American, and Latino/Hispanic students (M[subscript age] = 11.21 years, SD = 1.59) from the 4th, 6th, and 8th grades of diverse middle and elementary schools. The study collected (a) qualitative data to best capture…

  1. Acculturation and Enculturation Trajectories Among Mexican-American Adolescent Offenders.

    PubMed

    Knight, George P; Vargas-Chanes, Delfino; Losoya, Sandra H; Cota-Robles, Sonia; Chassin, Laurie; Lee, Joanna M

    2009-12-01

    This study examines changes over time in ethnic affirmation/belonging and ethnic identity achievement, Spanish language use, English language use, Mexican/Mexican-American affiliation/identification and Anglo affiliation/identification in a sample of Mexican-American adolescents participating in a longitudinal study of juvenile offenders. The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure and the Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans-II were completed by the Mexican-American adolescents 7 times over a 3-year period. The findings from longitudinal growth modeling analyses and growth mixture modeling analyses indicate that there is heterogeneity in the initial scores and changes over time on these variables that are related to markers for the cultural qualities of the home environment (i.e., generational status and mother's most frequent language use). In contrast to expectations, marginalized or assimilated acculturation trajectories/types were not overrepresented in this sample of adolescent offenders. Implications for our understanding of the nature of acculturation and enculturation processes and the way these processes are studied are discussed.

  2. Perceived racial/ethnic discrimination and antisocial behaviors among Asian American college students: testing the moderating roles of ethnic and American identity.

    PubMed

    Park, Irene J K; Schwartz, Seth J; Lee, Richard M; Kim, May; Rodriguez, Liliana

    2013-04-01

    The present study tested the moderating roles of ethnic identity and American identity on the association between perceived racial/ethnic discrimination and antisocial behaviors among Asian American college students. Using data from the Multi-Site University Study of Identity and Culture (MUSIC) collaborative, the sample included 1,362 East Asian and South Asian American college students. Perceived discrimination was significantly associated with antisocial behaviors for both East Asians and South Asians. Ethnic identity was not a significant moderator of the discrimination-antisocial behavior link, but American identity exacerbated the association between perceived discrimination and antisocial behaviors for both East Asians and South Asians. Interestingly, the explanatory power of the regression model was greater for South Asians than for East Asians in predicting antisocial behaviors. The importance of attending to American identity as a potential source of risk for Asian American college students exposed to racial/ethnic discrimination is discussed.

  3. Pharmacogenetics, race, and ethnicity: social identities and individualized medical care.

    PubMed

    Foster, M W; Sharp, R R; Mulvihill, J J

    2001-06-01

    Social categories such as race and ethnicity have long been used in interpreting patient symptoms, diagnosing disease, and predicting therapeutic response. DNA-based diagnostic tests and pharmacogenetic screens could make these uses of social categories largely irrelevant by allowing clinicians to base diagnosis and treatment decisions on the unique genetic features of individual patients. Despite this attractive vision of individualized care, however, social categories are likely to continue playing a significant role in the coming era of genetic medicine. Current uses of social categories in pharmacogenetic research, for example, illustrate how drug development and marketing will perpetuate the use of social categories such as race and ethnicity. Those uses may unintentionally blunt the precision of genetic technologies and pose new threats to socially identifiable populations. These implications suggest the need for greater caution in using social categories as indicators for specific tests or therapies and for federal legislation to protect against discriminatory uses of individuals' genetic information. In addition, more precise social classifications than those presently in use may allow us to realize the full potential of DNA-based technologies, thus minimizing social disparities in health care. Those more precise social classifications should reflect extended patient pedigrees and not the self-reported claims of racial and/or ethnic affiliation.

  4. Adolescent Pathways to Adult Smoking: Ethnic Identity, Peer Substance Use, and Antisocial Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Judith S.; Zhang, Chenshu; Finch, Stephen J.; Brook, David W.

    2010-01-01

    African-Americans and Puerto Ricans were interviewed during adolescence, in their early twenties, and then again in their mid-twenties. Results indicated that earlier adolescent smoking, family conflict, and weak ethnic identity were significantly related to antisocial behavior, which in turn was related to associating with friends who smoked and/or used illegal drugs, and ultimately, to their own smoking. Results further indicate that early interventions in the development of tobacco use should focus on decreasing parental and adolescent smoking and parent-child conflict. If intervention occurs at a later time point, the emphasis should be on increasing ethnic identity and decreasing antisocial behavior. PMID:20163390

  5. Identity Development in a Transracial Environment: Racial/Ethnic Minority Adoptees in Minnesota

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Emma R.; Samek, Diana R.; Keyes, Margaret; McGue, Matthew K.; Iacono, William G.

    2015-01-01

    It has been argued that transracial adopted children have increased risk for problems related to self-esteem and ethnic identity development. We evaluated this hypothesis across four groups of transracial adoptees: Asian (N = 427), Latino (N = 28), Black (N = 6), Mixed/Other (N = 20), and same-race white adoptees (N = 126) from 357 adoptive families. No mean differences were found in adoptee’s ratings of affect about adoption, or of curiosity about birthparents. Some differences were found in general identity development and adjustment. There were notable differences in communication about race/ethnicity across groups and between parent and child report. PMID:26300622

  6. The costs of racism for marriage: how racial discrimination hurts, and ethnic identity protects, newlywed marriages among Latinos.

    PubMed

    Trail, Thomas E; Goff, Phillip Atiba; Bradbury, Thomas N; Karney, Benjamin R

    2012-04-01

    The experience of racial or ethnic discrimination is a salient and severe stressor that has been linked to numerous disparities in important outcomes. Yet, the link between perceived discrimination and marital outcomes has been overlooked by research on relationship stressors. The current study examined this link and tested whether ethnic identity buffered the relation between discrimination and ratings of marital quality and verbal aggression. A sample of 330 Latino newlyweds completed measures of perceived discrimination, ethnic identity, spouse's verbal aggression, and marital quality. Each spouse's interviewer also independently rated marital quality. Dyadic analyses revealed that husbands' experience of discrimination negatively predicted wives' marital quality, but only for husbands with weak ethnic identity. Wives whose husbands had strong ethnic identity were buffered from this effect. Identity also buffered the relation between husbands' discrimination and verbal aggression toward their wives, and this effect mediated the association between discrimination, identity, and marital quality.

  7. The Role of Ethnic Identity on Self-Esteem for Ethnic Minority Youth: A Brief Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toomey, Russell B.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.

    2012-01-01

    "Who am I?" "How do I fit in with others around me?" "How do I feel about my ethnicity?" Understanding the answers to these complex questions is part of a process that many individuals revisit throughout the course of their lives. This process becomes particularly salient during adolescence when youth gain the cognitive abilities necessary to…

  8. Acculturation, dietary practices and risk for childhood obesity in an ethnically heterogeneous population of Latino school children in the San Francisco bay area.

    PubMed

    Wojcicki, Janet M; Schwartz, Norah; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo; Bacardi-Gascon, Montserrat; Heyman, Melvin B

    2012-08-01

    Previous studies have found increased acculturation to the US lifestyle increases risk for obesity in Latinos. However, methodologies differ, and results in children are inconsistent. Moreover, previous studies have not evaluated risk factors within the heterogeneous US population. We recruited 144 self-identified Latino school children and their mother or father in grades 4-6 in San Francisco parochial schools and South San Francisco public schools using an information letter distributed to all students. Children and parents had weights, heights, demographic information, dietary patterns and lifestyle variables collected in English or Spanish through an interview format. A high percentage of our children were overweight [≥85th percentile body mass index (BMI)] (62.5%) and obese (≥95th percentile BMI) (45.2%). Correspondingly parents also had a high percentage of overweight (BMI ≥ 25 & <30) (40.8%) and obesity (BMI ≥ 30) (45.3%). Mexico was the country of origin for 62.2% of parents, and 26.6% were from Central or South America. In multivariate logistic analysis, speaking Spanish at home was an independent risk factor for obesity [odds ratio (OR) 2.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.28-6.86]. Eating breakfast daily (OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.15-0.78) and consumption of tortas (a Mexican fast food sandwich) (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.21-1.00) were associated with decreased risk. In stratified analysis, significant differences in risk factors existed between Mexican origin versus Central/South American Latino children. The processes of acculturation likely impact eating and lifestyle practices differentially among Latino groups. Interventions should focus on ensuring that all children eat a nutritious breakfast and take into consideration ethnicity when working with Latino populations. PMID:22101726

  9. Acculturation, dietary practices and risk for childhood obesity in an ethnically heterogeneous population of Latino school children in the San Francisco bay area.

    PubMed

    Wojcicki, Janet M; Schwartz, Norah; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo; Bacardi-Gascon, Montserrat; Heyman, Melvin B

    2012-08-01

    Previous studies have found increased acculturation to the US lifestyle increases risk for obesity in Latinos. However, methodologies differ, and results in children are inconsistent. Moreover, previous studies have not evaluated risk factors within the heterogeneous US population. We recruited 144 self-identified Latino school children and their mother or father in grades 4-6 in San Francisco parochial schools and South San Francisco public schools using an information letter distributed to all students. Children and parents had weights, heights, demographic information, dietary patterns and lifestyle variables collected in English or Spanish through an interview format. A high percentage of our children were overweight [≥85th percentile body mass index (BMI)] (62.5%) and obese (≥95th percentile BMI) (45.2%). Correspondingly parents also had a high percentage of overweight (BMI ≥ 25 & <30) (40.8%) and obesity (BMI ≥ 30) (45.3%). Mexico was the country of origin for 62.2% of parents, and 26.6% were from Central or South America. In multivariate logistic analysis, speaking Spanish at home was an independent risk factor for obesity [odds ratio (OR) 2.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.28-6.86]. Eating breakfast daily (OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.15-0.78) and consumption of tortas (a Mexican fast food sandwich) (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.21-1.00) were associated with decreased risk. In stratified analysis, significant differences in risk factors existed between Mexican origin versus Central/South American Latino children. The processes of acculturation likely impact eating and lifestyle practices differentially among Latino groups. Interventions should focus on ensuring that all children eat a nutritious breakfast and take into consideration ethnicity when working with Latino populations.

  10. Cultural Transitions in First-Generation Immigrants: Acculturation of Soviet Jewish Refugee Adolescents and Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briman, Dina; Trickett, Edison J.

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed Soviet Jewish adolescents and parents regarding language, behavior, and identity acculturation. Acculturation occurred in a linear pattern over time for most dimensions of acculturation, with acculturation to the American culture increasing and to the Russian culture decreasing. There were acculturation gaps between parents and children…

  11. Developing Biracial Ethnic Identity: A Review of the Increasing Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herring, Roger D.

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the current status of biracial youth in the United States to enhance readers' awareness of the increasing numerical significance of this population and the problems and issues they face, especially in identity development. Examples of biracial-specific strategies and interventions are offered for consideration by helping…

  12. The Ethnic Identity, Other-Group Attitudes, and Psychosocial Functioning of Asian American Emerging Adults from Two Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juang, Linda P.; Nguyen, Huong H.; Lin, Yunghui

    2006-01-01

    Drawing from two samples of Asian American emerging adults, one in an ethnically concentrated context (n = 108) and the other in an ethnically-dispersed, mainly White context (n = 153), we examined (a) how ethnic identity and other-group attitudes were related to psychosocial functioning (i.e., depression, self-esteem, and connectedness to…

  13. Acculturation gaps in Vietnamese immigrant families: Impact on family relationships

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Joyce; Birman, Dina

    2009-01-01

    Vietnamese immigrants in the United States face acculturation challenges involving the individual, family, and community. Experts suggest that immigrant family members acculturate at different rates resulting in an acculturation gap, which negatively influences family adjustment. In this study we examined the degree and patterns of acculturation differences between 104 first generation immigrant Vietnamese adolescents and their parents, and whether acculturation gap affected family relationships. Operationalizing the “gap” as both absolute value of differences in acculturation and interactions of parent and adolescent acculturation levels, we examined the impact of such gaps in Vietnamese and American language, identity, and behavioral acculturation on family relationships. Results revealed that family cohesion and satisfaction were predicted by gaps in Vietnamese identity acculturation, but not by gaps in other acculturation domains. PMID:20161537

  14. The protective role of ethnic identity for urban adolescent males facing multiple stressors.

    PubMed

    Williams, Joanna L; Aiyer, Sophie M; Durkee, Myles I; Tolan, Patrick H

    2014-10-01

    Having a connection to one's ethnic heritage is considered a protective factor in the face of discrimination; however, it is unclear whether the protective effects are persistent across multiple stressors. Furthermore, the dimensions of ethnic identity that reflect group pride/connection (affirmation) and exploration of the meaning of group membership (achievement) may operate differently in the face of stress. The present study examined the moderating role of ethnic identity affirmation and achievement on concurrent and longitudinal relationships between exposure to stress (discrimination, family hardship, exposure to violence) and antisocial behavior in a sample of 256 Black and Latino male youth (70% Black) living in low-income urban neighborhoods. Using regression analysis, concurrent associations were examined at age 18, and longitudinal associations were tested 18 months later. We found that, among youth experiencing discrimination, high levels of achievement and low levels of affirmation predicted greater aggressive behavior and delinquency. Low affirmation also predicted more criminal offending in the face of discrimination. The two dimensions operated similarly in the context of family stress, in which case high levels of affirmation and achievement predicted lower levels of antisocial behavior. The findings suggest a differential role of the two dimensions of ethnic identity with respect to discrimination; furthermore, the coping skills that may be promoted as youth make meaning of their ethnic group membership may serve as cultural assets in the face of family stress.

  15. Links between race/ethnicity and cultural values as mediated by racial/ethnic identity and moderated by gender.

    PubMed

    Gaines, S O; Marelich, W D; Bledsoe, K L; Steers, W N; Henderson, M C; Granrose, C S; Barájas, L; Hicks, D; Lyde, M; Takahashi, Y; Yum, N; Ríos, D I; García, B F; Farris, K R; Page, M S

    1997-06-01

    Two studies examined whether individualism (orientation toward one's own welfare), collectivism (orientation toward the welfare of one's larger community), and familism (orientation toward the welfare of one's immediate and extended family) are distinct cultural values predicted by race/ ethnicity. The 3 constructs proved to be separate dimensions, although collectivism and familism were positively correlated. In Study 1, persons of color scored higher on collectivism and familism than did Anglos. No differences emerged for individualism. Also, persons of color scored higher than Anglos on racial/ethnic identity, which in turn was a positive predictor of all 3 cultural values. In Study 2, we replicated the group differences on collectivism and familism for men but not for women.

  16. The role of ethnic identity in the relationship of race-related stress to PTSD symptoms among young adults.

    PubMed

    Khaylis, Anna; Waelde, Lynn C; Bruce, Elizabeth Jean

    2007-01-01

    Although many studies have shown that stronger ethnic identity is associated with better adjustment, the role of ethnic identity in the context of race-related threat is unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of ethnic identity on the severity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in the context of race-related stress, particularly to examine whether ethnic identity moderates the effect of racism on consequent PTSD symptoms. Subjects were 91 undergraduate students (11% Caucasian, 6.6% African American, 18.7% Hispanic, 47.3% Asian, 5.5% Middle Eastern, and 8.8% Other) who reported experiences of race-related stress. Race-related stress, ethnic identity, and PTSD symptoms were assessed through self-report measures. Results of a simultaneous multiple regression indicated that ethnic identity moderated PTSD symptoms in response to perceived racism, such that stronger ethnic identity was associated with more PTSD symptoms in the face of increasing levels of race-related stress. Additionally, race-related stress independently predicted PTSD symptoms. These results are consistent with previous findings that ethnic identity increases the experience of distress in the context of self-relevant threat.

  17. The Roles of Ethnic Identity, Anti-White Attitudes, and Academic Self-Concept in African American Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cokley, Kevin O.; Chapman, Collette

    2008-01-01

    Conventional wisdom in much of the educational and psychological literatures states that the ethnic and racial identity of African American students is related to their academic achievement. The purpose of this study was to determine whether ethnic identity and anti-white attitudes predicted the academic achievement of African American students at…

  18. Ethnic Identity and Personal Well-Being of People of Color: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Timothy B.; Silva, Lynda

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes research examining the relationship between the constructs of ethnic identity and personal well-being among people of color in North America. Data from 184 studies analyzed with random effects models yielded an omnibus effect size of r = 0.17, suggesting a modest relationship between the 2 constructs. The relationship was…

  19. Relationships between School Climate and Adolescent Students' Self-Reports of Ethnic and Moral Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldridge, Jill M.; Ala'i, Kate G.; Fraser, Barry J.

    2016-01-01

    This article reports research into associations between students' perceptions of the school climate and self-reports of ethnic and moral identity in high schools in Western Australia. An instrument was developed to assess students' perceptions of their school climate (as a means of monitoring and guiding schools as they are challenged to become…

  20. Afro-Caribbean International Students' Ethnic Identity Development: Fluidity, Intersectionality, Agency, and Performativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malcolm, Zaria T.; Mendoza, Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Afro-Caribbean international students (ACIS) often become engrossed in a complex racial and ethnic dialogue wherein they are thrust into homogenous categorizations forcing them to negotiate their Afro-Caribbean self with other identities perceived by others such as African American, first- and second-generation Caribbean immigrant, African, and…

  1. Discrimination, Ethnic Identity, and Academic Outcomes of Mexican Immigrant Children: The Importance of School Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Christia Spears; Chu, Hui

    2012-01-01

    This study examined ethnic identity, perceptions of discrimination, and academic attitudes and performance of primarily first- and second-generation Mexican immigrant children living in a predominantly White community (N = 204, 19 schools, mean age = 9 years). The study also examined schools' promotion of multiculturalism and teachers' attitudes…

  2. Intermarriage, Ethnic Identity, and Perceived Social Standing among Asian Women in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Juan; Takeuchi, David T.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the consequences of Asian women's intermarriage-whether it is associated with higher social standing and lower ethnic identity, using data on Asian women (N = 589) from the National Latino and Asian American Survey (NLAAS). The socioeconomic status of partners of women who intermarried and partners of women who married men…

  3. Ethnic Identity, Self-Efficacy, and Intercultural Attitudes in East African and U.S. Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Laura R.; Kim, Eun Ha; Johnson-Pynn, Julie S.; Schulenberg, Stefan E.; Balagaye, Herieth; Lugumya, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    Positive intercultural attitudes and civic action are increasingly important for youth around the world given the economic, social justice, and environmental challenges they face. Among U.S. youth and emerging adults, ethnic identity and self-efficacy are related to positive intercultural attitudes and may prompt civic engagement. Youth's efficacy…

  4. The Effect of Ethnic Identity and Bilingual Confidence on Chinese Youth's Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jennifer Wen-shya

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the interrelated issues of private and public domains of self-esteem, ethnic identity formation, and bilingual confidence among youth of a minority group in a city in western Canada. One hundred, ten Chinese students aged 11-18 from a Chinese-language school were randomly surveyed. Most items of the instrument are derived from…

  5. Heritage Language Maintenance and Japanese Identity Formation: What Role Can Schooling and Ethnic Community Contact Play?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oriyama, Kaya

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the role of schooling and ethnic community contact in ethnolinguistic and cultural identity construction and heritage language maintenance through the surveys and narratives of three groups of Japanese-English bilingual youths and their parents in Sydney, Australia, as a part of a larger longitudinal study from childhood. The…

  6. Use of Group Counseling to Address Ethnic Identity Development: Application with Adolescents of Mexican Descent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malott, Krista M.; Paone, Tina R.; Humphreys, Kourtney; Martinez, Triana

    2010-01-01

    This article provides qualitative outcomes from a group counseling intervention whose goal was to facilitate the ethnic identity development of Mexican-origin youth. Outcomes revealed that participants perceived group participation as meaningful. Themes that emerged from the data included the importance of the relationship to engender change,…

  7. Language Measurement Equivalence of the Ethnic Identity Scale with Mexican American Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Rebecca M. B.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Knight, George P.; Zeiders, Katharine H.

    2011-01-01

    The current study considers methodological challenges in developmental research with linguistically diverse samples of young adolescents. By empirically examining the cross-language measurement equivalence of a measure assessing three components of ethnic identity development (i.e., exploration, resolution, and affirmation) among Mexican American…

  8. College Adjustment in a Multiethnic Sample: Attachment, Separation-Individuation, and Ethnic Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalsner, Lydia; Pistole, M. Carole

    2003-01-01

    Two hundred fifty-two students completed the Parental Attachment Questionnaire, the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure, the Multigenerational Interconnectedness Scales, and the Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire, Results from Asian, Asian Indian, Black, Hispanic, and White participants revealed sex differences in predicting college…

  9. Ethnic Identity and Body Image among Black and White College Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baugh, Eboni; Mullis, Ron; Mullis, Ann; Hicks, Mary; Peterson, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examines ethnic identity and body image in black and white college females. Participants: Researchers surveyed 118 students at 2 universities, 1 traditionally white and 1 historically black. Methods: Correlations and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) were used to investigate the relationship between race, ethnic…

  10. Racism-Related Stress and Ethnic Identity as Determinants of African American College Students' Career Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tovar-Murray, Darrick; Jenifer, Ericka S.; Andrusyk, Jara; D'Angelo, Ryan; King, Tia

    2012-01-01

    Drawing primarily on the construct of psychological buffer, the purpose of this study was to explore the extent to which racism-related stress and ethnic identity are determinants of career aspirations. A total of 163 African American college students from a predominately White Midwestern university participated in the study. A moderation…

  11. Understanding the Epistemology of Ethnic Identity Development in Multiethnic College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaudhari, Prema; Pizzolato, Jane Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    We examined the nuances of multiethnic identity in 22 self-identifying mixed ethnic college students ranging from 17 years of age to 27 years of age via semistructured interviews. Majority of the sample was predominantly female. The participants were recruited from two institutions in a metropolitan area of the Eastern United States. Results…

  12. Ariadne's Thread and Indra's Net: Reflections on Ethnography, Ethnicity, Identity, Culture, and Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moerman, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Defines and illustrates the main tools used in intercultural research: ethnography, ethnicity, social interaction, identity, and culture. These are the ongoing product of intersecting processes. All are social accomplishments, influenced by the context in which they occur. The anthropologist and native jointly participate in these enterprises. (17…

  13. Imagined Identity of Ethnic Koreans and Its Implication for Bilingual Education in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Fang

    2012-01-01

    Imagined identity is the way of positioning individuals or being positioned by others in an imagined world, where individuals' cultural identifications interplay with cultural and language practices. This lays the basis for the current research on the construction of imagined memberships by two young ethnic Korean students in China. An analysis of…

  14. A Meta-Analysis of the Correlation between Heritage Language and Ethnic Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mu, Guanglun Michael

    2015-01-01

    The interaction between heritage language (HL) and ethnic identity has gained increasing scholarly attention over the past decades. Numerous quantitative studies have investigated and vindicated this interaction within certain contexts. Nevertheless, quantitative evidence on this interaction across contexts is absent to date. The current…

  15. School Community Engaging with Immigrant Youth: Incorporating Personal/Social Development and Ethnic Identity Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Laura M.; Eades, Mark P.; Supple, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    It has been projected that 33% of all school children will be from immigrant households by the year 2040 (Suarez-Orozco et al., 2010). For school personnel (e.g., administrators, counselors, teachers) working with immigrant youth and adolescents, understanding ethnic identity development is an essential cultural competency. In this essay, the…

  16. Perceived Opportunity, Ethnic Identity, and Achievement Motivation among Latinos at a Selective Public University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivas-Drake, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    Using in-depth interview data, this study explored perceptions of opportunity, ethnic identity beliefs, and motivation orientations among Latino students at a selective university. One profile is characterized by individualistic achievement motivations, feelings of exemption from social barriers, and a sense of alienation from other Latinos.…

  17. Dancing with Ethnic Identities: An Aboriginal Dance Club in a Taiwanese Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Shwu-Meei; Lee, Young Ah

    2015-01-01

    Research in Taiwan has shown that aboriginal students often have low self-esteem and a negative view of their life due to their heritage. This research studied 14 Taiwan aboriginal students to understand how the experience of an aboriginal dance club influenced the development of their ethnic identity. The results showed that the experiences of…

  18. "It's Different Lives": A Guatemalan American Adolescent's Construction of Ethnic and Gender Identities across Educational Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ek, Lucila D.

    2009-01-01

    Drawing from a multiyear ethnography and a longitudinal case study, this article examines how one Guatemalan American teenager negotiates the multiple socializations to ethnic and gender identities in her home, her Pentecostal church, and her high school. She must face processes of Americanization and Mexicanization. Americanization's thrust is to…

  19. An Exploration of Young Children's Ethnic Identities as Communities of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Ian

    2007-01-01

    This study is concerned with experiences of ethnic identity amongst a group of three-year-old and four-year-old children, four-fifths of whom are of Pakistani heritage and the remainder of white indigenous heritage. Focused on a nursery school in the United Kingdom, the study explores the relationship between the individual and the social and…

  20. Rethinking the Concept of Acculturation

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Szapocznik, José

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an expanded model of acculturation among international migrants and their immediate descendants. Acculturation is proposed as a multidimensional process consisting of the confluence among heritage-cultural and receiving-cultural practices, values, and identifications. The implications of this reconceptualization for the acculturation construct, as well as for its relationship to psychosocial and health outcomes, are discussed. In particular, an expanded operationalization of acculturation is needed to address the “immigrant paradox,” whereby international migrants with more exposure to the receiving cultural context report poorer mental and physical health outcomes. We discuss the role of ethnicity, cultural similarity, and discrimination in the acculturation process, offer an operational definition for context of reception, and call for studies on the role that context of reception plays in the acculturation process. The new perspective on acculturation presented in this article is intended to yield a fuller understanding of complex acculturation processes and their relationships to contextual and individual functioning. PMID:20455618

  1. Gender Self-Definition and Gender Self-Acceptance in Women: Intersections with Feminist, Womanist, and Ethnic Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Rose Marie

    2006-01-01

    The author explored the relationships among women's gender identity constructs as well as the relationships of those constructs to ethnic identity. Nine of the 12 hypothesized relationships between gender self-definition and female identity development statuses and between gender self-acceptance and female identity development statuses were…

  2. Premigration ethnic and national identities: Jewish adolescents planning emigration from Russia and Ukraine to Israel.

    PubMed

    Tartakovsky, Eugene

    2011-10-01

    The ethnic and national identities of Jewish high-school adolescents planning emigration from Russia and Ukraine to Israel were investigated about six months before their emigration. The national identities of adolescent emigrants (n = 243) were compared with those of non-emigrant Russian and Ukrainian adolescents (n = 740). The emigrants' attitude to their country of origin was less positive and their identification with Russians and Ukrainians was weaker as compared with the non-emigrant adolescents. In addition, the attitude of the emigrants towards Israel was more positive than their attitude to Russia or Ukraine. Finally, the emigrants' strongest identification was with the Jewish people, followed by identification with Israelis, while their weakest identification was with Russians and Ukrainians. Israeli and Jewish identities of the emigrant adolescents were positively correlated, and they were independent of the Russian and Ukrainian identities. Perceived discrimination was negatively correlated with the emigrants' attitude to Russia or Ukraine, and it was positively correlated with the emigrants' identification with Israelis and with the Jewish people. Jewish ethnicity was correlated with identification with Jewish people; however, it was not correlated with any component of the Israeli or Russian/Ukrainian identities. The study results indicate that in the premigration period emigrants form a multidimensional system of ethnic and national identities, which reflects their partial detachment from their homeland and affiliation with the country of provisional immigration. This premigration identity system may be termed "anticipatory" (cf. Merton, 1968), because it is not based on real contact with the country of provisional immigration, but rather on the emigrants' expectations. On the other hand, the premigration identities are reactive, in the sense that they reflect the emigrants' reaction to the perceived discrimination they experience in their

  3. Korean Adoptee Identity: Adoptive and Ethnic Identity Profiles of Adopted Korean Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaupre, Adam J.; Reichwald, Reed; Zhou, Xiang; Raleigh, Elizabeth; Lee, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    Adopted Korean adolescents face the task of grappling with their identity as Koreans and coming to terms with their adoptive status. In order to explore these dual identities, the authors conducted a person-centered study of the identity profiles of 189 adopted Korean American adolescents. Using cluster analytic procedures, the study examined…

  4. Understanding the Acculturation Experience of Chinese Adolescent Students: Sociocultural Adaptation Strategies and a Positive Bicultural and Bilingual Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tong, Virginia M.

    2014-01-01

    The acculturation of Chinese immigrant high school students was examined as it relates to students' level of interaction with teachers and peers and participation in American school activities. Findings from a regression analysis revealed five variables (sociocultural adaptation strategies) that facilitate students' adjustment process:…

  5. Immigrant Arab adolescents in ethnic enclaves: physical and phenomenological contexts of identity negotiation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Revathy; Seay, Nancy; Karabenick, Stuart A

    2015-04-01

    Ecologically embedded social identity theories were used to examine the risk and protective factors associated with the identity negotiation and adjustment of recent immigrant Arab (IA) adolescents to the United States residing in ethnic enclaves. Yemeni, Lebanese, and Iraqi 8th-graders (n = 45) from 4 ethnic enclave schools participated in focus-group interviews. In-depth analyses of interviews revealed that living in an ethnic enclave enhanced IA adolescents' feelings of belonging to the community. However, the new immigrant status coupled with country of origin determined the permeability of intergroup boundaries with well-established Arab and Arab American peers. Their identity negotiations and social identity salience (national, religious, and pan-Arab) were informed by transitional experiences from home to host country and the prevailing political and cultural tensions between the two, recognition of national hierarchy within the Arab community, perceptions of discrimination by the larger society, changed educational aspirations consequent to immigration, and current physical (school and community) and phenomenological contexts. Findings suggest that current theoretical perspectives should be extended to incorporate phenomenological representations of past spaces and places not currently occupied to understand adolescents' multifaceted identity.

  6. The Impact of Racial Identity, Ethnic Identity, Asian Values, and Race-Related Stress on Asian Americans and Asian International College Students' Psychological Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Liu, William Ming

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the direct and moderating effects of racial identity, ethnic identity, Asian values, and race-related stress on positive psychological well-being among 402 Asian American and Asian international college students. Results revealed that the racial identity statuses Internalization, Immersion-Emersion, Dissonance, Asian…

  7. Cultural Strengths as Moderators of the Relationship between Acculturation to the Mainstream U.S. Society and Eating- and Body-Related Concerns among Mexican American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bettendorf, Sonya K.; Fischer, Ann R.

    2009-01-01

    This study explored whether 3 culturally relevant variables (i.e., ethnic identity, familism, and enculturation) operated as sources of strength for 209 Mexican American women by buffering the relationship between their acculturation to the mainstream U.S. society and eating- and body-related concerns. In an effort to capture the underlying…

  8. Negotiating Identity Development among Undocumented Immigrant College Students: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Lauren M.; Chen, Eric C.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the identity development process of 11 undocumented college students living in the United States, focusing on how undocumented college students negotiate the interplay of acculturation, ethnic identity, and educational and career pursuits. A semistructured interview protocol was used and data analysis was iterative,…

  9. Change in ethnic identity across the high school years among adolescents with Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Kiang, Lisa; Witkow, Melissa R; Baldelomar, Oscar A; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2010-06-01

    Changes in adolescents' ethnic identity (e.g., exploration, belonging) were examined over the 4 years of high school. Results from 541 adolescents (51% female) with Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds suggest that, as a group, adolescents do not report developmental changes in their ethnic exploration and belonging over time. Yet, within-person analyses of change reveal that individual adolescents exhibited substantial fluctuation in ethnic identity across the years, and this fluctuation was associated with concurrent changes in family cohesion, proportion of same-ethnic peers, and ethnic centrality. The discussion focuses on the value of examining intraindividual change over at least several years in order to more fully understand processes of ethnic identity development during adolescence.

  10. Ethnic identity, perceived support, and depressive symptoms among racial minority immigrant-origin adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tummala-Narra, Pratyusha

    2015-01-01

    Although racial minority immigrant-origin adolescents compose a rapidly growing sector of the U.S. population, few studies have examined the role of contextual factors in mental health among these youth. The present study examined the relationship between ethnic identity and depressive symptoms, the relationship between perceived social support and depressive symptoms, and the relationship between sociodemographic factors (ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status) and depressive symptoms, among a culturally diverse group of adolescents. In addition, the potential moderating role of nativity status (U.S. born vs. foreign born) was examined in these associations. Participants were 9th and 10th graders (N = 341; 141 foreign born and 200 U.S. born, from Asian, Latino(a), and Afro-Caribbean backgrounds), attending an urban high school. Consistent with previous research, ethnic identity was negatively associated with depressive symptomatology in the overall sample. Nativity status did not moderate the relationship between ethnic identity and depressive symptoms. Among the sociodemographic factors examined, only gender was associated with depressive symptoms, with girls reporting higher levels of depressive symptoms compared with boys. Contrary to expectations, there were no differences in the degree of depressive symptomatology between U.S.-born and foreign-born adolescents, and perceived social support was not associated with fewer depressive symptoms. The findings suggest the importance of gender and ethnic identity in mental health and, more broadly, the complexity of social location in mental health outcomes among U.S.-born and foreign-born immigrant-origin adolescents. Implications for research and interventions with immigrant-origin adolescents are discussed.

  11. Say “Adios” to the American Dream? The Interplay Between Ethnic and National Identity Among Latino and Caucasian Americans

    PubMed Central

    Devos, Thierry; Gavin, Kelly; Quintana, Francisco J.

    2011-01-01

    In three studies, implicit and explicit measures were used to examine the interconnections between ethnic and national identities among Latino Americans and Caucasian Americans. Consistently, Latino Americans as a group were conceived of as being less American than Caucasian Americans (Studies 1–3). This effect was exhibited by both Caucasian and Latino participants. Overall, Caucasian participants displayed a stronger national identification than Latino participants (Studies 2 and 3). In addition, ethnic American associations accounted for the strength of national identification for Caucasian participants, but not for Latino participants (Study 2). Finally, ethnic differences in national identification among individuals who exclude Latino Americans from the national identity emerged when persistent ethnic disparities were primed, but not when increasing equalities were stressed (Study 3). In sum, ethnic American associations account for the merging versus dissociation between ethnic and national identifications and reflect a long-standing ethnic hierarchy in American society. PMID:20099963

  12. Say "adios" to the American dream? The interplay between ethnic and national identity among Latino and Caucasian Americans.

    PubMed

    Devos, Thierry; Gavin, Kelly; Quintana, Francisco J

    2010-01-01

    In three studies, implicit and explicit measures were used to examine the interconnections between ethnic and national identities among Latino Americans and Caucasian Americans. Consistently, Latino Americans as a group were conceived of as being less American than Caucasian Americans (Studies 1-3). This effect was exhibited by both Caucasian and Latino participants. Overall, Caucasian participants displayed a stronger national identification than Latino participants (Studies 2 and 3). In addition, ethnic American associations accounted for the strength of national identification for Caucasian participants, but not for Latino participants (Study 2). Finally, ethnic differences in national identification among individuals who exclude Latino Americans from the national identity emerged when persistent ethnic disparities were primed, but not when increasing equalities were stressed (Study 3). In sum, ethnic American associations account for the merging versus dissociation between ethnic and national identifications and reflect a long-standing ethnic hierarchy in American society. PMID:20099963

  13. Content analysis of acculturation research in counseling and counseling psychology: a 22-year review.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Eunju; Langrehr, Kimberly; Ong, Lee Za

    2011-01-01

    The authors conducted a 22-year (1988–2009) content analysis of quantitative empirical research that included acculturation and/or enculturation as a study variable(s). A total of 138 studies in 134 articles were systematically evaluated from 5 major American Psychological Association and American Counseling Association journals in counseling and counseling psychology, including Journal of Counseling Psychology, The Counseling Psychologist, Journal of Counseling and Development, Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, and Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology. To guide the analysis, the authors conceptualized acculturation/enculturation as a “bilinear” (i.e., developing cultural orientations to both majority and ethnic cultures) and “multidimensional” (i.e., across multiple areas such as behaviors, values, identity, and knowledge) cultural socialization process that occurs in interaction with “social contexts” (e.g., home, school, work, West Coast, Midwest). Findings include the patterns and trends of acculturation/enculturation research in (a) conceptualization and use of acculturation/enculturation variable(s), (b) research designs (e.g., sample characteristics, instruments, data collection, and analysis methods), (c) content areas, and (d) changes in total publications and trends over time. Additionally, meta-analyses were conducted on the relationship of acculturation/enculturation and a few key variables of mental health, adjustment, and well-being. Major findings and directions for future research are discussed.

  14. Cultural Transition and Academic Achievement of Students from Ethnic Minority Backgrounds: A Content Analysis of Empirical Research on Acculturation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makarova, Elena; Birman, Dina

    2015-01-01

    Background: The achievement gap between immigrant and non-immigrant students that has been identified in most OECD countries and the considerable educational dropout rate among students from ethnic minority backgrounds in some countries have become serious challenges for national educational systems. The educational underachievement of young…

  15. The impact of racial identity, ethnic identity, asian values and race-related stress on Asian Americans and Asian international college students' psychological well-being.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Liu, William Ming

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigated the direct and moderating effects of racial identity, ethnic identity, Asian values, and race-related stress on positive psychological well-being among 402 Asian American and Asian international college students. Results revealed that the racial identity statuses Internalization, Immersion-Emersion, Dissonance, Asian values and Ethnic Identity Affirmation and Belonging were significant predictors of well-being. Asian values, Dissonance and Conformity were found to moderate the relationship between race-related stress on well-being. Specifically, individuals in low race-related stress conditions who had low Asian values, high Conformity and low Dissonance attitudes started high on well being but decreased as race-related stress increased. These findings underscore the importance of how racial identity statuses, Asian values and ethnic identity jointly and uniquely explain and moderate the effects of race-related stress on positive well-being. Implications for future research and clinical practice are discussed. PMID:20396592

  16. The impact of racial identity, ethnic identity, asian values and race-related stress on Asian Americans and Asian international college students' psychological well-being.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Liu, William Ming

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigated the direct and moderating effects of racial identity, ethnic identity, Asian values, and race-related stress on positive psychological well-being among 402 Asian American and Asian international college students. Results revealed that the racial identity statuses Internalization, Immersion-Emersion, Dissonance, Asian values and Ethnic Identity Affirmation and Belonging were significant predictors of well-being. Asian values, Dissonance and Conformity were found to moderate the relationship between race-related stress on well-being. Specifically, individuals in low race-related stress conditions who had low Asian values, high Conformity and low Dissonance attitudes started high on well being but decreased as race-related stress increased. These findings underscore the importance of how racial identity statuses, Asian values and ethnic identity jointly and uniquely explain and moderate the effects of race-related stress on positive well-being. Implications for future research and clinical practice are discussed.

  17. The Impact of Racial Identity, Ethnic Identity, Asian Values and Race-Related Stress on Asian Americans and Asian International College Students’ Psychological Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Liu, William Ming

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigated the direct and moderating effects of racial identity, ethnic identity, Asian values, and race-related stress on positive psychological well-being among 402 Asian American and Asian international college students. Results revealed that the racial identity statuses Internalization, Immersion-Emersion, Dissonance, Asian values and Ethnic Identity Affirmation and Belonging were significant predictors of well-being. Asian values, Dissonance and Conformity were found to moderate the relationship between race-related stress on well-being. Specifically, individuals in low race-related stress conditions who had low Asian values, high Conformity and low Dissonance attitudes started high on well being but decreased as race-related stress increased. These findings underscore the importance of how racial identity statuses, Asian values and ethnic identity jointly and uniquely explain and moderate the effects of race-related stress on positive well-being. Implications for future research and clinical practice are discussed. PMID:20396592

  18. The role of mothers' and adolescents' perceptions of ethnic-racial socialization in shaping ethnic-racial identity among early adolescent boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Diane; Hagelskamp, Carolin; Way, Niobe; Foust, Monica D

    2009-05-01

    The current study examined relationships between adolescents' and mothers' reports of ethnic-racial socialization and adolescents' ethnic-racial identity. The sample included 170 sixth graders (49% boys, 51% girls) and their mothers, all of whom identified as Black, Puerto Rican, Dominican, or Chinese. Two dimensions of ethnic-racial socialization (cultural socialization and preparation for bias) were evaluated alongside three dimensions of ethnic-racial identity (exploration, affirmation and belonging, and behavioral engagement). Mothers' reports of their cultural socialization predicted adolescents' reports, but only adolescents' reports predicted adolescents' ethnic-racial identity processes. Mothers' reports of preparation for bias predicted boys' but not girls' reports of preparation for bias. Again, only adolescents' reports of preparation for bias predicted their ethnic-racial identity. Thus, several gender differences in relationships emerged, with mothers' and adolescents' perceptions of cultural socialization, in particular, playing a more important role in girls' than in boys' identity processes. We discuss the implications of these findings for future research.

  19. Ethnic Identity, Externalizing Problem Behaviour and the Mediating Role of Self-Esteem among Dutch, Turkish-Dutch and Moroccan-Dutch Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wissink, Inge B.; Dekovic, Maja; Yagmur, Sengul; Stams, Geert Jan; de Haan, Mariette

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined whether self-esteem mediates the relationship between two aspects of ethnic identity (i.e. ethnic identity exploration and ethnic identity commitment-affirmation) and externalizing problem behaviour in Dutch, Turkish-Dutch and Moroccan-Dutch adolescents living in the Netherlands. A total number of 345 adolescents (115…

  20. Racial-ethnic identity in mid-adolescence: content and change as predictors of academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Altschul, Inna; Oyserman, Daphna; Bybee, Deborah

    2006-01-01

    Three aspects of racial-ethnic identity (REI)-feeling connected to one's racial-ethnic group (Connectedness), being aware that others may not value the in-group (Awareness of Racism), and feeling that one's in-group is characterized by academic attainment (Embedded Achievement)-were hypothesized to promote academic achievement. Youth randomly selected from 3 low-income, urban schools (n=98 African American, n=41 Latino) reported on their REI 4 times over 2 school years. Hierarchical linear modeling shows a small increase in REI and the predicted REI-grades relationship. Youth high in both REI Connectedness and Embedded Achievement attained better grade point average (GPA) at each point in time; youth high in REI Connectedness and Awareness of Racism at the beginning of 8th grade attained better GPA through 9th grade. Effects are not moderated by race-ethnicity.

  1. Group Identity and Peer Relations: A Longitudinal Study of Group Identity, Perceived Peer Acceptance, and Friendships amongst Ethnic Minority English Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutland, Adam; Cameron, Lindsey; Jugert, Philipp; Nigbur, Dennis; Brown, Rupert; Watters, Charles; Hossain, Rosa; Landau, Anick; Le Touze, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    This research examined whether peer relationships amongst ethnic minority status children reflect the social groups to which children belong and the degree to which they identify with these groups. A longitudinal study was conducted to investigate the influence of group identities (i.e., ethnic and national) on children's perceived peer acceptance…

  2. Social identity complexity and immigrants' attitude toward the host nation: the intersection of ethnic and religious group identification.

    PubMed

    Verkuyten, Maykel; Martinovic, Borja

    2012-09-01

    Social identity complexity refers to individual differences in the interrelationships among multiple ingroup identities. The present research conducted in the Netherlands examines social identity complexity in relation to Muslim immigrants' national identification and the attitude toward the host majority. Three studies are reported that focused on the interrelationship between ethnicity and religion and examined social identity complexity in different ways. Study 1 showed that lower social identity complexity is associated with lower national identification. Studies 2 and 3 examined the interaction between ethnic and religious group identification. For Muslim identifiers, higher ethnic identification was related to lower national identification and higher ingroup bias (Studies 2) and lower endorsement of national liberal practices (Study 3). In contrast, for those who did not strongly identify with Muslims, higher ethnic identification was associated with higher national identification, stronger endorsement of Dutch liberal practices, and more positive stereotypes about the Dutch outgroup (Study 3).

  3. Dimensions of belonging as an aspect of racial-ethnic-cultural identity: an exploration of indigenous Australians.

    PubMed

    Neville, Helen A; Oyama, Kathleen E; Odunewu, Latifat O; Huggins, Jackie G

    2014-07-01

    Sense of belonging is a key aspect of racial and ethnic identity. Interestingly, there is little exploration of the multiple characteristics of belongingness within the racial and ethnic identity literature. Through individual interviews and a focus group, we explored the sense of racial-ethnic-cultural (REC) belonging among 19 self-identified Black Indigenous Australians (Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders). Using dimensional analysis, we uncovered 5 core interrelated dimensions of REC belonging: History/Memory, Place, and Peoplehood; Sense of Community; Acceptance and Pride; Shared Language and Culture; and Interconnections. We also uncovered 3 main barriers undermining participants' sense of REC belonging: phenotype, social identity, and history of colonization. PMID:25019545

  4. Dimensions of belonging as an aspect of racial-ethnic-cultural identity: an exploration of indigenous Australians.

    PubMed

    Neville, Helen A; Oyama, Kathleen E; Odunewu, Latifat O; Huggins, Jackie G

    2014-07-01

    Sense of belonging is a key aspect of racial and ethnic identity. Interestingly, there is little exploration of the multiple characteristics of belongingness within the racial and ethnic identity literature. Through individual interviews and a focus group, we explored the sense of racial-ethnic-cultural (REC) belonging among 19 self-identified Black Indigenous Australians (Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders). Using dimensional analysis, we uncovered 5 core interrelated dimensions of REC belonging: History/Memory, Place, and Peoplehood; Sense of Community; Acceptance and Pride; Shared Language and Culture; and Interconnections. We also uncovered 3 main barriers undermining participants' sense of REC belonging: phenotype, social identity, and history of colonization.

  5. Language Measurement Equivalence of the Ethnic Identity Scale With Mexican American Early Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    White, Rebecca M. B.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Knight, George P.; Zeiders, Katharine H.

    2011-01-01

    The current study considers methodological challenges in developmental research with linguistically diverse samples of young adolescents. By empirically examining the cross-language measurement equivalence of a measure assessing three components of ethnic identity development (i.e., exploration, resolution, and affirmation) among Mexican American adolescents, the study both assesses the cross-language measurement equivalence of a common measure of ethnic identity and provides an appropriate conceptual and analytical model for researchers needing to evaluate measurement scales translated into multiple languages. Participants are 678 Mexican-origin early adolescents and their mothers. Measures of exploration and resolution achieve the highest levels of equivalence across language versions. The measure of affirmation achieves high levels of equivalence. Results highlight potential ways to correct for any problems of nonequivalence across language versions of the affirmation measure. Suggestions are made for how researchers working with linguistically diverse samples can use the highlighted techniques to evaluate their own translated measures. PMID:22116736

  6. The role of language in ethnic identity measurement: a multitrait-multimethod approach to construct validation.

    PubMed

    Laroche, Michel; Pons, Frank; Richard, Marie-Odile

    2009-08-01

    The authors focused on the role of language use in measuring ethnic identity. They demonstrated the construct validity of a 3-dimensional measure and examined potential biases introduced by alternative methods such as constant sum scale. Their findings support the distinction between the 3 subdimensions of language use (English use in family, in media consumption, and while shopping). The authors found evidence of discriminant validity. By using 3 approaches to construct validity, they found that the support for discriminant validity strengthens the discriminant and convergent properties of the instrument. Findings concerning method effects were less obvious. If the traditional multitrait-multimethod approach indicates no method effects, more stringent approaches (e.g., analysis of variance and correlated uniqueness approach) indicate the presence of limited method effects. The authors provide implications regarding measurement of ethnic identity.

  7. Language Measurement Equivalence of the Ethnic Identity Scale With Mexican American Early Adolescents.

    PubMed

    White, Rebecca M B; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Knight, George P; Zeiders, Katharine H

    2011-12-01

    The current study considers methodological challenges in developmental research with linguistically diverse samples of young adolescents. By empirically examining the cross-language measurement equivalence of a measure assessing three components of ethnic identity development (i.e., exploration, resolution, and affirmation) among Mexican American adolescents, the study both assesses the cross-language measurement equivalence of a common measure of ethnic identity and provides an appropriate conceptual and analytical model for researchers needing to evaluate measurement scales translated into multiple languages. Participants are 678 Mexican-origin early adolescents and their mothers. Measures of exploration and resolution achieve the highest levels of equivalence across language versions. The measure of affirmation achieves high levels of equivalence. Results highlight potential ways to correct for any problems of nonequivalence across language versions of the affirmation measure. Suggestions are made for how researchers working with linguistically diverse samples can use the highlighted techniques to evaluate their own translated measures.

  8. Career Maturity, Life Role Salience, and Racial/Ethnic Identity in Black and Asian American College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Robert T.; Constantine, Madonna G.

    2000-01-01

    Black (n=113) and Asian American (n=68) students completed racial/ethnic identity, career development, and salience instruments. Among blacks, there was a significant relationship between racial identity attitudes and life role salience domains. For Asian Americans, cultural identity attitudes were significantly related to career maturity domains.…

  9. Associations Between Ethnic Labels and Substance Use Among Hispanic/Latino Adolescents in Los Angeles

    PubMed Central

    Unger, Jennifer B; Thing, James; Soto, Daniel Wood; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes

    2014-01-01

    Self-identification with ethnic-specific labels may indicate successful ethnic identity formation, which could protect against substance use. Alternatively, it might indicate affiliation with oppositional subcultures, a potential risk factor. This study examined longitudinal associations between ethnic labels and substance use among 1,575 Hispanic adolescents in Los Angeles. Adolescents who identified as Cholo or La Raza in 9th grade were at increased risk of past-month substance use in 11th grade. Associations were similar across gender and were not confounded by socioeconomic status, ethnic identity development, acculturation, or language use. Targeted prevention interventions for adolescents who identify with these subcultures may be warranted. PMID:24779500

  10. The relationship between ethnic identity and Chlamydia and Gonorrhea infections among low-income detained African American adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Voisin, Dexter R; Salazar, Laura F; Crosby, Richard; Diclemente, Ralph J

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between ethnic identity and Chlamydia and Gonorrhea infections among detained African American female adolescents. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 123 African American female adolescents within eight detention facilities in Georgia. Using audio-computer assisted self-interviewing technology, data were collected on demographics, ethnic identity, laboratory-confirmed Chlamydia and Gonorrhea, and other known correlates for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), such as socioeconomic status, parental monitoring, and risky sexual behaviors. Rates of Chlamydia and Gonorrhea testing yielded incidence rates of 22.6% and 4.3%, respectively. Findings indicated that, controlling for STI correlates, participants who indicated high ethnic identity were 4.3 times more likely to test positive for an STI compared to those scoring low on the measure of ethnic identity.

  11. Ethnic Identity and Substance Use Among Mexican-Heritage Preadolescents: Moderator Effects of Gender and Time in the United States.

    PubMed

    Kulis, Stephen S; Marsiglia, Flavio F; Kopak, Albert M; Olmsted, Maureen E; Crossman, Ashley

    2012-04-01

    This study examined interactive relationships among ethnic identity, gender, time in the US, and changes in substance use outcomes among a school-based sample of 1,731 Mexican-heritage preadolescents (ages 9-13). Residual change multilevel models adjusting for school clustering and using multiply imputed data assessed changes from beginning to end of fifth grade in use of alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana and inhalants, and four substance use antecedents. Effects of ethnic identity were conditional on time in the US, and in opposite directions by gender. Among males living longer in the US, stronger ethnic identity predicted desirable changes in all but one outcome (substance offers). Among females living longer in the US, stronger ethnic identity predicted undesirable changes in alcohol use, pro-drug norms, and peer substance use. Interpretations focus on differential exposure to substance use opportunities and the erosion of traditional gender role socialization among Mexican-heritage youth having lived longer in the US.

  12. Ethnic Identity and Substance Use Among Mexican-Heritage Preadolescents: Moderator Effects of Gender and Time in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Kulis, Stephen S.; Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Kopak, Albert M.; Olmsted, Maureen E.; Crossman, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    This study examined interactive relationships among ethnic identity, gender, time in the US, and changes in substance use outcomes among a school-based sample of 1,731 Mexican-heritage preadolescents (ages 9–13). Residual change multilevel models adjusting for school clustering and using multiply imputed data assessed changes from beginning to end of fifth grade in use of alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana and inhalants, and four substance use antecedents. Effects of ethnic identity were conditional on time in the US, and in opposite directions by gender. Among males living longer in the US, stronger ethnic identity predicted desirable changes in all but one outcome (substance offers). Among females living longer in the US, stronger ethnic identity predicted undesirable changes in alcohol use, pro-drug norms, and peer substance use. Interpretations focus on differential exposure to substance use opportunities and the erosion of traditional gender role socialization among Mexican-heritage youth having lived longer in the US. PMID:22790485

  13. The psychology of diaspora experiences: intergroup contact, perceived discrimination, and the ethnic identity of Koreans in China.

    PubMed

    Lee, Richard M; Noh, Chi-Young; Yoo, Hyung Chol; Doh, Hyun-Sim

    2007-04-01

    The moderating role of intergroup contact on the relationship between perceived discrimination and ethnic identity was examined in a diaspora community of Koreans living in China. It was hypothesized that Koreans with higher intergroup contact would have a lower ethnic identity under higher discrimination, whereas Koreans with lower intergroup contact would have a higher ethnic identity. Across two separate college samples, Koreans who were more willing to interact with Han Chinese had a lower ethnic identity when discrimination was higher, but this finding was not replicated within one college setting. These findings challenge the linear rejection-identification model and suggest displaced people may minimize ingroup-outgroup differences, depending on their willingness to seek intergroup contact.

  14. Crossing Cultural Borders into Science Teaching: Early Life Experiences, Racial and Ethnic Identities, and Beliefs about Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Brenda R.; Glasson, George E.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this ethnographic study was to explore the development of belief systems as related to racial and ethnic identities of preservice teachers as they crossed cultural borders into science teaching. Data were collected throughout a yearlong teacher preparation program to learn how early life experiences and racial and ethnic identities…

  15. Self-Esteem and the Evaluation of Ethnic Identity among Turkish and Dutch Adolescents in the Netherlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verkuyten, Maykel

    1990-01-01

    Reports results from a nationwide sample in the Netherlands examining effects of minority status on Turkish adolescents. Finds that Turkish ethnicity did not significantly lower self-esteem. Reveals that (for both groups) body image had the greatest impact on self-esteem. Reports ethnic identity was more salient to Turks' self-concept than to…

  16. '"I’m Not Going to Become No Rapper": Stereotypes as a Context of Ethnic and Racial Identity Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Way, Niobe; Hernandez, Maria G.; Rogers, Leoandra Onnie; Hughes, Diane L.

    2013-01-01

    Few studies examine how the macro context shapes ethnic or racial identity development during early adolescence. This analysis draws on interview data from 40 African American, Chinese American, Dominican American, and European American middle school students (6th through 8th grade) to explore how stereotypes inform adolescents' ethnic and racial…

  17. Pregnant and Parenting Adolescents: A Study of Ethnic Identity, Emotional and Behavioral Functioning, Child Characteristics, and Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sieger, Karin; Renk, Kimberly

    2007-01-01

    This study examined relationships among the ethnic identity, behavior problems, self-esteem, and social support of 166 ethnically diverse pregnant and parenting adolescents, the majority of whom were African American and Hispanic American, and their infants. Results indicated that pregnant and parenting adolescent females were experiencing…

  18. Perceived and Actual Competence and Ethnic Identity in Heritage Language Learning: A Case of Korean-American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Hyun-Sook; Kim, In-sop

    2012-01-01

    A growing body of literature has explored issues surrounding the maintenance and development of a minority heritage language among immigrants and their children in relation to their ethnic identities in multi-ethnic societies. However, most of the studies either have alluded to heritage learners' language competence by way of their attitudes and…

  19. Contextual Identities: Ethnic and National Identities of International and American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batterton, Jessica; Horner, Sherri L.

    2016-01-01

    As the number of international students studying at American universities continues to grow (Institute of International Education, 2014), campuses are increasingly becoming social spaces where the local, national, and international meet. Even though students' identities may still be developing in college (Arnett, 2000) and their environment may…

  20. Attitudes to cosmetic surgery among ethnic minority groups in Britain: cultural mistrust, adherence to traditional cultural values, and ethnic identity salience as protective factors.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren; Hendrikse, Sinead

    2013-01-01

    Previous work has suggested that ethnic minority women have more negative attitudes to cosmetic surgery than British Whites, but reasons for this are not fully understood. To overcome this dearth in the literature, the present study asked 250 British Asian and 250 African Caribbean university students to complete measures of attitudes to cosmetic surgery, cultural mistrust, adherence to traditional cultural values, ethnic identity salience, self-esteem, and demographics. Preliminary analyses showed that there were significant between-group differences only on cultural mistrust and self-esteem, although effect sizes were small (d values = .21-.37). Further analyses showed that more negative attitudes to cosmetic surgery were associated with greater cultural mistrust, stronger adherence to traditional values, and stronger ethnic identity salience, although these relationships were weaker for African Caribbean women than for British Asians. These results are discussed in relation to perceptions of cosmetic surgery among ethnic minority women.

  1. Validation of Social Connectedness in Mainstream Society and the Ethnic Community Scales.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Eunju; Jung, Kyoung Rae; Lee, Richard M; Felix-Mora, Monica

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the Social Connectedness in Mainstream Society (SCMN) and the Social Connectedness in the Ethnic Community (SCETH) Scales in two groups of ethnic minorities. We especially examined their theoretical/conceptual and empirical viability in relation to other established constructs of general social connectedness, acculturation, and enculturation. Analyses of two sets of survey data from 200 Mexican American students in California and 134 Asian international students in Minnesota supported (a) construct validity of the SCMN and the SCETH as related but distinct structures, (b) convergent and discriminant validity in relation to acculturation and enculturation, and (c) high reliability. The examination of incremental validity in predicting subjective well-being further supported their distinctive utility in addition to other established constructs of general social connectedness, acculturation, enculturation, ethnic identity, and other group orientation. Implications for future research and practice are discussed. PMID:22250899

  2. Rethinking the concept of acculturation: implications for theory and research.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Seth J; Unger, Jennifer B; Zamboanga, Byron L; Szapocznik, José

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an expanded model of acculturation among international migrants and their immediate descendants. Acculturation is proposed as a multidimensional process consisting of the confluence among heritage-cultural and receiving-cultural practices, values, and identifications. The implications of this reconceptualization for the acculturation construct, as well as for its relationship to psychosocial and health outcomes, are discussed. In particular, an expanded operationalization of acculturation is needed to address the "immigrant paradox," whereby international migrants with more exposure to the receiving cultural context report poorer mental and physical health outcomes. We discuss the role of ethnicity, cultural similarity, and discrimination in the acculturation process, offer an operational definition for context of reception, and call for studies on the role that context of reception plays in the acculturation process. The new perspective on acculturation presented in this article is intended to yield a fuller understanding of complex acculturation processes and their relationships to contextual and individual functioning.

  3. The relation of racial identity, ethnic identity, and racial socialization to discrimination-distress: a meta-analysis of Black Americans.

    PubMed

    Lee, Debbiesiu L; Ahn, Soyeon

    2013-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized the results of 27 studies examining the relations of racial identity, ethnic identity, and racial socialization to discrimination-distress for Black Americans. The purpose was to uncover which constructs connected to racial identity, ethnic identity, and racial socialization most strongly correlate with racial discrimination and psychological distress. Discrimination significantly related to aspects of racial identity, including immersion-emersion, public regard, encounter, Afrocentricity/racial centrality/private regard, and internalization. Distress significantly correlated with preencounter/assimilation, encounter, public regard, immersion-emersion, and Afrocentricity/racial centrality/private regard. Several of these relationships were significantly moderated by the measure of racial identity or demographic variables (gender or age). Implications of these findings are discussed.

  4. The relation of racial identity, ethnic identity, and racial socialization to discrimination-distress: a meta-analysis of Black Americans.

    PubMed

    Lee, Debbiesiu L; Ahn, Soyeon

    2013-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized the results of 27 studies examining the relations of racial identity, ethnic identity, and racial socialization to discrimination-distress for Black Americans. The purpose was to uncover which constructs connected to racial identity, ethnic identity, and racial socialization most strongly correlate with racial discrimination and psychological distress. Discrimination significantly related to aspects of racial identity, including immersion-emersion, public regard, encounter, Afrocentricity/racial centrality/private regard, and internalization. Distress significantly correlated with preencounter/assimilation, encounter, public regard, immersion-emersion, and Afrocentricity/racial centrality/private regard. Several of these relationships were significantly moderated by the measure of racial identity or demographic variables (gender or age). Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:23356464

  5. "I am not a skinny toothpick and proud of it": Latina adolescents' ethnic identity and responses to mainstream media images.

    PubMed

    Schooler, Deborah; Daniels, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    Using a quasi-experimental design, 118 Latina girls, ages 13-18, viewed five color photographs of White women. Girls viewed either images of sexualized women or images of non-sexualized women. After viewing the images, girls were asked to complete the sentence stem, "I am…" 20 times. Thirty percent of girls spontaneously described their ethnicity in one of their sentence completions. Spontaneous use of ethnicity was taken as an indicator of the salience of ethnic identity. Among girls who viewed sexualized, thin-ideal White media images, spontaneously using an ethnic descriptor was related to more positive descriptions of one's own body and appearance. Analyses supported the premise that ethnic identity may act as a protective factor, buffering Latina girls from the negative effects of viewing sexualized, thin-ideal White media images. PMID:24125762

  6. Experimentally Evaluating the Impact of a School-Based African-Centered Emancipatory Intervention on the Ethnic Identity of African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Kelly M.; Andrews, Emily; Gaska, Karie; Sullivan, Cris; Bybee, Deborah; Ellick, Kecia L.

    2012-01-01

    Ethnic identity, the extent to which one defines one's self as a member of a particular ethnic group, has been found to be an important predictor of African American adolescents' psychological and behavioral well-being. This study experimentally examined the effects of a school-based emancipatory intervention on the ethnic identity of African…

  7. Examining multiracial youth in context: ethnic identity development and mental health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Sycarah; Reynolds, Jennifer L; Hsu, Wei-Wen; Barnes, Jessica; Tyler, Kenneth

    2014-10-01

    Although multiracial individuals are the fastest growing population in the United States, research on the identity development of multiracial adolescents remains scant. This study explores the relationship between ethnic identity, its components (affirmation, exploration), and mental health outcomes (anxiety, depressive symptoms) within the contexts of schools for multiracial adolescents. The participants were multiracial and monoracial minority and majority high school students (n = 4,766; 54.6% female). Among the participants, 88.1% were Caucasian, 7.4% were African American, and 4.5% were multiracial. The research questions examined the relationship between ethnic identity exploration and affirmation on mental health outcomes and explored the role school context plays in this relationship. The findings suggested that multiracial youth experience more exploration and less affirmation than African Americans, but more than Caucasians. In addition, multiracial youth were found to have higher levels of mental health issues than their monoracial minority and majority peers. Specifically, multiracial youth had higher levels of depressive symptoms than their African American and Caucasian counterparts. Multiracial and Caucasian youth had similar levels of anxiety but these levels were significantly higher than African Americans. School diversity did not influence mental health outcomes for multiracial youth. These findings provide insight into the experiences of multiracial youth and underscore the importance of further investigating factors that contribute to their mental health outcomes.

  8. The influences of cultural values, ethnic identity, and language use on the mental health of Korean American college students.

    PubMed

    Hovey, Joseph D; Kim, Sheena E; Seligman, Laura D

    2006-09-01

    Little research has examined ethnic identity, cultural values, and native language maintenance as predictors of mental health in Korean Americans. The authors explored the influences of ethnic identity, maintenance of Asian cultural values, and maintenance of Korean language usage on self-esteem, anxiety, and depression in Korean American college students (N = 133). Findings indicated that Korean American men reported relatively high levels of state and trait anxiety and that the overall sample reported a relatively high level of depression. Whereas language and ethnic identity had a minimal influence on the mental health of students, greater cultural value maintenance was associated with decreased self-esteem and increases in state anxiety, trait anxiety, and depression. The positive relationship between cultural values and mental health problems may be indicative of being caught in an ethnic bind, in which the clash of traditional and modern values contributes to psychological distress. The authors discuss clinical implications of the findings.

  9. The Racial and Ethnic Identity Formation Process of Second-Generation Asian Indian Americans: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Negi, Nalini Junko; Partiali, Rachel Negar; Creswell, John W.

    2013-01-01

    This phenomenological study elucidates the identity development processes of 12 second-generation adult Asian Indian Americans. The results identify salient sociocultural factors and multidimensional processes of racial and ethnic identity development. Discrimination, parental, and community factors seemed to play a salient role in influencing…

  10. Mentoring and Research Capacity-Building Experiences: Acculturating to Research From the Perspective of the Trainee

    PubMed Central

    Belgrave, Faye Z.

    2009-01-01

    We participated in the Collaborative HIV Prevention in Minority Communities Program, which was designed to support ethnic minority researchers in improving their HIV-prevention research skills. Here we share our experiences as trainees, as well as the effect this program has had on our research careers. We liken the process of securing funding for our research to that of acculturation: we had to learn a new culture while retaining our own identity and membership in ethnic minority communities. We also discuss the importance of mentorship from the perspective of the trainee and reflect on our learning and skills acquisition process. PMID:19246665

  11. On being ethnic: the politics of identity breaking and making in Canada, or, nevra on Sunday.

    PubMed

    Lock, M

    1990-06-01

    The creation of ethnically sensitive health care is a major federal and provincial government concern in Canada at present. The concept of multiculturalism is used to reinforce the notion of rights for minority groups and the Canadian mozaic is explicitly contrasted with the American melting pot. In this paper, the lives of Greek immigrant women in Montreal are used to illustrate how class and gender are as relevant to the immigrant experience as is ethnicity. It is shown how values which were central to female identify in Greece can become a liability after immigration and how the notion of Greek identity in Canada is a fluid category which is subject to repeated transformations. It is suggested that medical anthropologists who ignore the complexity of social categories and whose focus is limited to the cultural construction of illness and the expression of distress are in danger of reinforcing a notion of the "quaint ethnic," a stereotype to which the concept of multiculturalism is often reduced.

  12. Reflections on social justice, race, ethnicity and identity from an ethical perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atweh, Bill

    2011-03-01

    In these reflections, I identify complexities in few constructs that are often used in educational research, although not often critically, namely, social justice, race, ethnicity and identity. This paper suggests a non-ontological and non-epistemological approach to ethics as developed by Emmanuel Levinas as a normative means to deal with some of the complexities. In dealing with the construct of social justice, an ethical approach calls for productive research tools to not only understand exclusion but also to change situations of injustice to marginalised groups. Further, both constructs race and ethnicity can be used to identify groups of people based on their history, culture and/or lifestyles. As social constructions they have different historical origins and are open to alternative connotations, uses and abuses. An ethical perspective is useful to manage the dilemma of essentialism that group identification may lead into. Finally, the debate around the usefulness of the construct of identity raises some ethical questions about the role of research and the lived experience of its subjects. An ethical stance demands that constructs of analysis in social inquiry should not only demonstrate their utility for knowledge generation but also should demonstrate a responsibility for the construction and reconstruction of lifeworld in which academic endeavours are conducted.

  13. Reactions to mandatory sentences in relation to the ethnic identity and criminal history of the offender.

    PubMed

    Feather, N T; Souter, Jacqueline

    2002-08-01

    This study investigated the responses of 181 participants (87 men, 94 women), from Adelaide, South Australia, to scenarios describing mandatory sentences for perpetrators of a property offense committed in the Northern Territory, Australia. Four scenarios that were randomly distributed varied ethnic identity (White Australian, Aboriginal Australian) and criminal history (first-time offender, third-time offender). Participants completed attitude measures for both mandatory sentencing and capital punishment, a right-wing authoritarianism scale, and a scale concerned with sentencing goals (retribution, deterrence, protection of society, and rehabilitation). Results showed strong effects of attitude toward mandatory sentencing on scenario responses for variables such as perceived responsibility, deservingness, leniency, seriousness, anger and pleasure, and weaker effects of ethnic identity and criminal history. Participants were generally more sympathetic when the offender was an Aboriginal Australian. Results of a multiple regression analysis showed that attitude toward mandatory sentence was predicted by right-wing authoritarianism and by sentencing goals relating to deterrence and the protection of society.

  14. Acculturation in Context: The Moderating Effects of Immigrant and Native Peer Orientations on the Acculturation Experiences of Immigrants.

    PubMed

    Titzmann, Peter F; Jugert, Philipp

    2015-11-01

    Immigrant adolescents have to navigate through a complex social environment consisting of, at least, both a native and a co-ethnic community. This study used a multi-level framework to consider two research questions involving this complexity. The individual-level associations of acculturation orientations and acculturative hassles (language and sociocultural adaptation) was assessed in immigrant youths, and whether this association differs depending on the school-level acculturation orientations held by co-ethnic peers, and the school-level orientations toward immigrants held by native German peers. We then investigated whether acculturative hassles are associated with the psychosocial functioning (self-efficacy, depressive symptoms) of immigrant adolescents. The sample comprised 650 ethnic German Diaspora migrant adolescents (mean age 15.6 years, 53.7 % female) and their 787 native German peers (mean age 15.05 years, 51 % female). The results showed that contextual factors (co-ethnic acculturation orientation, native friendship preferences) moderated the association between the acculturation orientations of adolescent immigrants and both types of acculturative hassles. Acculturative hassles, in turn, were associated with the psychosocial functioning of adolescents. This research demonstrates that a person-by-context perspective is needed to better understand the adaptation of adolescent immigrants. This perspective has to take into account both the native and the co-ethnic peer environment.

  15. Daily Intragroup Contact in Diverse Settings: Implications for Asian Adolescents' Ethnic Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Tiffany; Douglass, Sara; Shelton, J. Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the daily-level association between contact with same-ethnic others and ethnic private regard among 132 Asian adolescents (mean age = 14 years) attending four high schools ranging in ethnic composition diversity. The data suggest a positive daily-level association between contact with same-ethnic others and ethnic private…

  16. The moderating effects of skin color and ethnic identity affirmation on suicide risk among low-SES African American women.

    PubMed

    Perry, Brea L; Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Oser, Carrie B

    2013-03-01

    This study examined the influence of concurrent racism and sexism experiences (i.e. gendered racism) on African American women's suicidal ideation and behavior in the context of disadvantaged socioeconomic status. Drawing on a stress process framework, the moderating effects of ethnic identity and skin color were explored using multiple regression analyses. Data were from 204 low-income African American women in the B-WISE (Black Women in a Study of Epidemics) project. Findings suggested that experiencing gendered racism significantly increased these women's risk for suicidal ideation or behavior, though only among women with medium or dark skin color. Also, having strong ethnic identity buffered the harmful effects of gendered racism. The moderating properties of skin color and ethnic identity affirmation likely operate through psychosocial pathways, blocking internalization of negative stereotypes and reducing the level of distress experienced in response to gendered racism.

  17. Ethnic identity trajectories among Mexican-origin girls during early and middle adolescence: Predicting future psychosocial adjustment.

    PubMed

    Gonzales-Backen, Melinda A; Bámaca-Colbert, Mayra Y; Allen, Kimberly

    2016-05-01

    We examined trajectories of ethnic identity exploration, resolution, and affirmation and their associations with depressive symptoms and self-esteem 3.5 years later among early and middle adolescent Mexican-origin girls (N = 338). Findings indicated that exploration, resolution, and affirmation increased over time for both cohorts. Among early adolescents, growth in exploration was associated with more depressive symptoms during middle adolescence, whereas higher initial levels and greater rates of change of affirmation predicted fewer subsequent depressive symptoms. Among middle adolescents, higher baseline levels of exploration and affirmation predicted fewer depressive symptoms in late adolescence. Higher initial levels and greater change in affirmation predicted higher self-esteem among both cohorts. Findings highlight the developmental and multifaceted quality of ethnic identity and that associations between ethnic identity and adjustment may vary by adolescent developmental stage. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26986228

  18. Ethnic identity trajectories among Mexican-origin girls during early and middle adolescence: Predicting future psychosocial adjustment.

    PubMed

    Gonzales-Backen, Melinda A; Bámaca-Colbert, Mayra Y; Allen, Kimberly

    2016-05-01

    We examined trajectories of ethnic identity exploration, resolution, and affirmation and their associations with depressive symptoms and self-esteem 3.5 years later among early and middle adolescent Mexican-origin girls (N = 338). Findings indicated that exploration, resolution, and affirmation increased over time for both cohorts. Among early adolescents, growth in exploration was associated with more depressive symptoms during middle adolescence, whereas higher initial levels and greater rates of change of affirmation predicted fewer subsequent depressive symptoms. Among middle adolescents, higher baseline levels of exploration and affirmation predicted fewer depressive symptoms in late adolescence. Higher initial levels and greater change in affirmation predicted higher self-esteem among both cohorts. Findings highlight the developmental and multifaceted quality of ethnic identity and that associations between ethnic identity and adjustment may vary by adolescent developmental stage. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. Understanding academic attitudes and achievement in mexican-origin youths: ethnic identity, other-group orientation, and fatalism.

    PubMed

    Guzmán, Michele R; Santiago-Rivera, Azara L; Hasse, Richard F

    2005-02-01

    This study tested the relationships among ethnic identity, other-group orientation, fatalism, and 2 dependent variables: attitude toward education and school, and grade point average (GPA). Mexican-origin adolescents (N = 222) completed the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (J. S. Phinney, 1992), the fatalism scale of the Multiphasic Assessment of Cultural Constructs-Short Form (I. Cuellar, B. Arnold, & G. Gonzalez, 1995), and the attitude scale of the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory-High School (C. E. Weinstein & D. R. Palmer, 1990a). Other-group orientation was positively related to attitude and GPA, and a negative relationship between fatalism and attitude was demonstrated. No relationship emerged between ethnic identity and the dependent variables.

  20. Self-esteem and the evaluation of ethnic identity among Turkish and Dutch adolescents in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Verkuyten, M

    1990-06-01

    A nationwide sample of Turkish and Dutch adolescents was used to answer two questions. Do Turkish youths in the Netherlands demonstrate negative effects of minority status on global self-esteem or specific components of self-esteem? What is the meaning of ethnic identity for the self-concept of these youngsters? The results showed that Turkish adolescents had a lower score for global self-esteem and a higher score for three components--academic ability, sports achievements, and evaluation of one's ethnic identity. However, in terms of the percentage of variance explained, the differences were very small. The results also showed that ethnic identity was a more salient and more important aspect of self-concept for the Turkish subjects than for the Dutch. It was not, however, a dominant component of their self-concept: The other components had a greater impact on global self-esteem. Body image was the most important component in this respect.

  1. Influence of Family Perceptions of Acting White on Acculturative Stress in African American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Keisha V.; Lightfoot, Nicole L.; Castillo, Linda G.; Hurst, Morgan L.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined family-oriented stressors on acculturative stress in 83 African American college students attending a predominately White university. Results showed that family pressure for participants not to acculturate, pressure to maintain ethnic group language, perception of Acting White, and acculturation level were related to higher…

  2. Racial-ethnic Identity in Context: Examining Mediation of Neighborhood Factors on Children’s Academic Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Witherspoon, Dawn P.; Daniels, Lisa L.; Mason, Amber E.; Smith, Emilie Phillips

    2016-01-01

    Research consistently shows that neighborhood socio-demographic characteristics and residents’ neighborhood perceptions matter for youth well-being, including a positive sense of racial-ethnic identity. Although elementary-school children are likely in the earlier phases of identity formation, the authors examined whether objective and subjective neighborhood characteristics are related to their racial-ethnic identity and, in turn, their academic adjustment. A diverse sample (30.4% AA, 35.2% White, 12.3% Latino, & 22.0% Other) of 227 children in Grades 2 through 5 were surveyed in afterschool programs. Bivariate correlations showed that youth living in disadvantaged neighborhoods reported more barriers due to their race-ethnicity, but these barriers were not related to their sense of academic efficacy. Residing in a disadvantaged neighborhood was unrelated to youth’s academic self-efficacy. However, path analyses showed that positive neighborhood perceptions were associated with a stronger sense of race-ethnicity (i.e., affirmation and belonging), which was in turn related to greater academic efficacy. These results suggest that neighborhood connection provides a source of affirmation and value for young children, helping them to understand who they are as part of a racial-ethnic group and helping to foster a sense of future achievement opportunities. This study provides additional evidence that along with other important proximal contexts (e.g., family, school), young children’s neighborhood context is important for development. Results are discussed to highlight environmental influences on young children’s awareness of race-ethnicity and the implications of the combined impact of neighborhood and racial-ethnic identity on psychosocial adjustment. PMID:27217314

  3. Concurrent and longitudinal effects of ethnic identity and experiences of discrimination on psychosocial adjustment of Navajo adolescents.

    PubMed

    Galliher, Renee V; Jones, Matthew D; Dahl, Angie

    2011-03-01

    In this study, we examined concurrent and longitudinal relations among Navajo adolescents' ethnic identity, experiences of discrimination, and psychosocial outcomes (i.e., self-esteem, substance use, and social functioning). At Time 1, 137 Navajo adolescents (67 male, 70 female), primarily in Grades 9 and 10, completed a written survey assessing ethnic identity, discrimination experiences, and a range of internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Two years later, 92 participants completed the same survey again. Ethnic and cultural identification was assessed via the Multiethnic Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM; Phinney, 1992) and the Orthogonal Cultural Identification Scale (OCIS; Oetting & Beauvais, 1990). At Time 1, MEIM Affirmation and Belonging, MEIM Exploration, and OCIS White American identification all demonstrated strong, positive associations with adaptive functioning for male and female adolescents, whereas discrimination experiences were linked to lower self-esteem and social functioning for male adolescents. By Time 2, fewer significant concurrent associations between ethnic identity and psychosocial functioning scores remained, and discrimination experiences emerged as the most consistent correlate of poorer psychosocial functioning for male adolescents. Controlling for Time 1 psychosocial functioning, relatively few direct effects of ethnic and cultural identification variables predicted psychosocial functioning longitudinally, but discrimination experiences demonstrated strong and consistent longitudinal links with boys' substance use. Finally, interaction effects assessing the moderating influence of ethnic and cultural identification on negative links between discrimination and psychosocial functioning suggested that embeddedness in and connection to Navajo culture and, in some cases, connection to White American culture, served as a buffer to the negative effects of discrimination experiences. PMID:21142373

  4. Racial identity mediates the association between ethnic-racial socialization and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Neblett, Enrique W; Hudson Banks, Kira; Cooper, Shauna M; Smalls-Glover, Ciara

    2013-04-01

    Ethnic-racial socialization has been positively linked with psychological adjustment; however, the mechanisms underlying this association remain unclear. In this study, the authors examined the mediating role of racial identity in the association between racial socialization and depressive symptoms. Participants were 211 African American young adults (62% female; mean age = 20.73, SD = 1.90) recruited from a predominately White southeastern university. Multivariate mediation analyses revealed an indirect effect of racial pride messages on depressive symptoms through private regard such that individuals who reported receiving more frequent racial pride messages were more likely to feel positively about their race, and, in turn, less likely to report depressive symptoms. Individuals who reported that their parents engaged in more socialization activities (e.g., attending cultural events) were also more likely to feel positively about their race and, in turn, report fewer depressive symptoms. These results suggest that positive feelings about one's race are important considerations in our understanding of the relation between ethnic-racial socialization and youth psychological adjustment.

  5. Parental values and ethnic identity in indigenous Sami families: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Javo, Cecilie; Alapack, Richard; Heyerdahl, Sonja; Rønning, John A

    2003-01-01

    The qualitative study reported in this article is part of a larger multimethod investigation of child-rearing practices and child-behavior problems in indigenous Sami and majority Norwegian populations in the Sami core area in Northern Norway. In the primary quantitative study we found significant ethnic differences between Sami and Norwegian parents in various areas of child rearing and family structure. Seeking the deeper cultural meaning underlying the parental practices and attitudes that had emerged in the indigenous Sami group, we performed additional indepth interviews. Four parents, selected from the sample of 134 Sami parents, served as subjects. Giorgi's descriptive phenomenological method was used. Data analysis of the interviews identified seven key consitituents of Sami child rearing, which in their interrelationships formed a common structure that constitutes the results of this study. These constituents were: (1) Independence, (2) Hardiness, (3) Autonomy, (4) Closeness/Love, (5) Sami Language, (6) Sami Traditions, and (7) Extended Family. The first four constituents are constituents pertaining to child-rearing values, while the latter three are contextual constituents, related to the promotion of ethnic identity. The study discusses the contemporary dilemmas and challenges that face Sami families in raising their children. It highlights the phenomenon of cultural transition in minority families as an important topic in family research.

  6. Racial/ethnic differences in identity and mental health outcomes among young sexual minority women

    PubMed Central

    Balsam, Kimberly F.; Molina, Yamile; Blayney, Jessica A.; Dillworth, Tiara; Zimmerman, Lindsey; Kaysen, Debra

    2015-01-01

    Previous research suggests that sexual minorities are at greater risk for trauma exposure, mental health problems, and substance use. To date, few studies have examined racial/ethnic differences among sexual minorities in relation to health-related behaviors and outcomes. Furthermore, studies of racial/ethnic differences among young adult sexual minority women (SMW) are virtually non-existent. The current study adds to the previous literature by exploring differences in trauma exposure, sexual identity, mental health, and substance use in a non-probability national sample of young adult SMW. A total of 967 self-identified lesbian and bisexual women were recruited via the internet using social networking sites to participate in a larger longitudinal study on young women’s health behaviors. The present study included 730 (76%) White, 108 (10%) African American, 91 (9%) Latina, and 38 (4%) Asian women ages 18 to 25. Results revealed differences in socioeconomic variables, degree of outness to family, childhood sexual assault, and forcible rape, but not overall lifetime trauma exposure. Among mental health and health-related behavior variables, few differences between groups emerged. Our findings indicate that both researchers and clinicians should turn their attention to processes of resilience among young SMW, particularly young SMW of color. PMID:25642782

  7. Ethnic Identity and Implicit Anti-fat Bias: Similarities and Differences between African American and Caucasian Women.

    PubMed

    Hart, Erica A; Sbrocco, Tracy; Carter, Michele M

    2016-01-01

    Research using self-report or explicit measures of body image suggests African American women have a more accepting view of larger figures than non-Hispanic White (NHW) women. However, increasing research indicates that explicit views may vary from those held at a deeper, implicit level. Our study examined whether African American women held an implicit negative bias toward overweight/fat individuals, despite a greater explicit acceptance of larger body size. Additionally, ethnic identity was measured to assess if strength of identity related to bias. Anti-fat bias was compared within and between ethnic groups using an Implicit Association Test (IAT), which measures the strength of automatic associations between two concepts. This online IAT measured spontaneous thoughts about figures of various body weights (underweight, overweight, obese) and positive and negative terms (eg, attractive and unattractive or healthy and unhealthy). A pervasive anti-fat bias was found in African American as well as NHW women. For both groups, this bias was related to ethnic identity when thinking about figure size and health. Specifically, African American women with lower ethnic identity were more negatively biased and NHW women with higher ethnic identity were more negatively biased. Findings from this study indicate that implicitly there are few differences in the way these two ethnicities classify heavy figures, and therefore African Americans may not be immune to weight stigma. Given the prevalence of obesity and the lack of research on weight stigma among African American women, there is need to address this issue and its impact on well-being. PMID:26843798

  8. Advancing Understanding of Acculturation for Adolescents of Asian Immigrants: Person-Oriented Analysis of Acculturation Strategy Among Korean American Youth.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yoonsun; Tan, Kevin Poh Hiong; Yasui, Miwa; Hahm, Hyeouk Chris

    2016-07-01

    Acculturation strategy, a significant predictor of immigrant adaptation, has been under-studied with Asian Americans, in particular, Asian American youth. Using person-oriented latent profile analysis, this study identified acculturation strategies among Korean American early adolescents living in the Midwest. Two-hundred ninety-one families were interviewed in 2007 that included 220 youth (mean age 13, 47.7 % female), along with 272 mothers and 164 fathers (N = 656). They were re-interviewed in 2008 (N = 588). The study found three distinct acculturation strategies: separation (11.8 %, n = 26), integrated bicultural (66.9 %, n = 150), and modest bicultural (21.3 %, n = 44). Integrated bicultural youth reported the strongest sense of ethnic identity and the most favorable characteristics, providing empirical support for the benefit of biculturalism. The findings further suggest that separation may not be as detrimental as previously thought, and modest bicultural-biculturalism that is not fully developed-may in fact be less desirable among Korean American youth. PMID:27146143

  9. TAILORING A FRUIT AND VEGETABLE INTERVENTION ON ETHNIC IDENTITY: RESULTS OF A RANDOMIZED STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Resnicow, Ken; Davis, Rachel; Zhang, Nanhua; Saunders, Ed; Strecher, Victor; Tolsma, Dennis; Calvi, Josephine; Alexander, Gwen; Anderson, Julia; Wiese, Cheryl; Cross, William

    2009-01-01

    Objective Many targeted health interventions have been developed and tested with African American (AA) populations; however, AAs are a highly heterogeneous group. One characteristic that varies across AAs is Ethnic Identity (EI). Despite the recognition that AAs are heterogeneous with regard to EI, little research has been conducted on how to incorporate EI into the design of health messages and programs. Design This randomized trial tested whether tailoring a print-based fruit and vegetable (F & V) intervention based on individual EI would enhance program impact beyond that of social cognitive tailoring alone. AA adults were recruited from two integrated healthcare delivery systems, one based in the Detroit Metro area and the other in the Atlanta Metro area, and then randomized to receive three newsletters focused on F & V behavior change over three months. One set of newsletters was tailored only on demographic, behavioral, and social cognitive variables (control condition) whereas the other (experimental condition) was additionally tailored on EI. Main Outcome Measures The primary outcome for the study was F & V intake, which was assessed at baseline and three months later using the composite of two brief self-report frequency measures. Results A total of 560 eligible participants were enrolled, of which 468 provided complete 3-month follow-up data. The experimental group increased their daily mean F & V intake by 1.1 servings compared to .8 servings in the control group (p = .13). Several variables were found to interact with intervention group. For instance, Afrocentric experimental group participants showed a 1.4 increase in F & V servings per day compared to a .43 servings per day increase among Afrocentric controls (p < .05). Conclusions Although the overall between-group effects were not significant, this study confirms that AAs are a highly diverse population and that tailoring dietary messages on ethnic identity may improve intervention impact for some

  10. Acculturation and physical activity in a working class multiethnic population

    PubMed Central

    Wolin, Kathleen Y.; Colditz, Graham; Stoddard, Anne M.; Emmons, Karen M.; Sorensen, Glorian

    2008-01-01

    Background Determinants of physical activity in minority populations remain under-explored. Acculturation is one proposed mechanism for the disparities that exist between racial and ethnic groups in health outcomes. Methods This cross-sectional study evaluated the relation of language acculturation and generation in the US since migration with leisure-time and occupational activity. A low-income, multiethnic urban population was recruited from Massachusetts small businesses (SB) (n = 1725) and health centers (HC) (n = 2205). Baseline data were collected between May 2000 and February 2002. Results Individuals with low acculturation reported leisure-time activity 3–5 MET hours/week lower than those who were highly acculturated (P < 0.05). Generation predicted leisure-time activity only in SB participants. In the HC, least acculturated participants reported occupational activity 10–12 MET hours/week higher than highly acculturated participants. In SB men, acculturation was inversely associated with occupational activity; in SB women, language acculturation was positively associated with occupational activity. Generation was not predictive of occupational activity. Conclusion Language acculturation and generation were positively associated with leisure-time activity. Language acculturation is also associated with occupational activity. Acculturation is important to consider when designing public health interventions. PMID:16481031

  11. Measuring the Psychosocial Characteristics of Teacher Candidates through the Academic Self-Identity: Self-Observation Yearly (ASI SOY) Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Belinda Bustos; Clark, Ellen Riojas; Guerra, Norma S.; Casebeer, Cindy M.; Sanchez, Serafin V.; Mayall, Hayley J.

    2010-01-01

    This study contends that multiple psychosocial factors mediate students' pursuit of the teaching profession, including beliefs, ethnic identity, acculturation, efficacy, and motivation. Despite the myriad literature addressing teacher characteristics, less is known about how these factors influence the academic or personal development of teacher…

  12. The Development of Children's Ethnic Identity in Immigrant Chinese Families in Canada: The Role of Parenting Practices and Children's Perceptions of Parental Family Obligation Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Tina F.; Costigan, Catherine L.

    2009-01-01

    Parents' role in children's ethnic identity development was examined among 95 immigrant Chinese families with young adolescents living in Canada. Children reported their feelings of ethnic identity and perceptions of parental family obligation expectations. Parents reported their family obligation expectations; parents and children reported on…

  13. An Examination of the Impact of Racial and Ethnic Identity, Impostor Feelings, and Minority Status Stress on the Mental Health of Black College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClain, Shannon; Beasley, Samuel T.; Jones, Bianca; Awosogba, Olufunke; Jackson, Stacey; Cokley, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    This study examined ethnic identity, racial centrality, minority status stress, and impostor feelings as predictors of mental health in a sample of 218 Black college students. Ethnic identity was found to be a significant positive predictor of mental health, whereas minority status stress and impostor feelings were significant negative predictors.…

  14. The Relationship of Ethnic Identity, Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy and Outcome Expectations Among Latino/a High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gushue, George V.

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the relation of ethnic identity to two determinants of career interests identified by social-cognitive career theory (SCCT): self-efficacy and outcome expectations. For a sample of 128 Latino/a ninth graders, the results indicated that ethnic identity had a direct and positive relationship to career decision-making…

  15. Russians in Post-Soviet Central Asia: More "Cold" than the Others? Exploring (Ethnic) Identity under Different Sociopolitical Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosmarskaya, Natalya

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the identity and the social/political behaviour of Russians in post-Soviet Central Asia through a comparison with the Baltic countries via a "hot and cold ethnicity" paradigm. Central Asian Russians are more likely, ceteris paribus, to be found at the "cold" end of the spectrum of "ethnic…

  16. Caribbean International Undergraduates' "Resisting, Reframing and Reaffirming" of Their Ethnic Identity at a Four Year Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malcolm, Zaria T.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the ethnic identity experiences of Caribbean international students in the context of the over-generalized and homogenous aspects of their institutional discourse on international students. It also sought to consider their identification with their native backgrounds and the United States in view of their…

  17. Unraveling Cultural Threads: A Qualitative Study of Culture and Ethnic Identity among Urban Southwestern American Indian Youth Parents and Elders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, Laura E.; Stiffman, Arlene R.; Brown, Eddie

    2006-01-01

    We utilized qualitative methods to explore ethnic and cultural identity among urban Southwestern American Indian youth, parents, and elders. Twenty-four respondents ranging in age from approximately 13 to 90 years were interviewed in focus groups divided by age. Six major themes and seventeen sub-themes related to tribal and pan-American Indian…

  18. Rising above My Raisin'?: Using Heuristic Inquiry to Explore the Effects of the Lumbee Dialect on Ethnic Identity Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Chris; Brown, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    Using heuristic inquiry, this study investigates how dialect affects the ethnic identity development of the first author as well as fellow Lumbee students attending a predominantly white university. Heuristic inquiry is a process that begins with a question or problem that the researcher seeks to illuminate or answer. Findings from this study…

  19. Motivation, Ethnic Identity, and Post-Secondary Education Language Choices of Graduates of Intensive French Language Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Erin; Noels, Kimberly A.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the motivation for learning French, the ethnic identities, and the decision to pursue post-secondary education in French of anglophone graduates of intensive French language programs in high school. Sixty-two graduates of either French immersion, Advanced Placement French, or the International Baccalaureate French program…

  20. Introduction to the Special Section on Racial and Ethnic Identity in Counseling Psychology: Conceptual and Methodological Challenges and Proposed Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Mallinckrodt, Brent

    2007-01-01

    Racial and ethnic identity development have been important topics in counseling psychology research for the last four decades. At present, however, there appears to be some confusion and debate regarding the quality of theory and measurement in the topical area. The present article serves as an introduction to this Journal of Counseling Psychology…

  1. The Influence of College Choice on the Success, Ethnic Identity, and Professional Sense of Belonging of African American Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeRamus-Suazo, Nicole L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to reveal the perceptions of African American engineers on how college choice influenced their success, ethnic identity, and professional sense of belonging by documenting the unique experiences and success stories of African American engineers who attended four-year institutions, historically Black colleges and…

  2. Perceived Support and Internalizing Symptoms in African American Adolescents: Self-Esteem and Ethnic Identity as Mediators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Ragsdale, Brian L.; Mandara, Jelani; Richards, Maryse H.; Petersen, Anne C.

    2007-01-01

    Existing research leaves a gap in explaining why African American adolescents do not exhibit more anxiety and depression than other youth, at the same time that they experience more contextual risk factors. The current study examined the roles of social support as well as possible mediators self-esteem and ethnic identity (sense of belonging to…

  3. Does Ethnic Identity Buffer or Exacerbate the Effects of Frequent Racial Discrimination on Situational Well-Being of Asian Americans?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoo, Hyung Chol; Lee, Richard M.

    2008-01-01

    A quasi-experimental vignette study was conducted to test whether ethnic identity moderated the effects of frequent racial discrimination on situational positive and negative affect of Asian American college students. Results showed that imagining multiple incidents of racial discrimination was related to higher negative affect than imagining a…

  4. The Impact of a School-Based Cultural Awareness Program on Students Ethnic Identity and Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braswell, Charley Alexandria

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the influences of a school-based cultural awareness program on ethnic identity and self-esteem in fifth grade early adolescents. The development and implementation of a school-based cultural awareness program was intended to offer students a basic foundation for the development and/or…

  5. Latino Adolescents' Mental Health: Exploring the Interrelations among Discrimination, Ethnic Identity, Cultural Orientation, Self-Esteem, and Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.

    2007-01-01

    Guided by a risk and resilience framework, the current study used cross-sectional data to examine the degree to which Latino adolescents' (N=274; M age=16.3; 47.1% female) self-esteem, ethnic identity, and cultural orientations mediated or moderated the relation between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms. Utilizing a multiple group…

  6. Concurrent and Longitudinal Effects of Ethnic Identity and Experiences of Discrimination on Psychosocial Adjustment of Navajo Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galliher, Renee V.; Jones, Matthew D.; Dahl, Angie

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined concurrent and longitudinal relations among Navajo adolescents' ethnic identity, experiences of discrimination, and psychosocial outcomes (i.e., self-esteem, substance use, and social functioning). At Time 1, 137 Navajo adolescents (67 male, 70 female), primarily in Grades 9 and 10, completed a written survey assessing…

  7. The Role of Heritage Language Development in the Ethnic Identity and Family Relationships of Adolescents from Immigrant Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Janet S.; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of immigrant-background adolescents' heritage language (HL) proficiency and use of the language on parent-adolescent relationships and ethnic identity was investigated in a sample of 414 adolescents from Latin American and Asian backgrounds. HL proficiency, but not language use, was positively associated with the quality of…

  8. Ethnic Identity Trajectories among Mexican-Origin Girls during Early and Middle Adolescence: Predicting Future Psychosocial Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales-Backen, Melinda A.; Bámaca-Colbert, Mayra Y.; Allen, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    We examined trajectories of ethnic identity exploration, resolution, and affirmation and their associations with depressive symptoms and self-esteem 3.5 years later among early and middle adolescent Mexican-origin girls (N = 338). Findings indicated that exploration, resolution, and affirmation increased over time for both cohorts. Among early…

  9. The Europeanisation of German Ethnic Identities: The Case of German and Turkish Students in Two Stuttgart Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faas, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Germany's national (or ethnic) identity has become thoroughly European and there are even signs of Eurocentrism. This is particularly problematic for the Turkish Muslims who, arguably, are not European. This article explores how fifteen-year-old German and Turkish youth in two Stuttgart secondary schools, one in a predominantly working-class area…

  10. Ethnic Identity and Substance Use among Mexican-Heritage Preadolescents: Moderator Effects of Gender and Time in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulis, Stephen S.; Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Kopak, Albert M.; Olmsted, Maureen E.; Crossman, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    This study examined interactive relationships among ethnic identity, gender, time in the US, and changes in substance use outcomes among a school-based sample of 1,731 Mexican-heritage preadolescents (ages 9-13). Residual change multilevel models adjusting for school clustering and using multiply imputed data assessed changes from beginning to end…

  11. Critical Issues in the Measurement of Ethnic and Racial Identity: A Referendum on the State of the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cokley, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    Ethnic and racial identity are among the most researched topics in the multicultural counseling literature. The popularity of these constructs, combined with ongoing controversies surrounding their measurement, warrants a critical examination by scholars in the field. The author contends that a combination of science and ideology has influenced…

  12. Too Korean to be White and Too White to Be Korean: Ethnic Identity Development among Transracial Korean American Adoptees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Joy; Pena, Edlyn Vallejo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to explore how lived experiences affect ethnic identity development of transracial Korean American adoptees raised by White parents with the intent of informing higher education practice. Participants included 12 recently college-graduated transracial Korean American adoptees who were raised in the…

  13. Racial/Ethnic Identity, Gender-Role Attitudes, and Multicultural Counseling Competence: The Role of Multicultural Counseling Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien

    2012-01-01

    Researchers and practitioners have been pursuing how to enhance counselors' multicultural counseling competencies (MCC). With a sample of 460 counselors, the author examined whether multicultural training changed the relationship between (a) racial/ethnic identity and MCC and (b) gender-role attitudes and MCC. The author found significant…

  14. Sociocultural Factors and School Engagement among African American Youth: The Roles of Racial Discrimination, Racial Socialization, and Ethnic Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dotterer, Aryn M.; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the links between racial discrimination and school engagement and the roles of racial socialization and ethnic identity as protective factors in those linkages in a sample of 148, sixth through twelfth grade African American adolescents from working and middle-class two-parent families. In home interviews, youth described…

  15. The Relationship between Media Influence and Ethnic Identity Development among Low-Income African American and White Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Kenycia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between media influence and ethnic identity among low-income African American and White adolescent girls. According to the U.S. Census (2008), 98% of Americans have a television in their home. Prior research suggests that low-income African American adolescents are exposed to more media…

  16. Sudanese Adolescent Refugees: Acculturation and Acculturative Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poppitt, Gillian; Frey, Ron

    2007-01-01

    This study explored acculturation and acculturative stress in Sudanese adolescent refugees living in Brisbane. Twenty Sudanese adolescents participated in semi-structured interviews which revealed that the main source of acculturative stress was related to concern over English language proficiency, issues of parental control and conflicting…

  17. Ego strengths, racial/ethnic identity, and well-being among North American Indian/First Nations adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gfellner, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated associations between ego strengths (psychosocial development), racial/ethnic identity using Multi-Ethnic Identity Measure-Revised (exploration, commitment) and Multidimensional Measure of Racial Identity (centrality, private regard, public regard) dimensions, and personal adjustment/well-being among 178 North American Indian/First Nations adolescents who resided and attended school on reserves. As predicted, ego strengths related directly with centrality, private regard, and the adjustment measures; the moderation of ego strengths for exploration, commitment, and private regard reflected adverse functioning for those with less than advanced ego strengths. As well, ego strengths mediated associations between centrality and private regard with several measures of personal well-being. Practical and theoretical implications are considered.

  18. Coping with potentially incompatible identities: accounts of religious, ethnic, and sexual identities from British Pakistani men who identify as Muslim and gay.

    PubMed

    Jaspal, Rusi; Cinnirella, Marco

    2010-12-01

    This study explores how a group of young British Muslim gay men (BMGM) of Pakistani background in non-gay affirmative religious contexts understood and defined their sexual, religious, and ethnic identities, focusing upon the negotiation and construction of these identities and particularly upon strategies employed for coping with identity threat. A total of 12 BMGM were interviewed using a semi-structured interview schedule. Transcripts were subjected to qualitative thematic analysis as described by Braun and Clarke. The aim was to explore participants' lived experiences through the interpretive lens of identity process theory. Four superordinate themes are reported, entitled 'I'm gay because … ': making sense of gay identity, 'It's all about temptation': invoking religious discourses to explain sexual identity, 'Going against God': fear of divine retribution, 'It's easier to be gay here': external attributions and British national identity. The data suggest the existence of an additional identity principle, which is referred to as the psychological coherence principle. This motive represents the need to ensure a sense of coherence between existing identities, and we discuss how individuals may adopt strategies to deal with threats to the principle. PMID:20170600

  19. Relationships between racial-ethnic identity, self-esteem and in-group attitudes among First Nation children.

    PubMed

    Corenblum, Barry

    2014-03-01

    Positive in-group distinctiveness has been associated with self-esteem increases among adolescents and adults. To examine whether in-group biases are associated with self-esteem enhancement among minority group children, Native Canadian children (N = 414, 209 female) age 6-11 completed each year for 5 years, measures assessing their level of concrete operational thought, racial-ethnic identity, racial-ethnic centrality, implicit and explicit self-esteem, and implicit and explicit in-group attitudes. According to cognitive developmental theory, increases in the level of concrete operational thought will predict increases in racial-ethnic identity, and increases in identity should, in turn, predict more favorable in-group attitudes. Social identity theory predicts that more favorable in-group attitudes should predict increases in self-esteem. Multi-level structural equation modelling revealed support for these hypotheses. Cognitively mature children who identify closely with their group enhanced their level of self-esteem by positively differentiating between group members on dimensions that favor their group. Limitations of the present study and suggestions for future studies are also presented. PMID:24343260

  20. Ethnic identity and the academic adjustment of adolescents from Mexican, Chinese, and European backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Fuligni, Andrew J; Witkow, Melissa; Garcia, Carla

    2005-09-01

    The association of adolescents' ethnic identification with their academic attitudes and achievement was examined among a sample of 589 ninth-grade students from Mexican, Chinese, and European backgrounds. Adolescents from all backgrounds chose a variety of ethnic labels to describe themselves, with those from Mexican, Chinese, and immigrant families incorporating more of their families' national origin and cultural background into their chosen ethnic labels. Nevertheless, the strength of adolescents' ethnic identification was more relevant to their academic adjustment than the specific labels that they chose, and it was most important for the extra motivation necessary for ethnic minority students to attain the same level of academic success as their European American peers.

  1. The role of acculturation in suicidal ideation among second-generation immigrant adolescents in France.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, Nikki; Rodgers, Rachel; Régner, Isabelle; Chabrol, Henri

    2010-11-01

    This study explored the contributions of sociocultural and psychopathological factors to suicidal ideation among adolescents. A sample of 292 French high school students with an immigrant background completed a questionnaire assessing suicidal ideation, borderline personality traits, depressive symptoms, parental attachment, life events, acculturation orientations, ethnic identity, cannabis and alcohol consumption, socioeconomic status and academic failure. Although stressful life events, depressive symptoms, and individualism were risk factors, and attachment to parents a protective factor for both boys and girls, some gender differences emerged. Borderline traits (risk factor), assimilation and marginalization (both protective factors) were significant predictors only among girls.

  2. Ethnic identity and gender as moderators of the association between discrimination and academic adjustment among Mexican-origin adolescents.

    PubMed

    Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Wong, Jessie J; Gonzales, Nancy A; Dumka, Larry E

    2012-08-01

    Existing work has identified perceived discrimination as a risk factor that may contribute to the relatively poorer academic outcomes exhibited by Mexican-origin adolescents in the U.S. The current study examined the longitudinal associations among perceived discrimination and three indices of adolescent adjustment in the school setting (i.e., grade point average, teacher reports of externalizing, adolescents' deviant peer associations) among 178 Mexican-origin adolescents (53% female). Ethnic identity affirmation was examined as a protective factor expected to reduce the negative effects of discrimination on adolescents' adjustment, and gender was examined as a potential moderator of the associations of interest. Findings indicated that the deleterious effects of discrimination on adolescents' adjustment in school were particularly salient for Mexican-origin male adolescents. Importantly, ethnic identity affirmation emerged as a protective factor for Mexican-origin male adolescents by buffering the negative effects of discrimination on their externalizing behaviors in school.

  3. Ethnic identity, spirituality, and self-efficacy influences on treatment outcomes among Hispanic American methadone maintenance clients.

    PubMed

    Wong, Eunice C; Longshore, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    There is increasing concern over whether standard health care services, such as substance abuse treatment, adequately account for important cultural influences, yet studies focusing on the impact of cultural influences on substance abuse treatment continue to be limited. The current study prospectively examined the effects of two cultural factors (ethnic identity and spirituality) on substance abuse treatment outcomes among Hispanic American clients (N=114) enrolled in methadone maintenance treatment. In addition, this study examined whether a commonly studied treatment factor (i.e., self-efficacy) significantly influenced treatment outcomes. Higher levels of self-efficacy at intake were related to increased odds of reported heroin abstinence and a lower number of drugs used at 1-year follow-up. Greater levels of ethnic identity were related to a greater number of drugs used at follow-up. No significant effects were found for spirituality.

  4. Associations of Racial/Ethnic Identities and Religious Affiliation with Suicidal Ideation among Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Questioning Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Lytle, Megan C.; De Luca, Susan M.; Blosnich, John R.; Brownson, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Background Our aim was to examine the associations of racial/ethnic identity and religious affiliation with suicidal ideation among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and questioning (LGBQ) and heterosexual college students. An additional aim was to determine the prevalence of passive suicidal ideation (i.e., death ideation) and active suicidal ideation among culturally diverse LGBQ individuals. Methods Data from the National Research Consortium probability-based sample of college students from 70 postsecondary institutions (n=24,626) were used to examine active and passive suicidal ideation in the past 12-months and lifetime active suicidal ideation among students by sexual orientation, racial/ethnic identity, and religious affiliation. Results Across most racial/ethnic groups and religious affiliations, LGBQ students were more likely to report active suicidal ideation than non-LGBQ individuals. Among LGBQ students, Latino individuals had lower odds of reporting both past 12-month passive and active suicidal ideation than their non-Hispanic white LGBQ counterparts. Compared to Christian LGBQ students, Agnostic/Atheist LGBQ individuals had greater odds of reporting past 12-month passive suicidal ideation, and Jewish LGBQ students were less likely to endorse past 12-month passive and active suicidal ideation. Limitations Cross-sectional design and self-reported data. Conclusions Results corroborate previous research showing elevated prevalence of suicidal ideation among LGBQ individuals in comparison to their heterosexual counterparts. These findings are among the first to document prevalence differences within the LGBQ population based on intersectional identities (race/ethnicity and religious affiliation). Providers should recognize that LGBQ individuals might need support in negotiating the complex relationship between multiple identities, especially due to their elevated prevalence of suicidal ideation. PMID:25795534

  5. Acculturation and acculturative stress as indicators for suicide risk among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Walker, Rheeda L

    2007-07-01

    The literature on African American suicide and the acculturation literature were examined to derive a possible explanation for increases in suicide deaths for African American men and apparent resilience for African American women. Historically, African Americans were believed to be unaffected by suicide because of protective factors (e.g., strong religious values and cohesive familial support systems) embedded in the culture. However, minority mental health investigators have found that acculturation sometimes leads to negative consequences for individuals from ethnic minority backgrounds. Accordingly, acculturation and acculturative phenomena are proposed as a model to shed light on African American male suicide as African Americans increasingly engage mainstream values, beliefs, and practices in the absence of traditional protective factors.

  6. Beyond Bluff Oysters? Place Identity and Ethnicity in a Peripheral Coastal Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panelli, Ruth; Allen, Deborah; Ellison, Brett; Kelly, Anna; John, Alistair; Tipa, Gail

    2008-01-01

    Studies of culture and place form a long tradition in geography but, within rural studies, less attention has been given to the ways in which contrasting ethnicities intersect with specific places and landscapes. Recently, an increasing number of authors have noted how dominant Anglophone, western, ethnicities (frequently labelled "white") have…

  7. Identity in Flux: Ethnic Self-Identification, and School Attrition in Canadian Aboriginal Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallett, Darcy; Want, Stephen C.; Chandler, Michael J.; Koopman, Leigh L.; Flores, Jessica P.; Gehrke, Erica C.

    2008-01-01

    Much social science research proceeds as though ethnic self-identification (the ethnic category to which persons assign themselves) is a stable characteristic, as true at one time of measurement as another. The purpose of this study was to test this assumption using longitudinal data acquired from the provincial Ministry of Education for every…

  8. Participation in the Adoption Mentoring Partnership: Mentors' Experiences of Ethnic Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garber, Karin J.; French, Quade Y. S.; Grotevant, Harold D.

    2015-01-01

    The Adoption Mentoring Partnership (AMP) matches preadolescent adoptees with adopted college students, prioritizing matches of the same ethnic background. As part of AMP, participants actively discuss issues of ethnicity and adoption with a cohort of mentors over a period of 1 to 3 years in mentor group meetings (MGMs). This study focuses on…

  9. Culture Camp, Ethnic Identity, and Adoption Socialization for Korean Adoptees: A Pretest and Posttest Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baden, Amanda L.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the impact of racial-ethnic socialization on adopted South Korean children and adolescents who attended a sleepaway Korean culture camp for one week. This camp provided racial-ethnic socialization experiences via exposure to camp counselors, staff, and teachers who were Korean Americans, Korean nationals, and Korean adult…

  10. Expressions of Ethnic Identity in Pre-Adolescent Latino Students: Implications for Culturally Relevant Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinauer, Erika; Cutri, Ramona Maile

    2012-01-01

    This study describes how 72 fifth-grade Latina/Latino students express their sense of belonging to their ethnic group. The purpose of this study is to help teachers gain specific understanding of the ways that pre-adolescent Latina/Latino students express belonging to their ethnic group, in order to become more effective at implementing culturally…

  11. Religiosity, Values, and Acculturation: A Study of Turkish, Turkish Belgian, and Belgian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Güngör, Derya; Bornstein, Marc H.; Phalet, Karen

    2012-01-01

    We address the understudied religious dimension of acculturation in acculturating adolescents who combine a religious Islamic heritage with a secularized Christian mainstream culture. The religiosity of 197 Turkish Belgian adolescents was compared with that of 366 agemates in Turkey (the heritage culture) and 203 in Belgium (the mainstream culture) and related to cultural values, acculturation orientations, and ethnic identification. Belgian adolescents showed lower and declining religiosity with age, whereas Turkish and Turkish Belgian adolescents were more religious regardless of age. Acculturating adolescents reaffirmed religion as compared with monocultural adolescents in Turkey. Religious reaffirmation was related to cultural values of interdependence, heritage culture maintenance, and ethnic identification. PMID:23155300

  12. Acculturation and cancer screening among Asian Americans: role of health insurance and having a regular physician.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sunmin; Chen, Lu; Jung, Mary Y; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Juon, Hee-Soon

    2014-04-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of death among Asian Americans, but screening rates are significantly lower in Asians than in non-Hispanic Whites. This study examined associations between acculturation and three types of cancer screening (colorectal, cervical, and breast), focusing on the role of health insurance and having a regular physician. A cross-sectional study of 851 Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese Americans was conducted in Maryland. Acculturation was measured using an abridged version of the Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation Scale, acculturation clusters, language preference, length of residency in the US, and age at arrival. Age, health insurance, regular physician, gender, ethnicity, income, marital status, and health status were adjusted in the multivariate analysis. Logistic regression analysis showed that various measures of acculturation were positively associated with the odds of having all cancer screenings. Those lived for more than 20 years in the US were about 2-4 times [odds ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence interval (CI) colorectal: 2.41 (1.52-3.82); cervical: 1.79 (1.07-3.01); and breast: 2.11 (1.25-3.57)] more likely than those who lived for less than 10 years to have had cancer screening. When health insurance and having a regular physician were adjusted, the associations between length of residency and colorectal cancer [OR 1.72 (1.05-2.81)] was reduced and the association between length of residency and cervical and breast cancer became no longer significant. Findings from this study provide a robust and comprehensive picture of AA cancer screening behavior. They will provide helpful information on future target groups for promoting cancer screening.

  13. Intermarriage and the Intergenerational Transmission of Ethnic Identity and Human Capital for Mexican Americans.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Brian; Trejo, Stephen J

    2011-04-01

    We investigate whether selective intermarriage and endogenous ethnic identification interact to hide some of the intergenerational progress achieved by the Mexican-origin population in the United States. In part, we do this by comparing an "objective" indicator of Mexican descent (based on the countries of birth of the respondent and his parents and grandparents) with the standard "subjective" measure of Mexican self-identification (based on the respondent's answer to the Hispanic origin question). For third-generation Mexican-American youth, we show that ethnic attrition is substantial and could produce significant downward bias in standard measures of attainment which rely on ethnic self-identification.

  14. Acculturation, development, and adaptation.

    PubMed

    Rothe, Eugenio M; Tzuang, Dan; Pumariega, Andres J

    2010-10-01

    The rapidly changing demographic landscape of the United States, brought about by immigration, has resulted in an increasingly multiracial and multicultural population. These changes have become accentuated by the phenomenon of globalization, which occurs when there is an acceleration of movement of people, ideas, and products between nations, which also brings about an increase in the complexity of everyday problems. This article discusses the concept of identity formation and how the stresses of immigration and acculturation and the factors of resiliency and risk affect immigrant children, adolescents, and their families, so that clinicians treating these populations can be prepared to understand divergent, and often well-hidden, world views, which may cause intrafamilial conflicts and interfere with the child's developmental process.

  15. Acculturation strategies, coping process and acculturative stress.

    PubMed

    Kosic, Ankica

    2004-09-01

    Using structural equation modeling, this study examines the influences of motivational factors (Need for Cognitive Closure--NCC--and Decisiveness), coping strategies and acculturation strategies on levels of acculturative stress. Two groups of immigrants in Rome (Croatians n= 156 and Poles n= 179) completed a questionnaire that included scales for the various factors. Although our initial hypothesized model was not confirmed, a modified model showed that the motivational factors of NCC and Decisiveness indirectly influence acculturative stress. The modified model with good fit indices indicated that the relationship between NCC and Decisiveness are mediated by coping strategies and acculturation strategies. Specifically, NCC is associated positively with avoidance coping, which in turn is negatively associated with the host group relationships and positively with the original culture maintenance. The last two dimensions predicted lower levels of acculturative stress. Decisiveness was positively associated with the problem-oriented coping and, negatively, with emotional and avoidance coping. PMID:15281915

  16. Exploring the role of ethnic identity on the attitudes towards HPV vaccine advertising among Puerto Ricans: a qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Calo, William A; Fernández, Maria E; Fernández-Espada, Natalie; Colón-López, Vivian

    2015-02-01

    Despite the existence of guidelines recommending vaccination against the human papillomavirus (HPV) and widespread availability of the vaccine through the Vaccines for Children program, HPV vaccination rates among island Puerto Ricans are suboptimal. Advertising plays a central role in promoting HPV vaccination by increasing awareness of and knowledge about the vaccine; however, little is known about the influence of cultural factors on the impact of HPV messages delivered through the media. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the role of ethnic identity on the attitudes towards HPV vaccine advertising among island Puerto Ricans. Five focus groups (n = 23) were conducted with parents and non-vaccinated females. Our analysis found several themes that may influence attitudes towards HPV vaccine advertising among this population: physical ethnic similarity, relevance of information, and sociocultural congruence. Findings may assist in developing culturally appropriate health promotion programs and media to promote HPV vaccination among Puerto Ricans.

  17. Exploring the role of ethnic identity on the attitudes towards HPV vaccine advertising among Puerto Ricans: A qualitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Calo, William A.; Fernández, Maria E.; Fernández-Espada, Natalie; Colón-López, Vivian

    2013-01-01

    Despite the existence of guidelines recommending vaccination against the human papillomavirus (HPV) and widespread availability of the vaccine through the Vaccines for Children program, HPV vaccination rates among island Puerto Ricans are suboptimal. Advertising plays a central role in promoting HPV vaccination by increasing awareness of and knowledge about the vaccine; however, little is known about the influence of cultural factors on the impact of HPV messages delivered through the media. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the role of ethnic identity on the attitudes towards HPV vaccine advertising among island Puerto Ricans. Five focus groups (n=23) were conducted with parents and non-vaccinated females. Our analysis found several themes that may influence attitudes towards HPV vaccine advertising among this population: physical ethnic similarity, relevance of information, and sociocultural congruence. Findings may assist in developing culturally appropriate health promotion programs and media to promote HPV vaccination among Puerto Ricans. PMID:24052477

  18. Ethnicity and acculturation: do they predict weight status in a longitudinal study among Asain, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic White early adolescent females?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents has increased over the past decade. Prevalence rates are disparate among certain racial and ethnic groups. In this study, the relationship between overweight status (> 85th percentile according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevent...

  19. Developmental Trajectories of Acculturation: Links with Family Functioning and Mental Health in Recent-Immigrant Hispanic Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Córdova, David; Mason, Craig A.; Huang, Shi; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I.; Des Rosiers, Sabrina; Soto, Daniel W.; Villamar, Juan A.; Pattarroyo, Monica; Lizzi, Karina M.; Szapocznik, José

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine acculturative changes, and their effects on mental health and family functioning, in recent-immigrant Hispanic adolescents. A sample of 302 Hispanic adolescents was assessed five times over a 2½-year period. Participants completed measures of Hispanic and U.S. practices, collectivist and individualist values, and ethnic and U.S. identity at each timepoint. Baseline and Time 5 levels of mental health and family functioning were also assessed. Latent class growth analyses produced two-class solutions for practices, values, and identifications. Adolescents who increased over time in practices and values reported the most adaptive mental health and family functioning. Adolescents who did not change in any acculturation domain reported the least favorable mental health and family functioning. PMID:25644262

  20. Communicative Correlates of Satisfaction, Family Identity, and Group Salience in Multiracial/Ethnic Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soliz, Jordan; Thorson, Allison R.; Rittenour, Christine E.

    2009-01-01

    Guided by the Common Ingroup Identity Model (S. L. Gaertner & J. F. Dovidio, 2000) and Communication Accommodation Theory (C. Shepard, H. Giles, & B. A. LePoire, 2001), we examined the role of identity accommodation, supportive communication, and self-disclosure in predicting relational satisfaction, shared family identity, and group salience in…

  1. Ethnic identities, social capital and health inequalities: factors shaping African-Caribbean participation in local community networks in the UK.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Catherine; McLean, Carl

    2002-08-01

    This paper examines the impact of ethnic identity on the likelihood of peoples' participation in local community networks, in the context of recent policy emphasis on the participation of marginalised communities in such networks as a means of reducing health inequalities. Conceptually, the paper is located against the background of debates about possible links between health and social capital--defined in terms of grassroots participation in local community networks--and an interest in the way in which social exclusion impacts on social capital. The paper draws on lengthy semi-structured, open-ended interviews with 25 African-Caribbean residents of a deprived multi-ethnic area of a south England town. While African-Caribbean identity played a central role in peoples' participation in inter-personal networks, this inter-personal solidarity did not serve to unite people at the local community level beyond particular face-to-face networks. Levels of participation in voluntary organisations and community activist networks were low. Informants regarded this lack of African-Caribbean unity within the local community as a problem, saying that it placed African-Caribbean people at a distinct disadvantage--furthering their social exclusion through limiting their access to various local community resources. The paper examines the way in which the construction of ethnic identities--within a context of institutionalised racism at both the material and symbolic levels--makes it unlikely that people will view local community organisations or networks as representative of their interests or needs, or be motivated to participate in them. Our findings highlight the limitations of policies which simply call for increased community participation by socially excluded groups, in the absence of specific measures to address the obstacles that stand in the way of such participation.

  2. Ethnic identities, social capital and health inequalities: factors shaping African-Caribbean participation in local community networks in the UK.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Catherine; McLean, Carl

    2002-08-01

    This paper examines the impact of ethnic identity on the likelihood of peoples' participation in local community networks, in the context of recent policy emphasis on the participation of marginalised communities in such networks as a means of reducing health inequalities. Conceptually, the paper is located against the background of debates about possible links between health and social capital--defined in terms of grassroots participation in local community networks--and an interest in the way in which social exclusion impacts on social capital. The paper draws on lengthy semi-structured, open-ended interviews with 25 African-Caribbean residents of a deprived multi-ethnic area of a south England town. While African-Caribbean identity played a central role in peoples' participation in inter-personal networks, this inter-personal solidarity did not serve to unite people at the local community level beyond particular face-to-face networks. Levels of participation in voluntary organisations and community activist networks were low. Informants regarded this lack of African-Caribbean unity within the local community as a problem, saying that it placed African-Caribbean people at a distinct disadvantage--furthering their social exclusion through limiting their access to various local community resources. The paper examines the way in which the construction of ethnic identities--within a context of institutionalised racism at both the material and symbolic levels--makes it unlikely that people will view local community organisations or networks as representative of their interests or needs, or be motivated to participate in them. Our findings highlight the limitations of policies which simply call for increased community participation by socially excluded groups, in the absence of specific measures to address the obstacles that stand in the way of such participation. PMID:12188469

  3. Intermarriage and the Intergenerational Transmission of Ethnic Identity and Human Capital for Mexican Americans

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Brian; Trejo, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate whether selective intermarriage and endogenous ethnic identification interact to hide some of the intergenerational progress achieved by the Mexican-origin population in the United States. In part, we do this by comparing an “objective” indicator of Mexican descent (based on the countries of birth of the respondent and his parents and grandparents) with the standard “subjective” measure of Mexican self-identification (based on the respondent’s answer to the Hispanic origin question). For third-generation Mexican-American youth, we show that ethnic attrition is substantial and could produce significant downward bias in standard measures of attainment which rely on ethnic self-identification. PMID:22058602

  4. Acculturation and Psychological Adjustment of Vietnamese Refugees: An Ecological Acculturation Framework.

    PubMed

    Salo, Corrina D; Birman, Dina

    2015-12-01

    Acculturation to the culture of the host society as well as to one's heritage culture have been shown to impact immigrants' adjustment during the years following resettlement. While acculturation has been identified as an important factor in adjustment of Vietnamese immigrants (Birman and Tran in Am J Orthopsychiatr 78(1):109-120. doi: 10.1037/0002-9432.78.1.109 , 2008), no clear pattern of findings has emerged and too few studies have employed an ecological approach. The purpose of this paper is to contextualize the study of acculturation and adjustment by taking an ecological approach to exploring these relationships across several life domains, using a bilinear scale, and examining mediators of these relationships for adult Vietnamese refugees (N = 203) in the United States. We call this approach the Ecological Acculturation Framework (EAF). Results of a structural equation model (SEM) showed that job satisfaction fully mediated the relationship between American acculturation and psychological distress, demonstrating that this relationship was specific to an occupational domain. However, while Vietnamese acculturation predicted co-ethnic social support satisfaction, it did not predict reduced psychological distress. Implications for a life domains approach, including domain specificity, are discussed. PMID:26443380

  5. Acculturation and Psychological Adjustment of Vietnamese Refugees: An Ecological Acculturation Framework.

    PubMed

    Salo, Corrina D; Birman, Dina

    2015-12-01

    Acculturation to the culture of the host society as well as to one's heritage culture have been shown to impact immigrants' adjustment during the years following resettlement. While acculturation has been identified as an important factor in adjustment of Vietnamese immigrants (Birman and Tran in Am J Orthopsychiatr 78(1):109-120. doi: 10.1037/0002-9432.78.1.109 , 2008), no clear pattern of findings has emerged and too few studies have employed an ecological approach. The purpose of this paper is to contextualize the study of acculturation and adjustment by taking an ecological approach to exploring these relationships across several life domains, using a bilinear scale, and examining mediators of these relationships for adult Vietnamese refugees (N = 203) in the United States. We call this approach the Ecological Acculturation Framework (EAF). Results of a structural equation model (SEM) showed that job satisfaction fully mediated the relationship between American acculturation and psychological distress, demonstrating that this relationship was specific to an occupational domain. However, while Vietnamese acculturation predicted co-ethnic social support satisfaction, it did not predict reduced psychological distress. Implications for a life domains approach, including domain specificity, are discussed.

  6. The relationship between acculturative stress and eating disorder symptoms: is it unique from general life stress?

    PubMed

    Kroon Van Diest, Ashley M; Tartakovsky, Margarita; Stachon, Caitlin; Pettit, Jeremy W; Perez, Marisol

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of the current study was to expand upon the literature examining the relationship between acculturative stress and eating disorder symptoms among different ethnic groups. Specifically, acculturative stress was explored as a moderator of the relationship between body dissatisfaction and eating disorder symptoms among ethnic minority women. Additionally, the distinction between acculturative stress and general life stress in predicting eating disorder symptoms was assessed. Participants consisted of 247 undergraduate women, all of whom were members of an ethnic minority group including African Americans, Asian Americans, and Latinas. Acculturative stress was found to moderate the relationship between body dissatisfaction and eating disorder symptoms, but only among African American women. Acculturative stress was also found to significantly predict bulimic symptoms above and beyond general life stress among African American, Asian American, and Latina women.

  7. Eating Disorder Symptomotology: The Role of Ethnic Identity in Caucasian and Hispanic College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avina, Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    A relative large number of women on college campuses report experiencing eating afflictions. About 61% of college women indicated that they either occasionally or regularly used extreme measures to control their weight (Mintz & Betz, 1988). No clear consensus on the relative prevalence of eating disorder symptoms across ethnic groups has emerged…

  8. Examining the Bicultural Ethnic Identity of Adolescents of a Northeastern Indian Tribe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Carrie M.; Smirles, Kimberly Eretzian

    2005-01-01

    The history of northeastern tribes differs substantially from that of other tribes, as northeastern tribes have experienced a longer length of contact with settlers and more intermarriage with non-Indians, producing tribal members of various ethnic backgrounds. American Indians can be considered "bicultural" because they must adapt to two…

  9. Greek American Ethnic Identity, Cultural Experience and the "Embodied Language" of Dance: Implications for Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Issari, Philia

    2011-01-01

    This ethnographic study aims to contribute to better counseling services for the Greek American population in the U.S. by providing cultural knowledge and insight into one of the smaller ethnic groups that has been overlooked in the literature. More specifically, it explores the role of the "embodied language" of dance in the formation of Greek…

  10. How Successful Ethnic Minority Students Construct Identities: Observations from Yunnan Province, PRC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, MaryJo Benton

    Like other Indigenous populations worldwide, China's ethnic minorities have faced considerable obstacles to acquiring education. At higher levels of education, minority students have far lower enrollment rates and far higher dropout rates than Han majority students. This is particularly true at the point of college admittance, since only 2 percent…

  11. Marco Said I Look like Charcoal: A Puerto Rican's Exploration of Her Ethnic Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vargas, Yarma Velazquez

    2008-01-01

    When race is so self-evident that it becomes "unspoken," it becomes a text that can be arbitrarily read or not read at all. When race is thought of as shades or textures of color that paint the already loaded canvas of our ethnicities, it is the reader who has the power of interpretation, opening the possibility for multiple readings that will…

  12. Ethnic Identity in Post-Soviet Belarus: Ethnolinguistic Survival as an Argument in the Political Struggle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bekus, Nelly

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the Belarusian case of post-communist development and the role and status of Belarusian ethnicity in Belarus' nation-formation process. "Nationalizing nationalism" (Brubaker), as realised by the Belarusian state through various social and cultural practices, is aimed at the creation of a Belarusian national…

  13. Language Change, Language Maintenance, and Ethnic Identity: The Case of Greek in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamis, A. M.

    1990-01-01

    Argues that, despite being the second most common mother tongue in Australia, Greek's existence in a dynamic bilingual environment and function restriction in a high-contact situation is causing language simplification and reduction that may lead to creolization, pidginization, and, eventually, language death. The role of ethnicity and religion in…

  14. Translanguaging Knowledge and Identity in Complementary Classrooms for Multilingual Minority Ethnic Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Li

    2014-01-01

    This article examines multilingual interactions in the complementary school classroom for ethnic Chinese children in the UK. Through a detailed analysis of classroom exchanges amongst the children and their teachers, the study aims to demonstrate how they alternate between different varieties of Chinese and English and different modes of…

  15. Ethnic Labels, Latino Lives. Identity and the Politics of (Re)Presentation in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oboler, Suzanne

    The history and current use of the label "Hispanic" are discussed in this exploration of the myth of cultural and national homogeneity among people of Latin American descent in the United States. The historical process of labeling groups of individuals is discussed, and how ethnic labels affect the meaning of citizenship and the struggle for full…

  16. A meta-analytic study: the relationship between acculturation and depression among Asian Americans.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Arpana; Leong, Frederick; Valentine, Jeffrey C; Canada, Dericka D

    2013-01-01

    Acculturation is an important and popular cultural research variable among specific ethnic populations that is used to explain the process of assimilating into the host culture. Acculturation has often been used to account for psychosocial changes and health outcomes and has been used to explain health disparities among ethnic groups. Using Asian Americans as an illustrative ethnic group, the authors see that researchers have highlighted the influence of acculturation on health outcomes. Some researchers suggest that this relationship is positive, whereas others postulate that the opposite is true. Because of the highly complex and divergent findings in the literature, this meta-analysis addresses the question of how acculturation (as measured by acculturation scales) is related to depression (a specific mental health outcome) among the Asian American population living in North America. Analyses were based on 38 studies. The meta-analyses reveal that when acculturation is measured as assimilation to the American culture, there is a small but statistically significant negative relationship between acculturation and depression scores. When acculturation is measured as orientation to the Asian culture, the relationship between acculturation and depression scores is also negative, but not statistically significant.

  17. Dimensions of acculturation: associations with health risk behaviors among college students from immigrant families.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Seth J; Weisskirch, Robert S; Zamboanga, Byron L; Castillo, Linda G; Ham, Lindsay S; Huynh, Que-Lam; Park, Irene J K; Donovan, Roxanne; Kim, Su Yeong; Vernon, Michael; Davis, Matthew J; Cano, Miguel A

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we examined a bidimensional model of acculturation (which includes both heritage and U.S. practices, values, and identifications) in relation to hazardous alcohol use, illicit drug use, unsafe sexual behavior, and impaired driving. A sample of 3,251 first- and second-generation immigrant students from 30 U.S. colleges and universities completed measures of behavioral acculturation; cultural values (individualism, collectivism, and self-construal); ethnic and U.S. identity; and patterns of alcohol and drug use, engagement in potentially unsafe sexual activities, and driving while (or riding with a driver who was) intoxicated. Results indicate that heritage practices and collectivist values were generally protective against health risk behaviors, with collectivist values most strongly and consistently protective. Nonetheless, heritage identifications were positively associated with sexual risk taking for Hispanics. U.S. practices, values, and identifications were not consistently related to risk behavior participation. Results are discussed in terms of bidimensional approaches to acculturation, the immigrant paradox, and implications for counseling practice.

  18. The association between acculturation and hypertension in a multiethnic sample of US adults.

    PubMed

    Teppala, Srinivas; Shankar, Anoop; Ducatman, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies analyzing acculturation and cardiovascular risk were restricted to individual race/ethnic groups and did not fully account for potential confounders. We examined the independent association between acculturation and hypertension in a contemporary multiethnic sample that included white, black, Latino, and Asian individuals. We examined 51,048 participants in the 2007 California Health Interview Survey who were >18 years, 59.5% of whom were women. The main exposure-of-interest was acculturation score, a summary measure of the additive effect of 4 variables (country of birth, parents' country of birth, language at home, and duration of stay in the United States) ranged from 0 (least acculturation) to 4 (highest acculturation). We found that increased acculturation was associated with hypertension, independent of age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, smoking, alcohol, physical activity, body mass index, and diabetes. Compared with those with the lowest acculturation (score of 0), the multivariable odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of hypertension among those with the highest acculturation (score of 4) was 1.78 (1.50-2.11). This association between acculturation and hypertension was consistent in subgroup analyses by gender, education, smoking, alcohol intake, and body mass index. Increased Western acculturation was found to be positively associated with hypertension in a multiethnic sample, independent of confounders.

  19. The Role of Racial Discrimination in the Economic Value of Education Among Urban, Low-Income Latina/o Youth: Ethnic Identity and Gender as Moderators.

    PubMed

    Mroczkowski, Alison L; Sánchez, Bernadette

    2015-09-01

    The present study used resilience theory to explore relationships among perceived racial discrimination, ethnic identity, gender, and economic value of education (EVE) among urban, low-income, Latina/o youth. It was expected that racial discrimination would predict poorer perceptions of the EVE among Latina/o adolescents. Ethnic identity was hypothesized to buffer the negative effect of racial discrimination on Latina/o students' EVE. The participants in this study were 396 urban, low-income Latina/o high school students from a large, Midwestern city who completed surveys in both 9th- and 10th-grade. Structural equation modeling was used to test the relationships among racial discrimination, ethnic identity, and EVE. Results supported a protective model of resilience. Specifically, ethnic identity served as a protective factor by buffering the negative effect of perceived racial discrimination on EVE for male participants. The present study is the first to examine ethnic identity as a buffer of racial discrimination on EVE among Latina/o high school students. Future directions and implications are discussed.

  20. The Role of Racial Discrimination in the Economic Value of Education Among Urban, Low-Income Latina/o Youth: Ethnic Identity and Gender as Moderators.

    PubMed

    Mroczkowski, Alison L; Sánchez, Bernadette

    2015-09-01

    The present study used resilience theory to explore relationships among perceived racial discrimination, ethnic identity, gender, and economic value of education (EVE) among urban, low-income, Latina/o youth. It was expected that racial discrimination would predict poorer perceptions of the EVE among Latina/o adolescents. Ethnic identity was hypothesized to buffer the negative effect of racial discrimination on Latina/o students' EVE. The participants in this study were 396 urban, low-income Latina/o high school students from a large, Midwestern city who completed surveys in both 9th- and 10th-grade. Structural equation modeling was used to test the relationships among racial discrimination, ethnic identity, and EVE. Results supported a protective model of resilience. Specifically, ethnic identity served as a protective factor by buffering the negative effect of perceived racial discrimination on EVE for male participants. The present study is the first to examine ethnic identity as a buffer of racial discrimination on EVE among Latina/o high school students. Future directions and implications are discussed. PMID:25908637

  1. National Identity and the New Nationalism: The Rise of Ethnic Absolutism in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giroux, Henry A.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses media culture and the populist construction of nationalist identity, highlighting right-wing conservatives Pat Buchanan's and Rush Limbaugh's cultural conformist viewpoints. Leftist intellectual Richard Rorty's notion of national identity constricts the principles informing a multicultural and multiracial society. Educators need a…

  2. A Study of Social Identity in Two Ethnic Groups in India and Bangladesh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghosh, E. S. K.; Huq, M. M.

    1985-01-01

    Reports two studies which examined the social identity of Hindu and Muslim subjects under three frames of reference: self, own group, and outgroup evaluations cross-nationally. Findings are examined in relation to the interplay of specific socio-contextual experiences in the differential pattern of social identity processes. (SED)

  3. The Joy of Writing My History: Ethnic Identity and Education through My Mother

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callejo Perez, David M.

    2012-01-01

    This three-part article addresses the role of identity as transmitted by my mother and the influences on my life first as a teacher and then as researcher. This ethnography is based on interviews of my mother about her life as a political prisoner in Cuba and her influences on my identity. This article is divided into three acts that address…

  4. A Person-Centered and Ecological Investigation of Acculturation Strategies in Hispanic Immigrant Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coatsworth, J. Douglas; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, Jose

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the processes of acculturation in ethnic minority populations is one of the central tasks of crosscultural research. Addressing challenges of theory, methods, and application in acculturation research requires ongoing advancements in methods and theoretical and model development. The current study was designed to explain a…

  5. The Acculturation Experiences of Foreign-Born Students of Color in Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fries-Britt, Sharon; George Mwangi, Chrystal A.; Peralta, Alicia M.

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on 15 foreign-born students majoring in physics who are also racial/ethnic minorities. We address the research question: What are the acculturation experiences of foreign-born Students of Color majoring in physics? Berry's (2003) theory of acculturation and Bandura's (1994) theory of self-efficacy were substantive…

  6. Life Experiences of Hispanic Adolescents: Developmental and Language Considerations in Acculturation Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cervantes, Richard C.; Cordova, David

    2011-01-01

    Hispanic youth currently constitute the largest and fastest growing of all ethnic and racial groups in the United States. In addition to normal developmental life stressors, Hispanic youth also face minority status and acculturation-related stress. This study examined the psychosocial and acculturative stressors of Hispanic youth (n=170) residing…

  7. Acculturation and self-rated health among Arctic indigenous peoples: a population-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Acculturation is for indigenous peoples related to the process of colonisation over centuries as well as the on-going social transition experienced in the Arctic today. Changing living conditions and lifestyle affect health in numerous ways in Arctic indigenous populations. Self-rated health (SRH) is a relevant variable in primary health care and in general public health assessments and monitoring. Exploring the relationship between acculturation and SRH in indigenous populations having experienced great societal and cultural change is thus of great importance. Methods The principal method in the Survey of Living Conditions in the Arctic (SLiCA) was standardised face-to-face interviews using a questionnaire. Very high overall participation rates of 83% were obtained in Greenland and Alaska, whilst a more conventional rate of 57% was achieved in Norway. Acculturation was conceptualised as certain traditional subsistence activities being of lesser importance for people’s ethnic identity, and poorer spoken indigenous language ability (SILA). Acculturation was included in six separate gender- and country-specific ordinal logistic regressions to assess qualitative effects on SRH. Results Multivariable analyses showed that acculturation significantly predicted poorer SRH in Greenland. An increased subsistence score gave an OR of 2.32 (P<0.001) for reporting poorer SRH among Greenlandic men, while an increased score for Greenlandic women generated an OR of 1.71 (P=0.01). Poorer SILA generated an OR of 1.59 in men (p=0.03). In Alaska, no evidence of acculturation effects was detected among Iñupiaq men. Among Iñupiaq women, an increased subsistence score represented an increased odds of 73% (p=0.026) for reporting poorer SRH. No significant effects of acculturation on SRH were detected in Norway. Conclusions This study shows that aggregate acculturation is a strong risk factor for poorer SRH among the Kalaallit of Greenland and female Iñupiat of Alaska, but

  8. Cycling and the city: a case study of how gendered, ethnic and class identities can shape healthy transport choices.

    PubMed

    Steinbach, Rebecca; Green, Judith; Datta, Jessica; Edwards, Phil

    2011-04-01

    As a form of 'active transport', cycling has been encouraged as a route to improving population health. However, in many high-income countries, despite being widely seen as a 'healthy' choice, few people do cycle for transport. Further, where cycling is rare, it is not a choice made equally across the population. In London, for instance, cycling is disproportionately an activity of affluent, White, men. This paper takes London as a case study to explore why the meanings of cycling might resonate differently across urban, gendered, ethnic and class identities. Drawing on qualitative interview data with 78 individuals, we suggest first that the relative visibility of cycling when few do it means that it is publicly gendered in a way that more normalised modes of transport are not; conversely, the very invisibility of Black and Asian cyclists reduces their opportunities to see cycling as a candidate mode of transport. Second, following Bourdieu, we argue that the affinities different population groups have for cycling may reflect the locally constituted 'accomplishments' contained in cycling. In London, cycling represents the archetypal efficient mode for autonomous individuals to travel in ways that maximise their future-health gain, and minimise wasted time and dependence on others. However, it relies on the cultivation of a particular 'assertive' style to defend against the risks of road danger and aggression. While the identities of some professional (largely White) men and women could be bolstered by cycling, the aesthetic and symbolic goals of cycling were less appealing to those with other class, gendered and ethnic identities. PMID:21396761

  9. Chicana/o Students Respond to Arizona's Anti-Ethnic Studies Bill, SB 1108: Civic Engagement, Ethnic Identity, and Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Leary, Anna Ochoa; Romero, Andrea J.

    2011-01-01

    Arizona Senate Bill 1108, the "anti-ethnic studies bill," proposed to eliminate ethnic studies programs and ethnic-based organizations from state-funded education. Along with other anti-immigrant legislation, this bill is creating an oppressive climate of discrimination against individuals of Mexican descent in Arizona. This study investigates the…

  10. Differential Processes in Acculturation: The Case of Asiatic Indians in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dworkin, Rosalind J.

    The study shows that acculturation is a process which varies not only from ethnic group to ethnic group, but also within an ethnic group. One hundred and thirty six Asian Indians, ranging from 15 to 64 years of age, living in Houston, Texas, comprise the sample. The six cultural traits selected as representative of intrinsic and extrinsic Indian…

  11. Racial/ethnic residential segregation and cardiovascular disease risk

    PubMed Central

    Kershaw, Kiarri N.; Albrecht, Sandra S.

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of research has examined whether racial/ethnic residential segregation contributes to health disparities, but recent findings in the literature, particularly with respect to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, have not been summarized. This review provides an overview of findings from studies of racial/ethnic residential segregation of non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics with CVD risk published between January 2011 and July 2014. The majority of studies of black segregation showed higher segregation was related to higher CVD risk, although relationships were less clear for certain outcomes. Relationships among Hispanics were more mixed and appeared to vary widely by factors such as gender, country of origin, racial identity, and acculturation. Implications for research on racial/ethnic disparities in CVD and lingering gaps in the literature are discussed as well. PMID:25893031

  12. Burden of Restraint, Disablement and Ethnic Identity: A Case Study of Total Joint Replacement for Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Tracie

    2010-01-01

    Health disparities in total joint replacement have been documented based on gender and ethnicity in multiple countries. Absent are studies exploring the meaning of the procedures among diverse women, which is necessary to fully understand the impact of the disparity. Drawing on ethnographic data from a life course exploration of disablement among Mexican American women with mobility impairments, one woman’s reasons for forgoing a joint replacement are considered. It is suggested that inequalities in disablement cannot be understood without considering the mulitple cultural conflicts and loyalties that push and pull women in multiple directions. PMID:21767094

  13. Language Learners' Acculturation Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafieyan, Vahid; Orang, Maryam; Bijami, Maryam; Nejad, Maryam Sharafi; Eng, Lin Siew

    2014-01-01

    Learning a language involves knowledge of both linguistic competence and cultural competence. Optimal development of linguistic competence and cultural competence, however, requires a high level of acculturation attitude toward the target language culture. To this end, the present study explored the acculturation attitudes of 70 Iranian…

  14. Integrative Perspectives on Acculturation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killian, Caitlin

    2011-01-01

    Comments on the original article, "Rethinking the concept of acculturation: Implications for theory and research," by S. J. Schwartz, J. B. Unger, B. L. Zamboanga, and J. Szapocznik. Schwartz et al are to be commended for their attempts "to propose an expanded, multidimensional model of acculturation and of the demographic and contextual forces…

  15. The construction and validation of a measure of Ethno-cultural Identity Conflict.

    PubMed

    Ward, Colleen; Stuart, Jaimee; Kus, Larissa

    2011-01-01

    The research describes the construction and validation of the Ethno-cultural Identity Conflict Scale (EICS) based on 3 independent samples totaling 975 immigrants, international students, and members of ethnic minority groups. The convergent validity of the 20-item scale was supported by its correlations with Self-Concept Clarity (r = -.65), Sense of Coherence (r = -.58), Identity Distress (r = .48), and the Cultural Conflict (r = .62) and Cultural Distance (r = .21) components of the Bicultural Identity Integration Scale. EICS was also linked to contemporary acculturation research with integrated migrants experiencing less conflict than those who were separated, assimilated, or marginalized. PMID:21859286

  16. Blood Politics, Ethnic Identity, and Racial Misclassification among American Indians and Alaska Natives

    PubMed Central

    Haozous, Emily A.; Strickland, Carolyn J.; Palacios, Janelle F.; Solomon, Teshia G. Arambula

    2014-01-01

    Misclassification of race in medical and mortality records has long been documented as an issue in American Indian/Alaska Native data. Yet, little has been shared in a cohesive narrative which outlines why misclassification of American Indian/Alaska Native identity occurs. The purpose of this paper is to provide a summary of the current state of the science in racial misclassification among American Indians and Alaska Natives. We also provide a historical context on the importance of this problem and describe the ongoing political processes that both affect racial misclassification and contribute to the context of American Indian and Alaska Native identity. PMID:24669226

  17. Blood politics, ethnic identity, and racial misclassification among American Indians and Alaska Natives.

    PubMed

    Haozous, Emily A; Strickland, Carolyn J; Palacios, Janelle F; Solomon, Teshia G Arambula

    2014-01-01

    Misclassification of race in medical and mortality records has long been documented as an issue in American Indian/Alaska Native data. Yet, little has been shared in a cohesive narrative which outlines why misclassification of American Indian/Alaska Native identity occurs. The purpose of this paper is to provide a summary of the current state of the science in racial misclassification among American Indians and Alaska Natives. We also provide a historical context on the importance of this problem and describe the ongoing political processes that both affect racial misclassification and contribute to the context of American Indian and Alaska Native identity.

  18. 'I never faced up to being gay': sexual, religious and ethnic identities among British Indian and British Pakistani gay men.

    PubMed

    Jaspal, Rusi

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the findings from a comparative qualitative study of British Indian and British Pakistani gay men, all of whom self-identified as members of their religious communities. Data were analysed using thematic analysis and identity process theory. Results suggest that the intersection between sexuality and religion is more relevant to British Pakistani participants, while the intersection between sexuality and ethnicity is more relevant to British Indian participants. For British Indian participants in particular, homosexuality seems to be socially problematic, posing potential obstacles for interpersonal and intergroup relations. Conversely, for British Pakistanis, homosexuality is both socially and psychologically problematic, affecting intrapsychic as well as interpersonal levels of human interdependence. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  19. Trajectories of Ethnic-Racial Identity and Autonomy among Mexican-origin Adolescent Mothers in the U.S

    PubMed Central

    Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Jahromi, Laudan B.; Zeiders, Katharine H.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined trajectories of ethnic-racial identity (ERI) and autonomy development among Mexican-origin adolescent females in the U.S. (N = 181; Mage at Wave 1 = 16.80 years, SD = 1.00) as they transitioned through the first five years of parenthood. Trajectories of ERI and autonomy also were examined in relation to psychosocial functioning. Unconditional latent growth models indicated significant growth in autonomy, ERI resolution, and ERI affirmation from middle to late adolescence. Conditional latent growth models indicated that autonomy and ERI exploration growth trajectories were positively associated with psychosocial adjustment. Although adolescent mothers are experiencing transitions that are not normative during adolescence, they also engage in normative developmental processes, and their engagement in such processes is linked with better adjustment. PMID:26450526

  20. Racism and Illicit Drug Use Among African American Women: The Protective Effects of Ethnic Identity, Affirmation, and Behavior.

    PubMed

    Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Perry, Brea; Harp, Kathi L; Oser, Carrie B

    2012-11-01

    Though recent evidence indicates that rates of illicit drug use among African American women are now higher than the national average, little is known about the etiology of substance use in this population. In addition, the effects of racism and other cultural factors are understudied and may be unique amongst African American women. This cross-sectional study explores risk and protective factors for drug use among 204 African American women. More specifically, associations between racism experiences and drug use are investigated in the context of potential moderating influences (i.e., psychosocial resources, social safety net variables, and cultural identity and practices). Findings suggest that racism is associated with drug use, but that its effects diminish with age. In addition, results suggest that psychosocial resources, social safety net factors and culturally specific factors like ethnic community membership and engagement in cultural practices afford African American women some protection against the detrimental effects of racism.

  1. Trajectories of Ethnic-Racial Identity and Autonomy Among Mexican-Origin Adolescent Mothers in the United States.

    PubMed

    Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Jahromi, Laudan B; Zeiders, Katharine H

    2015-01-01

    This study examined trajectories of ethnic-racial identity (ERI) and autonomy development among Mexican-origin adolescent females in the United States (N = 181; M(age) at Wave 1 = 16.80 years, SD = 1.00) as they transitioned through the first 5 years of parenthood. Trajectories of ERI and autonomy also were examined in relation to psychosocial functioning. Unconditional latent growth models indicated significant growth in autonomy, ERI resolution, and ERI affirmation from middle to late adolescence. Conditional latent growth models indicated that autonomy and ERI exploration growth trajectories were positively associated with psychosocial adjustment. Although adolescent mothers are experiencing transitions that are not normative during adolescence, they also engage in normative developmental processes, and their engagement in such processes is linked with better adjustment. PMID:26450526

  2. 'I never faced up to being gay': sexual, religious and ethnic identities among British Indian and British Pakistani gay men.

    PubMed

    Jaspal, Rusi

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the findings from a comparative qualitative study of British Indian and British Pakistani gay men, all of whom self-identified as members of their religious communities. Data were analysed using thematic analysis and identity process theory. Results suggest that the intersection between sexuality and religion is more relevant to British Pakistani participants, while the intersection between sexuality and ethnicity is more relevant to British Indian participants. For British Indian participants in particular, homosexuality seems to be socially problematic, posing potential obstacles for interpersonal and intergroup relations. Conversely, for British Pakistanis, homosexuality is both socially and psychologically problematic, affecting intrapsychic as well as interpersonal levels of human interdependence. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:22651130

  3. Trajectories of Ethnic-Racial Identity and Autonomy Among Mexican-Origin Adolescent Mothers in the United States.

    PubMed

    Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Jahromi, Laudan B; Zeiders, Katharine H

    2015-01-01

    This study examined trajectories of ethnic-racial identity (ERI) and autonomy development among Mexican-origin adolescent females in the United States (N = 181; M(age) at Wave 1 = 16.80 years, SD = 1.00) as they transitioned through the first 5 years of parenthood. Trajectories of ERI and autonomy also were examined in relation to psychosocial functioning. Unconditional latent growth models indicated significant growth in autonomy, ERI resolution, and ERI affirmation from middle to late adolescence. Conditional latent growth models indicated that autonomy and ERI exploration growth trajectories were positively associated with psychosocial adjustment. Although adolescent mothers are experiencing transitions that are not normative during adolescence, they also engage in normative developmental processes, and their engagement in such processes is linked with better adjustment.

  4. A Qualitative Analysis of Vietnamese Adolescent Identity Exploration within and outside an Ethnic Enclave

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vo-Jutabha, Easter Dawn; Dinh, Khanh T.; McHale, James P.; Valsiner, Jaan

    2009-01-01

    Focusing on identity development explorations enables a greater understanding of contexts that affect immigrant adolescents. Utilizing thematic and grounded narrative analysis of 46 journal writings, during a one-month period, from first and second generation Vietnamese adolescents ranging in age from 15 to 18 (26 residents of a culturally and…

  5. Performing Thyself: Sparking Imagination and Exploring Ethnic Identity through Singing and Dancing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsetsura, Katerina

    2010-01-01

    This essay discusses two sets of creative teaching methods: live singing and dancing. The performance by an instructor can set a mode for students to achieve intellectual transformation by exploring issues of identity. The role of music, especially folk singing and dancing, is specifically examined within the intercultural context of…

  6. Racial/ethnic socialization and identity development in Black families: the role of parent and youth reports.

    PubMed

    Peck, Stephen C; Brodish, Amanda B; Malanchuk, Oksana; Banerjee, Meeta; Eccles, Jacquelynne S

    2014-07-01

    Racial/ethnic (R/E) socialization is widely practiced in R/E minority families. However, only recently have models been developed to understand how parents' R/E socialization messages influence adolescent development. The primary goal of the present study was to clarify and extend existing work on R/E socialization in African American (Black) families by distinguishing between parent and youth reports of parents' R/E socialization messages and examining the extent to which adolescents and their parents agree about these socialization messages. In addition, we tested a theoretical model in which parent-reported R/E socialization messages have an indirect effect on the development of youth R/E identity through youth reports of their parents' R/E socialization messages. Using a combination of open- and close-ended data from a longitudinal study of self-identified Black adolescents and their parents, we found statistically significant parent-youth agreement about whether parents send both general R/E socialization messages and, for daughters, specific R/E socialization messages. R/E socialization messages focused on promoting cultural pride and history were associated positively with R/E identity development, whereas messages focused on preparing youth for discrimination tended to be unrelated to R/E identity development. The results largely supported the hypothesis that parent reports of parents' R/E socialization messages are related indirectly to the development of adolescent R/E identity via youth reports of parents' R/E socialization messages.

  7. Racial/Ethnic Socialization and Identity Development in Black Families: The Role of Parent and Youth Reports

    PubMed Central

    Peck, Stephen C.; Brodish, Amanda B.; Malanchuk, Oksana; Banerjee, Meeta; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2014-01-01

    Racial/ethnic (R/E) socialization is widely practiced in R/E minority families. However, only recently have models been developed to understand how parents’ R/E socialization messages influence adolescent development. The primary goal of the present study was to clarify and extend existing work on R/E socialization in African American (Black) families by distinguishing between parent and youth reports of parents’ R/E socialization messages and examining the extent to which adolescents and their parents agree about these socialization messages. In addition, we tested a theoretical model in which parent reported R/E socialization messages have an indirect effect on the development of youth R/E identity through youth reports of their parents’ R/E socialization messages. Using a combination of open- and close-ended data from a longitudinal study of self-identified Black adolescents and their parents, we found statistically significant parent-youth agreement about whether or not parents send both general R/E socialization messages and, for daughters, specific R/E socialization messages. R/E socialization messages focused on promoting cultural pride and history were associated positively with R/E identity development, whereas messages focused on preparing youth for discrimination tended to be unrelated to R/E identity development. The results largely supported the hypothesis that parent reports of parents’ R/E socialization messages are related indirectly to the development of adolescent R/E identity via youth reports of parents’ R/E socialization messages. PMID:24798504

  8. Ethnic identity, self-esteem, and perceived efficacy as mediators of the relation of supportive parenting to psychosocial outcomes among urban adolescents.

    PubMed

    Swenson, Rebecca R; Prelow, Hazel M

    2005-08-01

    The present study examined the direct and indirect relationships among supportive parenting, ethnic identity, self-esteem, perceived efficacy, and psychological adjustment in an urban sample of 133 African American (M age=16.37) and 110 European American (M age=16.43) adolescents. Although the mediational model was partially supported for both African American and European American youth, the data better fit the model for the African American group. Specifically, perceived efficacy fully mediated the relation between ethnic identity and depressive symptoms, and partially mediated the relation between self-esteem and depressive symptoms for African American youth. For European Americans, self-esteem fully mediated the relation between supportive parenting and perceived efficacy. This study illustrates the importance of examining developmental models separately for adolescents from different ethnic/racial backgrounds.

  9. Ethnic Identity, Self-Esteem, and Perceived Efficacy as Mediators of the Relation of Supportive Parenting to Psychosocial Outcomes among Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swenson, R.R.; Prelow, H.M.

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined the direct and indirect relationships among supportive parenting, ethnic identity, self-esteem, perceived efficacy, and psychological adjustment in an urban sample of 133 African American (M age=16.37) and 110 European American (M age=16.43) adolescents. Although the mediational model was partially supported for both…

  10. The Relationship of Ethnic Identity and Gender Role Attitudes to the Development of Career Choice Goals among Black and Latina Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gushue, George V.; Whitson, Melissa L.

    2006-01-01

    This study is a preliminary exploration of how individual differences in gender role attitudes and ethnic identity might be related to career decision self-efficacy and the gender traditionality of career choice goals in a sample of 102 9th-grade Black and Latina girls. Extending social-cognitive career theory, the authors examined 2 path models…

  11. Gender, Ethnicity, and Physics Education: Understanding How Black Women Build Their Identities as Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, Katemari Diogo da

    This research focuses on the underrepresentation of minoritized groups in scientific careers. The study is an analysis of the relationships between race, gender, and those with careers in the sciences, focusing on the lived experiences of Black women physicists, as viewed through the lens of women scientists in the United States. Although the research is geographically localized, the base-line question is clear and mirrors in the researcher's own intellectual development: "How do Black women physicists describe their experiences towards the construction of a scientific identity and the pursuit of a career in physics?" Grounded on a critical race theory perspective, the study uses storytelling to analyze how these women build their identities as scientists and how they have negotiate their multiple identities within different communities in society. Findings show that social integration is a key element for Black women physicists to enter study groups, which enables access to important resources for academic success in STEM. The study has implications for physics education and policymakers. The study reveals the role of the different communities that these women are part of, and the importance of public policies targeted to increase the participation of underrepresented groups in science, especially through after-school programs and financial support through higher education.

  12. Assessing Acculturation Over Time: A Four-year Prospective Study of Asian American Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Kate E.; Klonoff, Elizabeth A.; Garcini, Luz M.; Ullman, Jodie B.; Wall, Tamara L.; Myers, Mark G.

    2014-01-01

    Acculturation is commonly defined as a dynamic and multidimensional process in which individuals and groups change over time when coming into contact with another culture. Despite the emphasis on acculturation as a process of change over time, few researchers have directly assessed this hypothesis. The current study first identifies and then examines “stable” and “dynamic” dimensions of acculturation within a 4-year prospective study of 433 first- and second-generation Chinese- and Korean-American college students. Separate growth model analyses revealed significant linear change for first-generation students toward greater U.S. acculturation. In comparison, tests of linear and quadratic change for second-generation students were not significant. When stratifying by gender, acculturation increased for women but there was no significant change in acculturation for men. While all students reported increases in alcohol consumption over the study period, changes in acculturation predicted changes in alcohol consumption only for women. Chinese men showed greater increases in alcohol consumption than Korean men but there was no effect for ethnicity among women. There was significant individual variability in the models, which underscores the importance of examining change prospectively through within and between person analyses. The findings highlight the importance of examining acculturation changes over time for different migrant groups with implications for further development of acculturation measures, research methodologies, and health interventions. More prospective research designs of acculturation are needed to examine changes in health behavior and overall adaptation across migrant groups at varying stages of development. PMID:25558310

  13. Cultural identity and psychological adjustment of adolescent Chinese immigrants in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Eyou, M L; Adair, V; Dixon, R

    2000-10-01

    Based on an integration of acculturation and developmental models, this study examined the relationship between psychological adjustment and cultural identity determined by the relative strength of identification with own ethnic group, and the mainstream society. Over 400 immigrant Chinese students completed questionnaires and 24 participated in interviews. Results indicated that adolescents who were integrated had higher self-esteem than their peers who were separated or marginalized p<0.001). This finding is consistent with research on ethnic minority adolescents in other countries, and suggests that integration has important implications on the psychological well-being of these adolescent immigrants. PMID:11073695

  14. Acculturative Stress and Risky Sexual Behavior: The Roles of Sexual Compulsivity and Negative Affect.

    PubMed

    Jardin, Charles; Garey, Lorra; Sharp, Carla; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Recent syndemic models of sexual health disparities affecting racial/ethnic minorities have highlighted the role of discrimination. Yet no previous work has examined how acculturative stress (distress at the transition from one's original culture toward a new culture) associates with sexual HIV-risk behavior (SHRB). Work among other minority populations suggests sexual compulsivity (SC) may contribute to syndemic sexual health disparities as a means of coping with distress. With this in mind, the present study examined whether SC explained the relation between acculturative stress and SHRB. Separate analyses were conducted for males and females within a sample of 758 sexually initiated racial/ethnic minority college students. Among males and females, acculturative stress had an indirect effect on SHRB via SC. As the first study to examine SHRB in relation to acculturative stress, findings provide preliminary evidence that targeting SC among racial/ethnic minorities may help reduce sexual health disparities. PMID:26584611

  15. Received ethnic-racial socialization messages and youths' academic and behavioral outcomes: examining the mediating role of ethnic identity and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Diane; Witherspoon, Dawn; Rivas-Drake, Deborah; West-Bey, Nia

    2009-04-01

    The authors examined relationships between cultural socialization and preparation for bias and youth outcomes. Using data from 805 African American and White early adolescents attending school in an integrated middle-class suburban school district in the northeastern United States, the authors hypothesized that ethnic affirmation and self-esteem would mediate relations between ethnic-racial socialization and more distal academic and behavioral outcomes. Cultural socialization was positively associated with academic and behavioral outcomes, and these associations were partially mediated by ethnic affirmation and self-esteem. Preparation for bias was associated with more negative academic outcomes, and these relationships were fully mediated by ethnic affirmation and self-esteem. Relationships of preparation for bias to youth outcomes were generally stronger for White compared with African American youths. The risks and benefits of different socialization messages for youths in various ecological contexts are discussed.

  16. Identity and attitudinal reactions to perceptions of inter-group interactions among ethnic migrants: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Jasinskaja-Lahti, Inga; Mähönen, Tuuli Anna; Liebkind, Karmela

    2012-06-01

    This 1-year follow-up study investigated the direct and indirect effects of past, anticipated, and actual experiences of inter-group interactions on the development of national identity and attitudes towards the national majority among ethnic re-migrants (N= 141) from Russia to Finland. According to the results, the quality of past inter-group contact in the pre-migration stage (T(1)) did not directly affect national identification and out-group attitudes in the post-migration stage (T(2)). Instead, the effect of contact quality at T(1) on national identification and out-group attitudes at T(2) was indirect via perceived discrimination and out-group rejection at T(2). In addition, there were two indirect pathways from out-group attitudes at T(1) to national identification and out-group attitudes at T(2), via pleasant contact experiences (further associated with positive out-group attitudes) and via perceived discrimination (further associated with negative attitudes and lower national identification) in the post-migration stage. Anticipated discrimination only had a direct effect on out-group attitudes in the post-migration stage. The results highlight the role of past and anticipated inter-group relations in the formation of post-migration inter-group interactions, which, in turn, are decisive for the formation of national identification and out-group attitudes of re-migrants.

  17. The influence of college choice on the success, ethnic identity, and professional sense of belonging of African American engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeRamus-Suazo, Nicole L.

    The purpose of this study was to reveal the perceptions of African American engineers on how college choice influenced their success, ethnic identity, and professional sense of belonging by documenting the unique experiences and success stories of African American engineers who attended four-year institutions, historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and predominantly White institutions (PWIs). The research question was best answered through a qualitative, phenomenological study that depicted the lived experiences of individuals in their own voice. The governing interest was in discovering whether aspiring African American engineers, at this stage in their professional experience, favorably viewed their choice of HBCUs versus PWIs. Participants relayed how having a sense of belonging to their institution and having a supportive network of peers and faculty influenced and shaped their outlook on life. Several of the participants spoke of being resolute in achieving their goal to become an engineer despite the challenges faced in college and in the workforce. Whether participants attended an HBCU or PWI, they felt a sense of achievement and a competence to walk into any situation and succeed. Overwhelmingly, most participants expressed they would choose their undergraduate institution again if given the opportunity. African American engineers favorably viewed their undergraduate college choice as having given them an opportunity to achieve their professional aspirations.

  18. Acculturation Strategies and Mental Health in Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Nele; Vanden Berghe, Wim; Dewaele, Alexis; Vincke, John

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we examine the impact of acculturation strategies on minority stress and mental health in lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) youth in Flanders, Belgium. Building on previous identity minority studies and on the social stress model, we investigate how LGB youth acculturate within both the LGB subculture and mainstream society and how…

  19. The Bicultural I: A Social and Cognitive Approach for Understanding the Psychology of Acculturation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapiro, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the processes and challenges of creating a socially integrated, empowered immigrant identity by exploring the concepts acculturation model. The author examines the psychology of acculturation and the processes for creating a socially integrated bicultural self for immigrants who retain cultural traditions while adapting to…

  20. Acculturation and Career Beliefs--Is There a Relationship for International University Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahadevan, Lakshmi

    2010-01-01

    The major purpose of this study was to explore the relationship(s) between acculturation and the career beliefs of Indian, Chinese and Korean international students. Each of the participants was administered a demographics questionnaire, an adapted version of the Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation Scale (SL-ASIA) and the Career Beliefs…

  1. Acculturation and Religion in Schools: The Views of Young People from Minority Belief Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niens, Ulrike; Mawhinney, Alison; Richardson, Norman; Chiba, Yuko

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to explore the relationship between religious identity, acculturation strategies and perceptions of acculturation orientation in the school context amongst young people from minority belief backgrounds. Based on a qualitative study including interviews with 26 young people from religious minority belief backgrounds in Northern…

  2. The consumption of more vegetables and less meat is associated with higher levels of acculturation among Mongolians in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Tserendejid, Zuunnast; Hwang, Jinah; Lee, Jounghee; Park, Haeryun

    2013-12-01

    Although Mongolian immigrants are a rapidly growing population in South Korea, the 2 countries have distinct diets because of climatic and geographical differences. The Mongolian diet is mostly animal-based with few vegetables and fruits, whereas the Korean diet is largely plant based. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between acculturation and dietary intakes among Mongolians living in South Korea. We hypothesized that higher levels of acculturation would be associated with higher vegetable, fruit, and plant-based food intakes among Mongolian immigrants. A total of 500 Mongolian immigrants participated in this study conducted between December 2010 and May 2011. To measure the acculturation level, we developed an acculturation scale based on the Suinn-Lew Asian self-identity acculturation scale. Dietary intakes were assessed using the 24-hour dietary recall method. Associations between acculturation and dietary intakes were investigated using a general linear model adjusted for demographic characteristics. The participants were grouped into either a low-acculturation group or a high-acculturation group. The high-acculturation group reported significantly higher consumption of vegetables and rice and significantly lower consumption of meat, potatoes, and flour products compared with their low-acculturation counterparts. However, a higher level of acculturation was also significantly related to a higher intake of sodium. These findings could be used to tailor nutrition programs to different acculturation levels.

  3. Collective identity and well-being of Bulgarian Roma adolescents and their mothers.

    PubMed

    Dimitrova, Radosveta; Chasiotis, Athanasios; Bender, Michael; van de Vijver, Fons J R

    2014-03-01

    In Europe and specifically in Bulgaria, Roma represent the largest indigenous ethnic minority exposed to severe discrimination, social exclusion, poverty, and compromised well-being. To improve their conditions, identifying sources of psychological well-being for Roma is theoretically relevant and practically important. This study investigated the relation between ethnic, familial, and religious identities as salient collective identity components for psychological well-being among 194 Roma adolescents (age: M = 16.11 years, SD = 1.36) and their mothers (age: M = 35.95 years, SD = 3.54). The results indicated that in line with marginalization models of acculturation, Roma youth and their mothers showed a low endorsement of both Bulgarian mainstream and Roma ethnic identity. The average scores of well-being were also low. For both groups, familial identity was stronger compared to Roma, Bulgarian, and religious identity. A path model showed that collective identity was a positive predictor of well-being in both adolescents and mothers and that the mothers' collective identity was a predictor of adolescent well-being. Bulgarian mainstream identity had the strongest relationship with collective identity. It is concluded that, for Roma youth and their mothers, family is an important identity domain as it represents the most salient identification source that is not challenged in their environment.

  4. Acculturation Factors that Influence Mexican American Students and Their Success in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Dorothy K.

    2008-01-01

    Mexican American adolescents are now the largest linguistically and culturally diverse ethnic group in our schools today. Acculturation difficulties of adapting to a new culture may effect adolescent achievement in school. Mexican American adolescents may be torn between their ethnic heritage and the culture of the U.S. They must master a new…

  5. Substance Use and Sexual Behavior among Recent Hispanic Immigrant Adolescents: Effects of Parent-Adolescent Differential Acculturation and Communication*

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E.; Huang, Shi; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I.; Villamar, Juan A.; Soto, Daniel W.; Pattarroyo, Monica; Szapocznik, José

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To ascertain the effects of parent-adolescent acculturation gaps, perceived discrimination, and perceived negative context of reception on adolescent cigarette smoking, alcohol use, sexual activity, and sexual risk taking. We used an expanded, multidimensional model of acculturation. Method A sample of 302 recently immigrated parent-adolescent dyads (152 from Miami and 150 from Los Angeles) completed measures of acculturation (Hispanic and American practices and identifications, and individualist and collectivist values) and parent-adolescent communication. Adolescents completed measures of recent cigarette smoking, alcohol use, sexual behavior, and sexual risk taking. Results Parent-adolescent gaps in American practices and ethnic identity, and perceptions of a negative context of reception, predicted compromised parent-adolescent communication. In Miami only, adolescent-reported communication negatively predicted odds of cigarette smoking, occasions of drunkenness, and number of sexual partners. Also in Miami only, parent-reported communication positively predicted these outcomes, as well as occasions of adolescent binge drinking, drunkenness, number of sexual partners, and odds of unprotected sex. The only significant findings in Los Angeles were protective effects of parent-reported communication on frequency of alcohol use and of binge drinking. Mediational effects emerged only in the Miami sample. Conclusions Effects of parent-adolescent acculturation gaps vary across Hispanic groups and receiving contexts. The especially strong parental control in many Mexican families may account for these differences. However, other important differences between Hispanic subgroups and communities of reception could also account for these differences. Prevention efforts might encourage Hispanic youth both to retain their culture of origin and to acquire American culture. PMID:22699094

  6. "Community ambassadors" for South Asian elder immigrants: late-life acculturation and the roles of community health workers.

    PubMed

    Blair, Thomas R W

    2012-11-01

    Elder immigrants face multiple barriers to accessing health care and other basic services. The Community Ambassador Program for Seniors (CAPS), based in Fremont, California, trains volunteer "ambassadors" from several ethnic and faith communities to perform information and referral services for elders, particularly immigrants. The purpose of this study is to examine the roles of ambassadors in ecologic context as community health workers (CHWs) for clients undergoing late-life acculturation. Ambassadors from three different communities, all of South Asian heritage, were interviewed using a semi-structured guide. 20 out of 23 ambassadors from these communities participated, from December 2008 to December 2009. Data collection and analysis followed grounded theory methodology. Results are presented as an integrated explanatory model, with three major components: (1) acculturative stress, particularly within elders' families; (2) polygonal relationships, a construct that includes elders, their caregivers, CHWs, and service providers, and builds on the notion of a "geriatric triad" (Adelman, Greene, & Charon, 1987); and (3) role hybridity, a novel explanation for CHWs' social niche. Ambassadors mediated elder clients' acculturation both inside and outside elders' families. As such, ambassadors worked in polygonal relationships with elder clients and elders' children, rather than simply working in dyads with elder clients themselves. In the CAPS context, this polygonal framework integrates intra-familial and extra-familial acculturative dynamics into a single relational model. Within these relationships, CHWs exhibited hybridity of social roles, integrating familial and professional attributes, but fully achieving neither familial nor professional status. Practical implications, including importance of outreach to elders' children, accessibility of social programs, and the consequences of role hybridity as a property of CHW identity and function, are discussed. PMID

  7. "Community ambassadors" for South Asian elder immigrants: late-life acculturation and the roles of community health workers.

    PubMed

    Blair, Thomas R W

    2012-11-01

    Elder immigrants face multiple barriers to accessing health care and other basic services. The Community Ambassador Program for Seniors (CAPS), based in Fremont, California, trains volunteer "ambassadors" from several ethnic and faith communities to perform information and referral services for elders, particularly immigrants. The purpose of this study is to examine the roles of ambassadors in ecologic context as community health workers (CHWs) for clients undergoing late-life acculturation. Ambassadors from three different communities, all of South Asian heritage, were interviewed using a semi-structured guide. 20 out of 23 ambassadors from these communities participated, from December 2008 to December 2009. Data collection and analysis followed grounded theory methodology. Results are presented as an integrated explanatory model, with three major components: (1) acculturative stress, particularly within elders' families; (2) polygonal relationships, a construct that includes elders, their caregivers, CHWs, and service providers, and builds on the notion of a "geriatric triad" (Adelman, Greene, & Charon, 1987); and (3) role hybridity, a novel explanation for CHWs' social niche. Ambassadors mediated elder clients' acculturation both inside and outside elders' families. As such, ambassadors worked in polygonal relationships with elder clients and elders' children, rather than simply working in dyads with elder clients themselves. In the CAPS context, this polygonal framework integrates intra-familial and extra-familial acculturative dynamics into a single relational model. Within these relationships, CHWs exhibited hybridity of social roles, integrating familial and professional attributes, but fully achieving neither familial nor professional status. Practical implications, including importance of outreach to elders' children, accessibility of social programs, and the consequences of role hybridity as a property of CHW identity and function, are discussed.

  8. A PERSON-CENTERED AND ECOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF ACCULTURATION STRATEGIES IN HISPANIC IMMIGRANT YOUTH

    PubMed Central

    Coatsworth, J. Douglas; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, José

    2006-01-01

    Understanding the processes of acculturation in ethnic minority populations is one of the central tasks of crosscultural research. Addressing challenges of theory, methods, and application in acculturation research requires ongoing advancements in methods and theoretical and model development. The current study was designed to explain a person-centered approach to investigating acculturation and biculturalism and to illustrate this method with a sample of 315 Hispanic youth. Pattern analyses of the Hispanicism and Americanism scores from the Bicultural Involvement Scale yielded four distinct acculturation types, including one characterized by moderate scores on both scales. Relations between acculturation types and indicators of individual, family, and peer adaptation were tested. Results indicated that bicultural youth tended to show the most adaptive pattern of functioning across multiple sociocultural domains. Assimilated youth did not show as strongly negative a pattern as has been reported elsewhere. Implications and benefits of a person-centered approach are discussed. PMID:16799699

  9. A PERSON-CENTERED AND ECOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF ACCULTURATION STRATEGIES IN HISPANIC IMMIGRANT YOUTH.

    PubMed

    Coatsworth, J Douglas; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, José

    2005-03-01

    Understanding the processes of acculturation in ethnic minority populations is one of the central tasks of crosscultural research. Addressing challenges of theory, methods, and application in acculturation research requires ongoing advancements in methods and theoretical and model development. The current study was designed to explain a person-centered approach to investigating acculturation and biculturalism and to illustrate this method with a sample of 315 Hispanic youth. Pattern analyses of the Hispanicism and Americanism scores from the Bicultural Involvement Scale yielded four distinct acculturation types, including one characterized by moderate scores on both scales. Relations between acculturation types and indicators of individual, family, and peer adaptation were tested. Results indicated that bicultural youth tended to show the most adaptive pattern of functioning across multiple sociocultural domains. Assimilated youth did not show as strongly negative a pattern as has been reported elsewhere. Implications and benefits of a person-centered approach are discussed. PMID:16799699

  10. Segmented Assimilation Revisited: Types of Acculturation and Socioeconomic Mobility in Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Mary C.; Tran, Van C.; Kasinitz, Philip; Mollenkopf, John H.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the debate between key theories of immigrant assimilation by exploring the effect of acculturation types – dissonant, consonant, and selective – on socioeconomic outcomes in young adulthood. Drawing on survey data from the Immigrant Second Generation in Metropolitan New York, we show that while all three types occur, dissonant acculturation is the exception, not the norm, among second generation young adults. Our results also suggest that neither the type of acculturation nor the level of ethnic embeddedness can account for the variation in mobility patterns both across and within second generation groups. These findings lead us to question assumptions about the protective effect of selective acculturation and the negative effect of dissonant acculturation. PMID:20543888

  11. Assessment of stroke risk in southern Arizona, the pairing of acculturation and stroke risk factor development.

    PubMed

    Nokes, Brandon; Sim, Yeeck; Gibson, Blake; Byreddy, Seenu; Labiner, David M; Coull, Bruce; Chong, Jenny

    2015-04-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of mortality in the United States. Hispanics have the same incidence of stroke, but are more likely to have subsequent strokes than non-Hispanic whites. This difference in outcome may be attributable to differences in stroke risk factor awareness. Patients at a community health center in Tucson, AZ completed an anonymous survey regarding existing and perceived health issues. Patient responses were compared in terms of ethnicity and acculturation, as indicated by language preference. Patient responses (n = 301, Spanish: 150, English: 151) indicated that proportionately fewer non-acculturated Hispanics than acculturated Hispanic and non-Hispanic patients indicated that they were at risk for stroke. Acculturated Hispanics and non-Hispanics displayed similar morbidity trends, including increased obesity, hypertension, diabetes, heart problems, depression, and previous stroke. These findings suggest that Hispanics become less healthy and more at risk for stroke and stroke risk factors as they become acculturated. PMID:24173570

  12. Examining a sample of Black deaf individuals on the Deaf Acculturation Scale.

    PubMed

    Nelson Schmitt, Shawn S; Leigh, Irene W

    2015-07-01

    The current study sought to identify and analyze how Black deaf and hard-of-hearing people conceptualize their deaf and hard-of-hearing identities. That is, what cultural and linguistic factors are involved and how do they interact? An existing measure of Deaf cultural identity, the Deaf Acculturation Scale (DAS), was used to evaluate these questions. Review of the measure's normative sample (n = 3,070) indicated that fewer than 300 self-identified as racial/ethnic minorities (Hispanic/Latino, Black, or Asian). Results of a preliminary study revealed that Non-White deaf individuals responded to DAS items in ways that significantly differed from responses provided by White deaf individuals. Moreover, the existing 5-factor correlated model of the DAS did not fit well with the Non-White group. The current study administered the DAS to a new sample of 106 Black deaf individuals. Principal components analysis determined an appropriate factor structure for this population. In addition to the existing 5 factors, a sixth factor emerged that appears to reflect identity concerns specific to Black deaf people. Ideas for future research, including how to examine the intersections of Deaf identity and racial identity, are discussed.

  13. Anxiety, self-discrepancy, and regulatory focus theory: acculturation matters.

    PubMed

    Levinson, Cheri A; Rodebaugh, Thomas L

    2013-03-01

    Previous research has found that Asians (vs. Caucasians) exhibit higher levels of ought and undesired self-discrepancies and prevention focus, all of which have been linked with anxiety. We examined these ethnic differences in the context of acculturation. Participants (N=155) completed two sessions scheduled a week apart. In Session 1, participants completed a computer task to measure self-discrepancy and prevention focus. In Session 2, participants' ought self-discrepancies and closeness to an undesired self were primed. Moderation analyses indicated that Asian participants who were highly assimilated to an Asian culture exhibited higher levels of a prevention focus. Acculturation also had significant moderation effects for affect when self-discrepancies were primed. Our results suggest that interventions based on these systems (i.e., self-system therapy) should consider acculturation when treating diverse individuals.

  14. The Association Between Sexual Orientation Identity and Behavior Across Race/Ethnicity, Sex, and Age in a Probability Sample of High School Students

    PubMed Central

    Mustanski, Brian; Birkett, Michelle; Greene, George J.; Rosario, Margaret; Bostwick, Wendy; Everett, Bethany G.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the prevalence and associations between behavioral and identity dimensions of sexual orientation among adolescents in the United States, with consideration of differences associated with race/ethnicity, sex, and age. Methods. We used pooled data from 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys to estimate prevalence of sexual orientation variables within demographic sub-groups. We used multilevel logistic regression models to test differences in the association between sexual orientation identity and sexual behavior across groups. Results. There was substantial incongruence between behavioral and identity dimensions of sexual orientation, which varied across sex and race/ethnicity. Whereas girls were more likely to identify as bisexual, boys showed a stronger association between same-sex behavior and a bisexual identity. The pattern of association of age with sexual orientation differed between boys and girls. Conclusions. Our results highlight demographic differences between 2 sexual orientation dimensions, and their congruence, among 13- to 18-year-old adolescents. Future research is needed to better understand the implications of such differences, particularly in the realm of health and health disparities. PMID:24328662

  15. Differences in mental health outcomes by acculturation status following a major urban disaster.

    PubMed

    Adams, Richard E; Boscarino, Joseph A

    2013-01-01

    A number of studies have assessed the association between acculturation and psychological outcomes following a traumatic event. Some suggest that low acculturation is associated with poorer health outcomes, while others show no differences or that low acculturation is associated with better outcomes. One year after the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center, we surveyed a multi-ethnic population of New York City adults (N= 2,368). We assessed posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depression, panic attack, anxiety symptoms, and general physical and mental health status. We classified study respondents into "low," "moderate," or "high" acculturation, based on survey responses. Bivariate results indicated that low acculturation individuals were more likely to experience negative life events, have low social support, and less likely to have pre-disaster mental health disorders. Those in the low acculturation group were also more likely to experience post-disaster perievent panic attacks, have higher anxiety, and have poorer mental health status. However, using logistic regression to control for confounding, and adjusting for multiple comparisons, we found that none of these outcomes were associated with acculturation status. Thus, our study suggests that acculturation was not associated with mental health outcomes following a major traumatic event.

  16. Differences in mental health outcomes by acculturation status following a major urban disaster.

    PubMed

    Adams, Richard E; Boscarino, Joseph A

    2013-01-01

    A number of studies have assessed the association between acculturation and psychological outcomes following a traumatic event. Some suggest that low acculturation is associated with poorer health outcomes, while others show no differences or that low acculturation is associated with better outcomes. One year after the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center, we surveyed a multi-ethnic population of New York City adults (N= 2,368). We assessed posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depression, panic attack, anxiety symptoms, and general physical and mental health status. We classified study respondents into "low," "moderate," or "high" acculturation, based on survey responses. Bivariate results indicated that low acculturation individuals were more likely to experience negative life events, have low social support, and less likely to have pre-disaster mental health disorders. Those in the low acculturation group were also more likely to experience post-disaster perievent panic attacks, have higher anxiety, and have poorer mental health status. However, using logistic regression to control for confounding, and adjusting for multiple comparisons, we found that none of these outcomes were associated with acculturation status. Thus, our study suggests that acculturation was not associated with mental health outcomes following a major traumatic event. PMID:24558696

  17. Acculturation, drinking and social settings among U.S. Hispanics.

    PubMed

    Caetano, R

    1987-05-01

    This paper reports survey data on drinking in different social settings and the acculturation of Hispanics to U.S. society. Respondents comprise a household probability sample of U.S. Hispanics. The acculturation scale resulted from the factor analysis of respondents' answer to questions on daily use and ability to speak, read and write English and Spanish; preference for media (books, radio TV, music) in English or in Spanish; ethnicity of people they interact with in their church, parties and neighborhood now and when growing up, as well as questions about values thought to be characteristic of the Hispanic way of life. Seven different social settings are considered: when having an evening meal at a restaurant; when having lunch at a restaurant; when attending clubs or organizational meetings; in bars, taverns or cocktail lounges; at parties; during evenings at home; and when friends are visiting. Analysis of these data confirm the hypothesis that Hispanics who are more acculturated go more frequently and drink more frequently than less acculturated Hispanics in a number of social settings. The effect of acculturation is independent of income and work status.

  18. Dietary Acculturation among Filipino Americans

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Persephone; Jurado, Leo-Felix

    2015-01-01

    Acculturation, the subsequent changes that occur in one culture after continuous first hand contact with another culture, impacts the dietary habits and health risks of individuals. This study examines the acculturation, dietary habits and anthropometric measurements in a sample of 210 first generation Filipino American immigrants in New Jersey (NJ). Acculturation was measured using the Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans (ASASFA). Dietary acculturation was measured using the Dietary Acculturation Questionnaire for Filipino Americans (DAQFA) and dietary intake was determined using the Block’s Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire (BFFQ). Anthropometric measurements were obtained including weight, height and waist circumference. Acculturation had a significant negative relationship with Filipino Dietary acculturation. Western dietary acculturation was significantly correlated with caloric intake (r(208) = 0.193, p < 0.01), percentage fat intake (r(208) = 0.154, p < 0.05), percentage carbohydrate intake (r(208) = −0.172, p < 0.05), Body Mass Index (BMI) (r(208) = 0.216, p < 0.01) and waist circumference (r(208) = 0.161, p < 0.01). There was no significant correlation between Filipino dietary acculturation, dietary intake and anthropometric measurements. The results showed that Filipino American immigrants have increased risks including increased BMI, waist circumference and increased fat intake. Over all, this research highlighted some dietary changes and their effects on dietary intake and health status. PMID:26703646

  19. Dietary Acculturation among Filipino Americans.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Persephone; Jurado, Leo-Felix

    2015-12-22

    Acculturation, the subsequent changes that occur in one culture after continuous first hand contact with another culture, impacts the dietary habits and health risks of individuals. This study examines the acculturation, dietary habits and anthropometric measurements in a sample of 210 first generation Filipino American immigrants in New Jersey (NJ). Acculturation was measured using the Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans (ASASFA). Dietary acculturation was measured using the Dietary Acculturation Questionnaire for Filipino Americans (DAQFA) and dietary intake was determined using the Block's Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire (BFFQ). Anthropometric measurements were obtained including weight, height and waist circumference. Acculturation had a significant negative relationship with Filipino Dietary acculturation. Western dietary acculturation was significantly correlated with caloric intake (r(208) = 0.193, p < 0.01), percentage fat intake (r(208) = 0.154, p < 0.05), percentage carbohydrate intake (r(208) = -0.172, p < 0.05), Body Mass Index (BMI) (r(208) = 0.216, p < 0.01) and waist circumference (r(208) = 0.161, p < 0.01). There was no significant correlation between Filipino dietary acculturation, dietary intake and anthropometric measurements. The results showed that Filipino American immigrants have increased risks including increased BMI, waist circumference and increased fat intake. Over all, this research highlighted some dietary changes and their effects on dietary intake and health status.

  20. Dietary Acculturation among Filipino Americans.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Persephone; Jurado, Leo-Felix

    2016-01-01

    Acculturation, the subsequent changes that occur in one culture after continuous first hand contact with another culture, impacts the dietary habits and health risks of individuals. This study examines the acculturation, dietary habits and anthropometric measurements in a sample of 210 first generation Filipino American immigrants in New Jersey (NJ). Acculturation was measured using the Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans (ASASFA). Dietary acculturation was measured using the Dietary Acculturation Questionnaire for Filipino Americans (DAQFA) and dietary intake was determined using the Block's Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire (BFFQ). Anthropometric measurements were obtained including weight, height and waist circumference. Acculturation had a significant negative relationship with Filipino Dietary acculturation. Western dietary acculturation was significantly correlated with caloric intake (r(208) = 0.193, p < 0.01), percentage fat intake (r(208) = 0.154, p < 0.05), percentage carbohydrate intake (r(208) = -0.172, p < 0.05), Body Mass Index (BMI) (r(208) = 0.216, p < 0.01) and waist circumference (r(208) = 0.161, p < 0.01). There was no significant correlation between Filipino dietary acculturation, dietary intake and anthropometric measurements. The results showed that Filipino American immigrants have increased risks including increased BMI, waist circumference and increased fat intake. Over all, this research highlighted some dietary changes and their effects on dietary intake and health status. PMID:26703646