Science.gov

Sample records for acculturation rating scale

  1. Psychometric Properties of the Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans--II: Exploring Dimensions of Marginality among a Diverse Latino Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Melissa A.; Franco, Lydia M.; Powell, Kristen Gilmore; Peterson, N. Andrew; Reid, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    The Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans-II is one of the most frequently used measures of acculturation, despite lack of validation. This study analyzed the structure of the Marginality Scale of the Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans-II using data from a diverse Latino sample of residents. Confirmatory factor analysis of…

  2. Validation of Arabic and English versions of the ARSMA-II Acculturation Rating Scale.

    PubMed

    Jadalla, Ahlam; Lee, Jerry

    2015-02-01

    To translate and adapt the Acculturation Rating Scale of Mexican-Americans II (ARSMA-II) for Arab Americans. A multistage translation process followed by a pilot and a large study. The translated and adapted versions, Acculturation Rating Scale for Arabic Americans-II Arabic and English (ARSAA-IIA, ARSAA-IIE), were validated in a sample of 297 Arab Americans. Factor analyses with principal axis factoring extractions and direct oblimin rotations were used to identify the underlying structure of ARSAA-II. Factor analysis confirmed the underlying structure of ARSAA-II and produced two interpretable factors labeled as 'Attraction to American Culture' (AAmC) and 'Attraction to Arabic Culture' (AArC). The Cronbach's alphas of AAmC and AArC were .89 and .85 respectively. Findings support ARSAA-II A & E to assess acculturation among Arab Americans. The emergent factors of ARSAA-II support the theoretical structure of the original ARSMA-II tool and show high internal consistency.

  3. Assessment of Acculturation in Hispanic Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dana, Richard H.

    1996-01-01

    Describes acculturation measures for Hispanic Americans: Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans, Cultural Life Style Inventory, Bicultural/Multicultural Experience Inventory, Measure of Acculturation, and Bicultural Involvement Questionnaire. Discusses acculturation assessment issues: direct versus indirect measurement, potential…

  4. Acculturative Stress in Children: A Modification of the SAFE Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavez, David V.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    A modified version of the Societal, Attitudinal, Familial, and Environmental Acculturative Stress Scale (SAFE) was administered to 71 Latino and Euramerican children aged 8-10 from southern California. Despite being U.S.-born, Latino children experienced significantly more acculturative stress than their Euramerican peers, thereby helping to…

  5. Lee Acculturation Dream Scale for Korean-American college students.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Bok

    2005-04-01

    This study examined acculturation as represented in dream narratives of 165 Korean immigrant college students living in the USA. A total of 165 dreams were collected and evaluated using the Lee Acculturation Dream Scale, for which locations of dream contents were coded. 39% of the dreams took place in South Korea, while 38% were in the USA. Also, 16% of the dreams included both locations, whereas 7% had no specific dream location. The dreams contained overlapping dream messages, images, scenes, and interactions in both South Korea and the USA. A two-sample t test on the mean scores of the Lee Acculturation Dream Scale indicated no significant difference between men and women.

  6. The Validity of a Proxy Acculturation Scale among U.S. Hispanics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruz, Theresa H.; Marshall, Stephen W.; Bowling, J. Michael; Villaveces, Andres

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the validity of a proxy acculturation scale composed of four acculturation-related variables. The authors use data from a nationally representative sample of 1,437 U.S. Hispanics. Results indicate good internal scale reliability, a high degree of correlation between the proxy scale and the full acculturation measure, and…

  7. Short Acculturation Scale for Hispanic Youth (SASH-Y): A Preliminary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barona, Andres; Miller, Jeffrey A.

    1994-01-01

    The Short Acculturation Scale for Hispanic Youth is a modification of an existing acculturation scale for Hispanic adults. Initial normative data as well as internal consistency and split-half reliabilities are provided. Exploratory factor analysis on scores of 141 Hispanic youth, grades 5-8, resulted in factors labeled Extrafamilial Language Use,…

  8. Assessment of a Refined Short Acculturation Scale for Latino Preteens in Rural Colorado.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serrano, Elena; Anderson, Jennifer

    2003-01-01

    The Short Acculturation Scale for Hispanic Youth (SASH-Y) was used to assess acculturation among 137 fourth- and fifth-grade children in rural southern Colorado, including 11 Mexican, 33 Mexican American, and 93 Euro-American children. The SASH-Y, especially questions related to language use, was found to be robust with a young, rural Latino…

  9. Testing the Factor Structure of a Scale to Assess African American Acculturation: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Robert J.; Brown, Tiffany L.; Peterson, N. Andrew; Snowden, Lonnie; Hines, Alice

    2009-01-01

    Research has pointed to the important role that acculturation plays in understanding a range of physical health behaviors as well as psychological functioning, but only a few studies have attempted to establish reliable and valid measures of African American acculturation. The scale developed by Snowden and Hines (1999) to assess African American…

  10. Evidence for a sensitive period for acculturation: younger immigrants report acculturating at a faster rate.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Benjamin Y; Chudek, Maciej; Heine, Steven J

    2011-02-01

    Though recent adult immigrants often seem less acculturated to their new society than people who immigrated as children, it is not clear whether this difference is driven by duration of exposure or exposure during a sensitive developmental period. In a study aimed at disambiguating these influences, community and student samples of Hong Kong immigrants to Vancouver, Canada, completed the Vancouver Index of Acculturation, a measure that assesses respondents' identification with their mainstream and heritage cultures. A longer duration of exposure was found to be associated with greater identification with Canadian culture only at younger ages of immigration, but not at later ages of immigration. Conversely, identification with Chinese culture was unaffected by either age of immigration or length of exposure to Canadian culture. These findings provide evidence for a sensitive period for acculturation: People are better able to identify with a host culture the longer their exposure to it, but only if this exposure occurs when they are relatively young.

  11. Acculturation and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Hispanic Women

    PubMed Central

    McCabe, Brian E.; Vermeesch, Amber L.; Hall, Rosemary F.; Peragallo, Nilda P.; Mitrani, Victoria B.

    2011-01-01

    Background Culturally valid measures of depression for Spanish-speaking Hispanic women are important for developing and implementing effective interventions to reduce health disparities. The Center for Epidemiological Studies--Depression Scale (CES-D) is a widely used measure of depression. Differential item functioning has been studied using language preference as a proxy for acculturation, but it is unknown if the results were due to acculturation or the language of administration. Objective To evaluate the relationship of acculturation, defined with a dimensional measure, to Spanish CES-D item responses. Method Spanish-speaking Hispanic women (n = 504) were recruited for a randomized controlled trial of Salud, Educación, Prevención y Autocuidado (Health, Education, Prevention and Self-care). Acculturation, an important dimension of variation within the diverse United States Hispanic community, was defined by high or low scores on the Americanism subscale of the Bidimensional Acculturation Scale. Differential item functioning for each of the 20 CES-D items between more acculturated and less acculturated women was tested using ordinal logistic regression. Results No items on the Depressed Affect, Somatic Activity, or Positive Affect subscales showed meaningful differential item functioning, but one item (“People were unfriendly”) on the Interpersonal subscale had small results (R2 = 1.1%). Discussion The majority of CES-D items performed similarly for Spanish-speaking Hispanic women with high and low acculturation. Less acculturated women responded more positively to “People were unfriendly,” despite having an equivalent level of depression, than more acculturated women. Possibilities for improving this item are proposed. PMID:21677596

  12. The African American Acculturation Scale II: Cross-Validation and Short Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landrine, Hope; Klonoff, Elizabeth A.

    1995-01-01

    Studied African American culture, using a new, shortened, 33-item African American Acculturation Scale (AAAS-33) to assess the scale's validity and reliability. Comparisons between the original form and AAAS-33 reveal high correlations, however, the longer form may be sensitive to some beliefs, practices, and attitudes not assessed by the short…

  13. Examining a Sample of Black Deaf Individuals on the Deaf Acculturation Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson Schmitt, Shawn S.; Leigh, Irene W.

    2015-01-01

    The current study sought to identify and analyze how Black deaf and hard-of-hearing people conceptualize their deaf and hard-of-hearing identities. That is, what cultural and linguistic factors are involved and how do they interact? An existing measure of Deaf cultural identity, the Deaf Acculturation Scale (DAS), was used to evaluate these…

  14. The Deaf Acculturation Scale (DAS): Development and Validation of a 58-Item Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell-McCaw, Deborah; Zea, Maria Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    This study involved the development and validation of the Deaf Acculturation Scale (DAS), a new measure of cultural identity for Deaf and hard-of-hearing (hh) populations. Data for this study were collected online and involved a nation-wide sample of 3,070 deaf/hh individuals. Results indicated strong internal reliabilities for all the subscales,…

  15. Adaptation of an Acculturation Scale for African Refugee Women

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Priscilla; Asiedu, Gladys B.; Hedberg, Eric; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki

    2014-01-01

    Newly-arrived African refugees are a vulnerable group of immigrants for whom no validated acculturation measures exist. A valid measurement tool is essential to understand how acculturative processes impact health and health disparities. We adapted the Bicultural Involvement Questionnaire (BIQ) to characterize its reliability among ethnic Somali women residing in Minnesota, and Somali, Somali Bantu, and Burundian women in Arizona. Surveys were administered to 164 adult women. Analyses were conducted along socio-demographic variables of ethnicity, geographic residence, age, and length of time in the United States through t tests and one-way analysis of variance. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted on the modified BIQ. Exploratory factor analyses yielded five subscales: “Speak Native Language”, “Speak English Language”, “Enjoy Native Activities”, “Enjoy American Activities”, and “Desired Ideal Culture”. The subscales of the modified BIQ possessed Cronbach’s α ranging from 0.68 to 0.92, suggestive that all subscales had acceptable to excellent internal consistency. The modified BIQ maintained its psychometric properties across geographic regions of resettled Central and East African refugees. PMID:24573644

  16. Metric Equivalence of the Bidimensional Acculturation Scale, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Self-Construal Scale across Spanish and English Language Versions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singelis, Theodore M.; Yamada, Ann Marie; Barrio, Concepcion; Laney, Joshua Harrison; Her, Pa; Ruiz-Anaya, Alejandrina; Lennertz, Sara Terwilliger

    2006-01-01

    The metric equivalence of translated scales is often in question but seldom examined. This study presents test-retest data that support the metric equivalence of the Spanish and English language versions of three measures: the Bidimensional Acculturation Scale, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Self-Construal Scale. Participants were…

  17. Development and validation of the Acculturative Stress Scale for Chinese College Students in the United States (ASSCS).

    PubMed

    Bai, Jieru

    2016-04-01

    Chinese students are the biggest ethnic group of international students in the United States. This study aims to develop a reliable and valid scale to accurately measure their acculturative stress. A 72-item pool was sent online to Chinese students and a five-factor scale of 32 items was generated by exploratory factor analysis. The five factors included language insufficiency, social isolation, perceived discrimination, academic pressure, and guilt toward family. The Acculturative Stress Scale for Chinese Students demonstrated high reliability and initial validity by predicting depression and life satisfaction. It was the first Chinese scale of acculturative stress developed and validated among a Chinese student sample in the United States. In the future, the scale can be used as a diagnostic tool by mental health professionals and a self-assessment tool by Chinese students.

  18. The Deaf Acculturation Scale (DAS): Development and Validation of a 58-Item Measure

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell-McCaw, Deborah; Zea, Maria Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    This study involved the development and validation of the Deaf Acculturation Scale (DAS), a new measure of cultural identity for Deaf and hard-of-hearing (hh) populations. Data for this study were collected online and involved a nation-wide sample of 3,070 deaf/hh individuals. Results indicated strong internal reliabilities for all the subscales, and construct validity was established by demonstrating that the DAS could discriminate groups based on parental hearing status, school background, and use of self-labels. Construct validity was further demonstrated through factorial analyses, and findings resulted in a final 58-item measure. Directions for future research are discussed. PMID:21263041

  19. The Deaf Acculturation Scale (DAS): development and validation of a 58-item measure.

    PubMed

    Maxwell-McCaw, Deborah; Zea, Maria Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    This study involved the development and validation of the Deaf Acculturation Scale (DAS), a new measure of cultural identity for Deaf and hard-of-hearing (hh) populations. Data for this study were collected online and involved a nation-wide sample of 3,070 deaf/hh individuals. Results indicated strong internal reliabilities for all the subscales, and construct validity was established by demonstrating that the DAS could discriminate groups based on parental hearing status, school background, and use of self-labels. Construct validity was further demonstrated through factorial analyses, and findings resulted in a final 58-item measure. Directions for future research are discussed.

  20. Acculturation Predicts Negative Affect and Shortened Telomere Length.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, R Jeanne; Trzeciakowski, Jerome; Moore, Tiffany; Ayers, Kimberly S; Pickler, Rita H

    2016-10-12

    Chronic stress may accelerate cellular aging. Telomeres, protective "caps" at the end of chromosomes, modulate cellular aging and may be good biomarkers for the effects of chronic stress, including that associated with acculturation. The purpose of this analysis was to examine telomere length (TL) in acculturating Hispanic Mexican American women and to determine the associations among TL, acculturation, and psychological factors. As part of a larger cross-sectional study of 516 pregnant Hispanic Mexican American women, we analyzed DNA in blood samples (N = 56) collected at 22-24 weeks gestation for TL as an exploratory measure using monochrome multiplex quantitative telomere polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We measured acculturation with the Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans, depression with the Beck Depression Inventory, discrimination with the Experiences of Discrimination Scale, and stress with the Perceived Stress Scale. TL was negatively moderately correlated with two variables of acculturation: Anglo orientation and greater acculturation-level scores. We combined these scores for a latent variable, acculturation, and we combined depression, stress, and discrimination scores in another latent variable, "negative affectivity." Acculturation and negative affectivity were bidirectionally correlated. Acculturation significantly negatively predicted TL. Using structural equation modeling, we found the model had an excellent fit with the root mean square error of approximation estimate = .0001, comparative fit index = 1.0, Tucker-Lewis index = 1.0, and standardized root mean square residual = .05. The negative effects of acculturation on the health of Hispanic women have been previously demonstrated. Findings from this analysis suggest a link between acculturation and TL, which may indicate accelerated cellular aging associated with overall poor health outcomes.

  1. Using the Social, Attitudinal, Familial, and Environmental (S.A.F.E.) Acculturation Stress Scale to Assess the Adjustment Needs of Hispanic College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuertes, Jairo N.; Westbrook, Franklin D.

    1996-01-01

    Reexamined the validity and reliability of the 24-item S.A.F.E. scale and found it to be a reliable measure of Hispanics' acculturation stress. Also studied the effect of generational status, gender, and socioeconomic status on the levels of acculturation stress experienced by this sample. (RJM)

  2. Acculturation and self-rated health among Arctic indigenous peoples: a population-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Acculturation is for indigenous peoples related to the process of colonisation over centuries as well as the on-going social transition experienced in the Arctic today. Changing living conditions and lifestyle affect health in numerous ways in Arctic indigenous populations. Self-rated health (SRH) is a relevant variable in primary health care and in general public health assessments and monitoring. Exploring the relationship between acculturation and SRH in indigenous populations having experienced great societal and cultural change is thus of great importance. Methods The principal method in the Survey of Living Conditions in the Arctic (SLiCA) was standardised face-to-face interviews using a questionnaire. Very high overall participation rates of 83% were obtained in Greenland and Alaska, whilst a more conventional rate of 57% was achieved in Norway. Acculturation was conceptualised as certain traditional subsistence activities being of lesser importance for people’s ethnic identity, and poorer spoken indigenous language ability (SILA). Acculturation was included in six separate gender- and country-specific ordinal logistic regressions to assess qualitative effects on SRH. Results Multivariable analyses showed that acculturation significantly predicted poorer SRH in Greenland. An increased subsistence score gave an OR of 2.32 (P<0.001) for reporting poorer SRH among Greenlandic men, while an increased score for Greenlandic women generated an OR of 1.71 (P=0.01). Poorer SILA generated an OR of 1.59 in men (p=0.03). In Alaska, no evidence of acculturation effects was detected among Iñupiaq men. Among Iñupiaq women, an increased subsistence score represented an increased odds of 73% (p=0.026) for reporting poorer SRH. No significant effects of acculturation on SRH were detected in Norway. Conclusions This study shows that aggregate acculturation is a strong risk factor for poorer SRH among the Kalaallit of Greenland and female Iñupiat of Alaska, but

  3. Poetry Methods Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallo, Donald R.

    Designed to assess high school teachers' attitudes about teaching poetry, this questionnaire asked teachers to respond to a 38-item poetry methods rating scale (PMRS) on a seven-point scale (from "strongly agree" to "strongly disagree"). The items for the questionnaire were derived from a study of popular methods texts for…

  4. Modelling Rating Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linacre, John M.

    Determination of the intentions of the test developer is fundamental to the choice of the analytical model for a rating scale. For confirmatory analysis, the developer's intentions inform the choice of the general form of the model, representing the manner in which the respondent interacts with the scale; these intentions also inform the choice of…

  5. The relationship of language acculturation (English proficiency) to current self-rated health among African immigrant adults.

    PubMed

    Okafor, Maria-Theresa C; Carter-Pokras, Olivia D; Picot, Sandra J; Zhan, Min

    2013-06-01

    Although over 1.5 million African immigrants live in the US, few studies have examined the relationship of language acculturation to health outcomes among African immigrant adults. The primary objective of this research was to investigate the relationship between English proficiency and current self-rated health among African immigrant adults. Using a cross-sectional design, a secondary data analysis was performed on baseline data from the African immigrant adult subsample (n = 763) of the 2003 New Immigrant Survey, a longitudinal study of lawful permanent residents. Limited English proficiency (LEP), increased duration of US residence, older age at immigration, being male, less than 12 years of education, poor pre-migration health, and chronic disease were associated with good/fair/poor current self-rated health. Findings support consideration of pre-migration health and chronic disease in future acculturation and health studies, and provision of linguistically competent interventions for LEP African immigrants at risk for poor health outcomes.

  6. ACCULTURATION AS A PREDICTOR OF HEALTH PROMOTING AND LIFESTYLE PRACTICES OF ARAB AMERICANS: A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY.

    PubMed

    Jadalla, Ahlam A; Hattar, Marianne; Schubert, Christiane C

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional descriptive study was done using the Acculturation Rating scale of Arab Americans-II, and the Health Promotion and Lifestyle Profile II to assess the relationship between acculturation and health promotion practices among Arab Americans. Findings showed that attraction to American culture was the most important predictor of physical activity; whereas attraction to Arabic culture was the most important predictor of stress management and nutritional practices. Results suggest that, when demographics are controlled, acculturation predicts various health promotion practices in different patterns among members of this group. These findings contribute to a better understanding of acculturation's influence on immigrants' health promotion practices.

  7. Composite rating scales.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Martin, Pablo

    2010-02-15

    Rating scales are instruments that are very frequently used by clinicians to perform patient assessments. Typically, rating scales grade the attribute on an ordinal level of measurement, i.e., a rank ordering, meaning that the numbers assigned to the different ranks (item scores) do not represent 'real numbers' or 'physical magnitudes'. Single-item scales have some advantages, such as simplicity and low respondent burden, but they may also suffer from disadvantages, such as ambiguous score meanings and low responsiveness. Multi-item scales, in contrast, seem more adequate for assessment of complex constructs, allowing for detailed evaluation. Total scores representing the value of the construct may be quite precise and thus the responsiveness of the scale may be high. The most common strategy for obtaining the total score is the sum of the item scores, a strategy that constitutes one of the most important problems with these types of scales. A summative score of ordinal figures is not a 'real magnitude' and may have little sense. This paper is a review of the theoretical frameworks of the main theories used to develop rating scales (Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory). Bearing in mind that no alternative is perfect, additional research in this field and judicious decisions are called for.

  8. The Relationship Between Self-Rated Health and Acculturation in Hispanic and Asian Adult Immigrants: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Lommel, Lisa L; Chen, Jyu-Lin

    2016-04-01

    We systematically reviewed studies to identify the association between acculturation and self-rated health (SRH) and the impact of nativity and language use in Asian and Hispanic adult immigrants. Six electronic databases were searched. Data on nativity and limited English proficiency (LEP) was extracted and analyzed. Nine studies met review criteria. A positive association between acculturation and fair/poor SRH among Asians and Hispanics was found. For both Asians and Hispanics, six out of eight studies showed nativity and all three studies reporting LEP were associated with worse SRH compared to whites. Nativity and LEP were found to be risk factors for reporting worse SRH in Hispanics compared to Asians. The degree of association between nativity and LEP and worse SRH was found to vary by Asian and Hispanic subgroup. Further studies are needed to accurately assess the health status of these populations, which will be essential to eliminating disparities.

  9. Clinical rating scales.

    PubMed

    Relja, Maja

    2012-01-01

    In Parkinson's disease (PD), rating scales are used to assess the degree of disease-related disability and to titrate long-term treatment to each phase of the disease. Recognition of non-motor symptoms required modification of existing widely used scales to integrate non-motor elements. In addition, new scales have been developed for the assessment of non-motor symptoms. In this article, assessment of PD patients will be discussed, particularly for non-motor symptoms such as pain and fatigue.

  10. Examining a sample of Black deaf individuals on the Deaf Acculturation Scale.

    PubMed

    Nelson Schmitt, Shawn S; Leigh, Irene W

    2015-07-01

    The current study sought to identify and analyze how Black deaf and hard-of-hearing people conceptualize their deaf and hard-of-hearing identities. That is, what cultural and linguistic factors are involved and how do they interact? An existing measure of Deaf cultural identity, the Deaf Acculturation Scale (DAS), was used to evaluate these questions. Review of the measure's normative sample (n = 3,070) indicated that fewer than 300 self-identified as racial/ethnic minorities (Hispanic/Latino, Black, or Asian). Results of a preliminary study revealed that Non-White deaf individuals responded to DAS items in ways that significantly differed from responses provided by White deaf individuals. Moreover, the existing 5-factor correlated model of the DAS did not fit well with the Non-White group. The current study administered the DAS to a new sample of 106 Black deaf individuals. Principal components analysis determined an appropriate factor structure for this population. In addition to the existing 5 factors, a sixth factor emerged that appears to reflect identity concerns specific to Black deaf people. Ideas for future research, including how to examine the intersections of Deaf identity and racial identity, are discussed.

  11. Dietary Acculturation among Filipino Americans

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Persephone; Jurado, Leo-Felix

    2015-01-01

    Acculturation, the subsequent changes that occur in one culture after continuous first hand contact with another culture, impacts the dietary habits and health risks of individuals. This study examines the acculturation, dietary habits and anthropometric measurements in a sample of 210 first generation Filipino American immigrants in New Jersey (NJ). Acculturation was measured using the Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans (ASASFA). Dietary acculturation was measured using the Dietary Acculturation Questionnaire for Filipino Americans (DAQFA) and dietary intake was determined using the Block’s Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire (BFFQ). Anthropometric measurements were obtained including weight, height and waist circumference. Acculturation had a significant negative relationship with Filipino Dietary acculturation. Western dietary acculturation was significantly correlated with caloric intake (r(208) = 0.193, p < 0.01), percentage fat intake (r(208) = 0.154, p < 0.05), percentage carbohydrate intake (r(208) = −0.172, p < 0.05), Body Mass Index (BMI) (r(208) = 0.216, p < 0.01) and waist circumference (r(208) = 0.161, p < 0.01). There was no significant correlation between Filipino dietary acculturation, dietary intake and anthropometric measurements. The results showed that Filipino American immigrants have increased risks including increased BMI, waist circumference and increased fat intake. Over all, this research highlighted some dietary changes and their effects on dietary intake and health status. PMID:26703646

  12. Dietary Acculturation among Filipino Americans.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Persephone; Jurado, Leo-Felix

    2015-12-22

    Acculturation, the subsequent changes that occur in one culture after continuous first hand contact with another culture, impacts the dietary habits and health risks of individuals. This study examines the acculturation, dietary habits and anthropometric measurements in a sample of 210 first generation Filipino American immigrants in New Jersey (NJ). Acculturation was measured using the Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans (ASASFA). Dietary acculturation was measured using the Dietary Acculturation Questionnaire for Filipino Americans (DAQFA) and dietary intake was determined using the Block's Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire (BFFQ). Anthropometric measurements were obtained including weight, height and waist circumference. Acculturation had a significant negative relationship with Filipino Dietary acculturation. Western dietary acculturation was significantly correlated with caloric intake (r(208) = 0.193, p < 0.01), percentage fat intake (r(208) = 0.154, p < 0.05), percentage carbohydrate intake (r(208) = -0.172, p < 0.05), Body Mass Index (BMI) (r(208) = 0.216, p < 0.01) and waist circumference (r(208) = 0.161, p < 0.01). There was no significant correlation between Filipino dietary acculturation, dietary intake and anthropometric measurements. The results showed that Filipino American immigrants have increased risks including increased BMI, waist circumference and increased fat intake. Over all, this research highlighted some dietary changes and their effects on dietary intake and health status.

  13. Development and Validation of the Coping with Acculturative Stress in American Schools (Casas-A) Scale on a Latino Adolescent Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro-Olivo, Sara M.; Palardy, Gregory J.; Albeg, Loren; Williamson, Ariel A.

    2014-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Coping With Acculturative Stress in American Schools (CASAS-A) scale were examined using a sample of 148 Latino middle school students. CASAS-A is a self-report scale designed to identify students in need of culturally responsive social-emotional interventions due to having high levels of school-related…

  14. Acculturation gaps in Vietnamese immigrant families: Impact on family relationships

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Joyce; Birman, Dina

    2009-01-01

    Vietnamese immigrants in the United States face acculturation challenges involving the individual, family, and community. Experts suggest that immigrant family members acculturate at different rates resulting in an acculturation gap, which negatively influences family adjustment. In this study we examined the degree and patterns of acculturation differences between 104 first generation immigrant Vietnamese adolescents and their parents, and whether acculturation gap affected family relationships. Operationalizing the “gap” as both absolute value of differences in acculturation and interactions of parent and adolescent acculturation levels, we examined the impact of such gaps in Vietnamese and American language, identity, and behavioral acculturation on family relationships. Results revealed that family cohesion and satisfaction were predicted by gaps in Vietnamese identity acculturation, but not by gaps in other acculturation domains. PMID:20161537

  15. Scaling metabolic rate fluctuations

    PubMed Central

    Labra, Fabio A.; Marquet, Pablo A.; Bozinovic, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    Complex ecological and economic systems show fluctuations in macroscopic quantities such as exchange rates, size of companies or populations that follow non-Gaussian tent-shaped probability distributions of growth rates with power-law decay, which suggests that fluctuations in complex systems may be governed by universal mechanisms, independent of particular details and idiosyncrasies. We propose here that metabolic rate within individual organisms may be considered as an example of an emergent property of a complex system and test the hypothesis that the probability distribution of fluctuations in the metabolic rate of individuals has a “universal” form regardless of body size or taxonomic affiliation. We examined data from 71 individuals belonging to 25 vertebrate species (birds, mammals, and lizards). We report three main results. First, for all these individuals and species, the distribution of metabolic rate fluctuations follows a tent-shaped distribution with power-law decay. Second, the standard deviation of metabolic rate fluctuations decays as a power-law function of both average metabolic rate and body mass, with exponents −0.352 and −1/4 respectively. Finally, we find that the distributions of metabolic rate fluctuations for different organisms can all be rescaled to a single parent distribution, supporting the existence of general principles underlying the structure and functioning of individual organisms. PMID:17578913

  16. Rating Scale Instruments and Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Robert F.; Romanoski, Joseph T.

    2006-01-01

    The article examines theoretical issues associated with measurement in the human sciences and ensuring data from rating scale instruments are measures. An argument is made that using raw scores from rating scale instruments for subsequent arithmetic operations and applying linear statistics is less preferable than using measures. These theoretical…

  17. African American Acculturation and Black Racial Identity: A Preliminary Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope-Davis, Donald B.; Liu, William M.; Ledesma-Jones, Shannon; Nevitt, Jonathan

    2000-01-01

    Examines the relationship between acculturation and racial identity among African Americans. One hundred eighty-seven African American students completed the Black Racial Identity Attitude Scale and the African American Acculturation Scale (AAAS). Acculturation was associated with three of the five AAAS subscales: Dissonance, Immersion, and…

  18. A Comparison of Acculturation Measures among Hispanic/Latino Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unger, Jennifer B.; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Wagner, Karla; Soto, Daniel; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes

    2007-01-01

    Acculturation has been associated with numerous health and social outcomes among Hispanic/Latino adolescents. Various self-report scales have been used to measure acculturation, making comparisons of results across studies difficult. This study administered several commonly-used acculturation scales to 221 Hispanic/Latino 9th grade students in Los…

  19. Developmental Considerations and Acculturation of Children: Measures and Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Francesca A.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the secondary validation of the Brief Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans-II (Brief ARSMA-II) for use with children--carried out using two samples of Mexican-descent children (ages = 9-11) from two states ( N = 295). The Brief ARSMA-II was originally normed on adolescents and adults but has been validated and…

  20. Acculturation, optimism, and relatively fewer depression symptoms among Mexican immigrants and Mexican Americans.

    PubMed

    González, Patricia; González, Gerardo M

    2008-10-01

    The mental health of individuals of Mexican origin may vary as a function of native status (i.e., Mexican born or U.S.A. born). Some have reported that Mexican Americans tend to display more depressive symptoms than Mexican immigrants. The present goal was to estimate the associations among acculturation and native status, and explore relative deprivation in the prevalence of depression. Participants included 153 individuals of Mexican origin who completed the Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans, the Beck Depression Inventory-II, the Revised Generalized Expectancy for Success Scale, and relative deprivation questions. Analyses indicated women and those scoring low on acculturation were significantly more likely to report depressive symptoms. Participants who felt they had relatively better family happiness than Euro-Americans reported lower depressive symptoms. So participants' sex, acculturation, and relative lack of depressive symptoms allow better understanding of depressive symptoms among these Mexican Americans and Mexican immigrants.

  1. The Psychological Maltreatment Rating Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brassard, Marla R.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The Psychological Maltreatment Rating Scales (PMRS) were developed for assessing psychological maltreatment in the mother-child interaction, and were used to rate the videotaped interaction of 49 high-risk mother-child dyads and predict child protective service involvements. The PMRS was found to be a moderately reliable and valid measure.…

  2. Acculturation, Inner Peace, Cancer Self-efficacy, and Self-rated Health among Latina Breast Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    García-Jimenez, María; Santoyo-Olsson, Jasmine; Ortiz, Carmen; Lahiff, Maureen; Sokal-Gutierrez, Karen; Nápoles, Anna María

    2015-01-01

    Cancer self-efficacy (CSE) and spiritual well-being (SWB) have been associated with better self-rated health (SRH) among breast cancer survivors (BCS), but have not been well studied among Latina BCS (LBCS). Multivariate logistic regression analyses of secondary data from a cross-sectional population-based telephone survey of 330 LBCS explored relationships of language acculturation, CSE, and SWB subdomains of inner peace and faith with SRH. English proficiency was associated with SRH, independent of other covariates (OR=2.26, 95% CI 1.15, 4.45). Cancer self-efficacy attenuated this effect and was positively associated with SRH (OR=2.24, 95% CI 1.22, 4.10). Adding inner peace (a SWB subscale) attenuated the association of CSE and SRH (OR=1.67, 95% CI 0.88, 3.18). Inner peace remained associated with SRH (OR= 2.44, 95% CI 1.30, 4.56), controlling for covariates. Findings support the importance of a sense of inner peace and control over breast cancer to LBCS' perceived health. PMID:25418229

  3. Development of an Acculturation Measure for Latino Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillen, Michelle B.; Hoewing-Roberson, Renee C.

    As part of a substance abuse prevention project, a measure was developed in both English and Spanish to measure levels of acculturation among members of a Latino youth population for later comparison of acculturation with high-risk behaviors. The Latino Youth Acculturation Scale (LYAS) consists of 23 items. Eleven items deal with language use of…

  4. Acculturation Levels of Mexican American Children: Measurement Issues and Implications for Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franco, Juan N.

    The paper explores measurement issues surrounding acculturation, discusses the Children's Acculturation Scale (CAS), relates results of several studies dealing with the acculturation and mental health of Mexican Americans, and concludes with a substantiation of the idea that the process of acculturation is stressful and impacts on adjustment.…

  5. Sudanese Adolescent Refugees: Acculturation and Acculturative Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poppitt, Gillian; Frey, Ron

    2007-01-01

    This study explored acculturation and acculturative stress in Sudanese adolescent refugees living in Brisbane. Twenty Sudanese adolescents participated in semi-structured interviews which revealed that the main source of acculturative stress was related to concern over English language proficiency, issues of parental control and conflicting…

  6. Rating scales and Rasch measurement.

    PubMed

    Andrich, David

    2011-10-01

    Assessments with ratings in ordered categories have become ubiquitous in health, biological and social sciences. Ratings are used when a measuring instrument of the kind found in the natural sciences is not available to assess some property in terms of degree - for example, greater or smaller, better or worse, or stronger or weaker. The handling of ratings has ranged from the very elementary to the highly sophisticated. In an elementary form, and assumed in classical test theory, the ratings are scored with successive integers and treated as measurements; in a sophisticated form, and used in modern test theory, the ratings are characterized by probabilistic response models with parameters for persons and the rating categories. Within modern test theory, two paradigms, similar in many details but incompatible on crucial points, have emerged. For the purposes of this article, these are termed the statistical modeling and experimental measurement paradigms. Rather than reviewing a compendium of available methods and models for analyzing ratings in detail, the article focuses on the incompatible differences between these two paradigms, with implications for choice of model and inferences. It shows that the differences have implications for different roles for substantive researchers and psychometricians in designing instruments with rating scales. To illustrate these differences, an example is provided.

  7. Measures of psychological acculturation: a review.

    PubMed

    Matsudaira, Tomomi

    2006-09-01

    This article reviews conceptual and methodological issues in the measurement of psychological acculturation. The major issues involve the question of dimensionality and the assessment of specific domains of cultural change. Bidimensional scales that cover both overt and internal domains are more informative for the assessment of general levels of psychological acculturation. The validity of such scales must be examined in terms of the actual exposure of individuals to and involvement in each culture, and the influence of sociocultural factors on the course of acculturation. The parallel application of qualitative and quantitative methods may be useful for validity studies. The complementary use of emic and etic approaches will enhance the psychometric soundness of acculturation scales.

  8. Mass Communication and Acculturation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Won H.

    The nature of the acculturation of the Korean ethnic group into U.S. society is defined and the relationship between the acculturation pattern and the mass media behavior of that ethnic group is examined in this study. The study hypothesizes that mass communication is the underlying power in acculturation by which an individual accumulates control…

  9. Acculturation and Depression among Puerto Ricans in the Mainland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Blanca M.

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between acculturation and depression in a sample of 1,510 Puerto Ricans residing in the U.S. was examined. Acculturation was measured by assessing subjects' spoken, preferred, read, and written language. Depression was evaluated by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. The scale yielded a three-factor structure…

  10. Acculturation determines BMI percentile and noncore food intake in Hispanic children.

    PubMed

    Wiley, James F; Cloutier, Michelle M; Wakefield, Dorothy B; Hernandez, Dominica B; Grant, Autherene; Beaulieu, Annamarie; Gorin, Amy A

    2014-03-01

    Hispanic children in the United States are disproportionately affected by obesity. The role of acculturation in obesity is unclear. This study examined the relation between child obesity, dietary intake, and maternal acculturation in Hispanic children. We hypothesized that children of more acculturated mothers would consume more unhealthy foods and would have higher body mass index (BMI) percentiles. A total of 209 Hispanic mothers of children aged 2-4 y (50% female, 35.3 ± 8.7 mo, BMI percentile: 73.1 ± 27.8, 30% obese, 19% overweight) were recruited for an obesity prevention/reversal study. The associations between baseline maternal acculturation [Brief Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans-II (Brief ARSMA-II)], child BMI percentile, and child diet were examined. Factor analysis of the Brief ARSMA-II in Puerto Rican mothers resulted in 2 new factors, which were named the Hispanic Orientation Score (4 items, loadings: 0.64-0.81) and U.S. Mainland Orientation Score (6 items, loadings: -0.61-0.92). In the total sample, children who consumed more noncore foods were more likely to be overweight or obese (P < 0.01). Additionally, children of mothers with greater acculturation to the United States consumed more noncore foods (P < 0.0001) and had higher BMI percentiles (P < 0.04). However, mothers with greater Hispanic acculturation served fewer noncore foods (P < 0.0001). In the Puerto Rican subgroup of mothers, Puerto Rican mothers with greater acculturation to the United States served more noncore foods (P < 0.0001), but there was no association between acculturation and child BMI percentile in this subgroup. These mothers, however, served fewer sugar-sweetened beverages (P < 0.01) compared with non-Puerto Rican mothers, and this may have negated the effect of noncore food consumption on BMI percentile. These data suggest a complex relation between acculturation, noncore food consumption, and child BMI percentile in Puerto Rican and non-Puerto Rican

  11. Dystonia rating scales: critique and recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Albanese, Alberto; Sorbo, Francesca Del; Comella, Cynthia; Jinnah, H.A.; Mink, Jonathan W.; Post, Bart; Vidailhet, Marie; Volkmann, Jens; Warner, Thomas T.; Leentjens, Albert F.G.; Martinez-Martin, Pablo; Stebbins, Glenn T.; Goetz, Christopher G.; Schrag, Anette

    2014-01-01

    Background Many rating scales have been applied to the evaluation of dystonia, but only few have been assessed for clinimetric properties. The Movement Disorders Society commissioned this task force to critique existing dystonia rating scales and place them in the clinical and clinimetric context. Methods A systematic literature review was conducted to identify rating scales that have either been validated or used in dystonia. Results Thirty six potential scales were identified. Eight were excluded because they did not meet review criteria, leaving twenty-eight scales that were critiqued and rated by the task force. Seven scales were found to meet criteria to be “recommended”: the Blepharospasm Disability Index is recommended for rating blepharospasm; the Cervical Dystonia Impact Scale and the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale for rating cervical dystonia; the Craniocervical Dystonia Questionnaire for blepharospasm and cervical dystonia; the Voice Handicap Index (VHI) and the Vocal Performance Questionnaire (VPQ) for laryngeal dystonia; and the Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale for rating generalized dystonia. Two “recommended” scales (VHI and VPQ) are generic scales validated on few patients with laryngeal dystonia, whereas the others are disease-specific scales. Twelve scales met criteria for “suggested” and seven scales met criteria for “listed”. All the scales are individually reviewed in the online appendix. Conclusion The task force recommends five specific dystonia scales and suggests to further validate in dystonia two recommended generic voice-disorder scales. Existing scales for oromandibular, arm and task-specific dystonia should be refined and fully assessed. Scales should be developed for body regions where no scales are available, such as lower limbs and trunk. PMID:23893443

  12. John Henryism Active Coping, Acculturation, and Psychological Health in Korean Immigrants.

    PubMed

    Logan, Jeongok G; Barksdale, Debra J; James, Sherman A; Chien, Lung-Chang

    2015-11-23

    This study aimed to explore the levels of John Henryism (JH) active coping and its association with acculturation status and psychological health (specifically perceived stress, acculturative stress, anxiety, and depression) in Korean immigrants to the United States. In 102 Korean immigrants, JH active coping was measured by the JH Scale; acculturation by the Bidimensional Acculturation Scale; perceived stress by the Perceived Stress Scale; acculturative stress by the Social, Attitudinal, Familial, and Environmental Scale; anxiety by the State Anxiety Subscale of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory; and depression by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. The levels of JH active coping in this sample of Korean immigrants appear to be lower than the levels reported in other racial groups. Independent of demographic factors, JH active coping was a significant predictor of higher acculturation status and better psychological health as indicated by lower levels of perceived stress, acculturative stress, anxiety, and depressive symptoms.

  13. Test Review: Autism Spectrum Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simek, Amber N.; Wahlberg, Andrea C.

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews Autism Spectrum Rating Scales (ASRS) which are designed to measure behaviors in children between the ages of 2 and 18 that are associated with disorders on the autism spectrum as rated by parents/caregivers and/or teachers. The rating scales include items related to behaviors associated with Autism, Asperger's Disorder, and…

  14. Aspects of acculturation stress among international students attending a university in the USA.

    PubMed

    Chavajay, Pablo; Skowronek, Jeffrey

    2008-12-01

    Acculturation stress reported by 130 international students attending a university in Utah for about 2 yr. was examined. On the Acculturative Stress Scale for International Students, few students reported experiencing acculturation stress, but responses to four open-ended questions indicated many students perceived experience of acculturation stresses related to discrimination, feelings of loneliness, and academic concerns. The contrast of findings for the scale scores and the open-ended questions indicate the complexity of assessing international students' acculturation experiences of living and studying in the USA and suggest the usefulness of complementary methodologies for assessing such experience.

  15. Language Learners' Acculturation Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafieyan, Vahid; Orang, Maryam; Bijami, Maryam; Nejad, Maryam Sharafi; Eng, Lin Siew

    2014-01-01

    Learning a language involves knowledge of both linguistic competence and cultural competence. Optimal development of linguistic competence and cultural competence, however, requires a high level of acculturation attitude toward the target language culture. To this end, the present study explored the acculturation attitudes of 70 Iranian…

  16. Integrative Perspectives on Acculturation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killian, Caitlin

    2011-01-01

    Comments on the original article, "Rethinking the concept of acculturation: Implications for theory and research," by S. J. Schwartz, J. B. Unger, B. L. Zamboanga, and J. Szapocznik. Schwartz et al are to be commended for their attempts "to propose an expanded, multidimensional model of acculturation and of the demographic and contextual forces…

  17. The rapid disability rating scale-2.

    PubMed

    Linn, M W; Linn, B S

    1982-06-01

    A revised version of the Rapid Disability Rating Scale (RDRS-2) is presented. Item definitions have been sharpened and directions expanded to indicate that ratings are based upon the patient's performance in regard to behavior, and that prosthesis normally used by the patient should be included in the assessment. Three items have been added to increase the breadth of the scale. Response items have been changed from three-point to four-point ratings in order to increase group discrimination amd make the scale more sensitive to changes in treatment. The new appraisals of reliability, factor structure, and validity are reported, along with the potential uses of the scale.

  18. Applying the Rasch Model to Measure Acculturation Challenges Faced by Saudi Female Students in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakami, Samah Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the major acculturation challenges faced by Saudi female students who study in the U.S. and to develop a scale to measure potential acculturation challenges. The construction of the scale was based on a table of specification that included nine domains of possible acculturation challenges: (a)…

  19. The influence of acculturation on drug and alcohol use in a sample of adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Fosados, Raquel; McClain, Arianna; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Sussman, Steve; Soto, Daniel; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Unger, Jennifer B.

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on the associations between acculturation and substance use among 198 ninth-grade Southern California adolescents (mean age = 13.8 years). Substance use measures included 30-day (current) and lifetime use of alcohol and other drugs. Acculturation was measured using the Acculturation, Habits, and Interests Multicultural Scale for Adolescents (AHIMSA) acculturation scale, a multi-dimensional acculturation scale yielding four acculturation strategy scores. Linear regression analyses evaluated the association between acculturation on alcohol and drug use, adjusting for several covariates. Results revealed that the assimilation acculturation strategy was significantly, but negatively associated with current alcohol use, especially among males. The separation acculturation strategy was significantly and positively associated with current alcohol use, especially among females. Marginalization was associated with greater risk for lifetime alcohol and drug use, especially among males, and a greater risk of current drug use among females. The social influence covariates were predictive of both current and lifetime alcohol and drug use. Future studies should incorporate multidimensional acculturation scales in adolescent substance use to understand how different acculturation strategies impact different populations. PMID:17618064

  20. Acculturation and Enculturation Trajectories Among Mexican-American Adolescent Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Knight, George P.; Vargas-Chanes, Delfino; Losoya, Sandra H.; Cota-Robles, Sonia; Chassin, Laurie; Lee, Joanna M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines changes over time in ethnic affirmation/belonging and ethnic identity achievement, Spanish language use, English language use, Mexican/Mexican-American affiliation/identification and Anglo affiliation/identification in a sample of Mexican-American adolescents participating in a longitudinal study of juvenile offenders. The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure and the Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans-II were completed by the Mexican-American adolescents 7 times over a 3-year period. The findings from longitudinal growth modeling analyses and growth mixture modeling analyses indicate that there is heterogeneity in the initial scores and changes over time on these variables that are related to markers for the cultural qualities of the home environment (i.e., generational status and mother’s most frequent language use). In contrast to expectations, marginalized or assimilated acculturation trajectories/types were not overrepresented in this sample of adolescent offenders. Implications for our understanding of the nature of acculturation and enculturation processes and the way these processes are studied are discussed. PMID:20300539

  1. Acculturation and Adverse Birth Outcomes in a Predominantly Puerto Rican Population

    PubMed Central

    de Mendoza, Veronica Barcelona; Harville, Emily; Theall, Katherine; Buekens, Pierre; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Latinas in the United States on average have poorer birth outcomes than Whites, yet considerable heterogeneity exists within Latinas. Puerto Ricans have some of the highest rates of adverse outcomes and are understudied. The goal of this study was to determine if acculturation was associated with adverse birth outcomes in a predominantly Puerto Rican population. Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of Proyecto Buena Salud, a prospective cohort study conducted from 2006 to 2011. A convenience sample of pregnant Latina women were recruited from a tertiary care hospital in Massachusetts. Acculturation was measured in early pregnancy; directly via the Psychological Acculturation Scale, and via proxies of language preference and generation in the United States. Birth outcomes (gestational age and birthweight) were abstracted from medical records (n = 1362). Results After adjustment, psychological acculturation, language preference, and generation was not associated with odds of preterm birth. However, every unit increase in psychological acculturation score was associated with an increase in gestational age of 0.22 weeks (SE = 0.1, p = 0.04) among all births. Women who preferred to speak Spanish (β = −0.39, SE = 0.2, p = 0.02) and who were first generation in the US (β = −0.33, SE = 0.1, p = 0.02) had significantly lower gestational ages than women who preferred English or who were later generation, respectively. Similarly, women who were first generation had babies who weighed 76.11 g less (SE = 35.2, p = 0.03) than women who were later generation. Discussion We observed a small, but statistically significant adverse impact of low acculturation on gestational age and birthweight in this predominantly Puerto Rican population. PMID:26694041

  2. Validation of the Interpersonal Relationship Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Nina W.; Sullivan, James

    1979-01-01

    Hipple's Interpersonal Relationship Rating Scale (1972) was administered to graduate students in a counselor education program. The results were factor analyzed and six scales were extracted. The IRRS was then administered to two classes of students in group counseling. Both groups had significant discrepancy scores. (Author)

  3. Developmentally Appropriate Physical Education. A Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stork, Steve; Sanders, Steve

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of elementary physical education is poorly defined, and the public has low expectations and support for the field. The Developmentally Appropriate Physical Education Practices for Children rating scale emphasizes teaching practices that are appropriate to each student's age and ability. The paper describes use of the scale. (SM)

  4. Acculturation and Psychological Adjustment of Vietnamese Refugees: An Ecological Acculturation Framework.

    PubMed

    Salo, Corrina D; Birman, Dina

    2015-12-01

    Acculturation to the culture of the host society as well as to one's heritage culture have been shown to impact immigrants' adjustment during the years following resettlement. While acculturation has been identified as an important factor in adjustment of Vietnamese immigrants (Birman and Tran in Am J Orthopsychiatr 78(1):109-120. doi: 10.1037/0002-9432.78.1.109 , 2008), no clear pattern of findings has emerged and too few studies have employed an ecological approach. The purpose of this paper is to contextualize the study of acculturation and adjustment by taking an ecological approach to exploring these relationships across several life domains, using a bilinear scale, and examining mediators of these relationships for adult Vietnamese refugees (N = 203) in the United States. We call this approach the Ecological Acculturation Framework (EAF). Results of a structural equation model (SEM) showed that job satisfaction fully mediated the relationship between American acculturation and psychological distress, demonstrating that this relationship was specific to an occupational domain. However, while Vietnamese acculturation predicted co-ethnic social support satisfaction, it did not predict reduced psychological distress. Implications for a life domains approach, including domain specificity, are discussed.

  5. Hispanic maternal influences on daughters' unhealthy weight control behaviors: The role of maternal acculturation, adiposity, and body image disturbances.

    PubMed

    Olvera, Norma; Matthews-Ewald, Molly R; McCarley, Kendall; Scherer, Rhonda; Posada, Alexandria

    2016-12-01

    This study examined whether maternal adiposity, acculturation, and perceived-ideal body size discrepancy for daughters were associated with daughters' engagement in unhealthy weight control behaviors. A total of 97 Hispanic mother-daughter dyads completed surveys, rated a figure scale, and had their height, weight, and adiposity assessed. Mothers (Mage=39.00, SD=6.20 years) selected larger ideal body sizes for their daughters (Mage=11.12, SD=1.53 years) than their daughters selected for themselves. Mothers had a smaller difference between their perception of their daughters' body size and ideal body size compared to the difference between their daughters' selection of their perceived and ideal body size. More acculturated mothers and those mothers with larger waist-to-hip ratios were more likely to have daughters who engaged in unhealthy weight control behaviors. These findings highlight the relevant role that maternal acculturation and adiposity may have in influencing daughters' unhealthy weight control behaviors.

  6. Subjective rating scales as a workload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bird, K. L.

    1981-01-01

    A multidimensional bipolar-adjective rating scale is employed as a subjective measure of operator workload in the performance of a one-axis tracking task. The rating scale addressed several dimensions of workload, including cognitive, physical, and perceptual task loading as well as fatigue and stress effects. Eight subjects performed a one-axis tracking task (with six levels of difficulty) and rated these tasks on several workload dimensions. Performance measures were tracking error RMS (root-mean square) and the standard deviation of control stick output. Significant relationships were observed between these performance measures and skill required, task complexity, attention level, task difficulty, task demands, and stress level.

  7. Outcome rating scales for pediatric head injury.

    PubMed

    Haley, Stephen M; Graham, Robert J; Dumas, Helene M

    2004-01-01

    Intensivists, surgeons, neurologists, and others involved in pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) have an important investment in both short-and long-term outcomes of children and adolescents with head injury who are treated under their care. Outcomes are most often documented by either single- or multiple-item rating scales and are implemented both during and after hospital care. For this review, the authors have organized the content of rating scales into 6 general classes: (1) mortality prediction, (2) severity, (3) global recovery, (4) activity restrictions, (5) secondary adverse conditions, and (6) limitations in participation, quality of life, and health status. Rating scales that describe the outcomes of children and adolescents after head injury are used to monitor medical and functional recovery, guide clinical management, drive quality assurance initiatives, and conduct clinical research. The authors restrict their selective review to rating scales that describe child outcomes (vs family) and that have been reported and applied in the outcome literature. Although head injury is a major cause of mortality and short- and long-term morbidity in children and adolescents, there is no consensus on which rating scales are optimal for hospital care or community follow-up. Major considerations for clinical use are feasibility, type of outcome information needed, content breadth across multiple ages and levels of recovery, and utility in determining the short-term impact of PICU care on long-term outcome.

  8. The Altman Self-Rating Mania Scale.

    PubMed

    Altman, E G; Hedeker, D; Peterson, J L; Davis, J M

    1997-11-15

    We report on the development, reliability, and validity of the Altman Self-Rating Mania Scale (ASRM). The ASRM was completed during medication washout and after treatment by 22 schizophrenic, 13 schizoaffective, 36 depressed, and 34 manic patients. The Clinician-Administered Rating Scale for Mania (CARS-M) and Mania Rating Scale (MRS) were completed at the same time to measure concurrent validity. Test-retest reliability was assessed separately on 20 depressed and 10 manic patients who completed the ASRM twice during washout. Principal components analysis of ASRM items revealed three factors: mania, psychotic symptoms, and irritability. Baseline mania subscale scores were significantly higher for manic patients compared to all other diagnostic groups. Manic patients had significantly decreased posttreatment scores for all three subscales. ASRM mania subscale scores were significantly correlated with MRS total scores (r = .718) and CARS-M mania subscale scores (r = .766). Test-retest reliability for the ASRM was significant for all three subscales. Significant differences in severity levels were found for some symptoms between patient ratings on the ASRM and clinician ratings on the CARS-M. Mania subscale scores of greater than 5 on the ASRM resulted in values of 85.5% for sensitivity and 87.3% for specificity. Advantages of the ASRM over other self-rating mania scales are discussed.

  9. Mineral Dissolution Rates at the Pore Scale: Scaling Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Steefel, C. I.; Yang, L.

    2006-12-01

    Mineral dissolution reactions play an important role in various physical, chemical and biological processes in nature. Although rates of these reactions have been extensively studied in laboratories, they have been found to be orders of magnitude faster than those measured in the natural systems. This work examines some of the mechanisms that can produce such a discrepancy at the pore scale, while quantifying the conditions under which the discrepancy becomes significant. This work used the reactive transport model CrunchFlow to examine the dissolution rates of three minerals, calcite, labradorite, and iron hydroxide, in a single pore. Pores were assumed to be cylindrical, with axisymmetric flow given by the analytical solution for Poiseuille flow in a cylinder. Mineral dissolution occurs only at the pore wall, with the reactive surface area of the dissolving phase specified geometrically. The average dissolution rates in the pore (R_D) for various flow velocities is determined by the flux-weighted change in concentration over the length of the pore and is compared to the rates that assume complete mixing (R_M). The differences in rates between the two models, quantified by the ratio of R_D over R_M, provide a measure of the scaling effect. The modeling results were validated by a microfluidic reactive flow experiment using a cylindrical pore in calcite. Modeling results show that the scaling effect arises due to the development of large concentration gradients caused by incomplete mixing within a pore when transport and reaction rates are comparable. The magnitude of the scaling effect depends on the reaction kinetics, flow velocity, and pore size. For labradorite and iron hydroxide, the scaling effect is negligible under all conditions due to their slow dissolution rates, thus limiting the development of any intra-pore concentration gradients. For calcite dissolution at low (smaller than 0.1 cm/s) and high (larger than 1000 cm/s) flow velocities the scaling

  10. Rasch rating scale analysis of the Attitudes Toward Research Scale.

    PubMed

    Papanastasiou, Elena C; Schumacker, Randall

    2014-01-01

    College students may view research methods courses with negative attitudes, however, few studies have investigated this issue due to the lack of instruments that measure the students' attitudes towards research. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of a Attitudes Toward Research Scale using Rasch rating scale analysis. Assessment of attitudes toward research is essential to determine if students have negative attitudes towards research and assist instructors in better facilitation of learning research methods in their courses. The results of this study have shown that a thirty item Attitudes Toward Research Scale yielded scores with high person and item reliability.

  11. Acculturation stress, drinking, and intimate partner violence among Hispanic couples in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Caetano, Raul; Ramisetty-Mikler, Suhasini; Caetano Vaeth, Patrice A; Harris, T Robert

    2007-11-01

    This article examines the cross-sectional association between acculturation, acculturation stress, drinking, and intimate partner violence (IPV) among Hispanic couples in the U.S. The data being analyzed come from a multicluster random household sample of couples interviewed as part of the second wave of a 5-year national longitudinal study. The overall survey response rate for the second wave is 72%. Participants are Hispanic couples 18 years of age or older (N = 387). Results show that, among men, lower acculturation is positively associated with higher acculturation stress, which is directly related to a greater likelihood of involvement in IPV. These associations are also present among women. However, data for women show an additional path linking higher levels of acculturation directly to IPV. Drinking is not associated with IPV, independent of gender. Acculturation, directly or through acculturation stress, increases the likelihood of IPV.

  12. Reliability Generalization for Childhood Autism Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breidbord, Jonathan; Croudace, Tim J.

    2013-01-01

    The Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) is a popular behavior-observation instrument that was developed more than 34 years ago and has since been adopted in a wide variety of contexts for assessing the presence and severity of autism symptomatology in both children and adolescents. This investigation of the reliability of CARS scores involves…

  13. The consumption of more vegetables and less meat is associated with higher levels of acculturation among Mongolians in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Tserendejid, Zuunnast; Hwang, Jinah; Lee, Jounghee; Park, Haeryun

    2013-12-01

    Although Mongolian immigrants are a rapidly growing population in South Korea, the 2 countries have distinct diets because of climatic and geographical differences. The Mongolian diet is mostly animal-based with few vegetables and fruits, whereas the Korean diet is largely plant based. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between acculturation and dietary intakes among Mongolians living in South Korea. We hypothesized that higher levels of acculturation would be associated with higher vegetable, fruit, and plant-based food intakes among Mongolian immigrants. A total of 500 Mongolian immigrants participated in this study conducted between December 2010 and May 2011. To measure the acculturation level, we developed an acculturation scale based on the Suinn-Lew Asian self-identity acculturation scale. Dietary intakes were assessed using the 24-hour dietary recall method. Associations between acculturation and dietary intakes were investigated using a general linear model adjusted for demographic characteristics. The participants were grouped into either a low-acculturation group or a high-acculturation group. The high-acculturation group reported significantly higher consumption of vegetables and rice and significantly lower consumption of meat, potatoes, and flour products compared with their low-acculturation counterparts. However, a higher level of acculturation was also significantly related to a higher intake of sodium. These findings could be used to tailor nutrition programs to different acculturation levels.

  14. Validity and Reliability of the Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale (2nd Edition): Youth Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Michael H.; Mooney, Paul; Ryser, Gail; Pierce, Corey D.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This article reports findings of three studies addressing convergent validity and test-retest reliability of the Youth Rating Scale of the Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale-Second Edition (BERS-2). Method: Pearson product-moment correlations were used in all three studies, the first two addressing convergent validity and the third…

  15. Effects of acculturation on prenatal anxiety among Latina women.

    PubMed

    Barcelona de Mendoza, Veronica; Harville, Emily; Theall, Katherine; Buekens, Pierre; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2016-08-01

    Anxiety in pregnancy has been associated with adverse birth outcomes. Relatively few studies have investigated how acculturation affects mental health in pregnancy among Latinas. The goal of this study was to determine if acculturation was associated with anxiety over the course of pregnancy in a sample of predominantly Puerto Rican women. Women were recruited in pregnancy for participation in Proyecto Buena Salud, a prospective cohort study of Latina women (n = 1412). Acculturation was measured via the Psychological Acculturation Scale (PAS), language preference and generation in the USA. Anxiety was measured using the State-Trait Anxiety Instrument. Linear and logistic multivariable regressions were used to investigate associations. After adjustment, women with bicultural identification had significantly lower trait anxiety scores in early pregnancy (β = -3.62, SE = 1.1, p < 0.001) than low acculturated women. Women with higher levels of acculturation as indicated by English-language preference (β = 1.41, SE = 0.7, p = 0.04) and second or third generation in the USA had significantly higher trait anxiety scores in early pregnancy (β = 1.83, SE = 0.6, p < 0.01). Bicultural psychological acculturation was associated with lower trait anxiety in early pregnancy, while English-language preference and higher generation in the USA were associated with higher trait anxiety in early pregnancy.

  16. The Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale--revisited.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Thomas R E

    2003-12-01

    Akathisia is a syndrome of motor restlessness, principally seen in association with antipsychotic medication. It is characterized by a subjective experience of mental unease and the urge to move, and manifests physically as particular patterns of restless movement. This review focuses on the signs and symptoms of the condition, and its diagnosis and assessment using the Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale. This scale was generated 15 years ago, and was derived from the findings of studies exploring the clinical features of antipsychotic-induced akathisia. Subsequently, its validity and reliability have been established, and it has been used extensively in clinical studies worldwide.

  17. Levels of Acculturation of Chinese Older Adults in the Greater Chicago Area - The Population Study of Chinese Elderly in Chicago.

    PubMed

    Dong, XinQi; Bergren, Stephanie M; Chang, E-Shien

    2015-09-01

    Acculturation is a difficult process for minority older adults for a variety of reasons, including access and exposure to mainstream culture, competing ethnic identities, and linguistic ability and preference. There is a paucity of research regarding overall level of acculturation for Chinese older adults in the United States. This study aimed to provide an overall estimate of level of acculturation of Chinese older adults in the United States and to examine correlations between sociodemographic characteristics, self-reported health measures, and level of acculturation. Data were collected through the Population Study of Chinese Elderly in Chicago (PINE) study. This community-based participatory research study surveyed 3,159 Chinese older adults aged 60 and older. The PINE Study Acculturation Scale was used to assess level of acculturation in three dimensions: language preference, media use, and ethnic social relations. Mean acculturation level for all items was 15.3 ± 5.1, indicating low levels of acculturation. Older age, more offspring, lower income, fewer years living in the United States, lower overall health status, and lower quality of life were associated with lower levels of acculturation. Level of acculturation was low in Chinese older adults, and certain subsets of the population were more likely to have a lower level of acculturation. Future research should investigate causality and effects of level of acculturation.

  18. Acculturation, SES, and the MMPI-A Performance of Hispanic Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendoza-Newman, Mary C.; Greene, Roger L.; Velasquez, Roberto J.

    This paper discusses a study that examined the relationship between acculturation and socioeconomic status (SES) on two scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A) for Hispanic adolescents (N=65). The study hypothesized that higher levels of acculturation and SES in Hispanic adolescents would be related to scale L…

  19. The Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) scale: A methodological review

    PubMed Central

    Heinemann, Klaas; Ruebig, Alexander; Potthoff, Peter; Schneider, Hermann PG; Strelow, Frank; Heinemann, Lothar AJ; Thai, Do Minh

    2004-01-01

    Background This paper compiles data from different sources to get a first comprehensive picture of psychometric and other methodological characteristics of the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) scale. The scale was designed and standardized as a self-administered scale to (a) to assess symptoms/complaints of aging women under different conditions, (b) to evaluate the severity of symptoms over time, and (c) to measure changes pre- and postmenopause replacement therapy. The scale became widespread used (available in 10 languages). Method A large multinational survey (9 countries in 4 continents) from 2001/ 2002 is the basis for in depth analyses on reliability and validity of the MRS. Additional small convenience samples were used to get first impressions about test-retest reliability. The data were centrally analyzed. Data from a postmarketing HRT study were used to estimate discriminative validity. Results Reliability measures (consistency and test-retest stability) were found to be good across countries, although the sample size for test-retest reliability was small. Validity: The internal structure of the MRS across countries was astonishingly similar to conclude that the scale really measures the same phenomenon in symptomatic women. The sub-scores and total score correlations were high (0.7–0.9) but lower among the sub-scales (0.5–0.7). This however suggests that the subscales are not fully independent. Norm values from different populations were presented showing that a direct comparison between Europe and North America is possible, but caution recommended with comparisons of data from Latin America and Indonesia. But this will not affect intra-individual comparisons within clinical trials. The comparison with the Kupperman Index showed sufficiently good correlations, illustrating an adept criterion-oriented validity. The same is true for the comparison with the generic quality-of-life scale SF-36 where also a sufficiently close association has been shown

  20. Acculturation: A Psychometric Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmedo, Esteban L.

    1979-01-01

    Traditional measurement models based on cultural group or generational typologies do not adequately address conceptual and methodological problems in the psychometric approach to acculturation. A model is proposed that provides for the examination of relationships between multidimensional sets of quantitatively defined cultural variables.…

  1. Perceptions of Vietnamese fathers' acculturation levels, parenting styles, and mental health outcomes in Vietnamese American adolescent immigrants.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Peter V

    2008-10-01

    Vietnamese adult and adolescent immigrants in the United States acculturate to the Western culture at different rates. MostVietnamese parents tend to use the authoritarian parenting method in which dictatorial approaches are enforced, possibly leading to family conflicts and mental health issues. By means of the Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation Scale, the Parental Authority Questionnaire, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Inventory, this exploratory study surveyed 290Vietnamese American adolescents in a major metropolitan area to examine the relationship between their fathers' acculturation levels and parenting styles and the relationships among parenting styles and self-esteem levels and depression scores of the adolescents. Findings revealed that most of the adolescents perceived that their fathers have not acculturated to the U.S. culture and continue to practice the traditional authoritarian parenting style, regardless of the amount of time spent in the United States. Furthermore, results indicate that adolescents who perceived their fathers as using the authoritarian parenting style reported lower levels of self-esteem and higher depression scores when compared with those who perceived their fathers as using the authoritative parenting style.

  2. Validation of the secretion severity rating scale.

    PubMed

    Pluschinski, Petra; Zaretsky, Eugen; Stöver, Timo; Murray, Joseph; Sader, Robert; Hey, Christiane

    2016-10-01

    Accumulation of secretions within the hypopharynx, aditus laryngis, and trachea is one characteristic of severe dysphagia and is of high clinical and therapeutic relevance. For the graduation of the secretion severity level, a secretion scale was provided by Murray et al. in 1996. The purpose of the study presented here is the validation of this scale by analyzing the intra-rater and inter-rater reliability as well as concurrent validity. For examination of reliability and validity, a reference standard was defined by two expert clinicians who reviewed 40 video recordings of fiberendoscopic swallowing evaluations, with 10 videos for each severity grade. These videos were rated and rerated independently and blinded by 4 ENT-residents with an interval of 4 weeks. Both the intra-rater (Kendall's τ > 0.847***) and inter-rater reliability (Kendall's W > 0.951***) were highly significant and can be considered good or very good. Correlation of the median of all ratings with the reference standard was close to the highest possible value 1 (τ = 0.984***). The scale was proved to be a reliable and valid instrument for graduation of one of the principal symptoms of oropharyngeal dysphagia and is recommended as an evidence-based instrument for standardized fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing.

  3. Outcome Rating Scale and Session Rating Scale in Psychological Practice: Clinical Utility of Ultra-Brief Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Alistair; Hemsley, Samantha

    2009-01-01

    The validity and reliability of the Outcome Rating Scale (ORS) and the Session Rating Scale (SRS) were evaluated against existing longer measures, including the Outcome Questionnaire-45, Working Alliance Inventory, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21, Quality of Life Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and General Self-efficacy Scale. The measures…

  4. The Impact of Religious Coping on the Acculturative Stress and Alcohol Use of Recent Latino Immigrants.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Mariana; Dillon, Frank R; Concha, Maritza; De La Rosa, Mario

    2015-12-01

    Religion plays a prominent role in Latino culture and could be influential during difficult life transitions, such as those experienced during the immigration process. This study examines relations between religious coping, acculturative stress, and alcohol use in a sample of 415 recent Latino immigrants. Higher levels of acculturative stress were associated more positive and negative religious coping. Positive religious coping was related to lower alcohol use. Negative religious coping moderated the relationship between acculturative stress and alcohol use. Participants who used more negative religious coping had higher rates of alcohol use when experiencing high levels acculturative stress. Implications for culturally tailored prevention/interventions are discussed.

  5. Acculturation and Gender: Influence on Healthy Dietary Outcomes for Latino Adolescents in California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Heather; Marshak, Helen Hopp; Montgomery, Susanne; Rea, Brenda; Backman, Desiree

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Examine acculturation and gender on intention to eat a healthful diet among Latino adolescents using the Theory of Planned Behavior. Design: Secondary analysis of data set and condensed version of the Short Acculturation Scale for Hispanics (SASH). Setting: Data collected from 34 randomly selected high schools in San Bernardino, CA.…

  6. Red as an Apple: Native American Acculturation and Counseling with or without Reservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Michael Tlanusta; Pichette, Eugene F.

    2000-01-01

    Examines how counselors must assess a Native American client's level of acculturation rather than make assumptions based on the limited information offered by appearance or other personal characteristics. Presents the Native American Acculturation Scale as an operationalized means of formally or informally assessing a Native American client's…

  7. Acculturative Stress and Influential Factors among International Students in China: A Structural Dynamic Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shiyue; Liu, Yang; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J.; Yan, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Stress represents a prominent aspect of modern life and is associated with numerous negative health consequences. International students are a key force in shaping globalization. However, these students often experience acculturative stress, influencing their health and well-being. The growing number of international students in China emerges as a new global health challenge and presents an opportunity to advance our understanding of acculturative stress. This study aims to investigate the acculturative stress of international students in China, and verify the mechanism and influential factors of acculturative stress. We analyzed survey data from 567 international students attending universities in Wuhan, China. We used a network-based analytical approach to assess the structure of the Acculturative Stress Scale for International Students and used regression analysis to assess the relationships between acculturative stress and theoretically related factors. We found that higher levels of acculturative stress were reported by students from Asia and Africa than from other regions (Europe/America/Oceania). Lower acculturative stress was reported by unmarried students than others and by students well prepared than not well prepared. We verified seven acculturative stress subconstructs: rejection, identity threat, opportunity deprivation, self-confidence, value conflict, cultural competence, and homesickness; and discovered a three-dimensional network structure of these subconstructs. Our results suggest that acculturative stress was more common among international students in China than in developed countries. Acculturative stress was also more common among international students who did not well prepared, married, and belonged to an organized religion. African and Asian students' stress was higher than that for students from other regions. Acculturative stress prevention programs should seek to improve preparedness of the international students for studying abroad and

  8. Acculturative stress and influential factors among international students in China: a structural dynamic perspective.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bin; Chen, Xinguang; Li, Shiyue; Liu, Yang; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J; Yan, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Stress represents a prominent aspect of modern life and is associated with numerous negative health consequences. International students are a key force in shaping globalization. However, these students often experience acculturative stress, influencing their health and well-being. The growing number of international students in China emerges as a new global health challenge and presents an opportunity to advance our understanding of acculturative stress. This study aims to investigate the acculturative stress of international students in China, and verify the mechanism and influential factors of acculturative stress. We analyzed survey data from 567 international students attending universities in Wuhan, China. We used a network-based analytical approach to assess the structure of the Acculturative Stress Scale for International Students and used regression analysis to assess the relationships between acculturative stress and theoretically related factors. We found that higher levels of acculturative stress were reported by students from Asia and Africa than from other regions (Europe/America/Oceania). Lower acculturative stress was reported by unmarried students than others and by students well prepared than not well prepared. We verified seven acculturative stress subconstructs: rejection, identity threat, opportunity deprivation, self-confidence, value conflict, cultural competence, and homesickness; and discovered a three-dimensional network structure of these subconstructs. Our results suggest that acculturative stress was more common among international students in China than in developed countries. Acculturative stress was also more common among international students who did not well prepared, married, and belonged to an organized religion. African and Asian students' stress was higher than that for students from other regions. Acculturative stress prevention programs should seek to improve preparedness of the international students for studying abroad and

  9. A meta-analytic study: the relationship between acculturation and depression among Asian Americans.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Arpana; Leong, Frederick; Valentine, Jeffrey C; Canada, Dericka D

    2013-01-01

    Acculturation is an important and popular cultural research variable among specific ethnic populations that is used to explain the process of assimilating into the host culture. Acculturation has often been used to account for psychosocial changes and health outcomes and has been used to explain health disparities among ethnic groups. Using Asian Americans as an illustrative ethnic group, the authors see that researchers have highlighted the influence of acculturation on health outcomes. Some researchers suggest that this relationship is positive, whereas others postulate that the opposite is true. Because of the highly complex and divergent findings in the literature, this meta-analysis addresses the question of how acculturation (as measured by acculturation scales) is related to depression (a specific mental health outcome) among the Asian American population living in North America. Analyses were based on 38 studies. The meta-analyses reveal that when acculturation is measured as assimilation to the American culture, there is a small but statistically significant negative relationship between acculturation and depression scores. When acculturation is measured as orientation to the Asian culture, the relationship between acculturation and depression scores is also negative, but not statistically significant.

  10. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CULTURAL IDENTITY AND SELF-ESTEEM AMONG CHINESE UYGHUR COLLEGE STUDENTS: THE MEDIATING ROLE OF ACCULTURATION ATTITUDES.

    PubMed

    Dong, Li; Lin, Chongde; Li, Tsingan; Dou, Donghui; Zhou, Liqing

    2015-08-01

    Most acculturation research throughout the world has been conducted in immigrant settings. In order to examine the generalizability of the previous conclusions in immigrant settings, the present study tried to explore the relationship between cultural identity and self-esteem and the mediating role of acculturation attitudes in China. Using the cross-sectional design, a total number of 342 Uyghur college students were asked to complete a survey comprising the Multi-Group Ethnic/National Identity Measure-Revised Scale, the Acculturation Attitudes Scale, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Using hierarchical multiple regression, the results indicated that cultural identity was positively correlated with self-esteem. A significant mediation of acculturation was observed between cultural identity and self-esteem. These findings demonstrated the significance of cultural identity and acculturation attitudes in the adaptation of Chinese Uyghur college students, in which integration is an optimal acculturation attitude.

  11. An investigation of ride quality rating scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, T. K.; Coates, G. D.; Leatherwood, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted for the combined purposes of determining the relative merits of various category scales for the prediction of human discomfort response to vibration and for determining the mathematical relationships whereby subjective data are transformed from one scale to other scales. There were 16 category scales analyzed representing various parametric combinations of polarity, that is, unipolar and bipolar, scale type, and number of scalar points. Results indicated that unipolar continuous-type scales containing either seven or nine scalar points provide the greatest reliability and discriminability. Transformations of subjective data between category scales were found to be feasible with unipolar scales of a larger number of scalar points providing the greatest accuracy of transformation. The results contain coefficients for transformation of subjective data between the category scales investigated. A result of particular interest was that the comfort half of a bipolar scale was seldom used by subjects to describe their subjective reaction to vibration.

  12. Rethinking the Concept of Acculturation

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Szapocznik, José

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an expanded model of acculturation among international migrants and their immediate descendants. Acculturation is proposed as a multidimensional process consisting of the confluence among heritage-cultural and receiving-cultural practices, values, and identifications. The implications of this reconceptualization for the acculturation construct, as well as for its relationship to psychosocial and health outcomes, are discussed. In particular, an expanded operationalization of acculturation is needed to address the “immigrant paradox,” whereby international migrants with more exposure to the receiving cultural context report poorer mental and physical health outcomes. We discuss the role of ethnicity, cultural similarity, and discrimination in the acculturation process, offer an operational definition for context of reception, and call for studies on the role that context of reception plays in the acculturation process. The new perspective on acculturation presented in this article is intended to yield a fuller understanding of complex acculturation processes and their relationships to contextual and individual functioning. PMID:20455618

  13. Migration, Acculturation and Family Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colleran, Kevin J.; Gurak, Douglas; Kritz, Mary

    1984-01-01

    Two articles are presented in this research bulletin. The first, entitled "Acculturation in Puerto Rican Families," assesses the degree of acculturation of 100 sets of married children of 100 Puerto Rican families living in New York City. Attitudes toward language, identity, and values are used as criteria. The specific values the study…

  14. Acculturators for Spanish, Vol. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Tullio, Thomas, Ed.

    This set of teaching units, called acculturators, is designed to introduce Spanish language students to peninsular and Spanish-American culture. The acculturators deal with gestures, customs, family life, daily habits, and other aspects of culture. The intent is to aid the student in becoming as much a part of the target culture as his own…

  15. Subjective rating scales: science or art?

    PubMed

    Annett, John

    2002-11-15

    Subjective rating scales are widely used in almost every aspect of ergonomics research and practice for the assessment of workload, fatigue, usability, annoyance and comfort, and lesser known qualities such as urgency and presence, but are they truly scientific? This paper raises some of the key issues as a basis for debate. First, it is argued that all empirical observations, including those conventionally labelled as 'objective', are unavoidably subjective. Shared meaning between observers, or intersubjectivity, is the key criterion of scientific probity. The practical steps that can be taken to increase intersubjective agreement are discussed and the well-known sources of error and bias in human judgement reviewed. The role of conscious experience as a mechanism for appraising the environment and guiding behaviour has important implications for the interpretation of subjective reports. The view that psychometric measures do not conform to the requirements of truly 'scientific' measurement is discussed. Human judgement of subjective attributes is essentially ordinal and, unlike physical measures, can be matched to interval scales only with difficulty, but ordinal measures can be used successfully both to develop and test substantive theories using multivariate statistical techniques. Constructs such as fatigue are best understood as latent or inferred variables defined by a set of manifest or directly observed indicator variables. Both construct validity and predictive validity are viewed from this perspective and this helps to clarify several problems including the dissociation between measures of different aspects of a given construct, the question of whether physical (e.g. physiological) measures should be preferred to subjective measures and whether a single measure of constructs which are essentially multidimensional having both subjective and physical components is desirable. Finally, the fitness of subjective ratings to different purposes within the broad

  16. A PERSON-CENTERED AND ECOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF ACCULTURATION STRATEGIES IN HISPANIC IMMIGRANT YOUTH.

    PubMed

    Coatsworth, J Douglas; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, José

    2005-03-01

    Understanding the processes of acculturation in ethnic minority populations is one of the central tasks of crosscultural research. Addressing challenges of theory, methods, and application in acculturation research requires ongoing advancements in methods and theoretical and model development. The current study was designed to explain a person-centered approach to investigating acculturation and biculturalism and to illustrate this method with a sample of 315 Hispanic youth. Pattern analyses of the Hispanicism and Americanism scores from the Bicultural Involvement Scale yielded four distinct acculturation types, including one characterized by moderate scores on both scales. Relations between acculturation types and indicators of individual, family, and peer adaptation were tested. Results indicated that bicultural youth tended to show the most adaptive pattern of functioning across multiple sociocultural domains. Assimilated youth did not show as strongly negative a pattern as has been reported elsewhere. Implications and benefits of a person-centered approach are discussed.

  17. A PERSON-CENTERED AND ECOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF ACCULTURATION STRATEGIES IN HISPANIC IMMIGRANT YOUTH

    PubMed Central

    Coatsworth, J. Douglas; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, José

    2006-01-01

    Understanding the processes of acculturation in ethnic minority populations is one of the central tasks of crosscultural research. Addressing challenges of theory, methods, and application in acculturation research requires ongoing advancements in methods and theoretical and model development. The current study was designed to explain a person-centered approach to investigating acculturation and biculturalism and to illustrate this method with a sample of 315 Hispanic youth. Pattern analyses of the Hispanicism and Americanism scores from the Bicultural Involvement Scale yielded four distinct acculturation types, including one characterized by moderate scores on both scales. Relations between acculturation types and indicators of individual, family, and peer adaptation were tested. Results indicated that bicultural youth tended to show the most adaptive pattern of functioning across multiple sociocultural domains. Assimilated youth did not show as strongly negative a pattern as has been reported elsewhere. Implications and benefits of a person-centered approach are discussed. PMID:16799699

  18. Acculturation and weight change in Asian-American children: Evidence from the ECLS-K:2011

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite relatively low rates of overweight and obesity among Asian-American children, disparities exist based on acculturation, socioeconomic status, and Asian ethnicity. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between acculturation and weight change in Asian-American children. Seco...

  19. A pilot rating scale for vortex hazard evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoh, R. H.

    1975-01-01

    A pilot rating scale is developed for subjective assessment of hazard resulting from wake vortex encounter upsets. The development of the rating scale is based on a survey of 48 pilots regarding the semantic properties of various phrases and a choice of formats for the rating scale. The rating scale can be used to define a hazard/nonhazard boundary as well as to determine a measure of the hazard.

  20. Rating scales measuring the severity of psychotic depression

    PubMed Central

    Østergaard, Søren D.; Rothschild, Anthony J.; Flint, Alastair J.; Mulsant, Benoit H.; Whyte, Ellen M.; Leadholm, Anne Katrine; Bech, Per; Meyers, Barnett S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Unipolar psychotic depression (PD) is a severe and debilitating syndrome, which requires intensive monitoring. The objective of this study was to provide an overview of the rating scales used to assess illness severity in PD. Method Selective review of publications reporting results on non-self-rated, symptom-based rating scales utilized to measure symptom severity in PD. The clinical and psychometric validity of the identified rating scales was reviewed. Results A total of 14 rating scales meeting the predefined criteria were included in the review. These scales grouped into the following categories: I. Rating scales predominantly covering depressive symptoms, II. Rating scales predominantly covering psychotic symptoms, III. Rating scales covering delusions, and IV. Rating scales covering psychotic depression. For the vast majority of the scales, the clinical and psychometric validity had not been tested empirically. The only exception from this general tendency was the 11-item Psychotic Depression Assessment Scale (PDAS), which was developed specifically to assess the severity of PD. Conclusion In PD, the Psychotic Depression Assessment Scale (PDAS) represents the only empirically derived rating scale for the measurement of overall severity of illness. The PDAS should be considered in future studies of PD and in clinical practice. PMID:26016647

  1. Validity of temporal measures as proxies for measuring acculturation in Asian Indian survey respondents.

    PubMed

    Bharmal, Nazleen; Hays, Ron D; McCarthy, William J

    2014-10-01

    There are few validated acculturation measures for Asian Indians in the U.S. We used the 2004 California Asian Indian Tobacco Survey to examine the relationship between temporal measures and eleven self-reported measures of acculturation. These items were combined to form an acculturation scale. We performed psychometric analysis of scale properties. Greater duration of residence in the U.S., greater percentage of lifetime in the U.S., and younger age at immigration were associated with more acculturated responses to the items for Asian Indians. Item-scale correlations for the 11-item acculturation scale ranged from 0.28-0.55 and internal consistency reliability was 0.73. Some support was found for a two-factor solution; one factor corresponding to cultural activities (α = 0.70) and the other to social behaviors (α = 0.59). Temporal measures only partially capture the full dimensions of acculturation. Our scale captured several domains and possibly two dimensions of acculturation.

  2. Validity of Temporal Measures as Proxies for Measuring Acculturation in Asian Indian Survey Respondents

    PubMed Central

    Hays, Ron D.; McCarthy, William J.

    2014-01-01

    There are few validated acculturation measures for Asian Indians in the U.S. We used the 2004 California Asian Indian Tobacco Survey to examine the relationship between temporal measures and eleven self-reported measures of acculturation. These items were combined to form an acculturation scale. We performed psychometric analysis of scale properties. Greater duration of residence in the U.S., greater percentage of lifetime in the U.S., and younger age at immigration were associated with more acculturated responses to the items for Asian Indians. Item-scale correlations for the 11-item acculturation scale ranged from 0.28–0.55 and internal consistency reliability was 0.73. Some support was found for a two-factor solution; one factor corresponding to cultural activities (α = 0.70) and the other to social behaviors (α = 0.59). Temporal measures only partially capture the full dimensions of acculturation. Our scale captured several domains and possibly two dimensions of acculturation. PMID:23649666

  3. Reliability of Multi-Category Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Richard I.; Vannest, Kimberly J.; Davis, John L.

    2013-01-01

    The use of multi-category scales is increasing for the monitoring of IEP goals, classroom and school rules, and Behavior Improvement Plans (BIPs). Although they require greater inference than traditional data counting, little is known about the inter-rater reliability of these scales. This simulation study examined the performance of nine…

  4. Effects of Some Variations in Rating Scale Characteristics on the Means and Reliabilities of Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, R. H.

    1972-01-01

    Since both the means and reliabilities of the ratings were affected by the number of scale levels but not by the manner of defining scale levels, it would appear that the most critical consideration in rating scale construction is that of determining the appropriate number of rating scale levels. (Author/MB)

  5. A Review of Acculturation Measures and Their Utility in Studies Promoting Latino Health

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Phyllis M.; Pomery, Elizabeth A.; Latimer, Amy E.; Martinez, Josefa L.; Salovey, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The authors reviewed the acculturation literature with the goal of identifying measures used to assess acculturation in Hispanic populations in the context of studies of health knowledge, attitudes, and behavior change. Twenty-six acculturation measures were identified and summarized. As the Hispanic population continues to grow in the United States, there is a need to develop rigorous acculturation measures that include health indicators. Findings suggest that multidimensional acculturation scales are robust measurement tools when assessing nationality, cultural awareness, media and language preferences, and health status. Furthermore, aspects of Hispanic cultural lifestyle, such as beliefs about nutrition and physical activity, affect health care utilization, treatment, and prevention. Health communication researchers should consider aspects of cultural values and beliefs, and their impact on health status, for future research and health promotion interventions. PMID:20582238

  6. Acculturation, physical activity, and fast-food consumption among Asian-American and Hispanic adolescents.

    PubMed

    Unger, Jennifer B; Reynolds, Kim; Shakib, Sohaila; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Sun, Ping; Johnson, C Anderson

    2004-12-01

    Previous studies have implicated acculturation to the US as a risk factor for unhealthy behaviors among Hispanic and Asian-American adolescents, including substance use, violence, and unsafe sex. This study examined the association between acculturation and obesity-related behaviors-physical activity and fast-food consumption-among 619 Asian-American and 1385 Hispanic adolescents in Southern California. Respondents completed surveys in 6th and 7th grade. The 6th grade survey assessed acculturation with the AHIMSA acculturation scale and a measure of English language usage. The 7th grade survey assessed frequency of moderate-to-intense physical activity and frequency of eating fast-food. Multiple regression analyses included acculturation and demographic covariates as predictors of physical activity and fast-food consumption. Acculturation to the US, assessed in 6th grade, was significantly associated with a lower frequency of physical activity participation and a higher frequency of fast-food consumption in 7th grade. The significant associations persisted after controlling for covariates and were consistent across gender and ethnic groups. Results suggest that acculturation to the US is a risk factor for obesity-related behaviors among Asian-American and Hispanic adolescents. Health promotion programs are needed to encourage physical activity and healthy diets among adolescents in acculturating families.

  7. Perceived ethnic discrimination versus acculturation stress: influences on substance use among Latino youth in the Southwest.

    PubMed

    Kulis, Stephen; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Nieri, Tanya

    2009-12-01

    Using a predominately Mexican-origin Latino sample of 5th grade students from the Southwestern United States, this study examined the relative effects of perceived discrimination and acculturation stress on substance use, and it assessed whether these effects were moderated by linguistic acculturation or time in the United States. Although rates of substance use were generally low in the sample, given the young age of the participants, over half (59%) of the sample perceived some discrimination, and almost half (47%) experienced some acculturation stress. Spanish-dominant and bilingual youth perceived more discrimination than English-dominant youth, whereas youth who have been in the United States five or fewer years perceived more discrimination than youth with more time in the United States. Youth who were Spanish-dominant or were recent arrivals experienced the most acculturation stress, with levels declining as linguistic acculturation and time in the United States increased. Multiple regression estimates indicated that perceived discrimination was associated with larger amounts and higher frequency of recent substance use and an array of substance use attitudes, such as stronger intentions to use substances, espousal of pro-drug norms, more positive substance use expectancies, and peer approval of substance use. Although acculturation stress was not associated with substance use, it was positively associated with several substance use attitudes, which are known antecedents of actual use. With a few exceptions, linguistic acculturation and time in the United States did not moderate the effects of perceived discrimination or acculturation stress.

  8. Reliability and Validity of Scores on the IFSP Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Lee Ann; McWilliam, R. A.

    2005-01-01

    Evidence is presented regarding the construct validity and internal consistency reliability of scores for an investigator-developed individualized family service plan (IFSP) rating scale. One hundred and twenty IFSPs were rated using a 12-item instrument, the IFSP Rating Scale (McWilliam & Jung, 2001). Using principal components factor…

  9. Measuring Cognitive Load with Subjective Rating Scales during Problem Solving: Differences between Immediate and Delayed Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmeck, Annett; Opfermann, Maria; van Gog, Tamara; Paas, Fred; Leutner, Detlev

    2015-01-01

    Subjective cognitive load (CL) rating scales are widely used in educational research. However, there are still some open questions regarding the point of time at which such scales should be applied. Whereas some studies apply rating scales directly after each step or task and use an average of these ratings, others assess CL only once after the…

  10. Dimensions of Acculturation in Native American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Amy L.; Sodano, Sandro M.; Ecklund, Timothy R.; Guyker, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were applied to the responses of two respective independent samples of Native American college students on the Native American Acculturation Scale (NAAS). Three correlated dimensions were found to underlie NAAS items and these dimensions may also comprise a broader higher order dimension of Native…

  11. Current Use of Depression Rating Scales in Mental Health Setting

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun Jeong; Kim, Jung Bum; Shin, Im Hee; Lim, Kyung Hee; Lee, Sang Hee; Cho, Gyung Ah; Sung, Hyung Mo; Jung, Sung Won; Zmimmerman, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study was to investigate the current use of depression rating scales by psychiatrists and clinical psychologists in Korea. Methods The questionnaires from many psychiatrists and clinical psychologists were included in the analysis. The questionnaire was composed of items about examining the percentage of patients clinically using depression rating scales, reasons for not use of them, the degree of satisfaction, the perceived agreement rate between the result of depression rating scales and doctor's clinical interview in the evaluation of patients with depressive symptoms. Data were analyzed by χ2 and independent t-test. Results The clinical use of depression rating scales was more frequent in the psychologists than in the psychiatrists. The purposes for using depression rating scales were assessed into six areas, there was no significant difference in between two groups, and both groups pointed out their purpose as rating of severity and screening. The reasons for not using scales were that their interview may be sufficient for diagnosis and assessment of depressive patients and they are not familiar with the use of depression rating scales. The psychiatrists usually prefer the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Symptom Checklist 90-Revision (SCL-90-R) in order of frequency, and the clinical psychologists are more likely to use the BDI, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory and SCL-90-R. Overall rate of satisfaction in the use of the scales was 67.29±14.45% and overall perceived agreement rate was 70.89±16.45%. Conclusion Currently used depression rating scales at the clinical practice were not various. Therefore, to heighten clinicians' utility of these depression rating scales measures, either educational efforts or advertisements, or both, will be necessary to spread them wildly. PMID:20927305

  12. Acculturation and violence in minority adolescents: a review of the empirical literature.

    PubMed

    Smokowski, Paul R; David-Ferdon, Corinne; Stroupe, Nancy

    2009-07-01

    Although seminal reviews have been published on acculturation and mental health in adults and adolescents, far less is known about how acculturation influences adolescent interpersonal and self-directed violence. This article aims to fill this gap by providing a comprehensive review of research linking acculturation and violence behavior for adolescents of three minority populations: Latino, Asian/Pacific Islander (A/PI), and American Indian/Alaskan Native (AI/AN). The preponderance of evidence from studies on Latino and A/PI youth indicate that higher levels of adolescent assimilation (i.e., measured by time in the United States, English language use, U.S. cultural involvement, or individualism scales) were a risk factor for youth violence. Ethnic group identity or culture-of-origin involvement appear to be cultural assets against youth violence with supporting evidence from studies on A/PI youth; however, more studies are needed on Latino and AI/AN youth. Although some evidence shows low acculturation or cultural marginality to be a risk factor for higher levels of fear, victimization, and being bullied, low acculturation also serves as a protective factor against dating violence victimization for Latino youth. An important emerging trend in both the Latino and, to a lesser extent, A/PI youth literature shows that the impact of acculturation processes on youth aggression and violence can be mediated by family dynamics. The literature on acculturation and self-directed violence is extremely limited and has conflicting results across the examined groups, with high acculturation being a risk factor for Latinos, low acculturation being a risk factor of A/PI youth, and acculturation-related variables being unrelated to suicidal behavior among AI/AN youth. Bicultural skills training as a youth violence and suicide prevention practice is discussed.

  13. Expanding Acculturation Theory: Are Acculturation Models and the Adaptiveness of Acculturation Strategies Generalizable in a Colonial Context?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung-Blunden, Violet L.; Juang, Linda P.

    2008-01-01

    Most acculturation research has been conducted in immigrant settings. The present study examined the generalizability of acculturation models and the adaptiveness of acculturation strategies in another bicultural environment--a colonial setting. The sample included 138 girls (M = 13.8 years) and their parents from Hong Kong, a former British…

  14. Pathways between acculturation and health behaviors among residents of low-income housing: The mediating role of social and contextual factors

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Jennifer Dacey; Caspi, Caitlin; Yang, May; Leyva, Bryan; Stoddard, Anne M.; Tamers, Sara; Tucker-Seeley, Reginald D.; Sorensen, Glorian C.

    2015-01-01

    Acculturation may influence health behaviors, yet mechanisms underlying its effect are not well understood. In this study, we describe relationships between acculturation and health behaviors among low-income housing residents, and examine whether these relationships are mediated by social and contextual factors. Residents of 20 low-income housing sites in the Boston metropolitan area completed surveys that assessed acculturative characteristics, social/contextual factors, and health behaviors. A composite acculturation scale was developed using latent class analysis, resulting in four distinct acculturative groups. Path analysis was used to examine interrelationships between acculturation, health behaviors, and social/contextual factors, specifically self-reported social ties, social support, stress, material hardship, and discrimination. Of the 828 respondents, 69% were born outside of the U.S. Less acculturated groups exhibited healthier dietary practices and were less likely to smoke than more acculturated groups. Acculturation had a direct effect on diet and smoking, but not physical activity. Acculturation also showed an indirect effect on diet through its relationship with material hardship. Our finding that material hardship mediated the relationship between acculturation and diet suggests the need to explicate the significant role of financial resources in interventions seeking to promote healthy diets among low-income immigrant groups. Future research should examine these social and contextual mediators using larger, population-based samples, preferably with longitudinal data. PMID:25462602

  15. Pathways between acculturation and health behaviors among residents of low-income housing: the mediating role of social and contextual factors.

    PubMed

    Allen, Jennifer Dacey; Caspi, Caitlin; Yang, May; Leyva, Bryan; Stoddard, Anne M; Tamers, Sara; Tucker-Seeley, Reginald D; Sorensen, Glorian C

    2014-12-01

    Acculturation may influence health behaviors, yet mechanisms underlying its effect are not well understood. In this study, we describe relationships between acculturation and health behaviors among low-income housing residents, and examine whether these relationships are mediated by social and contextual factors. Residents of 20 low-income housing sites in the Boston metropolitan area completed surveys that assessed acculturative characteristics, social/contextual factors, and health behaviors. A composite acculturation scale was developed using latent class analysis, resulting in four distinct acculturative groups. Path analysis was used to examine interrelationships between acculturation, health behaviors, and social/contextual factors, specifically self-reported social ties, social support, stress, material hardship, and discrimination. Of the 828 respondents, 69% were born outside of the U.S. Less acculturated groups exhibited healthier dietary practices and were less likely to smoke than more acculturated groups. Acculturation had a direct effect on diet and smoking, but not physical activity. Acculturation also showed an indirect effect on diet through its relationship with material hardship. Our finding that material hardship mediated the relationship between acculturation and diet suggests the need to explicate the significant role of financial resources in interventions seeking to promote healthy diets among low-income immigrant groups. Future research should examine these social and contextual mediators using larger, population-based samples, preferably with longitudinal data.

  16. Acculturation, discrimination and depressive symptoms among Korean immigrants in New York City.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Kunsook Song; Park, So-Youn; Shin, Jinah; Cho, Sunhee; Park, Yeddi

    2011-02-01

    Immigrant mental health issues, especially depression in relation to discrimination and acculturation, are reported to be serious problems in the United States. The current study examines the prevalence of depressive symptoms among Korean immigrants in New York City (NYC) and its relation to self-reported discrimination and acculturation. A sample of 304 Korean immigrants residing in NYC completed a survey utilizing the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale-Korean version, Discrimination Scale, and Acculturation Stress Scale. Results indicated that 13.2% of the sample population demonstrated some symptoms of depression and that variable such as living alone, marital status, education, years in US and income impact high depression scores. Results also indicate that higher self-reported exposure to discrimination and lower self-reported language proficiency were related to higher depressive symptoms. In a regression analysis, discrimination and English language proficiency were significant predictors of depression, but acculturation stress was not significantly related to depression.

  17. Language Acculturation among Older Vietnamese Refugee Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Thanh V.

    1990-01-01

    Examined English language acculturation among older Vietnamese refugees (aged 40 and older). Found that age, sex, education in Vietnam, health, and length of residence in United States had some significant relationships with language acculturation. Older Vietnamese people had more problems with language acculturation than younger counterparts, and…

  18. How Selective Is Acculturation? Broadening Our Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Szapocznik, Jose

    2011-01-01

    Responds to the comments by C. Killian on the current authors' original article, "Rethinking the concept of acculturation: Implications for theory and research." Killian has focused on issues of selective acculturation--specifically, the ability of individuals and families to direct their own (and their children's) acculturative trajectories. Let…

  19. Acculturation Tendencies in a Border Latino Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guinn, Robert; Vincent, Vern; Wang, Lin; Villas, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify variables distinguishing more acculturated versus less acculturated Latinos residing near the United States-Mexico border. The study sample consisted of 438 participants ranging in age from 20 to 68 years. Data were gathered through a self-report survey instrument composed of items assessing acculturation,…

  20. Comparison of physician-rating and self-rating scales for patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ching-Hua; Lu, Mei-Jou; Wong, Julielynn; Chen, Cheng-Chung

    2014-12-01

    Physician-rating scales remain the standard in antidepressant clinical trials. The current study aimed to examine the discrepancies between physician-rating scales and self-rating scales for symptoms and functioning, before and after treatment, in newly hospitalized patients. A total of 131 acutely ill inpatients with major depressive disorder were enrolled to receive 20 mg of fluoxetine daily for 6 weeks. Symptom severity and functioning were assessed at baseline and again at week 6. Symptom severity was rated using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17) and the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale (ZDS). Functioning was measured by the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS). Pearson correlation coefficients (r) between HDRS-17 and ZDS and between GAF and WSAS were calculated at week 0 and week 6. Sensitivity to change was measured using effect sizes. One-hundred twelve patients completed the 6-week trial. After 6 weeks of treatment, correlations between HDRS-17 and ZDS or correlations between GAF and WSAS became larger from baseline to end point. All correlations were statistically significant (P < 0.001). Effect sizes measured by physician-rating scales (ie, HDRS-17 and GAF) were larger than by self-rating scales (ie, ZDS and WSAS). Correlations between baseline physician-rating scale scores and self-rating scale scores improved after 6 weeks of treatment. Physician-rating scales had larger effect sizes than self-rating scales. Physician-rating scales were more sensitive in detecting symptom or functional changes than self-rating scales.

  1. Decision tree rating scales for workload estimation: Theme and variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wierwille, W. W.; Skipper, J. H.; Rieger, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    The Modified Cooper-Harper (MCH) scale which is a sensitive indicator of workload in several different types of aircrew tasks was examined. The study determined if variations of the scale might provide greater sensitivity and the reasons for the sensitivity of the scale. The MCH scale and five newly devised scales were examined in two different aircraft simulator experiments in which pilot loading was treated as an independent variable. It is indicated that while one of the new scales may be more sensitive in a given experiment, task dependency is a problem. The MCH scale exhibits consistent senstivity and remains the scale recommended for general use. The MCH scale results are consistent with earlier experiments. The rating scale experiments are reported and the questionnaire results which were directed to obtain a better understanding of the reasons for the relative sensitivity of the MCH scale and its variations are described.

  2. Decision Tree Rating Scales for Workload Estimation: Theme and Variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wietwille, W. W.; Skipper, J. H.; Rieger, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    The modified Cooper-Harper (MCH) scale has been shown to be a sensitive indicator of workload in several different types of aircrew tasks. The MCH scale was examined to determine if certain variations of the scale might provide even greater sensitivity and to determine the reasons for the sensitivity of the scale. The MCH scale and five newly devised scales were studied in two different aircraft simulator experiments in which pilot loading was treated as an independent variable. Results indicate that while one of the new scales may be more sensitive in a given experiment, task dependency is a problem. The MCH scale exhibits consistent sensitivity and remains the scale recommended for general use. The results of the rating scale experiments are presented and the questionnaire results which were directed at obtaining a better understanding of the reasons for the relative sensitivity of the MCH scale and its variations are described.

  3. Rating Scales for Dystonia in Cerebral Palsy: Reliability and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monbaliu, E.; Ortibus, E.; Roelens, F.; Desloovere, K.; Deklerck, J.; Prinzie, P.; De Cock, P.; Feys, H.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: This study investigated the reliability and validity of the Barry-Albright Dystonia Scale (BADS), the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Movement Scale (BFMMS), and the Unified Dystonia Rating Scale (UDRS) in patients with bilateral dystonic cerebral palsy (CP). Method: Three raters independently scored videotapes of 10 patients (five males, five females;…

  4. Effective Rating Scale Development for Speaking Tests: Performance Decision Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulcher, Glenn; Davidson, Fred; Kemp, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    Rating scale design and development for testing speaking is generally conducted using one of two approaches: the measurement-driven approach or the performance data-driven approach. The measurement-driven approach prioritizes the ordering of descriptors onto a single scale. Meaning is derived from the scaling methodology and the agreement of…

  5. Validity of the Children's Orientation to Book Reading Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaderavek, Joan N.; Guo, Ying; Justice, Laura M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the validity of a 4-point rating scale used to measure the level of preschool children's orientation to literacy during shared book reading. Validity was explored by (a) comparing the children's level of literacy orientation as measured with the "Children's Orientation to Book Reading Rating Scale" (COB)…

  6. Sensitivity of School-Performance Ratings to Scaling Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Hui Leng; Koretz, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Policymakers usually leave decisions about scaling the scores used for accountability to their appointed technical advisory committees and the testing contractors. However, scaling decisions can have an appreciable impact on school ratings. Using middle-school data from New York State, we examined the consistency of school ratings based on two…

  7. The Random-Effect Generalized Rating Scale Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Wu, Shiu-Lien

    2011-01-01

    Rating scale items have been widely used in educational and psychological tests. These items require people to make subjective judgments, and these subjective judgments usually involve randomness. To account for this randomness, Wang, Wilson, and Shih proposed the random-effect rating scale model in which the threshold parameters are treated as…

  8. The brief psychiatric rating scale: effect of scaling system on clinical response assessment.

    PubMed

    Thompson, P A; Buckley, P F; Meltzer, H Y

    1994-10-01

    The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) is an 18-item rating scale frequently used to assess change in psychopathology in schizophrenic patients in antipsychotic drug trials. BPRS items may be rated by the use of either a 1 to 7 or 0 to 6 scaling system, with the 1 or 0 rating indicating no pathology, respectively. When percent change in BPRS total score is used as an index of change, measurement considerations indicate that the 0 to 6 scaling system is preferable. Furthermore, when the 1 to 7 scaling system is used, patients whose initial BPRS values fall at the lower end of the range are classified as responders at a lower rate than are patients with higher initial scores. The adoption of the 0 to 6 scaling system for the BPRS and other rating scales, such as the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, is advocated.

  9. Predicting levels of Latino depression: acculturation, acculturative stress, and coping.

    PubMed

    Torres, Lucas

    2010-04-01

    Past research has noted that aspects of living in the United States place Latinos at risk for experiencing psychological problems. However, the specific features of the adaptation process that contribute to depression remain unclear. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the ability of acculturation, acculturative stress, and coping to predict membership into low, medium, and high groups of depression among Latinos. Within a group of 148 Latino adults from the community, a multinomial logistic regression revealed that an Anglo orientation, English competency pressures, and active coping differentiated high from low depression and that a Latino orientation and, to some extent, the pressure to acculturate distinguished medium from low depression. These results highlight a pattern of characteristics that function as risk and protective factors in relation to level of symptom severity. The findings are discussed in terms of implications for Latino mental health, including considerations for intervention and prevention.

  10. Sexual Initiation, Parent Practices, and Acculturation in Hispanic Seventh Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales-Campos, Daisy Y.; Markham, Christine; Peskin, Melissa Fleschler; Fernandez, Maria E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Hispanic youths have high rates of sexually transmitted infections and pregnancies, yet little research has targeted multiple protective/risk factors for early sexual initiation in this group. This study examined two main factors--parenting practices and acculturation--on early sexual initiation among Hispanic middle school students in…

  11. ACCULTURATION AND WEIGHT STATUS IN MEXICAN AMERICAN CHILDREN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rates of obesity in the U.S. have shown a significant steady increase over the past two decades, especially among Mexican American adults and children. Adults tend to become heavier with increased length of residence in the U.S.; however, little is known about the influence of acculturation on child...

  12. Acculturation Stress and Depression among Asian Immigrant Elders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mui, Ada C.; Kang, Suk-Young

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the association between acculturation stress and depressive symptoms in a regional probability sample (n = 407) of six groups of Asian immigrant elders (Chinese, Korean, Indian, Filipino, Vietnamese, and Japanese). Findings suggest that about 40 percent of the sample were depressed, indicating higher depression rates than found…

  13. Scale dependence of immigration rates: models, metrics and data.

    PubMed

    Englund, Göran; Hambäck, Peter A

    2007-01-01

    1. We examine the relationship between immigration rate and patch area for different types of movement behaviours and detection modes. Theoretical models suggest that the scale dependence of the immigration rate per unit area (I/A) can be described by a power model I/A = i*Area(zeta), where zeta describes the strength of the scale dependence. 2. Three types of scaling were identified. Area scaling (zeta = 0) is expected for passively dispersed organisms that have the same probability of landing anywhere in the patch. Perimeter scaling (-0.30 > zeta > -0.45) is expected when patches are detected from a very short distance and immigrants arrive over the patch boundary, whereas diameter scaling (zeta = -0.5) is expected if patches are detected from a long distance or if search is approximately linear. 3. A meta-analysis of published empirical studies of the scale dependence of immigration rates in terrestrial insects suggests that butterflies show diameter scaling, aphids show area scaling, and the scaling of beetle immigration is highly variable. We conclude that the scaling of immigration rates in many cases can be predicted from search behaviour and the mode of patch detection.

  14. The Secret to the "Best" Ratings from Any Evaluation Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berk, Ronald A.

    2010-01-01

    Most faculty developers have a wide variety of rating scales that fly across their desk tops as their incremental program activities unfold during the academic year. The primary issue for this column is: What is the quality of those ratings used for decisions about people and programs? When students, faculty, and administrators rate a program or…

  15. Escape rate scaling in infinite measure preserving systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munday, Sara; Knight, Georgie

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the scaling of the escape rate from piecewise linear dynamical systems displaying intermittency due to the presence of an indifferent fixed point. Strong intermittent behaviour in the dynamics can result in the system preserving an infinite measure. We define a neighbourhood of the indifferent fixed point to be a hole through which points escape and investigate the scaling of the rate of this escape as the length of the hole decreases, both in the finite measure preserving case and infinite measure preserving case. In the infinite measure preserving systems we observe logarithmic corrections to and polynomial scaling of the escape rate with hole length. Finally we conjecture a relationship between the wandering rate and the observed scaling of the escape rate.

  16. Acculturation Gaps and Problem Behaviors among U.S. Southwestern Mexican Youth

    PubMed Central

    Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Kulis, Stephen; FitzHarris, Blythe; Becerra, David

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a study examining acculturation differences between adolescents and their mothers within Mexican immigrant families in the border region of the Southwest U.S. The main hypotheses of the study was that youth in mother-child dyads with mismatched acculturation strategies would report higher levels of externalizing problem behaviors than other adolescents, and that this relationship would be mediated by family conflict, acculturation conflict, family cohesion, and sense of familism. The participants formed 142 dyads (N=284) of Mexican heritage mothers and their adolescent children. Regression analysis indicated that a gap or mismatch in acculturation strategies was associated with more externalizing youth problem behaviors. Compared to the dyads where both mother and child were bicultural, only youth with more acculturated mothers demonstrated increased rates of externalizing problem behaviors. Family conflict and acculturation conflict mediated the relationship between acculturation gaps and externalizing behaviors. Implications for family-centered interventions as well as future research and policy implications are discussed. PMID:23888125

  17. Acculturation and obesity among migrant populations in high income countries – a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is evidence to suggest that immigrant populations from low or medium-income countries to high income countries show a significant change in obesogenic behaviors in the host society, and that these changes are associated with acculturation. However, the results of studies vary depending on how acculturation is measured. The objective of this study is to systematically review the evidence on the relationship between acculturation - as measured with a standardized acculturation scale - and overweight/obesity among adult migrants from low/middle countries to high income countries. Methods A systematic review of relevant studies was undertaken using six EBSCOhost databases and following the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination’s Guidance for Undertaking Reviews in Health Care. Results The initial search identified 1135 potentially relevant publications, of which only nine studies met the selection criteria. All of the studies were from the US with migrant populations from eight different countries. Six studies employed bi-directional acculturation scales and three used uni-directional scales. Six studies indicated positive general associations between higher acculturation and body mass index (BMI), and three studies reported that higher acculturation was associated with lower BMI, as mainly among women. Conclusion Despite the small number of studies, a number of potential explanatory hypotheses were developed for these emerging patterns. The ‘Healthy Migrant Effect’ may diminish with greater acculturation as the host culture potentially promotes more unhealthy weight gain than heritage cultures. This appears particularly so for men and a rapid form of nutrition transition represents a likely contributor. The inconsistent results observed for women may be due to the interplay of cultural influences on body image, food choices and physical activity. That is, the Western ideal of a slim female body and higher values placed on physical activity and

  18. Factor Structure of the Behavior Flexibility Rating Scale (BFRS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pituch, Keenan A.; Green, Vanessa A.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Itchon, Jonathan; O'Reilly, Mark; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Didden, Robert

    2007-01-01

    The Behavior Flexibility Rating Scale (BFRS) is designed to assess insistence on sameness or lack of behavioral flexibility, which is often associated with autism and other developmental disabilities. This study was designed to assess the factor structure of this scale for a sample of 968 individuals with autism, Asperger's syndrome, and Down…

  19. Development and Validation of the Physics Anxiety Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Mehmet; Caliskan, Serap; Dilek, Ufuk

    2015-01-01

    This study reports the development and validation process for an instrument to measure university students' anxiety in physics courses. The development of the Physics Anxiety Rating Scale (PARS) included the following steps: Generation of scale items, content validation, construct validation, and reliability calculation. The results of construct…

  20. Pictorial versus Verbal Rating Scales in Music Preference Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBlanc, Albert; Jin, Young Chang; Simpson, Charles S.; Stamou, Lelouda; McCrary, Jan

    1998-01-01

    Compares pictorial and verbal rating scales as measures of music preference opinions. Examines internal consistency and test-retest reliability of each type of scale, the overall preference scores generated through the use of each to measure preference for the same music stimuli, and student preferences for each type after using them. (DSK)

  1. Effects of language of assessment on the measurement of acculturation: measurement equivalence and cultural frame switching.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Seth J; Benet-Martínez, Verónica; Knight, George P; Unger, Jennifer B; Zamboanga, Byron L; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Stephens, Dionne P; Huang, Shi; Szapocznik, José

    2014-03-01

    The present study used a randomized design, with fully bilingual Hispanic participants from the Miami area, to investigate 2 sets of research questions. First, we sought to ascertain the extent to which measures of acculturation (Hispanic and U.S. practices, values, and identifications) satisfied criteria for linguistic measurement equivalence. Second, we sought to examine whether cultural frame switching would emerge--that is, whether latent acculturation mean scores for U.S. acculturation would be higher among participants randomized to complete measures in English and whether latent acculturation mean scores for Hispanic acculturation would be higher among participants randomized to complete measures in Spanish. A sample of 722 Hispanic students from a Hispanic-serving university participated in the study. Participants were first asked to complete translation tasks to verify that they were fully bilingual. Based on ratings from 2 independent coders, 574 participants (79.5% of the sample) qualified as fully bilingual and were randomized to complete the acculturation measures in either English or Spanish. Theoretically relevant criterion measures--self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and personal identity--were also administered in the randomized language. Measurement equivalence analyses indicated that all of the acculturation measures--Hispanic and U.S. practices, values, and identifications-met criteria for configural, weak/metric, strong/scalar, and convergent validity equivalence. These findings indicate that data generated using acculturation measures can, at least under some conditions, be combined or compared across languages of administration. Few latent mean differences emerged. These results are discussed in terms of the measurement of acculturation in linguistically diverse populations.

  2. Effects of Language of Assessment on the Measurement of Acculturation: Measurement Equivalence and Cultural Frame Switching

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Benet-Martínez, Verónica; Knight, George P.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E.; Stephens, Dionne; Huang, Shi; Szapocznik, José

    2014-01-01

    The present study used a randomized design, with fully bilingual Hispanic participants from the Miami area, to investigate two sets of research questions. First, we sought to ascertain the extent to which measures of acculturation (heritage and U.S. practices, values, and identifications) satisfied criteria for linguistic measurement equivalence. Second, we sought to examine whether cultural frame switching would emerge – that is, whether latent acculturation mean scores for U.S. acculturation would be higher among participants randomized to complete measures in English, and whether latent acculturation mean scores for Hispanic acculturation would be higher among participants randomized to complete measures in Spanish. A sample of 722 Hispanic students from a Hispanic-serving university participated in the study. Participants were first asked to complete translation tasks to verify that they were fully bilingual. Based on ratings from two independent coders, 574 participants (79.5% of the sample) qualified as fully bilingual and were randomized to complete the acculturation measures in either English or Spanish. Theoretically relevant criterion measures – self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and personal identity – were also administered in the randomized language. Measurement equivalence analyses indicated that all of the acculturation measures – Hispanic and U.S. practices, values, and identifications – met criteria for configural, weak/metric, strong/scalar, and convergent validity equivalence. These findings indicate that data generated using acculturation measures can, at least under some conditions, be combined or compared across languages of administration. Few latent mean differences emerged. These results are discussed in terms of the measurement of acculturation in linguistically diverse populations. PMID:24188146

  3. Future increases in extreme precipitation exceed observed scaling rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Jiawei; Sherwood, Steven C.; Alexander, Lisa V.; Evans, Jason P.

    2017-01-01

    Models and physical reasoning predict that extreme precipitation will increase in a warmer climate due to increased atmospheric humidity. Observational tests using regression analysis have reported a puzzling variety of apparent scaling rates including strong rates in midlatitude locations but weak or negative rates in the tropics. Here we analyse daily extreme precipitation events in several Australian cities to show that temporary local cooling associated with extreme events and associated synoptic conditions reduces these apparent scaling rates, especially in warmer climatic conditions. A regional climate projection ensemble for Australia, which implicitly includes these effects, accurately and robustly reproduces the observed apparent scaling throughout the continent for daily precipitation extremes. Projections from the same model show future daily extremes increasing at rates faster than those inferred from observed scaling. The strongest extremes (99.9th percentile events) scale significantly faster than near-surface water vapour, between 5.7-15% °C-1 depending on model details. This scaling rate is highly correlated with the change in water vapour, implying a trade-off between a more arid future climate or one with strong increases in extreme precipitation. These conclusions are likely to generalize to other regions.

  4. Bicultural Advertising and Hispanic Acculturation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Wan-Hsiu Sunny; Li, Cong

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the moderating effects of acculturation modes (assimilated, integrated, and separated) on Hispanic consumers' responses to three advertising targeting strategies (Caucasian targeted, bicultural, and Hispanic targeted). The hypotheses were empirically tested in a 3 x 3 factorial experiment with 155 self-identified Hispanic adult…

  5. Informing cancer prevention strategies for African Americans: the relationship of African American acculturation to fruit, vegetable, and fat intake.

    PubMed

    Ard, Jamy D; Skinner, Celette Sugg; Chen, Chuhe; Aickin, Mikel; Svetkey, Laura P

    2005-06-01

    Acculturation has been associated with health-related behaviors in African Americans. We sought to determine if there is a relationship between acculturation and dietary intake in African Americans. African Americans in the PREMIER trial completed the African American Acculturation Scale (AAAS) and 2 nonconsecutive 24-h dietary recalls (n = 238). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and canonical correlation were used to assess relationships between acculturation and dietary intakes. Canonical correlation (p = 0.05) showed that traditional African Americans had lower intakes of fruits/vegetables and milk/dairy with higher intakes of fats, meat, and nuts. This pattern was supported by differences in the ANOVA. African American acculturation is related to dietary intake. These findings have implications for the design of cancer-related public health messages targeted to African Americans.

  6. English-language acculturation predicts academic performance in nursing students who speak English as a second language.

    PubMed

    Salamonson, Yenna; Everett, Bronwyn; Koch, Jane; Andrew, Sharon; Davidson, Patricia M

    2008-02-01

    Students who speak English as a second language (ESL) face considerable challenges in English language universities, but little is known about the relationship between English-language acculturation and academic performance. A prospective, correlational design was used to validate the English Language Acculturation Scale (ELAS), a measure of the linguistic aspect of acculturation, and to determine the relationship between English-language acculturation and academic achievement among 273 first-year nursing students. Exploratory factor analyses demonstrated that the ELAS was a valid and reliable measure (alpha = .89). When ELAS scores were examined in relation to students' grades, students with the lowest ELAS scores also had the lowest mean subject grades, highlighting the need to place greater emphasis on identifying English-language acculturation among ESL students.

  7. Implications of Adolescents’ Acculturation Strategies for Personal and Collective Self-esteem

    PubMed Central

    Giang, Michael T.; Wittig, Michele A.

    2008-01-01

    Berry, Trimble, and Olmedo’s (1986) acculturation model was used to investigate the relationship among adolescents’ acculturation strategies, personal self-esteem, and collective self-esteem. Using data from 427 high school students, factor analysis results distinguished Collective Self-esteem Scale constructs (Luhtanen & Crocker, 1992) from both ethnic identity and outgroup orientation subscales of the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (Phinney, 1992). Subsequent results showed that: 1) both acculturation dimensions were correlated with personal and collective self-esteems, 2) integrationists shared similar levels of personal and collective self-esteems with assimilationists and/or separationists, and 3) marginalizationists generally had the lowest levels of personal and collective self-esteems. Implications are drawn for understanding acculturation among adolescents and for the utility of group-level measures of self-esteem. PMID:17087532

  8. Implications of adolescents' acculturation strategies for personal and collective self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Giang, Michael T; Wittig, Michele A

    2006-10-01

    Berry, Trimble, and Olmedo's (1986) acculturation model was used to investigate the relationship among adolescents' acculturation strategies, personal self-esteem, and collective self-esteem. Using data from 427 high school students, factor analysis results distinguished Collective Self-esteem Scale constructs (Luhtanen & Crocker, 1992) from both ethnic identity and outgroup orientation subscales of the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (Phinney, 1992). Subsequent results showed that: 1) both acculturation dimensions were correlated with personal and collective self-esteems, 2) integrationists shared similar levels of personal and collective self-esteems with assimilationists and/or separationists, and 3) marginalizationists generally had the lowest levels of personal and collective self-esteems. Implications are drawn for understanding acculturation among adolescents and for the utility of group-level measures of self-esteem.

  9. Predictors of Soviet Jewish refugees' acculturation: differentiation of self and acculturative stress.

    PubMed

    Roytburd, Luba; Friedlander, Myrna L

    2008-01-01

    The authors investigated the acculturation of 108 Jewish young adults who had immigrated to the United States between the ages of 9 and 21 from the former Soviet Union as a function of differentiation of self (M. Bowen, 1978) and acculturative stress. One aspect of differentiation, the ability to take an "I-position" with others, uniquely predicted greater American acculturation and less Russian acculturation, indicating that participants who reported an ability to act on their own needs in the context of social pressure tended to be more assimilated. Russian acculturation was also uniquely associated with more frequent perceived discrimination (one aspect of acculturative stress) during adolescence. Participants who had spent a greater proportion of their lifetime in the United States were more American acculturated and less Russian acculturated, reflecting assimilation rather than biculturalism.

  10. Acculturation and Sun-Safe Behaviors Among US Latinos: Findings From the 2005 Health Information National Trends Survey

    PubMed Central

    Unger, Jennifer B.; Yaroch, Amy L.; Cockburn, Myles G.; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Reynolds, Kim D.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the relationship between acculturation and sun safety among US Latinos. Methods. We used linear regression models to analyze data from 496 Latino respondents to the 2005 Health Information National Trends Survey. Using sunscreen, seeking shade, and wearing protective clothing were the primary outcomes and were assessed by frequency scales. Acculturation was assessed with a composite index. Results. In bivariate models, acculturation was negatively associated with use of shade and protective clothing and positively associated with sunscreen use (all, P < .004). In adjusted models, acculturation was negatively associated with seeking shade and wearing protective clothing across gender and region of residence (all, P < .05). Conclusions. Our results demonstrated both adverse and beneficial effects of acculturation on Latinos’ risk behaviors relating to skin cancer. Education about sun safety is needed for all Latinos and should be tailored to different levels of acculturation. Initiatives for Latinos who are not yet acculturated could focus on reinforcing existing sun-safe behaviors and presenting new ones, such as use of sunscreen; initiatives for highly acculturated Latinos might require more resources because the objective is behavior modification. PMID:19150918

  11. Interrater Agreement of the Individualized Behavior Rating Scale Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iovannone, Rose; Greenbaum, Paul E.; Wang, Wei; Dunlap, Glen; Kincaid, Don

    2014-01-01

    Data assessment is critical for determining student behavior change in response to individualized behavior interventions in schools. This study examined the interrater agreement of the Individualized Behavior Rating Scale Tool (IBRST), a perceptual direct behavior rating tool that was used by typical school personnel to record behavior occurrence…

  12. Self-Control in Children: Development of a Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Philip C.; Wilcox, Lance E.

    1979-01-01

    Referred children were rated as significantly less self-controlled on the self control rating scale (SCRS) than were matched nonreferred children. Significant differences were found on the SCRS, Matching Familiar Figures test latencies and behavioral observations. The SCRS appeared to be a reliable and valid index of self-control. (Author)

  13. 1/f scaling in heart rate requires antagonistic autonomic control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struzik, Zbigniew R.; Hayano, Junichiro; Sakata, Seiichiro; Kwak, Shin; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu

    2004-11-01

    We present systematic evidence for the origins of 1/f -type temporal scaling in human heart rate. The heart rate is regulated by the activity of two branches of the autonomic nervous system: the parasympathetic (PNS) and the sympathetic (SNS) nervous systems. We examine alterations in the scaling property when the balance between PNS and SNS activity is modified, and find that the relative PNS suppression by congestive heart failure results in a substantial increase in the Hurst exponent H towards random-walk scaling 1/f2 and a similar breakdown is observed with relative SNS suppression by primary autonomic failure. These results suggest that 1/f scaling in heart rate requires the intricate balance between the antagonistic activity of PNS and SNS.

  14. UFMG Sydenham's chorea rating scale (USCRS): reliability and consistency.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Antônio Lúcio; Maia, Débora P; Cardoso, Francisco

    2005-05-01

    Despite the renewed interest in Sydenham's chorea (SC) in recent years, there were no valid and reliable scales to rate the several signs and symptoms of patients with SC and related disorders. The Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG) Sydenham's Chorea Rating Scale (USCRS) was designed to provide a detailed quantitative description of the performance of activities of daily living, behavioral abnormalities, and motor function of subjects with SC. The scale comprises 27 items and each one is scored from 0 (no symptom or sign) to 4 (severe disability or finding). Data from 84 subjects, aged 4.9 to 33.6 years, support the interrater reliability and internal consistency of the scale. The USCRS is a promising instrument for rating the clinical features of SC as well as their functional impact in children and adults.

  15. The Relationship between Print Literacy, Acculturation, and Acculturative Stress among Mexican Immigrant Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cintron, Alexander Modesto

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine print literacy, acculturation, and acculturative stress among one-hundred and six Mexican immigrant women participating in a family literacy program. The two hypotheses were: (1.) There is a relationship between (a) print literacy as measured by the Print Literacy Questionnaire and (b) acculturation as…

  16. Acculturation and Latino Family Processes: How Cultural Involvement, Biculturalism, and Acculturation Gaps Influence Family Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smokowski, Paul R.; Rose, Roderick; Bacallao, Martica L.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated how adolescent and parent acculturation (culture-of-origin and U.S. cultural involvement, biculturalism, acculturation conflicts, and parent-adolescent acculturation gaps) influenced family dynamics (family cohesion, adaptability, familism, and parent-adolescent conflict) in a sample of 402 Latino families from North…

  17. Time scale bias in erosion rates of glaciated landscapes.

    PubMed

    Ganti, Vamsi; von Hagke, Christoph; Scherler, Dirk; Lamb, Michael P; Fischer, Woodward W; Avouac, Jean-Philippe

    2016-10-01

    Deciphering erosion rates over geologic time is fundamental for understanding the interplay between climate, tectonic, and erosional processes. Existing techniques integrate erosion over different time scales, and direct comparison of such rates is routinely done in earth science. On the basis of a global compilation, we show that erosion rate estimates in glaciated landscapes may be affected by a systematic averaging bias that produces higher estimated erosion rates toward the present, which do not reflect straightforward changes in erosion rates through time. This trend can result from a heavy-tailed distribution of erosional hiatuses (that is, time periods where no or relatively slow erosion occurs). We argue that such a distribution can result from the intermittency of erosional processes in glaciated landscapes that are tightly coupled to climate variability from decadal to millennial time scales. In contrast, we find no evidence for a time scale bias in spatially averaged erosion rates of landscapes dominated by river incision. We discuss the implications of our findings in the context of the proposed coupling between climate and tectonics, and interpreting erosion rate estimates with different averaging time scales through geologic time.

  18. Time scale bias in erosion rates of glaciated landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Ganti, Vamsi; von Hagke, Christoph; Scherler, Dirk; Lamb, Michael P.; Fischer, Woodward W.; Avouac, Jean-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Deciphering erosion rates over geologic time is fundamental for understanding the interplay between climate, tectonic, and erosional processes. Existing techniques integrate erosion over different time scales, and direct comparison of such rates is routinely done in earth science. On the basis of a global compilation, we show that erosion rate estimates in glaciated landscapes may be affected by a systematic averaging bias that produces higher estimated erosion rates toward the present, which do not reflect straightforward changes in erosion rates through time. This trend can result from a heavy-tailed distribution of erosional hiatuses (that is, time periods where no or relatively slow erosion occurs). We argue that such a distribution can result from the intermittency of erosional processes in glaciated landscapes that are tightly coupled to climate variability from decadal to millennial time scales. In contrast, we find no evidence for a time scale bias in spatially averaged erosion rates of landscapes dominated by river incision. We discuss the implications of our findings in the context of the proposed coupling between climate and tectonics, and interpreting erosion rate estimates with different averaging time scales through geologic time. PMID:27713925

  19. Universal temperature and body-mass scaling of feeding rates

    PubMed Central

    Rall, Björn C.; Brose, Ulrich; Hartvig, Martin; Kalinkat, Gregor; Schwarzmüller, Florian; Vucic-Pestic, Olivera; Petchey, Owen L.

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of feeding rates is the basis to understand interaction strength and subsequently the stability of ecosystems and biodiversity. Feeding rates, as all biological rates, depend on consumer and resource body masses and environmental temperature. Despite five decades of research on functional responses as quantitative models of feeding rates, a unifying framework of how they scale with body masses and temperature is still lacking. This is perplexing, considering that the strength of functional responses (i.e. interaction strengths) is crucially important for the stability of simple consumer–resource systems and the persistence, sustainability and biodiversity of complex communities. Here, we present the largest currently available database on functional response parameters and their scaling with body mass and temperature. Moreover, these data are integrated across ecosystems and metabolic types of species. Surprisingly, we found general temperature dependencies that differed from the Arrhenius terms predicted by metabolic models. Additionally, the body-mass-scaling relationships were more complex than expected and differed across ecosystems and metabolic types. At local scales (taxonomically narrow groups of consumer–resource pairs), we found hump-shaped deviations from the temperature and body-mass-scaling relationships. Despite the complexity of our results, these body-mass- and temperature-scaling models remain useful as a mechanistic basis for predicting the consequences of warming for interaction strengths, population dynamics and network stability across communities differing in their size structure. PMID:23007080

  20. The Influence of Linguistic Acculturation and Gender on the Initiation of Substance Use Among Mexican Heritage Preadolescents in the Borderlands

    PubMed Central

    Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Yabiku, Scott T.; Kulis, Stephen; Nieri, Tanya; Parsai, Monica; Becerra, David

    2011-01-01

    This article examined the impact of linguistic acculturation and gender on the substance use initiation of a sample of 1,473 Mexican heritage preadolescents attending 30 public schools in Phoenix, Arizona. It was hypothesized that linguistic acculturation operates differently as a risk or protective factor for young children than for older youth. The study used discrete-time event history methods to model the rate at which nonusing children initiate substance use. Alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana, and inhalants were studied separately while inhalant use was examined more closely. Results suggested that while linguistic acculturation is a risk factor for Mexican heritage preadolescents, this association depended on gender, the linguistic acculturation context (family, friends, or media), and the type of substance. For inhalants, higher linguistic acculturation with friends was inversely associated with drug initiation both for boys and girls. Implications for preventive science and future intervention research are discussed. PMID:21660121

  1. Acculturation attitudes and social adjustment in British South Asian children: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rupert; Baysu, Gülseli; Cameron, Lindsey; Nigbur, Dennis; Rutland, Adam; Watters, Charles; Hossain, Rosa; Letouze, Dominique; Landau, Anick

    2013-12-01

    A 1-year longitudinal study with three testing points was conducted with 215 British Asian children aged 5 to 11 years to test hypotheses from Berry's acculturation framework. Using age-appropriate measures of acculturation attitudes and psychosocial outcomes, it was found that (a) children generally favored an "integrationist" attitude, and this was more pronounced among older (8-10 years) than in younger (5-7 years) children and (b) temporal changes in social self-esteem and peer acceptance were associated with different acculturation attitudes held initially, as shown by latent growth curve analyses. However, a supplementary time-lagged regression analysis revealed that children's earlier "integrationist" attitudes may be associated with more emotional symptoms (based on teachers' ratings) 6 months later. The implications of these different outcomes of children's acculturation attitudes are discussed.

  2. HEATING RATE SCALING OF TURBULENCE IN THE PROTON KINETIC REGIME

    SciTech Connect

    Vasquez, Bernard J.

    2015-06-10

    Three-dimensional numerical hybrid simulations with particle protons and quasi-neutralizing, fluid electrons are conducted for a freely decaying turbulence. The main results are obtained from a series of runs as a function of the initial total rms fluctuation amplitude. In the turbulent phase and at a corresponding nonlinear time dependent on the amplitude, the scaling of the proton perpendicular heating rate is examined as a function of the spectral value of the electron bulk perpendicular speed integrated in wavenumbers about the inverse thermal proton gyroradius. The perpendicular direction is relative to the background magnetic field. The obtained spectral value is normalized to the proton thermal speed and ranges from 0.06 to 0.16. The scaling of the perpendicular heating rate with this spectral value is fitted with a power law, which has an index of −3.3 ± 0.2. The fit is consistent with the scaling of the total heating rate as a function of total rms amplitude, which has an index of −3.06 ± 0.12. The power-law index is near the turbulent hydrodynamic-like prediction for the energy cascade rate as a function of amplitude. The heating rate, then, obeys a power law with amplitude or spectral value regardless of whether that quantity is evaluated at large scales or at the proton gyroradius scales.

  3. Critical scaling with strain rate in overdamped sheared disordered solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemmer, Joel; Salerno, Kenneth; Robbins, Mark

    In the limit of quasistatic shear, disordered solids demonstrate non-equilibrium critical behavior including power-law distributions of avalanches. Using molecular dynamics simulations of 2D and 3D overdamped binary LJ glasses, we explore the critical behavior in the limit of finite strain rate. We use finite-size scaling to find the critical exponents characterizing shear stress, kinetic energy, and measures of temporal and spatial correlations. The shear stress of the system rises as a power β of the strain rate. Larger system size extends this power law to lower rates. This behavior is governed by a power law drop of the dynamic correlation length with increasing shear stress defined by the exponent ν. This finite-size effect also impacts the scaling of the RMS kinetic energy with strain rate as avalanches begin nucleating simultaneously leading to continuous deformation of the solid. As system size increases, avalanches begin overlapping at lower rates. The correlation function of non-affine displacement exhibits novel anisotropic power law scaling with the magnitude of the wave vector. Its strain rate dependence is used to determine the scaling of the dynamic correlation length. Support provided by: DMR-1006805; NSF IGERT-0801471; OCI-0963185; CMMI-0923018.

  4. Review of clinical validation of ADHD behavior rating scales.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Steven M; Hall, James R; Cornwell, Sonya L; Quintana, Humberto

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this review is to assess the range of overall accuracies for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) behavior rating scales evaluated in clinical validation studies. Studies were characterized according to the evidence standards of the American Academy of Neurology (AAN). Studies were excluded due to major design problems such as overfitting by discriminant analysis. The 13 included evaluations of rating scales revealed overall accuracy in the range of 59%-79% with a pooled mean of 69% (+/-7%, standard deviation) and a pooled sample size of 2228 subjects from nine studies. While some of the excluded studies demonstrated higher overall accuracies (>79%), these studies were observed to have factors in experimen tal design and statistics that are known to unduly inflate accuracy. We recommend further research following the full AAN standards, namely well-designed, blinded, pro spective studies of rating scales applied to clinically representative samples evaluated with a clinical standard.

  5. Acculturation and Cigarette Smoking Among Pregnant Hispanic Women Residing in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Detjen, M. Gabrielle; Nieto, F. Javier; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Fleming, Michael; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. We explored whether higher levels of acculturation were associated with higher rates of cigarette smoking among pregnant Hispanic women residing in the United States. Methods. We evaluated data from the Latina Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Study, a prospective study of 1231 Hispanic prenatal care patients conducted from 2000 to 2004 in Massachusetts. Self-reported data on acculturation, cigarette smoking, and covariates were collected by bilingual interviewers using a questionnaire. We conducted logistic regression multivariate analyses to examine the impact of acculturation level on the odds of smoking. Results. Overall, 21% of women reported smoking during pregnancy. Acculturation was associated with elevated smoking rates in pregnant Hispanic women. US-born Hispanic women who preferred English had more than twice the odds of smoking compared with Puerto Rican or foreign-born Hispanic women who preferred Spanish (odds ratio [OR]=2.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.36, 5.63). Conclusions. Our findings suggest that higher-acculturated Hispanic women living in the United States are more likely to smoke cigarettes during pregnancy than are less-acculturated Hispanic women. These results will inform interventions aimed at reducing cigarette smoking during pregnancy among US Hispanic women. PMID:17901446

  6. Development of the Comprehensive Cervical Dystonia Rating Scale: Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Comella, Cynthia L.; Fox, Susan H.; Bhatia, Kailash P.; Perlmutter, Joel S.; Jinnah, Hyder A.; Zurowski, Mateusz; McDonald, William M.; Marsh, Laura; Rosen, Ami R.; Waliczek, Tracy; Wright, Laura J.; Galpern, Wendy R.; Stebbins, Glenn T.

    2016-01-01

    We present the methodology utilized for development and clinimetric testing of the Comprehensive Cervical Dystonia (CD) Rating scale, or CCDRS. The CCDRS includes a revision of the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS-2), a newly developed psychiatric screening tool (TWSTRS-PSYCH), and the previously validated Cervical Dystonia Impact Profile (CDIP-58). For the revision of the TWSTRS, the original TWSTRS was examined by a committee of dystonia experts at a dystonia rating scales workshop organized by the Dystonia Medical Research Foundation. During this workshop, deficiencies in the standard TWSTRS were identified and recommendations for revision of the severity and pain subscales were incorporated into the TWSTRS-2. Given that no scale currently evaluates the psychiatric features of cervical dystonia (CD), we used a modified Delphi methodology and a reiterative process of item selection to develop the TWSTRS-PSYCH. We also included the CDIP-58 to capture the impact of CD on quality of life. The three scales (TWSTRS2, TWSTRS-PSYCH, and CDIP-58) were combined to construct the CCDRS. Clinimetric testing of reliability and validity of the CCDRS are described. The CCDRS was designed to be used in a modular fashion that can measure the full spectrum of CD. This scale will provide rigorous assessment for studies of natural history as well as novel symptom-based or disease-modifying therapies. PMID:27088112

  7. Development of the Comprehensive Cervical Dystonia Rating Scale: Methodology.

    PubMed

    Comella, Cynthia L; Fox, Susan H; Bhatia, Kailash P; Perlmutter, Joel S; Jinnah, Hyder A; Zurowski, Mateusz; McDonald, William M; Marsh, Laura; Rosen, Ami R; Waliczek, Tracy; Wright, Laura J; Galpern, Wendy R; Stebbins, Glenn T

    2015-06-01

    We present the methodology utilized for development and clinimetric testing of the Comprehensive Cervical Dystonia (CD) Rating scale, or CCDRS. The CCDRS includes a revision of the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS-2), a newly developed psychiatric screening tool (TWSTRS-PSYCH), and the previously validated Cervical Dystonia Impact Profile (CDIP-58). For the revision of the TWSTRS, the original TWSTRS was examined by a committee of dystonia experts at a dystonia rating scales workshop organized by the Dystonia Medical Research Foundation. During this workshop, deficiencies in the standard TWSTRS were identified and recommendations for revision of the severity and pain subscales were incorporated into the TWSTRS-2. Given that no scale currently evaluates the psychiatric features of cervical dystonia (CD), we used a modified Delphi methodology and a reiterative process of item selection to develop the TWSTRS-PSYCH. We also included the CDIP-58 to capture the impact of CD on quality of life. The three scales (TWSTRS2, TWSTRS-PSYCH, and CDIP-58) were combined to construct the CCDRS. Clinimetric testing of reliability and validity of the CCDRS are described. The CCDRS was designed to be used in a modular fashion that can measure the full spectrum of CD. This scale will provide rigorous assessment for studies of natural history as well as novel symptom-based or disease-modifying therapies.

  8. Comparison of three clinical rating scales in Friedreich ataxia (FRDA).

    PubMed

    Bürk, Katrin; Mälzig, Ulrike; Wolf, Stefanie; Heck, Suzette; Dimitriadis, Konstantinos; Schmitz-Hübsch, Tanja; Hering, Sascha; Lindig, Tobias M; Haug, Verena; Timmann, Dagmar; Degen, Ingrid; Kruse, Bernd; Dörr, Jan-Markus; Ratzka, Susanne; Ivo, Anja; Schöls, Ludger; Boesch, Sylvia; Klockgether, Thomas; Klopstock, Thomas; Schulz, Jörg B

    2009-09-15

    To test the validity and reliability of the scale for the assessment and rating of ataxia (SARA) in Friedreich ataxia (FRDA). SARA is limited to eight items and can be performed rapidly. Ninety-six patients with a molecular genetic diagnosis of FRDA were rated using three different clinical scales, the FRDA Rating Scale (FARS), the International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (ICARS), and SARA. Despite considerable discrepancies in scale size and subscale structure, SARA total scores were significantly correlated with ICARS (r = 0.953, P < 0.0001) and FARS (r = 0.938, P < 0.0001) total scores. SARA total scores also correlated with the activities of daily living (ADL, r = 0.929, P < 0.0001). Although originally developed for the use in dominantly inherited ataxias, which are primarily ataxias of the cerebellar type, SARA can also be used successfully to assess afferent ataxia, which is the predominant form in FRDA. Because SARA is characterized by high interrater reliability and practicability, SARA is applicable and well suited forclinical trials of FRDA.

  9. The impact of acculturation and acculturative stress on alcohol use across Asian immigrant subgroups.

    PubMed

    Park, So-Youn; Anastas, Jeane; Shibusawa, Tazuko; Nguyen, Duy

    2014-06-01

    Acculturation and acculturative stress are examined as predictors of alcohol use among Asian immigrants, using the 2004 National Latino and Asian Americans Survey (NLAAS). Separate regression analyses were conducted for Chinese (n = 600), Filipino (n = 508), and Vietnamese (n = 520) immigrants. Alcohol use varied for the three groups. English proficiency was associated with drinking for all groups. Family conflict was associated with drinking for Chinese immigrants. General acculturative stress and discrimination were associated with drinking for Vietnamese immigrants. Results underscore acculturation and acculturative stress as being contributors to alcohol consumption, and the importance of considering the heterogeneity of Asian immigrants in research on their alcohol use. The study's limitations are noted.

  10. Disaggregating the effects of acculturation and acculturative stress on the mental health of Asian Americans.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Wei-Chin; Ting, Julia Y

    2008-04-01

    This study examines the impact of level of acculturation and acculturative stress on the mental health of Asian American college students. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to clarify the relation between level of acculturation, acculturative stress, and mental health outcomes (psychological distress and clinical depression). Being less identified with mainstream United States culture was associated with higher psychological distress and clinical depression, but lost significance when acculturative stress was introduced into the model. Retention or relinquishing of identification with one's heritage culture was not associated with mental health outcomes. Although understanding level of acculturation can help us identify those at risk, findings suggest that acculturative stress is a more proximal risk factor and increases risk for mental health problems independently of global perceptions of stress.

  11. Scaling of geochemical reaction rates via advective solute transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, A. G.; Ghanbarian, B.; Skinner, T. E.; Ewing, R. P.

    2015-07-01

    Transport in porous media is quite complex, and still yields occasional surprises. In geological porous media, the rate at which chemical reactions (e.g., weathering and dissolution) occur is found to diminish by orders of magnitude with increasing time or distance. The temporal rates of laboratory experiments and field observations differ, and extrapolating from laboratory experiments (in months) to field rates (in millions of years) can lead to order-of-magnitude errors. The reactions are transport-limited, but characterizing them using standard solute transport expressions can yield results in agreement with experiment only if spurious assumptions and parameters are introduced. We previously developed a theory of non-reactive solute transport based on applying critical path analysis to the cluster statistics of percolation. The fractal structure of the clusters can be used to generate solute distributions in both time and space. Solute velocities calculated from the temporal evolution of that distribution have the same time dependence as reaction-rate scaling in a wide range of field studies and laboratory experiments, covering some 10 decades in time. The present theory thus both explains a wide range of experiments, and also predicts changes in the scaling behavior in individual systems with increasing time and/or length scales. No other theory captures these variations in scaling by invoking a single physical mechanism. Because the successfully predicted chemical reactions include known results for silicate weathering rates, our theory provides a framework for understanding changes in the global carbon cycle, including its effects on extinctions, climate change, soil production, and denudation rates. It further provides a basis for understanding the fundamental time scales of hydrology and shallow geochemistry, as well as the basis of industrial agriculture.

  12. Heterogeneity of cells may explain allometric scaling of metabolic rate.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, Kazuhiro

    2015-04-01

    The origin of allometric scaling of metabolic rate is a long-standing question in biology. Several models have been proposed for explaining the origin; however, they have advantages and disadvantages. In particular, previous models only demonstrate either two important observations for the allometric scaling: the variability of scaling exponents and predominance of 3/4-power law. Thus, these models have a dispute over their validity. In this study, we propose a simple geometry model, and show that a hypothesis that total surface area of cells determines metabolic rate can reproduce these two observations by combining two concepts: the impact of cell sizes on metabolic rate and fractal-like (hierarchical) organization. The proposed model both theoretically and numerically demonstrates the approximately 3/4-power law although several different biological strategies are considered. The model validity is confirmed using empirical data. Furthermore, the model suggests the importance of heterogeneity of cell size for the emergence of the allometric scaling. The proposed model provides intuitive and unique insights into the origin of allometric scaling laws in biology, despite several limitations of the model.

  13. An Item Response Unfolding Model for Graphic Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ying

    2009-01-01

    The graphic rating scale, a measurement tool used in many areas of psychology, usually takes a form of a fixed-length line segment, with both ends bounded and labeled as extreme responses. The raters mark somewhere on the line, and the length of the line segment from one endpoint to the mark is taken as the measure. An item response unfolding…

  14. Broadband Behavior Rating Scales as Screeners for Autism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Carl L.; Gross, Amber D.; McReynolds, Brandy M.

    2014-01-01

    In order to start providing important early intervention services to preschoolers and toddlers with autism, those children first need to be identified. Despite the availability of specialized autism assessment instruments, there is a need for effective screeners at the early childhood level. Three broadband behavior rating scales were evaluated in…

  15. Effects of Scale Anchors on Student Ratings of Instructors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunham, Trudy C.; Davison, Mark L.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of packing or skewing the response options of a scale on the common measurement problems of leniency and range restriction in instructor ratings were assessed. Results from a sample of 130 undergraduate education students indicate that packing reduced leniency but had no effect on range restriction. (TJH)

  16. Preliminary Validation of the Motor Skills Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Claire E.; Chen, Wei-Bing; Blodgett, Julia; Cottone, Elizabeth A.; Mashburn, Andrew J.; Brock, Laura L.; Grissmer, David

    2012-01-01

    This study examined psychometric properties of the Motor Skills Rating Scale (MSRS), a questionnaire designed for classroom teachers of children in early elementary school. Items were developed with the guidance of two occupational therapists, and factor structure was examined with an exploratory factor analysis (EFA). The resulting model showed…

  17. The Validity and Utility of the Depression Proneness Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemore, Robert; And Others

    The development of the Depression Proneness Rating Scale (DPRS) and three investigations into its reliability, validity, and factor structure are described. Subjects of all three studies were university undergraduates. The first study (n=100) found a stability coefficient of 0.82 for the DPRS over a test-retest (Time 1-Time 2) interval of 9 weeks.…

  18. Evaluation of the ADHD Rating Scale in Youth with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yerys, Benjamin E.; Nissley-Tsiopinis, Jenelle; de Marchena, Ashley; Watkins, Marley W.; Antezana, Ligia; Power, Thomas J.; Schultz, Robert T.

    2017-01-01

    Scientists and clinicians regularly use clinical screening tools for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to assess comorbidity without empirical evidence that these measures are valid in youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We examined the prevalence of youth meeting ADHD criteria on the ADHD rating scale fourth edition…

  19. Factor Structure Evaluation of the Childhood Autism Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magyar, Caroline I.; Pandolfi, Vincent

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the factor structure of the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). Principal components analysis (PCA) and principal axis factor analysis (PAF) evaluated archival data from children presenting to a university clinic with suspected autism spectrum disorders (ASDs; N = 164). PCA did not replicate components identified by…

  20. The Influence of Negatively Worded Scale Items on Overall Ratings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ory, John C.; Valois, Robert F.

    Two studies investigate whether the placement and/or wording (either positively or negatively) of diagnostic rating scale items influenced student responses to the global items in the evaluation of a course of instruction. The Instructor and Course Evaluation System (ICES) developed at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign was used to…

  1. Child Mania Rating Scale: Development, Reliability, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavuluri, Mani N.; Henry, David B.; Devineni, Bhargavi; Carbray, Julie A.; Birmaher, Boris

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To develop a reliable and valid parent-report screening instrument for mania, based on DSM-IV symptoms. Method: A 21-item Child Mania Rating Scale-Parent version (CMRS-P) was completed by parents of 150 children (42.3% female) ages 10.3 plus or minus 2.9 years (healthy controls = 50; bipolar disorder = 50;…

  2. Validation of the Global Rating Scale for endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Williams, T; Ross, A; Stirling, C; Palmer, K; Phull, P S

    2013-02-01

    The Global Rating Scale for endoscopy is a web-based tool that can be used to assess and improve the quality of an endoscopy service. It was developed by asking endoscopy health professionals what they would want from the service for themselves or their relatives if they were undergoing an endoscopic procedure. To date, the Global Rating Scale has not been validated by patients themselves. We used focus groups in order to access the views and opinions of patients who had recently had experience of endoscopy services. Six focus groups were undertaken in five different Health Board areas across Scotland; in total 26 people participated. The results indicated that from the patients' perspective the 12 items of the GRS covered all areas of the endoscopy experience. There were no specific concerns identified that were not already covered within the Global Rating Scale. We conclude that the Global Rating Scale does address quality issues that matter to patients undergoing endoscopy, and validates the use of the GRS as a quality assessment tool for endoscopy services.

  3. A Comparison of EFL Raters' Essay-Rating Processes across Two Types of Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Hang; He, Lianzhen

    2015-01-01

    This study used think-aloud protocols to compare essay-rating processes across holistic and analytic rating scales in the context of China's College English Test Band 6 (CET-6). A group of 9 experienced CET-6 raters scored the same batch of 10 CET-6 essays produced in an operational CET-6 administration twice, using both the CET-6 holistic…

  4. The Utility of Clinicians Ratings of Anxiety Using the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale (PARS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsburg, Golda S.; Keeton, Courtney P.; Drazdowski, Tess K.; Riddle, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Clinician ratings of anxiety hold the promise of clarifying discrepancies often found between child and parent reports of anxiety. The Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale (PARS) is a clinician-administered instrument that assesses the frequency, severity, and impairment of common pediatric anxiety disorders and has been used as a primary outcome…

  5. Ten-Year Review of Rating Scales, VII: Scales Assessing Functional Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Nancy C.; Collett, Brent R.; Myers, Kathleen M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This is the seventh in a series of 10-year reviews of rating scales. Here the authors present scales measuring functional impairment, a sequela of mental illness. The measurement of functional impairment has assumed importance with the recognition that symptom resolution does not necessarily correlate with functional improvement.…

  6. Characterizing the effects of scale and heating rate on micro-scale explosive ignition criteria.

    SciTech Connect

    Hafenrichter, Everett Shingo; Pahl, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    Laser diode ignition experiments were conducted in an effort to characterize the effects of scale and heating rate on micro-scale explosive ignition criteria. Over forty experiments were conducted with various laser power densities and laser spot sizes. In addition, relatively simple analytical and numerical calculations were performed to assist with interpretation of the experimental data and characterization of the explosive ignition criteria.

  7. A Confirmatory Study of Rating Scale Category Effectiveness for the Coaching Efficacy Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Nicholas D.; Feltz, Deborah L.; Wolfe, Edward W.

    2008-01-01

    This study extended validity evidence for measures of coaching efficacy derived from the Coaching Efficacy Scale (CES) by testing the rating scale categorizations suggested in previous research. Previous research provided evidence for the effectiveness of a four-category (4-CAT) structure for high school and collegiate sports coaches; it also…

  8. Broadband behavior rating scales as screeners for autism?

    PubMed

    Myers, Carl L; Gross, Amber D; McReynolds, Brandy M

    2014-06-01

    In order to start providing important early intervention services to preschoolers and toddlers with autism, those children first need to be identified. Despite the availability of specialized autism assessment instruments, there is a need for effective screeners at the early childhood level. Three broadband behavior rating scales were evaluated in this study to determine if any of the scales on the instruments could adequately distinguish between children with autism from other clinically referred children. There were four scales from two instruments that resulted in mean scores outside the average range and had statistically significant differences. However, the small mean score differences and analyses of sensitivity and specificity suggest those scales have limited practical usefulness when used by clinicians.

  9. Scaling laws in the dynamics of crime growth rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, Luiz G. A.; Ribeiro, Haroldo V.; Mendes, Renio S.

    2013-06-01

    The increasing number of crimes in areas with large concentrations of people have made cities one of the main sources of violence. Understanding characteristics of how crime rate expands and its relations with the cities size goes beyond an academic question, being a central issue for contemporary society. Here, we characterize and analyze quantitative aspects of murders in the period from 1980 to 2009 in Brazilian cities. We find that the distribution of the annual, biannual and triannual logarithmic homicide growth rates exhibit the same functional form for distinct scales, that is, a scale invariant behavior. We also identify asymptotic power-law decay relations between the standard deviations of these three growth rates and the initial size. Further, we discuss similarities with complex organizations.

  10. Polymer reversal rate calculated via locally scaled diffusion map.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wenwei; Rohrdanz, Mary A; Maggioni, Mauro; Clementi, Cecilia

    2011-04-14

    A recent study on the dynamics of polymer reversal inside a nanopore by Huang and Makarov [J. Chem. Phys. 128, 114903 (2008)] demonstrated that the reaction rate cannot be reproduced by projecting the dynamics onto a single empirical reaction coordinate, a result suggesting the dynamics of this system cannot be correctly described by using a single collective coordinate. To further investigate this possibility we have applied our recently developed multiscale framework, locally scaled diffusion map (LSDMap), to obtain collective reaction coordinates for this system. Using a single diffusion coordinate, we obtain a reversal rate via Kramers expression that is in good agreement with the exact rate obtained from the simulations. Our mathematically rigorous approach accounts for the local heterogeneity of molecular configuration space in constructing a diffusion map, from which collective coordinates emerge. We believe this approach can be applied in general to characterize complex macromolecular dynamics by providing an accurate definition of the collective coordinates associated with processes at different time scales.

  11. Remote Acculturation: The "Americanization" of Jamaican Islanders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Gail M.; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2012-01-01

    Twenty-first century globalization forces of technology and trade transport cultures across territorial borders. Cultural exchange now occurs in the absence of first-hand continuous contact that accompanies population migration. We propose and test a modern type of acculturation--"remote acculturation"--associated with indirect and/or…

  12. History and Acculturation of the Dakota Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satterlee, James L.; Malan, Vernon D.

    Relating the history of the Dakota Indians from their origins to the present time, this document also examines the effects of acculturation on these Sioux people. Beginning with the Paleo-Indians of North America, it details the structure of the Dakota culture and attempts to acculturate the Indians into white society. Historical and current…

  13. Training Ethical Psychologists: An Acculturation Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Michael C.; Handelsman, Mitchell M.; Knapp, Samuel

    This paper posits the thesis that socialization into the profession of psychology is a process of acculturation. Students enter training with their own value traditions but are required to learn new ones when they become psychologists. The assumptions of the framework are that this "professional acculturation" (a) takes place over time, (b)…

  14. Gender, acculturation, and health among Mexican Americans.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Bridget K; Read, Jen'nan Ghazal; Krueger, Patrick M

    2010-12-01

    This study examines whether the relationship between acculturation and physical health varies by gender among Mexican Americans, and if the mechanisms that mediate the acculturation-health relationship operate differently by gender. Using the 1998-2007 National Health Interview Study, we construct a composite measure of acculturation and estimate regression models for the total number of health conditions, hypertension, heart disease, and diabetes. Immigrants with the lowest levels of acculturation are the healthiest, but this association is stronger for men. Medical care plays a central role in accounting for gender and acculturation differences across health outcomes-increased access to and utilization of medical care is associated with worse health, which suggests that better health among recent arrivals (particularly men) partially results from their lack of knowledge about their own poor health.

  15. Acculturative dissonance, ethnic identity, and youth violence.

    PubMed

    Le, Thao N; Stockdale, Gary

    2008-01-01

    Studies suggest that the process of acculturation for immigrant youth, particularly for second-generation youth, is significantly associated with delinquency and violence. This study explored the acculturation-violence link with respect to acculturative dissonance and ethnic identity. The results revealed in a sample of 329 Chinese, Cambodian, Mien/Laotian, and Vietnamese youth that acculturative dissonance was significantly predictive of serious violence, with full mediation through peer delinquency. Ethnic identity was not significantly associated with peer delinquency or serious violence. Although acculturative dissonance and ethnic identity accounted for a small percentage of variance in violence compared with peer delinquency, it cannot be discounted as trivial. Structural equation analyses provided support for both measurement and structural invariance across the four ethnic groups, lending support for cross-cultural comparisons. The results also lend support for the inclusion of cultural factors in youth violence prevention and intervention efforts.

  16. Factor Validity of a Proactive and Reactive Aggression Rating Scale.

    PubMed

    Kaat, Aaron; Farmer, Cristan; Gadow, Kenneth; Findling, Robert L; Bukstein, Oscar; Arnold, L Eugene; Bangalore, Srihari; McNamara, Nora; Aman, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Aggressive behaviors can be classified into proactive and reactive functions, though there is disagreement about whether these are distinct constructs. Data suggest that proactive and reactive aggression have different etiologies, correlates, and response to treatment. Several rating scales are available to characterize aggressive behavior as proactive or reactive; one commonly used scale was originally developed for teacher ratings, referred to here as the Antisocial Behavior Scale (ABS). However, no data are available on the psychometric properties of the ABS for parent ratings. This study examined the factor structure and convergent/divergent validity of the parent-rated ABS among 168 children aged 6-12 years with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, a disruptive behavior disorder, and severe aggression enrolled in a randomized clinical trial. Multidimensional item response theory was used to confirm the original factor structure. The proactive and reactive factors were distinct but moderately correlated; the algorithm items exhibited acceptable fit on the original factors. The non-algorithm items caused theoretical problems and model misfit. Convergent and divergent validity of the scale was explored between the ABS and other parent-report measures. Proactive and reactive aggression showed differential correlates consistent with expectations for externalizing symptoms. The subscales were correlated weakly or not at all with most non-externalizing symptoms, with some exceptions. Thus, the original factor structure was supported and we found preliminary evidence for the validity of the scale, though the results suggest that the constructs measured by the ABS may not be totally distinct from general behavior problems in this clinical sample.

  17. Factor Validity of a Proactive and Reactive Aggression Rating Scale

    PubMed Central

    Kaat, Aaron; Gadow, Kenneth; Findling, Robert L.; Bukstein, Oscar; Arnold, L. Eugene; Bangalore, Srihari; McNamara, Nora; Aman, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Aggressive behaviors can be classified into proactive and reactive functions, though there is disagreement about whether these are distinct constructs. Data suggest that proactive and reactive aggression have different etiologies, correlates, and response to treatment. Several rating scales are available to characterize aggressive behavior as proactive or reactive; one commonly used scale was originally developed for teacher ratings, referred to here as the Antisocial Behavior Scale (ABS). However, no data are available on the psychometric properties of the ABS for parent ratings. This study examined the factor structure and convergent/divergent validity of the parent-rated ABS among 168 children aged 6–12 years with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, a disruptive behavior disorder, and severe aggression enrolled in a randomized clinical trial. Multidimensional item response theory was used to confirm the original factor structure. The proactive and reactive factors were distinct but moderately correlated; the algorithm items exhibited acceptable fit on the original factors. The non-algorithm items caused theoretical problems and model misfit. Convergent and divergent validity of the scale was explored between the ABS and other parent-report measures. Proactive and reactive aggression showed differential correlates consistent with expectations for externalizing symptoms. The subscales were correlated weakly or not at all with most non-externalizing symptoms, with some exceptions. Thus, the original factor structure was supported and we found preliminary evidence for the validity of the scale, though the results suggest that the constructs measured by the ABS may not be totally distinct from general behavior problems in this clinical sample. PMID:26504369

  18. Limestone weathering rates accelerated by micron-scale grain detachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmanuel, S.; Levenson, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The weathering rates of carbonate rocks is often thought to be controlled by chemical dissolution, although some studies have suggested that mechanical erosion could also play an important role. Quantifying the rates of the different processes has proved challenging due to the high degree of variability encountered in both field and lab settings. To determine the rates and mechanisms controlling long-term limestone weathering, we analyse a lidar scan of the Western Wall, a Roman period edifice located in Jerusalem. Weathering rates in fine-grained micritic limestone blocks are up to 2 orders of magnitude higher than the average rates estimated for coarse-grained limestone blocks at the same site. In addition, in experiments that use atomic force microscopy to image dissolving micritic limestone, we show that these higher reaction rates could be due to rapid dissolution along micron-scale grain boundaries, followed by mechanical detachment of tiny particles from the surface. Our analysis indicates that micron-scale grain detachment, rather than pure chemical dissolution, could be the dominant erosional mode for fine-grained rocks in many carbonate terrains.

  19. Eating disorder symptom severity scale: a new clinician rated measure.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Katherine A; Buchholz, Annick; Perkins, Julie; Norwood, Sarah; Obeid, Nicole; Spettigue, Wendy; Feder, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the development and validation of the clinician-rated Eating Disorder Symptom Severity Scale (EDS(3)), created to address a gap in measurement options for youth with eating disorders. The EDS(3) is modeled on the Childhood Severity and Acuity of Psychiatric Illness Scales (Lyons, J. S, 1998). Factor analysis revealed a 5-factor solution and accounted for 78% of the variance, and internal consistency within the subscales was good (Cronbach alphas: 0.69 to 0.93). The EDS(3) is a valid and reliable measure designed for clinicians to help assess the severity of a youth's eating disorder and to facilitate outcomes research.

  20. A Comparison of Two Task Rating Scales of Physical Demand.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-01

    Research Report 3/86 0 r=CG RISON OF TwO TASK RATING SCALES CF PHYSICAL CEMAND by Major Robert S. Collyer Commonwealth of Autralia ! August 19g86 This...analysis system . because the wording of the anchor points for the PSE scale made reference to specific weights and heights, it was judged to be an...Air Force Occupational ’,easurement Center. Lindquist, E. F. (1953). Design and analysis of experiments in psychology and education . Boston, l,1A

  1. Recent developments in cosmogenic nuclide production rate scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lifton, N. A.

    2013-12-01

    A new cosmogenic nuclide production rate scaling model based on analytical fits to Monte Carlo simulations of atmospheric cosmic ray flux spectra (both of which agree well with measured spectra) enables identification and quantification of the biases in previously published models (Lifton, N., Sato, T., Dunai, T., in review, Earth and Planet. Sci. Lett.). Scaling predictions derived from the new model (termed LSD) suggest two potential sources of bias in the previous models: different energy responses of the secondary neutron detectors used in developing the models, and different geomagnetic parameterizations. In addition, the particle flux spectra generated by the LSD model allow one to generate nuclide-specific scaling factors that reflect the influences of the flux energy distribution and the relevant excitation functions (probability of nuclide production in a given nuclear reaction as a function of energy). Resulting scaling factors indicate 3He shows the strongest positive deviation from the flux-based scaling, while 14C exhibits a negative deviation. These results are consistent with previous studies showing an increasing 3He/10Be ratio with altitude in the Himalayas, but with a much lower magnitude for the effect. Furthermore, the new model provides a flexible framework for exploring the implications of future advances in model inputs. For example, the effects of recently updated paleomagnetic models (e.g. Korte et al., 2011, Earth and Planet Sci. Lett. 312, 497-505) on scaling predictions will also be presented.

  2. Genome-scale rates of evolutionary change in bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Duchêne, Sebastian; Holt, Kathryn E.; Weill, François-Xavier; Le Hello, Simon; Hawkey, Jane; Edwards, David J.; Fourment, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    Estimating the rates at which bacterial genomes evolve is critical to understanding major evolutionary and ecological processes such as disease emergence, long-term host–pathogen associations and short-term transmission patterns. The surge in bacterial genomic data sets provides a new opportunity to estimate these rates and reveal the factors that shape bacterial evolutionary dynamics. For many organisms estimates of evolutionary rate display an inverse association with the time-scale over which the data are sampled. However, this relationship remains unexplored in bacteria due to the difficulty in estimating genome-wide evolutionary rates, which are impacted by the extent of temporal structure in the data and the prevalence of recombination. We collected 36 whole genome sequence data sets from 16 species of bacterial pathogens to systematically estimate and compare their evolutionary rates and assess the extent of temporal structure in the absence of recombination. The majority (28/36) of data sets possessed sufficient clock-like structure to robustly estimate evolutionary rates. However, in some species reliable estimates were not possible even with ‘ancient DNA’ data sampled over many centuries, suggesting that they evolve very slowly or that they display extensive rate variation among lineages. The robustly estimated evolutionary rates spanned several orders of magnitude, from approximately 10−5 to 10−8 nucleotide substitutions per site year−1. This variation was negatively associated with sampling time, with this relationship best described by an exponential decay curve. To avoid potential estimation biases, such time-dependency should be considered when inferring evolutionary time-scales in bacteria. PMID:28348834

  3. Characterizing heart rate variability by scale-dependent Lyapunov exponent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jing; Gao, Jianbo; Tung, Wen-wen

    2009-06-01

    Previous studies on heart rate variability (HRV) using chaos theory, fractal scaling analysis, and many other methods, while fruitful in many aspects, have produced much confusion in the literature. Especially the issue of whether normal HRV is chaotic or stochastic remains highly controversial. Here, we employ a new multiscale complexity measure, the scale-dependent Lyapunov exponent (SDLE), to characterize HRV. SDLE has been shown to readily characterize major models of complex time series including deterministic chaos, noisy chaos, stochastic oscillations, random 1/f processes, random Levy processes, and complex time series with multiple scaling behaviors. Here we use SDLE to characterize the relative importance of nonlinear, chaotic, and stochastic dynamics in HRV of healthy, congestive heart failure, and atrial fibrillation subjects. We show that while HRV data of all these three types are mostly stochastic, the stochasticity is different among the three groups.

  4. The Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS): status and recommendations.

    PubMed

    2003-07-01

    The Movement Disorder Society Task Force for Rating Scales for Parkinson's Disease prepared a critique of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). Strengths of the UPDRS include its wide utilization, its application across the clinical spectrum of PD, its nearly comprehensive coverage of motor symptoms, and its clinimetric properties, including reliability and validity. Weaknesses include several ambiguities in the written text, inadequate instructions for raters, some metric flaws, and the absence of screening questions on several important non-motor aspects of PD. The Task Force recommends that the MDS sponsor the development of a new version of the UPDRS and encourage efforts to establish its clinimetric properties, especially addressing the need to define a Minimal Clinically Relevant Difference and a Minimal Clinically Relevant Incremental Difference, as well as testing its correlation with the current UPDRS. If developed, the new scale should be culturally unbiased and be tested in different racial, gender, and age-groups. Future goals should include the definition of UPDRS scores with confidence intervals that correlate with clinically pertinent designations, "minimal," "mild," "moderate," and "severe" PD. Whereas the presence of non-motor components of PD can be identified with screening questions, a new version of the UPDRS should include an official appendix that includes other, more detailed, and optionally used scales to determine severity of these impairments.

  5. Assessment of Perceived Stress Related to Migration and Acculturation in Patients with Psychiatric Disorders (MIGSTR10)-Development, Reliability, and Dimensionality of a Brief Instrument.

    PubMed

    Müller, Matthias J; Zink, Sabrina; Koch, Eckhardt

    2016-08-24

    Assessment of stressors related to migration and acculturation in patients with psychiatric disorder and migration background could help improve culturally sensitive concepts of psychiatry and psychotherapy for diagnosis and treatment. The present overview delineates development and psychometric properties of an instrument (MIGSTR10) for assessment of stressors related to migration and acculturation, particularly for application in patients with psychiatric disorders. Ten migration-related stressors were derived from a qualitative content analysis of case histories of patients with psychiatric disorder and migration background and put into a suitable interview and questionnaire format (MIGSTR10; 10 questions, answer format: categorical yes/no, and dimensional 0-10) for self-assessment and observer ratings in several languages. Reliability (interrater agreement, internal consistency) and dimensionality (multi-dimensional scaling, MDS) were investigated in n = 235 patients with migration background and n = 612 indigenous German patients. Interrater agreement (ICC) for MIGSTR10 single items and sum scores (categorical and dimensional) was sufficiently high (≥.58); internal consistency (Cronbach's α) reached medium to high values (.56-.73). MDS revealed a two-dimensional solution with two item clusters (A: communication, migration history, forced marriage, homesickness, discrimination, other stressors; B: family conflicts, loss of status, feelings of shame, guilt feelings). The MIGSTR10 is a rationally developed, straightforward 10-item screening instrument with satisfactory psychometric properties for the assessment of individual and specific stressors related to migration and acculturation.

  6. Allometric scaling of mortality rates with body mass in abalones.

    PubMed

    Rossetto, Marisa; De Leo, Giulio A; Bevacqua, Daniele; Micheli, Fiorenza

    2012-04-01

    The existence of an allometric relationship between mortality rates and body mass has been theorized and extensively documented across taxa. Within species, however, the allometry between mortality rates and body mass has received substantially less attention and the consistency of such scaling patterns at the intra-specific level is controversial. We reviewed 73 experimental studies to examine the relationship between mortality rates and body size among seven species of abalone (Haliotis spp.), a marine herbivorous mollusk. Both in the field and in the laboratory, log-transformed mortality rates were negatively correlated with log-transformed individual body mass for all species considered, with allometric exponents remarkably similar among species. This regular pattern confirms previous findings that juvenile abalones suffer higher mortality rates than adult individuals. Field mortality rates were higher overall than those measured in the laboratory, and the relationship between mortality and body mass tended to be steeper in field than in laboratory conditions for all species considered. These results suggest that in the natural environment, additional mortality factors, especially linked to predation, could significantly contribute to mortality, particularly at small body sizes. On the other hand, the consistent allometry of mortality rates versus body mass in laboratory conditions suggests that other sources of mortality, beside predation, are size-dependent in abalone.

  7. The Time Scale of Recombination Rate Evolution in Great Apes.

    PubMed

    Stevison, Laurie S; Woerner, August E; Kidd, Jeffrey M; Kelley, Joanna L; Veeramah, Krishna R; McManus, Kimberly F; Bustamante, Carlos D; Hammer, Michael F; Wall, Jeffrey D

    2016-04-01

    We present three linkage-disequilibrium (LD)-based recombination maps generated using whole-genome sequence data from 10 Nigerian chimpanzees, 13 bonobos, and 15 western gorillas, collected as part of the Great Ape Genome Project (Prado-Martinez J, et al. 2013. Great ape genetic diversity and population history. Nature 499:471-475). We also identified species-specific recombination hotspots in each group using a modified LDhot framework, which greatly improves statistical power to detect hotspots at varying strengths. We show that fewer hotspots are shared among chimpanzee subspecies than within human populations, further narrowing the time scale of complete hotspot turnover. Further, using species-specific PRDM9 sequences to predict potential binding sites (PBS), we show higher predicted PRDM9 binding in recombination hotspots as compared to matched cold spot regions in multiple great ape species, including at least one chimpanzee subspecies. We found that correlations between broad-scale recombination rates decline more rapidly than nucleotide divergence between species. We also compared the skew of recombination rates at centromeres and telomeres between species and show a skew from chromosome means extending as far as 10-15 Mb from chromosome ends. Further, we examined broad-scale recombination rate changes near a translocation in gorillas and found minimal differences as compared to other great ape species perhaps because the coordinates relative to the chromosome ends were unaffected. Finally, on the basis of multiple linear regression analysis, we found that various correlates of recombination rate persist throughout the African great apes including repeats, diversity, and divergence. Our study is the first to analyze within- and between-species genome-wide recombination rate variation in several close relatives.

  8. Perceived acculturative stress and sense of coherence in Chinese nursing students in Australia.

    PubMed

    He, Flora X; Lopez, Violeta; Leigh, Maria C

    2012-05-01

    University schools of nursing in Australia are the main providers of nursing education programmes for international students. The large cohort of overseas students requires that universities, as education providers, understand their needs and the problems related to studying and living in Australia. An exploratory descriptive quantitative study was conducted to investigate 119 Chinese international undergraduate nursing students' acculturative stress and sense of coherence at an Australian university in Sydney. Two validated scales were used: Acculturative Stress Scale for International Students (ASSIS) and Sense of Coherence (SOC). Results indicated that overall Chinese nursing students had a moderate level of acculturative stress and sense of coherence. However, there was a significant difference in the level of acculturative stress among three groups of Chinese nursing students enrolled in the Bachelor of Nursing course, and SOC was negatively correlated with the level of acculturative stress. This study extends the knowledge of the experiences of Chinese nursing students studying and living in an English-speaking country. The study also highlights the need for universities to provide relevant support to overseas students to make their study journey smoother and more successful.

  9. Discrimination, acculturation, acculturative stress, and Latino psychological distress: a moderated mediational model.

    PubMed

    Torres, Lucas; Driscoll, Mark W; Voell, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Prior research has found that perceived discrimination is associated with adverse mental health outcomes among Latinos. However, the process by which this relationship occurs remains an understudied area. The present study investigated the role of acculturative stress in underlying the relationship between perceived discrimination and Latino psychological distress. Also examined was the ability of acculturation to serve as a moderator between perceived discrimination and acculturative stress. Among a sample of Latino adults (N = 669), moderated mediational analyses revealed that acculturative stress mediated the perceived discrimination-psychological distress relationship, and that the link between perceived discrimination and acculturative stress was moderated by Anglo behavioral orientation but not Latino behavioral orientation. The findings are discussed within a stress and coping perspective that identifies the psychological consequences associated with perceived discrimination and acculturative stress.

  10. Assessment of acculturation in minority health research.

    PubMed

    Fox, Molly; Thayer, Zaneta; Wadhwa, Pathik D

    2017-03-01

    Acculturation represents an important construct in the context of health disparities. Although several studies have reported relationships between various aspects of acculturation and health in minority populations, crucial inconsistencies remain. One likely reason for these inconsistencies may relate to limitations in the conceptualization and operationalization of acculturation, particularly in the context of health research. The acculturation construct underwent major conceptual and operational change when it was adapted from anthropology to psychology, and we argue another major shift is now required for use of this construct in health research. Issues include determining whether acculturation measures should focus on an individual's internal attitudes or overt behaviors; whether they should characterize cultural orientation status at a given point in time or change over time; whether measures should be culture-specific or more global in nature; how the issue of multiculturalism should be addressed; how measures can optimally incorporate multiple dimensions of acculturation; and whether proxy measures should be used. These issues are important in the context of health research because of their implications for determining the direct and indirect effects of cultural change on health-related biological and behavioral processes. We elaborate on and address each of these issues from a perspective that spans multiple disciplines across the biological and social sciences, and offer concrete recommendations with the ultimate goal of achieving a better understanding of the role of acculturation in minority health and health disparities.

  11. Scale dependence of rock friction at high work rate.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Futoshi; Fukuyama, Eiichi; Mizoguchi, Kazuo; Takizawa, Shigeru; Xu, Shiqing; Kawakata, Hironori

    2015-12-10

    Determination of the frictional properties of rocks is crucial for an understanding of earthquake mechanics, because most earthquakes are caused by frictional sliding along faults. Prior studies using rotary shear apparatus revealed a marked decrease in frictional strength, which can cause a large stress drop and strong shaking, with increasing slip rate and increasing work rate. (The mechanical work rate per unit area equals the product of the shear stress and the slip rate.) However, those important findings were obtained in experiments using rock specimens with dimensions of only several centimetres, which are much smaller than the dimensions of a natural fault (of the order of 1,000 metres). Here we use a large-scale biaxial friction apparatus with metre-sized rock specimens to investigate scale-dependent rock friction. The experiments show that rock friction in metre-sized rock specimens starts to decrease at a work rate that is one order of magnitude smaller than that in centimetre-sized rock specimens. Mechanical, visual and material observations suggest that slip-evolved stress heterogeneity on the fault accounts for the difference. On the basis of these observations, we propose that stress-concentrated areas exist in which frictional slip produces more wear materials (gouge) than in areas outside, resulting in further stress concentrations at these areas. Shear stress on the fault is primarily sustained by stress-concentrated areas that undergo a high work rate, so those areas should weaken rapidly and cause the macroscopic frictional strength to decrease abruptly. To verify this idea, we conducted numerical simulations assuming that local friction follows the frictional properties observed on centimetre-sized rock specimens. The simulations reproduced the macroscopic frictional properties observed on the metre-sized rock specimens. Given that localized stress concentrations commonly occur naturally, our results suggest that a natural fault may lose its

  12. Interchanging scores between clinical dementia rating scale and global deterioration scale.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seong Hye; Lee, Byung Hwa; Kim, Seonwoo; Hahm, Dong Seok; Jeong, Jee Hyang; Yoon, Soo Jin; Jeong, Yong; Ha, Choong Keun; Nab, Duk L

    2003-01-01

    Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale and Global Deterioration Scale (GDS) are commonly used to measure the severity of dementia. However, no specific rules are available to convert the scores of CDR into those of GDS and vice versa. Using a semi-structured interview, two examiners independently rated CDR and GDS in 78 patients with dementia and 34 controls. Regression analysis showed a curvilinear relationship between CDR and GDS. This curve may provide a rule to interchange the scores of GDS and CDR (or Sum of Boxes of CDR).

  13. [Rating scales based on the phenomenological and structural approach].

    PubMed

    Schiltz, L

    2006-01-01

    A current tendency of research in clinical psychology consists in using an integrated quantitative and qualitative methodology. This approach is especially suited to the study of the therapeutic intervention where the researcher is himself part of the situation he is investigating. As to the tools of research, the combination of the semi-structured clinical interview, of psychometric scales and projective tests has proved to be pertinent to describe the multidimensional and fluctuating reality of the therapeutic relationship and the changes induced by it in the two partners. In arts therapeutic research the investigation of the artistic production or of the free expression of people may complete the psychometric and projective tools. The concept of "expressive test" is currently being used to characterise this method. In this context, the development of rating scales, based on the phenomenological and structural or holistic approach allows us making the link between qualitative analysis and quantification, leading to the use of inferential statistics, providing that we remain at the nominal or ordinal level of measurement. We are explaining the principle of construction of these rating scales and we are illustrating our practice with some examples drawn from studies we realized in clinical psychology.

  14. Quantum metabolism explains the allometric scaling of metabolic rates

    PubMed Central

    Demetrius, Lloyd; Tuszynski, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    A general model explaining the origin of allometric laws of physiology is proposed based on coupled energy-transducing oscillator networks embedded in a physical d-dimensional space (d = 1, 2, 3). This approach integrates Mitchell's theory of chemi-osmosis with the Debye model of the thermal properties of solids. We derive a scaling rule that relates the energy generated by redox reactions in cells, the dimensionality of the physical space and the mean cycle time. Two major regimes are found corresponding to classical and quantum behaviour. The classical behaviour leads to allometric isometry while the quantum regime leads to scaling laws relating metabolic rate and body size that cover a broad range of exponents that depend on dimensionality and specific parameter values. The regimes are consistent with a range of behaviours encountered in micelles, plants and animals and provide a conceptual framework for a theory of the metabolic function of living systems. PMID:19734187

  15. Quantum metabolism explains the allometric scaling of metabolic rates.

    PubMed

    Demetrius, Lloyd; Tuszynski, J A

    2010-03-06

    A general model explaining the origin of allometric laws of physiology is proposed based on coupled energy-transducing oscillator networks embedded in a physical d-dimensional space (d = 1, 2, 3). This approach integrates Mitchell's theory of chemi-osmosis with the Debye model of the thermal properties of solids. We derive a scaling rule that relates the energy generated by redox reactions in cells, the dimensionality of the physical space and the mean cycle time. Two major regimes are found corresponding to classical and quantum behaviour. The classical behaviour leads to allometric isometry while the quantum regime leads to scaling laws relating metabolic rate and body size that cover a broad range of exponents that depend on dimensionality and specific parameter values. The regimes are consistent with a range of behaviours encountered in micelles, plants and animals and provide a conceptual framework for a theory of the metabolic function of living systems.

  16. Acculturation and associated effects on abused immigrant women's safety and mental functioning: results of entry data for a 7-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Nava, Angeles; McFarlane, Judith; Gilroy, Heidi; Maddoux, John

    2014-12-01

    Intimate partner violence has negative effects on women's safety and wellbeing. When immigrant women are victimized the danger and poor health may intensify. The purpose was to determine the impact of acculturation on severity of violence, danger for murder, mental health functioning, and safety behaviors of abused immigrant women. Entry data of a 7-year prospective study of 106 abused immigrant women who were first time users of safe shelter or justice services is presented. The interview included the Severity of Violence Against Women Scale, Danger Assessment, Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), Safety Behavior Checklist, and Acculturation for Hispanics instruments. A significant (p < 0.05) positive correlation between acculturation and safety behaviors and BSI scores was established. Higher acculturation scores were associated with significantly more practiced safety behaviors and higher levels of depression. Understanding the specific needs of abuse immigrant women associated with acculturation is imperative to develop interventions to interrupt abuse and promote safety and mental well-being.

  17. Acculturation, Behavioral Factors, and Family History of Breast Cancer among Mexican and Mexican-American Women

    PubMed Central

    Nodora, Jesse N.; Cooper, Renee; Talavera, Gregory A.; Gallo, Linda; Montenegro, María Mercedes Meza; Komenaka, Ian; Natarajan, Loki; Millán, Luis Enrique Gutierrez; Daneri-Navarro, Adrian; Bondy, Melissa; Brewster, Abenaa; Thompson, Patricia; Martinez, María Elena

    2016-01-01

    Background Incidence rates for breast cancer are higher among Mexican-American (MA) women in the United States than women living in Mexico. Studies have shown higher prevalence of breast cancer risk factors in more acculturated than less acculturated Hispanic/Latinas in the United States. We compared the prevalence of behavioral risk factors and family history of breast cancer by level of acculturation and country of residence in women of Mexican descent. Methods Data were collected from 1,201 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients living in Mexico (n = 581) and MAs in the United States (n = 620). MA participants were categorized into three acculturation groups (Spanish dominant, bilingual, and English dominant); women living in Mexico were used as the referent group. The prevalence of behavioral risk factors and family history of breast cancer were assessed according to acculturation level, adjusting for age at diagnosis and education. Results In the adjusted models, bilingual and English-dominant MAs were significantly more likely to have a body mass index of 30 kg/m2 or greater, consume more than one alcoholic beverage a week, and report having a family history of breast cancer than women living in Mexico. All three U.S. acculturation groups were significantly more likely to have lower total energy expenditure (≤533 kcal/d) than women in Mexico. English-dominant women were significantly less likely to ever smoke cigarettes than the Mexican group. Conclusions Our findings add to the limited scientific literature on the relationships among acculturation, health behavior, and family history of breast cancer in Mexican and MA women. PMID:26189937

  18. Scaling Relations of Galactic Winds with Star Formation Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, Ryan; Cecil, Gerald; Heitsch, Fabian

    2017-01-01

    The galactic scale outflows generated by nuclear starbursts consist of a multiphase medium where each phase has a distinct velocity depending on the characteristics of the starburst. Using synthetic absorption lines generated from 3D hydrodynamical simulations we probe the outflow velocity of the hot, warm, and neutral gas entrained in a galactic wind. By varying the star formation rate (SFR) in our simulations, we find no correlation between the outflow velocity of the hot gas with the SFR, but we do find a correlation between the outflow velocity of both warm and neutral gas with the SFR. The scaling relation between outflow velocity and SFR only holds for low SFR until the scaling relation abruptly flattens at a SFR determined by the mass loading of the starburst. The outflow velocity of the hot gas only depends on the mass loading of the starburst and not the SFR. For low SFRs the difference between the velocity of cold gas, as measured by absorption lines of neutral or low ionized gas, may be 5-7 times lower than the velocity of the hot, highly ionized gas. The difference in velocity between the cold and hot gas for higher SFRs depends on the mass loading factor of the starburst. Thus the measured velocities of neutral or low ionized gas cannot be used to estimate the outflow velocity of the hot gas without determining the mass loading of the starburst.

  19. Association of Filial Responsibility, Ethnicity, and Acculturation Among Japanese American Family Caregivers of Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Miyawaki, Christina E.

    2015-01-01

    Challenges of filial caregiving practices by 1st-generation immigrants due to differences in caregiving values between their home and host countries are well documented. This study explored the filial responsibility of later generation Japanese American caregivers of older adults. Acculturation and filial responsibility were measured using the Suinn-Lew Asian Self Identity Acculturation scale and Filial Values Index, respectively. A qualitative interview guide was developed using Gordon’s assimilation theory, and 21 caregivers (M age = 68 years, 86% female, seven in each generation) were interviewed. Despite the 3rd-generation caregivers’ high acculturation level, their filial responsibility scores remained high. Qualitative interviews also revealed later generation caregivers’ strong filial responsibility and continued caregiving involvement. Unexpectedly, caregivers’ own future expectancy of care included placement in mainstream residential facilities rather than ethnicspecific settings. Findings point to the need to develop caregiver services that consider later generation caregivers’ culture and level of assimilation. PMID:25883044

  20. A Comparison between School and Home Rating Scales and Reliability-Validity of the Scales-the Scales for Diagnosing Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    AKSU MERİÇLİ, Ebru; TURAN, Figen

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of the present research is to compare the Turkish translations of school and home versions of the Scales for Diagnosing Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (SCALES) developed by Ryser and McConnell with respect to age and gender and to examine the correlation between the two scales. Method The research was conducted with 102 teachers and parents of 891 children aged between 5.0 and 14.11 years. 656 scale forms of parents returned to us were included in the study. The teachers filled in teacher information form, child information form, SCALES-School Rating Scale and the Turkish version of Conners’ Teacher Rating Scale. The parents filled in family information form, child information form and SCALES-Home Rating Scale and the Turkish version of the Conners’ Home Rating Scale. Results When SCALES-Home Rating Scale and SCALES-School Rating Scale scores of each age group were compared using t-test, it was observed that the difference in all sub-scale scores in the 5–9 age group was significant and it was also observed that in the 10–13 and 13+ age groups, the difference was significant only in the hyperactivity field. The correlation between SCALES-School Rating Scale and SCALES-Home Rating Scale was investigated. The correlation between sub-scales measuring the same abilities was found to be between 0.1 and 0.26. Conclusion We assume that the Turkish version of the SCALES is a valid and reliable instrument for diagnosing ADHD. Since SCALES-Home Rating Scale scores were higher than SCALES-School Rating Scale scores and the correlation between the two scales was low, we assume that the objectivity of parents’ ratings was limited. Future validity studies on diagnosed children are needed.

  1. Acculturation and perceived stress in HIV+ immigrants: depression symptomatology in Asian and Pacific Islanders.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Ti; Guthrie, Barbara; Shiu, Cheng-Shi; Yang, Joyce P; Weng, Zhongqi; Wang, Lixuan; Kamitani, Emiko; Fukuda, Yumiko; Luu, Binh Vinh

    2014-01-01

    Asians and Pacific Islanders (API) are among the fastest growing minority groups within the USA, and this growth has been accompanied by an increase in HIV incidence. Between 2000 and 2010, the API HIV infection rate increased from 4.5% to 8.7%; however, there is a paucity of HIV-related research for this group, and even less is known about the prevalence and correlates of antiretroviral therapy adherence behavior, quality of life, impact of stress, and efficacious self-management among HIV+ API Americans. This paper examines how acculturation and perceived stress affect depression symptomatology and treatment seeking in the HIV+ API population. A series of cross-sectional audio computer-assisted self-interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 50 HIV+ API (29 in San Francisco and 21 in New York City). The relationship between acculturation and perceived stress was analyzed, and the results indicate that for those HIV+ API who reported low or moderate acculturation (as compared to those who reported high acculturation), stress was significantly mediated by depression symptomology. Interventions to address acculturation and reduce perceived stress among API generally and Asians specifically are therefore needed.

  2. Acculturation Process and Distress: Mediating Roles of Sociocultural Adaptation and Acculturative Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Ellery K. Y.; Mak, Winnie W. S.

    2012-01-01

    The present study applied the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to unfold the social cognitive antecedents of acculturation and investigated the effects of acculturation on psychological distress using a longitudinal design. A total of 180 mainland Chinese university students studying in Hong Kong completed three sets of questionnaires every 2…

  3. The Interplay of International Students' Acculturative Stress, Social Support, and Acculturation Modes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Christopher; Kashubeck-West, Susan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between acculturation modes (assimilation, integration, separation and marginalization), social support, and acculturative stress in undergraduate and graduate international students (N=104) at a medium-sized public university in the Midwestern United States. The study found that international students with…

  4. Acculturation Dissonance, Acculturation Strategy, Depressive Symptoms, and Delinquency in Latina/o Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazer, Andrew L.; Rubens, Sonia; Johnson-Motoyama, Michelle; DiPierro, Moneika; Fite, Paula J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Two risk factors for negative outcomes in Latina/o youth are acculturation dissonance (i.e., discrepant family cultural orientations) and the endorsement of an assimilation strategy of acculturation (i.e., valuing dominant mainstream culture over culture of origin). Though these have been uniquely studied as risk factors for…

  5. Path Analysis of Acculturative Stress Components and Their Relationship with Depression Among International Students in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Chen, Xinguang; Li, Shiyue; Yu, Bin; Wang, Yan; Yan, Hong

    2016-12-01

    Acculturative stress prevents international students from adapting to the host culture, increasing their risk for depression. International students in China are a growing and at-risk population for acculturative stress and depression. With data from the International Student Health and Behaviour Survey (Yu et al., ) in China, seven acculturative stress components were detected in a previous study (Yu et al., ), including a central component (self-confidence), three distal components (value conflict, identity threat and rejection) and three proximal components (poor cultural competence, opportunity deprivation and homesickness). The current study extended the previous study to investigate the relationship between these components and depression with data also from International Student Health and Behaviour Survey. Participants were 567 students (59% male, 40.4% African, mean age = 22.75, SD = 4.11) recruited in Wuhan, China. The sample scored high on the Acculturative Stress Scale for International Students (M = 92.81, SD = 23.93) and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale (M = 0.97, SD = 0.53). Acculturative stress was positively associated with depression; the association between the three distal stress components and depression was fully mediated through self-confidence, while the three proximal components had a direct effect and a self-confidence-mediated indirect effect. These findings extended the value of the previous study, highlighted the central role of self-confidence in understanding acculturative stress and depression and provided new data supporting more effective counselling for international students in China. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Acculturative Stress and Coping: Gender Differences among Korean and Korean American University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Diane Sookyoung; Padilla, Amado M.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we examined acculturative stress and coping among 86 students of Korean heritage at an American university. Participants indicated their stress levels on 3 scales of cultural adaptation: discrimination, language and cultural ties, and social distance. Findings show that self-identified Korean students displayed higher levels of…

  7. Universal scaling of production rates across mammalian lineages.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Marcus J; Davidson, Ana D; Sibly, Richard M; Brown, James H

    2011-02-22

    Over many millions of years of independent evolution, placental, marsupial and monotreme mammals have diverged conspicuously in physiology, life history and reproductive ecology. The differences in life histories are particularly striking. Compared with placentals, marsupials exhibit shorter pregnancy, smaller size of offspring at birth and longer period of lactation in the pouch. Monotremes also exhibit short pregnancy, but incubate embryos in eggs, followed by a long period of post-hatching lactation. Using a large sample of mammalian species, we show that, remarkably, despite their very different life histories, the scaling of production rates is statistically indistinguishable across mammalian lineages. Apparently all mammals are subject to the same fundamental metabolic constraints on productivity, because they share similar body designs, vascular systems and costs of producing new tissue.

  8. Inhomogeneous scaling behaviors in Malaysian foreign currency exchange rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muniandy, S. V.; Lim, S. C.; Murugan, R.

    2001-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate the fractal scaling behaviors of foreign currency exchange rates with respect to Malaysian currency, Ringgit Malaysia. These time series are examined piecewise before and after the currency control imposed in 1st September 1998 using the monofractal model based on fractional Brownian motion. The global Hurst exponents are determined using the R/ S analysis, the detrended fluctuation analysis and the method of second moment using the correlation coefficients. The limitation of these monofractal analyses is discussed. The usual multifractal analysis reveals that there exists a wide range of Hurst exponents in each of the time series. A new method of modelling the multifractal time series based on multifractional Brownian motion with time-varying Hurst exponents is studied.

  9. Universal scaling of production rates across mammalian lineages

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Marcus J.; Davidson, Ana D.; Sibly, Richard M.; Brown, James H.

    2011-01-01

    Over many millions of years of independent evolution, placental, marsupial and monotreme mammals have diverged conspicuously in physiology, life history and reproductive ecology. The differences in life histories are particularly striking. Compared with placentals, marsupials exhibit shorter pregnancy, smaller size of offspring at birth and longer period of lactation in the pouch. Monotremes also exhibit short pregnancy, but incubate embryos in eggs, followed by a long period of post-hatching lactation. Using a large sample of mammalian species, we show that, remarkably, despite their very different life histories, the scaling of production rates is statistically indistinguishable across mammalian lineages. Apparently all mammals are subject to the same fundamental metabolic constraints on productivity, because they share similar body designs, vascular systems and costs of producing new tissue. PMID:20798111

  10. Rethinking the concept of acculturation: implications for theory and research.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Seth J; Unger, Jennifer B; Zamboanga, Byron L; Szapocznik, José

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an expanded model of acculturation among international migrants and their immediate descendants. Acculturation is proposed as a multidimensional process consisting of the confluence among heritage-cultural and receiving-cultural practices, values, and identifications. The implications of this reconceptualization for the acculturation construct, as well as for its relationship to psychosocial and health outcomes, are discussed. In particular, an expanded operationalization of acculturation is needed to address the "immigrant paradox," whereby international migrants with more exposure to the receiving cultural context report poorer mental and physical health outcomes. We discuss the role of ethnicity, cultural similarity, and discrimination in the acculturation process, offer an operational definition for context of reception, and call for studies on the role that context of reception plays in the acculturation process. The new perspective on acculturation presented in this article is intended to yield a fuller understanding of complex acculturation processes and their relationships to contextual and individual functioning.

  11. Acculturation among Mexican-heritage preadolescents: A latent class analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nieri, Tanya; Lee, Chioun; Kulis, Stephen; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco

    2011-01-01

    This study applies advanced conceptualization and measurement to an analysis of acculturation among 1,632 Mexican-heritage preadolescents. We assessed whether – and how – multiple measures combine to form a latent acculturation construct that groups individuals into classes; and determine how many and what classes (or types) of acculturation are experienced by this sample of 5th graders. Measures included attitudinal, behavioral, and linguistic acculturation, generation status, time in the U.S., ethnic identification, and contact with the culture of origin. The analysis identified five classes of acculturation, differing in size and characterized by specific measures of acculturation: less acculturated, moderately bicultural, strongly bicultural, highly acculturated, and marginalized. Although most youths fell into the first four classes, consonant with their exposure to American society, a small minority of youths fell into the last class. Despite substantial exposure to U.S. culture and recent exposure to Mexican culture, these youth showed little affinity for either culture. PMID:21785519

  12. Scaling of standard metabolic rate in estuarine crocodiles Crocodylus porosus.

    PubMed

    Seymour, Roger S; Gienger, C M; Brien, Matthew L; Tracy, Christopher R; Charlie Manolis, S; Webb, Grahame J W; Christian, Keith A

    2013-05-01

    Standard metabolic rate (SMR, ml O2 min(-1)) of captive Crocodylus porosus at 30 °C scales with body mass (kg) according to the equation, SMR = 1.01 M(0.829), in animals ranging in body mass of 3.3 orders of magnitude (0.19-389 kg). The exponent is significantly higher than 0.75, so does not conform to quarter-power scaling theory, but rather is likely an emergent property with no single explanation. SMR at 1 kg body mass is similar to the literature for C. porosus and for alligators. The high exponent is not related to feeding, growth, or obesity of captive animals. The log-transformed data appear slightly curved, mainly because SMR is somewhat low in many of the largest animals (291-389 kg). A 3-parameter model is scarcely different from the linear one, but reveals a declining exponent between 0.862 and 0.798. A non-linear model on arithmetic axes overestimates SMR in 70% of the smallest animals and does not satisfactorily represent the data.

  13. Risky sexual behavior among young adult Latinas: are acculturation and religiosity protective?

    PubMed

    Smith, Scott James

    2015-01-01

    A sexual health disparity exists among U.S. Latinas, who have rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) that are more than double their peers. Previous research has identified acculturation and religiosity as key social determinants of sexual health, but such findings have been inconsistent, with some researchers identifying protective benefits and other researchers noting increased risk. The purpose of this study was to explain how intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity as well as acculturation predict risky sexual behavior using Structural Equation Modeling of a nationally representative sample of self-identified Latinas (N=1,168) from the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health. Results indicated that intrinsic religiosity and acculturation assert protective effects while extrinsic religiosity increases risk. Recommendations for policy, intervention, and future research are offered.

  14. Pilot Validation Study: Canadian Global Rating Scale for Colonoscopy Services

    PubMed Central

    El Ouali, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Background. The United Kingdom Global Rating Scale (GRS-UK) measures unit-level quality metrics processes in digestive endoscopy. We evaluated the psychometric properties of its Canadian version (GRS-C), endorsed by the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology (CAG). Methods. Prospective data collection at three Canadian endoscopy units assessed GRS-C validity, reliability, and responsiveness to change according to responses provided by physicians, endoscopy nurses, and administrative personnel. These responses were compared to national CAG endoscopic quality guidelines and GRS-UK statements. Results. Most respondents identified the overarching theme each GRS-C item targeted, confirming face validity. Content validity was suggested as 18 out of 23 key CAG endoscopic quality indicators (78%, 95% CI: 56–93%) were addressed in the GRS-C; statements not included pertained to educational programs and competency monitoring. Concordance ranged 75–100% comparing GRS-C and GRS-UK ratings. Test-retest reliability Kappa scores ranged 0.60–0.83, while responsiveness to change scores at 6 months after intervention implementations were greater (P < 0.001) in two out of three units. Conclusion. The GRS-C exhibits satisfactory metrics, supporting its use in a national quality initiative aimed at improving processes in endoscopy units. Data collection from more units and linking to actual patient outcomes are required to ensure that GRS-C implementation facilitates improved patient care. PMID:27840810

  15. Validation of Empirically Derived Rating Scales for a Story Retelling Speaking Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirai, Akiyo; Koizumi, Rie

    2013-01-01

    In recognition of the rating scale as a crucial tool of performance assessment, this study aims to establish a rating scale suitable for a Story Retelling Speaking Test (SRST), which is a semidirect test of speaking ability in English as a foreign language for classroom use. To identify an appropriate scale, three rating scales, all of which have…

  16. "This is the way we were raised": Alcohol beliefs and acculturation in relation to alcohol consumption among Native Americans.

    PubMed

    Fish, Jillian; Osberg, Timothy M; Syed, Moin

    2016-03-15

    Native Americans have the highest rates of alcohol use in comparison to other ethnic groups, placing them at risk for experiencing alcohol-related problems. The present study examined the beliefs that some Native Americans may have related to alcohol use; specifically, the belief that alcohol is a key component in Native American cultures. To assess these beliefs, we developed the Stereotypical Alcohol Beliefs Scale for Native Americans (SABSNA). The new 20-item measure was administered to 144 individuals who identified as Native American along with a measure of acculturation and other drinking-related measures, including perceived norms, alcohol expectancies, and drinking motives. An exploratory factor analysis revealed that the measure is unidimensional in structure and has excellent internal consistency. SABSNA scores were found to be positively associated with typical week drinking, alcohol expectancies, and drinking motives (social, coping, enhancement, and conformity). Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that level of acculturation moderated the association between alcohol beliefs and weekly drinking. Native Americans who identified less with mainstream culture demonstrated a positive association between their cultural alcohol beliefs and their weekly drinking. The findings suggest that alcohol beliefs would be an appropriate additional target for interventions for individuals who are not oriented to the mainstream culture.

  17. Socio-Psychological Predictors of Acculturative Stress among Latino Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Alexis O.; Matheny, Kenneth B.

    2000-01-01

    A random sample (N=197) of two social service agencies completed a questionnaire to assess family cohesion and adaptability, acculturation, acculturative stress, and coping-resources effectiveness among Latino adults. The results suggest that acculturative stress experienced by Latinos relates to the efficacy of stress-coping resources, degree of…

  18. Gender, Acculturation, Food Patterns, and Overweight in Korean Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jasti, Sunitha; Lee, Chang Hyun; Doak, Colleen

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe acculturation, food patterns, overweight, and gender differences among Korean immigrants in the United States. Methods: A cross-sectional exploratory survey assessed acculturation, food frequencies, and weight status of 195 Korean immigrants. Results: Acculturated Korean immigrants (score greater than or equal to] 2.5) were…

  19. Predictors of Familial Acculturative Stress in Asian American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castillo, Linda G.; Zahn, Marion P.; Cano, Miguel A.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the predictors of familial acculturative stress in 85 Asian American college students. Participants were primarily 1st- and 2nd-generation U.S. citizens. Results showed that perceived acculturative family conflict and family intragroup marginalization were related to higher levels of familial acculturative stress for…

  20. Associations Between Nocturnal Blood Pressure Dipping and the Metabolic Syndrome in High- Vs. Low-Acculturated Mexican American Women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Less nocturnal blood pressure (BP) dipping has been associated with greater odds for the metabolic syndrome (MetS), a constellation of risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Little work has examined this association in Hispanics, who have elevated rates of MetS, or investigated differences in this relationship by level of acculturation. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between BP dipping and MetS in Hispanic women and to determine if this association is moderated by acculturation status. METHODS Two hundred eighty-six Mexican American women underwent assessment of MetS components (BP, waist circumference, fasting glucose, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides) and completed a 36-hour ambulatory BP monitoring protocol, during which systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP readings were obtained. Nocturnal BP dipping was calculated as the percentage difference between average daytime and nighttime BP. Acculturation was defined by the language (Spanish, English) in which participants preferred to complete study instruments. RESULTS Although no significant main effects for BP dipping or acculturation emerged for MetS, the SBP dipping by acculturation interaction was significantly related to MetS (P < 0.01). Simple slope analyses revealed that less SBP dipping related to greater odds of MetS in high-acculturated women, but SBP dipping and MetS were unrelated in low-acculturated women. CONCLUSIONS The strength of the association between BP dipping and CVD risk (as measured by MetS) appears to vary by acculturation in Hispanic women. Future studies should explore mechanisms behind the BP dipping and CVD risk association and relevant modifying factors. PMID:23645325

  1. The Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey (HABLAS): the association between acculturation, birthplace and alcohol consumption across Hispanic national groups.

    PubMed

    Vaeth, Patrice A C; Caetano, Raul; Rodriguez, Lori A

    2012-09-01

    Acculturation to U.S. society has been associated with an increase in drinking and binge drinking among Hispanics. This paper examines the association between acculturation and three drinking-related outcomes: average number of drinks consumed, binge drinking, and drinking 12 drinks or more in a single day in four major Hispanic national groups. The 2006 Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey used a multistage cluster sample design to interview 5224 adult Hispanics (18+ years) in five selected U.S. metropolitan areas: Miami, New York, Philadelphia, Houston, and Los Angeles. The four national groups interviewed were: Puerto Ricans, Cuban Americans, Mexican Americans, and South/Central Americans. The survey response rate was 76%. Data on drinking behavior were collected and the analyses include bivariate and multivariate regression techniques. Multivariate analysis did not show an association between acculturation and volume of drinking, binge drinking, or drinking 12 or more drinks in a single day among men. Acculturation stress, however, was associated with drinking 12 or more in a day among men. Among women, high acculturation was associated with a higher volume of drinking, and it also interacted with national group to increase the likelihood of binge drinking. Acculturation does not have a homogeneous effect on drinking across gender and Hispanic national groups. The results confirm that acculturation has a more consistent association with increased drinking and binge drinking among women than among men. The effect of acculturation is therefore gender-specific. This heterogeneity across Hispanic national groups must be considered in future research, treatment, and prevention efforts.

  2. Preliminary evidence for mediation of the association between acculturation and sun-safe behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Andreeva, Valentina A.; Cockburn, Myles G.; Yaroch, Amy L.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Rueda, Robert; Reynolds, Kim D.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To identify and test mediators of the relationship between acculturation and sun-safe behaviors among Latinos in the United States. We hypothesized that the effect of acculturation on use of sunscreen, shade, and sun-protective clothing would be mediated by perceived health status, educational level, access to healthcare, and contact with social networks regarding health matters. Design The 2005 Health Information National Trends Survey, implemented by the National Cancer Institute. Setting Nationwide survey. Participants A probability-based sample of the US civilian, noninstitutionalized adult population, comprising 496 Latino respondents. Main outcome measures Use of sunscreen, shade, and sun-protective clothing when outdoors on sunny days, assessed by self-reports on frequency scales. Results The positive association between acculturation and sunscreen use and the negative association between acculturation and use of sun-protective clothing were mediated by educational level (P<0.05 for both). Perceived health status and contact with social networks regarding health matters were supported as mediators only for sunscreen use (P<0.05). Health care access was not supported as a mediator for any of the outcomes. Conclusions Structural equation models revealed distinct direct and indirect paths between acculturation and each sun-safe practice. Our findings place an emphasis on behavior-specific mediated associations and could inform sun safety programming for Latinos with low and high levels of acculturation. The models support education level, contact with social networks regarding health matters, and perceived health status as mediators primarily for sunscreen use. Future research should test different mediators for use of shade or sun-protective clothing. PMID:21768480

  3. Blood folate concentrations among women of childbearing age by race/ethnicity and acculturation, NHANES 2001-2010.

    PubMed

    Marchetta, Claire M; Hamner, Heather C

    2016-01-01

    Hispanic women have higher rates of neural tube defects and report lower total folic acid intakes than non-Hispanic white (NHW) women. Total folic acid intake, which is associated with neural tube defect risk reduction, has been found to vary by acculturation factors (i.e. language preference, country of origin, or time spent in the United States) among Hispanic women. It is unknown whether this same association is present for blood folate status. The objective of this research was to assess the differences in serum and red blood cell (RBC) folate concentrations between NHW women and Mexican American (MA) women and among MA women by acculturation factors. Cross-sectional data from the 2001-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used to investigate how blood folate concentrations differ among NHW or MA women of childbearing age. The impact of folic acid supplement use on blood folate concentrations was also examined. MA women with lower acculturation factors had lower serum and RBC folate concentrations compared with NHW women and to their more acculturated MA counterparts. Consuming a folic acid supplement can minimize these disparities, but MA women, especially lower acculturated MA women, were less likely to report using supplements. Public health efforts to increase blood folate concentrations among MA women should consider acculturation factors when identifying appropriate interventions.

  4. Effect of acculturation and health beliefs on utilization of health care services by elderly women who immigrated to the USA from the former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Yarova, Lyubov A; Krassen Covan, Eleanor; Fugate-Whitlock, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    In this mixed methods study, researchers explored what conditions influence women's use of professional health care services, and how sociocultural environments and acculturation affect utilization of health care services. We recruited 15 women in the Ukraine, 15 women who immigrated from the former Soviet Union, and 10 female U.S. citizens. Data include open-ended interviews, a "general information" questionnaire, and the Language, Identity and Behavioral Acculturation scale. Acculturation levels and length of residency in the United States were not consistent predictors of health-seeking behaviors for immigrants. The stronger predictor of health beliefs and health related behaviors among all participants was their mothers' health beliefs and health related behaviors.

  5. Large-scale dimension densities for heart rate variability analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raab, Corinna; Wessel, Niels; Schirdewan, Alexander; Kurths, Jürgen

    2006-04-01

    In this work, we reanalyze the heart rate variability (HRV) data from the 2002 Computers in Cardiology (CiC) Challenge using the concept of large-scale dimension densities and additionally apply this technique to data of healthy persons and of patients with cardiac diseases. The large-scale dimension density (LASDID) is estimated from the time series using a normalized Grassberger-Procaccia algorithm, which leads to a suitable correction of systematic errors produced by boundary effects in the rather large scales of a system. This way, it is possible to analyze rather short, nonstationary, and unfiltered data, such as HRV. Moreover, this method allows us to analyze short parts of the data and to look for differences between day and night. The circadian changes in the dimension density enable us to distinguish almost completely between real data and computer-generated data from the CiC 2002 challenge using only one parameter. In the second part we analyzed the data of 15 patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), 15 patients with congestive heart failure (CHF), 15 elderly healthy subjects (EH), as well as 18 young and healthy persons (YH). With our method we are able to separate completely the AF (ρlsμ=0.97±0.02) group from the others and, especially during daytime, the CHF patients show significant differences from the young and elderly healthy volunteers (CHF, 0.65±0.13 ; EH, 0.54±0.05 ; YH, 0.57±0.05 ; p<0.05 for both comparisons). Moreover, for the CHF patients we find no circadian changes in ρlsμ (day, 0.65±0.13 ; night, 0.66±0.12 ; n.s.) in contrast to healthy controls (day, 0.54±0.05 ; night, 0.61±0.05 ; p=0.002 ). Correlation analysis showed no statistical significant relation between standard HRV and circadian LASDID, demonstrating a possibly independent application of our method for clinical risk stratification.

  6. Acculturation and Acculturative Stress as Predictors of Psychological Distress and Quality-of-Life Functioning in Hispanic Psychiatric Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoman, Lisa Vinuesa; Suris, Alina

    2004-01-01

    This study examined acculturation level and type, acculturative stress, and several demographic variables as predictors of psychological distress and health-related quality of life in a sample of 101 Hispanic patients at a community psychiatric clinic. Acculturative stress was predictive of psychological distress beyond the effects of the…

  7. Adaptation of abbreviated mathematics anxiety rating scale for engineering students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordin, Sayed Kushairi Sayed; Samat, Khairul Fadzli; Sultan, Al Amin Mohamed; Halim, Bushra Abdul; Ismail, Siti Fatimah; Mafazi, Nurul Wirdah

    2015-05-01

    Mathematics is an essential and fundamental tool used by engineers to analyse and solve problems in their field. Due to this, most engineering education programs involve a concentration of study in mathematics courses whereby engineering students have to take mathematics courses such as numerical methods, differential equations and calculus in the first two years and continue to do so until the completion of the sequence. However, the students struggled and had difficulties in learning courses that require mathematical abilities. Hence, this study presents the factors that caused mathematics anxiety among engineering students using Abbreviated Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale (AMARS) through 95 students of Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM). From 25 items in AMARS, principal component analysis (PCA) suggested that there are four mathematics anxiety factors, namely experiences of learning mathematics, cognitive skills, mathematics evaluation anxiety and students' perception on mathematics. Minitab 16 software was used to analyse the nonparametric statistics. Kruskal-Wallis Test indicated that there is a significant difference in the experience of learning mathematics and mathematics evaluation anxiety among races. The Chi-Square Test of Independence revealed that the experience of learning mathematics, cognitive skills and mathematics evaluation anxiety depend on the results of their SPM additional mathematics. Based on this study, it is recommended to address the anxiety problems among engineering students at the early stage of studying in the university. Thus, lecturers should play their part by ensuring a positive classroom environment which encourages students to study mathematics without fear.

  8. Uncinate process length in birds scales with resting metabolic rate.

    PubMed

    Tickle, Peter; Nudds, Robert; Codd, Jonathan

    2009-05-27

    A fundamental function of the respiratory system is the supply of oxygen to meet metabolic demand. Morphological constraints on the supply of oxygen, such as the structure of the lung, have previously been studied in birds. Recent research has shown that uncinate processes (UP) are important respiratory structures in birds, facilitating inspiratory and expiratory movements of the ribs and sternum. Uncinate process length (UPL) is important for determining the mechanical advantage for these respiratory movements. Here we report on the relationship between UPL, body size, metabolic demand and locomotor specialisation in birds. UPL was found to scale isometrically with body mass. Process length is greatest in specialist diving birds, shortest in walking birds and intermediate length in all others relative to body size. Examination of the interaction between the length of the UP and metabolic demand indicated that, relative to body size, species with high metabolic rates have corresponding elongated UP. We propose that elongated UP confer an advantage on the supply of oxygen, perhaps by improving the mechanical advantage and reducing the energetic cost of movements of the ribs and sternum.

  9. Acculturation stress and drinking problems among urban heavy drinking Latinos in the Northeast.

    PubMed

    Lee, Christina S; Colby, Suzanne M; Rohsenow, Damaris J; López, Steven R; Hernández, Lynn; Caetano, Raul

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between the level of acculturation and acculturation stress and the extent to which each predicts problems related to drinking. Hispanics who met criteria for hazardous drinking completed measures of acculturation, acculturation stress, and drinking problems. Sequential multiple regression was used to determine whether the levels of self-reported acculturation stress predicted concurrent alcohol problems after controlling for the predictive value of the acculturation level. Acculturation stress accounted for a significant variance in drinking problems, while adjusting for acculturation, income, and education. Choosing to drink in response to acculturation stress should be an intervention target with Hispanic heavy drinkers.

  10. Cultural Transitions in First-Generation Immigrants: Acculturation of Soviet Jewish Refugee Adolescents and Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briman, Dina; Trickett, Edison J.

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed Soviet Jewish adolescents and parents regarding language, behavior, and identity acculturation. Acculturation occurred in a linear pattern over time for most dimensions of acculturation, with acculturation to the American culture increasing and to the Russian culture decreasing. There were acculturation gaps between parents and children…

  11. Rating Scale Items: A Brief Review of Nomenclature, Components, and Formatting to Inform the Development of Direct Behavior Rating (DBR)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christ, Theodore J.; Boice, Christina

    2009-01-01

    Ratings scales are a common component of many multisource, multimethod frameworks for socioemotional and behavior assessment of children. There is a modest literature base to support the use of attitudinal, behavioral, and personality rating scales. Much of that historic literature focuses on the characteristics and interpretations of specific…

  12. Item Response Theory Analyses of the Parent and Teacher Ratings of the DSM-IV ADHD Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Rapson

    2008-01-01

    The graded response model (GRM), which is based on item response theory (IRT), was used to evaluate the psychometric properties of the inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms in an ADHD rating scale. To accomplish this, parents and teachers completed the DSM-IV ADHD Rating Scale (DARS; Gomez et al., "Journal of Child Psychology and…

  13. Psychometric Properties of ADHD Rating Scales among Children with Mental Retardation I: Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael L.; Fee, Virginia E.; Netterville, Amanda K.

    2004-01-01

    The reliability of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) rating scales in children with mental retardation was assessed. Parents, teachers, and teaching assistants completed ADHD rating scales on 48 children aged 5-12 diagnosed with mental retardation. Measures included the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), Conners Rating Scales, the…

  14. On the Validity of the Psychosocial Maturity Scales: Relationship to Teacher Ratings. Report No. 171.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Josselson, Ruthellen; And Others

    This study attempts to provide evidence for the criterion validity of the Psychosocial Maturity (PSM) scales. Students' scores on the nine PSM scales were related to teachers' ratings of student PSM-related behavior. All scales except Trust significantly differentiated students rated high on PSM-related traits from students not rated high. Only…

  15. Scaling and universality in heart rate variability distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenblum, M. G.; Peng, C. K.; Mietus, J. E.; Havlin, S.; Stanley, H. E.; Goldberger, A. L.

    1998-01-01

    We find that a universal homogeneous scaling form describes the distribution of cardiac variations for a group of healthy subjects, which is stable over a wide range of time scales. However, a similar scaling function does not exist for a group with a common cardiopulmonary instability associated with sleep apnea. Subtle differences in the distributions for the day- and night-phase dynamics for healthy subjects are detected.

  16. Scaling and universality in heart rate variability distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, P. Ch; Rosenblum, M. G.; Peng, C.-K.; Mietus, J. E.; Havlin, S.; Stanley, H. E.; Goldberger, A. L.

    We find that a universal homogeneous scaling form describes the distributions of cardiac variations for a group of healthy subjects, which is stable over a wide range of time scales. However, a similar scaling function does not exist for a group with a common cardiopulmonary instability associated with sleep apnea. Subtle differences in the distributions for the day- and night-phase dynamics for healthy subjects are detected.

  17. A cluster analytic examination of acculturation and health status among Asian Americans in the Washington DC metropolitan area, United States.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sunmin; Chen, Lu; He, Xin; Miller, Matthew J; Juon, Hee-Soon

    2013-11-01

    Previous studies reported mixed findings on the relationship between acculturation and health status among Asian Americans due to different types of acculturation measures used or different Asian subgroups involved in various studies. We aim to fill the gap by applying multiple measures of acculturation in a diverse sample of Asian subgroups. A cross sectional study was conducted among Chinese, Korean and Vietnamese Americans in Washington D.C. Metropolitan Area to examine the association between health status and acculturation using multiple measures including the Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation (SL-ASIA) scale, clusters based on responses to SL-ASIA, language preference, length of stay, age at arrival in the United Sates and self-identity. Three clusters (Asian (31%); Bicultural (47%); and American (22%)) were created by using a two-step hierarchical method and Bayesian Information Criterion values. Across all the measures, more acculturated individuals were significantly more likely to report good health than those who were less acculturated after adjusting for covariates. Specifically, those in the American cluster were 3.8 times (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 2.2, 6.6) more likely and those in the Bicultural cluster were 1.7 times more likely (95% CI: 1.1, 2.4) to report good health as compared to those in the Asian cluster. When the conventional standardized SL-ASIA summary score (range:-1.4 to 1.4) was used, a one point increase was associated with 2.2 times greater odds of reporting good health (95% CI: 1.5, 3.2). However, the interpretation may be challenging due to uncertainty surrounding the meaning of a one point increase in SL-ASIA summary score. Among all the measures used, acculturation clusters better approximated the acculturation process and provided us with a more accurate test of the association in the population. Variables included in this measure were more relevant for our study sample and may have worked together to capture the

  18. The Impact of Acculturation Style and Acculturative Hassles on the Mental Health of Somali Adolescent Refugees.

    PubMed

    Lincoln, Alisa K; Lazarevic, Vanja; White, Matthew T; Ellis, B Heidi

    2016-08-01

    Refugee adolescents often immigrate to a new society because of experiences of persecution and trauma, which can have profound effects on their mental health. Once they immigrate, many refugees experience stressors related to resettlement and acculturation in the new society. The current study examined relationships among acculturation styles and hassles and the well-being of young refugees as well as the role of gender. Data were collected from 135 young refugees (M age = 15.39, SD = 2.2; 62 % male) from Somalia resettled in the United States The findings from our study indicate that in addition to trauma history, acculturative hassles and acculturation style impact the wellbeing of Somali refugee adolescents. These findings indicate the need to understand both past experiences as well as current challenges. Potential areas for intervention are discussed.

  19. Acculturation and acculturative stress as indicators for suicide risk among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Walker, Rheeda L

    2007-07-01

    The literature on African American suicide and the acculturation literature were examined to derive a possible explanation for increases in suicide deaths for African American men and apparent resilience for African American women. Historically, African Americans were believed to be unaffected by suicide because of protective factors (e.g., strong religious values and cohesive familial support systems) embedded in the culture. However, minority mental health investigators have found that acculturation sometimes leads to negative consequences for individuals from ethnic minority backgrounds. Accordingly, acculturation and acculturative phenomena are proposed as a model to shed light on African American male suicide as African Americans increasingly engage mainstream values, beliefs, and practices in the absence of traditional protective factors.

  20. Trajectories of victimization in ethnic diaspora immigrant and native adolescents: Separating acculturation from development.

    PubMed

    Jugert, Philipp; Titzmann, Peter F

    2017-03-01

    This longitudinal study aimed to differentiate between acculturative and developmental processes by (a) comparing levels and change rates in victimization among ethnic German immigrants and native German adolescents in Germany and Russian Jewish immigrants in Israel, and (b) testing whether interindividual differences in victimization among immigrant youth can be explained by the same general factors as in native groups or by migration-specific factors. In addition, we tested whether or not acculturative and developmental processes interact. The sample comprised 1,300 ethnic German immigrants, 820 native German adolescents, and 1,535 Russian Jewish adolescents. The participants (15.36-years-old) completed 3 annual assessments. Two-part latent growth models showed similar levels and rates of change among all 3 ethnic groups. Interindividual differences in victimization were largely explained by the same general factors across all ethnic groups but acculturation-related hassles explained additional variance among immigrant youth. Acculturation and development interacted such that the protective effect of age did not set in until 3-5 years of residence among both immigrant groups. Results suggest that developmental pathways to victimization are very similar among immigrant and native youth once immigrants successfully have managed the phase transition of resettlement. (PsycINFO Database Record

  1. The Classroom Adaptation Scale: A Behavior Rating Scale Designed to Screen Primary Grade Children for School Adaptation Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virbickis, Joseph A.

    After a brief historical review of the background and research, the paper focuses on development of a teacher-administered behavior rating scale to screen for school adaptation problems on a large scale basis using as Ss 15 primary grade teachers and their ratings of 315 primary grade children (ages 6-to-10 years) in their classes. A 16-item…

  2. Modeling relative frost weathering rates at geomorphic scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rempel, Alan W.; Marshall, Jill A.; Roering, Joshua J.

    2016-11-01

    Frost damage is a powerful agent of geomorphic change. Cracks can grow when the ice pressure in pores reaches a threshold that depends on matrix properties and crack geometry. Mineral surfaces that are preferentially wetted by liquid water rather than ice are coated by premelted liquid at a pressure that is lower than the ice pressure. Because this pressure difference increases as the temperature cools, when the ice pressure is effectively pinned at the cracking threshold, temperature gradients induce gradients in liquid pressure that draw water towards colder temperatures. Porosity increases and frost damage accumulates in regions where water supplies crack growth. To apply this understanding over the large spatial and temporal scales that are relevant to evolving landscapes, we develop a simple model that tracks porosity changes. Our central assumption is that frost damage is correlated with porosity increases under conditions where frost cracking takes place. Accordingly, we account for the permeability reductions with decreased temperature that accompany ice growth along porous pathways and derive general expressions for the porosity change through time at particular depths, as well as the total porosity increase through all depths beneath a point at the ground surface over the time during which cracking occurs each year. To illustrate the resulting patterns of frost weathering, we consider a general case in which the permeability has a power law dependence on temperature and the annual surface-temperature variation is sinusoidal. We find that the degree of frost damage generally decreases with depth, except at localized depths where damage is elevated because the rock spends longer times near the threshold for cracking, leading to enhanced water supply in comparison with neighboring regions. The magnitude of the net expansion that results from porosity changes at all depths beneath the ground surface is increased for seasonal thermal cycles with larger

  3. The importance of rating scales in measuring patient-reported outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A critical component that influences the measurement properties of a patient-reported outcome (PRO) instrument is the rating scale. Yet, there is a lack of general consensus regarding optimal rating scale format, including aspects of question structure, the number and the labels of response categories. This study aims to explore the characteristics of rating scales that function well and those that do not, and thereby develop guidelines for formulating rating scales. Methods Seventeen existing PROs designed to measure vision-related quality of life dimensions were mailed for self-administration, in sets of 10, to patients who were on a waiting list for cataract extraction. These PROs included questions with ratings of difficulty, frequency, severity, and global ratings. Using Rasch analysis, performance of rating scales were assessed by examining hierarchical ordering (indicating categories are distinct from each other and follow a logical transition from lower to higher value), evenness (indicating relative utilization of categories), and range (indicating coverage of the attribute by the rating scale). Results The rating scales with complicated question format, a large number of response categories, or unlabelled categories, tended to be dysfunctional. Rating scales with five or fewer response categories tended to be functional. Most of the rating scales measuring difficulty performed well. The rating scales measuring frequency and severity demonstrated hierarchical ordering but the categories lacked even utilization. Conclusion Developers of PRO instruments should use a simple question format, fewer (four to five) and labelled response categories. PMID:22794788

  4. Development of a scale to measure individuals’ ratings of peace

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The evolving concept of peace-building and the interplay between peace and health is examined in many venues, including at the World Health Assembly. However, without a metric to determine effectiveness of intervention programs all efforts are prone to subjective assessment. This paper develops a psychometric index that lays the foundation for measuring community peace stemming from intervention programs. Methods After developing a working definition of ‘peace’ and delineating a Peace Evaluation Across Cultures and Environments (PEACE) scale with seven constructs comprised of 71 items, a beta version of the index was pilot-tested. Two hundred and fifty subjects in three sites in the U.S. were studied using a five-point Likert scale to evaluate the psychometric functioning of the PEACE scale. Known groups validation was performed using the SOS-10. In addition, test-retest reliability was performed on 20 subjects. Results The preliminary data demonstrated that the scale has acceptable psychometric properties for measuring an individual’s level of peacefulness. The study also provides reliability and validity data for the scale. The data demonstrated internal consistency, correlation between data and psychological well-being, and test-retest reliability. Conclusions The PEACE scale may serve as a novel assessment tool in the health sector and be valuable in monitoring and evaluating the peace-building impact of health initiatives in conflict-affected regions. PMID:25298781

  5. Acculturation and Immigrant Children: Implications for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Pungello, Elizabeth P.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses child characteristics that influence acculturation, including age at migration, language facility, gender, and personality. Considers children's contact with the new society, including living arrangements, schooling experiences, parental attitudes and behaviors, and disparity with the former society. Provides five recommendations for…

  6. Changes in risk perception following a smoking cessation intervention: the role of acculturation in a sample of Latino caregivers.

    PubMed

    Wagener, Theodore L; Busch, Andrew M; Dunsiger, Shira I; Chiang, Karl S; Borrelli, Belinda

    2014-10-01

    The present exploratory study examined the role of acculturation in the perception of the risks of smoking following a smoking cessation induction intervention among Latino caregivers of children with asthma. The sample consisted of 131 Latino smokers (72.9% female; 18.3% born in the U.S.) who were caregivers of a child with asthma. Caregivers were randomized to one of two smoking cessation interventions that were part of a home-based asthma program. Self-report measures of risk-perception were assessed at baseline, end of treatment (2 months after baseline), and 2- and 3-months post-treatment. At baseline, caregivers, regardless of level of acculturation, reported moderate to high levels of concern about the effects of secondhand smoke on their child's health as well as perceived risk regarding the effect of smoking on their own health. However, caregivers who were low in acculturation had a greater increase in concern about the effects of smoking on their child from pre-to post treatment compared to those who were high in acculturation (p = .001). Lastly, level of acculturation moderated the association between caregivers' concern about smoking on their child's health and their motivation to quit smoking (p < .05), but not cessation rates or reduced secondhand smoke exposure (p > .05). Specifically, motivation to quit at 3 months was greater for those with low acculturation. Though exploratory, these findings suggest that risk perception may be more easily influenced in low versus high acculturated populations and this should be considered in the design of clinical interventions and potentially mass media campaigns seeking to influence risk of caregiver behavior on child health with ethnic and racial minorities.

  7. Effect of Acculturation and Access to Care on Colorectal Cancer Screening in Low-Income Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Vernon, Sally W.; Atkinson, John S.; Fernández, Maria E.

    2015-01-01

    Latinos have lower colorectal cancer screening (CRCS) and survival rates compared to other race/ethnic groups. This cross-sectional study examines relationships between acculturation, access to and utilization of health-care services, and CRCS in low-income Latinos. Bilingual data collectors conducted structured interviews with 544 Latino men and women (>50 years) residing in the Texas-Mexico border area. Using a hierarchical logistic regression model, we examined the relationship between lifetime history of any CRCS test and indicators of acculturation, healthcare utilization and access to care, adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics. Survey results revealed a 34 % prevalence of CRCS. Participants reporting a provider recommendation for screening, regular check-ups, higher acculturation level, and health insurance had significantly increased odds of CRCS. Findings indicate CRCS intervention research in Latinos should focus on (1) increasing physicians’ recommendations for screening, (2) promoting regular check-ups, (3) and increasing CRC prevention efforts on less acculturated and uninsured groups. PMID:25047403

  8. Acculturation, Depression, Self-Esteem, and Substance Abuse among Hispanic Men

    PubMed Central

    Vasquez, Elias Provencio; Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa M.; De Santis, Joseph P.

    2011-01-01

    The demographics of the United States are rapidly changing as a result of immigration from Latin America. Predictions indicate that by the year 2050, one of every four persons in the United States will be of Hispanic ethnicity. If health disparities relating to substance abuse and related mental health conditions among Hispanics are not fully understood and addressed, these will continue grow along with this population. The purpose of this pilot study was to describe the relationships among acculturation, depression, self-esteem, and substance abuse among a community sample of Hispanic men in South Florida (N = 164, 82 heterosexual men and 82 men who have sex with men). Standardized instruments measuring acculturation, depression, self-esteem, and substance abuse were administered in English or Spanish in a face-to-face interview format. Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression were used to illustrate participant characteristics and test relationships among the variables. Despite the fact that the majority of participants were more acculturated to the Hispanic culture than US culture, reported low levels of education and income, were depressed, and used substances, this group of men reported high levels of self-esteem. However, age and depression were the only predictors of substance abuse. Acculturation and self-esteem were not predictors of substance abuse. Clinicians need to be aware of the high rates of depression and substance abuse in this population and screen frequently for signs and symptoms of depression and substance abuse during health care encounters. PMID:21247274

  9. Rates of computational errors for scoring the SIRS primary scales.

    PubMed

    Tyner, Elizabeth A; Frederick, Richard I

    2013-12-01

    We entered item scores for the Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS; Rogers, Bagby, & Dickens, 1991) into a spreadsheet and compared computed scores with those hand-tallied by examiners. We found that about 35% of the tests had at least 1 scoring error. Of SIRS scale scores tallied by examiners, about 8% were incorrectly summed. When the errors were corrected, only 1 SIRS classification was reclassified in the fourfold scheme used by the SIRS. We note that mistallied scores on psychological tests are common, and we review some strategies for reducing scale score errors on the SIRS.

  10. Determining the Scoring Validity of a Co-Constructed CEFR-Based Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deygers, Bart; Van Gorp, Koen

    2015-01-01

    Considering scoring validity as encompassing both reliable rating scale use and valid descriptor interpretation, this study reports on the validation of a CEFR-based scale that was co-constructed and used by novice raters. The research questions this paper wishes to answer are (a) whether it is possible to construct a CEFR-based rating scale with…

  11. Using Rasch Rating Scale Methodology to Examine a Behavioral Screener for Preschoolers at Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiStefano, Christine; Greer, Fred W.; Kamphaus, R. W.; Brown, William H.

    2014-01-01

    A screening instrument used to identify young children at risk for behavioral and emotional difficulties, the Behavioral and Emotional Screening System Teacher Rating Scale-Preschool was examined. The Rasch Rating Scale Method was used to provide additional information about psychometric properties of items, respondents, and the response scale.…

  12. Sexual attitudes, behaviours and acculturation among young migrants in Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Sudhinaraset, May; Mmari, Kristin; Go, Vivan; Blum, Robert Wm

    2012-10-01

    China's rates of internal migration increased to an all-time high of over 200 million individuals at the beginning of the twenty-first century. Yet, there is a dearth of information on the lives of young migrant populations. The aim of this study was to explore how migration influences the sexual attitudes and behaviours of 18-24-year-old migrant men and women in Shanghai, China. A total of 64 migrants participated in 10 focus-group discussions and 20 in-depth interviews. Guided by acculturation theory, coded data were organised into analytic matrices to compare themes across participants. Factors associated with increased sexual-risk behaviours include acculturative stress, discrimination leading to social isolation, conflicts between traditional and modern city values and increased sexual opportunities. Premarital sex, cohabitation, unprotected sex and visiting sex workers are common among this population. Reasons for not using condoms included being unprepared, lack of knowledge and barriers in accessing reproductive services due to not having urban documentation. Local family planning programmes should help migrants negotiate traditional and modern values and partner with work-sites to provide comprehensive sexual education and services and train health professionals in the specific healthcare needs of young migrant populations.

  13. Scale-Dependent Rates of Uranyl Surface Complexation Reaction in Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chongxuan; Shang, Jianying; Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Zachara, John M.; Zhu, Weihuang

    2013-03-15

    Scale-dependency of uranyl[U(VI)] surface complexation rates was investigated in stirred flow-cell and column systems using a U(VI)-contaminated sediment from the US Department of Energy, Hanford site, WA. The experimental results were used to estimate the apparent rate of U(VI) surface complexation at the grain-scale and in porous media. Numerical simulations using molecular, pore-scale, and continuum models were performed to provide insights into and to estimate the rate constants of U(VI) surface complexation at the different scales. The results showed that the grain-scale rate constant of U(VI) surface complexation was over 3 to 10 orders of magnitude smaller, dependent on the temporal scale, than the rate constant calculated using the molecular simulations. The grain-scale rate was faster initially and slower with time, showing the temporal scale-dependency. The largest rate constant at the grain-scale decreased additional 2 orders of magnitude when the rate was scaled to the porous media in the column. The scaling effect from the grain-scale to the porous media became less important for the slower sorption sites. Pore-scale simulations revealed the importance of coupled mass transport and reactions in both intragranular and inter-granular domains, which caused both spatial and temporal dependence of U(VI) surface complexation rates in the sediment. Pore-scale simulations also revealed a new rate-limiting mechanism in the intragranular porous domains that the rate of coupled diffusion and surface complexation reaction was slower than either process alone. The results provided important implications for developing models to scale geochemical/biogeochemical reactions.

  14. Fetal development assessed by heart rate patterns--time scales of complex autonomic control.

    PubMed

    Hoyer, Dirk; Nowack, Samuel; Bauer, Stephan; Tetschke, Florian; Ludwig, Stefan; Moraru, Liviu; Rudoph, Anja; Wallwitz, Ulrike; Jaenicke, Franziska; Haueisen, Jens; Schleussner, Ekkehard; Schneider, Uwe

    2012-03-01

    The increasing functional integrity of the organism during fetal maturation is connected with increasing complex internal coordination. We hypothesize that time scales of complexity and dynamics of heart rate patterns reflect the increasing inter-dependencies within the fetal organism during its prenatal development. We investigated multi-scale complexity, time irreversibility and fractal scaling from 73 fetal magnetocardiographic 30min recordings over the third trimester. We found different scale dependent complexity changes, increasing medium scale time irreversibility, and increasing long scale fractal correlations (all changes p<0.05). The results confirm the importance of time scales to be considered in fetal heart rate based developmental indices.

  15. Maximizing measurement efficiency of behavior rating scales using Item Response Theory: An example with the Social Skills Improvement System - Teacher Rating Scale.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Christopher J; DiPerna, James C; Lei, Pui-Wa

    2016-04-01

    Measurement efficiency is an important consideration when developing behavior rating scales for use in research and practice. Although most published scales have been developed within a Classical Test Theory (CTT) framework, Item Response Theory (IRT) offers several advantages for developing scales that maximize measurement efficiency. The current study provides an example of using IRT to maximize rating scale efficiency with the Social Skills Improvement System - Teacher Rating Scale (SSIS - TRS), a measure of student social skills frequently used in practice and research. Based on IRT analyses, 27 items from the Social Skills subscales and 14 items from the Problem Behavior subscales of the SSIS - TRS were identified as maximally efficient. In addition to maintaining similar content coverage to the published version, these sets of maximally efficient items demonstrated similar psychometric properties to the published SSIS - TRS.

  16. A test of the domain-specific acculturation strategy hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Miller, Matthew J; Yang, Minji; Lim, Robert H; Hui, Kayi; Choi, Na-Yeun; Fan, Xiaoyan; Lin, Li-Ling; Grome, Rebekah E; Farrell, Jerome A; Blackmon, Sha'kema

    2013-01-01

    Acculturation literature has evolved over the past several decades and has highlighted the dynamic ways in which individuals negotiate experiences in multiple cultural contexts. The present study extends this literature by testing M. J. Miller and R. H. Lim's (2010) domain-specific acculturation strategy hypothesis-that individuals might use different acculturation strategies (i.e., assimilated, bicultural, separated, and marginalized strategies; J. W. Berry, 2003) across behavioral and values domains-in 3 independent cluster analyses with Asian American participants. Present findings supported the domain-specific acculturation strategy hypothesis as 67% to 72% of participants from 3 independent samples using different strategies across behavioral and values domains. Consistent with theory, a number of acculturation strategy cluster group differences emerged across generational status, acculturative stress, mental health symptoms, and attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help. Study limitations and future directions for research are discussed.

  17. The SNAP Rating Scale for the Diagnosis of the Attention Deficit Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, James M.; And Others

    The correlation of ratings from the SNAP Rating Scale with the ratings from the established Conners' Ratinq Scale are discussed as a method for assessing the validity of the new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III) criteria for attention deficient disorder with hyper-activity (ADDH). The questionnaire of SNAP items and…

  18. Development of the Self-Esteem Rating Scale for Children (Revised).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Lian-Hwang

    1987-01-01

    Developed a teacher's rating scale of self-esteem for children. Participants were 231 school children in grades K-7. Used sociometric measures, popularity ranking by teachers, and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory to estimate validity. The Self-Esteem Rating Scale for Children (SERSC) included 12 behavioral characteristics rated most…

  19. The Gifted Rating Scales-School Form: A Validation Study Based on Age, Gender, and Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeiffer, Steven; Petscher, Yaacov; Kumtepe, Alper

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the internal consistency and validity of a new rating scale to identify gifted students, the Gifted Rating Scales-School Form (GRS-S). The study explored the effect of gender, race/ethnicity, age, and rater familiarity on GRS-S ratings. One hundred twenty-two students in first to eighth grade from elementary and middle schools…

  20. Measurement Quality of the Chinese Early Childhood Program Rating Scale: An Investigation Using Multivariate Generalizability Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Dezhi; Hu, Bi Ying; Fan, Xitao; Li, Kejian

    2014-01-01

    Adapted from the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised, the Chinese Early Childhood Program Rating Scale (CECPRS) is a culturally comparable measure for assessing the quality of early childhood education and care programs in the Chinese cultural/social contexts. In this study, 176 kindergarten classrooms were rated with CECPRS on eight…

  1. Rating scales as outcome measures for clinical trials in neurology: problems, solutions, and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Hobart, Jeremy C; Cano, Stefan J; Zajicek, John P; Thompson, Alan J

    2007-12-01

    Have state-of-the-art clinical trials failed to deliver treatments for neurodegenerative diseases because of shortcomings in the rating scales used? This Review assesses two methodological limitations of rating scales that might help to answer this question. First, the numbers generated by most rating scales do not satisfy the criteria for rigorous measurements. Second, we do not really know which variables most rating scales measure. We use clinical examples to highlight concerns about the limitations of rating scales, examine their underlying rationales, clarify their implications, explore potential solutions, and make some recommendations for future research. We show that improvements in the scientific rigour of rating scales can improve the chances of reaching the correct conclusions about the effectiveness of treatments.

  2. Acculturative stress, perceived discrimination, and vulnerability to suicide attempts among emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Judelysse; Miranda, Regina; Polanco, Lillian

    2011-11-01

    Cultural factors are often neglected in studies of suicidal behavior among emerging adults. The present study examined acculturative stress and perceived discrimination as statistical predictors of a suicide attempt history among an ethnically diverse sample of 969 emerging adults, ages 18-25 (M = 18.8). Females made up 68% of the sample, and the racial/ethnic composition included Asian, Latino, Black, and White (US-born and non-US-born) individuals. There were no statistically significant racial/ethnic differences in endorsement of a suicide attempt history, with an overall rate of 8% in the sample. Asian participants reported higher acculturative stress than all other racial/ethnic groups, while both Asian and Black participants reported having experienced more discrimination in the previous year, compared to other groups. Logistic regression analyses suggested that familial acculturative stress was associated with 2 times higher odds of endorsing a past suicide attempt, overall. More specifically, it was associated with over 2 times higher odds among Asian participants, over 4 times higher odds among Black participants, and over 3 times higher odds among non-US-born White participants, while social acculturative stress was associated with over 3 times higher odds of endorsing a past suicide attempt among Latino participants. Environmental acculturative stress was associated with decreased odds of endorsing a suicide attempt history, overall, but not when examined separately by racial/ethnic group. Perceived discrimination was associated with over 5 times higher odds of a suicide attempt, overall, and specifically was associated with over 3 times higher odds among Latino participants and over 10 times higher odds among White, US-born participants. These findings suggest the importance of addressing culturally-related variables in treatment with emerging adults of racially/ethnically diverse backgrounds to reduce risk for suicidal behavior.

  3. Minority acculturation and peer rejection: Costs of acculturation misfit with peer-group norms.

    PubMed

    Celeste, Laura; Meeussen, Loes; Verschueren, Karine; Phalet, Karen

    2016-09-01

    How do minority adolescents' personal acculturation preferences and peer norms of acculturation affect their social inclusion in school? Turkish and Moroccan minority adolescents (N = 681) reported their preferences for heritage culture maintenance, mainstream culture adoption, and their experiences of peer rejection as a key indicator of adjustment problems. Additionally, we aggregated peer acculturation norms of maintenance and adoption within ethnically diverse classrooms (N = 230 in 50 Belgian schools), distinguishing between co-ethnic (Turkish or Moroccan classmates only, N = 681) and cross-ethnic norms (also including N = 1,930 other classmates). Cross-ethnic peer-group norms (of adoption and maintenance) and co-ethnic norms (of maintenance, marginally) predicted minority experiences of peer rejection (controlling for ethnic composition). Moreover, misfit of minorities' own acculturation preferences with both cross-ethnic and co-ethnic peer-group norms was harmful. When cross-ethnic norms stressed adoption, 'integrationist' minority youth - who combined culture adoption with maintenance - experienced most peer rejection. Yet, when co-ethnic peers stressed maintenance, 'assimilationist' minority youth experienced most rejection. In conclusion, acculturation misfit with peer-group norms is a risk factor for minority inclusion in ethnically diverse environments.

  4. An Evaluation of China's Kindergarten Quality Rating System through the Chinese Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale--The Zhejiang Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Bi Ying; Vong, Keang-Ieng; Mak, Miranda Chi Kuan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of one province's Kindergarten Quality Rating System in differentiating quality levels using the Chinese Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale (CECERS). Results confirmed that, except for the difference between the Standard and Level-3 Kindergartens, the CECERS was successful in detecting the differences…

  5. Analysis of the Professional Choice Self-Efficacy Scale Using the Rasch-Andrich Rating Scale Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambiel, Rodolfo A. M.; Noronha, Ana Paula Porto; de Francisco Carvalho, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to analyze the psychometrics properties of the professional choice self-efficacy scale (PCSES), using the Rasch-Andrich rating scale model. The PCSES assesses four factors: self-appraisal, gathering occupational information, practical professional information search and future planning. Participants were 883 Brazilian…

  6. Does Scale Length Matter? A Comparison of Nine- versus Five-Point Rating Scales for the Mini-CEX

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, David A.; Beckman, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    Educators must often decide how many points to use in a rating scale. No studies have compared interrater reliability for different-length scales, and few have evaluated accuracy. This study sought to evaluate the interrater reliability and accuracy of mini-clinical evaluation exercise (mini-CEX) scores, comparing the traditional mini-CEX…

  7. Scaling and Ordering of Neonatal Heart Rate Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghili, Ali A.; Rizwan-Uddin, Rizwan-Uddin; Griffin, M. Pamela; Moorman, J. Randall

    1995-02-01

    By analyzing cardiac beat-to-beat intervals and interbeat increments, we find that-unlike adults-the difference in the pattern of interbeat increments in healthy and sick newborn infants is more due to a change in the amplitude and much less to a change in the ordering of the interbeat increments. This suggests that very low-frequency elements of neonatal and adult heart rate variability rise from fundamentally different mechanisms.

  8. Osteoporosis and Milk Intake among Korean Women in California: Relationship with Acculturation to U.S. Lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Irvin, Veronica L.; Nichols, Jeanne F.; Hofstetter, C. Richard; Ojeda, Victoria D.; Song, YoonJu; Kang, Sunny; Hovell, Melbourne F.

    2013-01-01

    Background The Korean population in the U.S. increased by a third between 2000 and 2010. Korean women in the U.S. report low calcium intake and relatively high rate of fractures. However, little is known about the prevalence of osteoporosis among Korean American women. This paper examined the relationship between prevalence of osteoporosis and milk consumption, and their relationship with acculturation among a representative sample of immigrant California women of Korean descent. Methods Bilingual telephone surveys were conducted from a probability sample (N = 590) in 2007. Results Lower acculturation significantly related to lower milk consumption for women during the age periods of 12-18 and 19-34 years. Acculturation was related to higher prevalence of osteoporosis among post-menopausal, but not pre-menopausal Korean women in California. Discussion Future research should include larger cohorts, objective measures of osteoporosis, other sources of calcium specific to Korean cuisine, and assessment of bone-loading physical activity. PMID:23338905

  9. Osteoporosis and milk intake among Korean women in California: relationship with acculturation to U.S. lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Irvin, Veronica L; Nichols, Jeanne F; Hofstetter, C Richard; Ojeda, Victoria D; Song, Yoon Ju; Kang, Sunny; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2013-12-01

    The Korean population in the US increased by a third between 2000 and 2010. Korean women in the US report low calcium intake and relatively high rate of fractures. However, little is known about the prevalence of osteoporosis among Korean American women. This paper examined the relationship between prevalence of osteoporosis and milk consumption, and their relationship with acculturation among a representative sample of immigrant California women of Korean descent. Bilingual telephone surveys were conducted from a probability sample (N = 590) in 2007. Lower acculturation significantly related to lower milk consumption for women during the age periods of 12-18 and 19-34 years. Acculturation was related to higher prevalence of osteoporosis among post-menopausal, but not pre-menopausal Korean women in California. Future research should include larger cohorts, objective measures of osteoporosis, other sources of calcium specific to Korean cuisine, and assessment of bone-loading physical activity.

  10. Cloud-Scale Vertical Velocity and Turbulent Dissipation Rate Retrievals

    DOE Data Explorer

    Shupe, Matthew

    2013-05-22

    Time-height fields of retrieved in-cloud vertical wind velocity and turbulent dissipation rate, both retrieved primarily from vertically-pointing, Ka-band cloud radar measurements. Files are available for manually-selected, stratiform, mixed-phase cloud cases observed at the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) site during periods covering the Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (MPACE, late September through early November 2004) and the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC, April-early May 2008). These time periods will be expanded in a future submission.

  11. Effects of Standard Extremity on Mixed Standard Scale Performance Ratings.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    Zellinger, 1 980); c) comparisons of the psychomeir ic character ist ics of rziings ob tained from MSS and other rating formats (Arvey & Hoyle , 1...Landy, 1977), and sometimes favoring BARS (Arvey & Hoyle , 1’-74; Finley, et al., 1977). Lack of Inter-ra+er reliability does ",eem to be a consistent...problem with the MSS (Arvey & Hoyle , 1974; Finley, et al., 1977; Saal, 1979; SaaI & Li:ndy, 1977). However, the convergent and discrimlnant vai dily of

  12. Video-rate fuzzy Golay processor for wafer scale integration

    SciTech Connect

    Steinvorth, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    The fuzzy Golay transformation is a novel approach for gray-level image processing. Fuzzy-set theory is used to modify the binary image processing techniques developed by M. J. Golay to permit direct gray-level image processing without thresholding. The comparison between gray-level pixels is accomplished with the Pixel Closeness Value (PCV) while comparison between gray-level neighborhoods uses the Neighborhood Closeness Value (NCV). Feature extraction is done by comparing the gray-level image neighborhood to a subset of the fourteen Golay neighborhoods using the NCV function. The Fuzzy Golay Processor (FGP) is an architecture designed to implement the fuzzy Golay transformation. The design of the FGP has been optimized to permit a successful implementation in Wafer Scale Integration (WSI). A system containing four FGPs is capable of performing thirty fuzzy Golay transformations per second on a 256 by 256 eight-bit pixel image. Such a system could fit on a four-inch wafer with enough redundant dies to allow a 30% die yield. The required dies are four Input-Output Modules (IOM) and 56 Neighborhood Evaluation Modules (NEM).

  13. [Respiratory domain of revised amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Functional Rating Scale].

    PubMed

    Lima, Sandra E; Pessolano, Fernando A; Monteiro, Sergio G; De Vito, Eduardo L

    2009-01-01

    Virtually all patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis will complain of dyspnea, which is perhaps the most distressing symptom of this devastating disease. The objective was to correlate respiratory domain of ALSFRS-R with forced vital capacity and maximal static pressures in the mouth. We designed a prospective study in 20 consecutive patients without dyspnea during 24 months. The global decline of ALSFRS-R was from 34.3 +/- 10.3 to 22.1 +/- 8.0 (p = 0.0325), the contribution of respiratory domain was irrelevant. Those who referred dyspnea (n: 12), forced vital capacity fell 41 +/- 21% of the initial value but with similar value of fall (46 +/- 23%) 8 patients did not referred dyspnea. Total score of ALSFRS-R correlated with forced vital capacity (litres), r: 0.73, p = 0.0016 and maximal inspiratory pressure (cm H2O), r: 0.84, p = 0.0038, but the fall of the forced vital capacity (%) did not correlate with dyspnea (r(s): 0.23, p = 0.1400). There was a moderate correlation between dyspnea and maximal inspiratory pressure (%), r(s): 0.58, p = 0.0300 and between dyspnea and maximal expiratory pressure (%), r(s): 0.49, p = 0.0400. We concluded that the respiratory functional deterioration could not be predicted using respiratory domain of ALSFRS-R. This suggests that respiratory domain of this scale does not replace to respiratory function testing measurements and, due to the respiratory insufficiency could not be clinically evident; performing pulmonary function tests provides an objective view and permit to make anticipatory actions.

  14. Development and Validation of a Rating Scale for Wind Jazz Improvisation Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Derek T.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to construct and validate a rating scale for collegiate wind jazz improvisation performance. The 14-item Wind Jazz Improvisation Evaluation Scale (WJIES) was constructed and refined through a facet-rational approach to scale development. Five wind jazz students and one professional jazz educator were asked to record…

  15. Area Scales of the Navy Vocational Interest Inventory as Predictors of School Performance and Rating Assignment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Alan W.; Abrahams, Norman M.

    The purpose of this research is to evaluate the effectiveness of the area (homogeneous) scales of the Navy Vocational Interest Inventory (NVII) as predictors of Class "A" school achievement and as measures of rating differentiation by comparing specific occupational scales with more general interest measures--the NVII area scales. The…

  16. Modifying the Response Labels of an ADHD Teacher Rating Scale: Psychometric and Epidemiologic Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Andrew S.; Umbach, David M.; Bohlig, E. Michael; Stallone, Lil; Sandler, Dale P.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of changing the response labels of a teacher rating scale in a population-based study of ADHD. Method: For parents, the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, which asks whether each of 18 symptoms occurred "often" in the past year, was used. For teachers, most scales use a 4-point scale, with…

  17. Rating Scale Analysis: Gauging the Impact of Positively and Negatively Worded Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergstrom, Betty A.; Lunz, Mary E.

    This paper addresses questions of whether positively- and negatively-worded items measure the same construct and whether the rating scale categories "strongly agree" to "strongly disagree" are used in the same way for both types of items. Item response theory (IRT), specifically the Andrich Rating Scale Model (B. Wright and G.…

  18. The Working Memory Rating Scale: A Classroom-Based Behavioral Assessment of Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alloway, Tracy Packiam; Gathercole, Susan Elizabeth; Kirkwood, Hannah; Elliott, Julian

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of the Working Memory Rating Scale (WMRS), an observer-based rating scale that reflects behavioral difficulties of children with poor working memory. The findings indicate good internal reliability and adequate psychometric properties for use as a screening tool by teachers. Higher…

  19. How Is a Teacher Rating Scale Used in the Diagnosis of Attention Deficit Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conners, C. Keith

    1986-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of children with Attention Deficit Disorder should include use of teacher rating scales. Rater biases, positive and negative halo effects, practice effects, and other problems are outweighed by the ease of use, low cost, and reasonable reliability and validity of teacher rating scales. (Author/DB)

  20. Emotional Indicators on the Bender-Gestalt and the Devereux Child Behavior Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory Mary K.

    1977-01-01

    A heterogeneous group of elementary school children referred for psycho-educational diagnosis were rated on the Devereux Child Behavior Rating Scale and the Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test, scoring for Koppitz Emotional Indicators. Findings suggests that certain DCB factors may be more predictive of emotional problems than others in the scale.…

  1. Minimal Clinically Important Worsening on the Progressive Supranuclear Palsy Rating Scale

    PubMed Central

    Hewer, Sarah; Varley, Sue; Boxer, Adam L.; Paul, Eldho; Williams, David R

    2016-01-01

    Structured Abstract Introduction Despite the widespread use of the PSP rating scale it is not known what change in this scale is meaningful for patients. Methods We analyzed data from a large clinical trial in PSP-Richardson’s syndrome (AL-108-231) to calculate minimal clinically important worsening. This was defined as the difference in mean change of PSP rating scale in subjects rated ‘a little worse’ and those rated ‘unchanged’ on the Clinicians’ Global Impression of Change Scale. A multivariate analysis using logistic regression assessed the relationship between clinical worsening, PSP rating scale, depression and activities of daily living. Results The minimal clinically important worsening on the PSP rating scale was 5.7 points, corresponding to the mean decline over six months in the trial. Changes in activities of daily living and PSP rating scale were significantly associated with clinical worsening. Conclusion Clinically meaningful change is measurable on the PSP rating scale over six months. PMID:27324431

  2. Programs for the Construction and Analysis of Custom Questionnaires and Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Kenneth O., Jr.; Wattawa, Scott

    1977-01-01

    Programs are described for the construction and analysis of student evaluation questionnaires and rating scales that are custom-designed for individual course instructors. Minor modifications would permit the use of these programs for other kinds of questionnaires and rating scales as well as for achievement tests. (Author)

  3. Internet Administration of the Paper-and-Pencil Gifted Rating Scale: Assessing Psychometric Equivalence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarnell, Jordy B.; Pfeiffer, Steven I.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the psychometric equivalence of administering a computer-based version of the Gifted Rating Scale (GRS) compared with the traditional paper-and-pencil GRS-School Form (GRS-S). The GRS-S is a teacher-completed rating scale used in gifted assessment. The GRS-Electronic Form provides an alternative method of administering…

  4. Identifying Young Gifted Children Using the Gifted Rating Scales Preschool/Kindergarten Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeiffer, Steven I.; Petscher, Yaacov

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on an analysis of the diagnostic accuracy of a new teacher rating scale designed to assist in the identification of gifted preschool and kindergarten students. The Gifted Rating Scales-Preschool/Kindergarten Form (GRS-P) is based on a multidimensional model of giftedness. An examination of the standardization sample using…

  5. Reliability and Structural Validity of The Teacher Rating Scales of Early Academic Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Erin E.; Diperna, James C.; Missall, Kristen; Volpe, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Currently, there are few strengths-based preschool rating scales that sample a wide array of behaviors believed to be essential for early academic success. The purpose of this study was to assess the factor structure of a new measure of early academic competence for at-risk preschool populations. The Teacher Rating Scales of Early Academic…

  6. Optimizing the Compatibility between Rating Scales and Measures of Productive Second Language Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a systematic investigation concerning the performance of different rating scales used in the English section of a university entrance examination to assess 1,287 Japanese test takers' ability to write a third-person introduction speech. Although the rating scales did not conform to all of the expectations of the Rasch model,…

  7. The Dissipation Rate Transport Equation and Subgrid-Scale Models in Rotating Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubinstein, Robert; Ye, Zhou

    1997-01-01

    The dissipation rate transport equation remains the most uncertain part of turbulence modeling. The difficulties arc increased when external agencies like rotation prevent straightforward dimensional analysis from determining the correct form of the modelled equation. In this work, the dissipation rate transport equation and subgrid scale models for rotating turbulence are derived from an analytical statistical theory of rotating turbulence. In the strong rotation limit, the theory predicts a turbulent steady state in which the inertial range energy spectrum scales as k(sup -2) and the turbulent time scale is the inverse rotation rate. This scaling has been derived previously by heuristic arguments.

  8. A Self-rating Scale of English Difficulty: Rasch Scalar Analysis of Items and Rating Categories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Fred; Henning, Grant

    1985-01-01

    Presents a study of how well a set of language proficiency self-ratings fit the predictions of a probabilistic measurement model known as the Rasch Model. Applies the principles of the model to scalar rather than binary item response data. Concludes that scalar analysis of this kind is feasible with self-rating data. (Author/SED)

  9. Construct and concurrent validation of OMNI-Kayak rating of Perceived Exertion Scale.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Fábio Y; Perandini, Luiz A; Okuno, Nilo M; Borges, Thiago O; Bertuzzi, Rômulo C M; Robertson, Robert J

    2009-06-01

    This study tested the concurrent and construct validity of a newly developed OMNI-Kayak Scale, testing 8 male kayakers who performed a flatwater load-incremented "shuttle" test over a 500-m course and 3 estimation-production trials over a 1,000-m course. Velocity, blood lactate concentration, heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE), using the OMNI-Kayak RPE Scale and the Borg 6-20 Scale were recorded. OMNI-Kayak Scale RPE was highly correlated with velocity, the Borg 6-20 Scale RPE, blood lactate, and heart rate for both load-incremented test (rs = .87-.96), and estimation trials (rs = .75-.90). There were no significant differences among velocities, heart rate and blood lactate concentration between estimation and production trials. The OMNI-Kayak RPE Scale showed concurrent and construct validity in assessing perception of effort in flatwater kayaking and is a valid tool for self-regulation of exercise intensity.

  10. Pore-Scale Process Coupling and Effective Surface Reaction Rates in Heterogeneous Subsurface Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chongxuan; Liu, Yuanyuan; Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Zachara, John M.

    2015-09-01

    This manuscript provides a review of pore-scale researches in literature including experimental and numerical approaches, and scale-dependent behavior of geochemical and biogeochemical reaction rates in heterogeneous porous media. A mathematical equation that can be used to predict the scale-dependent behavior of geochemical reaction rates in heterogeneous porous media has been derived. The derived effective rate expression explicitly links the effective reaction rate constant to the intrinsic rate constant, and to the pore-scale variations in reactant concentrations in porous media. Molecular simulations to calculate the intrinsic rate constants were provided. A few examples of pore-scale simulations were used to demonstrate the application of the equation to calculate effective rate constants in heterogeneous materials. The results indicate that the deviation of effective rate constant from the intrinsic rate in heterogeneous porous media is caused by the pore-scale distributions of reactants and their correlation, which are affected by the pore-scale coupling of reactions and transport.

  11. Optimizing the compatibility between rating scales and measures of productive second language competence.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a systematic investigation concerning the performance of different rating scales used in the English section of a university entrance examination to assess 1,287 Japanese test takers' ability to write a third-person introduction speech. Although the rating scales did not conform to all of the expectations of the Rasch model, they successfully defined a meaningful continuum of English communicative competence. In some cases, the expectations of the Rasch model needed to be weighed against the specific assessment needs of the university entrance examination. This investigation also found that the degree of compatibility between the number of points allotted to the different rating scales and the various requirements of an introduction speech played a considerable role in determining the extent to which the different rating scales conformed to the expectations of the Rasch model. Compatibility thus becomes an important factor to consider for optimal rating scale performance.

  12. An Exploratory Study of Mothers' Perceptions of Acculturation within the Preschool Context. Working Paper. WR-523

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lara-Cinisomo, Sandraluz; Thomas, Audrey Alforque

    2007-01-01

    This exploratory study examines the mother's perceptions of her preschooler's acculturation process, using qualitative methods to collect data from six Latino immigrant mothers about their own acculturation and that of their preschool child. Three patterns emerged: parallel dyadic acculturation, vertex dyadic acculturation, and intersegmented…

  13. Expanding the Acculturation Gap-Distress Model: An Integrative Review of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telzer, Eva H.

    2010-01-01

    The acculturation gap-distress model purports that immigrant children acculturate to their new culture at a quicker pace than their parents, leading to family conflict and youth maladjustment. This article reviews literature on the acculturation gap-distress model, showing that acculturation gaps function in unique ways depending on many social…

  14. Acculturation Stress and Bullying among Immigrant Youths in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messinger, Adam M.; Nieri, Tanya A.; Villar, Paula; Luengo, Maria Angeles

    2012-01-01

    Few bullying studies focus on immigrant youths or acculturation stress as a risk factor for bullying and being bullied. Employing a sample of 1,157 foreign-born secondary students in Spain, we found that acculturation stress was widely experienced, although the average level of stress was moderate. Five percent of the sample reported being…

  15. Coping Strategies for Managing Acculturative Stress among Asian International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ra, Young-An; Trusty, Jerry

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the effects of specific coping strategies on managing acculturative stress and acculturation of Asian international students, based on a sample of 220 Asian international students in the U.S. The data were analyzed with hierarchical multiple regression using Baron and Kenny's (1986) mediation procedure. The results supported…

  16. Acculturative Stress and School Belonging among Latino Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roche, Cathy; Kuperminc, Gabriel P.

    2012-01-01

    Dimensions of acculturative stress and their implications for school belonging and achievement were examined among 199 Latino middle-school students. The proposed model hypothesized that school belonging would mediate the association between acculturative stress dimensions and low school achievement. Eighty percent youth of the sample were…

  17. "Re-Acculturation" through Community-Based Religious Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Jennie S.

    2011-01-01

    Reflective engagement in reciprocal community partnerships holds tremendous potential for guiding members of congregations through the process of "re-acculturation." One of the "best practices" named in research about community-engaged learning for undergraduates is "re-acculturation"--an ongoing process of critical reflection about one's own…

  18. Rethinking the Concept of Acculturation: Implications for Theory and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Szapocznik, Jose

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an expanded model of acculturation among international migrants and their immediate descendants. Acculturation is proposed as a multidimensional process consisting of the confluence among heritage-cultural and receiving-cultural practices, values, and identifications. The implications of this reconceptualization for the…

  19. A Brief Literature Review on Acculturation Strategies of Overseas Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fu, Kefeng

    2015-01-01

    Acculturation strategy has been an integral and essential part in the field of acculturation study. The fact that an increasing number of international overseas students wave into China renders this research urgently in need; and new theoretical models emerged constantly, which have had a significant effect on the immigration policies in China.…

  20. Minneapolis Multi-Ethnic Curriculum Project--Acculturation Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skjervold, Christian K.; And Others

    The student booklet presents short case studies illustrating the acculturation unit of the Minneapolis Multi-Ethnic Curriculum Project for secondary schools. It is presented in nine chapters. Chapter I provides background information on immigration and points out ways acculturation takes place. Chapter II, "Barrio Boy," tells of life in…

  1. Acculturation and Eating Disorder Symptoms in Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gowen, L. Kris; Hayward, Chris; Killen, Joel D.; Robinson, Thomas N.; Taylor, C. Barr

    1999-01-01

    Examined relationship between acculturation and eating-disorder symptoms in normative samples of 920 adolescents girls of high school age. Found that acculturation was positively associated with structured-interview defined partial syndrome eating disorders in Hispanic girls, but not in Asian or European-American girls. There was no relation…

  2. EAP Curriculum Alignment and Social Acculturation: Student Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tweedie, M. Gregory; Kim, Marcia

    2015-01-01

    The role of English as a second language (ESL) teachers and instruction as factors in student social and psychological acculturation is widely acknowledged. However, the function of English for Academic Purposes (EAP) is less well known in this regard, because research has focused largely on academic acculturation. This qualitative study…

  3. Discrimination and Acculturative Stress among First-Generation Dominicans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Beverly Araujo; Panchanadeswaran, Subadra

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between discriminatory experiences and acculturative stress levels among a sample of 283 Dominican immigrants. Findings from a linear regression analysis revealed that experiences of daily racial discrimination and major racist events were significant predictors of acculturative stress after controlling…

  4. Acculturation, Social Class and Cognitive Growth. Monograph No. 34.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acuna, Jasmin Espiritu

    Focusing on the acquisition of science processes, a study was made of the relationship of acculturation and social class to cognitive development among 1,677 lower and lower middle class students enrolled in the public high schools of three rural, 11 semi-urban, and three urban communities. Acculturation was defined at the community level in terms…

  5. Attachment, Acculturation, and Psychosomatic Complaints among Hispanic American University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chiachih D. C.; Scalise, Dominick A.; Barajas-Munoz, I. Alejandro; Julio, Kathy; Gomez, Ayleen

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated adult attachment and acculturation frameworks of reported psychosomatic complaints related to perceived discrimination among a sample of Latino/Hispanic university students (N = 160). The model supported by the data suggests that attachment anxiety, acculturation toward the dominant cultural norms, and adherence to…

  6. The Impact of Acculturation on Hispanic Students' Learning Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonyea, Nathan E.

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the impact of acculturation on the learning styles of 151 Hispanic students enrolled in a Hispanic Serving Institution in South Texas, controlling for age, gender, and country of origin. Acculturation did not significantly predict learning style when controlling for these three variables. These results may be because…

  7. Validating the Riverside Acculturation Stress Inventory with Asian Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Matthew J.; Kim, Jungeun; Benet-Martinez, Veronica

    2011-01-01

    An emerging body of empirical research highlights the impact of acculturative stress in the lives of culturally diverse populations. Therefore, to facilitate future research in this area, we conducted 3 studies to examine the psychometric properties of the Riverside Acculturation Stress Inventory (RASI; Benet-Martinez & Haritatos, 2005) and its 5…

  8. Pathways between Acculturation and Health: Does the Measure Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Patricia Y.; Gonzalez, Hector M.; Tarraf, Wassim

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the association between acculturation and functional health using multiple proxies of acculturation to examine explanatory pathways to clarify disparate health findings. A population-based cross-sectional, multistage probability sample from the Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Studies…

  9. Acculturative Stress and Adjustment Experiences of Greek International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulakis, Mixalis; Dike, Craig A.; Massa, Amber C.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated eight Greek international college students' experiences of acculturation and acculturative stress at a mid-western university in the United States. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants and Consensual Qualitative Research methodology was utilized for data analysis to identify contextual themes and…

  10. Acculturative Stress among Asian International Students in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasirudeen, A. M. A.; Koh, Josephine Koh Wat; Lau, Adeline Lee Chin; Seng, Lim Lay; Ling, How Ai

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to identify the level of acculturative stress and to examine the correlations between acculturative stress or its subcategories and variables such as English language proficiency. The results show that international students were challenged by social interactions, lack of English language proficiency and financial issues. The…

  11. Perceptions of Vietnamese Fathers' Acculturation Levels, Parenting Styles, and Mental Health Outcomes in Vietnamese American Adolescent Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Peter V.

    2008-01-01

    Vietnamese adult and adolescent immigrants in the United States acculturate to the Western culture at different rates. Most Vietnamese parents tend to use the authoritarian parenting method in which dictatorial approaches are enforced, possibly leading to family conflicts and mental health issues. By means of the Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity…

  12. Scaling law of average failure rate and steady-state rate in rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Shengwang; Liu, Chao; Wang, Yingchong; Chang, Fuqing

    2017-03-01

    The evolution properties in the steady stage of a rock specimen are reflective of the damage or weakening growth within and thus are used to determine whether an unstable transition occurs. In this paper, we report the experimental results for rock (granite and marble) specimens tested at room temperature and room humidity under three typical loading modes: quasi-static monotonic loading, brittle creep, and brittle creep relaxation. Deformed rock specimens in current experiments exhibit an apparent steady stage characterized by a nearly constant evolution rate, which dominates the lifetime of the rock specimens. The average failure rate presents a common power-law relationship with the evolution rate in the steady stage, although the exponent is different for different loading modes. The results indicate that a lower ratio of the slope of the secondary stage with respect to the average rate of the entire lifetime implies a more brittle failure.

  13. Observer-rated ataxia: rating scales for assessment of genetic differences in ethanol-induced intoxication in mice.

    PubMed

    Metten, Pamela; Best, Karyn L; Cameron, Andy J; Saultz, Alisha B; Zuraw, Jessica M; Yu, Chia-Hua; Wahlsten, Douglas; Crabbe, John C

    2004-07-01

    Identification of genetic and physiological mechanisms underlying a drug's or mutation's effects on motor performance could be aided by the existence of a simple observation-based rating scale of ataxia for mice. Rating scales were developed to assess ataxia after ethanol (2.75, 3.0, and 3.25 g/kg) in nine inbred mouse strains. Each scale independently rates a single behavior. Raters, blinded to dose, scored four behaviors (splay of hind legs, wobbling, nose down, and belly drag) at each of four time points after injection. The severities of hind leg splaying and wobbling were quantifiable, whereas nose down and belly dragging were expressed in all-or-none fashion. Interrater reliabilities were substantial (0.75 rated 0-5) displayed significant effects of strain, dose, and time point. Wobbling (rated 0-4) was dependent on strain and time point. Ethanol affected wobbling (most strains scored >0 at some time), but all doses were equally effective. Incidence of nose down and belly dragging behaviors increased strain dependently after ethanol, but strains did not differentially respond to dose. Ethanol-induced splaying was modestly, and negatively, genetically correlated with wobbling. Nose down and belly dragging tended to be associated with splaying and wobbling at later times. Four distinct ataxia-related behaviors were sensitive to ethanol. Strains differed in ethanol sensitivity for all measures. Modest strain mean correlations among behaviors indicate that these behaviors are probably under control of largely different genes and that ataxia rating scales should rate separate behaviors on discrete scales.

  14. Convergent Validity with the BERS-2 Teacher Rating Scale and the Achenbach Teacher's Report Form: A Replication and Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benner, Gregory J.; Beaudoin, Kathleen; Mooney, Paul; Uhing, Brad M.; Pierce, Corey D.

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, we sought to extend instrument validation research for a strength-based emotional and behavior rating scale, the "Teacher Rating Scale of the Behavior and Emotional Rating Scale-Second Edition" (BERS-2; Epstein, M. H. (2004). "Behavioral and emotional rating scale" (2nd ed.). Austin, TX: PRO-ED) through…

  15. Acculturative Heterogeneity among Asian/Pacific Islanders in the United States: Associations with DSM Mental and Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Salas-Wright, Christopher P.; Lee, Sharon; Vaughn, Michael G.; Jang, Yuri; Sanglang, Cindy C.

    2014-01-01

    Extant studies on the links between acculturation and mental and substance use disorders among Asian/Pacific Islanders have been based on the assumption that acculturation is a homogeneous construct. However, emerging evidence suggests that the various components of acculturation do not manifest independently, but rather cluster in ways that reflect distinct profiles. We employ data on Asian/Pacific Islanders from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (n = 968). Latent profile analysis is used to identify acculturation subgroups on the basis of indicator variables related to cultural identification, language ability and preference, and social engagement. Subsequently, the distribution of outcome variables in the domains of DSM disorders (lifetime history of clinical, personality, and substance use disorders) is examined across latent subgroups. We identified a five class solution: Class 1: “Separated” (12.91%), Class 2: “Partial Bilingual/Bicultural” (30.06%), Class 3: “English Dominant/Asian Oriented” (12.29%), Class 4:”Full Bilingual/Bicultural” (19.42%) and Class 5: “Assimilated” (25.31%). The highest rates of clinical disorders were observed among members of the two classes characterized by a strong preference for the use of the English language (Classes 3 and 5). The highest prevalence of nicotine (12%) and illicit drug use (15%) disorders was observed among members of the “Assimilated” class. Consistent with prior research, findings suggest that risk of morbidity is greater among more acculturated individuals; however, findings also suggest that an important level of nuance can be observed with respect to acculturative subtypes identified on the basis of cultural identification, language ability and preference, and social engagement. PMID:26167805

  16. Acculturative heterogeneity among Asian/Pacific Islanders in the United States: Associations with DSM mental and substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Salas-Wright, Christopher P; Lee, Sharon; Vaughn, Michael G; Jang, Yuri; Sanglang, Cindy C

    2015-07-01

    Extant studies on the links between acculturation and mental and substance use disorders among Asian/Pacific Islanders have been based on the assumption that acculturation is a homogeneous construct. However, emerging evidence suggests that the various components of acculturation do not manifest independently, but rather cluster in ways that reflect distinct profiles. We employ data on Asian/Pacific Islanders from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (n = 968). Latent profile analysis is used to identify acculturation subgroups on the basis of indicator variables related to cultural identification, language ability and preference, and social engagement. Subsequently, the distribution of outcome variables in the domains of DSM disorders (lifetime history of clinical, personality, and substance use disorders) is examined across latent subgroups. We identified a 5-class solution: Class 1: Separated (12.91%), Class 2: Partial Bilingual/Bicultural (30.06%), Class 3: English Dominant/Asian Oriented (12.29%), Class 4: Full Bilingual/Bicultural (19.42%) and Class 5: Assimilated (25.31%). The highest rates of clinical disorders were observed among members of the 2 classes characterized by a strong preference for the use of the English language (Classes 3 and 5). The highest prevalence of nicotine (12%) and illicit drug use (15%) disorders was observed among members of the Assimilated class. Consistent with prior research, findings suggest that risk of morbidity is greater among more acculturated individuals; however, findings also suggest that an important level of nuance can be observed with respect to acculturative subtypes identified on the basis of cultural identification, language ability and preference, and social engagement.

  17. Cross-Informant Agreement for Ratings for Social Skill and Problem Behavior Ratings: An Investigation of the Social Skills Improvement System--Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gresham, Frank M.; Elliott, Stephen N.; Cook, Clayton R.; Vance, Michael J.; Kettler, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    One of the most consistent findings in rating scale research with children and adolescents is the modest agreement among different informants' ratings. The present study systematically explored patterns of agreement among teachers, parents/caregivers, and students in domains of social skills and problem behaviors using the Social Skills…

  18. The relationship between acculturation factors and symptoms of depression: a cross-sectional study with immigrants living in Athens.

    PubMed

    Gonidakis, Fragiskos; Korakakis, Panagiotis; Ploumpidis, Dimitris; Karapavlou, Dafni-Alexandra; Rogakou, Efi; Madianos, Michael G

    2011-09-01

    The process of acculturation observed in immigrants is part of an adjustment to the values and norms of a new society, and possibly the loss of norms of the society of origin. Acculturation has been linked to stress-related psychological disorders such as depression. The present study investigates the relationship between three acculturation domains (everyday life behaviors, wishful orientation/nostos, and ethnic identity) and symptoms of depression in a sample of foreign immigrants living in Athens, Greece. The sample consisted of 317 immigrants who visited two non-governmental organization polyclinics. All participants were interviewed using the Immigrant Acculturation Scale (IAS) and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). The results showed that 133 (42%) out of the 317 interviewees were in a depressive state (CES-D > 15). The main finding was that high CES-D scores were related to low scores in the IAS Everyday Life and Wishful Orientation factors, while no relationship was found between depressive symptomatology and the IAS Identity factor. Short duration of stay in Greece, lack of steady job, and lack of residence permit were also related to high CES-D scores. In conclusion, adaptation to mainstream culture daily behaviors as well as the wish to integrate with individuals from the mainstream culture and settle permanently in the new country could be seen as part of an adaptive mechanism that protects the individual from experiencing depressive symptomatology.

  19. Imaging biomarkers of dementia: recommended visual rating scales with teaching cases.

    PubMed

    Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Westman, Eric; van Westen, Danielle; Wallin, Anders; Shams, Sara; Cavallin, Lena; Larsson, Elna-Marie

    2017-02-01

    The diagnostic work up of dementia may benefit from structured reporting of CT and/or MRI and the use of standardised visual rating scales. We advocate a more widespread use of standardised scales as part of the workflow in clinical and research evaluation of dementia. We propose routine clinical use of rating scales for medial temporal atrophy (MTA), global cortical atrophy (GCA) and white matter hyperintensities (WMH). These scales can be used for evaluation of both CT and MRI and are efficient in routine imaging assessment in dementia, and may improve the accuracy of diagnosis. Our review provides detailed imaging examples of rating increments in each of these scales and a separate teaching file. The radiologist should relate visual ratings to the clinical assessment and other biomarkers to assist the clinician in the diagnostic decision.

  20. Acculturation in Context: The Moderating Effects of Immigrant and Native Peer Orientations on the Acculturation Experiences of Immigrants.

    PubMed

    Titzmann, Peter F; Jugert, Philipp

    2015-11-01

    Immigrant adolescents have to navigate through a complex social environment consisting of, at least, both a native and a co-ethnic community. This study used a multi-level framework to consider two research questions involving this complexity. The individual-level associations of acculturation orientations and acculturative hassles (language and sociocultural adaptation) was assessed in immigrant youths, and whether this association differs depending on the school-level acculturation orientations held by co-ethnic peers, and the school-level orientations toward immigrants held by native German peers. We then investigated whether acculturative hassles are associated with the psychosocial functioning (self-efficacy, depressive symptoms) of immigrant adolescents. The sample comprised 650 ethnic German Diaspora migrant adolescents (mean age 15.6 years, 53.7 % female) and their 787 native German peers (mean age 15.05 years, 51 % female). The results showed that contextual factors (co-ethnic acculturation orientation, native friendship preferences) moderated the association between the acculturation orientations of adolescent immigrants and both types of acculturative hassles. Acculturative hassles, in turn, were associated with the psychosocial functioning of adolescents. This research demonstrates that a person-by-context perspective is needed to better understand the adaptation of adolescent immigrants. This perspective has to take into account both the native and the co-ethnic peer environment.

  1. Psychopathologie de l'acculturation (Psychopathology of Acculturation). Publication H-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abou, Selim

    The nature of mental disorders relating to acculturation is discussed, as well as the extent to which these disorders arise from intercultural conflict or simply as a result of latent individual problems heightened by cultural contact. An introductory section addresses the broad issue of the relativity versus universality of a mental disorder:…

  2. Verbal numerical scales are as reliable and sensitive as visual analog scales for rating dyspnea in young and older subjects.

    PubMed

    Morris, N R; Sabapathy, S; Adams, L; Kingsley, R A; Schneider, D A; Stulbarg, M S

    2007-08-01

    This study compared the use of a simple verbal 0-10 numerical rating scale (verbal NRS) and a visual analog scale (VAS) for the rating of dyspnea during exercise in a group of young and older subjects. Twelve younger (32+/-9 yr) and 12 older (71+/-7 yr) subjects used either the verbal NRS or the VAS in a randomised fashion to rate dyspnea during 60 s of uphill treadmill walking (range 5.6-8.8 km h(-1)) performed at either a low (17% grade) or high workload (26% grade) and then during recovery. Rating scales were evaluated twice on separate days (day 1 and day 2) at each workload. While the verbal NRS scores proved to be reliable throughout exercise and recovery, VAS scores were significantly (p<0.05) lower on day 2 during the low workload test (younger group) and the high workload test (older group). Verbal NRS ratings were consistently greater than VAS ratings at both workloads (p<0.001) for both young and older groups. The intra-class correlation coefficients for rating peak dyspnea using either the VAS or verbal NRS were consistently lower for the older subjects (range: r=0.54-0.67) than the younger subjects (range: r=0.70-0.86). Overall, subjects preferred the verbal NRS to the VAS. These results suggest that the verbal NRS compares favourably with the VAS for rating dyspnea during exercise without mask or mouthpiece. However, when rating peak dyspnea both scales appear less reliable when used by the older compared to young subjects.

  3. Calibration of unified Parkinson's disease rating scale scores to Movement Disorder Society-unified Parkinson's disease rating scale scores.

    PubMed

    Goetz, Christopher G; Stebbins, Glenn T; Tilley, Barbara C

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop formulas to convert the UPDRS to Movement Disorder Society (MDS)-UPDRS scores. The MDS-UPDRS is a revision of the UPDRS with sound clinimetric properties. Reliable formulas to recalculate UPDRS scores into MDS-UPDRS equivalents are pivotal to the practical transition and definitive adoption of the MDS-UPDRS. UPDRS and MDS-UPDRS scores were collected on 875 PD patients. A developmental sample was used to regress UPDRS scores on corresponding MDS-UPDRS scores based on three H & Y groupings (I/II, III, and IV/V). Regression weighting factors and intercept terms provided formulas for UPDRS conversions to be tested in a validation sample. Concordance between the true MDS-UPDRS Part scores and those derived from the formulas was compared using Bland-Altman's plots and Lin's concordance coefficient (LCC). Significant concordance between UPDRS-estimated MDS-UPDRS scores was achieved for Parts II (Motor Experiences of Daily Living) (LCC = 0.93) and III (Motor Examination) (LCC = 0.97). The formulas resulted in mean differences between the true MDS-UPDRS and estimated MDS-UPDRS scores of less than 1 point for both Parts II and III. Concordance was not achieved for Parts I and IV (Non-motor Experiences of Daily Living and Complications of Therapy). Formulas allow archival UPDRS Parts II and III individual patient data to be accurately transferred to MDS-UPDRS scores. Because Part I collects data on much more extensive information than the UPDRS, and because Part IV is structured differently in the two versions, old ratings for these parts cannot be converted. © 2012 Movement Disorder Society.

  4. Rating Scale Analysis and Psychometric Properties of the Caregiver Self-Efficacy Scale for Transfers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cipriani, Daniel J.; Hensen, Francine E.; McPeck, Danielle L.; Kubec, Gina L. D.; Thomas, Julie J.

    2012-01-01

    Parents and caregivers faced with the challenges of transferring children with disability are at risk of musculoskeletal injuries and/or emotional stress. The Caregiver Self-Efficacy Scale for Transfers (CSEST) is a 14-item questionnaire that measures self-efficacy for transferring under common conditions. The CSEST yields reliable data and valid…

  5. Renormalization-scale uncertainty in the decay rate of false vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, Motoi; Moroi, Takeo; Nojiri, Mihoko M.; Shoji, Yutaro

    2016-01-01

    We study radiative corrections to the decay rate of false vacua, paying particular attention to the renormalization-scale dependence of the decay rate. The decay rate exponentially depends on the bounce action. The bounce action itself is renormalization-scale dependent. To make the decay rate scale-independent, radiative corrections, which are due to the field fluctuations around the bounce, have to be included. We show quantitatively that the inclusion of the fluctuations suppresses the scale dependence, and hence is important for the precise calculation of the decay rate. We also apply our analysis to a supersymmetric model and show that the radiative corrections are important for the Higgs-stau system with charge breaking minima.

  6. Acculturation stress and mental health among the marriage migrant women in Busan, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Im, Hyuk; Lee, Ki Young; Lee, Hyo Young

    2014-05-01

    Our study investigated mental health and associated factors, especially acculturation stress and coping resources, among "marriage migrant" women. Cross-sectional data were collected for 501 marriage migrant women, about 10 % of those living in Busan, South Korea. Acculturation stress, coping resources, sociodemographic factors were examined using structured questionnaires, and the General Health Questionnaire-28 was administered as a measure of mental health. Many factors were related to mental health, especially marital satisfaction. Core cultural shock and self-rated economic status, interpersonal stress, and social support were also significantly related to mental health status. This study highlights the importance of marriage migrant women's mental health in South Korea. To improve their mental health, increased marital satisfaction, social support, resettlement funds, and/or educational programs that foster coping are needed. Additionally, we should encourage establishment of and participation in marriage migrant self-help groups, which can facilitate adaptation to marriage and to Korean culture.

  7. Gravity waves as a probe of the Hubble expansion rate during an electroweak scale phase transition

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Daniel J. H.; Zhou Peng

    2010-07-15

    Just as big bang nucleosynthesis allows us to probe the expansion rate when the temperature of the Universe was around 1 MeV, the measurement of gravity waves from electroweak scale first order phase transitions may allow us to probe the expansion rate when the temperature of the Universe was at the electroweak scale. We compute the simple transformation rule for the gravity wave spectrum under the scaling transformation of the Hubble expansion rate. We then apply this directly to the scenario of quintessence kination domination and show how gravity wave spectra would shift relative to Laser Interferometer Space Antenna and Big Bang Observer projected sensitivities.

  8. Development and Validation of a Clinical Scale for Rating the Severity of Blepharospasm

    PubMed Central

    Defazio, Giovanni; Hallett, Mark; Jinnah, Hyder A.; Stebbins, Glenn T.; Gigante, Angelo F.; Ferrazzano, Gina; Conte, Antonella; Fabbrini, Giovanni; Berardelli, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Existing scales for rating the severity of blepharospasm (BSP) are limited by a number of potential drawbacks. We therefore developed and validated a novel scale for rating the severity of BSP. The development of the scale started with careful examination of the clinical spectrum of the condition by a panel of experts who selected phenomenological aspects thought to be relevant to disease severity. Thereafter, selected items were first checked for reliability, then reliable items were combined to generate the scale, and clinimetric properties of the scale were evaluated. Finally, the confidence with which the scale could be used by people without high levels of movement disorders skill was assessed. The new scale, based on objective criteria, yielded moderate to almost perfect reliability, acceptable internal consistency, satisfactory scaling assumptions, lack of floor and ceiling effects, partial correlations with a prior severity scale and with a quality of life scale, and good sensitivity to change. Despite a few limitations, the foregoing features make the novel scale more suitable than existing scales to assess the severity of BSP in natural history and pathophysiologic studies as well as in clinical trials. PMID:25847472

  9. Validity of depression rating scales during pregnancy and the postpartum period: impact of trimester and parity.

    PubMed

    Ji, Shuang; Long, Qi; Newport, D Jeffrey; Na, Hyeji; Knight, Bettina; Zach, Elizabeth B; Morris, Natalie J; Kutner, Michael; Stowe, Zachary N

    2011-02-01

    The objective of the current study was to delineate the optimal cutpoints for depression rating scales during pregnancy and the postpartum period and to assess the perinatal factors influencing these scores. Women participating in prospective investigations of maternal mental illness were enrolled prior to 28 weeks gestation and followed through 6 months postpartum. At each visit, subjects completed self-rated depression scales--Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and clinician-rated scales--Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD(17) and HRSD(21)). These scores were compared to the SCID Mood Module for the presence of fulfilling diagnostic criteria for a major depressive episode (MDE) during 6 perinatal windows: preconception; first trimester; 2nd trimester; 3rd trimester; early postpartum; and later postpartum. Optimal cutpoints were determined by maximizing the sum of each scale's sensitivity and specificity. Stratified ROC analyses determined the impact of previous pregnancy and comparison of initial to follow-up visits. A total of 534 women encompassing 640 pregnancies and 4025 follow-up visits were included. ROC analysis demonstrated that all 4 scales were highly predictive of MDE. The AUCs ranged from 0.857 to 0.971 and were all highly significant (p < .0001). Optimal cutpoints were higher at initial visits and for multigravidas and demonstrated more variability for the self-rated scales. These data indicate that both clinician-rated and self-rated scales can be effective tools in identifying perinatal episodes of major depression. However, the results also suggest that prior childbirth experiences and the use of scales longitudinally across the perinatal period influence optimal cutpoints.

  10. Application of psychometric theory to the measurement of voice quality using rating scales.

    PubMed

    Shrivastav, Rahul; Sapienza, Christine M; Nandur, Vuday

    2005-04-01

    Rating scales are commonly used to study voice quality. However, recent research has demonstrated that perceptual measures of voice quality obtained using rating scales suffer from poor interjudge agreement and reliability, especially in the mid-range of the scale. These findings, along with those obtained using multidimensional scaling (MDS), have been interpreted to show that listeners perceive voice quality in an idiosyncratic manner. Based on psychometric theory, the present research explored an alternative explanation for the poor interlistener agreement observed in previous research. This approach suggests that poor agreement between listeners may result, in part, from measurement errors related to a variety of factors rather than true differences in the perception of voice quality. In this study, 10 listeners rated breathiness for 27 vowel stimuli using a 5-point rating scale. Each stimulus was presented to the listeners 10 times in random order. Interlistener agreement and reliability were calculated from these ratings. Agreement and reliability were observed to improve when multiple ratings of each stimulus from each listener were averaged and when standardized scores were used instead of absolute ratings. The probability of exact agreement was found to be approximately .9 when using averaged ratings and standardized scores. In contrast, the probability of exact agreement was only .4 when a single rating from each listener was used to measure agreement. These findings support the hypothesis that poor agreement reported in past research partly arises from errors in measurement rather than individual differences in the perception of voice quality.

  11. Rate dependence of grain boundary sliding via time-scaling atomistic simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammami, Farah; Kulkarni, Yashashree

    2017-02-01

    Approaching experimentally relevant strain rates has been a long-standing challenge for molecular dynamics method which captures phenomena typically on the scale of nanoseconds or at strain rates of 107 s-1 and higher. Here, we use grain boundary sliding in nanostructures as a paradigmatic problem to investigate rate dependence using atomistic simulations. We employ a combination of time-scaling computational approaches, including the autonomous basin climbing method, the nudged elastic band method, and kinetic Monte Carlo, to access strain rates ranging from 0.5 s-1 to 107 s-1. Combined with a standard linear solid model for viscoelastic behavior, our simulations reveal that grain boundary sliding exhibits noticeable rate dependence only below strain rates on the order of 10 s-1 but is rate independent and consistent with molecular dynamics at higher strain rates.

  12. A Behavior Rating Scale for Emotionally Disturbed Students: The Pupil Observation Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong-Hugg, Robin L.; And Others

    The paper describes development of the Pupil Observation Schedule (POS), a computer based system which provides a framework for assessing, evaluating, and reporting behavioral progress of emotionally disturbed students. The POS is used to rate five skill areas--computation, language, reading, reference, and psychomotor skills; and nine behavioral…

  13. Rating scales, scales of measurement, issues of reliability: resolving some critical issues for clinicians and researchers.

    PubMed

    Cicchetti, Domenic; Bronen, Richard; Spencer, Susan; Haut, Sheryl; Berg, Anne; Oliver, Patricia; Tyrer, Peter

    2006-08-01

    We focus upon several broad issues that are of concern to clinicians and clinical researchers in the areas of biobehavioral and biomedical research, including, but not limited to, the fields of psychiatry, psychology, neuropsychology, and neurology. These issues are the critical reassessment of S. S. Stevens' quadripartite conceptualization of scales of measurement; the application of criteria to determine the clinical significance of reliability estimates; the detection of subsets of reliable and unreliable raters, when the overall level is of little clinical import; and finally, the application of Kappa statistics when multiple raters evaluate a single case.

  14. Verification of energy dissipation rate scalability in pilot and production scale bioreactors using computational fluid dynamics.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Chris; Natarajan, Venkatesh; Antoniou, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Suspension mammalian cell cultures in aerated stirred tank bioreactors are widely used in the production of monoclonal antibodies. Given that production scale cell culture operations are typically performed in very large bioreactors (≥ 10,000 L), bioreactor scale-down and scale-up become crucial in the development of robust cell-culture processes. For successful scale-up and scale-down of cell culture operations, it is important to understand the scale-dependence of the distribution of the energy dissipation rates in a bioreactor. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations can provide an additional layer of depth to bioreactor scalability analysis. In this communication, we use CFD analyses of five bioreactor configurations to evaluate energy dissipation rates and Kolmogorov length scale distributions at various scales. The results show that hydrodynamic scalability is achievable as long as major design features (# of baffles, impellers) remain consistent across the scales. Finally, in all configurations, the mean Kolmogorov length scale is substantially higher than the average cell size, indicating that catastrophic cell damage due to mechanical agitation is highly unlikely at all scales.

  15. CROSS-NATIONAL APPLICABILITY OF A PARSIMONIOUS MEASURE OF ACCULTURATION TO GLOBAL CONSUMER CULTURE.

    PubMed

    Durvasula, Srinivas; Lysonski, Steven

    2015-06-01

    Cleveland and Laroche presented a scale to measure Acculturation to Global Consumer Culture. This measure was the first attempt to gauge consumer mindsets regarding their adaptation to global consumerism. Because this scale consisted of 57 scale items, applying such a lengthy scale can lead to response fatigue. Past research has also suggested that as more items are added to a scale, the informational value of each additional item is marginal. As an alternative, a shorter version of the Acculturation to Global Consumer Culture Scale is presented. The psychometric properties of this scale were verified via multiple group confirmatory factor analysis. A four-country investigation of young adults in China (n = 126; M age = 22.24 yr., SD = 3.63), New Zealand (n = 196; M age = 20.12 yr., SD = 4.12), Nigeria (n = 146; M age = 23.09 yr., SD = 3.80), and the United States (n = 120; M age = 21.67 yr., SD = 4.26) provides support for the cross-national applicability of the proposed parsimonious measure. Limitations and extensions are discussed.

  16. Psychiatric Comorbidity and Acculturation Stress Among Puerto Rican Substance Abusers

    PubMed Central

    Conway, Kevin P.; Swendsen, Joel D.; Dierker, Lisa; Canino, Glorisa; Merikangas, Kathleen R.

    2007-01-01

    Background Although acculturation to the United States has been associated with an increase in substance, mood, and anxiety disorders in Latino populations, few studies have examined this concept relative to comorbidity among these syndromes. Methods This study: (1) compares the prevalence and patterns of psychiatric comorbidity among Puerto Ricans with substance use disorders living in San Juan (Puerto Rico) to those who have migrated to New Haven (Connecticut); and (2) examines the association between acculturation-related stress and the prevalence and patterns of psychiatric comorbidity among those who have migrated to New Haven. Results Lifetime levels of nearly all comorbid psychiatric disorders among respondents with substance use disorders (SUD) was generally similar across sites. However, the risk of any co-occurring psychiatric disorder was higher among SUD cases in New Haven who reported high levels of total acculturation stress and family-specific acculturation stress. These findings were generally accounted for by associations between affective disorders and high scores on these indicators of acculturation stress. Conclusions The overall prevalence and patterns of psychiatric comorbidity are remarkably similar among Puerto Rican substance abusers whether they live in San Juan or have migrated to New Haven, thereby demonstrating robustness to differences in geographic location. Nevertheless, the degree of acculturation-related family stress is positively associated with co-occurring substance and psychiatric disorders, particularly affective disorders. Intervention in family strain related to the acculturation process may diminish the development of comorbid mental disorders and assist in implementing successful treatment of substance abuse. PMID:17543714

  17. Mental and physical health and acculturation among Hispanic Vietnam Veterans.

    PubMed

    Ortega, A N; Rosenheck, R

    2001-10-01

    This study tested the associations between acculturation and mental and physical health among Hispanic Vietnam veterans. Secondary data analyses of the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Survey, an epidemiological study of a representative sample of veterans who served during the Vietnam era (N = 1,195), were conducted. An acculturation index was constructed using standard acculturation measures (range, 0-13), and its predictive validity was tested using nine outcome measures of physical health and eight measures of mental health. Among Puerto Rican and Mexican-American veterans, the scores on the acculturation index ranged from 0 to 12. Hispanic veterans were distributed across the acculturation continuum as follows: 0 to 3 (24%), 4 to 7 (59%), 8 to 12 (17%). The acculturation scores were not associated with mental or physical health risks for Hispanic veterans. Mexican Americans and Puerto Ricans did not differ in mental or physical health risk compared with non-Hispanic whites. The association between acculturation and mental and physical health among Hispanics may not be generalized to Hispanic veterans. Hispanics who have been through an intensive assimilating experience, such as being in the military, appear to have health outcomes similar to whites.

  18. Validation of the Gifted Rating Scales-School Form in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Huijun; Pfeiffer, Steven I.; Petscher, Yaacov; Kumtepe, Alper T.; Mo, Guofang

    2008-01-01

    The Gifted Rating Scales-School Form (GRS-S), a teacher-completed rating scale, is designed to identify five types of giftedness and motivation. This study examines the reliability and validity of a Chinese-translated version of the GRS-S with a sample of Chinese elementary and middle school students (N = 499). The Chinese GRS-S was found to have…

  19. The Development of a Behavior Patterns Rating Scale for Preservice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caliskan, Nihat; Kuzu, Okan; Kuzu, Yasemin

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a rating scale that can be used to evaluate behavior patterns of the organization people pattern of preservice teachers (PSTs). By reviewing the related literature on people patterns, a preliminary scale of 38 items with a five-points Likert type was prepared. The number of items was reduced to 29 after…

  20. Screening Accuracy of Level 2 Autism Spectrum Disorder Rating Scales: A Review of Selected Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Megan; Lecavalier, Luc

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this review was to examine the state of Level 2, caregiver-completed rating scales for the screening of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) in individuals above the age of three years. We focused on screening accuracy and paid particular attention to comparison groups. Inclusion criteria required that scales be developed post ICD-10, be…

  1. Personality as a Determinate of Response Dimension Scaling for Likert Rating Categories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensley, Wayne E.; Sanford, David L.

    A study was designed to evaluate the use of summated rating (Likert) scales of agreement, evaluation, and frequency. The subjects, 58 female and 45 male college students, rank ordered the descriptive adjectives for the areas of agreement, evaluation, and frequency on a scale of 1 to 100. They also completed the Personal Report of Communication…

  2. Iowa's Severity Rating Scales for Communication Disabilities: Preschool, Ages 2-5 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freilinger, J. Joseph, Ed.; And Others

    The Iowa Severity Rating Scales are designed to provide general guidelines which may be used as a part of the clinical speech and language program to obtain uniform identification of preschool children with communication disabilities. Section 1 contains definitions, an explanation of the severity classification (a 5 point scale ranging from 0 for…

  3. Factor Structure of Scores from the Conners' Rating Scales-Revised among Nepali Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendergast, Laura L.; Vandiver, Beverly J.; Schaefer, Barbara A.; Cole, Pamela M.; Murray-Kolb, Laura E.; Christian, Parul

    2014-01-01

    This study used exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to examine the structures of scores from the Conners' Teacher and Parent Rating Scales-Revised (CTRS-R and CPRS-R, respectively; Conners, 1997). The scales were administered to 1,835 parents and 1,387 teachers of children in Nepal's Sarlahi district, a region where no other measures of…

  4. The Structure of Instruction Rating Scale (SIRS): Development and Technical Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deno, Stanley L.; And Others

    Using instructional variables identified by the literature as important in predicting classroom achievement, a bi-polar rating scale was designed to assess the structure of instruction in resource rooms. The data for 158 elementary school children in four school districts were analyzed. The scale evidenced good reliability, both in terms of…

  5. Use of the Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale in Evaluating Teacher Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beebe, Robert J.

    Behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS), a new quantitative method of employee performance evaluation, is advocated for teacher evaluation. Development of a BARS consists generally of five steps: a representative sample of potential raters generates the scales; the group identifies the broad qualities to be evaluated; the group formulates…

  6. A rating scale for disruptive behavior disorders, based on the DSM-IV item pool.

    PubMed

    Silva, Raul R; Alpert, Murray; Pouget, Enrique; Silva, Victoria; Trosper, Sarah; Reyes, Kimberly; Dummit, Steven

    2005-01-01

    DSM IV includes three clusters of items that are used to establish diagnoses for the Disruptive Behavior Disorders: Attention Deficit, Conduct, and Oppositional Defiant. In this report, we examine the feasibility of using the items in each cluster to form a rating scale. We studied eighty-four consecutive school-aged referrals to an inner-city child and adolescent Psychiatry clinic. Case diagnosis was established with a clinician's KID-SCID assessment. Parents and teachers rated the 41 DSM items on four-point scales, and completed the Conners' Rating Scales, in English or Spanish. In this paper we report psychometrics of the new scale, the Rating Scale for Disruptive Behavior Disorders (RS-DBD), along with the agreement among parents and teachers, and concurrence between the new scales and the relevant Conners' scales. While, the parent and teacher ratings may provide a useful index for severity of behavioral disturbance in the home and school environments, it will not establish a diagnosis. There was a great deal of comorbidity among diagnostic groups.

  7. Physicochemical heterogeneity controls on uranium bioreduction rates at the field scale.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Gawande, Nitin; Kowalsky, Michael B; Steefel, Carl I; Hubbard, Susan S

    2011-12-01

    It has been demonstrated in laboratory systems that U(VI) can be reduced to immobile U(IV) by bacteria in natural environments. The ultimate efficacy of bioreduction at the field scale, however, is often challenging to quantify and depends on site characteristics. In this work, uranium bioreduction rates at the field scale are quantified, for the first time, using an integrated approach. The approach combines field data, inverse and forward hydrological and reactive transport modeling, and quantification of reduction rates at different spatial scales. The approach is used to explore the impact of local scale (tens of centimeters) parameters and processes on field scale (tens of meters) system responses to biostimulation treatments and the controls of physicochemical heterogeneity on bioreduction rates. Using the biostimulation experiments at the Department of Energy Old Rifle site, our results show that the spatial distribution of hydraulic conductivity and solid phase mineral (Fe(III)) play a critical role in determining the field-scale bioreduction rates. Due to the dependence on Fe-reducing bacteria, field-scale U(VI) bioreduction rates were found to be largely controlled by the abundance of Fe(III) minerals at the vicinity of the injection wells and by the presence of preferential flow paths connecting injection wells to down gradient Fe(III) abundant areas.

  8. Multi-group acculturation orientations in a changing context: Palestinian Christian Arab adolescents in Israel after the lost decade.

    PubMed

    Munayer, Salim J; Horenczyk, Gabriel

    2014-10-01

    Grounded in a contextual approach to acculturation of minorities, this study examines changes in acculturation orientations among Palestinian Christian Arab adolescents in Israel following the "lost decade of Arab-Jewish coexistence." Multi-group acculturation orientations among 237 respondents were assessed vis-à-vis two majorities--Muslim Arabs and Israeli Jews--and compared to 1998 data. Separation was the strongest endorsed orientation towards both majority groups. Comparisons with the 1998 data also show a weakening of the Integration attitude towards Israeli Jews, and also distancing from Muslim Arabs. For the examination of the "Westernisation" hypothesis, multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) analyses of perceptions of Self and group values clearly showed that, after 10 years, Palestinian Christian Arabs perceive Israeli Jewish culture as less close to Western culture, and that Self and the Christian Arab group have become much closer, suggesting an increasing identification of Palestinian Christian Arab adolescents with their ethnoreligious culture. We discuss the value of a multi-group, multi-method, and multi-wave approach to the examination of the role of the political context in acculturation processes.

  9. Association of depression, psycho-social stress and acculturation with respiratory disease among Puerto Rican adults in Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Henkin, Stanislav; Tucker, Katherine L; Gao, Xiang; Falcon, Luis M; Qawi, Imrana; Brugge, Doug

    2011-04-01

    To assess associations between acculturation, depression, and self-reported stress score with reported diagnosis of respiratory disease (RD) in Puerto Rican adults, participants (N = 1,168) were identified from areas of high Hispanic density in the Boston, MA metropolitan area. Eligible participants were interviewed in the home by bilingual interviewers in either Spanish or English. Scales included topics ranging from general background to depressive symptomatology. Respiratory disease was self-reported and checked against prescribed medication. More than one-third (37.8%) of subjects reported doctor-diagnosed RD. A final binary logistical regression model (N = 850), which was adjusted for potential confounders (sex, age, education, poverty) showed that RD was significantly associated with psychological acculturation (OR = 1.97, P = 0.005), depressive symptomatology (OR = 1.52, P = 0.03) high perceived stress score (OR = 1.97, P = 0.009), and current smoking (OR = 1.61, P = 0.03). Significant inverse associations included a high level of language acculturation (OR = 0.65, P = 0.03), light (OR = 0.67, P = 0.01) and moderate to heavy physical activity versus sedentary physical activity (OR = 0.40, P = 0.03). We found self reported physician diagnosed RD was associated with high perceived stress and depression, as well as higher levels of psychological acculturation. Longitudinal research is needed to determine if there is a causal pathway for these associations.

  10. Evidence based clinical assessment of child and adolescent social phobia: a critical review of rating scales.

    PubMed

    Tulbure, Bogdan T; Szentagotai, Aurora; Dobrean, Anca; David, Daniel

    2012-10-01

    Investigating the empirical support of various assessment instruments, the evidence based assessment approach expands the scientific basis of psychotherapy. Starting from Hunsley and Mash's evaluative framework, we critically reviewed the rating scales designed to measure social anxiety or phobia in youth. Thirteen of the most researched social anxiety scales for children and adolescents were identified. An overview about the scientific support accumulated by these scales is offered. Our main results are consistent with recent reviews that consider the Social Phobia and Anxiety Scale for Children (SPAI-C) and the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A) among the most pertinent and empirically supported measures of social anxiety for youngsters. However, after considering the existing evidence, we highly recommend another couple of scales that proved to be empirically supported (i.e., the Social Phobia Inventory-SPIN, and the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale for Children and Adolescents-LSAS-CA).

  11. Pharyngeal Residue Severity Rating Scales Based on Fiberoptic Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, Paul D; Hersey, Denise P; Leder, Steven B

    2016-06-01

    Identification of pharyngeal residue severity located in the valleculae and pyriform sinuses has always been a primary goal during fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES). Pharyngeal residue is a clinical sign of potential prandial aspiration making an accurate description of its severity an important but difficult challenge. A reliable, validated, and generalizable pharyngeal residue severity rating scale for FEES would be beneficial. A systematic review of the published English language literature since 1995 was conducted to determine the quality of existing pharyngeal residue severity rating scales based on FEES. Databases were searched using controlled vocabulary words and synonymous free text words for topics of interest (deglutition disorders, pharyngeal residue, endoscopy, videofluoroscopy, fiberoptic technology, aspiration, etc.) and outcomes of interest (scores, scales, grades, tests, FEES, etc.). Search strategies were adjusted for syntax appropriate for each database/platform. Data sources included MEDLINE (OvidSP 1946-April Week 3 2015), Embase (OvidSP 1974-2015 April 20), Scopus (Elsevier), and the unindexed material in PubMed (NLM/NIH) were searched for relevant articles. Supplementary efforts to identify studies included checking reference lists of articles retrieved. Scales were compared using qualitative properties (sample size, severity definitions, number of raters, and raters' experience and training) and psychometric analyses (randomization, intra- and inter-rater reliability, and construct validity). Seven articles describing pharyngeal residue severity rating scales met inclusion criteria. Six of seven scales had insufficient data to support their use as evidenced by methodological weaknesses with both qualitative properties and psychometric analyses. There is a need for qualitative and psychometrically reliable, validated, and generalizable pharyngeal residue severity rating scales that are anatomically specific, image

  12. Pathways from acculturation stress to substance use among latino adolescents.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Rachel Lee; Smokowski, Paul Richard

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the link between acculturation stress and substance use among Latino adolescents. In-home interviews were completed with the participants at four time-points between 2005 and 2007. Path analysis was completed using longitudinal data from 286 Latino adolescents living in North Carolina and Arizona (65% foreign-born). Results indicate that acculturation stress influences family and friend relationships, which in turn affect adolescent mental health problems, and finally, substance use. Key mediators in the pathway from acculturation stress to substance use were parent-adolescent conflict, internalizing, and externalizing problems. Implications for practice and research have been discussed here.

  13. Psychopathological rating scales for diagnostic use in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Rösler, M; Retz, W; Thome, J; Schneider, M; Stieglitz, R-D; Falkai, P

    2006-09-01

    The diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults is a complex procedure which should include retrospective assessment of childhood ADHD symptoms either by patient recall or third party information, diagnostic criteria according to DSM-IV, current adult ADHD psychopathology including symptom severity and pervasiveness, functional impairment, quality of life and comorbidity. In order to obtain a systematic database for the diagnosis and evaluation of the course ADHD rating scales can be very useful. This article reviews rating instruments that have found general acceptance. The Wender-Utah Rating Scale (WURS) and the Childhood Symptoms Scale by Barkley and Murphy try to make a retrospective assessment of childhood ADHD symptoms. The Connors Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS), the Current Symptoms Scales by Barkley and Murphy (CSS), the Adult Self Report Scale (ASRS) by Adler et al. and Kessler et al. or the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder--Self Report Scale (ADHD-SR by Rösler et al.) are self report rating scales focusing mainly on the DSM-IV criteria. The CAARS and the CSS have other report forms too. The Brown ADD Rating Scale (Brown ADD-RS) and the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder--Other Report Scale (ADHD-OR by Rösler et al.) are instruments for use by clinicians or significant others. Both self rating scales and observer report scales quantify the ADHD symptoms by use of a Likert scale mostly ranging from 0 to 3. This makes the instruments useful to follow the course of the disease quantitatively. Comprehensive diagnostic interviews not only evaluate diagnostic criteria, but also assess different psychopathological syndrome scores, functional disability measures, indices of pervasiveness and information about comorbid disorders. The most comprehensive procedures are the Brown ADD Diagnostic Form and the Adult Interview (AI) by Barkley and Murphy. An instrument of particular interest is the Wender Reimherr Interview (WRI

  14. Profiling nurses' job satisfaction, acculturation, work environment, stress, cultural values and coping abilities: A cluster analysis.

    PubMed

    Goh, Yong-Shian; Lee, Alice; Chan, Sally Wai-Chi; Chan, Moon Fai

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to determine whether definable profiles existed in a cohort of nursing staff with regard to demographic characteristics, job satisfaction, acculturation, work environment, stress, cultural values and coping abilities. A survey was conducted in one hospital in Singapore from June to July 2012, and 814 full-time staff nurses completed a self-report questionnaire (89% response rate). Demographic characteristics, job satisfaction, acculturation, work environment, perceived stress, cultural values, ways of coping and intention to leave current workplace were assessed as outcomes. The two-step cluster analysis revealed three clusters. Nurses in cluster 1 (n = 222) had lower acculturation scores than nurses in cluster 3. Cluster 2 (n = 362) was a group of younger nurses who reported higher intention to leave (22.4%), stress level and job dissatisfaction than the other two clusters. Nurses in cluster 3 (n = 230) were mostly Singaporean and reported the lowest intention to leave (13.0%). Resources should be allocated to specifically address the needs of younger nurses and hopefully retain them in the profession. Management should focus their retention strategies on junior nurses and provide a work environment that helps to strengthen their intention to remain in nursing by increasing their job satisfaction.

  15. Blocked acculturation: cultural heterodoxy among Europe's immigrants.

    PubMed

    Wimmer, Andreas; Soehl, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    Which immigrant groups differ most from the cultural values held by mainstream society and why? The authors explore this question using data from the European Social Survey on the values held by almost 100,000 individuals associated with 305 immigrant groups and the native majorities of 23 countries. They test whether distant linguistic or religious origins (including in Islam), value differences that immigrants "import" from their home countries, the maintenance of transnational ties and thus diasporic cultures, or legal and social disadvantage in the country of settlement shape acculturation processes. They find that only legally or socially disadvantaged groups differ from mainstream values in significant ways. For first generation immigrants, this is because the values of their countries of origin diverge more from those of natives. Among children of disadvantaged immigrants, however, value heterodoxy emerges because acculturation processes are blocked and the values of the parent generation partially maintained. From the second generation onward, therefore, cultural values are endogenous to the formation and dissolution of social boundaries, rather than shaping these as an exogenous force.

  16. Item response theory analyses of the parent and teacher ratings of the DSM-IV ADHD rating scale.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Rapson

    2008-08-01

    The graded response model (GRM), which is based on item response theory (IRT), was used to evaluate the psychometric properties of the inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms in an ADHD rating scale. To accomplish this, parents and teachers completed the DSM-IV ADHD Rating Scale (DARS; Gomez et al., Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 40, 265-274, 1999) for a group of 1,475 primary school-aged children. The results for the discrimination parameters showed that all symptoms for both groups of respondents were generally good for discriminating their respective latent traits. For virtually all symptoms, their threshold values showed moderate to large increases in the level of the latent trait at each subsequent response dichotomy, with the symptoms being especially good at representing the appropriate traits from mean to moderately high trait levels. The item information function values for most symptoms indicated reasonable reliability from, approximately, the mean trait levels to moderately high trait levels. These findings indicate good psychometric properties for the parent and teacher ratings of the DARS. The implications of the findings for the use of the DARS and other similar scales are discussed.

  17. The Impact of Silhouette Randomization on the Results of Figure Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Michael J.; Dodd, Lorna J.; Al-Nakeeb, Yahya

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the impact of silhouette randomization on the responses to rating scales developed to rate the perceived current and ideal body shape, as well as body dissatisfaction. Seventy students (30 men and 40 women), ages 18 to 43 (M [plus or minus] SD = 22.1 [plus or minus] 5.7) years, completed the Stunkard, Sorensen,…

  18. Psychometric Properties of the Working Memory Rating Scale for Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzman-Orth, Danielle; Grimm, Ryan; Gerber, Michael; Orosco, Michael; Swanson, H. Lee; Lussier, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    The Working Memory Rating Scale (WMRS) was designed as a behavioral rating tool to assist teachers in identifying students at risk of working memory difficulties. The instrument was originally normed on 417 monolingual English-speaking children from the United Kingdom. The purpose of this study was to test the reliability and validity of the WMRS…

  19. The Reliability and Validity of a Spanish Translated Version of the Gifted Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosado, Javier I.; Pfeiffer, Steven I.; Petscher, Yaacov

    2008-01-01

    This study was a preliminary examination of the psychometric properties of a newly developed Spanish translated version of the "Gifted Rating Scales-School Form (GRS-S)". Data was collected from elementary and middle schools in northeastern Puerto Rico. Thirty teachers independently rated 153 students using the "GRS-S" Spanish…

  20. Measurement Invariance of the Gifted Rating Scales--School Form across Five Cultural Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Huijun; Lee, Donghyuck; Pfeiffer, Steven I.; Kamata, Akihito; Kumtepe, Alper T.; Rosado, Javier

    2009-01-01

    This study examined measurement invariance of the Gifted Rating Scales--School Form (GRS-S) across the United States, Puerto Rico, China, South Korea, and Turkey, using multigroup confirmatory factor analysis. A total of 1,817 students were rated by 287 teachers using either translated versions of GRS-S or the original English GRS-S. Results…

  1. The Swedish Version of the Childhood Autism Rating Scale in a Clinical Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordin, Viviann; Gillberg, Christopher; Nyden, Agneta

    1998-01-01

    This study assessed the interrater reliability of a Swedish version of the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), an instrument for screening and diagnosis of autism. The CARS was used for rating autistic behavior by two investigators in 25 children. Results indicated fair to excellent agreement. Aspects of validity and reliability are discussed.…

  2. Evaluation of the Bess TRS-CA Using the Rasch Rating Scale Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiStefano, Christine; Morgan, Grant B.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the Behavioral and Emotional Screening System Teacher Rating System for Children and Adolescents (BESS TRS-CA; Kamphaus & Reynolds, 2007) screener using Rasch Rating Scale model (RSM) methodology to provide additional information about psychometric properties of items. Data from the Behavioral Assessment System for Children…

  3. Preliminary Psychometric Evidence of the "Behavioral and Emotional Screening System Teacher Rating Scale-Preschool"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Fred W.; DiStefano, Christine A.; Liu, Jin; Cain, Leia K.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide psychometric evidence related to the "Behavioral and Emotional Screening System Teacher Rating Scale-Preschool" form's (BESS TRS-P) ability to identify emerging problems in preschool children. Reliability and validity associated with screener scores were compared by analyzing teacher ratings of…

  4. Further Psychometric Properties of the Tourette's Disorder Scale-Parent Rated Version (TODS-PR)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storch, Eric A.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Geffken, Gary R.; Soto, Ohel; Sajid, Muhammad; Allen, Pam; Roberti, Jonathan W.; Killiany, Erin M.; Goodman, Wayne K.

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Tourette's Disorder Scale-Parent Rated (TODS-PR), a 15-item parent-rated instrument that assesses a range of common symptoms seen in childhood Tourette's Disorder (TD) patients including tics, obsessions, compulsions, inattention, hyperactivity, aggression, and emotional disturbances.…

  5. Scale dependence of the alignment between strain rate and rotation in turbulent shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiscaletti, D.; Elsinga, G. E.; Attili, A.; Bisetti, F.; Buxton, O. R. H.

    2016-10-01

    The scale dependence of the statistical alignment tendencies of the eigenvectors of the strain-rate tensor ei, with the vorticity vector ω , is examined in the self-preserving region of a planar turbulent mixing layer. Data from a direct numerical simulation are filtered at various length scales and the probability density functions of the magnitude of the alignment cosines between the two unit vectors | ei.ω ̂| are examined. It is observed that the alignment tendencies are insensitive to the concurrent large-scale velocity fluctuations, but are quantitatively affected by the nature of the concurrent large-scale velocity-gradient fluctuations. It is confirmed that the small-scale (local) vorticity vector is preferentially aligned in parallel with the large-scale (background) extensive strain-rate eigenvector e1, in contrast to the global tendency for ω to be aligned in parallel with the intermediate strain-rate eigenvector [Hamlington et al., Phys. Fluids 20, 111703 (2008), 10.1063/1.3021055]. When only data from regions of the flow that exhibit strong swirling are included, the so-called high-enstrophy worms, the alignment tendencies are exaggerated with respect to the global picture. These findings support the notion that the production of enstrophy, responsible for a net cascade of turbulent kinetic energy from large scales to small scales, is driven by vorticity stretching due to the preferential parallel alignment between ω and nonlocal e1 and that the strongly swirling worms are kinematically significant to this process.

  6. The measurement of mathematics anxiety: the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale for Adolescents--MARS-A.

    PubMed

    Suinn, R M; Edwards, R

    1982-07-01

    Describes the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale for Adolescents (MARS-A). Normative data on over 1,200 junior high and senior high students are reported. In addition, psychometric data that relate to reliability and construct validity for the MARS-A scale are discussed. Two factors were identified in the scale, a factor of numerical anxiety that appeared in 91% of the items and a factor of mathematics test anxiety that appeared in the remaining items. Results that show the association between high mathematics anxiety scale scores and low grade average in mathematics courses are reported on two samples of students.

  7. A model for scaling in firms’ size and growth rate distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzig, Cornelia; Gordon, Mirta B.

    2014-03-01

    We introduce a simple agent-based model which allows us to analyze three stylized facts: a fat-tailed size distribution of companies, a ‘tent-shaped’ growth rate distribution, the scaling relation of the growth rate variance with firm size, and the causality between them. This is achieved under the simple hypothesis that firms compete for a scarce quantity (either aggregate demand or workforce) which is allocated probabilistically. The model allows us to relate size and growth rate distributions. We compare the results of our model to simulations with other scaling relationships, and to similar models and relate it to existing theory. Effects arising from binning data are discussed.

  8. Rating scales for behavioral symptoms in Huntington's disease: Critique and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Mestre, Tiago A; van Duijn, Erik; Davis, Aileen M; Bachoud-Lévi, Anne-Catherine; Busse, Monica; Anderson, Karen E; Ferreira, Joaquim J; Mahlknecht, Philipp; Tumas, Vitor; Sampaio, Cristina; Goetz, Chris G; Cubo, Esther; Stebbins, Glenn T; Martinez-Martin, Pablo

    2016-10-01

    Behavioral symptoms are an important feature of Huntington's disease and contribute to impairment in quality of life. The Movement Disorder Society commissioned the assessment of the clinimetric properties of rating scales in Huntington's disease to make recommendations regarding their use, following previously used standardized criteria. A systematic literature search was conducted to identify the scales used to assess behavioral symptoms in Huntington's disease. For the purpose of this review, 7 behavioral domains were deemed significant in Huntington's disease: irritability, anxiety, depression, apathy, obsessive-compulsive behaviors, psychosis, and suicidal ideation. We included a total of 27 behavioral rating scales, 19 of which were of a single behavioral domain and the remaining 8 scales included multiple behavioral domains. Three rating scales were classified as "recommended" exclusively for screening purposes: the Irritability Scale for irritability, the Beck Depression Inventory-II, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale for depression. There were no "recommended" scales for other purposes such as diagnosis, severity, or change in time or to treatment. The main challenges identified for assessment of behavioral symptoms in Huntington's disease are the co-occurrence of multiple behavioral symptoms, the particular features of a behavioral symptom in Huntington's disease, and the need to address stage- and disease-specific features, including cognitive impairment and lack of insight. The committee concluded that there is a need to further validate currently available behavioral rating scales in Huntington's disease to address gaps in scale validation for specific behavioral domains and purpose of use. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  9. A New Method for Flow Rate Measurement in Millimeter-Scale Pipes

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Haifeng; Gao, Xuemin; Wang, Baoliang; Huang, Zhiyao; Li, Haiqing

    2013-01-01

    Combining the Capacitively Coupled Contactless Conductivity Detection (C4D) technique and the principle of cross correlation flow measurement, a new method for flow rate measurement in millimeter-scale pipes was proposed. The research work included two parts. First, a new five-electrode C4D sensor was developed. Second, with two conductivity signals obtained by the developed sensor, the flow rate measurement was implemented by using the principle of cross correlation flow measurement. The experimental results showed that the proposed flow rate measurement method was effective, the developed five-electrode C4D sensor was successful, and the measurement accuracy was satisfactory. In five millimeter-scale pipes with different inner diameters of 0.5, 0.8, 1.8, 3.0 and 3.9 mm respectively, the maximum relative difference of the flow rate measurement between the reference flow rate and the measured flow rate was less than 5%. PMID:23353139

  10. Large-scale dynamo growth rates from numerical simulations and implications for mean-field theories.

    PubMed

    Park, Kiwan; Blackman, Eric G; Subramanian, Kandaswamy

    2013-05-01

    Understanding large-scale magnetic field growth in turbulent plasmas in the magnetohydrodynamic limit is a goal of magnetic dynamo theory. In particular, assessing how well large-scale helical field growth and saturation in simulations match those predicted by existing theories is important for progress. Using numerical simulations of isotropically forced turbulence without large-scale shear with its implications, we focus on several additional aspects of this comparison: (1) Leading mean-field dynamo theories which break the field into large and small scales predict that large-scale helical field growth rates are determined by the difference between kinetic helicity and current helicity with no dependence on the nonhelical energy in small-scale magnetic fields. Our simulations show that the growth rate of the large-scale field from fully helical forcing is indeed unaffected by the presence or absence of small-scale magnetic fields amplified in a precursor nonhelical dynamo. However, because the precursor nonhelical dynamo in our simulations produced fields that were strongly subequipartition with respect to the kinetic energy, we cannot yet rule out the potential influence of stronger nonhelical small-scale fields. (2) We have identified two features in our simulations which cannot be explained by the most minimalist versions of two-scale mean-field theory: (i) fully helical small-scale forcing produces significant nonhelical large-scale magnetic energy and (ii) the saturation of the large-scale field growth is time delayed with respect to what minimalist theory predicts. We comment on desirable generalizations to the theory in this context and future desired work.

  11. Pore and Continuum Scale Study of the Effect of Subgrid Transport Heterogeneity on Redox Reaction Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yuanyuan; Liu, Chongxuan; Zhang, Changyong; Yang, Xiaofan; Zachara, John M.

    2015-08-01

    A micromodel system with a pore structure for heterogeneous flow and transport was used to investigate the effect of subgrid transport heterogeneity on redox reaction rates. Hematite reductive dissolution by injecting a reduced form of flavin mononucleotide (FMNH2) at variable flow rates was used as an example to probe the variations of redox reaction rates in different subgrid transport domains. Experiments, pore-scale simulations, and macroscopic modeling were performed to measure and simulate in-situ hematite reduction and to evaluate the scaling behavior of the redox reaction rates from the pore to macroscopic scales. The results indicated that the measured pore-scale rates of hematite reduction were consistent with the predictions from a pore scale reactive transport model. A general trend is that hematite reduction followed reductant transport pathways, starting from the advection-dominated pores toward the interior of diffusion-dominated domains. Two types of diffusion domains were considered in the micromodel: a micropore diffusion domain, which locates inside solid grains or aggregates where reactant transport is limited by diffusion; and a macropore diffusion domain, which locates at wedged, dead-end pore spaces created by the grain-grain contacts. The rate of hematite reduction in the advection-dominated domain was faster than those in the diffusion-controlled domains, and the rate in the macropore diffusion domain was faster than that in the micropore domain. The reduction rates in the advection and macropore diffusion domains increased with increasing flow rate, but were affected by different mechanisms. The rate increase in the advection domain was controlled by the mass action effect as a faster flow supplied more reactants, and the rate increase in the macropore domain was more affected by the rate of mass exchange with the advection domain, which increased with increasing flow rate. The hematite reduction rate in the micropore domain was, however

  12. Direct and mediated effects of nativity and other indicators of acculturation on Hispanic mothers' use of physical aggression.

    PubMed

    Altschul, Inna; Lee, Shawna J

    2011-11-01

    This study used data from 845 foreign-born (n = 328) and native-U.S. born (n = 517) Hispanic mothers who participated in the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS) to examine four indicators of acculturation--nativity, years lived in the United States, religious attendance, and endorsement of traditional gender norms--as predictors of maternal physical aggression directed toward young children. The authors also examined whether psychosocial risk factors associated with child maltreatment and acculturation--maternal alcohol use, depression, parenting stress, and intimate partner aggression and violence--mediate relationships between acculturation and maternal aggression. Foreign-born Hispanic mothers had significantly lower rates of physical aggression than native-born Hispanic mothers. In path modeling results, U.S. nativity, along with maternal alcohol use, parenting stress, and child aggressive behavior, emerged as the strongest risk factors for maternal physical aggression. Among the four acculturation indicators, only foreign birth was directly associated with lower maternal aggression. Study findings suggest immigrant status is a unique protective factor that contributes to lower levels of physical aggression among Hispanic mothers.

  13. Landscape scale measures of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) bioenergetic growth rate potential in Lake Michigan and comparison with angler catch rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hook, T.O.; Rutherford, E.S.; Brines, Shannon J.; Geddes, C.A.; Mason, D.M.; Schwab, D.J.; Fleischer, G.W.

    2004-01-01

    The relative quality of a habitat can influence fish consumption, growth, mortality, and production. In order to quantify habitat quality, several authors have combined bioenergetic and foraging models to generate spatially explicit estimates of fish growth rate potential (GRP). However, the capacity of GRP to reflect the spatial distributions of fishes over large areas has not been fully evaluated. We generated landscape scale estimates of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) GRP throughout Lake Michigan for 1994-1996, and used these estimates to test the hypotheses that GRP is a good predictor of spatial patterns of steelhead catch rates. We used surface temperatures (measured with AVHRR satellite imagery) and acoustically measured steelhead prey densities (alewife, Alosa pseudoharengus) as inputs for the GRP model. Our analyses demonstrate that potential steelhead growth rates in Lake Michigan are highly variable in both space and time. Steelhead GRP tended to increase with latitude, and mean GRP was much higher during September 1995, compared to 1994 and 1996. In addition, our study suggests that landscape scale measures of GRP are not good predictors of steelhead catch rates throughout Lake Michigan, but may provide an index of interannual variation in system-wide habitat quality.

  14. Estimation of waste component-specific landfill decay rates using laboratory-scale decomposition data.

    PubMed

    De la Cruz, Florentino B; Barlaz, Morton A

    2010-06-15

    The current methane generation model used by the U.S. EPA (Landfill Gas Emissions Model) treats municipal solid waste (MSW) as a homogeneous waste with one decay rate. However, component-specific decay rates are required to evaluate the effects of changes in waste composition on methane generation. Laboratory-scale rate constants, k(lab), for the major biodegradable MSW components were used to derive field-scale decay rates (k(field)) for each waste component using the assumption that the average of the field-scale decay rates for each waste component, weighted by its composition, is equal to the bulk MSW decay rate. For an assumed bulk MSW decay rate of 0.04 yr(-1), k(field) was estimated to be 0.298, 0.171, 0.015, 0.144, 0.033, 0.02, 0.122, and 0.029 yr(-1), for grass, leaves, branches, food waste, newsprint, corrugated containers, coated paper, and office paper, respectively. The effect of landfill waste diversion programs on methane production was explored to illustrate the use of component-specific decay rates. One hundred percent diversion of yard waste and food waste reduced the year 20 methane production rate by 45%. When a landfill gas collection schedule was introduced, collectable methane was most influenced by food waste diversion at years 10 and 20 and paper diversion at year 40.

  15. Acculturation, perceived discrimination, and psychological distress: Experiences of South Asians in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Tonsing, Kareen N; Tse, Samson; Tonsing, Jenny C

    2016-02-01

    Although migration itself may not compromise the mental health of immigrants, the acculturative process can involve highly stressful factors that are specific to immigrant and minority status. Using structural equation modeling, this study examined the relations between acculturation orientations, perceived discrimination, acculturative stress, and psychological distress among 229 Pakistani and 218 Nepalese migrants living in Hong Kong. Although the initial hypothesized model was not confirmed, a modified model with good fit indices showed that acculturation orientation mediated the relationships of perceived discrimination and acculturative stress with psychological distress. Of all the factors in the model, acculturative stress had the strongest association with psychological distress.

  16. On the depth and scale of metabolic rate variation: scaling of oxygen consumption rates and enzymatic activity in the Class Cephalopoda (Mollusca).

    PubMed

    Seibel, Brad A

    2007-01-01

    Recent ecological theory depends, for predictive power, on the apparent similarity of metabolic rates within broad taxonomic or functional groups of organisms (e.g. invertebrates or ectotherms). Such metabolic commonality is challenged here, as I demonstrate more than 200-fold variation in metabolic rates independent of body mass and temperature in a single class of animals, the Cephalopoda, over seven orders of magnitude size range. I further demonstrate wide variation in the slopes of metabolic scaling curves. The observed variation in metabolism reflects differential selection among species for locomotory capacity rather than mass or temperature constraints. Such selection is highest among epipelagic squids (Lolignidae and Ommastrephidae) that, as adults, have temperature-corrected metabolic rates higher than mammals of similar size.

  17. Latino Immigrants, Acculturation, and Health: Promising New Directions in Research.

    PubMed

    Abraído-Lanza, Ana F; Echeverría, Sandra E; Flórez, Karen R

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an analysis of novel topics emerging in recent years in research on Latino immigrants, acculturation, and health. In the past ten years, the number of studies assessing new ways to conceptualize and understand how acculturation-related processes may influence health has grown. These new frameworks draw from integrative approaches testing new ground to acknowledge the fundamental role of context and policy. We classify the emerging body of evidence according to themes that we identify as promising directions--intrapersonal, interpersonal, social environmental, community, political, and global contexts, cross-cutting themes in life course and developmental approaches, and segmented assimilation--and discuss the challenges and opportunities each theme presents. This body of work, which considers acculturation in context, points to the emergence of a new wave of research that holds great promise in driving forward the study of Latino immigrants, acculturation, and health. We provide suggestions to further advance the ideologic and methodologic rigor of this new wave.

  18. Validation of the Italian version of the SBMA Functional Rating Scale as outcome measure.

    PubMed

    Querin, Giorgia; DaRe, Elisa; Martinelli, Ilaria; Bello, Luca; Bertolin, Cinzia; Pareyson, Davide; Mariotti, Caterina; Pegoraro, Elena; Sorarù, Gianni

    2016-11-01

    The Spinal and Bulbar Muscular Atrophy Functional Rating Scale (SBMAFRS) is an established rating instrument used to assess the functional status of patients with Spinal and Bulbar Muscular Atrophy (SBMA). Our aim was to validate an Italian version of the scale. We administered the SBMAFRS to sixty SBMA patients during routine follow-up of clinical evaluations. To estimate the test stability, the scale was re-administered to a subset of 39 randomly selected patients after 8 weeks. The patients underwent clinical evaluation including 6-min walk. Psychometric analysis included reliability assessment and factorial analysis. To evaluate convergent validity, correlations between SBMAFRS items and muscular force assessed by manual testing, ALSFRS total score and subscales scores, and forced vital capacity, were performed. Internal consistency as measured by Cronbach's alpha (total scale 0.85) was high. Test-retest reliability assessed by Spearman's rho was also high. Principal component analysis with varimax rotation yielded a four-factor solution accounting for approximately 79 % of the variance. The scale total score and subscales score were strongly correlated with respective items and subscores of the ALSFRS, with respiratory function and with the 6-min walk test. In conclusion, we performed an Italian validation of the only existing disease-specific Functional Rating Scale for SBMA patients. This scale will be a useful tool not only in the clinical practice but also as an outcome measure in upcoming clinical trials.

  19. How Do Observational Scales Correlate the Ratings of Children's Behavior during Pediatric Procedural Sedation?

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Larissa da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Background. There is little information regarding the ability of observational scales to properly assess children's behavior during procedural sedation. Aim. To evaluate the characteristics of the Houpt scales, the Ohio State University Behavioral Rating Scale (OSUBRS) and the Venham Behavior Rating Scale when applied to preschool children undergoing conscious dental sedation. Design. This study included 27 children, 4–6 years old with early childhood caries that participated in a clinical trial (NCT02284204) that investigated two sedative regimes using oral midazolam/ketamine. Dental appointments were video-recorded; five calibrated observers assessed 1,209 minutes of video recording to score the children's behavior, following the instructions of the investigated scales. Data were analyzed by descriptive analysis and Spearman correlation tests (P < 0.05). Results. The Houpt overall behavior and the Venham scale were highly correlated (rho = −0.87; P < 0.001). OSUBRS scores were better correlated with Houpt overall behavior and Venham ratings, when compared to Houpt scores in the categories for movement and crying. Conclusions. The Houpt overall behavior and the Venham scores are global scales that properly measure children's behavior during dental sedation. Continuous assessment with OSUBRS through videos has a chance to give more precise data, while the Houpt categories can easily demonstrate children's behavior during procedures. PMID:28116299

  20. Minorities' acculturation and social adjustment: The moderator role of meta-perceptions of majority's acculturation attitudes.

    PubMed

    António, João H C; Monteiro, Maria Benedicta

    2015-12-01

    Two studies addressed the role of Black meta-perception of acculturation attitudes on the relation between minority acculturation attitudes and their social adjustment (school achievement and perceived quality of intergroup relations). Participants in both studies were Black Lusophone adolescents living in Portugal. Study 1 (N = 140) indicated that participants' attitude regarding the host culture was positively correlated with their school achievement and to their evaluation of intergroup relations. It also indicated that participants' meta-perception of majority attitude add to the explained variance of participants' social adjustment. Study 2 (N = 62) manipulated the perceived majority high/low support of immigrants' learning the host culture. The dependent variable (DV) was perceived quality of intergroup relations. Only in the low support condition were participants' attitudes towards the host culture positively related to perceived quality of Black-White relationships. These results suggest that perceived social context is central to understand the relationship between minority adolescents' acculturation attitudes and key dimensions of their adjustment to host societies.

  1. Monitoring survival rates of Swainson's Thrush Catharus ustulatus at multiple spatial scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenberg, D.K.; DeSante, D.F.; McKelvey, K.S.; Hines, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    We estimated survival rates of Swainson's Thrush, a common, neotropical, migratory landbird, at multiple spatial scales, using data collected in the western USA from the Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship Programme. We evaluated statistical power to detect spatially heterogeneous survival rates and exponentially declining survival rates among spatial scales with simulated populations parameterized from results of the Swainson's Thrush analyses. Models describing survival rates as constant across large spatial scales did not fit the data. The model we chose as most appropriate to describe survival rates of Swainson's Thrush allowed survival rates to vary among Physiographic Provinces, included a separate parameter for the probability that a newly captured bird is a resident individual in the study population, and constrained capture probability to be constant across all stations. Estimated annual survival rates under this model varied from 0.42 to 0.75 among Provinces. The coefficient of variation of survival estimates ranged from 5.8 to 20% among Physiographic Provinces. Statistical power to detect exponentially declining trends was fairly low for small spatial scales, although large annual declines (3% of previous year's rate) were likely to be detected when monitoring was conducted for long periods of time (e.g. 20 years). Although our simulations and field results are based on only four years of date from a limited number and distribution of stations, it is likely that they illustrate genuine difficulties inherent to broadscale efforts to monitor survival rates of territorial landbirds. In particular, our results suggest that more attention needs to be paid to sampling schemes of monitoring programmes particularly regarding the trade-off between precison and potential bias o parameter estimates at varying spatial scales.

  2. Monitoring survival rates of Swainson's Thrush Catharus ustulatus at multiple spatial scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenberg, D.K.; DeSante, D.F.; McKelvey, K.S.; Hines, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    We estimated survival rates of Swainson's Thrush, a common, neotropical, migratory landbird, at multiple spatial scales, using data collected in the western USA from the Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship Programme. We evaluated statistical power to detect spatially heterogeneous survival rates and exponentially declining survival rates among spatial scales with simulated populations parameterized from results of the Swainson's Thrush analyses. Models describing survival rates as constant across large spatial scales did not fit the data. The model we chose as most appropriate to describe survival rates of Swainson's Thrush allowed survival rates to vary among Physiographic Provinces, included a separate parameter for the probability that a newly captured bird is a resident individual in the study population, and constrained capture probability to be constant across all stations. Estimated annual survival rates under this model varied from 0.42 to 0.75 among Provinces. The coefficient of variation of survival estimates ranged from 5.8 to 20% among Physiographic Provinces. Statistical power to detect exponentially declining trends was fairly low for small spatial scales, although large annual declines (3% of previous year's rate) were likely to be detected when monitoring was conducted for long periods of time (e.g. 20 years). Although our simulations and field results are based on only four years of data from a limited number and distribution of stations, it is likely that they illustrate genuine difficulties inherent to broadscale efforts to monitor survival rates of territorial landbirds. In particular, our results suggest that more attention needs to be paid to sampling schemes of monitoring programmes, particularly regarding the trade-off between precision and potential bias of parameter estimates at varying spatial scales.

  3. Relationship between manual dexterity and the unified parkinson's disease rating scale-motor exam.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sujin; Song, Chiang-Soon

    2016-12-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between manual dexterity and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-Motor Exam as a clinical tool for quantifying upper extremity function in persons with Parkinson's disease. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-two persons with idiopathic Parkinson's disease participated in this study. This study measured two clinical outcomes, the box-and-block test and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-Motor Exam, to investigate the relationships between manual dexterity and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-Motor Exam. [Results] The box-and-block test on the more affected side was positive relationship with the box-and-block test on the less affected side. The Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-motor exam score had a negative correlation with the box-and-block test results for both sides. [Conclusion] A positive association was noted between manual dexterity and motor function in patients with idiopathic Parkinson disease. The results of this study suggest that the box-and-block test and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-Motor Exam are good clinical measures that quantify upper extremity function and are necessary for the accurate evaluation of patients and to plan intervention strategies.

  4. Relationship between manual dexterity and the unified parkinson’s disease rating scale-motor exam

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Sujin; Song, Chiang-Soon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between manual dexterity and the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale-Motor Exam as a clinical tool for quantifying upper extremity function in persons with Parkinson’s disease. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-two persons with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease participated in this study. This study measured two clinical outcomes, the box-and-block test and the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale-Motor Exam, to investigate the relationships between manual dexterity and the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale-Motor Exam. [Results] The box-and-block test on the more affected side was positive relationship with the box-and-block test on the less affected side. The Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale-motor exam score had a negative correlation with the box-and-block test results for both sides. [Conclusion] A positive association was noted between manual dexterity and motor function in patients with idiopathic Parkinson disease. The results of this study suggest that the box-and-block test and the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale-Motor Exam are good clinical measures that quantify upper extremity function and are necessary for the accurate evaluation of patients and to plan intervention strategies. PMID:28174461

  5. Do insect metabolic rates at rest and during flight scale with body mass?

    PubMed

    Niven, Jeremy E; Scharlemann, Jörn P W

    2005-09-22

    Energetically costly behaviours, such as flight, push physiological systems to their limits requiring metabolic rates (MR) that are highly elevated above the resting MR (RMR). Both RMR and MR during exercise (e.g. flight or running) in birds and mammals scale allometrically, although there is little consensus about the underlying mechanisms or the scaling relationships themselves. Even less is known about the allometric scaling of RMR and MR during exercise in insects. We analysed data on the resting and flight MR (FMR) of over 50 insect species that fly to determine whether RMR and FMR scale allometrically. RMR scaled with body mass to the power of 0.66 (M0.66), whereas FMR scaled with M1.10. Further analysis suggested that FMR scaled with two separate relationships; insects weighing less than 10mg had fourfold lower FMR than predicted from the scaling of FMR in insects weighing more than 10mg, although both groups scaled with M0.86. The scaling exponents of RMR and FMR in insects were not significantly different from those of birds and mammals, suggesting that they might be determined by similar factors. We argue that low FMR in small insects suggests these insects may be making considerable energy savings during flight, which could be extremely important for the physiology and evolution of insect flight.

  6. Acculturative stress and inflammation among Chinese immigrant women

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Carolyn Y.; Ross, Eric A.; Pathak, Harsh B.; Godwin, Andrew K.; Tseng, Marilyn

    2014-01-01

    Objective Among Chinese immigrant populations, increasing duration of US residence is associated with elevated risk for various chronic diseases. Although lifestyle changes following migration have been extensively studied in immigrant populations, less understood is the psychosocial impact of acculturative stress upon biological markers of health. Thus, the purpose of the present study is to examine associations between acculturative stress and inflammatory markers in a Chinese immigrant population. Methods Study participants (n=407 foreign-born Chinese American women) completed questionnaires assessing levels of stress, including acculturative stress and positive and negative life events in the past year. Participant height and weight were measured using standard protocols and blood samples were drawn for assessment of circulating serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (sTNFR2). Results Higher levels of acculturative stress were significantly associated with higher levels of CRP (B=0.07, 95% CI=0.01-0.13, p=0.031) and sTNFR2 (B=0.02, 95% CI=0.004-0.03, p=0.012), adjusting for age and body mass index (BMI). The latter association was no longer statistically significant when overall acculturation (i.e., identification with American culture) was included in the model. Life events were not associated with CRP or sTNFR2. Conclusions This study shows that acculturative stress is associated with inflammation markers in a Chinese immigrant population. These findings suggest that immigrant health trajectories may be adversely influenced by psychological distress associated with the demands of acculturation. Replication in other immigrant samples is needed to fully establish the biological correlates and clinical consequences of acculturation stress. PMID:24846001

  7. Effects of Post-Fire Salvage Logging on Erosion Rates at Multiple Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagenbrenner, J. W.; Robichaud, P. R.; MacDonald, L. H.; Brown, R. E.

    2014-12-01

    Forest managers sometimes harvest burned trees after wildfires to realize economic value, reduce fuel loads, or achieve other operational goals. This logging can be controversial because some ecosystem effects are negative, yet the potential impacts on erosion rates have not been clearly identified. Our objectives were to quantify hillslope-scale erosion rates and compare the hillslope erosion rates to rates from larger (swale) and smaller (rill) scales. Soil characteristics, vegetative regrowth, and erosion rates were measured in logged areas and unlogged controls at seven severely burned sites in the western US. One site had replicated measurements at all three scales, five sites had only hillslope or swale scale measurements, and one site had only rill measurements. Erosion rates from hillslopes (70-170 m2) and swales (0.1-2.6 ha) were measured with sediment fences. Rill erosion rates were measured with rill experiments, where water was applied to a hillslope at five flow rates for 12 min each; water samples were collected at a point 9 m downslope. At the hillslope scale the passage of heavy logging equipment reduced soil water repellency, compacted the soil, reduced vegetative regrowth rates, and generally increased erosion rates by one or two orders of magnitude relative to the controls. The rill experiments also showed greater rates of rill incision and erosion from the areas disturbed by heavy logging equipment relative to the controls. At the swale scale erosion rates were higher in the logged areas than the controls when measurements were replicated and simultaneous but there was no detectable change in the other study areas. Overall, the absolute erosion rates from both logged and unlogged areas tended to decline over time while the relative difference in erosion tended to increase due to the slower vegetative recovery in the more heavily disturbed areas. The potential adverse effects of salvage logging can be minimized by reducing compaction and

  8. Laboratory-Scale Melter for Determination of Melting Rate of Waste Glass Feeds

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dong-Sang; Schweiger, Michael J.; Buchmiller, William C.; Matyas, Josef

    2012-01-09

    The purpose of this study was to develop the laboratory-scale melter (LSM) as a quick and inexpensive method to determine the processing rate of various waste glass slurry feeds. The LSM uses a 3 or 4 in. diameter-fused quartz crucible with feed and off-gas ports on top. This LSM setup allows cold-cap formation above the molten glass to be directly monitored to obtain a steady-state melting rate of the waste glass feeds. The melting rate data from extensive scaled-melter tests with Hanford Site high-level wastes performed for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant have been compiled. Preliminary empirical model that expresses the melting rate as a function of bubbling rate and glass yield were developed from the compiled database. The two waste glass feeds with most melter run data were selected for detailed evaluation and model development and for the LSM tests so the melting rates obtained from LSM tests can be compared with those from scaled-melter tests. The present LSM results suggest the LSM setup can be used to determine the glass production rates for the development of new glass compositions or feed makeups that are designed to increase the processing rate of the slurry feeds.

  9. Adapting CEF-Descriptors for Rating Purposes: Validation by a Combined Rater Training and Scale Revision Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harsch, Claudia; Martin, Guido

    2012-01-01

    We explore how a local rating scale can be based on the Common European Framework CEF-proficiency scales. As part of the scale validation (Alderson, 1991; Lumley, 2002), we examine which adaptations are needed to turn CEF-proficiency descriptors into a rating scale for a local context, and to establish a practicable method to revise the initial…

  10. The intraspecific scaling of metabolic rate with body mass in fishes depends on lifestyle and temperature.

    PubMed

    Killen, Shaun S; Atkinson, David; Glazier, Douglas S

    2010-02-01

    Metabolic energy fuels all biological processes, and therefore theories that explain the scaling of metabolic rate with body mass potentially have great predictive power in ecology. A new model, that could improve this predictive power, postulates that the metabolic scaling exponent (b) varies between 2/3 and 1, and is inversely related to the elevation of the intraspecific scaling relationship (metabolic level, L), which in turn varies systematically among species in response to various ecological factors. We test these predictions by examining the effects of lifestyle, swimming mode and temperature on intraspecific scaling of resting metabolic rate among 89 species of teleost fish. As predicted, b decreased as L increased with temperature, and with shifts in lifestyle from bathyal and benthic to benthopelagic to pelagic. This effect of lifestyle on b may be related to varying amounts of energetically expensive tissues associated with different capacities for swimming during predator-prey interactions.

  11. Adolescent relationship violence and acculturation among NYC Latinos.

    PubMed

    DuPont-Reyes, Melissa; Fry, Deborah; Rickert, Vaughn; Davidson, Leslie L

    2015-07-01

    Acculturation has been shown to positively and negatively affect Latino health. Little research investigates the overlap between acculturation and the different types of relationship violence among Latino youth and most research in this area predominantly involves Mexican-American samples. The current study examined associations between indices of acculturation (language use at home, chosen survey language, and nativity) and relationship physical violence and sexual coercion, both received and delivered, among predominantly Dominican and Puerto Rican adolescents from New York City. From 2006 to 2007, 1,454 adolescents aged 13-21 years in New York City completed an anonymous survey that included the Conflict in Adolescent Relationships Inventory which estimates experiences of physical violence and sexual coercion, both received and delivered, in the previous year. This analysis includes bivariate and multivariate methods to test the associations between language use at home, chosen survey language, and nativity with the different types of relationship violence. Among females, there is a significant association between language use at home and overall level of acculturation with delivering and receiving relationship physical violence; however, we did not find this association in delivering and receiving relationship sexual coercion. We found no association between acculturation and any type of relationship violence among males. Among Latina females, language spoken at home is an indicator of other protective factors of physical relationship violence. Future research in this area should explore the potential protective factors surrounding relationship violence among Latina females of various subgroups using comprehensive measures of acculturation, household composition and family engagement.

  12. Construction and evaluation of a self rating scale for stress-induced Exhaustion Disorder, the Karolinska Exhaustion Disorder Scale

    PubMed Central

    Besèr, Aniella; Sorjonen, Kimmo; Wahlberg, Kristina; Peterson, Ulla; Nygren, Åke; Åsberg, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Prolonged stress (≥ six months) may cause a condition which has been named exhaustion disorder (ED) with ICD-10 code F43.8. ED is characterised by exhaustion, cognitive problems, poor sleep and reduced tolerance to further stress. ED can cause long term disability and depressive symptoms may develop. The aim was to construct and evaluate a self-rating scale, the Karolinska Exhaustion Disorder Scale (KEDS), for the assessment of ED symptoms. A second aim was to examine the relationship between self-rated symptoms of ED, depression, and anxiety using KEDS and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD). Items were selected based on their correspondence to criteria for ED as formulated by the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare (NBHW), with seven response alternatives in a Likert-format. Self-ratings performed by 317 clinically assessed participants were used to analyse the scale’s psychometric properties. KEDS consists of nine items with a scale range of 0–54. Receiver operating characteristics analysis demonstrated that a cut-off score of 19 was accompanied by high sensitivity and specificity (each above 95%) in the discrimination between healthy subjects and patients with ED. Reliability was satisfactory and confirmatory factor analysis revealed that ED, depression and anxiety are best regarded as different phenomena. KEDS may be a useful tool in the assessment of symptoms of Exhaustion Disorder in clinical as well as research settings. There is evidence that the symptom clusters of ED, anxiety and depression, respectively, reflect three different underlying dimensions. PMID:24236500

  13. Acculturation and adaptation of Soviet Jewish refugee adolescents: predictors of adjustment across life domains.

    PubMed

    Birman, Dina; Trickett, Edison J; Vinokurov, Andrey

    2002-10-01

    This study explores how acculturation is related to adaptation across different life spheres for 162 Soviet Jewish refugee adolescents in a suburban community in Maryland. Because the different contexts of refugee adolescents' lives vary in acculturative demands, different patterns of acculturation should be related to adaptation in different life spheres. The study uses a multidimensional measure of acculturation and assesses acculturation to both American and Russian cultures as it relates to psychological adaptation, peer relations, and school and family outcomes. Findings support the general ecological thesis that acculturation to different cultures is differentially related to adaptation across life domains. Acculturation to American culture predicted better grades and perceived support from American peers. Acculturation to Russian culture predicted perceived support from Russian peers. Both American acculturation and Russian acculturation predicted reduced loneliness and perceived support from parents. Further, different dimensions of acculturation, such as language and identity, were differentially related to adaptation. Implications for acculturation theory and measurement are drawn, and cautions are offered about the interpretation of acculturation studies using single proxies such as language use or preference.

  14. Rating Scales for Diagnostic Assessment of Writing: What Should They Look Like and Where Should the Criteria Come from?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoch, Ute

    2011-01-01

    Rating scales act as the de facto test construct in a writing assessment, although inevitably as a simplification of the construct (North, 2003). However, it is often not reported how rating scales are constructed. Unless the underlying framework of a rating scale takes some account of linguistic theory and research in the definition of…

  15. An Investigation of the Reliability and Factor Structure of Four New Scales for Rating the Behavioral Characteristics of Superior Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renzulli, Joseph S.; Siegle, Del; Reis, Sally M.; Gavin, M. Katherine; Sytsma Reed, Rachael E.

    2009-01-01

    Teacher rating scales have been used widely throughout the United States as part of a comprehensive plan for identifying potentially gifted and talented students. The Scales for Rating the Behavioral Characteristics for Superior Students (SRBCSS) are among the most frequently used teacher rating scales to assess the characteristics of and nominate…

  16. Compression based entropy estimation of heart rate variability on multiple time scales.

    PubMed

    Baumert, Mathias; Voss, Andreas; Javorka, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Heart rate fluctuates beat by beat in a complex manner. The aim of this study was to develop a framework for entropy assessment of heart rate fluctuations on multiple time scales. We employed the Lempel-Ziv algorithm for lossless data compression to investigate the compressibility of RR interval time series on different time scales, using a coarse-graining procedure. We estimated the entropy of RR interval time series of 20 young and 20 old subjects and also investigated the compressibility of randomly shuffled surrogate RR time series. The original RR time series displayed significantly smaller compression entropy values than randomized RR interval data. The RR interval time series of older subjects showed significantly different entropy characteristics over multiple time scales than those of younger subjects. In conclusion, data compression may be useful approach for multiscale entropy assessment of heart rate variability.

  17. Understanding source effects in ADHD rating scales: reply to DuPaul (2003).

    PubMed

    Burns, G Leonard; Gomez, Rapson; Walsh, James A; de Moura, Marcela Alves

    2003-03-01

    G. J. DuPaul (2003) offered two suggestions for additional research to understand the strong source effects reported by R. Gomez, G. L. Burns, J. A. Walsh, and M. A. de Moura (2003) in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) rating scales. The first suggestion was to determine whether the source effects represent mostly bias or accuracy. The second suggestion was to minimize source effects through the development of better ADHD rating scales. Because source effects can represent bias or accuracy, it is important to minimize the bias aspect through content validation procedures prior to attempts to determine whether source effects better reflect bias or accuracy. This comment offers various suggestions to reduce the bias in ADHD rating scales.

  18. Motion sickness in cats - A symptom rating scale used in laboratory and flight tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suri, K. B.; Daunton, N. G.; Crampton, G. H.

    1979-01-01

    The cat is proposed as a model for the study of motion and space sickness. Development of a scale for rating the motion sickness severity in the cat is described. The scale is used to evaluate an antimotion sickness drug, d-amphetamine plus scopolamine, and to determine whether it is possible to predict sickness susceptibility during parabolic flight, including zero-G maneuvers, from scores obtained during ground based trials.

  19. Depression rating scales in Parkinson's disease: A critical review updating recent literature.

    PubMed

    Torbey, Elizabeth; Pachana, Nancy A; Dissanayaka, Nadeeka N W

    2015-09-15

    Depression is a prominent non-motor symptom in Parkinson's disease (PD). Assessing depression in PD remains a challenge due to the overlap of somatic symptoms between depression and PD. Other neuropsychiatric manifestations associated with PD, such as cognitive decline, also complicate assessment of depression. Therefore it is critical to investigate the validity of depression rating scales for use in PD. This will allow evaluation of observer- and self-report instruments to be administered in neurologically ill geriatric populations such as PD, and identification of appropriate scales to use in cognitively challenged PD patients. The present review includes all studies examining the validity of depression rating scales in PD. It discusses the usefulness of 13 depression rating scales in PD. The clinician-rated and widely used HAMD-17 and the self-report GDS scales are recommended for screening and measuring severity of depression in PD. The GDS-15 may be a preferred choice due to its brevity and ease of use design for older adults. Other valid and reliable instruments to use in PD include self-rated scales, such as the HADS-D, HDI, and the BDI, and the observer-report, MADRS. The CSDD displayed satisfactory validity and reliability for identification of PD patients with and without dementia. The PHQ-2, PHQ-10, SDS, CES-D, UPDRS-Depression item, IDS-SR, and IDS-C each showed some evidence of validity or reliability, however further research on the psychometric properties of these scales when used in a PD population are required.

  20. Evolution in time and scales of the stability of heart interbeat rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Pérez, R.; Guzmán-Vargas, L.; Reyes-Ramírez, I.; Angulo-Brown, F.

    2010-12-01

    We approach heart interbeat rate by observing the evolution of its stability on scales and time, using tools for the analysis of frequency standards. In particular, we employ the dynamic Allan variance, which is used to characterize the time-varying stability of an atomic clock, to analyze heart interbeat time series for normal subjects and patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). Our stability analysis shows that healthy dynamics is characterized by at least two stability regions along different scales. In contrast, diseased patients exhibit at least three different stability regions; over short scales the fluctuations resembled white-noise behavior whereas for large scales a drift is observed. The inflection points delimiting the first two stability regions for both groups are located around the same scales. Moreover, we find that CHF patients show lower variation of the stability in time than healthy subjects.

  1. Breastfeeding rates: Is the Ross mother's survey underestimating breastfeeding rates of Hispanic women?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Among Hispanics in the United States, breastfeeding initiation and duration decrease with acculturation. Therefore, in communities with significant Hispanic immigrant populations, surveys of breastfeeding rates conducted in English will provide a biased picture of feeding behaviors. Three major su...

  2. Assessing Performance in Shoulder Arthroscopy: The Imperial Global Arthroscopy Rating Scale (IGARS)

    PubMed Central

    Bayona, Sofia; Akhtar, Kash; Gupte, Chinmay; Emery, Roger J.H.; Dodds, Alexander L.; Bello, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Background: Surgical training is undergoing major changes with reduced resident work hours and an increasing focus on patient safety and surgical aptitude. The aim of this study was to create a valid, reliable method for an assessment of arthroscopic skills that is independent of time and place and is designed for both real and simulated settings. The validity of the scale was tested using a virtual reality shoulder arthroscopy simulator. Methods: The study consisted of two parts. In the first part, an Imperial Global Arthroscopy Rating Scale for assessing technical performance was developed using a Delphi method. Application of this scale required installing a dual-camera system to synchronously record the simulator screen and body movements of trainees to allow an assessment that is independent of time and place. The scale includes aspects such as efficient portal positioning, angles of instrument insertion, proficiency in handling the arthroscope and adequately manipulating the camera, and triangulation skills. In the second part of the study, a validation study was conducted. Two experienced arthroscopic surgeons, blinded to the identities and experience of the participants, each assessed forty-nine subjects performing three different tests using the Imperial Global Arthroscopy Rating Scale. Results were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance with measures of absolute agreement. The intraclass correlation coefficient was calculated for each test to assess inter-rater reliability. Results: The scale demonstrated high internal consistency (Cronbach alpha, 0.918). The intraclass correlation coefficient demonstrated high agreement between the assessors: 0.91 (p < 0.001). Construct validity was evaluated using Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance (chi-square test, 29.826; p < 0.001), demonstrating that the Imperial Global Arthroscopy Rating Scale distinguishes significantly between subjects with different levels of experience utilizing a virtual reality

  3. Fine tuning recommendations for older adults with memory complaints: using the Independent Living Scales with the Dementia Rating Scale.

    PubMed

    Baird, Anne

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe how functional test performance changed as global cognitive functioning dropped, as well as to examine the relationship of demographic variables and depression with functional test results. We found that level of performance on the Independent Living Scales (ILS) correlated highly with Dementia Rating Scale (DRS) scores in 83 older adults presenting for clinical neuropsychological assessment, while correlations with demographic factors and depression were nonsignificant or modest. Based on DRS scores, we divided our sample into four groups: normal cognitive status, borderline cognitive impairment, likely mild dementia, and likely moderate dementia. ILS profiles of the borderline impairment and mild dementia groups were similar and reflected particularly poor performance on subscales tapping financial management and everyday memory. Individuals with likely moderate dementia were markedly impaired on all subscales.

  4. Toward a Theory-Driven Model of Acculturation in Public Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Abraído-Lanza, Ana F.; Armbrister, Adria N.; Flórez, Karen R.; Aguirre, Alejandra N.

    2006-01-01

    Interest in studying the impact of acculturation on immigrant health has increased in tandem with the growth of the Latino population in the United States. Linear assimilation models continue to dominate public health research despite the availability of more complex acculturation theories that propose multidimensional frameworks, reciprocal interactions between the individual and the environment, and other acculturative processes among various Latino groups. Because linear and unidimensional assessments (e.g., nativity, length of stay in the United States, and language use) provide constricted measures of acculturation, the rare use of multidimensional acculturation measures and models has inhibited a more comprehensive understanding of the association between specific components of acculturation and particular health outcomes. A public health perspective that incorporates the roles of structural and cultural forces in acculturation may help identify mechanisms underlying links between acculturation and health among Latinos. PMID:16809597

  5. Measuring hunger and satiety in primary school children. Validation of a new picture rating scale.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Carmel; Blissett, Jackie

    2014-07-01

    Measuring hunger and satiety in children is essential to many studies of childhood eating behaviour. Few validated measures currently exist that allow children to make accurate and reliable ratings of hunger/satiety. Three studies aimed to validate the use of a new categorical rating scale in the context of estimated and real eating episodes. Forty-seven 6- to 8-year-olds participated in Study 1, which used a between-participant design. Results indicated that the majority of children were able to make estimated hunger/satiety ratings for a story character using the scale. No significant differences in the ratings of hunger/satiety of children measured before and after lunch were observed and likely causes are discussed. To account for inter-individual differences in hunger/satiety perceptions Study 2 employed a within-participant design. Fifty-four 5- to 7-year-olds participated and made estimated hunger/satiety ratings for a story character and real hunger/satiety ratings before and after lunch. The results indicated that the majority of children were able to use the scale to make estimated and real hunger and satiety ratings. Children were found to be significantly hungrier before compared to after lunch. As it was not possible to establish the types and quantities of food children ate for lunch a third study was carried out in a controlled laboratory environment. Thirty-six 6- to 9-year-olds participated in Study 3 and made hunger/satiety ratings before and after ingesting an ad libitum snack of known composition and quantity. Results indicated that children felt hungrier before than after the snack and that pre-snack hunger/satiety, and changes in hunger/satiety, were associated with snack intake. Overall, the studies indicate that the scale has potential for use with primary school children. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  6. Time Scaling of the Rates of Produced Fluids in Laboratory Displacements

    SciTech Connect

    Laroche, Catherine; Chen, Min; Yortsos, Yanis C.; Kamath, Jairam

    2001-02-27

    In this report, the use of an asymptotic method, based on the time scaling of the ratio of produced fluids, to infer the relative permeability exponent of the displaced phase near its residual saturation, for immiscible displacements in laboratory cores was proposed. Sufficiently large injection rates, the existence of a power law can be detected, and its exponent inferred, by plotting in an appropriate plot the ratio of the flow rates of the two fluids at the effluent for some time after breakthrough.

  7. The Korean Version of the Schizophrenia Cognition Rating Scale: Reliability and Validity

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Eun-Chan; Kim, Sung-Jin; Seo, Young-Soo; Jung, Sung-Soo; Seo, Beom-Joo; Ryu, Jeoung-Whan; Shim, Joo-Cheol; Moon, Jung-Joon; Jeon, Dong-Wook; Park, Kyoung-Duck

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study's aim was to develop and standardize a Korean version (SCoRS-K) of the Schizophrenia Cognition Rating Scale (SCoRS), which is used to evaluate the degree of cognitive dysfunction affecting the everyday functioning of people with schizophrenia. Methods Eighty-four schizophrenia patients with stable symptoms who were receiving outpatient treatment and rehabilitation therapy, and 29 demographically matched non-patient controls, participated in the study. Demographic data were collected, and clinical symptoms, cognitive function, and social function were evaluated to verify SCoRS-K's reliability and validity. Clinical symptoms were evaluated using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and the Clinical Global Impression-Schizophrenia Scale. Cognitive function was evaluated using a short form of the Korean Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Social function was evaluated using the Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale, the Schizophrenia Quality of Life Scale, and the Social Functioning Scale. Results Data analysis demonstrated SCoRS-K's statistically significant reliability and validity. SCoRS-K has high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha; patient 0.941, informant 0.905, interviewer 0.964); test-retest reliability [patient 0.428 (p=0.003), informant 0.502 (p<0.001), interviewer 0.602 (p<0.001); and global rating 0.642 (p<0.001)]. The mean scores of subjects were significantly higher than those of the controls (p<0.001), demonstrating SCoRS-K's discriminant validity. Significant correlations between the total scores and global rating score of SCoRS-K and those of the scales and tests listed above (except WCST) support SCoRS-K's concurrent validity. Conclusion SCoRS-K is a useful instrument for evaluating the degree of cognitive dysfunction in Korean schizophrenia patients. PMID:28326111

  8. Detection of changes in the fractal scaling of heart rate and speed in a marathon race

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billat, Véronique L.; Mille-Hamard, Laurence; Meyer, Yves; Wesfreid, Eva

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to detect changes in the fractal scaling behavior of heart rate and speed fluctuations when the average runner’s speed decreased with fatigue. Scaling analysis in heart rate (HR) and speed (S) dynamics of marathon runners was performed using the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) and the wavelet based structure function. We considered both: the short-range ( α1) and the long-range ( α2) scaling exponents for the DFA method separated by a change-point, n0=64=5.3 min (box length), the same for all the races. The variability of HR and S decreased in the second part of the marathon race, while the cardiac cost time series (i.e. the number of cardiac beats per meter) increased due to the decreasing speed behavior. The scaling exponents α1 and α2 of HR and α1 of S, increased during the race ( p<0.01) as did the HR wavelet scaling exponent ( τ). These findings provide evidence of the significant effect of fatigue induced by long exercise on the heart rate and speed variability.

  9. The VAGUS insight into psychosis scale – Self-report & clinician-rated versions

    PubMed Central

    Gerretsen, Philip; Remington, Gary; Borlido, Carol; Quilty, Lena; Hassan, Sabrina; Polsinelli, Gina; Teo, Celine; Mar, Wanna; Simon, Regina; Menon, Mahesh; Pothier, David D.; Nakajima, Shinichiro; Caravaggio, Fernando; Mamo, David C.; Rajji, Tarek K.; Mulsant, Benoit H.; Deluca, Vincenzo; Ganguli, Rohan; Pollock, Bruce G.; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop self-report and clinician-rated versions of an insight scale that would be easy to administer, sensitive to small changes, and inclusive of the core dimensions of clinical insight into psychosis. Ten-item self-report (VAGUS-SR) and five-item clinician-rated (VAGUS-CR) scales were designed to measure the dimensions of insight into psychosis and evaluated in 215 and 140 participants, respectively (www.vagusonline.com). Tests of reliability and validity were performed. Both the VAGUS-SR and VAGUS-CR showed good internal consistency and reliability. They demonstrated good convergent and discriminant validity. Both versions were strongly correlated with one another and with the Schedule for the Assessment of Insight and Birchwood Insight Scale. Exploratory factor analyses identified three possible latent components of insight. The VAGUS-CR and VAGUS-SR are valid, reliable and easy to administer. They are build on previous insight scales with separate clinician-rated and self-report versions. The VAGUS-SR exhibited a multidimensional factor structure. Using a 10-point Likert scale for each item, the VAGUS has the capacity to detect small, temporally sensitive changes in insight, which is essential for intervention studies with neurostimulation or rapidly acting medications. PMID:25246410

  10. Effects of racial socialization and racial identity on acculturative stress in African American college students.

    PubMed

    Thompson, C P; Anderson, L P; Bakeman, R A

    2000-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if racial identity mediates the relation between racial socialization and acculturative stress in African American university students, once demographic factors are accounted for. In a sample of 84 participants, significant relations were found between racial socialization and acculturative stress, racial socialization and racial identity, and racial identity and acculturative stress. Partial support for a mediational model was found, with the best predictors of acculturative stress being immersion attitudes and internalization attitudes.

  11. Fatigue and daytime sleepiness rating scales in myotonic dystrophy: a study of reliability

    PubMed Central

    Laberge, L; Gagnon, C; Jean, S; Mathieu, J

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the reliability of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Daytime Sleepiness Scale (DSS), Chalder Fatigue Scale (CFS), and Krupp's Fatigue Severity Scale (KFSS) in patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). Methods: In total, 27 patients with DM1 were administered the questionnaires on two occasions, with a 2 week interval. Internal consistency and test retest reliability were measured using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), and Cronbach's α, Cohen's κ, and Goodman-Kruskal's γ coefficients. Results: Internal consistency of the CFS and KFSS were adequate (α>0.70) but that of the ESS was weak (α = 0.24). Both daytime sleepiness and fatigue rating scales showed significant test retest reliability. Test retest reliability for individual items revealed inconsistencies for some ESS and CFS items. Conclusions: Reliability of the CFS, DSS, and KFSS was high, allowing their use for individual patients with DM1, but that of the ESS was lower, rendering its current usage in DM1 questionable. Fatigue rating scales such as the KFSS, which are based on the behavioural consequences of fatigue, may constitute a more accurate and comprehensive measure of fatigue severity in the DM1 population. PMID:16170085

  12. A Rating Scale to Screen Symptoms of Psychiatric Disorders in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholte, Evert M.; Van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina; Van der Ploeg, Jan D.

    2008-01-01

    To be able to offer children with developmental disorders adequate help, professionals working in special needs education must use a screening device to assess the specific psychiatric difficulties of the children. In this paper the psychometric properties of an easy-to-use parental rating scale to screen symptoms of major psychiatric disorders…

  13. In Search of the Optimal Number of Response Categories in a Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jihyun; Paek, Insu

    2014-01-01

    Likert-type rating scales are still the most widely used method when measuring psychoeducational constructs. The present study investigates a long-standing issue of identifying the optimal number of response categories. A special emphasis is given to categorical data, which were generated by the Item Response Theory (IRT) Graded-Response Modeling…

  14. A Study of the Criterion Validity of the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Alberto Luis; Scheffel, Debora L.

    2003-01-01

    Evaluated the criterion validity of the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale (S. Mattis, 1988) with a concurrent study to obtain a cut-off score for an Argentinean population by administering a battery of tests to 60 memory disorder patients. Findings demonstrate high convergent validity with another measure and show an appropriate cut score for use with…

  15. Validation of an Interview-Based Rating Scale Developed in Japan for Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ito, Hiroyuki; Tani, Iori; Yukihiro, Ryoji; Adachi, Jun; Hara, Koichi; Ogasawara, Megumi; Inoue, Masahiko; Kamio, Yoko; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Uchiyama, Tokio; Ichikawa, Hironobu; Sugiyama, Toshiro; Hagiwara, Taku; Tsujii, Masatsugu

    2012-01-01

    The pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) Autism Society Japan Rating Scale (PARS), an interview-based instrument for evaluating PDDs, has been developed in Japan with the aim of providing a method that (1) can be used to evaluate PDD symptoms and related support needs and (2) is simpler and easier than the currently used "gold…

  16. Measurement Error of Scores on the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale across Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capraro, Mary Margaret; Capraro, Robert M.; Henson, Robin K.

    2001-01-01

    Submitted the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale (MARS) (F. Richardson and R. Suinn, 1972) to a reliability generalization analysis to characterize the variability of measurement error in MARS scores across administrations and identify characteristics predictive of score reliability variations. Results for 67 analyses generally support the internal…

  17. Response and Remission in Adolescent Mania: Signal Detection Analyses of the Young Mania Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Nick C.; Patrick, Danielle M.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Strakowski, Stephen M.; Delbello, Melissa P.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine optimal criteria for defining response and remission in adolescents with acute mania. Method: Data were analyzed from three treatment studies of adolescents with acute mania (N = 99). Trained raters completed the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), and clinicians completed the Clinical Global…

  18. The Wender Utah Rating Scale: Adult ADHD Diagnostic Tool or Personality Index?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, B.D.; Pella, Russell D.; Singh, Ashvind N.; Jones, Glenn N.; Gouvier, Wm. Drew

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS) is used to retroactively assess ADHD symptoms. This study sought to determine whether the WURS actually functions as an index of dysfunctional personality traits. Method: Five hundred twenty-two adult participants completed the WURS and at least one of the following measures: Wechsler Adult…

  19. Factor Structure and Differential Validity of the Expanded Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Adrian; Donnell, Alison J.; Young, Tony R.

    2004-01-01

    The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) is one of the most widely used measures in psychiatric outcome and clinical psychopharmacology research. To date, however, research on the psychometric properties of the expanded version of the BPRS (BPRS-E) has been limited. An exploratory factor analysis (n = 360) using maximum likelihood extraction with…

  20. The Gifted Rating Scales-School Form: A Validation Study Based on Age, Gender, and Race

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Steven I.; Petscher, Yaacov; Kumtepe, Alper

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the internal consistency and validity of a new rating scale to identify gifted students, the Gifted Rating Scales-School Form (GRS-S). The study explored the effect of gender, race/ethnicity, age, and rater familiarity on GRS-S ratings. One hundred twenty-two students in first to eighth grade from elementary and middle schools in the southeastern United States participated in the investigation. Results indicated high internal consistency for the six GRS-S scales: Intellectual Ability, Academic Ability, Creativity, Artistic Talent, Leadership, and Motivation. Results revealed no effect of race/ethnicity, age, or rater familiarity with the student. There was no significant effect for gender, although a trend was noted for girls rated slightly higher than boys across all scales. This trend was consistent with analyses of the standardization data and with cross-cultural findings using translated versions of the GRS-S. The present findings provided support for the GRS-S as a valid gifted screening instrument. PMID:26366036

  1. Measurement Error of Scores on the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale across Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capraro, Mary Margaret; Capraro, Robert M.; Henson, Robin K.

    The Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale (MARS) (F. Richardson and R. Suinn, 1972) was submitted to a reliability generalization analysis to characterize the variability of measurement error in MARS scores across administrations and to identify possible study characteristics that are predictive of reliability variation. The meta-analysis was performed…

  2. Validity and Reliability of Turkish Version of Gilliam Autism Rating Scale-2: Results of Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diken, Ibrahim H.; Diken, Ozlem; Gilliam, James E.; Ardic, Avsar; Sweeney, Dwight

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to explore the validity and reliability of Turkish Version of the Gilliam Autism Rating Scale-2 (TV-GARS-2). Participants included 436 children diagnosed with autism (331 male and 105 female, mean of ages was 8.01 with SD = 3.77). Data were also collected from individuals diagnosed with intellectual…

  3. The Development of Rating Scales to Assess the Performance of Medical Students in Clinical Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erviti, Vivian; And Others

    A rating scale was developed for the evaluation of behaviors and skills required of medical students. From 400 items based on various role-defining studies, 92 were selected. The project staff randomly assigned 46 items to each of two alternate forms. Seven medical schools were identified as sites for pilot testing. Medical students who agreed to…

  4. Determination and Interpretation of the Norm Values of Preschool Social Skills Rating Scale Teacher Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omeroglu, Esra; Buyukozturk, Sener; Aydogan, Yasemin; Cakan, Mehtap; Cakmak, Ebru Kilic; Ozyurek, Arzu; Akduman, Gulumser Gultekin; Gunindi, Yunus; Kutlu, Omer; Coban, Aysel; Yurt, Ozlem; Kogar, Hakan; Karayol, Seda

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine and interpret norms of the Preschool Social Skills Rating Scale (PSSRS) teacher form. The sample included 224 independent preschools and 169 primary schools. The schools are distributed among 48 provinces and 3324 children were included. Data were obtained from the PSSRS teacher form. The validity and reliability…

  5. Validity Evidence for the Interpretation and Use of Essential Elements of Communication Global Rating Scale Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Nancy Rhoda

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Clinical communication influences health outcomes, so medical schools are charged to prepare future physicians with the skills they need to interact effectively with patients. Communication leaders at The University of New Mexico School of Medicine (UNMSOM) developed The Essential Elements of Communication-Global Rating Scale (EEC-GRS) to…

  6. Measuring Depression at the End of Life: Is the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale a Valid Instrument?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olden, Megan; Rosenfeld, Barry; Pessin, Hayley; Breitbart, William

    2009-01-01

    Depression at the end of life is a common mental health issue with serious implications for quality of life and decision making. This study investigated the reliability and validity of one of the most frequently used measures of depression, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) in 422 patients with terminal cancer admitted to a palliative…

  7. Identifying Gifted Students in Puerto Rico: Validation of a Spanish Translation of the Gifted Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosado, Javier I.; Pfeiffer, Steven; Petscher, Yaacov

    2015-01-01

    The challenge of correctly identifying gifted students is a critical issue. Gifted education in Puerto Rico is marked by insufficient support and a lack of appropriate identification methods. This study examined the reliability and validity of a Spanish translation of the "Gifted Rating Scales-School Form" (GRS) with a sample of 618…

  8. Technical Analysis of the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale--Second Edition--Teacher Version

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erford, Bradley T.; Clark, Kelly

    2011-01-01

    The reliability and validity of scores on the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale-second edition-teacher version (DBRS-II-T) was analyzed. The DBRS-II-T was designed to assess teacher observations of students referred for behavioral difficulties. The five-factor model fit the data poorly, but convergent and diagnostic validities were excellent.…

  9. Technical Adequacy of the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale-2nd Edition--Self-Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erford, Bradley T.; Miller, Emily M.; Isbister, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    This study provides preliminary analysis of the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale-2nd Edition--Self-Report, which was designed to screen individuals aged 10 years and older for anxiety and behavior symptoms. Score reliability and internal and external facets of validity were good for a screening-level test.

  10. An Exploratory Study of the Application of Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warash, Barbara G.; Ward, Corina; Rotilie, Sally

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether attending a one day training on the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised (ECERS-R) corresponded to pre-k classroom changes. Teachers attended an ECERS-R module training and six months later completed a questionnaire to report any classroom changes. The questionnaire consisted of listing the subscales and…

  11. Quality of Child Care Using the Environment Rating Scales: A Meta-Analysis of International Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermeer, Harriet J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Cárcamo, Rodrigo A.; Harrison, Linda J.

    2016-01-01

    The current study provides a systematic examination of child care quality around the globe, using the Environment Rating Scales (ERS). Additional goals of this study are to examine associations between ERS process quality and structural features (group size, caregiver-child ratio) that underpin quality and between ERS and more proximal aspects of…

  12. Using Rating Scale and Nomination Techniques to Measure Friendship and Popularity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bukowski, William M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Studied the associations between measures of friendship and popularity derived from nomination and rating scales procedures with a sample of school-age and early adolescent boys and girls. Found that each of these techniques can provide parallel measures of popularity (sociometric preference) and friendship (whether the child is participating in a…

  13. Measurement Invariance of the Chinese Gifted Rating Scales: Teacher and Parent Forms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petscher, Yaacov; Li, Huijun

    2008-01-01

    The Gifted Rating Scales-School Form (GRS-S) has been validated in several countries; however, no study has examined the rater invariance of this measure. The present study built on previous validity studies and examined configural and metric invariance between parent and teacher raters using the Chinese version of the GRS-S Teacher and Parent…

  14. The Reliability and Validity of a Korean-Translated Version of the Gifted Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Donghyuck; Pfeiffer, Steven I.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the reliability and validity of a Korean-translated version of the Gifted Rating Scales--School Form (GRS-S) and explored the effect of gender, rater, and grade. Data were collected from elementary schools in a metropolitan area and a midsize town in South Korea. In all, 49 elementary school teachers and 272 parents…

  15. The development, reliability, and validity of a clinical rating scale for codependency.

    PubMed

    Harkness, D; Swenson, M; Madsen-Hampton, K; Hale, R

    2001-01-01

    This investigation examined the reliability and validity of a rating scale for codependency in substance abuse treatment. The investigators developed an example-anchored rating scale to operationalize codependency as substance abuse counselors construe it in practice, and recruited 27 counselors for a counterbalanced multiple-treatment experiment. Counselors were randomly assigned to one of four continuing education workshops for rating-scale training, and asked to evaluate codependency in five videotaped cases. Semistructured case interviews were videotaped with a male and a female from five adult populations to vary the gender and codependency of cases: (1) outpatients in treatment for addiction, (2) outpatient spouses, (3) members of Codependents Anonymous, (4) United States Bureau of Land Management smoke jumpers, and (5) college students majoring in business or economics. To control for gender effects, one workshop presented male cases, one workshop presented female cases, and two workshops presented cases of both genders. To control for order effects, the assignment of videotapes to workshops was randomized to counterbalance the order in which counselors viewed them. The findings suggest that the rating scale yields reliable and valid evaluations of codependency without appreciable gender bias.

  16. Item-Based Psychometrics of the Preschool Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cress, Cynthia J.; Lambert, Matthew C.; Epstein, Michael H.

    2014-01-01

    The Preschool Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale (PreBERS) is an assessment of emotional and behavioral strengths in preschoolers with well-established reliability and validity for educational and clinical application in children with and without disabilities. The present study provides further evidence of psychometric rigor for items and…

  17. Evidence Based Clinical Assessment of Child and Adolescent Social Phobia: A Critical Review of Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tulbure, Bogdan T.; Szentagotai, Aurora; Dobrean, Anca; David, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Investigating the empirical support of various assessment instruments, the evidence based assessment approach expands the scientific basis of psychotherapy. Starting from Hunsley and Mash's evaluative framework, we critically reviewed the rating scales designed to measure social anxiety or phobia in youth. Thirteen of the most researched social…

  18. Absolute and Relative Reliability of Percentage of Syllables Stuttered and Severity Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karimi, Hamid; O'Brian, Sue; Onslow, Mark; Jones, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Percentage of syllables stuttered (%SS) and severity rating (SR) scales are measures in common use to quantify stuttering severity and its changes during basic and clinical research conditions. However, their reliability has not been assessed with indices measuring both relative and absolute reliability. This study was designed to provide…

  19. The Development and Validation of a Revised Version of the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plake, Barbara S.; Parker, Claire S.

    1982-01-01

    A shortened version of the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale (MARS) was developed. It yielded a coefficient alpha reliability estimated at .98, correlated .97 with the original MARS, and showed relationships with state, trait, and test anxiety parallel to the original MARS. It should be useful for mathematical course-related applications.…

  20. Family Child Care Environment Rating Scale Revised Edition (FCCERS-R)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harms, Thelma; Cryer, Debby; Clifford, Richard M.

    2007-01-01

    Featuring a new spiral binding, the FCCERS-R is a thorough revision of the widely used program quality assessment instrument, "The Family Day Care Rating Scale." Designed for use in family child care programs, it is suitable for programs serving children from infancy through school-age. Following extensive input from users of the…

  1. Scales for Rating the Behavioral Characteristics of Superior Students. Technical and Administration Manual. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renzulli, Joseph S.; Smith, Linda H.; White, Alan J.; Callahan, Carolyn M.; Hartman, Robert K.; Westberg, Karen L.

    This manual describes development and use of the revised "Scales for Rating the Behavioral Characteristics of Superior Students" (SRBCSS-R), a teacher judgment instrument appropriate for use as one measure in the identification of gifted students. Part 1 explains the judgmental and empirical procedures used to revise the items on the original…

  2. Problematizing Rating Scales in EFL Academic Writing Assessment: Voices from Iranian Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghanbar, Batoul; Barati, Hossein; Moinzadeh, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Along with a more humanitarian movement in language testing, accountability to contextual variables in the design and development of any assessment enterprise is emphasized. However, when it comes to writing assessment, it is found that multiplicity of rating scales developed to fit diverse contexts is mainly headed by well-known native testing…

  3. ECERS-E: The Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale Curricular Extension to ECERS-R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylva, Kathy; Siraj-Blatchford, Iram; Taggart, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    This is the third edition of the ECERS-E, formerly called "Assessing Quality in the Early Years: Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale (ECERS-E)." The ECERS-E is an instrument for measuring quality in literacy, numeracy, science and diversity as observable in pre-school in relation to child cognitive and social/behavioural…

  4. Psychometric Properties of the Teacher-Reported Motor Skills Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Helyn; Murrah, William M.; Cameron, Claire E.; Brock, Laura L.; Cottone, Elizabeth A.; Grissmer, David

    2015-01-01

    Children's early motor competence is associated with social development and academic achievement. However, few studies have examined teacher reports of children's motor skills. This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Motor Skills Rating Scale (MSRS), a 19-item measure of children's teacher-reported motor skills in the classroom.…

  5. Factor Analysis of the Preschool Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale for Children in Head Start Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cress, Cynthia; Lambert, Matthew C.; Epstein, Michael H.

    2016-01-01

    Strength-based assessment of behaviors in preschool children provides evidence of emotional and behavioral skills in children, rather than focusing primarily on weaknesses identified by deficit-based assessments. The Preschool Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scales (PreBERS) is a normative assessment of emotional and behavioral strengths in…

  6. Activity affects intraspecific body-size scaling of metabolic rate in ectothermic animals.

    PubMed

    Glazier, Douglas Stewart

    2009-10-01

    Metabolic rate is commonly thought to scale with body mass (M) to the 3/4 power. However, the metabolic scaling exponent (b) may vary with activity state, as has been shown chiefly for interspecific relationships. Here I use a meta-analysis of literature data to test whether b changes with activity level within species of ectothermic animals. Data for 19 species show that b is usually higher during active exercise (mean +/- 95% confidence limits = 0.918 +/- 0.038) than during rest (0.768 +/- 0.069). This significant upward shift in b to near 1 is consistent with the metabolic level boundaries hypothesis, which predicts that maximal metabolic rate during exercise should be chiefly influenced by volume-related muscular power production (scaling as M (1)). This dependence of b on activity level does not appear to be a simple temperature effect because body temperature in ectotherms changes very little during exercise.

  7. Acculturation and depressive symptoms among Turkish immigrants in Germany.

    PubMed

    Morawa, Eva; Erim, Yesim

    2014-09-12

    The present study explores the impact of acculturation on depressive symptoms among Turkish immigrants in Germany, taking into account different dimensions of cultural orientation. A total of 471 patients from two selected samples (254 primary care patients and 217 outpatients of a psychosomatic department) participated. Levels of acculturation were measured as orientation towards culture of origin (CO), and orientation towards the host culture (HC). Acculturation strategies (integration, assimilation, separation, and marginalization) were also assessed as well as their association with depressive symptoms (BDI). Furthermore, gender- and migration-related differences in terms of acculturation and levels of depressive symptomatology were analyzed. Integration was the acculturation strategy associated with the lowest level of depressive symptoms (M = 14.6, SD = 11.9), while marginalization was associated with the highest (M = 23.5, SD = 14.7). Gender was not found to have a significant impact on acculturation but influenced depressive symptoms, with women (M = 21.8, SD = 13.3) reporting higher levels of depressive symptomatology than men (M = 15.1, SD = 14.0; p < 0.001). In first generation immigrants, significantly higher CO (M = 46.6, SD = 8.3; p < 0.001), lower HC (M = 31.0, SD = 9.6; p < 0.001), and higher levels of depressive symptoms (M = 20.2, SD = 14.1; p < 0.001) were found in comparison to second generation immigrants (CO: M = 41.3, SD = 7.4; HC: M = 36.2, SD = 8.8; depressive symptoms: M = 14.0, SD = 12.9). Our results suggest that orientation towards both the heritage and the host culture has a positive effect on the mental health status of immigrants. Future research needs to include representative samples of migrants from different cultures to further explore the association between acculturation and mental health.

  8. Acculturation and Depressive Symptoms among Turkish Immigrants in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Morawa, Eva; Erim, Yesim

    2014-01-01

    The present study explores the impact of acculturation on depressive symptoms among Turkish immigrants in Germany, taking into account different dimensions of cultural orientation. A total of 471 patients from two selected samples (254 primary care patients and 217 outpatients of a psychosomatic department) participated. Levels of acculturation were measured as orientation towards culture of origin (CO), and orientation towards the host culture (HC). Acculturation strategies (integration, assimilation, separation, and marginalization) were also assessed as well as their association with depressive symptoms (BDI). Furthermore, gender- and migration-related differences in terms of acculturation and levels of depressive symptomatology were analyzed. Integration was the acculturation strategy associated with the lowest level of depressive symptoms (M = 14.6, SD = 11.9), while marginalization was associated with the highest (M = 23.5, SD = 14.7). Gender was not found to have a significant impact on acculturation but influenced depressive symptoms, with women (M = 21.8, SD = 13.3) reporting higher levels of depressive symptomatology than men (M = 15.1, SD = 14.0; p < 0.001). In first generation immigrants, significantly higher CO (M = 46.6, SD = 8.3; p < 0.001), lower HC (M = 31.0, SD = 9.6; p < 0.001), and higher levels of depressive symptoms (M = 20.2, SD = 14.1; p < 0.001) were found in comparison to second generation immigrants (CO: M = 41.3, SD = 7.4; HC: M = 36.2, SD = 8.8; depressive symptoms: M = 14.0, SD = 12.9). Our results suggest that orientation towards both the heritage and the host culture has a positive effect on the mental health status of immigrants. Future research needs to include representative samples of migrants from different cultures to further explore the association between acculturation and mental health. PMID:25222474

  9. Intraspecific Scaling of the Resting and Maximum Metabolic Rates of the Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qingda; Zhang, Yurong; Liu, Shuting; Wang, Wen; Luo, Yiping

    2013-01-01

    The question of how the scaling of metabolic rate with body mass (M) is achieved in animals is unresolved. Here, we tested the cell metabolism hypothesis and the organ size hypothesis by assessing the mass scaling of the resting metabolic rate (RMR), maximum metabolic rate (MMR), erythrocyte size, and the masses of metabolically active organs in the crucian carp (Carassius auratus). The M of the crucian carp ranged from 4.5 to 323.9 g, representing an approximately 72-fold difference. The RMR and MMR increased with M according to the allometric equations RMR = 0.212M0.776 and MMR = 0.753M0.785. The scaling exponents for RMR (br) and MMR (bm) obtained in crucian carp were close to each other. Thus, the factorial aerobic scope remained almost constant with increasing M. Although erythrocyte size was negatively correlated with both mass-specific RMR and absolute RMR adjusted to M, it and all other hematological parameters showed no significant relationship with M. These data demonstrate that the cell metabolism hypothesis does not describe metabolic scaling in the crucian carp, suggesting that erythrocyte size may not represent the general size of other cell types in this fish and the metabolic activity of cells may decrease as fish grows. The mass scaling exponents of active organs was lower than 1 while that of inactive organs was greater than 1, which suggests that the mass scaling of the RMR can be partly due to variance in the proportion of active/inactive organs in crucian carp. Furthermore, our results provide additional evidence supporting the correlation between locomotor capacity and metabolic scaling. PMID:24376588

  10. Psychometric properties of the self-rating organization scale with adult samples.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Toshinobu; Tsuji, Yui; Ando, Mizuho

    2016-01-01

    Organization skills are defined broadly to include both materials and temporal features. Given its symptoms and neurobiological features, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) should be susceptible to impairment in organization. A valid organization scale is imperative to assess and intervene individuals with ADHD. However, there is no validated organization scale in Japan. Referring to existing scales and clinical experience, the self-rating organization scale (SOS) was developed and tested in terms of its psychometric properties with 1,017 adults and students including 47 adults with ADHD. Additionally, cutoffs for disorganization were set for clinical utility. Three factors (materials disorganization, temporal disorganization, and mess) were extracted by factor analyses. The index for reliability and validity of the SOS was acceptable. The factor "mess" could reflect the unique aspect of the Japanese environment. Further study is needed to enhance the clinical utility of the SOS.

  11. Psychometric properties of the self-rating organization scale with adult samples

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Toshinobu; Tsuji, Yui; Ando, Mizuho

    2016-01-01

    Organization skills are defined broadly to include both materials and temporal features. Given its symptoms and neurobiological features, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) should be susceptible to impairment in organization. A valid organization scale is imperative to assess and intervene individuals with ADHD. However, there is no validated organization scale in Japan. Referring to existing scales and clinical experience, the self-rating organization scale (SOS) was developed and tested in terms of its psychometric properties with 1,017 adults and students including 47 adults with ADHD. Additionally, cutoffs for disorganization were set for clinical utility. Three factors (materials disorganization, temporal disorganization, and mess) were extracted by factor analyses. The index for reliability and validity of the SOS was acceptable. The factor “mess” could reflect the unique aspect of the Japanese environment. Further study is needed to enhance the clinical utility of the SOS. PMID:27826192

  12. Ethnic Identity and Acculturation of English as Second Language Learners: Implications for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maldonado, Jose M.; Kushner, Jason D.; Barr, Jason; Korz, Kelly

    2009-01-01

    Ethnic identity and acculturation are significant issues of English as Second Language students in the intermediate grades. Research has encompassed acculturation and ethnic identity as two distinct elements that differentiate particular ethnic groups. The present study investigates acculturation and ethnic identity and their correlation across…

  13. Adapting a measure of acculturation for Chinese-American children aged 9-13 years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acculturation among those of Chinese descent may be related to changes in health behaviors and disease risks. Research with Chinese children to understand their acculturative processes early in life is important; however, there is no known instrument to measure acculturation for this population. Thi...

  14. A Content Analysis of Acculturation Research in the Career Development Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Matthew J.; Kerlow-Myers, Andrew E.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to highlight the importance of acculturation as an explanatory variable in career development and to provide an empirical review of acculturation research in the career development literature. Acculturation is a cultural variable that has been linked to a number of important career development outcomes for…

  15. Acculturation and Violence in Minority Adolescents: A Review of the Empirical Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smokowski, Paul R.; David-Ferdon, Corinne; Stroupe, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Although seminal reviews have been published on acculturation and mental health in adults and adolescents, far less is known about how acculturation influences adolescent interpersonal and self-directed violence. This article aims to fill this gap by providing a comprehensive review of research linking acculturation and violence behavior for…

  16. The Relationships among Perfectionism, Acculturation, and Stress in Asian International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsson, Johanna E.; Butler, Jenay; Shouse, Sarah; Joshi, Chetan

    2008-01-01

    This study examined relationships among perfectionism, acculturation, and stress in 76 Asian international students. Results showed that perfectionism and acculturation predicted stress, together accounting for 50% of the variance in stress. Furthermore, acculturation explained students' experience of stress above and beyond perfectionism, and 1…

  17. Acculturation and Hope as Predictors of Career Decision Self-Efficacy among Korean International Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    In, Hyoyeon

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the role of acculturation to the host culture, acculturation to the home culture, and dispositional hope in career decision self-efficacy (CDSE) in a sample of 213 Korean international undergraduate students enrolled in U.S. universities. The findings revealed that hope and acculturation to the host culture uniquely and…

  18. Influence of Family Perceptions of Acting White on Acculturative Stress in African American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Keisha V.; Lightfoot, Nicole L.; Castillo, Linda G.; Hurst, Morgan L.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined family-oriented stressors on acculturative stress in 83 African American college students attending a predominately White university. Results showed that family pressure for participants not to acculturate, pressure to maintain ethnic group language, perception of Acting White, and acculturation level were related to higher…

  19. A Review of Acculturation Measures and Their Utility in Studies Promoting Latino Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Phyllis M.; Pomery, Elizabeth A.; Latimer, Amy E.; Martinez, Josefa L.; Salovey, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The authors reviewed the acculturation literature with the goal of identifying measures used to assess acculturation in Hispanic populations in the context of studies of health knowledge, attitudes, and behavior change. Twenty-six acculturation measures were identified and summarized. As the Hispanic population continues to grow in the United…

  20. Effects of Acculturation on Knowledge of AIDS and HIV among Hispanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marin, Barbara V.; Marin, Gerardo

    1990-01-01

    Reports survey of San Francisco Hispanics to identify relationship between acculturation and AIDS transmission knowledge. Indicates generally good transmission knowledge, but many erroneous beliefs. Knowledge strongly associated with acculturation level, with less-acculturated Hispanics harboring more errors, even controlling for education.…

  1. Validity of Three Rating Scales for Measuring Pain Intensity in Youths with Physical Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Miró, Jordi; Castarlenas, Elena; de la Vega, Rocío; Solé, Ester; Tomé-Pires, Catarina; Jensen, Mark P.; Engel, Joyce M.; Racine, Mélanie

    2015-01-01

    Background There is growing evidence confirming that youths with physical disabilities are at risk for chronic pain. Although many scales for assessing pain intensity exist, it is unclear whether they are all equally suitable for youths. The aim of this study was to address this knowledge gap by comparing the validity of the Numerical Rating Scale (NRS-11), the Wong Baker FACES Pain Rating Scale (FACES), and a 6-point categorical Verbal Rating Scale (VRS-6) for assessing pain intensity among youths (aged 8 to 20) with physical disabilities. Methods One hundred and thirteen youths (mean age= 14.19 years; SD = 2.9) were interviewed and asked to rate their current pain intensity and recalled (in the past week) worst, least, and average pain with the NRS-11 and the FACES. Participants were also asked to rate their average pain intensity during the past 4 weeks using a VRS-6, and were administered measures assessing pain interference, disability and psychological functioning. Results Analyses showed that all of the pain intensity measures were associated positively with each other. Nevertheless, the NRS-11 appeared to out-perform both the VRS-6 and in particular the FACES scale with respect to: (1) the associations with the validity criterion (i.e., pain interference, disability and psychological functioning) and (2) a lack of any moderating effect of age on the association between the measure and the criterion variables. Conclusions The findings support the validity of the NRS-11 for assessing pain intensity in youths with physical disabilities between the ages of 8 and 20 years. PMID:25833415

  2. From Nm-Scale Measurements Of Mineral Dissolution Rate To Overall Dissolution Rate Laws: A Case Study Based On Diopside

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daval, D.; Saldi, G.; Hellmann, R.; Knauss, K.

    2011-12-01

    While we expect conventional reactive transport simulations to provide reliable estimations of the evolution of fluid-rock interactions over time scales of centuries and even more, recent experimental studies showed that they could hardly be satisfactorily used on simplified systems (e.g. batch carbonation experiments on single minerals), on time scales of weeks [1]. Among the reasons for such inconsistencies is the nature of the rate laws used in the geochemical codes, which heavily relies on our description of the fundamental mechanisms involved during water(-CO2)-mineral reactions. Silicate dissolution constitutes a key step of GCS processes. Whereas the dissolution rate of silicate minerals has been extensively studied at far-from-equilibrium conditions, extrapolating such rates over a broad range of solution composition relevant for GCS has proven challenging. Regarding diopside, recent studies [2, 3] suggested that below 125 °C, an unexpected drop of the rate occurred for Gibbs free energies of reaction (ΔGr) as low as -76 kJ.mol-1, with severe consequences on our ability to predict the rate of complex processes such as carbonation reactions [3]. The mechanism responsible for such a drop remains unclear and therefore needs to be deciphered. An examination of our previous data [3] led us to envisage that two different, non-exclusive aspects were worth investigating: (i) the possible passivating ability of interfacial, nm-thick Si-rich layers developed on weathered silicate surface, and (ii) the stop of etch pits formation on crystal surface, each mechanism being found to be responsible for drops of olivine [1] and albite [4] dissolution rates, respectively. Our ongoing experiments aim at better constraining these two mechanisms, and determining in turn whether one of them could explain the above-mentioned drop of diopside dissolution rate. Classical flow-through experiments with controlled SiO2(aq) concentrations are combined with both ex situ AFM and VSI

  3. The scaling of contact rates with population density for the infectious disease models.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hao; Nigmatulina, Karima; Eckhoff, Philip

    2013-08-01

    Contact rates and patterns among individuals in a geographic area drive transmission of directly-transmitted pathogens, making it essential to understand and estimate contacts for simulation of disease dynamics. Under the uniform mixing assumption, one of two mechanisms is typically used to describe the relation between contact rate and population density: density-dependent or frequency-dependent. Based on existing evidence of population threshold and human mobility patterns, we formulated a spatial contact model to describe the appropriate form of transmission with initial growth at low density and saturation at higher density. We show that the two mechanisms are extreme cases that do not capture real population movement across all scales. Empirical data of human and wildlife diseases indicate that a nonlinear function may work better when looking at the full spectrum of densities. This estimation can be applied to large areas with population mixing in general activities. For crowds with unusually large densities (e.g., transportation terminals, stadiums, or mass gatherings), the lack of organized social contact structure deviates the physical contacts towards a special case of the spatial contact model - the dynamics of kinetic gas molecule collision. In this case, an ideal gas model with van der Waals correction fits well; existing movement observation data and the contact rate between individuals is estimated using kinetic theory. A complete picture of contact rate scaling with population density may help clarify the definition of transmission rates in heterogeneous, large-scale spatial systems.

  4. Pore-scale network modeling of microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation: Insight into scale dependence of biogeochemical reaction rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Chao-Zhong; Hassanizadeh, S. Majid; Ebigbo, Anozie

    2016-11-01

    The engineering of microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation (MICP) has attracted much attention in a number of applications, such as sealing of CO2 leakage pathways, soil stabilization, and subsurface remediation of radionuclides and toxic metals. The goal of this work is to gain insight into pore-scale processes of MICP and scale dependence of biogeochemical reaction rates. This will help us develop efficient field-scale MICP models. In this work, we have developed a comprehensive pore-network model for MICP, with geochemical speciation calculated by the open-source PHREEQC module. A numerical pseudo-3-D micromodel as the computational domain was generated by a novel pore-network generation method. We modeled a three-stage process in the engineering of MICP including the growth of biofilm, the injection of calcium-rich medium, and the precipitation of calcium carbonate. A number of test cases were conducted to illustrate how calcite precipitation was influenced by different operating conditions. In addition, we studied the possibility of reducing the computational effort by simplifying geochemical calculations. Finally, the effect of mass transfer limitation of possible carbonate ions in a pore element on calcite precipitation was explored.

  5. A self-rating scale to measure tridoṣas in children

    PubMed Central

    Suchitra, S.P.; Nagendra, H.R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Self – rating inventories to assess the Prakṛti (constitution) and personality have been developed and validated for adults. To analyze the effect of personality development programs on Prakṛti of the children, standardized scale is not available. Hence, present study was carried out to develop and standardize Caraka Child Personality inventory (CCPI). Materials and Methods: The 77- item CCPI scale was developed on the basis of translation of Sanskrit verses describing vātaja (a), pittaja (b) and kaphaja prakṛti (c) characteristics described in Ayurveda texts and by taking the opinions of 5 Ayurveda experts and psychologists. The scale was administered on children of the age group 8-12 years in New Generation National public school, Bangalore. Results: This inventory was named CCPI and showed excellent internal consistency. The Cronbach's alpha for A, B and C scales were 0.54, 0.64 and 0.64 respectively. The Split - Half reliability scores for A, B and C subscales were 0.64. 0.60 and 0.66 respectively. Factor validity coefficient Scores on each item was above 0.4. Scores on vātaja, pittaja and kaphaja scales were inversely correlated. Test-retest reliability scores for A,B and C scales were 0.87,0.88 and 0.89 respectively. The result of CCPI was compared with a parent rating scale Ayurveda Child Personality Inventory (ACPI). Subscales of CCPI correlated significantly highly (above 0.80) with subscales of ACPI which was done for the purpose of cross-validation with respect to ACPI. Conclusions: The prakṛti of the children can be measured consistently by this scale. Correlations with ACPI pointed toward concurrent validity. PMID:25284940

  6. The Reliability and Validity of a Spanish Translated Version of the Gifted Rating Scales

    PubMed Central

    Rosado, Javier I.; Pfeiffer, Steven I.; Petscher, Yaacov

    2015-01-01

    This study was a preliminary examination of the psychometric properties of a newly developed Spanish translated version of the Gifted Rating Scales-School Form (GRS-S). Data was collected from elementary and middle schools in northeastern Puerto Rico. Thirty teachers independently rated 153 students using the GRS-S Spanish Form. Results indicated strong internal consistency for teacher ratings with alphas ranging from .98 to .99. Intercorrelations between scales are moderate to strong, ranging from .88 to .97. Factor testing of two separate models supported a six factor model proposed by authors of the GRS-S. Results provided initial support for the GRS-S Spanish translated version as a reliable and potentially useful screening measure to assist in the identification of island Puerto Rican gifted students. PMID:26388705

  7. A comparison between three rating scales for perceived exertion and two different work tests.

    PubMed

    Borg, E; Kaijser, L

    2006-02-01

    In the present article, three scales developed by Borg are compared on bicycle ergometer work. In the first study, comparing the Borg Ratings of Perceived Exertion (RPE) and Category scales with Ratio properties (CR10) scales, 40 healthy subjects (12 men and eight women for each scale) with a mean age of about 30 years (SD approximately 6) participated. A work-test protocol with step-wise increase of work loads every minute was used (20 W increase for men and 15 W for women). Ratings and heart rates (HRs) were recorded every minute and blood lactates every third minute. Data obtained with the RPE scale were described with linear regressions, with individual correlations of about 0.98. Data obtained with the CR10 scale could also be described by linear regressions, but when described by power functions gave exponents of about 1.2 (SD approximately 0.4) (with one additional constant included in the power function). This was significantly lower than the exponent of between 1.5 and 1.9 that has previously been observed. Mean individual correlations were 0.98. Blood lactate concentration grew with monotonously increasing functions that could be described by power functions with a mean exponent of about 2.6 (SD approximately 0.6) (with two additional constants included in the power functions). In the second study, where also the more recently developed Borg CR100 scale (centiMax) was included, 24 healthy subjects (12 men and 12 women) with a mean age of about 29 years (SD approximately 3) participated in a work test with a step-wise increase of work loads (25 W) every third minute. Ratings and HRs were recorded. RPE values were described by linear regressions with individual correlations of about 0.97. Data from the two CR scales were described by power functions with mean exponents of about 1.4 (SD approximately 0.5) (with a-values in the power functions). Mean individual correlations were about 0.98. In both studies, a tendency for a deviation from linearity between

  8. 43 CFR 3162.7-4 - Royalty rates on oil; sliding and step-scale leases (public land only).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Royalty rates on oil; sliding and step-scale leases (public land only). 3162.7-4 Section 3162.7-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating... Royalty rates on oil; sliding and step-scale leases (public land only). Sliding- and step-scale...

  9. 43 CFR 3162.7-4 - Royalty rates on oil; sliding and step-scale leases (public land only).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Royalty rates on oil; sliding and step-scale leases (public land only). 3162.7-4 Section 3162.7-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating... Royalty rates on oil; sliding and step-scale leases (public land only). Sliding- and step-scale...

  10. 43 CFR 3162.7-4 - Royalty rates on oil; sliding and step-scale leases (public land only).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Royalty rates on oil; sliding and step-scale leases (public land only). 3162.7-4 Section 3162.7-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating... Royalty rates on oil; sliding and step-scale leases (public land only). Sliding- and step-scale...

  11. Assessing Learners' Writing Skills in a SLA Study: Validating the Rating Process across Tasks, Scales and Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huhta, Ari; Alanen, Riikka; Tarnanen, Mirja; Martin, Maisa; Hirvelä, Tuija

    2014-01-01

    There is still relatively little research on how well the CEFR and similar holistic scales work when they are used to rate L2 texts. Using both multifaceted Rasch analyses and qualitative data from rater comments and interviews, the ratings obtained by using a CEFR-based writing scale and the Finnish National Core Curriculum scale for L2 writing…

  12. 43 CFR 3162.7-4 - Royalty rates on oil; sliding and step-scale leases (public land only).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Royalty rates on oil; sliding and step-scale leases (public land only). 3162.7-4 Section 3162.7-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating... Royalty rates on oil; sliding and step-scale leases (public land only). Sliding- and step-scale...

  13. Using Rating Scales for the Assessment of Physical Self-Concept: Why the Number of Response Categories Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freund, Philipp Alexander; Tietjens, Maike; Strauss, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    The current study employs Mixture Distribution Rasch models to compare the psychometric properties of two rating scale variants (original rating scale with six response categories, "N"?=?806 school students; a variant with four response categories, "N"?=?905 school students) for five specific scales of the Physical…

  14. Reliability and Validity of the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale, Revised Edition, ECERS-R in Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadeed, Julie

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test reliabilities and validations for the Arabic translation of the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale, Revised (ECERS-R) scale [Harms, T., Clifford, R. M., & Cryer, D. (1998). "Early childhood environment rating scale, revised edition." New York: Teachers College Press]. ECERS-R mean scores were…

  15. Declining tuberculosis case notification rates with the scale-up of antiretroviral therapy in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Harries, A. D.; Sandy, C.; Mutasa-Apollo, T.; Zishiri, C.

    2016-01-01

    Setting: Zimbabwe has a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) driven tuberculosis (TB) epidemic, with antiretroviral therapy (ART) scaled up in the public sector since 2004. Objective: To determine whether national ART scale-up was associated with annual national TB case notification rates (CNR), stratified by disease type and category, between 2000 and 2013. Design: This was a retrospective study using aggregate data from global reports. Results: The number of people living with HIV and retained on ART from 2004 to 2013 increased from 8400 to 665 299, with ART coverage increasing from <0.5% to 48%. TB CNRs, all types and categories, increased from 2000 to 2003, and declined thereafter from 2004 to 2013. The decreases in annual TB notifications between the highest rates (before 2004) and lowest rates (2013) were all forms of TB (56%), new TB (60%), previously treated TB (53%), new smear-positive pulmonary TB (PTB) (40%), new smear-negative/smear-unknown PTB (58%) and extra-pulmonary TB (58%). Conclusion: Significant declines in TB CNRs were observed during ART scale-up, especially for smear-negative PTB and extra-pulmonary TB. These encouraging national trends support the continued scale-up of ART for people living with HIV as a way of tackling the twin epidemics of HIV/acquired immune-deficiency syndrome and TB in Zimbabwe. PMID:27695678

  16. Declining tuberculosis case notification rates with the scale-up of antiretroviral therapy in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Takarinda, K C; Harries, A D; Sandy, C; Mutasa-Apollo, T; Zishiri, C

    2016-09-01

    Setting: Zimbabwe has a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) driven tuberculosis (TB) epidemic, with antiretroviral therapy (ART) scaled up in the public sector since 2004. Objective: To determine whether national ART scale-up was associated with annual national TB case notification rates (CNR), stratified by disease type and category, between 2000 and 2013. Design: This was a retrospective study using aggregate data from global reports. Results: The number of people living with HIV and retained on ART from 2004 to 2013 increased from 8400 to 665 299, with ART coverage increasing from <0.5% to 48%. TB CNRs, all types and categories, increased from 2000 to 2003, and declined thereafter from 2004 to 2013. The decreases in annual TB notifications between the highest rates (before 2004) and lowest rates (2013) were all forms of TB (56%), new TB (60%), previously treated TB (53%), new smear-positive pulmonary TB (PTB) (40%), new smear-negative/smear-unknown PTB (58%) and extra-pulmonary TB (58%). Conclusion: Significant declines in TB CNRs were observed during ART scale-up, especially for smear-negative PTB and extra-pulmonary TB. These encouraging national trends support the continued scale-up of ART for people living with HIV as a way of tackling the twin epidemics of HIV/acquired immune-deficiency syndrome and TB in Zimbabwe.

  17. Psychometric Properties of the Korean Version of the Clinical Language Disorder Rating Scale (CLANG)

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seon-Cheol; Jang, Eun Young; Lee, Kang Uk; Lee, Jung Goo; Lee, Hwa-Young; Choi, Joonho

    2016-01-01

    Objective Our study aimed to measure inter-rater and test-retest reliability, concurrent and convergent validity, and factor solutions of the Korean version of the Clinical Language Disorder Rating Scale (CLANG). Methods The Korean version of the CLANG for assessing thought, language, and communication, the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Young Mania Rating Scale, and Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia were used to evaluate language disorder, formal thought disorder, positive and negative symptoms, manic symptoms, and depressive symptoms, respectively, in 167 hospitalized patients with schizophrenia. The factor solution was obtained by the direct oblimin method. A receiver operating characteristic curve was used to find the optimal cut-off score for discriminating schizophrenia patients with and without disorganized speech. Results Inter-rater reliability was considered moderate (intraclass coefficient=0.67, F=3.30, p=0.04), and test-retest reliability was considered high (r=0.94, p<0.001). Five factors, namely, pragmatics, disclosure, production, prosody, and association, were identified. An optimal cut-off score of 7 points with 84.5% sensitivity and 81.7% specificity was proposed for distinguishing schizophrenia patients with and without disorganized speech. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the Korean version of the CLANG is a promising tool for evaluating language disorder in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:26792040

  18. The Effects of Acculturation on Healthy Lifestyle Characteristics among Hispanic Fourth-Grade Children in Texas Public Schools, 2004-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lind, Catherine; Mirchandani, Gita G.; Castrucci, Brian C.; Chavez, Noel; Handler, Arden; Hoelscher, Deanna M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity is a national epidemic that disproportionately affects Hispanic children. Evidence suggests that increased acculturation among this population adversely affects diet and other healthy lifestyle characteristics, leading to higher rates of overweight and obesity. Healthy lifestyle characteristics must be understood in…

  19. Evaluating machine learning algorithms estimating tremor severity ratings on the Bain-Findley scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yohanandan, Shivanthan A. C.; Jones, Mary; Peppard, Richard; Tan, Joy L.; McDermott, Hugh J.; Perera, Thushara

    2016-12-01

    Tremor is a debilitating symptom of some movement disorders. Effective treatment, such as deep brain stimulation (DBS), is contingent upon frequent clinical assessments using instruments such as the Bain-Findley tremor rating scale (BTRS). Many patients, however, do not have access to frequent clinical assessments. Wearable devices have been developed to provide patients with access to frequent objective assessments outside the clinic via telemedicine. Nevertheless, the information they report is not in the form of BTRS ratings. One way to transform this information into BTRS ratings is through linear regression models (LRMs). Another, potentially more accurate method is through machine learning classifiers (MLCs). This study aims to compare MLCs and LRMs, and identify the most accurate model that can transform objective tremor information into tremor severity ratings on the BTRS. Nine participants with upper limb tremor had their DBS stimulation amplitude varied while they performed clinical upper-extremity exercises. Tremor features were acquired using the tremor biomechanics analysis laboratory (TREMBAL). Movement disorder specialists rated tremor severity on the BTRS from video recordings. Seven MLCs and 6 LRMs transformed TREMBAL features into tremor severity ratings on the BTRS using the specialists’ ratings as training data. The weighted Cohen’s kappa ({κ\\text{w}} ) defined the models’ rating accuracy. This study shows that the Random Forest MLC was the most accurate model ({κ\\text{w}}   =  0.81) at transforming tremor information into BTRS ratings, thereby improving the clinical interpretation of tremor information obtained from wearable devices.

  20. Correlation between the Movement Disorders Society Unified Parkinson's Disease rating scale (MDS-UPDRS) and the Unified Parkinson's Disease rating scale (UPDRS) during L-dopa acute challenge.

    PubMed

    Merello, Marcelo; Gerschcovich, Eliana Roldan; Ballesteros, Diego; Cerquetti, Daniel

    2011-11-01

    While Movement Disorders Society Unified Parkinson's Disease rating scale (MDS-UPDRS) validation has been exhaustive; performance evaluation to detect acute changes arising after administration of a single dose of L-dopa has yet to be explored. To determine the correlation between UPDRS and MDS-UPDRS during the acute challenge with Ldopa and the MDS-UPDRS equivalent to 30% cutoff score of UPDRS for defining responsiveness, 64 patients were assessed. Consecutive assessments were performed immediately before and after administration of a single dose of L-dopa/carbidopa 250/25 mg using the motor section of the UPDRS and the MDS-UPDRS. Good diagnostic accuracy, consistent with published findings of high correlation between scales was observed. Area under the curve (AUC) was 0.99 (CI = 0.97-1.00, P < 0.001) and maximum Youden index (Y = 0.905) corresponded to a cutoff of 24.5%. In conclusion we have found an excellent correlation between UPDRS and MDS-UPDRS and that the 30% of variation in UPDRS score used for predicting sustained long term L-dopa response was equivalent to 24% in MDS-UPDRS.