Science.gov

Sample records for accumulate heavy metals

  1. Accumulation of heavy metals using Sorghum sp.

    PubMed

    Soudek, Petr; Petrová, Šarka; Vaňková, Radomíra; Song, Jing; Vaněk, Tomaš

    2014-06-01

    The essential requirement for the effective phytoremediation is selection of a plant species which should be metal tolerant, with high biomass production and known agronomic techniques. The above mentioned criteria are met by crop plant sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). The response of hydroponically grown S. bicolor plants to cadmium and zinc stress was followed. The impact of metal application on physiological parameters, including changes in chlorophylls contents and antioxidative enzymes activities, was followed during the stress progression. Cadmium and zinc were accumulated primarily in the roots of sorghum plants. However, elevation of metal concentrations in the media promoted their transfer to the shoots. Toxic effects of metals applied at lower concentrations were less serious in the shoots in comparison with their influence to the roots. When applied at higher concentrations, transfer of the metals into the leaves increased, causing growth reduction and leading to Chl loss and metal-induced chlorosis. Moreover, higher metal levels in the roots overcame the quenching capacity of peroxidase and glutathione transferase, which was associated with reduction of their activities. Fortification of antioxidant system by addition of glutathione significantly increased the accumulation of cadmium in the roots as well as in the shoots at the highest cadmium concentration applied.

  2. Accumulation of heavy metals in oil-contaminated peat soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vodyanitskii, Yu. N.; Savichev, A. T.; Trofimov, S. Ya.; Shishkonakova, E. A.

    2012-10-01

    X-ray fluorescence and X-ray radiometry represent easy and simple methods to determine concentrations of heavy metals in the ash of peat soils contaminated with oil and can be applied for soil monitoring purposes. Oil spills on peat bogs produce two contamination zones differing in the composition of heavy metals. In the zone of primary contamination, the peat surface is covered by a bitumen crust with V, Ni, Sr, Ba, Ce, and La accumulating there. This zone adjoins the zone of secondary peat contamination, where heavy alkaline-earth metals (Sr, Ba) and lanthanides (Ce and La) are accumulated to a lesser extent. Biological preparations recommended for remediation of oil-contaminated peat soils should be tolerant to high concentrations of heavy metals, particularly, V, Ni, and Ba that are present in the oil contaminated soils in relatively high amounts.

  3. Accumulation of heavy metals in selected medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Hemen; Deka, Suresh; Deka, Hemen; Saikia, Rashmi Rekha

    2011-01-01

    In this review, we evaluate the reports published between 1993 and 2011 that address the heavy metal accumulation in 88 medicinal plant species. We compare the safe limits for heavy metals set by governmental agencies vs. the levels at which such metals actually exist in selected medicinal plants. We also evaluate the uses and effectiveness of medicinal plants in health care, and assess the hazards of medicinal plant uses, in view of the growing worldwide use of medicinal plants. From our extensive review of the literature, we discovered that a maximum permissible level (MPL) of Pb is exceeded in 21 plant medicine species, Cd in 44 species, and Hg in 10 species. Vetiveria zizanioides a potential candidate species for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases absorb a wide range of heavy metals from metal-contaminated soils. We believe that this species is the single most impressive example of a potentially hazardous medicinal plant. Based on our review, we endorse the hypothesis that heavy metal accumulation by medicinal plants is mainly caused by extraction of soluble metals from contaminated soil, sediments and air. One continuing problem in protecting consumers of plant-based medicines is that permissible levels of all heavy metals in herbal medicine have not yet been standardized by regulating governmental entities. Moreover, there are few limit tests that exist for heavy metal content of medicinal plants, or permissible limits for essential dietary minerals, in most medicinal plants. The dearth of such limits hamstrings development of medicinal plant research and delays the release of either new or improved versions of medicinal plants or their components. In the present review, we emphasize that medicinal plants are often subjected to heavy metal contamination and that the levels at which these heavy metals sometimes occur exceeds permissible levels for some species. Therefore, collecting medicinal plants from areas that are, or may be, contaminated should be

  4. Plants accumulating heavy metals in the Danube River wetlands

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We present herein our results regarding the accumulation of four heavy metals (copper, cadmium, lead, and zinc) in four aquatic species plants (Ceratophyllum demersum, Potamogeton pectinatus, Potamogeton lucens, Potamogeton perfoliatus) collected from the Danube River, South-Western part of Romania and their possible use as indicators of aquatic ecosystems pollution with heavy metals. Methods Elements concentration from the vegetal material was determined through Inductively Coupled Plasma – Mass Spectrometry. Results The species were chosen based on their previous use as bioindicators in aquatic ecosystems and due to the fact they are one of the most frequent aquatic plant species of the Danube River ecosystems within the Iron Gates Natural Park. Highest amounts are recorded for Ceratophyllum demersum (3.52 μg/g for Cd; 22.71 μg/g for Cu; 20.06 μg/g for Pb; 104.23 μg/g for Zn). Among the Potamogeton species, the highest amounts of heavy metals are recorded in Potamogeton perfoliatus (1.88 μg/g for Cd; 13.14 μg/g for Cu; 13.32 μg/g for Pb; 57.96 μg/g for Zn). The sequence for the bioconcentration factors (BCFs) calculated in order to describe the accumulation of the four metals is Cd >> Zn > Pb > Cu. Increase of the zinc concentration determines an increase of the cadmium concentration (Spearman rho=0.40, p=0.02). Conclusions Despite the low ambiental levels of heavy metals, the four aquatic plants have the ability to accumulate significant amounts, which make them useful as biological indicators. BCF value for Ceratophyllum demersum indicated this species as a cadmium hyperaccumulator. PMID:24359799

  5. Accumulation rates of airborne heavy metals in wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Souch, C.J.; Filippelli, G.M.; Dollar, N.; Perkins, S.; Mastalerz, Maria

    2002-01-01

    Accumulation rates of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn) retained in wetland sediments in northwest Indiana-downwind of the Chicago-Gary-Hammond industrial area-are quantified to assess anthropogenic influences on atmospheric fluxes. Metal concentrations for 22 sediment cores are determined by ICP-AES after ashing and strong acid extraction. Relations between organic content and metal concentrations at depth are used to separate natural and anthropogenic sources. Accumulation rates over the lifetime of the wetlands (???4500 years) have averaged 0.2 (Cd), 1.4 (Cu), 1.7 (Cr), 13.4 (Mn), 4.8 (Pb), and 18.7 (Zn) mg m-2 y-1. Rates for the last 100 years have increased on average by factors of 6 (Cd), 8 (Cu), 10 (Mn), 15 (Pb), and 30 (Zn), remaining effectively constant for Cr. Where the wetlands have been drained, metals have been lost from the sediments, owing to changes in organic content and local hydrochemistry (exposure to acidic rainfall). Sediment-based accumulation rates at the undrained sites are higher, though generally consistent, with measured and modeled atmospheric fluxes documented by short-term studies conducted over the last three decades. The fraction of the total metals in the wetlands estimated to be of anthropogenic origin ranges from approximately 3% for Cr, up to approximately 35% for Pb, and 70% for Zn. This historic legacy of contamination must be considered in land management decisions, particularly when wetlands are drained.

  6. Accumulation of heavy metals in the mole in Finland.

    PubMed

    Pankakoski, E; Hyvärinen, H; Jalkanen, M; Koivisto, I

    1993-01-01

    Metal concentrations (Cu, Ni, Zn, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb and Mo) were analysed from the liver and kidneys of moles, Talpa europaea L. (Insectivora), trapped in southern Finland on both contaminated and rural areas. In rural areas the concentrations of Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb and Mo were lower in juveniles (individuals in their first summer), except for Zn in the liver, which was lower in adults. When the animals were divided into annual classes (0-6 years), Cd and Mo concentrations in the liver increased significantly with age, while concentrations of Cu, Zn and Cr tended to decrease. Female moles had higher Pb concentrations than males, especially adult females, which also had lower levels of Cu in the liver than adult males. Moles in the metropolitan area of Helsinki clearly differed from those in rural areas in that the concentrations of heavy metals in these moles were higher (especially for the most toxic metals: Cd, Pb and Hg), and their body weight was lower. The renal concentrations of Cd in most of the moles in Helsinki exceeded the threshold that has been shown to have a nephrotoxic effect in mammals. In one subsample from Helsinki, Pb and Zn concentrations in the mole liver decreased as the distance from the highway increased. Concentrations of Pb in earthworms and several heavy metals in soil also decreased similarly in the same area. Our data indicate that Pb accumulates in moles through their diet of earthworms. PMID:15091866

  7. Agriculturally Induced Heavy Metal Accumulation in Seyfe Lake, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Bölükbaşı, Vildan; Akın, Beril Salman

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present 1-year study was to investigate the effect of heavy metals in synthetic fertilizers on water and sediment quality in the Seyfe Lake, where agricultural activity was the only anthropogenic source. Metal concentrations of five different types of synthetic fertilizers used in agricultural fields within the Seyfe Lake closed basin were as follows: Zn > Pb > Cu > Cr > Cd > As > Ni > Co. The annual average of heavy metal concentrations in the sediment samples were as follows: Zn > Pb > As > Cr > Ni > Cu > Cd > Co. Seyfe Lake sediment was classified as anthropogenically "highly polluted" in terms of the As and Zn concentrations at each sample station based on the sediment quality guidelines. Furthermore, the sediment could be classified as "moderately to highly polluted" in terms of the As concentration, based on the geo-accumulation index. PMID:26744023

  8. Accumulation of heavy metals in the earthworm Eisenia foetida

    SciTech Connect

    Hartenstein, R.; Neuhauser, E.F.; Collier, J.

    1980-01-01

    Conversion of waste-activated sludge into egesta by the earthworm Eisenia foetida resulted in neither an increase nor decrease of 0.1 N HCl-extractable cadmium, copper, nickel, lead, or zinc. The addition of 2500 ppM copper as copper sulfate to activated sludge caused 100% mortality whthin 1 week, though feeding upon nonamended activated sludges with up to 1500 ppM copper over several months was innocuous. Amendment of sludge with 10, 50, and 100 ppM Cd as CdSO/sub 4/ resulted in 3.90-, 2.04-, and 1.44-fold concentrations in the earthworm over the quantities present in the sludge, with a range of 118 to 170 ppM being found on exposure to the highest level for periods of 1 to 5 weeks at 25/sup 0/C. In field trials with nonamended sludge, however, containing 12 to 27 ppM Cd, biweekly sampling for 28 weeks revealed accumulations in E. foetida ranging from 8 to 46 ppM; control earthworms not exposed to culture media with easily measurable Cd levels contained 0.3 to 2 ppM Cd. Upwards to about 50 ppM Ni, 325 ppM Pb, and 250 ppM Zn accumulated from sludges amended with ionic soluble forms of these metals. In the field, where these metals ranged from 2 to 46, 1 to 53, and 68 to 210 ppM, respectively, an upper concentration of about 50 ppM Ni, 55 ppM Pb, and 250 ppM Zn were found in the earthworm. Distinctions were made between accumulable and concentratable and a discussion is provided to show that each of the most problematic heavy metals, Cd, Zn, Ni, Pb, and Cu, may accumulate or concentrate in the earthworm.

  9. [Accumulation of heavy metals in the sediments of Shenzhen Bay, south China].

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaoping; Li, Xiangdong; Yue, Weizhong; Huang, Liangmin; Li, Yoksheung

    2003-07-01

    Heavy metals concentrations in marine sediment cores of Shenzhen Bay were measured, and the profile distribution characteristic of heavy metals was discussed. Combined with the 210 Pb dating results, the contamination history of heavy metals was studied in high resolution records, and the metal accumulation processes were also analyzed. The results indicated that the concentrations of heavy metals was relatively low compared with other area in the world, but the elements of Pb, Cu and Zn were obviously contaminated by anthropogenic impact. The rapid economical development of Shenzhen in the last 20 years and Hong Kong in 1960-1970s contributed much on accumulation of heavy metals in the sediments.

  10. Accumulation of heavy metals by vegetables grown in mine wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, G.P.; Sands, K.; Waters, M.; Wixson, B.G.; Dorward-King, E.

    2000-03-01

    Lead, cadmium, arsenic, and zinc were quantified in mine wastes and in soils mixed with mine wastes. Metal concentrations were found to be heterogeneous in the wastes. Iceberg lettuce, Cherry Belle radishes, Roma bush beans, and Better Boy tomatoes were cultivated in mine wastes and in waste-amended soils. Lettuce and radishes had 100% survival in the 100% mine waste treatments compared to 0% and 25% survival for tomatoes and beans, respectively. Metal concentrations were determined in plant tissues to determine uptake and distribution of metals in the edible plant parts. Individual soil samples were collected beneath each plant to assess metal content in the immediate plant environment. This analysis verified heterogeneous metal content of the mine wastes. The four plant species effectively accumulated and translocated lead, cadmium, arsenic, and zinc. Tomato and bean plants contained the four metals mainly in the roots and little was translocated to the fruits. Radish roots accumulated less metals compared to the leaves, whereas lettuce roots and leaves accumulated similar concentrations of the four metals. Lettuce leaves and radish roots accumulated significantly more metals than bean and tomato fruits. This accumulation pattern suggests that consumption of lettuce leaves or radish roots from plants grown in mine wastes would pose greater risks to humans and wildlife than would consumption of beans or tomatoes grown in the same area. The potential risk may be mitigated somewhat in humans, as vegetables grown in mine wastes exhibited stunted growth and chlorosis.

  11. [Accumulation and release characteristics of heavy metals in Crassostrea rivalaris under mixed exposure].

    PubMed

    Chen, Hai-gang; Jia, Xiao-ping; Lin, Qin; Ma, Sheng-wei; Cai, Wen-gui; Wang, Zeng-huan

    2008-04-01

    With a mixed solution of lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg) and arsenic (As), this paper studied the accumulation and release characteristics of test heavy metals in Crassostrea rivalaris. The results showed that C. rivalaris had a strong ability to accumulate Pb, Cu, Ni, Cd, Cr and Hg, being able to indicate the concentration levels of these heavy metals in solution, but a weak ability to accumulate Zn and As. In the following 35 days release stage, no significant change was observed in the contents of test heavy metals in C. rivalaris, suggesting that C. rivalaris had weak ability to release heavy metals. Two-compartment kinetic model could well fit the accumulation of heavy metals in C. rivalaris, but failed in simulating their release characteristics.

  12. [Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizae on growth, heavy metal uptake and accumulation of Zenia insignis Chun seedlings].

    PubMed

    Li, Xia; Peng, Xia-Wei; Wu, Song-Lin; Li, Zhi-Ru; Feng, Hong-Mei; Jiang, Ze-Ping

    2014-08-01

    To solve the trace metal pollution of a Pd/Zn mine in Hunan province, a greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of two arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, Glomus mosseae (Gm) and Glomus intraradices (Gi), on the growth, heavy metal uptake and accumulation of Zenia insignis Chun, the pioneer plant there. The results showed that symbiotic associations were successfully established between the two isolates and Z. insignis in heavy metal contaminated soil. AM fungi improved P absorption, biomass and changed heavy metal uptake and distribution of Z. insignis. AM fungi-inoculated plants had significantly lower Fe, Cu, Zn, Pd concentrations and higher Fe, Cu, Zn, Pd accumulation than non-inoculated plants. However, Gm and Gi showed different mycorrhizal effects on the distribution of heavy metal in hosts, depending on the species of heavy metal. Gi-inoculated Z. insignis showed significantly lower TF values of Fe, Zn, Pd than Gm and non-inoculated plants, while both strains had no effect on TF value of Cu, which indicated that Gi enhanced trace metal accumulation in root system, playing a filtering/sequestering role in the presence of trace metals. The overall results demonstrated that AM fungi had positive effect on Z. insignis in enhancing the ability to adapt the heavy metal contaminated soil and played potential role in the revegetation of heavy metal contaminated soil. But in practical application, the combination of AM, hosts and heavy metal should be considered. PMID:25338391

  13. [Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizae on growth, heavy metal uptake and accumulation of Zenia insignis Chun seedlings].

    PubMed

    Li, Xia; Peng, Xia-Wei; Wu, Song-Lin; Li, Zhi-Ru; Feng, Hong-Mei; Jiang, Ze-Ping

    2014-08-01

    To solve the trace metal pollution of a Pd/Zn mine in Hunan province, a greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of two arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, Glomus mosseae (Gm) and Glomus intraradices (Gi), on the growth, heavy metal uptake and accumulation of Zenia insignis Chun, the pioneer plant there. The results showed that symbiotic associations were successfully established between the two isolates and Z. insignis in heavy metal contaminated soil. AM fungi improved P absorption, biomass and changed heavy metal uptake and distribution of Z. insignis. AM fungi-inoculated plants had significantly lower Fe, Cu, Zn, Pd concentrations and higher Fe, Cu, Zn, Pd accumulation than non-inoculated plants. However, Gm and Gi showed different mycorrhizal effects on the distribution of heavy metal in hosts, depending on the species of heavy metal. Gi-inoculated Z. insignis showed significantly lower TF values of Fe, Zn, Pd than Gm and non-inoculated plants, while both strains had no effect on TF value of Cu, which indicated that Gi enhanced trace metal accumulation in root system, playing a filtering/sequestering role in the presence of trace metals. The overall results demonstrated that AM fungi had positive effect on Z. insignis in enhancing the ability to adapt the heavy metal contaminated soil and played potential role in the revegetation of heavy metal contaminated soil. But in practical application, the combination of AM, hosts and heavy metal should be considered.

  14. Heavy metal accumulation by recombinant mammalian metallothionein within Escherichia coli protects against elevated metal exposure.

    PubMed

    Sauge-Merle, Sandrine; Lecomte-Pradines, Catherine; Carrier, Patrick; Cuiné, Stéphan; Dubow, Michael

    2012-08-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are ubiquitous metal-binding, cysteine-rich, small proteins known to provide protection against toxic heavy metals such as cadmium. In an attempt to increase the ability of bacterial cells to accumulate heavy metals, sheep MTII was produced in fusion with the maltose binding protein (MBP) and localized to the cytoplasmic or periplasmic compartments of Escherichia coli. For all metals tested, higher levels of bioaccumulation were measured with strains over-expressing MBP-MT in comparison with control strains. A marked bioaccumulation of Cd, As, Hg and Zn was observed in the strain over-expressing MBP-MT in the cytoplasm, whereas Cu was accumulated to higher levels when MBP-MT was over-expressed in the periplasm. Metal export systems may also play a role in this bioaccumulation. To illustrate this, we over-expressed MBP-MT in the cytoplasm of two mutant strains of E. coli affected in metal export. The first, deficient in the transporter ZntA described to export numerous divalent metal ions, showed increasing quantities of Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb being bioaccumulated. The second, strain LF20012, deficient in As export, showed that As was bioaccumulated in the form of arsenite. Furthermore, high quantities of accumulated metals, chelated by MBP-MT in the cytoplasm, conferred greater metal resistance levels to the cells in the presence of added toxic metals, such as Cd or Hg, while other metals showed toxic effects when the export systems were deficient. The strain over-expressing MBP-MT in the cytoplasm, in combination, with disruption of metal export systems, could be used to develop strategies for bioremediation.

  15. The distribution of the heavy metal accumulation rate in the biomass of three Daphnia species

    SciTech Connect

    Gajula, V.K.; Hovorka, J.; Stuchlik, E.

    1995-12-31

    The difference in the accumulation rate of a mixture of heavy metals in aquatic organisms is of considerable interest because of its importance in the prediction of the effect of pollutants in aquatic systems. In this study the authors are making an effort to evaluate the accumulation patterns of pollutants in aquatic organisms by establishing a relation between the level of an accumulated mixture of heavy metals (Cd, Zn, Pb, As, Hg) in individuals of Daphnia magna, Daphnia pulicaria and Daphnia galeata and its dry weight with respect to the form of heavy metals in the aquatic environment. One age group of Daphnia species (10 day old) were exposed to 5 ppb, 10 ppb and 20 ppb of the mixture of heavy metals for 24 hours in three different experiments. In the first experiment the mixture of heavy metals was present exclusively in labelled algae (Scendesmus actus), in the second in an aquatic medium with non labelled algae, and in the third experiment the mixture of heavy metals was dissolved in the aquatic medium only without the addition of algae. The concentration of the heavy metal mixture in individuals of D.magna; D.pulicaria and D.galeata was determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. Results were statistically evaluated and the rate of accumulation and influence of various heavy metals in the biomass of three Daphnia species is discussed.

  16. Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Vegetable Species Planted in Contaminated Soils and the Health Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hang; Yang, Wen-Tao; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Li; Gu, Jiao-Feng; Wang, Wen-Lei; Zou, Jia-Ling; Tian, Tao; Peng, Pei-Qin; Liao, Bo-Han

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate heavy metal accumulation in 22 vegetable species and to assess the human health risks of vegetable consumption. Six vegetable types were cultivated on farmland contaminated with heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, and As). The target hazard quotient (THQ) method was used to assess the human health risks posed by heavy metals through vegetable consumption. Clear differences were found in the concentrations of heavy metals in edible parts of the different vegetables. The concentrations of heavy metals decreased in the sequence as leafy vegetables > stalk vegetables/root vegetables/solanaceous vegetables > legume vegetables/melon vegetables. The ability of leafy vegetables to uptake and accumulate heavy metals was the highest, and that of melon vegetables was the lowest. This indicated that the low accumulators (melon vegetables) were suitable for being planted on contaminated soil, while the high accumulators (leafy vegetables) were unsuitable. In Shizhuyuan area, China, the total THQ values of adults and children through consumption of vegetables were 4.12 and 5.41, respectively, suggesting that the residents may be facing health risks due to vegetable consumption, and that children were vulnerable to the adverse effects of heavy metal ingestion. PMID:26959043

  17. Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Vegetable Species Planted in Contaminated Soils and the Health Risk Assessment.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hang; Yang, Wen-Tao; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Li; Gu, Jiao-Feng; Wang, Wen-Lei; Zou, Jia-Ling; Tian, Tao; Peng, Pei-Qin; Liao, Bo-Han

    2016-03-04

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate heavy metal accumulation in 22 vegetable species and to assess the human health risks of vegetable consumption. Six vegetable types were cultivated on farmland contaminated with heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, and As). The target hazard quotient (THQ) method was used to assess the human health risks posed by heavy metals through vegetable consumption. Clear differences were found in the concentrations of heavy metals in edible parts of the different vegetables. The concentrations of heavy metals decreased in the sequence as leafy vegetables > stalk vegetables/root vegetables/solanaceous vegetables > legume vegetables/melon vegetables. The ability of leafy vegetables to uptake and accumulate heavy metals was the highest, and that of melon vegetables was the lowest. This indicated that the low accumulators (melon vegetables) were suitable for being planted on contaminated soil, while the high accumulators (leafy vegetables) were unsuitable. In Shizhuyuan area, China, the total THQ values of adults and children through consumption of vegetables were 4.12 and 5.41, respectively, suggesting that the residents may be facing health risks due to vegetable consumption, and that children were vulnerable to the adverse effects of heavy metal ingestion.

  18. Studies on heavy metal accumulation in aquatic macrophytes from Sevan (Armenia) and Carambolim (India) lake systems.

    PubMed

    Vardanyan, Lilit G; Ingole, Baban S

    2006-02-01

    Aquatic macrophytes are unchangeable biological filters and they carry out purification of the water bodies by accumulating dissolved metals and toxins in their tissue. In view of their potential to entrap several toxic heavy metals, 45 macrophytes belonging to 8 families collected from two different physiographic locations (36 from Sevan Lake, Armenia; 9 from Carambolim Lake, Old Goa, India) were studied for estimation of 14 heavy metals. The study was aimed at understanding the importance of these macrophytes in accumulation of toxic metals and controlling the heavy metal pollution and suggesting the remedial measures, if any, for the preservation and restoration of lake ecosystem. Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometric (ICP-AES) analyses of these aquatic macrophytes have shown the importance of aquatic macrophytes in accumulation of heavy metals and maintaining the clarity of water bodies beside their role in trophic systems. Accumulation of most of the heavy metals was higher in root system. The representative macrophytes from two different physiographic locations show similar trends and order in accumulating different metals generally. Of the 14 metals investigated, 9 (Ca, Fe, Al, Cr, Cu, Ba, Ti, Co and Pb) showed higher rates of accumulation in the root whereas 3 (Mn, Zn and Mg) showed more accumulation in stem and 1 (Ca) showed higher accumulation in the leaves. In most of the samples Cu was accumulated more in the roots (50+/-47.15 microg/g) and less in flowers (9.52+/-3.97 microg/g). Occurrence of heavy metal was much higher in macrophytes of Sevan Lake than that of the Carambolim Lake. The accumulation of 14 elements was in order of Ca>Mg>Fe>Al>Mn>Ba>Zn>Ti>Cu>Cr>Co>Ni>Pb>Cd. The present study revealed that the aquatic macrophytes play a very significant role in removing the different metals from the ambient environments. They probably play a major role in reducing the effect of high concentration of heavy metals. Therefore, the

  19. [Absorption and accumulation of heavy metals by plants around a smelter].

    PubMed

    Cui, Shunag; Zhou, Qixing; Chao, Lei

    2006-03-01

    The study on the absorption and accumulation of heavy metals lead, zinc, copper and cadmium by 8 plant species around a smelter showed that the metals accumulation by plants differed with plant species, their parts, and kinds of metals. Abutilon theophrasti had a higher capability of absorbing and accumulating Pb, Conyza canadensis, Ambrosia trifida, Polygonumn lapathifolium, A. theophrasti, Solanum nigrum, Chenopodium acuminatum and Helianthus tuberosus had a higher capability of absorbing and accumulating Zn, C. acuminatunz and A. theophrasti had a higher capability of absorbing and accumulating Cu, and S. nigrum, C. acuminatum, A. theophrasti, P. lapathifolium and C. canadensis had a higher capability of absorbing and accumulating Cd. These plants had TF values higher than 1, and were suitable for phytoextraction to remedy polluted soil. As for the plants with TF values lower than 1, they were suitable as the phytostabilizers of heavy metals-contaminated lands. PMID:16724753

  20. [Absorption and accumulation of heavy metals by plants around a smelter].

    PubMed

    Cui, Shunag; Zhou, Qixing; Chao, Lei

    2006-03-01

    The study on the absorption and accumulation of heavy metals lead, zinc, copper and cadmium by 8 plant species around a smelter showed that the metals accumulation by plants differed with plant species, their parts, and kinds of metals. Abutilon theophrasti had a higher capability of absorbing and accumulating Pb, Conyza canadensis, Ambrosia trifida, Polygonumn lapathifolium, A. theophrasti, Solanum nigrum, Chenopodium acuminatum and Helianthus tuberosus had a higher capability of absorbing and accumulating Zn, C. acuminatunz and A. theophrasti had a higher capability of absorbing and accumulating Cu, and S. nigrum, C. acuminatum, A. theophrasti, P. lapathifolium and C. canadensis had a higher capability of absorbing and accumulating Cd. These plants had TF values higher than 1, and were suitable for phytoextraction to remedy polluted soil. As for the plants with TF values lower than 1, they were suitable as the phytostabilizers of heavy metals-contaminated lands.

  1. Accumulation of heavy metals in mosses: a biomonitoring study.

    PubMed

    Macedo-Miranda, G; Avila-Pérez, P; Gil-Vargas, P; Zarazúa, G; Sánchez-Meza, J C; Zepeda-Gómez, C; Tejeda, S

    2016-01-01

    The metropolitan area of the Toluca Valley (MATV) extends over an area of 1208.55 km(2) and has 1,361,500 inhabitants making it the fifth highest populated area in the country and the second highest in the state. The MATV has several environmental problems, with regards to the air quality. Particles PM10 and PM2.5 are considered to be the main pollutant due to these particles frequently exceeding the limit laid down in the standards of the air quality in the country. For this reason, samples of the mosses Fabriona ciliaris and Leskea angustata were collected at different sites in MATV, Mexico in order to establish the atmospheric deposition of heavy metals by means of the analysis of the mosses tissues. Results show the average metal concentrations in the mosses in the order of: Zn > Pb > Cr > Cd. The concentration capacities of heavy metals were higher in Fabriona ciliaris than Leskea angustata. Enrichment factors for Cr, Zn, Pb and Cd were obtained using the soils from the same sampling area. Enrichment factors results show that Cr is conservative in both sampling seasons with a terrigenous origin; Zn is moderately enriched in both sampling seasons and mainly associated to pedological-soil or substrate contribution and anthropogenic activities and Cd is highly enriched in the rainy season and Pb is highly enriched in both sampling seasons, with a predominantly anthropogenic origin. This study provides information to be considered in the strategies for similar environmental problems in the world.

  2. Accumulation of heavy metals in mosses: a biomonitoring study.

    PubMed

    Macedo-Miranda, G; Avila-Pérez, P; Gil-Vargas, P; Zarazúa, G; Sánchez-Meza, J C; Zepeda-Gómez, C; Tejeda, S

    2016-01-01

    The metropolitan area of the Toluca Valley (MATV) extends over an area of 1208.55 km(2) and has 1,361,500 inhabitants making it the fifth highest populated area in the country and the second highest in the state. The MATV has several environmental problems, with regards to the air quality. Particles PM10 and PM2.5 are considered to be the main pollutant due to these particles frequently exceeding the limit laid down in the standards of the air quality in the country. For this reason, samples of the mosses Fabriona ciliaris and Leskea angustata were collected at different sites in MATV, Mexico in order to establish the atmospheric deposition of heavy metals by means of the analysis of the mosses tissues. Results show the average metal concentrations in the mosses in the order of: Zn > Pb > Cr > Cd. The concentration capacities of heavy metals were higher in Fabriona ciliaris than Leskea angustata. Enrichment factors for Cr, Zn, Pb and Cd were obtained using the soils from the same sampling area. Enrichment factors results show that Cr is conservative in both sampling seasons with a terrigenous origin; Zn is moderately enriched in both sampling seasons and mainly associated to pedological-soil or substrate contribution and anthropogenic activities and Cd is highly enriched in the rainy season and Pb is highly enriched in both sampling seasons, with a predominantly anthropogenic origin. This study provides information to be considered in the strategies for similar environmental problems in the world. PMID:27375984

  3. Limited accumulation of copper in heavy metal adapted mosses.

    PubMed

    Antreich, Sebastian; Sassmann, Stefan; Lang, Ingeborg

    2016-04-01

    Copper is an essential micronutrient but has toxic effects at high concentrations. Bryophytes are remarkably tolerant to elevated levels of copper but we wondered if this tolerance might be species dependent. Therefore, in three moss species, Physcomitrella patens, Mielichhoferia elongata and Pohlia drummondii, the accumulation of copper was compared with semiquantitative SEM-EDX analyses after six weeks of cultivation on copper containing media. We investigated the role of the copper-linked anion and applied copper as CuCl2, CuSO4 and CuEDTA, respectively. Line scans along the growth axis of moss gametophores allowed for a detailed analysis of copper detection from the base towards the tip. Mosses originating from metal-containing habitats (i.e. M. elongata and P. drummondii) revealed a lower accumulation of copper when compared to the non-adapted P. patens. CuEDTA had a shielding effect in all three species and copper levels differed greatly from CuCl2 or CuSO4. The detection of reactive oxygen species (ROS), H2O2 and O2(-), was further used to indicate stress levels in the gametophore stems. ROS staining was increased along the whole stem and the tip in the non-adapted species P. patens whereas the tolerant species M. elongata and P. drummondii generally showed less staining located mainly at the base of the stem. We discuss the relation between metal accumulation and ROS production using indicator dyes in the three moss species. As moss gametophores are very delicate structures, ROS staining provide an excellent alternative to spectrophotometric analyses to estimate stress levels. PMID:26878481

  4. Phosphatase-mediated heavy metal accumulation by a Citrobacter sp. and related enterobacteria.

    PubMed

    Macaskie, L E; Bonthrone, K M; Rouch, D A

    1994-08-15

    A Citrobacter sp. was reported previously to accumulate heavy metals as cell-bound heavy metal phosphates. Metal uptake is mediated by the activity of a periplasmic acid-type phosphatase that liberates inorganic phosphate to provide the precipitant ligand for heavy metals presented to the cells. Amino acid sequencing of peptide fragments of the purified enzyme revealed significant homology to the phoN product (acid phosphatase) of some other enterobacteria. These organisms, together with Klebsiella pneumoniae, previously reported to produce acid phosphatase, were tested for their ability to remove uranium and lanthanum from challenge solutions supplemented with phosphatase substrate. The coupling of phosphate liberation to metal bioaccumulation was limited to the metal accumulating Citrobacter sp.; therefore the participation of species-specific additional factors in metal bioaccumulation was suggested.

  5. Heavy metal accumulation and source analysis in greenhouse soils of Wuwei District, Gansu Province, China.

    PubMed

    Bai, L Y; Zeng, X B; Su, S M; Duan, R; Wang, Y N; Gao, X

    2015-04-01

    Greenhouse soils and arable (wheat field) soil samples were collected to identify the effects of greenhouse cultivation on the accumulation of six heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, and Ni) and to evaluate the likely sources responsible for heavy metal accumulation in the irrigated desert soils of Wuwei District, China. The results indicated that the mean concentrations of Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, and Ni were 0.421, 33.85, 85.31, 20.76, 53.12, and 28.59 mg kg(-1), respectively. The concentrations of Cd, Cu, and Zn in greenhouse soils were 60, 23, and 14% higher than those in arable soils and 263, 40, and 25% higher than background concentrations of natural soils in the study area, respectively. These results indicated that Cd, Cu, and Zn accumulation occurred in the greenhouse soils, and Cd was the most problematically accumulated heavy metal, followed by Cu and Zn. There was a significant positive correlation between the concentrations of Cd, Cu, and Zn in greenhouse soils and the number of years under cultivation (P < 0.05). Greenhouse cultivation had little impact on the accumulation of Cr, Ni, or Pb. Correlation analysis and principal component analysis suggested that the accumulation of Cd, Cu, and Zn in greenhouse soils resulted mainly from fertilizer applications. Our results indicated that the excessive and long-term use of fertilizers and livestock manures with high heavy metal levels leads to the accumulation of heavy metals in soils. Therefore, rational fertilization programs and reductions in the concentrations of heavy metals in both fertilizers and manure must be recommended to maintain a safe concentration of heavy metals in greenhouse soils.

  6. Accumulation of heavy metals in epidermal glands of the waterlily (Nymphaeaceae).

    PubMed

    Lavid, N; Barkay, Z; Tel-Or, E

    2001-02-01

    This study investigates the anatomical aspects of heavy-metal accumulation in the waterlily (Nymphaea 'Aurora', Nymphaeaceae). Epidermal glands were identified by light microscopy on the abaxial side of the leaf laminae and on the epidermis of the rhizome; glandular trichomes were observed in the petiole epidermis. Glands were not observed in the roots. Accumulation of heavy metals in these glands was monitored using a scanning electron microscope equipped for energy-dispersive spectroscopy. Further experiments showed maximal cadmium and calcium accumulation in the mature leaf lamina in daylight, and this accumulation was inhibited by the herbicide 3-(3',4'-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea. These results suggest that, in Nymphaea, heavy metals are accumulated primarily in association with glands found in plant organs that have direct contact with water or mud. Deposition and storage of heavy metals by these glands may represent a stage in the sequestration and detoxification of the metals. Our results raise the possibility of utilizing waterlilies for the removal of heavy metals from polluted environments.

  7. Analysis of Accumulating Ability of Heavy Metals in Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) Improved by Ion Implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianhua; Wang, Naiyan; Zhang, Fengshou

    2012-05-01

    Heavy metals have seriously contaminated soil and water, and done harm to public health. Academician WANG Naiyan proposed that ion-implantation technique should be exploited for environmental bioremediation by mutating and breeding plants or microbes. By implanting N+ into Taikonglian No.1, we have selected and bred two lotus cultivars, Jingguang No.1 and Jingguang No.2. The present study aims at analyzing the feasibility that irradiation can be used for remediation of soil and water from heavy metals. Compared with parent Taikonglian No.1, the uptaking and accumulating ability of heavy metals in two mutated cultivars was obviously improved. So ion implantation technique can indeed be used in bioremediation of heavy metals in soil and water, but it is hard to select and breed a cultivar which can remedy the soil and water from all the heavy metals.

  8. Hydroponic estimation of heavy metal accumulation by different genotypes of Salix.

    PubMed

    Mleczek, Miroslaw; Kaczmarek, Zygmunt; Magdziak, Zuzanna; Golinski, Piotr K

    2010-01-01

    The absorption abilities of selected heavy metals by twelve genotypes of willow (Salix) were compared in a hydroponic experiment. Coefficients of increased ion concentrations in tissues of each tested genotype were determined in relation to initial values. Some plants exhibited high sorption of particular metals (Salix purpurea Utilissima' and Salix purpurea 233') with limited sorption of other metals. The results indicate possible application of willow genotypes, with selective sorption of analyzed heavy metals. Ranking of genotypes according to their capacity for heavy metals absorption, individually and/or jointly, makes it possible to apply such information in the remediation of soil and/or sewage contaminated with individual or a complex of several heavy metals simultaneously. The most effective Salix genotypes were: Salix purpurea Utilissima' and Salix petiolaria 'Rigida'. The lowest accumulation was observed in Salix purpurea Green Dicks', Salix purpurea Uralensis' and Salix purpurea Nigra longifolia pendula'. Statistical analysis confirmed the above results.

  9. Toxicity, accumulation, and removal of heavy metals by three aquatic macrophytes.

    PubMed

    Basile, A; Sorbo, S; Conte, B; Cobianchi, R Castaldo; Trinchella, F; Capasso, C; Carginale, V

    2012-04-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the uptake, tolerance, and transport of heavy metals by plants will be essential for the development of phytoremediation technologies. In the present paper, we investigated accumulation, tissue and intracellular localization, and toxic effects of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu) in three aquatic macrophytes (the angiosperms Lemna minor and Elodea canadensis, and the moss Leptodictyum riparium). We also tested and compared their capacity to absorb heavy metal from water under laboratory conditions. Our data showed that all the three species examined could be considered good bioaccumulators for the heavy metals tested. L. riparium was the most resistant species and the most effective in accumulating Cu, Zn, and Pb, whereas L. minor was the most effective in accumulating Cd. Cd was the most toxic metal, followed by Pb, Cu, and Zn. At the ultrastructural level, sublethal concentrations of the heavy metals tested caused induced cell plasmolysis and alterations of the chloroplast arrangement. Heavy metal removal experiments revealed that the three macrophytes showed excellent performance in removing the selected metals from the solutions in which they are maintained, thus suggesting that they could be considered good candidates for wastewaters remediation purpose.

  10. Toxicity, accumulation, and removal of heavy metals by three aquatic macrophytes.

    PubMed

    Basile, A; Sorbo, S; Conte, B; Cobianchi, R Castaldo; Trinchella, F; Capasso, C; Carginale, V

    2012-04-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the uptake, tolerance, and transport of heavy metals by plants will be essential for the development of phytoremediation technologies. In the present paper, we investigated accumulation, tissue and intracellular localization, and toxic effects of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu) in three aquatic macrophytes (the angiosperms Lemna minor and Elodea canadensis, and the moss Leptodictyum riparium). We also tested and compared their capacity to absorb heavy metal from water under laboratory conditions. Our data showed that all the three species examined could be considered good bioaccumulators for the heavy metals tested. L. riparium was the most resistant species and the most effective in accumulating Cu, Zn, and Pb, whereas L. minor was the most effective in accumulating Cd. Cd was the most toxic metal, followed by Pb, Cu, and Zn. At the ultrastructural level, sublethal concentrations of the heavy metals tested caused induced cell plasmolysis and alterations of the chloroplast arrangement. Heavy metal removal experiments revealed that the three macrophytes showed excellent performance in removing the selected metals from the solutions in which they are maintained, thus suggesting that they could be considered good candidates for wastewaters remediation purpose. PMID:22567718

  11. Heavy Metal Accumulation by Periphyton Is Related to Eutrophication in the Hai River Basin, Northern China

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Wenzhong; Cui, Jingguo; Shan, Baoqing; Wang, Chao; Zhang, Wenqiang

    2014-01-01

    The Hai River Basin (HRB) is one of the most polluted river basins in China. The basin suffers from various types of pollutants including heavy metals and nutrients due to a high population density and rapid economic development in this area. We assessed the relationship between heavy metal accumulation by periphyton playing an important role in fluvial food webs and eutrophication in the HRB. The concentrations of the unicellular diatoms (type A), filamentous algae with diatoms (type B), and filamentous algae (type C) varied along the river, with type A dominating upstream, and types B then C increasing in concentration further downstream, and this was consistent with changes in the trophic status of the river. The mean heavy metal concentrations in the type A, B and C organisms were Cr: 18, 18 and 24 mg/kg, respectively, Ni: 9.2, 10 and 12 mg/kg, respectively, Cu: 8.4, 19 and 29 mg/kg, respectively, and Pb: 11, 9.8 and 7.1 mg/kg respectively. The bioconcentration factors showed that the abilities of the organisms to accumulate Cr, Ni and Pb decreased in the order type A, type B, then type C, but their abilities to accumulate Cu increased in that order. The Ni concentration was a good predictor of Cr, Cu and Pb accumulation by all three periphyton types. Our study shows that heavy metal accumulation by periphyton is associated with eutrophication in the rivers in the HRB. PMID:24482681

  12. Heavy metal accumulation by periphyton is related to eutrophication in the Hai River Basin, Northern China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wenzhong; Cui, Jingguo; Shan, Baoqing; Wang, Chao; Zhang, Wenqiang

    2014-01-01

    The Hai River Basin (HRB) is one of the most polluted river basins in China. The basin suffers from various types of pollutants including heavy metals and nutrients due to a high population density and rapid economic development in this area. We assessed the relationship between heavy metal accumulation by periphyton playing an important role in fluvial food webs and eutrophication in the HRB. The concentrations of the unicellular diatoms (type A), filamentous algae with diatoms (type B), and filamentous algae (type C) varied along the river, with type A dominating upstream, and types B then C increasing in concentration further downstream, and this was consistent with changes in the trophic status of the river. The mean heavy metal concentrations in the type A, B and C organisms were Cr: 18, 18 and 24 mg/kg, respectively, Ni: 9.2, 10 and 12 mg/kg, respectively, Cu: 8.4, 19 and 29 mg/kg, respectively, and Pb: 11, 9.8 and 7.1 mg/kg respectively. The bioconcentration factors showed that the abilities of the organisms to accumulate Cr, Ni and Pb decreased in the order type A, type B, then type C, but their abilities to accumulate Cu increased in that order. The Ni concentration was a good predictor of Cr, Cu and Pb accumulation by all three periphyton types. Our study shows that heavy metal accumulation by periphyton is associated with eutrophication in the rivers in the HRB.

  13. Spatial pattern of heavy metals accumulation risk in urban soils of Beijing and its influencing factors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Wang, Meie; Chen, Weiping; Peng, Chi

    2016-03-01

    Accumulations of heavy metals in urban soils are highly spatial heterogeneity and affected by multiple factors including soil properties, land use and pattern, population and climatic conditions. We studied accumulation risks of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in unban soils of Beijing and their influencing based on the regression tree analysis and a GIS-based overlay model. Result shows that Zinc causes the most extensive soil pollution and Cu result in the most acute soil pollution. The soil's organic carbon content and CEC and population growth are the most significant factors affecting heavy metal accumulation. Other influence factors in land use pattern, urban landscape, and wind speed also contributed, but less pronounced. The soils in areas with higher degree of urbanization and surrounded by intense vehicular traffics have higher accumulation risk of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn. PMID:26716731

  14. Tissue distribution and correlation profiles of heavy-metal accumulation in the freshwater crayfish Astacus leptodactylus.

    PubMed

    Tunca, Evren; Ucuncu, Esra; Ozkan, Alper Devrim; Ulger, Zeynep Ergul; Tekinay, Turgay

    2013-05-01

    The present work details the analysis of heavy-metal and metalloid concentrations in exoskeleton, gill, hepatopancreas, and abdominal muscle tissues of 60 crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus) specimens collected from Lake Hirfanlı, a dam lake located in Kırşehir (Turkey) with a low metal-contamination profile. Concentrations of 11 metals (aluminum [Al], chromium [Cd], manganese [Mn], cobalt [Co], nickel [Ni], copper [Cu], molybdenum [Mo], silver [Ag], cadmium [Cd], mercury [Hg], and lead [Pb]) and a metalloid (arsenic [As]) were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, and the relative frequencies of the most abundant isotopes of Cr, Cu, Ag, Cd, Hg, and Pb were evaluated. Three correlation trends were evaluated between the following: (1) different elements in the each individual tissue, (2) individual elements in different tissues, and (3) different elements in different tissues. In addition, correlation rates of growth parameters (weight, cephalothorax length, and total length) with heavy-metal and metalloid concentrations in each tissue were investigated. Our results suggest that substantial differences in metal and metalloid-accumulation levels exist between male and female specimens, with stronger correlations between the heavy-metal concentrations observed in the male cohort. It is notable that correlation trends of Co, Cu, (52)As, Cr, and Ni in exoskeleton of the male specimens display strong similarities. Likewise, a very strong correlation is present in Ni-Cd and Ni-Pb accumulations in abdominal muscle of the male specimens; a similar trend is present between Cd and Pb concentrations in the same tissue of female specimens. For correlation rates of different heavy metals and metalloid in different tissues, the strongest positive association observed was between (63)Cu in gill and As in hepatopancreas, whereas the strongest negative correlation was between accumulated Ni in abdominal muscle and As in exoskeleton. Strong correlations between

  15. Resistance to and Accumulation of Heavy Metals by Actinobacteria Isolated from Abandoned Mining Areas

    PubMed Central

    El Baz, Soraia; Baz, Mohamed; El Gharmali, Abdelhay; Imziln, Boujamâa

    2015-01-01

    Accumulation of high concentrations of heavy metals in environments can cause many human health risks and serious ecological problems. Nowadays, bioremediation using microorganisms is receiving much attention due to their good performance. The aim of this work is to investigate heavy metals resistance and bioaccumulation potential of actinobacteria strains isolated from some abandoned mining areas. Analysis of mining residues revealed that high concentration of zinc “Zn” was recorded in Sidi Bouatman, Arbar, and Bir Nhass mining residues. The highest concentration of lead “Pb” was found in Sidi Bouatman. Copper “Cu,” cadmium “Cd,” and chromium “Cr” were found with moderate and low concentrations. The resistance of 59 isolated actinobacteria to the five heavy metals was also determined. Using molecular identification 16S rRNA, these 27 isolates were found to belong to Streptomyces and Amycolatopsis genera. The results showed different levels of heavy metal resistance; the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) recorded was 0.55 for Pb, 0.15 for Cr, and 0.10 mg·mL−1 for both Zn and Cu. Chemical precipitation assay of heavy metals using hydrogen sulfide technic (H2S) revealed that only 27 isolates have a strong ability to accumulate Pb (up to 600 mg of Pb per g of biomass for Streptomyces sp. BN3). PMID:25763383

  16. Hydroponical estimation of interactions among selected heavy metals accumulated by Salix viminalis in phytoremediation process.

    PubMed

    Mleczek, Mirosław; Magdziak, Zuzanna; Kaczmarek, Zygmunt; Golinski, Piotr

    2010-09-01

    Determination of interactions between selected heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in their phytoremediation by one-year-old cuttings of Salix viminalis 'Cannabina' was the purpose of this work. The achieved results indicate that Salix cuttings may successfully be used in phytoremediation of polluted soil and/or sewage not only with one metal at high concentrations but also in different combinations with the other metals. Under controlled conditions (the hydroponic experiment) new interactions were found as well as known data concerning interactions between-presented in the matrix-heavy metals, depending on whether their concentration and composition were confirmed. The results showed that the ratio of metal concentration can change the interaction intensity. The achieved results enable one to indirectly estimate the accumulation efficiency of dominating metals as well as accompanying ones at lower concentrations.

  17. Spatial distribution of heavy metal accumulation in the sediments after dam construction.

    PubMed

    Shim, Moo Joon; Yang, Yun Mo; Oh, Da Yeon; Lee, Soo Hyung; Yoon, Yi Yong

    2015-12-01

    The sedimentary environment has been modified in the Geum River where an estuary dam and midstream dams were constructed. Furthermore, the Geum River tributaries deliver contaminants from the wastewater of an industrial complex. However, the influence of tributaries and dams on sedimentary metal deposition has not been extensively studied. The objectives of this study are to assess metal accumulation and to investigate the source of the metals. Sediments were collected in the main channel and two tributaries on October 2013. Abnormal accumulations of fine sediments were not observed above the midstream dams. Chromium, Ni, and Zn showed higher concentrations in above the midstream dam, but their concentrations were not related to grain size. Cadmium, Cu, Pb, and Hg were much higher upstream from the first midstream dam and came from one of the major tributaries. Arsenic was the only element found at higher concentrations downstream from the last midstream dam and was likely sourced from abandoned mines and/or agricultural activity. The pollution indexes indicated deposition of all metals, except Cr and Ni, may have been affected by anthropogenic activity. With respect to long-term accumulation of the metals, accumulation of Pb, Zn, and Cu by anthropogenic input largely increased, implying accumulation of these metals has continued due to anthropogenic activity since the estuary dam was constructed. Our results suggest that changes in river flow caused by the estuary dam and anthropogenic input from tributaries sources increased the accumulation of heavy metals (e.g., Pb, Zn, Cu, and As). PMID:26549487

  18. Spatial distribution of heavy metal accumulation in the sediments after dam construction.

    PubMed

    Shim, Moo Joon; Yang, Yun Mo; Oh, Da Yeon; Lee, Soo Hyung; Yoon, Yi Yong

    2015-12-01

    The sedimentary environment has been modified in the Geum River where an estuary dam and midstream dams were constructed. Furthermore, the Geum River tributaries deliver contaminants from the wastewater of an industrial complex. However, the influence of tributaries and dams on sedimentary metal deposition has not been extensively studied. The objectives of this study are to assess metal accumulation and to investigate the source of the metals. Sediments were collected in the main channel and two tributaries on October 2013. Abnormal accumulations of fine sediments were not observed above the midstream dams. Chromium, Ni, and Zn showed higher concentrations in above the midstream dam, but their concentrations were not related to grain size. Cadmium, Cu, Pb, and Hg were much higher upstream from the first midstream dam and came from one of the major tributaries. Arsenic was the only element found at higher concentrations downstream from the last midstream dam and was likely sourced from abandoned mines and/or agricultural activity. The pollution indexes indicated deposition of all metals, except Cr and Ni, may have been affected by anthropogenic activity. With respect to long-term accumulation of the metals, accumulation of Pb, Zn, and Cu by anthropogenic input largely increased, implying accumulation of these metals has continued due to anthropogenic activity since the estuary dam was constructed. Our results suggest that changes in river flow caused by the estuary dam and anthropogenic input from tributaries sources increased the accumulation of heavy metals (e.g., Pb, Zn, Cu, and As).

  19. Health hazards and heavy metals accumulation by summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) cultivated in contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Galal, Tarek M

    2016-07-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the heavy metal concentration accumulated by summer squash cultivated in contaminated soil and their health hazards for public consumers at south Cairo Province, Egypt. Soil and plants were sampled from contaminated and reference farms, using 1 m(2) quadrats, for biomass estimation and nutrient analysis. The daily intake of metals (DIM) and health risk index (HRI) were estimated. Significant differences in soil variables (except As) between contaminated and reference sites were recognized. Summer squash showed remarkable reduction in fresh and dry biomass, fruit production, and photosynthetic pigments under pollution stress. The inorganic and organic nutrients in the aboveground and belowground parts showed significant reduction in contaminated site. In addition, higher concentrations of heavy metals were accumulated in the edible parts and roots more than shoots. The bioaccumulation factor of summer squash for investigated metals was greater than 1, while the translocation factor did not exceed unity in both contaminated and reference sites. The DIM for all investigated metals in the reference site and in the contaminated site (except Fe and Mn) did not exceed 1 in both adults and children. However, HRI of Ni and Mn in the reference site and Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni, Fe, Mn, and Zn in the contaminated one exceeded unity indicating great potential to pose health risk to the consumers. The author recommends that people living in the contaminated area should not eat large quantities of summer squash, so as to avoid excess accumulation of heavy metals in their bodies.

  20. Studies Concerning the Accumulation of Minerals and Heavy Metals in Fruiting Bodies of Wild Mushrooms

    SciTech Connect

    Stihi, Claudia; Radulescu, Cristiana; Gheboianu, Anca; Bancuta, Iulian; Popescu, Ion V.; Busuioc, Gabriela

    2011-10-03

    The minerals and heavy metals play an important role in the metabolic processes, during the growth and development of mushrooms, when they are available in appreciable concentration. In this work the concentrations of Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Cd and Pb were analyzed using the Flame Atomic Absorption spectrometry (FAAS) together with Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF) in 3 wild mushrooms species and their growing substrate, collected from various forestry fields in Dambovita County, Romania. The analyzed mushrooms were: Amanita phalloides, Amanita rubescens and Armillariella mellea. The accumulation coefficients were calculated to assess the mobility of minerals and heavy metals from substrate to mushrooms [1].

  1. Differential accumulation of heavy metals by web spiders and ground spiders in an old-field

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, K.J.; Brewer, S.R.; Taylor, D.H. . Dept. of Zoology)

    1994-03-01

    Accumulation of the heavy metals Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn by web spiders (orb weavers: Araneidae) and ground spiders was examined in an old-field that had been subjected to 11 years of nutrient enrichment. The study area consistent of six 0.1-ha plots treated from 1978 to 1988 with municipal sewage sludge containing heavy-metal contaminants, urea-phosphate fertilizer, or left as untreated controls. In 1991 and 1992, heavy-metal concentrations in the soil, ground spiders, and web spiders were measured with a flame AA spectrophotometer. Spiders accumulated Cd, Cu, and Zn to concentrations greater than those present in the soil but did not accumulate Pb. Ground spiders contained significantly higher levels of Cd and Cu than web spiders, whereas web spiders contained slightly greater levels of Pb than ground spiders. No trend between spider guilds was apparent for Zn accumulation. To understand the impact of the application of metal-contaminated municipal sludge on ecosystem, the toxicological effects on the biology and behavior of major biotic components in terrestrial food webs must be known.

  2. Concentration is not enough to evaluate accumulation of heavy metals and nutrients in plants.

    PubMed

    Vymazal, Jan

    2016-02-15

    Wetland plants produce high aboveground biomass and possess the ability to accumulate heavy metals and nutrients. This ability is used for phytoremediation purposes including removal of nutrients and heavy metals from polluted waters. The concentrations of heavy metals are usually much higher in the belowground then in aboveground biomass, especially in roots which are primary sites of uptake. This may lead to the conclusion that accumulation of heavy metals is higher in the belowground biomass. However, in case the aboveground is much higher than belowground biomass the accumulation could be higher in the aboveground biomass. Concentration of nitrogen and phosphorus is always higher in leaves than in stems. However, the stem biomass is often much higher in robust emergent species such as Phragmites australis and therefore, more nutrients can be stored in stems. The examples shown in this communication clearly reveal that to evaluate properly the accumulation of heavy metals and nutrients in particular plant compartment biomass amount must be taken into consideration. In the first study, concentrations of Cd, Cr and Hg in Phalaris arundinacea belowground/aboveground biomass were 150/80 μg/kg, 5420/228 μg/kg and 38/18 μg/kg. The high aboveground biomass (1196 g/m(2)) and low belowground biomass (244 g/(2)) resulted in much higher accumulation of Cd and Hg in aboveground biomass (96 μg/m(2) and 21.2 μg/m(2), respectively) than in belowground biomass (36 μg/m(2) and 9.3 μg/m(2), respectively). Only for chromium, belowground accumulation (1312 μg/m(2)) was higher than aboveground accumulation (272 μg/m(2)). In the second study, both nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were higher (26.7 mg/g and 749 mg/kg, respectively) in leaves than in stems (8.2mg/g and 534 mg/kg, respectively) of P. australis. The higher biomass of stems (1835 g/m(2)) than leaves (967 g/m(2)) resulted in higher accumulation of nitrogen but lower accumulation of phosphorus in leaves as

  3. Evaluating Insects as Bioindicators of Heavy Metal Contamination and Accumulation near Industrial Area of Gujrat, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Azam, Iqra; Afsheen, Sumera; Zia, Ahmed; Javed, Muqaddas; Saeed, Rashid; Sarwar, Muhammad Kaleem; Munir, Bushra

    2015-01-01

    To study the accumulation and contamination of heavy metals (i.e., Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn) in soil, air, and water, few insect species were assayed as ecological indicators. Study area comes under industrial zone of district Gujrat of Punjab, Pakistan. Insects used as bioindicators included a libellulid dragonfly (Crocothemis servilia), an acridid grasshopper (Oxya hyla hyla), and a nymphalid butterfly (Danaus chrysippus) near industrial zone of Gujrat. Accumulation of Cd was highest in insect species followed by Cu, Cr, Zn, and Ni at p < 0.05. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HACA) was carried out to study metal accumulation level in all insects. Correlation and regression analysis confirmed HACA observations and declared concentration of heavy metals above permissible limits. Metal concentrations in insects were significantly higher near industries and nallahs in Gujrat and relatively higher concentrations of metals were found in Orthoptera than Odonata and Lepidoptera. The total metal concentrations in insects were pointed significantly higher at sites S3 (Mid of HalsiNala), S9 (End of HalsiNala), and S1 (Start of HalsiNala), whereas lowest value was detected at site S6 (Kalra Khasa) located far from industrial area. HACA indicates that these insect groups are potential indicators of metal contamination and can be used in biomonitoring. PMID:26167507

  4. Evaluating Insects as Bioindicators of Heavy Metal Contamination and Accumulation near Industrial Area of Gujrat, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Azam, Iqra; Afsheen, Sumera; Zia, Ahmed; Javed, Muqaddas; Saeed, Rashid; Sarwar, Muhammad Kaleem; Munir, Bushra

    2015-01-01

    To study the accumulation and contamination of heavy metals (i.e., Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn) in soil, air, and water, few insect species were assayed as ecological indicators. Study area comes under industrial zone of district Gujrat of Punjab, Pakistan. Insects used as bioindicators included a libellulid dragonfly (Crocothemis servilia), an acridid grasshopper (Oxya hyla hyla), and a nymphalid butterfly (Danaus chrysippus) near industrial zone of Gujrat. Accumulation of Cd was highest in insect species followed by Cu, Cr, Zn, and Ni at p < 0.05. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HACA) was carried out to study metal accumulation level in all insects. Correlation and regression analysis confirmed HACA observations and declared concentration of heavy metals above permissible limits. Metal concentrations in insects were significantly higher near industries and nallahs in Gujrat and relatively higher concentrations of metals were found in Orthoptera than Odonata and Lepidoptera. The total metal concentrations in insects were pointed significantly higher at sites S3 (Mid of HalsiNala), S9 (End of HalsiNala), and S1 (Start of HalsiNala), whereas lowest value was detected at site S6 (Kalra Khasa) located far from industrial area. HACA indicates that these insect groups are potential indicators of metal contamination and can be used in biomonitoring. PMID:26167507

  5. Evaluating Insects as Bioindicators of Heavy Metal Contamination and Accumulation near Industrial Area of Gujrat, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Azam, Iqra; Afsheen, Sumera; Zia, Ahmed; Javed, Muqaddas; Saeed, Rashid; Sarwar, Muhammad Kaleem; Munir, Bushra

    2015-01-01

    To study the accumulation and contamination of heavy metals (i.e., Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn) in soil, air, and water, few insect species were assayed as ecological indicators. Study area comes under industrial zone of district Gujrat of Punjab, Pakistan. Insects used as bioindicators included a libellulid dragonfly (Crocothemis servilia), an acridid grasshopper (Oxya hyla hyla), and a nymphalid butterfly (Danaus chrysippus) near industrial zone of Gujrat. Accumulation of Cd was highest in insect species followed by Cu, Cr, Zn, and Ni at p < 0.05. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HACA) was carried out to study metal accumulation level in all insects. Correlation and regression analysis confirmed HACA observations and declared concentration of heavy metals above permissible limits. Metal concentrations in insects were significantly higher near industries and nallahs in Gujrat and relatively higher concentrations of metals were found in Orthoptera than Odonata and Lepidoptera. The total metal concentrations in insects were pointed significantly higher at sites S3 (Mid of HalsiNala), S9 (End of HalsiNala), and S1 (Start of HalsiNala), whereas lowest value was detected at site S6 (Kalra Khasa) located far from industrial area. HACA indicates that these insect groups are potential indicators of metal contamination and can be used in biomonitoring.

  6. Oxidative stress in marine bivalves tissues in response to accumulation of heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Chelomin, V.P.; Belcheva, N.N.; Zakartsev, M.V.

    1995-12-31

    Using model aquarium experiments the authors have shown that the accumulation of heavy metals (copper and cadmium) by the tissues of marine bivalves (Mytilus edulis, Mizuhopecten yessoensis) is followed by a complex of alterations in the lipid matrix of some membrane organelles. It is supposed that the disturbance of balance of prooxidant and antioxidant processes is the main mechanism in heavy metal-inducible damage, of membranes. This possibility is supported by results of levels of conjugated dienes, malondialdehyde and Shiff`s bases, determined as indicators of lipid peroxidation in different tissues of molluscs, markedly increased with metal accumulation. Unlike to cadmium, the copper possess prooxidative activity, stimulating the peroxidation of membrane lipids directly. In spite of some distinctions the intracellular antioxidative systems (glutathione system and tocopherol) showed extreme sensitivity to the accumulation of both metals. It was demonstrated that the accumulation of these metals was followed by die changes of glutathione and tocopherol contents and the inhibition of glutathione-reductase. activity,, but it was not correlated with changes of Se-depending glutathioneperoxidase activity. As it results from kinetic data the most damages of glutathione system are revealed on this earliest stages of metal accumulation when metallothionein synthesis is on the low level. The amount of glutathione in the tissues was restored almost to their original level when metallothionein synthesis increases markedly. But, total amount of peroxides is retained on the high level for a long period of time. On the basis of results it is reasonable to assume that the accumulation of these metals by mollusc tissues does not proceed without leaving a trace. This process is a potential menace for increasing of destructive events in consequence of disturbance of balance of prooxidant and antioxidant processes.

  7. Heavy metal accumulation in wheat plant grown in soil amended with industrial sludge.

    PubMed

    Bose, Sutapa; Bhattacharyya, A K

    2008-01-01

    The concentrations of different forms of Zn, Cu, Mn, Ni, Cd, Cr, Pb and Fe metals were determined for the roadside sludge collected from pickling-rolling and electroplating industrial area. In sludge the relative abundance of total heavy metals were Fe>Mn>Cr>Ni>Cu>Pb>Zn>Cd and DTPA-extractable metals were in the order--Fe>Ni>Mn>Cr>Cu>Zn>Pb>Cd. Pot-culture experiment was conducted in soils amended with sludge (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%), pretreated with lime (0%, 0.5% and 1%). The soils were alkaline in nature (pH>8.3) with organic carbon contents were 0.34% and 0.72%. The most abundant total and bio-available metal was Fe. Two wheat seedlings were grown in each pot containing 3kg sludge-amended or control soil and the experiment was conducted till harvesting. Application of sludge increased both total and bio-available forms of metals in the soils, while lime application decreased the bioavailability of heavy metals in sludge-amended soils. The content of organic carbon showed positive correlation with all metals except Zn, Cr and Pb. CEC also showed a strong positive correlation (R2>0.7) with Fe, Mn, Cu, Ni and Cd. Though wheat plants are not accumulators, the translocation efficiency was appreciably high. The translocation factor from shoot to grain was found smaller than that of root to shoot of wheat plants. This makes an implication that the heavy metal accumulation was proportionally lesser in grain than in shoot. In, 10% sludge with 0.5% lime-amended soils; each of these toxic heavy metals was found to be within permissible range (USEPA). Hence, on the basis of present study, the best possible treatment may be recommended. PMID:17825356

  8. Application of Heavy Metal Rich Tannery Sludge on Sustainable Growth, Yield and Metal Accumulation by Clarysage (Salvia sclarea L.).

    PubMed

    Chand, Sukhmal; Yaseen, M; Rajkumari; Patra, D D

    2015-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effective utilization of tannery sludge for cultivation of clarysage (Salvia sclarea) at CIMAP research farm, Lucknow, India during the year 2012-2013. Six doses (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 tha(-1)) of processed tannery sludge were tested in randomised block design with four replications. Results revealed that maximum shoot, root, dry matter and oil yield were obtained with application of 80 tha(-1)of tannery sludge and these were 94, 113 and 61% higher respectively, over control. Accumulation of heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Fe, Pb) were relatively high in shoot portion of the plant than root. Among heavy metals, magnitude of chromium accumulation was higher than nickel, iron and lead in shoot as well as in root. Linalool, linalyl acetate and sclareol content in oil increased by 13,8 and 27% respectively over control, with tannery sludge application at 80 tha(-1). Heavy metals such as chromium, cadmium and lead content reduced in postharvest soil when compared to initial status. Results indicated that clarysage (Salvia sclarea) can be grown in soil amended with 80 tha(-1)sludge and this can be a suitable accumulator of heavy metals for phytoremediation of metal polluted soils.

  9. Heavy metal accumulation in agricultural soils around a coal fired thermal power plant (Farakka) in India.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Saswati; Chatterjee, Tamoghno; Ghosh, P B; Saha, Tapan

    2010-10-01

    Agricultural soils around the ash dumping sites of one of the largest thermal power plant (TPP) in India located at Farakka, West Bengal were assessed for some heavy metal (Pb, Cd, Cr, As, Cu, Zn, Ni and Fe) distribution in association with other physicochemical components and compared with the control soils collected from far away of TPP. The toxic group metals (Pb, Cd, Cr and As) were well differentiated by their higher values of variability and non-normal distribution from the biologically essential metals (Cu, Zn, Ni and Fe). The statistical analysis of the heavy metals revealed that the two probable sources (Eigen values) in affected soils are responsible for their distribution; the more dominant one contributed the toxic metals and less dominating source contributed the essential heavy metals. While in control soils, no distinct separation of sources of the metals were found out signifying that the natural common sources could play active role in metal distributions. Although EF (Enrichment Factor) values of toxic metals are higher with large fraction of anthropogenic sources, yet (Igeo) (Geo-accumulation Index) values indicate moderate to unpolluted condition of the soils in respect to Pb, Cd and As. The calculated PLI (Pollution Load Index) values (1.88) considering all the metals also support the findings. Since there are no other sources of industrial effluents in the study area except the TPP, it can be said that the enrichment of these metals is solely attributed to their input from the ash contamination. For this, considerable degree of enrichment of toxic group of metals occurred in these soils.

  10. [Advances in the research of genetic engineering of heavy metal resistance and accumulation in plants].

    PubMed

    Lang, Ming-Lin; Zhang, Yu-Xiu; Chai, Tuan-Yao

    2004-03-01

    Using plants to remove or inactivate heavy metal pollutants from soils and surface waters provide a cheap and sustainable approach of Phytoremediation. However, field trials suggested that the efficiency of contaminant removal using natural hyperaccumulators is insufficient, due to that many of these species are slow growing and produce little shoot biomass. These factors severely constrain their potential for large-scale decontamination of polluted soils. Moreover, both the micronutrient and toxic metal content accumulated in crops determine the quality and safety of our food-chain. By a transgenic approach, the introduction of novel genes responsible for hyperaccumulating phenotype into high biomass plants and/or stable crops uptaking minerals as food is a promising strategy for the development of effective techniques of phytoremediation and improvement of nutritional value of stable food through a viable commercialization. Recently, the progress at molecular level for heavy metal uptaking, detoxification and hyperaccumulation in plants, and also the clarification of some functional genes in bacteria, yeasts, plants and animals, have advanced the research on genetic engineering plants of heavy metal resistance and accumulation, and on the functional genes (e . g. gsh1, MerA and ArsC) and their genetic transformated plants. These studies demonstrated commercialization potentials of phytoremediation. In this paper, the molecular approach, effects and problems in gene transformation were discussed in details, and also the strategy and emphases were probed into the future research.

  11. Heavy metal accumulation in soils, plants, and hair samples: an assessment of heavy metal exposure risks from the consumption of vegetables grown on soils previously irrigated with wastewater.

    PubMed

    Massaquoi, Lamin Daddy; Ma, Hui; Liu, Xue Hui; Han, Peng Yu; Zuo, Shu-Mei; Hua, Zhong-Xian; Liu, Dian-Wu

    2015-12-01

    It is common knowledge that soils irrigated with wastewater accumulate heavy metals more than those irrigated with cleaner water sources. However, little is known on metal concentrations in soils and cultivars after the cessation of wastewater use. This study assessed the accumulation and health risk of heavy metals 3 years post-wastewater irrigation in soils, vegetables, and farmers' hair. Soils, vegetables, and hair samples were collected from villages previously irrigating with wastewater (experimental villages) and villages with no history of wastewater irrigation (control villages). Soil samples were digested in a mixture of HCL/HNO3/HCLO4/HF. Plants and hair samples were digested in HNO3/HCLO4 mixture. Inductive coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) was used to determine metal concentrations of digested extracts. Study results indicate a persistence of heavy metal concentration in soils and plants from farms previously irrigated with wastewater. In addition, soils previously irrigated with wastewater were severely contaminated with cadmium. Hair metal concentrations of farmers previously irrigating with wastewater were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than farmers irrigating with clean water, but metal concentrations in hair samples of farmers previously irrigating with wastewater were not associated with current soil metal concentrations. The study concludes that there is a persistence of heavy metals in soils and plants previously irrigated with wastewater, but high metal concentrations in hair samples of farmers cannot be associated with current soil metal concentrations.

  12. Distribution and accumulation of heavy metals in the sediments of Kaohsiung Harbor, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chiu-Wen; Kao, Chih-Ming; Chen, Chih-Feng; Dong, Cheng-Di

    2007-01-01

    The distribution, enrichment, and accumulation of heavy metals in the sediments, especially those at the vicinity of tributary estuaries of Kaohsiung Harbor, Taiwan were investigated. Sediment samples from six locations in the Kaohsiung Harbor were collected quarterly in the period from 2002 to 2005 and characterized for metal content (e.g., Hg, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn and Al), water content, organic matter, total nitrogen, total phosphorous, total grease, and grain size. Results showed that metal concentrations varied from 0.58 mg kg(-1) for Cd to 596 mg kg(-1) for Zn. Metal concentrations at the vicinity of river mouths were higher than those at other locations. All heavy metals studied, except Cr, had relatively high enrichment factors and geo-accumulation indices in the estuaries. Moreover, metal concentrations correlated closely to the physical-chemical properties of the sediments, which strongly suggested the influence of industrial and municipal wastewaters discharged from the neighboring industrial parks and river basins. Results would help develop strategies for pollution control and sediment remediation of Kaohsiung Harbor.

  13. Health hazards and heavy metals accumulation by summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) cultivated in contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Galal, Tarek M

    2016-07-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the heavy metal concentration accumulated by summer squash cultivated in contaminated soil and their health hazards for public consumers at south Cairo Province, Egypt. Soil and plants were sampled from contaminated and reference farms, using 1 m(2) quadrats, for biomass estimation and nutrient analysis. The daily intake of metals (DIM) and health risk index (HRI) were estimated. Significant differences in soil variables (except As) between contaminated and reference sites were recognized. Summer squash showed remarkable reduction in fresh and dry biomass, fruit production, and photosynthetic pigments under pollution stress. The inorganic and organic nutrients in the aboveground and belowground parts showed significant reduction in contaminated site. In addition, higher concentrations of heavy metals were accumulated in the edible parts and roots more than shoots. The bioaccumulation factor of summer squash for investigated metals was greater than 1, while the translocation factor did not exceed unity in both contaminated and reference sites. The DIM for all investigated metals in the reference site and in the contaminated site (except Fe and Mn) did not exceed 1 in both adults and children. However, HRI of Ni and Mn in the reference site and Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni, Fe, Mn, and Zn in the contaminated one exceeded unity indicating great potential to pose health risk to the consumers. The author recommends that people living in the contaminated area should not eat large quantities of summer squash, so as to avoid excess accumulation of heavy metals in their bodies. PMID:27344559

  14. Evaluating heavy metal accumulation and potential health risks in vegetables irrigated with treated wastewater.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Asad Sarwar; Hussain, M Iftikhar; Ismail, Shoaib; Khan, Qaisar Mehmood

    2016-11-01

    Effect of irrigation with treated municipal wastewater on the accumulation of heavy metals in soils and food crops and potential health risks to human via consumption of these food crops are evaluated. The higher concentrations of iron (Fe), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr) and zinc (Zn) were found in lettuce, radish and carrots, respectively. However, trace metal levels in all vegetables were far lower than the food safety criteria of World Health Organization and European Union. Bioaccumulation factors (BAF) for heavy metals in different vegetables showed a trend in the order: Fe > Zn > Cu > Cr. The trends of estimated dietary intake (EDIs) for adults were in the order of Fe > Zn > Cr > Cu. The highest level of total coliform was recorded in spinach, followed by radish, egg plant, tomatoes and lettuce. The low uptake of heavy metals by vegetables shows that the health risks for human are insignificant. As the variations in transfer factor of metals is related to absorption capability of vegetables, soil properties and nutrient management, the risk of human exposure to metal contamination can be significantly reduced by selecting appropriate crops. PMID:27521639

  15. Evaluating heavy metal accumulation and potential health risks in vegetables irrigated with treated wastewater.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Asad Sarwar; Hussain, M Iftikhar; Ismail, Shoaib; Khan, Qaisar Mehmood

    2016-11-01

    Effect of irrigation with treated municipal wastewater on the accumulation of heavy metals in soils and food crops and potential health risks to human via consumption of these food crops are evaluated. The higher concentrations of iron (Fe), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr) and zinc (Zn) were found in lettuce, radish and carrots, respectively. However, trace metal levels in all vegetables were far lower than the food safety criteria of World Health Organization and European Union. Bioaccumulation factors (BAF) for heavy metals in different vegetables showed a trend in the order: Fe > Zn > Cu > Cr. The trends of estimated dietary intake (EDIs) for adults were in the order of Fe > Zn > Cr > Cu. The highest level of total coliform was recorded in spinach, followed by radish, egg plant, tomatoes and lettuce. The low uptake of heavy metals by vegetables shows that the health risks for human are insignificant. As the variations in transfer factor of metals is related to absorption capability of vegetables, soil properties and nutrient management, the risk of human exposure to metal contamination can be significantly reduced by selecting appropriate crops.

  16. Proline accumulation in lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus Stapf.) due to heavy metal stress.

    PubMed

    Handique, G K; Handique, A K

    2009-03-01

    Toxic heavy metals viz. lead, mercury and cadmium induced differential accumulation of proline in lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus Stapf.) grown in soil amended with 50, 100, 200, 350 and 500 mg kg(-1) of the metals have been studied. Proline accumulation was found to be metal specific, organ specific and linear dose dependant. Further, proline accumulation following short term exposure (two months after transplantation) was higher than long term exposure (nine months after transplantation). Proline accumulation following short term exposure was 2.032 to 3.839 micro moles g(-1) for cadmium (50-200 mg kg(-1)); the corresponding range for mercury was 1.968 to 5.670 micro moles g(-1) and 0.830 to 4.567 micro moles g(-1) for lead (50-500 mg kg(-1) for mercury and lead). Proline accumulation was consistently higher in young tender leaf than old leaf, irrespective of the metal or duration of exposure. For cadmium treatment proline level was 2.032 to 3.839 micro moles g(-1) for young leaves while the corresponding value for old leaf was 1.728 to 2.396 micro moles g(-1) following short term exposure. The same trend was observed for the other two metals and duration of exposure. For control set proline accumulation in root was 0.425 micro moles g(-1) as against 0.805 and 0.533 micro moles g(-1) in young and old leaves respectively indicating that proline accumulation in root are lower than leaves, under both normal and stressed condition.

  17. Hydroponic screening of black locust families for heavy metal tolerance and accumulation.

    PubMed

    Župunski, Milan; Borišev, Milan; Orlović, Saša; Arsenov, Danijela; Nikolić, Nataša; Pilipović, Andrej; Pajević, Slobodanka

    2016-01-01

    Present work examines phytoextraction potential of four black locust families (half-sibs 54, 56, 115, and 135) grown hydroponically. Plants were treated with 6 ppm of cadmium (Cd), 100 ppm of nickel (Ni), and 40 ppm of lead (Pb) added in Hoagland nutrient solution, accompanying with simultaneously applied all three metals. Responses to metals exposure among families were different, ranging from severe to slight reduction of root and shoot biomass production of treated plants. Calculated tolerance indices are indicating tested families as highly tolerant (Ti > 60). Family 135 had the lowest tolerance index, pointing that it was highly susceptible to applied metals. Comparing photosynthetic activities of tested families it has been noticed that they were highly sensitive to stress induced by heavy metals. Net photosynthetic rate of nickel treated plants was the most affected by applied concentration. Cadmium and nickel concentrations in stems and leaves of black locust families exceeded 100 mg Cd kg(-1) and 1000 mg Ni kg(-1), in both single and multipollution context. On the contrary, accumulation of lead in above ground biomass was highly affected by multipollution treatment. Tf and BCF significantly varied between investigated treatments and families of black locust. Concerning obtained results of heavy metals accumulation and tolerance of black locust families can be concluded that tested families might be a promising tool for phytoextraction purposes, but it takes to be further confirmed in field trials.

  18. Hydroponic screening of black locust families for heavy metal tolerance and accumulation.

    PubMed

    Župunski, Milan; Borišev, Milan; Orlović, Saša; Arsenov, Danijela; Nikolić, Nataša; Pilipović, Andrej; Pajević, Slobodanka

    2016-01-01

    Present work examines phytoextraction potential of four black locust families (half-sibs 54, 56, 115, and 135) grown hydroponically. Plants were treated with 6 ppm of cadmium (Cd), 100 ppm of nickel (Ni), and 40 ppm of lead (Pb) added in Hoagland nutrient solution, accompanying with simultaneously applied all three metals. Responses to metals exposure among families were different, ranging from severe to slight reduction of root and shoot biomass production of treated plants. Calculated tolerance indices are indicating tested families as highly tolerant (Ti > 60). Family 135 had the lowest tolerance index, pointing that it was highly susceptible to applied metals. Comparing photosynthetic activities of tested families it has been noticed that they were highly sensitive to stress induced by heavy metals. Net photosynthetic rate of nickel treated plants was the most affected by applied concentration. Cadmium and nickel concentrations in stems and leaves of black locust families exceeded 100 mg Cd kg(-1) and 1000 mg Ni kg(-1), in both single and multipollution context. On the contrary, accumulation of lead in above ground biomass was highly affected by multipollution treatment. Tf and BCF significantly varied between investigated treatments and families of black locust. Concerning obtained results of heavy metals accumulation and tolerance of black locust families can be concluded that tested families might be a promising tool for phytoextraction purposes, but it takes to be further confirmed in field trials. PMID:26332106

  19. Heavy metal accumulation in the bark and leaves of Juglans regia planted in Artvin City, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Dogan, Yunus; Unver, Mehmet C.; Ugulu, Ilker; Calis, Mesude; Durkan, Nazmi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the level of heavy metals such as copper, iron, manganese, zinc, lead, nickel, cadmium and chromium concentrated in Juglans regia bark and leaf samples from different localities in Artvin, Turkey. Analysis of the heavy metals Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cd and Cr in samples was carried out by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP–OES; Perkin Elmer, Optima 8000 DV). Statistical significance was determined by analysis of variance (ANOVA). The comparisons were performed in order to determine whether there were any differences between J. regia bark and leaf samples in terms of average heavy metal accumulation levels. As a result of this study, the following mean concentrations were determined for J. regia bark samples: the contents of Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cd and Cr (μg g−1, dry weight) ranged from 72.46 to 88.14, 14.40 to 628.0, 0.896 to 67.71, 7.000 to 28.52, 0.040 to 0.905, 1.031 to 2.744, 0.011 to 0.158 and 1.192 to 3.134, respectively. On the other hand, for J. regia leaf samples, the contents of Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cd and Cr (μg g−1, dry weight) ranged from 0.339 to 13.80, 12.72 to 698.2, 1.001 to 204.6, 7.362 to 56.03, 0.158 to 0.665, 0.130 to 2.744, 0.041 to 0.114 and 0.508 to 2.767, respectively. In the statistical analysis, heavy metal accumulation values of J. regia bark and leaf samples for Cu, Ni and Cr were significantly different (P < 0.05). PMID:26019552

  20. Impact of biofumigation with solarization on degradation of pesticides and heavy metal accumulation.

    PubMed

    Flores, Pilar; Lacasa, Alfredo; Fernández, Pedro; Hellín, Pilar; Fenoll, José

    2008-08-01

    A greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate the effect of biofumigation (with sheep and chicken manure) combined with solarization on the dissipation of pesticides (pyrifenox, DDT and dieldrin), and on soil metals accumulation. The treatments consisted of a control, and soil disinfestations by biofumigation combined with solarization (B+S) for two, four, five, six consecutive years. B+S enhanced the dissipation of pyrifenox with regard to control treatment. Significant differences were not detected among plots disinfected with B+S for consecutive years. On the other hand, B+S had no effect on the dissipation of DDT and dieldrin, probably due to the resistance of these pesticides to microbial degradation and/or high temperatures. Biofumigation is considered to be an environmentally safe practice, since no accumulation of heavy metals such as Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Pb, Ni, or Zn was observed after the subsequent application of organic matter through the treatments.

  1. Heavy Metals Accumulation of Some Plant Species Grown on Mining Area at Mahad AD`Dahab, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Farraj, A. S.; Al-Wabel, M. I.

    Samples from different plants species, which grown around Mahad AD`Dahab Mine, have been selected to study their ability to accumulate these heavy metals. These plant species were: Pergularia tomentosa, Calotropis procera, Acacia tortilis, Ochradenus baccatus, Salsola sp., Rhiza strica, Convolvalus sp., Euculeptus sp., Family graminaea and Prosopis juliflora. Moreover, some of soil samples under each plant were collected. Plants and soils samples were analyzed for their contents of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. Two way ANOVA analysis without interaction was performed to examine the effect of plant species and heavy metals concentration in soil on their accumulation by plants. Although significant differences were not found at 0.01 levels among the plant species, it was found that Pergularia tomentosa was the highest to accumulate heavy metals. Considering the mean of accumulating heavy metals, plant species accumulated heavy metals by this order: Pergularia tomentosa, Euculeptus sp. Convolvalus sp. Family graminaea, Rhiza strica, Acacia tortilis, Prosopis juliflora, Salsola sp. Calotropis procera, Ochradenus baccatus. According to the mean of BAF's, heavy metals concentration of Cd was found to be significantly different than Cu, Pb and Zn. From above, these plants should be described as not-excluder and can be explored further for phytoremediation of metal polluted soils. On other hand, the practice of providing foliage and pods as fodder for live stock should be avoided in Mahad AD`Dahab area.

  2. Accumulation of mercury and other heavy metals in edible fishes of Cochin backwaters, Southwest India.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Mahesh; Deepa, M; Ramasamy, E V; Thomas, A P

    2012-07-01

    Mercury, a global pollutant, has become a real threat to the developing countries like India and China, where high usage of mercury is reported. Mercury and other heavy metals deposited in to the aquatic system can cause health risk to the biota. The common edible fishes such as Mugil cephalus, Arius arius, Lutjanus ehrenbergii, Etroplus suratensis were collected from Cochin backwaters, Southwest India and analysed for mercury and other heavy metals (zinc, cadmium, lead and copper) in various body parts. Kidney and liver showed highest concentration of metals in most fishes. The omnivore and bottom feeder (E. suratensis) showed high concentration of mercury (14.71 mg/kg dry weight) and other metals (1.74 mg/g-total metal concentration). The average mercury concentration obtained in muscle was 1.6 mg/kg dry weight (0.352 mg/kg wet weight), which is higher than the prescribed limits (0.3 mg/kg wet weight). The concentration of other heavy metals in the muscles of fishes were found in a decreasing order Zn>Cu>Cd>Pb and are well below WHO permissible limits that were safe for human consumption. Metal selectivity index (MSI) obtained for all the metals except mercury showed that both carnivores and omnivores have almost same kind of affinity towards the metals especially Zn and Cd, irrespective of their feeding habit. The MSI values also indicate that the fishes have the potential to accumulate metals. High tissue selectivity index (TSI) values were reported for kidney, muscle and brain for all metals suggests that the metal concentration in these tissues can serve as an indication of metal polluted environment. Even if the daily intakes of Zn, Cd, Pb and Cu from these fishes are within the provisional maximum daily intake recommended by WHO/FAO, the quality is questionable due to the high hazard index obtained for mercury (>1). Fishes like E. suratensis being a favourite food of people in this region, the high consumption of it can lead to chronic disorders as this

  3. Accumulation and health risk of heavy metals in vegetables from harmless and organic vegetable production systems of China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong; Hu, Wenyou; Huang, Biao; Weindorf, David C; Rajan, Nithya; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Niedermann, Silvana

    2013-12-01

    Heavy metal accumulation in vegetables is a growing concern for public health. Limited studies have elucidated the heavy metal accumulation characteristics and health risk of different vegetables produced in different facilities such as greenhouses and open-air fields and under different management modes such as harmless and organic. Given the concern over the aforementioned factors related to heavy metal accumulation, this study selected four typical greenhouse vegetable production bases, short-term harmless greenhouse vegetable base (SHGVB), middle-term harmless greenhouse vegetable base (MHGVB), long-term harmless greenhouse vegetable base (LHGVB), and organic greenhouse vegetable base (OGVB), in Nanjing City, China to study heavy metal accumulation in different vegetables and their associated health risks. Results showed that soils and vegetables from SHGVB and OGVB apparently accumulated fewer certain heavy metals than those from other bases, probably due to fewer planting years and special management, respectively. Greenhouse conditions significantly increased certain soil heavy metal concentrations relative to open-air conditions. However, greenhouse conditions did not significantly increase concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Hg, and Zn in leaf vegetables. In fact, under greenhouse conditions, Pb accumulation was effectively reduced. The main source of soil heavy metals was the application of large amounts of low-grade fertilizer. There was larger health risk for producers' children to consume vegetables from the three harmless vegetable bases than those of residents' children. The hazard index (HI) over a large area exceeded 1 for these two kinds of children in the MHGVB and LHGVB. There was also a slight risk in the SHGVB for producers' children solely. However, the HI of the whole area of the OGVB for two kinds of children was below 1, suggesting low risk of heavy metal exposure through the food chain. Notably, the contribution rate of Cu and Zn to the HI were

  4. Effects of combined amendments on heavy metal accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa L.) planted on contaminated paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hang; Zhou, Xin; Zeng, Min; Liao, Bo-Han; Liu, Li; Yang, Wen-Tao; Wu, Yan-Ming; Qiu, Qiong-Yao; Wang, Ying-Jie

    2014-03-01

    Stabilization of heavy metals in situ was investigated. Two combined amendments (LS, limestone+sepiolite; HZ, hydroxyhistidine+zeolite) were applied at ratios of 0.2%, 0.4%, and 0.8% (w/w) to paddy soil with multi-metal (Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn) contamination. The effects of these two combined amendments on heavy metal bioavailability in soil, and on uptake and accumulation of heavy metals in rice plants were investigated. Application of LS and HZ significantly increased soil pH values and cation exchange capacity contents, and resulted in a reduction in exchangeable fraction of metals and in extract metal concentrations of amended soils through toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP). LS and HZ obviously inhibited uptake and accumulation of Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn in rice plants. Compared with the control soil, concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn in brown rice were decreased by 10.6-31.8%, 16.7-25.5%, 11.5-22.1%, and 11.7-16.3%, respectively, as a result of 0.2% to 0.8% addition of LS, and decreased by 5.1-40.8%, 16.7-20.0%, 8.1-16.2%, and 13.3-21.7%, respectively, as a result of 0.2-0.8% addition of HZ. Significant positive linear correlations were found between heavy metal concentrations in TCLP extracts and those in rice tissues except for Pb. Extracting heavy metals with TCLP was a more suitable method for estimating heavy metal bioavailability concentrations of amended soil than exchangeable fraction of heavy metals, because the latter underestimated heavy metal bioavailability. These results demonstrate that LS and HZ could be effective in reducing heavy metal bioavailability and accumulation in rice grown on multi-metal-contaminated soils.

  5. Nitrate losses, nutrients and heavy metal accumulation from substrates assembled for urban soils reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Civeira, G; Lavado, R S

    2008-09-01

    Urban soils may suffer mild to severe degradation as a result of physical and chemical alterations. To reconstruct these soils, a new upper horizon must be created, usually through the application of organic matter, one source of which is biosolids. Different soil mixtures were evaluated with regard to loss of nitrates in percolates and the uptake and incorporation of nutrients and heavy metals into plant tissues. The experiment was conducted in trays; treatments were mixtures of biosolids and a coarse material (e.g., sand or pine wood sawdust), combined in different proportions. Randomized trays were seeded with a mix of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea L.) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). Plant biomass was quantified. Nitrates in percolates were measured, as were nutrients and heavy metals in mixtures and plant tissues. Plants accumulated substantially more N, and biomass was 40% higher, in the treatments with higher levels of biosolids. The same treatments released more nitrogen and resulted in higher percolate nitrate levels. Plants had normal concentrations of all nutrients, except nitrogen, which was low. Heavy metal concentrations were not significantly different among treatments. Based on the analysis of these data, the proportion of biosolids appears to be the most important factor affecting the quality of reconstructed soil and the rate of improvement. The type of coarse material used did not significantly affect the outcome.

  6. Chloroplast targeting of phytochelatin synthase in Arabidopsis: effects on heavy metal tolerance and accumulation.

    PubMed

    Picault, N; Cazalé, A C; Beyly, A; Cuiné, S; Carrier, P; Luu, D T; Forestier, C; Peltier, G

    2006-11-01

    The enzymatically synthesized thiol peptide phytochelatin (PC) plays a central role in heavy metal tolerance and detoxification in plants. In response to heavy metal exposure, the constitutively expressed phytochelatin synthase enzyme (PCS) is activated leading to synthesis of PCs in the cytosol. Recent attempts to increase plant metal accumulation and tolerance reported that PCS over-expression in transgenic plants paradoxically induced cadmium hypersensitivity. In the present paper, we investigate the possibility of synthesizing PCs in plastids by over-expressing a plastid targeted phytochelatin synthase (PCS). Plastids represent a relatively important cellular volume and offer the advantage of containing glutathione, the precursor of PC synthesis. Using a constitutive CaMV 35S promoter and a RbcS transit peptide, we successfully addressed AtPCS1 to chloroplasts, significant PCS activity being measured in this compartment in two independent transgenic lines. A substantial increase in the PC content and a decrease in the glutathione pool were observed in response to cadmium exposure, when compared to wild-type plants. While over-expressing AtPCS1 in the cytosol importantly decreased cadmium tolerance, both cadmium tolerance and accumulation of plants expressing plastidial AtPCS1 were not significantly affected compared to wild-type. Interestingly, targeting AtPCS1 to chloroplasts induced a marked sensitivity to arsenic while plants over-expressing AtPCS1 in the cytoplasm were more tolerant to this metalloid. These results are discussed in relation to heavy metal trafficking pathways in higher plants and to the interest of using plastid expression of PCS for biotechnological applications.

  7. Different Heavy Metal Accumulation Strategies of Epilithic Lichens Colonising Artificial Post-Smelting Wastes.

    PubMed

    Rola, Kaja; Osyczka, Piotr; Kafel, Alina

    2016-02-01

    Lichens appear to be essential and effective colonisers of bare substrates including the extremely contaminated wastes of slag dumps. This study examines the metal accumulation capacity of epilithic lichens growing directly on the surface of artificial slag sinters. Four species representing different growth forms, i.e., crustose Candelariella aurella, Lecanora muralis, and Lecidea fuscoatra and fruticose Stereocaulon nanodes, were selected to evaluate the relationships between zinc, lead, cadmium, and nickel contents in their thalli and host substrates. Bioaccumulation factors of examined crustose lichens showed their propensity to hyperaccumulate heavy metals. Contrarily, concentrations of metals in fruticose thalli of S. nanodes were, as a rule, lower than in the corresponding substrates. This indicates that the growth form of thalli and degree of thallus adhesion to the substrate has a significant impact on metal concentrations in lichens colonising post-smelting wastes. Nonlinear regression models described by power functions show that at greater levels of Pb concentration in the substrate, the ability of C. aurella, L. muralis and L. fuscoatra to accumulate the metal experiences a relative decrease, whereas hyperbolic function describes a similar trend in relation to Ni content in S. nanodes. This phenomenon may be an important attribute of lichens that facilitates their colonisation of the surface of slag wastes. PMID:26155778

  8. Different Heavy Metal Accumulation Strategies of Epilithic Lichens Colonising Artificial Post-Smelting Wastes.

    PubMed

    Rola, Kaja; Osyczka, Piotr; Kafel, Alina

    2016-02-01

    Lichens appear to be essential and effective colonisers of bare substrates including the extremely contaminated wastes of slag dumps. This study examines the metal accumulation capacity of epilithic lichens growing directly on the surface of artificial slag sinters. Four species representing different growth forms, i.e., crustose Candelariella aurella, Lecanora muralis, and Lecidea fuscoatra and fruticose Stereocaulon nanodes, were selected to evaluate the relationships between zinc, lead, cadmium, and nickel contents in their thalli and host substrates. Bioaccumulation factors of examined crustose lichens showed their propensity to hyperaccumulate heavy metals. Contrarily, concentrations of metals in fruticose thalli of S. nanodes were, as a rule, lower than in the corresponding substrates. This indicates that the growth form of thalli and degree of thallus adhesion to the substrate has a significant impact on metal concentrations in lichens colonising post-smelting wastes. Nonlinear regression models described by power functions show that at greater levels of Pb concentration in the substrate, the ability of C. aurella, L. muralis and L. fuscoatra to accumulate the metal experiences a relative decrease, whereas hyperbolic function describes a similar trend in relation to Ni content in S. nanodes. This phenomenon may be an important attribute of lichens that facilitates their colonisation of the surface of slag wastes.

  9. Effects of sewage sludge amendment on heavy metal accumulation and consequent responses of Beta vulgaris plants.

    PubMed

    Singh, R P; Agrawal, M

    2007-05-01

    Use of sewage sludge, a biological residue produced from sewage treatment processes in agriculture is an alternative disposal technique of waste. To study the usefulness of sewage sludge amendment for palak (Beta vulgaris var. Allgreen H-1), a leafy vegetable and consequent heavy metal contamination, a pot experiment was conducted by mixing sewage sludge at 20% and 40% (w/w) amendment ratios to the agricultural soil. Soil pH decreased whereas electrical conductance, organic carbon, total N, available P and exchangeable Na, K and Ca increased in soil amended with sewage sludge in comparison to unamended soil. Sewage sludge amendment led to significant increase in Pb, Cr, Cd, Cu, Zn and Ni concentrations of soil. Cd concentration in soil was found above the Indian permissible limit in soil at both the amendment ratios. The increased concentration of heavy metals in soil due to sewage sludge amendment led to increases in heavy metal uptake and shoot and root concentrations of Ni, Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb and Zn in plants as compared to those grown on unamended soil. Accumulation was more in roots than shoots for most of the heavy metals. Concentrations of Cd, Ni and Zn were more than the permissible limits of Indian standard in the edible portion of palak grown on different sewage sludge amendments ratios. Sewage sludge amendment in soil decreased root length, leaf area and root biomass of palak at both the amendment ratios, whereas shoot biomass and yield decreased significantly at 40% sludge amendment. Rate of photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and chlorophyll content decreased whereas lipid peroxidation, peroxidase activity and protein and proline contents, increased in plants grown in sewage sludge-amended soil as compared to those grown in unamended soil. The study clearly shows that increase in heavy metal concentration in foliage of plants grown in sewage sludge-amended soil caused unfavorable changes in physiological and biochemical characteristics of plants leading

  10. The accumulation of heavy metals in agricultural land and the associated potential ecological risks in Shenzhen, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiansheng; Song, Jing; Li, Weifeng; Zheng, Maokun

    2016-01-01

    Accumulation of heavy metals in agricultural land and their ecological risks are key issues in soil security studies. This study investigated the concentrations of six heavy metals--copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and chromium (Cr) in Shenzhen's agricultural lands and examined the potential hazards and possible sources of these metals. Eighty-two samples from agricultural topsoil were collected. Potential ecological risk index was used to calculate the potential risk of heavy metals. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to explore pollution sources of the metals. Finally, Kriging was used to predict the spatial distribution of the metals' potential ecological risks. The concentrations of the heavy metals were higher than their background values. Most of them presented little potential ecological risk, except for the heavy metal cadmium (Cd). Four districts (Longgang, Longhua, Pingshan, and Dapeng) exhibited some degree of potential risk, which tended to have more industries and road networks. Three major sources of heavy metals included geochemical processes, industrial pollutants, and traffic pollution. The heavy metal Cd was the main contributor to the pollution in agricultural land during the study period. It also poses the potential hazard for the future. High potential risk is closely related to industrial pollution and transportation. Since the 1980s, the sources of heavy metals have evolved from parent rock weathering, erosion, degradation of organics, and mineralization to human disturbances resulting in chemical changes in the soil.

  11. Vacuolar accumulation of heavy metals in Datura cultured cells is metal concentration dependent

    SciTech Connect

    Krotz, R.M.; Wagner, G.J.

    1987-04-01

    Vacuolar-extravacuolar compartmentation studies were performed to determine if the vacuole serves as an accumulation site for Cd, Zn, and Ni, after growth of Datura cultured cells in trace and high levels of these metals. After 3 to 4 days growth with 0.12 ..mu..M Cd or 0.02 ..mu..M Ni (radiolabeled) no evidence was obtained for vacuolar accumulation of these metals. In contrast, growth with 30 or 45 ..mu..M Cd, 11 ..mu..M Ni (with or without trace radiolabel), or 300 and 500 ..mu..M Zn resulted in isolated vacuoles which were enriched in metal. Compartmentation after exposure to low levels of Zn and also Cu is being investigated as is the subcellular site(s) of Cd-binding peptide formed during growth in high Cd. The hypothesis that Zn is accumulated as vacuolar organic acid salts is being tested directly because no evidence was found for formation of substantial ligand of Cd-peptide in response to Zn exposure.

  12. Accumulation of few heavy metals in sewage sludges, soils and plants of Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu (India).

    PubMed

    Somasundaram, J; Krishnasamy, R; Savithri, P; Mahimairaja, S; Kumar, B Satish; Sivasubramanium, K; Kumar, V Arun; Poongothai, S; Coumar, M Vassanda; Behera, S K

    2012-01-01

    A study was carried out in Coimbatore district of Tamil Nadu (India) to assess the distribution pattern of heavy metals in the soils and plants irrigated with sewage effluent/sludge. About 69 soil samples (surface and subsurface), 65 plant samples as well as 34-sewage sludge samples were collected from various tehsils of Coimbatore. Six tehsils in Coimbatore have been identified and categorized into two groups--Class I City (densely populated tehsils) and Class II city (thinly populated tehsils). The available micronutrients like Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu; heavy metals: Cr, Cd, Ni, and Pb were within the safe limits. However, the total Cr and Cd concentrations were relatively higher in the sludge samples collected from Coimbatore and Tiruppur tehsils compared to other tehsils, while for Ni, the sequence was in the order Coimbatore > Tiruppur > Palladam > Pollachi > Avinashi > Mettupalayam and for Pb, Coimbatore > Mettupalayam > Palladam > Tiruppur > Avinashi > Pollachi. Soil analysis results indicated that heavy metal concentration recorded higher level in soils of Class I city (densely populated tehsils) compared to Class II city (thinly populated tehsils). The plant samples analyzed had also registered higher concentration of total Cd, Ni and Pb, which were classified under toxic, excessive and below excessive level, respectively. Correlation analysis revealed that iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were significantly negatively correlated with pH of soil. EC had a significant positive correlation with available iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb). A significant positive correlation of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb was also registered with OC. Among the plant samples collected, it was evident that heavy metal concentrations were recorded higher in grass spp followed by Amaranthus spp. It was inferred from the study that soils samples had higher levels of heavy metals even though the values recorded were below the critical value

  13. Vegetation pattern and heavy metal accumulation at a mine tailing at Gyöngyösoroszi, hungary.

    PubMed

    Tamás, János; Kovács, Alza

    2005-01-01

    Vegetation at an abandoned heavy metal bearing mine tailing may have multifunctional roles such as modification of water balance, erosion control and landscape rehabilitation. Research on the vegetation of mine tailings can provide useful information on tolerance, accumulation and translocation properties of species potentially applicable at moderately contaminated sites. Analyses of the relationship between heavy metal content (Pb, Zn and Cu) and vegetation in a mine tailing were carried out. These analyses included: (1) spatial analysis of relationship among heavy metal distribution, pH and vegetation patterns, and (2) analysis of heavy metal accumulation and translocation in some plant species. Presence of vegetation was found to be significantly dependent on pH value, which confirms that phytotoxicity is a function of element concentration in solution, which is primarily controlled by pH value in mine tailings. Among the most abundant plant species, dewberry (Rubus caesius), vipersbugloss (Echium vulgare), scarlet pimpernel (Anagallis arvensis) and narrowleaf plantain (Plantago lanceolata) accumulate significant amounts of Pb, Cu and Zn, while in the case of annual bluegrass (Poa annua) only Pb can be measured in elevated contents. Considering the translocation features, scarlet pimpernel, narrowleaf plantain, and dewberry accumulate heavy metals primarily in their roots, while heavy metal concentration in vipersbugloss and annual bluegrass is higher in the shoots.

  14. Synthetic phytochelatins complement a phytochelatin-deficient Arabidopsis mutant and enhance the accumulation of heavy metal(loid)s.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Devesh; Tiwari, Manish; Tripathi, Rudra D; Nath, Pravendra; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar

    2013-05-10

    Phytochelatins (PCs) are naturally occurring thiol-rich peptides containing gamma (γ) peptide bonds and are well known for their metal-binding and detoxification capabilities. Whether synthetic phytochelatins (ECs) can be used as an alternative approach for enhancing the metal-binding capacity of plants has been investigated in this study. The metal-binding potential of ECs has been demonstrated in bacteria; however, no report has investigated the expression of ECs in plants. We have expressed three synthetic genes encoding ECs of different lengths in wild type (WT) Arabidopsis (Col-0 background) and a phytochelatin-deficient Arabidopsis mutant (cad1-3). After exposure to different heavy metals, the transgenic plants were examined for phenotypic changes, and metal accumulation was evaluated. The expression of EC genes rescued the sensitive phenotype of the cad1-3 mutant under heavy metal(loid) stress. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing EC genes accumulated a significantly enhanced level of heavy metal(loid)s in comparison with the WT plant. The mutant complementation and enhanced heavy metal(loid) accumulation in the transgenic Arabidopsis plants suggest that ECs work in a manner similar to that of PCs in plants and that ECs could be used as an alternative for phytoremediation of heavy metal(loid) exposure.

  15. Heavy metal accumulations in hair of northern fur seals: Application for biological monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Noda, K.; Saeki, K.; Tatsukawa, R.; Baba, N.; Kiyota, M.; Nitto, H.; Watabe, M.

    1995-12-31

    Hair of northern fur seals had the highest concentrations of many heavy metals among tissues and organs analyzed. Hair could be used as a sensitive indicator for its higher element levels, and can serve as a noninvasive technique for biological monitoring. Significant positive correlation were found between Hg in muscle, Fe in kidney and Cu in liver and those in hair of 42 fur seals from Off-Sanriku, Japan. Using age as a explanatory co-variables, significant multiple regression equations to estimate metal concentrations in internal organs by those in hair were obtained for Hg, Cd, Fe, Cu, Mn. To monitor the seasonal changes in hair concentrations, from the cervical region of 7 fur seals in the Otaru aquarium, Japan, guard hair were clipped during November, 1993 March, 1994 at 7 weeks intervals. Heavy metal levels in hair from the aquarium were compared with those collected in April, 1990--1991 from Off-Sanriku, Japan and from the Pribilof Islands, Alaska which were collected in July, 1992. The levels of Cu, Zn, Mn and Ni in hair in the captive seals gradually increased and were higher than those from Off-Sanriku. Those changes could be associated with growth of hair. In the hair of the breeding animals collected from the island, concentrations of Mn, Ni and Fe were found to be significantly higher than those from Off-Sanriku. increased concentrations of Mn, Ni and Fe were supposed to be caused by exogenous contaminations derived from soil and blood. Fur seal hair seems to be an useful indicator to estimate the internal accumulations of heavy metals provided the seasonal changes and exogenous contamination are taken into account.

  16. Effect of paper mill effluents on accumulation of heavy metals in coconut trees near Nanjangud, mysore district, Karnataka, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazeli, M. Sharif; Sathyanarayan, S.; Satish, P. N.; Muthanna, Lata

    1991-01-01

    Physicochemical characteristics of wastewater from one of the paper mills near Nanjangud and the differential accumulation of heavy metals in parts of coconut trees growing in the area irrigated directly by the wastewaters of a paper mill were investigated. The total dissolved and suspended solids of wastewater were 1,136.9 mg/l and 2,185.4 mg/l, respectively. Biological oxygen demand (BOD) expands and COD is beyond the tolerance limit proposed by Indian standards. The concentrations of heavy metals like Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Co, and Cd in coconut water, root, and leaf are higher than the limits suggested by World Health Organization. Survival of coconut trees irrigated by polluted waters indicates tolerance to toxic heavy metals. Since coconut forms part of human food chain, accumulation of toxic heavy metals may lead to organic disorders.

  17. Accumulation of heavy metals in a long-term poultry waste-amended soil

    SciTech Connect

    Han, F.X.; Kingery, W.L.; Selim, H.M.; Gerard, P.D.

    2000-03-01

    Various metals are added to poultry diets to facilitate weight increase and disease prevention. The large amounts of poultry waste produced annually are dispersed intensively over relatively small areas of land, resulting in accumulations that pose potential environmental risks to the surface and groundwater. The focus of this study was to assess the distribution of heavy metals among various solid-phase fractions in soil profiles from a 25-year poultry waste-amended soil. Copper and Zn accumulated close to the soil surface where the total amounts of Cu and Zn in waste-amended soils were significantly higher than in nonamended soils. The total metal concentrations in amended soils were not critically high. Copper in the amended soil was present mostly in the organic matter (OM) fraction (46.9%), whereas Zn was found in the easily reducible oxide (ERO) fraction (47.3%). This suggests that the Cu and Zn in this long-term amended soil are potentially bioavailable and mobile. The authors observed the mobility of Zn through much of the soil profile of the long-term waste-amended soil. Zinc in this soil profile was found primarily in forms of the residual (RES) and crystalline iron oxide bound (CryFe) fractions, followed by the organic matter-bound and exchangeable (EXC) fractions.

  18. Heavy metal accumulation and toxicity in smoothhound (Mustelus mustelus) shark from Langebaan Lagoon, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Adina C; O'Neill, Bernadette; Sigge, Gunnar O; Kerwath, Sven E; Hoffman, Louwrens C

    2016-01-01

    Together with several health benefits, fish meat could introduce toxins to consumers in the form of heavy metal contaminants. High levels of mercury (Hg), especially, are frequently detected in certain predatory fish species. Mustelus mustelus fillets were analysed for 16 metals and three individual Hg species (inorganic Hg, ehtylmercury, methylmercury) with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and HPLC-ICP-MS respectively. Eleven of the 30 sharks had total Hg levels above the maximum allowable limit with toxic methylmercury found as the dominant mercury species with a strong correlation (r = 0.97; p < 0.001) to total mercury concentrations. Limited correlations between metals and shark size parameters were observed; therefore metal accumulation in M. mustelus is mostly independent of size/age. Average values for arsenic (28.31 ± 18.79 mg/kg) exceed regulatory maximum limits and Hg (0.96 ± 0.69 mg/kg) is close to the maximum limit with all other metals well below maximum limits.

  19. Soil and plant factors influencing the accumulation of heavy metals by plants.

    PubMed Central

    Cataldo, D A; Wildung, R E

    1978-01-01

    The use of plants to monitor heavy metal pollution in the terrestrial environment must be based on a cognizance of the complicated, integrated effects of pollutant source and soil-plant variables. To be detectable in plants, pollutant sources must significantly increase the plant available metal concentration in soil. The major factor governing metal availability to plants in soils is the solubility of the metal associated with the solid phase, since in order for root uptake to occur, a soluble species must exist adjacent to the root membrane for some finite period. The rate of release and form of this soluble species will have a strong influence on the rate and extent of uptake and, perhaps, mobility and toxicity in the plant and consuming animals. The factors influencing solubility and form of available metal species in soil vary widely geographically and include the concentration and chemical form of the element entering soil, soil properties (endogenous metal concentration, mineralogy, particle size distribution), and soil processes (e.g., mineral weathering, microbial activity), as these influence the kinetics of sorption reactions, metal concentration in solution and the form of soluble and insoluble chemical species. The plant root represents the first barrier to the selective accumulation of ions present in soil solution. Uptake and kinetic data for nutrient ions and chemically related nonnutrient analogs suggest that metabolic processes associated with root absorption of nutrients regulate both the affinity and rate of absorption of specific nonnutrient ions. Detailed kinetic studies of Ni, Cd, and Tl uptake by intact plants demonstrate multiphasic root absorption processes over a broad concentration range, and the use of transport mechanisms in place for the nutrient ions Cu, Zn, and K. Advantages and limitations of higher plants as indicators of increased levels of metal pollution are discussed in terms of these soil and plant phenomena. PMID:367766

  20. Accumulation of atmospheric radionuclides and heavy metals in cryoconite holes on an Arctic glacier.

    PubMed

    Łokas, Edyta; Zaborska, Agata; Kolicka, Małgorzata; Różycki, Michał; Zawierucha, Krzysztof

    2016-10-01

    Surface of glaciers is covered by mineral and organic dust, together with microorganisms forming cryoconite granules. Despite fact that glaciers and ice sheets constitute significance part of land surface, reservoir of freshwater, and sites of high biological production, the knowledge on the cryoconite granules still remain unsatisfactory. This study presents information on radionuclide and heavy metal contents in cryoconites. Cryoconites collected from the Hans Glacier in SW Spitsbergen reveal high activity concentrations of anthropogenic ((238,239,240)Pu, (137)Cs, (90)Sr) and natural ((210)Pb) radionuclides. The (238)Pu/(239+240)Pu activity ratios in these cryoconites significantly exceed the mean global fallout ratio (0.025). The (238)Pu/(239+240)Pu ranged from 0.064 to 0.118. The (239+240)Pu/(137)Cs varied from 0.011 ± 0.003 to 0.030 ± 0.007. Such activity ratios as observed in these cryoconites were significantly higher than the values characterizing global fallout, pointing to possible contributions of these radionuclides from other sources. Heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Fe, and Mn) in cryoconites exceed both UCC concentrations and local rocks' concentrations, particularly for cadmium. The concentration ratios of stable lead isotopes ((206)Pb/(207)Pb, (208)Pb/(206)Pb) were determined to discriminate between the natural and anthropogenic sources of Pb in cryoconites and to confirm the strong anthropogenic contribution to heavy metal deposition in the Arctic. In investigated cryoconite holes, two groups of invertebrates, both extremophiles, Tardigrada and Rotifera were detected. Our study indicate that cryoconites are aggregates of mineral and organic substances on surfaces of glaciers are able to accumulate large amounts of airborne pollutants bound to extracellular polymeric substances secreted by microorganisms.

  1. Accumulation of atmospheric radionuclides and heavy metals in cryoconite holes on an Arctic glacier.

    PubMed

    Łokas, Edyta; Zaborska, Agata; Kolicka, Małgorzata; Różycki, Michał; Zawierucha, Krzysztof

    2016-10-01

    Surface of glaciers is covered by mineral and organic dust, together with microorganisms forming cryoconite granules. Despite fact that glaciers and ice sheets constitute significance part of land surface, reservoir of freshwater, and sites of high biological production, the knowledge on the cryoconite granules still remain unsatisfactory. This study presents information on radionuclide and heavy metal contents in cryoconites. Cryoconites collected from the Hans Glacier in SW Spitsbergen reveal high activity concentrations of anthropogenic ((238,239,240)Pu, (137)Cs, (90)Sr) and natural ((210)Pb) radionuclides. The (238)Pu/(239+240)Pu activity ratios in these cryoconites significantly exceed the mean global fallout ratio (0.025). The (238)Pu/(239+240)Pu ranged from 0.064 to 0.118. The (239+240)Pu/(137)Cs varied from 0.011 ± 0.003 to 0.030 ± 0.007. Such activity ratios as observed in these cryoconites were significantly higher than the values characterizing global fallout, pointing to possible contributions of these radionuclides from other sources. Heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Fe, and Mn) in cryoconites exceed both UCC concentrations and local rocks' concentrations, particularly for cadmium. The concentration ratios of stable lead isotopes ((206)Pb/(207)Pb, (208)Pb/(206)Pb) were determined to discriminate between the natural and anthropogenic sources of Pb in cryoconites and to confirm the strong anthropogenic contribution to heavy metal deposition in the Arctic. In investigated cryoconite holes, two groups of invertebrates, both extremophiles, Tardigrada and Rotifera were detected. Our study indicate that cryoconites are aggregates of mineral and organic substances on surfaces of glaciers are able to accumulate large amounts of airborne pollutants bound to extracellular polymeric substances secreted by microorganisms. PMID:27372266

  2. Factors of the accumulation of heavy metals and metalloids at geochemical barriers in urban soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosheleva, N. E.; Kasimov, N. S.; Vlasov, D. V.

    2015-05-01

    The bulk contents and concentrations of mobile (extracted by an ammonium acetate buffer with EDTA) Cd, Pb, Sb, As, Bi, Zn, and Cu were determined in the surface horizons of urban soils in the Eastern administrative okrug of Moscow. The regression analysis showed that the accumulation of these metals and metalloids in the soils is controlled by the physicochemical soil properties and by number of anthropogenic factors and landscape conditions (geochemical position, type of loose deposits, character of land use, dust load, vehicle emissions, building pattern, percent of green areas, and the extent of sealed soils). The precipitation of studied elements on the geochemical barriers had the following regularities: Cd, Cu, and Zn accumulated on the alkaline barriers; Bi, Sb, As, Cu, Pb, and Zn, on chemisorption barriers; Sb, As, and Pb, on organomineral barriers; and Cd and Cu, on the sorption-sedimentation barriers. Technogenic transformation of the physicochemical properties of urban soils resulted in the increase of the mean bulk contents of heavy metals and metalloids by 33-99%; the portion of elements fixed on the geochemical barriers increased by 26-50%.

  3. Engineering chlorpyrifos-degrading Stenotrophomonas sp. YC-1 for heavy metal accumulation and enhanced chlorpyrifos degradation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruihua; Jiang, Hong; Xu, Ping; Qiao, Chuanling; Zhou, Qixing; Yang, Chao

    2014-11-01

    Many ecosystems are currently co-contaminated with pesticides and heavy metals, such as chlorpyrifos and cadmium. A promising strategy to remediate mixed chlorpyrifos-cadmium-contaminated sites is the use of chlorpyrifos-degrading bacteria endowed with cadmium removal capabilities. In this work, a gene coding for synthetic phytochelatins (EC20) with high cadmium-binding capacity was introduced into a chlorpyrifos-degrading bacterium, Stenotrophomonas sp. YC-1, resulting in an engineered strain with both cadmium accumulation and chlorpyrifos degradation capabilities. To improve the cadmium-binding efficiency of whole cells, EC20 was displayed on the cell surface of Stenotrophomonas sp. YC-1 using the truncated ice nucleation protein (INPNC) anchor. The surface localization of the INPNC-EC20 fusion protein was demonstrated by cell fractionation, Western blot analysis, and immunofluorescence microscopy. Expression of EC20 on the cell surface not only improved cadmium binding, but also alleviated the cellular toxicity of cadmium. As expected, the chlorpyrifos degradation rate was reduced in the presence of cadmium for cells without EC20 expression. However, expression of EC20 (higher cadmium accumulation) completely restored the level of chlorpyrifos degradation. These results demonstrated that EC20 expression not only enhanced cadmium accumulation, but also reduced the toxic effect of cadmium on chlorpyrifos degradation. PMID:25151179

  4. Arsenic and other heavy metal accumulation in plants and algae growing naturally in contaminated area of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, N K; Raghubanshi, A S; Upadhyay, A K; Rai, U N

    2016-08-01

    The present study was conducted to quantify the arsenic (As) and other heavy metal concentrations in the plants and algae growing naturally in As contaminated blocks of North-24-Pargana and Nandia district, West Bengal, India to assess their bioaccumulation potential. The plant species included five macrophytes and five algae were collected from the nine selected sites for estimation of As and other heavy metals accumulated therein by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrophotometer (ICP-MS). Results revealed that maximum As concentration (117mgkg(-1)) was recorded in the agricultural soil at the Barasat followed by Beliaghat (111mgkg(-1)) sites of North-24-Pargana. Similarly, concentration of selenium (Si, 249mgkg(-1)), lead (Pb, 79.4mgkg(-1)), chromium (Cr, 138mgkg(-1)) was also found maximum in the soil at Barasat and cadmium (Cd, 163mgkg(-1)) nickel (Ni, 36.5mgkg(-1)) at Vijaynagar site. Among the macrophytes, Eichhornia crassipes found more dominating species in As contaminated area and accumulate As (597mgkg(-1)) in the shoot at kanchrapara site. The Lemna minor found to accumulate maximum As (735mgkg(-1)) in the leaves at Sonadanga and Pistia stratiotes accumulated minimum As (24.5mgkg(-1)) in the fronds from Ranaghat site. In case of diatoms, maximum As (760mgkg(-1)) was accumulated at Kanchrapara site followed by Hydrodictiyon reticulatum (403mgkg(-1)) at the Ranaghat site. High concentration of As and other heavy metal in soil indicates long term effects of irrigation with contaminated ground water, however, high concentration of heavy metals in naturally growing plants and algae revealed their mobilization through leaching and possible food chain contamination. Therefore, efficient heavy metal accumulator macrophytes Eichhornia crassipes, Lemna minor, Spirodela polyrhiza may be exploited in removing metals from contaminated water by developing a plant based treatment system. However, As accumulator algal species may be used as a bioresource for

  5. Arsenic and other heavy metal accumulation in plants and algae growing naturally in contaminated area of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, N K; Raghubanshi, A S; Upadhyay, A K; Rai, U N

    2016-08-01

    The present study was conducted to quantify the arsenic (As) and other heavy metal concentrations in the plants and algae growing naturally in As contaminated blocks of North-24-Pargana and Nandia district, West Bengal, India to assess their bioaccumulation potential. The plant species included five macrophytes and five algae were collected from the nine selected sites for estimation of As and other heavy metals accumulated therein by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrophotometer (ICP-MS). Results revealed that maximum As concentration (117mgkg(-1)) was recorded in the agricultural soil at the Barasat followed by Beliaghat (111mgkg(-1)) sites of North-24-Pargana. Similarly, concentration of selenium (Si, 249mgkg(-1)), lead (Pb, 79.4mgkg(-1)), chromium (Cr, 138mgkg(-1)) was also found maximum in the soil at Barasat and cadmium (Cd, 163mgkg(-1)) nickel (Ni, 36.5mgkg(-1)) at Vijaynagar site. Among the macrophytes, Eichhornia crassipes found more dominating species in As contaminated area and accumulate As (597mgkg(-1)) in the shoot at kanchrapara site. The Lemna minor found to accumulate maximum As (735mgkg(-1)) in the leaves at Sonadanga and Pistia stratiotes accumulated minimum As (24.5mgkg(-1)) in the fronds from Ranaghat site. In case of diatoms, maximum As (760mgkg(-1)) was accumulated at Kanchrapara site followed by Hydrodictiyon reticulatum (403mgkg(-1)) at the Ranaghat site. High concentration of As and other heavy metal in soil indicates long term effects of irrigation with contaminated ground water, however, high concentration of heavy metals in naturally growing plants and algae revealed their mobilization through leaching and possible food chain contamination. Therefore, efficient heavy metal accumulator macrophytes Eichhornia crassipes, Lemna minor, Spirodela polyrhiza may be exploited in removing metals from contaminated water by developing a plant based treatment system. However, As accumulator algal species may be used as a bioresource for

  6. The distribution and extent of heavy metal accumulation in song sparrows along Arizona's upper Santa Cruz River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lester, Michael B.; van Riper, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Heavy metals are persistent environmental contaminants, and transport of metals into the environment poses a threat to ecosystems, as plants and wildlife are susceptible to long-term exposure, bioaccumulation, and potential toxicity. We investigated the distribution and cascading extent of heavy metal accumulation in southwestern song sparrows (Melospiza melodia fallax), a resident riparian bird species that occurs along the US/Mexico border in Arizona’s upper Santa Cruz River watershed. This study had three goals: (1) quantify the degree of heavy metal accumulation in sparrows and determine the distributional patterns among study sites, (2) compare concentrations of metals found in this study to those found in studies performed prior to a 2009 international wastewater facility upgrade, and (3) assess the condition of song sparrows among sites with differing potential levels of exposure. We examined five study sites along with a reference site that reflect different potential sources of contamination. Body mass residuals and leukocyte counts were used to assess sparrow condition. Birds at our study sites typically had higher metal concentrations than birds at the reference site. Copper, mercury, nickel, and selenium in song sparrows did exceed background levels, although most metals were below background concentrations determined from previous studies. Song sparrows generally showed lower heavy metal concentrations compared to studies conducted prior to the 2009 wastewater facility upgrade. We found no cascading effects as a result of metal exposure.

  7. Accumulation of heavy metals in Spinacia oleracea irrigated with paper mill effluent and sewage.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Chakresh; Chopra, A K; Srivastava, Sachin

    2013-09-01

    The present study on heavy metal contamination in soil and their accumulation in edible part (leaves) and roots of Spinacia oleracea (Spinach) on irrigation with paper mill effluent (PME)/sewage revealed that there was significant increase in the nickel (Ni, +227.17 %) content of the soil irrigated with PME, whereas in the soil irrigated with sewage chromium (Cr, +274.84 %), iron (Fe, +149.56 %), and cadmium (Cd, +133.39 %), contents were increased appreciably. The value of enrichment factor (EF) for Ni (3.27) indicated moderate enrichment in PME-irrigated soil. The EF of Fe, zinc (Zn), Cd, and Cr were <2 in PME effluent-irrigated soil which showed deficiency of minimal enrichment. In sewage irrigated soil, EF value for Cr, Fe, and Cd indicated moderate enrichment, while the values for Zn and Ni indicated deficiency of minimal enrichment. Among various metallic concentrations, the maximum concentration of Fe was observed in leaves (400.12 ± 11.47 mg/kg) and root (301.41 ± 13.14 mg/kg) of S. oleracea after irrigation with PME, whereas the maximum concentrations of Fe was found in leaves (400.49 ± 5.97 mg/kg) and root (363.94 ± 11.37 mg/kg) of S. oleracea after irrigation with sewage for 60 days. The bioaccumulation factor value was found maximum for Cd (2.23) in the plants irrigated with PME while that of Fe (0.90) in the plants irrigated with sewage. The undiluted use of PME/sewage for irrigation increased the concentration of Cr, Cd, Zn, Ni, and Fe metals which were accumulated in S. oleracea, posing a potential threat to human health from this practice of irrigation.

  8. [Leaf micro-morphology and features in adsorbing air suspended particulate matter and accumulating heavy metals in seven trees species].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ling; Fang, Yan-Ming; Wang, Shun-Chang; Xie, Ying; Yang, Dan-Dan

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between tree leaf micro-morphology and features in adsorbing air suspended particulate matter and accumulating heavy metals. Seven tree species, including Ginkgo biloba, at heavy traffic density site in Huainan were selected to analyze the frequency of air particulate matter retained by leaves, the particle amount of different sizes per unit leaf area retained by leaves and its related micro-morphology structure, and the relationship between particle amount of different sizes per unit leaf area retained by leaves and its related accumulation of heavy metals. We found that the species characterized by small leaf area, special epidemis with abundant fax, and highly uneven cell wall, as well as big and dense stomata and without trichomes mainly absorbed fine particulate matter; while those species with many trichomes mainly retained coarse particulate matter. Accumulation of heavy metals in leaves of the seven species was significantly different except for Ph. Tree species with high capacities in heavy metal accumulation were Ginkgo biloba, Ligustrum lucidum, and Cinnamomum camphora. Accumulation of Cd, Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu and total heavy metal concentration for seven tree species was positively related to the amount of particulate matter absorbed. Correlation coefficients of d10 vs d2.5, d10 vs d1.0, d2.5 vs d1.0 were 0.987, 0.971, 0.996, respective, and the correlate level was significant. The ratios of d2.5/d10, d1.0/d10, d1.0/d2.5 were 0.844, 0.763, 0.822, indicating that the particulate matter from traffic was mainly fine particulates. PMID:23947057

  9. Heavy metals accumulation in parts of paddy Oryza sativa L. grown in paddy field adjacent to ultrabasic soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadif, Waqeed Mahdi; Rahim, Sahibin Abd; Sahid, Ismail; Bhuiyan, Atiqur Rahman; Ibrahim, Izyanti

    2015-09-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the accumulation and translocation of heavy metals from soil around the root zone to various parts of the paddy plant, namely the roots, stems, leaves and rice grains. This study was conducted in 2014 in paddy field adjacent to ultrabasic soil (field 1 and 2) located in Ranau, Sabah and one field (Field 3) taken as control located at the UKM experimental plot in peninsular of Malaysia. The plant species used in the present investigation is Paddy Batu. The heavy metals studied were Chromium (Cr), Iron (Fe) and Nickel (Ni). Heavy metals in soil and plant were extracted by wet digestion method. Heavy metals present in paddy plants and soils extract were measured using the ICP-MS. Heavy metals concentrations in the plant parts in descending order is the root > leaves > stem > rice grain. Lower concentration of all heavy metals in soils and plant parts was shown by the control site (Field 3) in UKM Bangi. Higher concentration of heavy metals occurred in the roots compared to other above ground parts (stem, leaves, and grains) of the paddy plant in all of the paddy field. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of heavy metals in all locations were recorded in descending order as Ni > Cr > Fe, the BAF values for all metals in the rice grains were low, whereas the BAF values were recorded high for Ni in all locations. The results also showed that Fe was the most predominant metal ion in the roots, followed by Ni then Cr.

  10. Heavy metals accumulation in two syntopic sandhopper species: Talitrus saltator (Montagu) and Talorchestia ugolinii Bellan Santini and Ruffo.

    PubMed

    Ugolini, A; Borghini, F; Focardi, S; Chelazzi, G

    2005-11-01

    We assessed the capacity for heavy metals accumulation in Talorchestia ugolinii by standard methods of heavy metals analysis. To compare the bioaccumulation in syntopic sandhopper species, we collected samples of T. ugolinii and Talitrus saltator living on the same and on different beaches in Corsica. There was a marked difference in the zonal distribution of the two species along the sea-land axis of the beach: T. ugolinii was distributed nearer the water line than T. saltator. The bioaccumulation capacity of T. ugolinii only partly matched that of the Mediterranean T. saltator: while Hg, Zn, Cu, and Cd were accumulated by both species, Al and Fe were accumulated by T. saltator but not by T. ugolinii. Pb was accumulated only by T. ugolinii, while Cr did not seem to be accumulated by either species. The bioaccumulation in sympatric T. saltator and T. ugolinii specimens collected on the same beach reflected the general trend of the two species on the Tyrrhenian and Corsican coasts, respectively. Moreover, six of the eight heavy metals considered (Hg, Pb, Zn, Fe, Al, Cu) were present in higher quantities in T. ugolinii than in T. saltator, independently of whether the trace elements were accumulated by the two species. Thus, there are some differences between T. ugolinii and T. saltator, even when the two species live in the same locality. These differences involve their zonation within the damp belt of sand, the bioaccumulation of some heavy metals (Al, Pb, Fe), and the quantity of each heavy metal in the body, independent of the bioaccumulation capacity.

  11. Environmental risks of applying sewage sludge compost to vineyards: carbon, heavy metals, nitrogen, and phosphorus accumulation.

    PubMed

    Korboulewsky, Nathalie; Dupouyet, Sylvie; Bonin, Gilles

    2002-01-01

    Biosolids are applied to vineyards to supply organic matter. However, there is concern that this practice can increase the concentration of macronutrients and heavy metals in the soil, some of which can leach. We evaluated the environmental hazard of sewage sludge compost applied in March 1999 at 10, 30, and 90 Mg ha-1 fresh weight in a vineyard in southeastern France. Soil organic matter increased in all plots by 3 g kg-1 18 mo after the amendment. Neither total nor available heavy metal concentrations increased in the soil. Mineral nitrogen (N) in the topsoil of amended plots of 10, 30, and 90 Mg ha-1 increased by 5, 14, and 26 kg (NO3(-)-N + NH4(+)-N) ha-1, respectively, the first summer and by 2, 5, and 10 kg (NO3(-)-N + NH4(+)-N) ha-1, respectively, the second summer compared with controls. At the recommended rate, risks of N leaching is very low, but phosphorus (P) appeared to be the limiting factor. Phosphorus significantly increased only in plots amended with the highest rate in the topsoil and subsoil. At lower rates, although no significant differences were observed, P added was greater than the quantities absorbed by vines. In the long run, P will accumulate in the soil and may reach concentrations that will pose a risk to surface waters and ground water. Therefore, although the current recommended rate (10 Mg ha-1) increased soil organic matter without the risk of N leaching, total sewage sludge loading rates on vineyards should be based on P concentrations.

  12. QTL analysis of cadmium and zinc accumulation in the heavy metal hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens.

    PubMed

    Deniau, A X; Pieper, B; Ten Bookum, W M; Lindhout, P; Aarts, M G M; Schat, H

    2006-09-01

    Thlaspi caerulescens (Tc; 2n = 14) is a natural Zn, Cd and Ni hyperaccumulator species belonging to the Brassicaceae family. It shares 88% DNA identity in the coding regions with Arabidopsis thaliana (At) (Rigola et al. 2006). Although the physiology of heavy metal (hyper)accumulation has been intensively studied, the molecular genetics are still largely unexplored. We address this topic by constructing a genetic map based on AFLP markers and expressed sequence tags (ESTs). To establish a genetic map, an F(2) population of 129 individuals was generated from a cross between a plant from a Pb/Cd/Zn-contaminated site near La Calamine, Belgium, and a plant from a comparable site near Ganges (GA), France. These two accessions show different degrees of Zn and, particularly, Cd accumulation. We analyzed 181 AFLP markers (of which 4 co-dominant) and 13 co-dominant EST sequences-based markers and mapped them to seven linkage groups (LGs), presumably corresponding to the seven chromosomes of T. caerulescens. The total length of the genetic map is 496 cM with an average density of one marker every 2.5 cM. This map was used for Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) mapping in the F(2). For Zn as well as Cd concentration in root we mapped two QTLs. Three QTLs and one QTL were mapped for Zn and Cd concentration in shoot, respectively. These QTLs explain 23.8-60.4% of the total variance of the traits measured. We found only one common locus (LG6) for Zn and Cd (concentration in root) and one common locus for shoot and root concentrations of Zn (LG1) and of Cd (LG3). For all QTLs, the GA allele increased the trait value except for two QTLs for Zn accumulation in shoot (LG1 and LG4) and one for Zn concentration in root (LG1). PMID:16850314

  13. Accumulation, availability, and uptake of heavy metals in a red soil after 22-year fertilization and cropping.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shiwei; Liu, Jing; Xu, Minggang; Lv, Jialong; Sun, Nan

    2015-10-01

    Fertilization is important to increase crop yields, but long-term application of fertilizers probably aggravated the risk of heavy metals in acidic soils. In this study, the effect of 22-year fertilization and cropping on accumulation, availability, and uptake of heavy metals in red soil was investigated. The results showed that pig manure promoted significantly cadmium (Cd) accumulation (average 1.1 mg kg(-1)), nearly three times higher than national soil standards and, thus, increased metal availability. But the enrichment of heavy metals decreased remarkably by 50.5 % under manure fertilization, compared with CK (control without fertilization). On the contrary, chemical fertilizers increased greatly lead (Pb) availability and Cd activity; in particular, exceeding 85 % of soil Cd became available to plant under N (nitrogen) treatment during 9-16 years of fertilization, which correspondingly increased their enrichment by 29.5 %. Long-term application of chemical fertilizers caused soil acidification and manure fertilization led to the increase in soil pH, soil organic matter (SOM), and available phosphorus (Olsen P), which influenced strongly metal behavior in red soil, and their effect had extended to deeper soil layer (20∼40 cm). It is advisable to increase application of manure alone with low content of heavy metals or in combination with chemical fertilizers to acidic soils in order to reduce toxic metal risk. PMID:26004564

  14. Accumulation, availability, and uptake of heavy metals in a red soil after 22-year fertilization and cropping.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shiwei; Liu, Jing; Xu, Minggang; Lv, Jialong; Sun, Nan

    2015-10-01

    Fertilization is important to increase crop yields, but long-term application of fertilizers probably aggravated the risk of heavy metals in acidic soils. In this study, the effect of 22-year fertilization and cropping on accumulation, availability, and uptake of heavy metals in red soil was investigated. The results showed that pig manure promoted significantly cadmium (Cd) accumulation (average 1.1 mg kg(-1)), nearly three times higher than national soil standards and, thus, increased metal availability. But the enrichment of heavy metals decreased remarkably by 50.5 % under manure fertilization, compared with CK (control without fertilization). On the contrary, chemical fertilizers increased greatly lead (Pb) availability and Cd activity; in particular, exceeding 85 % of soil Cd became available to plant under N (nitrogen) treatment during 9-16 years of fertilization, which correspondingly increased their enrichment by 29.5 %. Long-term application of chemical fertilizers caused soil acidification and manure fertilization led to the increase in soil pH, soil organic matter (SOM), and available phosphorus (Olsen P), which influenced strongly metal behavior in red soil, and their effect had extended to deeper soil layer (20∼40 cm). It is advisable to increase application of manure alone with low content of heavy metals or in combination with chemical fertilizers to acidic soils in order to reduce toxic metal risk.

  15. Accumulation and source of heavy metals in sediment of a reservoir near an industrial park of northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yuanjie; Lu, Xinwei; Yang, Linna; Wang, Lijun

    2016-02-01

    The accumulation and source of heavy metals As, Ba, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn in the surface sediment of a reservoir near an industrial park of northwest China were determined by enrichment factor and multi-variate statistical analysis. Multivariate statistical analyses, i.e., factor analysis, cluster analysis, and correlation coefficient analysis, were used to identify the possible sources of the heavy metals. The results show that the mean concentrations of As, Ba, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn in the reservoir sediment are higher than their corresponding concentrations in the control sample, indicating all analyzed heavy metals accumulated in the surface sediments. The values of the mean concentrations of heavy metals in the surface sediment divided by their corresponding concentrations in the control sample increase in the order of Ba = Crheavy metals were identified. As, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, and V have mixed sources of natural and industrial sources and local consumption residues; Pb and Zn mainly originate from industrial activities, while Ba and Cr primarily originate from natural sources.

  16. Distribution of the concentration of heavy metals associated with the sediment particles accumulated on road surfaces.

    PubMed

    Zafra, C A; Temprano, J; Tejero, I

    2011-07-01

    The heavy metal pollution caused by road run-off water constitutes a problem in urban areas. The metallic load associated with road sediment must be determined in order to study its impact in drainage systems and receiving waters, and to perfect the design of prevention systems. This paper presents data regarding the sediment collected on road surfaces in the city of Torrelavega (northern Spain) during a period of 65 days (132 samples). Two sample types were collected: vacuum-dried samples and those swept up following vacuuming. The sediment loading (g m(-2)), particle size distribution (63-2800 microm) and heavy metal concentrations were determined. The data showed that the concentration of heavy metals tends to increase with the reduction in the particle diameter (exponential tendency). The concentrations ofPb, Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni, Cd, Fe, Mn and Co in the size fraction <63 microm were 350, 630, 124, 57, 56, 38, 3231, 374 and 51 mg kg(-1), respectively (average traffic density: 3800 vehicles day(-1)). By increasing the residence time of the sediment, the concentration increases, whereas the ratio of the concentration between the different size fractions decreases. The concentration across the road diminishes when the distance between the roadway and the sampling siteincreases; when the distance increases, the ratio between size fractions for heavy metal concentrations increases. Finally, the main sources of heavy metals are the particles detached by braking (brake pads) and tyre wear (rubber), and are associated with particle sizes <125 microm.

  17. Heavy metals accumulation in wood tissues of the forest-forming species growed in the Steppe technogenic landscapes in Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovinska, Viktoriia; Wiche, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    Territory of Steppe in Ukraine is affected by significant anthropogenic impact caused with mining, metallurgical, chemicalplants and heat power stations. The priority pollutants of the region emissions of these enterprises are presented such heavy metals as Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni, Mn. The regional forest ecosystems can be considered as potential concentrators of pollutants borned with different technogenic impact. It is necessary to study an ability of forests wood to accumulate heavy metals because accumulated toxins are eliminated from biogeochemical cycle in forest ecosystem for a long time. This study goal is to determine the accumulation properties of forest-forming species - Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine) and Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust) difference age group in relation to heavy metals. It was considerable also to assess the heavy metal distribution in the wood tissue of referred species.Heavy metals content were determined with atomic absorption spectrophotometer using. Scots pine and black locust are the main forest-forming species of natural and artificial forests within Northern Steppe.They can be seen as transformers of the heavy metals cycle and selective concentrators of toxic elements, under the conditions of their excessive concentrations in the environment.It was established that wood tissue of Scots pine and black locust accumulated cadmium in high concentrations according to the age in both species. Indexes of zinc accumulation in the wood of Scots pine exceeded the maximal value in the wood tissue of black locust. The results of our research demonstrated antagonistic interaction of cadmium and zinc. The highest copper concentrations was found for the trees at the age of 45 years. Lead has been identified in wood sample of all ages. Accumulation maximum was fixed in the oldest samples. The trend of concentration increasing of metal didn't find for both species. As for nickel there was established the opposite tendention for both studied species

  18. Toxicological assessment of heavy metals accumulated in vegetables and fruits grown in Ginfel river near Sheba Tannery, Tigray, Northern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gebrekidan, Abraha; Weldegebriel, Yirgaalem; Hadera, Amanual; Van der Bruggen, Bart

    2013-09-01

    The accumulation of heavy metals in vegetables resulting from irrigation with contaminated water obtained from industrial effluents may create a potential public health risk. We quantified the concentration of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cr, Cd, Ni, Co and Pb) in soil, vegetables and the water used for irrigation at two sites (Laelay Wukro and Tahtay Wukro) around Wukro Town, Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. The concentrations of heavy metals in irrigation water measured during this study were lower than permissible limits of heavy metals allowed for irrigation water. The mean concentrations of heavy metals in irrigated soil samples obtained from Tahtay Wukro were higher for Mn, Zn, Cr, and Cu. The overall results of soil samples ranged 2.62-827, 1.4-51.6, 25.5-33.6, 23.5-28.2, 2.52-25.1, 15-17.8, 3-4, 2.5-40.49 and 0.7-0.8 mg/kg for Mn, Zn, Cr, Ni, Cu, Co, Pb, Fe and Cd, respectively. Higher concentrations of heavy metals were also observed in vegetable samples from Tahtay Wukro. Pb was found to accumulate the most in all vegetable samples. It was observed that green pepper and lettuce accumulate high amounts of Cu and Zn; Swiss chard accumulates excessive amounts of Fe, Mn, Cr, Cd, Ni and Co; lettuce and tomato higher amounts of Cd; and green pepper, tomato and onion a higher concentration of Pb. Significant differences in the elemental concentrations between the vegetables analyzed from Laelay and Tahtay Wukro were observed. This was attributed in part to the geological nature of the study area and the discharges from the town and from a tannery. The results also indicate that Fe, Pb and Cd have high transfer factor values (mean values: 42.89, 0.84 and 0.37, respectively). The transfer pattern for heavy metals in different vegetables showed a trend in the order: Fe>Pb>Cd>Mn>Cu>Zn>Ni>Zn>Cr=Co. The heavy metal contamination of vegetables grown in Tahtay Wukro, located downstream of the tannery, may pose increased health risks in the future to the local population

  19. Biomonitoring of river pollution by heavy metals in reserves on the basis of studies on metal accumulation in the body of aquatic invertebrates

    SciTech Connect

    Zhulidov, A.V.; Emets, V.M.; Shevtsov, A.S.

    1980-05-01

    In recent years particular importance has been attached to biological monitoring, with biosphere reserves moving into the forefront as background-monitoring stations. However, the biomonitoring of river pollution by heavy metals is poorly developed and is not carried out in reserves. The realization of this type of monitoring is prevented in no small degree by the inadequate extent to which the accumulation of heavy metals in the body of freshwater invertebrates has been studied; some data exist on individual species os bivalve and gastropod mollusks, leeches, crustaceans, mayflies, dragonflies dipterous insects, and caddis flies. A number of groups of large freshwater invertebrates important in the biocenological sense, especially bugs and beetles, have not been investigated at all in respect to heavy-metal accumulation. The present communication demonstrates the possibility of utilizing aquatic gastropod mollusks and insects (bugs and beetles) to characterize river pollution by heavy metals in the reserves.

  20. Release and systemic accumulation of heavy metals from preformed crowns used in restoration of primary teeth.

    PubMed

    Kodaira, Hiroe; Ohno, Kohachiro; Fukase, Naoko; Kuroda, Midori; Adachi, Shiki; Kikuchi, Motohiro; Asada, Yoshinobu

    2013-01-01

    Preformed crowns for restoration of primary teeth are used in various treatments and are essential for restoring the crowns of primary molars. However, there are concerns that mechanical, chemical, and thermal stimulation may cause release of components of such crowns. We examined systemic accumulation of heavy metals associated with preformed crowns (3M Stainless Steel Primary Molar Crowns) used in primary tooth restoration. The participants were 37 children who had visited the Pediatric Dental Clinic of Tsurumi University Dental Hospital. They were divided into two groups: 22 participants without a history of being fitted with a preformed crown for primary tooth restoration (controls), and 15 participants with preformed crowns for primary tooth restoration. Analysis of hair samples showed a significant difference in the level of the trace element Cr - an important component of the preformed crowns - between children with and without preformed crowns, but no significant differences in Fe or Ni levels. Levels of the trace elements Ni, Cr, and Fe were within allowable ranges, indicating that these minerals were not likely to be harmful.

  1. Effects of metal-contaminated soils on the accumulation of heavy metals in gotu kola (Centella asiatica) and the potential health risks: a study in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ong, Ghim Hock; Wong, Ling Shing; Tan, Ai Li; Yap, Chee Kong

    2016-01-01

    Centella asiatica is a commonly used medicinal plant in Malaysia. As heavy metal accumulation in medicinal plants which are highly consumed by human is a serious issue, thus the assessment of heavy metals in C. asiatica is important for the safety of consumers. In this study, the heavy metal accumulation in C. asiatica and the potential health risks were investigated. Samples of C. asiatica and surface soils were collected from nine different sites around Peninsular Malaysia. The concentration of six heavy metals namely Cd, Cu, Ni, Fe, Pb and Zn were determined by air-acetylene flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The degree of anthropogenic influence was assessed by calculating the enrichment factor (EF) and index of geoaccumulation (Igeo). The heavy metal uptake into the plant was estimated through the calculation of translocation factor (TF), bioconcentration factor (BCF) and correlation study. Estimated daily intakes (EDI) and target hazard quotients (THQ) were used to determine the potential health risk of consuming C. asiatica. The results showed that the overall surface soil was polluted by Cd, Cu and Pb, while the uptake of Zn and Ni by the plants was high. The value of EDI and THQ showed that the potential of Pb toxicity in C. asiatica was high as well. As heavy metal accumulation was confirmed in C. asiatica, daily consumption of the plant derived from polluted sites in Malaysia was not recommended.

  2. Effect of long-term application of treated sewage water on heavy metal accumulation in vegetables grown in northern India.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Amlan Kr; Bhatt, M A; Agrawal, H P

    2012-01-01

    Use of industrial and wastewater for irrigation is on the rise in India and other developing countries because of scarcity of good-quality irrigation water. Wastewaters contain plant nutrients that favour crop growth but leave a burden of heavy metals which can enter the food chain and is a cause of great concern. The present study was undertaken on the long-term impact of irrigation with treated sewage water for growing vegetables and the potential health risk associated with consumption of such vegetable. Treated sewage water (TSW), groundwater (GW), soil and plant samples were collected from peri urban vegetable growing areas of Northern India (Varanasi) and analysed to assess the long-term effect of irrigation with TSW on Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb build-up in soils and its subsequent transfer into commonly grown vegetable crops. Results indicate that TSW was richer in essential plant nutrients but contained Cd, Cr and Ni in amounts well above the permissible limits for its use as irrigation water. Long-term application of TSW resulted in significant build-up of total and DTPA extractable Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb over GW irrigated sites. TSW also resulted in slight lowering in pH, increase in organic carbon (1.6 g kg(-1)) and cation exchange capacity (5.2 cmol kg(-1)). The tissue metal concentration and relative efficiency of transfer of heavy metals from soil to plant (transfer factor) for various groups of vegetables were worked out. Radish, turnip and spinach were grouped as hyper accumulator of heavy metals whereas brinjal and cauliflower accumulated less heavy metals. Health risk assessment by consumption of vegetables grown with TSW indicated that all the vegetables were safe for human consumption. However, significant accumulation of these heavy metals in soil and plant needs to be monitored.

  3. Heavy metals accumulation in crab and shrimps from Pulicat lake, north Chennai coastal region, southeast coast of India.

    PubMed

    Batvari, B Prabhu Dass; Sivakumar, S; Shanthi, K; Lee, Kui-Jae; Oh, Byung-Taek; Krishnamoorthy, R R; Kamala-Kannan, Seralathan

    2016-01-01

    The accumulation of heavy metals such as lead (Pb), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), and chromium (Cr) was examined in crab (Scylla serrata) and shrimps (Penaeus semisulcatus, Penaeus indicus, and Penaeus monodon) collected from Pulicat lake that receives effluents from industries located in north Chennai, southeast coast of India. The results showed limited difference between crab and prawns as well as significant variations between the organs. Pb is the highly accumulated metal in both crab and shrimps, except P. monodon. The highest metal concentration was mostly found in the liver followed by other organs. The concentration of metals in edible parts (muscle) was within the permissible level and safe for consumption. However, the results of the study clearly indicate the biomagnification of metals in Pulicat lake.

  4. Equilibrium partitioning of heavy metals in Dutch field soils. 2: Prediction of metal accumulation in earthworms

    SciTech Connect

    Janssen, R.P.T.; Posthuma, L.; Baerselman, R.; Hollander, H.A. Den; Veen, R.P.M. Van; Peijnenburg, W.J.G.M.

    1997-12-01

    To evaluate the adequacy of the equilibrium partitioning concept in predicting metal bioaccumulation, a soil invertebrate species was exposed in 20 Dutch field soils with moderate metal contamination. Earthworms (Eisenia andrei) were kept in the soils for 3 weeks under laboratory conditions. Bioconcentration factors (BCFs) for six metals (Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni) and for As were calculated as the ratio of body- and solid-phase metal concentrations. Multivariate statistical analyses suggested that the BCFs for As, Cd, Cu, and Zn are governed by the same soil characteristics that determine equilibrium partition coefficients between the soil solid phase and the pore water. This suggests that uptake of metals is either direct from the pore water or indirect through an uptake route closely related to pore water. Regression equations were derived for predicting BCF values as a function of easily determinable soil characteristics. By means of internal validation it was shown that the equations obtained can be used for predictive purposes within the range of soil properties encountered in the dataset. Due to a lack of data, external validation was possible only in a qualitative sense.

  5. Relationship between heavy metal accumulation and genetic variability decrease in the intertidal crab Pachygrapsus marmoratus (Decapoda; Grapsidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fratini, Sara; Zane, Lorenzo; Ragionieri, Lapo; Vannini, Marco; Cannicci, Stefano

    2008-09-01

    The "genetic erosion" hypothesis posits that heavy metal stress is related to a loss of genetic diversity at the population level. The genetic diversity of natural populations can, however, be affected by natural processes as well as by human impact. We studied the relationship between heavy metal bioaccumulation and genetic variability in the intertidal crab Pachygrapsus marmoratus. Tissue samples were collected from 40 individuals inhabiting four polluted and four unpolluted sites along the Tuscan coast (Mediterranean basin), and were examined for four heavy metals (arsenic, As, cadmium, Cd, lead, Pb, and copper, Cu). We also assessed the genetic variability of 235 crabs from the same localities using six microsatellite loci. Our results show that the bioaccumulation levels of these individuals accurately reflect the levels of pollution in their immediate environment, and that heavy metals accumulate more in the hepatopancreas than in the gills. Moreover, populations from polluted sites have significantly less genetic variability, measured as mean standardized d2, and a significantly lower percentage of unrelated individuals, than populations from unpolluted sites. This evidence supports the "genetic erosion" hypothesis for metal heavy exposure in natural environments.

  6. Accumulation of heavy metals in crayfish and fish from selected Czech reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Kuklina, Iryna; Kouba, Antonín; Buřič, Miloš; Horká, Ivona; Duriš, Zdeněk; Kozák, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the accumulation of aluminium, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, and zinc in crayfish and fish organ tissues, specimens from three drinking water reservoirs (Boskovice, Landštejn, and Nová Říše) and one contaminated site (Darkovské moře) in the Czech Republic were examined. Crayfish hepatopancreas was confirmed to be the primary accumulating site for the majority of metals (Cu > Zn > Ni > Cd > Cr), while Hg and Cr were concentrated in abdominal muscle, and Al and Pb were concentrated in gill. Metals found in Nová Říše specimens included Cu > Zn > Ni and those found in Boskovice included Zn > Hg > Cr. Cd concentrations were observed only in Landštejn specimens, while contaminated Darkovské moře specimens showed the highest levels of accumulation (Cu > Al > Zn > Pb). The majority of evaluated metals were found in higher concentrations in crayfish: Cu > Al > Zn > Ni > Cr > Cd > Pb, with Hg being the only metal accumulating higher in fish. Due to accumulation similarities of Al in crayfish and fish gill, differences of Hg in muscle, and features noted for the remaining metals in examined tissues, biomonitoring should incorporate both crayfish and fish to produce more relevant water quality surveys.

  7. Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Crayfish and Fish from Selected Czech Reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Kuklina, Iryna; Kouba, Antonín; Buřič, Miloš; Horká, Ivona; Ďuriš, Zdeněk; Kozák, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the accumulation of aluminium, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, and zinc in crayfish and fish organ tissues, specimens from three drinking water reservoirs (Boskovice, Landštejn, and Nová Říše) and one contaminated site (Darkovské moře) in the Czech Republic were examined. Crayfish hepatopancreas was confirmed to be the primary accumulating site for the majority of metals (Cu > Zn > Ni > Cd > Cr), while Hg and Cr were concentrated in abdominal muscle, and Al and Pb were concentrated in gill. Metals found in Nová Říše specimens included Cu > Zn > Ni and those found in Boskovice included Zn > Hg > Cr. Cd concentrations were observed only in Landštejn specimens, while contaminated Darkovské moře specimens showed the highest levels of accumulation (Cu > Al > Zn > Pb). The majority of evaluated metals were found in higher concentrations in crayfish: Cu > Al > Zn > Ni > Cr > Cd > Pb, with Hg being the only metal accumulating higher in fish. Due to accumulation similarities of Al in crayfish and fish gill, differences of Hg in muscle, and features noted for the remaining metals in examined tissues, biomonitoring should incorporate both crayfish and fish to produce more relevant water quality surveys. PMID:24738051

  8. Metal accumulation and differentially expressed proteins in gill of oyster (Crassostrea hongkongensis) exposed to long-term heavy metal-contaminated estuary.

    PubMed

    Luo, Lianzhong; Ke, Caihuan; Guo, Xiaoyu; Shi, Bo; Huang, Miaoqin

    2014-06-01

    Bio-accumulation and bio-transmission of toxic metals and the toxicological responses of organisms exposed to toxic metals have been focused, due to heavy metal contaminations have critically threatened the ecosystem and food security. However, still few investigations focused on the responses of certain organisms exposed to the long term and severe heavy metal contamination in specific environments. In present investigation, the Hong Kong oyster, Crassostrea hongkongensis were obtained from 3 sites which were contaminated by different concentrations of heavy metals (such as zinc, copper, manganese and lead etc.), respectively. Heavy metal concentrations in the sea water samples collected from the 3 sites and the dissected tissues of the oysters with blue visceral mass were determinated to estimate the metal contamination levels in environments and the bio-accumulation ratios of the heavy metals in the different tissues of oysters. Moreover, Proteomic methods were employed to analyze the differentially expressed proteins in the gills of oysters exposed to long-term heavy metal contaminations. Results indicated that the Jiulong River estuary has been severely contaminated by Cu, Zn and slightly with Cr, Ni, Mn, etc, moreover, Zn and Cu were the major metals accumulated by oysters to phenomenally high concentrations (more than 3.0% of Zn and about 2.0% of Cu against what the dry weight of tissues were accumulated), and Cr, Ni, Mn, etc were also significantly accumulated. The differentially expressed proteins in the gills of oysters exposed to heavy metals participate in several cell processes, such as metal binding, transporting and saving, oxidative-reduction balance maintaining, stress response, signal transduction, etc. Significantly up-regulated expression (about 10 folds) of an important metal binding protein, metallothionein (MT) and granular cells was observed in the gills of oysters exposed to long-term and severely heavy-metal-contaminated estuary, it

  9. Metal accumulation and differentially expressed proteins in gill of oyster (Crassostrea hongkongensis) exposed to long-term heavy metal-contaminated estuary.

    PubMed

    Luo, Lianzhong; Ke, Caihuan; Guo, Xiaoyu; Shi, Bo; Huang, Miaoqin

    2014-06-01

    Bio-accumulation and bio-transmission of toxic metals and the toxicological responses of organisms exposed to toxic metals have been focused, due to heavy metal contaminations have critically threatened the ecosystem and food security. However, still few investigations focused on the responses of certain organisms exposed to the long term and severe heavy metal contamination in specific environments. In present investigation, the Hong Kong oyster, Crassostrea hongkongensis were obtained from 3 sites which were contaminated by different concentrations of heavy metals (such as zinc, copper, manganese and lead etc.), respectively. Heavy metal concentrations in the sea water samples collected from the 3 sites and the dissected tissues of the oysters with blue visceral mass were determinated to estimate the metal contamination levels in environments and the bio-accumulation ratios of the heavy metals in the different tissues of oysters. Moreover, Proteomic methods were employed to analyze the differentially expressed proteins in the gills of oysters exposed to long-term heavy metal contaminations. Results indicated that the Jiulong River estuary has been severely contaminated by Cu, Zn and slightly with Cr, Ni, Mn, etc, moreover, Zn and Cu were the major metals accumulated by oysters to phenomenally high concentrations (more than 3.0% of Zn and about 2.0% of Cu against what the dry weight of tissues were accumulated), and Cr, Ni, Mn, etc were also significantly accumulated. The differentially expressed proteins in the gills of oysters exposed to heavy metals participate in several cell processes, such as metal binding, transporting and saving, oxidative-reduction balance maintaining, stress response, signal transduction, etc. Significantly up-regulated expression (about 10 folds) of an important metal binding protein, metallothionein (MT) and granular cells was observed in the gills of oysters exposed to long-term and severely heavy-metal-contaminated estuary, it

  10. Pollution Problem in River Kabul: Accumulation Estimates of Heavy Metals in Native Fish Species

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Habib; Yousafzai, Ali Muhammad; Siraj, Muhammad; Ahmad, Rashid; Ahmad, Israr; Nadeem, Muhammad Shahid; Ahmad, Waqar; Akbar, Nazia; Muhammad, Khushi

    2015-01-01

    The contamination of aquatic systems with heavy metals is affecting the fish population and hence results in a decline of productivity rate. River Kabul is a transcountry river originating at Paghman province in Afghanistan and inters in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan and it is the major source of irrigation and more than 54 fish species have been reported in the river. Present study aimed at the estimation of heavy metals load in the fish living in River Kabul. Heavy metals including chromium, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium, and lead were determined through atomic absorption spectrophotometer after tissue digestion by adopting standard procedures. Concentrations of these metals were recorded in muscles and liver of five native fish species, namely, Wallago attu, Aorichthys seenghala, Cyprinus carpio, Labeo dyocheilus, and Ompok bimaculatus. The concentrations of chromium, nickel, copper, zinc, and lead were higher in both of the tissues, whereas the concentration of cadmium was comparatively low. However, the concentration of metals was exceeding the RDA (Recommended Dietary Allowance of USA) limits. Hence, continuous fish consumption may create health problems for the consumers. The results of the present study are alarming and suggest implementing environmental laws and initiation of a biomonitoring program of the river. PMID:26339622

  11. Heavy metal accumulation in Lacistorhynchus dollfusi (Trypanorhyncha: Lacistorhynchidae) infecting Citharichthys sordidus (Pleuronectiformes: Bothidae) from Santa Monica Bay, Southern California.

    PubMed

    Courtney-Hogue, C

    2016-05-01

    The accumulation of heavy metals in macroparasites of fish has been widely studied in freshwater environments. Less is known about metal uptake in cestodes parasitizing marine fish. Lacistorhynchus dollfusi is a common larval cestode parasite of Pacific sanddab (Citharichthys sordidus), a flatfish species inhabiting Santa Monica Bay. The ability of this cestode to concentrate metals in its tissues was compared with metal levels in its sanddab host. Fish and cestode tissue were analysed for 14 elements using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. The elements analysed were silver (Ag), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), mercury (Hg), potassium (K), lead (Pb), rubidium (Rb), selenium (Se), strontium (Sr), titanium (Ti) and zinc (Zn). Three of the 14 metals (Cu, Hg and Zn) were significantly greater in concentration in L. dollfusi compared with their levels in the liver, intestine and muscle of their fish host. They ranked in concentration from highest to lowest as follows: Zn > Cu > Hg. The ability of the cestode L. dollfusi to uptake metals at higher concentrations than its host warrants its consideration as a candidate for a heavy metal accumulation indicator of pollution exposure in Pacific sanddab. PMID:27000633

  12. Accumulation of heavy metals and trace elements in fluvial sediments received effluents from traditional and semiconductor industries

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Liang-Ching; Huang, Ching-Yi; Chuang, Yen-Hsun; Chen, Ho-Wen; Chan, Ya-Ting; Teah, Heng Yi; Chen, Tsan-Yao; Chang, Chiung-Fen; Liu, Yu-Ting; Tzou, Yu-Min

    2016-01-01

    Metal accumulation in sediments threatens adjacent ecosystems due to the potential of metal mobilization and the subsequent uptake into food webs. Here, contents of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) and trace elements (Ga, In, Mo, and Se) were determined for river waters and bed sediments that received sewage discharged from traditional and semiconductor industries. We used principal component analysis (PCA) to determine the metal distribution in relation to environmental factors such as pH, EC, and organic matter (OM) contents in the river basin. While water PCA categorized discharged metals into three groups that implied potential origins of contamination, sediment PCA only indicated a correlation between metal accumulation and OM contents. Such discrepancy in metal distribution between river water and bed sediment highlighted the significance of physical-chemical properties of sediment, especially OM, in metal retention. Moreover, we used Se XANES as an example to test the species transformation during metal transportation from effluent outlets to bed sediments and found a portion of Se inventory shifted from less soluble elemental Se to the high soluble and toxic selenite and selenate. The consideration of environmental factors is required to develop pollution managements and assess environmental risks for bed sediments. PMID:27681994

  13. Accumulation of heavy metals and trace elements in fluvial sediments received effluents from traditional and semiconductor industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Liang-Ching; Huang, Ching-Yi; Chuang, Yen-Hsun; Chen, Ho-Wen; Chan, Ya-Ting; Teah, Heng Yi; Chen, Tsan-Yao; Chang, Chiung-Fen; Liu, Yu-Ting; Tzou, Yu-Min

    2016-09-01

    Metal accumulation in sediments threatens adjacent ecosystems due to the potential of metal mobilization and the subsequent uptake into food webs. Here, contents of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) and trace elements (Ga, In, Mo, and Se) were determined for river waters and bed sediments that received sewage discharged from traditional and semiconductor industries. We used principal component analysis (PCA) to determine the metal distribution in relation to environmental factors such as pH, EC, and organic matter (OM) contents in the river basin. While water PCA categorized discharged metals into three groups that implied potential origins of contamination, sediment PCA only indicated a correlation between metal accumulation and OM contents. Such discrepancy in metal distribution between river water and bed sediment highlighted the significance of physical-chemical properties of sediment, especially OM, in metal retention. Moreover, we used Se XANES as an example to test the species transformation during metal transportation from effluent outlets to bed sediments and found a portion of Se inventory shifted from less soluble elemental Se to the high soluble and toxic selenite and selenate. The consideration of environmental factors is required to develop pollution managements and assess environmental risks for bed sediments.

  14. Soil characterization and differential patterns of heavy metal accumulation in woody plants grown in coal gangue wastelands in Shaanxi, China.

    PubMed

    Yakun, Shi; Xingmin, Mu; Kairong, Li; Hongbo, Shao

    2016-07-01

    Soil contamination by heavy metals in coal mine wastelands is a significant environmental issue in most developing countries. The purpose of this study is to evaluate contamination characteristics in the coal mine wastelands of Sanlidong coal mine, Tongchuan, China. To achieve this goal, we conducted field sampling work, followed by further analysis of the properties of soil contamination and accumulation characteristics in woody plants. At this site, the pH value ranged from 4.41 to 7.88, and the nutrient content of the soil rose gradually with the time after deposition due to the weathering effect improving the soil quality. Meanwhile, the levels of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn gradually decreased with the passage time. Generally, heavy metal contamination was found to be more serious in the discharge refuse area, with Cd contamination at moderate or heavy levels; Ni, Zn, and Cu contamination at light levels; and with no Cr contamination. The geoaccumulation index (I geo) was highest for Cd (2.38-3.14), followed by Ni, Zn, Cu, and Cr. Heavy metals accumulated on the lower slopes and spread to the surrounding areas via hydrodynamic effects and wind. According to transfer and enrichment coefficient analyses, Robinia pseudoacacia, Ulmus pumila, and Hippophae rhamnoides with considerable biomass could be used as pollution-resistant tree species for vegetation restoration. This study provided a theoretical basis for the restoration of the ecological environment in the mining area. This report described a link between heavy metal contamination of soils and growth dynamics of woody plants in China. PMID:27025220

  15. Soil characterization and differential patterns of heavy metal accumulation in woody plants grown in coal gangue wastelands in Shaanxi, China.

    PubMed

    Yakun, Shi; Xingmin, Mu; Kairong, Li; Hongbo, Shao

    2016-07-01

    Soil contamination by heavy metals in coal mine wastelands is a significant environmental issue in most developing countries. The purpose of this study is to evaluate contamination characteristics in the coal mine wastelands of Sanlidong coal mine, Tongchuan, China. To achieve this goal, we conducted field sampling work, followed by further analysis of the properties of soil contamination and accumulation characteristics in woody plants. At this site, the pH value ranged from 4.41 to 7.88, and the nutrient content of the soil rose gradually with the time after deposition due to the weathering effect improving the soil quality. Meanwhile, the levels of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn gradually decreased with the passage time. Generally, heavy metal contamination was found to be more serious in the discharge refuse area, with Cd contamination at moderate or heavy levels; Ni, Zn, and Cu contamination at light levels; and with no Cr contamination. The geoaccumulation index (I geo) was highest for Cd (2.38-3.14), followed by Ni, Zn, Cu, and Cr. Heavy metals accumulated on the lower slopes and spread to the surrounding areas via hydrodynamic effects and wind. According to transfer and enrichment coefficient analyses, Robinia pseudoacacia, Ulmus pumila, and Hippophae rhamnoides with considerable biomass could be used as pollution-resistant tree species for vegetation restoration. This study provided a theoretical basis for the restoration of the ecological environment in the mining area. This report described a link between heavy metal contamination of soils and growth dynamics of woody plants in China.

  16. Heavy metal accumulation in sediment and freshwater fish in U.S. Arctic lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Allen-Gil, S.M.; Gubala, C.P.; Landers, D.H.; Lasorsa, B.K.; Crecelius, E.A.; Curtis, L.R.

    1997-04-01

    Metal concentrations in sediment and two species of freshwater fish (lake trout [Salvelinus namaycush], and grayling [Thymallus arcticus]) were examined in four Arctic lakes in Alaska. Concentrations of several metals were naturally high in the sediment relative to uncontaminated lakes in other Arctic regions and more temperate locations. For example, concentrations of Hg and Ni were 175 ng/g and 250 ng/g dry weight, respectively, in Feniak Lake surface sediment. If any anthropogenic enrichment has occurred, it is not distinguishable from background variability based on surface sediment to down core comparisons. With the exception of Hg, the site rank order of metal concentrations (Cu, Cd, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in sediment and freshwater fish tissue among lakes is not consistent. This suggests that a number of physical, chemical, and physiological parameters mediate metal bioavailability and uptake in these systems. Maximum concentrations of most metals in fish from this study are equal to or higher than those collected from remote Arctic lakes and rivers in Canada, Finland, and Russia. Muscle Hg concentrations in excess of 1 {micro}g/g wet weight were observed in lake trout from Feniak Lake, which has no identified Hg source other than naturally Hg-enriched sediments. Fish diet seems to influence some heavy metal burdens, as evidenced by the higher concentrations of some metals in lake trout compared to grayling, and differences among lakes for lake trout. Cadmium, Cu, and Zn burdens were higher in lakes where snails were consumed by trout compared to lakes without snails.

  17. The preferential accumulation of heavy metals in different tissues following frequent respiratory exposure to PM2.5 in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qingzhao; Liu, Huibin; Alattar, Mohamed; Jiang, Shoufang; Han, Jing; Ma, Yujiao; Jiang, Chunyang

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to explore the pattern of accumulation of some of main heavy metals in blood and various organs of rats after exposed to the atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Rats were randomly divided into control and three treatment groups (tracheal perfusion with 10 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg of PM2.5 suspension liquid, respectively). Whole blood and the lung, liver, kidney, and cerebral cortex were harvested after rats were treated and sacrificed. The used heavy metals were detected using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) instrument. As results, Lead was increased in the liver, lung and cerebral cortex and the level of manganese was significantly elevated in the liver and cerebral cortex in PM2.5 treated rats. Besides, arsenic was prominently enriched both in cerebral cortex and in blood, and so did the aluminum in the cerebral cortex and the copper in the liver. However, cadmium, chromium and nickel have shown no difference between the control group and the three PM2.5 treated groups. Following the exposure of PM2.5, different heavy metals are preferentially accumulated in different body tissues.

  18. The preferential accumulation of heavy metals in different tissues following frequent respiratory exposure to PM2.5 in rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qingzhao; Liu, Huibin; Alattar, Mohamed; Jiang, Shoufang; Han, Jing; Ma, Yujiao; Jiang, Chunyang

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the pattern of accumulation of some of main heavy metals in blood and various organs of rats after exposed to the atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Rats were randomly divided into control and three treatment groups (tracheal perfusion with 10 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg of PM2.5 suspension liquid, respectively). Whole blood and the lung, liver, kidney, and cerebral cortex were harvested after rats were treated and sacrificed. The used heavy metals were detected using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) instrument. As results, Lead was increased in the liver, lung and cerebral cortex and the level of manganese was significantly elevated in the liver and cerebral cortex in PM2.5 treated rats. Besides, arsenic was prominently enriched both in cerebral cortex and in blood, and so did the aluminum in the cerebral cortex and the copper in the liver. However, cadmium, chromium and nickel have shown no difference between the control group and the three PM2.5 treated groups. Following the exposure of PM2.5, different heavy metals are preferentially accumulated in different body tissues. PMID:26582271

  19. Evaluation of heavy metal and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons accumulation in plants from typical industrial sites: potential candidate in phytoremediation for co-contamination.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lu; Liao, Xiaoyong; Yan, Xiulan; Zhu, Ganghui; Ma, Dong

    2014-11-01

    The heavy metal and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contents were evaluated in surface soil and plant samples of 18 wild species collected from 3 typical industrial sites in South Central China. The accumulative characteristics of the plant species for both heavy metal and PAHs were discussed. The simultaneous accumulation of heavy metal and PAHs in plant and soil was observed at all the investigated sites, although disparities in spatial distributions among sites occurred. Both plant and soil samples were characterized by high accumulation for heavy metal at smelting site, moderate enrichment at coke power and coal mining sites, whereas high level of PAHs (16 priority pollutants according to US Environmental Protection Agency) at coke power site, followed sequentially by coal mining and smelting sites. Based on the differences of heavy metal and PAH accumulation behaviors of the studied plant species, heavy metal and PAH accumulation strategies were suggested: Pteris vittata L. and Pteris cretica L. for As and PAHs, Boehmeria nivea (L.) Gaud for Pb, As, and PAHs, and Miscanthus floridulu (Labnll.) Warb for Cu and PAHs. These native plant species could be proposed as promising materials for heavy metal and PAHs combined pollution remediation.

  20. [Estimating of decadal accumulation rates of heavy metals in surface rice soils in the Tai Lake region of China].

    PubMed

    Li, Lianqing; Pan, Genxing; Zhang, Pingjiu; Cheng, Jiemin; Zhu, Qiuhua; Qiu, Duosheng

    2002-05-01

    Estimation of decadal accumulation of some heavy metals in surface rice soils from the Tai Lake region, southern Jiangsu Province, China was made by means of calculating the monitoring data and/or analysis data of the archived soil samples. For the last decade, the estimated annual accumulation rate for Cu or Zn, Pb and Cd was 0.3-1 mg.(kg.a)-1, 0.2-1 mg.(kg.a)-1 and 0.3-3 micrograms.(kg.a)-1 respectively, the apparent pollution loading was, therefore, respectively 0.5-1 kg.(hm2.a)-1, 0.5-1.0 kg.(hm2.a)-1, 0.5-3.0 kg.(hm2.a)-1 [symbol: see text] 0.8-10 x 10(-3) kg.(hm2.a)-1. The accumulation rate for the content of available form was shown to be greater than that of total content. The non-point source pollution marked bigger contribution to the total annual loading for the Pb and Cd than the other source pollutions, while the Cd loading was prominently higher than those reported in Europe. These results may indicate that the food safety in this region may be constrained by the soil pollution of these heavy metals at high accumulation rates.

  1. Acidification, heavy metal mobility and nutrient accumulation in the soil-plant system of a revegetated acid mine wasteland.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sheng-Xiang; Liao, Bin; Li, Jin-tian; Guo, Tao; Shu, Wen-Sheng

    2010-08-01

    A revegetation program was established at an extreme acidic and metal-toxic pyrite/copper mine wasteland in Guangdong Province, PR China using a combination of four native grass species and one non-native woody species. It was continued and monitored for 2 y. The emphasis was on acidification, metal mobility and nutrient accumulation in the soil-plant system. Our results showed the following: (i) the acid-forming potential of the mine soils decreased steadily with time, which might be due to plant root-induced changes inhibiting the oxidization of sulphide minerals; (ii) heavy metal extractability (diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid-extractable Pb and Zn) in the soils increased with time despite an increase in soil pH, which might be attributed to soil disturbance and plant rhizospheric processes, as well as a consequence of the enhanced metal accumulation in plants over time; and (iii) the vegetation cover increased rapidly with time, and plant development accelerated the accumulation of major nutrients (organic matter, total and ammonium-N, and available P and K). The 2-y field experiment demonstrates that direct seeding/planting of native plant species in combination with lime and manure amelioration is a practical approach to the initial establishment of a self-sustaining vegetation cover on this metalliferous and sulphide-bearing mine wasteland. However, heavy metal accumulation in the soil-plant system should be of great concern, and long-term monitoring of ecological risk must be an integral part of such a restoration scheme. PMID:20580409

  2. Element accumulation in boreal bryophytes, lichens and vascular plants exposed to heavy metal and sulfur deposition in Finland.

    PubMed

    Salemaa, Maija; Derome, John; Helmisaari, Heljä-Sisko; Nieminen, Tiina; Vanha-Majamaa, Ilkka

    2004-05-25

    Macronutrient (N, P, K, Mg, S, Ca), heavy metal (Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Ni, Cd, Pb) and Al concentrations in understorey bryophytes, lichens and vascular plant species growing in Scots pine forests at four distances from the Harjavalta Cu-Ni smelter (0.5, 2, 4 and 8 km) were compared to those at two background sites in Finland. The aim was to study the relationship between element accumulation and the distribution of the species along a pollution gradient. Elevated sulfur, nitrogen and heavy metal concentrations were found in all species groups near the pollution source. Macronutrient concentrations tended to decrease in the order: vascular plants>bryophytes>lichens, when all the species groups grew on the same plot. Heavy metal concentrations (except Mn) were the highest in bryophytes, followed by lichens, and were the lowest in vascular plants. In general, vascular plants, being capable of restricting the uptake of toxic elements, grew closer to the smelter than lichens, while bryophytes began to increase in the understorey vegetation at further distances from the smelter. A pioneer moss (Pohlia nutans) was an exception, because it accumulated considerably higher amounts of Cu and Ni than the other species and still survived close to the smelter. The abundance of most of the species decreased with increasing Cu and Ni concentrations in their tissues. Cetraria islandica, instead, showed a positive relationship between the abundance and Cu, Ni and S concentrations of the thallus. It is probable that, in addition to heavy metals, sporadically high SO(2) emissions have also affected the distribution of the plant species.

  3. Accumulation of heavy metals in the fish, Oreochromis niloticus and Poecilia latipinna and their concentration in water and sediment of dam lake of Wadi Namar, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Zubair; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A; Al-Balawi, Hmoud F Al-Kahem; Al-Misned, Fahad; Maboob, Shahid; Suliman, El-Amin M

    2015-01-01

    The present study reports the accumulation of heavy metals like Cu, Hg, Cd, Pb and Cr in different tissues viz. liver, kidney, gills and muscles of Oreochromisniloticus and Poecilia latipinna from two sites in dam lake of Wadi Namar. Water and sediment samples were also collected from two sites for heavy metal analysis. Metal concentration in water and sediment samples of both the sites were observed in the following order: Cu>Cr>Pb>Cd>Hg; however, their concentration was found to be more at site 2 as compared to site 1. The order of metal accumulation in different tissues of O. niloticus and P. latipinna was in the following order: Cu>Cr>Pb>Cd>Hg at both the sites, while liver accumulated maximum amounts of metals followed by kidney, gills and muscles. The results showed the site 2 was more polluted by metals than Site 1 and O. niloticus accumulated greater amount of metals than P. latipinna.

  4. Phosphatase production and activity in Citrobacter freundii and a naturally occurring, heavy-metal-accumulating Citrobacter sp.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, D M; Dean, A C; Wiffen, P; Macaskie, L E

    1995-10-01

    The ability of a naturally occurring Citrobacter sp. to accumulate cadmium has been attributed to cellular precipitation of CdHPO4, utilizing HPO4(2-) liberated via the activity of an overproduced, Cd-resistant acid-type phosphatase. Phosphatase production and heavy metal accumulation by batch cultures of this strain (N14) and a phosphatase-deficient mutant were compared with two reference strains of Citrobacter freundii. Only strain N14 expressed a high level of acid phosphatase and accumulated lanthanum and uranyl ion enzymically. Acid phosphatase is regulated via carbon-starvation; although the C. freundii strains overexpressed phosphatase activity in carbon-limiting continuous culture, this was approximately 20-fold less than the activity of strain N14 grown similarly. Citrobacter strain N14 was originally isolated from a metal-contaminated soil environment; phosphatase overproduction and metal accumulation were postulated as a detoxification mechanism. However, application of Cd-stress, and enrichment for Cd-resistant C. freundii ('training'), reduced the phosphatase activity of this organism by about 50% as compared to Cd-unstressed cultures. The acid phosphatase of C. freundii and Citrobacter N14 had a similar pattern of resistance to some diagnostic reagents. The enzyme of the latter is similar to the PhoN acid phosphatase of Salmonella typhimurium described by other workers; the results are discussed with respect to the known phosphatases of the enterobacteria.

  5. Effect of peat on the accumulation and translocation of heavy metals by maize grown in contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Stanislawska-Glubiak, Ewa; Korzeniowska, Jolanta; Kocon, Anna

    2015-03-01

    Incorporation of organic materials into soil improves the soil sorption capacity, while limiting the mobility of metals in soil and their availability to plants. These effects can be taken advantage for remediation of soils polluted with heavy metals. The objective of this study is to assess the remediatory potential of peat applied to soils with concomitant pollution with Cd, Pb, and Zn. Two 1-year experiments were run in microplots in which maize was grown as the test plant. The following treatments were compared on two soils (sandy soil and loess): (1) control, (2) heavy metals (HM), (3) HM + peat in a single dose, and (4) HM + peat in a double dose. Maize was harvested in the maturity stage; the biomass of roots and aerial parts, including grain and cobs, was measured. Besides, concentration of metals in all those plant parts and the net photosynthetic rate and transpiration rate were determined. The approach of using peat in soil remediation led to satisfactory results on sandy soil only. The application of peat to sandy soil caused significant changes in the accumulation of the metals and their translocation from roots to other parts of plants, which resulted in a higher intensity of photosynthesis and an increase in the maize biomass compared to the HM treatment. PMID:25331526

  6. Effect of peat on the accumulation and translocation of heavy metals by maize grown in contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Stanislawska-Glubiak, Ewa; Korzeniowska, Jolanta; Kocon, Anna

    2015-03-01

    Incorporation of organic materials into soil improves the soil sorption capacity, while limiting the mobility of metals in soil and their availability to plants. These effects can be taken advantage for remediation of soils polluted with heavy metals. The objective of this study is to assess the remediatory potential of peat applied to soils with concomitant pollution with Cd, Pb, and Zn. Two 1-year experiments were run in microplots in which maize was grown as the test plant. The following treatments were compared on two soils (sandy soil and loess): (1) control, (2) heavy metals (HM), (3) HM + peat in a single dose, and (4) HM + peat in a double dose. Maize was harvested in the maturity stage; the biomass of roots and aerial parts, including grain and cobs, was measured. Besides, concentration of metals in all those plant parts and the net photosynthetic rate and transpiration rate were determined. The approach of using peat in soil remediation led to satisfactory results on sandy soil only. The application of peat to sandy soil caused significant changes in the accumulation of the metals and their translocation from roots to other parts of plants, which resulted in a higher intensity of photosynthesis and an increase in the maize biomass compared to the HM treatment.

  7. Heavy metal accumulation in lichens growing in north side of Lucknow city, India.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Shalini; Upreti, D K; Sharma, Neeta

    2007-01-01

    Accumulation of Pb, Fe, Cr, Zn, Cd, Ni, Cu and Hg metals in six common lichen species growing on Mangifera indica trees in mango orchard surrounding the north side of the Lucknow city, were analyzed. The study revealed the higher concentration of Pb (3.3 - 15.6 microgg(-1)), Cr (25.6 - 137.5 microgg(-1)), Zn (49.4 - 219.7 microgg(-1)), Cu (10.2 - 66.6 microgg(-1)) and Fe (1748 - 19374 microgg(-1)). PMID:17717985

  8. Accumulations of heavy metals in roadside soils close to zhaling, eling and nam co lakes in the tibetan plateau.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xuedong; Zhang, Fan; Gao, Dan; Zeng, Chen; Xiang, Wang; Zhang, Man

    2013-06-07

    Concentrations of four typical heavy metals (Cu; Zn; Cd and Pb) in roadside soils close to three lakes in the Tibetan Plateau were investigated in this study. The hierarchical tree-based regression method was applied to classify concentrations of the heavy metals and analyze their potential influencing factors. It was found that the Tibetan Plateau meadow soils with higher content of sand lead to higher concentrations of Cu; Zn and Pb. The concentrations of Cd and Pb increase with road traffic volume; and for the road segments with higher traffic volume; the Cd and Pb concentrations significantly decrease with the roadside distance. Additionally; the concentrations of Zn and Pb increase as the altitude of sampling site increases. Furthermore; the Hakanson potential ecological risk index method was used to assess the contamination degree of the heavy metals for the study regions. The results show that accumulations of Cu; Zn and Pb in roadside soils remain an unpolluted level at all sites. However; the Cd indices in the regions with higher traffic volume have reached a strong potential ecological risk level; and some spots with peak concentrations have even been severely polluted due to traffic activities.

  9. Accumulations of Heavy Metals in Roadside Soils Close to Zhaling, Eling and Nam Co Lakes in the Tibetan Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xuedong; Zhang, Fan; Gao, Dan; Zeng, Chen; Xiang, Wang; Zhang, Man

    2013-01-01

    Concentrations of four typical heavy metals (Cu; Zn; Cd and Pb) in roadside soils close to three lakes in the Tibetan Plateau were investigated in this study. The hierarchical tree-based regression method was applied to classify concentrations of the heavy metals and analyze their potential influencing factors. It was found that the Tibetan Plateau meadow soils with higher content of sand lead to higher concentrations of Cu; Zn and Pb. The concentrations of Cd and Pb increase with road traffic volume; and for the road segments with higher traffic volume; the Cd and Pb concentrations significantly decrease with the roadside distance. Additionally; the concentrations of Zn and Pb increase as the altitude of sampling site increases. Furthermore; the Hakanson potential ecological risk index method was used to assess the contamination degree of the heavy metals for the study regions. The results show that accumulations of Cu; Zn and Pb in roadside soils remain an unpolluted level at all sites. However; the Cd indices in the regions with higher traffic volume have reached a strong potential ecological risk level; and some spots with peak concentrations have even been severely polluted due to traffic activities. PMID:23749055

  10. Phytoremediation of heavy-metal-polluted soils: screening for new accumulator plants in Angouran mine (Iran) and evaluation of removal ability.

    PubMed

    Chehregani, Abdolkarim; Noori, Mitra; Yazdi, Hossein Lari

    2009-07-01

    Heavy metal pollution is a worldwide problem. Phytoremediation is an effective and low-cost interesting technology. This study was conducted in a dried waste pool of a lead and zinc mine in Angouran (Iran) to find accumulator plant(s). Concentrations of heavy metals were determined both in the soil and the plants that were grown in the mine and out of mine. The concentration of total Cu, Fe, Zn, Pb and Ni in the mine area were higher than the control soil. The results showed that five dominant vegetations namely Amaranthus retroflexus, Polygonum aviculare, Gundelia tournefortii, Noea mucronata and Scariola orientalis accumulated heavy metals. Based on the results, it was concluded that N. mucronata is the best accumulator for Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd and Ni, but the best Fe accumulator is A. retroflexus. Phytoremediation ability of N. mucronata was evaluated in experimental pots. The study showed that the amounts of heavy metals were decreased in polluted soils during experiments. The accumulation of metals in the root, leave and shoot portions of N. mucronata varied significantly but all the concentrations were more than natural soils. The results indicated that N. mucronata is an effective accumulator plant for phytoremediation of heavy-metals-polluted soils.

  11. Heavy metal accumulation in balsam pear and cowpea related to the geochemical factors of variable-charge soils in the Pearl River Delta, South China.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chun-Ying; Xu, Xiang-Hua; Liu, Chuan-Ping; Li, Shu-Yi; Liao, Xin-Rong; Dong, Jun; Li, Fang-Bai

    2014-07-01

    Variable-charge (v-c) soils in subtropical areas contain considerable amounts of iron/aluminum (Fe/Al) oxides that can strongly influence the fate of heavy metals in agricultural ecosystems. However, the relationship between heavy metal accumulation in vegetables and the geochemical factors associated with v-c soils in subtropical regions remains unknown. The present study investigated heavy metal accumulation under field conditions in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) by measuring the content of 8 heavy metals (zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni) and cadmium (Cd)) in 43 pairs of v-c soil and vegetable (balsam pear and cowpea) samples. Soil physicochemical properties including pH, texture, organic matter and oxide minerals (Fe2O3, SiO2, Al2O3, CaO, MgO, K2O and Na2O) were also analyzed. Heavy metal accumulation from soil to vegetables was assessed based on bioconcentration factors (BCFs). The results showed that soil extractable Fe, oxide minerals and chemical weathering indices of v-c soils strongly affected heavy metal accumulation, whereas the content of Zn, Cu, Cr and Ni in vegetables was strongly affected by the soil clay content. Significant correlations were found between the BCFs of heavy metals and oxide minerals. However, no significant relationship was found between pH and heavy metal accumulation (except for Cu) in balsam pear and cowpea. Correlation analyses showed that a lower oxalate/DCB- extractable Fe content might indicate greater heavy metal (Zn, Cu, Hg, Cr and Ni) accumulation in vegetables. Therefore, it can be deduced that oxalate/DCB- extractable Fe content is a critical geochemical factor that determines the bioavailability of heavy metals and that iron biogeochemical cycles play vital roles in the fate of heavy metals in vegetable fields in this area. These findings provide new insights into the behaviors and fate of heavy metals in subtropical v-c soils and can be used to develop possible

  12. Accumulation, detoxification, and genotoxicity of heavy metals in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.).

    PubMed

    Seth, C S; Misra, V; Chauhan, L K S

    2012-01-01

    Plants of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) were exposed to different concentrations (15, 30, 60, 120 microM) of (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb) for 28 and 56 d for accumulation and detoxification studies. Metal accumulation in roots and shoots were analyzed and it was observed that roots accumulated a significant amount of Cd (1980 microg g(-1) dry weight), Cr (1540 microg g(-1) dry weight), Cu (1995 microg g(-1) dry weight), and Pb (2040 microg g(-1) dry weight) after 56 d of exposure, though in shoot this was 1110, 618, 795, and 409 microg g(-1) dry weight of Cd, Cr, Cu, and Pb, respectively. In order to assess detoxification mechanisms, non-protein thiols (NP-SH), glutathione (GSH) and phytochelatins (PCs) were analyzed in plants. An increase in the quantity of NP-SH (9.55), GSH (8.30), and PCs (1.25) micromol g(-1) FW were found at 15 microM of Cd, however, a gradual decline in quantity was observed from 15 microM of Cd onwards, after 56 d of exposure. For genotoxicity in plants, cytogenetic end-points such as mitotic index (MI), micronucleus formation (MN), mitotic aberrations (MA) and chromosome aberrations (CA) were examined in root meristem cells of B. juncea. Exposure of Cd revealed a significant (P < 0.05) inhibition of MI, induction of MA, CA, and MN in the root tips for 24 h. However, cells examined at 24 h post-exposure showed concentration-wise recovery in all the endpoints. The data revealed that Indian mustard could be used as a potential accumulator of Cd, Cr, Cu, and Pb due to a good tolerance mechanisms provided by combined/concerted action of NP-SH, GSH, and PCs. Also, exposure of Cd can cause genotoxic effects in B. juncea L. through chromosomal mutations, MA, and MN formation.

  13. Accumulation of glutamate in sea anemones exposed to heavy metals and organic amines

    SciTech Connect

    Kasschau, M.R.; Skaggs, M.M.; Chen, E.C.M.

    1980-12-01

    Stress has been reported to accelerate protein catabolism in man and animals and as a result one can expect to observe changes in certain amino acids pools of these organisms. In the present study, the Gulf Coast sea anemone, Bunodosoma cavernata, was used as the test animal and free amino acid levels of whole animals were measured following stressed conditions. Sea anemones were chosen as the test animals since they are sessile and, due to the nature of their morphology, they have few mechanisms by which they can escape environmental stress. The animals were exposed to sublethal concentrations of mercuric chloride and cadmium chloride and the organic amines, aniline, diethanol amine (DEA), and ethylene diamine (EDA). Chloride salts of mercury and cadmium were chosen rather than other anions since chloride is the most abundant anion in seawater. These two particular metals were chosen as challenge compounds due to their high toxicity in aquatic systems. The three organic amines were chosen for their relatively high water solubility and low vapor pressure in an aqueous solution, thus insuring that the toxic compound is retained in the test solution. Since organic amines are used extensively in the Gulf Coast industrial complex, there is a high probability of these compounds contaminating the marine environment. Results indicate that the reaction of B. cavernata to stress from organic amines is similar to the response to heavy metals, only more extensive.

  14. Identification and validation of heavy metal and radionuclide accumulating terrestrial plant species. Quarterly technical progress report, June 21, 1995--September 20, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Kochian, L.

    1995-12-31

    This quarterly report describes experiments on uptake of a variety of heavy metals by plants. Titles of report sections are (1) Alleviation of heavy-metal induced micronutrient deficiency through foliar fertilization, (2) Second screen for Zn, Cu, and Cd accumulation, (3) Characterization of the root Zn hyperaccumulation by Thlaspi caerulescens, (4) Comparison of commercial Brassica accessions obtained from the Iowa seed bank, (5) Second screening experiment for the accumulation of Cs and Sr by plants, (6) Effect of Ca on Cs and Sr accumulation by selected dicot species, and (7) Preliminary investigations into the forms of uranium taken up by plants.

  15. Enhanced tolerance and accumulation of heavy metal ions by engineered Escherichia coli expressing Pyrus calleryana phytochelatin synthase.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Cong, Yu; Lin, Jing; Chang, Youhong

    2015-03-01

    Contamination by heavy metals is a major environmental problem worldwide and microbial bioremediation is an efficient method for removing this type of pollution. The plant enzymephytochelatin synthase (PCS, also known as glutathione g-glutamylcysteinyltransferase, EC2.3.2.15) involved in the synthesis of phytochelatins (PCs), which are metal-binding cysteine-rich peptides, has a major role in the detoxification of heavy metals in plants. Expression of the PcPCS1 gene from the bean pear (Pyrus calleryana Dcne.) was induced after cadmium and copper treatments. However, functional analysis of this gene in vivo has not been reported. And it is or not suitable for bioremediation also needs to be assessed. In this study, we found Escherichia coli with over-expressed PcPCS1 had enhanced tolerance to cadmium, copper, sodium, and mercury. E. colicells transformed with pPcPCS1 was found to survive in solid M9 medium containing 2.0 mM Cd(2+), 4.0 mM Cu(2+). 4.5% (w/v) Na+, or 200 μ MHg(2+). Moreover, the growth curve showed 1.5 mM Cd(2+), 2.5 mM Cu(2+), 3.5% (w/v) Naþ, and 100 μ MHg(2+) had no effect on the growth of the E. coli cells transformed with pPcPCS1. Also, we found the contents of PCs and the accumulation of cadmium,copper, sodium, and mercury ions were enhanced in the recombinant E. coli strain Rosetta(TM) (DE3).These results suggested the PcPCS1 gene might be a candidate for heavy metal bioremediation via recombinant bacteria. PMID:25727053

  16. Enhanced tolerance and accumulation of heavy metal ions by engineered Escherichia coli expressing Pyrus calleryana phytochelatin synthase.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Cong, Yu; Lin, Jing; Chang, Youhong

    2015-03-01

    Contamination by heavy metals is a major environmental problem worldwide and microbial bioremediation is an efficient method for removing this type of pollution. The plant enzymephytochelatin synthase (PCS, also known as glutathione g-glutamylcysteinyltransferase, EC2.3.2.15) involved in the synthesis of phytochelatins (PCs), which are metal-binding cysteine-rich peptides, has a major role in the detoxification of heavy metals in plants. Expression of the PcPCS1 gene from the bean pear (Pyrus calleryana Dcne.) was induced after cadmium and copper treatments. However, functional analysis of this gene in vivo has not been reported. And it is or not suitable for bioremediation also needs to be assessed. In this study, we found Escherichia coli with over-expressed PcPCS1 had enhanced tolerance to cadmium, copper, sodium, and mercury. E. colicells transformed with pPcPCS1 was found to survive in solid M9 medium containing 2.0 mM Cd(2+), 4.0 mM Cu(2+). 4.5% (w/v) Na+, or 200 μ MHg(2+). Moreover, the growth curve showed 1.5 mM Cd(2+), 2.5 mM Cu(2+), 3.5% (w/v) Naþ, and 100 μ MHg(2+) had no effect on the growth of the E. coli cells transformed with pPcPCS1. Also, we found the contents of PCs and the accumulation of cadmium,copper, sodium, and mercury ions were enhanced in the recombinant E. coli strain Rosetta(TM) (DE3).These results suggested the PcPCS1 gene might be a candidate for heavy metal bioremediation via recombinant bacteria.

  17. Effects of fly ash incorporation on heavy metal accumulation, growth and yield responses of Beta vulgaris plants.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anurag; Sharma, Rajesh Kumar; Agrawal, Shashi Bhushan

    2008-10-01

    Use of fly ash (FA) to agriculture is not always beneficial, however, utilization of lower concentration of FA as soil amendment is suitable for better management of few crops. The present study was conducted to study the effects of various concentrations of FA (0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%) on heavy metal accumulation, growth, and yield responses of palak (Beta vulgaris L. var All Green H1). The results showed that application of FA caused significant reductions in growth, biomass and yield responses of B. vulgaris plants at different ages of observations. The concentrations of all the heavy metals increased significantly with increasing concentrations of FA. Metal pollution index (MPI) of both roots and shoots showed significant and negative relationships with the yield of B. vulgaris plants. The study concludes that B. vulgaris plant is sensitive to FA concentrations used in this study. It is further recommended that leafy vegetable like B. vulgaris is not a suitable crop to be grown in a region where FA is used for amendment of agricultural soils.

  18. Distribution and extent of heavy metal accumulation in Song Sparrows (Melospiza melodia), upper Santa Cruz River watershed, southern Arizona, 2011-12

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lester, Michael B.; van Riper, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Riparian ecosystems in arid environments provide critical habitat for breeding, migratory, and wintering birds, yet are often at risk of contamination by heavy metals. Birds and other animals living in contaminated areas are susceptible to adverse health effects as a result of long-term exposure and bioaccumulation of heavy metals. We investigated the distribution and cascading extent of heavy metal accumulation in Song Sparrows (Melospiza melodia) in Arizona’s upper Santa Cruz River watershed. This study had three goals: (1) quantify the degree of heavy metal accumulation in sparrows and determine the distributional patterns among study sites, (2) compare concentrations of metals found in this study to those found in studies performed prior to the 2009 international wastewater treatment plant upgrade, and (3) assess sparrow condition among sites with differing potential sources of contamination exposure. We examined six study sites that reflected different potential sources of contamination. Hematocrit values, body mass residuals, and leukocyte counts were used to assess sparrow condition. Cadmium, copper, mercury, nickel, and selenium exceeded background concentrations at some sites, but generally were lower than or similar to concentrations found in earlier studies performed prior to the 2009 international wastewater treatment plant upgrade. Concentrations were higher in recaptured birds in 2012 than in 2011 for 7 metals in feathers and 14 metals in blood, suggesting possible bioaccumulation. We found no cascading effects as a result of heavy metal exposure, but did find that heavy metal concentrations were reduced following the 2009 international wastewater treatment plant upgrade.

  19. Phytochelatin synthase of Thlaspi caerulescens enhanced tolerance and accumulation of heavy metals when expressed in yeast and tobacco.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ge-Yu; Zhang, Yu-Xiu; Chai, Tuan-Yao

    2011-06-01

    Phytochelatin synthase (PCS) is key enzyme for heavy metal detoxification and accumulation in plant. In this study, we isolated the PCS gene TcPCS1 from the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens. Overexpression of TcPCS1 enhanced PC production in tobacco. Cd accumulation in the roots and shoots of TcPCS1 transgenic seedlings was increased compared to the wild type (WT), while Cd translocation from roots to shoots was not affected under Cd treatment. The root length of the TcPCS1 transgenic tobacco seedlings was significantly longer than that of the WT under Cd stress. These data indicate that TcPCS1 expression might increase Cd accumulation and tolerance in transgenic tobacco. In addition, the malondialdehyde content in TcPCS1 plants was below that of the wild type. However, the antioxidant enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase were found to be significantly higher than those of the WT when the transgenic plant was exposed to Cd stress. This suggests that the increase in PC production might enhance the Cd accumulation and thus increase the oxidative stress induced by the cadmium. The production of PCs could cause a transient decrease in the cytosolic glutathione (GSH) pool, and Cd and lower GSH concentration caused an increase in the oxidative response. We also determined TcPCS1 in Thlaspi caerulescens was regulated after exposure to various concentrations of CdCl(2) over different treatment times. Expression of TcPCS1 leading to increased Cd accumulation and enhanced metal tolerance, but the Cd contents were restrained by adding zinc in Saccharomyces cerevisiae transformants. PMID:21327392

  20. Modelling and monitoring organochlorine and heavy metal accumulation in soils, earthworms, and shrews in Rhine-delta floodplains.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, A J; Ma, W C; Brouns, J J; de Ruiter-Dijkman, E M; Gast, R

    1995-07-01

    In the Rhine-delta, accumulation of microcontaminants in floodplain foodwebs has received little attention in comparison with aquatic communities. To investigate organochlorine and metal concentrations in a terrestrial foodchain, samples of soil, earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus), and shrew (Crocidura russula, Sorex araneus) livers and kidneys were taken from two moderately to heavily polluted floodplains. Chlorobiphenyl residues in earthworm fat were 0.10 to 3.5 times the concentrations in soil organic matter, whereas ratios for other organochlorines varied between 0.87 and 8.8. These ratios are one order of magnitude lower than expected from laboratory experiments with earthworms, and laboratory and field studies on aquatic invertebrates. Bioconcentration ratios for heavy metals are in accordance with literature values for other locations, confirming the high potential for cadmium accumulation in Lumbricidae. Concentrations of organochlorines in shrew liver lipids were 1.0 to 13 times the residues in earthworm fat. These values are higher than lipid-corrected biomagnification ratios for laboratory rodents, but equal to those measured for benthivorous birds in the Rhine-delta. On a dry weight basis, kidney-earthworm ratios for cadmium were about one order of magnitude lower than previously reported values for insectivores. Soil concentrations of many compounds in both floodplains did not meet Dutch quality standards. Yet, hexachlorobenzene, chlorobiphenyl 153 (PCB153), gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane, sigma DDT, and dieldrin residues in earthworms and shrews did not exceed diet levels expected to be safe for endothermic species. An exception was noted for cadmium in worms and shrew kidneys. Heavy metal pollution in soil was close to levels that are critical to earthworms in laboratory studies. Cadmium concentrations in shrew kidneys were below levels suggested to be safe for Sorex araneus, but above those that were critical to the rat.

  1. Modelling and monitoring organochlorine and heavy metal accumulation in soils, earthworms, and shrews in Rhine-delta floodplains.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, A J; Ma, W C; Brouns, J J; de Ruiter-Dijkman, E M; Gast, R

    1995-07-01

    In the Rhine-delta, accumulation of microcontaminants in floodplain foodwebs has received little attention in comparison with aquatic communities. To investigate organochlorine and metal concentrations in a terrestrial foodchain, samples of soil, earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus), and shrew (Crocidura russula, Sorex araneus) livers and kidneys were taken from two moderately to heavily polluted floodplains. Chlorobiphenyl residues in earthworm fat were 0.10 to 3.5 times the concentrations in soil organic matter, whereas ratios for other organochlorines varied between 0.87 and 8.8. These ratios are one order of magnitude lower than expected from laboratory experiments with earthworms, and laboratory and field studies on aquatic invertebrates. Bioconcentration ratios for heavy metals are in accordance with literature values for other locations, confirming the high potential for cadmium accumulation in Lumbricidae. Concentrations of organochlorines in shrew liver lipids were 1.0 to 13 times the residues in earthworm fat. These values are higher than lipid-corrected biomagnification ratios for laboratory rodents, but equal to those measured for benthivorous birds in the Rhine-delta. On a dry weight basis, kidney-earthworm ratios for cadmium were about one order of magnitude lower than previously reported values for insectivores. Soil concentrations of many compounds in both floodplains did not meet Dutch quality standards. Yet, hexachlorobenzene, chlorobiphenyl 153 (PCB153), gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane, sigma DDT, and dieldrin residues in earthworms and shrews did not exceed diet levels expected to be safe for endothermic species. An exception was noted for cadmium in worms and shrew kidneys. Heavy metal pollution in soil was close to levels that are critical to earthworms in laboratory studies. Cadmium concentrations in shrew kidneys were below levels suggested to be safe for Sorex araneus, but above those that were critical to the rat. PMID:7794009

  2. Heavy metal accumulation in different varieties of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown in soil amended with domestic sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Jamali, Muhammad K; Kazi, Tasneem G; Arain, Muhammad B; Afridi, Hassan I; Jalbani, Nusrat; Kandhro, Ghulam A; Shah, Abdul Q; Baig, Jameel A

    2009-05-30

    The concentrations of heavy metals (HMs) in plants served to indicate the metal contamination status of the site, and also revealed the abilities of various plant species to take up and accumulate them from the soil dressed with sewage sludge. A study to comprehend the mobility and transport of HMs from soil and soil amended with untreated sewage sludge to different newly breaded varieties of wheat (Anmol, TJ-83, Abadgar and Mehran-89) in Pakistan. A pot-culture experiment was conducted to study the transfer of HMs to wheat grains, grown in soil (control) and soil amended with sewage sludge (test samples). The total and ethylenediaminetetraaceticacid (EDTA)-extractable HMs in agricultural soil and soil amended with domestic sewage sludge (SDWS) and wheat grains were analysed by flame atomic absorption spectrometer/electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometer, prior to microwave-assisted wet acid digestion method. The edible part of wheat plants (grains) from test samples presented high concentration of all HMs understudy (mgkg(-1)). Significant correlations were found between metals in exchangeable fractions of soil and SDWS, with total metals in control and test samples of wheat grains. The bio-concentration factors of all HMs were high in grains of two wheat varieties, TJ-83 and Mehran-89, as compared to other varieties, Anmol and Abadgar grown in the same agricultural plots.

  3. Variations in heavy metal accumulation, growth and yield of rice plants grown at different sewage sludge amendment rates.

    PubMed

    Singh, R P; Agrawal, M

    2010-05-01

    Use of sewage sludge in agriculture is an alternative disposal technique for this waste. The present field study was conducted to assess the suitability of sewage sludge amendment in soil for rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Pusa sugandha 3) by evaluating the heavy metal accumulation, growth, biomass and yield responses of plants grown at 0, 3, 4.5, 6, 9, 12 kgm(-2) sewage sludge amendment (SSA) rate. Sewage sludge amendment modified the physico-chemical properties of soil, thus increasing the availability of heavy metals in soil and consequently with higher accumulation in plant parts. Root length decreased, whereas shoot length, number of leaves, leaf area and total biomass increased significantly when grown under various SSA rates. Yield of rice increased by 60%, 111%, 125%, 134% and 137% at 3, 4.5, 6, 9 and 12 kgm(-2) SSA, respectively, as compared to those grown in unamended soil. Sewage sludge amendment rates above 4.5 kgm(-2) though increased the yield of rice, but caused risk of food chain contamination as concentrations of Ni and Cd in rice grains were found to be above the Indian safe limits (1.5 mgkg(-1)) of human consumption above 4.5 kgm(-2) SSA and of Pb (2.5 mgkg(-1)) above 6 kgm(-2) SSA. Since aboveground parts of the rice also showed higher concentration than the permissible levels of Ni, Cd and Pb at 4.5 kgm(-2) SSA rate, it cannot be used as fodder. The rice husk may be used as bioresource for energy production. Efforts should be made to treat the effluents from small scale industries before discharge into the sewerage system.

  4. Effects of industrial waste water on heavy metal accumulation, growth and biochemical responses of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Naaz, Shadma; Pandey, S N

    2010-05-01

    The waste water showed high values of total solid (TS), hardness and chloride with slightly alkaline pH along with high concentrations of Cr (2.03 mg l(-1)), Ni (1.59 mg l(-1)) and Zn (0.46 mg l(-1)). The concentration of Cu (0.21 mg l(-1)) and Zn in industrial waste water was low than Ni and Cr. The diluted (25 and 50%), undiluted (100%) waste water was used to irrigate the lettuce plants grown in alluvial soils. Plants accumulated heavy metals in their shoot (Ni, 13.65; Cr, 19.73; Zn, 21.6 and Cu 14.76 microg g(-1) dry weight) and root (Ni, 41.4; Cr, 31.6; Zn, 30.2 and Cu 15.85 microg g(-1) dry weight) in high concentrations after irrigation with undiluted industrial waste water. Maximum accumulation of heavy metals was found in the root than the shoot (13.65-21.60 microg g(-1) dry weight). Dry matter yield and biomolecules (Chlorophyll a, b and sugar contents) was found to increase with increase in concentration of waste water up to 50%, which declined at the exposure of undiluted waste water. Catalase activity was found to increase with increase in waste water concentrations up to 100%, while carotenoids content increased in plants only up to the 50% waste water irrigation. Use of industrial waste water in such form, on agricultural lands is not found suitable without proper treatment. It could be injurious to plants growth and may be a potential threat to food web.

  5. Heavy metal accumulation and signal transduction in herbaceous and woody plants: Paving the way for enhancing phytoremediation efficiency.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhi-Bin; He, Jiali; Polle, Andrea; Rennenberg, Heinz

    2016-11-01

    Heavy metal (HM)-accumulating herbaceous and woody plants are employed for phytoremediation. To develop improved strategies for enhancing phytoremediation efficiency, knowledge of the microstructural, physiological and molecular responses underlying HM-accumulation is required. Here we review the progress in understanding the structural, physiological and molecular mechanisms underlying HM uptake, transport, sequestration and detoxification, as well as the regulation of these processes by signal transduction in response to HM exposure. The significance of genetic engineering for enhancing phytoremediation efficiency is also discussed. In herbaceous plants, HMs are taken up by roots and transported into the root cells via transmembrane carriers for nutritional ions. The HMs absorbed by root cells can be further translocated to the xylem vessels and unloaded into the xylem sap, thereby reaching the aerial parts of plants. HMs can be sequestered in the cell walls, vacuoles and the Golgi apparatuses. Plant roots initially perceive HM stress and trigger the signal transduction, thereby mediating changes at the molecular, physiological, and microstructural level. Signaling molecules such as phytohormones, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO), modulate plant responses to HMs via differentially expressed genes, activation of the antioxidative system and coordinated cross talk among different signaling molecules. A number of genes participated in HM uptake, transport, sequestration and detoxification have been functionally characterized and transformed to target plants for enhancing phytoremediation efficiency. Fast growing woody plants hold an advantage over herbaceous plants for phytoremediation in terms of accumulation of high HM-amounts in their large biomass. Presumably, woody plants accumulate HMs using similar mechanisms as herbaceous counterparts, but the processes of HM accumulation and signal transduction can be more complex in woody plants.

  6. Heavy metal accumulation and signal transduction in herbaceous and woody plants: Paving the way for enhancing phytoremediation efficiency.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhi-Bin; He, Jiali; Polle, Andrea; Rennenberg, Heinz

    2016-11-01

    Heavy metal (HM)-accumulating herbaceous and woody plants are employed for phytoremediation. To develop improved strategies for enhancing phytoremediation efficiency, knowledge of the microstructural, physiological and molecular responses underlying HM-accumulation is required. Here we review the progress in understanding the structural, physiological and molecular mechanisms underlying HM uptake, transport, sequestration and detoxification, as well as the regulation of these processes by signal transduction in response to HM exposure. The significance of genetic engineering for enhancing phytoremediation efficiency is also discussed. In herbaceous plants, HMs are taken up by roots and transported into the root cells via transmembrane carriers for nutritional ions. The HMs absorbed by root cells can be further translocated to the xylem vessels and unloaded into the xylem sap, thereby reaching the aerial parts of plants. HMs can be sequestered in the cell walls, vacuoles and the Golgi apparatuses. Plant roots initially perceive HM stress and trigger the signal transduction, thereby mediating changes at the molecular, physiological, and microstructural level. Signaling molecules such as phytohormones, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO), modulate plant responses to HMs via differentially expressed genes, activation of the antioxidative system and coordinated cross talk among different signaling molecules. A number of genes participated in HM uptake, transport, sequestration and detoxification have been functionally characterized and transformed to target plants for enhancing phytoremediation efficiency. Fast growing woody plants hold an advantage over herbaceous plants for phytoremediation in terms of accumulation of high HM-amounts in their large biomass. Presumably, woody plants accumulate HMs using similar mechanisms as herbaceous counterparts, but the processes of HM accumulation and signal transduction can be more complex in woody plants. PMID

  7. Clonal variation in heavy metal accumulation and biomass production in a poplar coppice culture: I. Seasonal variation in leaf, wood and bark concentrations.

    PubMed

    Laureysens, I; Blust, R; De Temmerman, L; Lemmens, C; Ceulemans, R

    2004-10-01

    The use of plants to decontaminate soils polluted by heavy metals has received considerable attention in recent years as a low-cost technique. Poplars (Populus spp.) can accumulate relatively high levels of certain metals, and have the added advantage of producing biomass that can be used for energy production. A short rotation coppice culture with 13 poplar clones was established on a former waste disposal site, which was moderately polluted with heavy metals. Total content of metals in leaves, wood and bark were determined in August and October/November. Significant clonal differences in accumulation were found for most metals, although clones with the highest concentration of all metals were not found. Cadmium, zinc and aluminium were most efficiently taken up. The lowest concentration was found in wood; the highest concentrations were generally found in senescing leaves, making removal and treatment of fallen leaves necessary.

  8. HEAVY METAL ACCUMULATION IN SEDIMENT AND FRESHWATER FISH IN U.S. ARCTIC LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metal concentrations in sediment and two species of freshwater fish (lake trout [Salvelinus namaycush], and grayling [Thymallus arcticus]} were examined in four Arctic lakes in Alaska. Concentrations of several metals were naturally high in the sediment relative to uncontaminated...

  9. Changing levels of heavy metal accumulation in birds at Tumacacori National Historic Park along the Upper Santa Cruz River Watershed in southern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Riper, Charles; Lester, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    National Parks and other protected areas can be influenced by contamination from outside their boundaries. This is particularly true of smaller parks and those in riparian ecosystems, a habitat that in arid environments provides critical habitat for breeding, migratory, and wintering birds. Animals living in contaminated areas are susceptible to adverse health effects as a result of long-term exposure and bioaccumulation of heavy metals. We investigated the distribution and cascading extent of heavy metal accumulation in Song Sparrows (Melospiza melodia) at Tumacacori National Historic Park (TUMA) along the upper Santa Cruz River watershed in southern Arizona. This study had three goals: (1) quantify the concentrations and distributional patterns of heavy metals in blood and feathers of Song Sparrows at Tumacacori National Historic Park, (2) quantify hematocrit values, body conditions (that is, residual body mass), and immune conditions of Song Sparrows in the park (3) compare our findings with prior studies at the park to assess the extent of heavy metal accumulation in birds at downstream sites after the 2009 wastewater treatment plant upgrade, and (4) quantify concentrations and distributional patterns of heavy metals in blood and feathers of Song Sparrows among six study sites throughout the upper Santa Cruz River watershed. This study design would allow us to more accurately assess song sparrow condition and blood parameters among sites with differing potential sources of contamination exposure, and how each location could have contributed to heavy metal levels of birds in the park.

  10. Heavy metal accumulations of 24 asparagus bean cultivars grown in soil contaminated with Cd alone and with multiple metals (Cd, Pb, and Zn).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yun; Yu, Hui; Wang, Junli; Fang, Wei; Yuan, Jiangang; Yang, Zhongyi

    2007-02-01

    Crops grown in heavy metal contaminated soils are an important avenue for these toxic pollutants entering the human food chain. Information on how crops respond to soil contaminations of single versus multiple metals is scarce and much needed. This study investigated the accumulation of Cd by 24 cultivars of asparagus bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. Sesquipedalis L., family Fabaceae) under a low level (0.8 mg kg-1) and a high level (11.8 mg kg-1) of Cd exposure in a garden experiment, and that in a field experiment with Cd, Pb, and Zn (1.2, 486, and 1114 mg kg-1, respectively) contaminated soil. Both experiments showed that there were highly significant variations among the tested cultivars in Cd accumulation by roots, stems, leaves, and fruits of asparagus bean. In the garden experiment, all cultivars under the low Cd exposure and 41.7% of the tested cultivars under the high Cd exposure bore fruits (pods) whose Cd concentrations were lower than 0.05 mg kg-1 fw and therefore were safe for consumption. In addition, the fruit Cd concentrations of cultivars with black seed coats were significantly lower than those with red or spotted seed coats. These results suggest that asparagus bean is a hypo-accumulator to Cd pollutant and the trait of Cd accumulation is genetic-dependent among cultivars. In the field experiment, correlation between fruit Cd and Pb concentrations was significantly positive (p < 0.05). Additional correlation analyses between two experiments showed that fruit Cd concentrations in the field experiment were significantly correlated with those exposed to the high level of Cd stress, instead of to the low level of Cd stress in the garden experiment. This suggests that the presence of other toxic heavy metals in the soil might have facilitated the accumulation of Cd in fruits, and the selection of pollution-safe-cultivars (PSC) in multi-metal polluted condition could refer to the PSCs selected under a high level exposure of a single heavy metal.

  11. Accumulation of heavy metals in soil and their transfer to leafy vegetables in the region of Dhaka Aricha Highway, Savar, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Aktaruzzaman, M; Fakhruddin, A N M; Chowdhury, M A Z; Fardous, Z; Alam, M K

    2013-04-01

    Accumulation of heavy metals in environmental matrices is a potential risk to living system due to their uptake by plants and subsequent introduction into the food chain. A study was conducted to investigate the heavy metals concentration in soils and leafy vegetables samples along the Dhaka Aricha Road to assess their potential ecological risk. Heavy metals concentration was analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. Concentrations ofallthetestedheavy metals except Cd in soil samples were below the permissible level. The mean concentration of Cd was found 3.99 +/- 1.85 mg kg(-1). Concentrations of all the tested heavy metals except Cd and Cr in vegetables samples were lower than recommended level. Mean concentration of Cd and Cr were found 1.00 +/- 0.68 mg kg(-1) and 2.32 +/- 0.84 mg kg(-1), respectively. Based on the Potential Ecological Risk Index, Cd posed very high risk to the local ecosystem due to its higher Risk Factor, > 320 and based on Transfer Factor of Pb and Cd were found higher accumulator among the tested metals. The results of present study revealed that the bioconcentration of heavy metals along the Dhaka Aricha Road posed high risk to the ecosystem. Considering the Transfer Factor of Cd and Pb it can be suggested that plants and leafy vegetables grow in the soil near Dhaka Aricha Road should not be used as food or feed. PMID:24498800

  12. Accumulation of heavy metals in soil and their transfer to leafy vegetables in the region of Dhaka Aricha Highway, Savar, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Aktaruzzaman, M; Fakhruddin, A N M; Chowdhury, M A Z; Fardous, Z; Alam, M K

    2013-04-01

    Accumulation of heavy metals in environmental matrices is a potential risk to living system due to their uptake by plants and subsequent introduction into the food chain. A study was conducted to investigate the heavy metals concentration in soils and leafy vegetables samples along the Dhaka Aricha Road to assess their potential ecological risk. Heavy metals concentration was analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. Concentrations ofallthetestedheavy metals except Cd in soil samples were below the permissible level. The mean concentration of Cd was found 3.99 +/- 1.85 mg kg(-1). Concentrations of all the tested heavy metals except Cd and Cr in vegetables samples were lower than recommended level. Mean concentration of Cd and Cr were found 1.00 +/- 0.68 mg kg(-1) and 2.32 +/- 0.84 mg kg(-1), respectively. Based on the Potential Ecological Risk Index, Cd posed very high risk to the local ecosystem due to its higher Risk Factor, > 320 and based on Transfer Factor of Pb and Cd were found higher accumulator among the tested metals. The results of present study revealed that the bioconcentration of heavy metals along the Dhaka Aricha Road posed high risk to the ecosystem. Considering the Transfer Factor of Cd and Pb it can be suggested that plants and leafy vegetables grow in the soil near Dhaka Aricha Road should not be used as food or feed.

  13. Heavy metal accumulation in Diplodus annularis, Liza aurata, and Solea vulgaris relevant to their concentration in water and sediment from the southwestern Mediterranean (coast of Sfax).

    PubMed

    Ben Salem, Zohra; Ayadi, Habib

    2016-07-01

    The concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn) were measured in the liver, gills, and muscle of Solea vulgaris, Liza aurata, and Diplodus annularis, collected from the south coast of Sfax (Gabes Gulf, southwestern Mediterranean). The concentrations of heavy metals in water exhibited the following decreasing order (expressed in μg l(-1)): Fe > Ni > Zn > Cu > Pb > Cd whereas the trend is somewhat different in sediments (mg kg(-1) D.W.) Fe > Zn > Pb > Ni > Cu > Cd. The levels of heavy metals varied significantly among fish species and tissues. Heavy metal levels were found generally higher in the liver and gills than the muscle in all species. The liver was the target organ for Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, and Zn accumulation. Nickel and lead, however, exhibited their highest concentrations in the gills. The three studied fishes showed a difference in metals accumulation decreasing in following order S. vulgaris > D. annularis > L. aurata. Solea vulgaris with the highest TFwater, TFsediment, and metal concentrations in tissues would be considered as a potential bio-indicator in the south coast of Sfax for the assessment of environmental pollution status. Comparative studies with Luza zone indicate considerable bioaccumulation of heavy metals (Pb and Zn) in the various tissues of fish samples of the south coast of Sfax.

  14. Factors contributing to heavy metal accumulation in sediments and in the intertidal mussel Perna perna in the Gulf of Annaba (Algeria).

    PubMed

    Belabed, Bourhane-Eddine; Laffray, Xavier; Dhib, Amel; Fertouna-Belakhal, Mouna; Turki, Souad; Aleya, Lotfi

    2013-09-15

    This paper presents the results of a seasonal survey of heavy metals accumulated in sediments and in the soft parts of the body of the mussel Perna perna at four stations in the Gulf of Annaba (Algeria). Pooled soft tissues from 10 mussels representing the entire range of sizes were digested in nitric acid. Statistical analysis reveals a significant seasonal effect on all the measured metals, the highest values being recorded in winter. With the exception of Cr, the levels for all metals were significantly higher in the east, at the outlet of the Seybouse River, than at all other monitoring stations. The study also shows that north-western waters are subject to a significantly lower degree of heavy metal pollution than elsewhere in the gulf. Levels were nevertheless within the limits of public health standards. The results confirm the usefulness of P. perna as a bioindicator for heavy metal pollution.

  15. Accumulation of several heavy metals and lanthanides in mushrooms (Agaricales) from the Chicago region.

    SciTech Connect

    Aruguete, D. M.; Aldstadt, J. H., III; Mueller, G. M.; Environmental Research; Univ. of Chicago; Field Museum of Natural History

    1998-01-01

    This study explored the differences in metal uptake in sporocarps of ectomycorrhizae-forming fungi relative to (1) fungal species; (2) collection location; (3) differential metal uptake and variation within single-species, single-area populations; and (4) mobile metal content of soil substrate for the fungi. In addition, this study examined levels of some of the lanthanides in these mushrooms, as lanthanide uptake in higher fungi has not been quantified to date. In 1995 and 1996, sporocarps from three species of ectomycorrhizal fungi (Amanita flavorubescens, Amanita rubescens, and Russula pectinatoides) were collected from Cowles Bog, Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore (near an industrial area) and the Palos forest preserves (near a residential area). Soil was also collected from the Cowles Bog plots; metals were extracted from the soil, either with local Lake Michigan water or with nitric acid. These two extractions were meant to simulate the natural soil equilibrium concentrations of soluble metals and the maximum possible effects of any fungal chelating chemicals, respectively. An inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer was used to analyze soil extracts and nitric acid digests of whole sporocarps for the target analytes. The metals found at elevated levels in the mushrooms included four of environmental interest (Ag, Cd, Ba, and Pb) and three lanthanides (La, Ce, and Nd). Significant differences in uptake of metals were observed between A. rubescens and R. pectinatoides, while A. rubescens and A. flavorubescens were not significantly different. With regard to location, more cadmium was found in Cowles Bog collections of A. rubescens, while Palos forest A. rubescens had more of the lanthanides and barium. Significant specimen-to-specimen variation occurred in all populations examined. Correlation analysis between pairs of trace elements within each sporocarp population revealed strong positive correlations between the lanthanides. Sporocarps concentrated more

  16. Heavy Metal Accumulation in Leaves of Hydrocharis Morsus-Ranae L. and Biomonitoring Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polechońska, Ludmiła; Dambiec, Małgorzata

    2014-06-01

    In present study the concentrations of Hg, Mn, Zn, Fe and Cu in water, bottom sediments and leaves of Hydrocharis morsus-ranae from 11 oxbow lakes of the Odra River were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Trace metal concentration in water and bottom sediments were below the geochemical background, indicating no anthropogenic impact in the studied area. On average, the concentrations of metals in leaves of H. morsus ranae exceeded natural thresholds. A high bioaccumulation factors for metals were recorded. The significant positive correlations found between the content Zn, Fe and Hg of in water and in the H. morsus ranae indicate the potential use of the species in the biomonitoring of environmental contamination with these metals.

  17. Accumulation of heavy metals from contaminated soil to plants and evaluation of soil remediation by vermiculite.

    PubMed

    Malandrino, Mery; Abollino, Ornella; Buoso, Sandro; Giacomino, Agnese; La Gioia, Carmela; Mentasti, Edoardo

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the distribution of 15 metal ions, namely Al, Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe, La, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sc, Ti, V, Y, Zn and Zr, in the soil of a contaminated site in Piedmont (Italy). This area was found to be heavily contaminated with Cu, Cr and Ni. The availability of these metal ions was studied using Tessier's sequential extraction procedure: the fraction of mobile species, which potentially is the most harmful for the environment, was much higher than that normally present in unpolluted soils. This soil was hence used to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment with vermiculite to reduce the availability of the pollutants to two plants, Lactuca sativa and Spinacia oleracea, by pot experiments. The results indicated that the addition of vermiculite significantly reduces the uptake of metal pollutants by plants, confirming the possibility of using this clay in amendment treatments of metal-contaminated soils. The effect of plant growth on metal fractionation in soils was investigated. Finally, the sum of the metal percentages extracted into the first two fractions of Tessier's protocol was found to be suitable in predicting the phytoavailability of most of the pollutants present in the investigated soil.

  18. Impact of two iron(III) chelators on the iron, cadmium, lead and nickel accumulation in poplar grown under heavy metal stress in hydroponics.

    PubMed

    Mihucz, Victor G; Csog, Árpád; Fodor, Ferenc; Tatár, Enikő; Szoboszlai, Norbert; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Luminiţa; Záray, Gyula

    2012-04-15

    Poplar (Populus jacquemontiana var. glauca cv. Kopeczkii) was grown in hydroponics containing 10 μM Cd(II), Ni(II) or Pb(II), and Fe as Fe(III) EDTA or Fe(III) citrate in identical concentrations. The present study was designed to compare the accumulation and distribution of Fe, Cd, Ni and Pb within the different plant compartments. Generally, Fe and heavy-metal accumulation were higher by factor 2-7 and 1.6-3.3, respectively, when Fe(III) citrate was used. Iron transport towards the shoot depended on the Fe(III) chelate and, generally, on the heavy metal used. Lead was accumulated only in the root. The amounts of Fe and heavy metals accumulated by poplar were very similar to those of cucumber grown in an identical way, indicating strong Fe uptake regulation of these two Strategy I plants: a cultivar and a woody plant. The Strategy I Fe uptake mechanism (i.e. reducing Fe(III) followed by Fe(II) uptake), together with the Fe(III) chelate form in the nutrient solution had significant effects on Fe and heavy metal uptake. Poplar appears to show phytoremediation potential for Cd and Ni, as their transport towards the shoot was characterized by 51-54% and 26-48% depending on the Fe(III) supply in the nutrient solution.

  19. [Accumulation Characteristics and Evaluation of Heavy Metals in Soil-Crop System Affected by Wastewater Irrigation Around a Chemical Factory in Shenmu County].

    PubMed

    Qi, Yan-bing; Chu, Wan-lin; Pu, Jie; Liu, Meng-yun; Chang, Qing-rui

    2015-04-01

    Soil heavy metals Cu, Pb, Zn, and Cd, are regarded as "chemical time bombs" because of their propensity for accumulation in the soil and uptake by crops. This ultimately causes human toxicity in both the short and long-term, making farmland ecosystems dangerous to health. In this paper, accumulation and spatial variability of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd in soil-crop system affected by wastewater irrigation around a chemical factor in northern Shaanxi province were analyzed. Results showed that wastewater irrigation around the chemical factory induced significant accumulation in soils compared with control areas. The average concentrations of available Cu and total Cu were 4.32 mg x kg(-1) and 38.4 mg x kg(-1), which were twice and 1.35 times higher than those of the control area, respectively. Soil Zn and Pb were slightly accumulated. Whereas soil Cd was significantly accumulated and was higher than the critical level of soil environmental quality (II), the available and total Cd concentrations were 0.248 mg x kg(-1) and 1.21 mg x kg(-1), which were 10 and 6.1 times higher than those of the control areas. No significant correlations were found between available and total heavy metals except between available Cd and total Cd. All the heavy metals were mainly accumulated in the top layer (0-10 cm). Spatially, soils and plants high in heavy metal concentration were distributed within the radius of about 100 m from the waste water outlet for Cu, Zn and Cd and about 200 m for Pb, and decreased exponentially with the distance from the factory. Affected by wastewater irrigation, contents of Cu, Pb and Cd in maize were 4.74, 0.129 and 0.036 mg x kg(-1) which were slightly higher than those in the control area. The content of Zn was similar to that in the control area. Affected by the vehicle exhaust, the over standard rate of Pb was 5.7% in maize. All the heavy metals did not show significant correlation between soil and crop, except Cd. The square correlation coefficients were 0

  20. [Accumulation Characteristics and Evaluation of Heavy Metals in Soil-Crop System Affected by Wastewater Irrigation Around a Chemical Factory in Shenmu County].

    PubMed

    Qi, Yan-bing; Chu, Wan-lin; Pu, Jie; Liu, Meng-yun; Chang, Qing-rui

    2015-04-01

    Soil heavy metals Cu, Pb, Zn, and Cd, are regarded as "chemical time bombs" because of their propensity for accumulation in the soil and uptake by crops. This ultimately causes human toxicity in both the short and long-term, making farmland ecosystems dangerous to health. In this paper, accumulation and spatial variability of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd in soil-crop system affected by wastewater irrigation around a chemical factor in northern Shaanxi province were analyzed. Results showed that wastewater irrigation around the chemical factory induced significant accumulation in soils compared with control areas. The average concentrations of available Cu and total Cu were 4.32 mg x kg(-1) and 38.4 mg x kg(-1), which were twice and 1.35 times higher than those of the control area, respectively. Soil Zn and Pb were slightly accumulated. Whereas soil Cd was significantly accumulated and was higher than the critical level of soil environmental quality (II), the available and total Cd concentrations were 0.248 mg x kg(-1) and 1.21 mg x kg(-1), which were 10 and 6.1 times higher than those of the control areas. No significant correlations were found between available and total heavy metals except between available Cd and total Cd. All the heavy metals were mainly accumulated in the top layer (0-10 cm). Spatially, soils and plants high in heavy metal concentration were distributed within the radius of about 100 m from the waste water outlet for Cu, Zn and Cd and about 200 m for Pb, and decreased exponentially with the distance from the factory. Affected by wastewater irrigation, contents of Cu, Pb and Cd in maize were 4.74, 0.129 and 0.036 mg x kg(-1) which were slightly higher than those in the control area. The content of Zn was similar to that in the control area. Affected by the vehicle exhaust, the over standard rate of Pb was 5.7% in maize. All the heavy metals did not show significant correlation between soil and crop, except Cd. The square correlation coefficients were 0

  1. Effect of periphyton community structure on heavy metal accumulation in mystery snail (Cipangopaludina chinensis): a case study of the Bai River, China.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jingguo; Shan, Baoqing; Tang, Wenzhong

    2012-01-01

    The ratio of metal:P stoichiometry was used to identify the accumulation pathways of heavy metals (V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Cd, and Pb) from periphyton to snails Cipangopaludina chinensis Gray (C. chinensis) in the Bai River watershed. The results showed that periphyton communities were mainly composed of two types of algae, filamentous green algae and unicellular diatoms. The proportion of unicellular diatoms in the periphyton community is a key factor that influences metal accumulation in C. chinensis. The V, Cr, Co, Ni, and Cd content of C. chinensis increased steadily as the corresponding metal content of periphyton increased, but Cu and Pb in the snail did not increase in the periphyton. Mechanisms of V, Cr, and Ni accumulation were found to be related to the proportion of diatoms, while Cd and Pb accumulation were dependent on the physiological characteristics of C. chinensis. The accumulation of Cu in C. chinensis was closely related to their grazing behavior. The metal: P stoichiometry revealed that Cr, Ni, and Cd can reduce the potential ecological risks associated with increased P inputs to the ecosystem. V and Co were considered to be relatively safe, regardless of the periphyton P content. Finally, Pb may not be prone to transfer to higher trophic levels, and may pose the lowest ecological risks of the studied heavy metals, but Cu can cause potential ecological risks when eutrophication has occurred.

  2. Effect of periphyton community structure on heavy metal accumulation in mystery snail (Cipangopaludina chinensis): a case study of the Bai River, China.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jingguo; Shan, Baoqing; Tang, Wenzhong

    2012-01-01

    The ratio of metal:P stoichiometry was used to identify the accumulation pathways of heavy metals (V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Cd, and Pb) from periphyton to snails Cipangopaludina chinensis Gray (C. chinensis) in the Bai River watershed. The results showed that periphyton communities were mainly composed of two types of algae, filamentous green algae and unicellular diatoms. The proportion of unicellular diatoms in the periphyton community is a key factor that influences metal accumulation in C. chinensis. The V, Cr, Co, Ni, and Cd content of C. chinensis increased steadily as the corresponding metal content of periphyton increased, but Cu and Pb in the snail did not increase in the periphyton. Mechanisms of V, Cr, and Ni accumulation were found to be related to the proportion of diatoms, while Cd and Pb accumulation were dependent on the physiological characteristics of C. chinensis. The accumulation of Cu in C. chinensis was closely related to their grazing behavior. The metal: P stoichiometry revealed that Cr, Ni, and Cd can reduce the potential ecological risks associated with increased P inputs to the ecosystem. V and Co were considered to be relatively safe, regardless of the periphyton P content. Finally, Pb may not be prone to transfer to higher trophic levels, and may pose the lowest ecological risks of the studied heavy metals, but Cu can cause potential ecological risks when eutrophication has occurred. PMID:23520840

  3. Application of biochar from sewage sludge to plant cultivation: Influence of pyrolysis temperature and biochar-to-soil ratio on yield and heavy metal accumulation.

    PubMed

    Song, X D; Xue, X Y; Chen, D Z; He, P J; Dai, X H

    2014-08-01

    Applying biochar products from sewage sludge (SS) pyrolysis as soil amendment for plant cultivation was investigated in this study with special attention paid to heavy metal accumulation in the plants when pyrolysis temperature and biochar-to-soil mass ratio (C:S) were changed. Biochar obtained at four different temperatures were adopted as soil amendment for Allium sativum L. garlic plant cultivation. Experimental results revealed that biochars were rich in nutrient contents and they improved garlic yields. Although contents of heavy metals including As, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cd, Cr and Cu, etc. were elevated in the biochars compared to local soil, they fell within the acceptable limits for land application and SS is a suitable biochar resource, especially biochar produced at 450°C had rich micropores, relatively stable functional groups in structure and rugged surface to contact well with soil, conducive to its usage as a biochar. The garlic grew faster when planted in the biochar-amended soil and had higher final dry matter yields than those planted in the reference soil, especially biochar produced at 450°C corresponding to the highest final yields. The C:S ratio related to the highest garlic yields changed when the pyrolysis temperature was changed and this ratio was 1:4 for the biochar produced at 450°C. General heavy metal accumulation in the garlic occurred only for the most enriched Zn and Cu, and mainly in the roots & bulbs; in addition this bioaccumulation was increasing as leaching from biochar increased but not increasing with C:S ratio. The garlic planted in soil amended with biochar of 450°C contained the lowest level of heavy metals compared to other biochars. Those results indicated that heavy metal accumulation in plants can be inhibited through proper pyrolysis temperature choice and prevention of heavy metal leaching from the SS biochar.

  4. Heavy Metal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoemaker, W. Lee

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the advantages, both functional and economic, of using a standing-seam metal roof in both new roof installations and reroofing projects of educational facilities. Structural versus non-structural standing-seam roofs are described as are the types of insulation that can be added and roof finishes used. (GR)

  5. Plants absorb heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Parry, J.

    1995-02-01

    Decontamination of heavy metals-polluted soils remains one of the most intractable problems of cleanup technology. Currently available techniques include extraction of the metals by physical and chemical means, such as acid leaching and electroosmosis, or immobilization by vitrification. There are presently no techniques for cleanup which are low cost and retain soil fertility after metals removal. But a solution to the problem could be on the horizon. A small but growing number of plants native to metalliferous soils are known to be capable of accumulating extremely high concentrations of metals in their aboveground portions. These hyperaccumulators, as they are called, contain up to 1,000 times larger metal concentrations in their aboveground parts than normal species. Their distribution is global, including many different families of flowering plants of varying growth forms, from herbaceous plants to trees. Hyperaccumulators absorb metals they do not need for their own nutrition. The metals are accumulated in the leaf and stem vacuoles, and to a lesser extent in the roots.

  6. The accumulation and potential ecological risk of heavy metals in microalgae from a eutrophic lake (Taihu Lake, China).

    PubMed

    Yuan, Hezhong; Liu, Enfeng; Shen, Ji

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the bioaccumulation and enrichment of heavy metals in dominant microalgae and assess the potential ecological risk to the microalgae located at the northern region of Taihu Lake, China, a shallow freshwater lake. The concentrations of heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in water and microalgae (predominant cyanophyta) collected from the north of Taihu Lake were analyzed. Subsequently, enrichment factors (EF) for heavy metals in microalgae relative to water were calculated. The concentrations and EF values of heavy metals were significantly higher in water and microalgae from the northern region compared with other regions for all the metals except As and Hg. Among the metals, Pb and Cd possessed higher enrichment levels, approx. 200 and 400 for Pb and Cd, respectively. This suggested that Pb and Cd had stronger chemisorption on microalgae, even though present at lower concentrations. Moreover, Ni and Zn in microalgae from the north of the lake also exhibited risk to the ecosystem owing to their high concentrations. In general, the microalgae tended to enrich Pb, Cd, Ni, and Zn by biosorption and bioaccumulation and thus exert a risk to the ecosystem and human populations.

  7. Heavy metal accumulation in soil amended with roadside pond sediment and uptake by winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. PBW 343).

    PubMed

    Karak, Tanmoy; Bhattacharyya, Pradip

    2010-01-01

    The risks of heavy metal accumulation and the dynamics related to roadside pond sediment application in comparison to control of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were investigated in field experiments. Selective sequential extraction procedures revealed that application of pond sediment in soil increases the labile pools of the studied heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn). Risk assessment codes concluded that Cu and Pb were in the high-risk zone in both pond sediment and soil amended with pond sediment, whereas Zn and Cu were found in the medium-risk zone for control soil. Heavy metal accumulation by wheat straw and grain (39.38, 1.18, 23.73, 0.36, 0.18, and 16.8 mg kg⁻¹ for Zn, Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, and Pb, respectively, for wheat grain) was significantly increased through application of pond sediment. However, metal accumulation did not thwart the enhancement of wheat yield when pond sediment was applied. Health risk indexes of analyzed heavy metals were found to be within the Indian permissible limit for foodstuffs. Pond sediments help to fortify wheat grain by increasing the concentration of Zn and Cu as a source of micronutrients in the diet. However, a significant increase of Pb in wheat grain through pond sediment could be a health concern for its long-term application. Therefore, pond sediment would be a valuable resource for agriculture as an alternative organic supplement, but long-term use may require the cessation of the excavated sediment as agricultural landfill in order to restrict heavy metal contamination through it.

  8. The involvement of polyphenols and peroxidase activities in heavy-metal accumulation by epidermal glands of the waterlily (Nymphaeaceae).

    PubMed

    Lavid, N; Schwartz, A; Yarden, O; Tel-Or, E

    2001-02-01

    Co-localization of polyphenols and peroxidase activity was demonstrated in epidermal glands of the waterlily (Nymphaea) by histochemistry. Total phenols, tannins and peroxidase activity were determined quantitatively in plant extracts. Polyphenols were partially identified and were found to consist mainly of hydrolyzable tannins, gallic and tannic acid derivatives. Nymphaea polyphenols were shown to chelate Cr, Hg, and Pb in vitro, and Cd-binding by polymerized polyphenols was demonstrated in leaves exposed to Cd in vivo. Both polyphenols and peroxidases were found at very high constitutive levels, which were not induced or altered by external conditions, such as light and heavy-metal stress. It is suggested that the polymerization of polyphenols by peroxidases, enhanced after heavy-metal uptake and detoxification, is responsible for the binding of heavy metals in Nymphaea epidermal glands.

  9. Accumulation and health risk of heavy metals in a plot-scale vegetable production system in a peri-urban vegetable farm near Nanjing, China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wenyou; Huang, Biao; Shi, Xuezheng; Chen, Weiping; Zhao, Yongcun; Jiao, Wentao

    2013-12-01

    Accumulation and potential health risk of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) in a plot-scale vegetable production peri-urban area near Nanjing city, China was investigated through element balance method, model simulation and dietary risk assessment. The heavy metals accumulated in the surface soils were due to long-term and heavy application of organic fertilizers, among which the accumulation of Cu and Zn were greater than those of Cd and Pb. The result of a mass balance model simulation indicated that intensive vegetable production would result in accumulation of Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn in soils exceeding the target values in 55, 36, 34 and 71 years, respectively. The estimated dietary intakes of Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn were far below the tolerable limits and the hazard quotient values were below one for both children and adults. Although there is no imminent health risk from heavy metals through vegetable consumption, more attention should be paid to the long-term accumulation and risk, especially for children.

  10. Biosorption of heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Volesky, B. |; Holan, Z.R.

    1995-05-01

    Only within the past decade has the potential of metal biosorption by biomass materials been well established. For economic reasons, of particular interest are abundant biomass types generated as a waste byproduct of large-scale industrial fermentations or certain metal-binding algae found in large quantities in the sea. These biomass types serve as a basis for newly developed metal biosorption processes foreseen particularly as a very competitive means for the detoxification of metal-bearing industrial effluents. The assessment of the metal-building capacity of some new biosorbents is discussed. Lead and cadmium, for instance, have been effectively removed from very dilute solutions by the dried biomass of some ubiquitous species of brown marine algae such as Ascophyllum and Sargassum, which accumulate more than 30% of biomass dry weight in the metal. Mycelia of the industrial steroid-transforming fungi Rhizopus and Absidia are excellent biosorbents for lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, and uranium and also bind other heavy metals up to 25% of the biomass dry weight. Biosorption isotherm curves, derived from equilibrium batch sorption experiments, are used in the evaluation of metal uptake by different biosorbents. Further studies are focusing on the assessment of biosorbent performance in dynamic continuous-flow sorption systems. In the course of this work, new methodologies are being developed that are aimed at mathematical modeling of biosorption systems and their effective optimization. 115 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Heavy metal accumulation in the mole, Talpa europea, and earthworms as an indicator of metal bioavailability in terrestrial environments

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, W.

    1987-12-01

    Bioaccumulation studies in animals can supply valuable information to supplement the data obtained by chemical analysis of pollutants in abiotic samples. With respect to the terrestrial ecosystem, suitable indicator species in the decomposer subsystem can be identified on the basis of functional characteristics and trophic level. Investigations on metal behavior at the first trophic level, done in lumbricid earthworms showed that the potential for bioaccumulation depends on the degree of contamination as well as on the metal-binding capacity of the soil. The present study was performed to investigate metal behavior at a higher trophic level, and the mole (Talpa europea) was chosen a representative of the terrestrial decomposer subsystem. As earthworms are the preferred food of moles, they provide the major source of ingested metals to these animals. The food chain involving earthworms and moles provides an example of a critical pathway for potentially toxic non-essential metals such as cadmium and lead.

  12. Relationship between testate amoeba (protist) communities and atmospheric heavy metals accumulated in Barbula indica (bryophyta) in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen-Viet, H; Bernard, N; Mitchell, E A D; Cortet, J; Badot, P-M; Gilbert, D

    2007-01-01

    We studied the relationships between testate amoeba communities and heavy metal (Pb, Cd, Zn, Ni, Cu, Mn, and Fe) concentrations in the moss Barbula indica sampled at 29 sites in and around the city of Hanoi (Vietnam). Our first approach was to compare the heavy metal concentrations and testate amoeba variables between the city (zone 1) and the surrounding (zone 2). Mean moss concentrations of Pb, Cd, Zn, Ni, and Cu were significantly higher and testate amoeba species richness and abundance were significantly lower in zone 1 and the abundance of eight taxa differed significantly between the two zones. We then studied the correlation between heavy metals and testate amoebae. Species richness and abundance were correlated negatively to Pb concentration. Shannon H' was negatively correlated to both Pb and Cd. The abundance of several species was negatively correlated with Pb, Cd, Zn, and Ni; however, at the community level, Pb emerged as the only significant variable in a redundancy analysis. Our results suggest that testate amoebae are sensitive to and may be good bioindicators for heavy metal pollution, especially lead. Further research is needed to understand the causal relationships underlying the observed patterns.

  13. Accumulation of heavy metals in dietary vegetables and cultivated soil horizon in organic farming system in relation to atmospheric deposition in a seasonally dry tropical region of India.

    PubMed

    Pandey, J; Pandey, Usha

    2009-01-01

    Increasing consciousness about future sustainable agriculture and hazard free food production has lead organic farming to be a globally emerging alternative farm practice. We investigated the accumulation of air-borne heavy metals in edible parts of vegetables and in cultivated soil horizon in organic farming system in a low rain fall tropical region of India. The factorial design of whole experiment consisted of six vegetable crops (tomato, egg plant, spinach, amaranthus, carrot and radish) x two treatments (organic farming in open field and organic farming in glasshouse (OFG)) x seven independent harvest of each crop. The results indicated that except for Pb, atmospheric deposition of heavy metals increased consistently on time scale. Concentrations of heavy metals in cultivated soil horizon and in edible parts of open field grown vegetables increased over time and were significantly higher than those recorded in OFG plots. Increased contents of heavy metals in open field altered soil porosity, bulk density, water holding capacity, microbial biomass carbon, substrate-induced respiration, alkaline phosphatase and fluorescein diacetate hydrolytic activities. Vegetable concentrations of heavy metal appeared in the order Zn > Pb > Cu > Ni > Cd and were maximum in leaves (spinach and amaranths) followed by fruits (tomato and egg plant) and minimum in roots (carrot and radish). Multiple regression analysis indicated that the major contribution of most heavy metals to vegetable leaves was from atmosphere. For roots however, soil appeared to be equally important. The study suggests that if the present trend of atmospheric deposition is continued, it will lead to a destabilizing effect on this sustainable agricultural practice and will increase the dietary intake of toxic metals.

  14. [Accumulation, distribution and pollution assessment of heavy metals in surface sediment of Caohai plateau wetland, Guizhou province].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing-Hai; Lin, Chang-Hu; Tan, Hong; Lin, Shao-Xia; Yang, Hong-Bo

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the concentrations and distribution characteristics of heavy metals in surface sediments of different areas in the Caohai plateau wetland. 16 samples of surface sediments were collected and 7 heavy metals were analyzed. Heavy metal pollution in surface sediments of different areas in the Caohai plateau wetland was estimated by the Tomlinson Pollution Load Index (PLI) method. The analyzed results indicated that the average contents of Cd, Hg, As, Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn were 0.985, 0.345, 15.8, 38.9, 38.6, 22.8 and 384 mg x kg(-1), respectively. The heavy metal distributions varied with regional environment changes, the order of average contents of Cd and Hg in different regions was E (the eastern region) > S (the southern region) > N (the northern region), the order of the average content of Pb was N > E > S, and that of Zn was S > E > N. The results also suggested a medium heavy metal pollution level in the surface sediment of the Caohai plateau wetland with the PLI(zone) reaching 1.17. The order of pollution level in surface sediments of different regions was E > S > N. The results showed medium pollution levels in E and Hg which reached the extreme intensity pollution level were also the major polluted elements in surface sediments of the Caohai plateau wetland. And also, results showed medium pollution levels of Cd and Pb in surface sediments of Caohai plateau wetland. Cluster analysis results showed similar pollution sources of Cd, Zn, Pb and Hg, which should be attached great importance in terms of the prevention of the Caohai plateau wetland.

  15. Heavy metals in wild marine fish from South China Sea: levels, tissue- and species-specific accumulation and potential risk to humans.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jin-Ling; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Ding, Zhen-Hua; Peng, Jia-Xi; Jin, Ming-Hua; Wang, You-Shao; Hong, Yi-Guo; Yue, Wei-Zhong

    2015-10-01

    Heavy metal pollution in marine fish has become an important worldwide concern, not only because of the threat to fish in general, but also due to human health risks associated with fish consumption. To investigate the occurrence of heavy metals in marine fish species from the South China Sea, 14 fish species were collected along the coastline of Hainan China during the spring of 2012 and examined for species- and tissue-specific accumulation. The median concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb and As in muscle tissue of the examined fish species were not detectable (ND), 2.02, 0.24, 2.64, 0.025, and 1.13 mg kg(-1) wet weight, respectively. Levels of Cu, Zn, Cd and Cr were found to be higher in the liver and gills than in muscle, while Pb was preferentially accumulated in the gills. Differing from other heavy metals, As did not exhibit tissue-specific accumulation. Inter-species differences of heavy metal accumulation were attributed to the different habitat and diet characteristics of marine fish. Human dietary exposure assessment suggested that the amounts of both Cr and As in marine wild fish collected from the sites around Hainan, China were not compliant with the safety standard of less than 79.2 g d(-1) for wild marine fish set by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. Further research to identify the explicit sources of Cr and As in marine fish from South China Sea should be established.

  16. Heavy Metal Pumps in Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, J.F.

    2000-10-01

    The long term goal of the funded research is to understand how heavy metals are taken up from the soil and translocated throughout the plant. The potential application of this research is to create plants with better heavy metal uptake systems and thereby improve the ability of these plants to help clean up toxic metals from soils. A rate limiting step is using plant for bioremediation is the normally poor capacity of plants to concentrate toxic metals. Our interest in metal ion transport systems includes those for essential mineral nutrients such as molybdenum, copper, iron, manganese, as well as toxic metals such as cerium, mercury, cesium, cadmium, arsenic and selenium. Understanding the pathways by which toxic metals accumulate in plants will enable the engineering of plants to exclude toxic metals and create healthier food sources, or to extract toxic metals from the soil as a strategy to clean up polluted lands and water.

  17. Accumulation of some heavy metals in Hysterothylacium aduncum (Nematoda) and its host sea bream, Sparus aurata (Sparidae) from North-Eastern Mediterranean Sea (Iskenderun Bay).

    PubMed

    Dural, Meltem; Genc, Ercument; Sangun, M Kemal; Güner, Ozlem

    2011-03-01

    The sea bream's nematode and Sparus aurata, sampled from the Iskenderun Bay, Mediterranean, in March 2008 were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry for their some heavy metal (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Mg, Pb, and Zn) levels. The metal concentrations of the parasites were compared to different organs (liver, muscle, gill, intestine, and skin) of the fish hosts. There were significant differences in Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Hg, Mg, and Pb concentrations in tissues of fish and its parasite. The parasite Cd, Cu, and Pb concentration was higher than the other tissues. Furthermore, significant differences were detected in the heavy metal accumulations between the parasitized and unparasitized fish tissues in Cd, Cu, Hg, and Pb concentrations. The Cd, Hg, and Pb concentrations were found in fish muscle at mean concentrations over the permissible limits proposed by the Food and Agriculture Organization. PMID:20422284

  18. Cadmium accumulation by a Citrobacter sp. immobilized on gel and solid supports: applicability to the treatment of liquid wastes containing heavy metal cations

    SciTech Connect

    Macaskie, L.E.; Wates, J.M.; Dean, A.C.R.

    1987-01-01

    Polyacrylamide gel-immobilized cells of a Citrobacter sp. removed cadmium from flows supplemented with glycerol 2-phosphate, the metal uptake mechanism being mediated by the activity of a cell-bound phosphatase that precipitates liberated inorganic phosphate with heavy metals at the cell surface. The constraints of elevated flow rate and temperature were investigated and the results discussed in terms of the kinetics of immobilized enzymes. Loss in activity with respect to cadmium accumulation but not inorganic phosphate liberation was observed at acid pH and was attributed to the pH-dependent solubility of cadmium phosphate. Similarly high concentrations of chloride ions, and traces of cyanide inhibited cadmium uptake and this was attributed to the ability of these anions to complex heavy metals, especially the ability of CN/sup -/ to form complex anions with Cd/sup 2 +/. The data are discussed in terms of the known chemistry of chloride and cyanide-cadmium complexes and the relevance of these factors in the treatment of metal-containing liquid wastes is discussed. The cells immobilized in polyacrylamide provided a convenient small-scale laboratory model system. It was found that the Citrobacter sp. could be immobilized on glass supports with no chemical treatment or modification necessary. Such cells were also effective in metal accumulation and a prototype system more applicable to the treatment of metal-containing streams on a larger scale is described.

  19. Accumulation of sulfur and heavy metals in soil and tree leaves sampled from the surroundings of Tuncbilek Thermal Power Plant.

    PubMed

    Cicek, A; Koparal, A S

    2004-11-01

    In this study, the quantities of sulfur and heavy metals, resulting from the Tuncbilek Thermal Power Plant (TPP) in Turkey, have been assessed in tree leaves and soil samples within a 10 km radius of the plant. Leaves of Salix alba L., Populus tremula L., Robinia pseudoacacia L., Quercus infectoria L., Pinus nigra Arn. ssp. pallasiana (Lamb) Holmboe. trees have been used with the aim of determining how far the gas and particles emitted from the TPP are carried, and for assessment of environmental impact. The results obtained from locations chosen at various distances to the TPP, indicate that the contaminating agents are very dense and effective; particularly in the prevailing wind direction and within 10 km of the plant. They gradually lose their density and effect beyond this distance. The sulfur and heavy metal analyses made in soils taken from these locations indicate a similarity with the data obtained from the leaves.

  20. Heavy metal accumulation in hot water tanks in a region experiencing coal waste pollution and comparison between regional water systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wigginton, A.; McSpirit, S.; Sims, C.D.

    2007-10-15

    In 2000, a coal slurry impoundment failure in Martin County, Kentucky, caused concerns about contaminants entering municipal water supplies. Water samples taken from impacted and reference area hot water tanks often exceeded US EPA drinking water guidelines. Concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Pb had maxima of 119; 51.9; 154; 170,000; 976,000; 8,710; and 12,700 {mu}g/L, respectively. Significantly different metal accumulation between counties indicated this procedure's utility for assessing long-term municipal water quality. Correlations between metal concentrations were strong and consistent for As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Co, and Fe indicating that some metals accumulate proportionally with others.

  1. Bio-accumulation of some heavy metals in blood serum of residents in Isfahan and Shiraz, Iran.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Anahita; Honarjoo, Naser; Etemadifar, Masoud; Fallahzade, Jaber

    2016-05-01

    In this study, some heavy metal (Cd, Pb, Ni, Fe, Co, Cr, Mn, Cu, and Zn) concentrations were measured in the blood serum samples of 25 patients who suffered from the multiple sclerosis (MS) disease living in two industrial regions of Isfahan, Iran, using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) instrument. Also, blood serum levels of heavy metals in 25 healthy people of Isfahan and 25 healthy people of Shiraz were analyzed as controls. In industrial regions, some of the heavy metals were also measured in the soils and food crop samples (wheat, rice, and onion). The results showed that the blood serum levels of Cd, Co, Ni, and Pb of MS patients (0.032, 0.56, 1.60, and 2.90 μg L(-1), respectively) were significantly higher than those of healthy people. These values exceeded the permissible ranges that are 0.08-0.50, 0.14-1.0, and 0.80-2.50 μg L(-1) for the Co, Ni, and Pb, respectively. The mean concentrations of Fe and Zn in the blood serum of MS patients (529 and 547 μg L(-1)) were significantly lower than those in the healthy people and also less than the acceptable ranges (700-1700 and 660-1100 μg L(-1), respectively). The target hazard quotients of Pb (2.23) and Cd (1.25) via wheat and Pb (1.34) via rice consumption were higher than one. Therefore, it is proposed that consumption of local contaminated food crops may have drastically increased the concentrations of heavy metals in the human blood serum of inhabitants of industrial regions.

  2. Mutagenicity of heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, P.K.

    1988-04-01

    Certain heavy metals are required, as trace elements for normal cellular functions. However, heavy metals are toxic to cells once their levels exceed their low physiological values. The toxicity of heavy metals on microorganisms, and on animals has been well-documented. These interactions may induce the alteration of the primary as well as secondary structures of the DNA and result in mutation(s). The present communication reports the results in determining the mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of ten heavy metals commonly found in polluted areas by using the Salmonella/mammalian-microsome mutagenicity test.

  3. Enrichment and geo-accumulation of heavy metals and risk assessment of sediments of the Kurang Nallah--feeding tributary of the Rawal Lake Reservoir, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Zahra, Azmat; Hashmi, Muhammad Zaffar; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Ahmed, Zulkifl

    2014-02-01

    Heavy metal concentrations in sediments of the Kurang stream: a principal feeding tributary of the Rawal Lake Reservoir were investigated using enrichment factor (EF), geoaccumulation index (Igeo) and metal pollution index (MPI) to determine metal accumulation, distribution and its pollution status. Sediment samples were collected from twenty one sites during two year monitoring in pre- and post-monsoon seasons (2007-2008). Heavy metal toxicity risk was assessed using Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs), effect range low/effect range median values (ERL/ERM), and threshold effect level/probable effect level (TEL/PEL). Greater mean concentrations of Ni, Mn and Pb were recorded in post-monsoon season whereas metal accumulation pattern in pre-monsoon season followed the order: Zn>Mn>Ni>Cr>Co>Cd>Pb>Cu>Li. Enrichment factor (EF) and geoaccumulation (Igeo) values showed that sediments were loaded with Cd, Zn, Ni and Mn. Comparison with uncontaminated background values showed higher concentrations of Cd, Zn and Ni than respective average shale values. Concentrations of Ni and Zn were above ERL values; however, Ni concentration exceeded the ERM values. Sediment contamination was attributed to anthropogenic and natural processes. The results can be used for effective management of fresh water hilly streams of Pakistan.

  4. Synergistic effects of plant growth-promoting Neorhizobium huautlense T1-17 and immobilizers on the growth and heavy metal accumulation of edible tissues of hot pepper.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ling; He, Lin-Yan; Wang, Qi; Sheng, Xia-Fang

    2016-07-15

    A plant growth-promoting Neorhizobium huautlense T1-17 was evaluated for its immobilization of Cd and Pb in solution. Meanwhile, the impacts of T1-17, immobilizers (vermiculite and peat) and their combination on the fruit biomass and heavy metal accumulation of hot pepper were characterized. T1-17 could significantly reduced water-soluble Cd and Pb in solution. T1-17, vermiculite+T1-17, peat, and peat+T1-17 significantly increased the fruit biomass (ranging from 45% to 269%) and decreased the fruit Cd (ranging from 66% to 87%) and Pb (ranging from 30% to 56%) contents and water-soluble Cd and Pb (ranging from 23% to 59%) contents of the rhizosphere soils compared to the controls. T1-17+vermiculite or peat had higher ability to increase the fruit biomass than T1-17 or vermiculite or peat. Furthermore, T1-17+peat had higher ability to reduce the water-soluble Cd and Pb contents of the rhizosphere soil and the fruit Pb uptake of hot pepper. The results showed that T1-17 and the immobilizers alleviated the heavy metal toxicity and decreased the fruit heavy metal uptake of hot pepper. The results also showed the synergistic effects of T1-17 and the immobilizers on the growth and Cd and Pb accumulation of hot pepper.

  5. The effect of biochar and crop straws on heavy metal bioavailability and plant accumulation in a Cd and Pb polluted soil.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ping; Sun, Cai-Xia; Ye, Xue-Zhu; Xiao, Wen-Dan; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Qiang

    2016-10-01

    Biochar derived from various materials has been investigated with regard to its ability to decrease the bioavailability of heavy metals in contaminated soils, and thus reduce their potential to enter the food chain. However, little attention has been given to the adsorption capacity of untreated crop straws, which are commonly used as a biochar feedstock, especially in soils. Hence, this study was conducted to investigate the effect of crop straws on heavy metal immobilization and subsequent heavy metal uptake by maize and ryegrass in a soil artificially polluted by Cd and Pb. Bamboo biochar, rice straw, and wheat straw were mixed into soil four weeks before the experiment, enabling them to reach equilibrium at 2% (w/w), 1% (w/w), and 1% (w/w), respectively. The results showed that soil pH for both species was significantly increased by all treatments, except when wheat straw was used for ryegrass cultivation. Soil organic carbon was only improved in the rice straw treatment and the soil alkali-hydrolyzable N content was significantly decreased with all of the amendments, which may have contributed to the lack of an effect on plant biomass. Soil available Cd was significantly lower in the rice straw treatment than in the control soil, while Pb levels clearly decreased in wheat straw treatment. The Cd concentration in shoots of maize was reduced by 50.9%, 69.5%, and 66.9% with biochar, rice straw, and wheat straw, respectively. In addition, shoot Cd accumulation was decreased by 47.3%, 67.1%, and 66.4%, respectively. Shoot Pb concentration and accumulation were only reduced with the rice straw treatment for both species. However, metal uptake in plant roots was more complex, with increased metal concentrations also detected. Overall, the direct application of crop straw could be considered a feasible way to immobilize selected metals in soil, once the long-term effects are confirmed. PMID:27285283

  6. Assessment of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi status and heavy metal accumulation characteristics of tree species in a lead-zinc mine area: potential applications for phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yurong; Liang, Yan; Ghosh, Amit; Song, Yingying; Chen, Hui; Tang, Ming

    2015-09-01

    To select suitable tree species associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) for phytoremediation of heavy metal (HM) contaminated area, we measured the AMF status and heavy metal accumulation in plant tissues in a lead-zinc mine area, Northwest China. All 15 tree species were colonized by AM fungi in our investigation. The mycorrhizal frequency (F%), mycorrhizal colonization intensity (M%) and spore density (SP) reduced concomitantly with increasing Pb and Zn levels; however, positive correlations were found between arbuscule density (A%) and soil total/DTPA-extractable Pb concentrations. The average concentrations of Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd in plant samples were 168.21, 96.61, 41.06, and 0.79 mg/kg, respectively. Populus purdomii Rehd. accumulated the highest concentrations of Zn (432.08 mg/kg) and Cu (140.85 mg/kg) in its leaves. Considerable amount of Pb (712.37 mg/kg) and Cd (3.86 mg/kg) were concentrated in the roots of Robinia pseudoacacia Linn. and Populus simonii Carr., respectively. Plants developed different strategies to survive in HM stress environment: translocating more essential metals (Zn and Cu) into the aerial parts, while retaining more toxic heavy metals (Pb and Cd) in the roots to protect the above-ground parts from damage. According to the translocation factor (TF), bioconcentration factor (BCF), growth rate and biomass production, five tree species (Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle, Cotinus coggygria Scop., P. simonii, P. purdomii, and R. pseudoacacia) were considered to be the most suitable candidates for phytoextraction and/or phytostabilization purposes. Redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that the efficiency of phytoremediation was enhanced by AM symbioses, and soil pH, Pb, Zn, and Cd levels were the main factors influencing the HM accumulation characteristics of plants. PMID:25929455

  7. Assessment of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi status and heavy metal accumulation characteristics of tree species in a lead-zinc mine area: potential applications for phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yurong; Liang, Yan; Ghosh, Amit; Song, Yingying; Chen, Hui; Tang, Ming

    2015-09-01

    To select suitable tree species associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) for phytoremediation of heavy metal (HM) contaminated area, we measured the AMF status and heavy metal accumulation in plant tissues in a lead-zinc mine area, Northwest China. All 15 tree species were colonized by AM fungi in our investigation. The mycorrhizal frequency (F%), mycorrhizal colonization intensity (M%) and spore density (SP) reduced concomitantly with increasing Pb and Zn levels; however, positive correlations were found between arbuscule density (A%) and soil total/DTPA-extractable Pb concentrations. The average concentrations of Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd in plant samples were 168.21, 96.61, 41.06, and 0.79 mg/kg, respectively. Populus purdomii Rehd. accumulated the highest concentrations of Zn (432.08 mg/kg) and Cu (140.85 mg/kg) in its leaves. Considerable amount of Pb (712.37 mg/kg) and Cd (3.86 mg/kg) were concentrated in the roots of Robinia pseudoacacia Linn. and Populus simonii Carr., respectively. Plants developed different strategies to survive in HM stress environment: translocating more essential metals (Zn and Cu) into the aerial parts, while retaining more toxic heavy metals (Pb and Cd) in the roots to protect the above-ground parts from damage. According to the translocation factor (TF), bioconcentration factor (BCF), growth rate and biomass production, five tree species (Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle, Cotinus coggygria Scop., P. simonii, P. purdomii, and R. pseudoacacia) were considered to be the most suitable candidates for phytoextraction and/or phytostabilization purposes. Redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that the efficiency of phytoremediation was enhanced by AM symbioses, and soil pH, Pb, Zn, and Cd levels were the main factors influencing the HM accumulation characteristics of plants.

  8. Accumulation and toxic effect of arsenic and other heavy metals in a contaminated area of West Bengal, India, in the lichen Pyxine cocoes (Sw.) Nyl.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Rajesh; Upreti, D K

    2012-09-01

    Ecological indicators can be used to assess the condition of the environment, to provide an early warning signal of changes in the surrounding environment or to diagnose the causes of an environmental problem. The study aims to evaluate the applicability of a common foliose lichen Pyxine cocoes (Sw.) Nyl., as an indicator to evaluate the arsenic and heavy metal rich sites. The naturally growing lichen and its substratum (bark) were utilized to biomonitor the accumulation of arsenic (As) and other heavy metals (Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn) in Chinsurah, a highly As contaminated area of West Bengal. Significantly higher levels of Al, Cr, Fe, Pb and Zn (p<0.01), Cd and Cu (p<0.05) were found in the lichens especially in samples collected from road sites. Higher As concentration (48.1±2.1 μg g(-1)) in samples were found near the paddy field, indicating pesticide-herbicides as its source used in agriculture. The substrate exhibits lower concentration of most of the metals while Cr, Cd and Pb were below detection limit. As evident from the bioaccumulation factor most of the metals accumulated in lichen thallus are air borne. Chl a and Chl b concentrations decreased significantly with increasing distance from roadside whereas the carotenoid and protein showed an enhanced level. The chlorophyll stability index, chlorophyll degradation and carotenoid contents were found to be the most sensitive parameters to assess the vitality of lichen thallus against changing environment. PMID:22762786

  9. Accumulation and toxic effect of arsenic and other heavy metals in a contaminated area of West Bengal, India, in the lichen Pyxine cocoes (Sw.) Nyl.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Rajesh; Upreti, D K

    2012-09-01

    Ecological indicators can be used to assess the condition of the environment, to provide an early warning signal of changes in the surrounding environment or to diagnose the causes of an environmental problem. The study aims to evaluate the applicability of a common foliose lichen Pyxine cocoes (Sw.) Nyl., as an indicator to evaluate the arsenic and heavy metal rich sites. The naturally growing lichen and its substratum (bark) were utilized to biomonitor the accumulation of arsenic (As) and other heavy metals (Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn) in Chinsurah, a highly As contaminated area of West Bengal. Significantly higher levels of Al, Cr, Fe, Pb and Zn (p<0.01), Cd and Cu (p<0.05) were found in the lichens especially in samples collected from road sites. Higher As concentration (48.1±2.1 μg g(-1)) in samples were found near the paddy field, indicating pesticide-herbicides as its source used in agriculture. The substrate exhibits lower concentration of most of the metals while Cr, Cd and Pb were below detection limit. As evident from the bioaccumulation factor most of the metals accumulated in lichen thallus are air borne. Chl a and Chl b concentrations decreased significantly with increasing distance from roadside whereas the carotenoid and protein showed an enhanced level. The chlorophyll stability index, chlorophyll degradation and carotenoid contents were found to be the most sensitive parameters to assess the vitality of lichen thallus against changing environment.

  10. Heavy metal accumulation related to population density in road dust samples taken from urban sites under different land uses.

    PubMed

    Trujillo-González, Juan Manuel; Torres-Mora, Marco Aurelio; Keesstra, Saskia; Brevik, Eric C; Jiménez-Ballesta, Raimundo

    2016-05-15

    Soil pollution is a key component of the land degradation process, but little is known about the impact of soil pollution on human health in the urban environment. The heavy metals Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, Cd and Ni were analyzed by acid digestion (method EPA 3050B) and a total of 15 dust samples were collected from streets of three sectors of the city with different land uses; commercial, residential and a highway. The purpose was to measure the concentrations of heavy metals in road sediment samples taken from urban sites under different land uses, and to assess pollution through pollution indices, namely the ecological risk index and geoaccumulation index. Heavy metals concentrations (mg/kg) followed the following sequences for each sector: commercial sector Pb (1289.4)>Cu (490.2)>Zn (387.6)>Cr (60.2)>Ni (54.3); highway Zn (133.3)>Cu (126.3)>Pb (87.5)>Cr (9.4)>Ni (5.3); residential sector Zn (108.3)>Pb (26.0)>Cu (23.7)>Cr (7.3)>Ni (7.2). The geoaccumulation index indicated that the commercial sector was moderately to strongly polluted while the other sectors fell into the unpolluted category. Similarly, using the ecological risk index the commercial sector fell into the considerable category while the other sectors classified as low risk. Road dust increased along with city growth and its dynamics, additionally, road dust might cause a number of negative environmental impacts, therefore the monitoring this dust is crucial. PMID:26986764

  11. Trends in detoxification enzymes and heavy metal accumulation in ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) inhabiting a gradient of pollution.

    PubMed

    Stone, David; Jepson, Paul; Laskowski, Ryszard

    2002-05-01

    Non-specfic carboxylesterase and glutathione S-transferase activity was measured in the ground beetle, Pterosthicus oblongopunctatus (Coleoptera: Carabidae), from five sites along a gradient of heavy metal pollution. A previous study determined that beetles from the two most polluted sites (site codes OLK2 and OLK3) were more susceptible to additional stressors compared with beetles from the reference site (Stone et al., Environ. Pollut. 113, 239-244 2001), suggesting the possibility of physiological impairment. Metal body burdens in ground beetles from five sites along the gradient ranged from 79 to 201 microg/g Zn, 0.174 to 8.66 microg/g Pb and 1.14 to 10.8 microg/g Cd, whereas Cu seemed to be efficiently regulated regardless of metal levels in the soil. Beetle mid- and hindguts were homogenized and the soluble fraction containing glutathione S-transferase (GST) and carboxylesterase (CaE) was assayed using kinetic analyses. Significantly higher levels of GST were found only in female beetles from the most polluted sites (OLK2 and OLK3; P=0.049, P<0.001, respectively) compared with the reference site (OLK7). In addition, OLK3 females had significantly higher levels of CaE compared with the reference beetles (P=0.01). Male beetles did not differ in enzyme activity along the metal gradient. Overall, obvious trends in detoxification enzymes were not detected in ground beetles in association with metal body burdens.

  12. Mutagenicity of heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, P.K. )

    1988-05-01

    Certain heavy metals are required, as trace elements for normal cellular functions. However, heavy metals are toxic to cells once their levels exceed their low physiological values. The toxicity of heavy metals on microorganisms, on plants and on animals has been well-documented. These interactions may induce the alteration of the primary as well as secondary structures of the DNA and result in mutation(s). Though the rec assay with Bacillus subtilis and the reversion assay with Escherichia coli were used to assess the mutagenicity of some heavy metals, the present communication reports the results in determining the mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of ten heavy metals commonly found in polluted areas by using the Salmonella/mammalian-microsome mutagenicity test.

  13. Accumulation and translocation of heavy metal by spontaneous plants growing on multi-metal-contaminated site in the Southeast of Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Boechat, Cácio Luiz; Pistóia, Vítor Caçula; Gianelo, Clésio; Camargo, Flávio Anastácio de Oliveira

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, the number of cases of heavy metal contamination has increased worldwide, leading to reports on environmental pollution and human health problems. Phytoremediation can be potentially used to remove heavy metal from contaminated sites. This study determined heavy metal concentrations in the biomass of plant species growing on a multi-metal-contaminated site. Seven plant species and associated rhizospheric soil were collected and analyzed for heavy metal concentrations. While plant Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni, Pb, As, and Ba concentrations ranged from 8.8 to 21.1, 56.4 to 514.3, 0.24 to 2.14, 1.56 to 2.76, 67.8 to 188.2, 0.06 to 1.21, and 0.05 to 0.62 mg kg(-1), respectively, none of the plants was identified as hyperaccumulators. Those in the rhizospheric soil ranged from 10.5 to 49.1, 86.2 to 590.9, 0.32 to 2.0, 3.6 to 8.2, 19.1 to 232.5, 2.0 to 35.6, and 85.8 to 170.3 mg kg(-1), respectively. However, Zn, Cd, Pb, and As concentrations in the soil outside the rhizosphere zone were 499.0, 2.0, 631.0, and 48.0 mg kg(-1), respectively. Senecio brasiliensis was most effective in translocating Cu, Cd, and Ba. The most effective plant for translocating Zn and Pb was Baccharis trimera and, for element As, Dicranopteris nervosa and Hyptis brevipes. Heavy metal and metalloid levels in spontaneous plants greatly exceeded the upper limits for terrestrial plants growing in uncontaminated soil, demonstrating the higher uptake of heavy metal from soil by these plants. It is concluded that naturally occurring species have a potential for phytoremediation programs.

  14. Clonal variation in heavy metal accumulation and biomass production in a poplar coppice culture. II. Vertical distribution and phytoextraction potential.

    PubMed

    Laureysens, I; De Temmerman, L; Hastir, T; Van Gysel, M; Ceulemans, R

    2005-02-01

    Short rotation coppice cultures (SRC) are intensively managed, high-density plantations of multi-shoot trees. In April 1996, an SRC field trial with 17 different poplar clones was established in Boom (Belgium) on a former waste disposal site. In December 1996 and January 2001, all shoots were cut back to a height of 5 cm to create a coppice culture. For six clones, wood and bark were sampled at the bottom, middle and top of a shoot in August and November 2002. No significant height effect of metal concentration was found, but for wood, metal concentrations generally increased toward the top of the shoot in August, and decreased toward the top of the shoot in November. Phytoextraction potential of a clone was primarily determined by metal concentration and by biomass production. Shoot size and number of shoots per stool were less important, as a high biomass production could be achieved by producing a few large shoots or many smaller shoots. Clone Fritzi Pauley accumulated 1.4 kg ha(-1) of Al over two years; Wolterson and Balsam Spire showed a relatively high accumulation of Cd and Zn, i.e. averaging, respectively 47 and 57 g ha(-1) for Cd and 2.4 and 2.0 kg ha(-1) for Zn over two years.

  15. Mitigating heavy metal accumulation into rice (Oryza sativa L.) using biochar amendment--a field experiment in Hunan, China.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ruilun; Chen, Zheng; Cai, Chao; Tie, Baiqing; Liu, Xiaoli; Reid, Brian J; Huang, Qing; Lei, Ming; Sun, Guoxin; Baltrėnaitė, Edita

    2015-07-01

    A field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of bean stalk (BBC) and rice straw (RBC) biochars on the bioavailability of metal(loid)s in soil and their accumulation into rice plants. Phytoavailability of Cd was most dramatically influenced by biochars addition. Both biochars significantly decreased Cd concentrations in iron plaque (35-81 %), roots (30-75 %), shoots (43-79 %) and rice grain (26-71 %). Following biochars addition, Zinc concentrations in roots and shoots decreased by 25.0-44.1 and 19.9-44.2 %, respectively, although no significant decreases were observed in iron plaque and rice grain. Only RBC significantly reduced Pb concentrations in iron plaque (65.0 %) and roots (40.7 %). However, neither biochar significantly changed Pb concentrations in rice shoots and grain. Arsenic phytoavailability was not significantly altered by biochars addition. Calculation of hazard quotients (HQ) associated with rice consumption revealed RBC to represent a promising candidate to mitigate hazards associated with metal(loid) bioaccumulation. RBC reduced Cd HQ from a 5.5 to 1.6. A dynamic factor's way was also used to evaluate the changes in metal(loid) plant uptake process after the soil amendment with two types of biochar. In conclusion, these results highlight the potential for biochar to mitigate the phytoaccumulation of metal(loid)s and to thereby reduce metal(loid) exposure associated with rice consumption. PMID:25794575

  16. Mitigating heavy metal accumulation into rice (Oryza sativa L.) using biochar amendment--a field experiment in Hunan, China.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ruilun; Chen, Zheng; Cai, Chao; Tie, Baiqing; Liu, Xiaoli; Reid, Brian J; Huang, Qing; Lei, Ming; Sun, Guoxin; Baltrėnaitė, Edita

    2015-07-01

    A field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of bean stalk (BBC) and rice straw (RBC) biochars on the bioavailability of metal(loid)s in soil and their accumulation into rice plants. Phytoavailability of Cd was most dramatically influenced by biochars addition. Both biochars significantly decreased Cd concentrations in iron plaque (35-81 %), roots (30-75 %), shoots (43-79 %) and rice grain (26-71 %). Following biochars addition, Zinc concentrations in roots and shoots decreased by 25.0-44.1 and 19.9-44.2 %, respectively, although no significant decreases were observed in iron plaque and rice grain. Only RBC significantly reduced Pb concentrations in iron plaque (65.0 %) and roots (40.7 %). However, neither biochar significantly changed Pb concentrations in rice shoots and grain. Arsenic phytoavailability was not significantly altered by biochars addition. Calculation of hazard quotients (HQ) associated with rice consumption revealed RBC to represent a promising candidate to mitigate hazards associated with metal(loid) bioaccumulation. RBC reduced Cd HQ from a 5.5 to 1.6. A dynamic factor's way was also used to evaluate the changes in metal(loid) plant uptake process after the soil amendment with two types of biochar. In conclusion, these results highlight the potential for biochar to mitigate the phytoaccumulation of metal(loid)s and to thereby reduce metal(loid) exposure associated with rice consumption.

  17. Heavy metal accumulation in Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf from the Karabük iron-steel factory in Karabük, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Cansaran-Duman, Demet; Atakol, Orhan; Atasoy, Ilknur; Kahya, Didem; Aras, Sümer; Beyaztaş, Taylan

    2009-01-01

    Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf lichen specimens were collected every 5 km starting from around an iron-steel factory located in the central area of Karabük province, up to Yenice Forest. Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Pb, Ni, Cd, Cr contents were analyzed in the samples collected from polluted and unpolluted areas. A Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf sample from Yenice Forest was used as a control. The reason for this choise was the abundance of species diversity, and therefore sample collection might cause a very low impact on natural population density. The forest is among the 100 forested areas that must be urgently taken under protection according to WWF (World Wildlife Fund) researches. Results of the current study manifested significant variations among the contents of these elements between stations. As expected, the pollution sources, such as iron-steel factory, roads and railroads, industry, heavy traffic, and waste treatment plants, have major impact on the heavy metal accumulation in P. furfuracea (L.) Zopf, and, in accordance to their location, samples 8 and 10 displayed high element accumulation. Surprisingly, although Yenice Forest is under protection, results of our study showed that the region is becoming polluted by the influence of many pollution sources in the area. The present study also confirms the efficient metal accumulation capacity of lichens.

  18. Effects of IDSA, EDDS and EDTA on heavy metals accumulation in hydroponically grown maize (Zea mays, L.).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhongqiu; Xi, Meizhu; Jiang, Guangyu; Liu, Xiaona; Bai, Zhongke; Huang, Yizong

    2010-09-15

    Heavy metals contamination of soil is a widespread global problem. Chelant assisted phytoextraction has been proposed to improve the efficiency of phytoextraction which involves three subsequent levels: transfer of metals from the bulk soil to the root surfaces, uptake into the roots and translocation to the shoots. However, most studies focused on the first level. A hydroponic experiment, which addresses the latter two levels, was conducted to study the effects of EDTA, EDDS and IDSA on the uptake and the distribution of Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd in the apoplast and the symplast of roots of maize (Zea mays, L.). The concentrations of the metals (with exception of Zn) in the shoots were increased significantly by addition of all the chelants. EDTA was most effective for Pb uptake and IDSA was interestingly most effective for Cd uptake. Pb in the roots with EDTA was mostly distributed in the apoplast, while Zn, especially with IDSA, was mostly located in the symplast. The results indicated that, the capacity of chelant to enhance the nonselective apoplastic transport of metal may be most important for chelant enhanced phytoextraction.

  19. Heavy metal accumulation and tolerance of energy grass (Elymus elongatus subsp. ponticus cv. Szarvasi-1) grown in hydroponic culture.

    PubMed

    Sipos, Gyula; Solti, Adám; Czech, Viktória; Vashegyi, Ildikó; Tóth, Brigitta; Cseh, Edit; Fodor, Ferenc

    2013-07-01

    Phytoremediation is a plant based, cost effective technology to detoxify or stabilise contaminated soils. Fast growing, high biomass, perennial plants may be used not only in phytoremediation but also in energy production. Szarvasi-1 energy grass (Elymus elongatus subsp. ponticus cv. Szarvasi-1), a good candidate for this combined application, was grown in nutrient solution in order to assess its Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn accumulation and tolerance. Its shoot metal accumulation showed the order Pb < Ni < Cu ∼ Cd < Zn. In parallel with this, Pb and Ni had no or very little influence on the growth, dry matter content, chlorophyll concentration and transpiration of the plants. Cu and Cd treatment resulted in significant decreases in all these parameters that can be attributed to Fe plaque formation in the roots suggested by markedly increased Fe and Cu accumulation. This came together with decreased shoot and root Mn concentrations in both treatments while shoot Cu and Zn concentrations decreased under Cd and Cu exposure, respectively. Zn treatment had no effect or even slightly stimulated the plants. This may be due to a slight stimulation of Fe translocation and a very efficient detoxification mechanism. Based on the average 300 mg kg⁻¹ (dry mass) Zn concentration which is 0.03% of the shoot dry mass the variety is suggested to be classified as Zn accumulator.

  20. Assessment of Heavy Metal Accumulation in the Golden Jackal (Canis aureus) as a Possible Bioindicator in an Agricultural Environment in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Markov, Georgi; Kocheva, Maria; Gospodinova, Milena

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the residues of heavy metals as an indicator of environmental pollution in internal organs of golden jackal (Canis aureus) from an agricultural region in Bulgaria. It was demonstrated that the golden jackal has high potential for specific accumulation of heavy metals, thus implying that this species may serve as a biological indicator of their presence in the agricultural regions, which it inhabits. The concentrations of the targeted elements (mean [mg/kg of dried tissue] ± SD) were respectively: Cu-57.62 ± 10.76; Zn-141.45 ± 11.33; Ni-0.28 ± 0.19; Co-0.46 ± 0.30; Pb-6.88 ± 1.67 and Cd-0.58 ± 0.16 in liver and Cu-17.67 ± 5.01; Zn-58.28 ± 10.81; Ni-0.51 ± 0.4; Co-0.52 ± 0.29; Pb-4.03 ± 1.32 and Cd-1.41 ± 0.22 in kidney samples. The concentrations we found revealed the specific accumulation of these metals in golden jackal and provide values, within which negative effects on the advancement of its populations should not be expected. PMID:26894493

  1. Assessment of Heavy Metal Accumulation in the Golden Jackal (Canis aureus) as a Possible Bioindicator in an Agricultural Environment in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Markov, Georgi; Kocheva, Maria; Gospodinova, Milena

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the residues of heavy metals as an indicator of environmental pollution in internal organs of golden jackal (Canis aureus) from an agricultural region in Bulgaria. It was demonstrated that the golden jackal has high potential for specific accumulation of heavy metals, thus implying that this species may serve as a biological indicator of their presence in the agricultural regions, which it inhabits. The concentrations of the targeted elements (mean [mg/kg of dried tissue] ± SD) were respectively: Cu-57.62 ± 10.76; Zn-141.45 ± 11.33; Ni-0.28 ± 0.19; Co-0.46 ± 0.30; Pb-6.88 ± 1.67 and Cd-0.58 ± 0.16 in liver and Cu-17.67 ± 5.01; Zn-58.28 ± 10.81; Ni-0.51 ± 0.4; Co-0.52 ± 0.29; Pb-4.03 ± 1.32 and Cd-1.41 ± 0.22 in kidney samples. The concentrations we found revealed the specific accumulation of these metals in golden jackal and provide values, within which negative effects on the advancement of its populations should not be expected.

  2. Heavy metal accumulation in Pyrrosia flocculosa (D. Don) Ching growing in sites located along a vehicular disturbance gradient.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Alpy; Uniyal, Sanjay Kr

    2015-10-01

    Monitoring of environment is a key contemporary issue that has necessitated search for bio-indicators. The very fact that epiphytes do not have a direct contact with soil and absorb nutrients from the environment puts them among the best indicators of environmental conditions. We, therefore, selected Pyrrosia flocculosa (D. Don) Ching-an epiphytic fern that commonly occurs in the Himalaya for this study. The study focused on analyzing heavy metal concentrations in the fronds of P. flocculosa growing along a disturbance gradient. For this, three sites representing different levels of disturbance viz., least disturbed, moderately disturbed, and highly disturbed, were identified in Kangra district of Himachal Pradesh. From each site, fronds of P. flocculosa were collected, categorized into three growth stages (juvenile, young, and mature), and brought to the laboratory for analyses. After drying and powdering, the samples were analyzed for Pb, Cd, Fe, Ni, Cu, Mn, and Zn using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results obtained were statistically compared using the software package Statistica. As expected, concentration of the metals varied among the sites and also among the identified growth stages of the species. In general, concentration of the metals was in the order Fe (639.28 ± 81.63) > Ni (56.03 ± 4.97) > Mn (7.54 ± 0.69) > Zn (6.51 ± 0.36) > Cd (4.01 ± 0.86) > Cu (1.93 ± 0.74). Barring Mn, concentration of all the metals increased with disturbance and was positively correlated to it. However, except for Cd and Fe, none of the metals reported higher than threshold values. Effective monitoring of the environment can thus be done using P. flocculosa. PMID:27591984

  3. The potential of two Salix genotypes for radionuclide/heavy metal accumulation. A case study of Rovinari ash pit (Gorj District, Romania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernea, Cornelia; Neţoiu, Constantin; Corneanu, Gabriel; Crăciun, Constantin; Corneanu, Mihaela; Cojocaru, Luminiţa; Rovena Lăcătuşu, Anca; Popescu, Ion

    2014-05-01

    Thermo Electric Power Plants (TEPP) produce a high amount of ash, that contains heavy metals and radionuclides. Ash is usually stored in ash-pits, in mixture with water and contains U235, Th 234 and their decay products, that are released from the coal matrix, during combustion, as well as heavy metals. Warm weather dried the ash and it can be spread by the wind in surrounded area. This paper presents the results of an experiment with two Salix genotypes, cultivated on an old closed ash-pit, nearby the Rovinari TEPP, in the middle Jiu valley (Gorj District, Romania), in order to evaluate its tolerance to heavy metals and radionuclides. Ash analysis revealed the presence of natural radionuclides, beloging from ash and coal dust, as well as of Cs 137, of Chernobil provenance. Radionuclides content over the normal limits for Romania were registered for Th 234, Pb210, U235 and Ra226. The heavy metals level in ash was over the normal limits, but under the alerts limits. In order to establish the woody plants tolerance to heavy metals and radionuclides, it is important to study the seedlings behavior. In this respect Salix alba and Salix viminalis whips and cuttings culture have been establish on Rovinari ash-pit. The observations made on survival and growth rate pointed out the superiority of Salix viminalis behaviour. After a period of three years Salix viminalis registered a 96% survival rate, while in Salix alba annual decreases, reaching to 14%. These results are supported by the radionuclides content in leaves and by the electron microscopy studies. In Salix alba the leaves parenchimatic cells present a low sinthesis activity. The exogenous particles are accumulated in parenchima cells vacuola, the chloroplasts are usually agranal, with few starch grains and mitocondria presents slightly dillated crista. The ultrastructural features of the mature leaf cells, evidenced the natural adaptation of Salix viminalins for development in an environment with a big amount of

  4. Growth and Heavy Metal Accumulation of Koelreuteria Paniculata Seedlings and Their Potential for Restoring Manganese Mine Wastelands in Hunan, China

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhihong; Xiang, Wenhua; Ma, Yu’e; Lei, Pifeng; Tian, Dalun; Deng, Xiangwen; Yan, Wende; Fang, Xi

    2015-01-01

    The planting of trees on mine wastelands is an effective, long-term technique for phytoremediation of heavy metal-contaminated wastes. In this study, a pot experiment with seedlings of Koelreuteria paniculata under six treatments of local mine wastes was designed to determine the major constraints on tree establishment and to evaluate the feasibility of planting K. paniculata on manganese mine wastelands. Results showed that K. paniculata grew well in mine tailings, and also under a regime of equal amounts of mine tailings and soil provided in adjacent halves of pots. In contrast, mine sludge did not favor survival and growth because its clay texture limited fine root development. The bio-concentration factor and the translocation factor were mostly less than 1, indicating a low phytoextraction potential for K. paniculata. K. paniculata is suited to restore manganese mine sludge by mixing the mine sludge with local mine tailings or soil. PMID:25654773

  5. Growth and heavy metal accumulation of Koelreuteria paniculata seedlings and their potential for restoring manganese mine wastelands in Hunan, China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhihong; Xiang, Wenhua; Ma, Yu'e; Lei, Pifeng; Tian, Dalun; Deng, Xiangwen; Yan, Wende; Fang, Xi

    2015-02-03

    The planting of trees on mine wastelands is an effective, long-term technique for phytoremediation of heavy metal-contaminated wastes. In this study, a pot experiment with seedlings of Koelreuteria paniculata under six treatments of local mine wastes was designed to determine the major constraints on tree establishment and to evaluate the feasibility of planting K. paniculata on manganese mine wastelands. Results showed that K. paniculata grew well in mine tailings, and also under a regime of equal amounts of mine tailings and soil provided in adjacent halves of pots. In contrast, mine sludge did not favor survival and growth because its clay texture limited fine root development. The bio-concentration factor and the translocation factor were mostly less than 1, indicating a low phytoextraction potential for K. paniculata. K. paniculata is suited to restore manganese mine sludge by mixing the mine sludge with local mine tailings or soil.

  6. Traffic-related heavy metals uptake by wild plants grow along two main highways in Hunan Province, China: effects of soil factors, accumulation ability, and biological indication potential.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yunbo; Dai, Qingyun; Jiang, Kang; Zhu, Yun; Xu, Bibo; Peng, Chuan; Wang, Tengfei; Zeng, Guangming

    2016-07-01

    This study was performed to investigate pollution of traffic-related heavy metals (HMs-Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, and Cd) in roadside soils and their uptake by wild plants growing along highways in Hunan Province, China. For this, we analyzed the concentration and chemical fractionation of HMs in soils and plants. Soil samples were collected with different depths in the profile and different distances from highway edge. And leaves and barks of six high-frequency plants were collected. Results of the modified European Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) showed that the mobile fraction of these HMs was in the order of Cd > Pb > Zn > Cu > Cr. A high percentage of the mobile fraction indicates Cd, Pb, and Zn were labile and available for uptake by wild plants. The total concentration and values of risk assessment code (RAC) showed that Cd was the main risk factor, which were in the range high to very high risk. The accumulation ability of HMs in plants was evaluated by the biological accumulation factor (BAF) and the metal accumulation index (MAI), and the results showed that all those plant species have good phyto-extraction ability, while accumulation capacity for most HMs plants tissues was bark > leaf. The highest MAI value (5.99) in Cinnamomum camphora (L) Presl indicates the potential for bio-monitoring and a good choice for planting along highways where there is contamination with HMs.

  7. Accumulation of heavy metals in the vegetables grown in wastewater irrigated areas of Dehradun, India with reference to human health risk.

    PubMed

    Chopra, A K; Pathak, Chakresh

    2015-07-01

    The present study on accumulation of heavy metals in the vegetables viz. Beta vulgaris, Phaseolus vulgaris, Spinacea oleracea, and Brassica oleracea var. botrytis grown in the wastewater-irrigated soil near the Bindal river, Dehradun, has shown the maximum accumulation of metals for Pb (196.91 ± 8.13 mg/kg), Cu (36.75 ± 6.19 mg/kg), Zn (305.54 ± 14.30 mg/kg), Ni (125.48 ± 5.97 mg/kg), Cd (29.58 ± 4.26 mg/kg), and Cr (93.06 ± 3.25 mg/kg) in agricultural soil irrigated with wastewater. The enrichment factor of soil was maximum for Cr (8.74) and minimum for Cu (0.88). In case of vegetables, the concentrations of heavy metals were maximum for Pb (86.69 ± 6.69) in the flower of B. oleracea var. botrytis, Cu (33.49 ± 2.09) and Zn (161.86 ± 17.79) in the leaves of S. oleracea, Ni (80.72 ± 8.40) and Cd (23.19 ± 2.76), and Cr (57.18 ± 8.16) in the root of B. vulgaris grown in wastewater (WW)-irrigated soil. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF) for Cu (0.911) was maximum in S. oleracea and minimum for Pb (0.440) in B. vulgaris. The maximum daily intake of metals was found for Zn (0.059) in S. oleracea and minimum for Cd (0.008) in B. vulgaris. The human health risk index was found to be more than 1 for Pb and Cd. The long-term wastewater irrigation resulted in accumulation of heavy metals in vegetables which may cause potential health risks to consumers as these vegetables are sold in local markets of Dehradun city.

  8. Influence of fertilizer and sewage sludge compost on yield and heavy metal accumulation by lettuce grown in urban soils.

    PubMed

    Sterrett, S B; Chaney, R L; Gifford, C H; Mielke, H W

    1996-12-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that many urban soils are enriched in Pb, Cd and Zn. Culture of vegetable crops in these soils could allow transfer of potentially toxic metals to foods. 'Tanya' lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) was grown in pots of five urban garden soils and one control agricultural soil to assess the effect of urban-soil metal enrichment, and the effect of soil amendments, on heavy metal uptake by garden vegetables. The amendments included NPK fertilizer, limestone, Ca(H2PO4)2, and two rates of limed sewage sludge compost. Soil Cd ranged from 0.08 to 9.6 mg kg(-1); soil Zn from 38 to 3490 mg kg(-1); and soil Pb from 12 to 5210 mg kg(-1). Lettuce yield on the urban garden soils was as great as or greater than that on the control soil. Lettuce Cd, Zn and Pb concentrations increased from 0.65, 23, and 2.2 mg kg(-1) dry matter in the control soil to as high as 3.53, 422 and 37.0 mg kg(-1) on the metal-rich urban garden soils. Adding limestone or limed sewage sludge compost raised soil pH and significantly reduced lettuce Cd and Zn, while phosphate fertilizer lowered soil pH and had little effect on Zn but increased Cd concentration in lettuce. Urban garden soils caused a significant increase in lettuce leaf Pb concentration, especially on the highest Pb soil. Adding NPK fertilizer, phosphate, or sludge compost to two high Pb soils lowered lettuce Pb concentration, but adding limestone generally did not. On normally fertilized soils, Pb uptake by lettuce was not exceptionally high until soil Pb substantially exceeded 500 mg kg(-1). Comparing garden vegetables and soil as potential sources of Pb risk to children, it is clear that the risk is greater through ingestion of soil or dust than through ingestion of garden vegetables grown on the soil. Urban dwellers should obtain soil metal analyses before selecting garden locations to reduce Pb risk to their children.

  9. Heavy metal accumulation in soils and grains, and health risks associated with use of treated municipal wastewater in subsurface drip irrigation.

    PubMed

    Asgari, Kamran; Cornelis, Wim M

    2015-07-01

    Constant use of treated wastewater (TWW) for irrigation over prolonged periods may cause buildup of heavy metals up to toxic levels for plants and animals, and entails environmental hazards in different aspects. However, application of TWW on agricultural land might be an effective and sustainable strategy in arid and semi-arid countries where fresh water resources are under great pressure, as long as potential harmful effects on the environment including soil, plants, and fresh water resources, and health risks to humans are minimized. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of deep emitters on limiting potential heavy metal accumulation in soils and grains, and health risk under drip irrigation with treated municipal wastewater. A field experiment was conducted according to a split block design with two treatments (fresh and wastewater) and three sub-treatments (0, 15, and 30 cm depth of emitters) in four replicates on a sandy loam Calcic Argigypsids, in Esfahan, Iran. The annual rainfall is about 123 mm, mean annual ETo is 1457 mm, and the elevation is 1590 m above sea level. A two-crop rotation of wheat (Triticum spp.) and corn (Zea mays) was established on each plot with wheat growing from February to June and corn from July to September. Soil samples were collected before planting and after harvesting for each crop in each year. Edible grain samples of corn and wheat were collected at harvest. Elemental concentrations (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni) in soil and grains were determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results showed that the concentrations of heavy metals in the wastewater-irrigated soils were not significantly different (P > 0.05) compared with the freshwater-irrigated soils. No significant difference (P > 0.05) in heavy metal content in soil between different depths of emitters was found. A pollution load index (PLI) showed that there was no substantial buildup of heavy metals in the wastewater-irrigated soils

  10. Heavy metal accumulation in soils and grains, and health risks associated with use of treated municipal wastewater in subsurface drip irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asgari, Kamran; Najafi, Payam; Cornelis, Wim M.

    2014-05-01

    Constant use of treated wastewater for irrigation over long periods may cause buildup of heavy metals up to toxic levels for plants, animals, and entails environmental hazards in different aspects. However, application of treated wastewater on agricultural land might be an effective and sustainable strategy in arid and semi-arid countries where fresh water resources are under great pressure, as long as potential harmful effects on the environment including soil, plants, and fresh water resources, and health risks to humans are minimized. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of using a deep emitter installation on lowering the potential heavy metal accumulation in soils and grains, and health risk under drip irrigation with treated municipal wastewater. A field experiment was conducted according to a split block design with two treatments (fresh and wastewater) and three sub treatments (0, 15 and 30 cm depth of emitters) in four replicates on a sandy loam soil, in Esfahan, Iran. The annual rainfall is about 123 mm, mean annual ETo is 1457 mm, and the elevation is 1590 m a.s.l.. A two-crop rotation of wheat [Triticum spp.] and corn [Zea mays]) was established on each plot with wheat growing from February to June and corn from July to September. Soil samples were collected before planting (initial value) and after harvesting (final value) for each crop in each year. Edible grain samples of corn and wheat were also collected. Elemental concentrations (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni) in soil and grains were determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The concentrations of heavy metals in the wastewater-irrigated soils were not significantly different (P>0.05) compared with the freshwater-irrigated soils. The results showed no significant difference (P>0.05) of soil heavy metal content between different depths of emitters. A pollution load index PLI showed that there was not substantial buildup of heavy metals in the wastewater-irrigated soils compared to

  11. Heavy metal accumulation in soils and grains, and health risks associated with use of treated municipal wastewater in subsurface drip irrigation.

    PubMed

    Asgari, Kamran; Cornelis, Wim M

    2015-07-01

    Constant use of treated wastewater (TWW) for irrigation over prolonged periods may cause buildup of heavy metals up to toxic levels for plants and animals, and entails environmental hazards in different aspects. However, application of TWW on agricultural land might be an effective and sustainable strategy in arid and semi-arid countries where fresh water resources are under great pressure, as long as potential harmful effects on the environment including soil, plants, and fresh water resources, and health risks to humans are minimized. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of deep emitters on limiting potential heavy metal accumulation in soils and grains, and health risk under drip irrigation with treated municipal wastewater. A field experiment was conducted according to a split block design with two treatments (fresh and wastewater) and three sub-treatments (0, 15, and 30 cm depth of emitters) in four replicates on a sandy loam Calcic Argigypsids, in Esfahan, Iran. The annual rainfall is about 123 mm, mean annual ETo is 1457 mm, and the elevation is 1590 m above sea level. A two-crop rotation of wheat (Triticum spp.) and corn (Zea mays) was established on each plot with wheat growing from February to June and corn from July to September. Soil samples were collected before planting and after harvesting for each crop in each year. Edible grain samples of corn and wheat were collected at harvest. Elemental concentrations (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni) in soil and grains were determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results showed that the concentrations of heavy metals in the wastewater-irrigated soils were not significantly different (P > 0.05) compared with the freshwater-irrigated soils. No significant difference (P > 0.05) in heavy metal content in soil between different depths of emitters was found. A pollution load index (PLI) showed that there was no substantial buildup of heavy metals in the wastewater-irrigated soils

  12. [Long-term effects of tillage methods on heavy metal accumulation and availability in purple paddy soil].

    PubMed

    Chang, Tong-Ju; Cui, Xiao-Qiang; Ruan, Zhen; Zhao, Xiu-Lan

    2014-06-01

    A long-term experiment, conducted at Southwest University since 1990, was used to evaluate the effect of tillage methods on the total and available contents of heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd) in the profile of purple paddy soil and the contents of those metals in root, stem leaf and brown rice. The experiment included five tillage methods: conventional tillage, paddy-upland rotation, no-tillage and fallow in winter, ridge-no-tillage and compartments-no-tillage. The results showed that the total concentrations of Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd in the soil profile had no significant differences among five treatments, but it was found that total Mn has a significant decline in 0-20 cm under conventional tillage, paddy-upland rotation and no-tillage and fallow in winter compared with ridge-no-tillage and compartments-no-tillage. The availability of Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd decreased with the increase of soil depth in all treatments, but the availability of Mn was found to be the highest in the 20-40 cm layers except those in the paddy-upland rotation. In the ploughed layer, the contents of available Fe, Mn was the highest in paddy-upland rotation, while the contents of available Zn and Pb was the highest in conventional tillage, but tillage treatments had not significant influence to the contents of available Cu. Correlation analysis showed that available Fe was significantly negatively related to the pH values and significantly negatively related to the organic matter of soils, available Mn was significantly negatively related to the pH values and organic matter of soils, whereas the available Zn was significantly positively related to total Zn. The contents of Fe, Mn in rice root, the contents of Fe, Mn, Cu and Cd in rice straw and Cu in brown rice were higher under paddy-upland rotation, ridge-no-tillage and compartments-no-tillage than those in conventional tillage and no-tillage and fellow in winter. Paddy-upland rotation can significantly lower the migration

  13. [Long-term effects of tillage methods on heavy metal accumulation and availability in purple paddy soil].

    PubMed

    Chang, Tong-Ju; Cui, Xiao-Qiang; Ruan, Zhen; Zhao, Xiu-Lan

    2014-06-01

    A long-term experiment, conducted at Southwest University since 1990, was used to evaluate the effect of tillage methods on the total and available contents of heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd) in the profile of purple paddy soil and the contents of those metals in root, stem leaf and brown rice. The experiment included five tillage methods: conventional tillage, paddy-upland rotation, no-tillage and fallow in winter, ridge-no-tillage and compartments-no-tillage. The results showed that the total concentrations of Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd in the soil profile had no significant differences among five treatments, but it was found that total Mn has a significant decline in 0-20 cm under conventional tillage, paddy-upland rotation and no-tillage and fallow in winter compared with ridge-no-tillage and compartments-no-tillage. The availability of Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd decreased with the increase of soil depth in all treatments, but the availability of Mn was found to be the highest in the 20-40 cm layers except those in the paddy-upland rotation. In the ploughed layer, the contents of available Fe, Mn was the highest in paddy-upland rotation, while the contents of available Zn and Pb was the highest in conventional tillage, but tillage treatments had not significant influence to the contents of available Cu. Correlation analysis showed that available Fe was significantly negatively related to the pH values and significantly negatively related to the organic matter of soils, available Mn was significantly negatively related to the pH values and organic matter of soils, whereas the available Zn was significantly positively related to total Zn. The contents of Fe, Mn in rice root, the contents of Fe, Mn, Cu and Cd in rice straw and Cu in brown rice were higher under paddy-upland rotation, ridge-no-tillage and compartments-no-tillage than those in conventional tillage and no-tillage and fellow in winter. Paddy-upland rotation can significantly lower the migration

  14. Linking environmental heavy metal concentrations and salinity gradients with metal accumulation and their effects: A case study in 3 mussel species of Vitória estuary and Espírito Santo bay, Southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vikas; Sinha, Amit Kumar; Rodrigues, Paulo Pinheiro; Mubiana, Valentine K; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2015-08-01

    The present study was conducted to link the heavy metal load in three species of mussels (Perna perna, Mytella falcata and Mytella guyanensis) from the estuaries and bays around Vitória island, south-east of Brazil, with the salinity gradient and the heavy metal levels in the abiotic environment (including water, suspended particulate matter (SPM) and sediment). Primarily based on the salinity gradient, a total of 26 sites around Vitória Island were selected for sampling of water, SPM, sediments and organisms. Besides tissue metal levels, the condition index and energy stores (glycogen, lipid and protein) were quantified as an indicator of fitness in response to metal pollution. Dissolved metals in water indicate that Cd and Mn content was higher along Espírito Santo Bay, while Al, Co, Cu, Cr and Fe were elevated in the sites with low salinity such as river mouths, estuarine and sewage canals. Likewise, suspended matter sampled from low salinity sites showed a higher heavy metal load compared to moderate and high salinity sites. Though mussels were sampled from different sites, the contamination for Cd, Cu, Fe and Mn was higher in mussels inhabiting low salinity sites (M. guyanensis and M. falcata) compared to P. perna, a high saline water inhabitant. However, a higher Zn body burden was observed for P. perna compared to Mytella species. Tissue Fe accumulation (but not Mn and Zn) correlated with heavy metal levels in suspended material for all three species, and for M. falcata this correlation also existed for Cd and Cu. Energy store and condition index in all mussels varied depending on the sampling sites and correlated with salinity gradient rather than tissue metal concentration. Overall, metal concentration in mussels did not exceed the safe levels as per the international standards for metals, and would be of no risk for human consumption.

  15. Accumulation of Heavy Metals and Metalloid in Foodstuffs from Agricultural Soils around Tarkwa Area in Ghana, and Associated Human Health Risks.

    PubMed

    Bortey-Sam, Nesta; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Akoto, Osei; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Fobil, Julius N; Baidoo, Elvis; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2015-08-01

    This study was carried out to assess the extent of heavy metals and metalloid accumulation from agricultural soils to foodstuffs (viz, M. esculenta (cassava) and Musa paradisiaca (plantain)) around thirteen neighboring communities within Tarkwa, Ghana; and to estimate the human health risk associated with consumption of these foodstuffs. Concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn were measured with an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer and mercury analysis was done using a mercury analyzer. From the results, 30% of cassava samples collected, contained higher concentrations of Pb when compared to Codex Alimentarius Commission standard values. Bioconcentration factor indicated that Ni had higher capacity of absorption into food crops from soil than the other heavy metals. For both children and adults, the target hazard quotient (THQ) of Pb in cassava in communities such as Techiman, Wangarakrom, Samahu, and Tebe (only children) were greater than 1, which is defined as an acceptable risk value. This indicated that residents could be exposed to significant health risks associated with cassava consumption. PMID:26225988

  16. Accumulation of Heavy Metals and Metalloid in Foodstuffs from Agricultural Soils around Tarkwa Area in Ghana, and Associated Human Health Risks

    PubMed Central

    Bortey-Sam, Nesta; Nakayama, Shouta M. M.; Akoto, Osei; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Fobil, Julius N.; Baidoo, Elvis; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to assess the extent of heavy metals and metalloid accumulation from agricultural soils to foodstuffs (viz, M. esculenta (cassava) and Musa paradisiaca (plantain)) around thirteen neighboring communities within Tarkwa, Ghana; and to estimate the human health risk associated with consumption of these foodstuffs. Concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn were measured with an inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometer and mercury analysis was done using a mercury analyzer. From the results, 30% of cassava samples collected, contained higher concentrations of Pb when compared to Codex Alimentarius Commission standard values. Bioconcentration factor indicated that Ni had higher capacity of absorption into food crops from soil than the other heavy metals. For both children and adults, the target hazard quotient (THQ) of Pb in cassava in communities such as Techiman, Wangarakrom, Samahu, and Tebe (only children) were greater than 1, which is defined as an acceptable risk value. This indicated that residents could be exposed to significant health risks associated with cassava consumption. PMID:26225988

  17. Influence of wastewater application and fertilizer use on growth, photosynthesis, nutrient homeostatis, yield and heavy metal accumulation in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench).

    PubMed

    Faizan, Shahla; Kausar, Saima; Akhtar, Neelima

    2014-05-01

    The scarceness of freshwater assets is a serious problem in semi-arid zones and marginal quality water is increasingly being used in agriculture. This study aimed at evaluating the physico-chemical and biological risks on irrigated soils of treated wastewater, the nutrient supply and the effect on okra plant. A pot experiment based on completely randomized block design was conducted with Treated Wastewater (TW) and inorganic fertilizers to observe a comparative effect on biochemical characters using Okra var. Nidhi. The physico-chemical analysis of the TW showed that it was rich in total suspended and dissolved solids with large amount of BOD and COD. The higher amount of Cl-, Ca++, Mg++ and K+ were also present in the effluent. The heavy metal (Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb) content in TW is comparatively more than groundwater (GW). The values of these heavy metals were slightly higher in the soil irrigated with TW. The effluent severely affects crop plants and soil properties when used for irrigation. The growth parameters, photosynthetic characteristics, chlorophyll content, yield and nutrient homeostatis were analyzed during different growth periods in all treatments. All the parameters were found to increase due to wastewater application. Among the fertilizer treatments, N120 proved optimum, N90 deficient and N150 proved as luxury dose. The seeds accumulated Cd and Ni but their level was under permissible limits. Thus, it may be concluded that wastewater may be used profitably for the cultivation of okra.

  18. Influence of wastewater application and fertilizer use on growth, photosynthesis, nutrient homeostatis, yield and heavy metal accumulation in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench).

    PubMed

    Faizan, Shahla; Kausar, Saima; Akhtar, Neelima

    2014-05-01

    The scarceness of freshwater assets is a serious problem in semi-arid zones and marginal quality water is increasingly being used in agriculture. This study aimed at evaluating the physico-chemical and biological risks on irrigated soils of treated wastewater, the nutrient supply and the effect on okra plant. A pot experiment based on completely randomized block design was conducted with Treated Wastewater (TW) and inorganic fertilizers to observe a comparative effect on biochemical characters using Okra var. Nidhi. The physico-chemical analysis of the TW showed that it was rich in total suspended and dissolved solids with large amount of BOD and COD. The higher amount of Cl-, Ca++, Mg++ and K+ were also present in the effluent. The heavy metal (Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb) content in TW is comparatively more than groundwater (GW). The values of these heavy metals were slightly higher in the soil irrigated with TW. The effluent severely affects crop plants and soil properties when used for irrigation. The growth parameters, photosynthetic characteristics, chlorophyll content, yield and nutrient homeostatis were analyzed during different growth periods in all treatments. All the parameters were found to increase due to wastewater application. Among the fertilizer treatments, N120 proved optimum, N90 deficient and N150 proved as luxury dose. The seeds accumulated Cd and Ni but their level was under permissible limits. Thus, it may be concluded that wastewater may be used profitably for the cultivation of okra. PMID:26030995

  19. Accumulation of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn) in Raphanus sativus L. and Spinacia oleracea L. plants irrigated with industrial effluent.

    PubMed

    Pandey, S N

    2006-05-01

    Effluent from electroplating industry contains various heavy metals like Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn, which are used in electroplating process of industry. Effluent was slightly greenish in colour and pungent in odour. Physico-chemical properties like total suspended solids (TSS), total solids (TS), alkalinity, Biological oxygen demand (BOD), and Chemical oxygen demand (COD) showed higher values in effluent with high metal contents like Cd, 0.013; Cr, 0.093; Ni, 0.935 and Zn 4.76 mg l(-1). plants of S. oleracea and R. sativus were raised in uncontaminated alluvial soil of Lucknow by soil pot culture method and irrigated with industrial effluent, showed visual toxic symptoms like stunted growth, necrosis followed by chlorosis in leaves and finally death of the plants. Severity of toxicity was less in plants treated with diluted effluent (50%). High accumulation of Cr, 302.0; Cu, 81.2; Ni, 155.1 and Zn 146.8 microg g(-1) dry weight in S. oleracea and Cr, 198.0; Cu, 41.0; Ni, 84.3 and Zn, 140.2 microg g(-1) dry weight in R. sativus were determined. Tissue concentration of metals and toxic effects was more in S. oleracea plants. The tissue concentration of metals showed much higher values in treated plants than that of their respective control. PMID:17436528

  20. Heavy metals and living systems: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Reena; Gautam, Neetu; Mishra, Anurag; Gupta, Rajiv

    2011-01-01

    Heavy metals are natural constituents of the earth's crust, but indiscriminate human activities have drastically altered their geochemical cycles and biochemical balance. This results in accumulation of metals in plant parts having secondary metabolites, which is responsible for a particular pharmacological activity. Prolonged exposure to heavy metals such as cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc can cause deleterious health effects in humans. Molecular understanding of plant metal accumulation has numerous biotechnological implications also, the long term effects of which might not be yet known. PMID:21713085

  1. Effects of organic acids on the photosynthetic and antioxidant properties and accumulations of heavy metals of Melilotus officinalis grown in Cu tailing.

    PubMed

    Han, Yulin; Wu, Xue; Gu, Jiguang; Zhao, Jiuzhou; Huang, Suzhen; Yuan, Haiyan; Fu, Jiajia

    2016-09-01

    The effect of citric acid (CA), acetic acid (Ac), and ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) on the photosynthetic and antioxidant properties and the accumulation of some heavy metals (HMs) of Melilotus officinalis seedling growing in Cu mine tailings for 25 days were studied. Results showed that the formation of photosynthesizing cells of M. officinalis was inhibited by EDTA at 2 mmol/kg. Photosynthetic pigment contents under EDTA of 2 mmol/kg were reduced by 26, 40, and 19 %, respectively, compared to the control. The proline contents in aboveground and underground parts increased as the level of EDTA was enhanced. CA and Ac enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) in the aboveground parts and EDTA inhibited the activity of POD in the underground parts. The addition of CA promoted significantly the growth of M. officinalis, while the biomass decreased significantly under 2 mmol/kg EDTA. Cu contents in the aboveground parts treated with 0.5 and 2.0 mmol/kg EDTA reached 175.50 and 265.17 μg/g dry weight, respectively. Ac and EDTA treatments promoted Cd to translocate from root to aboveground parts. The result indicated that M. officinalis was a tolerant species of Cu tailing and can be used to remediate Cu contaminated environment, and rationally utilization of organic acids, especially EDTA, in the phytoremediation can improve the growth and metals accumulation of M. officinalis. PMID:27255310

  2. Effects of organic acids on the photosynthetic and antioxidant properties and accumulations of heavy metals of Melilotus officinalis grown in Cu tailing.

    PubMed

    Han, Yulin; Wu, Xue; Gu, Jiguang; Zhao, Jiuzhou; Huang, Suzhen; Yuan, Haiyan; Fu, Jiajia

    2016-09-01

    The effect of citric acid (CA), acetic acid (Ac), and ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) on the photosynthetic and antioxidant properties and the accumulation of some heavy metals (HMs) of Melilotus officinalis seedling growing in Cu mine tailings for 25 days were studied. Results showed that the formation of photosynthesizing cells of M. officinalis was inhibited by EDTA at 2 mmol/kg. Photosynthetic pigment contents under EDTA of 2 mmol/kg were reduced by 26, 40, and 19 %, respectively, compared to the control. The proline contents in aboveground and underground parts increased as the level of EDTA was enhanced. CA and Ac enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) in the aboveground parts and EDTA inhibited the activity of POD in the underground parts. The addition of CA promoted significantly the growth of M. officinalis, while the biomass decreased significantly under 2 mmol/kg EDTA. Cu contents in the aboveground parts treated with 0.5 and 2.0 mmol/kg EDTA reached 175.50 and 265.17 μg/g dry weight, respectively. Ac and EDTA treatments promoted Cd to translocate from root to aboveground parts. The result indicated that M. officinalis was a tolerant species of Cu tailing and can be used to remediate Cu contaminated environment, and rationally utilization of organic acids, especially EDTA, in the phytoremediation can improve the growth and metals accumulation of M. officinalis.

  3. Heavy Metal Accumulation is Associated with Molecular and Pathological Perturbations in Liver of Variola louti from the Jeddah Coast of Red Sea

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Saleh A.; Elshal, Mohamed F.; Kumosani, Taha A.; Mal, Ahmad O.; Ahmed, Youssri M.; Almulaiky, Yaaser Q.; Asseri, Amer H.; Zamzami, Mazin A.

    2016-01-01

    Large amounts of waste water are discharged daily from the Jeddah Metropolitan Area into the Red Sea. Sewage draining into the Red Sea causes widespread chemical pollution that is toxic to aquatic ecosystems. The objective of this study was to investigate the extent of pollution and assess the presence of heavy metals in fish tissue and study their association with biological and biochemical alterations. The average concentrations of heavy metals found in hepatic tissues of Variola louti fish from the polluted area, namely Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe and Zn, were 1.74, 9.69, 47.48, 4020.01 and 229.47 µg/g liver, respectively, that were significantly higher than that of samples taken from reference area (0.24, 1.98, 20.12, 721.93, 129.21 µg/g liver, respectively). The fold change of heavy metals in fish from the polluted area with respect of that of the reference area followed the order Cd > Fe > Cr > Cu > Zn. Analysis of nuclear DNA revealed that hepatic tissues of fish samples from the polluted area showed a significant increase in apoptotic cells as detected by flow cytometry and formation DNA-ladder. In addition, hepatic sections from polluted area fishes showed more fibrotic changes and collagen deposition by hematoxylin-eosin staining and Masson’s trichrome staining, respectively, compared to samples taken from the reference area. Moreover, the electrophoretic patterns of proteins of liver of fishes caught at the polluted area showed different patterns of proteins from that of the reference with bands at 42, 130 and 140 kDa, which is in a good agreement with the molecular weight of collagen type III. In conclusion, there were significant changes in the tissues of fishes in the polluted area at the cellular and the molecular levels that may be associated with an accumulation of heavy metals. Assessment of fishes as a sensitive biomonitor for the pollution of surface waters that may affect general health of human and wild life is conceivable. PMID:27007386

  4. Impact of mining and refining on the distribution and accumulation of nickel and other heavy metals in sediments of subarctic Lake Kuetsjärvi, Murmansk Region, Russia.

    PubMed

    Dauvalter, Vladimir

    2003-04-01

    Research on the influence of the activities of Pechenganickel Mining and Metallurgical Company on sediment heavy-metal geochemistry of the subarctic Lake Kuetsjärvi (north-western Russia) are described. It is estimated that during 60 years of mining/refining activity, 310 t of Ni, 120 t of Cu, 14 t of Co, 19 t of Zn, 0.087 t of Cd, 0.78 t of Pb and 0.053 t of Hg have accumulated in the lake sediments. The latter can be a source of secondary pollution and represent a danger for the lake ecosystem. The sedimentation rate in the lake is estimated to be within the range of 1.5-3 mm year(-1). The average concentrations of Ni, Cu, Hg and Co in superficial sediments have increased 25, 14, 11 and 5 times, respectively in the last century. PMID:12729256

  5. Monitoring of contaminated toxic and heavy metals, from mine tailings through age accumulation, in soil and some wild plants at Southeast Egypt.

    PubMed

    Rashed, M N

    2010-06-15

    This study includes tailing from gold mine, at Allaqi Wadi Aswan, Egypt, used by incident Egyptian and after by some English companies. Tailings, soils and wild plants (Acia Raddiena and Aerva Javanica) were sampled and analysed for toxic metals (Hg, Cd, Pb and As) and associated heavy metals (Cr, Ag, Ni, Au, Mo, Zn, Mn and Cu) using ICP-MS, ICP-AES, CVAAS and FAAS techniques. The present work concerns the distribution and mobility of these metals from tailing to the surrounding soils and wild flora. The results reveal that Cr, Cu, Zn, Ni, Ag, Au, Mn, Hg, As, Ag, Au and Pb in soil decreased as faraway from the tailing, after then irregular trends as a result of input from surrounding rocks. Acia Raddiena plant accumulated As, Cd and Pb in higher levels than Aerva Javanica. Quantification of soil and plant pollution was studied using enrichment factors, contamination factor, pollution index and bioaccumulation factors and show good interpretations of the results. The overall results of this study show that the soil and plants near the gold mine tailing were highly toxic, and the plants and soil must not be uses for grazing or agriculture.

  6. Monitoring of contaminated toxic and heavy metals, from mine tailings through age accumulation, in soil and some wild plants at Southeast Egypt.

    PubMed

    Rashed, M N

    2010-06-15

    This study includes tailing from gold mine, at Allaqi Wadi Aswan, Egypt, used by incident Egyptian and after by some English companies. Tailings, soils and wild plants (Acia Raddiena and Aerva Javanica) were sampled and analysed for toxic metals (Hg, Cd, Pb and As) and associated heavy metals (Cr, Ag, Ni, Au, Mo, Zn, Mn and Cu) using ICP-MS, ICP-AES, CVAAS and FAAS techniques. The present work concerns the distribution and mobility of these metals from tailing to the surrounding soils and wild flora. The results reveal that Cr, Cu, Zn, Ni, Ag, Au, Mn, Hg, As, Ag, Au and Pb in soil decreased as faraway from the tailing, after then irregular trends as a result of input from surrounding rocks. Acia Raddiena plant accumulated As, Cd and Pb in higher levels than Aerva Javanica. Quantification of soil and plant pollution was studied using enrichment factors, contamination factor, pollution index and bioaccumulation factors and show good interpretations of the results. The overall results of this study show that the soil and plants near the gold mine tailing were highly toxic, and the plants and soil must not be uses for grazing or agriculture. PMID:20188467

  7. Enhanced Heavy Metal Tolerance and Accumulation by Transgenic Sugar Beets Expressing Streptococcus thermophilus StGCS-GS in the Presence of Cd, Zn and Cu Alone or in Combination

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dali; An, Zhigang; Mao, Zijun; Ma, Longbiao; Lu, Zhenqiang

    2015-01-01

    Phytoremediation is a promising means of ameliorating heavy metal pollution through the use of transgenic plants as artificial hyperaccumulators. A novel Streptococcus thermophilus γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase-glutathione synthetase (StGCS-GS) that synthesizes glutathione (GSH) with limited feedback inhibition was overexpressed in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.), yielding three transgenic lines (s2, s4 and s5) with enhanced tolerance to different concentrations of cadmium, zinc and copper, as indicated by their increased biomass, root length and relative growth compared with wild-type plants. Transgenic sugar beets accumulated more Cd, Zn and Cu ions in shoots than wild-type, as well as higher GSH and phytochelatin (PC) levels under different heavy metal stresses. This enhanced heavy metal tolerance and increased accumulation were likely due to the increased expression of StGCS-GS and consequent overproduction of both GSH and PC. Furthermore, when multiple heavy metal ions were present at the same time, transgenic sugar beets overexpressing StGCS-GS resisted two or three of the metal combinations (50 μM Cd-Zn, Cd-Cu, Zn-Cu and Cd-Zn-Cu), with greater absorption in shoots. Additionally, there was no obvious competition between metals. Overall, the results demonstrate the explicit role of StGCS-GS in enhancing Cd, Zn and Cu tolerance and accumulation in transgenic sugar beet, which may represent a highly promising new tool for phytoremediation. PMID:26057126

  8. Enhanced Heavy Metal Tolerance and Accumulation by Transgenic Sugar Beets Expressing Streptococcus thermophilus StGCS-GS in the Presence of Cd, Zn and Cu Alone or in Combination.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dali; An, Zhigang; Mao, Zijun; Ma, Longbiao; Lu, Zhenqiang

    2015-01-01

    Phytoremediation is a promising means of ameliorating heavy metal pollution through the use of transgenic plants as artificial hyperaccumulators. A novel Streptococcus thermophilus γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase-glutathione synthetase (StGCS-GS) that synthesizes glutathione (GSH) with limited feedback inhibition was overexpressed in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.), yielding three transgenic lines (s2, s4 and s5) with enhanced tolerance to different concentrations of cadmium, zinc and copper, as indicated by their increased biomass, root length and relative growth compared with wild-type plants. Transgenic sugar beets accumulated more Cd, Zn and Cu ions in shoots than wild-type, as well as higher GSH and phytochelatin (PC) levels under different heavy metal stresses. This enhanced heavy metal tolerance and increased accumulation were likely due to the increased expression of StGCS-GS and consequent overproduction of both GSH and PC. Furthermore, when multiple heavy metal ions were present at the same time, transgenic sugar beets overexpressing StGCS-GS resisted two or three of the metal combinations (50 μM Cd-Zn, Cd-Cu, Zn-Cu and Cd-Zn-Cu), with greater absorption in shoots. Additionally, there was no obvious competition between metals. Overall, the results demonstrate the explicit role of StGCS-GS in enhancing Cd, Zn and Cu tolerance and accumulation in transgenic sugar beet, which may represent a highly promising new tool for phytoremediation.

  9. Enhanced Heavy Metal Tolerance and Accumulation by Transgenic Sugar Beets Expressing Streptococcus thermophilus StGCS-GS in the Presence of Cd, Zn and Cu Alone or in Combination.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dali; An, Zhigang; Mao, Zijun; Ma, Longbiao; Lu, Zhenqiang

    2015-01-01

    Phytoremediation is a promising means of ameliorating heavy metal pollution through the use of transgenic plants as artificial hyperaccumulators. A novel Streptococcus thermophilus γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase-glutathione synthetase (StGCS-GS) that synthesizes glutathione (GSH) with limited feedback inhibition was overexpressed in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.), yielding three transgenic lines (s2, s4 and s5) with enhanced tolerance to different concentrations of cadmium, zinc and copper, as indicated by their increased biomass, root length and relative growth compared with wild-type plants. Transgenic sugar beets accumulated more Cd, Zn and Cu ions in shoots than wild-type, as well as higher GSH and phytochelatin (PC) levels under different heavy metal stresses. This enhanced heavy metal tolerance and increased accumulation were likely due to the increased expression of StGCS-GS and consequent overproduction of both GSH and PC. Furthermore, when multiple heavy metal ions were present at the same time, transgenic sugar beets overexpressing StGCS-GS resisted two or three of the metal combinations (50 μM Cd-Zn, Cd-Cu, Zn-Cu and Cd-Zn-Cu), with greater absorption in shoots. Additionally, there was no obvious competition between metals. Overall, the results demonstrate the explicit role of StGCS-GS in enhancing Cd, Zn and Cu tolerance and accumulation in transgenic sugar beet, which may represent a highly promising new tool for phytoremediation. PMID:26057126

  10. Inactivation of two newly identified tobacco heavy metal ATPases leads to reduced Zn and Cd accumulation in shoots and reduced pollen germination

    PubMed Central

    Hermand, Victor; Julio, Emilie; Dorlhac de Borne, François; Punshon, Tracy; Ricachenevsky, Felipe K; Bellec, Arnaud; Gosti, Françoise; Berthomieu, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a non-essential heavy metal, which is classified as a “known human carcinogen” by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Understanding the mechanisms controlling Cd distribution in planta is essential to develop phytoremediation approaches as well as for food safety. Unlike most other plants, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants translocate most of the Cd taken up from the soil, out of the roots and into the shoots, leading to high Cd accumulation in tobacco shoots. Two orthologs to the Arabidopsis thaliana HMA2 and HMA4 Zn and Cd ATPases that are responsible for zinc (Zn) and Cd translocation from roots to shoots were identified in tobacco and sequenced. These genes, named NtHMAα and NtHMAβ, were more highly expressed in roots than in shoots. NtHMAα was expressed in the vascular tissues of both roots and leaves as well as in anthers. No visual difference was observed between wild-type plants and plants in which the NtHMAα and NtHMAβ genes were either mutated or silenced. These mutants showed reduced Zn and Cd accumulation in shoots as well as increased Cd tolerance. When both NtHMA genes were silenced, plant development was altered and pollen germination was severely impaired due to Zn deficiency. Interestingly, seeds from these lines also showed decreased Zn concentration but increased iron (Fe) concentration. PMID:24760325

  11. Inactivation of two newly identified tobacco heavy metal ATPases leads to reduced Zn and Cd accumulation in shoots and reduced pollen germination.

    PubMed

    Hermand, Victor; Julio, Emilie; Dorlhac de Borne, François; Punshon, Tracy; Ricachenevsky, Felipe K; Bellec, Arnaud; Gosti, Françoise; Berthomieu, Pierre

    2014-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a non-essential heavy metal, which is classified as a "known human carcinogen" by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Understanding the mechanisms controlling Cd distribution in planta is essential to develop phytoremediation approaches as well as for food safety. Unlike most other plants, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants translocate most of the Cd taken up from the soil, out of the roots and into the shoots, leading to high Cd accumulation in tobacco shoots. Two orthologs of the Arabidopsis thaliana HMA2 and HMA4 Zn and Cd ATPases that are responsible for zinc (Zn) and Cd translocation from roots to shoots were identified in tobacco and sequenced. These genes, named NtHMAα and NtHMAβ, were more highly expressed in roots than in shoots. NtHMAα was expressed in the vascular tissues of both roots and leaves as well as in anthers. No visual difference was observed between wild-type plants and plants in which the NtHMAα and NtHMAβ genes were either mutated or silenced. These mutants showed reduced Zn and Cd accumulation in shoots as well as increased Cd tolerance. When both NtHMA genes were silenced, plant development was altered and pollen germination was severely impaired due to Zn deficiency. Interestingly, seeds from these lines also showed decreased Zn concentration but increased iron (Fe) concentration.

  12. A heavy metal P-type ATPase OsHMA4 prevents copper accumulation in rice grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As one of the most important staple crops, rice not only provides more than one fifth of daily calories for half of the world’s human population but is also a major source of mineral nutrients. However, little is known about the genetic basis of mineral nutrient accumulation in rice grain such as co...

  13. A heavy metal P-type ATPase OsHMA4 prevents copper accumulation in rice grain

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xin-Yuan; Deng, Fenglin; Yamaji, Naoki; Pinson, Shannon R.M.; Fujii-Kashino, Miho; Danku, John; Douglas, Alex; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Salt, David E.; Ma, Jian Feng

    2016-01-01

    Rice is a major source of calories and mineral nutrients for over half the world's human population. However, little is known in rice about the genetic basis of variation in accumulation of copper (Cu), an essential but potentially toxic nutrient. Here we identify OsHMA4 as the likely causal gene of a quantitative trait locus controlling Cu accumulation in rice grain. We provide evidence that OsHMA4 functions to sequester Cu into root vacuoles, limiting Cu accumulation in the grain. The difference in grain Cu accumulation is most likely attributed to a single amino acid substitution that leads to different OsHMA4 transport activity. The allele associated with low grain Cu was found in 67 of the 1,367 rice accessions investigated. Identification of natural allelic variation in OsHMA4 may facilitate the development of rice varieties with grain Cu concentrations tuned to both the concentration of Cu in the soil and dietary needs. PMID:27387148

  14. ScMT2-1-3, a Metallothionein Gene of Sugarcane, Plays an Important Role in the Regulation of Heavy Metal Tolerance/Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jinlong; Xu, Liping; Su, Yachun; Wang, Hengbo; Gao, Shiwu; Xu, Jingsheng; Que, Youxiong

    2013-01-01

    Plant metallothioneins (MTs), which are cysteine-rich, low-molecular-weight, and metal-binding proteins, play important roles in detoxification, metal ion homeostasis, and metal transport adjustment. In this study, a novel metallothionein gene, designated as ScMT2-1-3 (GenBank Accession number JQ627644), was identified from sugarcane. ScMT2-1-3 was 700 bp long, including a 240 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 79 amino acid residues. A His-tagged ScMT2-1-3 protein was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli system which had increased the host cell's tolerance to Cd2+, Cu2+, PEG, and NaCl. The expression of ScMT2-1-3 was upregulated under Cu2+ stress but downregulated under Cd2+ stress. Real-time qPCR demonstrated that the expression levels of ScMT2-1-3 in bud and root were over 14 times higher than those in stem and leaf, respectively. Thus, both the E. coli assay and sugarcane plantlets assay suggested that ScMT2-1-3 is significantly involved in the copper detoxification and storage in the cell, but its functional mechanism in cadmium detoxification and storage in sugarcane cells needs more testification though its expressed protein could obviously increase the host E. coli cell's tolerance to Cd2+. ScMT2-1-3 constitutes thus a new interesting candidate for elucidating the molecular mechanisms of MTs-implied plant heavy metal tolerance/accumulation and for developing sugarcane phytoremediator varieties. PMID:23781509

  15. Manganese As a Metal Accumulator

    EPA Science Inventory

    Manganese deposits in water distribution systems accumulate metals, radionuclides and oxyanions by a combination of surface complexation, adsorption and solid substitution, as well as a combination of oxidation followed by manganese reduction and sorption of the oxidized constitu...

  16. Effect of heavy metals on soil fungi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosak-Świderska, Bożena

    2010-05-01

    Fungi constitute a high proportion of the microbial biomass in soil.Being widespread in soil their large surface-to-volume ratio and high metabolic activity, fungi can contribute significantly to heavy metal dynamics in soil. At neutral pH heavy metals in soils tend to be immobilized to precipitation and/or absorption to cation exchange sites of clay minerals. In the acidic soils, metals are more mobile and enter food webs easier. Microbial production of acids and chelating agents can mobilize to toxic metals. Mobilization is often by uptake and intracellular accumulation of the heavy metlas, and in this way, the bioavailability of metals towards other organisms can be more reduced. Fungi were isolated from soils from Upper Silesia in Poland and belonged to widespread genera: Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Penicillium and Trichoderma. Fungi from different taxonomic groups differ greatly in their tolerance to heavy metals. This could be related to their wall structure and chemistry as well as biochemical and physiological characteristics of fungi. Localization of metals in fungal cells was studied using electron microscopy analysis. Metal biosorption in the cell wall can be complex as melanin granules. Fungal vacuoles have an important role in the regulation of the cytosolic concentration of metal ions, and may contribute to heavy metal tolerance.In polluted soils with heavy metals, fungal species composition can be changed and their physiological activity can be changed, too.

  17. Phytochelatins: peptides involved in heavy metal detoxification.

    PubMed

    Pal, Rama; Rai, J P N

    2010-03-01

    Phytochelatins (PCs) are enzymatically synthesized peptides known to involve in heavy metal detoxification and accumulation, which have been measured in plants grown at high heavy metal concentrations, but few studies have examined the response of plants even at lower environmentally relevant metal concentrations. Recently, genes encoding the enzyme PC synthase have been identified in plants and other species enabling molecular biological studies to untangle the mechanisms underlying PC synthesis and its regulation. The present paper embodies review on recent advances in structure of PCs, their biosynthetic regulation, roles in heavy metal detoxification and/or accumulation, and PC synthase gene expression for better understanding of mechanism involved and to improve phytoremediation efficiency of plants for wider application.

  18. Field accumulation risks of heavy metals in soil and vegetable crop irrigated with sewage water in western region of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Balkhair, Khaled S; Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater irrigated fields can cause potential contamination with heavy metals to soil and groundwater, thus pose a threat to human beings . The current study was designed to investigate the potential human health risks associated with the consumption of okra vegetable crop contaminated with toxic heavy metals. The crop was grown on a soil irrigated with treated wastewater in the western region of Saudi Arabia during 2010 and 2011. The monitored heavy metals included Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn for their bioaccumulation factors to provide baseline data regarding environmental safety and the suitability of sewage irrigation in the future. The pollution load index (PLI), enrichment factor (EF) and contamination factor (CF) of these metals were calculated. The pollution load index of the studied soils indicated their level of metal contamination. The concentrations of Ni, Pb, Cd and Cr in the edible portions were above the safe limit in 90%, 28%, 83% and 63% of the samples, respectively. The heavy metals in the edible portions were as follows: Cr > Zn > Ni > Cd > Mn > Pb > Cu > Fe. The Health Risk Index (HRI) was >1 indicating a potential health risk. The EF values designated an enhanced bio-contamination compared to other reports from Saudi Arabia and other countries around the world. The results indicated a potential pathway of human exposure to slow poisoning by heavy metals due to the indirect utilization of vegetables grown on heavy metal-contaminated soil that was irrigated by contaminated water sources. The okra tested was not safe for human use, especially for direct consumption by human beings. The irrigation source was identified as the source of the soil pollution in this study.

  19. Field accumulation risks of heavy metals in soil and vegetable crop irrigated with sewage water in western region of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Balkhair, Khaled S; Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater irrigated fields can cause potential contamination with heavy metals to soil and groundwater, thus pose a threat to human beings . The current study was designed to investigate the potential human health risks associated with the consumption of okra vegetable crop contaminated with toxic heavy metals. The crop was grown on a soil irrigated with treated wastewater in the western region of Saudi Arabia during 2010 and 2011. The monitored heavy metals included Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn for their bioaccumulation factors to provide baseline data regarding environmental safety and the suitability of sewage irrigation in the future. The pollution load index (PLI), enrichment factor (EF) and contamination factor (CF) of these metals were calculated. The pollution load index of the studied soils indicated their level of metal contamination. The concentrations of Ni, Pb, Cd and Cr in the edible portions were above the safe limit in 90%, 28%, 83% and 63% of the samples, respectively. The heavy metals in the edible portions were as follows: Cr > Zn > Ni > Cd > Mn > Pb > Cu > Fe. The Health Risk Index (HRI) was >1 indicating a potential health risk. The EF values designated an enhanced bio-contamination compared to other reports from Saudi Arabia and other countries around the world. The results indicated a potential pathway of human exposure to slow poisoning by heavy metals due to the indirect utilization of vegetables grown on heavy metal-contaminated soil that was irrigated by contaminated water sources. The okra tested was not safe for human use, especially for direct consumption by human beings. The irrigation source was identified as the source of the soil pollution in this study. PMID:26858563

  20. Field accumulation risks of heavy metals in soil and vegetable crop irrigated with sewage water in western region of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Balkhair, Khaled S.; Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel

    2015-01-01

    Wastewater irrigated fields can cause potential contamination with heavy metals to soil and groundwater, thus pose a threat to human beings . The current study was designed to investigate the potential human health risks associated with the consumption of okra vegetable crop contaminated with toxic heavy metals. The crop was grown on a soil irrigated with treated wastewater in the western region of Saudi Arabia during 2010 and 2011. The monitored heavy metals included Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn for their bioaccumulation factors to provide baseline data regarding environmental safety and the suitability of sewage irrigation in the future. The pollution load index (PLI), enrichment factor (EF) and contamination factor (CF) of these metals were calculated. The pollution load index of the studied soils indicated their level of metal contamination. The concentrations of Ni, Pb, Cd and Cr in the edible portions were above the safe limit in 90%, 28%, 83% and 63% of the samples, respectively. The heavy metals in the edible portions were as follows: Cr > Zn > Ni > Cd > Mn > Pb > Cu > Fe. The Health Risk Index (HRI) was >1 indicating a potential health risk. The EF values designated an enhanced bio-contamination compared to other reports from Saudi Arabia and other countries around the world. The results indicated a potential pathway of human exposure to slow poisoning by heavy metals due to the indirect utilization of vegetables grown on heavy metal-contaminated soil that was irrigated by contaminated water sources. The okra tested was not safe for human use, especially for direct consumption by human beings. The irrigation source was identified as the source of the soil pollution in this study. PMID:26858563

  1. Heavy metal removal and recovery using microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Wilde, E.W. ); Benemann, J.R. , Pinole, CA )

    1991-02-01

    Microorganisms -- bacteria, fungi, and microalgae -- can accumulate relatively large amounts of toxic heavy metals and radionuclides from the environment. These organisms often exhibit specificity for particular metals. The metal content of microbial biomass can be a substantial fraction of total dry weight with concentration factors (metal in dry biomass to metal in solution) exceeding one million in some cases. Both living and inert (dead) microbial biomass can be used to reduce heavy metal concentrations in contaminated waters to very low levels -- parts per billion and even lower. In many respects (e.g. specificity, residual metal concentrations, accumulation factors, and economics) microbial bioremoval processes can be superior to conventional processes, such as ion exchange and caustic (lime or hydroxide) precipitation for heavy metals removal from waste and contaminated waters. Thus, bioremoval could be developed to contribute to the clean-up of wastes at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and other DOE facilities. However, the potential advantages of bioremoval processes must still be developed into practical operating systems. A detailed review of the literature suggests that appropriate bioremoval processes could be developed for the SRS. There is great variability from one biomass source to another in bioremoval capabilities. Bioremoval is affected by pH, other ions, temperature, and many other factors. The biological (living vs. dead) and physical (immobilized vs. dispersed) characteristics of the biomass also greatly affect metal binding. Even subtle differences in the microbial biomass, such as the conditions under which it was cultivated, can have major effects on heavy metal binding.

  2. Accumulation and risk assessment of heavy metals in water, sediments, and aquatic organisms in rural rivers in the Taihu Lake region, China.

    PubMed

    Bo, Luji; Wang, Dejian; Li, Tianling; Li, Yan; Zhang, Gang; Wang, Can; Zhang, Shanqing

    2015-05-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were measured in water, sediments, Ceratophyllum (hornwort), and Bellamya sp. (edible snail) from residential, mixed (industrial and commercial), and agricultural areas with rural rivers in the Taihu Lake region, China. Zn concentrations were the highest, whereas Cd concentrations were the lowest among the six metals in water, sediments, and aquatic organisms. Cd was mainly present in the acid-soluble fraction, Cr in the residual fraction, and Pb in the reducible fraction of sediments. Heavy metal concentrations in water, sediments, and aquatic organisms in the three areas followed the order of the mixed area > residential area > agricultural area. Heavy metal concentrations in aquatic organisms were not only related to total metal concentrations in water and sediments but also to metal speciation concentrations in sediments. In addition, the bio-concentration factor (BCF) values of Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn for Bellamya sp. were higher than those for Ceratophyllum, whereas the BCF values of Cd and Ni for Bellamya sp. were lower than those for Ceratophyllum. An ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in sediments showed that Cd posed the highest ecological risk to the environment. A health risk assessment showed that consuming Bellamya sp. from the mixed area could cause a potential health risk.

  3. Transfer of heavy metals through terrestrial food webs: a review.

    PubMed

    Gall, Jillian E; Boyd, Robert S; Rajakaruna, Nishanta

    2015-04-01

    Heavy metals are released into the environment by both anthropogenic and natural sources. Highly reactive and often toxic at low concentrations, they may enter soils and groundwater, bioaccumulate in food webs, and adversely affect biota. Heavy metals also may remain in the environment for years, posing long-term risks to life well after point sources of heavy metal pollution have been removed. In this review, we compile studies of the community-level effects of heavy metal pollution, including heavy metal transfer from soils to plants, microbes, invertebrates, and to both small and large mammals (including humans). Many factors contribute to heavy metal accumulation in animals including behavior, physiology, and diet. Biotic effects of heavy metals are often quite different for essential and non-essential heavy metals, and vary depending on the specific metal involved. They also differ for adapted organisms, including metallophyte plants and heavy metal-tolerant insects, which occur in naturally high-metal habitats (such as serpentine soils) and have adaptations that allow them to tolerate exposure to relatively high concentrations of some heavy metals. Some metallophyte plants are hyperaccumulators of certain heavy metals and new technologies using them to clean metal-contaminated soil (phytoextraction) may offer economically attractive solutions to some metal pollution challenges. These new technologies provide incentive to catalog and protect the unique biodiversity of habitats that have naturally high levels of heavy metals.

  4. Bioavailability and plant accumulation of heavy metals and phosphorus in agricultural soils amended by long-term application of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Kidd, P S; Domínguez-Rodríguez, M J; Díez, J; Monterroso, C

    2007-01-01

    Amendment of agricultural soils with municipal sewage sludges provides a valuable source of plant nutrients and organic matter. Nevertheless, addition of heavy metals and risks of eutrophication continue to be of concern. Metal behaviour in soils and plant uptake are dependent on the nature of the metal, sludge/soil physico-chemical properties and plant species. A pot experiment was carried out to evaluate plant production and heavy metal uptake, soil heavy metal pools and bioavailability, and soil P pools and possible leaching losses, in agricultural soils amended with sewage sludge for at least 10 years (F20) compared to non-amended soils (control). Sewage sludge application increased soil pH, N, Olsen-extractable-P, DOC and exchangeable Ca, Mg and K concentrations. Total and EDTA-extractable soil concentrations of Cu and Zn were also significantly greater in F20, and soil metal (Cu, Mn and Zn) and P fractionation altered. Compared to the control, in F20 relative amounts of acid-extractable (Mn, Zn), reducible (Mn, Zn) and oxidisable (Cu, Zn) metal fractions were greater, and a dominance of inorganic P forms was observed. Analyses of F20 soil solutions highlighted risks of PO4 and Cu leaching. However, despite the observed increases in metal bioavailability sewage sludge applications did not lead to an increase in plant shoot concentrations (in wild plants or crop species). On the contrary, depending on the plant species, Mn and Zn tissue concentrations were within the deficiency level for most plants.

  5. Accumulation of Pb and Cu heavy metals in sea water, sediment, and leaf and root tissue of Enhalus sp. in the seagrass bed of Banten Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Fauziah, Faiza Choesin, Devi N.

    2014-03-24

    Banten Bay in Indonesia is a coastal area which has been highly affected by human activity. Previous studies have reported the presence of lead (Pb) and copper (Cu) heavy metals in the seawater of this area. This study was conducted to measure the accumulation of Pb and Cu in seawater, sediment, leaf tissue, and root tissue of the seagrass species Enhalus sp. Sampling was conducted at two observation stations in Banten Bay: Station 1 (St.1) was located closer to the coastline and to industrial plants as source of pollution, while Station 2 (St.2) was located farther away offshore. At each station, three sampling points were established by random sampling. Field sampling was conducted at two different dates, i.e., on 29 May 2012 and 30 June 2012. Samples were processed by wet ashing using concentrated HNO{sub 3} acid and measured using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). Accumulation of Pb was only detected in sediment samples in St.1, while Cu was detected in all samples. Average concentrations of Cu in May were as follows: sediment St.1 = 0.731 ppm, sediment St.2 = 0.383 ppm, seawater St.1 = 0.163 ppm, seawater St.2 = 0.174 ppm, leaf St.1 = 0.102 ppm, leaf St.2 = 0.132 ppm, root St.1= 0.139 ppm, and root St.2 = 0.075 ppm. Average measurements of Cu in June were: sediment St.1 = 0.260 ppm, leaf St.1 = 0.335 ppm, leaf St.2 = 0.301 ppm, root St.1= 0.047 ppm, and root St.2 = 0.060 ppm. In June, Cu was undetected in St.2 sediment and seawater at both stations. In May, Cu concentration in seawater exceeded the maximum allowable threshold for water as determined by the Ministry of the Environment. Spatial and temporal variation in Pb and Cu accumulation were most probably affected by distance from source and physical conditions of the environment (e.g., water current and mixing)

  6. Accumulation of Pb and Cu heavy metals in sea water, sediment, and leaf and root tissue of Enhalus sp. in the seagrass bed of Banten Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauziah, Faiza; Choesin, Devi N.

    2014-03-01

    Banten Bay in Indonesia is a coastal area which has been highly affected by human activity. Previous studies have reported the presence of lead (Pb) and copper (Cu) heavy metals in the seawater of this area. This study was conducted to measure the accumulation of Pb and Cu in seawater, sediment, leaf tissue, and root tissue of the seagrass species Enhalus sp. Sampling was conducted at two observation stations in Banten Bay: Station 1 (St.1) was located closer to the coastline and to industrial plants as source of pollution, while Station 2 (St.2) was located farther away offshore. At each station, three sampling points were established by random sampling. Field sampling was conducted at two different dates, i.e., on 29 May 2012 and 30 June 2012. Samples were processed by wet ashing using concentrated HNO3 acid and measured using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). Accumulation of Pb was only detected in sediment samples in St.1, while Cu was detected in all samples. Average concentrations of Cu in May were as follows: sediment St.1 = 0.731 ppm, sediment St.2 = 0.383 ppm, seawater St.1 = 0.163 ppm, seawater St.2 = 0.174 ppm, leaf St.1 = 0.102 ppm, leaf St.2 = 0.132 ppm, root St.1= 0.139 ppm, and root St.2 = 0.075 ppm. Average measurements of Cu in June were: sediment St.1 = 0.260 ppm, leaf St.1 = 0.335 ppm, leaf St.2 = 0.301 ppm, root St.1= 0.047 ppm, and root St.2 = 0.060 ppm. In June, Cu was undetected in St.2 sediment and seawater at both stations. In May, Cu concentration in seawater exceeded the maximum allowable threshold for water as determined by the Ministry of the Environment. Spatial and temporal variation in Pb and Cu accumulation were most probably affected by distance from source and physical conditions of the environment (e.g., water current and mixing).

  7. Modelling and mapping spatio-temporal trends of heavy metal accumulation in moss and natural surface soil monitored 1990-2010 throughout Norway by multivariate generalized linear models and geostatistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nickel, Stefan; Hertel, Anne; Pesch, Roland; Schröder, Winfried; Steinnes, Eiliv; Uggerud, Hilde Thelle

    2014-12-01

    Objective. This study explores the statistical relations between the accumulation of heavy metals in moss and natural surface soil and potential influencing factors such as atmospheric deposition by use of multivariate regression-kriging and generalized linear models. Based on data collected in 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2010 throughout Norway the statistical correlation of a set of potential predictors (elevation, precipitation, density of different land uses, population density, physical properties of soil) with concentrations of cadmium (Cd), mercury and lead in moss and natural surface soil (response variables), respectively, were evaluated. Spatio-temporal trends were estimated by applying generalized linear models and geostatistics on spatial data covering Norway. The resulting maps were used to investigate to what extent the HM concentrations in moss and natural surface soil are correlated. Results. From a set of ten potential predictor variables the modelled atmospheric deposition showed the highest correlation with heavy metals concentrations in moss and natural surface soil. Density of various land uses in a 5 km radius reveal significant correlations with lead and cadmium concentration in moss and mercury concentration in natural surface soil. Elevation also appeared as a relevant factor for accumulation of lead and mercury in moss and cadmium in natural surface soil respectively. Precipitation was found to be a significant factor for cadmium in moss and mercury in natural surface soil. The integrated use of multivariate generalized linear models and kriging interpolation enabled creating heavy metals maps at a high level of spatial resolution. The spatial patterns of cadmium and lead concentrations in moss and natural surface soil in 1995 and 2005 are similar. The heavy metals concentrations in moss and natural surface soil are correlated significantly with high coefficients for lead, medium for cadmium and moderate for mercury. From 1995 up to 2010 the

  8. Characterization of plant-growth-promoting effects and concurrent promotion of heavy metal accumulation in the tissues of the plants grown in the polluted soil by Burkholderia strain LD-11.

    PubMed

    Huang, Gui-Hai; Tian, Hui-Hui; Liu, Hai-Ying; Fan, Xian-Wei; Liang, Yu; Li, You-Zhi

    2013-01-01

    Plant-growth-promoting (PGP) bacteria especially with the resistance to multiple heavy metals are helpful to phytoremediation. Further development of PGP bacteria is very necessary because of the extreme diversity of plants, soils, and heavy metal pollution. A Burkholderia sp. strain, numbered LD-11, was isolated, which showed resistances to multiple heavy metals and antibiotics. It can produce indole-3-acetic acid, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase and siderophores. Inoculation with the LD-11 improved germination of seeds of the investigated vegetable plants in the presence of Cu, promoted elongation of roots and hypocotyledonary axes, enhanced the dry weights of the plants grown in the soils polluted with Cu and/or Pb, and increased activity of the soil urease and the rhizobacteria diversity. Inoculation with the LD-11 significantly enhanced Cu and/or Pb accumulation especially in the roots of the plants grown in the polluted soils. Notably, LD-11 could produce siderophores in the presence of Cu. Conclusively, the PGP effects and concurrent heavy metal accumulation in the plant tissues results from combined effects of the above-mentioned multiple factors. Cu is an important element that represses production of the siderophore by the bacteria. Phytoremediation by synergistic use of the investigated plants and the bacterial strain LD-11 is a phytoextraction process. PMID:23819291

  9. Characterization of plant-growth-promoting effects and concurrent promotion of heavy metal accumulation in the tissues of the plants grown in the polluted soil by Burkholderia strain LD-11.

    PubMed

    Huang, Gui-Hai; Tian, Hui-Hui; Liu, Hai-Ying; Fan, Xian-Wei; Liang, Yu; Li, You-Zhi

    2013-01-01

    Plant-growth-promoting (PGP) bacteria especially with the resistance to multiple heavy metals are helpful to phytoremediation. Further development of PGP bacteria is very necessary because of the extreme diversity of plants, soils, and heavy metal pollution. A Burkholderia sp. strain, numbered LD-11, was isolated, which showed resistances to multiple heavy metals and antibiotics. It can produce indole-3-acetic acid, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase and siderophores. Inoculation with the LD-11 improved germination of seeds of the investigated vegetable plants in the presence of Cu, promoted elongation of roots and hypocotyledonary axes, enhanced the dry weights of the plants grown in the soils polluted with Cu and/or Pb, and increased activity of the soil urease and the rhizobacteria diversity. Inoculation with the LD-11 significantly enhanced Cu and/or Pb accumulation especially in the roots of the plants grown in the polluted soils. Notably, LD-11 could produce siderophores in the presence of Cu. Conclusively, the PGP effects and concurrent heavy metal accumulation in the plant tissues results from combined effects of the above-mentioned multiple factors. Cu is an important element that represses production of the siderophore by the bacteria. Phytoremediation by synergistic use of the investigated plants and the bacterial strain LD-11 is a phytoextraction process.

  10. Comparison of decision support systems for an optimised application of compost and sewage sludge on agricultural land based on heavy metal accumulation in soil.

    PubMed

    Horn, Andreas L; Düring, Rolf-Alexander; Gäth, Stefan

    2003-07-20

    Two different decision support systems (DSS) for the application of organic wastes on agricultural land were developed. Both DSS calculate the maximum application period of organic waste considering exhaustion of the uptake potential of soils for heavy metals. The definition of the uptake potential differs between the DSS alternatives. In the first DSS (DSS-AR), the uptake potential is derived from the difference of actual total heavy metal concentration in soil (according to aqua regia digestion) and the respective statutory limit value. The other DSS (DSS-SI) calculates the remaining sorption capacity of the soil for a heavy metal, i.e. the difference between the predefined maximum and the actual heavy metal concentration at the sorbent. The concentration of sorbed heavy metal is derived from pedotransfer functions (general purpose Freundlich isotherms) using predefined limit concentrations in soil solution (WHO drinking water quality standards) or the actual concentration of soluble heavy metal (according to neutral salt extraction), respectively. For evaluation of their individual characteristics, both DSS were tested in model scenarios using soil data (basic physicochemical properties; Cd, Pb, and Zn concentrations) from various agricultural regions and German guidelines for organic waste application. The DSS-SI showed a better performance than the DSS-AR in this context. The capacity of the soil for heavy metal uptake was used with higher efficiency, i.e. the potential was maximised while environmental limit values were still complied with. Furthermore, the DSS-SI offered a better approximation of the natural variability of soil conditions using an extended set of soil properties in comparison to the DSS-AR. Despite these indications of good DSS-SI performance, the approach requires improvement with regard to the pedotransfer functions implemented in order to consolidate and extend the range of predictions. Furthermore, it should be noted that assessment of

  11. Genes associated with heavy metal tolerance and accumulation in Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator Arabidopsis halleri: a genomic survey with cDNA microarray.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Huai-Chih; Lo, Jing-Chi; Yeh, Kuo-Chen

    2006-11-01

    To survive in variable soil conditions, plants possess homeostatic mechanisms to maintain a suitable concentration of essential heavy metal ions. Certain plants, inhabiting heavy metal-enriched or -contaminated soil, thus are named hyperaccumulators. Studying hyperaccumulators has great potential to provide information for phytoremediation. To better understand the hyperaccumulating mechanism, we used an Arabidopsis cDNA microarray to compare the gene expression of the Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator Arabidopsis halleri and a nonhyperaccumulator, Arabidopsis thaliana. By analyzing the expression of metal-chelators, antioxidation-related genes, and transporters, we revealed a few novel molecular features. We found that metallothionein 2b and 3, APX and MDAR4 in the ascorbate-glutathione pathway, and certain metal transporters in P(1B)-type ATPase, ZIP, Nramp, and CDF families, are expressed at higher levels in A. halleri than in A. thaliana. We further validated that the enzymatic activity of ascorbate peroxidase and class III peroxidases are highly elevated in A. halleri. This observation positively correlates with the higher ability of A. halleri to detoxify H2O2 produced by cadmium and paraquat treatments. We thus suggest that higher peroxidase activities contribute to the heavy metal tolerance in A. halleri by alleviating the ROS damage. We have revealed genes that could be candidates for the future engineering of plants with large biomass for use in phytoremediation. PMID:17144312

  12. Approaches for enhanced phytoextraction of heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, Atul; Carmona, Francisco F; Bhargava, Meenakshi; Srivastava, Shilpi

    2012-08-30

    The contamination of the environment with toxic metals has become a worldwide problem. Metal toxicity affects crop yields, soil biomass and fertility. Soils polluted with heavy metals pose a serious health hazard to humans as well as plants and animals, and often requires soil remediation practices. Phytoextraction refers to the uptake of contaminants from soil or water by plant roots and their translocation to any harvestable plant part. Phytoextraction has the potential to remove contaminants and promote long-term cleanup of soil or wastewater. The success of phytoextraction as a potential environmental cleanup technology depends on factors like metal availability for uptake, as well as plants ability to absorb and accumulate metals in aerial parts. Efforts are ongoing to understand the genetics and biochemistry of metal uptake, transport and storage in hyperaccumulator plants so as to be able to develop transgenic plants with improved phytoremediation capability. Many plant species are being investigated to determine their usefulness for phytoextraction, especially high biomass crops. The present review aims to give an updated version of information available with respect to metal tolerance and accumulation mechanisms in plants, as well as on the environmental and genetic factors affecting heavy metal uptake. The genetic tools of classical breeding and genetic engineering have opened the door to creation of 'remediation' cultivars. An overview is presented on the possible strategies for developing novel genotypes with increased metal accumulation and tolerance to toxicity. PMID:22542973

  13. Role of living environments in the accumulation characteristics of heavy metals in fishes and crabs in the Yangtze River Estuary, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shou; Feng, Chenghong; Quan, Weimin; Chen, Xiaofeng; Niu, Junfeng; Shen, Zhenyao

    2012-06-01

    Correlation of heavy metals in the tissues of typical organisms (i.e., fishes and crabs) and those in their living environments (i.e., surface water, bottom water, and sediment) in Yangtze River Estuary has been qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed. Metal levels followed the trend: sediments > Eriocheir sinensis > Eriocheir leptognathus > benthic fish > pelagic fish > bottom water > surface water. Tissues in fishes and crabs of different species and sizes had diverse metal bioaccumulation characteristics, which was significantly affected by environment factors and their living habits. Metal levels in legs of crabs, and heads and skins of fishes showed significant correlations with those in their living environments. Collichthys lucidus is an effective bioindicator for assessing metal levels in water. No significant health risk was identified by the estimated daily intake and target hazard quotients analyses.

  14. Multiple heavy metal removal using an entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana.

    PubMed

    Gola, Deepak; Dey, Priyadarshini; Bhattacharya, Arghya; Mishra, Abhishek; Malik, Anushree; Namburath, Maneesh; Ahammad, Shaikh Ziauddin

    2016-10-01

    Towards the development of a potential remediation technology for multiple heavy metals [Zn(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), Cr(VI) and Ni(II)] from contaminated water, present study examined the growth kinetics and heavy metal removal ability of Beauveria bassiana in individual and multi metals. The specific growth rate of B. bassiana varied from 0.025h(-1) to 0.039h(-1) in presence of individual/multi heavy metals. FTIR analysis indicated the involvement of different surface functional groups in biosorption of different metals, while cellular changes in fungus was reflected by various microscopic (SEM, AFM and TEM) analysis. TEM studies proved removal of heavy metals via sorption and accumulation processes, whereas AFM studies revealed increase in cell surface roughness in fungal cells exposed to heavy metals. Present study delivers first report on the mechanism of bioremediation of heavy metals when present individually as well as multi metal mixture by entomopathogenic fungi.

  15. Multiple heavy metal removal using an entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana.

    PubMed

    Gola, Deepak; Dey, Priyadarshini; Bhattacharya, Arghya; Mishra, Abhishek; Malik, Anushree; Namburath, Maneesh; Ahammad, Shaikh Ziauddin

    2016-10-01

    Towards the development of a potential remediation technology for multiple heavy metals [Zn(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), Cr(VI) and Ni(II)] from contaminated water, present study examined the growth kinetics and heavy metal removal ability of Beauveria bassiana in individual and multi metals. The specific growth rate of B. bassiana varied from 0.025h(-1) to 0.039h(-1) in presence of individual/multi heavy metals. FTIR analysis indicated the involvement of different surface functional groups in biosorption of different metals, while cellular changes in fungus was reflected by various microscopic (SEM, AFM and TEM) analysis. TEM studies proved removal of heavy metals via sorption and accumulation processes, whereas AFM studies revealed increase in cell surface roughness in fungal cells exposed to heavy metals. Present study delivers first report on the mechanism of bioremediation of heavy metals when present individually as well as multi metal mixture by entomopathogenic fungi. PMID:27387415

  16. Accumulation and tissue distribution of heavy metals and essential elements in loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) from Spanish Mediterranean coastline of Murcia.

    PubMed

    Jerez, Silvia; Motas, Miguel; Cánovas, Régulo Angel; Talavera, Jesús; Almela, Ramón Miguel; Del Río, Alejandro Bayón

    2010-01-01

    Sea turtles are of increasing interest as potential bioindicators of the heavy metal pollution in marine ecosystems. In the present work, concentrations of heavy metals and essential elements (As, Cd, Hg, Pb, Se, Zn) in different organs and tissues (liver, kidney, muscle, bone, blood, central nervous system and skin) of loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) were determined from stranded animals found along the Spanish Mediterranean coastlines of Murcia. Relatively high average levels of As (skin: 52.13 microg g(-1) dry weight; muscle: 40.95 microg g(-1) dry weight), and especially high individual levels of Zn in muscle tissue (1002.4 microg g(-1) dry weight) were detected. Furthermore, a significant degree of organotrophism of Cd was observed in kidney tissue. The concentrations detected, the distribution among the tissues and the differences observed between juvenile and adult specimens are generally compatible with chronic exposure to the elements studied, whilst levels produced by acute exposure were ruled out.

  17. Accumulation of heavy metals and human health risk assessment via the consumption of freshwater fish Mastacembelus armatus inhabiting, thermal power plant effluent loaded canal.

    PubMed

    Javed, Mehjbeen; Usmani, Nazura

    2016-01-01

    Bioaccumulation of six heavy metals (Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn) in the muscle of highly consumed fish species (Mastacembelus armatus) were measured using atomic absorption spectrometer. Fe (213.29 mg/kg dry weight) concentration was the most, followed by Zn (186.19 mg/kg dry weight), Ni (58.98 mg/kg dry weight), Cu (41.36 mg/kg dry weight), Co (9.06 mg/kg dry weight) and Mn (9.03 mg/kg dry weight). Estimated daily intake of heavy metals was calculated by mean fish consumption rate 19.5 × 10(-3) kg/day, on the basis of a calculation of the amount of fish consumed by adult individuals (male and female). The studied fish species pose non carcinogenic risk for Co and Ni [target hazard quotient (THQ) > 1] only. Hazard index (HI) was high. Carcinogenic risk (TR) posed by this fish for male and female was 3.43 × 10(-3) and 3.91 × 10(-3), respectively for Ni (the carcinogenic potency slope factor was available for Ni only). The study is an alert indicating that inhabitants who consume these fishes (particularly females) were at risk of Co and Ni toxicity. In India recommended guidelines have yet not been established for these heavy metals, which is essential for setting of toxicological standards. PMID:27386262

  18. The evaluation of heavy metal accumulation and application of a comprehensive bio-concentration index for woody species on contaminated sites in Hunan, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiulian; Liu, Jianfeng; Xia, Xinli; Chu, Jianmin; Wei, Yuan; Shi, Shengqing; Chang, Ermei; Yin, Weilun; Jiang, Zeping

    2014-04-01

    Fast-growing metal-accumulating woody plants are considered potential candidates for phytoextraction of metals. Shuikoushan mining, one of the biggest Pb and Zn production bases in China, presents an important source of the pollution of environment during the last 100 years. Over 150 km(2) of fertile soil have been contaminated by the dust, slag, and tailings from this mining. The goal of the present work has been to determine the content of Pb, Zn, Cd, and Cu in wild woody plants (18 species) naturally growing in this area. Two hundred five plant and soil samples from 11 contaminated sites were collected and analyzed. In addition, to assess the ability of multi-metal accumulation of these trees, we proposed a predictive comprehensive bio-concentration index (CBCI) based on fuzzy synthetic assessment. Our data suggest some adult trees could also accumulate a large amount of metals. Pb concentrations in leaves of Paulownia fortunei (Seem.) Hemsl. (1,179 mg/kg) exceeded the hyperaccumulation threshold (1,000 mg/kg). Elevated Pb concentrations (973.38 mg/kg) were also found in the leaves of Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) Vent., with a Pb bio-concentration factor of up to 0.701. Endemic species, Zenia insignis Chun exhibited huge potential for Zn and Cd phytoextraction, with the highest concentrations of Zn (1,968 mg/kg) and Cd (44.40 mg/kg), characteristic root nodules, and fast growth rates in poor soils. As for multi-metal accumulation ability, native species B. papyrifera was calculated to have the most exceptional ability to accumulate various metals simultaneously (CBCI 2.93), followed by Amorpha fruticosa L. (CBCI 2.72) and Lagerstroemia indica L. (CBCI 2.53). A trend of increasing metal from trunks to leaves (trunks < branches < leaves) and towards fine roots has been shown by metal partitioning between tissues. The proposed CBCI would allow for the selection of suitable trees for phytoremediation in the future. PMID:24374615

  19. [Microbial interactions with heavy metals].

    PubMed

    Cervantes, C; Espino-Saldaña, A E; Acevedo-Aguilar, F; León-Rodriguez, I L; Rivera-Cano, M E; Avila-Rodríguez, M; Wróbel-Kaczmarczyk, K; Wróbel-Zasada, K; Gutiérrez-Corona, J F; Rodríguez-Zavala, J S; Moreno-Sánchez, R

    2006-01-01

    Living organisms are exposed in nature to heavy metals, commonly present in their ionized species. These ions exert diverse toxic effects on microorganisms. Metal exposure both selects and maintains microbial variants able to tolerate their harmful effects. Varied and efficient metal resistance mechanisms have been identified in diverse species of bacteria, fungi and protists. The study of the interactions between microorganisms and metals may be helpful to understand the relations of toxic metals with higher organisms such as mammals and plants. Some microbial systems of metal tolerance have the potential to be used in biotechnological processes, such as the bioremediation of environmental metal pollution or the recovery of valuable metals. In this work we analyze several examples of the interactions of different types of microbes with heavy metals; these cases are related either with basic research or with possible practical applications.

  20. Using extracellular polymeric substances (EPS)-producing cyanobacteria for the bioremediation of heavy metals: do cations compete for the EPS functional groups and also accumulate inside the cell?

    PubMed

    Pereira, Sara; Micheletti, Ernesto; Zille, Andrea; Santos, Arlete; Moradas-Ferreira, Pedro; Tamagnini, Paula; De Philippis, Roberto

    2011-02-01

    Many cyanobacteria produce extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) mainly of polysaccharidic nature. These EPS can remain associated to the cell surface as sheaths, capsules and/or slimes, or be liberated into the surrounding environment as released polysaccharides (RPS). The ability of EPS-producing cyanobacteria to remove heavy metals from aqueous solutions has been widely reported in the literature, focusing mainly on the biotechnological potential. However, the knowledge of the effects of the metals in the cell's survival/growth is still scarce, particularly when they are simultaneously exposed to more than one metal. This work evaluated the effects of different concentrations of Cu(2+) and/or Pb(2+) in the growth/survival of Gloeothece sp. PCC 6909 and its sheathless mutant Gloeothece sp. CCY 9612. The results obtained clearly showed that both phenotypes are more severely affected by Cu(2+) than Pb(2+), and that the mutant is more sensitive to the former metal than the wild-type. Evident ultrastructural changes were also observed in the wild-type and mutant cells exposed to high levels (10 mg l(-1)) of Cu(2+). Moreover, in bi-metal systems, Pb(2+) was preferentially removed compared with Cu(2+), being the RPS of the mutant that is the most efficient polysaccharide fraction in metal removal. In these systems, the simultaneous presence of Cu(2+) and Pb(2+) caused a mutual inhibition in the adsorption of each metal. PMID:20966085

  1. Heavy metal accumulation in surface sediments at the port of Cagliari (Sardinia, western Mediterranean): Environmental assessment using sequential extractions and benthic foraminifera.

    PubMed

    Schintu, Marco; Marrucci, Alessandro; Marras, Barbara; Galgani, Francois; Buosi, Carla; Ibba, Angelo; Cherchi, Antonietta

    2016-10-15

    Superficial sediments were taken at the port of Cagliari (Sardinia, Italy), which includes the oil terminal of one of the largest oil refineries in the Mediterranean. Significant trace metal concentrations were found in the whole port area. Sequential extraction of metals from the different sediment fractions (BCR method) showed a higher risk of remobilisation for Cd, which is mostly bound to the exchangeable fraction. Foraminiferal density and richness of species were variable across the study area. The living assemblages were characterized by low diversity in samples collected close to the port areas. Ammonia tepida and bolivinids, which were positively correlated with concentrations of heavy metals and organic matter content, appeared to show tolerance to the environmental disturbance. The sampling sites characterized by the highest values of biotic indices were located far from the port areas and present an epiphytic and epifaunal biocoenosis. PMID:27449828

  2. Heavy Metal Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-08-01

    thereafter dies as a burnt-out, dim "white dwarf" . Stars with masses between 0.8 and 8 times that of the Sun are believed to evolve to AGB-stars and to end their lives in this particular way. At the same time, they produce beautiful nebulae like the "Dumbbell Nebula". Our Sun will also end its active life this way, probably some 7 billion years from now. Low-metallicity stars The detailed understanding of the "s-process" and, in particular, where it takes place inside an AGB-star, has been an area of active research for many years. Current state-of-the-art computer-based stellar models predict that the s-process should be particularly efficient in stars with a comparatively low content of metals ("metal-poor" or "low-metallicity" stars) . In such stars - which were born at an early epoch in our Galaxy and are therefore quite old - the "s-process" is expected to effectively produce atomic nuclei all the way up to the most heavy, stable ones, like Lead (atomic number 82 [2]) and Bismuth (atomic number 83) - since more neutrons are available per Iron-seed nucleus when there are fewer such nuclei (as compared to the solar composition). Once these elements have been produced, the addition of more s-process neutrons to those nuclei will only produce unstable elements that decay back to Lead. Hence, when the s-process is sufficiently efficient, atomic nuclei with atomic numbers around 82, that is, the Lead region, just continue to pile up. As a result, when compared to stars with "normal" abundances of the metals (like our Sun), those low-metallicity stars should thus exhibit a significant "over-abundance" of those very heavy elements with respect to Iron, in particular of Lead . Looking for Lead Direct observational support for this theoretical prediction would be the discovery of some low-metallicity stars with a high abundance of Lead. At the same time, the measured amounts of all the heavy elements and their relative abundances would provide very valuable information and

  3. DETERMINATION OF HEAVY METALS AND PESTICIDES IN GINSENG PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Medicinal plants may carry residuals of environmentally persistent pesticides or assimilate heavy metals in varying degrees. Several factors may influence contaminant accumulation, including species, level and duration of contaminant exposure, and topography. As part of a progra...

  4. CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS FOR TREATMENT OF HEAVY METALS IN URBAN STORMWATER RUNOFF: CHEMICAL SPECIATION OF WETLAND SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Heavy metals in urban stormwater runoff are primarily removed by sedimentation in stormwater best management practices (BMPs) such as constructed wetlands. Heavy metals accumulated in wetland sediments may be potentially toxic to benthic invertebrates and aquatic microorganisms, ...

  5. Earthworm contamination by PCBs and heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Diercxsens, P.; de Weck, D.; Borsinger, N.; Rosset, B.; Tarradellas, J.

    1985-01-01

    A comparison is made of soil and earthworm contamination by PCBs and heavy metals between a nature reserve and two sites conditioned by the addition of sewage sludge and compost. The tissues and gut content of the earthworms shows a higher PCB concentration than that of the surrounding soil and also a difference in the fingerprint of some single PCB compounds. Earthworms display a selective accumulation of cadmium and zinc in their tissues and gut content.

  6. Characterization of heavy metal-resistant endophytic bacteria from rape (Brassica napus) roots and their potential in promoting the growth and lead accumulation of rape.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Xia-Fang; Xia, Juan-Juan; Jiang, Chun-Yu; He, Lin-Yan; Qian, Meng

    2008-12-01

    Two lead (Pb)-resistant endophytic bacteria were isolated from rape roots grown in heavy metal-contaminated soils and characterized. A pot experiment was conducted for investigating the capability of the two isolates to promote the growth and Pb uptake of rape from Pb-amended soil. The two isolates were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens G10 and Microbacterium sp. G16 based on the 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. Strains G10 and G16 exhibited different multiple heavy metal and antibiotic resistance characteristics and increased water-soluble Pb in solution and in Pb-added soil. Root elongation assays demonstrated increases in root elongation of inoculated rape seedlings compared to the control plants. Strain G16 produced indole acetic acid, siderophores and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase. Increases in biomass production and total Pb uptake in the bacteria-inoculated plants were obtained compared to the control. The two strains could colonize the root interior and rhizosphere soil of rape after root inoculation. PMID:18490091

  7. Factors involved in heavy metal poisoning.

    PubMed

    Clarkson, T W

    1977-04-01

    The heavy metals include at least 40 elements but cadmium, lead, and mercury have been most extensively studied. The biological properties of heavy metals are discussed in terms of three important characteristics: the ability to form, irreversibly, complexes and chelates with organic ligands; the properties to form organic-metallic bonds; and the potential to undergo oxidation-reduction reactions. The formation of complexes and chelates within the body is shown to influence greatly the dynamics of transport, distribution, and excretion of several important metal cations. The excretion of uranium is influenced by acid-base balance in the body because uranium forms complexes with bicarbonate anions that are filtered by the kidneys. The biliary excretion of methylmercury depends on the formation of small molecular weight complexes with sulfur-containing amiono acids and the peptides in the liver. The degree of enterohepatic recirculation of a variety of heavy metals appears to depend on the chemical nature of the bilary complexes. The oxidation of elemental to divalent ionic mercury is the crurial step in the retention and tissue deposition of inhaled mercury vapor. That the oxidation process is, at least in part, catalyzed by the enzyme, catalase, explains the effects of ethanol, aminotriazole and the state of acatalasemia on the metabolism of inhaled vapor in man and animals. The formation of covalent bonds between metal cations and the carbon atom usually greatly modifies the biological properties of the metal. Methylarsenic and methylmercury compounds both differ from the inorganic forms in accumulation in animals.

  8. Heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in municipal sewage sludge from a river in highly urbanized metropolitan area in Hanoi, Vietnam: levels, accumulation pattern and assessment of land application.

    PubMed

    Hung, Cao Vu; Cam, Bui Duy; Mai, Pham Thi Ngoc; Dzung, Bach Quang

    2015-02-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sludge from Kim Nguu River, Hanoi, Vietnam, were analyzed to understand the contamination levels, distribution and accumulation pattern of municipal sludge from a highly urbanized area that receive direct discharge of wastewater. High concentrations of heavy metals such as As, Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn were observed in sludge, which were exceeded the Vietnamese regulation threshold values. In general, contamination status of heavy metals in sludge was in the similar range or slightly lower than those previously reported in sludge from the same area. The mean concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn were 24.3, 2.65, 105, 166, 60.8, 73.7 and 569 mg/kg dry wt., respectively. Our result also indicates increased levels of PAHs, which are among the first data on PAHs accumulation in municipal sludge from metropolitan area in Vietnam. PAH concentrations ranged from 218 to 751 mg/kg dry wt. (mean: 456 mg/kg dry wt.), which were greater than those reported in sewage sludge from other countries as well as in sediments and soils collected from the same area. Accumulation pattern revealed the predominant of higher-ringed PAH compounds. Indicator ratios suggest the sources of PAHs were probably derived from biomass (wood and coal) and fossil fuel combustion and petroleum emissions. Most of the sludge samples contain PAHs concentrations exceeding various international guidelines values for sludge and sediment, such as probable effect levels, suggesting the possible risk for adverse biological effects in the study area and in the landfill sites where dredged sludge was dumped. PMID:25023479

  9. Heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in municipal sewage sludge from a river in highly urbanized metropolitan area in Hanoi, Vietnam: levels, accumulation pattern and assessment of land application.

    PubMed

    Hung, Cao Vu; Cam, Bui Duy; Mai, Pham Thi Ngoc; Dzung, Bach Quang

    2015-02-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sludge from Kim Nguu River, Hanoi, Vietnam, were analyzed to understand the contamination levels, distribution and accumulation pattern of municipal sludge from a highly urbanized area that receive direct discharge of wastewater. High concentrations of heavy metals such as As, Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn were observed in sludge, which were exceeded the Vietnamese regulation threshold values. In general, contamination status of heavy metals in sludge was in the similar range or slightly lower than those previously reported in sludge from the same area. The mean concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn were 24.3, 2.65, 105, 166, 60.8, 73.7 and 569 mg/kg dry wt., respectively. Our result also indicates increased levels of PAHs, which are among the first data on PAHs accumulation in municipal sludge from metropolitan area in Vietnam. PAH concentrations ranged from 218 to 751 mg/kg dry wt. (mean: 456 mg/kg dry wt.), which were greater than those reported in sewage sludge from other countries as well as in sediments and soils collected from the same area. Accumulation pattern revealed the predominant of higher-ringed PAH compounds. Indicator ratios suggest the sources of PAHs were probably derived from biomass (wood and coal) and fossil fuel combustion and petroleum emissions. Most of the sludge samples contain PAHs concentrations exceeding various international guidelines values for sludge and sediment, such as probable effect levels, suggesting the possible risk for adverse biological effects in the study area and in the landfill sites where dredged sludge was dumped.

  10. Effects of waterborne Cu and Cd on anti-oxidative response, lipid peroxidation and heavy metals accumulation in abalone Haliotis discus hannai ino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Yanju; Zhang, Wenbing; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Yanjiao; Zhou, Huihui; Mai, Kangsen

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of waterborne copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) on survival, anti-oxidative response, lipid peroxidation and metal accumulation in abalone Haliotis discus hannai. Experimental animals (initial weight: 7.49 g ± 0.01 g) were exposed to graded concentrations of waterborne Cu (0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08 mg L-1) or Cd (0.025, 0.05, 0.25, 0.5 mg L-1) for 28 days, respectively. Activities of the anti-oxidative enzymes (catalase, CAT; superoxide dismutase, SOD; glutathione peroxidases, GPx; glutathione S-transferase, GST), contents of the reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondiadehyde (MDA) in the hepatopancreas, and metal accumulation in hepatopancreas and muscles were analyzed after 0, 1, 3, 6, 10, 15, 21, 28 days of metal exposure, respectively. Results showed that 0.04 mg L-1, 0.06 mg L--1 and 0.08 mg L-1 Cu caused 100% death of abalone on the 21st, 10th and 6th day, respectively. However, no dead abalone was found during the 28-day waterborne Cd exposure at all experimental concentrations. Generally, activities of SOD and GST in hepatopancreas under all Cu concentrations followed a decrease trend as the exposure time prolonged. However, these activities were firstly increased and then decreased to the control level and increased again during Cd exposure. Activities of CAT in all Cu exposure treatments were higher than those in the control. These activities were firstly increased and then decreased to the control level and increased again during Cd exposure. Contents of MDA in hepatopancreas in all Cu treatments significantly increased first and then decreased to the control level. However, the MDA contents in hepatopancreas were not significantly changed during the 28-day Cd exposure. The metals accumulation in both hepatopancreas and muscles of abalone significantly increased with the increase of waterborne metals concentration and exposure time. These results indicated that H. discus hannai has a positive anti-oxidative defense

  11. Variation in Heavy Metal Accumulation and Genetic Diversity at a Regional Scale Among Metallicolous and Non-Metallicolous Populations of the Facultative Metallophyte Biscutella laevigata subsp. laevigata.

    PubMed

    Pošćić, Filip; Fellet, Guido; Vischi, Massimo; Casolo, Valentino; Schat, Henk; Marchiol, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Biscutella laevigata is a facultative metallophyte, with populations on non-metalliferous and metalliferous soils. Some of its metallicolous populations have been shown to hyperaccumulate thallium or lead in nature. Only Tl hyperaccumulation has been experimentally confirmed. We aimed to compare the patterns of metal (hyper)accumulation and genetic diversity among populations of B. laevigata subsp. laevigata in NE Italy. None of the populations exhibited foliar hyperaccumulation of Cu, Zn, or Pb. The root-to-shoot accumulation rates for these metals were unchanged or decreased rather than enhanced in the metallicolous populations, in comparison with the non-metallicolous ones. Hyperaccumulation of Tl was confined to the population of the Cave del Predil mine. This population was genetically very distinct from the others, as demonstrated by AFLP-based cluster analysis. The two other mine populations did not surpass the threshold for Tl hyperaccumulation, but showed enhanced foliar Tl concentrations and root-to-shoot translocation rates, in comparison with the non-metallicolous populations. Genetic analysis suggested that adaptation to metalliferous soil must have been independently evolved in the metallicolous populations. PMID:25495937

  12. Heavy metals in common foodstuff: Quantitative analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoumbaris, P.; Tsoukali-Papadopoulou, H. )

    1994-07-01

    The presence of heavy metals in human body always draws scientific concern as these are considered responsible for affecting health, especially in these days where the release of toxic wastes in the environment has been increased. Some metals are essential for life, others have unknown biologic function, either favourable or toxic and some others have the potential to produce disease. Those causing toxicity are the ones which accumulate in the body through food chain, water and air. The purpose of this study is the determination of Pb, Cd, Ni, Mn, Zn in different foodstuff consumed by inhabitants of the city of Thessaloniki, northern Greece, according to their dietary habits.

  13. Hydroponics reducing effluent's heavy metals discharge.

    PubMed

    Rababah, Abdellah; Al-Shuha, Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the capacity of Nutrient Film Technique (NFT) to control effluent's heavy metals discharge. A commercial hydroponic system was adapted to irrigate lettuces with primary treated wastewater for studying the potential heavy metals removal. A second commercial hydroponic system was used to irrigate the same type of lettuces with nutrient solution and this system was used as a control. Results showed that lettuces grew well when irrigated with primary treated effluent in the commercial hydroponic system. The NFT-plant system heavy metals removal efficiency varied amongst the different elements, The system's removal efficiency for Cr was more than 92%, Ni more than 85%, in addition to more than 60% reduction of B, Pb, and Zn. Nonetheless, the NFT-plants system removal efficiencies for As, Cd and Cu were lower than 30%. Results show that lettuces accumulated heavy metals in leaves at concentrations higher than the maximum acceptable European and Australian levels. Therefore, non-edible plants such as flowers or pyrethrum are recommended as value added crops for the proposed NFT.

  14. Heavy metal accumulation in tissues of two sea cucumbers, Holothuria leucospilota and Holothuria scabra in the northern part of Qeshm Island, Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Mohammadizadeh, Maria; Bastami, Kazem Darvish; Ehsanpour, Maryam; Afkhami, Majid; Mohammadizadeh, Flora; Esmaeilzadeh, Marjan

    2016-02-15

    The concentrations of some heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Zn andPb) were investigated in the sediments and the two species of sea cucumber (Holothuria leucospilota and Holothuria scabra) from northern part of Qeshm Island, Persian Gulf. The levels of Cu, Zn and Pb in sediment varied significantly among sampling sites (p<0.05). The highest levels of Zn and Pb in H. leucospilota were recorded in body wall whereas the highest contents of Zn and Pb in H. scabra were measured in respiratory tree organ, respectively. Cu and Cd were the most abundant elements in gonads of H. leucospilota while highest levels of Cd and Cu in H. scabra were measured in the gonad and derm, respectively. Cu and Zn concentrations were below permissible limits for human consumption while Cd and Pb were above permissible limits for human consumption. PMID:26769107

  15. Process for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil

    DOEpatents

    Cha, Chang Y.; Boysen, John E.; Branthaver, Jan F.

    1991-01-01

    A process is provided for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil by mixing the heavy crude oil with tar sand; preheating the mixture to a temperature of about 650.degree. F.; heating said mixture to up to 800.degree. F.; and separating tar sand from the light oils formed during said heating. The heavy metals removed from the heavy oils can be recovered from the spent sand for other uses.

  16. Metal accumulation and evaluation of effects in a freshwater turtle.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shuangying; Halbrook, Richard S; Sparling, Donald W; Colombo, Robert

    2011-11-01

    A variety of contaminants have been detected in aquatic and terrestrial environments around the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), Kentucky. The presence of these contaminants at the PGDP may pose a risk to biota, yet little is known about the bioaccumulation of contaminants and associated effects in wildlife, especially in aquatic turtles. The current study was initiated to evaluate: (1) the accumulation of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Hg) in aquatic ecosystems associated with the PGDP using red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans) as biomonitors; (2) maternal transfer of heavy metals; and (3) potential hematological and immunological effects resulting from metal accumulation. A total of 26 turtles were collected from 7 ponds located south, adjacent, and north of the PGDP. Liver Cu concentrations were significantly different among ponds and Cu concentrations in eggs were positively correlated with female Cu concentrations in kidney. The concentrations of heavy metals measured in turtle tissues and eggs were low and, based on previous studies of reptiles and established avian threshold levels of heavy metals, did not appear to have adverse effects on aquatic turtles inhabiting ponds near the PGDP. However, total white blood cell counts, heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, and phytohemagglutinin stimulation index were correlated with metal concentrations. Because other factors may affect the hematological and immunological indices, further investigation is needed to determine if these effects are associated with metal exposure, other contaminants, or disease. PMID:21688058

  17. Heavy metals bioremediation of soil.

    PubMed

    Diels, L; De Smet, M; Hooyberghs, L; Corbisier, P

    1999-09-01

    Historical emissions of old nonferrous factories lead to large geographical areas of metals-contaminated sites. At least 50 sites in Europe are contaminated with metals like Zn, Cd, Cu, and Pb. Several methods, based on granular differentiation, were developed to reduce the metals content. However, the obtained cleaned soil is just sand. Methods based on chemical leaching or extraction or on electrochemistry do release a soil without any salts and with an increased bioavailability of the remaining metals content. In this review a method is presented for the treatment of sandy soil contaminated with heavy metals. The system is based on the metal solubilization on biocyrstallization capacity of Alcaligenes eutrophus CH34. The bacterium can solubilize the metals (or increase their bioavailability) via the production of siderophores and adsorb the metals in their biomass on metal-induced outer membrane proteins and by bioprecipitation. After the addition of CH34 to a soil slurry, the metals move toward the biomass. As the bacterium tends to float quite easily, the biomass is separated from the water via a flocculation process. The Cd concentration in sandy soils could be reduced from 21 mg Cd/kg to 3.3 mg Cd/kg. At the same time, Zn was reduced from 1070 mg Zn/kg to 172 mg Zn/kg. The lead concentration went down from 459 mg Pb/kg to 74 mg Pb/kg. With the aid of biosensors, a complete decrease in bioavailability of the metals was measured.

  18. Dietary heavy metal uptake by the least shrew, Cryptotis parva

    SciTech Connect

    Brueske, C.C.; Barrett, G.W. )

    1991-12-01

    Heavy metals from sewage sludge have been reported to concentrate in producers, in primary consumers, and in detritivores. Little research, however, has focused on the uptake of heavy metals from sewage sludge by secondary consumers. The Family Soricidae represents an ideal mammalian taxonomic group to investigate rates of heavy metal transfer between primary and secondary consumers. The least shrew (Cryptotis parva) was used to evaluate the accumulation of heavy metals while maintained on a diet of earthworms collected from long-term sludge-treated old-field communities. This secondary consumer is distributed widely through the eastern United States and its natural diet includes earthworms which makes it a potentially good indicator of heavy metal transfer in areas treated with municipal sludge.

  19. Comparative study of plant growth of two poplar tree species irrigated with treated wastewater, with particular reference to accumulation of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, As, and Ni).

    PubMed

    Houda, Zarati; Bejaoui, Zoubeir; Albouchi, Ali; Gupta, Dharmendra K; Corpas, Francisco J

    2016-02-01

    Water is a scarce natural resource around the world which can hamper the socio-economic development of many countries. The Mediterranean area, especially north Africa, is known for its semi-arid to arid climate, causing serious water supply problems. Treated wastewater (TWW) is being used as an alternative strategy for recycling wastewater. It is also a potential source of nutrients for reforestation with certain plant species such as poplar trees, a useful wood resource, and even for phytoremediation purposes. In the present study, we used treated wastewater to irrigate two clones of 1-year-old poplar trees (Populus nigra cv. I-488 and Populus alba cv. MA-104) for 90 days. After a stipulated time, a comparative study was made of the effects of TWW on growth parameters, acquisition of essential minerals (Na, Fe and Zn) and pollutants (Cd, Pb, As and Ni) as well as the enrichment of secondary metabolites such as polyphenolic, flavonoid and tannin compounds which could contribute to the growth and development of poplar plants. The results of this study show that the use of TWW increased P. alba's biomass production by 36% and also enhanced its Cd and Pb accumulation capacity. We also found that P. alba has considerable potential to be used as an alternative plant species for reforestation and/or phytoremediation of toxic metals from contaminated water or effluent.

  20. Comparative study of plant growth of two poplar tree species irrigated with treated wastewater, with particular reference to accumulation of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, As, and Ni).

    PubMed

    Houda, Zarati; Bejaoui, Zoubeir; Albouchi, Ali; Gupta, Dharmendra K; Corpas, Francisco J

    2016-02-01

    Water is a scarce natural resource around the world which can hamper the socio-economic development of many countries. The Mediterranean area, especially north Africa, is known for its semi-arid to arid climate, causing serious water supply problems. Treated wastewater (TWW) is being used as an alternative strategy for recycling wastewater. It is also a potential source of nutrients for reforestation with certain plant species such as poplar trees, a useful wood resource, and even for phytoremediation purposes. In the present study, we used treated wastewater to irrigate two clones of 1-year-old poplar trees (Populus nigra cv. I-488 and Populus alba cv. MA-104) for 90 days. After a stipulated time, a comparative study was made of the effects of TWW on growth parameters, acquisition of essential minerals (Na, Fe and Zn) and pollutants (Cd, Pb, As and Ni) as well as the enrichment of secondary metabolites such as polyphenolic, flavonoid and tannin compounds which could contribute to the growth and development of poplar plants. The results of this study show that the use of TWW increased P. alba's biomass production by 36% and also enhanced its Cd and Pb accumulation capacity. We also found that P. alba has considerable potential to be used as an alternative plant species for reforestation and/or phytoremediation of toxic metals from contaminated water or effluent. PMID:26780418

  1. Toxicity of heavy metals and metal-containing nanoparticles on plants.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Ghazala; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2016-08-01

    Plants are under the continual threat of changing climatic conditions that are associated with various types of abiotic stresses. In particular, heavy metal contamination is a major environmental concern that restricts plant growth. Plants absorb heavy metals along with essential elements from the soil and have evolved different strategies to cope with the accumulation of heavy metals. The use of proteomic techniques is an effective approach to investigate and identify the biological mechanisms and pathways affected by heavy metals and metal-containing nanoparticles. The present review focuses on recent advances and summarizes the results from proteomic studies aimed at understanding the response mechanisms of plants under heavy metal and metal-containing nanoparticle stress. Transport of heavy metal ions is regulated through the cell wall and plasma membrane and then sequestered in the vacuole. In addition, the role of different metal chelators involved in the detoxification and sequestration of heavy metals is critically reviewed, and changes in protein profiles of plants exposed to metal-containing nanoparticles are discussed in detail. Finally, strategies for gaining new insights into plant tolerance mechanisms to heavy metal and metal-containing nanoparticle stress are presented. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Proteomics--a bridge between fundamental processes and crop production, edited by Dr. Hans-Peter Mock. PMID:26940747

  2. Toxicity of heavy metals and metal-containing nanoparticles on plants.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Ghazala; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2016-08-01

    Plants are under the continual threat of changing climatic conditions that are associated with various types of abiotic stresses. In particular, heavy metal contamination is a major environmental concern that restricts plant growth. Plants absorb heavy metals along with essential elements from the soil and have evolved different strategies to cope with the accumulation of heavy metals. The use of proteomic techniques is an effective approach to investigate and identify the biological mechanisms and pathways affected by heavy metals and metal-containing nanoparticles. The present review focuses on recent advances and summarizes the results from proteomic studies aimed at understanding the response mechanisms of plants under heavy metal and metal-containing nanoparticle stress. Transport of heavy metal ions is regulated through the cell wall and plasma membrane and then sequestered in the vacuole. In addition, the role of different metal chelators involved in the detoxification and sequestration of heavy metals is critically reviewed, and changes in protein profiles of plants exposed to metal-containing nanoparticles are discussed in detail. Finally, strategies for gaining new insights into plant tolerance mechanisms to heavy metal and metal-containing nanoparticle stress are presented. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Proteomics--a bridge between fundamental processes and crop production, edited by Dr. Hans-Peter Mock.

  3. Improving crop tolerance to heavy metal stress by polyamine application.

    PubMed

    Soudek, Petr; Ursu, Marina; Petrová, Šárka; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2016-12-15

    Many areas have been heavily contaminated by heavy metals from industry and are not suitable for food production. The consumption of contaminated foods represents a health risk in humans, although some heavy metals are essential at low concentrations. Increasing the concentrations of essential elements in foods is one goal to improve nutrition. The aim of this study was to increase the accumulation of heavy metals in plant foods by the external application of putrescine. The levels of cadmium, zinc and iron were measured in different vegetables grown in hydroponic medium supplemented with heavy metals and compared with those grown in a reference medium. The estimated daily intake, based on the average daily consumption for various vegetable types, and the influence of polyamines on metal uptake were calculated. PMID:27451175

  4. Distribution and bioaccumulation of heavy metals in marine organisms in east and west Guangdong coastal regions, South China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Shi, Zhen; Jiang, Zhijian; Zhang, Jingping; Wang, Fei; Huang, Xiaoping

    2015-12-30

    Heavy metal (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Cd, As) concentrations, distribution and bioaccumulation were studied in marine organisms in Guangdong coastal regions. Heavy metal concentrations and distribution in organisms showed characteristics according to areas and species. Heavy metal concentrations in most organisms were higher in west than in east, tightly related to the local industry structure and the disequilibrium of metal discharge. Generally, high heavy metal concentrations were detected in molluscs and low concentrations were detected in fish. Bioaccumulation factor was used to assess the accumulation level of marine organisms to heavy metals, of which Cd, Cu and As were the most accumulated elements. Accumulation abilities to heavy metals varied among organism species, such as Distorsio reticulate accumulating Cu, Zn, Cd, As, Loligo beka Sasaki accumulating Pb, Cu, Cr, and Turritella bacillum Kiener accumulating Zn, Cd, As. By comparison, Johnius belengeri, Argyrosomus argentatus, Cynoglossus sinicus Wu had relatively low accumulation abilities.

  5. Microplate Technique for Determining Accumulation of Metals by Algae

    PubMed Central

    Hassett, James M.; Jennett, J. Charles; Smith, James E.

    1981-01-01

    A microplate technique was developed to determine the conditions under which pure cultures of algae removed heavy metals from aqueous solutions. Variables investigated included algal species and strain, culture age (11 and 44 days), metal (mercury, lead, cadmium, and zinc), pH, effects of different buffer solutions, and time of exposure. Plastic, U-bottomed microtiter plates were used in conjunction with heavy metal radionuclides to determine concentration factors for metal-alga combinations. The technique developed was rapid, statistically reliable, and economical of materials and cells. Results (expressed as concentration factors) were in reasonably good agreement with literature values. All species of algae studied removed mercury from solution. Green algae proved better at accumulating cadmium than did blue-green algae. No alga studied removed zinc, perhaps because cells were maintained in the dark during the labeling period. Chlamydomonas sp. proved superior in ability to remove lead from solution. PMID:16345764

  6. Heavy metals in livers and kidneys of goats in Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, A.T.; Diffay, B.C.; Datiri, B.C.

    1995-10-01

    The popularity of goat farming is increasing in the southeastern region of the United States. Baseline values of Hg, Pb, and Cd are not available in goat tissues in the United States. These values are needed when monitoring food for heavy metal contamination which may be associated with urbanization and industrialization. Due to human activities or anthropogenic sources of metals in the environment, high concentrations of these metals have been observed in herbage and animal tissues. It has also been reported that toxic heavy metals are concentrated mostly in kidneys and livers of animals. The risk of exposure of humans to heavy metals contained in edible organs of animals has received widespread concern. The objectives of this study were to (i) measure the levels of Hg,Pb, and Cd in livers and kidneys of goats; and (ii) determine whether accumulation of these metals is related to age and/or sex. 20 refs., 3 tabs.

  7. The Heavy Metal Subculture and Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, Steven; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Assessed relationship between heavy metal music and suicide with data on heavy metal magazine subscriptions and youth suicide in 50 states. Found that, controlling for other predictors of suicide, greater strength of metal subculture, higher youth suicide rate, suggests that music perhaps nurtures suicidal tendencies already present in subculture.…

  8. Heavy metals in soils from Tirana (Albania).

    PubMed

    Gjoka, Fran; Felix-Henningsen, Peter; Wegener, Hans-R; Salillari, Ilir; Beqiraj, Ajran

    2011-01-01

    This study was aimed to establish background and reference values of total heavy metals in soils from a representative area of Albania (Tirana). Thirty-eight soil samples collected from genetic horizons of major soil types of Tirana were analyzed for important physicochemical properties by standard methods and for total contents of Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Zn, and Cu by atomic absorption spectrometer, after extraction with aqua regia. The results showed that the total contents of Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Zn, and Cu in surface horizons varied widely with respective mean values of 0.3 (± 0.6), 174.2 (± 63.7), 305.9 (± 133.0), 19.7 (± 12.4), 95.5 (± 26.3), and 42.7 (± 6.8) mg/kg. The highest metal contents were found in two soils developed in limestone. The depth distribution of metals showed a tendency for accumulation of Cd and Pb in the surface horizons of three soils, suggesting that these metals partially come from anthropogenic inputs. Correlation analysis indicated that the metal contents of soils were controlled by soil properties, including pH, CaCO₃, clay, organic matter, cation exchange capacity, and Fe oxides. The background values (given as the 90th percentile) were much higher than those reported in the literature, showing that the levels of respective metals were naturally higher. The total metal contents of some soils were above background levels, suggesting metal pollution. The reference values for all the analyzed metals were quite consistent with those of the Dutch system. The proposed background and reference values can be used to evaluate the soil pollution with these elements.

  9. Interaction of heavy metals and pyrene on their fates in soil and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea).

    PubMed

    Lu, Mang; Zhang, Zhong-Zhi; Wang, Jing-Xiu; Zhang, Min; Xu, Yu-Xin; Wu, Xue-Jiao

    2014-01-21

    90-Day growth chamber experiments were performed to investigate the interactive effect of pyrene and heavy metals (Cu, Cd, and Pb) on the growth of tall fescue and its uptake, accumulation, and dissipation of heavy metals and pyrene. Results show that plant growth and phytomass production were impacted by the interaction of heavy metals and pyrene. They were significantly decreased with heavy metal additions (100-2000 mg/kg), but they were only slightly declined with pyrene spiked up to 100 mg/kg. The addition of a moderate dosage of pyrene (100 mg/kg) lessened heavy metal toxicity to plants, resulting in enhanced plant growth and increased metal accumulation in plant tissues, thus improving heavy metal removal by plants. In contrast, heavy metals always reduced both plant growth and pyrene dissipation in soils. The chemical forms of Cu, Cd, and Pb in plant organs varied with metal species and pyrene addition. The dissipation and mineralization of pyrene tended to decline in both planted soil and unplanted soils with the presence of heavy metals, whereas they were enhanced with planting. The results demonstrate the complex interactive effects of organic pollutants and heavy metals on phytoremediation in soils. It can be concluded that, to a certain extent, tall fescue may be useful for phytoremediation of pyrene-heavy metal-contaminated sites. Further work is needed to enhance methods for phytoremediation of heavy metal-organics co-contaminated soil.

  10. Heavy metals in Antarctic organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, J.E.A. de; Moreno, V.J.; Gerpe, M.S.; Vodopivez, C.

    1997-02-01

    To evaluate levels of essential (zinc and copper) and non-essential (mercury and cadmium) heavy metals, 34 species of organisms from different areas close to the Antarctic Peninsula were analysed. These included algae, filter-feeders, omnivorous invertebrates and vertebrates. Mercury was not detected, while cadmium was found in the majority of organisms analysed (detection limit was 0.05 ppm for both metals). The highest cadmium concentration was observed in the starfish Odontaster validus. Anthozoans, sipunculids and nudibranchs showed maximum levels of zinc, while the highest copper level was found in the gastropod Trophon brevispira. Mercury and cadmium levels in fishes were below the detection limit. Concentrations of essential and non-essential metals in birds were highest in liver followed by muscle and eggs. Cadmium and mercury levels in muscle of southern elephant seals were above the detection limit, whereas in Antarctic fur seals they were below it. The objective of the study was to gather baseline information for metals in Antarctic Ocean biota that may be needed to detect, measure and monitor future environmental changes. 46 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs.

  11. Hematologic effects of heavy metal poisoning.

    PubMed

    Ringenberg, Q S; Doll, D C; Patterson, W P; Perry, M C; Yarbro, J W

    1988-09-01

    Heavy metal poisoning can cause a variety of hematologic disorders. Exposure to heavy metals is ubiquitous in the industrial environment and must be considered in the differential diagnosis of many types of anemia. The heavy metals most commonly associated with hematologic toxicity are arsenic and its derivative arsine, copper, gold, lead, and zinc. A few distinctive clinical features characterize the hematologic manifestations of many occult heavy metal poisonings. These features have a limited differential diagnosis. A knowledge of these clinical features can assist the astute clinician in making the correct diagnosis.

  12. Contamination of Polish national parks with heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Staszewski, Tomasz; Łukasik, Włodzimierz; Kubiesa, Piotr

    2012-07-01

    The paper presents results of screening analysis of all Polish national parks (23) contamination with Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn on the basis of a three-level characteristic of heavy metal presence in Norway spruce stands: accumulation on the needle surface, concentration of heavy metals in spruce needles and concentration of bioavailable heavy metals in the soil. Based on the obtained results, the classification of forest ecosystem hazard in national parks with heavy metals was made using synthetic indicators. It was found out that Babiogórski, Magurski, Ojcowski and Gorczański National Parks, located in the southern part of the country, were the most polluted with heavy metals. It is probably due to a higher industrial activity in this part of Poland and the transboundary transport of air pollutants. A little lower level of pollution was observed in Kampinoski National Park located in the middle of the country. The concentration of heavy metals found in needles from national parks does not seem to be harmful for the health status of the trees. Statistically significant correlation between all parameters, which was found for cadmium--the most mobile of the analysed elements--shows that this metal can be proposed as a marker to reflect present effect of industrial emission on forests.

  13. Can heavy metal pollution defend seed germination against heat stress? Effect of heavy metals (Cu(2+), Cd(2+) and Hg(2+)) on maize seed germination under high temperature.

    PubMed

    Deng, Benliang; Yang, Kejun; Zhang, Yifei; Li, Zuotong

    2016-09-01

    Heavy metal pollution, as well as greenhouse effect, has become a serious threat today. Both heavy metal and heat stresses can arrest seed germination. What response can be expected for seed germination under both stress conditions? Here, the effects of heavy metals (Cu(2+), Cd(2+) and Hg(2+)) on maize seed germination were investigated at 20 °C and 40 °C. Compared with 20 °C, heat stress induced thermodormancy. However, this thermodormancy could be significantly alleviated by the addition of a low concentration of heavy metals. Heavy metals, as well as heat stress induced H2O2 accumulation in germinating seeds. Interestingly, this low concentration of heavy metal that promoted seed germination could be partly blocked by DMTU (a specific ROS scavenger), irrespective of temperature. Accordingly, H2O2 addition reinforced this promoting effect on seed germination, which was induced by a low concentration of heavy metal. Furthermore, we found that the NADPH oxidase derived ROS was required for seed germination promoted by the heavy metals. Subsequently, treatment of seeds with fluridone (a specific inhibitor of ABA) or ABA significantly alleviated or aggravated thermodormancy, respectively. However, this alleviation or aggravation could be partly attenuated by a low concentration of heavy metals. In addition, germination that was inhibited by high concentrations of heavy metals was also partly reversed by fluridone. The obtained results support the idea that heavy metal-mediated ROS and hormone interaction can finally affect the thermodormancy release or not. PMID:27239687

  14. Can heavy metal pollution defend seed germination against heat stress? Effect of heavy metals (Cu(2+), Cd(2+) and Hg(2+)) on maize seed germination under high temperature.

    PubMed

    Deng, Benliang; Yang, Kejun; Zhang, Yifei; Li, Zuotong

    2016-09-01

    Heavy metal pollution, as well as greenhouse effect, has become a serious threat today. Both heavy metal and heat stresses can arrest seed germination. What response can be expected for seed germination under both stress conditions? Here, the effects of heavy metals (Cu(2+), Cd(2+) and Hg(2+)) on maize seed germination were investigated at 20 °C and 40 °C. Compared with 20 °C, heat stress induced thermodormancy. However, this thermodormancy could be significantly alleviated by the addition of a low concentration of heavy metals. Heavy metals, as well as heat stress induced H2O2 accumulation in germinating seeds. Interestingly, this low concentration of heavy metal that promoted seed germination could be partly blocked by DMTU (a specific ROS scavenger), irrespective of temperature. Accordingly, H2O2 addition reinforced this promoting effect on seed germination, which was induced by a low concentration of heavy metal. Furthermore, we found that the NADPH oxidase derived ROS was required for seed germination promoted by the heavy metals. Subsequently, treatment of seeds with fluridone (a specific inhibitor of ABA) or ABA significantly alleviated or aggravated thermodormancy, respectively. However, this alleviation or aggravation could be partly attenuated by a low concentration of heavy metals. In addition, germination that was inhibited by high concentrations of heavy metals was also partly reversed by fluridone. The obtained results support the idea that heavy metal-mediated ROS and hormone interaction can finally affect the thermodormancy release or not.

  15. Hazards of heavy metal contamination.

    PubMed

    Järup, Lars

    2003-01-01

    The main threats to human health from heavy metals are associated with exposure to lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic. These metals have been extensively studied and their effects on human health regularly reviewed by international bodies such as the WHO. Heavy metals have been used by humans for thousands of years. Although several adverse health effects of heavy metals have been known for a long time, exposure to heavy metals continues, and is even increasing in some parts of the world, in particular in less developed countries, though emissions have declined in most developed countries over the last 100 years. Cadmium compounds are currently mainly used in re-chargeable nickel-cadmium batteries. Cadmium emissions have increased dramatically during the 20th century, one reason being that cadmium-containing products are rarely re-cycled, but often dumped together with household waste. Cigarette smoking is a major source of cadmium exposure. In non-smokers, food is the most important source of cadmium exposure. Recent data indicate that adverse health effects of cadmium exposure may occur at lower exposure levels than previously anticipated, primarily in the form of kidney damage but possibly also bone effects and fractures. Many individuals in Europe already exceed these exposure levels and the margin is very narrow for large groups. Therefore, measures should be taken to reduce cadmium exposure in the general population in order to minimize the risk of adverse health effects. The general population is primarily exposed to mercury via food, fish being a major source of methyl mercury exposure, and dental amalgam. The general population does not face a significant health risk from methyl mercury, although certain groups with high fish consumption may attain blood levels associated with a low risk of neurological damage to adults. Since there is a risk to the fetus in particular, pregnant women should avoid a high intake of certain fish, such as shark, swordfish and

  16. Bacterial sorption of heavy metals.

    PubMed Central

    Mullen, M D; Wolf, D C; Ferris, F G; Beveridge, T J; Flemming, C A; Bailey, G W

    1989-01-01

    Four bacteria, Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, were examined for the ability to remove Ag+, Cd2+, Cu2+, and La3+ from solution by batch equilibration methods. Cd and Cu sorption over the concentration range 0.001 to 1 mM was described by Freundlich isotherms. At 1 mM concentrations of both Cd2+ and Cu2+, P. aeruginosa and B. cereus were the most and least efficient at metal removal, respectively. Freundlich K constants indicated that E. coli was most efficient at Cd2+ removal and B. subtilis removed the most Cu2+. Removal of Ag+ from solution by bacteria was very efficient; an average of 89% of the total Ag+ was removed from the 1 mM solution, while only 12, 29, and 27% of the total Cd2+, Cu2+, and La3+, respectively, were sorbed from 1 mM solutions. Electron microscopy indicated that La3+ accumulated at the cell surface as needlelike, crystalline precipitates. Silver precipitated as discrete colloidal aggregates at the cell surface and occasionally in the cytoplasm. Neither Cd2+ nor Cu2+ provided enough electron scattering to identify the location of sorption. The affinity series for bacterial removal of these metals decreased in the order Ag greater than La greater than Cu greater than Cd. The results indicate that bacterial cells are capable of binding large quantities of different metals. Adsorption equations may be useful for describing bacterium-metal interactions with metals such as Cd and Cu; however, this approach may not be adequate when precipitation of metals occurs. Images PMID:2515800

  17. Bioremoval of heavy metals by bacterial biomass.

    PubMed

    Aryal, Mahendra; Liakopoulou-Kyriakides, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals are among the most common pollutants found in the environment. Health problems due to the heavy metal pollution become a major concern throughout the world, and therefore, various treatment technologies such as reverse osmosis, ion exchange, solvent extraction, chemical precipitation, and adsorption are adopted to reduce or eliminate their concentration in the environment. Biosorption is a cost-effective and environmental friendly technique, and it can be used for detoxification of heavy metals in industrial effluents as an alternative treatment technology. Biosorption characteristics of various bacterial species are reviewed here with respect to the results reported so far. The role of physical, chemical, and biological modification of bacterial cells for heavy metal removal is presented. The paper evaluates the different kinetic, equilibrium, and thermodynamic models used in bacterial sorption of heavy metals. Biomass characterization and sorption mechanisms as well as elution of metal ions and regeneration of biomass are also discussed. PMID:25471624

  18. Metal accumulation by wood-decaying fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, G.

    1982-01-01

    Metal concentrations (Na, K, Rb, Mg, Ca, Sr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd, Al, and Pb) in the sporophores of ten wood-decaying macromycete species were related to concentrations in the wood substrates. Manganese, Sr, Ca, and Pb were usually excluded by the fungi; K, Rb, and to a lower degree, Cd, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mg and Na were accumulated. Accumulation ratios are compared with similar ratios for soil and litter inhabiting species previously studied.

  19. Organic acids on the growth, anatomical structure, biochemical parameters and heavy metal accumulation of Iris lactea var. chinensis seedling growing in Pb mine tailings.

    PubMed

    Han, Yu-Lin; Huang, Su-Zhen; Yuan, Hai-Yan; Zhao, Jiu-Zhou; Gu, Ji-Guang

    2013-08-01

    The effect of citric acid (CA) and ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) on the growth, anatomical structure, physiological responses and lead (Pb) accumulation of Iris lactea var. chinensis seedling growing in Pb mine tailings for 30 days were studied. Results showed that the dry weights (DW) of roots decreased significantly under both levels of CA. The DWs of leaves and roots treated with 2 mmol/kg EDTA decreased significantly and were 23 and 54 %, respectively, lower than those of the control. The tolerant indexes of I. lactea var. chinensis under all treatments of organic acids were lower than control. The root tip anatomical structure was little affected under the treatments of 2 mmol/kg CA and 2 mmol/kg EDTA compared with control. However, the formation of photosynthesizing cells was inhibited by the treatment of 2 mmol/kg EDTA. The concentrations of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total carotenoids in the leaves treated with 2 mmol/kg EDTA significantly decreased. Higher CA level and lower EDTA level could trigger the synthesis of ascorbic acid and higher level of EDTA could trigger the synthesis of glutathione. CA and EDTA could promote Pb accumulation of I. lactea var. chinensis and Pb concentration in the leaves and roots at 2 mmol/kg EDTA treatment increased significantly and reached to 160.44 and 936.08 μg/g DW, respectively, and 1.8 and 1.6 times higher than those of the control. The results indicated that I. lactea var. chinensis could be used to remediate Pb tailing and the role of EDTA in promoting Pb accumulation was better than CA did.

  20. Heavy Metal Music and Adolescent Suicidal Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacourse, Eric; Claes, Michel; Villeneuve, Martine

    2001-01-01

    Studied differentiating characteristics of youth who prefer heavy metal music, worship music, and use music for vicarious release. Data for 275 secondary school students suggest that heavy metal music preference and worshipping is not related to suicidal risk when controlling for other suicide factors. Discusses findings in the context of…

  1. Heavy Metal, Religiosity, and Suicide Acceptability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, Steven

    1998-01-01

    Reports on data taken from the General Social Survey that found a link between "heavy metal" rock fanship and suicide acceptability. Finds that relationship becomes nonsignificant once level of religiosity is controlled. Heavy metal fans are low in religiosity, which contributes to greater suicide acceptability. (Author/JDM)

  2. Heavy metal retention of different embankments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werkenthin, Moritz; Kluge, Bjoern; Wessolek, Gerd

    2013-04-01

    The accumulation and retention of heavy metals in roadside soils has been studied for at least over forty years, but it is still subject of major interest. The continuously increasing road traffic induces high heavy metal loadings in runoff and seepage water. Elevated concentrations of heavy metals are a potential environmental risk. Especially in the long term development there is an increasing problem of soil contamination and groundwater pollution. A significant rate of road runoff infiltrates into the hard and soft shoulder. They are usually built during road construction and located directly along the road edge. According to valid german law, newly constructed hard shoulders have to provide a specific bearing capacity to enable trafficability in emergency cases. Therefore the applicable materials consist of defined gravel-soil mixtures, which can fulfill this requirement. To determine and compare the concentration of Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr in the road runoff and seepage water of different hard shoulder substrates, we installed 6 lysimeters along the edge of the german highway A115. Three lysimeters were filled with different materials wich are commonly used for road construction in Germany and compacted afterwards. Surface runoff is sampled, as is seepage water in two depths in the three lysimeters. Furthermore three lysimeters where installed and filled with plain gravel, to observe the distribution, quantity and quality of road runoff. Additionally soil column experiments were carried out with the same construction material. Both, the measured seepage water concentrations from field and column experiments of Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr do not yet exceed the trigger values of the German Federal Soil Protection and Contamination Ordinance (BBodSchV). No significant differences in heavy metal concentrations of the three artificial hard shoulder lysimeters were determined so far. First analytical results of the road runoff show concentrations of up to 12.9 µg/l Pb

  3. Plant productivity and heavy metal contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Guidi, G.V.; Petruzzelli, G.; Vallini, G.; Pera, A.

    1990-06-01

    This article describes the potential for use of composts from green waste and from municipal solid wastes for agricultural use in Italy. The accumulation of heavy metals in compost-amended soils and crops was evaluated and the influence of these composts on plant productivity was studied. Green compost was obtained from vegetable organic residues; municipal solid waste derived compost was obtained from the aerobic biostabilization of a mixture of the organic biodegradable fraction of municipal solid waste and sewage sludge. The two composts had good chemical characteristics and their use caused no pollution to soil and plants. The overall fertilizing effect was higher for green compost even though green compost and municipal solid waste derived compost had similar contents of primary elements of fertility.

  4. Natural contamination by As and heavy metals in soil, their bio-accumulation and potential sources: the case of a travertine limestone quarry, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampouroglou, Evdokia; Economou-Eliopoulos, Maria

    2013-03-01

    The first mineralogical and geochemical investigation of the travertine limestone, soil and corresponding plants associated with the Neogene basin of Varnavas, NE Attica, revealed a significant enrichment in the metalloid As. The total concentrations of As ranged from 61 to 210 ppm in limestone and 33 to 430 ppm in the associated soil demonstrating a wide variation of values. Calcite is a common authigenic mineral within travertine limestone, forming fine uniform micritic aggregates, having As and Mg concentrations lower than detection limits of EDS analysis. Clastic dominated minerals are quartz (both fine- and coarse-grained), muscovite, clinochlore, illite, pyrite, galena, arsenides, rutile, sphene, zircon, REE-minerals and albite. Goethite and Fe-Mn-oxides occur between calcite grains. The presence of fossilized micro organisms, resembling foraminifera, in travertine limestone combined with hydrous Fe-Mn-oxides, suggests a possible marine transgression during the evolution of the basin. The As content in plants ranges from 1.1 to 28 ppm As in shoots, and 0.8 to 114 ppm As in roots. The translocation factor, which is defined as the ratio of metal concentration in the shoots to the roots, is relatively low (average 0.33%) suggesting that the internal transport of metals from the roots to shoots was restricted. The bioaccumulation factor, which is defined as the ratio of metal concentration in the plants to that in soil, exhibits a wide range from relatively low (5.2-9.0% for As, Fe, Cr, Ni and Pb), much higher (56-67% for Cu and Zn) and exceptionally high (160% for Mo). A significant correlation between the translocation factors for Fe and As may confirm that Fe-Mn oxides/hydroxides represent the major sorbing agents for As in soils. The presented data, due to As contamination in travertine limestone, soil and plants, suggest a potential environmental risk not only for that part of Greece but in general for similar depositional environments.

  5. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in fish tissues of a freshwater lake of Bhopal.

    PubMed

    Malik, Neetu; Biswas, A K; Qureshi, T A; Borana, K; Virha, Rachna

    2010-01-01

    Contamination of heavy metals, namely, lead, cadmium, zinc, nickel, copper, chromium and mercury was evaluated in the samples of water and tissues of Labeo rohita and Ctenopharyngodon idella of Upper Lake of Bhopal collected during summer, rainy and winter seasons of 2005-2006. Different organs of the fishes accumulated varying quantities of different heavy metals. In L. rohita, accumulation of heavy metals was in the sequence liver>kidney>gills>muscles, and in C. idella, it was gills>liver>kidney>muscles. Zn was the highest accumulating metal in fish, whilst Hg was the lowest and was well corroborated with those of water. The values of heavy metals were so far well within the maximum permissible standard value of heavy metals for drinking water and for fish culture as prescribed by various national and international agencies. PMID:19123040

  6. Phytomining of heavy metals from soil by Croton bonplandianum using phytoremediation technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panchal, K. J.; Dave, B. R.; Parmar, P. P.; Subramanian, R. B.

    2015-12-01

    Metal ions are not only valuable intermediates in metal extraction, but also important raw materials for technical applications. They possess some unique but, identical physical and chemical properties, which make them useful probes of low temperature geochemical reactions. Heavy metals are natural constituents of the earth's crust, but indiscriminate human activities have drastically altered their geochemical cycles and biochemical balance. Metal concentration in soil typically ranges from less than one to as high as 100,000 mg/kg. Heavy metal contaminations of land resources continue to be the focus of numerous environmental studies and attract a great deal of attention worldwide. This is attributed to no--biodegradability and persistence of heavy metals in soils. Prolonged exposure to heavy metals such as cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc can cause deleterious health effects in humans. Complexation, separation, and removal of metal ions have become increasingly attractive areas of research and have led to new technical developments like phytoremediation that has numerous biotechnological implications of understanding of plant metal accumulation. Croton bonplandianum is newly identified as a potential heavy metal hypreaccumulator. In this study Croton bonplandianum was subjected for in vitro heavy metal accumulation, to explore the accumulation pattern of four heavy metals viz Cadmium, Lead, Nickel and Zinc in various parts of Croton bonplandianum plant parts. It was found that the efficiency of Croton bonplandianum to accumulate heavy metals is Cd>Pb>Zn>Ni. The absorption of these heavy metals in plant parts revealed that the highest translocation of metals from ground to root was ground to be in the order of Pb (1.12) > Zn (0.26) > Ni (0.18) > Cd (0.15). The distribution of Cd in Croton bonplandianum followed the trend Root>Stem>Leaf; with Ni it was Root>Leaf>Stem, while Pb showed leaf>stem>root. Translocation of metals in Croton bonplandianum plant parts

  7. Distribution of heavy metals from flue gas in algal bioreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napan, Katerine

    Flue gas from coal-fired power plants is a major source of CO2 to the atmosphere. Microalgae can use this enriched form of CO2 as carbon source and in turn the biomass can be used to produce food, feed, fertilizer and biofuels. However, along with CO2, coal-based flue gas will inevitably introduce heavy metals, which have a high affinity to bind algal cells, could be toxic to the organisms and if transferred to the products could limit their uses. This study seeks to address the distribution and impact of heavy metals present in flue gas on microalgae production systems. To comprehend its effects, algae Scenedesmus obliquus was grown in batch reactors in a multimetal system. Ten heavy metals (Cu, Co, Zn, Pb, As, Se, Cr, Hg, Ni and Cd) were selected and were evaluated at four concentrations (1X, 2X, 5X and 10X). Results show that most heavy metals accumulated mainly in biomass and were found in very low concentrations in media. Hg was shown to be lost from the culture, with low amounts present in the biomass. An upper limit for As uptake was observed, suggesting its likelihood to build-up in the system during medium recycle. The As limited bioaccumulation was overcome by addition of sulfur to the algal medium. Heavy metal at 2X, 5X and 10X inhibited both growth and lipid production, while at the reference concentration both biomass and lipids yields were increased. Heavy metal concentrations in the medium and biomass were time dependent, and at the end of the cultivation most heavy metals in the supernatant solution complied with the recommendations for irrigation water, while biomass was below limits for cattle and poultry feed, fertilizer, plastic and paper. This research shows that bioremediation of CO2 and heavy metals in combination with energy production can be integrated, which is an environmentally friendly form of biotechnology.

  8. Electrokinetic treatment of an agricultural soil contaminated with heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Arylein; Cameselle, Claudio; Gouveia, Susana; Hansen, Henrik K

    2016-07-28

    The high organic matter content in agricultural soils tends to complex and retain contaminants such as heavy metals. Electrokinetic remediation was tested in an agricultural soil contaminated with Co(+2), Zn(+2), Cd(+2), Cu(+2), Cr(VI), Pb(+2) and Hg(+2). The unenhanced electrokinetic treatment was not able to remove heavy metals from the soil due to the formation of precipitates in the alkaline environment in the soil section close to the cathode. Moreover, the interaction between metals and organic matter probably limited metal transportation under the effect of the electric field. Citric acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) were used in the catholyte as complexing agents in order to enhance the extractability and removal of heavy metals from soil. These complexing agents formed negatively charged complexes that migrated towards the anode. The acid front electrogenerated at the anode favored the dissolution of heavy metals that were transported towards the cathode. The combined effect of the soil pH and the complexing agents resulted in the accumulation of heavy metals in the center of the soil specimen.

  9. Phytoremediation of heavy metals--concepts and applications.

    PubMed

    Ali, Hazrat; Khan, Ezzat; Sajad, Muhammad Anwar

    2013-05-01

    The mobilization of heavy metals by man through extraction from ores and processing for different applications has led to the release of these elements into the environment. Since heavy metals are nonbiodegradable, they accumulate in the environment and subsequently contaminate the food chain. This contamination poses a risk to environmental and human health. Some heavy metals are carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic and endocrine disruptors while others cause neurological and behavioral changes especially in children. Thus remediation of heavy metal pollution deserves due attention. Different physical and chemical methods used for this purpose suffer from serious limitations like high cost, intensive labor, alteration of soil properties and disturbance of soil native microflora. In contrast, phytoremediation is a better solution to the problem. Phytoremediation is the use of plants and associated soil microbes to reduce the concentrations or toxic effects of contaminants in the environments. It is a relatively recent technology and is perceived as cost-effective, efficient, novel, eco-friendly, and solar-driven technology with good public acceptance. Phytoremediation is an area of active current research. New efficient metal hyperaccumulators are being explored for applications in phytoremediation and phytomining. Molecular tools are being used to better understand the mechanisms of metal uptake, translocation, sequestration and tolerance in plants. This review article comprehensively discusses the background, concepts and future trends in phytoremediation of heavy metals. PMID:23466085

  10. Electrokinetic treatment of an agricultural soil contaminated with heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Arylein; Cameselle, Claudio; Gouveia, Susana; Hansen, Henrik K

    2016-07-28

    The high organic matter content in agricultural soils tends to complex and retain contaminants such as heavy metals. Electrokinetic remediation was tested in an agricultural soil contaminated with Co(+2), Zn(+2), Cd(+2), Cu(+2), Cr(VI), Pb(+2) and Hg(+2). The unenhanced electrokinetic treatment was not able to remove heavy metals from the soil due to the formation of precipitates in the alkaline environment in the soil section close to the cathode. Moreover, the interaction between metals and organic matter probably limited metal transportation under the effect of the electric field. Citric acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) were used in the catholyte as complexing agents in order to enhance the extractability and removal of heavy metals from soil. These complexing agents formed negatively charged complexes that migrated towards the anode. The acid front electrogenerated at the anode favored the dissolution of heavy metals that were transported towards the cathode. The combined effect of the soil pH and the complexing agents resulted in the accumulation of heavy metals in the center of the soil specimen. PMID:27127923

  11. Accumulation of brachycerine, an antioxidant glucosidic indole alkaloid, is induced by abscisic acid, heavy metal, and osmotic stress in leaves of Psychotria brachyceras.

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, Naíla Cannes; Menguer, Paloma Koprovski; Henriques, Amélia Teresinha; Fett-Neto, Arthur Germano

    2013-12-01

    Psychotria brachyceras Muell. Arg. produces the antioxidant monoterpene indole alkaloid (MIA) brachycerine, which, besides retaining a glucose residue, has its terpenoid moiety derived not from secologanin, but probably from epiloganin, representing a new subclass of MIAs. In this work we showed that osmotic stress agents, such as sodium chloride, sorbitol and polyethylene glycol (PEG), induced brachycerine accumulation in leaf disks of P. brachyceras. Other oxidative stress inducers, such as exposure to aluminum and silver, also increased brachycerine content. Abscisic acid (ABA) treatment was shown to increase brachycerine yield, suggesting its involvement in brachycerine induction during osmotic stress. Ascorbate peroxidase activity was induced in PEG-treated leaf disks, whereas superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity remained unaltered. Assays with specific inhibitors of the cytosolic mevalonate (MVA) and plastidic 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathways showed that the terpenoid moiety of brachycerine derived predominantly from the MEP pathway. These results suggest a potential involvement of brachycerine in plant defense against osmotic/oxidative stress damage, possibly contributing to detoxification of hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion as a SOD-like molecule.

  12. Body burdens of heavy metals in Lake Michigan wetland turtles.

    PubMed

    Smith, Dayna L; Cooper, Matthew J; Kosiara, Jessica M; Lamberti, Gary A

    2016-02-01

    Tissue heavy metal concentrations in painted (Chrysemys picta) and snapping (Chelydra serpentina) turtles from Lake Michigan coastal wetlands were analyzed to determine (1) whether turtles accumulated heavy metals, (2) if tissue metal concentrations were related to environmental metal concentrations, and (3) the potential for non-lethal sampling techniques to be used for monitoring heavy metal body burdens in freshwater turtles. Muscle, liver, shell, and claw samples were collected from painted and snapping turtles and analyzed for cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, and zinc. Turtle tissues had measurable quantities of all eight metals analyzed. Statistically significant correlations between tissue metal concentrations and sediment metal concentrations were found for a subset of metals. Metals were generally found in higher concentrations in the larger snapping turtles than in painted turtles. In addition, non-lethal samples of shell and claw were found to be possible alternatives to lethal liver and muscle samples for some metals. Human consumption of snapping turtles presents potential health risks if turtles are harvested from contaminated areas. Overall, our results suggest that turtles could be a valuable component of contaminant monitoring programs for wetland ecosystems. PMID:26832725

  13. Body burdens of heavy metals in Lake Michigan wetland turtles.

    PubMed

    Smith, Dayna L; Cooper, Matthew J; Kosiara, Jessica M; Lamberti, Gary A

    2016-02-01

    Tissue heavy metal concentrations in painted (Chrysemys picta) and snapping (Chelydra serpentina) turtles from Lake Michigan coastal wetlands were analyzed to determine (1) whether turtles accumulated heavy metals, (2) if tissue metal concentrations were related to environmental metal concentrations, and (3) the potential for non-lethal sampling techniques to be used for monitoring heavy metal body burdens in freshwater turtles. Muscle, liver, shell, and claw samples were collected from painted and snapping turtles and analyzed for cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, and zinc. Turtle tissues had measurable quantities of all eight metals analyzed. Statistically significant correlations between tissue metal concentrations and sediment metal concentrations were found for a subset of metals. Metals were generally found in higher concentrations in the larger snapping turtles than in painted turtles. In addition, non-lethal samples of shell and claw were found to be possible alternatives to lethal liver and muscle samples for some metals. Human consumption of snapping turtles presents potential health risks if turtles are harvested from contaminated areas. Overall, our results suggest that turtles could be a valuable component of contaminant monitoring programs for wetland ecosystems.

  14. Brassinosteroids and Response of Plants to Heavy Metals Action

    PubMed Central

    Rajewska, Iwona; Talarek, Marta; Bajguz, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a widespread group of plant hormones. These phytohormones play a crucial role in the regulation of growth and development of various plant species, and they demonstrate high biological activity. BRs are considered to demonstrate protective activity in the plants exposed to various stresses. Due to rapid industrialization and urbanization, heavy metals have become one of the most important plant stressors. In plants, accumulation of heavy metals beyond the critical levels leads to oxidative stress. However, BRs may inhibit the degradation of lipids, resulted from the overproduction of reactive oxygen species under stress conditions, and increase the activity of antioxidants. They also have the ability to promote phytochelatins synthesis. PMID:27242833

  15. Brassinosteroids and Response of Plants to Heavy Metals Action.

    PubMed

    Rajewska, Iwona; Talarek, Marta; Bajguz, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a widespread group of plant hormones. These phytohormones play a crucial role in the regulation of growth and development of various plant species, and they demonstrate high biological activity. BRs are considered to demonstrate protective activity in the plants exposed to various stresses. Due to rapid industrialization and urbanization, heavy metals have become one of the most important plant stressors. In plants, accumulation of heavy metals beyond the critical levels leads to oxidative stress. However, BRs may inhibit the degradation of lipids, resulted from the overproduction of reactive oxygen species under stress conditions, and increase the activity of antioxidants. They also have the ability to promote phytochelatins synthesis. PMID:27242833

  16. Brassinosteroids and Response of Plants to Heavy Metals Action.

    PubMed

    Rajewska, Iwona; Talarek, Marta; Bajguz, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a widespread group of plant hormones. These phytohormones play a crucial role in the regulation of growth and development of various plant species, and they demonstrate high biological activity. BRs are considered to demonstrate protective activity in the plants exposed to various stresses. Due to rapid industrialization and urbanization, heavy metals have become one of the most important plant stressors. In plants, accumulation of heavy metals beyond the critical levels leads to oxidative stress. However, BRs may inhibit the degradation of lipids, resulted from the overproduction of reactive oxygen species under stress conditions, and increase the activity of antioxidants. They also have the ability to promote phytochelatins synthesis.

  17. Geomycology. [fungal biosolubilization and accumulation of metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puerner, N. J.; Siegel, S. M.

    1976-01-01

    Fungi have long been known to have capabilities for reduction and alkylation of arsenate and selenate but their general capabilities for solubilizing and accumulating metallic substances have been given serious attention only in recent years. Common members of the Aspergillaceae cultured on boron, copper, lead and other metals or oxides can solubilize and concentrate the elements or their compounds. To account for biosolubilization of the metals, we have set up a model study, incubating selected metals, e.g., mercury, in solutions of various metabolites including L-lysine and citric acid. Results of 100-300 days incubation showed that many metals can in fact be readily solubilized, and in some cases more effectively at pH 6-7 than at pH 1.5-2.

  18. Accumulation of heavy metals and As in liver, hair, femur, and lung of Persian jird (Meriones persicus) in Darreh Zereshk copper mine, Iran.

    PubMed

    Khazaee, Manoochehr; Hamidian, Amir Hossein; Alizadeh Shabani, Afshin; Ashrafi, Sohrab; Mirjalili, Seyyed Ali Ashghar; Esmaeilzadeh, Esmat

    2016-02-01

    Rodents frequently serve as bioindicator to monitor the quality of the environment. Concentrations of 11 elements (Cd, Co, Ti, Fe, Mn, Cu, Sb, As, Sr, Ni, and Cr) were investigated and compared in liver, hair, femur, and lung of the Persian jird (Meriones persicus) from Darreh Zereshk copper mine, Iran. Metals were determined in different tissues of 39 individuals of Persian jird, collected by snap trap in 2014 from five areas of Darreh Zereshk copper mine. Samples were prepared by wet digestion method, and the contents of elements were analyzed with ICP-OES (VARIAN, 725-ES) instrument. Cadmium, Sb, and Co were below the limit of detection, and Mn and As were found only in hair and liver tissues. We detected the highest concentration of Cu, As, Ti, Fe, Mn, Cr, and Ni in hair in comparison with other tissues. Significant higher levels of Ti in femur and hair; Fe in liver and hair; Mn in liver; As in hair; Sr in lung; Cr in lung, hair, femur, and liver; Cu in femur; and Ni in liver and lung tissues were observed in females. Nearly all element concentrations in the tissues of Persian jird from flotation site, Darreh Zereshk and Hasan Abad villages and leaching site (mining areas) were higher than those from tailing dump site (reference site). We found the highest concentrations of As in liver and hair; Ni and Cr in liver, hair, and lung; and Sr in lung and hair tissues of Persian jird in leaching site. We tried to specify the status of elements before fully exploitation of Darreh Zereshk copper mine by using bioindicator species. Based on our achievements, initial activities did not strongly pollute the surrounded environment of the mine. The high abundance of Persian jird as well as their several proper features makes them a suitable species for biomonitoring programs especially for further studies will be performed after full exploitation of Darreh Zereshk copper mine.

  19. Biomonitoring heavy metal contaminations by moss visible parameters.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yang-Er; Cui, Jun-Mei; Yang, Jin-Chuan; Zhang, Zhong-Wei; Yuan, Ming; Song, Chun; Yang, Hui; Liu, Han-Mei; Wang, Chang-Quan; Zhang, Huai-Yu; Zeng, Xian-Yin; Yuan, Shu

    2015-10-15

    Traditional sampling for heavy metal monitoring is a time-consuming and inconvenient method, which also does not indicate contaminants non-invasively and instantaneously. Moss is sensitive to heavy metals and is therefore considered a pollution indicator. However, it is unknown what kind physiological parameters can indicate metal contaminations quickly and non-invasively. Here, we systematically examined the effects of six heavy metals on physiological parameters and photosynthetic activities of two moss species grown in aquatic media or moist soil surface. We suggest that a phenotype with anthocyanin accumulation pattern and chlorosis pattern and two chlorophyll fluorescence parameters with their images can roughly reflect metal species groups, concentrations and differences between the two moss species. In other words, metal contaminations could be roughly estimated visually using the naked eye. Enzymatic and non-enzymatic anti-oxidative abilities and photosynthetic protein contents of Eurhynchium eustegium were higher than those of Taxiphyllum taxirameum, indicating their differential metal tolerance. Neither anti-oxidative abilities nor photosynthetic proteins were found to be ideal indicators. This study provides new ideas to monitor heavy metals rapidly and non-invasively in water or on wetland and moist soil surface.

  20. Biomonitoring heavy metal contaminations by moss visible parameters.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yang-Er; Cui, Jun-Mei; Yang, Jin-Chuan; Zhang, Zhong-Wei; Yuan, Ming; Song, Chun; Yang, Hui; Liu, Han-Mei; Wang, Chang-Quan; Zhang, Huai-Yu; Zeng, Xian-Yin; Yuan, Shu

    2015-10-15

    Traditional sampling for heavy metal monitoring is a time-consuming and inconvenient method, which also does not indicate contaminants non-invasively and instantaneously. Moss is sensitive to heavy metals and is therefore considered a pollution indicator. However, it is unknown what kind physiological parameters can indicate metal contaminations quickly and non-invasively. Here, we systematically examined the effects of six heavy metals on physiological parameters and photosynthetic activities of two moss species grown in aquatic media or moist soil surface. We suggest that a phenotype with anthocyanin accumulation pattern and chlorosis pattern and two chlorophyll fluorescence parameters with their images can roughly reflect metal species groups, concentrations and differences between the two moss species. In other words, metal contaminations could be roughly estimated visually using the naked eye. Enzymatic and non-enzymatic anti-oxidative abilities and photosynthetic protein contents of Eurhynchium eustegium were higher than those of Taxiphyllum taxirameum, indicating their differential metal tolerance. Neither anti-oxidative abilities nor photosynthetic proteins were found to be ideal indicators. This study provides new ideas to monitor heavy metals rapidly and non-invasively in water or on wetland and moist soil surface. PMID:25919648

  1. Stabilization of heavy metals in sludge ceramsite.

    PubMed

    Xu, G R; Zou, J L; Li, G B

    2010-05-01

    This paper attempts to investigate the stabilization behaviours of heavy metals in ceramsite made from wastewater treatment sludge (WWTS) and drinking-water treatment sludge (DWTS). Leaching tests were conducted to find out the effects of sintering temperature, (Fe(2)O(3) + CaO + MgO)/(SiO(2) + Al(2)O(3)) (defined as F/SA ratios), pH, and oxidative condition. Results show that sintering exhibits good binding capacity for Cd, Cr, Cu, and Pb in ceramsite and leaching contents of heavy metals will not change above 1000 degrees C. The main crystalline phases in ceramsite sintered at 1000 degrees C are kyanite, quartz, Na-Ca feldspars, sillimanite, and enstatite. The main compounds of heavy metals are crocoite, chrome oxide, cadmium silicate, and copper oxide. Leaching contents of Cd, Cu, and Pb increase as the F/SA ratios increase. Heavy metals in ceramsite with variation of F/SA ratios are also in same steady forms, which prove that stronger chemical bonds are formed between these heavy metals and the components. Leaching contents of heavy metals decrease as pH increases and increase as H(2)O(2) concentration increases. The results indicate that when subjected to rigorous leaching conditions, the crystalline structures still exhibit good chemical binding capacity for heavy metals. In conclusion, it is environmentally safe to use ceramsite in civil and construction fields. PMID:20219229

  2. Characterisation and distribution of heavy metals at Masaya volcano, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinrichs, M.; Rymer, H.; Gillman, M.; Blake, S.

    2011-12-01

    Activity at Masaya volcano, Nicaragua, is characterised by periodic cycles of intense gas emission that last years to decades. The volcano entered its current phase of degassing in 1993, which resulted in a low-level persistent gas plume. As a result of this continuous emission, the substantial deposition of heavy metals onto the surrounding soils (andosols) is thought to be occurring (Delfosse et al., 2003). The deposition of these heavy metal plume components, and their incorporation into soil, is of key interest because once discharged to the environment they accumulate throughout the food chain and may pose a serious ecological threat (Alloway, 1995). Although many studies have focused on the impacts of volcanic gases on the environment, few have addressed the fate of the metals released by persistent gas plumes. This study therefore investigates the patterns of heavy metal transport, deposition and distribution at Masaya in order to provide additional information on the processes that govern the behaviour of volcanic heavy metals. A number of agricultural and non-agricultural soils at two horizons (A: 0-10 cm and B: 20-30 cm) were collected and their trace metal content analysed. Twenty sites were sampled from the active vent to ~5 km downwind, as well as two control sites upwind of the volcano. Preliminary data suggest that a rapid deposition of metals occurs close to the source, with metal concentrations in the soil generally decreasing with distance away from the active vent. Cr and As clearly follow this trend, with maximum concentrations of 20.71 and 7.61 mg/kg respectively occurring closest to the vent. Concentration peaks for Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn (959.30, 21.57, 13.44, 152.85, and 72.73 mg/kg respectively) occur slightly further away from the vent, implying that these metals are transported further. The concentration of Cr, Co, Al, Ni and Mn was found to increase from soil horizon A to B, whereas the abundance of Zn decreases with depth. Heavy metal

  3. Effect of Heavy Metals in Plants of the Genus Brassica.

    PubMed

    Mourato, Miguel P; Moreira, Inês N; Leitão, Inês; Pinto, Filipa R; Sales, Joana R; Martins, Luisa Louro

    2015-08-04

    Several species from the Brassica genus are very important agricultural crops in different parts of the world and are also known to be heavy metal accumulators. There have been a large number of studies regarding the tolerance, uptake and defense mechanism in several of these species, notably Brassica juncea and B. napus, against the stress induced by heavy metals. Numerous studies have also been published about the capacity of these species to be used for phytoremediation purposes but with mixed results. This review will focus on the latest developments in the study of the uptake capacity, oxidative damage and biochemical and physiological tolerance and defense mechanisms to heavy metal toxicity on six economically important species: B. juncea, B. napus, B. oleracea, B. carinata, B. rapa and B. nigra.

  4. Effect of Heavy Metals in Plants of the Genus Brassica.

    PubMed

    Mourato, Miguel P; Moreira, Inês N; Leitão, Inês; Pinto, Filipa R; Sales, Joana R; Martins, Luisa Louro

    2015-01-01

    Several species from the Brassica genus are very important agricultural crops in different parts of the world and are also known to be heavy metal accumulators. There have been a large number of studies regarding the tolerance, uptake and defense mechanism in several of these species, notably Brassica juncea and B. napus, against the stress induced by heavy metals. Numerous studies have also been published about the capacity of these species to be used for phytoremediation purposes but with mixed results. This review will focus on the latest developments in the study of the uptake capacity, oxidative damage and biochemical and physiological tolerance and defense mechanisms to heavy metal toxicity on six economically important species: B. juncea, B. napus, B. oleracea, B. carinata, B. rapa and B. nigra. PMID:26247945

  5. Effect of Heavy Metals in Plants of the Genus Brassica

    PubMed Central

    Mourato, Miguel P.; Moreira, Inês N.; Leitão, Inês; Pinto, Filipa R.; Sales, Joana R.; Louro Martins, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Several species from the Brassica genus are very important agricultural crops in different parts of the world and are also known to be heavy metal accumulators. There have been a large number of studies regarding the tolerance, uptake and defense mechanism in several of these species, notably Brassica juncea and B. napus, against the stress induced by heavy metals. Numerous studies have also been published about the capacity of these species to be used for phytoremediation purposes but with mixed results. This review will focus on the latest developments in the study of the uptake capacity, oxidative damage and biochemical and physiological tolerance and defense mechanisms to heavy metal toxicity on six economically important species: B. juncea, B. napus, B. oleracea, B. carinata, B. rapa and B. nigra. PMID:26247945

  6. Phytoremediation potential of Lemna minor L. for heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Bokhari, Syeda Huma; Ahmad, Iftikhar; Mahmood-Ul-Hassan, Muhammad; Mohammad, Ashiq

    2016-01-01

    Phytoremediation potential of L. minor for cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and nickel (Ni) from two different types of effluent in raw form was evaluated in a glass house experiment using hydroponic studies for a period of 31 days. Heavy metals concentration in water and plant sample was analyzed at 3, 10, 17, 24, and 31 day. Removal efficiency, metal uptake and bio-concentration factor were also calculated. Effluents were initially analyzed for physical, chemical and microbiological parameters and results indicated that municipal effluent (ME) was highly contaminated in terms of nutrient and organic load than sewage mixed industrial effluent (SMIE). Results confirmed the accumulation of heavy metals within plant and subsequent decrease in the effluents. Removal efficiency was greater than 80% for all metals and maximum removal was observed for nickel (99%) from SMIE. Accumulation and uptake of lead in dry biomass was significantly higher than other metals. Bio-concentration factors were less than 1000 and maximum BCFs were found for copper (558) and lead (523.1) indicated that plant is a moderate accumulator of both metals. Overall, L. minor showed better performance from SMIE and was more effective in extracting lead than other metals.

  7. Phytoremediation potential of Lemna minor L. for heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Bokhari, Syeda Huma; Ahmad, Iftikhar; Mahmood-Ul-Hassan, Muhammad; Mohammad, Ashiq

    2016-01-01

    Phytoremediation potential of L. minor for cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and nickel (Ni) from two different types of effluent in raw form was evaluated in a glass house experiment using hydroponic studies for a period of 31 days. Heavy metals concentration in water and plant sample was analyzed at 3, 10, 17, 24, and 31 day. Removal efficiency, metal uptake and bio-concentration factor were also calculated. Effluents were initially analyzed for physical, chemical and microbiological parameters and results indicated that municipal effluent (ME) was highly contaminated in terms of nutrient and organic load than sewage mixed industrial effluent (SMIE). Results confirmed the accumulation of heavy metals within plant and subsequent decrease in the effluents. Removal efficiency was greater than 80% for all metals and maximum removal was observed for nickel (99%) from SMIE. Accumulation and uptake of lead in dry biomass was significantly higher than other metals. Bio-concentration factors were less than 1000 and maximum BCFs were found for copper (558) and lead (523.1) indicated that plant is a moderate accumulator of both metals. Overall, L. minor showed better performance from SMIE and was more effective in extracting lead than other metals. PMID:26114480

  8. Sorption of toxic heavy metals to soil.

    PubMed

    Alumaa, Priit; Kirso, Uuve; Petersell, Valter; Steinnes, Eiliv

    2002-02-01

    The surface soil is a major recipient of pollutants, including heavy metals, through atmospheric deposition, agricultural practices, and waste disposal. In the present work the sorption capacity of different types of soils to toxic heavy metals, i.e. chromium, copper, cadmium and lead has been studied. Experimental adsorption data for metals to the soil obtained by the batch method were fitted by linear isotherm. The various soils showed a very different behaviour in sorption of heavy metals. The distribution coefficient Kd, which is an indication of the adsorbing capacity of the substrate, varies within a wide range, from 57 to 53,000 l kg-1. Desorption of metals from the solid phase was found to be small, indicating that the soil matrix is affecting the metal mobility by modifying the bonding of pollutants to the soil system consequently affecting the potential for soil remediation processes.

  9. Implications of soil pollution with heavy metals for public health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juozulynas, Algirdas; Jurgelėnas, Antanas; Butkienė, Birutė; Greičiūtė, Kristina; Savičiūtė, Rasa

    2008-01-01

    Soil of military grounds is often polluted with heavy metals. Their concentrations may be dosens of times higher in polluted regions. The affected soils are permeable, so the pollutions can get into water and spread to the environment. Into human and animal organisms they can get with food and water. Heavy metals are very dangerous for people's health, and we must know their accumulation places, intensity of scatter and integral risk for health. The purpose of this work was to establish links between zones polluted with heavy metals and morbidity caused by pollution with heavy metals. The morbidity caused by heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Zn, Ca and other) in the polluted regions is 1.4-1.5 times higher for adults and teenagers and 1.5-3.9 times higher for children aged under 14 years than the mean morbidity of the same diseases in Lithuania. Hypothetically, it is possible to prognosticate that this problem will grow in future because the ratio of the newly registered and the existing cases of morbidity for children aged under 14 years is 1.3-1.5 times higher than for adults.

  10. Heavy metals in traditional Indian remedies.

    PubMed

    Ernst, E

    2002-02-01

    The growing popularity of traditional Indian remedies necessitates a critical evaluation of risks associated with their use. This systematic review aims at summarising all available data relating to the heavy metal content in such remedies. Computerised literature searches were carried out to identify all articles with original data on this subject. Fifteen case reports and six case series were found. Their collective results suggest that heavy metals, particularly lead, have been a regular constituent of traditional Indian remedies. This has repeatedly caused serious harm to patients taking such remedies. The incidence of heavy metal contamination is not known, but one study shows that 64% of samples collected in India contained significant amounts of lead (64% mercury, 41% arsenic and 9% cadmium). These findings should alert us to the possibility of heavy metal content in traditional Indian remedies and motivate us to consider means of protecting consumers from such risks.

  11. Heavy metal contamination from geothermal sources.

    PubMed

    Sabadell, J E; Axtmann, R C

    1975-12-01

    Liquid-dominated hydrothermal reservoirs, which contain saline fluids at high temperatures and pressures, have a significant potential for contamination of the environment by heavy metals. The design of the power conversion cycle in a liquid-dominated geothermal plant is a key factor in determining the impact of the installation. Reinjection of the fluid into the reservoir minimizes heavy metal effluents but is routinely practiced at few installations. Binary power cycles with reinjection would provide even cleaner systems but are not yet ready for commercial application. Vapor-dominated systems, which contain superheated steam, have less potential for contamination but are relatively uncommon. Field data on heavy metal effluents from geothermal plants are sparse and confounded by contributions from "natural" sources such as geysers and hot springs which often exist nearby. Insofar as geothermal power supplies are destined to multiply, much work is required on their environmental effects including those caused by heavy metals.

  12. Heavy metal contamination from geothermal sources.

    PubMed

    Sabadell, J E; Axtmann, R C

    1975-12-01

    Liquid-dominated hydrothermal reservoirs, which contain saline fluids at high temperatures and pressures, have a significant potential for contamination of the environment by heavy metals. The design of the power conversion cycle in a liquid-dominated geothermal plant is a key factor in determining the impact of the installation. Reinjection of the fluid into the reservoir minimizes heavy metal effluents but is routinely practiced at few installations. Binary power cycles with reinjection would provide even cleaner systems but are not yet ready for commercial application. Vapor-dominated systems, which contain superheated steam, have less potential for contamination but are relatively uncommon. Field data on heavy metal effluents from geothermal plants are sparse and confounded by contributions from "natural" sources such as geysers and hot springs which often exist nearby. Insofar as geothermal power supplies are destined to multiply, much work is required on their environmental effects including those caused by heavy metals. PMID:1227849

  13. Heavy metal contamination from geothermal sources.

    PubMed Central

    Sabadell, J E; Axtmann, R C

    1975-01-01

    Liquid-dominated hydrothermal reservoirs, which contain saline fluids at high temperatures and pressures, have a significant potential for contamination of the environment by heavy metals. The design of the power conversion cycle in a liquid-dominated geothermal plant is a key factor in determining the impact of the installation. Reinjection of the fluid into the reservoir minimizes heavy metal effluents but is routinely practiced at few installations. Binary power cycles with reinjection would provide even cleaner systems but are not yet ready for commercial application. Vapor-dominated systems, which contain superheated steam, have less potential for contamination but are relatively uncommon. Field data on heavy metal effluents from geothermal plants are sparse and confounded by contributions from "natural" sources such as geysers and hot springs which often exist nearby. Insofar as geothermal power supplies are destined to multiply, much work is required on their environmental effects including those caused by heavy metals. PMID:1227849

  14. Metal accumulation in wild-caught opossum.

    PubMed

    Lockhart, J Mitchell; Siddiqui, Samreen; Loughry, W J; Bielmyer-Fraser, Gretchen K

    2016-06-01

    The Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) is widespread in the USA, ranging south through Latin America. The ecology of opossums is such that they are in frequent contact with soils, suggesting that they may function as a valuable bioindicator for chemical contamination in terrestrial environments. Surprisingly, there have been virtually no toxicology studies on opossums. Here, we provide the first analysis of metal contaminants in opossum liver tissues. Liver samples were obtained from 471 opossums, collected from 2003 to 2006, at four sites in North Florida and South Georgia, USA, and concentrations of copper, lead, nickel, selenium, and zinc were measured. We found little evidence of age differences in the concentration of any of the metals. However, there were at least some significant differences between years, males and females, and between sites for each metal, although the pattern of these differences was not always consistent across metals. Concentrations of metals in liver tissue were positively correlated with one another, primarily of each metal (except Pb) with zinc. Reference levels of metal contaminants are not available for opossums, but concentrations of Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in our samples were for the most part significantly higher than those reported from liver tissues of nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) collected at the same sites and in the same years. Data from other small mammals studied elsewhere further indicate that metal concentrations in opossums were high, but at this time, it is not possible to determine if these elevated levels generated toxicity. The substantial temporal and spatial variation we found in metal concentrations suggests that determination of baseline levels for opossums may not be straightforward. Nonetheless, this is the first study quantifying metal accumulation in the livers of Didelphis virginiana and, as such, provides an important starting point for future research. PMID:27138002

  15. Metal accumulation in wild-caught opossum.

    PubMed

    Lockhart, J Mitchell; Siddiqui, Samreen; Loughry, W J; Bielmyer-Fraser, Gretchen K

    2016-06-01

    The Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) is widespread in the USA, ranging south through Latin America. The ecology of opossums is such that they are in frequent contact with soils, suggesting that they may function as a valuable bioindicator for chemical contamination in terrestrial environments. Surprisingly, there have been virtually no toxicology studies on opossums. Here, we provide the first analysis of metal contaminants in opossum liver tissues. Liver samples were obtained from 471 opossums, collected from 2003 to 2006, at four sites in North Florida and South Georgia, USA, and concentrations of copper, lead, nickel, selenium, and zinc were measured. We found little evidence of age differences in the concentration of any of the metals. However, there were at least some significant differences between years, males and females, and between sites for each metal, although the pattern of these differences was not always consistent across metals. Concentrations of metals in liver tissue were positively correlated with one another, primarily of each metal (except Pb) with zinc. Reference levels of metal contaminants are not available for opossums, but concentrations of Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in our samples were for the most part significantly higher than those reported from liver tissues of nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) collected at the same sites and in the same years. Data from other small mammals studied elsewhere further indicate that metal concentrations in opossums were high, but at this time, it is not possible to determine if these elevated levels generated toxicity. The substantial temporal and spatial variation we found in metal concentrations suggests that determination of baseline levels for opossums may not be straightforward. Nonetheless, this is the first study quantifying metal accumulation in the livers of Didelphis virginiana and, as such, provides an important starting point for future research.

  16. Benthic ecology and heavy metal accumulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, F.H.; Goodrich, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    The benthos of San Francisco Bay (the community of invertebrates living in bottom sediments) is an important source of food for fish, birds, and humans, and is dominated by exotic species introduced during the past 130 years.  These species are largely small, hardy, short-lived, rapidly-reproducing species (much like weeds) whose distributions and abundances vary widely in both space and time.  As a result, they appear resilient in the face of both natural and human-induced disturbances.

  17. Lake sediments as indicators of heavy-metal pollution.

    PubMed

    Förstner, U

    1976-10-01

    Heavy metals are one of the most toxic forms of environmental pollutants, constituting a threat both to aquatic life and the quality of drinking water. By analyzing lake sediments, it is possible to determine the provenance, distribution, extent, and also the possible hazards of metal contamination. Sedimentary cores, in particular, provide the means for evaluating the different influences from natural and civilizational sources; they represent a historical record of the metal accumulations which have taken place during the past decades as a result of population growth and industrial development. PMID:790198

  18. Determination of heavy metals in soil and different parts of Diplazium esculentum (medicinal fern)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasim, Hind S.; Idris, Mushrifah; Abdullah, Aminah; Kadhum, A. A. H.

    2014-09-01

    Diplazium esculentum is a widely used medicinal fern in Malaysia and other regions worldwide. Heavy metals in plants should be determined because prolonged human intake of toxic trace elements, even at low doses, results in organ malfunction and causes chronic toxicity. Hence, substantial information should be obtained from plants that grow on soils containing high concentrations of heavy metals. This study aimed to determine the physicochemical characteristics of soil and heavy metal concentrations (Pb, Cr, Mn, Cu, and Zn) in different parts of D. esculentum and soil, which were collected from the fern garden of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Results showed that heavy metals were highly accumulated in D. esculentum roots.

  19. Beneficial effect of sesame oil on heavy metal toxicity.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Victor Raj Mohan; Hsu, Dur-Zong; Liu, Ming-Yie

    2014-02-01

    Heavy metals become toxic when they are not metabolized by the body and accumulate in the soft tissue. Chelation therapy is mainly for the management of heavy metal-induced toxicity; however, it usually causes adverse effects or completely blocks the vital function of the particular metal chelated. Much attention has been paid to the development of chelating agents from natural sources to counteract lead- and iron-induced hepatic and renal damage. Sesame oil (a natural edible oil) and sesamol (an active antioxidant) are potently beneficial for treating lead- and iron-induced hepatic and renal toxicity and have no adverse effects. Sesame oil and sesamol significantly inhibit iron-induced lipid peroxidation by inhibiting the xanthine oxidase, nitric oxide, superoxide anion, and hydroxyl radical generation. In addition, sesame oil is a potent inhibitor of proinflammatory mediators, and it attenuates lead-induced hepatic damage by inhibiting nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-1β levels. Because metal chelating therapy is associated with adverse effects, treating heavy metal toxicity in addition with sesame oil and sesamol may be better alternatives. This review deals with the possible use and beneficial effects of sesame oil and sesamol during heavy metal toxicity treatment. PMID:23744838

  20. Heavy metal and abiotic stress inducible metallothionein isoforms from Prosopis juliflora (SW) D.C. show differences in binding to heavy metals in vitro.

    PubMed

    Usha, B; Venkataraman, Gayatri; Parida, Ajay

    2009-01-01

    Prosopis juliflora is a tree species that grows well in heavy metal laden industrial sites and accumulates heavy metals. To understand the possible contribution of metallothioneins (MTs) in heavy metal accumulation in P. juliflora, we isolated and compared the metal binding ability of three different types of MTs (PjMT1-3). Glutathione S-transferase fusions of PjMTs (GSTMT1-3) were purified from Escherichia coli cells grown in the presence of 0.3 mM cadmium, copper or zinc. Analysis of metal bound fusion proteins using atomic absorption spectrometry showed that PjMT1 bound higher levels of all three heavy metals as compared to PjMT2 and PjMT3. A comparative analysis of the genomic regions (including promoter for all three PjMTs) is also presented. All three PjMTs are induced by H(2)O(2) and ABA applications. PjMT1 and PjMT2 are induced by copper and zinc respectively while PjMT3 is induced by copper, zinc and cadmium. Variation in induction of PjMTs in response to metal exposure and their differential binding to metals suggests that each MT has a specific role in P. juliflora. Of the three MTs analyzed, PjMT1 shows maximum heavy metal sequestration and is thus a potential candidate for use in heavy metal phytoremediation.

  1. Carbon based secondary compounds do not provide protection against heavy metal road pollutants in epiphytic macrolichens.

    PubMed

    Gauslaa, Yngvar; Yemets, Olena A; Asplund, Johan; Solhaug, Knut Asbjørn

    2016-01-15

    Lichens are useful monitoring organisms for heavy metal pollution. They are high in carbon based secondary compounds (CBSCs) among which some may chelate heavy metals and thus increase metal accumulation. This study quantifies CBSCs in four epiphytic lichens transplanted for 6months on stands along transects from a highway in southern Norway to search for relationships between concentrations of heavy metals and CBSCs along a gradient in heavy metal pollutants. Viability parameters and concentrations of 21 elements including nutrients and heavy metals in these lichen samples were reported in a separate paper. Medullary CBSCs in fruticose lichens (Ramalina farinacea, Usnea dasypoga) were reduced in the most polluted sites, but not in foliose ones (Parmelia sulcata, Lobaria pulmonaria), whereas cortical CBSC did not change with distance from the road in any species. Strong positive correlations only occurred between the major medullary compound stictic acid present in L. pulmonaria and most heavy metals, consistent with a chelating role of stictic acid, but not of other studied CBSCs or in other species. However, heavy metal chelating did not protect L. pulmonaria against damage because this species experienced the strongest reduction in viability in the polluted sites. CBSCs with an accumulation potential for heavy metals should be quantified in lichen biomonitoring studies of heavy metals because they, like stictic acid, could overshadow pollutant inputs in some species rendering biomonitoring data less useful. In the two fruticose lichen species, CBSCs decreased with increasing heavy metal concentration, probably because heavy metal exposure impaired secondary metabolism. Thus, we found no support for a heavy metal protection role of any CBSCs in studied epiphytic lichens. No intraspecific relationships occurred between CBSCs versus N or C/N-ratio. Interspecifically, medullary CBSCs decreased and cortical CBSCs increased with increasing C/N-ratio.

  2. [Application of ICP-MS to the detection of heavy metals in transgenic corn].

    PubMed

    Rui, Yu-Kui; Guo, Jing; Huang, Kun-Lun; Jin, Yin-Hua; Luo, Yun-Bo

    2007-04-01

    With the rapid development of the transgenic food, more and more transgenic food has been pouring into the market attracting much attention to the transgenic food's edible safety. Transgenic corns and its parents were studied by ICP-MS to detect the heavy metals. The results showed that the transgenic corn accumulated less heavy metals (Ni, Cu, Cd, As, Cr, Zn and Hg) than their own parents; and the contents of some heavy metals (V, Co and Pb) in transgenic corns were similar to their parents. All the data showed that the insertion of foreign gene (Bt) might change the absorbing dynamics of most heavy metals, especially some important heavy metals, which are disadvantageous to human health. The present paper indicated that the change in heavy metals absorption could harm the edible safety of transgenic plant. The cause of this change should be studied further.

  3. ANALYSIS OF HEAVY METALS IN STORMWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stormwater sampling for colloidal and dissolved metals and organic carbon has been initiated at six outfalls draining locally-designated, nonindustrial land uses in Monmouth County, NJ. Of the heavy metals, only Cu and Zn were found in all samples, mostly in dissolved form. Large...

  4. Botanical plants could rid soil of heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, M.

    1993-04-20

    A new technology that is now emerging holds promise of revolutionizing the remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals. Called phytoremediation, it would use green plants to remove the metals. Plants take up the metals in their roots and translocate them to their shoots, which are harvested, burned in a kiln, and the metals recovered and recycled. The challenge is finding or engineering plants that can absorb, translocate, and tolerate heavy metals while producing enough foliage to make the process efficient. All plants take up small amounts of metals, he notes. What he looks for are weird plants that can accumulate them. Such plants exist, he says, giving credence to the feasibility of phytoremediation. Naturally occurring plants with spectacular metal uptake have been found growing on ore outcroppings, he explains. Cunningham scouts waste repositories and mining and industrial sites for metal-accumulating plant species. So far, he has identified two common weeds - hemp dogbane and ragweed - as candidates for remediating lead-contaminated soils. Both plants accumulate lead, he says, but their abilities vary across soils because lead exists in several forms in soil, and not all of its forms are easily absorbed. He finds that lowering the pH and the phosphate and sulfate content of the soil enhances uptake of the metal. The downside is these changes can impair the plant's nutritional environment. So, the chemistry of the soil must be carefully manipulated to boost metal uptake without losing plant biomass, he emphasizes. Cunningham's scheme is being field-tested at Chambers Works, a Due Pont facility in New Jersey. If ragweed proves to be the species of choice for remediating weapons sites and other lead-contaminated sites, he says allergy sufferers needn't worry. Only mutants of the weed that don't pollinate will be grown.

  5. Heavy metals in garden soils along roads in Szeged, Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szolnoki, Zsuzsanna; Farsang, Andrea

    2010-05-01

    The soils of the urban environment, owing to the various anthropogenic activities, can be contaminated by heavy metals. The traffic is well-known for more decades to be main source of heavy metals mostly in cities. The accumulation of these elements can have different effects, either directly endangering the natural soil functions, or indirectly endangering the biosphere by bio-accumulation and inclusion in the food chain. The hobby gardens and the vegetable gardens directly along roads can be potential risky for people since unknown amount of heavy metals can be accumulated into organization of local residents due to consumption of vegetables and fruits grown in their own garden. The aim of this study was to determine the heavy metal content of garden soils directly along roads with heavy traffic in order to assess possible risk for human health. The total content and the mobile content of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn have been determined in samples from garden soils along 5 busy roads of Szeged, South Hungary. Enrichment factor has been calculated with the help of control soil samples far from roads. The soil properties basically influencing on metal mobility have also been examined. Finally, the human health risk of these garden soils has been modelled by determination of health risk quotient (HRQ). As a result of our investigations, it can be claimed that mostly Cu, Zn and to a lesser degree the Ni, Cr and Pb accumulated in garden soils along roads depending on the traffic density. In general, the topsoils (0-10 cm) had higher amount of these metals rather than the subsoils (40-50 cm). Ni of these metals has approached; Cu has exceeded limit value while Pb is under it. Cd is very high in both soils along roads and control ones far from roads. Garden soils along the roads have such basic soil parameters (pH, mechanical soil type, humus content) that prove fairly high metal-binding capacity for these soils. Total risk of usage of these gardens (ingestion of soil

  6. Distribution, Fraction, and Ecological Assessment of Heavy Metals in Sediment-Plant System in Mangrove Forest, South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruili; Chai, Minwei; Qiu, Guo Yu

    2016-01-01

    Overlying water, sediment, rhizosphere sediment and mangrove seedlings in the Futian mangrove forest were analyzed for heavy metals. The results showed that mangrove plant acidified sediment and increased organic matter contents. Except for chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni) and copper (Cu) in Aegiceras corniculatum sediment, heavy metals in all sediments were higher than in overlying water, rhizosphere sediment and mangrove root. Heavy metals in Avicennia marina sediments were higher than other sediments. The lower heavy metal biological concentration factors (BCFs) and translocation factors (TFs) indicated that mangrove plant adopted exclusion strategy. The geo-accumulation index, potential ecological risk index and risk assessment code (RAC) demonstrated that heavy metals have posed a considerable ecological risk, especially for cadmium (Cd). Heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Cu and Cd) mainly existed in the reducible fractions. These findings provide actual heavy metal accumulations in sediment-plant ecosystems in mangrove forest, being important in designing the long-term management and conservation policies for managers of mangrove forest.

  7. Performance of rose scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) in heavy metal polluted soil vis-à-vis phytoaccumulation of metals.

    PubMed

    Chand, Sukhmal; Singh, Geetu; Patra, D D

    2016-08-01

    An investigation was carried out to evaluate the effect of heavy metal toxicity on growth, herb, oil yield and quality and metal accumulation in rose scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) grown in heavy metal enriched soils. Four heavy metals (Cd, Ni, Cr, and Pb) each at two levels (10 and 20 mg kg-1 soil) were tested on geranium. Results indicated that Cr concentration in soil at 20 mg kg-1 reduced leaves, stem and root yield by 70, 83, and 45%, respectively, over control. Root growth was significantly affected in Cr stressed soil. Nickel, Cr, and Cd concentration and accumulation in plant increased with higher application of these metals. Chromium, nickel and cadmium uptake was observed to be higher in leaves than in stem and roots. Essential oil constituents were generally not significantly affected by heavy metals except Pb at 10 and 20 ppm, which significantly increased the content of citronellol and Ni at 20 ppm increased the content of geraniol. Looking in to the higher accumulation of toxic metals by geranium and the minimal impact of heavy metals on quality of essential oil, geranium can be commercially cultivated in heavy metal polluted soil for production of high value essential oil. PMID:26696243

  8. Performance of rose scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) in heavy metal polluted soil vis-à-vis phytoaccumulation of metals.

    PubMed

    Chand, Sukhmal; Singh, Geetu; Patra, D D

    2016-08-01

    An investigation was carried out to evaluate the effect of heavy metal toxicity on growth, herb, oil yield and quality and metal accumulation in rose scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) grown in heavy metal enriched soils. Four heavy metals (Cd, Ni, Cr, and Pb) each at two levels (10 and 20 mg kg-1 soil) were tested on geranium. Results indicated that Cr concentration in soil at 20 mg kg-1 reduced leaves, stem and root yield by 70, 83, and 45%, respectively, over control. Root growth was significantly affected in Cr stressed soil. Nickel, Cr, and Cd concentration and accumulation in plant increased with higher application of these metals. Chromium, nickel and cadmium uptake was observed to be higher in leaves than in stem and roots. Essential oil constituents were generally not significantly affected by heavy metals except Pb at 10 and 20 ppm, which significantly increased the content of citronellol and Ni at 20 ppm increased the content of geraniol. Looking in to the higher accumulation of toxic metals by geranium and the minimal impact of heavy metals on quality of essential oil, geranium can be commercially cultivated in heavy metal polluted soil for production of high value essential oil.

  9. Accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals in the tree foliage of Eucalyptus rostrata, Pinus radiata and Populus hybridus in the vicinity of a large aluminium smelter in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, J. H.; Wannaz, E. D.; Salazar, M. J.; Pignata, M. L.; Fangmeier, A.; Franzaring, J.

    2012-08-01

    A pollution gradient of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was observed in tree foliage sampled in the vicinity of a large aluminium production facility in Patagonia (Argentina). Leaves of Eucalyptus rostrata, Populus hybridus and one-year-old needles of Pinus radiata were collected, and concentrations of 12 PAHs including the so-called EPA priority pollutants as well as heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn) were analysed. The PAH concentrations indicated a steep pollution gradient in the study area associated with the Al-industry, while the heavy metal content was unrelated to this activity. The present study confirms that aluminium smelting results in the deposition of PAH in the study area, and therefore further studies should be carried out taking into account the potentially adverse effects of these compounds on human and ecosystem health.

  10. Heavy Metal Poisoning and Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Alissa, Eman M.; Ferns, Gordon A.

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an increasing world health problem. Traditional risk factors fail to account for all deaths from CVD. It is mainly the environmental, dietary and lifestyle behavioral factors that are the control keys in the progress of this disease. The potential association between chronic heavy metal exposure, like arsenic, lead, cadmium, mercury, and CVD has been less well defined. The mechanism through which heavy metals act to increase cardiovascular risk factors may act still remains unknown, although impaired antioxidants metabolism and oxidative stress may play a role. However, the exact mechanism of CVD induced by heavy metals deserves further investigation either through animal experiments or through molecular and cellular studies. Furthermore, large-scale prospective studies with follow up on general populations using appropriate biomarkers and cardiovascular endpoints might be recommended to identify the factors that predispose to heavy metals toxicity in CVD. In this review, we will give a brief summary of heavy metals homeostasis, followed by a description of the available evidence for their link with CVD and the proposed mechanisms of action by which their toxic effects might be explained. Finally, suspected interactions between genetic, nutritional and environmental factors are discussed. PMID:21912545

  11. Concentration and transportation of heavy metals in vegetables and risk assessment of human exposure to bioaccessible heavy metals in soil near a waste-incinerator site, South China.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Kang, Yuan; Pan, Weijian; Zeng, Lixuan; Zhang, Qiuyun; Luo, Jiwen

    2015-07-15

    There is limited study focusing on the bioaccumulation of heavy metals in vegetables and human exposure to bioaccessible heavy metals in soil. In the present study, heavy metal concentrations (Cr, Ni, Cu, Pb and Cd) were measured in five types of vegetables, soil, root, and settled air particle samples from two sites (at a domestic waste incinerator and at 20km away from the incinerator) in Guangzhou, South China. Heavy metal concentrations in soil were greater than those in aerial parts of vegetables and roots, which indicated that vegetables bioaccumulated low amount of heavy metals from soil. The similar pattern of heavy metal (Cr, Cd) was found in the settled air particle samples and aerial parts of vegetables from two sites, which may suggest that foliar uptake may be an important pathway of heavy metal from the environment to vegetables. The highest levels of heavy metals were found in leaf lettuce (125.52μg/g, dry weight) and bitter lettuce (71.2μg/g) for sites A and B, respectively, followed by bitter lettuce and leaf lettuce for sites A and B, respectively. Swamp morning glory accumulated the lowest amount of heavy metals (81.02μg/g for site A and 53.2μg/g for site B) at both sites. The bioaccessibility of heavy metals in soil ranged from Cr (2%) to Cu (71.78%). Risk assessment showed that Cd and Pb in soil samples resulted in the highest non-cancer risk and Cd would result in unacceptable cancer risk for children and risk. The non-dietary intake of soil was the most important exposure pathway, when the bioaccessibility of heavy metals was taken into account.

  12. Concentration and transportation of heavy metals in vegetables and risk assessment of human exposure to bioaccessible heavy metals in soil near a waste-incinerator site, South China.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Kang, Yuan; Pan, Weijian; Zeng, Lixuan; Zhang, Qiuyun; Luo, Jiwen

    2015-07-15

    There is limited study focusing on the bioaccumulation of heavy metals in vegetables and human exposure to bioaccessible heavy metals in soil. In the present study, heavy metal concentrations (Cr, Ni, Cu, Pb and Cd) were measured in five types of vegetables, soil, root, and settled air particle samples from two sites (at a domestic waste incinerator and at 20km away from the incinerator) in Guangzhou, South China. Heavy metal concentrations in soil were greater than those in aerial parts of vegetables and roots, which indicated that vegetables bioaccumulated low amount of heavy metals from soil. The similar pattern of heavy metal (Cr, Cd) was found in the settled air particle samples and aerial parts of vegetables from two sites, which may suggest that foliar uptake may be an important pathway of heavy metal from the environment to vegetables. The highest levels of heavy metals were found in leaf lettuce (125.52μg/g, dry weight) and bitter lettuce (71.2μg/g) for sites A and B, respectively, followed by bitter lettuce and leaf lettuce for sites A and B, respectively. Swamp morning glory accumulated the lowest amount of heavy metals (81.02μg/g for site A and 53.2μg/g for site B) at both sites. The bioaccessibility of heavy metals in soil ranged from Cr (2%) to Cu (71.78%). Risk assessment showed that Cd and Pb in soil samples resulted in the highest non-cancer risk and Cd would result in unacceptable cancer risk for children and risk. The non-dietary intake of soil was the most important exposure pathway, when the bioaccessibility of heavy metals was taken into account. PMID:25829292

  13. Phytoremediation using microbially mediated metal accumulation in Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed

    Phieler, René; Merten, Dirk; Roth, Martin; Büchel, Georg; Kothe, Erika

    2015-12-01

    Reclaiming land that has been anthropogenically contaminated with multiple heavy metal elements, e.g., during mining operations, is a growing challenge worldwide. The use of phytoremediation has been discussed with varying success. Here, we show that a careful examination of options of microbial determination of plant performance is a key element in providing a multielement remediation option for such landscapes. We used both (a) mycorrhiza with Rhizophagus irregularis and (b) bacterial amendments with Streptomyces acidiscabies E13 and Streptomyces tendae F4 to mediate plant-promoting and metal-accumulating properties to Sorghum bicolor. In pot experiments, the effects on plant growth and metal uptake were scored, and in a field trial at a former uranium leaching heap site near Ronneburg, Germany, we could show the efficacy under field conditions. Different metals could be extracted at the same time, with varying microbial inoculation and soil amendment scenarios possible when a certain metal is the focus of interest. Especially, manganese was extracted at very high levels which might be useful even for phytomining approaches.

  14. Heavy metal concentrations in soil and earthworms in a floodplain grassland.

    PubMed

    van Vliet, P C J; van der Zee, S E A T M; Ma, W C

    2005-12-01

    We determined accumulated heavy metal concentrations (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn) of earthworms in moderately contaminated floodplain soils. Both soil and mature earthworms were sampled before and after flooding and earthworm species were identified to understand species specific differences in bioconcentration. Accumulated metal concentrations in floodplain earthworms differed before and after flooding. Differences in uptake and elimination mechanisms, in food choice and living habitat of the different earthworm species and changes in speciation of the heavy metals are possible causes for this observation. Regression equations taken from literature, that relate metal accumulation by earthworms in floodplains as a function of metal concentration in soil, performed well when all species specific data were combined in an average accumulation, but did not address differences in accumulation between earthworm species. PMID:15951081

  15. Community Heavy Metal Exposure, San Francisco, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavez, A.; Devine, M.; Ho, T.; Zapata, I.; Bissell, M.; Neiss, J.

    2008-12-01

    Heavy metals are natural elements that generally occur in minute concentrations in the earth's crust. While some of these elements, in small quantities, are vital to life, most are harmful in larger doses. Various industrial and agricultural processes can result in dangerously high concentrations of heavy metals in our environment. Consequently, humans can be exposed to unsafe levels of these elements via the air we breathe, the water and food we consume, and the many products we use. During a two week study we collected numerous samples of sediments, water, food, and household items from around the San Francisco Bay Area that represent industrial, agricultural, and urban/residential settings. We analyzed these samples for Mercury (Hg), Lead (Pb), and Arsenic (As). Our goal was to examine the extent of our exposure to heavy metals in our daily lives. We discovered that many of the common foods and materials in our lives have become contaminated with unhealthy concentrations of these metals. Of our food samples, many exceeded the EPA's Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL) set for each metal. Meats (fish, chicken, and beef) had higher amounts of each metal than did non-meat items. Heavy metals were also prevalent in varying concentrations in the environment. While many of our samples exceeded the EPA's Sediment Screening Level (SSL) for As, only two other samples surpassed the SSL set for Pb, and zero of our samples exceeded the SSL for Hg. Because of the serious health effects that can result from over-exposure to heavy metals, the information obtained in this study should be used to influence our future dietary and recreational habits.

  16. Extractable heavy metals in Atlantic coast soils

    SciTech Connect

    MacLean, K.S.; Langille, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    The analysis of soils, using 0.1 N HCl as an extractant for the heavy metals, Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb on fine textured North Shore and coarse textured Annapolis Valley soils was completed. Results show ranges of 0.012 to 0.469 ppM Cd, 0.102 to 2.90 ppM Cr, 0.16 to 29.25 ppM Ni, and 0.12 to 244.8 ppM Pb. Correlation studies indicate that the heavy metal content of fine textured soils is less influenced by changes in clay content and organic matter than are coarse textured soils. Generally the surface layers (0 to 15 cms) are higher in extractable heavy metal content than the lower layers (15 to 30 cms).

  17. Native Australian species are effective in extracting multiple heavy metals from biosolids.

    PubMed

    Mok, Hoi-Fei; Majumder, Ramaprasad; Laidlaw, W Scott; Gregory, David; Baker, Alan J M; Arndt, Stefan K

    2013-01-01

    Selecting native plant species with characteristics suitable for extraction of heavy metals may have multiple advantages over non-native plants. Six Australian perennial woody plant species and one willow were grown in a pot trial in heavy metal-contaminated biosolids and a potting mix. The plants were harvested after fourteen months and above-ground parts were analysed for heavy metal concentrations and total metal contents. All native species were capable of growing in biosolids and extracted heavy metals to varying degrees. No single species was able to accumulate heavy metals at particularly high levels and metal extraction depended upon the bioavailability of the metal in the substrate. Metal extraction efficiency was driven by biomass accumulation, with the species extracting the most metals also having the greatest biomass yield. The study demonstrated that Grevillea robusta, Acacia mearnsii, Eucalyptus polybractea, and E. cladocalyx have the greatest potential as phytoextractor species in the remediation of heavy metal-contaminated biosolids. Species survival and growth were the main determinants of metal extraction efficiency and these traits will be important for future screening of native species. PMID:23819263

  18. Heavy metals fractionation in Ganga River sediments, India.

    PubMed

    Purushothaman, P; Chakrapani, G J

    2007-09-01

    The Ganga River is the largest river in India which, originates in the Himalayas and along with the Brahmaputra River, another Himalayan river, transports enormous amounts of sediments from the Indian sub-continent to the Bay of Bengal. Because of the important role of river sediments in the biogeochemical cycling of elements, the Ganga river sediments, collected from its origin to the down stretches, were studied in the present context, to assess the heavy metals associated with different chemical fractions of sediments. The fractionation of metals were studied in the sediments using SM&T protocol for the extraction of heavy metals and geo-accumulation index (GAI) (Muller, Schwermetalle in den sedimenten des rheins - Veranderungen seit. Umschau, 79, 778-783, 1979) and Metal Enrichment Factor (MEF) in different fractions were calculated. As with many river systems, residual fractions constitute more than 60% of total metals, except Zn, Cu and Cr. However, the reducible and organic and sulfide components also act as major sinks for metals in the down stretches of the river, which is supported by the high GAI and MEF values. The GAI values range between 4 and 5 and MEF exceed more than 20 for almost all the locations in the downstream locations indicating to the addition of metals through urban and industrial effluents, as compared to the low metals concentrations with less GAI and MEF in the pristine river sediments from the rivers in Himalayas.

  19. Heavy metals fractionation in Ganga River sediments, India.

    PubMed

    Purushothaman, P; Chakrapani, G J

    2007-09-01

    The Ganga River is the largest river in India which, originates in the Himalayas and along with the Brahmaputra River, another Himalayan river, transports enormous amounts of sediments from the Indian sub-continent to the Bay of Bengal. Because of the important role of river sediments in the biogeochemical cycling of elements, the Ganga river sediments, collected from its origin to the down stretches, were studied in the present context, to assess the heavy metals associated with different chemical fractions of sediments. The fractionation of metals were studied in the sediments using SM&T protocol for the extraction of heavy metals and geo-accumulation index (GAI) (Muller, Schwermetalle in den sedimenten des rheins - Veranderungen seit. Umschau, 79, 778-783, 1979) and Metal Enrichment Factor (MEF) in different fractions were calculated. As with many river systems, residual fractions constitute more than 60% of total metals, except Zn, Cu and Cr. However, the reducible and organic and sulfide components also act as major sinks for metals in the down stretches of the river, which is supported by the high GAI and MEF values. The GAI values range between 4 and 5 and MEF exceed more than 20 for almost all the locations in the downstream locations indicating to the addition of metals through urban and industrial effluents, as compared to the low metals concentrations with less GAI and MEF in the pristine river sediments from the rivers in Himalayas. PMID:17295113

  20. Toenail as a biomarker of heavy metal exposure via drinking water: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ab Razak, Nurul Hafiza; Praveena, Sarva Mangala; Hashim, Zailina

    2015-01-01

    Toenail is metabolic end product of the skin, which can provide information about heavy metal accumulation in human cells. Slow growth rates of toenail can represent heavy metal exposure from 2 to 12 months before the clipping. The toenail is a non-invasive biomarker that is easy to collect and store and is stable over time. In this systematic review, the suitability of toenail as a long-term biomarker was reviewed, along with the analysis and validation of toenail and confounders to heavy metal. This systematic review has included 30 articles chosen from a total of 132 articles searched from online electronic databases like Pubmed, Proquest, Science Direct, and SCOPUS. Keywords used in the search included "toenail", "biomarker", "heavy metal", and "drinking water". Heavy metal in toenail can be accurately analyzed using an ICP-MS instrument. The validation of toenail heavy metal concentration data is very crucial; however, the Certified Reference Material (CRM) for toenail is still unavailable. Usually, CRM for hair is used in toenail studies. Confounders that have major effects on heavy metal accumulation in toenail are dietary intake of food and supplement, smoking habit, and overall health condition. This review has identified the advantages and limitations of using toenail as a biomarker for long-term exposure, which can help future researchers design a study on heavy metal exposure using toenail.

  1. [Effect of reclaimed water irrigation on soil properties and vertical distribution of heavy metal].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zong-Ming; Chen, Wei-Ping; Jiao, Wen-Tao; Wang, Mei-E

    2012-12-01

    Utilization of reclaimed water is one of the important methods to alleviate water shortage. The effect of reclaimed water irrigation on soil is always a concern. To understand the effect of long time reclaimed water irrigation on soil, typical farmland irrigated with reused water was selected. Soil properties and heavy metal concentration of soil and water samples were analyzed to identify the effect of the irrigation on heavy metal vertical distribution and organic matter content, total carbon, total nitrogen and pH value in soil. The results show that heavy metal contents of irrigation water used in Liangshuihe farmland are 2.5 to 10.5 times higher than that of Beiyechang farmland, and reclaimed water irrigation could cause changes of soil properties that soil organic matter content, total carbon, total nitrogen were increased and pH values were reduced. Based on the field investigation results, the soil nutrient conditions benefit from irrigate reclaimed water, however, the accumulation of heavy metal in soil could raise the risk. As a source of soil heavy metal, reclaimed water irrigation could make differences on the accumulation and mobility of soil heavy metal. Also the distribution and mobility of soil heavy metal are influenced by soil organic matter content and there are more heavy metal were taken up by plants or transferred to the deeper area in Liangshuihe farmland.

  2. Effect of heavy metal-solubilizing microorganisms on zinc and cadmium extractions from heavy metal contaminated soil with Tricholoma lobynsis.

    PubMed

    Ji, Ling-yun; Zhang, Wei-wei; Yu, Dong; Cao, Yan-ru; Xu, Heng

    2012-01-01

    The macrofungus, Tricholoma lobynsis, was chosen to remedy Zn-Cd-Pb contaminated soil. To enhance its metal-extracting efficiency, two heavy metal resistant microbes M6 and K1 were applied owing to their excellent abilities to solubilize heavy metal salts. The two isolated microbial strains could also produce indole acetic acid (IAA), siderophore and solubilize inorganic phosphate, but neither of them showed 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity. The strains M6 and K1 were identified as Serratia marcescens and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa based on 16S rDNA and ITS sequence analysis respectively. Pot experiment showed that spraying to T. lobynsis-inoculated soil with M6 and K1 respectively could increase total Cd accumulations of this mushroom by 216 and 61%, and Zn by 153 and 49% compared to the uninoculated control. Pb accumulation however, was too low (<1 mg kg(-1)) to be determined. The results illustrated that special microbes and macrofungi can work together to remedy polluted soil as plant and plant growth promoting microbes do, probably because of excellent metal-accumulating abilities of macrofungi and IAA-siderophore production, phosphate solubilization abilities of the assisted-microbes. This kind of macrofungi-microbe interaction can be developed into a novel bioremediation strategy.

  3. Heavy metal contamination in a vulnerable mangrove swamp in South China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yutao; Qiu, Qiu; Xin, Guorong; Yang, Zhongyi; Zheng, Jing; Ye, Zhihong; Li, Shaoshan

    2013-07-01

    Concentrations of six heavy metals (Cu, Ni, Zn, Cd, Cr, and Pb) in sediments and fine roots, thick roots, branches, and leaves of six mangrove plant species collected from the Futian mangrove forest, South China were measured. The results show that both the sediments and plants in Futian mangrove ecosystem are moderately contaminated by heavy metals, with the main contaminants being Zn and Cu. All investigated metals showed very similar distribution patterns in the sediments, implying that they had the same anthropogenic source(s). High accumulations of the heavy metals were observed in the root tissues, especially the fine roots, and much lower concentrations in the other organs. This indicates that the roots strongly immobilize the heavy metals and (hence) that mangrove plants possess mechanisms that limit the upward transport of heavy metals and exclude them from sensitive tissues. The growth performance of propagules and 6-month-old seedlings of Bruguiera gymnorhiza in the presence of contaminating Cu and Cd was also examined. The results show that this plant is not sufficiently sensitive to heavy metals after its propagule stage for its regeneration and growth to be significantly affected by heavy metal contamination in the Futian mangrove ecosystem. However, older mangrove seedlings appeared to be more metal-tolerant than the younger seedlings due to their more efficient exclusion mechanism. Thus, the effects of metal contamination on young seedlings should be assessed when evaluating the risks posed by heavy metals in an ecosystem. PMID:23203819

  4. Red mud (RM)-Induced enhancement of iron plaque formation reduces arsenic and metal accumulation in two wetland plant species.

    PubMed

    Yang, J X; Guo, Q J; Yang, J; Zhou, X Y; Ren, H Y; Zhang, H Z; Xu, R X; Wang, X D; Peters, M; Zhu, G X; Wei, R F; Tian, L Y; Han, X K

    2016-01-01

    Human activities have resulted in arsenic (As) and heavy metals accumulation in paddy soils in China. Phytoremediation has been suggested as an effective and low-cost method to clean up contaminated soils. A combined soil-sand pot experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of red mud (RM) supply on iron plaque formation and As and heavy metal accumulation in two wetland plant species (Cyperus alternifolius Rottb., Echinodorus amazonicus Rataj), using As and heavy metals polluted paddy soil combined with three rates of RM application (0, 2%, 5%). The results showed that RM supply significantly decreased As and heavy metals accumulation in shoots of the two plants due to the decrease of As and heavy metal availability and the enhancement of the formation of iron plaque on the root surface and in the rhizosphere. Both wetland plants supplied with RM tended to have more Fe plaque, higher As and heavy metals on roots and in their rhizospheres, and were more tolerant of As and heavy metal toxicity. The results suggest that RM-induced enhancement of the formation of iron plaque on the root surface and in the rhizosphere of wetland plants may be significant for remediation of soils contaminated with As and heavy metals. PMID:26505322

  5. [Pollution Characteristics and Potential Ecological Risk of Heavy Metals in Urban Surface Water Sediments from Yongkang].

    PubMed

    Qi, Peng; Yu, Shu-quan; Zhang, Chao; Liang, Li-cheng; Che, Ji-lu

    2015-12-01

    In order to understand the pollution characteristics of heavy metals in surface water sediments of Yongkang, we analyzed the concentrations of 10 heavy metals including Ti, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Pb and Fe in 122 sediment samples, explored the underlying source of heavy metals and then assessed the potential ecological risks of those metals by methods of the index of geo-accumulation and the potential ecological risk. The study results showed that: 10 heavy metal contents followed the order: Fe > Ti > Mn > Zn > Cr > Cu > Ph > Ni > As > Co, all heavy metals except for Ti were 1. 17 to 3.78 times higher than those of Zhejiang Jinhua- Quzhou basin natural soils background values; The concentrations of all heavy metals had a significantly correlation between each other, indicating that those heavy metals had similar sources of pollution, and it mainly came from industrial and vehicle pollutions; The pollution extent of heavy metals in sediments by geo-accumulation index (Igeo) followed the order: Cr > Zn > Ni > Cu > Fe > As > Pb >Mn > Ti, thereinto, Cr, Zn, Cu and Ni were moderately polluted or heavily polluted at some sampling sites; The potential ecological risk of 9 heavy metals in sediments were in the following order: Cu > As > Ni > Cr > Pb > Co > Zn > Mn > Ti, Cu and As contributed the most to the total potential ecological risk, accounting for 22.84% and 21. 62% , others had a total of 55.54% , through the ecological risk assessment, 89. 34% of the potential ecological risk indexes ( RI) were low and 10. 66% were higher. The contamination level of heavy metals in Yongkang was slight in total, but was heavy in local areas. PMID:27011984

  6. [Pollution Characteristics and Potential Ecological Risk of Heavy Metals in Urban Surface Water Sediments from Yongkang].

    PubMed

    Qi, Peng; Yu, Shu-quan; Zhang, Chao; Liang, Li-cheng; Che, Ji-lu

    2015-12-01

    In order to understand the pollution characteristics of heavy metals in surface water sediments of Yongkang, we analyzed the concentrations of 10 heavy metals including Ti, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Pb and Fe in 122 sediment samples, explored the underlying source of heavy metals and then assessed the potential ecological risks of those metals by methods of the index of geo-accumulation and the potential ecological risk. The study results showed that: 10 heavy metal contents followed the order: Fe > Ti > Mn > Zn > Cr > Cu > Ph > Ni > As > Co, all heavy metals except for Ti were 1. 17 to 3.78 times higher than those of Zhejiang Jinhua- Quzhou basin natural soils background values; The concentrations of all heavy metals had a significantly correlation between each other, indicating that those heavy metals had similar sources of pollution, and it mainly came from industrial and vehicle pollutions; The pollution extent of heavy metals in sediments by geo-accumulation index (Igeo) followed the order: Cr > Zn > Ni > Cu > Fe > As > Pb >Mn > Ti, thereinto, Cr, Zn, Cu and Ni were moderately polluted or heavily polluted at some sampling sites; The potential ecological risk of 9 heavy metals in sediments were in the following order: Cu > As > Ni > Cr > Pb > Co > Zn > Mn > Ti, Cu and As contributed the most to the total potential ecological risk, accounting for 22.84% and 21. 62% , others had a total of 55.54% , through the ecological risk assessment, 89. 34% of the potential ecological risk indexes ( RI) were low and 10. 66% were higher. The contamination level of heavy metals in Yongkang was slight in total, but was heavy in local areas.

  7. Bio-recovery of non-essential heavy metals by intra- and extracellular mechanisms in free-living microorganisms.

    PubMed

    García-García, Jorge D; Sánchez-Thomas, Rosina; Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Free-living microorganisms may become suitable models for recovery of non-essential and essential heavy metals from wastewater bodies and soils by using and enhancing their accumulating and/or leaching abilities. This review analyzes the variety of different mechanisms developed mainly in bacteria, protists and microalgae to accumulate heavy metals, being the most relevant those involving phytochelatin and metallothionein biosyntheses; phosphate/polyphosphate metabolism; compartmentalization of heavy metal-complexes into vacuoles, chloroplasts and mitochondria; and secretion of malate and other organic acids. Cyanide biosynthesis for extra-cellular heavy metal bioleaching is also examined. These metabolic/cellular processes are herein analyzed at the transcriptional, kinetic and metabolic levels to provide mechanistic basis for developing genetically engineered microorganisms with greater capacities and efficiencies for heavy metal recovery, recycling of heavy metals, biosensing of metal ions, and engineering of metalloenzymes.

  8. Heavy metals in water, sediments and submerged macrophytes in ponds around the Dianchi Lake, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhixiu; Yao, Lu; Liu, Guihua; Liu, Wenzhi

    2014-09-01

    Through retaining runoff and pollutants such as heavy metals from surrounding landscapes, ponds around a lake play an important role in mitigating the impacts of human activities on lake ecosystems. In order to determine the potential for heavy metal accumulation of submerged macrophytes, we investigated the concentrations of 10 heavy metals (i.e., As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in water, sediments, and submerged macrophytes collected from 37 ponds around the Dianchi Lake in China. Our results showed that both water and sediments of these ponds were polluted by Pb. Water and sediments heavy metal concentrations in ponds received urban and agricultural runoff were not significantly higher than those in ponds received forest runoff. This result indicates that a large portion of heavy metals in these ponds may originate from atmospheric deposition and weathering of background soils. Positive relationships were found among heavy metal concentrations in submerged macrophytes, probably due to the coaccumulation of heavy metals. For most heavy metals, no significant relationships were found between submerged macrophytes and their water and sediment environments. The maximum concentrations of Cr, Fe and Ni in Ceratophyllum demersum were 4242, 16,429 and 2662mgkg(-1), respectively. The result suggests that C. demersum is a good candidate species for removing heavy metals from polluted aquatic environments. PMID:25011115

  9. Heavy Metal Pollution in a Soil-Rice System in the Yangtze River Region of China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhouping; Zhang, Qiaofen; Han, Tiqian; Ding, Yanfei; Sun, Junwei; Wang, Feijuan; Zhu, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Heavy metals are regarded as toxic trace elements in the environment. Heavy metal pollution in soil or rice grains is of increasing concern. In this study, 101 pairs of soil and rice samples were collected from the major rice-producing areas along the Yangtze River in China. The soil properties and heavy metal (i.e., Cd, Hg, Pb and Cr) concentrations in the soil and rice grains were analyzed to evaluate the heavy metal accumulation characteristics of the soil-rice systems. The results showed that the Cd, Hg, Pb and Cr concentrations in the soil ranged from 0.10 to 4.64, 0.01 to 1.46, 7.64 to 127.56, and 13.52 to 231.02 mg·kg(-)¹, respectively. Approximately 37%, 16%, 60% and 70% of the rice grain samples were polluted by Cd, Hg, Pb, and Cr, respectively. The degree of heavy metal contamination in the soil-rice systems exhibited a regional variation. The interactions among the heavy metal elements may also influence the migration and accumulation of heavy metals in soil or paddy rice. The accumulation of heavy metals in soil and rice grains is related to a certain extent to the pH and soil organic matter (SOM). This study provides useful information regarding heavy metal accumulation in soil to support the safe production of rice in China. The findings from this study also provide a robust scientific basis for risk assessments regarding ecological protection and food safety. PMID:26703698

  10. Heavy Metal Pollution in a Soil-Rice System in the Yangtze River Region of China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhouping; Zhang, Qiaofen; Han, Tiqian; Ding, Yanfei; Sun, Junwei; Wang, Feijuan; Zhu, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals are regarded as toxic trace elements in the environment. Heavy metal pollution in soil or rice grains is of increasing concern. In this study, 101 pairs of soil and rice samples were collected from the major rice-producing areas along the Yangtze River in China. The soil properties and heavy metal (i.e., Cd, Hg, Pb and Cr) concentrations in the soil and rice grains were analyzed to evaluate the heavy metal accumulation characteristics of the soil-rice systems. The results showed that the Cd, Hg, Pb and Cr concentrations in the soil ranged from 0.10 to 4.64, 0.01 to 1.46, 7.64 to 127.56, and 13.52 to 231.02 mg·kg−1, respectively. Approximately 37%, 16%, 60% and 70% of the rice grain samples were polluted by Cd, Hg, Pb, and Cr, respectively. The degree of heavy metal contamination in the soil-rice systems exhibited a regional variation. The interactions among the heavy metal elements may also influence the migration and accumulation of heavy metals in soil or paddy rice. The accumulation of heavy metals in soil and rice grains is related to a certain extent to the pH and soil organic matter (SOM). This study provides useful information regarding heavy metal accumulation in soil to support the safe production of rice in China. The findings from this study also provide a robust scientific basis for risk assessments regarding ecological protection and food safety. PMID:26703698

  11. Heavy Metal Pollution in a Soil-Rice System in the Yangtze River Region of China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhouping; Zhang, Qiaofen; Han, Tiqian; Ding, Yanfei; Sun, Junwei; Wang, Feijuan; Zhu, Cheng

    2015-12-22

    Heavy metals are regarded as toxic trace elements in the environment. Heavy metal pollution in soil or rice grains is of increasing concern. In this study, 101 pairs of soil and rice samples were collected from the major rice-producing areas along the Yangtze River in China. The soil properties and heavy metal (i.e., Cd, Hg, Pb and Cr) concentrations in the soil and rice grains were analyzed to evaluate the heavy metal accumulation characteristics of the soil-rice systems. The results showed that the Cd, Hg, Pb and Cr concentrations in the soil ranged from 0.10 to 4.64, 0.01 to 1.46, 7.64 to 127.56, and 13.52 to 231.02 mg·kg(-)¹, respectively. Approximately 37%, 16%, 60% and 70% of the rice grain samples were polluted by Cd, Hg, Pb, and Cr, respectively. The degree of heavy metal contamination in the soil-rice systems exhibited a regional variation. The interactions among the heavy metal elements may also influence the migration and accumulation of heavy metals in soil or paddy rice. The accumulation of heavy metals in soil and rice grains is related to a certain extent to the pH and soil organic matter (SOM). This study provides useful information regarding heavy metal accumulation in soil to support the safe production of rice in China. The findings from this study also provide a robust scientific basis for risk assessments regarding ecological protection and food safety.

  12. Heavy metal detoxification in eukaryotic microalgae.

    PubMed

    Perales-Vela, Hugo Virgilio; Peña-Castro, Julián Mario; Cañizares-Villanueva, Rosa Olivia

    2006-06-01

    Microalgae are aquatic organisms possessing molecular mechanisms that allow them to discriminate non-essential heavy metals from those essential ones for their growth. The different detoxification processes executed by algae are reviewed with special emphasis on those involving the peptides metallothioneins, mainly the post transcriptionally synthesized class III metallothioneins or phytochelatins. Also, the features that make microalgae suitable organisms technologies specially to treat water that is heavily polluted with metals is discussed.

  13. Heavy metal detoxification in eukaryotic microalgae.

    PubMed

    Perales-Vela, Hugo Virgilio; Peña-Castro, Julián Mario; Cañizares-Villanueva, Rosa Olivia

    2006-06-01

    Microalgae are aquatic organisms possessing molecular mechanisms that allow them to discriminate non-essential heavy metals from those essential ones for their growth. The different detoxification processes executed by algae are reviewed with special emphasis on those involving the peptides metallothioneins, mainly the post transcriptionally synthesized class III metallothioneins or phytochelatins. Also, the features that make microalgae suitable organisms technologies specially to treat water that is heavily polluted with metals is discussed. PMID:16405948

  14. Toxicity, mechanism and health effects of some heavy metals

    PubMed Central

    Jaishankar, Monisha; Tseten, Tenzin; Anbalagan, Naresh; Beeregowda, Krishnamurthy N.

    2014-01-01

    Heavy metal toxicity has proven to be a major threat and there are several health risks associated with it. The toxic effects of these metals, even though they do not have any biological role, remain present in some or the other form harmful for the human body and its proper functioning. They sometimes act as a pseudo element of the body while at certain times they may even interfere with metabolic processes. Few metals, such as aluminium, can be removed through elimination activities, while some metals get accumulated in the body and food chain, exhibiting a chronic nature. Various public health measures have been undertaken to control, prevent and treat metal toxicity occurring at various levels, such as occupational exposure, accidents and environmental factors. Metal toxicity depends upon the absorbed dose, the route of exposure and duration of exposure, i.e. acute or chronic. This can lead to various disorders and can also result in excessive damage due to oxidative stress induced by free radical formation. This review gives details about some heavy metals and their toxicity mechanisms, along with their health effects. PMID:26109881

  15. Multivariate statistical analysis of heavy metal concentration in soils of Yelagiri Hills, Tamilnadu, India - Spectroscopical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrasekaran, A.; Ravisankar, R.; Harikrishnan, N.; Satapathy, K. K.; Prasad, M. V. R.; Kanagasabapathy, K. V.

    2015-02-01

    Anthropogenic activities increase the accumulation of heavy metals in the soil environment. Soil pollution significantly reduces environmental quality and affects the human health. In the present study soil samples were collected at different locations of Yelagiri Hills, Tamilnadu, India for heavy metal analysis. The samples were analyzed for twelve selected heavy metals (Mg, Al, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni and Zn) using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectroscopy. Heavy metals concentration in soil were investigated using enrichment factor (EF), geo-accumulation index (Igeo), contamination factor (CF) and pollution load index (PLI) to determine metal accumulation, distribution and its pollution status. Heavy metal toxicity risk was assessed using soil quality guidelines (SQGs) given by target and intervention values of Dutch soil standards. The concentration of Ni, Co, Zn, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ti, K, Al, Mg were mainly controlled by natural sources. Multivariate statistical methods such as correlation matrix, principal component analysis and cluster analysis were applied for the identification of heavy metal sources (anthropogenic/natural origin). Geo-statistical methods such as kirging identified hot spots of metal contamination in road areas influenced mainly by presence of natural rocks.

  16. ANALYSIS OF HEAVY METALS IN STORMWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sampling has been undertaken to determine the concentrations of heavy metals, both particle-associated and dissolved, in stormwater from several storm sewer outfalls in Monmouth County, NJ. This project is ongoing in concert with coordinated studies of pathogen and nutrient input...

  17. Heavy Metals and Related Trace Elements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leland, Harry V.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of heavy metals and related trace elements in the environment, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) trace treatment in natural water and in sediments; and (2) bioaccumulation and toxicity of trace elements. A list of 466 references is presented. (HM)

  18. Heavy metals in the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Storm, G.L.; Fosmire, G.J.; Bellis, E.D.

    1994-05-01

    Concentration (Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu) in soil and wildlife at the Palmerton zinc smelter site in eastern Pennsylvania were determined 6 yr after zinc smelting was terminated in 1980. Levels of the four metals were higher in litter (01 and 02 horizon) than in soil (A1 horizon), and the metals were at or near levels when the smelters were still in operation. Levels of metals in sod weft highest at sites close to the smelters and decreased as distances from the smelters increased. The relation of decreasing amounts of metals in body tissues with increasing distance from the smelters also held true for amphibians and mammals. An exception to this relation was higher level of Cu in red-lacked salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) captured {approx}17 km downwind than those captured {approx}12 km downwind. Levels of Zn, Pb, and Co in liver, kidney, and muscle tissue of white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) were not different (P >0.05) among sites. Cadmium in kidneys in white-footed mice exceeded 10 mg&& which is reportedly considered an indication of environmental contamination. Levels of Cd in kidneys and liver of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) at Palmerton were five times higher than those for white-tailed deer collected 180 km southwest of Palmerton in southcentral Pennsylvania. The abnormal amounts of metals in the tissues of terrestrial vertebrates, and the absence or low abundance of wildlife at Palmerton indicated that ecological processes within 5 km of the smelters were markedly influenced 6 yr after zinc smelting was discontinued. 41 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Beneficial role of bacterial endophytes in heavy metal phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ying; Rajkumar, Mani; Zhang, Chang; Freitas, Helena

    2016-06-01

    Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that uses plants and their associated microbes to clean up pollutants from the soil, water and air. In recent years, phytoremediation assisted by bacterial endophytes has been highly recommended for cleaning up of metal polluted soils since endophytic bacteria can alleviate metal toxicity in plant through their own metal resistance system and facilitate plant growth under metal stress. Endophytic bacteria improve plant growth in metal polluted soils in two different ways: 1) directly by producing plant growth beneficial substances including solubilization/transformation of mineral nutrients (phosphate, nitrogen and potassium), production of phytohormones, siderophores and specific enzymes; and 2) indirectly through controlling plant pathogens or by inducing a systemic resistance of plants against pathogens. Besides, they also alter metal accumulation capacity in plants by excreting metal immobilizing extracellular polymeric substances, as well as metal mobilizing organic acids and biosurfactants. The present work aims to review the progress of recent research on the isolation, identification and diversity of metal resistant endophytic bacteria and illustrate various mechanisms responsible for plant growth promotion and heavy metal detoxification/phytoaccumulation/translocation in plants.

  20. [Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in macrofungi and its application in ecological remediation].

    PubMed

    An, Xin-Long; Zhou, Qi-Xing

    2007-08-01

    As an important type of environmental biological resources, macrofungi are vitally useful in our life. Compared with green plants, macrofungi can accumulate high concentrations of heavy metals such as Cd, Pb and Hg. In this paper, the bioaccumulation of heavy metals in macrofungi and the advantages of using macrofungi in ecological remediation of heavy metals pollution were discussed. The main factors affecting the bioaccumulation of heavy metals in macrofungi, include the species, ecological types, bioaccumulation characteristics and genetic potentials of macrofungi, the morphologic traits, parts and lifetime of mycelium and fruiting bodies, the intervals between fructifications, and the ecological environments. It was suggested that to screen out the macrofungi with effective bioaccumulation of heavy metals, be prone to artificially cultured, better adjustable to environments and easily post-disposed would be the important domain to be explored in the future.

  1. [Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in macrofungi and its application in ecological remediation].

    PubMed

    An, Xin-Long; Zhou, Qi-Xing

    2007-08-01

    As an important type of environmental biological resources, macrofungi are vitally useful in our life. Compared with green plants, macrofungi can accumulate high concentrations of heavy metals such as Cd, Pb and Hg. In this paper, the bioaccumulation of heavy metals in macrofungi and the advantages of using macrofungi in ecological remediation of heavy metals pollution were discussed. The main factors affecting the bioaccumulation of heavy metals in macrofungi, include the species, ecological types, bioaccumulation characteristics and genetic potentials of macrofungi, the morphologic traits, parts and lifetime of mycelium and fruiting bodies, the intervals between fructifications, and the ecological environments. It was suggested that to screen out the macrofungi with effective bioaccumulation of heavy metals, be prone to artificially cultured, better adjustable to environments and easily post-disposed would be the important domain to be explored in the future. PMID:17974263

  2. To study the recovery of L-Cysteine using halloysite nanotubes after heavy metal removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakur, Juhi

    2016-04-01

    Industrial wastes are a major source of soil and water pollution that originate from mining industries, chemical industries, metal processing industries, etc. These wastes consist of a variety of chemicals including phenolics, heavy metals, etc. Use of industrial effluent and sewage sludge on agricultural land has become a common practice in the world which results in these toxic metals being transferred and ultimately concentrate in plant tissues from water and the soil. The metals that get accumulated, prove detrimental to plants themselves and may also cause damage to the healths of animals as well as man. This is because the heavy metals become toxins above certain concentrations, over a narrow range. As a further matter, these metals negatively affect the natural microbial populations as well, that leads to the disruption of fundamental ecological processes. However, many techniques and methods have been advanced to clear the heavy metal polluted soils and waters. One important method is by removing heavy metals with the help of amino acids like L-Cysteine and L-Penicillamine. But also, economy of removal of pollutant heavy metals from soils and waters is a major concern. Present study helps in decreasing the cost for large-scale removal of heavy metals from polluted water by recovering the amino acid (L-Cysteine) after removal of nickel (Ni+2) at a fixed pH, by binding the Ni+2 with halloysite nanotubes(HNT), so that L-Cysteine can be reused again for removal of heavy metals.

  3. Heavy metal sensitivity and bioconcentration in oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida) Gradient study in meadow ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Skubała, Piotr; Zaleski, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    In this study we aimed to identify different reactions of oribatid species to heavy metal pollution and to measure concentrations of cadmium, zinc and copper in oribatid species sampled along a gradient. Oribatid mites were sampled seasonally during two years in five meadows located at different distances from the zinc smelter in the Olkusz District, southern Poland. Oribatids were shown to withstand critical metal concentration and established comparatively abundant and diverse communities. The highest abundance and species richness of oribatids were recorded in soils with moderate concentrations of heavy metals. Four different responses of oribatid species to heavy metal pollution were recognized. Heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni) and various physical (bulk density, field capacity, total porosity) and chemical (K(av), P(av), N, C, pH) factors were recognized as the structuring forces that influence the distribution of oribatid species. Analysis by atomic absorption spectrophotometry revealed large differences in metal body burdens among species. None of the species can be categorized as accumulators or non-accumulators of the heavy metals - the pattern depends on the metal. The process of bioconcentration of the toxic metal (regulated) and essential elements (accumulated) was generally different in the five oribatid species studied. PMID:22134027

  4. Enhancement stabilization of heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cr and Cu) during vermifiltration of liquid-state sludge.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian; Zhao, Chunhui; Xing, Meiyan; Lin, Yanan

    2013-10-01

    This paper illustrated the potential effect of earthworms on heavy metal stabilization after vermifiltration of liquid-state sludge. Significant enhancement of organics degradation in sludge caused an increase of heavy metal concentrations in VF effluent sludge. However, the analysis of heavy metal chemical speciation indicated earthworms made unstable fractions of heavy metals transformed into stable fractions. Further investigation using principal component analysis revealed that transformations of heavy metal fractions were mainly due to the changes in sludge physico-chemical properties of pH, soluble chemical oxygen demand and available phosphorus. The bioassay of earthworms indicated that only zinc was accumulated by earthworms because the unstable fraction was its main chemical speciation. Furthermore, risk analysis demonstrated that earthworm activities weakened heavy metal risk due to the formation of stable fractions although their total concentrations increased. These results indicated that earthworms in vermifilter had a positive role in stabilizing heavy metals in sewage sludge.

  5. Heavy metals induce oxidative stress and genome-wide modulation in transcriptome of rice root.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Sonali; Shri, Manju; Misra, Prashant; Lakhwani, Deepika; Bag, Sumit Kumar; Asif, Mehar H; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Tripathi, Rudro Deo; Chakrabarty, Debasis

    2014-06-01

    Industrial growth, ecological disturbances and agricultural practices have contaminated the soil and water with many harmful compounds, including heavy metals. These heavy metals affect growth and development of plants as well as cause severe human health hazards through food chain contamination. In past, studies have been made to identify biochemical and molecular networks associated with heavy metal toxicity and uptake in plants. Studies suggested that most of the physiological and molecular processes affected by different heavy metals are similar to those affected by other abiotic stresses. To identify common and unique responses by different metals, we have studied biochemical and genome-wide modulation in transcriptome of rice (IR-64 cultivar) root after exposure to cadmium (Cd), arsenate [As(V)], lead (Pb) and chromium [Cr(VI)] in hydroponic condition. We observed that root tissue shows variable responses for antioxidant enzyme system for different heavy metals. Genome-wide expression analysis suggests variable number of genes differentially expressed in root in response to As(V), Cd, Pb and Cr(VI) stresses. In addition to unique genes, each heavy metal modulated expression of a large number of common genes. Study also identified cis-acting regions of the promoters which can be determinants for the modulated expression of the genes in response to different heavy metals. Our study advances understanding related to various processes and networks which might be responsible for heavy metal stresses, accumulation and detoxification. PMID:24553786

  6. [Heavy Metals Pollution in Topsoil from Dagang Industry Area and Its Ecological Risk Assessment].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Chen, Zong-juan; Peng, Chang-sheng; Li, Fa-sheng; Gu, Qing-bao

    2015-11-01

    Based on previous studies and field investigation of Dagang industry area in Tianjin, a total of 128 topsoil samples were collected, and contents of 10 heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Pb, Ni, V, Zn and Hg) were determined. The geoaccumulation index and geostatistics were applied to examine the degree of contamination and spatial distribution of heavy metals in topsoil. The assessment on ecological risk of heavy metals was carried out using Hakanson's method, and the main resources of the heavy metals were analyzed as well. It was found that As, Cd and Co had the highest proportions exceeding Tianjin background value, which were 100%, 97.66% and 96.88%, respectively; the heavy-metal content increased to some extent comparing with that in 2004, and the pollutions of As and Cd were the worst, and other metals were at moderate pollution level or below. The ecological risks of heavy metals were different in topsoil with different land use types, the farmland soil in the southwest as well as soils adjacent to the industrial land were at relatively high potential ecological risk level, and the integrated ecological risk index reached up to 1 437.37. Analysis of correlation and principal component showed that traffic and transportation as well as agricultural activities might be the main resources of heavy metals in the area, besides, the industrial activities in the region might also affect the accumulation of heavy metals.

  7. Minor heavy metal: A review on occupational and environmental intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2008-01-01

    Heavy metal is widely used in industries and presents as a problematic environmental pollution. Some heavy metals, especially lead and mercury, are well described for their occupational and environmental intoxication whereas the other minor heavy metals are less concerned. In this article, the author will present the details of occupational and environmental minor heavy metal intoxication. This review focuses mainly on aluminum, tin, copper, manganese, chromium, cadmium and nickel. PMID:20040969

  8. Effect of multiple metal resistant bacteria from contaminated lake sediments on metal accumulation and plant growth.

    PubMed

    Li, Kefeng; Ramakrishna, Wusirika

    2011-05-15

    Naturally occurring bacteria play an important role in bioremediation of heavy metal pollutants in soil and wastewater. This study identified high levels of resistance to zinc, cesium, lead, arsenate and mercury in eight copper resistant Pseudomonas strains previously isolated from Torch Lake sediment. These strains showed variable susceptibility to different antibiotics. Furthermore, these metal resistant strains were capable of bioaccumulation of multiple metals and solubilization of copper. Bacterial strains TLC 3-3.5-1 and TLC 6-6.5-1 showed high bioaccumulation ability of Zn (up to 15.9 mg/g dry cell) and Pb (80.7 mg/g dry cell), respectively. All the strains produced plant growth promoting indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), iron chelating siderophore and solubilized mineral phosphate and metals. The effect of bacterial inoculation on plant growth and copper uptake by maize (Zea mays) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) was investigated using one of the isolates (Pseudomonas sp. TLC 6-6.5-4) with higher IAA production and phosphate and metal solubilization, which resulted in a significant increase in copper accumulation in maize and sunflower, and an increase in the total biomass of maize. The multiple metal-resistant bacterial isolates characterized in our study have potential applications for remediation of metal contaminated soils in combination with plants and metal contaminated water. PMID:21420236

  9. Heavy metal tolerance in metal hyperaccumulator plant, Salvinia natans.

    PubMed

    Dhir, B; Srivastava, S

    2013-06-01

    Metal tolerance capacity of Salvinia natans, a metal hyperaccumulator, was evaluated. Plants were exposed to 10, 30 and 50 mg L⁻¹ of Zn, Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, Cu, Pb, and Ni. Plant biomass, photosynthetic efficiency, quantum yield, photochemical quenching, electron transport rate and elemental (%C, H and N) constitution remained unaffected in Salvinia exposed to 30 mg L⁻¹ of heavy metals, except for Cu and Zn exposed plants, where significant reductions were noted in some of the measured parameters. However, a significant decline was noted in most of the measured parameters in plants exposed to 50 mg L⁻¹ of metal concentration. Results suggest that Salvinia has fairly high levels of tolerance to all the metals tested, but the level of tolerance varied from metal to metal. PMID:23553503

  10. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Can Benefit Heavy Metal Tolerance and Phytoremediation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forgy, David

    2012-01-01

    Sites contaminated by heavy metals, such as industrial waste sites, create unwelcoming environments for plant growth. Heavy metals can have a wide range of toxic effects such as replacing essential elements or disrupting enzyme function. While some heavy metals are essential to plant nutrition at low concentrations, high concentrations of any…

  11. [Effects of heavy metals pollution on paddy soil aggregates composition and heavy metals distribution].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liang-Yun; Li, Lian-Qing; Pan, Gen-Xing; Cui, Li-Qiang; Li, Hong-Lei; Wu, Xiao-Yan; Shao, Jie-Qi

    2009-11-01

    Topsoil samples were collected from a polluted and an adjacent non-polluted paddy field in the Taihu Lake region of China. Different particle size fractions of soil aggregates were separated by low-energy dispersion procedure, and their mass composition and Pb, Cd, Hg, and As concentrations were determined. Under heavy metals pollution, the mass composition of sand-sized fractions reduced, while that of clay-sized fractions increased. The concentrations of test metals in different particle size fractions differed, with the highest in < 0.002 mm fraction, followed by in 2-0.2 mm fraction. In 0.02-0.002 mm and 0.2-0.02 mm fractions, all the test metals were relatively deficient, with an enrichment index of 0.56-0.96. The present study showed that the aggregation of fine particles could be depressed by heavy metals pollution, which in turn, led to a relative increase in the mass composition of fine particles and the associated allocation of heavy metals in weakly aggregated silt particles, and further, increased the risks of heavy metals translocation from polluted farmland into water and atmosphere. Further studies should be made on the impacts of heavy metals pollution on soil biophysical and biochemical processes and related mechanisms.

  12. Heavy metals and the origin of life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nriagu, J.

    2003-05-01

    The functional value of heavy metals in proto-cells was immense and involved critical roles in catalysis of molecular synthesis, translation, electrical neutrality and conduction, energy capture, cross-linking and precipitation (stabilizers of protective cell walls), and to a limited extent, osmotic pressure control. Metals must have modulated the evolutionary choices of the types of building blocks, such as ribose sugars as a constituent of RNA, or the the chirality and enantiopurity of many biomolecules. The formation of an enclosing membrane led to intracellular prokaryotic life (believed to have originated in an anaerobic environment) and much enhanced control over primary metabolism, the uptake and incorporation of heavy metals and the management of biomolecules (especially RNA, DNA and proteins) that were formed. Cells of the most primitive organisms (archaebacteria) reveal complex mechanisms designed specifically to deal with selective pressures from metal-containing environments including intra- and extra-cellular sequestration, exclusion by cell wall barrier, removal through active efflux pumps, enzymatic detoxification, and reduction in sensitivity of cellular targets to metal ions. Adaptation to metals using a variety of chromosomal, and transposon and plasmid-mediated systems began early in the evolution of life on Earth. Recent studies, however, show that the roles played by many heavy metals have changed over time. Divalent lead, for instance, has relinquished its unique catalytic role in the conversion of carbohydrates into ribose in the prebiotic world. The putative elements that dominated the primordial biochemistry were V, Mo, W, Co, Fe(II) and Ni; with the development of oxygenated atmosphere, these elements gave way to Zn, Cu and Fe(Ill) in their metabolic functions.

  13. Heavy metal contamination and ecological risk in Futian mangrove forest sediment in Shenzhen Bay, South China.

    PubMed

    Li, Rongyu; Li, Ruili; Chai, Minwei; Shen, Xiaoxue; Xu, Hualin; Qiu, Guoyu

    2015-12-15

    Surface sediments in the Futian mangrove forest (South China) were analyzed for heavy metals including cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn). The heavy metal distributions varied greatly in surface sediments, reflecting some sediment heterogeneity. The heavy metal concentrations decreased in the order of Zn>Cr>Pb>Cu>Cd. According to the mean probable effects level quotient, the combination of studied metals had a 21% probability of being toxic. The potential ecological risk index and geo-accumulation index also revealed high metal contamination. Cd was of primary concern due to its higher assessment values and potential for adverse biological effects. Multivariate analysis implied that clay and silt played a significant role in raising the levels of Cr, Cu and Zn. The percentage of mobile heavy metals was relatively higher, without considerable ecological risk to the biota based on the risk assessment code. PMID:26478455

  14. Heavy metal contamination and ecological risk in Futian mangrove forest sediment in Shenzhen Bay, South China.

    PubMed

    Li, Rongyu; Li, Ruili; Chai, Minwei; Shen, Xiaoxue; Xu, Hualin; Qiu, Guoyu

    2015-12-15

    Surface sediments in the Futian mangrove forest (South China) were analyzed for heavy metals including cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn). The heavy metal distributions varied greatly in surface sediments, reflecting some sediment heterogeneity. The heavy metal concentrations decreased in the order of Zn>Cr>Pb>Cu>Cd. According to the mean probable effects level quotient, the combination of studied metals had a 21% probability of being toxic. The potential ecological risk index and geo-accumulation index also revealed high metal contamination. Cd was of primary concern due to its higher assessment values and potential for adverse biological effects. Multivariate analysis implied that clay and silt played a significant role in raising the levels of Cr, Cu and Zn. The percentage of mobile heavy metals was relatively higher, without considerable ecological risk to the biota based on the risk assessment code.

  15. An Overview of Carcinogenic Heavy Metal: Molecular Toxicity Mechanism and Prevention.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Soo; Kim, Yeo Jin; Seo, Young Rok

    2015-12-01

    Almost all heavy metals are serious toxicants as carcinogens. However, due to their chemical and physiological properties, heavy metals are useful in industrial areas including alloy, smelting and production of commercial products. Such applications increase the opportunity for heavy metal exposure. Waste from industrial processes is also a major source of environmental contamination and accumulation in the human body. Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, and nickel are classified as group 1 carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, and are utilized commercially. In this review, we used molecular pathway analysis to understand the toxicity and carcinogenic mechanisms of these metals. Our analyzed data showed that above-mentioned metallic substances induce oxidative stress, DNA damage, and cell death processes, resulting in increase the risk of cancer and cancer-related diseases. Thus, we might think phytochelatin molecules and antioxidative phytochemical substances are helpful for prevention of heavy metal-induced cancer. PMID:26734585

  16. An Overview of Carcinogenic Heavy Metal: Molecular Toxicity Mechanism and Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun Soo; Kim, Yeo Jin; Seo, Young Rok

    2015-01-01

    Almost all heavy metals are serious toxicants as carcinogens. However, due to their chemical and physiological properties, heavy metals are useful in industrial areas including alloy, smelting and production of commercial products. Such applications increase the opportunity for heavy metal exposure. Waste from industrial processes is also a major source of environmental contamination and accumulation in the human body. Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, and nickel are classified as group 1 carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, and are utilized commercially. In this review, we used molecular pathway analysis to understand the toxicity and carcinogenic mechanisms of these metals. Our analyzed data showed that above-mentioned metallic substances induce oxidative stress, DNA damage, and cell death processes, resulting in increase the risk of cancer and cancer-related diseases. Thus, we might think phytochelatin molecules and antioxidative phytochemical substances are helpful for prevention of heavy metal-induced cancer. PMID:26734585

  17. Impact of heavy metal toxicity and constructed wetland system as a tool in remediation.

    PubMed

    Usharani, B; Vasudevan, N

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this review is to throw light upon the global concern of heavy metal-contaminated sites and their remediation through an ecofriendly approach. Accumulated heavy metals in soil and water bodies gain entry through the food chain and pose serious threat to all forms of life. This has engendered interest in phytoremediation techniques where hyperaccumulators are used. Constructed wetland has a pivotal role and is a cost-effective technique in the remediation of heavy metals. Metal availability and mobility are influenced by the addition of chelating agents, which enhance the availability of metal uptake. This review helps in identifying the critical knowledge gaps and areas to enhance research in the future to develop strategies such as genetically engineered hyperaccumulators to attain an environment devoid of heavy metal contamination.

  18. An Overview of Carcinogenic Heavy Metal: Molecular Toxicity Mechanism and Prevention.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Soo; Kim, Yeo Jin; Seo, Young Rok

    2015-12-01

    Almost all heavy metals are serious toxicants as carcinogens. However, due to their chemical and physiological properties, heavy metals are useful in industrial areas including alloy, smelting and production of commercial products. Such applications increase the opportunity for heavy metal exposure. Waste from industrial processes is also a major source of environmental contamination and accumulation in the human body. Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, and nickel are classified as group 1 carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, and are utilized commercially. In this review, we used molecular pathway analysis to understand the toxicity and carcinogenic mechanisms of these metals. Our analyzed data showed that above-mentioned metallic substances induce oxidative stress, DNA damage, and cell death processes, resulting in increase the risk of cancer and cancer-related diseases. Thus, we might think phytochelatin molecules and antioxidative phytochemical substances are helpful for prevention of heavy metal-induced cancer.

  19. Impact of heavy metal toxicity and constructed wetland system as a tool in remediation.

    PubMed

    Usharani, B; Vasudevan, N

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this review is to throw light upon the global concern of heavy metal-contaminated sites and their remediation through an ecofriendly approach. Accumulated heavy metals in soil and water bodies gain entry through the food chain and pose serious threat to all forms of life. This has engendered interest in phytoremediation techniques where hyperaccumulators are used. Constructed wetland has a pivotal role and is a cost-effective technique in the remediation of heavy metals. Metal availability and mobility are influenced by the addition of chelating agents, which enhance the availability of metal uptake. This review helps in identifying the critical knowledge gaps and areas to enhance research in the future to develop strategies such as genetically engineered hyperaccumulators to attain an environment devoid of heavy metal contamination. PMID:25454352

  20. Lichens as bioindicators of aerial fallout of heavy metals in Zaria, Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Kapu, M.M. Ahmadu Bello Univ., Zaria ); Ipaye, M.M.; Ega, R.A.I.; Balarabe, M.L. ); Akanya, H.O. ); Schaeffer, D.J. )

    1991-09-01

    Lichens and other epiphytic cryptogams possess efficient ion-exchange mechanisms which enable many species to accumulate airborne metals and which probably contribute to their tolerating metals at concentrations high enough to cause death to other plant species. A direct relationship between the distribution pattern of lichens and the trace metal content of the surrounding air has been demonstrated. The present study used lichens to assess the aerial fallout of heavy metals from traffic in Zaria, northern Nigeria.

  1. Heavy metal contamination of river Yamuna, Haryana, India: Assessment by Metal Enrichment Factor of the Sediments.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, A; Kansal, Ankur; Santosh; Meena; Kumari, Shiv; Kaushik, C P

    2009-05-15

    Concentration of Heavy Metals (Cd, Cr, Fe, Ni) in water, plants and sediments of river Yamuna flowing in Haryana through Delhi are reported here selecting 14 stations covering the upstream and downstream sites of major industrial complexes of the State. Some important characteristics of river water and sediments (pH, EC, Cl(-), SO(3)(2-), and PO(4)(3-) in water and sediments, COD of water and organic matter content of sediments) were also analysed and inter-relationships of all these parameters with heavy metal concentration in different compartments were examined. The sediments of the river show significant enrichment with Cd and Ni indicating inputs from industrial sources. Concentrations of Cr are moderate and show high enrichment values only at a few sites. Enrichment factor for Fe is found to be <1, showing insignificant effect of anthropogenic flux. Concentrations of these metals in river water are generally high exceeding the standard maximum permissible limits prescribed for drinking water, particularly in the downstream sites. The aquatic plants show maximum accumulation of Fe. The other heavy metals Cd, Cr and Ni, though less in concentration, show some accumulation in the plants growing in contaminated sites. Interrelationships of metal concentration with important characteristics of water and sediment have been analysed. Analysis of heavy metals in water, sediments and littoral flora in the stretch of river Yamuna is first study of itself and interrelationship of metal concentration and other important characteristics make the study significant and interesting in analysing the pollution load at different points of the river body. PMID:18809251

  2. Heavy metal contamination of river Yamuna, Haryana, India: Assessment by Metal Enrichment Factor of the Sediments.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, A; Kansal, Ankur; Santosh; Meena; Kumari, Shiv; Kaushik, C P

    2009-05-15

    Concentration of Heavy Metals (Cd, Cr, Fe, Ni) in water, plants and sediments of river Yamuna flowing in Haryana through Delhi are reported here selecting 14 stations covering the upstream and downstream sites of major industrial complexes of the State. Some important characteristics of river water and sediments (pH, EC, Cl(-), SO(3)(2-), and PO(4)(3-) in water and sediments, COD of water and organic matter content of sediments) were also analysed and inter-relationships of all these parameters with heavy metal concentration in different compartments were examined. The sediments of the river show significant enrichment with Cd and Ni indicating inputs from industrial sources. Concentrations of Cr are moderate and show high enrichment values only at a few sites. Enrichment factor for Fe is found to be <1, showing insignificant effect of anthropogenic flux. Concentrations of these metals in river water are generally high exceeding the standard maximum permissible limits prescribed for drinking water, particularly in the downstream sites. The aquatic plants show maximum accumulation of Fe. The other heavy metals Cd, Cr and Ni, though less in concentration, show some accumulation in the plants growing in contaminated sites. Interrelationships of metal concentration with important characteristics of water and sediment have been analysed. Analysis of heavy metals in water, sediments and littoral flora in the stretch of river Yamuna is first study of itself and interrelationship of metal concentration and other important characteristics make the study significant and interesting in analysing the pollution load at different points of the river body.

  3. Occurrence and toxicology of heavy metals in Chesapeake Bay waterfowl

    SciTech Connect

    Di Giulio, R.T.

    1982-01-01

    The goals of this study were to elucidate relationships between food habits and tissue accumulations of heavy metals in Chesapeake Bay waterfowl and to determine effects of chronic cadmium and lead ingestion on energy metabolism in waterfowl. In combination with an imposed food restriction, cadmium ingestion appeared to alter some indices of energy metabolism, such as plasma concentrations of free fatty acids and triiodothyronine, at dietary cadmium levels far below those eliciting similar responses in the absence of a food restriction. Those results suggest the importance of considering interactions with other stressors when examining potential effects of environmental contaminants on wild animals.

  4. Effect of heavy metals on bacterial transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Olson, M. S.

    2010-12-01

    Adsorption of metals onto bacteria and soil takes place as stormwater runoff infiltrates into the subsurface. Changes in both bacterial surfaces and soil elemental content have been observed, and may alter the attachment of bacteria to soil surfaces. In this study, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (EDS) analyses were performed on soil samples equilibrated with synthetic stormwater amended with copper, lead and zinc. The results demonstrate the presence of copper and zinc on soil surfaces. To investigate bacterial attachment behavior, sets of batch sorption experiments were conducted on Escherichia Coli (E. coli) under different chemical conditions by varying solution compositions (nutrient solution vs synthetic stormwater). The adsorption data is best described using theoretical linear isotherms. The equilibrium coefficient (Kd) of E. coli is higher in synthetic stormwater than in nutrient solution without heavy metals. The adsorption of heavy metals onto bacterial surfaces significantly decreases their negative surface charge as determined via zeta potential measurements (-17.0±5.96mv for E. coli equilibrated with synthetic stormwater vs -21.6±5.45mv for E. coli equilibrated with nutrient solution), indicating that bacterial attachment may increase due to the attachment of metals onto bacterial surfaces and their subsequent change in surface charge. The attachment efficiency (α) of bacteria was also calculated and compared for both solution chemistries. Bacterial attachment efficiency (α) in synthetic stormwater is 0.997, which is twice as high as that in nutrient solution(α 0.465). The ratio of bacterial diameter : collector diameter suggests minimal soil straining during bacterial transport. Results suggest that the presence of metals in synthetic stormwater leads to an increase in bacterial attachment to soil surfaces. In terms of designing stormwater infiltration basins, the presence of heavy metals seems to

  5. Environmental impact of mercury and other heavy metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindqvist, Oliver

    The environmental impact of heavy metals is reviewed. One significant source of emissions of heavy metals to air is waste incineration. Consumer batteries contributes significantly to this problem, as well as to heavy metal leakage to groundwater from landfill deposits. The situation in Sweden is used as an example to describe how the deposition from the atmosphere still is increasing the load of heavy metals, like mercury, cadmium and lead, in top soils and aquatic sediments. Critical factors and effect levels for Hg, Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn and As are discussed. Specific questions like mercury contents in present battery waste and heavy metal contents in new and future secondary batteries are addressed.

  6. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in plant leaves from Yan׳an city of the Loess Plateau, China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Youning; Wang, Dexiang; Wei, Lijing; Zhang, Xinping; Song, Bin

    2014-12-01

    Urban plants are capable of reducing environmental pollutions through bioaccumulation contaminants in their tissues. The accumulation of heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Cd, Cr, and Zn) in leaves of nine tree species and five shrub species from Yan׳an city of China were investigated, and total metal accumulation capacities of different plants were evaluated using the metal accumulation index (MAI). The results indicated that plants in polluted environments are enriched in heavy metals relative to those in pristine environments, this is mainly caused by traffic emissions and coal combustion. Species with the highest accumulation of a single metal did not have the highest total metal accumulation capacity, the MAI should be an important indicator for tree species selection in phytoextraction and urban greening. Considering total accumulation capacities, Sabina chinensis, Juniperus formosana, Ailanthus altissima and Salix matsudana var. matsudana could be widely used in the Loess Plateau.

  7. Quantification of Heavy Metals in Mining Affected Soil and Their Bioaccumulation in Native Plant Species.

    PubMed

    Nawab, Javed; Khan, Sardar; Shah, Mohammad Tahir; Khan, Kifayatullah; Huang, Qing; Ali, Roshan

    2015-01-01

    Several anthropogenic and natural sources are considered as the primary sources of toxic metals in the environment. The current study investigates the level of heavy metals contamination in the flora associated with serpentine soil along the Mafic and Ultramafic rocks northern-Pakistan. Soil and wild native plant species were collected from chromites mining affected areas and analyzed for heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Fe, Mn, Co, Cu and Zn) using atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS-PEA-700). The heavy metal concentrations were significantly (p < 0.01) higher in mine affected soil as compared to reference soil, however Cr and Ni exceeded maximum allowable limit (250 and 60 mg kg(-1), respectively) set by SEPA for soil. Inter-metal correlations between soil, roots and shoots showed that the sources of contamination of heavy metals were mainly associated with chromites mining. All the plant species accumulated significantly higher concentrations of heavy metals as compared to reference plant. The open dumping of mine wastes can create serious problems (food crops and drinking water contamination with heavy metals) for local community of the study area. The native wild plant species (Nepeta cataria, Impatiens bicolor royle, Tegetis minuta) growing on mining affected sites may be used for soil reclamation contaminated with heavy metals.

  8. Quantification of Heavy Metals in Mining Affected Soil and Their Bioaccumulation in Native Plant Species.

    PubMed

    Nawab, Javed; Khan, Sardar; Shah, Mohammad Tahir; Khan, Kifayatullah; Huang, Qing; Ali, Roshan

    2015-01-01

    Several anthropogenic and natural sources are considered as the primary sources of toxic metals in the environment. The current study investigates the level of heavy metals contamination in the flora associated with serpentine soil along the Mafic and Ultramafic rocks northern-Pakistan. Soil and wild native plant species were collected from chromites mining affected areas and analyzed for heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Fe, Mn, Co, Cu and Zn) using atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS-PEA-700). The heavy metal concentrations were significantly (p < 0.01) higher in mine affected soil as compared to reference soil, however Cr and Ni exceeded maximum allowable limit (250 and 60 mg kg(-1), respectively) set by SEPA for soil. Inter-metal correlations between soil, roots and shoots showed that the sources of contamination of heavy metals were mainly associated with chromites mining. All the plant species accumulated significantly higher concentrations of heavy metals as compared to reference plant. The open dumping of mine wastes can create serious problems (food crops and drinking water contamination with heavy metals) for local community of the study area. The native wild plant species (Nepeta cataria, Impatiens bicolor royle, Tegetis minuta) growing on mining affected sites may be used for soil reclamation contaminated with heavy metals. PMID:26079739

  9. Modeling heavy metal removal in wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Lung, W.S.; Light, R.N.

    1994-12-31

    Although the use of wetland ecosystems to purify water has gained increased attention only recently, it has been recognized as a wastewater treatment technique for centuries. While considerable research has occurred to quantify the nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) removal mechanisms of wetlands, relatively few investigators have focused on the mechanisms of heavy metal removal and uptake by wetland sediments and plants. The quantification of the assimilative capacity of heavy metals by wetland ecosystems is a critical component in the design and use of wetlands for this purpose. A computer model has been developed to simulate the fate and transport of heavy metals introduced to a wetland ecosystem. Modeled water quality variables include phytoplankton biomass and productivity; macrophyte (Nulumbo lutea) biomass; total phosphorus in the water column; dissolved copper in the water column and sediments; particulate copper in the water column and sediments; and suspended solids. These variables directly affect the calculated rate of copper uptake by macrophytes, and the rate of copper recycling as a function of the decomposition of copper-laden biomass litter. The model was calibrated using total phosphorus and chlorophyll a data from the Old Woman Creek Wetland in Ohio. Verification of the model was achieved using data on the copper content of the macrophyte Nelumbo lutea.

  10. Variations in Heavy Metals Across Urban Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushal, S. S.; Belt, K. T.; Stack, W. P.; Pouyat, R. V.; Groffman, P. M.; F, S. E.

    2006-05-01

    Urbanization has led to increased concentrations of metals such as lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu) in streams due to industrial sources, domestic activities, vehicle use, and runoff from roadways. These metals can be dangerous to aquatic organisms and humans at high concentrations. We investigated variations in concentrations of heavy metals in streams across Baltimore, Maryland and within the context of convergent increases in salinity and organic carbon (two important variables that are known to affect metal transport in surface waters) due to urbanization. Despite past reductions of lead in gasoline and paints, mean concentrations of lead in some Baltimore streams were still approximately 75 micrograms/L and exceeded the U.S. EPA recommended criteria by 50 times. Mean concentrations of zinc and copper across Baltimore streams were also elevated and ranged between 15 to 140 micrograms/L and 2 to 40 micrograms/L, and mean concentrations of these metals were considerably higher than national means reported by the National Storm Water Quality database (NSWQ), which spans 3,770 storm events across the U.S. There were substantial increases in concentrations of heavy metals in streams during storms with greater than 80 percent, 70 percent, and 20 percent of storm samples exceeding recommended U.S. EPA metals criteria for Cu, Pb, and Zn respectively. Relationships between metal concentrations and stream discharge followed different patterns than nitrate and total phosphorus, other regulated pollutants in the Chesapeake Bay watershed, suggesting differences in sources and transport mechanisms within watersheds. Environmental factors such as increasing salinity from deicer use (with chloride concentrations in streams now ranging up to 5 g/L) may contribute to elevated transport of metals through ion exchange and mobilization of metals in soils and sediments. Environmental factors such as increasing organic carbon in urban streams, with ranges of 2 - 16 times greater

  11. Plant rhamnogalacturonan II complexation of heavy metal cations

    DOEpatents

    O`Neill, M.A.; Pellerin, P.J.M.; Warrenfeltz, D.; Vidal, S.; Darvill, A.G.; Albersheim, P.

    1999-03-02

    The present invention provides rhamnogalacturonan-II (RG-II) and relates to its ability to complex specific multivalent heavy metal cations. In the presence of boric acid, RG-II monomers form dimers that are cross-linked by a borate ester. The yield of such borate ester cross-linked dimers of RG-II is enhanced in the presence of specific heavy metal cations. The present invention further relates to the utility of RG-II in assays for the detection of specific heavy metal contamination; as a reagent useful in the removal of specific heavy metal cations contaminating foods and liquids, for example, fish, wines, etc.; as a pharmaceutical composition useful as an antidote in specific heavy metal cation poisoning; as a treatment for the detoxification of specific heavy metal cations from blood and/or tissues; and in a method of remediation of waters and soils contaminated with specific heavy metal cations. 15 figs.

  12. Plant rhamnogalacturonan II complexation of heavy metal cations

    DOEpatents

    O'Neill, Malcolm A.; Pellerin, Patrice J. M.; Warrenfeltz, Dennis; Vidal, Stephane; Darvill, Alan G.; Albersheim, Peter

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides rhamnogalacturonan-II (RG-II) and relates to its ability to complex specific multivalent heavy metal cations. In the presence of boric acid, RG-II monomers form dimers that are cross-linked by a borate ester. The yield of such borate ester cross-linked dimers of RG-II is enhanced in the presence of specific heavy metal cations. The present invention further relates to the utility of RG-II in assays for the detection of specific heavy metal contamination; as a reagent useful in the removal of specific heavy metal cations contaminating foods and liquids, for example, fish, wines, etc.; as a pharmaceutical composition useful as an antidote in specific heavy metal cation poisoning; as a treatment for the detoxification of specific heavy metal cations from blood and/or tissues; and in a method of remediation of waters and soils contaminated with specific heavy metal cations.

  13. [Search of heavy metals biosorbents among yeasts of different taxonomic groups].

    PubMed

    Lozovaia, O G; Kasatkina, T P; Podgorskiĭ, V S

    2004-01-01

    The use of microbial cells as heavy metal biosorbents is a potential alternative for the existing methods of the environment treatment for pollution by these metals. Yeast may be successfully used in the metals sorption. An agar-plate screening method was used for rapid isolation of metal-accumulating strains of yeast and preliminary estimation of their biosorption capacity. The capacity to accumulate heavy metals, such as copper, zinc, lead, chrome and cobalt was estimated in 68 pigmented and pigmentless yeast strains isolated from different sources. The best capacity of copper and zinc accumulation was shown by pink-coloured Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Rhodotorula aurantiaca, Rhodotorula glutinis and pigmentless strains of the yeast Candida krusei, Williopsis california.

  14. Phytoremediation of heavy metals from soils.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Terry

    2003-01-01

    Phytoremediation offers owners and managers of metal-contaminated sites an innovative and cost-effective option to address recalcitrant environmental contaminants. The use of plants or plant products to restore or stabilize contaminated sites, collectively known as phytoremediation, takes advantage of the natural abilities of plants to take up, accumulate, store, or degrade organic and inorganic substances. Although not a new concept, phytoremediation is currently being re-examined as an environmentally friendly, cost-effective means of reducing metal contaminated soil and other substrates throughout North America and Europe. Processes include using plants that tolerate and accumulate metals at high levels (phytoextraction) and using plants that can grow under conditions that are toxic to other plants while preventing, for example, soil erosion (phytostabilization). Governments worldwide are establishing research and demonstration programs to use this potential. Environment Canada has developed a database (PHYTOREM) of 775 plants with capabilities to accumulate or hyperaccumulate one or several of 19 key metallic elements. This chapter addresses key research, potential benefits and limitations, and the potential future needs for phytoremediation. Issues related to intellectual property law, commercialization and public acceptance are touched on.

  15. Mechanisms of silicon-mediated alleviation of heavy metal toxicity in plants: A review.

    PubMed

    Adrees, Muhammad; Ali, Shafaqat; Rizwan, Muhammad; Zia-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Abbas, Farhat; Farid, Mujahid; Qayyum, Muhammad Farooq; Irshad, Muhammad Kashif

    2015-09-01

    In present era, heavy metal pollution is rapidly increasing which present many environmental problems. These heavy metals are mainly accumulated in soil and are transferred to food chain through plants grown on these soils. Silicon (Si) is the second most abundant element in the soil. It has been widely reported that Si can stimulate plant growth and alleviate various biotic and abiotic stresses, including heavy metal stress. Research to date has explored a number of mechanisms through which Si can alleviate heavy metal toxicity in plants at both plant and soil levels. Here we reviewed the mechanisms through which Si can alleviate heavy metal toxicity in plants. The key mechanisms evoked include reducing active heavy metal ions in growth media, reduced metal uptake and root-to-shoot translocation, chelation and stimulation of antioxidant systems in plants, complexation and co-precipitation of toxic metals with Si in different plant parts, compartmentation and structural alterations in plants and regulation of the expression of metal transport genes. However, these mechanisms might be associated with plant species, genotypes, metal elements, growth conditions, duration of the stress imposed and so on. Further research orientation is also discussed.

  16. Removing heavy metals from synthetic effluents using "kamikaze" Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells.

    PubMed

    Ruta, Lavinia; Paraschivescu, Codruta; Matache, Mihaela; Avramescu, Sorin; Farcasanu, Ileana Cornelia

    2010-01-01

    One key step of the bioremediation processes designed to clean up heavy metal contaminated environments is growing resistant cells that accumulate the heavy metals to ensure better removal through a combination of biosorption and continuous metabolic uptake after physical adsorption. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells can easily act as cation biosorbents, but isolation of mutants that are both hyperaccumulating and tolerant to heavy metals proved extremely difficult. Instead, mutants that are hypersensitive to heavy metals due to increased and continuous uptake from the environment were considered, aiming to use such mutants to reduce the heavy metal content of contaminated waters. In this study, the heavy metal hypersensitive yeast strain pmr1Delta was investigated for the ability to remove Mn2+, Cu2+, Co2+, or Cd2+ from synthetic effluents. Due to increased metal accumulation, the mutant strain was more efficient than the wild-type in removing Mn2+, Cu2+, or Co2+ from synthetic effluents containing 1-2 mM cations, with a selectivity and also in removing Mn2+ and Cd2+ from synthetic effluents containing 20-50 microM cations, with a selectivity Mn2+ > Cd2+. PMID:19795117

  17. Negative accumulated oxygen deficit during heavy and very heavy intensity cycle ergometry in humans.

    PubMed

    Ozyener, F; Rossiter, H B; Ward, S A; Whipp, B J

    2003-09-01

    The concept of the accumulated O(2) deficit (AOD) assumes that the O(2) deficit increases monotonically with increasing work rate (WR), to plateau at the maximum AOD, and is based on linear extrapolation of the relationship between measured steady-state oxygen uptake ( VO(2)) and WR for moderate exercise. However, for high WRs, the measured VO(2) increases above that expected from such linear extrapolation, reflecting the superimposition of a "slow component" on the fundamental VO(2) mono-exponential kinetics. We were therefore interested in determining the effect of the VO(2) slow component on the computed AOD. Ten subjects [31 (12) years] performed square-wave cycle ergometry of moderate (40%, 60%, 80% and 90% ), heavy (40%Delta), very heavy (80%Delta) and severe (110% VO(2)(peak)) intensities for 10-15 min, theta(L)where is the estimated lactate threshold and Delta is the WR difference between and VO(2)(peak). VO(2) was determined breath-by-breath. Projected "steady-state" VO(2) values were determined from sub- tests. The measured VO(2) exceeded the projected value after approximately 3 min for both heavy and very heavy intensity exercise. This led to the AOD actually becoming negative. Thus, for heavy exercise, while the AOD was positive [0.63 (0.41) l] at 5 min, it was negative by 10 min [-0.61 (1.05) l], and more so by 15 min [-1.70 (1.64) l]. For the very heavy WRs, the AOD was [0.42 (0.67) l] by 5 min and reached -2.68 (2.09) l at exhaustion. For severe exercise, however, the AOD at exhaustion was positive in each case: +1.69 (0.39) l. We therefore conclude that the assumptions underlying the computation of the AOD are invalid for heavy and very heavy cycle ergometry (at least). Physiological inferences, such as the "anaerobic work capacity", are therefore prone to misinterpretation.

  18. [Heavy Metals Accmultio in the Caofeidian Reclamation Soils: Indicated by Soil Magnetic Susceptibility].

    PubMed

    Xue, Yong; Zhou, Qian; Li, Yuan; Zhang, Hai-bo; Hu, Xue-feng; Luo, Yong-ming

    2016-04-15

    The environmental magnetism method has been widely applied to identify soil heavy metal pollution, which is characterized by simplicity, efficiency, non-destructivity and sensitivity. The present study used magnetic susceptibility to assess the accumulation of heavy metals in soils of the Caofeidian industrial zone which is a typical reclamation area in northern China. The study area was divided into three sub-zones based on the function, including industrial zone, living zone, natural tidal flat and wetland. A total of 35 topsoil samples (0-10 cm) and 3 soil profiles were collected from the three sub-zones. Magnetic susceptibility (X(lf)), iron oxide (Fe2O3) contents and heavy metals contents (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Pb, Mn and V) of the samples were analyzed. The results showed that X(lf) values and heavy metals contents exhibited higher spatial variability in the top soil of the industrial zone, indicating the severe impacts of industrial activities. In the soil profiles of the industrial and living zones, all heavy metals were enriched to different degrees in the upper layer (0-20 cm). However, there was no significant change of heavy metal contents in the soil profiles of tidal flat which was far from the industrial area. The X(lf) value was significantly (P < 0.01) positively correlated with the contents of Fe2O3, Ni, Cu, As and V in the industrial top soil. This indicated that X(lf) could be used as an indicator for heavy metal accumulation in the industrial zone. However, the X(lf) value was not suitable to be an indicator to show the heavy metal accumulation in the soils of living zone and natural tidal flat. This might be associated with the different sources of magnetic materials among the different sub-zones and the special characteristics of the soils in the tidal flat and wetland. PMID:27548950

  19. [Heavy Metals Accmultio in the Caofeidian Reclamation Soils: Indicated by Soil Magnetic Susceptibility].

    PubMed

    Xue, Yong; Zhou, Qian; Li, Yuan; Zhang, Hai-bo; Hu, Xue-feng; Luo, Yong-ming

    2016-04-15

    The environmental magnetism method has been widely applied to identify soil heavy metal pollution, which is characterized by simplicity, efficiency, non-destructivity and sensitivity. The present study used magnetic susceptibility to assess the accumulation of heavy metals in soils of the Caofeidian industrial zone which is a typical reclamation area in northern China. The study area was divided into three sub-zones based on the function, including industrial zone, living zone, natural tidal flat and wetland. A total of 35 topsoil samples (0-10 cm) and 3 soil profiles were collected from the three sub-zones. Magnetic susceptibility (X(lf)), iron oxide (Fe2O3) contents and heavy metals contents (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Pb, Mn and V) of the samples were analyzed. The results showed that X(lf) values and heavy metals contents exhibited higher spatial variability in the top soil of the industrial zone, indicating the severe impacts of industrial activities. In the soil profiles of the industrial and living zones, all heavy metals were enriched to different degrees in the upper layer (0-20 cm). However, there was no significant change of heavy metal contents in the soil profiles of tidal flat which was far from the industrial area. The X(lf) value was significantly (P < 0.01) positively correlated with the contents of Fe2O3, Ni, Cu, As and V in the industrial top soil. This indicated that X(lf) could be used as an indicator for heavy metal accumulation in the industrial zone. However, the X(lf) value was not suitable to be an indicator to show the heavy metal accumulation in the soils of living zone and natural tidal flat. This might be associated with the different sources of magnetic materials among the different sub-zones and the special characteristics of the soils in the tidal flat and wetland.

  20. Improving the sensitivity of bacterial bioreporters for heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Hynninen, Anu; Tönismann, Karmen; Virta, Marko

    2010-01-01

    Whole-cell bacterial bioreporters represent a convenient testing method for quantifying the bioavailability of contaminants in environmental samples. Despite the fact that several bioreporters have been constructed for measuring heavy metals, their application to environmental samples has remained minimal. The major drawbacks of the available bioreporters include a lack of sensitivity and specificity. Here, we report an improvement in the limit of detection of bacterial bioreporters by interfering with the natural metal homeostasis system of the host bacterium. The limit of detection of a Pseudomonas putida KT2440-based Zn/Cd/Pb-biosensor was improved by a factor of up to 45 by disrupting four main efflux transporters for Zn/Cd/Pb and thereby causing the metals to accumulate in the cell. The specificity of the bioreporter could be modified by changing the sensor element. A Zn-specific bioreporter was achieved by using the promoter of the cadA1 gene from P. putida as a sensor element. The constructed transporter-deficient P. putida reporter strain detected Zn(2+) concentrations about 50 times lower than that possible with other available Zn-bioreporters. The achieved detection limits were significantly below the permitted limit values for Zn and Pb in water and in soil, allowing for reliable detection of heavy metals in the environment.

  1. Improving the sensitivity of bacterial bioreporters for heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Hynninen, Anu; Tönismann, Karmen; Virta, Marko

    2010-01-01

    Whole-cell bacterial bioreporters represent a convenient testing method for quantifying the bioavailability of contaminants in environmental samples. Despite the fact that several bioreporters have been constructed for measuring heavy metals, their application to environmental samples has remained minimal. The major drawbacks of the available bioreporters include a lack of sensitivity and specificity. Here, we report an improvement in the limit of detection of bacterial bioreporters by interfering with the natural metal homeostasis system of the host bacterium. The limit of detection of a Pseudomonas putida KT2440-based Zn/Cd/Pb-biosensor was improved by a factor of up to 45 by disrupting four main efflux transporters for Zn/Cd/Pb and thereby causing the metals to accumulate in the cell. The specificity of the bioreporter could be modified by changing the sensor element. A Zn-specific bioreporter was achieved by using the promoter of the cadA1 gene from P. putida as a sensor element. The constructed transporter-deficient P. putida reporter strain detected Zn(2+) concentrations about 50 times lower than that possible with other available Zn-bioreporters. The achieved detection limits were significantly below the permitted limit values for Zn and Pb in water and in soil, allowing for reliable detection of heavy metals in the environment. PMID:21326938

  2. Monitoring of heavy metal burden in mute swan (Cygnus olor).

    PubMed

    Grúz, Adrienn; Szemerédy, Géza; Kormos, Éva; Budai, Péter; Majoros, Szilvia; Tompai, Eleonóra; Lehel, József

    2015-10-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals (especially arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, mercury and lead) were measured in the contour (body) feathers of mute swans (Cygnus olor) and in its nutrients (fragile stonewort [Chara globularis], clasping leaf pondweed [Potamogeton perfoliatus], Eurasian watermilfoil [Myriophyllum spicatum], fennel pondweed [Potamogeton pectinatus]) to investigate the accumulation of metals during the food chain. The samples (17 feathers, 8 plants) were collected at Keszthely Bay of Lake Balaton, Hungary. Dry ashing procedure was used for preparing of sample and the heavy metal concentrations were analysed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Copper (10.24 ± 2.25 mg/kg) and lead (1.11 ± 1.23 mg/kg) were detected the highest level in feathers, generally, the other metals were mostly under the detection limit (0.5 mg/kg). However, the concentrations of the arsenic (3.17 ± 1.87 mg/kg), cadmium (2.41 ± 0.66 mg/kg) and lead (2.42 ± 0.89 mg/kg) in the plants were low but the chromium (198.27 ± 102.21 mg/kg) was detected in high concentration. PMID:26044143

  3. Effects of drip irrigation on migration and distribution of heavy metals in soil profile.

    PubMed

    Wei, Binggan; Yu, Jiangping; Dong, Yunshe; Yang, Linsheng; Wang, Jing; Xue, Yuan; Guo, Shufang

    2016-02-01

    Drip irrigation systems have been widely applied in semiarid and arid regions of China. However, little is known about the migration of heavy metals in cultivated soil under drip irrigation. Therefore, the concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in soil were determined. The mean contents of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, and Ni in surface soil subjected to irrigation with low and high amounts of water (W1 and W2) were 0.11, 117.50, 37.51, 13.53, 78.10, and 38.41 mg/kg and 0.20, 94.45, 29.71, 22.48, 63.00, and 36.62 mg/kg, respectively. Metal concentrations in deep soil varied slightly between W1 and W2. Among different distances from the dropper, the metal levels in surface soil varied widely, while they varied slightly in deep soil. The Igeo (geo-accumulation index) values indicated that the soil was usually contaminated by Cr, Cu, and Cd. Under W1, Cd and Cu usually accumulated in surface soil near the dropper, while the other metals leached into subsurface soil. Moreover, the metals generally accumulated in soil away from the dropper. However, significant leaching of metals to the subsurface and deep soil was observed near the dropper under W2. Away from the dropper, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Pb usually accumulated in surface and deep soil. This suggested that heavy metals generally migrated to the soil away from the dropper when subjected to lower amounts of irrigation, while metals usually moved to surface soil and deep soil under high irrigation amounts. These findings indicate that drip irrigation greatly affected the distribution and migration of heavy metals in soil, with irrigation with lower amounts of irrigation water significantly affecting the horizontal migration of heavy metals and higher amounts influencing the vertical movement of heavy metals.

  4. Heavy metal-activated synthesis of peptides in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, G.; Merchant, S. )

    1992-01-01

    In this study, the authors have addressed the capacity of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to produce metal-binding peptides in response to stress induced by the heavy metals Cd{sup 2+}, Hg{sup 2+}, and Ag{sup +}. Cells cultured in the presence of sublethal concentrations of Cd{sup 2+} synthesized and accumulated oligopeptides consisting solely of glutamic acid, cysteine, and glycine in an average ratio of 3:3:1. Cadmium-induced peptides were isolated in their native form as higher molecular weight peptide-metal complexes with an apparent molecular weight of approximately 6.5 {times} 10{sup 3}. The isolated complex bound cadmium (as evidenced by absorption spectroscopy) and sequestered (with a stoichiometry of 0.7 moles of cadmium per mole of cysteine) up to 70% of the total cadmium found in extracts of cadmium-treated cells. In Hg{sup 2+}-treated cells, the principal thiol-containing compound induced by Hg{sup 2+} ion was glutathione. It is possible that glutathione functions in plant cells (as it does in animal cells) to detoxify heavy metals. Cells treated with Ag{sup +} ions also synthesized a sulfur-containing component with a charge to mass ratio similar to Cd{sup 2+}-induced peptides. But, in contrast to the results obtained using Cd{sup 2+} as an inducer, these molecules did not accumulate to significant levels in Ag{sup +}-treated cells. The presence of physiological concentrations of Cu{sup 2+} in the growth medium blocked the synthesis of the Ag{sup +}-inducible component(s) and rendered cells resistant to the toxic effects of Ag{sup +}, suggesting competition between Cu{sup 2+} and Ag{sup +} ions, possibly at the level of metal uptake.

  5. Material Removes Heavy Metal Ions From Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philipp, Warren H., Jr.; Street, Kenneth W.; Hill, Carol; Savino, Joseph M.

    1995-01-01

    New high capacity ion-exchange polymer material removes toxic metal cations from contaminated water. Offers several advantages. High sensitivities for such heavy metals as lead, cadmium, and copper and capable of reducing concentrations in aqueous solutions to parts-per-billion range. Removes cations even when calcium present. Material made into variety of forms, such as thin films, coatings, pellets, and fibers. As result, adapted to many applications to purify contaminated water, usually hard wherever found, whether in wastewater-treatment systems, lakes, ponds, industrial plants, or homes. Another important feature that adsorbed metals easily reclaimed by either destructive or nondestructive process. Other tests show ion-exchange polymer made inexpensively; easy to use; strong, flexible, not easily torn; and chemically stable in storage, in aqueous solutions, and in acidic or basic solution.

  6. Heavy metals in common foodstuff: Daily intake

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoumbaris, P.; Tsoukali-Papadopoulou, H. )

    1994-07-01

    Lately, toxic effects of some heavy metals (Pb, Cd) as well as desirable ones of some others (Ni, Mn, Zn) have been a field of thorough investigation. The main way of human body fortification in metals is through foodchain depending on the kind and quantity of the consumed food, according to dietary habits. The purpose of this study is the calculation of metals daily intake through common foodstuff of Greek inhabitants. The calculation is based on results from quantitative analysis of Pb, Cd, Ni, Mn, and Zn in common foodstuff from the market of the city of Thessaloniki. The daily food consumption data is derived from three sources: (a) answers to a questionnaire distributed to families of the city of Thessaloniki, (b) nutrition data provided by the Agricultural Bank of Greece and (c) nutrition data according to international bibliography.

  7. Multivariate statistical analysis of heavy metal signature in the Dongjiang River Basin in southeastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Z.

    2011-12-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals (Zn, Cr, Pb, As, Cu, Ni, Hg, Cd) have been measured in water and bottom sediment for the main stream of the Dongjiang River Basin, where is the word's most populous (40,000,000 people) and highly economic development region over decades. While the enrichment of heavy metals in the sediment indicates a strong historical pollution, the heavy metal concentrations in water reflect a concurrent anthropogenic influence. Multiple 87 samples were taken from the tributaries of the river network to investigate the characteristics of heavy metal pollutants within the catchment. Different multivariate statistical techniques are combined to analyse the spatial pattern and the origin of, and the land-use effects on heavy metal pollutants. First, a clear regional similarity of the pollutants is exhibited by cluster analysis (CA), and no longitudinal accumulation along the river can be observed. Then, principal component analysis (PCA) is applied to group the different heavy metals according to their variability at different sites. The first principal component (PC) containing Cr, Mn, Ni and Cu shows the feature of point sources, whereas the second PC loaded with Zn and Cd is probably derived from non-point sources. It also implied the particular favorite conveyances and processes from sources to sediments for Hg within the third PC. In the last step, redundant analysis (RDA) is used to correlate environmental variables (e.g. land use types, physiochemical properties including PH, DOC, DO, TSS) to heavy metal pollutants. The correlation of different heavy metals with different physiochemical properties reveals the anthropogenic impacts on the water quality. Land use types exhibits the highest relevance to heavy metal pollution, i.e., intensive industrial areas shows aggravated pollution, whereas areas with mainly forest and agriculture are rarely polluted by heavy metals.

  8. Heavy metals in commercial fish in New Jersey

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, Joanna . E-mail: burger@biology.rutgers.edu; Gochfeld, Michael

    2005-11-15

    Levels of contaminants in fish are of particular interest because of the potential risk to humans who consume them. While attention has focused on self-caught fish, most of the fish eaten by the American public comes from commercial sources. We sampled 11 types of fish and shellfish obtained from supermarkets and specialty fish markets in New Jersey and analyzed them for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury, and selenium. We test the null hypothesis that metal levels do not vary among fish types, and we consider whether the levels of any metals could harm the fish themselves or their predators or pose a health risk for human consumers. There were significant interspecific differences for all metals, and no fish types had the highest levels of more than two metals. There were few significant correlations (Kendall tau) among metals for the three most numerous fish (yellowfin tuna, bluefish, and flounder), the correlations were generally low (below 0.40), and many correlations were negative. Only manganese and lead positively were correlated for tuna, bluefish, and flounder. The levels of most metals were below those known to cause adverse effects in the fish themselves. However, the levels of arsenic, lead, mercury, and selenium in some fish were in the range known to cause some sublethal effects in sensitive predatory birds and mammals and in some fish exceeded health-based standards. The greatest risk from different metals resided in different fish; the species of fish with the highest levels of a given metal sometimes exceeded the human health guidance or standards for that metal. Thus, the risk information given to the public (mainly about mercury) does not present a complete picture. The potential of harm from other metals suggests that people not only should eat smaller quantities of fish known to accumulate mercury but also should eat a diversity of fish to avoid consuming unhealthy quantities of other heavy metals. However, consumers should

  9. Adaptive Engineering of Phytochelatin-based Heavy Metal Tolerance*

    PubMed Central

    Cahoon, Rebecca E.; Lutke, W. Kevin; Cameron, Jeffrey C.; Chen, Sixue; Lee, Soon Goo; Rivard, Rebecca S.; Rea, Philip A.; Jez, Joseph M.

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic engineering approaches are increasingly employed for environmental applications. Because phytochelatins (PC) protect plants from heavy metal toxicity, strategies directed at manipulating the biosynthesis of these peptides hold promise for the remediation of soils and groundwaters contaminated with heavy metals. Directed evolution of Arabidopsis thaliana phytochelatin synthase (AtPCS1) yields mutants that confer levels of cadmium tolerance and accumulation greater than expression of the wild-type enzyme in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Arabidopsis, or Brassica juncea. Surprisingly, the AtPCS1 mutants that enhance cadmium tolerance and accumulation are catalytically less efficient than wild-type enzyme. Metabolite analyses indicate that transformation with AtPCS1, but not with the mutant variants, decreases the levels of the PC precursors, glutathione and γ-glutamylcysteine, upon exposure to cadmium. Selection of AtPCS1 variants with diminished catalytic activity alleviates depletion of these metabolites, which maintains redox homeostasis while supporting PC synthesis during cadmium exposure. These results emphasize the importance of metabolic context for pathway engineering and broaden the range of tools available for environmental remediation. PMID:26018077

  10. Adaptive Engineering of Phytochelatin-based Heavy Metal Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Cahoon, Rebecca E; Lutke, W Kevin; Cameron, Jeffrey C; Chen, Sixue; Lee, Soon Goo; Rivard, Rebecca S; Rea, Philip A; Jez, Joseph M

    2015-07-10

    Metabolic engineering approaches are increasingly employed for environmental applications. Because phytochelatins (PC) protect plants from heavy metal toxicity, strategies directed at manipulating the biosynthesis of these peptides hold promise for the remediation of soils and groundwaters contaminated with heavy metals. Directed evolution of Arabidopsis thaliana phytochelatin synthase (AtPCS1) yields mutants that confer levels of cadmium tolerance and accumulation greater than expression of the wild-type enzyme in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Arabidopsis, or Brassica juncea. Surprisingly, the AtPCS1 mutants that enhance cadmium tolerance and accumulation are catalytically less efficient than wild-type enzyme. Metabolite analyses indicate that transformation with AtPCS1, but not with the mutant variants, decreases the levels of the PC precursors, glutathione and γ-glutamylcysteine, upon exposure to cadmium. Selection of AtPCS1 variants with diminished catalytic activity alleviates depletion of these metabolites, which maintains redox homeostasis while supporting PC synthesis during cadmium exposure. These results emphasize the importance of metabolic context for pathway engineering and broaden the range of tools available for environmental remediation. PMID:26018077

  11. Adaptive Engineering of Phytochelatin-based Heavy Metal Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Cahoon, Rebecca E; Lutke, W Kevin; Cameron, Jeffrey C; Chen, Sixue; Lee, Soon Goo; Rivard, Rebecca S; Rea, Philip A; Jez, Joseph M

    2015-07-10

    Metabolic engineering approaches are increasingly employed for environmental applications. Because phytochelatins (PC) protect plants from heavy metal toxicity, strategies directed at manipulating the biosynthesis of these peptides hold promise for the remediation of soils and groundwaters contaminated with heavy metals. Directed evolution of Arabidopsis thaliana phytochelatin synthase (AtPCS1) yields mutants that confer levels of cadmium tolerance and accumulation greater than expression of the wild-type enzyme in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Arabidopsis, or Brassica juncea. Surprisingly, the AtPCS1 mutants that enhance cadmium tolerance and accumulation are catalytically less efficient than wild-type enzyme. Metabolite analyses indicate that transformation with AtPCS1, but not with the mutant variants, decreases the levels of the PC precursors, glutathione and γ-glutamylcysteine, upon exposure to cadmium. Selection of AtPCS1 variants with diminished catalytic activity alleviates depletion of these metabolites, which maintains redox homeostasis while supporting PC synthesis during cadmium exposure. These results emphasize the importance of metabolic context for pathway engineering and broaden the range of tools available for environmental remediation.

  12. Expressing a bacterial mercuric ion binding protein in plant for phytoremediation of heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Ju-Liang; Chen, Ching-Yi; Chiu, Meng-Hsuen; Chein, Mei-Fang; Chang, Jo-Shu; Endo, Ginro; Huang, Chieh-Chen

    2009-01-30

    A specific mercuric ion binding protein (MerP) originating from transposon TnMERI1 of Bacillus megaterium strain MB1 isolated from Minamata Bay displayed good adsorption capability for a variety of heavy metals. In this study, the Gram-positive MerP protein was expressed in transgenic Arabidopsis to create a model system for phytoremediation of heavy metals. Under control of an actin promoter, the transgenic Arabidpsis showed higher tolerance and accumulation capacity for mercury, cadium and lead when compared with the control plant. Results from confocal microscopy analysis also indicate that MerP was localized at the cell membrane and vesicles of plant cells. The developed transgenic plants possessing excellent metal-accumulative ability could have potential applications in decontamination of heavy metals.

  13. The prognostic significance of the bioaccumulation of heavy metals by aquatic organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Chelomin, V.P.

    1995-12-31

    The conceptual four-stage model, which relates the response of cellular homeostatic and detoxification pathways of aquatic organisms to the increasing environmental heavy metal concentrations, is proposed. Generally, this model is based on the distinction between the bioconcentration and bioaccumulation as two main states of any biological system. According to the theoretical grounds it is assumed the existence of metal concentration threshold in the sea water above which the organism changes from the regulation to the accumulation state. This concentration threshold for different metals, called critical concentration for accumulation (CCA), was quantitatively estimated for various aquatic invertebrates. In the course of heavy metal accumulation there may exist ranges of metal concentrations in the tissues on which the organism implicates various adaptation mechanisms including metabolic regulatory response (the stage of compensatory) and synthesis of specific proteins with a high affinity for metals (the state of expending). Further increase in metal level may result in the spill over of defense systems and in the development of destructive processes (the toxic stage). Concentration ranges of the corresponding stages were quantitatively also estimated using the author`s (an example of marine bivalves) and literature experimental data. This conceptual model provides the scientific basis for assessing both the quality of the aquatic environment and consequences of heavy metal accumulations by aquatic organisms.

  14. Road traffic emission factors for heavy metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, Christer; Norman, Michael; Burman, Lars

    Quantifying the emissions and concentrations of heavy metals in urban air is a prerequisite for assessing their health effects. In this paper a combination of measurements and modelling is used to assess the contribution from road traffic emissions. Concentrations of particulate heavy metals in air were measured simultaneously during 1 year at a densely trafficked street and at an urban background site in Stockholm, Sweden. Annual mean concentrations of cadmium were 50 times lower than the EU directive and for nickel and arsenic concentrations were 10 and six times lower, respectively. More than a factor of two higher concentrations was in general observed at the street in comparison to roof levels indicating the strong influence from local road traffic emissions. The only compound with a significantly decreasing trend in the urban background was Pb with 9.1 ng m -3 in 1995/96 compared to 3.4 ng m -3 2003/04. This is likely due to decreased emissions from wear of brake linings and reduced emissions due to oil and coal combustion in central Europe. Total road traffic emission factors for heavy metals were estimated using parallel measurements of NOx concentrations and knowledge of NOx emission factors. In general, the emission factors for the street were higher than reported in road tunnel measurements. This could partly be due to different driving conditions, since especially for metals which are mainly emitted from brake wear, more stop and go driving in the street compared to in road tunnels is likely to increase emissions. Total emissions were compared with exhaust emissions, obtained from the COPERT model and brake wear emissions based on an earlier study in Stockholm. For Cu, Ni and Zn the sum of brake wear and exhaust emissions agreed very well with estimated total emission factors in this study. More than 90% of the road traffic emissions of Cu were due to brake wear. For Ni more than 80% is estimated to be due to exhaust emissions and for Zn around 40% of

  15. Distribution, fraction, and ecological risk assesment of heavy metals in sediment-plant system in mangrove forest, South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LI, R.; Shen, X.; Li, Y. H.; Chai, M. W.; Qiu, G. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Overlying water, sediment, rhizosphere sediment and mangrove seedlings in Futian mangrove forest were analyzed for heavy metals. The results showed that mangrove plant acidified sediment and increased organic matter contents. Except for chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni) and copper (Cu) in Aegiceras corniculatum sediment, heavy metals in all sediments were higher than in overlying water, rhizosphere sediment and mangrove root. Heavy metals in Avicennia marina sediments were higher than other sediments. The lower heavy metal biological concentration factors (BCFs) and translocation factors (TFs) indicated that mangrove plant adopted exclusion strategy. The geo-accumulation index, potential ecological risk index and risk assessment code (RAC) demonstrated that heavy metals have posed a considerable ecological risk, especially for cadmium (Cd). Heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Cu and Cd) mainly existed in the reducible fractions. The RAC values of heavy metals indicated that heavy metals have posed a considerable ecological risk to the biota, especially for Cd. These findings provide actual heavy metal accumulations in sediment-plant ecosystems in mangrove forest, being important in designing the long-term management and conservation policies for managers of mangrove forest.

  16. Accumulation and effects of metal mixtures in two seaweed species.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Tayler A; Bielmyer-Fraser, Gretchen K

    2015-05-01

    Metal pollution, due to various anthropogenic sources, may pose a threat to marine ecosystems. Metals can be introduced into food chains via bioaccumulation in primary producers, and may potentially lead to toxic effects. Macroalgae are used as food by a wide variety of organisms, and are therefore extremely important in aquatic systems. This study investigated the accumulation and effects of metals in two macroalgae species. The green seaweed, Ulva lactuca and the red seaweed, Agardhiella subulata were each concurrently exposed to five metals (Cu, Ni, Pb, Cd, and Zn) and U. lactuca was also exposed to each metal individually for 48 h. Metal accumulation in the seaweed was measured, and various photosynthetic parameters were assessed, using imaging pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry. Increased metal accumulation occurred in both seaweed species after 48 h exposure to metal mixtures and each metal individually. The distribution of metals in both seaweed species changed with increasing metal exposure concentrations, resulting in higher proportions of Cu and Zn in the metal-exposed groups, as compared to respective controls. Further, U. lactuca accumulated higher concentrations of metals when exposed to each metal individually rather than in metal mixtures, suggesting interactions among metals for uptake and/or bioaccumulation. Significant impairment of photosynthetic parameters in U. lactuca was observed after exposure to 100 and 1000 μg/L metal mixtures, as well as 100 μg/L of either Cd or Cu. These results demonstrate metal bioaccumulation and toxic effects in important primary producers, and may have implications for higher trophic levels.

  17. Advances in Understanding How Heavy Metal Pollution Triggers Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Wenzhen; Yang, Ning

    2016-01-01

    With the development of industrialization and urbanization, heavy metals contamination has become a major environmental problem. Numerous investigations have revealed an association between heavy metal exposure and the incidence and mortality of gastric cancer. The mechanisms of heavy metals (lead, cadmium, mercury, chromium, and arsenic) contamination leading to gastric cancer are concluded in this review. There are four main potential mechanisms: (1) Heavy metals disrupt the gastric mucosal barrier by decreasing mucosal thickness, mucus content, and basal acid output, thereby affecting the function of E-cadherin and inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) damage. (2) Heavy metals directly or indirectly induce ROS generation and cause gastric mucosal and DNA lesions, which subsequently alter gene regulation, signal transduction, and cell growth, ultimately leading to carcinogenesis. Exposure to heavy metals also enhances gastric cancer cell invasion and metastasis. (3) Heavy metals inhibit DNA damage repair or cause inefficient lesion repair. (4) Heavy metals may induce other gene abnormalities. In addition, heavy metals can induce the expression of proinflammatory chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8) and microRNAs, which promotes tumorigenesis. The present review is an effort to underline the human health problem caused by heavy metal with recent development in order to garner a broader perspective. PMID:27803929

  18. Monitoring of heavy metal levels in the major rivers and in residents' blood in Zhenjiang City, China, and assessment of heavy metal elimination via urine and sweat in humans.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Jianguo; Qiu, Wenhui; Xu, Bentuo; Xu, Hui; Tang, Chong

    2016-06-01

    The coastal areas of China face great challenges, owing to heavy metal contamination caused by rapid industrialization and urbanization. To our knowledge, this study is the first report of the levels of heavy metals in the major rivers of Zhenjiang, one of the most important cities of the Yangtze River Delta in China. In addition, we measured heavy metal levels in the blood of 76 residents of Zhenjiang. The results suggest that the presence of heavy metals in the blood may threaten human health and the distribution appeared to correspond to most highly populated areas and/or areas with high traffic. We also found that the concentration of heavy metals in human blood showed an accumulation effect with increase in age. Moreover, the levels of most heavy metals were lower in participants who regularly exercised than in those who did not. We studied heavy metal levels in the urine and sweat of another 17 volunteers to monitor the elimination of bioaccumulated heavy metal. Heavy metals were found in the urine and sweat of all the 17 participants and were more concentrated in sweat. Induced micturition and sweating appear to be potential methods for the elimination of heavy metals from the human body.

  19. Metal accumulation in earthworms inhabiting floodplain soils.

    PubMed

    Vijver, Martina G; Vink, Jos P M; Miermans, Cornelis J H; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2007-07-01

    The main factors contributing to variation in metal concentrations in earthworms inhabiting floodplain soils were investigated in three floodplains differing in inundation frequency and vegetation type. Metal concentrations in epigeic earthworms showed larger seasonal variations than endogeic earthworms. Variation in internal levels between sampling intervals were largest in earthworms from floodplain sites frequently inundated. High and low frequency flooding did not result in consistent changes in internal metal concentrations. Vegetation types of the floodplains did not affect metal levels in Lumbricus rubellus, except for internal Cd levels, which were positively related to the presence of organic litter. Internal levels of most essential metals were higher in spring. In general, no clear patterns in metal uptake were found and repetition of the sampling campaign will probably yield different results. PMID:17254683

  20. Soil contamination and plant uptake of heavy metals at polluted sites in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing-Ren; Cui, Yan-Shan; Liu, Xiu-Mei; Dong, Yi-Ting; Christie, Peter

    2003-05-01

    We investigated heavy metal contamination in soils and plants at polluted sites in China including some with heavy industries, metal mining, smelting and untreated wastewater irrigation areas. We report our main findings in this paper. The concentrations of heavy metals, including Cd and Zn, in the soils at the investigated sites were above the background levels, and generally exceeded the Government guidelines for metals in soil. The concentrations of metals in plants served to indicate the metal contamination status of the site, and also revealed the abilities of various plant species to take up and accumulate the metals from the soil. Substantial differences in the accumulation of heavy metals were observed among the plant species investigated. Polygonum hydropiper growing on contaminated soils in a sewage pond had accumulated 1061 mg kg(-1) of Zn in its shoots. Rumex acetosa L. growing near a smelter had accumulated more than 900 mg kg(-1) of Zn both in its shoots and roots. Therefore these species have potential for phytoremediation of metal-contaminated sites. Our results indicate the need to elucidate the dynamics of soil metal contamination of plants and the onward movement of metal contaminants into the food chain. Also our results indicate that the consumption of rice grown in paddy soils contaminated with Cd, Cr or Zn may pose a serious risk to human health, because from 24 to 22% of the total metal content in the rice biomass was concentrated in the rice grain. Platanus acerifolia growing on heavily contaminated soil accumulated only very low levels of heavy metals, and this mechanism for excluding metal uptake may have value in crop improvement. Sources of metal entering the environmental matrices studied included untreated wastewater, tailings or slurries and dust depositions from metal ore mining, and sewage sludge. Pb, Zn or Cd concentrations declined with the distance from metal smelter in accordance with a good exponential correlation (R2