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Sample records for accumulate large amounts

  1. The Dark-Purple Tea Cultivar 'Ziyan' Accumulates a Large Amount of Delphinidin-Related Anthocyanins.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yun-Song; Li, Sha; Tang, Qian; Li, Huan-Xiu; Chen, Shen-Xiang; Li, Pin-Wu; Xu, Jin-Yi; Xu, Yan; Guo, Xiang

    2016-04-06

    Recently, we developed a novel tea cultivar 'Ziyan' with distinct purple leaves. There was a significant correlation between leaf color and anthocyanin pigment content in the leaves. A distinct allocation of metabolic flow for B-ring trihydroxylated anthocyanins and catechins in 'Ziyan' was observed. Delphinidin, cyanidin, and pelargonidin (88.15 mg/100 g FW in total) but no other anthocyanin pigments were detected in 'Ziyan', and delphinidin (70.76 mg/100 g FW) was particularly predominant. An analysis of the catechin content in 'Ziyan' and eight other cultivars indicated that 'Ziyan' exhibits a preference for synthesizing B-ring trihydroxylated catechins (with a proportion of 74%). The full-length cDNA sequences of flavonoid pathway genes were isolated by RNA-Seq coupled with conventional TA cloning, and their expression patterns were characterized. Purple-leaved cultivars had lower amounts of total catechins, polyphenols, and water extract than ordinary non-anthocyanin cultivars but similar levels of caffeine. Because dark-purple-leaved Camellia species are rare in nature, this study provides new insights into the interplay between the accumulations of anthocyanins and other bioactive components in tea leaves.

  2. How and why does tomato accumulate a large amount of GABA in the fruit?

    PubMed Central

    Takayama, Mariko; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) has received much attention as a health-promoting functional compound, and several GABA-enriched foods have been commercialized. In higher plants, GABA is primarily metabolized via a short pathway called the GABA shunt. The GABA shunt bypasses two steps (the oxidation of α-ketoglutarate to succinate) of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle via reactions catalyzed by three enzymes: glutamate decarboxylase, GABA transaminase, and succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase. The GABA shunt plays a major role in primary carbon and nitrogen metabolism and is an integral part of the TCA cycle under stress and non-stress conditions. Tomato is one of the major crops that accumulate a relatively high level of GABA in its fruits. The GABA levels in tomato fruits dramatically change during fruit development; the GABA levels increase from flowering to the mature green stage and then rapidly decrease during the ripening stage. Although GABA constitutes up to 50% of the free amino acids at the mature green stage, the molecular mechanism of GABA accumulation and the physiological function of GABA during tomato fruit development remain unclear. In this review, we summarize recent studies of GABA accumulation in tomato fruits and discuss the potential biological roles of GABA in tomato fruit development. PMID:26322056

  3. Acetamiprid Accumulates in Different Amounts in Murine Brain Regions

    PubMed Central

    Terayama, Hayato; Endo, Hitoshi; Tsukamoto, Hideo; Matsumoto, Koichi; Umezu, Mai; Kanazawa, Teruhisa; Ito, Masatoshi; Sato, Tadayuki; Naito, Munekazu; Kawakami, Satoshi; Fujino, Yasuhiro; Tatemichi, Masayuki; Sakabe, Kou

    2016-01-01

    Neonicotinoids such as acetamiprid (ACE) belong to a new and widely used single class of pesticides. Neonicotinoids mimic the chemical structure of nicotine and share agonist activity with the nicotine acetylcholine receptor (nAchR). Neonicotinoids are widely considered to be safe in humans; however, they have recently been implicated in a number of human health disorders. A wide range of musculoskeletal and neuromuscular disorders associated with high doses of neonicotinoids administered to animals have also been reported. Consequently, we used a mouse model to investigate the response of the central nervous system to ACE treatment. Our results show that exposure to ACE-containing water for three or seven days (decuple and centuple of no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL)/day) caused a decrease in body weight in 10-week old A/JJmsSlc (A/J) mice. However, the treatments did not affect brain histology or expression of CD34. ACE concentrations were significantly higher in the midbrain of ACE-treated mice than that of the normal and vehicle groups. Expression levels of α7, α4, and β2 nAChRs were found to be low in the olfactory bulb and midbrain of normal mice. Furthermore, in the experimental group (centuple ACE-containing water for seven days), β2 nAChR expression decreased in many brain regions. Information regarding the amount of accumulated ACE and expression levels of the acetylcholine receptor in each region of the brain is important for understanding any clinical symptoms that may be associated with ACE exposure. PMID:27669271

  4. The amount and accumulation rate of plastic debris on marshes and beaches on the Georgia coast.

    PubMed

    Lee, Richard F; Sanders, Dorothea P

    2015-02-15

    The amount and accumulation rate of plastic debris at 20 sites along the Georgia coast were prepared using data reported by a number of volunteer organizations. The amount of plastic debris at highly visited barrier island beaches and estuarine marshes ranged from 300 to >1000 kg. Relatively large amount of plastics (180-500 kg) were found on less visited barrier island beaches, i.e. Blackbeard, Ossabaw and Cumberland Islands. A follow up monthly or quarterly collection study was carried out on two of the sites, a barrier beach and estuarine marsh, to determine accumulation rate in 8000 m(2) areas. Accumulation rates ranged from 0.18 to 1.28 kg/30 days-8000 m(2) on the barrier island beach and from 0.6 to 1.61 kg/30 days-8000 m(2) at the estuarine marsh site. The major type of plastics, e.g. bottles, food wrappers, plastic fragments, was highly variable at different seasons and sites. The authors recommend consideration of a standardization in reporting plastic debris, with respect to quantitation of debris and sample area.

  5. Transmission of large amounts of scientific data using laser technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaev, E. A.; Tarasov, P. A.

    2016-08-01

    Currently, the volume of figures generated by different research scientific projects (the Large Hadron Collider (Large Hadron Collider, LHC), The Square Kilometre Array (SKA)), can reach tens of petabytes per day. The only technical solution that allows you to transfer such large amounts of scientific data to the places of their processing is the transfer of information by means of laser technology, using different propagation environment. This article discusses the possibility of data transmission via fiber-optic networks, data transmission using the modulation binary stream of light source by a special LED light source, the neccessity to apply laser technologies for deep space communications, the principle for an unlimited expansion of the capacity of laser data link. Also in this study is shown the need for a substantial increase in data transfer speed via a pre-existing communication networks and via the construction of new channels of communication that will cope with the transfer of very large scale data volumes, taking into account the projected rate of growth.

  6. Very Large Amounts of Radiation are Required to Produce Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Antone L.; Hui, T. Edmond; Couch, Lezlie A.

    2007-01-01

    The public fear of radiation is in part driven by the Linear No Threshold Hypothesis (LNTH), or the concept that each and every ionization increases the risk for cancer. Even if this were true, it is important to recognize that the increased risk is very small at low doses and cannot be detected. This paper demonstrates the large number of assumptions and extrapolations needed when using the LNTH to estimate low-dose cancer risk. The manuscript provides information at every level of biological organization suggesting that many of these linear assumptions do not hold. While the initial damage may be produced linearly with dose, the processing of that damage is very non-linear. Finally, the paper provides the unique prospective on radiation-induced cancer, demonstrating that it takes large amounts (total energy) of radiation delivered to large populations to detect an increase in cancer frequency. These observations are supported by both theoretical calculations and examples based on past human radiation exposure. PMID:18648559

  7. Discovering Related Clinical Concepts Using Large Amounts of Clinical Notes

    PubMed Central

    Ganesan, Kavita; Lloyd, Shane; Sarkar, Vikren

    2016-01-01

    The ability to find highly related clinical concepts is essential for many applications such as for hypothesis generation, query expansion for medical literature search, search results filtering, ICD-10 code filtering and many other applications. While manually constructed medical terminologies such as SNOMED CT can surface certain related concepts, these terminologies are inadequate as they depend on expertise of several subject matter experts making the terminology curation process open to geographic and language bias. In addition, these terminologies also provide no quantifiable evidence on how related the concepts are. In this work, we explore an unsupervised graphical approach to mine related concepts by leveraging the volume within large amounts of clinical notes. Our evaluation shows that we are able to use a data driven approach to discovering highly related concepts for various search terms including medications, symptoms and diseases. PMID:27656096

  8. Making large amounts of meteorological plots easily accessible to users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamy-Thepaut, Sylvie; Siemen, Stephan; Sahin, Cihan; Raoult, Baudouin

    2015-04-01

    The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) is an international organisation providing its member organisations with forecasts in the medium time range of 3 to 15 days, and some longer-range forecasts for up to a year ahead, with varying degrees of detail. As part of its mission, ECMWF generates an increasing number of forecast data products for its users. To support the work of forecasters and researchers and to let them make best use of ECMWF forecasts, the Centre also provides tools and interfaces to visualise their products. This allows users to make use of and explore forecasts without having to transfer large amounts of raw data. This is especially true for products based on ECMWF's 50 member ensemble forecast, where some specific processing and visualisation are applied to extract information. Every day, thousands of raw data are being pushed to the ECMWF's interactive web charts application called ecCharts, and thousands of products are processed and pushed to ECMWF's institutional web site ecCharts provides a highly interactive application to display and manipulate recent numerical forecasts to forecasters in national weather services and ECMWF's commercial customers. With ecCharts forecasters are able to explore ECMWF's medium-range forecasts in far greater detail than has previously been possible on the web, and this as soon as the forecast becomes available. All ecCharts's products are also available through a machine-to-machine web map service based on the OGC Web Map Service (WMS) standard. ECMWF institutional web site provides access to a large number of graphical products. It was entirely redesigned last year. It now shares the same infrastructure as ECMWF's ecCharts, and can benefit of some ecCharts functionalities, for example the dashboard. The dashboard initially developed for ecCharts allows users to organise their own collection of products depending on their work flow, and is being further developed. In its first

  9. Knowledge discovery: Extracting usable information from large amounts of data

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteson, R.

    1998-12-31

    The threat of nuclear weapons proliferation is a problem of world wide concern. Safeguards are the key to nuclear nonproliferation and data is the key to safeguards. The safeguards community has access to a huge and steadily growing volume of data. The advantages of this data rich environment are obvious, there is a great deal of information which can be utilized. The challenge is to effectively apply proven and developing technologies to find and extract usable information from that data. That information must then be assessed and evaluated to produce the knowledge needed for crucial decision making. Efficient and effective analysis of safeguards data will depend on utilizing technologies to interpret the large, heterogeneous data sets that are available from diverse sources. With an order-of-magnitude increase in the amount of data from a wide variety of technical, textual, and historical sources there is a vital need to apply advanced computer technologies to support all-source analysis. There are techniques of data warehousing, data mining, and data analysis that can provide analysts with tools that will expedite their extracting useable information from the huge amounts of data to which they have access. Computerized tools can aid analysts by integrating heterogeneous data, evaluating diverse data streams, automating retrieval of database information, prioritizing inputs, reconciling conflicting data, doing preliminary interpretations, discovering patterns or trends in data, and automating some of the simpler prescreening tasks that are time consuming and tedious. Thus knowledge discovery technologies can provide a foundation of support for the analyst. Rather than spending time sifting through often irrelevant information, analysts could use their specialized skills in a focused, productive fashion. This would allow them to make their analytical judgments with more confidence and spend more of their time doing what they do best.

  10. Large amounts of antiproton production by heavy ion collision

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Hiroshi; Powell, J.

    1987-01-01

    To produce large amounts of antiprotons, on the order of several grams/year, use of machines to produce nuclear collisions are studied. These can be of either proton-proton, proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus in nature. To achieve high luminosity colliding beams, on the order of 10/sup 41/ m/cm/sup 2/, a self-colliding machine is required, rather than a conventional circular colliding type. The self-colliding machine can produce additional antiprotons through successive collisions of secondary particles, such as spectator nucleons. A key problem is how to collect the produced antiprotons without capture by beam nuclei in the collision zone. Production costs for anti-matter are projected for various energy source options and technology levels. Dedicated facilities using heavy ion collisions could produce antiproton at substantially less than 1 million $/milligram. With co-production of other valuable products, e.g., nuclear fuel for power reactors, antiproton costs could be reduced to even lower values.

  11. Making large amounts of meteorological data accessible through visualisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siemen, Stephan; Lamy-Thepaut, Sylvie

    2013-04-01

    The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) is an international organisation providing its member organisations with forecasts in the medium time range of 3 to 15 days. As part of its mission, ECMWF generates an increasing number of forecast data products for its users. To support the work of forecasters and researchers and to let them make best use of ECMWF forecasts, the Centre also provides tools and interfaces to visualise their products. This allows users to make use of and explore forecasts without having to transfer large amounts of raw data. This is especially true for products based on ECMWF's 50 member strong ensemble forecast. Users can choose to explore ECMWF's forecasts from the web or through visualisation tools installed locally or at ECMWF. ECMWF's new in-house developed web service, ecCharts, displays recent numerical forecasts to forecasters in national weather services. The functions that ecCharts provides are beyond standard web charts, in that forecasters can use the service to create bespoke charts on demand and do this themselves as and when they need to using an intuitive web interface. With ecCharts they are able to explore ECMWF's medium-range forecasts in far greater detail than has previously been possible on the web. Beside the interactive user interface built using jQuery the service also offers a machine-to-machine web map service based on the OGC Web Map Service (WMS) standard. The WMS service is primary intended to be used by forecaster workstations to integrate maps generated at ECMWF. The main challenge was to achieve fast response times even though the data volume and processing effort is quite high. PNG is the main format served but SVG is being investigated as a vector alternative. This talk will present examples of complex meteorological maps and graphs which show new possibilities users have gained by using the web as a medium. More advanced possibilities are available directly to users of the

  12. Expert system shell to reason on large amounts of data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giuffrida, Gionanni

    1994-01-01

    The current data base management systems (DBMS's) do not provide a sophisticated environment to develop rule based expert systems applications. Some of the new DBMS's come with some sort of rule mechanism; these are active and deductive database systems. However, both of these are not featured enough to support full implementation based on rules. On the other hand, current expert system shells do not provide any link with external databases. That is, all the data are kept in the system working memory. Such working memory is maintained in main memory. For some applications the reduced size of the available working memory could represent a constraint for the development. Typically these are applications which require reasoning on huge amounts of data. All these data do not fit into the computer main memory. Moreover, in some cases these data can be already available in some database systems and continuously updated while the expert system is running. This paper proposes an architecture which employs knowledge discovering techniques to reduce the amount of data to be stored in the main memory; in this architecture a standard DBMS is coupled with a rule-based language. The data are stored into the DBMS. An interface between the two systems is responsible for inducing knowledge from the set of relations. Such induced knowledge is then transferred to the rule-based language working memory.

  13. Dual Mode NOx Sensor: Measuring Both the Accumulated Amount and Instantaneous Level at Low Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Groß, Andrea; Beulertz, Gregor; Marr, Isabella; Kubinski, David J.; Visser, Jaco H.; Moos, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    The accumulating-type (or integrating-type) NOx sensor principle offers two operation modes to measure low levels of NOx: The direct signal gives the total amount dosed over a time interval and its derivative the instantaneous concentration. With a linear sensor response, no baseline drift, and both response times and recovery times in the range of the gas exchange time of the test bench (5 to 7 s), the integrating sensor is well suited to reliably detect low levels of NOx. Experimental results are presented demonstrating the sensor’s integrating properties for the total amount detection and its sensitivity to both NO and to NO2. We also show the correlation between the derivative of the sensor signal and the known gas concentration. The long-term detection of NOx in the sub-ppm range (e.g., for air quality measurements) is discussed. Additionally, a self-adaption of the measurement range taking advantage of the temperature dependency of the sensitivity is addressed. PMID:22736980

  14. Determination of small and large amounts of fluorine in rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grimaldi, F.S.; Ingram, B.; Cuttitta, F.

    1955-01-01

    Gelatinous silica and aluminum ions retard the distillation of fluorine in the Willard and Winter distillation method. A generally applicable, simple method for the determination of fluorine in rocks containing aluminum or silicon or both as major constituents was desired. In the procedure developed, the sample is fused with a mixture of sodium carbonate and zinc oxide, leached with water, and filtered. The residue is granular and retains nearly all of the silica. The fluorine in the filtrate is distilled directly from a perchloric acid-phosphoric acid mixture. Phosphoric acid permits the quantitative distillation of fluorine in the presence of much aluminum at the usual distillation temperature and without the collection of large volumes of distillate. The fluorine is determined either by microtitration with thorium nitrate or colorimetrically with thoron. The procedure is rapid and has yielded excellent results on silicate rocks and on samples from the aluminum phosphate (leached) zone of the Florida phosphate deposits.

  15. Comparison Analysis among Large Amount of SNS Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toriumi, Fujio; Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Suwa, Hirohiko; Okada, Isamu; Izumi, Kiyoshi; Hashimoto, Yasuhiro

    In recent years, application of Social Networking Services (SNS) and Blogs are growing as new communication tools on the Internet. Several large-scale SNS sites are prospering; meanwhile, many sites with relatively small scale are offering services. Such small-scale SNSs realize small-group isolated type of communication while neither mixi nor MySpace can do that. However, the studies on SNS are almost about particular large-scale SNSs and cannot analyze whether their results apply for general features or for special characteristics on the SNSs. From the point of view of comparison analysis on SNS, comparison with just several types of those cannot reach a statistically significant level. We analyze many SNS sites with the aim of classifying them by using some approaches. Our paper classifies 50,000 sites for small-scale SNSs and gives their features from the points of network structure, patterns of communication, and growth rate of SNS. The result of analysis for network structure shows that many SNS sites have small-world attribute with short path lengths and high coefficients of their cluster. Distribution of degrees of the SNS sites is close to power law. This result indicates the small-scale SNS sites raise the percentage of users with many friends than mixi. According to the analysis of their coefficients of assortativity, those SNS sites have negative values of assortativity, and that means users with high degree tend to connect users with small degree. Next, we analyze the patterns of user communication. A friend network of SNS is explicit while users' communication behaviors are defined as an implicit network. What kind of relationships do these networks have? To address this question, we obtain some characteristics of users' communication structure and activation patterns of users on the SNS sites. By using new indexes, friend aggregation rate and friend coverage rate, we show that SNS sites with high value of friend coverage rate activate diary postings

  16. Elephant’s breast milk contains large amounts of glucosamine

    PubMed Central

    TAKATSU, Zenta; TSUDA, Muneya; YAMADA, Akio; MATSUMOTO, Hiroshi; TAKAI, Akira; TAKEDA, Yasuhiro; TAKASE, Mitsunori

    2016-01-01

    Hand-reared elephant calves that are nursed with milk substitutes sometimes suffer bone fractures, probably due to problems associated with nutrition, exercise, sunshine levels and/or genetic factors. As we were expecting the birth of an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus), we analyzed elephant’s breast milk to improve the milk substitutes for elephant calves. Although there were few nutritional differences between conventional substitutes and elephant’s breast milk, we found a large unknown peak in the breast milk during high-performance liquid chromatography-based amino acid analysis and determined that it was glucosamine (GlcN) using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. We detected the following GlcN concentrations [mean ± SD] (mg/100 g) in milk hydrolysates produced by treating samples with 6M HCl for 24 hr at 110°C: four elephant’s breast milk samples: 516 ± 42, three cow’s milk mixtures: 4.0 ± 2.2, three mare’s milk samples: 12 ± 1.2 and two human milk samples: 38. The GlcN content of the elephant’s milk was 128, 43 and 14 times greater than those of the cow’s, mare’s and human milk, respectively. Then, we examined the degradation of GlcN during 0–24 hr hydrolyzation with HCl. We estimated that elephant’s milk contains >880 mg/100 g GlcN, which is similar to the levels of major amino acids in elephant’s milk. We concluded that a novel GlcN-containing milk substitute should be developed for elephant calves. The efficacy of GlcN supplements is disputed, and free GlcN is rare in bodily fluids; thus, the optimal molecular form of GlcN requires a further study. PMID:28049867

  17. Predicting the amount of intraperitoneal fluid accumulation by computed tomography and its clinical use in patients with perforated peptic ulcer.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Toru; Kumagai, Youichi; Baba, Hiroyuki; Tajima, Yusuke; Imaizumi, Hideko; Suzuki, Okihide; Kuwabara, Koki; Matsuzawa, Takeaki; Sobajima, Jun; Fukuchi, Minoru; Ishibashi, Keiichiro; Mochiki, Erito; Ishida, Hideyuki

    2014-01-01

    The correlation between the amount of peritoneal fluid and clinical parameters in patients with perforated peptic ulcer (PPU) has not been investigated. The authors' objective was to derive a reliable formula for determining the amount of peritoneal fluid in patients with PPU before surgery, and to evaluate the correlation between the estimated amount of peritoneal fluid and clinical parameters. We investigated 62 consecutive patients who underwent emergency surgery for PPU, and in whom prediction of the amount of accumulated intraperitoneal fluid was possible by computed tomography (CT) using the methods described by Oriuchi et al. We examined the relationship between the predicted amount of accumulated intraperitoneal fluid and that measured during surgery, and the relationship between the amount of fluid predicted preoperatively or measured during surgery and several clinical parameters. There was a significant positive correlation between the amount of fluid predicted by CT scan and that measured during surgery. When patients with gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer were analyzed collectively, the predicted amount of intraperitoneal fluid and the amount measured during surgery were each associated with the period from onset until CT scan, perforation size, the Mannheim peritoneal index, and the severity of postoperative complications according to the Clavien-Dindo classification. Our present results suggest that the method of Oriuchi et al is useful for predicting the amount of accumulated intraperitoneal fluid in patients with PPU, and that this would be potentially helpful for treatment decision-making and estimating the severity of postoperative complications.

  18. The effect of cleanliness control during installation work on the amount of accumulated dust in ducts of new HVAC installations.

    PubMed

    Holopainen, R; Tuomainen, M; Asikainen, V; Pasanen, P; Säteri, J; Seppänen, O

    2002-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the amount of dust in supply air ducts in recently installed ventilation systems. The samples for the determination of dust accumulation were collected from supply air ducts in 18 new buildings that have been constructed according to two different cleanliness control levels classified as category P1 (low oil residues and protected against contaminations) and category P2, as defined in the Classification of Indoor Climate, Construction and Building Materials. In the ducts installed according to the requirements of cleanliness category P1 the mean amount of accumulated dust was 0.9 g/m2 (0.4-2.9 g/m2), and in the ducts installed according to the cleanliness category P2 it was 2.3 g/m2 (1.2-4.9 g/m2). A significant difference was found in the mean amounts of dust between ducts of categories P1 and P2 (P < 0.008). The cleanliness control procedure in category P1 proved to be a useful and effective tool for preventing dust accumulation in new air ducts during the construction process. Additionally, the ducts without residual oil had lower amounts of accumulated dust indicating that the demand for oil free components in the cleanliness classification is reasonable.

  19. A simple biosynthetic pathway for large product generation from small substrate amounts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djordjevic, Marko; Djordjevic, Magdalena

    2012-10-01

    A recently emerging discipline of synthetic biology has the aim of constructing new biosynthetic pathways with useful biological functions. A major application of these pathways is generating a large amount of the desired product. However, toxicity due to the possible presence of toxic precursors is one of the main problems for such production. We consider here the problem of generating a large amount of product from a potentially toxic substrate. To address this, we propose a simple biosynthetic pathway, which can be induced in order to produce a large number of the product molecules, by keeping the substrate amount at low levels. Surprisingly, we show that the large product generation crucially depends on fast non-specific degradation of the substrate molecules. We derive an optimal induction strategy, which allows as much as three orders of magnitude increase in the product amount through biologically realistic parameter values. We point to a recently discovered bacterial immune system (CRISPR/Cas in E. coli) as a putative example of the pathway analysed here. We also argue that the scheme proposed here can be used not only as a stand-alone pathway, but also as a strategy to produce a large amount of the desired molecules with small perturbations of endogenous biosynthetic pathways.

  20. Calcite-accumulating large sulfur bacteria of the genus Achromatium in Sippewissett Salt Marsh.

    PubMed

    Salman, Verena; Yang, Tingting; Berben, Tom; Klein, Frieder; Angert, Esther; Teske, Andreas

    2015-11-01

    Large sulfur bacteria of the genus Achromatium are exceptional among Bacteria and Archaea as they can accumulate high amounts of internal calcite. Although known for more than 100 years, they remain uncultured, and only freshwater populations have been studied so far. Here we investigate a marine population of calcite-accumulating bacteria that is primarily found at the sediment surface of tide pools in a salt marsh, where high sulfide concentrations meet oversaturated oxygen concentrations during the day. Dynamic sulfur cycling by phototrophic sulfide-oxidizing and heterotrophic sulfate-reducing bacteria co-occurring in these sediments creates a highly sulfidic environment that we propose induces behavioral differences in the Achromatium population compared with reported migration patterns in a low-sulfide environment. Fluctuating intracellular calcium/sulfur ratios at different depths and times of day indicate a biochemical reaction of the salt marsh Achromatium to diurnal changes in sedimentary redox conditions. We correlate this calcite dynamic with new evidence regarding its formation/mobilization and suggest general implications as well as a possible biological function of calcite accumulation in large bacteria in the sediment environment that is governed by gradients. Finally, we propose a new taxonomic classification of the salt marsh Achromatium based on their adaptation to a significantly different habitat than their freshwater relatives, as indicated by their differential behavior as well as phylogenetic distance on 16S ribosomal RNA gene level. In future studies, whole-genome characterization and additional ecophysiological factors could further support the distinctive position of salt marsh Achromatium.

  1. Study on Properties of Environment-friendly Concrete Containing Large Amount of Industrial by-products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, H.; Maruoka, M.; Sadayama, C.; Nemoto, M.; Yoshikawa, K.; Yamaji, M.

    2015-11-01

    This study aims to reduce CO2 discharged from the cement and concrete industries by effective use of industrial by-products, such as fly ash, blast furnace slag, and so on. In this paper, the properties of concrete containing large amount of industrial by-products and very small amount of alkaline activator including cement or sludge from ready mixed concrete plant are analyzed. As the result, it was confirmed that concretes containing large amount of industrial by-products can achieve sufficient compressive strength. However, these concretes showed poor frost resistance. It was thought that the reason was coarsening of air void system and this caused their poor frost resistance. Therefore, in order to micronize the air void system and improve frost resistance, the combination of air entraining agent and antifoaming agent was applied. By this method, it was confirmed that the frost resistance of some these concrete improved. In this study, other properties of these concretes, such as fresh properties and other durability were evaluated and it was confirmed that these concretes show sufficient properties.

  2. Boreal Forests Sequester Large Amounts of Mercury over Millennial Time Scales in the Absence of Wildfire.

    PubMed

    Giesler, Reiner; Clemmensen, Karina E; Wardle, David A; Klaminder, Jonatan; Bindler, Richard

    2017-03-07

    Alterations in fire activity due to climate change and fire suppression may have profound effects on the balance between storage and release of carbon (C) and associated volatile elements. Stored soil mercury (Hg) is known to volatilize due to wildfires and this could substantially affect the land-air exchange of Hg; conversely the absence of fires and human disturbance may increase the time period over which Hg is sequestered. Here we show for a wildfire chronosequence spanning over more than 5000 years in boreal forest in northern Sweden that belowground inventories of total Hg are strongly related to soil humus C accumulation (R(2) = 0.94, p < 0.001). Our data clearly show that northern boreal forest soils have a strong sink capacity for Hg, and indicate that the sequestered Hg is bound in soil organic matter pools accumulating over millennia. Our results also suggest that more than half of the Hg stock in the sites with the longest time since fire originates from deposition predating the onset of large-scale anthropogenic emissions. This study emphasizes the importance of boreal forest humus soils for Hg storage and reveals that this pool is likely to persist over millennial time scales in the prolonged absence of fire.

  3. Analytics to Better Interpret and Use Large Amounts of Heterogeneous Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathews, T. J.; Baskin, W. E.; Rinsland, P. L.

    2014-12-01

    Data scientists at NASA's Atmospheric Science Data Center (ASDC) are seasoned software application developers who have worked with the creation, archival, and distribution of large datasets (multiple terabytes and larger). In order for ASDC data scientists to effectively implement the most efficient processes for cataloging and organizing data access applications, they must be intimately familiar with data contained in the datasets with which they are working. Key technologies that are critical components to the background of ASDC data scientists include: large RBMSs (relational database management systems) and NoSQL databases; web services; service-oriented architectures; structured and unstructured data access; as well as processing algorithms. However, as prices of data storage and processing decrease, sources of data increase, and technologies advance - granting more people to access to data at real or near-real time - data scientists are being pressured to accelerate their ability to identify and analyze vast amounts of data. With existing tools this is becoming exceedingly more challenging to accomplish. For example, NASA Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) alone grew from having just over 4PBs of data in 2009 to nearly 6PBs of data in 2011. This amount then increased to roughly10PBs of data in 2013. With data from at least ten new missions to be added to the ESDIS holdings by 2017, the current volume will continue to grow exponentially and drive the need to be able to analyze more data even faster. Though there are many highly efficient, off-the-shelf analytics tools available, these tools mainly cater towards business data, which is predominantly unstructured. Inadvertently, there are very few known analytics tools that interface well to archived Earth science data, which is predominantly heterogeneous and structured. This presentation will identify use cases for data analytics from an Earth science perspective in order to begin to identify

  4. Calcite-accumulating large sulfur bacteria of the genus Achromatium in Sippewissett Salt Marsh

    PubMed Central

    Salman, Verena; Yang, Tingting; Berben, Tom; Klein, Frieder; Angert, Esther; Teske, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Large sulfur bacteria of the genus Achromatium are exceptional among Bacteria and Archaea as they can accumulate high amounts of internal calcite. Although known for more than 100 years, they remain uncultured, and only freshwater populations have been studied so far. Here we investigate a marine population of calcite-accumulating bacteria that is primarily found at the sediment surface of tide pools in a salt marsh, where high sulfide concentrations meet oversaturated oxygen concentrations during the day. Dynamic sulfur cycling by phototrophic sulfide-oxidizing and heterotrophic sulfate-reducing bacteria co-occurring in these sediments creates a highly sulfidic environment that we propose induces behavioral differences in the Achromatium population compared with reported migration patterns in a low-sulfide environment. Fluctuating intracellular calcium/sulfur ratios at different depths and times of day indicate a biochemical reaction of the salt marsh Achromatium to diurnal changes in sedimentary redox conditions. We correlate this calcite dynamic with new evidence regarding its formation/mobilization and suggest general implications as well as a possible biological function of calcite accumulation in large bacteria in the sediment environment that is governed by gradients. Finally, we propose a new taxonomic classification of the salt marsh Achromatium based on their adaptation to a significantly different habitat than their freshwater relatives, as indicated by their differential behavior as well as phylogenetic distance on 16S ribosomal RNA gene level. In future studies, whole-genome characterization and additional ecophysiological factors could further support the distinctive position of salt marsh Achromatium. PMID:25909974

  5. High-speed readout method of ID information on a large amount of electronic tags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagate, Wataru; Sasabe, Masahiro; Nakano, Hirotaka

    2006-10-01

    An electronic tag such as RFID is expected to create new services that cannot be achieved by the traditional bar code. Specifically, in a distribution system, simultaneous readout method of a large amount of electronic tags embedded in products is required to reduce costs and time. In this paper, we propose novel methods, called Response Probability Control (RPC), to accomplish this requirement. In RPC, a reader firstly sends an ID request to electronic tags in its access area. It succeeds reading information on a tag only if other tags do not respond. To improve the readout efficiency, the reader appropriately controls the response probability in accordance with the number of tags. However, this approach cannot entirely avoid a collision of multiple responses. When a collision occurs, ID information is lost. To reduce the amount of lost data, we divide the ID registration process into two steps. The reader first gathers the former part of the original ID, called temporal ID, according to the above method. After obtaining the temporal ID, it sequentially collects the latter part of ID, called remaining ID, based on the temporal ID. Note that we determine the number of bits of a temporal ID in accordance with the number of tags in the access area so that each tag can be distinguishable. Through simulation experiments, we evaluate RPC in terms of the readout efficiency. Simulation results show that RPC can accomplish the readout efficiency 1.17 times higher than the traditional method where there are a thousand of electronic tags whose IDs are 128 bits.

  6. Evaluation of Flush-Mounted, S-Duct Inlets With Large Amounts of Boundary Layer Ingestion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berrier, Bobby L.; Morehouse, Melissa B.

    2003-01-01

    A new high Reynolds number test capability for boundary layer ingesting inlets has been developed for the NASA Langley Research Center 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel. Using this new capability, an experimental investigation of four S-duct inlet configurations with large amounts of boundary layer ingestion (nominal boundary layer thickness of about 40% of inlet height) was conducted at realistic operating conditions (high subsonic Mach numbers and full-scale Reynolds numbers). The objectives of this investigation were to 1) develop a new high Reynolds number, boundary-layer ingesting inlet test capability, 2) evaluate the performance of several boundary layer ingesting S-duct inlets, 3) provide a database for CFD tool validation, and 4) provide a baseline inlet for future inlet flow-control studies. Tests were conducted at Mach numbers from 0.25 to 0.83, Reynolds numbers (based on duct exit diameter) from 5.1 million to a fullscale value of 13.9 million, and inlet mass-flow ratios from 0.39 to 1.58 depending on Mach number. Results of this investigation indicate that inlet pressure recovery generally decreased and inlet distortion generally increased with increasing Mach number. Except at low Mach numbers, increasing inlet mass-flow increased pressure recovery and increased distortion. Increasing the amount of boundary layer ingestion (by decreasing inlet throat height and increasing inlet throat width) or ingesting a boundary layer with a distorted profile decreased pressure recovery and increased distortion. Finally, increasing Reynolds number had almost no effect on inlet distortion but increased inlet recovery by about one-half percent at a Mach number near cruise.

  7. Evaluation of Flush-Mounted, S-Duct Inlets with Large Amounts of Boundary Layer Ingestion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berrier, Bobby L.; Morehouse, Melissa B.

    2003-01-01

    A new high Reynolds number test capability for boundary layer ingesting inlets has been developed for the NASA Langley Research Center 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel. Using this new capability, an experimental investigation of four S-duct inlet configurations with large amounts of boundary layer ingestion (nominal boundary layer thickness of about 40% of inlet height) was conducted at realistic operating conditions (high subsonic Mach numbers and full-scale Reynolds numbers). The objectives of this investigation were to 1) provide a database for CFD tool validation on boundary layer ingesting inlets operating at realistic conditions and 2) provide a baseline inlet for future inlet flow-control studies. Tests were conducted at Mach numbers from 0.25 to 0.83, Reynolds numbers (based on duct exit diameter) from 5.1 million to a full-scale value of 13.9 million, and inlet mass-flow ratios from 0.39 to 1.58 depending on Mach number. Results of this investigation indicate that inlet pressure recovery generally decreased and inlet distortion generally increased with increasing Mach number. Except at low Mach numbers, increasing inlet mass-flow increased pressure recovery and increased distortion. Increasing the amount of boundary layer ingestion (by decreasing inlet throat height) or ingesting a boundary layer with a distorted (adverse) profile decreased pressure recovery and increased distortion. Finally, increasing Reynolds number had almost no effect on inlet distortion but increased inlet recovery by about one-half percent at a Mach number near cruise.

  8. How to extract clinically useful information from large amount of dialysis related stored data.

    PubMed

    Vito, Domenico; Casagrande, Giustina; Bianchi, Camilla; Costantino, Maria L

    2015-01-01

    The basic storage infrastructure used to gather data from the technological evolution also in the healthcare field was leading to the storing into public or private repository of even higher quantities of data related to patients and their pathological evolution. Big data techniques are spreading also in medical research. By these techniques is possible extract information from complex heterogeneous sources, realizing longitudinal studies focused to correlate the patient status with biometric parameters. In our work we develop a common data infrastructure involving 4 clinical dialysis centers between Lombardy and Switzerland. The common platform has been build to store large amount of clinical data related to 716 dialysis session of 70 patient. The platform is made up by a combination of a MySQL(®) database (Dialysis Database) and a MATLAB-based mining library (Dialysis MATlib). A statistical analysis of these data has been performed on the data gathered. These analyses led to the development of two clinical indexes, representing an example of transformation of big data into clinical information.

  9. Distribution of mercury in metallothionein-null mice after exposure to mercury vapor: amount of metallothionein isoform does not affect accumulation of mercury in the brain.

    PubMed

    Yasutake, Akira; Yoshida, Minoru; Honda, Akiko; Watanabe, Chiho; Satoh, Masahiko

    2012-01-01

    To examine the contribution of metallothionein (MT) to mercury accumulation in mouse tissues, 129 strain female mice and MT null mice were exposed to metallic mercury vapor at a sub-toxic level, and Hg levels in the brain, kidney and liver were determined on 1, 3 and 7 days after the exposure. After exposure to mercury vapor, significant Hg accumulation was observed in the brains of wild-type and MT-I/II null and MT-III null mice, as well as in the liver and kidneys. No strain difference was observed in the tissue Hg accumulations 24 hr after the exposure except for the kidneys, where the highest accumulation was found in MT-III null mice. Although the brains of MT-III null mice showed slightly higher Hg accumulation than the other two strains, no significant difference was observed except in the cerebrum on Day 7. Gel chromatograms of cerebrum soluble fractions revealed that a significant amount of Hg existed as an MT-bound form in all the mouse strains. On the other hand, MT-bound Hg was found as a minor fraction in soluble fractions of the kidneys and livers in wild-type and MT-III null mice. Despite a significant strain difference in total MT levels in the cerebrum, there was no difference among the three strains in the amount of Hg accumulated in the cerebrum and its distribution rates in MT fractions. The present study demonstrated that brain uptake of Hg(0) and its accumulation as Hg(2+) did not depend on the amount of MT isoform in the tissue, at least in the early phase.

  10. Biological soil crusts emit large amounts of NO and HONO affecting the nitrogen cycle in drylands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamm, Alexandra; Wu, Dianming; Ruckteschler, Nina; Rodríguez-Caballero, Emilio; Steinkamp, Jörg; Meusel, Hannah; Elbert, Wolfgang; Behrendt, Thomas; Sörgel, Matthias; Cheng, Yafang; Crutzen, Paul J.; Su, Hang; Pöschl, Ulrich; Weber, Bettina

    2016-04-01

    Dryland systems currently cover ˜40% of the world's land surface and are still expanding as a consequence of human impact and global change. In contrast to that, information on their role in global biochemical processes is limited, probably induced by the presumption that their sparse vegetation cover plays a negligible role in global balances. However, spaces between the sparse shrubs are not bare, but soils are mostly covered by biological soil crusts (biocrusts). These biocrust communities belong to the oldest life forms, resulting from an assembly between soil particles and cyanobacteria, lichens, bryophytes, and algae plus heterotrophic organisms in varying proportions. Depending on the dominating organism group, cyanobacteria-, lichen-, and bryophyte-dominated biocrusts are distinguished. Besides their ability to restrict soil erosion they fix atmospheric carbon and nitrogen, and by doing this they serve as a nutrient source in strongly depleted dryland ecosystems. In this study we show that a fraction of the nitrogen fixed by biocrusts is metabolized and subsequently returned to the atmosphere in the form of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous acid (HONO). These gases affect the radical formation and oxidizing capacity within the troposphere, thus being of particular interest to atmospheric chemistry. Laboratory measurements using dynamic chamber systems showed that dark cyanobacteria-dominated crusts emitted the largest amounts of NO and HONO, being ˜20 times higher than trace gas fluxes of nearby bare soil. We showed that these nitrogen emissions have a biogenic origin, as emissions of formerly strongly emitting samples almost completely ceased after sterilization. By combining laboratory, field, and satellite measurement data we made a best estimate of global annual emissions amounting to ˜1.1 Tg of NO-N and ˜0.6 Tg of HONO-N from biocrusts. This sum of 1.7 Tg of reactive nitrogen emissions equals ˜20% of the soil release under natural vegetation according

  11. Acidophilic Green Alga Pseudochlorella sp. YKT1 Accumulates High Amount of Lipid Droplets under a Nitrogen-Depleted Condition at a Low-pH

    PubMed Central

    Hirooka, Shunsuke; Higuchi, Sumio; Uzuka, Akihiro; Nozaki, Hisayoshi; Miyagishima, Shin-ya

    2014-01-01

    Microalgal storage lipids are considered to be a promising source for next-generation biofuel feedstock. However, microalgal biodiesel is not yet economically feasible due to the high cost of production. One of the reasons for this is that the use of a low-cost open pond system is currently limited because of the unavoidable contamination with undesirable organisms. Extremophiles have an advantage in culturing in an open pond system because they grow in extreme environments toxic to other organisms. In this study, we isolated the acidophilic green alga Pseudochlorella sp. YKT1 from sulfuric acid mine drainage in Nagano Prefecture, Japan. The vegetative cells of YKT1 display the morphological characteristics of Trebouxiophyceae and molecular phylogenetic analyses indicated it to be most closely related to Pseudochlorella pringsheimii. The optimal pH and temperature for the growth of YKT1 are pH 3.0–5.0 and a temperature 20–25°C, respectively. Further, YKT1 is able to grow at pH 2.0 and at 32°C, which corresponds to the usual water temperature in the outdoors in summer in many countries. YKT1 accumulates a large amount of storage lipids (∼30% of dry weigh) under a nitrogen-depleted condition at low-pH (pH 3.0). These results show that acidophilic green algae will be useful for industrial applications by acidic open culture systems. PMID:25221913

  12. Accumulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fenwick, J. R.; Karigan, G. H. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An accumulator particularly adapted for use in controlling the pressure of a stream of fluid in its liquid phase utilizing the fluid in its gaseous phase was designed. The accumulator is characterized by a shell defining a pressure chamber having an entry throat for a liquid and adapted to be connected in contiguous relation with a selected conduit having a stream of fluid flowing through the conduit in its liquid phase. A pressure and volume stabilization tube, including an array of pressure relief perforations is projected into the chamber with the perforations disposed adjacent to the entry throat for accommodating a discharge of the fluid in either gaseous or liquid phases, while a gas inlet and liquid to gas conversion system is provided, the chamber is connected with a source of the fluid for continuously pressuring the chamber for controlling the pressure of the stream of liquid.

  13. Behavioral responses of cotton mice (Peromyscus gossypinus) to large amounts of coarse woody debris.

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkleman, Travis M.

    2004-08-01

    Hinkleman, Travis M. 2004. MS Thesis. Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina. 62 pp. Coarse woody debris (CWD) is any log, snag, or downed branch >10 cm in diameter. As a major structural feature of forest ecosystems, CWD serves as an important habitat component for a variety of organisms. Rodents frequently use CWD for travel routes and daytime refugia. Although rodents are known to use CWD extensively and selectively, the use and selection of CWD by rodents may vary according to the abundance of CWD. The purpose of this project was to determine the effect of CWD abundance on the habitat use patterns of a common terrestrial rodent, the cotton mouse (Peromyscus gossypinus). I tracked cotton mice with fluorescent pigments and radiotelemetry in 6 plots, situated in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands, with manipulated levels of woody debris. Treatment plots had 6x the amount of woody debris as control plots. I determined log use and movement patterns from the paths produced by powder-tracking, and I identified daytime refugia by radio-tracking. Travel along logs was almost exclusively associated with the surface of logs (91%). The proportion of a movement path associated with logs was not the best predictor of path complexity; rather, the sex of the individual was the only significant indicator of relative displacement (i.e., males moved farther from the point of release than females) and vegetation cover was the only significant predictor of mean turning angle (i.e., increasing vegetation cover yielded more convoluted paths). Mice used logs to a greater extent on treatment plots (23.7%) than mice on control plots (4.8%). Mice on treatment plots used logs with less decay, less ground contact, and more bark than logs used by mice on control plots. Differences in log use patterns were largely a result of the attributes of available logs, but mice used logs selectively on treatment plots. Refuges were highly associated with woody debris, including refuges in rotting

  14. Energy expended and knee joint load accumulated when walking, running, or standing for the same amount of time.

    PubMed

    Miller, Ross H; Edwards, W Brent; Deluzio, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests prolonged bouts of sitting are unhealthy, and some public health messages have recently recommended replacing sitting with more standing. However, the relative benefits of replacing sitting with standing compared to locomotion are not known. Specifically, the biomechanical consequences of standing compared to other sitting-alternatives like walking and running are not well known and are usually not considered in studies on sitting. We compared the total knee joint load accumulated (TKJLA) and the total energy expended (TEE) when performing either walking, running, or standing for a common exercise bout duration (30 min). Walking and running both (unsurprisingly) had much more TEE than standing (+300% and +1100%, respectively). TKJLA was similar between walking and standing and 74% greater in running. The results suggest that standing is a poor replacement for walking and running if one wishes to increases energy expenditure, and may be particularly questionable for use in individuals at-risk for knee osteoarthritis due to its surprisingly high TKJLA (just as high as walking, 56% of the load in running) and the type of loading (continuous compression) it places on cartilage. However, standing has health benefits as an "inactivity interrupter" that extend beyond its direct energy expenditure. We suggest that future studies on standing as an inactivity intervention consider the potential biomechanical consequences of standing more often throughout the day, particularly in the case of prolonged bouts of standing.

  15. Effect of large amounts of dihydroxyacetone in the diet of rats.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapira, J.

    1972-01-01

    Experiments in which dihydroxyacetone (DHA) was used as nutrient for growing rats have not fulfilled the expectation that DHA could be used as a significant portion of the diet. Any attempt to treat major cerebral damage by prolonged administration of DHA is strongly contraindicated. For this reason, regenerated formose mixtures containing appreciable amounts of DHA will not be suitable as a significant portion of the diet for the crews of long-duration space missions.

  16. The ATLAS Eventindex: an event catalogue for experiments collecting large amounts of data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barberis, D.; Cranshaw, J.; Dimitrov, G.; Favareto, A.; Fernández Casaní, Á.; González de la Hoz, S.; Hřivnáč, J.; Malon, D.; Nowak, M.; Salt Cairols, J.; Sánchez, J.; Sorokoletov, R.; Zhang, Q.; Atlas Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    Modern scientific experiments collect vast amounts of data that must be catalogued to meet multiple use cases and search criteria. In particular, high-energy physics experiments currently in operation produce several billion events per year. A database with the references to the files including each event in every stage of processing is necessary in order to retrieve the selected events from data storage systems. The ATLAS EventIndex project is studying the best way to store the necessary information using modern data storage technologies (Hadoop, HBase etc.) that allow saving in memory key-value pairs and select the best tools to support this application from the point of view of performance, robustness and ease of use. This paper describes the initial design and performance tests and the project evolution towards deployment and operation during 2014.

  17. 26 CFR 301.6867-1 - Presumptions where owner of large amount of cash is not identified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... cash is not identified. 301.6867-1 Section 301.6867-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE..., Bankruptcy, and Receiverships Jeopardy § 301.6867-1 Presumptions where owner of large amount of cash is not... 6861 (relating to jeopardy assessments), if cash in excess of $10,000 is found in the...

  18. 18O depletion in monsoon rain relates to large scale organized convection rather than the amount of rainfall.

    PubMed

    Lekshmy, P R; Midhun, M; Ramesh, R; Jani, R A

    2014-07-11

    Oxygen isotopic variations in rainfall proxies such as tree rings and cave calcites from South and East Asia have been used to reconstruct past monsoon variability, mainly through the amount effect: the observed (18)O depletion of rain with increasing amount, manifested as a negative correlation of the monthly amount of tropical rain with its δ(18)O, both measured at the same station. This relation exhibits a significant spatial variability, and at some sites (especially North-East and peninsular India), the rainfall proxies are not interpretable by this effect. We show here that relatively higher (18)O-depletion in monsoon rain is not related necessarily to its amount, but rather, to large scale organized convection. Presenting δ(18)O analyses of ~654 samples of daily rain collected during summer 2012 across 9 stations in Kerala, southern India, we demonstrate that although the cross correlations between the amounts of rainfall in different stations is insignificant, the δ(18)O values of rain exhibit highly coherent variations (significant at P = 0.05). Significantly more (18)O-depletion in the rain is caused by clouds only during events with a large spatial extent of clouds observable over in the south eastern Arabian Sea.

  19. HIV populations are large and accumulate high genetic diversity in a nonlinear fashion.

    PubMed

    Maldarelli, Frank; Kearney, Mary; Palmer, Sarah; Stephens, Robert; Mican, JoAnn; Polis, Michael A; Davey, Richard T; Kovacs, Joseph; Shao, Wei; Rock-Kress, Diane; Metcalf, Julia A; Rehm, Catherine; Greer, Sarah E; Lucey, Daniel L; Danley, Kristen; Alter, Harvey; Mellors, John W; Coffin, John M

    2013-09-01

    HIV infection is characterized by rapid and error-prone viral replication resulting in genetically diverse virus populations. The rate of accumulation of diversity and the mechanisms involved are under intense study to provide useful information to understand immune evasion and the development of drug resistance. To characterize the development of viral diversity after infection, we carried out an in-depth analysis of single genome sequences of HIV pro-pol to assess diversity and divergence and to estimate replicating population sizes in a group of treatment-naive HIV-infected individuals sampled at single (n = 22) or multiple, longitudinal (n = 11) time points. Analysis of single genome sequences revealed nonlinear accumulation of sequence diversity during the course of infection. Diversity accumulated in recently infected individuals at rates 30-fold higher than in patients with chronic infection. Accumulation of synonymous changes accounted for most of the diversity during chronic infection. Accumulation of diversity resulted in population shifts, but the rates of change were low relative to estimated replication cycle times, consistent with relatively large population sizes. Analysis of changes in allele frequencies revealed effective population sizes that are substantially higher than previous estimates of approximately 1,000 infectious particles/infected individual. Taken together, these observations indicate that HIV populations are large, diverse, and slow to change in chronic infection and that the emergence of new mutations, including drug resistance mutations, is governed by both selection forces and drift.

  20. A large-scale genetic screen for mutants with altered salicylic acid accumulation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yezhang; Shaholli, Danjela; Mou, Zhonglin

    2014-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a key defense signal molecule against biotrophic and hemibiotrophic pathogens in plants, but how SA is synthesized in plant cells still remains elusive. Identification of new components involved in pathogen-induced SA accumulation would help address this question. To this end, we performed a large-scale genetic screen for mutants with altered SA accumulation during pathogen infection in Arabidopsis using a bacterial biosensor Acinetobacter sp. ADPWH_lux-based SA quantification method. A total of 35,000 M2 plants in the npr1-3 mutant background have been individually analyzed for the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola (Psm) ES4326-induced SA accumulation. Among the mutants isolated, 19 had SA levels lower than npr1 (sln) and two exhibited increased SA accumulation in npr1 (isn). Complementation tests revealed that seven of the sln mutants are new alleles of eds5/sid1, two are sid2/eds16 alleles, one is allelic to pad4, and the remaining seven sln and two isn mutants are new non-allelic SA accumulation mutants. Interestingly, a large group of mutants (in the npr1-3 background), in which Psm ES4326-induced SA levels were similar to those in the wild-type Columbia plants, were identified, suggesting that the signaling network fine-tuning pathogen-induced SA accumulation is complex. We further characterized the sln1 single mutant and found that Psm ES4326-induced defense responses were compromised in this mutant. These defense response defects could be rescued by exogenous SA, suggesting that SLN1 functions upstream of SA. The sln1 mutation was mapped to a region on the north arm of chromosome I, which contains no known genes regulating pathogen-induced SA accumulation, indicating that SLN1 likely encodes a new regulator of SA biosynthesis. Thus, the new sln and isn mutants identified in this genetic screen are valuable for dissecting the molecular mechanisms underlying pathogen-induced SA accumulation in plants.

  1. Antibody recognition of the glycoprotein g of viral haemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) purified in large amounts from insect larvae

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There are currently no purification methods capable of producing the large amounts of fish rhabdoviral glycoprotein G (gpG) required for diagnosis and immunisation purposes or for studying structure and molecular mechanisms of action of this molecule (ie. pH-dependent membrane fusion). As a result of the unavailability of large amounts of the gpG from viral haemorrhagic septicaemia rhabdovirus (VHSV), one of the most dangerous viruses affecting cultured salmonid species, research interests in this field are severely hampered. Previous purification methods to obtain recombinant gpG from VHSV in E. coli, yeast and baculovirus grown in insect cells have not produced soluble conformations or acceptable yields. The development of large-scale purification methods for gpGs will also further research into other fish rhabdoviruses, such as infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), spring carp viremia virus (SVCV), hirame rhabdovirus (HIRRV) and snakehead rhabdovirus (SHRV). Findings Here we designed a method to produce milligram amounts of soluble VHSV gpG. Only the transmembrane and carboxy terminal-deleted (amino acid 21 to 465) gpG was efficiently expressed in insect larvae. Recognition of G21-465 by ß-mercaptoethanol-dependent neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (N-MAbs) and pH-dependent recognition by sera from VHSV-hyperimmunized or VHSV-infected rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was demonstrated. Conclusions Given that the purified G21-465 conserved some of its most important properties, this method might be suitable for the large-scale production of fish rhabdoviral gpGs for use in diagnosis, fusion and antigenicity studies. PMID:21693048

  2. Discovering meaningful information from large amounts of environment and health data to reduce uncertainties in formulating environmental policies.

    PubMed

    Lee, I-Nong; Chang, Wen-Chung; Hong, Yu-Jue; Liao, Shang-Chih

    2006-12-01

    This study uses knowledge discovery concepts to analyze large amounts of data step by step for the purpose of assisting in the formulation of environmental policy. We performed data cleansing and extracting from existing nation-wide databases, and used regression and classification techniques to analyze the data. The current water hardness in Kaohsiung, Taiwan contributes to the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) but exacerbates the development of renal stones (RS). However, to focus on water hardness alone to control RS would not be cost effective at all, because the existing database parameters do not adequately allow for a clear understanding of RS. Analysis of huge amounts of data can most often turn up the most reliable and convincing results and the use of existing databases can be cost-effective.

  3. [Water-holding characteristics and accumulation amount of the litters under main forest types in Xinglong Mountain of Gansu, Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Wei, Qiang; Ling, Lei; Zhang, Guang-zhong; Yan, Pei-bin; Tao, Ji-xin; Chai, Chun-shan; Xue, Rui

    2011-10-01

    By the methods of field survey and laboratory soaking extraction, an investigation was conducted on the accumulation amount, water-holding capacity, water-holding rate, and water-absorption rate of the litters under six main forests (Picea wilsonii forest, P. wilsonii - Betula platyphlla forest, Populus davidiana - B. platyphlla forest, Cotonester multiglorus - Rosa xanthina shrubs, Pinus tabulaeformis forest, and Larix principis-rupprechtii forest) in Xinglong Mountain of Gansu. The accumulation amount of the litters under the forests was 13.40-46.32 t hm(-2), and in the order of P. tabulaeformis forest > P. wilsonii - B. platyphlla forest > L. principis-rupprechtii forest > P. wilsonii forest > C. multiglorus-R. xanthina shrubs > P. davidiana - B. platyphlla forest. The litter storage of coniferous forests was greater than that of broadleaved forests, and the storage percentage of semi-decomposed litters was all higher than that of un-decomposed litters. The maximum water-holding rate of the litters was 185.5%-303.6%, being the highest for L. principis-rupprechtii forest and the lowest for P. tabulaeformis forest. The litters' water-holding capacity changed logarithmically with their soaking time. For coniferous forests, un-decomposed litters had a lower water-holding rate than semi-decomposed litters; whereas for broadleaved forests, it was in adverse. The maximum water-holding capacity of the litters varied from 3.94 mm to 8.59 mm, and was in the order of P. tabulaeformis forest > L. principis-rupprechtii forest > P. wilsonii - B. platyphlla forest > P. wilsonii forest > C. multiglorus - R. xanthina shrubs > P. davidiana - B. platyphlla forest. The litters' water-holding capacity also changed logarithmically with immersing time, and the half-decomposed litters had a larger water-holding capacity than un-decomposed litters. The water-absorption rate of the litters presented a power function with immersing time. Within the first one hour of immersed in water, the

  4. The negative binomial-Lindley distribution as a tool for analyzing crash data characterized by a large amount of zeros.

    PubMed

    Lord, Dominique; Geedipally, Srinivas Reddy

    2011-09-01

    The modeling of crash count data is a very important topic in highway safety. As documented in the literature, given the characteristics associated with crash data, transportation safety analysts have proposed a significant number of analysis tools, statistical methods and models for analyzing such data. Among the data issues, we find the one related to crash data which have a large amount of zeros and a long or heavy tail. It has been found that using this kind of dataset could lead to erroneous results or conclusions if the wrong statistical tools or methods are used. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to introduce a new distribution, known as the negative binomial-Lindley (NB-L), which has very recently been introduced for analyzing data characterized by a large number of zeros. The NB-L offers the advantage of being able to handle this kind of datasets, while still maintaining similar characteristics as the traditional negative binomial (NB). In other words, the NB-L is a two-parameter distribution and the long-term mean is never equal to zero. To examine this distribution, simulated and observed data were used. The results show that the NB-L can provide a better statistical fit than the traditional NB for datasets that contain a large amount of zeros.

  5. Impacts of Large Amounts of Wind Power on Design and Operation of Power Systems; Results of IEA Collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, B.; Ela, E.; Holttinen, H.; Meibom, P.; Orths, A.; O'Malley, M.; Ummels, B. C.; Tande, J.; Estanqueiro, A.; Gomez, E.; Smith, J. C.

    2008-06-01

    There are a multitude of studies completed and ongoing related to the cost of wind integration. However, the results are not easy to compare. An international forum for exchange of knowledge of power system impacts of wind power has been formed under the IEA Implementing Agreement on Wind Energy. IEA WIND R&D Task 25 on “Design and Operation of Power Systems with Large Amounts of Wind Power” produced a state-of-the-art report in October 2007, where the most relevant wind-power grid integration studies were analyzed, especially regarding methodologies and input data. This paper summarizes the results from 18 case studies, with discussion on differences in methodology as well as issues that have been identified to impact the cost of wind integration.

  6. Impacts of Large Amounts of Wind Power on Design and Operation of Power Systems, Results of IEA Collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Holttinen, H.; Meibom, P.; Orths, A.; O'Malley, M.; Ummels, B. C.; Tande, J. O.; Estanqueiro, A.; Gomez, E.; Smith, J. C.; Ela, E.

    2008-01-01

    There are a multitude of studies completed and ongoing related to the cost of wind integration. However, the results are not easy to compare. An international forum for exchange of knowledge of power system impacts of wind power has been formed under the IEA Implementing Agreement on Wind Energy. IEA WIND R and D Task 25 on 'Design and Operation of Power Systems with Large Amounts of Wind Power' produced a state-of-the-art report in October 2007, where the most relevant wind-power grid integration studies were analyzed, especially regarding methodologies and input data. This paper summarizes the results from 18 case studies, with discussion on differences in methodology as well as issues that have been identified to impact the cost of wind integration.

  7. Precisions Measurement for the Grasp of Welding Deformation amount of Time Series for Large-Scale Industrial Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, R.; Hamada, K.; Hirata, N.; Tamura, R.; Nishi, N.

    2015-05-01

    As well as the BIM of quality management in the construction industry, demand for quality management of the manufacturing process of the member is higher in shipbuilding field. The time series of three-dimensional deformation of the each process, and are accurately be grasped strongly demanded. In this study, we focused on the shipbuilding field, will be examined three-dimensional measurement method. The shipyard, since a large equipment and components are intricately arranged in a limited space, the installation of the measuring equipment and the target is limited. There is also the element to be measured is moved in each process, the establishment of the reference point for time series comparison is necessary to devise. In this paper will be discussed method for measuring the welding deformation in time series by using a total station. In particular, by using a plurality of measurement data obtained from this approach and evaluated the amount of deformation of each process.

  8. Large-scale structures in tetrahydrofuran-water mixture with a trace amount of antioxidant butylhydroxytoluene (BHT).

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiyong; Cheng, He; Li, Junyu; Hao, Jinkun; Zhang, Li; Hammouda, Boualem; Han, Charles C

    2011-06-23

    Author: Because of the closed-loop phase diagram of tetrahydrofuran (THF)-water mixture, THF aqueous solution naturally exhibits concentration fluctuations near the phase boundary. Besides the fast mode induced by concentration fluctuations, the 4.5% mole fraction THF aqueous solution is also characterized by a slow mode. The existence of a trace amount of butylhydroxytoluene (BHT) antioxidant in commercial THF strongly influences the slow mode in 4.5% mole fraction THF aqueous solution. A core-shell structure with a BHT core and a shell made from THF-rich THF-D(2)O mixture was identified by the combination of dynamic laser light scattering (DLS) and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). BHT is hydrophobic, stabilized by a THF-rich domain in THF aqueous solution and acts as a tracer to make the large-scale structure (slow mode) "visible" through SANS because of its larger contrast with the solvent. In contrast, this large-scale structure was almost not detectable by SANS when BHT was removed from the THF-D(2)O mixture. Combined UV-vis, DLS, and static light scattering (SLS) indicated that slow-moving objects do exist and that their sizes almost do not change, but their concentration decreases to a small but nonzero value at the infinite dilution limit. The origin of the elusive large-scale structure at zero BHT concentration is still not clear, but it might be associated with some hydrophobic impurities or nanobubbles. However, a polydisperse sphere model of ∼8.5% mole fraction THF-D(2)O mixture can fit the structure with a radius of ∼100 nm, which gives the temperature-dependent low-q SANS profiles of 4.5% mole fraction THF aqueous solution at zero BHT concentration.

  9. The detection of large amounts of cool, x ray absorbing gas in distant clusters of galaxies. What does this mean?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Qingde; Stocke, John T.

    1993-01-01

    We present an x-ray spectral study of 12 distant (z = 0.17-0.54) rich clusters of galaxies observed with the Einstein Observatory Imaging Proportional Counter. These x-ray spectral data show evidence for substantial excess absorptions beyond those expected in the galaxy, indicating the presence of large amounts of x-ray absorbing cool gas in these distant clusters. The mean value of the excess absorptions corresponds to an absorbing gas column density approximately greater than 10(exp 21)/sq cm. We calculate the x-ray luminosities of the clusters with observed fluxes only in the 0.8-3.5 keV band where the fluxes are less effected by the absorptions, and use the temperature-to-luminosity correlation (known only for nearby clusters) to estimate the temperatures of the hot intracluster medium (ICM) in the distant clusters. These temperature estimates, together with the spectral fits, provide further constraints on the column densities in the individual clusters. For the cluster CL 0016+16, the lower limit on the column density is found to be 8 x 10(exp 20)/sq cm at the 99 percent confidence limit. We also show that the ratio of the temperature obtained from the spectral fit to the temperature expected from the correlation tends to decrease with increasing look-back time, indicating possible temperature evolution of the hot ICM in the recent past. The inclusion of this evolutionary effect further increases the absorptions required in fitting the spectra.

  10. Design and Operation of Power Systems with Large Amounts of Wind Power, First Results of IEA Collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Holttinen, H.; Meibom, P.; Orths, A.; Van Hulle, F.; Ensslin, C.; Hofmann, L.; McCann, J.; Pierik, J.; Tande, J. O.; Estanqueiro, A.; Soder, L.; Strbac, G.; Parsons, B.; Smith, J. C.; Lemstrom, B.

    2006-01-01

    An international forum for exchange of knowledge of power system impacts of wind power has been formed under the IEA Implementing Agreement on Wind Energy. The task 'Design and Operation of Power Systems with Large Amounts of Wind Power' will analyse existing case studies from different power systems. There are a multitude of studies made and ongoing related to cost of wind integration. However, the results are not easy to compare. This paper summarizes the results from 10 countries and outlines the studies made at European Wind Energy Association and the European system operators UCTE and ETSO. A more in-depth review of the studies is needed to draw conclusions on the range of integration costs for wind power. A state-of-the art review process of the new IEA collaboration will seek reasons behind the wide range of results for costs of wind integration - definitions for wind penetration, reserves and costs; different power system and load characteristics and operational rules; underlying assumptions on variability and uncertainty of wind, etc.

  11. Soil sampling and isolation of extracellular DNA from large amount of starting material suitable for metabarcoding studies.

    PubMed

    Taberlet, Pierre; Prud'Homme, Sophie M; Campione, Etienne; Roy, Julien; Miquel, Christian; Shehzad, Wasim; Gielly, Ludovic; Rioux, Delphine; Choler, Philippe; Clément, Jean-Christophe; Melodelima, Christelle; Pompanon, François; Coissac, Eric

    2012-04-01

    DNA metabarcoding refers to the DNA-based identification of multiple species from a single complex and degraded environmental sample. We developed new sampling and extraction protocols suitable for DNA metabarcoding analyses targeting soil extracellular DNA. The proposed sampling protocol has been designed to reduce, as much as possible, the influence of local heterogeneity by processing a large amount of soil resulting from the mixing of many different cores. The DNA extraction is based on the use of saturated phosphate buffer. The sampling and extraction protocols were validated first by analysing plant DNA from a set of 12 plots corresponding to four plant communities in alpine meadows, and, second, by conducting pilot experiments on fungi and earthworms. The results of the validation experiments clearly demonstrated that sound biological information can be retrieved when following these sampling and extraction procedures. Such a protocol can be implemented at any time of the year without any preliminary knowledge of specific types of organisms during the sampling. It offers the opportunity to analyse all groups of organisms using a single sampling/extraction procedure and opens the possibility to fully standardize biodiversity surveys.

  12. High Reynolds Number Investigation of a Flush-Mounted, S-Duct Inlet With Large Amounts of Boundary Layer Ingestion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berrier, Bobby L.; Carter, Melissa B.; Allan, Brian G.

    2005-01-01

    An experimental investigation of a flush-mounted, S-duct inlet with large amounts of boundary layer ingestion has been conducted at Reynolds numbers up to full scale. The study was conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel. In addition, a supplemental computational study on one of the inlet configurations was conducted using the Navier-Stokes flow solver, OVERFLOW. Tests were conducted at Mach numbers from 0.25 to 0.83, Reynolds numbers (based on aerodynamic interface plane diameter) from 5.1 million to 13.9 million (full-scale value), and inlet mass-flow ratios from 0.29 to 1.22, depending on Mach number. Results of the study indicated that increasing Mach number, increasing boundary layer thickness (relative to inlet height) or ingesting a boundary layer with a distorted profile decreased inlet performance. At Mach numbers above 0.4, increasing inlet airflow increased inlet pressure recovery but also increased distortion. Finally, inlet distortion was found to be relatively insensitive to Reynolds number, but pressure recovery increased slightly with increasing Reynolds number.

  13. High Reynolds Number Investigation of a Flush Mounted, S-Duct Inlet With Large Amounts of Boundary Layer Ingestion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berrier, Bobby L.; Carter, Melissa B.; Allan, Brian G.

    2005-01-01

    An experimental investigation of a flush-mounted, S-duct inlet with large amounts of boundary layer ingestion has been conducted at Reynolds numbers up to full scale. The study was conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel. In addition, a supplemental computational study on one of the inlet configurations was conducted using the Navier-Stokes flow solver, OVERFLOW. Tests were conducted at Mach numbers from 0.25 to 0.83, Reynolds numbers (based on aerodynamic interface plane diameter) from 5.1 million to 13.9 million (full-scale value), and inlet mass-flow ratios from 0.29 to 1.22, depending on Mach number. Results of the study indicated that increasing Mach number, increasing boundary layer thickness (relative to inlet height) or ingesting a boundary layer with a distorted profile decreased inlet performance. At Mach numbers above 0.4, increasing inlet airflow increased inlet pressure recovery but also increased distortion. Finally, inlet distortion was found to be relatively insensitive to Reynolds number, but pressure recovery increased slightly with increasing Reynolds number.This CD-ROM supplement contains inlet data including: Boundary layer data, Duct static pressure data, performance-AIP (fan face) data, Photos, Tunnel wall P-PTO data and definitions.

  14. Investigation of Cement-Replacement Materials. Report 10. Use of Large Amounts of Possolans in Lean Mass Concrete.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    proportioned with crushed limestone aggregate graded up to 6 in. Five mixtures contained no pozzolan and from 189 to 312 lb of portland cement per cubic...yard. Thirty-three mixtures contained one bag (94 lb) of portland cement per cubic yard with various amounts of one of four pozzolanic materials. A...greater weight of pozzolan than of portland cement was used in 24 of the 33 mixtures. Many of the mixtures appeared to develop ample strength and

  15. Large scale spatial variation of accumulation rate across ice promontory in coastal Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callens, Denis; Matsuoka, Kenichi; Drews, Reinhard; Pattyn, Frank

    2013-04-01

    Ice rises are known to play a key role on ice shelf dynamics. By buttressing the flow, they constrain the flow of ice from the continent toward the ocean. However, since they are small hills surrounded by extremely flat area, they also play a role on atmospheric circulation. However, this impact is relatively unknown. Here, we show evidence that ice rises play a significant role on the wind redistribution of the snow. We report observations of persistent features observed all around the coast of Dronning Maud Land (DML). By analyzing radio-echo sounding data, we identified internal reflection horizons assumed to be isochronous. These layers show a remarkable variability in layer depth at both sides of the ridge, pointing to variability in surface accumulation rates. We show that a strong gradient of accumulation rate exist across, at least, 5 different ice rises in DML : Halvfarryggen Ice Rise nearby Ekstromisen (7°W), 2 ice rises into the Fimbulisen (2°E) and 2 ice rises within the Roi Baudoin Ice Shelf (25°E, Derwael & FranKenny Ice Rise). We used deepness of radar reflector as a proxy of the accumulation rate as long as we removed the influence of ice dynamics. All collected data (both low and high frequency) all show the similar persistent gradient in accumulation rate. Comparison of accumulation rate distribution and meteorological data shows that accumulation rate is twice as high on the wind side of the ridge compared to the lee side, which makes ice rise topography playing a significant role in snow redistribution. This feature is important in term of ice coring and paleoclimatic reconstruction of on time scales of 2 to 20k years.

  16. SN 2010mb: Direct evidence for a supernova interacting with a large amount of hydrogen-free circumstellar material

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Ami, Sagi; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Rabinak, Itay; Yaron, Ofer; Arcavi, Iair; Ofek, Eran O.; Mazzali, Paolo A.; Gnat, Orly; Modjaz, Maryam; Sullivan, Mark; Bildsten, Lars; Poznanski, Dovi; Bloom, Joshua S.; Nugent, Peter E.; Horesh, Assaf; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Perley, Daniel; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Quimby, Robert; Xu, Dong

    2014-04-10

    We present our observations of SN 2010mb, a Type Ic supernova (SN) lacking spectroscopic signatures of H and He. SN 2010mb has a slowly declining light curve (LC) (∼600 days) that cannot be powered by {sup 56}Ni/{sup 56}Co radioactivity, the common energy source for Type Ic SNe. We detect signatures of interaction with hydrogen-free circumstellar material including a blue quasi-continuum and, uniquely, narrow oxygen emission lines that require high densities (∼10{sup 9} cm{sup –3}). From the observed spectra and LC, we estimate that the amount of material involved in the interaction was ∼3 M {sub ☉}. Our observations are in agreement with models of pulsational pair-instability SNe described in the literature.

  17. Heavy metal tolerance and accumulation of Triarrhena sacchariflora, a large amphibious ornamental grass.

    PubMed

    Tian, R N; Yu, S; Wang, S G; Zhang, Y; Tang, J Y; Liu, Y L; Nie, Y H

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we report the tolerance and accumulation of Triarrhena sacchariflora to copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd). The results show that T. sacchariflora had strong tolerance to Cu and Cd stress. The tolerance indexes (TI) were greater than 0.5 for all treatments. The bioconcentration factors (BCFs) to Cu and Cd were both above 1.0. The accumulation ability of roots was stronger than that of shoots, and ranges of BCF to Cu and Cd in roots were 37.89-79.08 and 83.96-300.57, respectively. However, the translocation ability to Cu and Cd was weak, with more than 86% of Cu or Cd accumulated in roots, suggesting an exclusion strategy for heavy metal tolerance. The uptake efficiency (UE) and translocation efficiency (TE) to Cu and Cd increased linearly as the Cu and Cd concentration in the substrate increased. UE was higher than TE, with a maximum of 2,118.90 μg g(-1) root dry weight (DW) (50 mg L(-1) Cu) and 1,847.51 μg g(-1) root DW (20 mg L(-1)Cd), respectively. The results indicate that T. sacchariflora is a Cu- and Cd-tolerant non-hyperaccumulator plant, suggesting that T. sacchariflora could play an important role in phytoremediation in areas contaminated with Cu and Cd.

  18. Isolation and characterization of purple non-sulfur bacteria, Afifella marina, producing large amount of carotenoids from mangrove microhabitats.

    PubMed

    Kar Soon, Tan; Al-Azad, Sujjat; Ransangan, Julian

    2014-08-01

    This study determined the effect of light intensity and photoperiod on the dry cell weight and total amount of carotenoids in four isolates of purple non-sulfur bacteria obtained from shaded and exposed microhabitats of a mangrove ecosystem in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia. The initial isolation of the bacteria was carried out using synthetic 112 medium under anaerobic conditions (2.5 klx) at 30 ± 2°C. On the basis of colony appearance, cell morphology, gram staining, motility test, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing analyses, all four bacteria were identified as Afifella marina. One of the bacterial isolates, designated as Af. marina strain ME, which was extracted from an exposed mud habitat within the mangrove ecosystem, showed the highest yield in dry cell weight (4.32± 0.03 g/l) as well as total carotenoids (0.783 ± 0.002 mg/g dry cell weight). These values were significantly higher than those for dry cell weight (3.77 ± 0.02g/l ) and total carotenoid content (0.706 ± 0.008 mg/g) produced by the isolates from shaded habitats. Further analysis of the effect of 10 levels of light intensity on the growth characteristics of Af. marina strain ME showed that the optimum production of dry cell weight and total carotenoids was achieved at different light intensities and incubation periods. The bacterium produced the highest dry cell weight of 4.98 g/l at 3 klx in 72 h incubation, but the carotenoid production of 0.783 mg/g was achieved at 2.5 klx in 48 h incubation. Subsequent analysis of the effect of photoperiod on the production of dry cell weight and total carotenoids at optimum light intensities (3 and 2.5 klx, respectively) revealed that 18 and 24 h were the optimum photoperiods for the production of dry cell weight and total carotenoids, respectively. The unique growth characteristics of the Af. marina strain ME can be exploited for biotechnology applications.

  19. Monitoring feed amounts in goliath groupers (Epinephelus itajara) using behavioral conditioning in a large mixed species exhibit.

    PubMed

    Kittell, Michele M; Ratte, Magan E

    2008-09-01

    Goliath groupers (Epinephelus itajara) are large charismatic species, which are often residents in public aquaria. This study reports a novel approach to feeding techniques for three resident goliath groupers. Because of the size and depth of their exhibit, the groupers were conditioned to hand feed from aquarists. Daily food logs were recorded including the type and number of species, how often the groupers were fed, and how often they accepted the offered food. Mackerel, herring, and sardine represented the highest percentage of the diet, whereas capelin, squid, and shrimp were the lowest percentage. Over a one-year period, records showed that grouper 1 and grouper 3 ate fairly consistently throughout the year. Grouper 2 had a higher degree of variation in his monthly feeding average with a decrease from May to September and an increase through April. Grouper 1 and grouper 3 took food from the aquarists most consistently with a monthly average of 88.8+/-10.8 and 89.7+/-6.15% of the time, respectively. Grouper 2 was not as consistent, hand feeding at only 74.5+/-16.2% of the time offered. Diet management and behavioral conditioning with the goliath groupers have established consistent husbandry records and therefore better monitoring of the individual fish's long-term health status. Zoo Biol 27:414-419, 2008. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Volcanism on Venus: Large shields and major accumulations of small domes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaber, Gerald G.; Kozak, Richard C.

    1989-01-01

    The outer layers of the Venusian lithosphere appear to dissipate heat from the interior through mantle-driven thermal anomalies (hot spots, swells). As a result, Venus exhibits diverse forms of thin-skin tectonism and magmatic transfer to and extrusion from countless numbers of volcanic centers (e.g., shields, paterae, domes) and volcano-tectonic complexes (e.g., coronae, arachnoids). What is known about the distribution and morphologies of major Venusian shields is summarized, and the evidence for possible structural control of major accumulations as long as 5000 km of small volcanic domes is described.

  1. [A case of acute ethanol intoxication with remarkable hyperglycemia by "ume-shu", a Japanese apricot liquor made with a large amount of sugar].

    PubMed

    Sugano, Takayuki; Kojima, Naoki; Kaneko, Susumu; Ishida, Junro; Terada, Taizo; Inagawa, Hiroshi; Okada, Yasusei

    2002-07-01

    A 19-year-old woman ingested 2.2 L of "umeshu", a Japanese apricot liquor made with a large amount of sugar. She was unconscious and in shock. The estimated blood ethanol concentration was 607 mg/dl, and the blood glucose level was 576 mg/dl. Because her respiration and circulation was highly suppressed, blood purification was indicated. Continuous hemodiafiltration (CHDF) was performed instead of hemodialysis because her hemodynamics was unstable. After CHDF was instituted, her blood glucose level reduced to normal range, and her consciousness became alert. CHDF was effective in eliminating ethanol and stabilizing her hemodynamics within an early stage. Though acute ethanol intoxication is known to inhibit glucogenesis, leading to hypoglycemia, marked hyperglycemia was seen in this case. Ingestion of a large amount of glucose-rich liquor and being in shock seemed to be the causes of hyperglycemia.

  2. Mutation accumulation in real branches: fitness assays for genomic deleterious mutation rate and effect in large-statured plants.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Stewart T; Scofield, Douglas G

    2009-08-01

    The genomic deleterious mutation rate and mean effect are central to the biology and evolution of all species. Large-statured plants, such as trees, are predicted to have high mutation rates due to mitotic mutation and the absence of a sheltered germ line, but their size and generation time has hindered genetic study. We develop and test approaches for estimating deleterious mutation rates and effects from viability comparisons within the canopy of large-statured plants. Our methods, inspired by E. J. Klekowski, are a modification of the classic Bateman-Mukai mutation-accumulation experiment. Within a canopy, cell lineages accumulate mitotic mutations independently. Gametes or zygotes produced at more distal points by these cell lineages contain more mitotic mutations than those at basal locations, and within-flower selfs contain more homozygous mutations than between-flower selfs. The resulting viability differences allow demonstration of lethal mutation with experiments similar in size to assays of genetic load and allow estimates of the rate and effect of new mutations with moderate precision and bias similar to that of classic mutation-accumulation experiments in small-statured organisms. These methods open up new possibilities with the potential to provide valuable new insights into the evolutionary genetics of plants.

  3. On the architecture for the X part of a very large FX correlator using two-accumulator CMACs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapshev, Stepan; Rezaul Hasan, S. M.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents an improved input-buffer architecture for the X part of a very large FX correlator that optimizes memory use to both increase performance and reduce the overall power consumption. The architecture uses an array of two-accumulator CMACs that are reused for different pairs of correlated signals. Using two accumulators in every CMAC allows the processing array to alternately correlate two sets of signal pairs selected in such a way so that they share some or all of the processed data samples. This leads to increased processing bandwidth and a significant reduction of the memory read rate due to not having to update some or all of the processing buffers in every second processing cycle. The overall memory access rate is at most 75 % of that of the single-accumulator CMAC array. This architecture is intended for correlators of very large multi-element radio telescopes such as the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), and is suitable for an ASIC implementation.

  4. Mechanism of Arachidonic Acid Accumulation during Aging in Mortierella alpina: A Large-Scale Label-Free Comparative Proteomics Study.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yadong; Li, Tao; Wu, Na; Ren, Lujing; Jiang, Ling; Ji, Xiaojun; Huang, He

    2016-11-30

    Arachidonic acid (ARA) is an important polyunsaturated fatty acid having various beneficial physiological effects on the human body. The aging of Mortierella alpina has long been known to significantly improve ARA yield, but the exact mechanism is still elusive. Herein, multiple approaches including large-scale label-free comparative proteomics were employed to systematically investigate the mechanism mentioned above. Upon ultrastructural observation, abnormal mitochondria were found to aggregate around shrunken lipid droplets. Proteomics analysis revealed a total of 171 proteins with significant alterations of expression during aging. Pathway analysis suggested that reactive oxygen species (ROS) were accumulated and stimulated the activation of the malate/pyruvate cycle and isocitrate dehydrogenase, which might provide additional NADPH for ARA synthesis. EC 4.2.1.17-hydratase might be a key player in ARA accumulation during aging. These findings provide a valuable resource for efforts to further improve the ARA content in the oil produced by aging M. alpina.

  5. Large accumulation of micro-sized synthetic polymer particles in the sea surface microlayer.

    PubMed

    Song, Young Kyoung; Hong, Sang Hee; Jang, Mi; Kang, Jung-Hoon; Kwon, Oh Youn; Han, Gi Myung; Shim, Won Joon

    2014-08-19

    Determining the exact abundance of microplastics on the sea surface can be susceptible to the sampling method used. The sea surface microlayer (SML) can accumulate light plastic particles, but this has not yet been sampled. The abundance of microplastics in the SML was evaluated off the southern coast of Korea. The SML sampling method was then compared to bulk surface water filtering, a hand net (50 μm mesh), and a Manta trawl net (330 μm mesh). The mean abundances were in the order of SML water > hand net > bulk water > Manta trawl net. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) identified that alkyds and poly(acrylate/styrene) accounted for 81 and 11%, respectively, of the total polymer content of the SML samples. These polymers originated from paints and the fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP) matrix used on ships. Synthetic polymers from ship coatings should be considered to be a source of microplastics. Selecting a suitable sampling method is crucial for evaluating microplastic pollution.

  6. Large accumulations of maize streak virus in the filter chamber and midgut cells of the leafhopper vector Cicadulina mbila.

    PubMed

    Ammar, El-Desouky; Gargani, Daniel; Lett, Jean M; Peterschmitt, Michel

    2009-01-01

    Maize streak virus (MSV, Mastrevirus, Geminiviridae) is persistently transmitted by Cicadulina mbila, apparently without propagation in its leafhopper vector. MSV was shown earlier by quantitative PCR to accumulate in the alimentary canal of C. mbila. We examined the alimentary canals of C. mbila leafhoppers that acquired MSV from diseased plants for various acquisition access periods (AAP) by immunofluorescence confocal laser scanning microscopy (iCLSM) and by immunogold labelling transmission electron microscopy (iTEM). Following a 7-day AAP and a 7-day inoculation period (IP) on healthy seedlings, MSV was detected by iCLSM mainly in the filter chamber and anterior midgut. Using iTEM, large accumulations of MSV particles, usually enclosed in membranous vesicles, were detected only in cells of the midgut, inside and outside the filter chamber, following 14- or 30-day AAPs, and also following 7-day AAP and 7-day IP on healthy plants. No virus was detected in the control non-vector species C. chinaï. Coated pits or vesicles, typical of clathrin-mediated endocytosis, were not observed. We discuss an alternative endocytosis pathway and suggest that the MSV accumulations are stored in endosomes in the midgut epithelial cells.

  7. Evolutionary origins of abnormally large shoot sodium accumulation in nonsaline environments within the Caryophyllales.

    PubMed

    White, Philip J; Bowen, Helen C; Broadley, Martin R; El-Serehy, Hamed A; Neugebauer, Konrad; Taylor, Anna; Thompson, Jacqueline A; Wright, Gladys

    2017-04-01

    The prevalence of sodium (Na)-'hyperaccumulator' species, which exhibit abnormally large shoot sodium concentrations ([Na]shoot ) when grown in nonsaline environments, was investigated among angiosperms in general and within the Caryophyllales order in particular. Shoot Na concentrations were determined in 334 angiosperm species, representing 35 orders, grown hydroponically in a nonsaline solution. Many Caryophyllales species exhibited abnormally large [Na]shoot when grown hydroponically in a nonsaline solution. The bimodal distribution of the log-normal [Na]shoot of species within the Caryophyllales suggested at least two distinct [Na]shoot phenotypes within this order. Mapping the trait of Na-hyperaccumulation onto the phylogenetic relationships between Caryophyllales families, and between subfamilies within the Amaranthaceae, suggested that the trait evolved several times within this order: in an ancestor of the Aizoaceae, but not the Phytolaccaceae or Nyctaginaceae, in ancestors of several lineages formerly classified as Chenopodiaceae, but not in the Amaranthaceae sensu stricto, and in ancestors of species within the Cactaceae, Portulacaceae, Plumbaginaceae, Tamaricaceae and Polygonaceae. In conclusion, a disproportionate number of Caryophyllales species behave as Na-hyperaccumulators, and multiple evolutionary origins of this trait can be identified within this order.

  8. Reversed-phase liquid chromatography using mandelic acid as an eluent for the determination of uranium in presence of large amounts of thorium.

    PubMed

    Jaison, P G; Telmore, Vijay M; Kumar, Pranaw; Aggarwal, Suresh K

    2009-02-27

    Studies were carried out for the separation of uranium (U) and thorium (Th) on reversed-phase (RP) C18 columns using mandelic acid as an eluent. Retention of thorium-mandelate on the unmodified stationary phase was found to be greater than that of uranyl-mandelate under the pH conditions employed. Th retention capacity of the stationary phase was determined as a function of pH and MeOH content of the mobile phase. The optimised parameters allowing U elution prior to Th were utilized for the determination of small amounts of U in the presence of large amounts of Th. The method has been used for the determination of U in synthetic samples with Th/U amount ratios up to 100,000 (10 microg/g of U) without any pre-separation, employing a particulate C18 column. Effect of concentration of ion interaction reagents (IIRs) on the retention was studied to understand the mechanism of adsorption of their mandelate complexes onto the stationary phase. The experiments conducted unequivocally prove that thorium-mandelate complex is neutral whereas uranyl-mandelate complex is anionic in nature.

  9. Large Amounts of Reactivated Virus in Tears Precedes Recurrent Herpes Stromal Keratitis in Stressed Rabbits Latently Infected with Herpes Simplex Virus

    PubMed Central

    Perng, Guey-Chuen; Osorio, Nelson; Jiang, Xianzhi; Geertsema, Roger; Hsiang, Chinhui; Brown, Don; BenMohamed, Lbachir; Wechsler, Steven L.

    2017-01-01

    Aim Recurrent herpetic stromal keratitis (rHSK), due to an immune response to reactivation of herpes simplex virus (HSV-1), can cause corneal blindness. The development of therapeutic interventions such as drugs and vaccines to decrease rHSK have been hampered by the lack of a small and reliable animal model in which rHSK occurs at a high frequency during HSV-1 latency. The aim of this study is to develop a rabbit model of rHSK in which stress from elevated temperatures increases the frequency of HSV-1 reactivations and rHSK. Materials and methods Rabbits latently infected with HSV-1 were subjected to elevated temperatures and the frequency of viral reactivations and rHSK were determined. Results In an experiment in which rabbits latently infected with HSV-1 were subjected to ill-defined stress as a result of failure of the vivarium air conditioning system, reactivation of HSV-1 occurred at over twice the normal frequency. In addition, 60% of eyes developed severe rHSK compared to <1% of eyes normally. All episodes of rHSK were preceded four to five days prior by an unusually large amount of reactivated virus in the tears of that eye and whenever this unusually large amount of reactivated virus was detected in tears, rHSK always appeared 4–5 days later. In subsequent experiments using well defined heat stress the reactivation frequency was similarly increased, but no eyes developed rHSK. Conclusions The results reported here support the hypothesis that rHSK is associated not simply with elevated reactivation frequency, but rather with rare episodes of very high levels of reactivated virus in tears 4–5 days earlier. PMID:25859798

  10. Lasting effects of snow accumulation on summer performance of large herbivores in alpine ecosystems may not last.

    PubMed

    Mysterud, Atle; Austrheim, Gunnar

    2014-05-01

    One of the clearest predictions from the IPCC is that we can expect much less snow cover due to global warming in the 21st century, especially in the lower alpine areas. In alpine ecosystems, snow accumulation in depressions gives rise to distinct snow-bed vegetation types, assumed to play a key role in ecosystem function. A delayed plant phenology yields high-quality forage in late summer for wild and domestic herbivores. Yet, the mechanistic pathways for how declining snow may affect future performance of large herbivores beyond the effect of phenology remain poorly documented. Here, we link unique individual-based data on diet choice, habitat selection and performance of domestic sheep over a 10-year period to manually GPS-recorded spatial positions of snow cover in early summer (0.57% to 43.3% in snow beds on 1st of July) in an alpine ecosystem. Snowy winters gave a higher proportion of easily digestible herbs in the diet and a more variable use of snow-bed and meadow vegetation types resulting in faster growing lambs. These patterns were consistent between two density treatment levels although slightly more marked for diet at low density, suggesting that effects of simple mitigation efforts such as managing population numbers will be meagre. Our study thus yields novel insight into the strong impact of melting snow on ecosystem function in alpine habitats, which are likely to affect productivity of both domestic and wild ungulate populations.

  11. Influence of a large amount of Co substitution on the magnetic properties of NdFeCoGaB magnets (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsutai, A.; Sakai, I.; Sahashi, M.; Inomata, K.

    1990-05-01

    We have found that a NdFeCoGaB sintered magnet containing 30 at. % Co still shows high coercive force in spite of such a large amount of Co substitution. The Curie temperature of the magnet is higher than that of the ternary NdFeB magnet by 280 °C. As a result, the following magnetic properties have been attained for Nd14.5Fe46Co30Ga1B8.5: Tc=590 °C, Br =11.7 kG, Hci =14.3 kOe, and (BH)max=32 MG Oe. Furthermore, in this magnet there exists an additional phase, Nd1(FeCoGa)4B1 with Ce1Co4B1 structure, which, as far as authors know, has not been reported to exist in the NdFeB-based magnets. In this study we investigated the magnetic properties and microstructure of Nd14.5Fe76-xCoxGa1B8.5 (x=16-50) sintered magnets. The high coercive force can be obtained in the Co-content region from 16 to 30 at. %. In particular, the magnet with 30 at. % Co shows coercive force as high as 14.3 kOe. However, further substitution of Co drastically deteriorates the magnetic properties. The coercive force of the magnet with 50 at. % Co is less than 1 kOe. From the metallographical point of view, the above-mentioned Nd1(FeCoGa)4B1 phase is not observed in the magnets containing less than 30 at. % Co. This phase abruptly appears in the magnet with 30 at. % Co and its amount increases with increasing Co content. The strongest x-ray-diffraction peak observed in the magnet with 50 at. % Co comes from the Nd1(FeCoGa)4B1 phase. The demagnetization-curve measurements suggest that reverse magnetic domains are nucleated in the Nd1(FeCoGa)4B1 phase at a low reverse magnetic field. It is noteworthy that the magnet with 30 at. % Co maintains the high coercive force in spite of the existence of such a soft magnetic phase. Details will be discussed in the coming session.

  12. Effects of single-session dietary counseling by dieticians on salt reduction in cardiology outpatients who consumed large amounts of salt.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Tamami; Sadanaga, Tsuneaki; Hirota, Shinichi

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the effects of single-session dietary counseling on salt restriction in Japanese cardiology outpatients as assessed using spot urine measurements. A total of 72 patients (73±11 years old, including 30 females) who visited a cardiology outpatient clinic and had a salt intake of >8 g/day were included in this study. The patients received dietary counseling for salt restriction by expert dieticians at the time of enrollment. The daily dietary salt intake was estimated using the spot urine test at baseline prior to dietary counseling, at 3-9 weeks (next office visit), and at 24-52 weeks during follow-up evaluations. The baseline level of estimated salt excretion was 11.3±1.5 g/day, which was reduced to 9.6±2.3 g/day (P<0.01) at 3-9 weeks, but increased again at 24-52 weeks to 10.4±2.1 g/day, which was less than the baseline value (P=0.034 vs. 3-9 weeks; P=0.025 vs. baseline). The numbers of patients who achieved salt excretion levels of <6.0 and <8.0 g/day at 3-9 weeks were 4 (5.6%) and 19 (26%) patients, respectively, and were further reduced to no patients (0%; P=0.043 vs. 3-9 weeks) and 9 (13%; P=0.035 vs. 3-9 weeks) patients at 24-52 weeks of follow-up evaluation, respectively. In conclusion, the efficacy of dietary counseling by expert dieticians in restricting the salt intake of patients who consumed large amounts of salt was modest and temporary. Multiple nutritional- and behavioral-oriented approaches should be considered to achieve further reductions in salt intake.

  13. Effects of single-session dietary counseling by dieticians on salt reduction in cardiology outpatients who consumed large amounts of salt

    PubMed Central

    YAMASAKI, TAMAMI; SADANAGA, TSUNEAKI; HIROTA, SHINICHI

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the effects of single-session dietary counseling on salt restriction in Japanese cardiology outpatients as assessed using spot urine measurements. A total of 72 patients (73±11 years old, including 30 females) who visited a cardiology outpatient clinic and had a salt intake of >8 g/day were included in this study. The patients received dietary counseling for salt restriction by expert dieticians at the time of enrollment. The daily dietary salt intake was estimated using the spot urine test at baseline prior to dietary counseling, at 3–9 weeks (next office visit), and at 24–52 weeks during follow-up evaluations. The baseline level of estimated salt excretion was 11.3±1.5 g/day, which was reduced to 9.6±2.3 g/day (P<0.01) at 3–9 weeks, but increased again at 24–52 weeks to 10.4±2.1 g/day, which was less than the baseline value (P=0.034 vs. 3–9 weeks; P=0.025 vs. baseline). The numbers of patients who achieved salt excretion levels of <6.0 and <8.0 g/day at 3–9 weeks were 4 (5.6%) and 19 (26%) patients, respectively, and were further reduced to no patients (0%; P=0.043 vs. 3–9 weeks) and 9 (13%; P=0.035 vs. 3–9 weeks) patients at 24–52 weeks of follow-up evaluation, respectively. In conclusion, the efficacy of dietary counseling by expert dieticians in restricting the salt intake of patients who consumed large amounts of salt was modest and temporary. Multiple nutritional- and behavioral-oriented approaches should be considered to achieve further reductions in salt intake. PMID:26170920

  14. Large Crystal Toxin Formation in Chromosomally Engineered Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai Due to σE Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Buasri, Wasin

    2012-01-01

    Seven distinct Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai integrants were constructed that carried the chitinase (chiBlA) gene from B. licheniformis under the control of the cry11Aa promoter and terminator with and without p19 and p20 genes. The toxicity of B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai integrants against second-instar Spodoptera litura larvae was increased 1.8- to 4.6-fold compared to that of the wild-type strain (BTA1). Surprisingly, the enhanced toxicity in some strains of B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai integrants (BtaP19CS, BtaP19CSter, and BtaCAT) correlated with an increase in toxin formation. To investigate the role of these genes in toxin production, the expression profiles of the toxin genes, cry1Aa and chiBlA, as well as their transcriptional regulators (sigK and sigE), were analyzed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qPCR) from BTA1, BtaP19CS, and BtaCAT. Expression levels of cry1Aa in these two integrants increased about 2- to 3-fold compared to those of BTA1. The expression of the transcription factor sigK also was prolonged in the integrants compared to that of the wild type; however, sigE expression was unchanged. Western blot analysis of σE and σK showed the prolonged accumulation of σE in the integrants compared to that of BTA1, resulting in the increased synthesis of pro-σK up to T17 after the onset of sporulation in both BtaP19CS and BtaCAT compared to that of T13 in BTA1. The results from qPCR indicate clearly that the cry1Aa promoter activity was influenced most strongly by σE, whereas cry11Aa depended mostly on σK. These results on large-crystal toxin formation with enhanced toxicity should provide useful information for the generation of strains with improved insecticidal activity. PMID:22267677

  15. Accumulation of microcystins in a dominant Chironomid Larvae (Tanypus chinensis) of a large, shallow and eutrophic Chinese lake, Lake Taihu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Qingju; Su, Xiaomei; Steinman, Alan D.; Cai, Yongjiu; Zhao, Yanyan; Xie, Liqiang

    2016-08-01

    Although there have been numerous studies on microcystin (MC) accumulation in aquatic organisms recently, the bioaccumulation of MCs in relatively small sized organisms, as well as potential influencing factors, has been rarely studied. Thus, in this study, we investigated the bioaccumulation of three MC congeners (-LR, -RR and -YR) in the chironomid larvae of Tanypus chinensis (an excellent food source for certain fishes), the potential sources of these MCs, and potentially relevant environmental parameters over the course of one year in Lake Taihu, China. MC concentrations in T. chinensis varied temporally with highest concentrations during the warmest months (except August 2013) and very low concentrations during the remaining months. Among the three potential MC sources, only intracellular MCs were significantly and positively correlated with MCs in T. chinensis. Although MC concentrations in T. chinensis significantly correlated with a series of physicochemical parameters of water column, cyanobacteria species explained the most variability of MC accumulation, with the rest primarily explained by extraMC-LR. These results indicated that ingestion of MC-producing algae of cyanobacteria accounted for most of the MC that accumulated in T. chinensis. The high MC concentrations in T. chinensis may pose a potential health threat to humans through trophic transfer.

  16. Accumulation of microcystins in a dominant Chironomid Larvae (Tanypus chinensis) of a large, shallow and eutrophic Chinese lake, Lake Taihu

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Qingju; Su, Xiaomei; Steinman, Alan D.; Cai, Yongjiu; Zhao, Yanyan; Xie, Liqiang

    2016-01-01

    Although there have been numerous studies on microcystin (MC) accumulation in aquatic organisms recently, the bioaccumulation of MCs in relatively small sized organisms, as well as potential influencing factors, has been rarely studied. Thus, in this study, we investigated the bioaccumulation of three MC congeners (-LR, -RR and -YR) in the chironomid larvae of Tanypus chinensis (an excellent food source for certain fishes), the potential sources of these MCs, and potentially relevant environmental parameters over the course of one year in Lake Taihu, China. MC concentrations in T. chinensis varied temporally with highest concentrations during the warmest months (except August 2013) and very low concentrations during the remaining months. Among the three potential MC sources, only intracellular MCs were significantly and positively correlated with MCs in T. chinensis. Although MC concentrations in T. chinensis significantly correlated with a series of physicochemical parameters of water column, cyanobacteria species explained the most variability of MC accumulation, with the rest primarily explained by extraMC-LR. These results indicated that ingestion of MC-producing algae of cyanobacteria accounted for most of the MC that accumulated in T. chinensis. The high MC concentrations in T. chinensis may pose a potential health threat to humans through trophic transfer. PMID:27499175

  17. Accumulate repeat accumulate codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative channel coding scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate codes' (ARA). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, thus belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA codes on a graph. The structure of encoder for this class can be viewed as precoded Repeat Accumulate (RA) code or as precoded Irregular Repeat Accumulate (IRA) code, where simply an accumulator is chosen as a precoder. Thus ARA codes have simple, and very fast encoder structure when they representing LDPC codes. Based on density evolution for LDPC codes through some examples for ARA codes, we show that for maximum variable node degree 5 a minimum bit SNR as low as 0.08 dB from channel capacity for rate 1/2 can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Thus based on fixed low maximum variable node degree, its threshold outperforms not only the RA and IRA codes but also the best known LDPC codes with the dame maximum node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators any desired high rate codes close to code rate 1 can be obtained with thresholds that stay close to the channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results are provided. The ARA codes also have projected graph or protograph representation that allows for high speed decoder implementation.

  18. Method for quantitative determination and separation of trace amounts of chemical elements in the presence of large quantities of other elements having the same atomic mass

    DOEpatents

    Miller, C.M.; Nogar, N.S.

    1982-09-02

    Photoionization via autoionizing atomic levels combined with conventional mass spectroscopy provides a technique for quantitative analysis of trace quantities of chemical elements in the presence of much larger amounts of other elements with substantially the same atomic mass. Ytterbium samples smaller than 10 ng have been detected using an ArF* excimer laser which provides the atomic ions for a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Elemental selectivity of greater than 5:1 with respect to lutetium impurity has been obtained. Autoionization via a single photon process permits greater photon utilization efficiency because of its greater absorption cross section than bound-free transitions, while maintaining sufficient spectroscopic structure to allow significant photoionization selectivity between different atomic species. Separation of atomic species from others of substantially the same atomic mass is also described.

  19. Estimation of recurrence interval of large earthquakes on the central Longmen Shan fault zone based on seismic moment accumulation/release model.

    PubMed

    Ren, Junjie; Zhang, Shimin

    2013-01-01

    Recurrence interval of large earthquake on an active fault zone is an important parameter in assessing seismic hazard. The 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (Mw 7.9) occurred on the central Longmen Shan fault zone and ruptured the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault (YBF) and the Guanxian-Jiangyou fault (GJF). However, there is a considerable discrepancy among recurrence intervals of large earthquake in preseismic and postseismic estimates based on slip rate and paleoseismologic results. Post-seismic trenches showed that the central Longmen Shan fault zone probably undertakes an event similar to the 2008 quake, suggesting a characteristic earthquake model. In this paper, we use the published seismogenic model of the 2008 earthquake based on Global Positioning System (GPS) and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data and construct a characteristic seismic moment accumulation/release model to estimate recurrence interval of large earthquakes on the central Longmen Shan fault zone. Our results show that the seismogenic zone accommodates a moment rate of (2.7 ± 0.3) × 10¹⁷ N m/yr, and a recurrence interval of 3900 ± 400 yrs is necessary for accumulation of strain energy equivalent to the 2008 earthquake. This study provides a preferred interval estimation of large earthquakes for seismic hazard analysis in the Longmen Shan region.

  20. Estimation of Recurrence Interval of Large Earthquakes on the Central Longmen Shan Fault Zone Based on Seismic Moment Accumulation/Release Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shimin

    2013-01-01

    Recurrence interval of large earthquake on an active fault zone is an important parameter in assessing seismic hazard. The 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (Mw 7.9) occurred on the central Longmen Shan fault zone and ruptured the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault (YBF) and the Guanxian-Jiangyou fault (GJF). However, there is a considerable discrepancy among recurrence intervals of large earthquake in preseismic and postseismic estimates based on slip rate and paleoseismologic results. Post-seismic trenches showed that the central Longmen Shan fault zone probably undertakes an event similar to the 2008 quake, suggesting a characteristic earthquake model. In this paper, we use the published seismogenic model of the 2008 earthquake based on Global Positioning System (GPS) and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data and construct a characteristic seismic moment accumulation/release model to estimate recurrence interval of large earthquakes on the central Longmen Shan fault zone. Our results show that the seismogenic zone accommodates a moment rate of (2.7 ± 0.3) × 1017 N m/yr, and a recurrence interval of 3900 ± 400 yrs is necessary for accumulation of strain energy equivalent to the 2008 earthquake. This study provides a preferred interval estimation of large earthquakes for seismic hazard analysis in the Longmen Shan region. PMID:23878524

  1. A novel porous bioceramics scaffold by accumulating hydroxyapatite spherulites for large bone tissue engineering in vivo. II. Construct large volume of bone grafts.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Wei; Zhang, Cong; Duan, Ke; Li, Xiaohong; Qu, Shuxin; Wang, Jianxin; Zhu, Zhuoli; Huang, Peng; Xia, Tian; Liao, Ga; Weng, Jie

    2014-08-01

    In vivo engineering of bone autografts using bioceramic scaffolds with appropriate porous structures is a potential approach to prepare autologous bone grafts for the repair of critical-sized bone defects. This study investigated the evolutionary process of osteogenesis, angiogenesis, and compressive strength of bioceramic scaffolds implanted in two non-osseous sites of dogs: the abdominal cavity and the dorsal muscle. Hydroxyapatite (HA) sphere-accumulated scaffolds with controlled porous structures were prepared and placed in the two sites for up to 6 months. Analyses of retrieved scaffolds found that osteogenesis and angiogenesis were faster in scaffolds implanted in dorsal muscles compared with those placed in abdominal cavities. The abdominal cavity, however, can accommodate larger bone grafts with designed shape. Analyses of scaffolds implanted in abdominal cavities [an environment of a low mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) density] further demonstrated that angiogenesis play critical roles during osteogenesis in the scaffolds, presumably by supplying progenitor cells and/or MSCs as seed cells. This study also examined the relationship between the volume of bone grafts and the physiological environment of in vivo bioreactor. These results provide basic information for the selection of appropriate implanting sites and culture time required to engineer autologous bone grafts for the clinical bone defect repair. Based on these positive results, a pilot study has applied the grafts constructed in canine abdominal cavity to repair segmental bone defect in load-bearing sites (limbs).

  2. Large Sanjiang basin groups outside of the Songliao Basin Meso-Senozoic Tectonic-sediment evolution and hydrocarbon accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, M.; Wu, X.

    2015-12-01

    The basis geological problem is still the bottleneck of the exploration work of the lager Sanjiang basin groups. In general terms, the problems are including the prototype basins and basin forming mechanism of two aspects. In this paper, using the field geological survey and investigation, logging data analysis, seismic data interpretation technical means large Sanjiang basin groups and basin forming mechanism of the prototype are discussed. Main draw the following conclusions: 1. Sanjiang region group-level formation can be completely contrasted. 2. Tension faults, compressive faults, shear structure composition and structure combination of four kinds of compound fracture are mainly developed In the study area. The direction of their distribution can be divided into SN, EW, NNE, NEE, NNW, NWW to other groups of fracture. 3. Large Sanjiang basin has the SN and the EW two main directions of tectonic evolution. Cenozoic basins in Sanjiang region in group formation located the two tectonic domains of ancient Paleo-Asian Ocean and the Pacific Interchange. 4. Large Sanjiang basin has experienced in the late Mesozoic tectonic evolution of two-stage and nine times. The first stage, developmental stage basement, they are ① Since the Mesozoic era and before the Jurassic; ② Early Jurassic period; The second stage, cap stage of development, they are ③ Late Jurassic depression developmental stages of compression; ④ Early Cretaceous rifting stage; ⑤ depression in mid-Early Cretaceous period; ⑥ tensile Early Cretaceous rifting stage; ⑦ inversion of Late Cretaceous tectonic compression stage; ⑧ Paleogene - Neogene; ⑨ After recently Ji Baoquan Sedimentary Ridge. 5. Large Sanjiang basin group is actually a residual basin structure, and Can be divided into left - superimposed (Founder, Tangyuan depression, Hulin Basin), residual - inherited type (Sanjiang basin), residual - reformed (Jixi, Boli, Hegang basin). there are two developed depression and the mechanism

  3. Ecological risk assessment in a large river-reservoir. 7: Environmental contaminant accumulation and effects in great blue heron

    SciTech Connect

    Halbrook, R.S.; Brewer, R.L. Jr.; Buehler, D.A.

    1999-04-01

    Past plant operations and waste disposal on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) have introduced an assortment of potentially harmful contaminants into the surrounding environment. Elevated concentrations of mercury (Hg) and PCBs have been found in fish collected from aquatic systems on the ORR, and a screening level risk assessment has identified piscivorous wildlife downstream from the ORR as being at risk. As a component of an ecological risk assessment of a large river-reservoir system, the great blue heron (Ardea herodias) was chosen as an endpoint species to evaluate potential adverse effects of contaminants on piscivorous wildlife using aquatic systems on or downstream of the ORR. Eggs and chick liver, muscle, and fat samples were collected from two heron colonies located on and two colonies located off the ORR. Samples were analyzed for PCBs, mercury, chromium, and arsenic to determine if differences existed among colonies. Mean mercury and PCB concentrations were greater in eggs and chick tissues collected from colonies located on the ORR. However, no biologically significant differences were observed in fecundity or in egg physical measurements or chick physiological measurements between study locations. The results of this study do not indicate that the contaminant burdens in great blue heron chicks and eggs have a detrimental effect on heron populations utilizing aquatic habitats on the ORR.

  4. Accumulation of cell-penetrating peptides in large unilamellar vesicles: A straightforward screening assay for investigating the internalization mechanism.

    PubMed

    Swiecicki, Jean-Marie; Di Pisa, Margherita; Burlina, Fabienne; Lécorché, Pascaline; Mansuy, Christelle; Chassaing, Gérard; Lavielle, Solange

    2015-09-01

    The internalization of cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) into liposomes (large unilamellar vesicles, LUVs) was studied with a rapid and robust procedure based on the quenching of a small fluorescent probe, 7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (NBD). Quenching can be achieved by reduction with dithionite or by pH jump. LUVs with different compositions of phospholipids (PLs) were used to screen the efficacy of different CPPs. In order to "validate" the composition of the membrane models, a control cationic peptide, which does not enter eukaryotic cells, was included in the study. It was found that pure DOPG or DOPG within ternary mixtures with cholesterol are the most appropriate models for studying CPP translocation. An anionic lipid, such as DOPG, is required for the adsorption of the basic peptides on the surface of LUVs. In addition, it acts as transfer agent through the lipid bilayer. A fluid phase and/or the presence of phase defects also appear mandatory for the internalization to occur. The neutralization of charges within an inverted micelle demonstrated in the case of DOPG and also proposed for a ternary mixture of PLs might not be the only mechanism for the CPP translocation. Finally, it is shown that oleic acid facilitates the entry inside LUVs in gel phase of a series of cationic peptides including CPPs and also the negative control peptide PKCi.

  5. Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate-Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2004-01-01

    Inspired by recently proposed Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate (ARA) codes [15], in this paper we propose a channel coding scheme called Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate (ARAA) codes. These codes can be seen as serial turbo-like codes or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, and they have a projected graph or protograph representation; this allows for a high-speed iterative decoder implementation using belief propagation. An ARAA code can be viewed as a precoded Repeat-and-Accumulate (RA) code with puncturing in concatenation with another accumulator, where simply an accumulator is chosen as the precoder; thus ARAA codes have a very fast encoder structure. Using density evolution on their associated protographs, we find examples of rate-lJ2 ARAA codes with maximum variable node degree 4 for which a minimum bit-SNR as low as 0.21 dB from the channel capacity limit can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Such a low threshold cannot be achieved by RA or Irregular RA (IRA) or unstructured irregular LDPC codes with the same constraint on the maximum variable node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators we can construct families of higher rate ARAA codes with thresholds that stay close to their respective channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results show comparable performance with the best-known LDPC codes but with very low error floor even at moderate block sizes.

  6. Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Samuel; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    Accumulate-repeat-accumulate-accumulate (ARAA) codes have been proposed, inspired by the recently proposed accumulate-repeat-accumulate (ARA) codes. These are error-correcting codes suitable for use in a variety of wireless data-communication systems that include noisy channels. ARAA codes can be regarded as serial turbolike codes or as a subclass of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes, and, like ARA codes they have projected graph or protograph representations; these characteristics make it possible to design high-speed iterative decoders that utilize belief-propagation algorithms. The objective in proposing ARAA codes as a subclass of ARA codes was to enhance the error-floor performance of ARA codes while maintaining simple encoding structures and low maximum variable node degree.

  7. Choline Accumulation by Photoreceptor Cells of the Rabbit Retina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masland, Richard H.; Mills, John W.

    1980-03-01

    Photoreceptor cells of the rabbit retina accumulate choline from the extracellular environment by an overall process that has a high affinity for choline. These cells do not synthesize acetylcholine; instead, the choline taken up is incorporated into phosphorylcholine and eventually phospholipid. A mechanism for efficient choline accumulation is presumably concomitant to the photoreceptor cell's synthesis of large amounts of membrane for outer segment membrane renewal. Its existence in the photoreceptor cell supports previous evidence that high-affinity choline uptake is not confined to neurons that release acetylcholine, but may be present wherever large amounts of choline are required.

  8. A large renal pelvic diverticulum, presenting incomplete excretion during tc-99m MAG-3 scintigraphy and tracer accumulation on tc-99m DMSA scintigraphy; a case report.

    PubMed

    Turgut, Bulent; Erselcan, Taner; Ozdemir, Semra; Hasbek, Zekiye; Tosun, H Bayram; Topaktas, Seher

    2004-12-01

    This case report illustrates the dynamic and static renal scintigraphic images of a patient with an unusual large diverticulum of the renal pelvis. The initial diagnosis by intravenous pyelography (IVP) and ultrasonographic (US) examination was a renal pelvic diverticulum of the left kidney, and the patient was referred to the nuclear medicine department for exploration of the effect of the pelvic diverticulum on renal functions. We performed dynamic renal scintigraphy with technetium-99m (Tc-99m) labeled mercaptoacetyl triglycine (MAG-3) and static renal scintigraphy with Tc-99m labeled dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). In dynamic renal scintigraphy, bilaterally normal concentration function was observed. While right kidney excretion function was normal, an incomplete excretion pattern was seen on the left side. Complete urinary flow obstruction occurred approximately at the 10th minute of the acquisition, which did not seem to respond to the i.v. furosemide application. However, when only the renal cortex was included in the region of interest, the obstructive pattern disappeared. In static renal scintigraphy, a large renal pelvic diverticulum localized antero-medially was clearly visualized in the left-anterior oblique projection, most probably due to accumulation of radiopharmaceutical inside it. This case showed that a renal pelvic diverticulum should be thought of when an incomplete excretion pattern is seen on dynamic renal scintigraphy. Using only a cortical region of interest may also help to distinguish other types of obstructive pattern from diverticulum. Additionally, Tc-99m DMSA scintigraphy may show diverticulum localization with antero-oblique projections in addition to routine projections.

  9. A rapid and practical strategy for the determination of platinum, palladium, ruthenium, rhodium, iridium and gold in large amounts of ultrabasic rock by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry combined with ultrasound extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Gai; Tian, Min

    2015-04-01

    This proposed method regulated the determination of platinum, palladium, ruthenium, rhodium, iridium and gold in platinum-group ores by nickel sulfide fire assay—inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) combined with ultrasound extraction for the first time. The quantitative limits were 0.013-0.023μg/g. The samples were fused to separate the platinum-group elements from matrix. The nickel sulfide button was then dissolved with hydrochloric acid and the insoluble platinum-group sulfide residue was dissolved with aqua regia by ultrasound bath and finally determined by ICP-OES. The proposed method has been applied into the determination of platinum-group element and gold in large amounts of ultrabasic rocks from the Great Dyke of Zimbabwe.

  10. Measurement of intravenously administered γ-Fe2O3 particle amount in mice tissues using vibrating sample magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Mikio; Miyamoto, Ryoichi; Oda, Tatsuya; Ohara, Yusuke; Yanagihara, Hideto; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro; Kita, Eiji

    2014-12-01

    Dispersions of platelet γ-Fe2O3 particles 30-50nm in size were intravenously administered to mice and the amount of particles accumulated in each tissue was obtained by magnetization measurement using a vibrating sample magnetometer. Background noise was greatly reduced by measuring dried tissues under a magnetic field of 500 Oe so that the effect of diamagnetism was slight. Remarkable particle accumulation was observed in the liver and spleen. Considerable particle accumulation was observed in the lung when a large quantity of γ-Fe2 O3 particles was administered. There was no significant particle accumulation in the kidney and heart.

  11. Higher toxicity of dibutyltin and poly-L-lactide with a large amount of tin but lower toxicity of poly-L-lactide of synthetic artificial dura mater exhibited on murine astrocyte cell line.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Masayoshi; Inoue, Yoko; Sugaya, Chiemi; Tsunoda, Masashi; Sugaya, Tsukiko; Takahashi, Masami; Yuba, Toshiyasu; Tsuchiya, Toshie; Aizawa, Yoshiharu

    2010-06-01

    Neurotoxicities of dibutyltin (DBT), tin(II) octylate (OT), poly-L-lactides (PLLA, molecular weight [MW]=5000, PLLA 5000), PLLA without tin (MW=3000, PLLA 3000), PLLA with a large amount (590 ppm) of tin (S3), poly(glycolic acid-co-epsilon-caprolactone) oligomer (MW=6200, PGC oligomer), and poly(L-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid-co-epsilon-caprolactone) oligomer (MW=6400, PLGC oligomer) related to artificial dura mater were examined using the murine astrocyte cell line, CRL-2534. The indices were cell viability, glutamate concentration in the cell supernatant, and cell proliferation. Lower cell viability was observed among cells exposed to 0.5 microM DBT or 10 microg/ml of S3. There were no differences in cell viability of astrocytes exposed to OT, PLLA 5000, PLLA 3000, PGC oligomer, or PLGC oligomer. Mean glutamate concentration in the supernatant of cells exposed to 0.25 muM DBT was higher than that of the control after 2 h incubation. Lower mean concentration of glutamate in the supernatant of cells exposed to 5 microg/ml of S3 was observed after 2 h incubation. Cells exposed to 50 microg/ml of PGC oligomer had a higher mean concentration of glutamate in the supernatant. OT only inhibited cell proliferation at 100 microM. Proliferation of cells exposed to 0.25 microM or 0.5 microM DBT was inhibited, as was that of cells exposed to 100 microM OT, 50 microg/ml PLLA 5000, 50 microg/ml PLLA 3000, and 5 microg/ml S3, 5 d and 7 d after exposure. Although DBT does not reach levels that induced neurotoxicity in artificial dura mater, these results suggest that DBT is neurotoxic and PLLA toxicity increases with the increase in tin concentration.

  12. Accumulation of Poly (beta-Hydroxybutyrate) by Halobacteria.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Castillo, R; Rodriguez-Valera, F; Gonzalez-Ramos, J; Ruiz-Berraquero, F

    1986-01-01

    Some species of extremely halophilic archaebacteria, Halobacteriaceae, have been shown to accumulate large amounts of poly (beta-hydroxybutyrate) under conditions of nitrogen limitation and abundant carbon source. The production of poly (beta-hydroxybutyrate), at least in large quantities, was restricted to two carbohydrate-utilizing species, Halobacterium mediterranei and H. volcanii. In addition to the nutrients in the media, the salt concentration also influenced poly (beta-hydroxybutyrate) accumulation, which was greater at lower salt concentrations. The possible application of these microorganisms for the production of biodegradable plastics is discussed.

  13. Alpine pasture soils accumulate a large fraction of labile carbon due to combined effects of low temperature, low pH, and poor litter quality on decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budge, Karen; Leifeld, Jens; Hiltbrunner, Erika; Fuhrer, Jürg

    2010-05-01

    Alpine soils are expected to contain large amounts of labile carbon (C) which may result in a further increase in atmospheric CO2 levels in response to global warming. However, there is little data available on these soils and limited understanding of the influence environmental factors have on soil organic matter (SOM) turnover. We extracted 30 cm deep soil cores from 5 sites along an elevation gradient of an alpine pasture in the central Swiss Alps. Soil fractions obtained by size and density fractionation revealed a high proportion of labile particulate organic carbon (POC), particularly in the uppermost soil layers. POC values in the top 20 cm across the gradient of 2285-2653 m above sea level (a.s.l.) ranged from 39.6-57.6 % in comparison to 7.2-29.6 reported in lower elevation soils of 810-1960 m a.s.l. in previous studies. While soil at all elevations was found to be relatively acidic, C mean residence times (MRTs) were considerably shorter and phytomass was slightly higher at the single site found to have a comparatively less acidic soil pH, although SOC content did not vary from those sites of similar root/litter and stone contents. At all elevations, MRTs increased between fractions of increasing stability from free POM (fPOM) → occluded POM (oPOM) → mineral-associated material (mOM); e.g. at 2653 m MRTs increased in years from 90 in fPOM → 117 in oPOM → 534 in mOM. Depending on elevation and pH, plant community data indicated considerable variation in the source of litter input. The lowest site was dominated by sedges whereas the highest site by lichens and dwarf shrubs, this variation in litter source may be reflected in the dynamics of soil C. While temperature is likely to be a major influence in the low turnover rate observed, other factors such as litter quality and soil pH as well as the combination of these factors are likely to play an important role on the response of SOM in the event of soil warming and require consideration in model

  14. Waste tank ventilation system waste material accumulations

    SciTech Connect

    Van Vleet, R.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-06

    This paper calculates the amount of material that accumulates in the ventilation systems of various Tank Waste Remediation System facilities and estimates the amount of material that could be released due to a rapid pressurization.

  15. Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative coded modulation scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation' (ARA coded modulation). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes that are combined with high level modulation. Thus at the decoder belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA coded modulation on a graph, provided a demapper transforms the received in-phase and quadrature samples to reliability of the bits.

  16. A large accumulation of avian eggs from the late cretaceous of patagonia (Argentina) reveals a novel nesting strategy in mesozoic birds.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Mariela S; García, Rodolfo A; Fiorelli, Lucas; Scolaro, Alejandro; Salvador, Rodrigo B; Cotaro, Carlos N; Kaiser, Gary W; Dyke, Gareth J

    2013-01-01

    We report the first evidence for a nesting colony of mesozoic birds on Gondwana: a fossil accumulation in Late Cretaceous rocks mapped and collected from within the campus of the National University of Comahue, Neuquén City, Patagonia (Argentina). Here, Cretaceous ornithothoracine birds, almost certainly Enanthiornithes, nested in an arid, shallow basinal environment among sand dunes close to an ephemeral water-course. We mapped and collected 65 complete, near-complete, and broken eggs across an area of more than 55 m(2). These eggs were laid either singly, or occasionally in pairs, onto a sandy substrate. All eggs were found apparently in, or close to, their original nest site; they all occur within the same bedding plane and may represent the product of a single nesting season or a short series of nesting attempts. Although there is no evidence for nesting structures, all but one of the Comahue eggs were half-buried upright in the sand with their pointed end downwards, a position that would have exposed the pole containing the air cell and precluded egg turning. This egg position is not seen in living birds, with the exception of the basal galliform megapodes who place their eggs within mounds of vegetation or burrows. This accumulation reveals a novel nesting behaviour in Mesozoic Aves that was perhaps shared with the non-avian and phylogenetically more basal troodontid theropods.

  17. A Large Accumulation of Avian Eggs from the Late Cretaceous of Patagonia (Argentina) Reveals a Novel Nesting Strategy in Mesozoic Birds

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Mariela S.; García, Rodolfo A.; Fiorelli, Lucas; Scolaro, Alejandro; Salvador, Rodrigo B.; Cotaro, Carlos N.; Kaiser, Gary W.; Dyke, Gareth J.

    2013-01-01

    We report the first evidence for a nesting colony of Mesozoic birds on Gondwana: a fossil accumulation in Late Cretaceous rocks mapped and collected from within the campus of the National University of Comahue, Neuquén City, Patagonia (Argentina). Here, Cretaceous ornithothoracine birds, almost certainly Enanthiornithes, nested in an arid, shallow basinal environment among sand dunes close to an ephemeral water-course. We mapped and collected 65 complete, near-complete, and broken eggs across an area of more than 55 m2. These eggs were laid either singly, or occasionally in pairs, onto a sandy substrate. All eggs were found apparently in, or close to, their original nest site; they all occur within the same bedding plane and may represent the product of a single nesting season or a short series of nesting attempts. Although there is no evidence for nesting structures, all but one of the Comahue eggs were half-buried upright in the sand with their pointed end downwards, a position that would have exposed the pole containing the air cell and precluded egg turning. This egg position is not seen in living birds, with the exception of the basal galliform megapodes who place their eggs within mounds of vegetation or burrows. This accumulation reveals a novel nesting behaviour in Mesozoic Aves that was perhaps shared with the non-avian and phylogenetically more basal troodontid theropods. PMID:23613776

  18. 47 CFR 32.3100 - Accumulated depreciation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accumulated depreciation. 32.3100 Section 32... Accumulated depreciation. (a) This account shall include the accumulated depreciation associated with the... with depreciation amounts concurrently charged to Account 6561, Depreciation...

  19. Total carbon accumulation in a tropical forest landscape

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Regrowing tropical forests worldwide sequester important amounts of carbon and restore part of the C emissions emitted by deforestation. However, there are large uncertainties concerning the rates of carbon accumulation after the abandonment of agricultural and pasture land. We report here accumulation of total carbon stocks (TCS) in a chronosequence of secondary forests at a mid-elevation landscape (900-1200 m asl) in the Andean mountains of Colombia. Results We found positive accumulation rates for all ecosystem pools except soil carbon, which showed no significant trend of recovery after 36 years of secondary succession. We used these data to develop a simple model to predict accumulation of TCS over time. This model performed remarkably well predicting TCS at other chronosequences in the Americas (Root Mean Square Error < 40 Mg C ha-1), which provided an opportunity to explore different assumptions in the calculation of large-scale carbon budgets. Simulations of TCS with our empirical model were used to test three assumptions often made in carbon budgets: 1) the use of carbon accumulation in tree aboveground biomass as a surrogate for accumulation of TCS, 2) the implicit consideration of carbon legacies from previous land-use, and 3) the omission of landscape age in calculating accumulation rates of TCS. Conclusions Our simulations showed that in many situations carbon can be released from regrowing secondary forests depending on the amount of carbon legacies and the average age of the landscape. In most cases, the rates used to predict carbon accumulation in the Americas were above the rates predicted in our simulations. These biome level rates seemed to be realistic only in landscapes not affected by carbon legacies from previous land-use and mean ages of around 10 years. PMID:23249727

  20. Differential accumulation of ribonucleotide reductase subunits in clam oocytes: the large subunit is stored as a polypeptide, the small subunit as untranslated mRNA

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    Within minutes of fertilization of clam oocytes, translation of a set of maternal mRNAs is activated. One of the most abundant of these stored mRNAs encodes the small subunit of ribonucleotide reductase (Standart, N. M., S. J. Bray, E. L. George, T. Hunt, and J. V. Ruderman, 1985, J. Cell Biol., 100:1968-1976). Unfertilized oocytes do not contain any ribonucleotide reductase activity; such activity begins to appear shortly after fertilization. In virtually all organisms, this enzyme is composed of two dissimilar subunits with molecular masses of approximately 44 and 88 kD, both of which are required for activity. This paper reports the identification of the large subunit of clam ribonucleotide reductase isolated by dATP-Sepharose chromatography as a relatively abundant 86-kD polypeptide which is already present in oocytes, and whose level remains constant during early development. The enzyme activity of this large subunit was established in reconstitution assays using the small subunit isolated from embryos by virtue of its binding to the anti-tubulin antibody YL 1/2. Thus the two components of clam ribonucleotide reductase are differentially stored in the oocyte: the small subunit in the form of untranslated mRNA and the large subunit as protein. When fertilization triggers the activation of translation of the maternal mRNA, the newly synthesized small subunit combines with the preformed large subunit to generate active ribonucleotide reductase. PMID:3536960

  1. Inhibition of lipid accumulation and lipid body formation in oleaginous yeast by effective components in spices, carvacrol, eugenol, thymol, and piperine.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Kazuyoshi; Yamaoka, Masakazu; Kamisaka, Yasushi

    2006-05-17

    We screened natural organic compounds, which affected the lipid accumulation and the lipid body formation in oleaginous yeast, Lipomyces starkeyi, generating large lipid bodies. We found that four natural components in spices, carvacrol, thymol, eugenol, and piperine, inhibited the lipid accumulation at concentrations of 20-50 mg/L with a slight growth inhibition. The inhibitory effects were quantitatively represented by the total lipid accumulation amount, the triacylglycerol accumulation amount, and the average lipid body size. At 50 mg/L, the effects of these compounds were not identical and exhibited 11-37% decrease in lipid amount and 15-21% decrease in lipid body size with 13-39% decrease in cell growth. The inhibitory effect of these compounds lead to 30-69% decrease in triacylglycerol accumulation without any additional accumulation of its intermediates, suggesting that they will suppress the total carbon inflow into the triacylglycerol biosynthesis.

  2. ABOVEGROUND BIOMASS DISTRIBUTION OF US EASTERN HARDWOOD FORESTS AND THE USE OF LARGE TREES AS AN INDICATOR OF FOREST DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Past clearing and harvesting of the deciduous hardwood forests of eastern USA released large amount of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, but through recovery and regrowth these forests are now accumulating atmospheric carbon (C). This study examined quantities and distribution ...

  3. Effects of Weather, Time, and Pollution Level on the Amount of Particulate Matter Deposited on Leaves of Ligustrum lucidum

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huixia; Shi, Hui; Wang, Yanhui

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigated the spatial and temporal variations in the amounts of PM accumulated on leaves of Ligustrum lucidum, a common evergreen tree species in North China. The effects of rainfall and wind on the amounts of PM deposited on foliage were also determined. The amounts of PM (g·m−2) retained by leaves of L. lucidum differed significantly among the sites (from 0.96 to 5.56) and over time (from 2.51 to 4.48). The largest amounts of PM on foliage of L. lucidum were observed on plants growing at the most polluted site. During the year, the highest and lowest accumulation of PM occurred in November and August, respectively. A considerable proportion of the accumulated PM on leaves was removed by rainfall events (28–48% of PM) and strong winds (27–36% of PM), and more precipitation or higher maximum wind speed could remove more PM from leaves. Rainfall removed mainly large and coarse particles, while fine particles adhered more strongly to the foliage. These results suggested that the effects of local weather conditions (e.g., rainfall, strong wind), different seasons, and pollution levels should be considered in evaluating total PM accumulation on leaves. PMID:25685849

  4. Guidelines for Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to set conditions for establishing and maintaining areas for the accumulation of hazardous waste at LBL. Areas designed for accumulation of these wastes in quantities greater than 100 kg (220 lb) per month of solid waste or 55 gallons per month of liquid waste are called Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs). Areas designed for accumulation of wastes in smaller amounts are called Satellite Accumulation Areas (SAAs). This document provides guidelines for employee and organizational responsibilities for WAAs; constructing a WAA; storing waste in a WAA; operating and maintaining a WAA, and responding to spills in a WAA. 4 figs.

  5. Selenium accumulation by plants

    PubMed Central

    White, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Selenium (Se) is an essential mineral element for animals and humans, which they acquire largely from plants. The Se concentration in edible plants is determined by the Se phytoavailability in soils. Selenium is not an essential element for plants, but excessive Se can be toxic. Thus, soil Se phytoavailability determines the ecology of plants. Most plants cannot grow on seleniferous soils. Most plants that grow on seleniferous soils accumulate <100 mg Se kg–1 dry matter and cannot tolerate greater tissue Se concentrations. However, some plant species have evolved tolerance to Se, and commonly accumulate tissue Se concentrations >100 mg Se kg–1 dry matter. These plants are considered to be Se accumulators. Some species can even accumulate Se concentrations of 1000–15 000 mg Se kg–1 dry matter and are called Se hyperaccumulators. Scope This article provides an overview of Se uptake, translocation and metabolism in plants and highlights the possible genetic basis of differences in these between and within plant species. The review focuses initially on adaptations allowing plants to tolerate large Se concentrations in their tissues and the evolutionary origin of species that hyperaccumulate Se. It then describes the variation in tissue Se concentrations between and within angiosperm species and identifies genes encoding enzymes limiting the rates of incorporation of Se into organic compounds and chromosomal loci that might enable the development of crops with greater Se concentrations in their edible portions. Finally, it discusses transgenic approaches enabling plants to tolerate greater Se concentrations in the rhizosphere and in their tissues. Conclusions The trait of Se hyperaccumulation has evolved several times in separate angiosperm clades. The ability to tolerate large tissue Se concentrations is primarily related to the ability to divert Se away from the accumulation of selenocysteine and selenomethionine, which might be incorporated

  6. Marine debris accumulation in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands: an examination of rates and processes.

    PubMed

    Dameron, Oliver J; Parke, Michael; Albins, Mark A; Brainard, Russell

    2007-04-01

    Large amounts of derelict fishing gear accumulate and cause damage to shallow coral reefs of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI). To facilitate maintenance of reefs cleaned during 1996-2005 removal efforts, we identify likely high-density debris areas by assessing reef characteristics (depth, benthic habitat type, and energy regime) that influence sub-regional debris accumulation. Previously cleaned backreef and lagoonal reefs at two NWHI locations were resurveyed for accumulated debris using two survey methods. Accumulated debris densities and weights were found to be greater in lagoonal reef areas. Sample weight-based debris densities are extrapolated to similar habitats throughout the NWHI using a spatial 'net habitat' dataset created by generalizing IKONOS satellite derivatives for depth and habitat classification. Prediction accuracy for this dataset is tested using historical debris point data. Annual NWHI debris accumulation is estimated to be 52.0 metric tonnes. For planning purposes, individual NWHI atolls/reefs are allotted a proportion of this total.

  7. Heat exchanger-accumulator

    DOEpatents

    Ecker, Amir L.

    1980-01-01

    What is disclosed is a heat exchanger-accumulator for vaporizing a refrigerant or the like, characterized by an upright pressure vessel having a top, bottom and side walls; an inlet conduit eccentrically and sealingly penetrating through the top; a tubular overflow chamber disposed within the vessel and sealingly connected with the bottom so as to define an annular outer volumetric chamber for receiving refrigerant; a heat transfer coil disposed in the outer volumetric chamber for vaporizing the liquid refrigerant that accumulates there; the heat transfer coil defining a passageway for circulating an externally supplied heat exchange fluid; transferring heat efficiently from the fluid; and freely allowing vaporized refrigerant to escape upwardly from the liquid refrigerant; and a refrigerant discharge conduit penetrating sealingly through the top and traversing substantially the length of the pressurized vessel downwardly and upwardly such that its inlet is near the top of the pressurized vessel so as to provide a means for transporting refrigerant vapor from the vessel. The refrigerant discharge conduit has metering orifices, or passageways, penetrating laterally through its walls near the bottom, communicating respectively interiorly and exteriorly of the overflow chamber for controllably carrying small amounts of liquid refrigerant and oil to the effluent stream of refrigerant gas.

  8. ACCUMULATION OF RADIOCESIUM BY MUSHROOMS IN THE ENVIRONMENT: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    SciTech Connect

    Duff, M

    2007-05-28

    During the last 50 years, a large amount of information on radionuclide accumulators or ''sentinel-type'' organisms in the environment has been published. Much of this work focused on the risks of food-chain transfer of radionuclides to higher organisms such as reindeer and man. However, until the 1980's and 1990's, there has been little published data on the radiocesium ({sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs) accumulation by mushrooms. This presentation will consist of a review of the published data for {sup 134,137}Cs accumulation by mushrooms in nature. This review will discuss the aspects that promote {sup 134,137}Cs uptake by mushrooms and focus on mushrooms that demonstrate a large propensity for use in the environmental biomonitoring of radiocesium contamination. It will also provide descriptions of habitats for many of these mushrooms and discuss on how growth media and other conditions relate to Cs accumulation.

  9. Using GRACE to constrain precipitation amount over cold mountainous basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrangi, Ali; Gardner, Alex S.; Reager, John T.; Fisher, Joshua B.

    2017-01-01

    Despite the importance for hydrology and climate-change studies, current quantitative knowledge on the amount and distribution of precipitation in mountainous and high-elevation regions is limited due to instrumental and retrieval shortcomings. Here by focusing on two large endorheic basins in High Mountain Asia, we show that satellite gravimetry (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE)) can be used to provide an independent estimate of monthly accumulated precipitation using mass balance equation. Results showed that the GRACE-based precipitation estimate has the highest agreement with most of the commonly used precipitation products in summer, but it deviates from them in cold months, when the other products are expected to have larger errors. It was found that most of the products capture about or less than 50% of the total precipitation estimated using GRACE in winter. Overall, Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) showed better agreement with GRACE estimate than other products. Yet on average GRACE showed 30% more annual precipitation than GPCP in the study basins. In basins of appropriate size with an absence of dense ground measurements, as is a typical case in cold mountainous regions, we find GRACE can be a viable alternative to constrain monthly and seasonal precipitation estimates from other remotely sensed precipitation products that show large bias.

  10. Different effects of low- and high-dose waterborne zinc on Zn accumulation, ROS levels, oxidative damage and antioxidant responses in the liver of large yellow croaker Pseudosciaena crocea.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jia-Lang; Zeng, Lin; Xu, Mei-Ying; Shen, Bin; Wu, Chang-Wen

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess survival rate, Zn accumulation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, oxidative damage and antioxidant responses after Zn exposure (2 and 8 mg L(-1) Zn) at different exposure times (6, 12, 24, 48 and 96 h) in the liver of large yellow croaker. Survival rate was reduced at 96 h, and hepatic Zn content increased during 24-96 by 8 mg L(-1) Zn. In the 2 mg L(-1) Zn group, no fish died and the increase in Zn content merely occurred at 96 h. Exposure to 8 mg L(-1) Zn induced accumulation of ROS, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation during the late stage of exposure. In contrast, exposure to 2 mg L(-1) Zn did not result in oxidative damage, which may result from the up-regulation of antioxidant defenses. Although exposure to 8 mg L(-1) Zn increased activities and mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes during the early stage of exposure, including Cu/Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD, CAT, GPx and GR, the activities of these enzymes except Cu/Zn-SOD were inhibited at 96 h. Furthermore, a sharp increase in Nrf2 expression was observed in fish exposed to 8 mg L(-1) at 6 and 12 h, and 2 mg L(-1) at 12 h and 24 h, suggesting that Nrf2 was required for the protracted induction of these genes. The late increase in Keap1 expression may support its role in switching off the Nrf2 response. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated different effects of low- and high-dose waterborne Zn on antioxidant responses, which could contribute to the understanding of antioxidant and toxic roles of zinc on a molecular level.

  11. 26 CFR 1.668(a)-3 - Excluded amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) INCOME TAXES Treatment of Excess Distributions of Trusts Applicable to Taxable Years Beginning Before... computation of an accumulation distribution, the amount includible under subpart D (section 665 and following... beneficiaries A and B. However, the trustee may make discretionary distributions to either beneficiary after...

  12. 26 CFR 1.662(a)-3 - Other amounts distributed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Estates and Trusts Which May Accumulate Income Or Which Distribute Corpus § 1.662(a... to be paid in all events but which is payable only out of corpus; (4) a distribution of property in... section 678(c) out of corpus or out of other than income for the taxable year; and (6) an amount...

  13. Root responses to nitrogen pulse frequency under different nitrogen amounts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Qing-Ye; Wang, Pu; Liu, Lu; Dong, Bi-Cheng; Yu, Fei-Hai

    2017-04-01

    Responses of morphology and biomass allocation of roots to frequency of nitrogen (N) pulse potentially influence the fitness of plants, but such responses may be determined by root size. We grew 12 plant species of three functional groups (grasses, forbs, and legumes) under two N pulse frequencies (high vs. low supply frequency) and two N amounts (high vs. low supply amount). Compared to low-amount N supply, high-amount N supply stimulated biomass accumulation and root growth by either increasing the thickness and length of roots or decreasing the root mass fraction. Compared to low-frequency N supply, high-frequency N supply improved biomass accumulation and root growth in forbs or grasses, but not in legumes. Furthermore, the magnitude of the response to N frequency was significantly negatively correlated with root size at the species scale, but this was only true when the N amount was high. We conclude that root responses to N frequency are related to plant functional types, and non-legume species is more sensitive to N frequency than legume species. Our results also suggest that root size is a determinant of root responses to N frequency when N supply amount is high.

  14. Accumulation of radioactive cesium released from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in terrestrial cyanobacteria Nostoc commune.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Hideaki; Shirato, Susumu; Tahara, Tomoya; Sato, Kenji; Takenaka, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident released large amounts of radioactive substances into the environment and contaminated the soil of Tohoku and Kanto districts in Japan. Removal of radioactive material from the environment is an urgent problem, and soil purification using plants is being considered. In this study, we investigated the ability of 12 seed plant species and a cyanobacterium to accumulate radioactive material. The plants did not accumulate radioactive material at high levels, but high accumulation was observed in the terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune. In Nihonmatsu City, Fukushima Prefecture, N. commune accumulated 415,000 Bq/kg dry weight (134)Cs and 607,000 Bq kg(-1) dry weight (137)Cs. The concentration of cesium in N. commune tended to be high in areas where soil radioactivity was high. A cultivation experiment confirmed that N. commune absorbed radioactive cesium from polluted soil. These data demonstrated that radiological absorption using N. commune might be suitable for decontaminating polluted soil.

  15. 26 CFR 1.263A-11 - Accumulated production expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Accumulated production expenditures. 1.263A-11... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Not Deductible § 1.263A-11 Accumulated production expenditures. (a) General rule. Accumulated production expenditures generally means the cumulative amount...

  16. MYB76 Inhibits Seed Fatty Acid Accumulation in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Shaowei; Jin, Changyu; Li, Dong; Gao, Chenhao; Qi, Shuanghui; Liu, Kaige; Hai, Jiangbo; Ma, Haoli; Chen, Mingxun

    2017-01-01

    The MYB family of transcription factors is important in regulatory networks controlling development, metabolism and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses in Arabidopsis. However, their role in regulating fatty acid accumulation in seeds is still largely unclear. Here, we found that MYB76, localized in the nucleus, was predominantly expressed in developing seeds during maturation. The myb76 mutation caused a significant increase in the amounts of total fatty acids and several major fatty acid compositions in mature seeds, suggesting that MYB76 functioned as an important repressor during seed oil biosynthesis. RNA sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed remarkable alteration of numerous genes involved in photosynthesis, fatty acid biosynthesis, modification, and degradation, and oil body formation in myb76 seeds at 12 days after pollination. These results help us to understand the novel function of MYB76 and provide new insights into the regulatory network of MYB transcriptional factors controlling seed oil accumulation in Arabidopsis. PMID:28270825

  17. Quantitative trait loci controlling amounts and types of epicuticular waxes in onion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural variation exists in onion (Allium cepa L.) for amounts and types of epicuticular waxes on leaves. Wild-type waxy onion possesses copious amounts of these waxes, while the foliage of semi-glossy and glossy phenotypes accumulate significantly less wax. Reduced amounts of epicuticular waxes hav...

  18. Memory accumulation mechanisms in human cortex are independent of motor intentions.

    PubMed

    Sestieri, Carlo; Tosoni, Annalisa; Mignogna, Valeria; McAvoy, Mark P; Shulman, Gordon L; Corbetta, Maurizio; Romani, Gian Luca

    2014-05-14

    Previous studies on perceptual decision-making have often emphasized a tight link between decisions and motor intentions. Human decisions, however, also depend on memories or experiences that are not closely tied to specific motor responses. Recent neuroimaging findings have suggested that, during episodic retrieval, parietal activity reflects the accumulation of evidence for memory decisions. It is currently unknown, however, whether these evidence accumulation signals are functionally linked to signals for motor intentions coded in frontoparietal regions and whether activity in the putative memory accumulator tracks the amount of evidence for only previous experience, as reflected in "old" reports, or for both old and new decisions, as reflected in the accuracy of memory judgments. Here, human participants used saccadic-eye and hand-pointing movements to report recognition judgments on pictures defined by different degrees of evidence for old or new decisions. A set of cortical regions, including the middle intraparietal sulcus, showed a monotonic variation of the fMRI BOLD signal that scaled with perceived memory strength (older > newer), compatible with an asymmetrical memory accumulator. Another set, including the hippocampus and the angular gyrus, showed a nonmonotonic response profile tracking memory accuracy (higher > lower evidence), compatible with a symmetrical accumulator. In contrast, eye and hand effector-specific regions in frontoparietal cortex tracked motor intentions but were not modulated by the amount of evidence for the effector outcome. We conclude that item recognition decisions are supported by a combination of symmetrical and asymmetrical accumulation signals largely segregated from motor intentions.

  19. Small herbivores suppress algal accumulation on Agatti atoll, Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cernohorsky, Nicole H.; McClanahan, Timothy R.; Babu, Idrees; Horsák, Michal

    2015-12-01

    Despite large herbivorous fish being generally accepted as the main group responsible for preventing algal accumulation on coral reefs, few studies have experimentally examined the relative importance of herbivore size on algal communities. This study used exclusion cages with two different mesh sizes (1 × 1 cm and 6 × 6 cm) to investigate the impact of different-sized herbivores on algal accumulation rates on the shallow (<2 m) back-reef of Agatti atoll, Lakshadweep. The fine-mesh cages excluded all visible herbivores, which had rapid and lasting effects on the benthic communities, and, after 127 d of deployment, there was a visible and significant increase in algae (mainly macroalgae) with algal volume being 13 times greater than in adjacent open areas. The coarse-mesh cages excluded larger fishes (>8 cm body depth) while allowing smaller fishes to access the plots. In contrast to the conclusions of most previous studies, the exclusion of large herbivores had no significant effect on the accumulation of benthic algae and the amount of algae present within the coarse-mesh cages was relatively consistent throughout the experimental period (around 50 % coverage and 1-2 mm height). The difference in algal accumulation between the fine-mesh and coarse-mesh cages appears to be related to the actions of small individuals from 12 herbivorous fish species (0.17 ind. m-2 and 7.7 g m-2) that were able to enter through the coarse mesh. Although restricted to a single habitat, these results suggest that when present in sufficient densities and diversity, small herbivorous fishes can prevent the accumulation of algal biomass on coral reefs.

  20. Solar-Panel Dust Accumulation and Cleanings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Air-fall dust accumulates on the solar panels of NASA's Mars Exploration Rovers, reducing the amount of sunlight reaching the solar arrays. Pre-launch models predicted steady dust accumulation. However, the rovers have been blessed with occasional wind events that clear significant amounts of dust from the solar panels.

    This graph shows the effects of those panel-cleaning events on the amount of electricity generated by Spirit's solar panels. The horizontal scale is the number of Martian days (sols) after Spirit's Jan. 4, 2005, (Universal Time) landing on Mars. The vertical scale indicates output from the rover's solar panels as a fraction of the amount produced when the clean panels first opened. Note that the gradual declines are interrupted by occasional sharp increases, such as a dust-cleaning event on sol 420.

  1. Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M. R.; Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.

    2012-09-26

    The objective of Solids Accumulation activities was to perform scaled testing to understand the behavior of remaining solids in a Double Shell Tank (DST), specifically AW-105, at Hanford during multiple fill, mix, and transfer operations. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles containing plutonium could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste staging tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids: Gibbsite, Zirconia, Sand, and Stainless Steel, with stainless steel particles representing the heavier particles, e.g., plutonium, and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to mix most of the solids while the simulant was pumped out. Subsequently, the volume and shape of the mounds of residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for heavier particles were measured. Several techniques were developed and equipment designed to accomplish the measurements needed and they included: 1. Magnetic particle separator to remove simulant stainless steel solids. A device was designed and built to capture these solids, which represent the heavier solids during a waste transfer from a staging tank. 2. Photographic equipment to determine the volume of the solids mounds. The mounds were photographed as they were exposed at different tank waste levels to develop a composite of topographical areas. 3. Laser rangefinders to determine the volume of

  2. An experimental test of the habitat-amount hypothesis for saproxylic beetles in a forested region.

    PubMed

    Seibold, Sebastian; Bässler, Claus; Brandl, Roland; Fahrig, Lenore; Förster, Bernhard; Heurich, Marco; Hothorn, Torsten; Scheipl, Fabian; Thorn, Simon; Müller, Jörg

    2017-03-19

    The habitat-amount hypothesis challenges traditional concepts that explain species richness within habitats, such as the habitat-patch hypothesis, where species number is a function of patch size and patch isolation. It posits that effects of patch size and patch isolation are driven by effects of sample area, and thus that the number of species at a site is basically a function of the total habitat amount surrounding this site. We tested the habitat-amount hypothesis for saproxylic beetles and their habitat of dead wood by using an experiment comprising 190 plots with manipulated patch sizes situated in a forested region with a high variation in habitat amount (i.e., density of dead trees in the surrounding landscape). Although dead wood is a spatio-temporally dynamic habitat, saproxylic insects have life cycles shorter than the time needed for habitat turnover and they closely track their resource. Patch size was manipulated by adding various amounts of downed dead wood to the plots (~800 m³ in total); dead trees in the surrounding landscape (~240 km²) were identified using airborne laser scanning (LiDAR). Over three years, 477 saproxylic species (101,416 individuals) were recorded. Considering 20-1,000 m radii around the patches, local landscapes were identified as having a radius of 40-120 m. Both patch size and habitat amount in the local landscapes independently affected species numbers without a significant interaction effect, hence refuting the island effect. Species accumulation curves relative to cumulative patch size were not consistent with either the habitat-patch hypothesis or the habitat-amount hypothesis: several small dead-wood patches held more species than a single large patch with an amount of dead wood equal to the sum of that of the small patches. Our results indicate that conservation of saproxylic beetles in forested regions should primarily focus on increasing the overall amount of dead wood without considering its spatial arrangement

  3. Response times from ensembles of accumulators

    PubMed Central

    Zandbelt, Bram; Purcell, Braden A.; Palmeri, Thomas J.; Logan, Gordon D.; Schall, Jeffrey D.

    2014-01-01

    Decision-making is explained by psychologists through stochastic accumulator models and by neurophysiologists through the activity of neurons believed to instantiate these models. We investigated an overlooked scaling problem: How does a response time (RT) that can be explained by a single model accumulator arise from numerous, redundant accumulator neurons, each of which individually appears to explain the variability of RT? We explored this scaling problem by developing a unique ensemble model of RT, called e pluribus unum, which embodies the well-known dictum “out of many, one.” We used the e pluribus unum model to analyze the RTs produced by ensembles of redundant, idiosyncratic stochastic accumulators under various termination mechanisms and accumulation rate correlations in computer simulations of ensembles of varying size. We found that predicted RT distributions are largely invariant to ensemble size if the accumulators share at least modestly correlated accumulation rates and RT is not governed by the most extreme accumulators. Under these regimes the termination times of individual accumulators was predictive of ensemble RT. We also found that the threshold measured on individual accumulators, corresponding to the firing rate of neurons measured at RT, can be invariant with RT but is equivalent to the specified model threshold only when the rate correlation is very high. PMID:24550315

  4. 46 CFR Sec. 2 - Amount of bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amount of bond. Sec. 2 Section 2 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY BONDING OF SHIP'S PERSONNEL Sec. 2 Amount of bond. The amount of the bond must be governed by the amount of monies advanced or value of...

  5. 46 CFR Sec. 2 - Amount of bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amount of bond. Sec. 2 Section 2 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY BONDING OF SHIP'S PERSONNEL Sec. 2 Amount of bond. The amount of the bond must be governed by the amount of monies advanced or value of...

  6. Oleaginous yeasts from Antarctica: Screening and preliminary approach on lipid accumulation.

    PubMed

    Viñarta, Silvana C; Angelicola, M Virginia; Barros, J Maximiliano; Fernández, Pablo M; Mac Cormak, Walter; Aybar, Manuel J; de Figueroa, Lucía I C

    2016-12-01

    The capability of 17 Rhodotorula spp. isolated from Antarctica to accumulate intracellular lipids in nitrogen-limited medium was investigated. As results, 10 isolates were selected by Nile red staining, while 12 isolates were selected as oleaginous by analysis of total lipid content (20.4-73%, w/w of dry biomass). The higher lipid production and accumulation was exhibited for six strains belonging to three species of Rhodotorula (Rhodotorula glutinis, Rhodotorula glacialis, and Rhodotorula laryngis). This is the first report where R. laryngis have been identified within oleaginous specie. Lipid accumulation was evaluated comparatively in two nitrogen-limited glucose-based media (MI and MII). MI (low C/N ratio) was more suitable for biomass and lipid production while in MII (high C/N ratio) total lipid content was improved. R. glutinis R4, R. glacialis R15, and R. glutinis R48 showed high lipid concentrations (4.65-6.93 g L(-1) ) and they were able to accumulate large amounts of lipids per gram of biomass (47-77%, w/w). A similar profile in fatty acids composition and content of neutral lipids to vegetable oils was observed, indicating that lipids produced by oleaginous Antarctic yeasts can be considered an alternative feedstock for biodiesel production. Antarctica represents an important source of oleaginous yeasts with adaptive capabilities to accumulate considerable amounts of lipids with biotechnological interest at 15 °C and 25 °C.

  7. Bromine accumulation in acidic black colluvial soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortizas, Antonio Martínez; Vázquez, Cruz Ferro; Kaal, Joeri; Biester, Harald; Casais, Manuela Costa; Rodríguez, Teresa Taboada; Lado, Luis Rodríguez

    2016-02-01

    Recent investigations showed that bromine is incorporated to soil organic matter (SOM), its content increasing with humification. But few research was done on its long-term accumulation and the role played by pedogenetic processes, as those involved in organic matter stabilization. We investigated bromine content and distribution in four deep, acidic, organic-rich, Holocene soils from an oceanic area of Western Europe. Bromine concentrations (93-778 μg g-1) in the silt + clay (<50 μm) fraction were on average 3-times higher than those (17-250 μg g-1) in the fine earth (<2 mm), the former containing almost all bromine (90 ± 5%). Inventories were between 148 and 314 g m-2, indicating a rather large variability in a small area, and total estimated retention was low (6-16%). The degree of SOM bromination, expressed as the Br/C molar ratio, varied between 0.03 and 1.20 mmol Br/mol C. The ratio was highly correlated (n = 23, r2 0.88, p < 0.01) with the age of the SOM for the last ∼12 ka. Partial least squares modeling indicates that bromine concentration depends on the amount of organic matter stabilized as aluminium-OM associations, and to a lesser extent on soil acidity (pH) and iron-OM associations. Thus, at scales of thousands of years, bromine accumulation in acidic soils is linked to the pool of metal-clay-stabilized organic matter.

  8. 29 CFR 4219.13 - Amount of liability for de minimis amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amount of liability for de minimis amounts. 4219.13 Section... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.13 Amount of liability for de minimis amounts. An employer that is liable for de minimis amounts shall be liable to the plan for the amount by...

  9. 29 CFR 4219.13 - Amount of liability for de minimis amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amount of liability for de minimis amounts. 4219.13 Section... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.13 Amount of liability for de minimis amounts. An employer that is liable for de minimis amounts shall be liable to the plan for the amount by...

  10. 29 CFR 4219.13 - Amount of liability for de minimis amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Amount of liability for de minimis amounts. 4219.13 Section... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.13 Amount of liability for de minimis amounts. An employer that is liable for de minimis amounts shall be liable to the plan for the amount by...

  11. 29 CFR 4219.13 - Amount of liability for de minimis amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amount of liability for de minimis amounts. 4219.13 Section... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.13 Amount of liability for de minimis amounts. An employer that is liable for de minimis amounts shall be liable to the plan for the amount by...

  12. 29 CFR 4219.13 - Amount of liability for de minimis amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amount of liability for de minimis amounts. 4219.13 Section... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.13 Amount of liability for de minimis amounts. An employer that is liable for de minimis amounts shall be liable to the plan for the amount by...

  13. Rapidly growing tropical trees mobilize remarkable amounts of nitrogen, in ways that differ surprisingly among species.

    PubMed

    Russell, Ann E; Raich, James W

    2012-06-26

    Fast-growing forests such as tropical secondary forests can accumulate large amounts of carbon (C), and thereby play an important role in the atmospheric CO(2) balance. Because nitrogen (N) cycling is inextricably linked with C cycling, the question becomes: Where does the N come from to match high rates of C accumulation? In unique experimental 16-y-old plantations established in abandoned pasture in lowland Costa Rica, we used a mass-balance approach to quantify N accumulation in vegetation, identify sources of N, and evaluate differences among tree species in N cycling. The replicated design contained four broad-leaved evergreen tree species growing under similar environmental conditions. Nitrogen uptake was rapid, reaching 409 (± 30) kg · ha(-1) · y(-1), double the rate reported from a Puerto Rican forest and greater than four times that observed at Hubbard Brook Forest (New Hampshire, USA). Nitrogen amassed in vegetation was 874 (± 176) kg · ha(-1), whereas net losses of soil N (0-100 cm) varied from 217 (±146) to 3,354 (± 915) kg · ha(-1) (P = 0.018) over 16 y. Soil C:N, δ(13)C values, and N budgets indicated that soil was the main source of biomass N. In Vochysia guatemalensis, however, N fixation contributed >60 kg · ha(-1) · y(-1). All species apparently promoted soil N turnover, such that the soil N mean residence time was 32-54 y, an order of magnitude lower than the global mean. High rates of N uptake were associated with substantial N losses in three of the species, in which an average of 1.6 g N was lost for every gram of N accumulated in biomass.

  14. Tonoplast Sugar Transporters (SbTSTs) putatively control sucrose accumulation in sweet sorghum stems.

    PubMed

    Bihmidine, Saadia; Julius, Benjamin T; Dweikat, Ismail; Braun, David M

    2016-01-01

    Carbohydrates are differentially partitioned in sweet versus grain sorghums. While the latter preferentially accumulate starch in the grain, the former primarily store large amounts of sucrose in the stem. Previous work determined that neither sucrose metabolizing enzymes nor changes in Sucrose transporter (SUT) gene expression accounted for the carbohydrate partitioning differences. Recently, 2 additional classes of sucrose transport proteins, Tonoplast Sugar Transporters (TSTs) and SWEETs, were identified; thus, we examined whether their expression tracked sucrose accumulation in sweet sorghum stems. We determined 2 TSTs were differentially expressed in sweet vs. grain sorghum stems, likely underlying the massive difference in sucrose accumulation. A model illustrating potential roles for different classes of sugar transport proteins in sorghum sugar partitioning is discussed.

  15. Tonoplast Sugar Transporters (SbTSTs) putatively control sucrose accumulation in sweet sorghum stems

    PubMed Central

    Bihmidine, Saadia; Julius, Benjamin T; Dweikat, Ismail; Braun, David M

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Carbohydrates are differentially partitioned in sweet versus grain sorghums. While the latter preferentially accumulate starch in the grain, the former primarily store large amounts of sucrose in the stem. Previous work determined that neither sucrose metabolizing enzymes nor changes in Sucrose transporter (SUT) gene expression accounted for the carbohydrate partitioning differences. Recently, 2 additional classes of sucrose transport proteins, Tonoplast Sugar Transporters (TSTs) and SWEETs, were identified; thus, we examined whether their expression tracked sucrose accumulation in sweet sorghum stems. We determined 2 TSTs were differentially expressed in sweet vs. grain sorghum stems, likely underlying the massive difference in sucrose accumulation. A model illustrating potential roles for different classes of sugar transport proteins in sorghum sugar partitioning is discussed. PMID:26619184

  16. Enhanced polyhydroxyalkanoates accumulation by Halomonas spp. in artificial biofilms of alginate beads.

    PubMed

    Berlanga, Mercedes; Miñana-Galbis, David; Domènech, Oscar; Guerrero, Ricardo

    2012-12-01

    Microbial mats are complex but stable, multi-layered and multi-functional biofilms, which are the most frequent bacterial formations in nature. The functional strategies and physiological versatility of the bacterial populations growing in microbial mats allow bacteria to resist changing conditions within their environment. One of these strategies is the accumulation of carbon- and energy-rich polymers that permit the recovery of metabolic activities when favorable conditions are restored. In the present study, we systematically screened microbial mats for bacteria able to accumulate large amounts of the ester carbon polymers polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA). Several of these strains were isolated from Ebro Delta microbial mats and their ability to accumulate PHA up to 40-60% of their dry weight was confirmed. According to two identification approaches (16S rRNA and rpoD genes), these strains were identified as Halomonas alkaliphila (MAT-7, -13, -16), H. neptunia (MAT-17), and H. venusta (MAT-28). To determine the mode of growth yielding maximum PHA accumulation, these three different species were cultured in an artificial biofilm in which the cells were immobilized on alginate beads. PHA accumulation by cells that had detached from the biofilm was compared with that of their planktonic counterparts. Experiments in different culture media showed that PHA accumulation, measured as the relative fluorescence intensity after 48 h of incubation at 30 degrees C, was higher in immobilized than in planktonic cells, with the exception of cells growing in 5% NaCl, in which PHA accumulation was drastically lower in both. Therefore, for obtaining high PHA concentrations, the use of immobilized cells may be a good alternative to the PHA accumulation by bacteria growing in the classical, planktonic mode. From the ecological point of view, increased PHA accumulation in detached cells from biofilms would be a natural strategy to improve bacterial dispersion capacity and, consequently

  17. Ascorbic acid transport and accumulation in human neutrophils

    SciTech Connect

    Washko, P.; Rotrosen, D.; Levine, M. )

    1989-11-15

    The transport, accumulation, and distribution of ascorbic acid were investigated in isolated human neutrophils utilizing a new ascorbic acid assay, which combined the techniques of high performance liquid chromatography and coulometric electrochemical detection. Freshly isolated human neutrophils contained 1.0-1.4 mM ascorbic acid, which was localized greater than or equal to 94% to the cytosol, was not protein bound, and was present only as ascorbic acid and not as dehydroascorbic acid. Upon addition of ascorbic acid to the extracellular medium in physiologic amounts, ascorbic acid was accumulated in neutrophils in millimolar concentrations. Accumulation was mediated by a high affinity and a low affinity transporter; both transporters were responsible for maintenance of concentration gradients as large as 50-fold. The high affinity transporter had an apparent Km of 2-5 microns by Lineweaver-Burk and Eadie-Hofstee analyses, and the low affinity transporter had an apparent Km of 6-7 mM by similar analyses. Each transporter was saturable and temperature dependent. In normal human blood the high affinity transporter should be saturated, whereas the low affinity transporter should be in its linear phase of uptake.

  18. The amount effect and marginal value.

    PubMed

    Rachlin, Howard; Arfer, Kodi B; Safin, Vasiliy; Yen, Ming

    2015-07-01

    The amount effect of delay discounting (by which the value of larger reward amounts is discounted by delay at a lower rate than that of smaller amounts) strictly implies that value functions (value as a function of amount) are steeper at greater delays than they are at lesser delays. That is, the amount effect and the difference in value functions at different delays are actually a single empirical finding. Amount effects of delay discounting are typically found with choice experiments. Value functions for immediate rewards have been empirically obtained by direct judgment. (Value functions for delayed rewards have not been previously obtained.) The present experiment obtained value functions for both immediate and delayed rewards by direct judgment and found them to be steeper when the rewards were delayed--hence, finding an amount effect with delay discounting.

  19. 40 CFR 273.35 - Accumulation time limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... § 273.35 Accumulation time limits. (a) A large quantity handler of universal waste may accumulate... demonstrate the length of time that the universal waste has been accumulated from the date it becomes a waste... other method which clearly demonstrates the length of time that the universal waste has been...

  20. 40 CFR 273.35 - Accumulation time limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... § 273.35 Accumulation time limits. (a) A large quantity handler of universal waste may accumulate... demonstrate the length of time that the universal waste has been accumulated from the date it becomes a waste... other method which clearly demonstrates the length of time that the universal waste has been...

  1. 47 CFR 32.3400 - Accumulated amortization-tangible.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... include: (1) the accumulated amortization associated with the investment contained in Account 2681, Capital leases. (2) the accumulated amortization associated with the investment contained in Account 2682... be charged with the cost of the retired item. Remaining amounts associated with the item shall...

  2. 47 CFR 36.503 - Accumulated depreciation-Account 3100.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accumulated depreciation-Account 3100. 36.503 Section 36.503 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... Accumulated depreciation—Account 3100. (a) Amounts recorded in this account shall be separated on the basis...

  3. Auditory Streaming as an Online Classification Process with Evidence Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Barniv, Dana; Nelken, Israel

    2015-01-01

    When human subjects hear a sequence of two alternating pure tones, they often perceive it in one of two ways: as one integrated sequence (a single "stream" consisting of the two tones), or as two segregated sequences, one sequence of low tones perceived separately from another sequence of high tones (two "streams"). Perception of this stimulus is thus bistable. Moreover, subjects report on-going switching between the two percepts: unless the frequency separation is large, initial perception tends to be of integration, followed by toggling between integration and segregation phases. The process of stream formation is loosely named “auditory streaming”. Auditory streaming is believed to be a manifestation of human ability to analyze an auditory scene, i.e. to attribute portions of the incoming sound sequence to distinct sound generating entities. Previous studies suggested that the durations of the successive integration and segregation phases are statistically independent. This independence plays an important role in current models of bistability. Contrary to this, we show here, by analyzing a large set of data, that subsequent phase durations are positively correlated. To account together for bistability and positive correlation between subsequent durations, we suggest that streaming is a consequence of an evidence accumulation process. Evidence for segregation is accumulated during the integration phase and vice versa; a switch to the opposite percept occurs stochastically based on this evidence. During a long phase, a large amount of evidence for the opposite percept is accumulated, resulting in a long subsequent phase. In contrast, a short phase is followed by another short phase. We implement these concepts using a probabilistic model that shows both bistability and correlations similar to those observed experimentally. PMID:26671774

  4. The atf2 gene is involved in triacylglycerol biosynthesis and accumulation in the oleaginous Rhodococcus opacus PD630.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Martín A; Arabolaza, Ana; Rodríguez, Eduardo; Gramajo, Hugo; Alvarez, Héctor M

    2013-03-01

    Rhodococcus opacus PD630 is an oleaginous bacterium able to accumulate large amounts of triacylglycerols (TAG) in different carbon sources. The last reaction for TAG biosynthesis is catalyzed by the bifunctional wax ester synthase/acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (WS/DGAT) enzymes encoded by atf genes. R. opacus PD630 possesses at least 17 putative atf homologous genes in its genome, but only atf1 and atf2 exhibited a significant DGAT activity when expressed in E. coli, as revealed in a previous study. The contribution of atf1 gene to TAG accumulation by strain PD630 has been demonstrated previously, although additional Atfs may also contribute to lipid accumulation, since the atf1-disrupted mutant is still able to produce significant amounts of TAG (Alvarez et al., Microbiology 154:2327-2335, 2008). In this study, we investigated the in vivo role of atf2 gene in TAG accumulation by R. opacus PD630 by using different genetic strategies. The atf2-disrupted mutant exhibited a decrease in TAG accumulation (up to 25-30 %, w/w) and an approximately tenfold increase in glycogen formation in comparison with the wild-type strain. Surprisingly, in contrast to single mutants, a double mutant generated by the disruption of atf1 and atf2 genes only showed a very low effect in TAG and in glycogen accumulation under lipid storage conditions. Overexpression of atf1 and atf2 genes in strain PD630 promoted an increase of approximately 10 % (w/w) in TAG accumulation, while heterologous expression of atf2 gene in Mycobacterium smegmatis caused an increase in TAG accumulation during cultivation in nitrogen-rich media. This study demonstrated that, in addition to atf1 gene, atf2 is actively involved in TAG accumulation by the oleaginous R. opacus PD630.

  5. 45 CFR 32.8 - Amounts withheld.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... paragraph (b) of this section. The employer may use the SF-329C “Wage Garnishment Worksheet” to calculate... garnishment order up to 15% of the debtor's disposable pay; or (2) The amount set forth in 15 U.S.C. 1673(a)(2) (Maximum allowable garnishment). The amount set forth at 15 U.S.C. 1673(a)(2) is the amount by which...

  6. 45 CFR 32.8 - Amounts withheld.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... paragraph (b) of this section. The employer may use the SF-329C “Wage Garnishment Worksheet” to calculate... garnishment order up to 15% of the debtor's disposable pay; or (2) The amount set forth in 15 U.S.C. 1673(a)(2) (Maximum allowable garnishment). The amount set forth at 15 U.S.C. 1673(a)(2) is the amount by which...

  7. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing.

    PubMed

    Kühl, Hjalmar S; Kalan, Ammie K; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D'Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-02-29

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites.

  8. Accumulation of the planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherill, G. W.

    1987-01-01

    In modeling the accumulation of planetesimals into planets, it is appropriate to distinguish between two stages: an early stage, during which approximately 10 km diameter planetesimals accumulate locally to form bodies approximate 10 to the 25th g in mass; and a later stage in which the approximately 10 to the 25th g planetesimals accumulate into the final planets. In the terrestrial planet region, an initial planetesimal swarm corresponding to the critical mass of dust layer gravitational instabilities is considered. In order to better understand the accumulation history of Mercury-sized bodies, 19 Monte-Carlo simulations of terrestrial planet growth were calculated. A Monte Carlo technique was used to investigate the orbital evolution of asteroidal collision debris produced interior to 2.6 AU. It was found that there are two regions primarily responsible for production of Earth-crossing meteoritic material and Apollo objects. The same techniques were extended to include the origin of Earth-approaching asteroidal bodies. It is found that these same two resonant mechanisms predict a steady-state number of Apollo-Amor about 1/2 that estimated based on astronomical observations.

  9. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing

    PubMed Central

    Kühl, Hjalmar S.; Kalan, Ammie K.; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D’Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E.; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J.; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M.; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites. PMID:26923684

  10. Sleep and Delinquency: Does the Amount of Sleep Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinkinbeard, Samantha S.; Simi, Pete; Evans, Mary K.; Anderson, Amy L.

    2011-01-01

    Sleep, a key indicator of health, has been linked to a variety of indicators of well-being such that people who get an adequate amount generally experience greater well-being. Further, a lack of sleep has been linked to a wide range of negative developmental outcomes, yet sleep has been largely overlooked among researchers interested in adolescent…

  11. 20 CFR 617.34 - Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part 101-7) for the locality where the job search is... WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Job Search Allowances § 617.34 Amount. (a) Computation. The amount of a job search allowance shall be 90 percent of the total costs of each of the following...

  12. 20 CFR 617.34 - Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part 101-7) for the locality where the job search is... WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Job Search Allowances § 617.34 Amount. (a) Computation. The amount of a job search allowance shall be 90 percent of the total costs of each of the following...

  13. 20 CFR 617.34 - Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part 101-7) for the locality where the job search is... WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Job Search Allowances § 617.34 Amount. (a) Computation. The amount of a job search allowance shall be 90 percent of the total costs of each of the following...

  14. 46 CFR 308.403 - Insured amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... total amount of war risk insurance obtainable from companies authorized to do an insurance business in a... authorized to do an insurance business in a State of the United States. (c) Maximum liability. The amount of... MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War...

  15. 46 CFR 308.403 - Insured amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... total amount of war risk insurance obtainable from companies authorized to do an insurance business in a... authorized to do an insurance business in a State of the United States. (c) Maximum liability. The amount of... MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War...

  16. 20 CFR 617.34 - Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Job Search Allowances § 617.34 Amount. (a) Computation. The amount of a job search allowance shall be 90 percent of the total costs of each of the following allowable... job search; or (ii) The cost per mile at the prevailing mileage rate authorized under the...

  17. 46 CFR 308.100 - Insured amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.100 Insured amount. An applicant for war risk hull insurance shall state the amount of insurance desired but any payment of claim for damage to or actual or...

  18. 23 CFR 1335.8 - Grant amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grant amounts. 1335.8 Section 1335.8 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STATE HIGHWAY SAFETY DATA IMPROVEMENTS § 1335.8 Grant amounts. (a) Start-up grant. A State that qualifies for a start-up grant under §...

  19. 23 CFR 1335.8 - Grant amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Grant amounts. 1335.8 Section 1335.8 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STATE HIGHWAY SAFETY DATA IMPROVEMENTS § 1335.8 Grant amounts. (a) Start-up grant. A State that qualifies for a start-up grant under §...

  20. 13 CFR 400.202 - Loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....202 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Steel Guarantee Loans § 400.202 Loan amount. (a) The aggregate amount of loan principal guaranteed under this Program to a single Qualified Steel Company may not exceed $ 250 million. (b) Of...

  1. 13 CFR 400.202 - Loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....202 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Steel Guarantee Loans § 400.202 Loan amount. (a) The aggregate amount of loan principal guaranteed under this Program to a single Qualified Steel Company may not exceed $ 250 million. (b) Of...

  2. 13 CFR 400.202 - Loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....202 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Steel Guarantee Loans § 400.202 Loan amount. (a) The aggregate amount of loan principal guaranteed under this Program to a single Qualified Steel Company may not exceed $ 250 million. (b) Of...

  3. 13 CFR 400.202 - Loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....202 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Steel Guarantee Loans § 400.202 Loan amount. (a) The aggregate amount of loan principal guaranteed under this Program to a single Qualified Steel Company may not exceed $ 250 million. (b) Of...

  4. 13 CFR 400.202 - Loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....202 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Steel Guarantee Loans § 400.202 Loan amount. (a) The aggregate amount of loan principal guaranteed under this Program to a single Qualified Steel Company may not exceed $ 250 million. (b) Of...

  5. 78 FR 59702 - Medicare Program; Medicare Appeals: Adjustment to the Amount in Controversy Threshold Amounts for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ...This notice announces the annual adjustment in the amount in controversy (AIC) threshold amounts for Administrative Law Judge (ALJ) hearings and judicial review under the Medicare appeals process. The adjustment to the AIC threshold amounts will be effective for requests for ALJ hearings and judicial review filed on or after January 1, 2014. The calendar year 2014 AIC threshold amounts are......

  6. Control of helium accumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Varadarajan, V.; Miley, G.H.

    1990-01-01

    The fishbone like oscillations in ignited tokamaks are addressed in an exploratory manner. The effects of the strong m = 1 oscillations and the weak high-frequency oscillations are examined in order to explore the feasibility of utilizing these oscillations for alpha accumulation control. The prospects of achieving small scale continuous alpha removal from the plasma center by mild fishbone-like oscillations are examined.

  7. 12 CFR 313.95 - Amounts withheld.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CORPORATE DEBT COLLECTION Administrative Wage Garnishment § 313.95 Amounts withheld. (a) Upon receipt of the... orders with priority, the following shall apply: (1) Unless otherwise provided by federal...

  8. 23 CFR 1335.8 - Grant amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Grant amounts. 1335.8 Section 1335.8 Highways NATIONAL... § 1335.8 Grant amounts. (a) Start-up grant. A State that qualifies for a start-up grant under § 1335.7(a) of this part shall be eligible to receive $25,000. (b) Initiation grant. A State that qualifies...

  9. Unusual amount of (-)-mesquitol from the heartwood of Prosopis juliflora.

    PubMed

    Sirmah, Peter; Dumarçay, Stéphane; Masson, Eric; Gérardin, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    A large amount of flavonoid has been extracted and isolated from the heartwood of Prosopis juliflora, an exogenous wood species of Kenya. Structural and physicochemical elucidation based on FTIR, (1)H and (13)C NMR, GC-MS and HPLC analysis clearly demonstrated the presence of (-)-mesquitol as the sole compound without any noticeable impurities. The product was able to slow down oxidation of methyl linoleate induced by AIBN. The important amount and high purity of (-)-mesquitol present in the acetonic extract of P. juliflora could therefore be of valuable interest as a potential source of antioxidants from a renewable origin.

  10. Accumulation of reserve carbohydrate by rumen protozoa and bacteria in competition for glucose.

    PubMed

    Denton, Bethany L; Diese, Leanne E; Firkins, Jeffrey L; Hackmann, Timothy J

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if rumen protozoa could form large amounts of reserve carbohydrate compared to the amounts formed by bacteria when competing for glucose in batch cultures. We separated large protozoa and small bacteria from rumen fluid by filtration and centrifugation, recombined equal protein masses of each group into one mixture, and subsequently harvested (reseparated) these groups at intervals after glucose dosing. This method allowed us to monitor reserve carbohydrate accumulation of protozoa and bacteria individually. When mixtures were dosed with a moderate concentration of glucose (4.62 or 5 mM) (n = 2 each), protozoa accumulated large amounts of reserve carbohydrate; 58.7% (standard error of the mean [SEM], 2.2%) glucose carbon was recovered from protozoal reserve carbohydrate at time of peak reserve carbohydrate concentrations. Only 1.7% (SEM, 2.2%) was recovered in bacterial reserve carbohydrate, which was less than that for protozoa (P < 0.001). When provided a high concentration of glucose (20 mM) (n = 4 each), 24.1% (SEM, 2.2%) of glucose carbon was recovered from protozoal reserve carbohydrate, which was still higher (P = 0.001) than the 5.0% (SEM, 2.2%) glucose carbon recovered from bacterial reserve carbohydrate. Our novel competition experiments directly demonstrate that mixed protozoa can sequester sugar away from bacteria by accumulating reserve carbohydrate, giving protozoa a competitive advantage and stabilizing fermentation in the rumen. Similar experiments could be used to investigate the importance of starch sequestration.

  11. Modelling accumulation of marine plastics in the coastal zone; what are the dominant physical processes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Critchell, Kay; Lambrechts, Jonathan

    2016-03-01

    Anthropogenic marine debris, mainly of plastic origin, is accumulating in estuarine and coastal environments around the world causing damage to fauna, flora and habitats. Plastics also have the potential to accumulate in the food web, as well as causing economic losses to tourism and sea-going industries. If we are to manage this increasing threat, we must first understand where debris is accumulating and why these locations are different to others that do not accumulate large amounts of marine debris. This paper demonstrates an advection-diffusion model that includes beaching, settling, resuspension/re-floating, degradation and topographic effects on the wind in nearshore waters to quantify the relative importance of these physical processes governing plastic debris accumulation. The aim of this paper is to prioritise research that will improve modelling outputs in the future. We have found that the physical characteristic of the source location has by far the largest effect on the fate of the debris. The diffusivity, used to parameterise the sub-grid scale movements, and the relationship between debris resuspension/re-floating from beaches and the wind shadow created by high islands also has a dramatic impact on the modelling results. The rate of degradation of macroplastics into microplastics also have a large influence in the result of the modelling. The other processes presented (settling, wind drift velocity) also help determine the fate of debris, but to a lesser degree. These findings may help prioritise research on physical processes that affect plastic accumulation, leading to more accurate modelling, and subsequently management in the future.

  12. RF SYSTEM FOR THE SNS ACCUMULATOR RING.

    SciTech Connect

    BLASKIEWICZ, M.; BRENNAN, J.M.; BRODOWSKI, J.; DELONG, J.; METH, M.; SMITH, K.; ZALTSMAN, A.

    2001-06-18

    During accumulation the RF beam current in the spallation neutron source ring rises from 0 to 50 amperes. A clean, 250 nanosecond gap is needed for the extraction kicker risetime. Large momentum spread and small peak current are needed to prevent instabilities and stopband related losses. A robust RF system meeting these requirements has been designed.

  13. Capturing Wind Speed and Snow Accumulation Gradients across Complex Terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winstral, A. H.; Marks, D. G.; Gurney, R. J.

    2009-12-01

    Wind speeds vary dramatically over short distances in mountain settings. Snow distribution is strongly affected by these disparate winds with drifts containing meters of snow-water-equivalence (SWE) often found adjacent to windward slopes containing minimal amounts of SWE. The heterogeneous snow distribution effects runoff, soil moisture, and vegetation patterns. Capturing these gradients in models is difficult due to the inherent complexity of wind fields and a general lack of data from high elevation, wind-exposed locations. This study was conducted in the Reynolds Mountain East research basin in southwest Idaho, USA. The basin is uniquely instrumented with a network of automated wind and snow depth sensors that capture a large range of variability. Additional manual snow surveys were conducted twice a year that captured the full gradient of snow distribution present in the basin. This unique dataset formed the foundation for establishing relationships between the variables of interest and readily available terrain and vegetation data. A significant relationship between upwind terrain structure and wind speed was established and further validated at two other sites. Snow accumulation rates were related to wind speed and terrain structure. Computationally efficient methods for distributing wind speed and snow accumulation from single point measurements were established from these findings. The algorithms were used to derive the spatial forcing fields for a distributed mass and energy balance snow model with effective results.

  14. Triacylglycerol Accumulation in Photosynthetic Cells in Plants and Algae.

    PubMed

    Du, Zhi-Yan; Benning, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Plant and algal oils are some of the most energy-dense renewable compounds provided by nature. Triacylglycerols (TAGs) are the major constituent of plant oils, which can be converted into fatty acid methyl esters commonly known as biodiesel. As one of the most efficient producers of TAGs, photosynthetic microalgae have attracted substantial interest for renewable fuel production. Currently, the big challenge of microalgae based TAGs for biofuels is their high cost compared to fossil fuels. A conundrum is that microalgae accumulate large amounts of TAGs only during stress conditions such as nutrient deprivation and temperature stress, which inevitably will inhibit growth. Thus, a better understanding of why and how microalgae induce TAG biosynthesis under stress conditions would allow the development of engineered microalgae with increased TAG production during conditions optimal for growth. Land plants also synthesize TAGs during stresses and we will compare new findings on environmental stress-induced TAG accumulation in plants and microalgae especially in the well-characterized model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and a biotechnologically relevant genus Nannochloropsis.

  15. 75 FR 58407 - Medicare Program; Medicare Appeals; Adjustment to the Amount in Controversy Threshold Amounts for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... to the Amount in Controversy Threshold Amounts for Calendar Year 2011 AGENCY: Centers for Medicare... July of the preceding year involved and rounded to the nearest multiple of $10. B. Calendar Year 2011... judicial review will rise to $1,300 for the 2011 calendar year. These updated amounts are based on the...

  16. 77 FR 59618 - Medicare Program; Medicare Appeals; Adjustment to the Amount in Controversy Threshold Amounts for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... to the Amount in Controversy Threshold Amounts for Calendar Year 2013 AGENCY: Centers for Medicare... for requests for ALJ hearings and judicial review filed on or after January 1, 2013. The calendar year... nearest multiple of $10. B. Calendar Year 2013 The AIC threshold amount for ALJ hearing requests...

  17. Comprehensive metabolomic, lipidomic and microscopic profiling of Yarrowia lipolytica during lipid accumulation identifies targets for increased lipogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Pomraning, Kyle R.; Wei, Siwei; Karagiosis, Sue A.; Kim, Young-Mo; Dohnalkova, Alice; Arey, Bruce W.; Bredeweg, Erin L.; Orr, Galya; Metz, Thomas O.; Baker, Scott E.

    2015-04-23

    Yarrowia lipolytica is an oleaginous ascomycete yeast that accumulates large amounts of lipids and has potential as a biofuel producing organism. Despite a growing scientific literature focused on lipid production by Y. lipolytica, there remain significant knowledge gaps regarding the key biological processes involved. We applied a combination of metabolomic and lipidomic profiling approaches as well as microscopic techniques to identify and characterize the key pathways involved in de novo lipid accumulation from glucose in batch cultured, wild-type Y. lipolytica. We found that lipids accumulated rapidly and peaked at 48 hours during the five day experiment, concurrent with a shift in amino acid metabolism. We also report that Y. lipolytica secretes disaccharides early in batch culture and reabsorbs them when extracellular glucose is depleted. Exhaustion of extracellular sugars coincided with thickening of the cell wall, suggesting that genes involved in cell wall biogenesis may be a useful target for improving the efficiency of lipid producing yeast strains.

  18. Carbon accumulation rates recorded in the last 150years in tropical high mountain peatlands of the Atlantic Rainforest, SE - Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lourençato, Lúcio F; Caldeira, Pedro P; Bernardes, Marcelo C; Buch, Andressa C; Teixeira, Daniel C; Silva-Filho, Emmanoel V

    2017-02-01

    Peatlands are environmental matrices that store large amounts of organic carbon (TOC) and work as records of environmental changes. Recent record of organic carbon accumulated were assessed in two Forest National Parks, Itatiaia and Serra dos Órgãos in the Southeastern of Brazil. Based on organic and inorganic characterization, the cores from peatlands presented a predominance of organic material in an advanced stage of decomposition and those soils were classified as typical Haplosaprists Histosols. The combination of favorable topographic and climatic conditions led to rapid C accumulation across coastal mountain in the tropical peatlands studied, presenting an average accumulation rate of C, in the last century, of 194gCm(-2)yr(-1) about 7 higher times than the rate found in boreal and subarctic peatlands, those higher values may be related to changes in the hydrological cycle occurred since 1950s.

  19. Daily accumulation rates of marine debris on sub-Antarctic island beaches.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Cecilia; Burton, Harry; Fitch, Stuart; Schulz, Martin; van den Hoff, John

    2013-01-15

    The worlds' oceans contain a large but unknown amount of plastic debris. We made daily collections of marine debris stranded at two sub-Antarctic islands to establish (a) physical causes of strandings, and (b) a sampling protocol to better estimate the oceans' plastic loading. Accumulation rates at some beaches were dependent on tide and onshore winds. Most of the 6389 items collected were plastic (Macquarie 95%, Heard 94%) and discarded or lost fishing gear comprised 22% of those plastic items. Stalked barnacles (Lepas spp.) were a regular attachment on Macquarie debris but not at Heard Island. The daily accumulation rate of plastic debris on Macquarie Island was an order of magnitude higher than that estimated from monthly surveys during the same 4 months in the previous 5 years. This finding suggests that estimates of the oceans' plastic loading are an order of magnitude too low.

  20. How to get fat: nutritional mechanisms of seasonal fat accumulation in migratory songbirds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bairlein, Franz

    2002-01-01

    Many migratory birds accumulate large amounts of lipids as the prime energy source for their long-distance flights. This fat accumulation is mostly under endogenous control, reflecting genetically programmed temporal shifts of the body mass set point. It is accompanied by an increase in daily food intake and food utilisation efficiency and by a seasonal shift in food selection. In particular, seasonal frugivory appears to play a key role in many migrants. Fruits have a high content of fatty acids indispensable for building up the specific depot lipids. In addition, plant secondary compounds seem to play some kind of supportive role, but the mechanisms are not yet known. The effect of being fat on the metabolic situation in migrant birds appears to be similar to the metabolic syndrome in obese humans. The fat migratory bird provides a model through which to study nutritional factors as well as the biochemical and endocrine regulation of food intake, body mass and obesity.

  1. The role of atmospheric rivers in anomalous snow accumulation in Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorodetskaya, Irina V.; Van Lipzig, Nicole P. M.; Claes, Kim; Delcloo, Andy W.; Tsukernik, Maria; Wick, Gary A.; Ralph, F. Martin; Neff, William D.

    2014-05-01

    A few large snow accumulation events over Dronning Maud Land (DML) in 2009 and 2011 have been responsible for an anomalously high mass load over the East Antarctica. Previous studies showed that this regional mass gain partially compensated for some of the recent global ice mass losses that contribute to global sea level rise. Precipitation over the Antarctic ice sheet is mostly of synoptic origin and snowfall events of large magnitude require significant poleward moisture transport. We use in-situ measurements of snow accumulation at Princess Elisabeth (PE) base (72ºS, 23ºE, 1420 m asl) together with meteorological fields from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) re-analysis to investigate local accumulation patterns and associated poleward moisture transport. Year 2009 experienced an anomalously high transient eddies meridional moisture flux as observed in the coastal Indian Ocean (50-66ºS, 0-90ºE) sector, when compared to 1979-2012 period. We show that the anomalous moisture transport and resulting extreme snow accumulation in DML during 2009 can be attributed to several "atmospheric river" (AR) events. ARs are narrow enhanced water vapor bands known for bringing high amounts of moisture in the river-like pattern from the tropics to the middle latitudes and responsible for large amount of coastal precipitation. This work shows that ARs can reach as far as the Antarctic coast resulting in intensive snowfalls at the ascent to the Antarctic plateau. The 19 May 2009 event is investigated in detail and used to modify existing definitions of ARs to apply to the Antarctic cases taking into account lower saturation capacity of the polar troposphere. According to 500-hPa geopotential heights analysis, an atmospheric river was steered towards DML along the eastern flank of a low-pressure system centered north of DML and blocked on the east by a high-pressure ridge. Five-day 3D back-trajectory analysis using the ECMWF APTRA model demonstrates

  2. Spatial Imaging And Speciation of Lead in the Accumulator Plant Sedum Alfredii By Microscopically Focused Synchrotron X-Ray Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, S.; Lu, L.; Yang, X.; Webb, S.M.; Du, Y.; Brown, P.H.; /SLAC

    2012-08-23

    Sedum alfredii (Crassulaceae), a species native to China, has been characterized as a Zn/Cd cohyperaccumulator and Pb accumulator though the mechanisms of metal tolerance and accumulation are largely unknown. Here, the spatial distribution and speciation of Pb in tissues of the accumulator plant was investigated using synchrotron-based X-ray microfluorescence and powder Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. Lead was predominantly restricted to the vascular bundles of both leaf and stem of the accumulator. Micro-XRF analysis revealed that Pb distributed predominantly within the areas of vascular bundles, and a positive correlation between the distribution patterns of S and Pb was observed. The dominant chemical form of Pb (>60%) in tissues of both accumulating (AE) and nonaccumulating ecotype (NAE) S. alfredii was similar to prepared Pb-cell wall compounds. However, the percentage of the Pb-cell wall complex is lower in the stem and leaf of AE, and a small amount of Pb appeared to be associated with SH-compounds. These results suggested a very low mobility of Pb out of vascular bundles, and that the metal is largely retained in the cell walls during transportation in plants of S. alfredii.

  3. Molecular Interactions between the Specialist Herbivore Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) and Its Natural Host Nicotiana attenuata. I. Large-Scale Changes in the Accumulation of Growth- and Defense-Related Plant mRNAs1

    PubMed Central

    Hermsmeier, Dieter; Schittko, Ursula; Baldwin, Ian T.

    2001-01-01

    Plants respond to herbivore attack with a dramatic functional reorganization that involves the activation of direct and indirect defenses and tolerance, which in turn make large demands on primary metabolism. Here we provide the first characterization of the transcriptional reorganization that occurs after insect attack in a model plant-herbivore system: Nicotiana attenuata Torr. ex Wats.-Manduca sexta. We used mRNA differential display to characterize one-twentieth of the insect-responsive transcriptome of N. attenuata and verified differential expression for 27 cDNAs. Northern analyses were used to study the effects of folivory and exposure to airborne methyl jasmonate and for kinetic analyses throughout a 16-h- light/8-h-dark cycle. Sequence similarity searches allowed putative functions to be assigned to 15 transcripts. Genes were related to photosynthesis, electron transport, cytoskeleton, carbon and nitrogen metabolism, signaling, and a group responding to stress, wounding, or invasion of pathogens. Overall, transcripts involved in photosynthesis were strongly down-regulated, whereas those responding to stress, wounding, and pathogens and involved in shifting carbon and nitrogen to defense were strongly up-regulated. The majority of transcripts responded similarly to airborne methyl jasmonate and folivory, and had tissue- and diurnal-specific patterns of expression. Transcripts encoding Thr deaminase (TD) and a putative retrotransposon were absent in control plants, but were strongly induced after herbivory. Full-length sequences were obtained for TD and the pathogen-inducible α-dioxygenase, PIOX. Effects of abiotic and biotic stimuli were investigated for transcripts encoding TD, importin α, PIOX, and a GAL83-like kinase cofactor. PMID:11161026

  4. 33 CFR 133.7 - Requests: Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; STATE ACCESS § 133.7... amount anticipated for immediate removal action for a single oil pollution incident, but, in any event... quantity and composition of the oil, weather conditions and customary costs of similar services in...

  5. 40 CFR 35.9050 - Assistance amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Assistance amount. 35.9050 Section 35.9050 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9050...

  6. 40 CFR 35.9050 - Assistance amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Assistance amount. 35.9050 Section 35.9050 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9050...

  7. 40 CFR 35.9050 - Assistance amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Assistance amount. 35.9050 Section 35.9050 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9050...

  8. 40 CFR 35.9050 - Assistance amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Assistance amount. 35.9050 Section 35.9050 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9050...

  9. 7 CFR 1421.304 - Payment amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.304 Payment amount. (a) The grazing payment rate... payment rate in effect for the predominant class of wheat in the county where the farm is located as of... three (3) similar farms. For triticale, the payment yield shall be the yield for wheat from three...

  10. 7 CFR 1421.304 - Payment amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.304 Payment amount. (a) The grazing payment rate... payment rate in effect for the predominant class of wheat in the county where the farm is located as of... three (3) similar farms. For triticale, the payment yield shall be the yield for wheat from three...

  11. 7 CFR 1421.304 - Payment amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.304 Payment amount. (a) The grazing payment rate... payment rate in effect for the predominant class of wheat in the county where the farm is located as of... three (3) similar farms. For triticale, the payment yield shall be the yield for wheat from three...

  12. 7 CFR 1421.304 - Payment amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.304 Payment amount. (a) The grazing payment rate... payment rate in effect for the predominant class of wheat in the county where the farm is located as of... three (3) similar farms. For triticale, the payment yield shall be the yield for wheat from three...

  13. 14 CFR 1300.13 - Guarantee amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Guarantee amount. 1300.13 Section 1300.13 Aeronautics and Space AIR TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM STABILIZATION OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET AVIATION DISASTER RELIEF-AIR CARRIER GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Minimum Requirements and Application Procedures §...

  14. 33 CFR 135.203 - Amount required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OFFSHORE OIL POLLUTION COMPENSATION FUND Financial Responsibility for Offshore Facilities § 135.203 Amount required. (a) Each facility that is used for drilling for, producing, or processing oil, or which has the capacity to transport,...

  15. 33 CFR 135.203 - Amount required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OFFSHORE OIL POLLUTION COMPENSATION FUND Financial Responsibility for Offshore Facilities § 135.203 Amount required. (a) Each facility that is used for drilling for, producing, or processing oil, or which has the capacity to transport,...

  16. 33 CFR 135.203 - Amount required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OFFSHORE OIL POLLUTION COMPENSATION FUND Financial Responsibility for Offshore Facilities § 135.203 Amount required. (a) Each facility that is used for drilling for, producing, or processing oil, or which has the capacity to transport,...

  17. 21 CFR 1309.11 - Fee amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., IMPORTERS AND EXPORTERS OF LIST I CHEMICALS Fees for Registration and Reregistration § 1309.11 Fee amounts..., or export a List I chemical, the applicant shall pay an annual fee of $1,147. Effective Date Note: At 77 FR 15250, Mar. 15, 2012, § 1309.11 was revised, effective April 16, 2012. For the convenience...

  18. Cohabitation history, marriage, and wealth accumulation.

    PubMed

    Vespa, Jonathan; Painter, Matthew A

    2011-08-01

    This study extends research on the relationship between wealth accumulation and union experiences, such as marriage and cohabitation. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, we explore the wealth trajectories of married individuals in light of their premarital cohabitation histories. Over time, marriage positively correlates with wealth accumulation. Most married persons with a premarital cohabitation history have wealth trajectories that are indistinguishable from those without cohabitation experience, with one exception: individuals who marry their one and only cohabiting partner experience a wealth premium that is twice as large as that for married individuals who never cohabited prior to marrying. Results remain robust over time despite cohabiters' selection out of marriage, yet vary by race/ethnicity. We conclude that relationship history may shape long-term wealth accumulation, and contrary to existing literature, individuals who marry their only cohabiting partners experience a beneficial marital outcome. It is therefore important to understand the diversity of cohabitation experiences among the married.

  19. An oleaginous bacterium that intrinsically accumulates long-chain free Fatty acids in its cytoplasm.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Taiki; Kanno, Manabu; Morita, Naoki; Hori, Tomoyuki; Narihiro, Takashi; Mitani, Yasuo; Kamagata, Yoichi

    2014-02-01

    Medium- and long-chain fatty acids are present in organisms in esterified forms that serve as cell membrane constituents and storage compounds. A large number of organisms are known to accumulate lipophilic materials as a source of energy and carbon. We found a bacterium, designated GK12, that intrinsically accumulates free fatty acids (FFAs) as intracellular droplets without exhibiting cytotoxicity. GK12 is an obligatory anaerobic, mesophilic lactic acid bacterium that was isolated from a methanogenic reactor. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that GK12 is affiliated with the family Erysipelotrichaceae in the phylum Firmicutes but is distantly related to type species in this family (less than 92% similarity in 16S rRNA gene sequence). Saturated fatty acids with carbon chain lengths of 14, 16, 18, and 20 were produced from glucose under stress conditions, including higher-than-optimum temperatures and the presence of organic solvents that affect cell membrane integrity. FFAs were produced at levels corresponding to up to 25% (wt/wt) of the dry cell mass. Our data suggest that FFA accumulation is a result of an imbalance between excess membrane fatty acid biosynthesis due to homeoviscous adaptation and limited β-oxidation activity due to anaerobic growth involving lactic acid fermentation. FFA droplets were not further utilized as an energy and carbon source, even under conditions of starvation. A naturally occurring bacterium that accumulates significant amounts of long-chain FFAs with noncytotoxicity would provide useful strategies for microbial biodiesel production.

  20. Unmodified low density lipoprotein causes cholesteryl ester accumulation in J774 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Tabas, I; Weiland, D A; Tall, A R

    1985-01-01

    Cholesteryl ester (CE)-loaded macrophages (foam cells) are a prominent feature of atherosclerotic plaques. Previous studies have shown that human monocytes or resident mouse peritoneal macrophages accumulate CE in response to low density lipoprotein (LDL) only when the LDL has been appropriately chemically modified. By contrast, we report here that J774 macrophages accumulate large amounts of CE when incubated with unmodified LDL. The CE is stored in oil red O-positive droplets, which have the typical appearance of foam cell inclusions by electron microscopy. The fatty acid moieties of the cellular CE are enriched in oleate unlike those of LDL-CE, which are enriched in linoleate, indicating that the LDL-CE undergoes hydrolysis and reesterification by acyl CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase. Studies with 125I-labeled LDL at both 4 degrees C and 37 degrees C indicate that the LDL is internalized by a specific receptor that has several characteristics in common with the apolipoprotein B/E (apo B/E) receptor. However, in comparison with fibroblasts, the LDL receptor and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase activity in J774 cells are relatively resistant to down-regulation by LDL or 25-hydroxycholesterol, leading to receptor-mediated CE storage. In addition, J774 cells appear to accumulate CE from LDL internalized by nonspecific means. Thus, macrophage-like cells can accumulate CE in response to unmodified LDL by both nonspecific and receptor-mediated processes.

  1. Accumulation of Cd, Pb and Zn by 19 wetland plant species in constructed wetland.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianguo; Dong, Yuan; Xu, Hai; Wang, Deke; Xu, Jiakuan

    2007-08-25

    Uptake and distribution of Cd, Pb and Zn by 19 wetland plant species were investigated with experiments in small-scale plot constructed wetlands, into which artificial wastewater dosed with Cd, Pb and Zn at concentrations of 0.5, 2.0 and 5.0mgl(-1) was irrigated. The results showed that the removal efficiency of Cd, Pb and Zn from the wastewater were more than 90%. Generally, there were tens differences among the 19 plant species in the concentrations and quantity accumulations of the heavy metals in aboveground part, underground part and whole plants. The distribution ratios into aboveground parts for the metals absorbed by plants varied also largely from about 30% to about 90%. All the plants accumulated, in one harvest, 19.85% of Cd, 22.55% of Pb and 23.75% of Zn that were added into the wastewater. Four plant species, e.g. Alternanthera philoxeroides, Zizania latifolia, Echinochloa crus-galli and Polygonum hydropiper, accumulated high amounts of Cd, Pb and Zn. Monochoria vaginalis was capable for accumulating Cd and Pb, Isachne globosa for Cd and Zn, and Digitaria sanguinalis and Fimbristylis miliacea for Zn. The results indicated that the plants, in constructed wetland for the treatment of wastewater polluted by heavy metals, can play important roles for removal of heavy metals through phytoextraction. Selection of plant species for use in constructed wetland will influence considerably removal efficiency and the function duration of the wetland.

  2. Effect of the amount of nickel sulphide, molybdenum disulphide and carbon nanosupport towards Tafel Slope and overpotential optimization.

    PubMed

    Sarno, Maria; Ponticorvo, Eleonora

    2017-04-06

    A Tafel slope of 40 mV/dec and a very small overpotential were measured for our NiSMoS2G nanocatalyst prepared by a scalable approach and consisting of: NiS nanoparticles covered by a stabilizing coating of MoS2 nanosheets on unsophisticated and easy to be obtained physical exfoliated graphite (PHG). A careful study proves that it is possible to improve the Tafel Slope and the overpotential through the optimization of the amounts of the different components. The conductive nanocarbons network, the highly active to charge accumulation NiS nanoparticles and the coupling with MoS2 nanosheets exposing a large number of edges, result in a very high hydrogen production rate of 1.63 mL cm-2 h-1 at -0.12 V, measured by means of an on-line mass spectrometry analysis.

  3. Ataxia induced by small amounts of alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Setta, F; Jacquy, J; Hildebrand, J; Manto, M

    1998-01-01

    A patient is described who exhibited cerebellar ataxia after drinking small amounts of alcohol. Intake of 5 g alcohol induced a gaze evoked nystagmus, a scanning speech, a body sway after eye closure, and bilateral postural leg tremor. Kinematic and EMG analysis of fast wrist movements showed normal movements before and marked hypermetria after alcohol intake. Dysmetria was due to abnormal programming of antagonist muscle activity.

 PMID:9728953

  4. Amplification of trace amounts of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Church, George M.; Zhang, Kun

    2008-06-17

    Methods of reducing background during amplification of small amounts of nucleic acids employ careful analysis of sources of low level contamination. Ultraviolet light can be used to reduce nucleic acid contaminants in reagents and equipment. "Primer-dimer" background can be reduced by judicious design of primers. We have shown clean signal-to-noise with as little as starting material as one single human cell (.about.6 picogram), E. coli cell (.about.5 femtogram) or Prochlorococcus cell (.about.3 femtogram).

  5. Carbon Monoxide Accumulation in the Extravehicular Mobility Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conkin, J.; Norcrosss, J. R.; Alexander, D. J.; Sanders, R. W.; Makowski, M. S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Life support technology in large closed systems like submarines and space stations catalyzes carbon monoxide (CO) to carbon dioxide, which is easily removed. However, in a small system like the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), spacesuit, CO from exogenous (contaminated oxygen (O (sub 2) supply) and endogenous (human metabolism) sources will accumulate in the free suit volume. The free volume becomes a sink for CO that is rebreathed by the astronaut. The accumulation through time depends on many variables: the amount absorbed by the astronaut, the amount produced by the astronaut (between 0.28 and 0.34 ?moles per hour per kilogram)[1], the amount that enters the suit from contaminated O (sub 2), the amount removed through suit leak, the free volume of the suit, and the O (sub 2) partial pressure[2], just to list a few. Contamination of the EMU O (sub 2) supply with no greater than 1 part per million CO was the motivation for empirical measurements from CO pulse oximetry (SpCO) as well as mathematical modeling of the EMU as a rebreather for CO. Methods: We developed a first-order differential mixing equation as well as an iterative method to compute CO accumulation in the EMU. Pre-post measurements of SpCO (Rad-57, Masimo Corporation) from EMU ground training and on-orbit extravehicular activities (EVAs) were collected. Results: Initial modeling without consideration of the astronaut as a sink but only the source of CO showed that after 8 hours breathing 100 percent O (sub 2) with a 10 milliliter per minute (760 millimeters Hg at 21 degrees Centigrade standard) suit leak, an endogenous production rate of 0.23 moles per hour per kilogram for a 70 kilogram person with 42 liters (1.5 cubic feet) free suit volume resulted in a peak CO partial pressure (pCO) of 0.047 millimeters Hg at 4.3 pounds per square inch absolute (222 millimeters Hg). Preliminary results based on a 2008 model[3] with consideration of the astronaut as a sink and source of CO

  6. Body size-dependent Cd accumulation in the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha from different routes.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wen-Li; Evans, Douglas; Kraemer, Lisa; Zhong, Huan

    2017-02-01

    Understanding body size-dependent metal accumulation in aquatic organisms (i.e., metal allometry) is critical in interpreting biomonitoring data. While growth has received the most attention, little is known about controls of metal exposure routes on metal allometry. Here, size-dependent Cd accumulation in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) from different routes were investigated by exposing mussels to A.((111)Cd spiked algae+(113)Cd spiked river water) or B.((111)Cd spiked sediments+(113)Cd spiked river water). After exposure, (111)Cd or (113)Cd levels in mussel tissue were found to be negatively correlated with tissue weight, while Cd allometry coefficients (b values) were dependent on Cd exposure routes: -0.664 for algae, -0.241 for sediments and -0.379 for river water, compared to -0.582 in un-exposed mussels. By comparing different Cd exposure routes, we found that size-dependent Cd bioaccumulation from algae or river water could be more responsible for the overall size-dependent Cd accumulation in mussels, and the relative importance of the two sources was dependent on mussel size ranges: Cadmium obtained from algae (algae-Cd) was more important in size-dependent Cd accumulation in smaller mussels (tissue dry weight < 5 mg), while river water-Cd became more important in larger individuals (tissue dry weight > 5 mg). In contrast, sediment-Cd contributed only a small amount to Cd accumulation in zebra mussels and may have little effect on size-dependent Cd bioaccumulation. Our results suggest that size-dependent Cd accumulation in mussels could be largely affected by exposure routes, which should be considered when trying to interpret Cd biomonitoring data of zebra mussels.

  7. Guidelines for Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs) at LBL. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to set conditions for establishing and containing areas for the accumulation of hazardous waste at LBL. Areas designed for accumulation of these wastes for up to 90 days in quantities greater than 55 gallons (208 liters) of hazardous waste, one quart (0.946 liter) of extremely hazardous waste, or one quart (0.946 liter) of acutely hazardous waste are called Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs). Areas designed for accumulation of wastes in smaller amounts are called Satellite Accumulation Areas (SAAs). This document provides guidelines for employee and organizational responsibilities for WAAs, constructing a WAA, storing waste in a WAA, operating and maintaining a WAA, and responding to spills in a WAA.

  8. Tear film MMP accumulation and corneal disease

    PubMed Central

    Smith, V; Rishmawi, H; Hussein, H; Easty, D

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) accumulate in the tears of patients with active peripheral ulcerative keratitis (PUK) but it is unknown whether these enzymes have a central role in disease progression. The aims of the present investigation were to determine the source of these enzymes and to ascertain whether their accumulation in tears is a phenomenon specific to PUK or a general feature of other anterior segment diseases.
METHODS—The experimental samples were obtained from the culture media of conjunctival and corneal epithelial cells, from fractionated blood plasma and leucocytes of healthy subjects and patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and from the tears of healthy subjects and patients with a variety of anterior segment diseases. The MMPs of all samples were visualised by zymography and tear samples were assayed using nitrophenol acetate and an MMP-9 susceptible quenched fluorescent peptide as substrate.
RESULTS—The major MMPs that accumulate in the tears of patients with rheumatoid arthritis with active ocular disease are MMP-9 and a species of Mr 116 000. By comparing the zymographic activity profiles of the gelatinases present in the samples obtained, it was deduced that the main source of these MMPs was granulocytes. Their accumulation in tears was not unique to patients with PUK; detectable amounts of the enzymes also occurred in the tears of patients with keratoconus with associated atopic disease, patients undergoing treatment for herpetic eye disease, and patients with systemic and non-systemic dry eye disease.
CONCLUSION—The MMPs that accumulate in tears are mainly derived from granulocytes. This may be effected by autoimmune diseases that involve ocular tissue or by ocular diseases that induce an inflammatory response.

 PMID:11159476

  9. ACCUMULATION OF RADIOCESIUM BY MUSHROOMS IN THE ENVIRONMENT: A LITERATURE REVIEW AND IMAGE GALLERY

    SciTech Connect

    Duff, M; Mary Ramsey, M

    2006-11-05

    During the last 50 years, a large amount of information on radionuclide accumulators or 'sentinel-type' organisms in the environment has been published. Much of this work focused on the risks of food-chain transfer of radionuclides to higher organisms such as reindeer and man. However, until the 1980's and 1990's, there has been little published data on the radiocesium ({sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs) accumulation by mushrooms. This presentation will consist of a review of the published data for {sup 134,137}Cs accumulation by mushrooms in nature. The review will consider the time of sampling, sample location characteristics, the radiocesium source term and other aspects that promote {sup 134,137}Cs uptake by mushrooms. This review will focus on published data for mushrooms that demonstrate a large propensity for use in the environmental biomonitoring of radiocesium contamination. It will also provide photographs and descriptions of habitats for many of these mushrooms to facilitate their collection for biomonitoring.

  10. Assessment of storage lipid accumulation patterns in eucalanoid copepods from the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cass, Christine J.; Daly, Kendra L.; Wakeham, Stuart G.

    2014-11-01

    Members of the copepod family Eucalanidae are widely distributed throughout the world's oceans and have been noted for their accumulation of storage lipids in high- and low-latitude environments. However, little is known about the lipid composition of eucalanoid copepods in low-latitude environments. The purpose of this study was to examine fatty acid and alcohol profiles in the storage lipids (wax esters and triacylglycerols) of Eucalanus inermis, Rhincalanus rostrifrons, R. nasutus, Pareucalanus attenuatus, and Subeucalanus subtenuis, collected primarily in the eastern tropical north Pacific near the Tehuantepec Bowl and Costa Rica Dome regions, noted for its oxygen minimum zone, during fall 2007 and winter 2008/2009. Adult copepods and particulate material were collected in the upper 50 m and from 200 to 300 m in the upper oxycline. Lipid profiles of particulate matter were generated to help ascertain information on ecological strategies of these species and on differential accumulation of dietary and modified fatty acids in the wax ester and triacylglycerol storage lipid components of these copepods in relation to their vertical distributions around the oxygen minimum zone. Additional data on phospholipid fatty acid and sterol/fatty alcohol fractions were also generated to obtain a comprehensive lipid data set for each sample. Rhincalanus spp. accumulated relatively large amounts of storage lipids (31-80% of dry mass (DM)), while E. inermis had moderate amounts (2-9% DM), and P. attenuatus and S. subtenuis had low quantities of storage lipid (0-1% DM). E. inermis and S. subtenuis primarily accumulated triacylglycerols (>90% of storage lipids), while P. attenuatus and Rhincalanus spp. primarily accumulated wax esters (>84% of storage lipids). Based on previously generated molecular phylogenies of the Eucalanidae family, these results appear to support genetic predisposition as a major factor explaining why a given species accumulates primarily triacylglycerols

  11. Rate of tree carbon accumulation increases continuously with tree size

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephenson, N.L.; Das, A.J.; Condit, R.; Russo, S.E.; Baker, P.J.; Beckman, N.G.; Coomes, D.A.; Lines, E.R.; Morris, W.K.; Rüger, N.; Álvarez, E.; Blundo, C.; Bunyavejchewin, S.; Chuyong, G.; Davies, S.J.; Duque, Á.; Ewango, C.N.; Flores, O.; Franklin, J.F.; Grau, H.R.; Hao, Z.; Harmon, M.E.; Hubbell, S.P.; Kenfack, D.; Lin, Y.; Makana, J.-R.; Malizia, A.; Malizia, L.R.; Pabst, R.J.; Pongpattananurak, N.; Su, S.-H.; Sun, I-F.; Tan, S.; Thomas, D.; van Mantgem, P.J.; Wang, X.; Wiser, S.K.; Zavala, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Forests are major components of the global carbon cycle, providing substantial feedback to atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Our ability to understand and predict changes in the forest carbon cycle—particularly net primary productivity and carbon storage - increasingly relies on models that represent biological processes across several scales of biological organization, from tree leaves to forest stands. Yet, despite advances in our understanding of productivity at the scales of leaves and stands, no consensus exists about the nature of productivity at the scale of the individual tree, in part because we lack a broad empirical assessment of whether rates of absolute tree mass growth (and thus carbon accumulation) decrease, remain constant, or increase as trees increase in size and age. Here we present a global analysis of 403 tropical and temperate tree species, showing that for most species mass growth rate increases continuously with tree size. Thus, large, old trees do not act simply as senescent carbon reservoirs but actively fix large amounts of carbon compared to smaller trees; at the extreme, a single big tree can add the same amount of carbon to the forest within a year as is contained in an entire mid-sized tree. The apparent paradoxes of individual tree growth increasing with tree size despite declining leaf-level and stand-level productivity can be explained, respectively, by increases in a tree’s total leaf area that outpace declines in productivity per unit of leaf area and, among other factors, age-related reductions in population density. Our results resolve conflicting assumptions about the nature of tree growth, inform efforts to understand and model forest carbon dynamics, and have additional implications for theories of resource allocation and plant senescence.

  12. Rate of tree carbon accumulation increases continuously with tree size.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, N L; Das, A J; Condit, R; Russo, S E; Baker, P J; Beckman, N G; Coomes, D A; Lines, E R; Morris, W K; Rüger, N; Alvarez, E; Blundo, C; Bunyavejchewin, S; Chuyong, G; Davies, S J; Duque, A; Ewango, C N; Flores, O; Franklin, J F; Grau, H R; Hao, Z; Harmon, M E; Hubbell, S P; Kenfack, D; Lin, Y; Makana, J-R; Malizia, A; Malizia, L R; Pabst, R J; Pongpattananurak, N; Su, S-H; Sun, I-F; Tan, S; Thomas, D; van Mantgem, P J; Wang, X; Wiser, S K; Zavala, M A

    2014-03-06

    Forests are major components of the global carbon cycle, providing substantial feedback to atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Our ability to understand and predict changes in the forest carbon cycle--particularly net primary productivity and carbon storage--increasingly relies on models that represent biological processes across several scales of biological organization, from tree leaves to forest stands. Yet, despite advances in our understanding of productivity at the scales of leaves and stands, no consensus exists about the nature of productivity at the scale of the individual tree, in part because we lack a broad empirical assessment of whether rates of absolute tree mass growth (and thus carbon accumulation) decrease, remain constant, or increase as trees increase in size and age. Here we present a global analysis of 403 tropical and temperate tree species, showing that for most species mass growth rate increases continuously with tree size. Thus, large, old trees do not act simply as senescent carbon reservoirs but actively fix large amounts of carbon compared to smaller trees; at the extreme, a single big tree can add the same amount of carbon to the forest within a year as is contained in an entire mid-sized tree. The apparent paradoxes of individual tree growth increasing with tree size despite declining leaf-level and stand-level productivity can be explained, respectively, by increases in a tree's total leaf area that outpace declines in productivity per unit of leaf area and, among other factors, age-related reductions in population density. Our results resolve conflicting assumptions about the nature of tree growth, inform efforts to undertand and model forest carbon dynamics, and have additional implications for theories of resource allocation and plant senescence.

  13. Bubble accumulation and its role in the evolution of magma reservoirs in the upper crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parmigiani, A.; Faroughi, S.; Huber, C.; Bachmann, O.; Su, Y.

    2016-04-01

    Volcanic eruptions transfer huge amounts of gas to the atmosphere. In particular, the sulfur released during large silicic explosive eruptions can induce global cooling. A fundamental goal in volcanology, therefore, is to assess the potential for eruption of the large volumes of crystal-poor, silicic magma that are stored at shallow depths in the crust, and to obtain theoretical bounds for the amount of volatiles that can be released during these eruptions. It is puzzling that highly evolved, crystal-poor silicic magmas are more likely to generate volcanic rocks than plutonic rocks. This observation suggests that such magmas are more prone to erupting than are their crystal-rich counterparts. Moreover, well studied examples of largely crystal-poor eruptions (for example, Katmai, Taupo and Minoan) often exhibit a release of sulfur that is 10 to 20 times higher than the amount of sulfur estimated to be stored in the melt. Here we argue that these two observations rest on how the magmatic volatile phase (MVP) behaves as it rises buoyantly in zoned magma reservoirs. By investigating the fluid dynamics that controls the transport of the MVP in crystal-rich and crystal-poor magmas, we show how the interplay between capillary stresses and the viscosity contrast between the MVP and the host melt results in a counterintuitive dynamics, whereby the MVP tends to migrate efficiently in crystal-rich parts of a magma reservoir and accumulate in crystal-poor regions. The accumulation of low-density bubbles of MVP in crystal-poor magmas has implications for the eruptive potential of such magmas, and is the likely source of the excess sulfur released during explosive eruptions.

  14. ABA accumulation in water-stressed Citrus roots does not rely on carotenoid content in this organ.

    PubMed

    Manzi, Matías; Lado, Joanna; Rodrigo, María Jesús; Arbona, Vicent; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio

    2016-11-01

    Sustained abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation in dehydrated citrus roots depends on the transport from aerial organs. Under this condition, the role of the β,β-carotenoids (ABA precursors) to the de novo synthesis of ABA in roots needs to be clarified since their low availability in this organ restricts its accumulation. To accomplish that, detached citrus roots were exposed to light (to increase their carotenoid content) and subsequently dehydrated (to trigger ABA accumulation). Stress imposition sharply decreased the pool of β,β-carotenoids but, unexpectedly, no concomitant rise in ABA content was observed. Contrastingly, roots of intact plants (with low levels of carotenoids) showed a similar decrease of ABA precursor together with a significant ABA accumulation. Furthermore, upon dehydration both types of roots showed similar upregulation of the key genes involved in biosynthesis of carotenoids and ABA (CsPSY3a; CsβCHX1; CsβCHX2; CsNCED1; CsNCED2), demonstrating a conserved transcriptional response triggered by water stress. Thus, the sharp decrease in root carotenoid levels in response to dehydration should be related to other stress-related signals instead of contributing to ABA biosynthesis. In summary, ABA accumulation in dehydrated-citrus roots largely relies on the presence of the aerial organs and it is independent of the amount of available root β,β-carotenoids.

  15. 29 CFR 4219.14 - Amount of liability for 20-year-limitation amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... amount equal to the present value of all initial withdrawal liability payments for which the employer was not liable pursuant to section 4219(c)(1)(B) of ERISA. The present value of such payments shall...

  16. Ultrasonic Atomization Amount for Different Frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, Keiji; Honma, Hiroyuki; Xu, Zheng; Asakura, Yoshiyuki; Koda, Shinobu

    2011-07-01

    The mass flow rate of ultrasonic atomization was estimated by measuring the vaporization amount from a bulk liquid with a fountain. The effects of ultrasonic frequency and intensity on the atomization characteristics were investigated when the directivities of the acoustic field from a transducer were almost the same. The sample was distillated water and the ultrasonic frequencies were 0.5, 1.0, and 2.4 MHz. The mass flow rate of ultrasonic atomization increased with increasing ultrasonic intensity and decreasing ultrasonic frequency. The fountain was formed at the liquid surface where the effective value of acoustic pressure was above atmospheric pressure. The fountain height was strongly governed by the acoustic pressure at the liquid surface of the transducer center. At the same ultrasonic intensity, the dependence of ultrasonic frequency on the number of atomized droplets was small. At the same apparent surface area of the fountain, the number of atomized droplets became larger as the ultrasonic frequency increased.

  17. Noise Reduction by Signal Accumulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show how the noise reduction by signal accumulation can be accomplished with a data acquisition system. This topic can be used for student projects. In many cases, the noise reduction is an unavoidable part of experimentation. Several techniques are known for this purpose, and among them the signal accumulation is the…

  18. Calcium Oxalate Accumulation in Malpighian Tubules of Silkworm (Bombyx mori)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyman, Aaron J.; Webb, Mary Alice

    2007-04-01

    Silkworm provides an ideal model system for study of calcium oxalate crystallization in kidney-like organs, called Malpighian tubules. During their growth and development, silkworm larvae accumulate massive amounts of calcium oxalate crystals in their Malpighian tubules with no apparent harm to the organism. This manuscript reports studies of crystal structure in the tubules along with analyses identifying molecular constituents of tubule exudate.

  19. [Effects of different application amount of N, P, K fertilizers on physiological characteristics, yield and kernel quality of peanut].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lu-ying; Li, Xiang-dong; Tang, Xiao; Lin, Ying-jie; Li, Zong-feng

    2007-11-01

    The field experiment was executed with peanut cv. Fenghua No. 1 from 2004 to 2005 in the experimental station of Shandong Agricultural University to study the effects of N, P, K fertilizers application amount on physiological characteristics, yield and kernel quality of peanut. The results showed that, compared with no fertilization, application N, P, K fertilizers increased the content of chlorophyll and soluble protein, enhanced photosynthetic rate and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catlase (CAT), and reduced malondialdeyde (MDA) accumulation amount in peanut leaves. The effects of applying N 300-450 kg x hm(-2), P5O2, 150-225 kg x hm(-2) and K2O 300-450 kg x hm(-2) treatments were the most significant. The improvement effect of N fertilizer on photosynthesis properties was mainly at early stage, and that of P was at middle-later stage, K was at whole stage. Applying N, P, K fertilizers increased the pod yield of peanut remarkably, and with the increasing of N application amount the pod yield enhanced, the pod yields were highest when P and K application were at middle amount rates (P5O2, 150 kg x hm(-2) K2O 300 kg x hm(-2)). The increasing effect on pod yield of K fertilizer was greater than that of N and P fertilizers. Applying a small amount of P and K fertilizers (P2O5 75 kg x hm(-2), K2O 150 kg x hm(-2)) could significantly increase the contents of fat and protein in peanut kernel, applying a small amount of N fertilizer (N 150 kg x hm(-2)) could significantly increase the content of protein in peanut kernel, but applying a large amount of N fertilizer (N 450 kg x hm(-2)) could significantly increase the content of fat in peanut kernel. Applying P fertilizer obviously increased fat and protein content, applying N fertilizer mainly enhanced protein content, and applying K fertilizer mainly raised the content of soluble sugar. In addition, the application of N, P and K fertilizers also increased the contents of lysine and

  20. Plastic accumulation in the Mediterranean sea.

    PubMed

    Cózar, Andrés; Sanz-Martín, Marina; Martí, Elisa; González-Gordillo, J Ignacio; Ubeda, Bárbara; Gálvez, José Á; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region.

  1. Plastic Accumulation in the Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Cózar, Andrés; Sanz-Martín, Marina; Martí, Elisa; González-Gordillo, J. Ignacio; Ubeda, Bárbara; Gálvez, José Á.; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region. PMID:25831129

  2. Effects of exogenous glucose on carotenoid accumulation in tomato leaves.

    PubMed

    Mortain-Bertrand, Anne; Stammitti, Linda; Telef, Nadège; Colardelle, Patrice; Brouquisse, Renaud; Rolin, Dominique; Gallusci, Philippe

    2008-10-01

    To investigate the effect of carbohydrate on carotenoid accumulation in leaves, excised plants of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum var. cerasiformae, wva 106) were supplied with glucose through the transpiration stream for 48 h. We report here that sugar accumulation in leaves led to a decrease of carotenoid content, which was related to the reduction of Chl. The decrease in carotenoid amount correlated with a sugar-induced repression of genes encoding enzymes of the carotenoid and of the Rohmer pathways. The lower 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase transcript level probably leads to a decreased metabolic flux through the methylerythritol pathway and subsequently to a lower amount of substrate available for plastidic isoprenoid synthesis. Differences between responses of young (sink) and mature (source) leaves to carbohydrate accumulation are discussed.

  3. Quantifying soil carbon accumulation in Alaskan terrestrial ecosystems during the last 15 000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Sirui; Zhuang, Qianlai; Yu, Zicheng

    2016-11-01

    Northern high latitudes contain large amounts of soil organic carbon (SOC), of which Alaskan terrestrial ecosystems account for a substantial proportion. In this study, the SOC accumulation in Alaskan terrestrial ecosystems over the last 15 000 years was simulated using a process-based biogeochemistry model for both peatland and non-peatland ecosystems. Comparable with the previous estimates of 25-70 Pg C in peatland and 13-22 Pg C in non-peatland soils within 1 m depth in Alaska using peat-core data, our model estimated a total SOC of 36-63 Pg C at present, including 27-48 Pg C in peatland soils and 9-15 Pg C in non-peatland soils. Current vegetation stored 2.5-3.7 Pg C in Alaska, with 0.3-0.6 Pg C in peatlands and 2.2-3.1 Pg C in non-peatlands. The simulated average rate of peat C accumulation was 2.3 Tg C yr-1, with a peak value of 5.1 Tg C yr-1 during the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM) in the early Holocene, 4-fold higher than the average rate of 1.4 Tg C yr-1 over the rest of the Holocene. The SOC accumulation slowed down, or even ceased, during the neoglacial climate cooling after the mid-Holocene, but increased again in the 20th century. The model-estimated peat depths ranged from 1.1 to 2.7 m, similar to the field-based estimate of 2.29 m for the region. We found that the changes in vegetation and their distributions were the main factors in determining the spatial variations of SOC accumulation during different time periods. Warmer summer temperature and stronger radiation seasonality, along with higher precipitation in the HTM and the 20th century, might have resulted in the extensive peatland expansion and carbon accumulation.

  4. Nuclear DNA Amounts in Macaronesian Angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    SUDA, JAN; KYNCL, TOMÁŠ; FREIOVÁ, RADKA

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear DNA contents for 104 Macaronesian angiosperms, with particular attention on Canary Islands endemics, were analysed using propidium iodide flow cytometry. Prime estimates for more than one‐sixth of the whole Canarian endemic flora (including representatives of 11 endemic genera) were obtained. The resulting 1C DNA values ranged from 0·19 to 7·21 pg for Descurainia bourgeauana and Argyranthemum frutescens, respectively (about 38‐fold difference). The majority of species, however, possessed (very) small genomes, with C‐values <1·6 pg. The tendency towards small nuclear DNA contents and genome sizes was confirmed by comparing average values for Macaronesian and non‐Macaronesian representatives of individual families, genera and major phylogenetic lineages. Our data support the hypothesis that the insular selection pressures in Macaronesia favour small C‐values and genome sizes. Both positive and negative correlations between infrageneric nuclear DNA amount variation and environmental conditions on Tenerife were also found in several genera. PMID:12824074

  5. Accumulation and health risk of heavy metals in vegetables from harmless and organic vegetable production systems of China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong; Hu, Wenyou; Huang, Biao; Weindorf, David C; Rajan, Nithya; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Niedermann, Silvana

    2013-12-01

    Heavy metal accumulation in vegetables is a growing concern for public health. Limited studies have elucidated the heavy metal accumulation characteristics and health risk of different vegetables produced in different facilities such as greenhouses and open-air fields and under different management modes such as harmless and organic. Given the concern over the aforementioned factors related to heavy metal accumulation, this study selected four typical greenhouse vegetable production bases, short-term harmless greenhouse vegetable base (SHGVB), middle-term harmless greenhouse vegetable base (MHGVB), long-term harmless greenhouse vegetable base (LHGVB), and organic greenhouse vegetable base (OGVB), in Nanjing City, China to study heavy metal accumulation in different vegetables and their associated health risks. Results showed that soils and vegetables from SHGVB and OGVB apparently accumulated fewer certain heavy metals than those from other bases, probably due to fewer planting years and special management, respectively. Greenhouse conditions significantly increased certain soil heavy metal concentrations relative to open-air conditions. However, greenhouse conditions did not significantly increase concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Hg, and Zn in leaf vegetables. In fact, under greenhouse conditions, Pb accumulation was effectively reduced. The main source of soil heavy metals was the application of large amounts of low-grade fertilizer. There was larger health risk for producers' children to consume vegetables from the three harmless vegetable bases than those of residents' children. The hazard index (HI) over a large area exceeded 1 for these two kinds of children in the MHGVB and LHGVB. There was also a slight risk in the SHGVB for producers' children solely. However, the HI of the whole area of the OGVB for two kinds of children was below 1, suggesting low risk of heavy metal exposure through the food chain. Notably, the contribution rate of Cu and Zn to the HI were

  6. What Determines the Amount Students Borrow? Revisiting the Crisis-Convenience Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Natala K.; Mustafa, Shoumi

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have questioned the wisdom in blaming college costs for the escalation of student loans. It would appear that less affluent students borrow large amounts because inexpensive subsidized loans are available. This study attempted to verify the claim, estimating a model of the amount of loan received by students as a function of net…

  7. Optimum Tolerance Design Using Component-Amount and Mixture-Amount Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Ozler, Cenk; Sehirlioglu, Ali Kemal

    2013-08-01

    One type of tolerance design problem involves optimizing component and assembly tolerances to minimize the total cost (sum of manufacturing cost and quality loss). Previous literature recommended using traditional response surface (RS) designs and models to solve this type of tolerance design problem. In this article, component-amount (CA) and mixture-amount (MA) approaches are proposed as more appropriate for solving this type of tolerance design problem. The advantages of the CA and MA approaches over the RS approach are discussed. Reasons for choosing between the CA and MA approaches are also discussed. The CA and MA approaches (experimental design, response modeling, and optimization) are illustrated using real examples.

  8. Gypsum accumulation on carbonate stone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGee, E.S.; Mossotti, V.G.

    1992-01-01

    The accumulation of gypsum on carbonate stone has been investigated through exposure of fresh samples of limestone and marble at monitored sites, through examination of alteration crusts from old buildings and through laboratory experiments. Several factors contribute to gypsum accumulation on carbonate stone. Marble or limestone that is sheltered from direct washing by rain in an urban environment with elevated pollution levels is likely to accumulate a gypsum crust. Crust development may be enhanced if the stone is porous or has an irregular surface area. Gypsum crusts are a surficial alteration feature; gypsum crystals form at the pore opening-air interface, where evaporation is greatest.

  9. Strain accumulation in quasicrystalline solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nori, Franco; Ronchetti, Marco; Elser, Veit

    1988-01-01

    The relaxation of two-dimensional quasicrystalline elastic networks when their constituent bonds are perturbed homogeneously is studied. Whereas ideal, quasi-periodic networks are stable against such perturbations, significant accumulations of strain in a class of disordered networks generated by a growth process are found. The grown networks are characterized by root mean square phason fluctuations which grow linearly with system size. The strain accumulation observed in these networks also grows linearly with system size. Finally, dependence of strain accumulation on cooling rate is found.

  10. Accumulation of heavy metals in a long-term poultry waste-amended soil

    SciTech Connect

    Han, F.X.; Kingery, W.L.; Selim, H.M.; Gerard, P.D.

    2000-03-01

    Various metals are added to poultry diets to facilitate weight increase and disease prevention. The large amounts of poultry waste produced annually are dispersed intensively over relatively small areas of land, resulting in accumulations that pose potential environmental risks to the surface and groundwater. The focus of this study was to assess the distribution of heavy metals among various solid-phase fractions in soil profiles from a 25-year poultry waste-amended soil. Copper and Zn accumulated close to the soil surface where the total amounts of Cu and Zn in waste-amended soils were significantly higher than in nonamended soils. The total metal concentrations in amended soils were not critically high. Copper in the amended soil was present mostly in the organic matter (OM) fraction (46.9%), whereas Zn was found in the easily reducible oxide (ERO) fraction (47.3%). This suggests that the Cu and Zn in this long-term amended soil are potentially bioavailable and mobile. The authors observed the mobility of Zn through much of the soil profile of the long-term waste-amended soil. Zinc in this soil profile was found primarily in forms of the residual (RES) and crystalline iron oxide bound (CryFe) fractions, followed by the organic matter-bound and exchangeable (EXC) fractions.

  11. Metabolic and morphological changes of an oil accumulating trebouxiophycean alga in nitrogen-deficient conditions.

    PubMed

    Ito, Takuro; Tanaka, Miho; Shinkawa, Haruka; Nakada, Takashi; Ano, Yoshitaka; Kurano, Norihide; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Tomita, Masaru

    2013-03-01

    Oil-rich algae have promising potential for a next-generation biofuel feedstock. Pseudochoricystis ellipsoidea MBIC 11204, a novel unicellular green algal strain, accumulates a large amount of oil (lipids) in nitrogen-deficient (-N) conditions. Although the oil bodies are easily visualized by lipophilic staining in the cells, little is known about how oil bodies are metabolically synthesized. Clarifying the metabolic profiles in -N conditions is important to understand the physiological mechanisms of lipid accumulations and will be useful to optimize culture conditions efficiently produce industrial oil. Metabolome and lipidome profiles were obtained, respectively, using capillary electrophoresis- and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry from P. ellipsoidea in both nitrogen-rich (+N; rapid growth) and -N conditions. Relative quantities of more than 300 metabolites were systematically compared between these two conditions. Amino acids in nitrogen assimilation and N-transporting metabolisms were decreased to 1/20 the amount, or less, in -N conditions. In lipid metabolism, the quantities of neutral lipids increased greatly in -N conditions; however, quantities of nearly all the other lipids either decreased or only changed slightly. The morphological changes in +N and -N conditions were also provided by microscopy, and we discuss their relationship to the metabolic changes. This is the first approach to understand the novel algal strain's metabolism using a combination of wide-scale metabolome analysis and morphological analysis.

  12. 24 CFR 576.45 - Reallocation of grant amounts; returned or unused amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES EMERGENCY SHELTER GRANTS PROGRAM... or unused amounts. (a) General. From time to time, HUD will reallocate emergency shelter grant... and Shelter Program administered by the Federal Emergency Management Agency, as a resource to...

  13. 24 CFR 576.45 - Reallocation of grant amounts; returned or unused amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES EMERGENCY SHELTER GRANTS PROGRAM... or unused amounts. (a) General. From time to time, HUD will reallocate emergency shelter grant... and Shelter Program administered by the Federal Emergency Management Agency, as a resource to...

  14. 76 FR 59138 - Medicare Program; Medicare Appeals; Adjustment to the Amount in Controversy Threshold Amounts for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-23

    ..., respectively, for Medicare Part A and Part B appeals. Section 940 of the Medicare Prescription Drug... the consumer price index for all urban consumers (U.S. city average) for July 2003 to July of the year... (Prescription Drug Plan) Appeals The annually adjusted AIC threshold amounts for ALJ hearings and...

  15. Manganese As a Metal Accumulator

    EPA Science Inventory

    Manganese deposits in water distribution systems accumulate metals, radionuclides and oxyanions by a combination of surface complexation, adsorption and solid substitution, as well as a combination of oxidation followed by manganese reduction and sorption of the oxidized constitu...

  16. Accumulation of dieldrin in an alga (Scenedesmus obliquus), Daphnia magna, and the guppy (Poecilia reticulata)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reinert, Robert E.

    1972-01-01

    Scenedesmus obliquus, Daphnia magna, and Poecilia reticulata accumulated dieldrin directly from water; average concentration factors (concentration in organism, dry weight, divided by concentration in water) were 1282 for the alga, 13,954 for D. magna, and 49,307 (estimated) for the guppy. The amount accumulated by each species at equilibrium (after about 1.5, 3-4, and 18 days, respectively) was directly proportional to the concentration of dieldrin in the water. Daphnia magna and guppies accumulated more dieldrin from water than from food that had been exposed to similar concentrations in water. When guppies were fed equal daily rations of D. magna containing different concentrations of insecticide, the amounts of dieldrin accumulated by the fish were directly proportional to the concentration in D. magna; when two lots of guppies were fed different quantities of D. magna (10 and 20 organisms per day) containing identical concentrations of dieldrin, however, the amounts accumulated did not differ substantially.

  17. Total mercury and methylmercury accumulation in periphyton of Boreal Shield lakes: influence of watershed physiographic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Desrosiers, Mélanie; Planas, Dolors; Mucci, Alfonso

    2006-02-15

    Little is known about Hg accumulation in littoral communities, especially in periphyton biofilm of unperturbed lakes. The objectives of this study were to investigate and establish relationships between total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in periphyton communities of Boreal lakes and watershed physiographic and lake morphometric characteristics. This study was carried out on 23 Boreal Canadian Shield lakes located between 47-50 degrees N and 73-77 degrees W. Periphyton was sampled on rocks, the dominant periphyton substrate in the littoral zone of these lakes. Periphyton algal biomass (Chla) ranged from 12 to 164 mg m(-2) whereas THg concentrations varied from 42 to 271 ng g(-1) DW and MeHg levels varied from 3 to 55 ng Hg g(-1) DW. Periphyton biomass was positively correlated to latitude, watershed wetland area and negatively correlated to watershed slope and depth of the lake. THg concentrations in periphyton were negatively correlated to watershed wetland area whereas MeHg concentrations were negatively correlated to latitude and positively correlated to watershed slope, dissolved sulfate concentration and the presence of beavers in the lake. This study confirms that periphyton can accumulate large amounts of Hg and the accumulation is strongly influenced by watershed characteristics and periphyton biomass.

  18. Export is the default pathway for soluble unfolded polypeptides that accumulate during expression in Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Scotto-Lavino, E.; Freimuth, P.; Bai, M.; Zhang, Y.-B.

    2011-09-01

    Several E. coli endogenous, cytoplasmic proteins that are known clients of the chaperonin GroEL were overexpressed to examine the fate of accumulated unfolded polypeptides. Substantial fractions of about half of the proteins formed insoluble aggregates, consistent with the hypothesis that these proteins were produced at rates or in amounts that exceeded the protein-folding capacity of GroEL. In addition, large fractions of three overexpressed GroEL client proteins were localized in an extra-cytoplasmic, osmotically-sensitive compartment, suggesting they had initially accumulated in the cytoplasm as soluble unfolded polypeptides and thus were able to access a protein export pathway. Consistent with this model, an intrinsically unfoldable, hydrophilic, non-secretory polypeptide was quantitatively exported from the E. coli cytoplasm into an osmotically-sensitive compartment. Our results support the conclusion that a soluble, unfolded conformation alone may be sufficient to direct non-secretory polypeptides into a protein export pathway for signal peptide-independent translocation across the inner membrane, and that export rather than degradation by cytoplasmic proteases is the preferred fate for newly-synthesized, soluble, unfolded polypeptides that accumulate in the cytoplasm. The stable folded conformation of exported GroEL client proteins further suggests that the requirement for GroEL may be conditional on protein folding in the molecularly-crowded environment of the cytoplasm.

  19. Coastal landforms and accumulation of mangrove peat increase carbon sequestration and storage

    PubMed Central

    Garcillán, Pedro P.

    2016-01-01

    Given their relatively small area, mangroves and their organic sediments are of disproportionate importance to global carbon sequestration and carbon storage. Peat deposition and preservation allows some mangroves to accrete vertically and keep pace with sea-level rise by growing on their own root remains. In this study we show that mangroves in desert inlets in the coasts of the Baja California have been accumulating root peat for nearly 2,000 y and harbor a belowground carbon content of 900–34,00 Mg C/ha, with an average value of 1,130 (± 128) Mg C/ha, and a belowground carbon accumulation similar to that found under some of the tallest tropical mangroves in the Mexican Pacific coast. The depth–age curve for the mangrove sediments of Baja California indicates that sea level in the peninsula has been rising at a mean rate of 0.70 mm/y (± 0.07) during the last 17 centuries, a value similar to the rates of sea-level rise estimated for the Caribbean during a comparable period. By accreting on their own accumulated peat, these desert mangroves store large amounts of carbon in their sediments. We estimate that mangroves and halophyte scrubs in Mexico’s arid northwest, with less than 1% of the terrestrial area, store in their belowground sediments around 28% of the total belowground carbon pool of the whole region. PMID:27035950

  20. Coastal landforms and accumulation of mangrove peat increase carbon sequestration and storage.

    PubMed

    Ezcurra, Paula; Ezcurra, Exequiel; Garcillán, Pedro P; Costa, Matthew T; Aburto-Oropeza, Octavio

    2016-04-19

    Given their relatively small area, mangroves and their organic sediments are of disproportionate importance to global carbon sequestration and carbon storage. Peat deposition and preservation allows some mangroves to accrete vertically and keep pace with sea-level rise by growing on their own root remains. In this study we show that mangroves in desert inlets in the coasts of the Baja California have been accumulating root peat for nearly 2,000 y and harbor a belowground carbon content of 900-34,00 Mg C/ha, with an average value of 1,130 (± 128) Mg C/ha, and a belowground carbon accumulation similar to that found under some of the tallest tropical mangroves in the Mexican Pacific coast. The depth-age curve for the mangrove sediments of Baja California indicates that sea level in the peninsula has been rising at a mean rate of 0.70 mm/y (± 0.07) during the last 17 centuries, a value similar to the rates of sea-level rise estimated for the Caribbean during a comparable period. By accreting on their own accumulated peat, these desert mangroves store large amounts of carbon in their sediments. We estimate that mangroves and halophyte scrubs in Mexico's arid northwest, with less than 1% of the terrestrial area, store in their belowground sediments around 28% of the total belowground carbon pool of the whole region.

  1. 46 CFR 308.303 - Amounts insured under interim binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.303 Amounts insured under interim binder. The amounts insured are the amounts specified in the Second Seamen's War Risk Policy (1955) or as modified by...

  2. 46 CFR 308.303 - Amounts insured under interim binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.303 Amounts insured under interim binder. The amounts insured are the amounts specified in the Second Seamen's War Risk Policy (1955) or as modified by...

  3. 46 CFR 308.303 - Amounts insured under interim binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.303 Amounts insured under interim binder. The amounts insured are the amounts specified in the Second Seamen's War Risk Policy (1955) or as modified by...

  4. 46 CFR 308.303 - Amounts insured under interim binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.303 Amounts insured under interim binder. The amounts insured are the amounts specified in the Second Seamen's War Risk Policy (1955) or as modified by...

  5. Just the Right Amount of Reinforcement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, Greg

    1998-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Skunk Works, is taking the next step towards economical low-Earth-orbit (LEO) operations with NASA's X-33 technology demonstrator, that uses composite tanks for liquid hydrogen (LH sub2) fuel storage and structural support, The X-33 is a 53% scale model of the VentureStar single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) reusable launch vehicle(RLV) projected to orbit payloads at a rate, of $1,000 per pound beginning in 2004 In order to make VentureStar completely reusable and economical engineers are using composite materials throughout the spacecrafts structure. The first test of the design comes in 1999 on the X-33 technology demonstrator. Two of the primary structures that engineers will be evaluating are the carbon fiber/epoxy LH2 fuel tanks. The 29-ft long by 18-ft wide tanks, which fill two-thirds of the X-33's interior, serve a dual purpose carrying fuel and providing structural support to the walls of the spacecraft. Fiber placement makes it possible to build the fuel tanks, large, light and strong enough to satisfy X33's requirements. Lockheed Martin choose the fabrication technology to produce the eight sections of each tank because of fiber placement's ability to handle complex surfaces, speed and repeatability.

  6. Querying Large Biological Network Datasets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulsoy, Gunhan

    2013-01-01

    New experimental methods has resulted in increasing amount of genetic interaction data to be generated every day. Biological networks are used to store genetic interaction data gathered. Increasing amount of data available requires fast large scale analysis methods. Therefore, we address the problem of querying large biological network datasets.…

  7. The accumulation of nickel in human lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Edelman, D.A.; Roggli, V.L. )

    1989-05-01

    Using data from published studies, lung concentrations of nickel were compare for persons with and without occupational exposure to nickel. As expected, the concentrations were much higher for persons with occupational exposure. To estimate the effects of nickel-containing tobacco smoke and nickel in the ambient air on the amount of nickel accumulated in lungs over time, a model was derived that took into account various variables related to the deposition of nickel in lungs. The model predicted nickel concentrations that were in the range of those of persons without known nickel exposure. Nickel is a suspected carcinogen and has been associated with an increased risk of respiratory tract cancer among nickel workers. However, before the nickel content of cigarettes can be implicated in the etiology of lung cancer, further studies are needed to evaluate the independent effects of smoking and exposure to nickel.

  8. Detection of radioactive accumulations within an incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenig, F.C. Jr.; Grossman, L.N.

    1986-03-25

    This patent describes an incinerator for burning combustible material contaminated by radiation. This incinerator has a combustion chamber having containment walls of high density refractory brick provided with at least one window opening through the high density refractory brick containment walls. The window consists of a low density body of ceramic fibers. Any radiation from residual radioactive ash within the incinerator containment and inhibited by the high density refractory brick can penetrate outward through the window of low density fiber to beyond the incinerator containment walls. A radiation detector is mounted outside the incinerator containment walls adjacent to the window of low density ceramic fiber for measuring any radiation passing out from the combustion chamber through the low density window. The amount of retained radioactive ash accumulated in the incinerator combustion chamber is indicated on the detector.

  9. The accumulation of nickel in human lungs.

    PubMed Central

    Edelman, D A; Roggli, V L

    1989-01-01

    Using data from published studies, lung concentrations of nickel were compare for persons with and without occupational exposure to nickel. As expected, the concentrations were much higher for persons with occupational exposure. To estimate the effects of nickel-containing tobacco smoke and nickel in the ambient air on the amount of nickel accumulated in lungs over time, a model was derived that took into account various variables related to the deposition of nickel in lungs. The model predicted nickel concentrations that were in the range of those of persons without known nickel exposure. Nickel is a suspected carcinogen and has been associated with an increased risk of respiratory tract cancer among nickel workers. However, before the nickel content of cigarettes can be implicated in the etiology of lung cancer, further studies are needed to evaluate the independent effects of smoking and exposure to nickel. PMID:2759060

  10. 18 CFR 367.1080 - Account 108, Accumulated provision for depreciation of service company property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., Accumulated provision for depreciation of service company property. 367.1080 Section 367.1080 Conservation of... Account 108, Accumulated provision for depreciation of service company property. (a) This account must be credited with the following: (1) Amounts charged to account 403, Depreciation expense (§ 367.4030), or...

  11. How Financial Literacy Affects Household Wealth Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Behrman, Jere R; Mitchell, Olivia S; Soo, Cindy K; Bravo, David

    2012-05-01

    This study isolates the causal effects of financial literacy and schooling on wealth accumulation using a new household dataset and an instrumental variables (IV) approach. Financial literacy and schooling attainment are both strongly positively associated with wealth outcomes in linear regression models, whereas the IV estimates reveal even more potent effects of financial literacy. They also indicate that the schooling effect only becomes positive when interacted with financial literacy. Estimated impacts are substantial enough to imply that investments in financial literacy could have large wealth payoffs.

  12. How Financial Literacy Affects Household Wealth Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Behrman, Jere R.; Mitchell, Olivia S.; Soo, Cindy K.; Bravo, David

    2012-01-01

    This study isolates the causal effects of financial literacy and schooling on wealth accumulation using a new household dataset and an instrumental variables (IV) approach. Financial literacy and schooling attainment are both strongly positively associated with wealth outcomes in linear regression models, whereas the IV estimates reveal even more potent effects of financial literacy. They also indicate that the schooling effect only becomes positive when interacted with financial literacy. Estimated impacts are substantial enough to imply that investments in financial literacy could have large wealth payoffs. PMID:23355747

  13. Copper accumulation by stickleback nests containing spiggin.

    PubMed

    Pinho, G L L; Martins, C M G; Barber, I

    2016-07-01

    The three-spined stickleback is a ubiquitous fish of marine, brackish and freshwater ecosystems across the Northern hemisphere that presents intermediate sensitivity to copper. Male sticklebacks display a range of elaborate reproductive behaviours that include nest construction. To build the nests, each male binds nesting material together using an endogenous glycoprotein nesting glue, known as 'spiggin'. Spiggin is a cysteine-rich protein and, therefore, potentially binds heavy metals present in the environment. The aim of this study was to investigate the capacity of stickleback nests to accumulate copper from environmental sources. Newly built nests, constructed by male fish from polyester threads in laboratory aquaria, were immersed in copper solutions ranging in concentration from 21.1-626.6 μg Cu L(-1). Bundles of polyester threads from aquaria without male fish were also immersed in the same copper solutions. After immersion, nests presented higher amounts of copper than the thread bundles, indicating a higher capacity of nests to bind this metal. A significant, positive correlation between the concentration of copper in the exposure solution and in the exposed nests was identified, but there was no such relationship for thread bundles. Since both spiggin synthesis and male courtship behaviour are under the control of circulating androgens, we predicted that males with high courtship scores would produce and secrete high levels of the spiggin protein. In the present study, nests built by high courtship score males accumulated more copper than those built by low courtship score males. Considering the potential of spiggin to bind metals, the positive relationship between fish courtship and spiggin secretion seems to explain the higher amount of copper on the nests from the fish showing high behaviour scores. Further work is now needed to determine the consequences of the copper binding potential of spiggin in stickleback nests for the health and survival of

  14. Complex Wind-Induced Variations of Surface Snow Accumulation Rates over East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, I.; Scambos, T. A.; Koenig, L.; van den Broeke, M.; Lenaerts, J.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate quantification of surface snow-accumulation over Antarctica is important for mass balance estimates and climate studies based on ice core records. Using airborne radar, lidar and thresholds of surface slope, modeled surface mass balance (SMB) and wind fields, we have predicted continent-wide distribution of wind-scour zones over Antarctica. These zones are located over relatively steep ice surfaces formed by ice flow over bedrock topography. Near-surface winds accelerate over these steeper slopes and erode and sublimate the snow. This results in numerous localized regions (typically ≤ 200 km2) with reduced or negative surface accumulation. Although small zones of re-deposition occur at the base of the steeper slope areas, the redeposited mass is small relative to the ablation loss. Total losses from wind-scour and wind-glaze areas amounts to tens of gigatons annually. Near the coast, winds often blow significant amounts of surface snow from these zones into the ocean. Large uncertainties remain in SMB estimates over East Antarctica as climate models do not adequately represent the small-scale physical processes that lead to mass loss or redistribution over the wind-scour zones. In this study, we also use Operation IceBridge's snow radar data to provide evidence for a gradual ablation of ~16-18 m of firn (~200 years of accumulation) from wind-scour zones over the upper Recovery Ice Stream catchment. The maximum ablation rates observed in this region are ~ -54 kg m-2 a-1 (-54 mm water equivalent a-1). Our airborne radio echo-sounding analysis show snow redeposition downslope of the wind-scour zones is <10% of the cumulative mass loss. Our study shows that the local mass loss is dominated by sublimation to water vapor rather than wind-transport of snow.

  15. 5 CFR 870.202 - Basic insurance amount (BIA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Basic insurance amount (BIA). 870.202... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE PROGRAM Types and Amount of Insurance § 870.202 Basic insurance amount (BIA). (a)(1) An employee's Basic insurance amount (BIA) is either: (i)...

  16. 5 CFR 870.202 - Basic insurance amount (BIA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basic insurance amount (BIA). 870.202... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE PROGRAM Types and Amount of Insurance § 870.202 Basic insurance amount (BIA). (a)(1) An employee's Basic insurance amount (BIA) is either: (i)...

  17. 48 CFR 28.102-2 - Amount required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... lesser amount is adequate for the protection of the Government, the penal amount of performance bonds... lesser amount is adequate for the protection of the Government, the penal amount of the payment bond or... secure any needed additional protection by directing the contractor to— (1) Increase the penal sum of...

  18. Multiple anatomy optimization of accumulated dose

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, W. Tyler Siebers, Jeffrey V.; Moore, Joseph A.; Gordon, James; Hugo, Geoffrey D.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To investigate the potential advantages of multiple anatomy optimization (MAO) for lung cancer radiation therapy compared to the internal target volume (ITV) approach. Methods: MAO aims to optimize a single fluence to be delivered under free-breathing conditions such that the accumulated dose meets the plan objectives, where accumulated dose is defined as the sum of deformably mapped doses computed on each phase of a single four dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) dataset. Phantom and patient simulation studies were carried out to investigate potential advantages of MAO compared to ITV planning. Through simulated delivery of the ITV- and MAO-plans, target dose variations were also investigated. Results: By optimizing the accumulated dose, MAO shows the potential to ensure dose to the moving target meets plan objectives while simultaneously reducing dose to organs at risk (OARs) compared with ITV planning. While consistently superior to the ITV approach, MAO resulted in equivalent OAR dosimetry at planning objective dose levels to within 2% volume in 14/30 plans and to within 3% volume in 19/30 plans for each lung V20, esophagus V25, and heart V30. Despite large variations in per-fraction respiratory phase weights in simulated deliveries at high dose rates (e.g., treating 4/10 phases during single fraction beams) the cumulative clinical target volume (CTV) dose after 30 fractions and per-fraction dose were constant independent of planning technique. In one case considered, however, per-phase CTV dose varied from 74% to 117% of prescription implying the level of ITV-dose heterogeneity may not be appropriate with conventional, free-breathing delivery. Conclusions: MAO incorporates 4DCT information in an optimized dose distribution and can achieve a superior plan in terms of accumulated dose to the moving target and OAR sparing compared to ITV-plans. An appropriate level of dose heterogeneity in MAO plans must be further investigated.

  19. Analysis of strains lacking known osmolyte accumulation mechanisms reveals contributions of osmolytes and transporters to protection against abiotic stress.

    PubMed

    Murdock, Lindsay; Burke, Tangi; Coumoundouros, Chelsea; Culham, Doreen E; Deutch, Charles E; Ellinger, James; Kerr, Craig H; Plater, Samantha M; To, Eric; Wright, Geordie; Wood, Janet M

    2014-09-01

    Osmolyte accumulation and release can protect cells from abiotic stresses. In Escherichia coli, known mechanisms mediate osmotic stress-induced accumulation of K(+) glutamate, trehalose, or zwitterions like glycine betaine. Previous observations suggested that additional osmolyte accumulation mechanisms (OAMs) exist and their impacts may be abiotic stress specific. Derivatives of the uropathogenic strain CFT073 and the laboratory strain MG1655 lacking known OAMs were created. CFT073 grew without osmoprotectants in minimal medium with up to 0.9 M NaCl. CFT073 and its OAM-deficient derivative grew equally well in high- and low-osmolality urine pools. Urine-grown bacteria did not accumulate large amounts of known or novel osmolytes. Thus, CFT073 showed unusual osmotolerance and did not require osmolyte accumulation to grow in urine. Yeast extract and brain heart infusion stimulated growth of the OAM-deficient MG1655 derivative at high salinity. Neither known nor putative osmoprotectants did so. Glutamate and glutamine accumulated after growth with either organic mixture, and no novel osmolytes were detected. MG1655 derivatives retaining individual OAMs were created. Their abilities to mediate osmoprotection were compared at 15°C, 37°C without or with urea, and 42°C. Stress protection was not OAM specific, and variations in osmoprotectant effectiveness were similar under all conditions. Glycine betaine and dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) were the most effective. Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) was a weak osmoprotectant and a particularly effective urea protectant. The effectiveness of glycine betaine, TMAO, and proline as osmoprotectants correlated with their preferential exclusion from protein surfaces, not with their propensity to prevent protein denaturation. Thus, their effectiveness as stress protectants correlated with their ability to rehydrate the cytoplasm.

  20. Analysis of Strains Lacking Known Osmolyte Accumulation Mechanisms Reveals Contributions of Osmolytes and Transporters to Protection against Abiotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Murdock, Lindsay; Burke, Tangi; Coumoundouros, Chelsea; Culham, Doreen E.; Deutch, Charles E.; Ellinger, James; Kerr, Craig H.; Plater, Samantha M.; To, Eric; Wright, Geordie

    2014-01-01

    Osmolyte accumulation and release can protect cells from abiotic stresses. In Escherichia coli, known mechanisms mediate osmotic stress-induced accumulation of K+ glutamate, trehalose, or zwitterions like glycine betaine. Previous observations suggested that additional osmolyte accumulation mechanisms (OAMs) exist and their impacts may be abiotic stress specific. Derivatives of the uropathogenic strain CFT073 and the laboratory strain MG1655 lacking known OAMs were created. CFT073 grew without osmoprotectants in minimal medium with up to 0.9 M NaCl. CFT073 and its OAM-deficient derivative grew equally well in high- and low-osmolality urine pools. Urine-grown bacteria did not accumulate large amounts of known or novel osmolytes. Thus, CFT073 showed unusual osmotolerance and did not require osmolyte accumulation to grow in urine. Yeast extract and brain heart infusion stimulated growth of the OAM-deficient MG1655 derivative at high salinity. Neither known nor putative osmoprotectants did so. Glutamate and glutamine accumulated after growth with either organic mixture, and no novel osmolytes were detected. MG1655 derivatives retaining individual OAMs were created. Their abilities to mediate osmoprotection were compared at 15°C, 37°C without or with urea, and 42°C. Stress protection was not OAM specific, and variations in osmoprotectant effectiveness were similar under all conditions. Glycine betaine and dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) were the most effective. Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) was a weak osmoprotectant and a particularly effective urea protectant. The effectiveness of glycine betaine, TMAO, and proline as osmoprotectants correlated with their preferential exclusion from protein surfaces, not with their propensity to prevent protein denaturation. Thus, their effectiveness as stress protectants correlated with their ability to rehydrate the cytoplasm. PMID:24951793

  1. Mapping of ice layer extent and snow accumulation in the percolation zone of the Greenland ice sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Steffen, K.; Neumann, G.; Huff, R.

    2005-01-01

    The Greenland ice sheet underwent record extensive melt in 2002 and prolonged melt in 2003. The severe melting created a significant and extensive ice layer over the Greenland ice sheet. An innovative approach is developed to detect the ice layer formation using data acquired by the SeaWinds scatterometer on the QuikSCAT satellite. QuikSCAT backscatter together with in situ data from automatic weather stations of the Greenland Climate Network are used to map the extent of ice layer formation. The results reveal areas of extensive ice layer formed by the 2002 melt, which is consistent with the maximum melt extent in 2002. Moreover, during freezing seasons, QuikSCAT data show a linear decrease in backscatter (in decibels or dB) that is related to the amount of snow accumulation in the ice layer formation region. This snow accumulation signature is caused by the attenuation of radar waves in the snow layer, accumulating since the last major melt event, whose thickness appears as an exponential function in relation to the backscatter signature. We use the Greenland Climate Network data to calibrate the QuikSCAT accumulation rate in order to estimate and map snow accumulation. QuikSCAT results capture the extreme snowfall in mid-April 2003, which deposited more than 0.5 m of snow in a day as measured by the automated weather station at the NASA South East site. Large-scale QuikSCAT results show an anomalous increase of snow accumulation over the southeast region of Greenland during the 2002-2003 freezing season.

  2. Higher accumulation of F1-V fusion recombinant protein in plants after induction of protein body formation.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, M Lucrecia; Topal, Emel; Martin, Federico; Cardineau, Guy A

    2010-01-01

    Improving foreign protein accumulation is crucial for enhancing the commercial success of plant-based production systems since product yields have a major influence on process economics. Cereal grain evolved to store large amounts of proteins in tightly organized aggregates. In maize, gamma-Zein is the major storage protein synthesized by the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and stored in specialized organelles called protein bodies (PB). Zera (gamma-Zein ER-accumulating domain) is the N-terminal proline-rich domain of gamma-zein that is sufficient to induce the assembly of PB formation. Fusion of the Zera domain to proteins of interest results in assembly of dense PB-like, ER-derived organelles, containing high concentration of recombinant protein. Our main goal was to increase recombinant protein accumulation in plants in order to enhance the efficiency of orally-delivered plant-made vaccines. It is well known that oral vaccination requires substantially higher doses than parental formulations. As a part of a project to develop a plant-made plague vaccine, we expressed our model antigen, the Yersinia pestis F1-V antigen fusion protein, with and without a fused Zera domain. We demonstrated that Zera-F1-V protein accumulation was at least 3x higher than F1-V alone when expressed in three different host plant systems: Ncotiana benthamiana, Medicago sativa (alfalfa) and Nicotiana tabacum NT1 cells. We confirmed the feasibility of using Zera technology to induce protein body formation in non-seed tissues. Zera expression and accumulation did not affect plant development and growth. These results confirmed the potential exploitation of Zera technology to substantially increase the accumulation of value-added proteins in plants.

  3. Geographic variability in organic carbon stock and accumulation rate in sediments of East and Southeast Asian seagrass meadows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyajima, Toshihiro; Hori, Masakazu; Hamaguchi, Masami; Shimabukuro, Hiromori; Adachi, Hiroshi; Yamano, Hiroya; Nakaoka, Masahiro

    2015-04-01

    Organic carbon (OC) stored in the sediments of seagrass meadows has been considered a globally significant OC reservoir. However, the sparsity and regional bias of studies on long-term OC accumulation in coastal sediments have limited reliable estimation of the capacity of seagrass meadows as a global OC sink. We evaluated the amount and accumulation rate of OC in sediment of seagrass meadows and adjacent areas in East and Southeast Asia. In temperate sites, the average OC concentration in the top 30 cm of sediment was higher in seagrass meadows (780-1080 mmol g-1) than in sediments without seagrass cover (52-430 mmol g-1). The average OC in the top 30 cm of subtropical and tropical seagrass meadow sediments ranged from 140 to 440 mmol g-1. Carbon isotope mass balancing suggested that the contribution of seagrass-derived carbon to OC stored in sediments was often relatively minor (temperate: 10-40%; subtropical: 35-82%; tropical: 4-34%) and correlated to the habitat type, being particularly low in estuarine habitats. Stock of OC in the top meter of sediment of all the studied meadows ranged from 38 to 120 Mg ha-1. The sediment accumulation rates were estimated by radiocarbon dating of six selected cores (0.32-1.34 mm yr-1). The long-term OC accumulation rates calculated from the sediment accumulation rate and the top 30 cm average OC concentration for the seagrass meadows (24-101 kg ha-1 yr-1) were considerably lower than the OC accumulation rates previously reported for Mediterranean Posidonia oceanica meadows (580 kg ha-1 yr-1 on average). Current estimates for the global carbon sink capacity of seagrass meadows, which rely largely on Mediterranean studies, may be considerable overestimations.

  4. Maximum likelihood decoding analysis of Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    Repeat-Accumulate (RA) codes are the simplest turbo-like codes that achieve good performance. However, they cannot compete with Turbo codes or low-density parity check codes (LDPC) as far as performance is concerned. The Accumulate Repeat Accumulate (ARA) codes, as a subclass of LDPC codes, are obtained by adding a pre-coder in front of RA codes with puncturing where an accumulator is chosen as a precoder. These codes not only are very simple, but also achieve excellent performance with iterative decoding. In this paper, the performance of these codes with (ML) decoding are analyzed and compared to random codes by very tight bounds. The weight distribution of some simple ARA codes is obtained, and through existing tightest bounds we have shown the ML SNR threshold of ARA codes approaches very closely to the performance of random codes. We have shown that the use of precoder improves the SNR threshold but interleaving gain remains unchanged with respect to RA code with puncturing.

  5. Hydrothermal sulfide accumulation along the Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamieson, J. W.; Clague, D. A.; Hannington, M. D.

    2014-06-01

    Hydrothermal sulfide deposits that form on the seafloor are often located by the detection of hydrothermal plumes in the water column, followed by exploration with deep-towed cameras, side-scan sonar imaging, and finally by visual surveys using remotely-operated vehicle or occupied submersible. Hydrothermal plume detection, however, is ineffective for finding hydrothermally-inactive sulfide deposits, which may represent a significant amount of the total sulfide accumulation on the seafloor, even in hydrothermally active settings. Here, we present results from recent high-resolution, autonomous underwater vehicle-based mapping of the hydrothermally-active Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, in the Northeast Pacific Ocean. Analysis of the ridge bathymetry resulted in the location of 581 individual sulfide deposits along 24 km of ridge length. Hydrothermal deposits were distinguished from volcanic and tectonic features based on the characteristics of their surface morphology, such as shape and slope angles. Volume calculations for each deposit results in a total volume of 372,500 m3 of hydrothermal sulfide-sulfate-silica material, for an equivalent mass of ∼1.2 Mt of hydrothermal material on the seafloor within the ridge's axial valley, assuming a density of 3.1 g/cm3. Much of this total volume is from previously undocumented inactive deposits outside the main active vent fields. Based on minimum ages of sulfide deposition, the deposits accumulated at a maximum rate of ∼400 t/yr, with a depositional efficiency (proportion of hydrothermal material that accumulates on the seafloor to the total amount hydrothermally mobilized and transported to the seafloor) of ∼5%. The calculated sulfide tonnage represents a four-fold increase over previous sulfide estimates for the Endeavour Segment that were based largely on accumulations from within the active fields. These results suggest that recent global seafloor sulfide resource estimates, which were based mostly

  6. Salt tectonics and oil accumulation in Campos basin, offshore Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Figueiredo, A.M.F.; Pereira, M.J.; Mohriak, W.U.; Gaglianone, P.C.; Trinidade, L.A.F.

    1985-02-01

    Salt tectonics were responsible for the development of optimum conditions for accumulation of large hydrocarbon reserves in Campos basin. The salt movements, triggered by basin tilting and differential loading, initially formed low-relief salt pillows that controlled the porous facies of the shallow-water Macae limestones. The continuous evolution of halokinetic processes produced growth faults, rollover crests, and faulted anticlines. Upper Cretaceous turbidite sandstones were channelized in the downthrown blocks of growth faults. Salt-collapse, residual, and relief-inversion features were formed in areas where the salt was sufficiently thick. The oil, generated in the Neocomian shales of Lagoa Feia Formation, migrated to upper formations through normal faults associated with the rift phase, stratigraphic conduits such as porous rocks and regional unconformities, and gaps created by salt flowage in the Aptian evaporite section. Oil migration to the post-salt rocks was favored by active growth faults and by the presence of a regional unconformity developed at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary and covered by turbidite sheet sands. The oils underwent progressive alteration along their paths to the post-salt reservoirs. Oil-oil and oil-source rock correlations suggest that the hydrocarbons trapped in many diverse plays, although affected by bacterial degradation and water washing, belong to only one oil family. The oil degradation was probably enhanced by meteoric water invasions during Tertiary low stands of sea level in areas close to the paleocoastline. These phenomena resulted in large amounts of oil becoming heavier and enriched in sulfur, resins, asphaltenes, and cycloparaffins.

  7. MAB_3551c encodes the primary triacylglycerol synthase involved in lipid accumulation in Mycobacterium abscessus.

    PubMed

    Viljoen, Albertus; Blaise, Mickael; de Chastellier, Chantal; Kremer, Laurent

    2016-11-01

    Slow growing pathogenic mycobacteria utilize host-derived lipids and accumulate large amounts of triacylglycerol (TAG) in the form of intracytoplasmic lipid inclusions (ILI), serving as a source of carbon and energy during prolonged infection. Mycobacterium abscessus is an emerging and rapidly growing species capable to induce severe and chronic pulmonary infections. However, whether M. abscessus, like Mycobacterium tuberculosis, possesses the machinery to acquire and store host lipids, remains unaddressed. Herein, we aimed at deciphering the contribution of the seven putative M. abscessus TAG synthases (Tgs) in TAG synthesis/accumulation thanks to a combination of genetic and biochemical techniques and a well-defined foamy macrophage (FM) model along with electron microscopy. Targeted gene deletion and functional complementation studies identified the MAB_3551c product, Tgs1, as the major Tgs involved in TAG production. Tgs1 exhibits a preference for long acyl-CoA substrates and site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated that His144 and Gln145 are essential for enzymatic activity. Importantly, in the lipid-rich intracellular context of FM, M. abscessus formed large ILI in a Tgs1-dependent manner. This supports the ability of M. abscessus to assimilate host lipids and the crucial role of Tgs1 in intramycobacterial TAG production, which may represent important mechanisms for long-term storage of a rich energy supply.

  8. Rabbit blastocysts accumulate [3H]prostaglandins in vitro.

    PubMed

    Jones, M A; Harper, M J

    1984-08-01

    Rabbit blastocysts obtained on days 5, 6, and 6.8 of pregnancy were incubated in vitro in Tyrode's buffer with 3H-labeled prostaglandins (PGs). Accumulation of PGs was studied, using Whatman GF/F filters to separate bound and free ligands. The uptake and efflux of [3H]PGs were studied as a function of PG type, incubation time, temperature, and effect of metabolic inhibitors as well as age and number of blastocysts. Blastocysts of the same age accumulated approximately the same amount of [3H]PGE2 and [3H]PGF2 alpha from their environment; however, there was no apparent saturation over a PG concentration range of 1-1000 nM. Both the uptake and efflux of PG were age dependent, with older blastocysts accumulating more PGs. Approximately 90% of the [3H]PGs appear to be transported into the blastocoelic fluid, with little PG remaining in the blastomeres. PG accumulation was relatively insensitive to azide, ouabain, cyanide, or bromcresol green, but was affected by incubation at 0 C or the addition of indomethacin (10 micrograms/ml). No catabolism of the accumulated PGs was observed. The release of PGE2 in general did not differ from that of PGF2 alpha, except on day 6.8 of pregnancy when PGE2 was released more rapidly than on day 6. We conclude that rabbit blastocysts can accumulate PGs from their environment, which may imply a storage potential in the blastocyst and release before implantation.

  9. Towards large amounts of Janus nanoparticles through a protection-deprotection route.

    PubMed

    Perro, Adeline; Reculusa, Stéphane; Pereira, Franck; Delville, Marie-Hélène; Mingotaud, Christophe; Duguet, Etienne; Bourgeat-Lami, Elodie; Ravaine, Serge

    2005-11-28

    Janus silica nanoparticles, regioselectively functionalized by two different chemical groups, were synthesized through a multistep procedure based on the use of a polystyrene nodule as a protecting mask.

  10. The discovery of large amounts of cold, X-ray absorbing matter in cooling flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, D. A.; Fabian, A. C.; Johnstone, R. M.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Arnaud, K. A.

    1991-01-01

    The discovery of significant excess absorption in the X-ray spectra of 12 clusters of galaxies is reported. The spectra also require a cooling-flow component, which confirms the results of imaging studies of the clusters showing the strongly peaked emission characteristic of cooling flows. The total mass of absorbing gas is determined on the assumption that it is distributed through the cooling flow region and has cosmic abundance. It is shown that the gas is most likely in the form of small cold clouds. The excess absorption is interpreted as being due to photoelectric absorption in cold gas clouds distributed through the cooling flows.

  11. Isolation of DNA from plants with large amounts of secondary metabolites.

    PubMed

    Friar, Elizabeth A

    2005-01-01

    Many plant species have high contents of polysaccharides, polyphenols, or other secondary metabolites that can interfere with DNA extraction and purification. These contaminating compounds can lead to poor DNA yield and prevent access by modifying enzymes, such as restriction endonucleases and Taq polymerase. A number of factors, including choice of plant tissue, tissue preparation, and modifications of the extraction buffer, can help in DNA extraction for difficult plant species. This chapter presents some of the DNA extraction protocols developed for various plants.

  12. A modified oxidative microcoulometric method for determination of sulphur in hydrocarbons containing large amounts of chlorine.

    PubMed

    Cedergren, A

    1977-01-01

    The oxidative coulometric method for trace sulphur determinations has been modified and a procedure is described which includes the elimination of the interferences caused by chlorine whilst retaining a high recovery of sulphur. The liquid hydrocarbon sample is combusted in an excess of oxygen at 1000 K followed by dilution with a proper flow of carbon monoxide at 1300 K. In this way the partial pressure of oxygen is kept small and the interfering chlorine compounds are effectively converted into hydrogen chloride which does not interfere with the coulometric titration. A recovery of sulphur of 96 +/- 1% was found for thiophene in mixtures of chlorobenzene (0-10%) and cyclohexane, thus indicating the absence of significant interference.

  13. Stable supply of large amounts of human Fab from the inclusion bodies in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Testuro; Ohkuri, Takatoshi; Onodera, Reiko; Ueda, Tadashi

    2007-05-01

    Recombinant human Fab-H chain and L chain were separately expressed as inclusion body using Escherichia coli. After solubilization of Fab-H chain and L chain by the reduction and S-alkyldisulphidation in 8 M urea, about 100 mg of purified Fab-H chain and about 160 mg of L chain could be obtained from 1 l of each culture by ion-exchange chromatogram in the presence of 8 M urea. Combination of the lyophilized Fab-H chain and L chain could be efficiently folded to native human Fab by using the stepwise dialysis method and the human Fab was purified with cation-exchange chromatogram. In the folding procedure, it was found that cysteamine and cystamine with positive charge were effective to improve the folding yield of human Fab. Moreover, from comparison of folding yield in the presence of ten kinds of additives, it was suggested that taurine was effective to improve the folding of human Fab. Consequently, we could obtain about 60 mg of folded human Fab from 1 l of each culture under the optimum conditions.

  14. Changes in vegetation, peat properties and peat accumulation in Swedish peatlands as revealed by archive data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoning, Kristian; Sohlenius, Gustav

    2016-04-01

    In this investigation we have studied patterns in peat accumulation and changes in mire status since the early 1900s for two areas in Sweden. In the early 1900s the Geological Survey of Sweden collected a vast amount of peat and peatland data, including information on vegetation and land-use. We have used this archive data to evaluate changes in mire vegetation, mire wetness and surface peat properties, rates of peat accumulation, succession in young wetlands and the effects of cultivation on peatlands. In total 156 mires in an uplift area of eastern middle Sweden were included in the data-set, including both pristine mires and peatlands used for agricultural purposes. In this area new peatlands have continuously been formed during the past 7 000 years making it possible to evaluate changes in peat accumulation over time. The other study area is situated in the south Swedish Uplands where we have revisited some larger bogs. The results from our investigation show that many of the peatlands have underwent major changes since the early 1900s. In most of the small peatlands we have found important changes in vegetation where mire vegetation has been replaced by nutrient demanding and/or dry species flora while the tree stand on large mires in south Sweden have increased. In some mires humification has increased in the uppermost peat-layers and the mire surface have become drier compared to the early 1900s. In eastern middle Sweden there are indications that the peat accumulation is lower 0,5 mm/year in older peatlands compared with younger ones 1,2 mm/year, although the mire vegetation in the older peatlands is dominated by sphagnum. The peat depth of the cultivated mires in this area shows a mean decrease of 40 cm since the early 1900s.

  15. Apoptosis imaging for monitoring DR5 antibody accumulation and pharmacodynamics in brain tumors non-invasively

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Thomas G.; Osl, Franz; Renner, Anja; Pöschinger, Thomas; Galbán, Stefanie; Rehemtulla, Alnawaz; Scheuer, Werner

    2014-01-01

    High grade gliomas often possess an impaired blood-brain barrier (BBB) which allows delivery of large molecules to brain tumors. However, achieving optimal drug concentrations in brain tumors remains a significant hurdle for treating patients successfully. Thus, detailed investigations of drug activities in gliomas are needed. To investigate BBB penetration, pharmacodynamics and tumor retention kinetics, we studied an agonistic DR5 antibody in a brain tumor xenograft model to investigate a non-invasive imaging method for longitudinal monitoring of apoptosis induction by this antibody. Brain tumors were induced by intracranial (i.c.) implantation of a luciferase-expressing tumor cell line as a reporter. To quantify accumulation of anti-DR5 in brain tumors, we generated a dose response curve for apoptosis induction after i.c. delivery of fluorescence-labeled anti-DR5 at different dosages. Assuming 100% drug delivery after i.c. application, the amount of accumulated antibody after i.v. application was calculated relative to its apoptosis induction. We found that up to 0.20–0.97% of antibody delivered i.v. reached the brain tumor, but that apoptosis induction declined quickly within 24 hours. These results were confirmed by 3D fluorescence microscopy of antibody accumulation in explanted brains. Nonetheless, significant antitumor efficacy was documented after anti-DR5 delivery. We further demonstrated that antibody crossing the BBB was facilitated its impairment in brain tumors. These imaging methods enable the quantification of antibody accumulation and pharmacodynamics in brain tumors, offering a holistic approach for assessment of CNS targeting drugs. PMID:24509903

  16. Highly accumulative production of L(+)-lactate from glucose by crystallization fermentation with immobilized Rhizopus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Yamane, Tsuneo; Tanaka, Ryohsuke

    2013-01-01

    In order to produce microbiologically large amount of l(+)-lactic acid (LA) from glucose, batch and fed-batch (intermittent addition of sterilized glucose powder aseptically) cultures of Rhizopus oryzae NBRC 5384 (identical to NRRL 395 and ATCC 9363) whose mycelia were immobilized in situ within sponge-like cubic particles (3.5 mm edge long) were carried out at 37°C in a three baffled shake flask. Appropriately calculated amount of fine powdery calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) was added initially or intermittently to control pH of the culture liquids. High accumulations of LA (145 g/L and 231 g/L, in reality 176 g/L and 280 g/L as anhydrous calcium lactate) were achieved by a batch (glucose concentration = 150 g/L) and a fed-batch cultures (the initial glucose concentration = 150 g/L and the intermittent addition of glucose equivalent to 100 g/L). In these cultures the yields and productivities of LA were, 95.0%, 1.42 g/L·h and 92.5%, 1.83 g/L·h, respectively. Existence of considerable amounts of calcium lactate (Ca(LA)(2)) as crystals in the culture broth was experimentally proved by two evidences: (i) heating up (70°C) followed by quick low centrifugal force to remove remaining CaCO(3) solids from culture broth and then cooling down (37°C) followed by incubation of the culture supernatant at 37°C to observe recrystallization of Ca(LA)(2), and (ii) the measurement of solubility of Ca(LA)(2) in the culture media. It was conceptually discussed to be able to avoid the product inhibition by means of crystallization fermentation for the high accumulation of LA by R. oryzae.

  17. Quantifying accumulation or exclusion of H +, HO -, and Hofmeister salt ions near interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pegram, L. M.; Record, M. T., Jr.

    2008-12-01

    Recently, surface spectroscopies and simulations have begun to characterize the non-uniform distributions of salt ions near macroscopic and molecular surfaces. The thermodynamic consequences of these non-uniform distributions determine the often-large ion-specific effects of Hofmeister salts on a very wide range of processes in water. For uncharged surfaces, where these non-uniform ion distributions are confined to the first few layers of water at the surface, a two-state approximation to the distributions of water and ions, called the salt ion partitioning model (SPM) has both molecular and thermodynamic significance. Here, we summarize SPM results quantifying the local accumulation of H +, exclusion of HO -, and range of partitioning behavior of Hofmeister anions and cations near macroscopic and molecular interfaces. These results provide a database to interpret or predict Hofmeister salt effects on aqueous processes in terms of structural information regarding amount and composition of the surface exposed or buried in these processes.

  18. Ion Trapping in the Accumulator

    SciTech Connect

    Marriner, J.

    1985-02-18

    The beam space charge (- for {bar p}'s) will attract positive ions. In the absence of additional fields (clearing electrodes, e.g.) these ions will be trapped in the beam potential well. The depth of this potential well has been calculated for some geometries relevant for the accumulator.

  19. Gas hydrate accumulation at the Hakon Mosby Mud Volcano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ginsburg, G.D.; Milkov, A.V.; Soloviev, V.A.; Egorov, A.V.; Cherkashev, G.A.; Vogt, P.R.; Crane, K.; Lorenson, T.D.; Khutorskoy, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    Gas hydrate (GH) accumulation is characterized and modeled for the Hakon Mosby mud volcano, ca. 1.5 km across, located on the Norway-Barents-Svalbard margin. Pore water chemical and isotopic results based on shallow sediment cores as well as geothermal and geomorphological data suggest that the GH accumulation is of a concentric pattern controlled by and formed essentially from the ascending mud volcano fluid. The gas hydrate content of sediment peaks at 25% by volume, averaging about 1.2% throughout the accumulation. The amount of hydrate methane is estimated at ca. 108 m3 STP, which could account for about 1-10% of the gas that has escaped from the volcano since its origin.

  20. Rapid intraplate strain accumulation in the new madrid seismic zone.

    PubMed

    Liu, L; Zoback, M D; Segall, P

    1992-09-18

    Remeasurement of a triangulation network in the southern part of the New Madrid seismic zone with the Global Positioning System has revealed rapid crustal strain accumulation since the 1950s. This area experienced three large (moment magnitudes >8) earthquakes in 1811 to 1812. The orientation and sense of shear is consistent with right-lateral strike slip motion along a northeast-trending fault zone (as indicated by current seismicity). Detection of crustal strain accumulation may be a useful discriminant for identifying areas where potentially damaging intraplate earthquakes may occur despite the absence of large earthquakes during historic time.

  1. Rapid intraplate strain accumulation in the New Madrid seismic zone

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, L.; Zoback, M.D.; Segall, P. USGS, Menlo Park, CA )

    1992-09-01

    Remeasurement of a triangulation network in the southern part of the New Madrid seismic zone with the Global Positioning System has revealed rapid crustal strain accumulation since the 1950s. This area experienced three large (moment magnitudes greater than 8) earthquakes in 1811 to 1812. The orientation and sense of shear is consistent with right-lateral strike slip motion along a northeast-trending fault zone (as indicated by current seismicity). Detection of crustal strain accumulation may be a useful discriminant for identifying areas where potentially damaging intraplate earthquakes may occur despite the absence of large earthquakes during historic time. 34 refs.

  2. Rapid intraplate strain accumulation in the New Madrid seismic zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, L.; Zoback, M.D.; Segall, P.

    1992-01-01

    Remeasurement of a triangulation network in the southern part of the New Madrid seismic zone with the Global Positioning System has revealed rapid crustal strain accumulation since the 1950s. This area experienced three large (moment magnitudes >8) earthquakes in 1811 to 1812. The orientation and sense of shear is consistent with right-lateral strike slip motion along a northeast-trending fault zone (as indicated by current seismicity). Detection of crustal strain accumulation may be a useful discriminant for identifying areas where potentially damaging intraplate earthquakes may occur despite the absence of large earthquakes during historic time.

  3. Strain accumulation along the San Andreas fault system East of San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prescott, W.H.; Lisowski, M.

    1983-01-01

    The occurrence of several large earthquakes to the east of San Francisco Bay during historical times, and present high levels of microseismicity, indicate that a significant part of the relative plate motion may be occurring east of San Francisco Bay. Furthermore, the Hayward fault is known to be slipping aseismically at the surface, and the Calaveras fault may be slipping aseismically also. These facts raise an important question: Is the observed creep rate accommodating all of the east bay deformation or is there a significant amount of strain accumulating along these faults? Several small survey networks (< 2 km diameter) located along the Hayward and Calaveras faults, have been measured occasionally since 1965. Recent observations of these and other networks have been made by the U.S. Geological Survey. These observations imply a surface slip rate on the Hayward fault at Fremont, Hayward, Berkeley, and Richmond of about 6 mm/yr. On the Calaveras fault, north of the Hayward-Calaveras fault junction, surface slip rates have been determined from only four data sets. Three of which give a rate of 3 mm/yr. The U.S. Geological Survey annually measures 32 longer lines (10-30 km) in the east bay. Observations of these lines extend back to 1977 for most and to 1970 for some of the lines. The observed creep rates and the data for the longer east-bay lines provide constraints on the amount and position of deeper slip on the Hayward and Calaveras faults. After correcting for line-length changes due to fault slip, we calculated the strain accumulation rate. The shear strain rate parallel to east bay faults is 0.07 ?? 0.02 ??strain/yr, a rate well below that of other areas along the San Andreas fault system, suggesting that creep is relieving a large part of the strain in this area. ?? 1983.

  4. Vanadium accumulation in carbonaceous rocks: A review of geochemical controls during deposition and diagenesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breit, G.N.; Wanty, R.B.

    1991-01-01

    Published data relevant to the geochemistry of vanadium were used to evaluate processes and conditions that control vanadium accumulation in carbonaceous rocks. Reduction, adsorption, and complexation of dissolved vanadium favor addition of vanadium to sediments rich in organic carbon. Dissolved vanadate (V(V)) species predominate in oxic seawater and are reduced to vanadyl ion (V(IV)) by organic compounds or H2S. Vanadyl ion readily adsorbs to particle surfaces and is added to the sediment as the particles settle. The large vanadium concentrations of rocks deposited in marine as compared to lacustrine environments are the result of the relatively large amount of vanadium provided by circulating ocean water compared to terrestrial runoff. Vanadium-rich carbonaceous rocks typically have high contents of organically bound sulfur and are stratigraphically associated with phosphate-rich units. A correspondence between vanadium content and organically bound sulfur is consistent with high activities of H2S during sediment deposition. Excess H2S exited the sediment into bottom waters and favored reduction of dissolved V(V) to V(IV) or possibly V(III). The stratigraphic association of vanadiferous and phosphatic rocks reflects temporal and spatial shifts in bottom water chemistry from suboxic (phosphate concentrated) to more reducing (euxinic?) conditions that favor vanadium accumulation. During diagenesis some vanadium-organic complexes migrate with petroleum out of carbonaceous rocks, but significant amounts of vanadium are retained in refractory organic matter or clay minerals. As carbon in the rock evolves toward graphite during metamorphism, vanadium is incorporated into silicate minerals. ?? 1991.

  5. Comparison between the Amount of Environmental Change and the Amount of Transcriptome Change

    PubMed Central

    Ogata, Norichika; Kozaki, Toshinori; Yokoyama, Takeshi; Hata, Tamako; Iwabuchi, Kikuo

    2015-01-01

    Cells must coordinate adjustments in genome expression to accommodate changes in their environment. We hypothesized that the amount of transcriptome change is proportional to the amount of environmental change. To capture the effects of environmental changes on the transcriptome, we compared transcriptome diversities (defined as the Shannon entropy of frequency distribution) of silkworm fat-body tissues cultured with several concentrations of phenobarbital. Although there was no proportional relationship, we did identify a drug concentration “tipping point” between 0.25 and 1.0 mM. Cells cultured in media containing lower drug concentrations than the tipping point showed uniformly high transcriptome diversities, while those cultured at higher drug concentrations than the tipping point showed uniformly low transcriptome diversities. The plasticity of transcriptome diversity was corroborated by cultivations of fat bodies in MGM-450 insect medium without phenobarbital and in 0.25 mM phenobarbital-supplemented MGM-450 insect medium after previous cultivation (cultivation for 80 hours in MGM-450 insect medium without phenobarbital, followed by cultivation for 10 hours in 1.0 mM phenobarbital-supplemented MGM-450 insect medium). Interestingly, the transcriptome diversities of cells cultured in media containing 0.25 mM phenobarbital after previous cultivation (cultivation for 80 hours in MGM-450 insect medium without phenobarbital, followed by cultivation for 10 hours in 1.0 mM phenobarbital-supplemented MGM-450 insect medium) were different from cells cultured in media containing 0.25 mM phenobarbital after previous cultivation (cultivation for 80 hours in MGM-450 insect medium without phenobarbital). This hysteretic phenomenon of transcriptome diversities indicates multi-stability of the genome expression system. Cellular memories were recorded in genome expression networks as in DNA/histone modifications. PMID:26657512

  6. 46 CFR 282.20 - Amount of subsidy payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... COMMERCE OF THE UNITED STATES Calculation of Subsidy Rates § 282.20 Amount of subsidy payable. (a) Daily... rates in determining the daily ODS amount payable. (e) Operator Comments. The operator shall have...

  7. 41 CFR 105-57.008 - Amounts withheld.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... The employer may use the SF 329C (Wage Garnishment Worksheet) to calculate the amount to be deducted... order up to 15 percent of the debtor's disposable pay; or (2) The amount set forth in 15 U.S.C....

  8. 41 CFR 105-57.008 - Amounts withheld.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... The employer may use the SF 329C (Wage Garnishment Worksheet) to calculate the amount to be deducted... order up to 15 percent of the debtor's disposable pay; or (2) The amount set forth in 15 U.S.C....

  9. 41 CFR 105-57.008 - Amounts withheld.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... The employer may use the SF 329C (Wage Garnishment Worksheet) to calculate the amount to be deducted... order up to 15 percent of the debtor's disposable pay; or (2) The amount set forth in 15 U.S.C....

  10. Accumulation of metal ions by pectinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deiana, S.; Deiana, L.; Palma, A.; Premoli, A.; Senette, C.

    2009-04-01

    The knowledge of the mechanisms which regulate the interactions of metal ions with partially methyl esterified linear polymers of α-1,4 linked D-galacturonic acid units (pectinates), well represented in the root inner and outer apoplasm, is of great relevance to understand the processes which control their accumulation at the soil-root interface as well as their mobilization by plant metabolites. Accumulation of a metal by pectinates can be affected by the presence of other metals so that competition or distribution could be expected depending on the similar or different affinity of the metal ions towards the binding sites, mainly represented by the carboxylate groups. In order to better understand the mechanism of accumulation in the apoplasm of several metal ions, the sorption of Cd(II), Zn(II), Cu(II), Pb(II) and Cr(III) by a Ca-polygalacturonate gel, used as model of the soil-root interface, with a degree of esterification of 18% (PGAE1) and 65% (PGAE2) was studied at pH 3.0, 4.0, 5.0 and 6.0 in the presence of CaCl2 2.5 mM.. The results show that sorption increases with increasing both the initial metal concentration and pH. A similar sorption trend was evidenced for Cu(II) and Pb(II) and for Zn(II) and Cd(II), indicating that the mechanism of sorption for these two ionic couples is quite different. As an example, at pH 6.0 and an initial metal concentration equal to 2.0 mM, the amount of Cu(II) and Pb(II) sorbed was about 1.98 mg-1 of PGAE1 while that of Cd(II) and Zn(II) was about 1.2 mg-1. Cr(III) showed a rather different sorption trend and a much higher amount (2.8 mg-1of PGAE1 at pH 6.0) was recorded. The higher affinity of Cr(III) for the polysaccharidic matrix is attributable to the formation of Cr(III) polynuclear species in solution, as shown by the distribution diagrams obtained through the MEDUSA software. On the basis of these findings, the following affinity towards the PGAE1 can be assessed: Cr(III) > Cu(II) ? Pb(II) > Zn (II) ? Cd

  11. 26 CFR 1.662(a)-1 - Inclusion of amounts in gross income of beneficiaries of estates and complex trusts; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inclusion of amounts in gross income of beneficiaries of estates and complex trusts; general. 1.662(a)-1 Section 1.662(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... Trusts Which May Accumulate Income Or Which Distribute Corpus § 1.662(a)-1 Inclusion of amounts in...

  12. Dietary restriction, caloric value and the accumulation of hepatic fat

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies using laboratory animals under what are considered to be "standard" conditions normally offer unrestricted amounts of food to the animals, which can lead to metabolic disorders. Moreover, standard diets have different compositions. Aim Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the effects of two non-isocaloric diets (commercial Purina® and AIN-93M), which are considered standard diets, on the accumulation of fat in the liver of rats when offered ad libitum or in a restricted amount. Methods Thus, 40 Wistar rats (90 days old) were separated into 4 groups according to the amount of food offered (ad libitum or dietary restriction) and the type of diet (commercial diet, 3,028.0 kcal/g or AIN-93M, 3,802.7 kcal/g): animals fed the commercial Purina® diet ad libitum (AP), animals fed restricted amounts of the commercial Purina® diet (RP), animals fed the AIN-93M diet ad libitum (AD), and animals fed restricted amounts of the AIN-93M diet (RD). Dietary restriction consisted of pair-feeding the RP and RD groups with 60% of the total food consumed by the corresponding ad libitum groups. Results Because of its higher carbohydrate and calorie content, AIN-93M was found to accelerate weight gain, reduce glucose tolerance and peripheral insulin sensitivity, and increase the amount of fat in the liver when compared to the commercial diet. Conversely, a 40% dietary restriction assisted in weight loss without causing malnutrition, contributing to an improved glucose tolerance and higher levels of HDL cholesterol. Conclusion Therefore, differences in the amount of carbohydrates and calories provided by the diet can lead to important metabolic disorders, such as impaired tolerance and accumulation of hepatic fat, and dietary restriction improves serum and tissue lipid profiles in laboratory animals. PMID:22221448

  13. 42 CFR 124.705 - Amount of recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amount of recovery. 124.705 Section 124.705 Public... MEDICAL FACILITY CONSTRUCTION AND MODERNIZATION Recovery of Grant Funds § 124.705 Amount of recovery. (a... liabilities associated with the transaction. To determine the amount of Federal recovery, the adjusted...

  14. 20 CFR 625.6 - Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.6 Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions. (a) In all States... worker or unemployed self-employed individual for a week of total unemployment shall be the weekly amount... provisions of the applicable State law for a week of total unemployment. In no event shall such amount be...

  15. 20 CFR 625.6 - Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.6 Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions. (a) In all States... worker or unemployed self-employed individual for a week of total unemployment shall be the weekly amount... provisions of the applicable State law for a week of total unemployment. In no event shall such amount be...

  16. 20 CFR 625.6 - Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.6 Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions. (a) In all States... worker or unemployed self-employed individual for a week of total unemployment shall be the weekly amount... provisions of the applicable State law for a week of total unemployment. In no event shall such amount be...

  17. 20 CFR 625.6 - Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.6 Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions. (a) In all States... worker or unemployed self-employed individual for a week of total unemployment shall be the weekly amount... provisions of the applicable State law for a week of total unemployment. In no event shall such amount be...

  18. 20 CFR 625.6 - Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.6 Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions. (a) In all States... worker or unemployed self-employed individual for a week of total unemployment shall be the weekly amount... provisions of the applicable State law for a week of total unemployment. In no event shall such amount be...

  19. 12 CFR 347.120 - Computation of investment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Computation of investment amounts. 347.120... GENERAL POLICY INTERNATIONAL BANKING § 347.120 Computation of investment amounts. In computing the amount that may be invested in any foreign organization under §§ 347.117 through 347.119, any investments...

  20. 41 CFR 105-56.029 - Offset amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offset amount. 105-56... Administration 56-SALARY OFFSET FOR INDEBTEDNESS OF FEDERAL EMPLOYEES TO THE UNITED STATES Centralized Salary Offset (CSO) Procedures-GSA as Paying Agency § 105-56.029 Offset amount. (a) The minimum dollar amount...

  1. 75 FR 58285 - Short-Term, Small Amount Loans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... Part 701 RIN 3133-AD71 Short-Term, Small Amount Loans Agency: National Credit Union Administration... unions (FCUs) to offer short-term, small amount loans (STS loans) as a viable alternative to predatory... permitted under the general lending rule, but imposes limitations on the permissible term, amount, and...

  2. 14 CFR 198.7 - Amount of insurance coverage available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WAR RISK INSURANCE AVIATION INSURANCE § 198.7 Amount of insurance coverage available. (a) For... arising from any risk. In the case of hull insurance, the amount insured may not exceed the reasonable... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amount of insurance coverage available....

  3. 43 CFR 7.16 - Civil penalty amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Civil penalty amounts. 7.16 Section 7.16... Uniform Regulations § 7.16 Civil penalty amounts. (a) Maximum amount of penalty. (1) Where the person being assessed a civil penalty has not committed any previous violation of any prohibition in § 7.4...

  4. 5 CFR 870.702 - Amount of Basic insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amount of Basic insurance. 870.702... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE PROGRAM Annuitants and Compensationers § 870.702 Amount of Basic insurance. (a) The amount of Basic insurance an annuitant or compensationer...

  5. 42 CFR 57.2207 - Amount of scholarship grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amount of scholarship grant. 57.2207 Section 57... CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Physician Shortage Area Scholarship Grants § 57.2207 Amount of scholarship grant. (a) The amount of the...

  6. 42 CFR 57.2207 - Amount of scholarship grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Amount of scholarship grant. 57.2207 Section 57... CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Physician Shortage Area Scholarship Grants § 57.2207 Amount of scholarship grant. (a) The amount of the...

  7. 42 CFR 57.2207 - Amount of scholarship grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Amount of scholarship grant. 57.2207 Section 57... CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Physician Shortage Area Scholarship Grants § 57.2207 Amount of scholarship grant. (a) The amount of the...

  8. 42 CFR 57.2207 - Amount of scholarship grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Amount of scholarship grant. 57.2207 Section 57... CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Physician Shortage Area Scholarship Grants § 57.2207 Amount of scholarship grant. (a) The amount of the...

  9. 42 CFR 57.2207 - Amount of scholarship grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amount of scholarship grant. 57.2207 Section 57... CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Physician Shortage Area Scholarship Grants § 57.2207 Amount of scholarship grant. (a) The amount of the...

  10. Modeling the Effect of Reward Amount on Probability Discounting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myerson, Joel; Green, Leonard; Morris, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    The present study with college students examined the effect of amount on the discounting of probabilistic monetary rewards. A hyperboloid function accurately described the discounting of hypothetical rewards ranging in amount from $20 to $10,000,000. The degree of discounting increased continuously with amount of probabilistic reward. This effect…

  11. 76 FR 63933 - Notice of Adjustment of Disaster Grant Amounts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-14

    ... SECURITY Notice of Adjustment of Disaster Grant Amounts AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: FEMA gives notice of an increase of the maximum amount for Small Project Grants.... 5121-5207, prescribes that FEMA must annually adjust the maximum grant amount made under section...

  12. 9 CFR 89.1 - Amount of feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... TWENTY-EIGHT HOUR LAW § 89.1 Amount of feed. (a) Under normal conditions, the amount of feed designated... at the intervals required by the Twenty-Eight Hour Law: Species and quantity of livestock At first... car, the amount of shelled corn 2 indicated): Lots of not more than 18,000 lbs 2 bushels 2...

  13. 9 CFR 89.1 - Amount of feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... TWENTY-EIGHT HOUR LAW § 89.1 Amount of feed. (a) Under normal conditions, the amount of feed designated... at the intervals required by the Twenty-Eight Hour Law: Species and quantity of livestock At first... car, the amount of shelled corn 2 indicated): Lots of not more than 18,000 lbs 2 bushels 2...

  14. 9 CFR 89.1 - Amount of feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... TWENTY-EIGHT HOUR LAW § 89.1 Amount of feed. (a) Under normal conditions, the amount of feed designated... at the intervals required by the Twenty-Eight Hour Law: Species and quantity of livestock At first... car, the amount of shelled corn 2 indicated): Lots of not more than 18,000 lbs 2 bushels 2...

  15. 9 CFR 89.1 - Amount of feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... TWENTY-EIGHT HOUR LAW § 89.1 Amount of feed. (a) Under normal conditions, the amount of feed designated... at the intervals required by the Twenty-Eight Hour Law: Species and quantity of livestock At first... car, the amount of shelled corn 2 indicated): Lots of not more than 18,000 lbs 2 bushels 2...

  16. 9 CFR 89.1 - Amount of feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... TWENTY-EIGHT HOUR LAW § 89.1 Amount of feed. (a) Under normal conditions, the amount of feed designated... at the intervals required by the Twenty-Eight Hour Law: Species and quantity of livestock At first... car, the amount of shelled corn 2 indicated): Lots of not more than 18,000 lbs 2 bushels 2...

  17. 42 CFR 423.886 - Retiree drug subsidy amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Retiree drug subsidy amounts. 423.886 Section 423... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Payments to Sponsors of Retiree Prescription Drug Plans § 423.886 Retiree drug subsidy amounts. (a) Amount of subsidy payment....

  18. 42 CFR 423.886 - Retiree drug subsidy amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Retiree drug subsidy amounts. 423.886 Section 423... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Payments to Sponsors of Retiree Prescription Drug Plans § 423.886 Retiree drug subsidy amounts. (a) Amount of subsidy payment....

  19. 42 CFR 423.886 - Retiree drug subsidy amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retiree drug subsidy amounts. 423.886 Section 423... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Payments to Sponsors of Retiree Prescription Drug Plans § 423.886 Retiree drug subsidy amounts. (a) Amount of subsidy payment. (1) For...

  20. 42 CFR 423.886 - Retiree drug subsidy amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Retiree drug subsidy amounts. 423.886 Section 423... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Payments to Sponsors of Retiree Prescription Drug Plans § 423.886 Retiree drug subsidy amounts. (a) Amount of subsidy payment....

  1. 31 CFR 353.10 - Amounts which may be purchased.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES EE AND HH Limitations on Annual Purchases § 353.10 Amounts which may be purchased. The amount of savings bonds of Series EE and HH which may be purchased and held, in the... and is limited as follows: (a) Series EE—(1) General annual limitation. $5,000 (principal amount)....

  2. 12 CFR 209.4 - Amounts and payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Amounts and payments. 209.4 Section 209.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM ISSUE AND CANCELLATION OF FEDERAL RESERVE BANK CAPITAL STOCK (REGULATION I) § 209.4 Amounts and payments. (a) Amount...

  3. 12 CFR 209.4 - Amounts and payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Amounts and payments. 209.4 Section 209.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM ISSUE AND CANCELLATION OF FEDERAL RESERVE BANK CAPITAL STOCK (REGULATION I) § 209.4 Amounts and payments. (a) Amount...

  4. 12 CFR 209.4 - Amounts and payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Amounts and payments. 209.4 Section 209.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM ISSUE AND CANCELLATION OF FEDERAL RESERVE BANK CAPITAL STOCK (REGULATION I) § 209.4 Amounts and payments. (a) Amount...

  5. 12 CFR 209.4 - Amounts and payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Amounts and payments. 209.4 Section 209.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM ISSUE AND CANCELLATION OF FEDERAL RESERVE BANK CAPITAL STOCK (REGULATION I) § 209.4 Amounts and payments. (a) Amount...

  6. 12 CFR 209.4 - Amounts and payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amounts and payments. 209.4 Section 209.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM ISSUE AND CANCELLATION OF FEDERAL RESERVE BANK CAPITAL STOCK (REGULATION I) § 209.4 Amounts and payments. (a) Amount...

  7. 22 CFR 1104.15 - Civil penalty amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Civil penalty amounts. 1104.15 Section 1104.15... SECTION PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES § 1104.15 Civil penalty amounts. (a) Maximum amount of penalty. (1) Where the person being assessed a civil penalty has not committed any previous violation...

  8. 42 CFR 56.106 - Amount of grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amount of grant. 56.106 Section 56.106 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES General Provisions § 56.106 Amount of grant. (a) The amount of any award under this part will...

  9. 30 CFR 723.14 - Determination of amount of penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Determination of amount of penalty. 723.14 Section 723.14 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INITIAL PROGRAM REGULATIONS CIVIL PENALTIES § 723.14 Determination of amount of penalty. The Office shall determine the amount of any...

  10. 42 CFR 423.886 - Retiree drug subsidy amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Retiree drug subsidy amounts. 423.886 Section 423... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Payments to Sponsors of Retiree Prescription Drug Plans § 423.886 Retiree drug subsidy amounts. (a) Amount of subsidy payment. (1) For...

  11. Bacterial accumulation in viscosity gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waisbord, Nicolas; Guasto, Jeffrey

    2016-11-01

    Cell motility is greatly modified by fluid rheology. In particular, the physical environments in which cells function, are often characterized by gradients of viscous biopolymers, such as mucus and extracellular matrix, which impact processes ranging from reproduction to digestion to biofilm formation. To understand how spatial heterogeneity of fluid rheology affects the motility and transport of swimming cells, we use hydrogel microfluidic devices to generate viscosity gradients in a simple, polymeric, Newtonian fluid. Using video microscopy, we characterize the random walk motility patterns of model bacteria (Bacillus subtilis), showing that both wild-type ('run-and-tumble') cells and smooth-swimming mutants accumulate in the viscous region of the fluid. Through statistical analysis of individual cell trajectories and body kinematics in both homogeneous and heterogeneous viscous environments, we discriminate passive, physical effects from active sensing processes to explain the observed cell accumulation at the ensemble level.

  12. Metal accumulating plants: Medium's role

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabier, J.; Prudent, P.; Szymanska, B.; Mevy, J.-P.

    2003-05-01

    To evaluate phytoremediation potentialities by metal accumulation in tolerant plants, trials are carried out using in vitro cultures. Organie compounds influence on metal accumulation is studied with metals supplemented media. The tested compounds on zinc and lead absorption by Brassica juncea, are chelating agents (EDTA, citric acid) and soluble organic fractions of compost. EDTA seems to enhance the transfer of lead in plant but it is the opposite in the case of zinc. Citric acid stimulates root absorption for both zinc and lead. For the aqueous extracts of compost, variable effects are obtained according to the origin of compost (green wastes and food wastes). In'all tested conditions of cultures, zinc is mainly exported towards shoot while lead is stored in root.

  13. The absence of numbers to express the amount may affect delay discounting with humans.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Huerta, Hugo E; Dos Santos, Cristiano V

    2016-09-01

    Human delay discounting is usually studied with experimental protocols that use symbols to express delay and amount. In order to further understand discounting, we evaluated whether the absence of numbers to represent reward amounts affects discount rate in general, and whether the magnitude effect is generalized to nonsymbolic situations in particular. In Experiment 1, human participants were exposed to a delay-discounting task in which rewards were presented using dots to represent monetary rewards (nonsymbolic); under this condition the magnitude effect did not occur. Nevertheless, the magnitude effect was observed when equivalent reward amounts were presented using numbers (symbolic). Moreover, in estimation tasks, magnitude increments produced underestimation of large amounts. In Experiment 2, participants were exposed only to the nonsymbolic discounting task and were required to estimate reward amounts in each trial. Consistent with Experiment 1, the absence of numbers representing reward amounts produced similar discount rates of small and large rewards. These results suggest that value of nonsymbolic rewards is a nonlinear function of amount and that value attribution depends on perceived difference between the immediate and the delayed nonsymbolic rewards.

  14. Mechanisms of intrahepatic triglyceride accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Ress, Claudia; Kaser, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis defined as lipid accumulation in hepatocytes is very frequently found in adults and obese adolescents in the Western World. Etiologically, obesity and associated insulin resistance or excess alcohol intake are the most frequent causes of hepatic steatosis. However, steatosis also often occurs with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and is also found in rare but potentially life-threatening liver diseases of pregnancy. Clinical significance and outcome of hepatic triglyceride accumulation are highly dependent on etiology and histological pattern of steatosis. This review summarizes current concepts of pathophysiology of common causes of hepatic steatosis, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), alcoholic fatty liver disease, chronic HCV infections, drug-induced forms of hepatic steatosis, and acute fatty liver of pregnancy. Regarding the pathophysiology of NAFLD, this work focuses on the close correlation between insulin resistance and hepatic triglyceride accumulation, highlighting the potential harmful effects of systemic insulin resistance on hepatic metabolism of fatty acids on the one side and the role of lipid intermediates on insulin signalling on the other side. Current studies on lipid droplet morphogenesis have identified novel candidate proteins and enzymes in NAFLD. PMID:26819531

  15. Revealing accumulation zones of plastic pellets in sandy beaches.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Fabiana T; Balthazar-Silva, Danilo; Barbosa, Lucas; Turra, Alexander

    2016-11-01

    Microplastics such as pellets are reported worldwide on sandy beaches, and have possible direct and indirect impacts on the biota and physical characteristics of the habitats where they accumulate. Evaluations of their standing stock at different spatial scales generate data on levels of contamination. This information is needed to identify accumulation zones and the specific beach habitats and communities that are likely to be most affected. Standing stocks of plastic pellets were evaluated in 13 sandy beaches in São Paulo state, Brazil. The sampling strategy incorporated across-shore transects from coastal dunes and backshores, and vertical profiles of the accumulated pellets down to 1 m depth below the sediment surface. Accumulation zones were identified at regional (among beaches) and local (between compartments) scales. At the regional scale pellet density tended to increase at beaches on the central and southwestern coast, near ports and factories that produce and transport the largest amounts of pellets in the country. At the local scale coastal dunes showed larger accumulations of pellets than backshores. For both compartments pellets tended to occur deeper in areas where standing stocks were larger. Most of the pellets were concentrated from the surface down to 0.4 m depth, suggesting that organisms inhabiting this part of the sediment column are more exposed to the risks associated with the presence of pellets. Our findings shed light on the local and regional scales of spatial variability of microplastics and their consequences for assessment and monitoring schemes in coastal compartments.

  16. Mechanisms of Cadmium Mobility and Accumulation in Indian Mustard.

    PubMed Central

    Salt, D. E.; Prince, R. C.; Pickering, I. J.; Raskin, I.

    1995-01-01

    Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.), a high biomass crop plant, accumulated substantial amounts of cadmium, with bioaccumulation coefficients (concentration of Cd in dry plant tissue/concentration in solution) of up to 1100 in shoots and 6700 in roots at nonphytotoxic concentrations of Cd (0.1 [mu]g/mL) in solution. This was associated with a rapid accumulation of phytochelatins in the root, where the majority of the Cd was coordinated with sulfur ligands, probably as a Cd-S4 complex, as demonstrated by x-ray absorption spectroscopy. In contrast, Cd moving in the xylem sap was coordinated predominantly with oxygen or nitrogen ligands. Cd concentrations in the xylem sap and the rate of Cd accumulation in the leaves displayed similar saturation kinetics, suggesting that the process of Cd transport from solution through the root and into the xylem is mediated by a saturable transport system(s). However, Cd translocation to the shoot appeared to be driven by transpiration, since ABA dramatically reduced Cd accumulation in leaves. Within leaves, Cd was preferentially accumulated in trichomes on the leaf surface, and this may be a possible detoxification mechanism. PMID:12228679

  17. Electron accumulation layer in ultrastrong magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sammon, M.; Fu, Han; Shklovskii, B. I.

    2017-02-01

    When a three-dimensional electron gas is subjected to a very strong magnetic field, it can reach a quasi-onedimensional state in which all electrons occupy the lowest Landau level. This state is referred to as the extreme quantum limit ( EQL ) and has been studied in the physics of pulsars and bulk semiconductors. Here we present a theory of the EQL phase in electron accumulation layers created by an external electric field E at the surface of a semiconductor with a large Bohr radius such as InSb , PbTe , SrTiO 3 ( STO ) , and particularly in the LaA 1 O 3 / SrTiO 3 ( LAO / STO ) heterostructure. The phase diagram of the electron gas in the plane of the magnetic field strength and the electron surface concentration is found for different orientations of the magnetic field. We find that in addition to the quasi-classical metallic phase ( M ), there is a metallic EQL phase, as well as an insulating Wigner crystal state ( WC ). Within the EQL phase, the Thomas-Fermi approximation is used to find the electron density and the electrostatic potential profiles of the accumulation layer. Additionally, the quantum capacitance for each phase is calculated as a tool for experimental study of these phase diagrams.

  18. Hurricane Isabel, Amount of Atmospheric Water Vapor Observed By AIRS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    These false-color images show the amount of atmospheric water vapor observed by AIRS two weeks prior to the passage of Hurricane Isabel, and then when it was a Category 5 storm. The region shown includes parts of South America and the West Indies. Puerto Rico is the large island below the upper left corner.

    Total water vapor represents the depth of a layer if all the water vapor in the atmosphere were to condense and fall to the surface. The color bar on the right sides of the plots give the thickness of this layer in millimeters (mm). The first image, from August 28, shows typical tropical water vapor amounts over the ocean: between roughly 25 and 50 mm, or 1 to 2 inches. The highest values of roughly 80 mm, seen as a red blob over South America, corresponds to intense thunderstorms. Thunderstorms pull in water vapor from surrounding regions and concentrate it, with much of it then falling as rain.

    Figure 1 shows total water during the passage of Hurricane Isabel on September 13. The storm is apparent: the ring of moderate values surrounding a very strong maximum of 100 mm. Total water of more than 80 mm is unusual, and these values correspond to the intense thunderstorms contained within Isabel. The thunderstorms--and the large values of total water--are fed by evaporation from the ocean in the hurricane's high winds. The water vapor near the center of the storm does not remain there long, since hurricane rain rates as high 50 mm (2 inches) per hour imply rapid cycling of the water we observe. Away from the storm the amount of total water vapor is rather low, associated with fair weather where air that ascended near the storm's eye returns to earth, having dropped its moisture as rain. Also seen in the second images are two small regions of about 70 mm of total water over south America. These are yet more thunderstorms, though likely much more benign than those in Isabel.

    The

  19. An ice core record of net snow accumulation and seasonal snow chemistry at Mt. Waddington, southwest British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neff, P. D.; Steig, E. J.; Clark, D. H.; McConnell, J. R.; Pettit, E. C.; Menounos, B.

    2011-12-01

    We recovered a 141 m ice core from Combatant Col (51.39°N, 125.22°W, 3000 m asl) on the flank of Mt. Waddington, southern Coast Mountains, British Columbia, Canada. Aerosols and other impurities in the ice show unambiguous seasonal variations, allowing for annual dating of the core. Clustered melt layers, originating from summer surface heating, also aid in the dating of the core. Seasonality in water stable isotopes is preserved throughout the record, showing little evidence of diffusion at depth, and serves as an independent verification of the timescale. The annual signal of deuterium excess is especially well preserved. The record of lead deposition in the core agrees with those of ice cores from Mt. Logan and from Greenland, with a sharp drop-off in concentration in the 1970s and early 1980s, further validating the timescales. Despite significant summertime melt at this mid-latitude site, these data collectively reveal a continuous and annually resolved 36-year record of snow accumulation. We derived an accumulation time series from the Mt. Waddington ice core, after correcting for ice flow. Years of anomalously high or low snow accumulation in the core correspond with extremes in precipitation data and geopotential height anomalies from reanalysis data that make physical sense. Specifically, anomalously high accumulation years at Mt. Waddington correlate with years where "Pineapple Express" atmospheric river events bring large amounts of moisture from the tropical Pacific to western North America. The Mt. Waddington accumulation record thus reflects regional-scale climate. These results demonstrate the potential of ice core records from temperate glaciers to provide meaningful paleoclimate information. A longer core to bedrock (250-300 m) at the Mt. Waddington site could yield ice with an age of several hundred to 1000 years.

  20. Different responses of low grain-Cd-accumulating and high grain-Cd-accumulating rice cultivars to Cd stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feijuan; Wang, Min; Liu, Zhouping; Shi, Yan; Han, Tiqian; Ye, Yaoyao; Gong, Ning; Sun, Junwei; Zhu, Cheng

    2015-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a major heavy metal pollutant which is highly toxic to plants and animals. The accumulation of Cd in rice grains is a major agricultural problem in regions with Cd pollution. A hydroponics experiment using low grain-Cd-accumulating rice (xiushui 11) and high grain-Cd-accumulating rice (xiushui 110) was carried out to characterize the different responses of rice cultivars to Cd stress. We found that xiushui 11 was more tolerant to Cd than xiushui 110, and xiushui 11 suffered less oxidative damage. Cell walls played an important role in limiting the amount of Cd that entered the protoplast, especially in xiushui 11. Cd stored in organelles as soluble fractions, leading to greater physiological stress of Cd detoxification. We found that Cd can disturb the ion homeostasis in rice roots because Cd(2+) and Ca(2+) may have a similar uptake route. Xiushui 11 had a faster root-to-shoot transport of Cd, and the expression level of OsPCR1 gene which was predicted related with Cd accumulation in rice was consist with the Cd transport of root-to-shoot in rice and maintain the greater Cd tolerance of xiushui 11. These results suggest there are different Cd detoxification and accumulation mechanisms in rice cultivars.

  1. Chromoplast biogenesis and carotenoid accumulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chromoplasts are special organelles that possess superior ability to synthesize and store massive amounts of carotenoids. They are responsible for the distinctive colors found in fruits, flowers, and roots. Chromoplasts exhibit various morphologies and are derived from either pre-existing chloroplas...

  2. Tracking inorganic foulants irreversibly accumulated on low-pressure membranes for treating surface water.

    PubMed

    Yamamura, Hiroshi; Kimura, Katsuki; Higuchi, Kumiko; Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Ding, Qing; Hafuka, Akira

    2015-12-15

    While low-pressure membrane filtration processes (i.e., microfiltration and ultrafiltration) can offer precise filtration than sand filtration, they pose the problem of reduced efficiency due to membrane fouling. Although many studies have examined membrane fouling by organic substances, there is still not enough data available concerning membrane fouling by inorganic substances. The present research investigated changes in the amounts of inorganic components deposited on the surface of membrane filters over time using membrane specimens sampled thirteen times at arbitrary time intervals during pilot testing in order to determine the mechanism by which irreversible fouling by inorganic substances progresses. The experiments showed that the inorganic components that primarily contribute to irreversible fouling vary as filtration continues. It was discovered that, in the initial stage of operation, the main membrane-fouling substance was iron, whereas the primary membrane-fouling substances when operation finished were manganese, calcium, and silica. The amount of iron accumulated on the membrane increased up to the thirtieth day of operation, after which it reached a steady state. After the accumulation of iron became static, subsequent accumulation of manganese was observed. The fact that the removal rates of these inorganic components also increased gradually shows that the size of the exclusion pores of the membrane filter narrows as operation continues. Studying particle size distributions of inorganic components contained in source water revealed that while many iron particles are approximately the same size as membrane pores, the fraction of manganese particles slightly smaller than the pores in diameter was large. From these results, it is surmised that iron particles approximately the same size as the pores block them soon after the start of operation, and as the membrane pores narrow with the development of fouling, they become further blocked by manganese

  3. Simulating inbreeding depression through the mutation accumulation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, A. O.; de Oliveira, S. Moss; Bernardes, Américo T.

    2000-04-01

    Using the Penna model for biological aging, which is based on the mutation accumulation theory, we show that the number of homozygous loci corresponding to deleterious mutations is higher in small populations than in large ones. This decrease of heterozygosity may drive small populations to extinction even when no drastic change of the environment occurs.

  4. Gallium accumulation in the stomach. A frequent incidental finding

    SciTech Connect

    MacMahon, H.; Vyborny, C.; Sephardari, S.; Kirchner, P.; Ryan, J.

    1985-10-01

    Accumulation of tracer by the stomach is a frequent incidental occurrence on gallium scans. Gastric concentration of Ga-67 equal to or greater than that seen in the liver was observed in approximately 10% of patients in a large series. Although a few of these patients had known or subsequently demonstrated gastric pathologic conditions, most had no clinically or radiographically identifiable gastric disease.

  5. Modeling the effect of reward amount on probability discounting.

    PubMed

    Myerson, Joel; Green, Leonard; Morris, Joshua

    2011-03-01

    The present study with college students examined the effect of amount on the discounting of probabilistic monetary rewards. A hyperboloid function accurately described the discounting of hypothetical rewards ranging in amount from $20 to $10,000,000. The degree of discounting increased continuously with amount of probabilistic reward. This effect of amount was not due to changes in the rate parameter of the discounting function, but rather was due to increases in the exponent. These results stand in contrast to those observed with the discounting of delayed monetary rewards, in which the degree of discounting decreases with reward amount due to amount-dependent decreases in the rate parameter. Taken together, this pattern of results suggests that delay and probability discounting reflect different underlying mechanisms. That is, the fact that the exponent in the delay discounting function is independent of amount is consistent with a psychophysical scaling interpretation, whereas the finding that the exponent of the probability-discounting function is amount-dependent is inconsistent with such an interpretation. Instead, the present results are consistent with the idea that the probability-discounting function is itself the product of a value function and a weighting function. This idea was first suggested by Kahneman and Tversky (1979), although their prospect theory does not predict amount effects like those observed. The effect of amount on probability discounting was parsimoniously incorporated into our hyperboloid discounting function by assuming that the exponent was proportional to the amount raised to a power. The amount-dependent exponent of the probability-discounting function may be viewed as reflecting the effect of amount on the weighting of the probability with which the reward will be received.

  6. Radioactive cesium accumulation in freshwater fishes after the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Arai, Takaomi

    2014-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1NPP) accident released large amounts of radioactive substances into the environment and contaminated the terrestrial and marine ecosystems in East Japan. The unpredicted nuclear accident is of global concern for human health and ecosystems. Investigations of radionuclides in the local environments were performed shortly after the accident began; however the temporal and spatial effects and variations in the released radionuclides on the natural environment remain unclear. In the present study, three-year (May 2011 to March 2014) fluctuations and accumulations of total Cs, (134)Cs and (137)Cs in freshwater fishes in Fukushima prefecture after the F1NPP accident were examined. The total Cs, (134)Cs and (137)Cs concentrations decreased gradually during the three-year period that followed the F1NPP accident. However higher levels, i.e., exceeding 100 Bq kg(-1), which is the interim limit of radiocesium level in Japan, were detected in several fish species. Radiocesium accumulation patterns in fishes in Fukushima prefecture varied between regions and corresponded to the environmental radiocesium levels in the Fukushima region. These radionuclides are widely distributed and remain in the natural environment. Moreover, a fresh input of radiocesium substances from the F1NPP site into the terrestrial environment remains.

  7. Accumulation of glycerophosphocholine (GPC) by renal cells: Osmotic regulation of GPC:choline phosphodiesterase

    SciTech Connect

    Zablocki, K.; Miller, S.P.F.; Garcia-Perez, A.; Burg, M.B. )

    1991-09-01

    Although GPC has long been recognized as a degradation product of phosphatidylcholine, only recently is there wide appreciation of its role as a compatible and counteracting osmolyte that protects cells from osmotic stress. GPC is osmotically regulated in renal cells. Its level varies directly with extracellular osmolality. Cells in the kidney medulla in vivo and in renal epithelial cell cultures (MDCK) accumulate large amounts of GPC when exposed to high concentrations of NaCl and urea. Osmotic regulation of GPC requires choline in the medium, presumably as a precursor for synthesis of GPC. Choline transport into the cells, however, is not osmoregulated. The purpose of the present studies was to use MDCK cell cultures as a defined model to distinguish whether osmotically induced accumulation of GPC results from increased GPC synthesis or decreased GPC disappearance. The rate of incorporation of {sup 14}C from ({sup 14}C)choline into GPC, the steady-state GPC synthesis rate, and the activity of phospholipase A{sub 2} are not increased by high NaCl and urea. In fact all are decreased by approximately one-third. Therefore, the authors find no evidence that high NaCl and urea increases the GPC synthesis rate. They conclude that high NaCl and urea increase the level of GPC by inhibiting its enzymatic degradation.

  8. Sulfur accumulation in the timbers of King Henry VIII's warship Mary Rose: a pathway in the sulfur cycle of conservation concern.

    PubMed

    Sandström, Magnus; Jalilehvand, Farideh; Damian, Emiliana; Fors, Yvonne; Gelius, Ulrik; Jones, Mark; Salomé, Murielle

    2005-10-04

    In marine-archaeological oak timbers of the Mary Rose large amounts of reduced sulfur compounds abound in lignin-rich parts such as the middle lamella between the cell walls, mostly as thiols and disulfides, whereas iron sulfides and elemental sulfur occur in separate particles. Synchrotron-based x-ray microspectroscopy was used to reveal this environmentally significant accumulation of organosulfur compounds in waterlogged wood. The total concentration of sulfur in reduced forms is approximately 1 mass % throughout the timbers, whereas iron fluctuates up to several mass %. Conservation methods are being developed aiming to control acid-forming oxidation processes by removing the reactive iron sulfides and stabilizing the organosulfur compounds.

  9. The activity of HYDROPEROXIDE LYASE 1 regulates accumulation of galactolipids containing 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Anders K.; Fahlberg, Per; Johansson, Oskar N.; Hamberg, Mats; Andersson, Mats X.; Ellerström, Mats

    2016-01-01

    Arabidopsis produces galactolipids containing esters of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) and dinor-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (dnOPDA). These lipids are referred to as arabidopsides and accumulate in response to abiotic and biotic stress. We explored the natural genetic variation found in 14 different Arabidopsis accessions to identify genes involved in the formation of arabidopsides. The accession C24 was identified as a poor accumulator of arabidopsides whereas the commonly used accession Col-0 was found to accumulate comparably large amounts of arabidopsides in response to tissue damage. A quantitative trait loci analysis of an F2 population created from a cross between C24 and Col-0 located a region on chromosome four strongly linked to the capacity to form arabidopsides. Expression analysis of HYDROPEROXIDE LYASE 1 (HPL1) showed large differences in transcript abundance between accessions. Transformation of Col-0 plants with the C24 HPL1 allele under transcriptional regulation of the 35S promoter revealed a strong negative correlation between HPL1 expression and arabidopside accumulation after tissue damage, thereby strengthening the view that HPL1 competes with ALLENE OXIDE SYNTHASE (AOS) for lipid-bound hydroperoxide fatty acids. We further show that the last step in the synthesis of galactolipid-bound OPDA and dnOPDA from unstable allene oxides is exclusively enzyme-catalyzed and not the result of spontaneous cyclization. Thus, the results presented here together with previous studies suggest that all steps in arabidopside biosynthesis are enzyme-dependent and apparently all reactions can take place with substrates being esterified to galactolipids. PMID:27422994

  10. Denitrifying capability and community dynamics of glycogen accumulating organisms during sludge granulation in an anaerobic-aerobic sequencing batch reactor

    PubMed Central

    Bin, Zhang; Bin, Xue; Zhigang, Qiu; Zhiqiang, Chen; Junwen, Li; Taishi, Gong; Wenci, Zou; Jingfeng, Wang

    2015-01-01

    Denitrifying capability of glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) has received great attention in environmental science and microbial ecology. Combining this ability with granule processes would be an interesting attempt. Here, a laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was operated to enrich GAOs and enable sludge granulation. The results showed that the GAO granules were cultivated successfully and the granules had denitrifying capability. The batch experiments demonstrated that all NO3−-N could be removed or reduced, some amount of NO2−-N were accumulated in the reactor, and N2 was the main gaseous product. SEM analysis suggested that the granules were tightly packed with a large amount of tetrad-forming organisms (TFOs); filamentous bacteria served as the supporting structures for the granules. The microbial community structure of GAO granules was differed substantially from the inoculant conventional activated sludge. Most of the bacteria in the seed sludge grouped with members of Proteobacterium. FISH analysis confirmed that GAOs were the predominant members in the granules and were distributed evenly throughout the granular space. In contrast, PAOs were severely inhibited. Overall, cultivation of the GAO granules and utilizing their denitrifying capability can provide us with a new approach of nitrogen removal and saving more energy. PMID:26257096

  11. Disentangling the Effects of Precipitation Amount and Frequency on the Performance of 14 Grassland Species

    PubMed Central

    Didiano, Teresa J.; Johnson, Marc T. J.; Duval, Tim P.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is causing shifts in the amount and frequency of precipitation in many regions, which is expected to have implications for plant performance. Most research has examined the impacts of the amount of precipitation on plants rather than the effects of both the amount and frequency of precipitation. To understand how climate-driven changes in precipitation can affect grassland plants, we asked: (i) How does the amount and frequency of precipitation affect plant performance? (ii) Do plant functional groups vary in their response to variable precipitation? To answer these questions we grew 14 monocot and eudicot grassland species and conducted a factorial manipulation of the amount (70 vs 90mm/month) and frequency (every 3, 15, or 30 days) of precipitation under rainout shelters. Our results show that both the amount and frequency of precipitation impact plant performance, with larger effects on eudicots than monocots. Above- and below-ground biomass were affected by the amount of precipitation and/or the interaction between the amount and frequency of precipitation. Above-ground biomass increased by 21–30% when the amount of precipitation was increased. When event frequency was decreased from 3 to 15 or 30 days, below-ground biomass generally decreased by 18–34% in the 70 mm treatment, but increased by 33–40% in the 90 mm treatment. Changes in stomatal conductance were largely driven by changes in event frequency. Our results show that it is important to consider changes in both the amount and frequency of precipitation when predicting how plant communities will respond to variable precipitation. PMID:27622497

  12. Disentangling the Effects of Precipitation Amount and Frequency on the Performance of 14 Grassland Species.

    PubMed

    Didiano, Teresa J; Johnson, Marc T J; Duval, Tim P

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is causing shifts in the amount and frequency of precipitation in many regions, which is expected to have implications for plant performance. Most research has examined the impacts of the amount of precipitation on plants rather than the effects of both the amount and frequency of precipitation. To understand how climate-driven changes in precipitation can affect grassland plants, we asked: (i) How does the amount and frequency of precipitation affect plant performance? (ii) Do plant functional groups vary in their response to variable precipitation? To answer these questions we grew 14 monocot and eudicot grassland species and conducted a factorial manipulation of the amount (70 vs 90mm/month) and frequency (every 3, 15, or 30 days) of precipitation under rainout shelters. Our results show that both the amount and frequency of precipitation impact plant performance, with larger effects on eudicots than monocots. Above- and below-ground biomass were affected by the amount of precipitation and/or the interaction between the amount and frequency of precipitation. Above-ground biomass increased by 21-30% when the amount of precipitation was increased. When event frequency was decreased from 3 to 15 or 30 days, below-ground biomass generally decreased by 18-34% in the 70 mm treatment, but increased by 33-40% in the 90 mm treatment. Changes in stomatal conductance were largely driven by changes in event frequency. Our results show that it is important to consider changes in both the amount and frequency of precipitation when predicting how plant communities will respond to variable precipitation.

  13. Software tools that facilitate kinetic modelling with large data sets: an example using growth modelling in sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Uys, L; Hofmeyr, J H S; Snoep, J L; Rohwer, J M

    2006-09-01

    A solution to manage cumbersome data sets associated with large modelling projects is described. A kinetic model of sucrose accumulation in sugarcane is used to predict changes in sucrose metabolism with sugarcane internode maturity. This results in large amounts of output data to be analysed. Growth is simulated by reassigning maximal activity values, specific to each internode of the sugarcane plant, to parameter attributes of a model object. From a programming perspective, only one model definition file is required for the simulation software used; however, the amount of input data increases with each extra interrnode that is modelled, and likewise the amount of output data that is generated also increases. To store, manipulate and analyse these data, the modelling was performed from within a spreadsheet. This was made possible by the scripting language Python and the modelling software PySCeS through an embedded Python interpreter available in the Gnumeric spreadsheet program.

  14. Amphetamine-enhanced accumulation of ( sup 3 H)-spiperone in mouse corpus striatum in vivo: Modification by other drugs

    SciTech Connect

    Dorris, R.L. )

    1989-01-01

    Other investigators have reported that amphetamine administered to rodents results in an increase in the in vivo accumulation of either the tritiated dopamine receptor ligand, spiperone or pimozide in the dopaminergic corpus striatum, (specific binding) while not altering that in the sparsely dopaminergically innervated cerebellum (non-specific binding). Experiments were undertaken to determine if the results could be replicated and if some other drugs would modify the effect. Male mice were injected with ({sup 3}H)-spiperone (20 {mu}Ci/Kg, 0.0003 mg/kg) s.c. and killed 2 hrs later for determination of radioactivity in corpus striatum and cerebellum. Amphetamine (20 mg/kg, i.p.) given 15 min before ({sup 3}H)-spiperone, increased accumulation in striatum but not cerebellum. The increase was inhibited by {alpha} - methyltyrosine ({alpha}-MT), haloperidol, reserpine or amantadine. It is suggested that the amphetamine-induced increase in accumulation of ({sup 3}H)-spiperone in corpus striatum (specific binding) depends on release of large amounts of dopamine, which then must be able to interact with the dopamine receptor. The antagonism of the effect by {alpha}-MT or reserpine can be explained by dopamine depletion, that of haloperidol by antagonism for binding at the receptor site. It is suggested that amantadine acts by a dual mechanism: (1) as a low efficacy agonist, it competes for binding to the receptor and (2) it has some ability to block dopamine release.

  15. Quantitative micro-PIXE comparison of elemental distribution in Ni-hyperaccumulating and non-accumulating genotypes of Senecio coronatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesjasz-Przybyłowicz, J.; Przybyłowicz, W. J.; Prozesky, V. M.; Pineda, C. A.

    1997-07-01

    The Ni hyperaccumulator, plant species Senecio coronatus (Thunb.) Harv., Asteraceae is an example of plant adaptation mechanisms to different ecological conditions. This widespread species can inter alia be found on serpentine outcrops and the genotypes growing in serpentine soils show different ways of adaptation. The populations from two distant localities take up and translocate Ni in concentrations which are normally phytotoxic, while plants growing on a different site, in the vicinity of another hyperaccumulating species, absorb amounts which are typical for most of the plants found on serpentine soils. The NAC nuclear microprobe was used to compare the distribution of Ni and other elements in selected organs and cells with simultaneous use of PIXE and proton BackScattering (BS). Quantitative maps of stems showed large differences in concentrations and distributions of major and trace elements. In hyperaccumulating genotypes Ni is present everywhere within stem tissues, but the highest concentrations were found in the epidermis, cortex and phloem. In non-accumulating plants Ni was concentrated in the phloem. In the leaf epidermis Ni was concentrated in the cell walls for both accumulating and non-accumulating plants. These results suggest that biochemical diversity is more than morphological, because investigated genotypes belong to the same taxon.

  16. Accumulation of cadmium, zinc, and copper by Helianthus annuus L.: impact on plant growth and uptake of nutritional elements.

    PubMed

    Rivelli, Anna Rita; De Maria, Susanna; Puschenreiter, Markus; Gherbin, Piergiorgio

    2012-04-01

    We investigated the effects on physiological response, trace elements and nutrients accumulation of sunflower plants grown in soil contaminated with: 5 mg kg(-1) of Cd; 5 and 300 mg kg(-1) of Cd and Zn, respectively; 5, 300, and 400 mg kg(-1) of Cd, Zn, and Cu, respectively. Contaminants applied did not produce large effects on growth, except in Cd-Zn-Cu treatment in which leaf area and total dry matter were reduced, by 15%. The contamination with Cd alone did not affect neither growth nor physiological parameters, despite considerable amounts of Cd accumulated in roots and older leaves, with a high bioconcentration factor from soil to plant. By adding Zn and then Cu to Cd in soil, significant were the toxic effects on chlorophyll content and water relations due to greater accumulation of trace elements in tissues, with imbalances in nutrients uptake. Highly significant was the interaction between shoot elements concentration (Cd, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mg, K, Ca) and treatments. Heavy metals concentrations in roots always exceeded those in stem and leaves, with a lower translocation from roots to shoots, suggesting a strategy of sunflower to compartmentalise the potentially toxic elements in physiologically less active parts in order to preserve younger tissues.

  17. Comprehensive metabolomic, lipidomic and microscopic profiling of Yarrowia lipolytica during lipid accumulation identifies targets for increased lipogenesis

    DOE PAGES

    Pomraning, Kyle R.; Wei, Siwei; Karagiosis, Sue A.; ...

    2015-04-23

    Yarrowia lipolytica is an oleaginous ascomycete yeast that accumulates large amounts of lipids and has potential as a biofuel producing organism. Despite a growing scientific literature focused on lipid production by Y. lipolytica, there remain significant knowledge gaps regarding the key biological processes involved. We applied a combination of metabolomic and lipidomic profiling approaches as well as microscopic techniques to identify and characterize the key pathways involved in de novo lipid accumulation from glucose in batch cultured, wild-type Y. lipolytica. We found that lipids accumulated rapidly and peaked at 48 hours during the five day experiment, concurrent with a shiftmore » in amino acid metabolism. We also report that Y. lipolytica secretes disaccharides early in batch culture and reabsorbs them when extracellular glucose is depleted. Exhaustion of extracellular sugars coincided with thickening of the cell wall, suggesting that genes involved in cell wall biogenesis may be a useful target for improving the efficiency of lipid producing yeast strains.« less

  18. Accumulation of extracellular calcium at the endplate of mouse diaphragm after ecothiopate in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Burd, P. F.; Ferry, C. B.; Smith, J. W.

    1989-01-01

    1. Experiments were carried out to investigate the accumulation from the extracellular medium of 45Ca2+ by the endplate region of skeletal muscle. 2. Mouse diaphragm muscle was incubated in physiological saline labelled with 45Ca at 37 degrees C for periods of up to 1.5 h. 3. The muscle was divided into junctional and non-junctional portions and the Ca from the extracellular fluid accumulated at the endplate determined from the 45Ca content of the portions. 4. The accumulation of extracellular Ca at the endplate region of muscles incubated in pysiological saline alone was nil, but there was accumulation in the presence of the anticholinesterase ecothiopate iodide 0.5 x 10(-6) M (ECO). Stimulation of the phrenic nerve at 0.02 Hz caused no further increase in accumulation but reduced the amount of spontaneous fasciculation. In tetrodotoxin (TTX) 10(-6) M, the accumulation was halved, and in 3.5 mM Mg2+ the accumulation was nil. Carbachol 10(-4) M resulted in an accumulation of Ca similar to that in ECO. 5. It is concluded that there was an accumulation of extracellular Ca following excitation of the nerve by stimulation at a low frequency and during the spontaneous fasciculations, and about half of the accumulation of extracellular Ca after ECO in the experiments was due to the postsynaptic action of ACh released non-quantally from the nerve terminals. PMID:2804548

  19. Expression balances of structural genes in shikimate and flavonoid biosynthesis cause a difference in proanthocyanidin accumulation in persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) fruit.

    PubMed

    Akagi, Takashi; Ikegami, Ayako; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Yoshida, Junya; Yamada, Masahiko; Sato, Akihiko; Yonemori, Keizo

    2009-10-01

    Persimmon fruits accumulate a large amount of proanthocyanidin (PA) during development. Fruits of pollination-constant and non-astringent (PCNA) type mutants lose their ability to produce PA at an early stage of fruit development, while fruits of the normal (non-PCNA) type remain rich in PA until fully ripened. To understand the molecular mechanism for this difference, we isolated the genes involved in PA accumulation that are differentially expressed between PCNA and non-PCNA, and confirmed their correlation with PA content and composition. The expression of structural genes of the shikimate and flavonoid biosynthetic pathways and genes encoding transferases homologous to those involved in the accumulation of phenolic compounds were downregulated coincidentally only in the PCNA type. Analysis of PA composition using the phloroglucinol method suggested that the amounts of epigallocatechin and its 3-O-gallate form were remarkably low in the PCNA type. In the PCNA type, the genes encoding flavonoid 3'5' hydroxylase (F3'5'H) and anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) for epigallocatechin biosynthesis showed remarkable downregulation, despite the continuous expression level of their competitive genes, flavonoid 3' hydroxylation (F3'H) and leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR). We also confirmed that the relative expression levels of F3'5'H to F3'H, and ANR to LAR, were considerably higher, and the PA composition corresponded to the seasonal expression balances in both types. These results suggest that expressions of F3'5'H and ANR are important for PA accumulation in persimmon fruit. Lastly, we tested enzymatic activity of recombinant DkANR in vitro, which is thought to be an important enzyme for PA accumulation in persimmon fruits.

  20. Dust Accumulation and Solar Panel Array Performance on the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turgay, Eren H.

    2004-01-01

    One of the most fundamental design considerations for any space vehicle is its power supply system. Many options exist, including batteries, fuel cells, nuclear reactors, radioisotopic thermal generators (RTGs), and solar panel arrays. Solar arrays have many advantages over other types of power generation. They are lightweight and relatively inexpensive, allowing more mass and funding to be allocated for other important devices, such as scientific instruments. For Mars applications, solar power is an excellent option, especially for long missions. One might think that dust storms would be a problem; however, while dust blocks some solar energy, it also scatters it, making it diffuse rather than beamed. Solar cells are still able to capture this diffuse energy and convert it into substantial electrical power. For these reasons, solar power was chosen to be used on the 1997 Mars Pathfinder mission. The success of this mission set a precedent, as NASA engineers have selected solar power as the energy system of choice for all future Mars missions, including the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Project. Solar sells have their drawbacks, however. They are difficult to manufacture and are relatively fragile. In addition, solar cells are highly sensitive to different parts of the solar spectrum, and finding the correct balance is crucial to the success of space missions. Another drawback is that the power generated is not a constant with respect to time, but rather changes with the relative angle to the sun. On Mars, dust accumulation also becomes a factor. Over time, dust settles out of the atmosphere and onto solar panels. This dust blocks and shifts the frequency of the incoming light, degrading solar cell performance. My goal is to analyze solar panel telemetry data from the two MERs (Spirit and Opportunity) in an effort to accurately model the effect of dust accumulation on solar panels. This is no easy process due to the large number of factors involved. Changing solar

  1. Quantifying soil carbon accumulation in Alaskan terrestrial ecosystems during the last 15 000 years

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Sirui; Zhuang, Qianlai; Yu, Zicheng

    2016-11-25

    Northern high latitudes contain large amounts of soil organic carbon (SOC), of which Alaskan terrestrial ecosystems account for a substantial proportion. In this study, the SOC accumulation in Alaskan terrestrial ecosystems over the last 15 000 years was simulated using a process-based biogeochemistry model for both peatland and non-peatland ecosystems. Comparable with the previous estimates of 25–70 Pg C in peatland and 13–22 Pg C in non-peatland soils within 1 m depth in Alaska using peat-core data, our model estimated a total SOC of 36–63 Pg C at present, including 27–48 Pg C in peatland soils and 9–15 Pg C in non-peatland soils. Current vegetation stored 2.5–3.7 Pg C in Alaska, with 0.3–0.6 Pg C in peatlandsmore » and 2.2–3.1 Pg C in non-peatlands. The simulated average rate of peat C accumulation was 2.3 Tg C yr−1, with a peak value of 5.1 Tg C yr−1 during the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM) in the early Holocene, 4-fold higher than the average rate of 1.4 Tg C yr−1 over the rest of the Holocene. The SOC accumulation slowed down, or even ceased, during the neoglacial climate cooling after the mid-Holocene, but increased again in the 20th century. The model-estimated peat depths ranged from 1.1 to 2.7 m, similar to the field-based estimate of 2.29 m for the region. We found that the changes in vegetation and their distributions were the main factors in determining the spatial variations of SOC accumulation during different time periods. Warmer summer temperature and stronger radiation seasonality, along with higher precipitation in the HTM and the 20th century, might have resulted in the extensive peatland expansion and carbon accumulation.« less

  2. Accumulation, Release, and Solubility of Arsenic, Molybdenum, and Vanadium in Wetland Sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fox, P.M.; Doner, H.E.

    2003-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the fate of As, Mo, and V (trace elements, TEs) in the sediments of a constructed wetland in use for the remediation of potentially toxic trace element-contaminated agricultural drainwater. After three years of wetland operation, sediment cores were collected to determine changes in TE concentrations as a function of depth and the effects of varying water column depth. All TE concentrations were highest in the top 2 to 4 cm and decreased with depth. Molybdenum accumulated in the wetland sediments, up to levels of 32.5 ?? 4.6, 30.2 ?? 8.9, and 59.3 ?? 26.1 mg kg-1 in the top 1 cm of sediment at water depths of 15, 30, and 60 cm, respectively. In the top 2 cm of sediment, As accumulated (28.2 ?? 3.0 mg kg-1) only at the 60-cm water depth. Below 2 cm, as much as 10 mg kg-1 of As was lost from the sediment at all water depths. In most cases, V concentrations decreased in the sediment. In this wetland system, the lowest redox potentials were found near the sediment surface and increased with depth. Thus, in general As, Mo, and V concentrations in the sediment were highest under more reducing conditions and lowest under more oxidizing conditions. Most of the accumulated Mo (73%) became water soluble on drying of samples. This has important implications for systems undergoing changes in redox status; for instance, if these wetland sediments are dried, potentially large amounts of Mo may be solubilized.

  3. The locations and amounts of endogenous ions and elements in the cap and elongating zone of horizontally oriented roots of Zea mays L.: an electron-probe EDS study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R.; Cameron, I. L.; Hunter, K. E.; Olmos, D.; Smith, N. K.

    1987-01-01

    We used quantitative electron-probe energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis to localize endogenous Na, Cl, K, P, S, Mg and Ca in cryofixed and freeze-dried cryosections of the cap (i.e. the putative site of graviperception) and elongating zone (i.e. site of gravicurvature) of horizontally oriented roots of Zea mays. Ca, Na, Cl, K and Mg accumulate along the lower side of caps of horizontally oriented roots. The most dramatic asymmetries of these ions occur in the apoplast, especially the mucilage. We could not detect any significant differences in the concentrations of these ions in the central cytoplasm of columella cells along the upper and lower sides of caps of horizontally-oriented roots. However, the increased amounts of Na, Cl, K and Mg in the longitudinal walls of columella cells along the lower side of the cap suggest that these ions may move down through the columella tissue of horizontally-oriented roots. Ca also accumulates (largely in the mucilage) along the lower side of the elongating zone of horizontally-oriented roots, while Na, P, Cl and K tend to accumulate along the upper side of the elongating zone. Of these ions, only K increases in concentration in the cytoplasm and longitudinal walls of cortical cells in the upper vs lower sides of the elongating zone. These results indicate that (1) gravity-induced asymmetries of ions differ significantly in the cap and elongating zone of graviresponding roots, (2) Ca accumulates along the lower side of the cap and elongating zone of graviresponding roots, (3) increased growth of the upper side of the elongating zone of horizontally-oriented roots correlates positively with increased amounts of K in the cytoplasm and longitudinal walls of cortical cells, and (4) the apoplast (especially the mucilage) may be an important component of the pathway via which ions move in graviresponding rots of Zea mays. These results are discussed relative to mechanisms for graviperception and gravicurvature of roots.

  4. Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/article/001225.htm Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) are a group of rare nervous ...

  5. Racial Differences in Patterns of Wealth Accumulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gittleman, Maury; Wolff, Edward N.

    2004-01-01

    The race differences in patterns of asset accumulations were examined using PSD data for 1984, 1989 and 1994. The results indicate that inheritances led to wealth accumulations among whites as compared to the African Americans.

  6. Calcium: Some aspects of subcellular accumulation and distribution in milk

    SciTech Connect

    Shappell, N.W.

    1989-01-01

    Distribution and bioavailability of {sup 47}calcium in milk labeled by extrinsic and intrinsic methods was investigated. Milk from Sprague Dawley rats was labeled by both methods, and milk from a cow was labeled by the extrinsic method. Retention of {sup 47}Ca from milks administered to young male Sprague Dawley rats was determined through whole body counting for 6 days after administration of milk. Percent of {sup 47}Ca dose retained was 72% for extrinsically labeled cow milk, 62% for extrinsically labeled rat milk, and 55% for intrinsically labeled rat milk. Samples were fractionated by ultracentrifugation and by gel exclusion chromatography. {sup 47}Calcium distributions in rat milk labeled intrinsically or extrinsically were similar. The majority of {sup 47}Ca was found in a particulate, >30,000 molecular weight fraction. The amount of milk calcium retained by rats appeared to be related to the amount of noncasein micelle-associated calcium. When administered by intraperitoneal injection into rats, {sup 45}Ca specific activity of milk peaked in 60 to 90 minutes. In vitro {sup 45}Ca accumulation was compared in Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum from liver and mammary gland of lactating Dunkin Hartley guinea pigs. In the presence of ATP, highest accumulation per unit total fraction protein was found in Golgi apparatus (mammary gland 28% of available {sup 45}Ca, liver 11%) while 8% was accumulated by endoplasmic reticulum fractions.

  7. Size of food bowl and scoop affects amount of food owners feed their dogs.

    PubMed

    Murphy, M; Lusby, A L; Bartges, J W; Kirk, C A

    2012-04-01

    The incidence of canine obesity appears to be increasing dramatically and understanding factors impacting the amount of food pet owners provide their dogs may improve weight management. Human research has shown the size of food bowls, plates and utensils can significantly impact the amount of food portioned and consumed. This effect can be attributed to both the Delboeuf optical illusion and the Ebbinghaus-Titchener size-contrast illusion. To investigate the existence of a similar effect with dog owners, 54 dogs and their owners were recruited for a four treatment randomized prospective trial. Owners scooped out a normal kibble-based meal using a small bowl and small scoop, small bowl and large scoop, large bowl and small scoop or a large bowl and large scoop. Each treatment was used once per owner over four visits. Repeated measures anova revealed the mean amount of food portioned using the small bowl and small scoop was significantly less than all other bowl and scoop combinations (150.7 g vs. 171.5 g vs. 172.7 g vs. 184.5 g, p < 0.05). The small bowl and large scoop combination did not differ from large bowl and small scoop (171.5 g vs. 172.7 g, p > 0.05). Owners were more likely to portion a larger amount of food with a large bowl and large scoop. Results are consistent with human data and emphasize the need for owners to use standard measuring cups. Results also suggest owner compliance during weight loss programs may be improved with smaller bowls and serving scoops.

  8. Rabbit blastocysts accumulate (/sup 3/H)prostaglandins in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, M.A.; Harper, M.J.

    1984-08-01

    Rabbit blastocysts obtained on days 5, 6, and 6.8 of pregnancy were incubated in vitro in Tyrode's buffer with /sup 3/H-labeled prostaglandins (PGs). Accumulation of PGs was studied, using Whatman GF/F filters to separate bound and free ligands. The uptake and efflux of (/sup 3/H)PGs were studied as a function of PG type, incubation time, temperature, and effect of metabolic inhibitors as well as age and number of blastocysts. Blastocysts of the same age accumulated approximately the same amount of (/sup 3/H)PGE2 and (/sup 3/H)PGF2 alpha from their environment; however, there was no apparent saturation over a PG concentration range of 1-1000 nM. Both the uptake and efflux of PG were age dependent, with older blastocysts accumulating more PGs. Approximately 90% of the (/sup 3/H)PGs appear to be transported into the blastocoelic fluid, with little PG remaining in the blastomeres. PG accumulation was relatively insensitive to azide, ouabain, cyanide, or bromcresol green, but was affected by incubation at 0 C or the addition of indomethacin (10 micrograms/ml). No catabolism of the accumulated PGs was observed. The release of PGE2 in general did not differ from that of PGF2 alpha, except on day 6.8 of pregnancy when PGE2 was released more rapidly than on day 6. The authors conclude that rabbit blastocysts can accumulate PGs from their environment, which may imply a storage potential in the blastocyst and release before implantation.

  9. 42 CFR 1003.104 - Amount of assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amount of assessment. 1003.104 Section 1003.104... AUTHORITIES CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES, ASSESSMENTS AND EXCLUSIONS § 1003.104 Amount of assessment. (a) The OIG may impose an assessment, where authorized, in accordance with § 1003.102, of not more than— (1) Two...

  10. 42 CFR 1003.104 - Amount of assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Amount of assessment. 1003.104 Section 1003.104... AUTHORITIES CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES, ASSESSMENTS AND EXCLUSIONS § 1003.104 Amount of assessment. (a) The OIG may impose an assessment, where authorized, in accordance with § 1003.102, of not more than— (1) Two...

  11. 42 CFR 1003.104 - Amount of assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Amount of assessment. 1003.104 Section 1003.104... AUTHORITIES CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES, ASSESSMENTS AND EXCLUSIONS § 1003.104 Amount of assessment. (a) The OIG may impose an assessment, where authorized, in accordance with § 1003.102, of not more than— (1) Two...

  12. 42 CFR 1003.104 - Amount of assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Amount of assessment. 1003.104 Section 1003.104... AUTHORITIES CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES, ASSESSMENTS AND EXCLUSIONS § 1003.104 Amount of assessment. (a) The OIG may impose an assessment, where authorized, in accordance with § 1003.102, of not more than— (1) Two...

  13. 42 CFR 1003.104 - Amount of assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amount of assessment. 1003.104 Section 1003.104... AUTHORITIES CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES, ASSESSMENTS AND EXCLUSIONS § 1003.104 Amount of assessment. (a) The OIG may impose an assessment, where authorized, in accordance with § 1003.102, of not more than— (1) Two...

  14. 42 CFR 438.704 - Amounts of civil money penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Amounts of civil money penalties. 438.704 Section... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Sanctions § 438.704 Amounts of civil money penalties. (a) General rule. The limit on, or the maximum civil money penalty the State may impose...

  15. 29 CFR 530.302 - Amounts of civil money penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amounts of civil money penalties. 530.302 Section 530.302... EMPLOYMENT OF HOMEWORKERS IN CERTAIN INDUSTRIES Civil Money Penalties § 530.302 Amounts of civil money penalties. (a) A civil money penalty, not to exceed $500 per affected homeworker for any one violation,...

  16. 42 CFR 438.704 - Amounts of civil money penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amounts of civil money penalties. 438.704 Section... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Sanctions § 438.704 Amounts of civil money penalties. (a) General rule. The limit on, or the maximum civil money penalty the State may impose...

  17. 29 CFR 530.302 - Amounts of civil money penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amounts of civil money penalties. 530.302 Section 530.302... EMPLOYMENT OF HOMEWORKERS IN CERTAIN INDUSTRIES Civil Money Penalties § 530.302 Amounts of civil money penalties. (a) A civil money penalty, not to exceed $500 per affected homeworker for any one violation,...

  18. 42 CFR 438.704 - Amounts of civil money penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Amounts of civil money penalties. 438.704 Section... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Sanctions § 438.704 Amounts of civil money penalties. (a) General rule. The limit on, or the maximum civil money penalty the State may impose...

  19. 29 CFR 530.302 - Amounts of civil money penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Amounts of civil money penalties. 530.302 Section 530.302... EMPLOYMENT OF HOMEWORKERS IN CERTAIN INDUSTRIES Civil Money Penalties § 530.302 Amounts of civil money penalties. (a) A civil money penalty, not to exceed $500 per affected homeworker for any one violation,...

  20. 29 CFR 530.302 - Amounts of civil money penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amounts of civil money penalties. 530.302 Section 530.302... EMPLOYMENT OF HOMEWORKERS IN CERTAIN INDUSTRIES Civil Money Penalties § 530.302 Amounts of civil money penalties. (a) A civil money penalty, not to exceed $500 per affected homeworker for any one violation,...

  1. 42 CFR 438.704 - Amounts of civil money penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Amounts of civil money penalties. 438.704 Section... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Sanctions § 438.704 Amounts of civil money penalties. (a) General rule. The limit on, or the maximum civil money penalty the State may impose...

  2. 29 CFR 530.302 - Amounts of civil money penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amounts of civil money penalties. 530.302 Section 530.302... EMPLOYMENT OF HOMEWORKERS IN CERTAIN INDUSTRIES Civil Money Penalties § 530.302 Amounts of civil money penalties. (a) A civil money penalty, not to exceed $500 per affected homeworker for any one violation,...

  3. 42 CFR 124.705 - Amount of recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Amount of recovery. 124.705 Section 124.705 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT MEDICAL FACILITY CONSTRUCTION AND MODERNIZATION Recovery of Grant Funds § 124.705 Amount of recovery....

  4. 42 CFR 124.705 - Amount of recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Amount of recovery. 124.705 Section 124.705 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT MEDICAL FACILITY CONSTRUCTION AND MODERNIZATION Recovery of Grant Funds § 124.705 Amount of recovery....

  5. 26 CFR 1.50A-1 - Determination of amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Computing Credit for Expenses of Work Incentive Programs § 1.50A-1 Determination of amount. (a) In general. Except as otherwise provided in this section and in § 1.50A-2, the amount of the work incentive program... section); corporations which are members of a controlled group (see paragraph (f) of this...

  6. 20 CFR 404.333 - Wife's and husband's benefit amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wife's and husband's benefit amounts. 404.333... Disability Benefits for Spouses and Divorced Spouses § 404.333 Wife's and husband's benefit amounts. Your wife's or husband's monthly benefit is equal to one-half the insured person's primary insurance...

  7. 42 CFR 489.65 - Amount of the bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 489.65 Amount of the bond. (a) Basic rule. The amount of the surety bond must be $50,000 or 15 percent... computation of the 15 percent will be based on the number of months of the fiscal year that the bond...

  8. 45 CFR 1225.11 - Amount of attorney fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amount of attorney fees. 1225.11 Section 1225.11... § 1225.11 Amount of attorney fees. (a) When a decision of the agency provides for an award of attorney's fees or costs, the complainant's attorney shall submit a verified statement of costs and...

  9. 42 CFR 422.382 - Minimum net worth amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minimum net worth amount. 422.382 Section 422.382 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Provider-Sponsored Organizations § 422.382 Minimum net worth amount. (a) At the time...

  10. 42 CFR 493.649 - Methodology for determining fee amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Section 493.649 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Methodology for determining fee amount. (a) General rule. The amount of the fee in each schedule for... hourly rates used in fee schedules. Three different entities perform activities related to the...

  11. 42 CFR 493.649 - Methodology for determining fee amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Section 493.649 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Methodology for determining fee amount. (a) General rule. The amount of the fee in each schedule for... hourly rates used in fee schedules. Three different entities perform activities related to the...

  12. 42 CFR 130.3 - Amount of payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Amount of payments. 130.3 Section 130.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPASSIONATE PAYMENTS RICKY RAY HEMOPHILIA RELIEF FUND PROGRAM General Provisions § 130.3 Amount of payments. If there are sufficient...

  13. 42 CFR 130.3 - Amount of payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amount of payments. 130.3 Section 130.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPASSIONATE PAYMENTS RICKY RAY HEMOPHILIA RELIEF FUND PROGRAM General Provisions § 130.3 Amount of payments. If there are sufficient...

  14. 42 CFR 130.3 - Amount of payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Amount of payments. 130.3 Section 130.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPASSIONATE PAYMENTS RICKY RAY HEMOPHILIA RELIEF FUND PROGRAM General Provisions § 130.3 Amount of payments. If there are sufficient...

  15. 42 CFR 130.3 - Amount of payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Amount of payments. 130.3 Section 130.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPASSIONATE PAYMENTS RICKY RAY HEMOPHILIA RELIEF FUND PROGRAM General Provisions § 130.3 Amount of payments. If there are sufficient...

  16. 41 CFR 105-56.019 - Offset amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offset amount. 105-56... Administration 56-SALARY OFFSET FOR INDEBTEDNESS OF FEDERAL EMPLOYEES TO THE UNITED STATES Centralized Salary Offset (CSO) Procedures-GSA as Creditor Agency § 105-56.019 Offset amount. (a) The minimum dollar...

  17. 45 CFR 63.17 - Amount of award.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amount of award. 63.17 Section 63.17 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GRANT PROGRAMS ADMINISTERED BY THE OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PLANNING AND EVALUATION Financial Provisions § 63.17 Amount...

  18. 42 CFR 422.382 - Minimum net worth amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ....382 Minimum net worth amount. (a) At the time an organization applies to contract with CMS as a PSO... the effective date of a PSO's MA contract, a PSO must maintain a minimum net worth amount equal to the... equivalents. (ii) After the effective date of a PSO's MA contract, a PSO must maintain the greater of...

  19. 42 CFR 422.382 - Minimum net worth amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....382 Minimum net worth amount. (a) At the time an organization applies to contract with CMS as a PSO... the effective date of a PSO's MA contract, a PSO must maintain a minimum net worth amount equal to the... equivalents. (ii) After the effective date of a PSO's MA contract, a PSO must maintain the greater of...

  20. 42 CFR 422.382 - Minimum net worth amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... net worth amount. (a) At the time an organization applies to contract with CMS as a PSO under this... the effective date of a PSO's MA contract, a PSO must maintain a minimum net worth amount equal to the... equivalents. (ii) After the effective date of a PSO's MA contract, a PSO must maintain the greater of...

  1. 42 CFR 422.382 - Minimum net worth amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....382 Minimum net worth amount. (a) At the time an organization applies to contract with CMS as a PSO... the effective date of a PSO's MA contract, a PSO must maintain a minimum net worth amount equal to the... equivalents. (ii) After the effective date of a PSO's MA contract, a PSO must maintain the greater of...

  2. 75 FR 24497 - Short-Term, Small Amount Loans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 701 RIN 3133-AD71 Short-Term, Small Amount Loans AGENCY: National Credit Union... federal credit unions (FCUs) to offer short-term, small amount loans (STS loans) as a viable alternative... regcomments@ncua.gov . Include ``[Your name] Comments on Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (Short-term,...

  3. 42 CFR 130.3 - Amount of payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amount of payments. 130.3 Section 130.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPASSIONATE PAYMENTS RICKY RAY HEMOPHILIA RELIEF FUND PROGRAM General Provisions § 130.3 Amount of payments. If there are sufficient...

  4. 46 CFR 308.200 - Insured amount-application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Protection and Indemnity Insurance § 308.200 Insured amount—application. An applicant for war risk protection and indemnity insurance shall state the amount of insurance desired but such amount shall...

  5. 46 CFR 308.203 - Amount insured under interim binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amount insured under interim binder. 308.203 Section 308.203 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Protection and Indemnity Insurance § 308.203 Amount insured under interim binder....

  6. 46 CFR 308.303 - Amounts insured under interim binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amounts insured under interim binder. 308.303 Section 308.303 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.303 Amounts insured under interim binder. The...

  7. 46 CFR 308.103 - Insured amounts under interim binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insured amounts under interim binder. 308.103 Section 308.103 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.103 Insured amounts under interim binder....

  8. 31 CFR 50.71 - Determination of recoupment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... 50.71 Section 50.71 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM... recoupment amounts for that Program Year. (b)(1) Within 90 days after certification of an act of terrorism... Terrorism Policy Surcharge previously established to determine whether any additional amount will...

  9. 31 CFR 50.71 - Determination of recoupment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... 50.71 Section 50.71 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM... recoupment amounts for that Program Year. (b)(1) Within 90 days after certification of an act of terrorism... Terrorism Policy Surcharge previously established to determine whether any additional amount will...

  10. 29 CFR 531.38 - Amounts deducted for taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amounts deducted for taxes. 531.38 Section 531.38 Labor... Employees § 531.38 Amounts deducted for taxes. Taxes which are assessed against the employee and which are... unemployment insurance taxes, as well as other Federal, State, or local taxes, levies, and assessments....

  11. 29 CFR 541.600 - Amount of salary required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Amount of salary required. 541.600 Section 541.600 Labor... Salary Requirements § 541.600 Amount of salary required. (a) To qualify as an exempt executive... salary basis at a rate of not less than $455 per week (or $380 per week, if employed in American Samoa...

  12. 29 CFR 541.600 - Amount of salary required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amount of salary required. 541.600 Section 541.600 Labor... Salary Requirements § 541.600 Amount of salary required. (a) To qualify as an exempt executive... salary basis at a rate of not less than $455 per week (or $380 per week, if employed in American Samoa...

  13. 29 CFR 541.600 - Amount of salary required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amount of salary required. 541.600 Section 541.600 Labor... Salary Requirements § 541.600 Amount of salary required. (a) To qualify as an exempt executive... salary basis at a rate of not less than $455 per week (or $380 per week, if employed in American Samoa...

  14. 29 CFR 541.600 - Amount of salary required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amount of salary required. 541.600 Section 541.600 Labor... Salary Requirements § 541.600 Amount of salary required. (a) To qualify as an exempt executive... salary basis at a rate of not less than $455 per week (or $380 per week, if employed in American Samoa...

  15. 29 CFR 541.600 - Amount of salary required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amount of salary required. 541.600 Section 541.600 Labor... Salary Requirements § 541.600 Amount of salary required. (a) To qualify as an exempt executive... salary basis at a rate of not less than $455 per week (or $380 per week, if employed in American Samoa...

  16. 28 CFR 94.23 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amount of reimbursement. 94.23 Section 94.23 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Coverage § 94.23 Amount of reimbursement....

  17. 28 CFR 94.23 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amount of reimbursement. 94.23 Section 94.23 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Coverage § 94.23 Amount of reimbursement....

  18. 28 CFR 94.23 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amount of reimbursement. 94.23 Section 94.23 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Coverage § 94.23 Amount of reimbursement....

  19. 28 CFR 94.23 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Amount of reimbursement. 94.23 Section 94.23 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Coverage § 94.23 Amount of reimbursement....

  20. 28 CFR 94.23 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amount of reimbursement. 94.23 Section 94.23 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Coverage § 94.23 Amount of reimbursement....

  1. 38 CFR 39.50 - Amount of grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... STATES FOR ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE, OF VETERANS CEMETERIES Establishment, Expansion, and Improvement Projects Award of Grant § 39.50 Amount of grant. (a) The amount of an Establishment, Expansion, and Improvement Project grant awarded under this subpart may...

  2. 38 CFR 39.50 - Amount of grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE, OF VETERANS CEMETERIES Establishment, Expansion, and Improvement Projects Award of Grant § 39.50 Amount of grant. (a) The amount of an Establishment, Expansion, and Improvement Project grant awarded under this subpart may not exceed 100 percent...

  3. 38 CFR 39.50 - Amount of grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE, OF VETERANS CEMETERIES Establishment, Expansion, and Improvement Projects Award of Grant § 39.50 Amount of grant. (a) The amount of an Establishment, Expansion, and Improvement Project grant awarded under this subpart may not exceed 100 percent...

  4. 38 CFR 39.50 - Amount of grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE, OF VETERANS CEMETERIES Establishment, Expansion, and Improvement Projects Award of Grant § 39.50 Amount of grant. (a) The amount of an Establishment, Expansion, and Improvement Project grant awarded under this subpart may not exceed 100 percent...

  5. 24 CFR 576.35 - Deadlines for using grant amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES EMERGENCY SHELTER GRANTS PROGRAM: STEWART B. McKINNEY...) States. Each State must make available to its State recipients all emergency shelter grant amounts that...) Failure to meet deadlines. (1) Any emergency shelter grant amounts that are not made available...

  6. 24 CFR 576.35 - Deadlines for using grant amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES EMERGENCY SHELTER GRANTS PROGRAM: STEWART B. McKINNEY...) States. Each State must make available to its State recipients all emergency shelter grant amounts that...) Failure to meet deadlines. (1) Any emergency shelter grant amounts that are not made available...

  7. 24 CFR 203.15 - Certification of appraisal amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certification of appraisal amount. 203.15 Section 203.15 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... Miscellaneous Regulations § 203.15 Certification of appraisal amount. An application with respect to...

  8. Learner Preferences and Achievement Under Differing Amounts of Learner Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnackenberg, Heidi L.; Sullivan, Howard J.; Leader, Lars F.; Jones, Elizabeth E. K.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the effects of program mode (i.e., a lean program version containing a basic amount of learner practice versus a full mode containing expanded practice) and learner preference (matched or unmatched) for amount of practice on the achievement, time-in-program, and attitudes of university undergraduate students. Students preferred the lean…

  9. 42 CFR 410.152 - Amounts of payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... (c) Amount of payment: Home health services other than durable medical equipment (DME). For home health services other than DME furnished by, or under arrangements made by, a participating HHA, Medicare... services. (d) Amount of payment: DME furnished as a home health service—(1) Basic rule. Except as...

  10. 42 CFR 418.309 - Hospice cap amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPICE CARE Payment for Hospice Care § 418.309 Hospice cap amount. The hospice cap amount... Medicare beneficiaries who elected to receive hospice care from that hospice during the cap period. For... election to receive hospice care, in accordance with § 418.24, from the hospice during the......

  11. 40 CFR 35.930-2 - Grant amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grant amount. 35.930-2 Section 35.930-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.930-2 Grant amount. The...

  12. 40 CFR 35.930-2 - Grant amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Grant amount. 35.930-2 Section 35.930-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.930-2 Grant amount. The...

  13. 40 CFR 35.930-2 - Grant amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grant amount. 35.930-2 Section 35.930-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.930-2 Grant amount. The...

  14. 40 CFR 35.930-2 - Grant amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Grant amount. 35.930-2 Section 35.930-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.930-2 Grant amount. The...

  15. 40 CFR 35.930-2 - Grant amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Grant amount. 35.930-2 Section 35.930-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.930-2 Grant amount. The...

  16. 14 CFR 198.7 - Amount of insurance coverage available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Amount of insurance coverage available. 198.7 Section 198.7 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) WAR RISK INSURANCE AVIATION INSURANCE § 198.7 Amount of insurance coverage available. (a)...

  17. 14 CFR 198.7 - Amount of insurance coverage available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Amount of insurance coverage available. 198.7 Section 198.7 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) WAR RISK INSURANCE AVIATION INSURANCE § 198.7 Amount of insurance coverage available. (a)...

  18. 14 CFR 198.7 - Amount of insurance coverage available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Amount of insurance coverage available. 198.7 Section 198.7 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) WAR RISK INSURANCE AVIATION INSURANCE § 198.7 Amount of insurance coverage available. (a)...

  19. 45 CFR 2400.52 - Amount of stipend.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amount of stipend. 2400.52 Section 2400.52 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) JAMES MADISON MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP FOUNDATION FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS Fellowship Stipend § 2400.52 Amount of stipend. Junior and Senior...

  20. 20 CFR 404.373 - Parent's benefit amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Parent's benefit amounts. 404.373 Section 404... Parent's Benefits § 404.373 Parent's benefit amounts. Your parent's monthly benefit before any reduction that may be made as explained in § 404.304, is figured in one of the following ways: (a) One...

  1. 20 CFR 404.373 - Parent's benefit amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Parent's benefit amounts. 404.373 Section 404... Parent's Benefits § 404.373 Parent's benefit amounts. Your parent's monthly benefit before any reduction that may be made as explained in § 404.304, is figured in one of the following ways: (a) One...

  2. 20 CFR 404.373 - Parent's benefit amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Parent's benefit amounts. 404.373 Section 404... Parent's Benefits § 404.373 Parent's benefit amounts. Your parent's monthly benefit before any reduction that may be made as explained in § 404.304, is figured in one of the following ways: (a) One...

  3. 20 CFR 404.373 - Parent's benefit amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Parent's benefit amounts. 404.373 Section 404... Parent's Benefits § 404.373 Parent's benefit amounts. Your parent's monthly benefit before any reduction that may be made as explained in § 404.304, is figured in one of the following ways: (a) One...

  4. 20 CFR 404.373 - Parent's benefit amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Parent's benefit amounts. 404.373 Section 404... Parent's Benefits § 404.373 Parent's benefit amounts. Your parent's monthly benefit before any reduction that may be made as explained in § 404.304, is figured in one of the following ways: (a) One...

  5. 40 CFR 35.673 - Annual amount reserved by EPA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Annual amount reserved by EPA. 35.673... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Public Water System Supervision (section 1443(a) and Section 1451) § 35.673 Annual amount reserved by EPA. Each year, EPA shall reserve...

  6. 40 CFR 35.673 - Annual amount reserved by EPA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annual amount reserved by EPA. 35.673... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Public Water System Supervision (section 1443(a) and Section 1451) § 35.673 Annual amount reserved by EPA. Each year, EPA shall reserve...

  7. 18 CFR 1312.16 - Civil penalty amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Civil penalty amounts. 1312.16 Section 1312.16 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 1312.16 Civil penalty amounts. (a) Maximum...

  8. 18 CFR 1312.16 - Civil penalty amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Civil penalty amounts. 1312.16 Section 1312.16 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 1312.16 Civil penalty amounts. (a) Maximum...

  9. 40 CFR 35.673 - Annual amount reserved by EPA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Annual amount reserved by EPA. 35.673 Section 35.673 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... (section 1443(a) and Section 1451) § 35.673 Annual amount reserved by EPA. Each year, EPA shall reserve...

  10. 40 CFR 35.683 - Annual amount reserved by EPA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Annual amount reserved by EPA. 35.683 Section 35.683 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... Protection (section 1443(b)) § 35.683 Annual amount reserved by EPA. EPA shall reserve up to five percent...

  11. 40 CFR 47.115 - Award amount and matching requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Award amount and matching requirements. 47.115 Section 47.115 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION ACT GRANTS § 47.115 Award amount and...

  12. 40 CFR 47.115 - Award amount and matching requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Award amount and matching requirements. 47.115 Section 47.115 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION ACT GRANTS § 47.115 Award amount and...

  13. 40 CFR 47.115 - Award amount and matching requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Award amount and matching requirements. 47.115 Section 47.115 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION ACT GRANTS § 47.115 Award amount and...

  14. 40 CFR 47.115 - Award amount and matching requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Award amount and matching requirements. 47.115 Section 47.115 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION ACT GRANTS § 47.115 Award amount and...

  15. 40 CFR 47.115 - Award amount and matching requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Award amount and matching requirements. 47.115 Section 47.115 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION ACT GRANTS § 47.115 Award amount and...

  16. 50 CFR 296.8 - Amount of award.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Amount of award. 296.8 Section 296.8 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTINENTAL SHELF FISHERMEN'S CONTINGENCY FUND § 296.8 Amount of award. (a)...

  17. 50 CFR 296.8 - Amount of award.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amount of award. 296.8 Section 296.8 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTINENTAL SHELF FISHERMEN'S CONTINGENCY FUND § 296.8 Amount of award. (a)...

  18. 29 CFR 4.140 - Significance of contract amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Significance of contract amount. 4.140 Section 4.140 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor LABOR STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SERVICE CONTRACTS Application of the McNamara-O'Hara Service Contract Act Determining Amount of Contract § 4.140 Significance of contract...

  19. 29 CFR 4.142 - Contracts in an indefinite amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Contracts in an indefinite amount. 4.142 Section 4.142 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor LABOR STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SERVICE CONTRACTS Application of the McNamara-O'Hara Service Contract Act Determining Amount of Contract § 4.142 Contracts in an...

  20. 29 CFR 4.141 - General criteria for measuring amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true General criteria for measuring amount. 4.141 Section 4.141 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor LABOR STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SERVICE CONTRACTS Application of the McNamara-O'Hara Service Contract Act Determining Amount of Contract § 4.141 General criteria...

  1. 42 CFR 423.279 - National average monthly bid amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... bid amounts for each prescription drug plan (not including fallbacks) and for each MA-PD plan...(h) of the Act. (b) Calculation of weighted average. (1) The national average monthly bid amount is a....258(c)(1) of this chapter) and the denominator equal to the total number of Part D...

  2. 28 CFR 104.41 - Amount of compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 104.41 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) SEPTEMBER 11TH VICTIM COMPENSATION FUND OF 2001 Amount of Compensation for Eligible Claimants. § 104.41 Amount of compensation. As... the terrorist-related aircraft crashes of September 11, 2001. In no event shall an award...

  3. 28 CFR 104.41 - Amount of compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 104.41 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) SEPTEMBER 11TH VICTIM COMPENSATION FUND OF 2001 Amount of Compensation for Eligible Claimants. § 104.41 Amount of compensation. As... the terrorist-related aircraft crashes of September 11, 2001. In no event shall an award...

  4. 45 CFR 63.17 - Amount of award.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amount of award. 63.17 Section 63.17 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GRANT PROGRAMS ADMINISTERED BY THE OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PLANNING AND EVALUATION Financial Provisions § 63.17 Amount...

  5. 20 CFR 404.342 - Mother's and father's benefit amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mother's and father's benefit amounts. 404... Disability Benefits for Spouses and Divorced Spouses § 404.342 Mother's and father's benefit amounts. Your mother's or father's monthly benefit is equal to 75 percent of the insured person's primary...

  6. 20 CFR 404.342 - Mother's and father's benefit amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mother's and father's benefit amounts. 404... Disability Benefits for Spouses and Divorced Spouses § 404.342 Mother's and father's benefit amounts. Your mother's or father's monthly benefit is equal to 75 percent of the insured person's primary...

  7. 20 CFR 404.342 - Mother's and father's benefit amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mother's and father's benefit amounts. 404... Disability Benefits for Spouses and Divorced Spouses § 404.342 Mother's and father's benefit amounts. Your mother's or father's monthly benefit is equal to 75 percent of the insured person's primary...

  8. 20 CFR 404.342 - Mother's and father's benefit amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mother's and father's benefit amounts. 404... Disability Benefits for Spouses and Divorced Spouses § 404.342 Mother's and father's benefit amounts. Your mother's or father's monthly benefit is equal to 75 percent of the insured person's primary...

  9. 20 CFR 404.342 - Mother's and father's benefit amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mother's and father's benefit amounts. 404... Disability Benefits for Spouses and Divorced Spouses § 404.342 Mother's and father's benefit amounts. Your mother's or father's monthly benefit is equal to 75 percent of the insured person's primary...

  10. 20 CFR 404.353 - Child's benefit amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Child's benefit amounts. 404.353 Section 404... Child's Benefits § 404.353 Child's benefit amounts. (a) General. Your child's monthly benefit is equal... as explained in § 404.304. (b) Entitlement to more than one benefit. If you are entitled to a...

  11. 20 CFR 404.353 - Child's benefit amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Child's benefit amounts. 404.353 Section 404... Child's Benefits § 404.353 Child's benefit amounts. (a) General. Your child's monthly benefit is equal... as explained in § 404.304. (b) Entitlement to more than one benefit. If you are entitled to a...

  12. 20 CFR 404.353 - Child's benefit amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Child's benefit amounts. 404.353 Section 404... Child's Benefits § 404.353 Child's benefit amounts. (a) General. Your child's monthly benefit is equal... as explained in § 404.304. (b) Entitlement to more than one benefit. If you are entitled to a...

  13. 20 CFR 404.353 - Child's benefit amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Child's benefit amounts. 404.353 Section 404... Child's Benefits § 404.353 Child's benefit amounts. (a) General. Your child's monthly benefit is equal... as explained in § 404.304. (b) Entitlement to more than one benefit. If you are entitled to a...

  14. 20 CFR 404.353 - Child's benefit amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Child's benefit amounts. 404.353 Section 404... Child's Benefits § 404.353 Child's benefit amounts. (a) General. Your child's monthly benefit is equal... as explained in § 404.304. (b) Entitlement to more than one benefit. If you are entitled to a...

  15. 42 CFR 124.705 - Amount of recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Amount of recovery. 124.705 Section 124.705 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT MEDICAL FACILITY CONSTRUCTION AND MODERNIZATION Recovery of Grant Funds § 124.705 Amount of recovery....

  16. 5 CFR 870.205 - Amount of Optional insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE PROGRAM Types and Amount of Insurance § 870... beginning on or after October 30, 1998, Option A cannot exceed this amount. Exception: This does not apply... insurance (the first pay period beginning on or after October 30, 1998). (b)(1) Option B coverage comes in...

  17. 13 CFR 120.348 - Amount of guarantee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amount of guarantee. 120.348 Section 120.348 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Special Purpose Loans International Trade Loans § 120.348 Amount of guarantee. SBA can guarantee up to...

  18. 46 CFR 252.30 - Amount of subsidy payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... calculated for calendar years. (d) Negative rates. When an ODS rate in any category is less than zero... negative rate shall be deducted from positive rates in determining the daily ODS amount payable. (e... Subsidy Rates § 252.30 Amount of subsidy payable. (a) Daily rates. Daily ODS rates shall be used...

  19. First Nuclear DNA Amounts in more than 300 Angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    ZONNEVELD, B. J. M.; LEITCH, I. J.; BENNETT, M. D.

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims Genome size (DNA C-value) data are key biodiversity characters of fundamental significance used in a wide variety of biological fields. Since 1976, Bennett and colleagues have made scattered published and unpublished genome size data more widely accessible by assembling them into user-friendly compilations. Initially these were published as hard copy lists, but since 1997 they have also been made available electronically (see the Plant DNA C-values database www.kew.org/cval/homepage.html). Nevertheless, at the Second Plant Genome Size Meeting in 2003, Bennett noted that as many as 1000 DNA C-value estimates were still unpublished and hence unavailable. Scientists were strongly encouraged to communicate such unpublished data. The present work combines the databasing experience of the Kew-based authors with the unpublished C-values produced by Zonneveld to make a large body of valuable genome size data available to the scientific community. • Methods C-values for angiosperm species, selected primarily for their horticultural interest, were estimated by flow cytometry using the fluorochrome propidium iodide. The data were compiled into a table whose form is similar to previously published lists of DNA amounts by Bennett and colleagues. • Key Results and Conclusions The present work contains C-values for 411 taxa including first values for 308 species not listed previously by Bennett and colleagues. Based on a recent estimate of the global published output of angiosperm DNA C-value data (i.e. 200 first C-value estimates per annum) the present work equals 1·5 years of average global published output; and constitutes over 12 % of the latest 5-year global target set by the Second Plant Genome Size Workshop (see www.kew.org/cval/workshopreport.html). Hopefully, the present example will encourage others to unveil further valuable data which otherwise may lie forever unpublished and unavailable for comparative analyses. PMID:15905300

  20. Ectoine accumulation in Brevibacterium epidermis.

    PubMed

    Onraedt, Annelies; De Muynck, Cassandra; Walcarius, Bart; Soetaert, Wim; Vandamme, Erick

    2004-10-01

    As a halotolerant bacterial species, Brevibacterium epidermis DSM 20659 can grow at relatively high salinity, tolerating up to 2 M NaCl. It synthesizes ectoine and the intracellular content increases with the medium salinity, with a maximum of 0.14 g ectoine/g CDW at 1 M NaCl. Sugar-stressed cells do not synthesize ectoine. Ectoine synthesis is also affected by the presence of external osmolytes. Added betaine is taken up and completely replaced ectoine, while L-proline is only temporarily accumulated after which ectoine is synthesized. The strain can metabolize ectoine; L-glutamate is a better carbon source for ectoine synthesis than L-aspartate.

  1. Accumulation of catechins in tea in relation to accumulation of mRNA from genes involved in catechin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Eungwanichayapant, P D; Popluechai, S

    2009-02-01

    Catechins are a group of polyphenols found in tea (Camellia sinensis var. sinensis) at high levels. They are beneficial for health. From the study on accumulation of catechins in shoots and mature leaves of a tea cultivar, Oolong No. 17, using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), it was found that the amounts of most catechins in the shoots were higher than those in the mature leaves, with an exception of catechins gallate (CG) that was found in trace amounts in both the shoots and mature leaves. mRNA accumulation of genes involved in catechin synthesis was studied using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results showed that the mRNA accumulation of the genes were higher in the shoots than in the mature leaves. These genes included genes of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase 1 (PAL1; EC 4.3.1.5), chalcone synthase (CHS; EC 2.3.1.74), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR; EC 1.1.1.219), leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LCR; EC 1.17.1.3), and flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H; EC 1.14.11.9).

  2. RNAi based simultaneous silencing of all forms of light-dependent NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase genes result in the accumulation of protochlorophyllide in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum).

    PubMed

    Talaat, Neveen B

    2013-10-01

    Conversion of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) into chlorophyllide (Chlide), a key step in chlorophyll biosynthesis, is mediated by a light-dependent NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR). POR exists in multiple isoforms that share high degree of homology. RNAi-mediated gene silencing approach was used to suppress the expression of POR genes in order to study its role in the Chls biosynthesis in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.). The transgenic plants were devoid of chlorophyll pigments and resembled albino plants. Northern blot analysis confirmed the degradation of POR transcripts into 21-23 bp fragments. Pigment analysis showed the accumulation of various intermediate compounds of Chl biosynthesis pathway including Pchlide. However, no trace of chlorophyll was observed. As compared to wild type, POR-silenced plants accumulated larger (60%) amounts of Pchlide from its endogenous substrate. When leaf discs of WT and POR-silenced plants were treated with exogenous ALA both WT and POR-silenced plants accumulated large amounts of tetrapyrrolic intermediates demonstrating that Pchlide biosynthesis potential was not suppressed in POR-silenced plants. Upon illumination, WT plants photo-transformed large amounts of Pchlide to Chlide. However, POR-silenced plants almost completely failed to do so. Results demonstrate that the antisense approaches to drop expression of individual POR isoforms have provided valuable insights into the role of distinct PORs during greening. Moreover, data illustrate that the POR is the only enzyme that can convert the Pchlide to Chlide and there is no alternate enzyme that can substitute the POR in higher plants. Thus, this investigation describes ideal mechanism for the silencing of POR isozymes in tobacco.

  3. Accumulated versus continuous exercise for health benefit: a review of empirical studies.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Marie H; Blair, Steven N; Murtagh, Elaine M

    2009-01-01

    Current physical activity guidelines endorse the notion that the recommended amount of daily physical activity can be accumulated in short bouts performed over the course of a day. Although intuitively appealing, the evidence for the efficacy of accumulated exercise is not plentiful. The purpose of this review was to compare the effects of similar amounts of exercise performed in either one continuous or two or more accumulated bouts on a range of health outcomes. Sixteen studies met the selection criteria for inclusion in the review, in which at least one outcome known to affect health was measured before and after continuous and accumulated exercise training interventions. Where improvements in cardiovascular fitness were noted, most studies reported no difference in the alterations between accumulated and continuous patterns of exercise. In the few studies where a normalization of blood pressure was observed from baseline to post-intervention, there appear to be no differences between accumulated and continuous exercise in the magnitude of this effect. For other health outcomes such as adiposity, blood lipids and psychological well-being, there is insufficient evidence to determine whether accumulated exercise is as effective as the more traditional continuous approach. Seven short-term studies in which at least one health-related outcome was measured during the 0- to 48-hour period after a single continuous bout of exercise and a number of short bouts of equivalent total duration were included in the review. Many of the studies of such short-term effects considered the plasma triglyceride response to a meal following either accumulated short or continuous bouts of exercise. Collectively, these studies suggest that accumulated exercise may be as effective at reducing postprandial lipaemia. Further research is required to determine if even shorter bouts of accumulated exercise (<10 minutes) confer a health benefit and whether an accumulated approach to physical

  4. Characters related to higher starch accumulation in cassava storage roots

    PubMed Central

    Li, You-Zhi; Zhao, Jian-Yu; Wu, San-Min; Fan, Xian-Wei; Luo, Xing-Lu; Chen, Bao-Shan

    2016-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is valued mainly for high content starch in its roots. Our understanding of mechanisms promoting high starch accumulation in the roots is, however, still very limited. Two field-grown cassava cultivars, Huanan 124(H124) with low root starch and Fuxuan 01(F01) with high root starch, were characterised comparatively at four main growth stages. Changes in key sugars in the leaves, stems and roots seemed not to be strongly associated with the final amount of starch accumulated in the roots. However, when compared with H124, F01 exhibited a more compact arrangement of xylem vascular bundles in the leaf axils, much less callose around the phloem sieve plates in the stems, higher starch synthesis-related enzymatic activity but lower amylase activity in the roots, more significantly up-regulated expression of related genes, and a much higher stem flow rate (SFR). In conclusion, higher starch accumulation in the roots results from the concurrent effects of powerful stem transport capacity highlighted by higher SFR, high starch synthesis but low starch degradation in the roots, and high expression of sugar transporter genes in the stems. A model of high starch accumulation in cassava roots was therefore proposed and discussed. PMID:26892156

  5. Significant accumulation of nitrate in Chinese semi-humid croplands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Junyu; Gu, Baojing; Schlesinger, William H.; Ju, Xiaotang

    2016-04-01

    Soil nitrate is important for crop growth, but it can also leach to groundwater causing nitrate contamination, a threat to human health. Here, we report a significant accumulation of soil nitrate in Chinese semi-humid croplands based upon more than 7000 samples from 141 sites collected from 1994 to 2015. In the 0–4 meters depth of soil, total nitrate accumulation reaches 453 ± 39, 749 ± 75, 1191 ± 89, 1269 ± 114, 2155 ± 330 kg N ha‑1 on average in wheat, maize, open-field vegetables (OFV), solar plastic-roofed greenhouse vegetables (GHV) and orchard fields, respectively. Surprisingly, there is also a comparable amount of nitrate accumulated in the vadose-zone deeper than 4 meters. Over-use of N fertilizer (and/or manure) and a declining groundwater table are the major causes for this huge nitrate reservoir in the vadose-zone of semi-humid croplands, where the nitrate cannot be denitrified due to the presence of oxygen and lack of carbon sources. Future climatic change with more extreme rainfall events would increase the risk of accumulated nitrate moving downwards and threatening groundwater nitrate contamination.

  6. Significant accumulation of nitrate in Chinese semi-humid croplands

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Junyu; Gu, Baojing; Schlesinger, William H.; Ju, Xiaotang

    2016-01-01

    Soil nitrate is important for crop growth, but it can also leach to groundwater causing nitrate contamination, a threat to human health. Here, we report a significant accumulation of soil nitrate in Chinese semi-humid croplands based upon more than 7000 samples from 141 sites collected from 1994 to 2015. In the 0–4 meters depth of soil, total nitrate accumulation reaches 453 ± 39, 749 ± 75, 1191 ± 89, 1269 ± 114, 2155 ± 330 kg N ha−1 on average in wheat, maize, open-field vegetables (OFV), solar plastic-roofed greenhouse vegetables (GHV) and orchard fields, respectively. Surprisingly, there is also a comparable amount of nitrate accumulated in the vadose-zone deeper than 4 meters. Over-use of N fertilizer (and/or manure) and a declining groundwater table are the major causes for this huge nitrate reservoir in the vadose-zone of semi-humid croplands, where the nitrate cannot be denitrified due to the presence of oxygen and lack of carbon sources. Future climatic change with more extreme rainfall events would increase the risk of accumulated nitrate moving downwards and threatening groundwater nitrate contamination. PMID:27114032

  7. Accumulation of silver nanoparticles by cultured primary brain astrocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luther, Eva M.; Koehler, Yvonne; Diendorf, Joerg; Epple, Matthias; Dringen, Ralf

    2011-09-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) are components of various food industry products and are frequently used for medical equipment and materials. Although such particles enter the vertebrate brain, little is known on their biocompatibility for brain cells. To study the consequences of an AgNP exposure of brain cells we have treated astrocyte-rich primary cultures with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-coated AgNP. The incubation of cultured astrocytes with micromolar concentrations of AgNP for up to 24 h resulted in a time- and concentration-dependent accumulation of silver, but did not compromise the cell viability nor lower the cellular glutathione content. In contrast, the incubation of astrocytes for 4 h with identical amounts of silver as AgNO3 already severely compromised the cell viability and completely deprived the cells of glutathione. The accumulation of AgNP by astrocytes was proportional to the concentration of AgNP applied and significantly lowered by about 30% in the presence of the endocytosis inhibitors chloroquine or amiloride. Incubation at 4 °C reduced the accumulation of AgNP by 80% compared to the values obtained for cells that had been exposed to AgNP at 37 °C. These data demonstrate that viable cultured brain astrocytes efficiently accumulate PVP-coated AgNP in a temperature-dependent process that most likely involves endocytotic pathways.

  8. Deleterious mutation accumulation and the regeneration of genetic resources

    PubMed Central

    Schoen, Daniel J.; David, Jacques L.; Bataillon, Thomas M.

    1998-01-01

    The accumulation of mildly deleterious mutations accompanying recurrent regeneration of plant germ plasm was modeled under regeneration conditions characterized by different amounts of selection and genetic drift. Under some regeneration conditions (sample sizes ≥75 individuals and bulk harvesting of seed) mutation accumulation was negligible, but under others (sample sizes <75 individuals or equalization of seed production by individual plants) mutation numbers per genome increased significantly during 25–50 cycles of regeneration. When mutations also are assumed to occur (at elevated rates) during seed storage, significant mutation accumulation and fitness decline occurred in 10 or fewer cycles of regeneration regardless of the regeneration conditions. Calculations also were performed to determine the numbers of deleterious mutations introduced and remaining in the genome of an existing variety after hybridization with a genetic resource and subsequent backcrossing. The results suggest that mutation accumulation has the potential to reduce the viability of materials held in germ plasm collections and to offset gains expected by the introduction of particular genes of interest from genetic resources. PMID:9419386

  9. Characters related to higher starch accumulation in cassava storage roots.

    PubMed

    Li, You-Zhi; Zhao, Jian-Yu; Wu, San-Min; Fan, Xian-Wei; Luo, Xing-Lu; Chen, Bao-Shan

    2016-02-19

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is valued mainly for high content starch in its roots. Our understanding of mechanisms promoting high starch accumulation in the roots is, however, still very limited. Two field-grown cassava cultivars, Huanan 124(H124) with low root starch and Fuxuan 01(F01) with high root starch, were characterised comparatively at four main growth stages. Changes in key sugars in the leaves, stems and roots seemed not to be strongly associated with the final amount of starch accumulated in the roots. However, when compared with H124, F01 exhibited a more compact arrangement of xylem vascular bundles in the leaf axils, much less callose around the phloem sieve plates in the stems, higher starch synthesis-related enzymatic activity but lower amylase activity in the roots, more significantly up-regulated expression of related genes, and a much higher stem flow rate (SFR). In conclusion, higher starch accumulation in the roots results from the concurrent effects of powerful stem transport capacity highlighted by higher SFR, high starch synthesis but low starch degradation in the roots, and high expression of sugar transporter genes in the stems. A model of high starch accumulation in cassava roots was therefore proposed and discussed.

  10. Organelle DNA accumulation in the recently evolved papaya sex chromosomes.

    PubMed

    VanBuren, Robert; Ming, Ray

    2013-06-01

    Sex chromosomes are a pair of specialized chromosomes containing a sex determination region that is suppressed for recombination. Without recombination, Y chromosomes are thought to accumulate repetitive DNA sequences which contribute to their degeneration. A pair of primitive sex chromosomes controls sex type in papaya with male and hermaphrodite determined by the slightly different male-specific region of the Y (MSY) and hermaphrodite-specific region of Y(h) (HSY) chromosomes, respectively. Here, we show that the papaya HSY and MSY in the absence of recombination have accumulated nearly 12 times the amount of chloroplast-derived DNA than the corresponding region of the X chromosome and 4 times the papaya genome-wide average. Furthermore, a chloroplast genome fragment containing the rsp15 gene has been amplified 23 times in the HSY, evidence of retrotransposon-mediated duplication. Surprisingly, mitochondria-derived sequences are less abundant in the X and HSY compared to the whole genome. Shared organelle integrations are sparse between X and HSY, with only 11 % of chloroplast and 12 % of mitochondria fragments conserved, respectively, suggesting that the accelerated accumulation of organelle DNA occurred after the HSY was suppressed for recombination. Most of the organelle-derived sequences have divergence times of <7 MYA, reinforcing this notion. The accumulated chloroplast DNA is evidence of the slow degeneration of the HSY.

  11. Accumulation of silver nanoparticles by cultured primary brain astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Luther, Eva M; Koehler, Yvonne; Diendorf, Joerg; Epple, Matthias; Dringen, Ralf

    2011-09-16

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) are components of various food industry products and are frequently used for medical equipment and materials. Although such particles enter the vertebrate brain, little is known on their biocompatibility for brain cells. To study the consequences of an AgNP exposure of brain cells we have treated astrocyte-rich primary cultures with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-coated AgNP. The incubation of cultured astrocytes with micromolar concentrations of AgNP for up to 24 h resulted in a time- and concentration-dependent accumulation of silver, but did not compromise the cell viability nor lower the cellular glutathione content. In contrast, the incubation of astrocytes for 4 h with identical amounts of silver as AgNO(3) already severely compromised the cell viability and completely deprived the cells of glutathione. The accumulation of AgNP by astrocytes was proportional to the concentration of AgNP applied and significantly lowered by about 30% in the presence of the endocytosis inhibitors chloroquine or amiloride. Incubation at 4 °C reduced the accumulation of AgNP by 80% compared to the values obtained for cells that had been exposed to AgNP at 37 °C. These data demonstrate that viable cultured brain astrocytes efficiently accumulate PVP-coated AgNP in a temperature-dependent process that most likely involves endocytotic pathways.

  12. Zinc and dexamethasone induce metallothionein accumulation by endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Briske-Anderson, M.; Bobilya, D.J.; Reeves, P.G. )

    1991-03-11

    Several tissues increase their metallothionein (MT) concentration when exposed to elevated amounts of plasma Zn. Endothelial cells form the blood vessels that supply all tissues and constitute a barrier between cells of tissues and the blood. This study examined the ability of endothelial cells to synthesize MT and accumulate Zn in response to high amounts of Zn and dexamethasone. Bovine pulmonary endothelial cells were grown to confluence in Minimum Essential Medium with Earle's salts and 10% fetal calf serum. The monolayer was maintained for 2 d prior to use in medium containing EDTA-dialyzed serum. This low Zn medium was replaced with one containing 1, 6, 25, 50, 100, 150, or 200 {mu}M Zn and incubated for 24 hr before harvesting the cells. MT was quantified by the cadmium binding assay. Cellular Zn concentrations were analyzed by atomic absorption after a nitric acid digestion. The MT concentration was elevated in response to Zn concentrations of 100 {mu}M or more. Cellular Zn concentration was elevated when media Zn was 25 {mu}M or more. MT and cellular Zn concentrations were positively correlated. In another study, inclusion of 0.1 {mu}M dexamethasone in the media increased concentration at all Zn concentrations studied. However, the inclusion of 0.3 {mu}M cis-platinum had no effect. In conclusion, endothelial cells in culture respond to elevated amounts of Zn and dexamethasone in the media by accumulating Zn and MT.

  13. Positive effects of duckweed polycultures on starch and protein accumulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Zhang, Fantao; Daroch, Maurycy; Tang, Jie

    2016-10-01

    The effect of duckweed species composition (Lemna aequinoctialis 5505, Landoltia punctata 5506 and Spirodela polyrhiza 5507) in polyculture and monoculture on biomass and starch/protein content were investigated at different levels of temperature, light intensity, nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations. The three growth parameters significantly affect duckweed biomass accumulation. Different combinations of duckweed species greatly varied in starch/protein content. Although all the polycultures showed a median relative growth rate and the majority of the polycultures showed a median and starch/protein content as compared with their respective monocultures, some of the polycultures were found to promote the accumulation of starch/protein at different growth conditions. These findings indicated that proper combination of duckweed species could facilitate desirable biomass accumulation and improve biomass quality. The present study provides useful references for future large-scale duckweed cultivation.

  14. Positive effects of duckweed polycultures on starch and protein accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang; Zhang, Fantao; Daroch, Maurycy; Tang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The effect of duckweed species composition (Lemna aequinoctialis 5505, Landoltia punctata 5506 and Spirodela polyrhiza 5507) in polyculture and monoculture on biomass and starch/protein content were investigated at different levels of temperature, light intensity, nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations. The three growth parameters significantly affect duckweed biomass accumulation. Different combinations of duckweed species greatly varied in starch/protein content. Although all the polycultures showed a median relative growth rate and the majority of the polycultures showed a median and starch/protein content as compared with their respective monocultures, some of the polycultures were found to promote the accumulation of starch/protein at different growth conditions. These findings indicated that proper combination of duckweed species could facilitate desirable biomass accumulation and improve biomass quality. The present study provides useful references for future large-scale duckweed cultivation. PMID:27515418

  15. Atomistic simulation of damage accumulation and amorphization in Ge

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez-Selles, Jose L. Martin-Bragado, Ignacio; Claverie, Alain; Benistant, Francis

    2015-02-07

    Damage accumulation and amorphization mechanisms by means of ion implantation in Ge are studied using Kinetic Monte Carlo and Binary Collision Approximation techniques. Such mechanisms are investigated through different stages of damage accumulation taking place in the implantation process: from point defect generation and cluster formation up to full amorphization of Ge layers. We propose a damage concentration amorphization threshold for Ge of ∼1.3 × 10{sup 22} cm{sup −3} which is independent on the implantation conditions. Recombination energy barriers depending on amorphous pocket sizes are provided. This leads to an explanation of the reported distinct behavior of the damage generated by different ions. We have also observed that the dissolution of clusters plays an important role for relatively high temperatures and fluences. The model is able to explain and predict different damage generation regimes, amount of generated damage, and extension of amorphous layers in Ge for different ions and implantation conditions.

  16. Salt and N leaching and soil accumulation due to cover cropping practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, J. L.; Quemada, M.

    2012-04-01

    , using daily soil water content measurements, based on calibrated capacitance probes. Our results showed that drainage during the irrigated period was minimized, because irrigation water was adjusted to crop needs, leading to soil salt and nitrate accumulation on the upper layers after maize harvest. Then, during the intercrop period, most of salt and nitrate leaching occurred. Cover crops use led to shorter drainage period, lower drainage water amount and lower nitrate and salt leaching than treatment with fallow. These effects were related with a larger nitrate accumulation in the upper layers of the soil after cover crop treatments. But there was not soil salt accumulation increase in treatments with cover crops, and even decreased after years with a large cover crop biomass production. Then, adoption of cover crops in this kind of irrigated cropping system reduced water drainage beyond the root zone, salt and nitrate leaching diminished as a consequence but did not lead to salt accumulation in the upper soil layers. Acknowledgements: Financial support by CICYT, Spain (ref. AGL2005-00163 and AGL 2011-24732) and Comunidad de Madrid (project AGRISOST, S2009/AGR-1630).

  17. The RABL5 homolog IFT22 regulates the cellular pool size and the amount of IFT particles partitioned to the flagellar compartment in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Silva, David A; Huang, Xiaomeng; Behal, Robert H; Cole, Douglas G; Qin, Hongmin

    2012-01-01

    Cilia and flagella, sensory and motile structures protruding from the cell body, rely on the continuous bidirectional traffic of intraflagellar transport (IFT) particles to ferry flagellar precursors into flagella for assembly. Cells synthesize a large pool of IFT particle proteins in the cell body, but only a small portion engages in active transport within the flagella at any given time. The atypical small G protein Rab-like 5 (RABL5) has been shown to move in an IFT-like manner in the flagella, but its function in ciliogenesis is controversial. In this report, we demonstrate that IFT22, the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii homolog of RABL5, is a bona fide IFT particle complex B subunit. Although the amount of IFT22 remains unaffected by depletion of either complex A or B, depletion of IFT22 leads to a smaller pool of both complex A and B. Strikingly, the smaller cellular pool of IFT particles does not lead to a reduced distribution of IFT particles to flagella. Instead, the amount of IFT particle proteins, including IFT22 itself, increase in the flagella. Moreover, cells over-expressing IFT22 also accumulate IFT particles in their flagella. Taken together, these data indicate that, in C. reinhardtii, IFT22 controls the cellular levels of both complex A and B, thus plays a critical role in determining the cellular availability of IFT particles. In addition, although IFT22 may not directly carry any precursors for flagellar assembly, it controls how many IFT particles participate in ferrying precursors into flagella.

  18. Assessing the effect of copper on growth, copper accumulation and physiological responses of grazing species Atriplex halimus: ecotoxicological implications.

    PubMed

    Mateos-Naranjo, E; Andrades-Moreno, L; Cambrollé, J; Perez-Martin, A

    2013-04-01

    Tolerance of plants to elevated concentrations of heavy metals in growth media and in its tissues leads to high degrees of metal bioaccumulation, which may pose a risk for humans and animals alike. Therefore, bio-accumulating plants need thorough evaluation from an environmental health point of view. A glasshouse experiment concerning the xerohalophyte Atriplex halimus was carried out to determine its tolerance and capacity to accumulate copper. We investigated the effect of Cu from 0 to 30 mmol l(-1) on the growth, photosynthetic apparatus and nutrient uptake of A. halimus by measuring gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and photoinhibition. We also determined total Cu, sodium, potassium, magnesium, phosphorous, and nitrogen content in the plant. Our results indicated that A. halimus presented a high resistance to Cu-induced stress, since the plants were able to survive at concentrations higher than 15 mmol l(-1) Cu. However, this capacity was not reflected in its ability to accumulate and tolerate greater amounts of Cu in its tissues, since clear phytotoxicity symptoms were detected at tissue concentrations greater than 38 mg kg(-1) Cu. Thus, Cu increment caused a reduction in A. halimus growth, which was related to a decrease in net photosynthetic rate. This reduction was associated with the adverse effect of Cu on the photochemical apparatus and the reduction in the absorption of essential nutrients. The high resistance of A. halimus was largely related with the capacity of this species to avoid the absorption of great amounts of Cu. For all the above reasons, A. halimus could have the characteristics of a Cu-exclusion plant.

  19. 42 CFR 419.41 - Calculation of national beneficiary copayment amounts and national Medicare program payment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Calculation of national beneficiary copayment amounts and national Medicare program payment amounts. 419.41 Section 419.41 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE...

  20. 42 CFR 419.41 - Calculation of national beneficiary copayment amounts and national Medicare program payment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Calculation of national beneficiary copayment amounts and national Medicare program payment amounts. 419.41 Section 419.41 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE...