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Sample records for accumulate massive amounts

  1. CATMAID: collaborative annotation toolkit for massive amounts of image data

    PubMed Central

    Saalfeld, Stephan; Cardona, Albert; Hartenstein, Volker; Tomančák, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    Summary: High-resolution, three-dimensional (3D) imaging of large biological specimens generates massive image datasets that are difficult to navigate, annotate and share effectively. Inspired by online mapping applications like GoogleMaps™, we developed a decentralized web interface that allows seamless navigation of arbitrarily large image stacks. Our interface provides means for online, collaborative annotation of the biological image data and seamless sharing of regions of interest by bookmarking. The CATMAID interface enables synchronized navigation through multiple registered datasets even at vastly different scales such as in comparisons between optical and electron microscopy. Availability: http://fly.mpi-cbg.de/catmaid Contact: tomancak@mpi-cbg.de PMID:19376822

  2. Metabolic Adaptation in Transplastomic Plants Massively Accumulating Recombinant Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Bally, Julia; Job, Claudette; Belghazi, Maya; Job, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    Background Recombinant chloroplasts are endowed with an astonishing capacity to accumulate foreign proteins. However, knowledge about the impact on resident proteins of such high levels of recombinant protein accumulation is lacking. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we used proteomics to characterize tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plastid transformants massively accumulating a p-hydroxyphenyl pyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) or a green fluorescent protein (GFP). While under the conditions used no obvious modifications in plant phenotype could be observed, these proteins accumulated to even higher levels than ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), the most abundant protein on the planet. This accumulation occurred at the expense of a limited number of leaf proteins including Rubisco. In particular, enzymes involved in CO2 metabolism such as nuclear-encoded plastidial Calvin cycle enzymes and mitochondrial glycine decarboxylase were found to adjust their accumulation level to these novel physiological conditions. Conclusions/Significance The results document how protein synthetic capacity is limited in plant cells. They may provide new avenues to evaluate possible bottlenecks in recombinant protein technology and to maintain plant fitness in future studies aiming at producing recombinant proteins of interest through chloroplast transformation. PMID:21966485

  3. The minimal amount of starting DNA for Agilent's hybrid capture-based targeted massively parallel sequencing.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jongsuk; Son, Dae-Soon; Jeon, Hyo-Jeong; Kim, Kyoung-Mee; Park, Gahee; Ryu, Gyu Ha; Park, Woong-Yang; Park, Donghyun

    2016-01-01

    Targeted capture massively parallel sequencing is increasingly being used in clinical settings, and as costs continue to decline, use of this technology may become routine in health care. However, a limited amount of tissue has often been a challenge in meeting quality requirements. To offer a practical guideline for the minimum amount of input DNA for targeted sequencing, we optimized and evaluated the performance of targeted sequencing depending on the input DNA amount. First, using various amounts of input DNA, we compared commercially available library construction kits and selected Agilent's SureSelect-XT and KAPA Biosystems' Hyper Prep kits as the kits most compatible with targeted deep sequencing using Agilent's SureSelect custom capture. Then, we optimized the adapter ligation conditions of the Hyper Prep kit to improve library construction efficiency and adapted multiplexed hybrid selection to reduce the cost of sequencing. In this study, we systematically evaluated the performance of the optimized protocol depending on the amount of input DNA, ranging from 6.25 to 200 ng, suggesting the minimal input DNA amounts based on coverage depths required for specific applications. PMID:27220682

  4. Dual Mode NOx Sensor: Measuring Both the Accumulated Amount and Instantaneous Level at Low Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Groß, Andrea; Beulertz, Gregor; Marr, Isabella; Kubinski, David J.; Visser, Jaco H.; Moos, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    The accumulating-type (or integrating-type) NOx sensor principle offers two operation modes to measure low levels of NOx: The direct signal gives the total amount dosed over a time interval and its derivative the instantaneous concentration. With a linear sensor response, no baseline drift, and both response times and recovery times in the range of the gas exchange time of the test bench (5 to 7 s), the integrating sensor is well suited to reliably detect low levels of NOx. Experimental results are presented demonstrating the sensor’s integrating properties for the total amount detection and its sensitivity to both NO and to NO2. We also show the correlation between the derivative of the sensor signal and the known gas concentration. The long-term detection of NOx in the sub-ppm range (e.g., for air quality measurements) is discussed. Additionally, a self-adaption of the measurement range taking advantage of the temperature dependency of the sensitivity is addressed. PMID:22736980

  5. Massive accumulation of luminal protease-deficient axonal lysosomes at Alzheimer’s disease amyloid plaques

    PubMed Central

    Gowrishankar, Swetha; Yuan, Peng; Wu, Yumei; Schrag, Matthew; Paradise, Summer; Grutzendler, Jaime; De Camilli, Pietro; Ferguson, Shawn M.

    2015-01-01

    Through a comprehensive analysis of organellar markers in mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease, we document a massive accumulation of lysosome-like organelles at amyloid plaques and establish that the majority of these organelles reside within swollen axons that contact the amyloid deposits. This close spatial relationship between axonal lysosome accumulation and extracellular amyloid aggregates was observed from the earliest stages of β-amyloid deposition. Notably, we discovered that lysosomes that accumulate in such axons are lacking in multiple soluble luminal proteases and thus are predicted to be unable to efficiently degrade proteinaceous cargos. Of relevance to Alzheimer’s disease, β-secretase (BACE1), the protein that initiates amyloidogenic processing of the amyloid precursor protein and which is a substrate for these proteases, builds up at these sites. Furthermore, through a comparison between the axonal lysosome accumulations at amyloid plaques and neuronal lysosomes of the wild-type brain, we identified a similar, naturally occurring population of lysosome-like organelles in neuronal processes that is also defined by its low luminal protease content. In conjunction with emerging evidence that the lysosomal maturation of endosomes and autophagosomes is coupled to their retrograde transport, our results suggest that extracellular β-amyloid deposits cause a local impairment in the retrograde axonal transport of lysosome precursors, leading to their accumulation and a blockade in their further maturation. This study both advances understanding of Alzheimer’s disease brain pathology and provides new insights into the subcellular organization of neuronal lysosomes that may have broader relevance to other neurodegenerative diseases with a lysosomal component to their pathology. PMID:26124111

  6. The minimal amount of starting DNA for Agilent’s hybrid capture-based targeted massively parallel sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jongsuk; Son, Dae-Soon; Jeon, Hyo-Jeong; Kim, Kyoung-Mee; Park, Gahee; Ryu, Gyu Ha; Park, Woong-Yang; Park, Donghyun

    2016-01-01

    Targeted capture massively parallel sequencing is increasingly being used in clinical settings, and as costs continue to decline, use of this technology may become routine in health care. However, a limited amount of tissue has often been a challenge in meeting quality requirements. To offer a practical guideline for the minimum amount of input DNA for targeted sequencing, we optimized and evaluated the performance of targeted sequencing depending on the input DNA amount. First, using various amounts of input DNA, we compared commercially available library construction kits and selected Agilent’s SureSelect-XT and KAPA Biosystems’ Hyper Prep kits as the kits most compatible with targeted deep sequencing using Agilent’s SureSelect custom capture. Then, we optimized the adapter ligation conditions of the Hyper Prep kit to improve library construction efficiency and adapted multiplexed hybrid selection to reduce the cost of sequencing. In this study, we systematically evaluated the performance of the optimized protocol depending on the amount of input DNA, ranging from 6.25 to 200 ng, suggesting the minimal input DNA amounts based on coverage depths required for specific applications. PMID:27220682

  7. SeqMap: mapping massive amount of oligonucleotides to the genome.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hui; Wong, Wing Hung

    2008-10-15

    SeqMap is a tool for mapping large amount of short sequences to the genome. It is designed for finding all the places in a reference genome where each sequence may come from. This task is essential to the analysis of data from ultra high-throughput sequencing machines. With a carefully designed index-filtering algorithm and an efficient implementation, SeqMap can map tens of millions of short sequences to a genome of several billions of nucleotides. Multiple substitutions and insertions/deletions of the nucleotide bases in the sequences can be tolerated and therefore detected. SeqMap supports FASTA input format and various output formats, and provides command line options for tuning almost every aspect of the mapping process. A typical mapping can be done in a few hours on a desktop PC. Parallel use of SeqMap on a cluster is also very straightforward. PMID:18697769

  8. How and why does tomato accumulate a large amount of GABA in the fruit?

    PubMed Central

    Takayama, Mariko; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) has received much attention as a health-promoting functional compound, and several GABA-enriched foods have been commercialized. In higher plants, GABA is primarily metabolized via a short pathway called the GABA shunt. The GABA shunt bypasses two steps (the oxidation of α-ketoglutarate to succinate) of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle via reactions catalyzed by three enzymes: glutamate decarboxylase, GABA transaminase, and succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase. The GABA shunt plays a major role in primary carbon and nitrogen metabolism and is an integral part of the TCA cycle under stress and non-stress conditions. Tomato is one of the major crops that accumulate a relatively high level of GABA in its fruits. The GABA levels in tomato fruits dramatically change during fruit development; the GABA levels increase from flowering to the mature green stage and then rapidly decrease during the ripening stage. Although GABA constitutes up to 50% of the free amino acids at the mature green stage, the molecular mechanism of GABA accumulation and the physiological function of GABA during tomato fruit development remain unclear. In this review, we summarize recent studies of GABA accumulation in tomato fruits and discuss the potential biological roles of GABA in tomato fruit development. PMID:26322056

  9. Off-axis Submarine Massive Sulfide accumulation at the fault-controlled Logatchev 1 hydrothermal field, Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Christine; Theissen-Krah, Sonja; Hannington, Mark

    2016-04-01

    The largest Submarine Massive Sulfide (SMS) deposits in Mid-ocean ridge settings are found along slow-spreading ridges, where tectonic processes dominate and long-lived faults control the circulation of hydrothermal fluids through the oceanic crust. Here we combine results from 2D fluid flow simulations of the off-axis (8km), fault-controlled, high-T Logatchev 1 hydrothermal field (LHF1) at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge with data on vent fluid chemistry and the associated SMS deposit, which give insights about its accumulation history. Modeled high vent temperatures of 360°C, as measured at the active LHF1, result in a total integrated mass-flow rate through the seafloor of ~36 kg/sec scaled to 28 vent orifices of 10x10cm, located in the 7 known high-T sites at the LHF1. About 42% of the vent fluids are hotter than 350°C, the minimum temperature required for efficient metal transport, with a mass-flow rate of 13 kg/sec. This corresponds to ~400 kilotons of potentially SMS-forming hydrothermal fluids leaving the vent field per year. Combined with a total H2S-SiO2-metal (Zn+Cu+Fe) concentration of 732 ppm, measured in the LHF1 vent fluids, this makes a flux of ~300 t of hydrothermal precipitates per year. The SMS deposit at LHF1 has been dated to 58.200 years and has an estimated tonnage of 135 kilotons. Applying the above modeled annual discharge rate over the dated time period, results in an SMS accumulation efficiency of ~0.8% for the SMS deposit at the Logatchev 1 field, which fits the range of estimated global average for MORs between <0.3% and 3%. Our predicted depositional efficiency is based on numerical modeling, which simulates continuous and ideal venting. Realistically, venting at LHF1 might well have been fluctuating, including periods of low temperature discharge, where metal transport is insufficient or periods of inactivity, compensated by periods with a higher depositional efficiency than 0.8%. Such fluctuations could have been caused by variations in

  10. The physiology of massive zinc accumulation in the liver of female squirrelfish and its relationship to reproduction.

    PubMed

    Hogstrand, C; Gassman, N J; Popova, B; Wood, C M; Walsh, P J

    1996-11-01

    It is well known that zinc is an essential micronutrient and, as a rule, organisms keep relatively constant low levels of zinc to maintain cellular functions. The squirrelfish family (Holocentridae) is the only known exception from this rule. Squirrelfish accumulate very high concentrations of zinc in the liver. In the present study, we demonstrate that, while female squirrelfish store large amounts of zinc in the liver and ovaries, the males show zinc levels that are typical for vertebrates. The zinc content of the diet is the same in males and females, and zinc is not lost from the liver during starvation. Thus, the difference between genders in zinc storage is not dependent upon the diet. Rather, there are at least two processes that contribute to the accumulation in females. First, females possess high levels of two major zinc-binding proteins: metallothionein (MT) and a novel female-specific zinc-binding protein (FZnBP). In females, but not in males, almost all MT is present in the hepatocyte nucleus. FZnBP is exclusively found in the hepatocyte cytosol of females. Second, hepatocytes of female squirrelfish have a high capacity to transport zinc across the plasma membrane. In addition to the liver, only the gonads of females showed unusually high concentrations of zinc. Administration of exogenous oestrogen to females decreases the hepatic zinc concentration while there is a matching increase in the zinc content of the ovaries. Thus, oestrogen may trigger a redistribution of zinc from liver to ovaries. Together, our findings suggest that female squirrelfish may be uniquely adapted to detoxify zinc and to utilize it as a macronutrient for processes related to reproduction. PMID:9114505

  11. The Tropical Rain Forest Information Center: how earth scientists can access and use massive amounts of data and products using internet-based geospatial information systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skole, D. L.; Chomentowski, W.; Samek, J.; Oscar, C.; Batzli, S.; Barber, C.; Sayers, A.; Cochrane, M.

    2001-05-01

    The Tropical Rain Forest Information Center (TRFIC) is a NASA-funded data center focusing on data and information services for the global change community and applications for national resources management in tropical countries. It is part of a multi-institutional federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP), an on-going prototyping effort to explore new ways to manage earth science data and information in a highly distributed architecture. The TRFIC is both an analytical facility and an data provider. This paper reviews the development of the ESIP approach and provides a view to new modes of information access for future NASA earth science programs and missions with science-centered analysis and data access occurring at the same facility. The paper provides an overview of the data and information services provided by TRFIC, its technology developments including open web-based geographic information systems, and science products it creates and provides. The technology developments focus on new ways to bring the scientist to the data with internet based analysis tools. These technologies are also making it possible fro almost anyone, anywhere in the world to gain access to massive amounts of remote sensing data, primarily from Landsat, and perform custom analyses suited to their own research and applications. The paper will also describe some of the recent activities of the TRFIC to support national and international science and applications projects including the Global Observation of Forest Cover program, the FAO Forest Resources Assessment Program and the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment.

  12. Energy expended and knee joint load accumulated when walking, running, or standing for the same amount of time.

    PubMed

    Miller, Ross H; Edwards, W Brent; Deluzio, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests prolonged bouts of sitting are unhealthy, and some public health messages have recently recommended replacing sitting with more standing. However, the relative benefits of replacing sitting with standing compared to locomotion are not known. Specifically, the biomechanical consequences of standing compared to other sitting-alternatives like walking and running are not well known and are usually not considered in studies on sitting. We compared the total knee joint load accumulated (TKJLA) and the total energy expended (TEE) when performing either walking, running, or standing for a common exercise bout duration (30 min). Walking and running both (unsurprisingly) had much more TEE than standing (+300% and +1100%, respectively). TKJLA was similar between walking and standing and 74% greater in running. The results suggest that standing is a poor replacement for walking and running if one wishes to increases energy expenditure, and may be particularly questionable for use in individuals at-risk for knee osteoarthritis due to its surprisingly high TKJLA (just as high as walking, 56% of the load in running) and the type of loading (continuous compression) it places on cartilage. However, standing has health benefits as an "inactivity interrupter" that extend beyond its direct energy expenditure. We suggest that future studies on standing as an inactivity intervention consider the potential biomechanical consequences of standing more often throughout the day, particularly in the case of prolonged bouts of standing. PMID:25455208

  13. Acceleration of large active earthflows triggered by massive snow accumulation events: evidences from monitoring the Corvara landslide in early 2014 (Dolomites, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsini, Alessandro; Mulas, Marco; Marcato, Gianluca; Chinellato, Giulia; Mair, Volkmar

    2015-04-01

    In the Dolomites of Italy, snowfall during winter 2013/2014 was exceptionally abundant. Major snowfall events occurred from late December 2013 to mid-March 2014. Snow accumulation in Badia Valley peaked in early February: from 2 to 4 meters with a positive gradient respect to altimetry and accordingly to wind accumulation zones. Below 2000 m asl, due to the mild temperatures recorded before the onset of snowfall, the relatively dry snow cover was mostly deposited on top of unfrozen soils. The Corvara landslide is a large active earthflow located close to Corvara in Badia, at an elevation from 2000 to 1600 m. It's displacement rate before, during and after the exceptional snowfall period was monitored at high temporal frequency. Surface displacement was measured bi-weekly by differential GPS in several benchmarks in the source, track and accumulation zone. Deep displacement was monitored semi-continuously by two in-place inclinometers at 48 m depth in the accumulation zone, across the main deep-seated sliding surface. Results show an acceleration of movements, both at surface and at depth, soon after the massive snow accumulation event of 31st January to 2nd February 2014, which suddenly increased snow thickness from 1 to more than 2 metres. Short time lags between the onset of the acceleration of movements in the source, the track and the accumulation zones were also recorded. The landslide then maintained a relatively constant velocity during the high snow cover period extended to earlyApril and underwent a progressive deceleration during the snowmelt period that lasted until mid-June. The fact that the acceleration of the Corvara earthflow was triggered by a massive and rapid snow accumulation event, provides a quite different perspective from the generally adopted one that considers the destabilizing effect of snow only in relation to the increase of groundwater level during rapid snowmelt. A full explanation of the processes associated to the dynamics observed

  14. A Novel Pathway for Triacylglycerol Biosynthesis Is Responsible for the Accumulation of Massive Quantities of Glycerolipids in the Surface Wax of Bayberry (Myrica pensylvanica) Fruit[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Ohlrogge, John B.

    2016-01-01

    Bayberry (Myrica pensylvanica) fruits synthesize an extremely thick and unusual layer of crystalline surface wax that accumulates to 32% of fruit dry weight, the highest reported surface lipid accumulation in plants. The composition is also striking, consisting of completely saturated triacylglycerol, diacylglycerol, and monoacylglycerol with palmitate and myristate acyl chains. To gain insight into the unique properties of Bayberry wax synthesis, we examined the chemical and morphological development of the wax layer, monitored wax biosynthesis through [14C]-radiolabeling, and sequenced the transcriptome. Radiolabeling identified sn-2 monoacylglycerol as an initial glycerolipid intermediate. The kinetics of [14C]-DAG and [14C]-TAG accumulation and the regiospecificity of their [14C]-acyl chains indicated distinct pools of acyl donors and that final TAG assembly occurs outside of cells. The most highly expressed lipid-related genes were associated with production of cutin, whereas transcripts for conventional TAG synthesis were >50-fold less abundant. The biochemical and expression data together indicate that Bayberry surface glycerolipids are synthesized by a pathway for TAG synthesis that is related to cutin biosynthesis. The combination of a unique surface wax and massive accumulation may aid understanding of how plants produce and secrete non-membrane glycerolipids and also how to engineer alternative pathways for lipid production in non-seeds. PMID:26744217

  15. Massive Hemoptysis.

    PubMed

    Rali, Parth; Gandhi, Viral; Tariq, Cheema

    2016-01-01

    Hemoptysis, or coughing of blood, oftentimes triggers anxiety and fear for patients. The etiology of hemoptysis will determine the clinical course, which includes watchful waiting or intensive care admission. Any amount of hemoptysis that compromises the patient's respiratory status is considered massive hemoptysis and should be considered a medical emergency. In this article, we review introduction, definition, bronchial circulation anatomy, etiology, and management of massive hemoptysis. PMID:26919675

  16. A light-dependent mechanism for massive accumulation of manganese in the photosynthetic bacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Keren, Nir; Kidd, Matthew J; Penner-Hahn, James E; Pakrasi, Himadri B

    2002-12-17

    Manganese is an essential micronutrient for many organisms. Because of its unique role in the water oxidizing activity of photosystem II, manganese is required for photosynthetic growth in plants and cyanobacteria. Here we report on the mechanism of manganese uptake in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Cells grown in 9 microM manganese-containing medium accumulate up to 1 x 10(8) manganese atoms/cell, bound to the outer membrane (pool A). This pool could be released by EDTA treatment. Accumulation of manganese in pool A was energized by photosynthetic electron flow. Moreover, collapsing the membrane potential resulted in the immediate release of this manganese pool. The manganese in this pool is mainly Mn(II) in a six-coordinate distorted environment. A distinctly different pool of manganese, pool B ( approximately 1.5 x 10(6) atoms/cell), could not be extracted by EDTA. Transport into pool B was light-independent and could be detected only under limiting manganese concentrations (1 nM). Evidently, manganese uptake in Synechocystis 6803 cells occurs in two steps. First, manganese accumulates in the outer membrane (pool A) in a membrane potential-dependent process. Next, manganese is transported through the inner membrane into pool B. We propose that pool A serves as a store that allows the cells to overcome transient limitations in manganese in the environment. PMID:12475258

  17. Massive accumulation of modified tau and severe depletion of normal tau characterize the cerebral cortex and white matter of Alzheimer's disease. Demonstration using the hydrated autoclaving method.

    PubMed Central

    Shin, R. W.; Iwaki, T.; Kitamoto, T.; Sato, Y.; Tateishi, J.

    1992-01-01

    Using the hydrated autoclaving method, a new immunohistochemical procedure to enhance tau immunoreactivity in formalin-fixed brain tissue, the authors recently reported that tau protein is detected in neuronal cell bodies and proximal dendrites, gray matter neuropil, axons, and glial cells in normal human hippocampus and neocortex. In the this study, the authors performed a comparative study of the distribution of normal and modified forms of tau in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and control brains. In the cerebral cortex and white matter of AD brains, a massive accumulation of modified tau and/or severe depletion of normal tau were documented in all the tau compartments. In mild AD cases, gray matter neuropil, axons, and glial cells were less severely involved than neuronal perikarya. In the controls, neuronal perikarya were often involved by modified tau accumulation, but the other compartments showed normal distribution. These observations suggest that modifications of tau which lead to neurofibrillary lesions in AD may begin in neuronal perikarya and extend to the other tau compartments in advanced stages of the disease. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:1373272

  18. Acidophilic green alga Pseudochlorella sp. YKT1 accumulates high amount of lipid droplets under a nitrogen-depleted condition at a low-pH.

    PubMed

    Hirooka, Shunsuke; Higuchi, Sumio; Uzuka, Akihiro; Nozaki, Hisayoshi; Miyagishima, Shin-ya

    2014-01-01

    Microalgal storage lipids are considered to be a promising source for next-generation biofuel feedstock. However, microalgal biodiesel is not yet economically feasible due to the high cost of production. One of the reasons for this is that the use of a low-cost open pond system is currently limited because of the unavoidable contamination with undesirable organisms. Extremophiles have an advantage in culturing in an open pond system because they grow in extreme environments toxic to other organisms. In this study, we isolated the acidophilic green alga Pseudochlorella sp. YKT1 from sulfuric acid mine drainage in Nagano Prefecture, Japan. The vegetative cells of YKT1 display the morphological characteristics of Trebouxiophyceae and molecular phylogenetic analyses indicated it to be most closely related to Pseudochlorella pringsheimii. The optimal pH and temperature for the growth of YKT1 are pH 3.0-5.0 and a temperature 20-25°C, respectively. Further, YKT1 is able to grow at pH 2.0 and at 32°C, which corresponds to the usual water temperature in the outdoors in summer in many countries. YKT1 accumulates a large amount of storage lipids (∼30% of dry weigh) under a nitrogen-depleted condition at low-pH (pH 3.0). These results show that acidophilic green algae will be useful for industrial applications by acidic open culture systems. PMID:25221913

  19. Accumulation of Polyhydroxyalkanoic Acid Containing Large Amounts of Unsaturated Monomers in Pseudomonas fluorescens BM07 Utilizing Saccharides and Its Inhibition by 2-Bromooctanoic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ho-Joo; Choi, Mun Hwan; Kim, Tae-Un; Yoon, Sung Chul

    2001-01-01

    A psychrotrophic bacterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens BM07, which is able to accumulate polyhydroxyalkanoic acid (PHA) containing large amounts of 3-hydroxy-cis-5-dodecenoate unit up to 35 mol% in the cell from unrelated substrates such as fructose, succinate, etc., was isolated from an activated sludge in a municipal wastewater treatment plant. When it was grown on heptanoic acid (C7) to hexadecanoic acid (C16) as the sole carbon source, the monomer compositional characteristics of the synthesized PHA were similar to those observed in other fluorescent pseudomonads belonging to rRNA homology group I. However, growth on stearic acid (C18) led to no PHA accumulation, but instead free stearic acid was stored in the cell. The existence of the linkage between fatty acid de novo synthesis and PHA synthesis was confirmed by using inhibitors such as acrylic acid and two other compounds, 2-bromooctanoic acid and 4-pentenoic acid, which are known to inhibit β-oxidation enzymes in animal cells. Acrylic acid completely inhibited PHA synthesis at a concentration of 4 mM in 40 mM octanoate-grown cells, but no inhibition of PHA synthesis occurred in 70 mM fructose-grown cells in the presence of 1 to 5 mM acrylic acid. 2-Bromooctanoic acid and 4-pentenoic acid were found to much inhibit PHA synthesis much more strongly in fructose-grown cells than in octanoate-grown cells over concentrations ranging from 1 to 5 mM. However, 2-bromooctanoic acid and 4-pentenoic acid did not inhibit cell growth at all in the fructose media. Especially, with the cells grown on fructose, 2-bromooctanoic acid exhibited a steep rise in the percent PHA synthesis inhibition over a small range of concentrations below 100 μM, a finding indicative of a very specific inhibition, whereas 4-pentenoic acid showed a broad, featureless concentration dependence, suggesting a rather nonspecific inhibition. The apparent inhibition constant Ki (the concentration for 50% inhibition of PHA synthesis) for 2

  20. Exploring Effective Strategies for Increasing the Amount of Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity Children Accumulate during Recess: A Quasi-Experimental Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efrat, Merav W.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Less than half of elementary children meet the physical activity recommendations of 30 to 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) on a daily basis. Recess provides the single biggest opportunity for children to accumulate MVPA. This study explored whether a teacher's social prompting to be active during recess…

  1. Accumulation of planets into the proto-planetary cloud as a process of occurring an amount of characteristic scales into the nonlinear self organized dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Professor Khachay, Yurie

    2015-04-01

    Two characteristic times are significant for evolution the interior of the homogeneous proto-planetary cloud: the time of bodies free fall towards the clouds mass center and the time of sound distribution through the cloud. With the beginning of proto-planetary disk fragmentation and accumulation of the proto-planets from the bodies and particles there are formed matter content heterogeneities of the finite dimension, heterogeneities of temperature, density and values of kinetic coefficients. The system became more and more complicated with interior interconnections. By the growing of the bodies the difference between the values of the characteristic times and dimensions become larger. The dynamical evolution of the system we could observe with use the numerical modeling of the Earth and Moon formation into the 3-D model [1,2]. The fact, that the linear dimensions of the objects during the accumulation process change from the centimeter and meter dimensions to some thousands of kilometers significantly prevent the mathematical description of these processes. The corresponding values of the no dimensional similarity criterions, which are included into the systems of differential equations, which describe the proto-planetary growing, the conditions for entropy and mass on the growing surface, the equations of the impulse balance, energy and mass into the interior parts of the planet change on an orders of values. Therefore we used very detailed space and time grids for solution the problem using the method of finite differences. The additional complications occur according to necessity to take into account the nonlinear dependence of matter viscosity from the temperature, pressure and chemical matter content. At last we took into account the principal random distribution of heterogeneities, stipulated by bodies and particles falling. Only progression towards that direction and constructing corresponding systems of observation and interpretation allow to hope

  2. Correlated Changes in the Activity, Amount of Protein, and Abundance of Transcript of NADPH:Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductase and Chlorophyll Accumulation during Greening of Cucumber Cotyledons.

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, K.; Chen, R. M.; Tanaka, A.; Teramoto, H.; Tanaka, R.; Timko, M. P.; Tsuji, H.

    1995-01-01

    Changes in the activity and abundance of NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (NPR) and the abundance of mRNA encoding it were examined during the greening of 5-d-old etiolated cucumber cotyledons under continuous illumination. To measure NPR activity in the extracts from fully greened tissues, we have developed an improved method of assay. Upon exposure of etiolated cotyledons to light, NPR activity decreased rapidly within the first 2 h of exposure. Thereafter, enzymatic activity increased transiently, reaching a submaximum level at 12 h, and decreased slowly. The level of immunodetectable NPR protein followed the same pattern of changes during 96 h of greening as observed for NPR activity. The NPR mRNA in etiolated cotyledons disappeared quickly in the 1st h of irradiation. However, the level of mRNA increased thereafter to reach 3-fold or more of the dark level at 12 h and then decreased. The changes in the activity, protein level, and mRNA level after the first rapid decreases corresponded chronologically and nearly paralleled the increase in the rate of chlorophyll accumulation. These findings suggest that the greening of cucumber cotyledons is regulated basically by the level of NPR protein without activation or repression of enzymatic activity and that NPR mRNA increased by light maintains the level of enzyme protein necessary for greening. PMID:12228591

  3. Massive Oral Decoding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janicke, Eugene M.

    1981-01-01

    An intensive reading clinic used the Massive Oral Decoding (MOD) technique to help 10 reading disabled students (grades 7 and 8) increase independent reading skills. MOD stresses large amounts of reading practice at the student's independent level. (CL)

  4. Calcium Oxalate Accumulation in Malpighian Tubules of Silkworm (Bombyx mori)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyman, Aaron J.; Webb, Mary Alice

    2007-04-01

    Silkworm provides an ideal model system for study of calcium oxalate crystallization in kidney-like organs, called Malpighian tubules. During their growth and development, silkworm larvae accumulate massive amounts of calcium oxalate crystals in their Malpighian tubules with no apparent harm to the organism. This manuscript reports studies of crystal structure in the tubules along with analyses identifying molecular constituents of tubule exudate.

  5. Dust in regions of massive star formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfire, Mark G.; Cassinelli, J. P.

    1989-01-01

    It is suggested that protostars increase mass by accreting the surrounding gas and dust. Grains are destroyed as they near the central protostar creating a dust shell or cocoon. Radiation pressure acting on the grains can halt the inflow of material thereby limiting the amount of mass accumulated by the protostar. General constraints were considered on the initial dust-to-gas ratio and mass accretion rates that permit inflow. These results were constrained further by constructing a numerical model, including radiative deceleration on grains and grain destruction processes. Also the constraints on dust properties were investigated which allow the formation of massive stars. The obtained results seem to suggest that massive star formation requires rather extreme preconditioning of the grain and gas environment.

  6. Massive CA1/2 Neuronal Loss with Intraneuronal and N-Terminal Truncated Aβ42 Accumulation in a Novel Alzheimer Transgenic Model

    PubMed Central

    Casas, Caty; Sergeant, Nicolas; Itier, Jean-Michel; Blanchard, Véronique; Wirths, Oliver; van der Kolk, Nicolien; Vingtdeux, Valérie; van de Steeg, Evita; Ret, Gwenaëlle; Canton, Thierry; Drobecq, Hervé; Clark, Allan; Bonici, Bruno; Delacourte, André; Benavides, Jesús; Schmitz, Christoph; Tremp, Günter; Bayer, Thomas A.; Benoit, Patrick; Pradier, Laurent

    2004-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by a substantial degeneration of pyramidal neurons and the appearance of neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Here we present a novel transgenic mouse model, APPSLPS1KI that closely mimics the development of AD-related neuropathological features including a significant hippocampal neuronal loss. This transgenic mouse model carries M233T/L235P knocked-in mutations in presenilin-1 and overexpresses mutated human β-amyloid (Aβ) precursor protein. Aβx-42 is the major form of Aβ species present in this model with progressive development of a complex pattern of N-truncated variants and dimers, similar to those observed in AD brain. At 10 months of age, an extensive neuronal loss (>50%) is present in the CA1/2 hippocampal pyramidal cell layer that correlates with strong accumulation of intraneuronal Aβ and thioflavine-S-positive intracellular material but not with extracellular Aβ deposits. A strong reactive astrogliosis develops together with the neuronal loss. This loss is already detectable at 6 months of age and is PS1KI gene dosage-dependent. Thus, APPSLPS1KI mice further confirm the critical role of intraneuronal Aβ42 in neuronal loss and provide an excellent tool to investigate therapeutic strategies designed to prevent AD neurodegeneration. PMID:15466394

  7. Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livio, Mario; Villaver, Eva

    2009-11-01

    Participants; Preface Mario Livio and Eva Villaver; 1. High-mass star formation by gravitational collapse of massive cores M. R. Krumholz; 2. Observations of massive star formation N. A. Patel; 3. Massive star formation in the Galactic center D. F. Figer; 4. An X-ray tour of massive star-forming regions with Chandra L. K. Townsley; 5. Massive stars: feedback effects in the local universe M. S. Oey and C. J. Clarke; 6. The initial mass function in clusters B. G. Elmegreen; 7. Massive stars and star clusters in the Antennae galaxies B. C. Whitmore; 8. On the binarity of Eta Carinae T. R. Gull; 9. Parameters and winds of hot massive stars R. P. Kudritzki and M. A. Urbaneja; 10. Unraveling the Galaxy to find the first stars J. Tumlinson; 11. Optically observable zero-age main-sequence O stars N. R. Walborn; 12. Metallicity-dependent Wolf-Raynet winds P. A. Crowther; 13. Eruptive mass loss in very massive stars and Population III stars N. Smith; 14. From progenitor to afterlife R. A. Chevalier; 15. Pair-production supernovae: theory and observation E. Scannapieco; 16. Cosmic infrared background and Population III: an overview A. Kashlinsky.

  8. JD13 - Eta Carinae in the Context of the Most Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gull, Theodore R.; Damineli, Augusto

    2010-11-01

    Eta Car, with its historical outbursts, visible ejecta and massive, variable winds, continues to challenge both observers and modelers. In just the past five years over 100 papers have been published on this fascinating object. We now know it to be a massive binary system with a 5.54-year period. In January 2009, η Car underwent one of its periodic low-states, associated with periastron passage of the two massive stars. This event was monitored by an intensive multi-wavelength campaign ranging from γ-rays to radio. A large amount of data was collected to test a number of evolving models including 3-D models of the massive interacting winds. August 2009 was an excellent time for observers and theorists to come together and review the accumulated studies, as have occurred in four meetings since 1998 devoted to Eta Car. Indeed, η Car behaved both predictably and unpredictably during this most recent periastron, spurring timely discussions.

  9. Accumulate repeat accumulate codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative channel coding scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate codes' (ARA). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, thus belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA codes on a graph. The structure of encoder for this class can be viewed as precoded Repeat Accumulate (RA) code or as precoded Irregular Repeat Accumulate (IRA) code, where simply an accumulator is chosen as a precoder. Thus ARA codes have simple, and very fast encoder structure when they representing LDPC codes. Based on density evolution for LDPC codes through some examples for ARA codes, we show that for maximum variable node degree 5 a minimum bit SNR as low as 0.08 dB from channel capacity for rate 1/2 can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Thus based on fixed low maximum variable node degree, its threshold outperforms not only the RA and IRA codes but also the best known LDPC codes with the dame maximum node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators any desired high rate codes close to code rate 1 can be obtained with thresholds that stay close to the channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results are provided. The ARA codes also have projected graph or protograph representation that allows for high speed decoder implementation.

  10. Massive Fibroid

    PubMed Central

    Weekes, Leroy R.

    1977-01-01

    This ten-year study of the massive fibroid at the Queen of Angels Hospital will reveal an average of 66 cases per year which could be classified as large and massive. Only about ten cases per year qualify as massive (four gestational months or larger). There were none considered giant size (25 lbs or more). The literature is replete with these, one of which (weighing 100.2 lbs) will be reported in detail. The mortality rate continues to be considerable in these (14.8 to 16.7 percent). In the smaller tumors, mortality is rare and morbidity is minimal. Bleeding, pain, and pressure symptoms, due to impingement on neighboring organs, are the principal symptoms. Sarcomatous change, fortunately, still remains quite rare. Treatment usually involves a pre-operative dilatation and curettage when bleeding is a problem, followed by total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy where indicated. Appendectomy is usually incidental. Anesthesia is usually spinal, if not otherwise contraindicated. Ultrasound is a new and refined diagnostic tool. PMID:833892

  11. Massive Bleeding and Massive Transfusion

    PubMed Central

    Meißner, Andreas; Schlenke, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Massive bleeding in trauma patients is a serious challenge for all clinicians, and an interdisciplinary diagnostic and therapeutic approach is warranted within a limited time frame. Massive transfusion usually is defined as the transfusion of more than 10 units of packed red blood cells (RBCs) within 24 h or a corresponding blood loss of more than 1- to 1.5-fold of the body's entire blood volume. Especially male trauma patients experience this life-threatening condition within their productive years of life. An important parameter for clinical outcome is to succeed in stopping the bleeding preferentially within the first 12 h of hospital admission. Additional coagulopathy in the initial phase is induced by trauma itself and aggravated by consumption and dilution of clotting factors. Although different aspects have to be taken into consideration when viewing at bleedings induced by trauma compared to those caused by major surgery, the basic strategy is similar. Here, we will focus on trauma-induced massive hemorrhage. Currently there are no definite, worldwide accepted algorithms for blood transfusion and strategies for optimal coagulation management. There is increasing evidence that a higher ratio of plasma and RBCs (e.g. 1:1) endorsed by platelet transfusion might result in a superior survival of patients at risk for trauma-induced coagulopathy. Several strategies have been evolved in the military environment, although not all strategies should be transferred unproven to civilian practice, e.g. the transfusion of whole blood. Several agents have been proposed to support the restoration of coagulation. Some have been used for years without any doubt on their benefit-to-risk profile, whereas great enthusiasm of other products has been discouraged by inefficacy in terms of blood transfusion requirements and mortality or significant severe side effects. This review surveys current literature on fluid resuscitation, blood transfusion, and hemostatic agents currently

  12. Eta Carinae in the Context of the Most Massive Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gull, Theodore R.; Damineli, Augusto

    2009-01-01

    Eta Car, with its historical outbursts, visible ejecta and massive, variable winds, continues to challenge both observers and modelers. In just the past five years over 100 papers have been published on this fascinating object. We now know it to be a massive binary system with a 5.54-year period. In January 2009, Car underwent one of its periodic low-states, associated with periastron passage of the two massive stars. This event was monitored by an intensive multi-wavelength campaign ranging from -rays to radio. A large amount of data was collected to test a number of evolving models including 3-D models of the massive interacting winds. August 2009 was an excellent time for observers and theorists to come together and review the accumulated studies, as have occurred in four meetings since 1998 devoted to Eta Car. Indeed, Car behaved both predictably and unpredictably during this most recent periastron, spurring timely discussions. Coincidently, WR140 also passed through periastron in early 2009. It, too, is a intensively studied massive interacting binary. Comparison of its properties, as well as the properties of other massive stars, with those of Eta Car is very instructive. These well-known examples of evolved massive binary systems provide many clues as to the fate of the most massive stars. What are the effects of the interacting winds, of individual stellar rotation, and of the circumstellar material on what we see as hypernovae/supernovae? We hope to learn. Topics discussed in this 1.5 day Joint Discussion were: Car: the 2009.0 event: Monitoring campaigns in X-rays, optical, radio, interferometry WR140 and HD5980: similarities and differences to Car LBVs and Eta Carinae: What is the relationship? Massive binary systems, wind interactions and 3-D modeling Shapes of the Homunculus & Little Homunculus: what do we learn about mass ejection? Massive stars: the connection to supernovae, hypernovae and gamma ray bursters Where do we go from here? (future

  13. Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate-Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2004-01-01

    Inspired by recently proposed Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate (ARA) codes [15], in this paper we propose a channel coding scheme called Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate (ARAA) codes. These codes can be seen as serial turbo-like codes or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, and they have a projected graph or protograph representation; this allows for a high-speed iterative decoder implementation using belief propagation. An ARAA code can be viewed as a precoded Repeat-and-Accumulate (RA) code with puncturing in concatenation with another accumulator, where simply an accumulator is chosen as the precoder; thus ARAA codes have a very fast encoder structure. Using density evolution on their associated protographs, we find examples of rate-lJ2 ARAA codes with maximum variable node degree 4 for which a minimum bit-SNR as low as 0.21 dB from the channel capacity limit can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Such a low threshold cannot be achieved by RA or Irregular RA (IRA) or unstructured irregular LDPC codes with the same constraint on the maximum variable node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators we can construct families of higher rate ARAA codes with thresholds that stay close to their respective channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results show comparable performance with the best-known LDPC codes but with very low error floor even at moderate block sizes.

  14. Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Samuel; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    Accumulate-repeat-accumulate-accumulate (ARAA) codes have been proposed, inspired by the recently proposed accumulate-repeat-accumulate (ARA) codes. These are error-correcting codes suitable for use in a variety of wireless data-communication systems that include noisy channels. ARAA codes can be regarded as serial turbolike codes or as a subclass of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes, and, like ARA codes they have projected graph or protograph representations; these characteristics make it possible to design high-speed iterative decoders that utilize belief-propagation algorithms. The objective in proposing ARAA codes as a subclass of ARA codes was to enhance the error-floor performance of ARA codes while maintaining simple encoding structures and low maximum variable node degree.

  15. The Indefinite Accumulation of Finite Amounts: A Socratic Educative Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Maria Angeles; Carreras, Pedro Perez

    2011-01-01

    We present a semi-structured clinic interview designed to ease the mental construction of a suitable concept-image of the notion of convergence for series of positive numbers. Cognitive obstacles will manifest themselves along the interview and we shall deal with them and teach the student how to overcome them. A special computer generated tool…

  16. Massive transfusion and massive transfusion protocol

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Vijaya; Shetmahajan, Madhavi

    2014-01-01

    Haemorrhage remains a major cause of potentially preventable deaths. Rapid transfusion of large volumes of blood products is required in patients with haemorrhagic shock which may lead to a unique set of complications. Recently, protocol based management of these patients using massive transfusion protocol have shown improved outcomes. This section discusses in detail both management and complications of massive blood transfusion. PMID:25535421

  17. Chromoplast biogenesis and carotenoid accumulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chromoplasts are special organelles that possess superior ability to synthesize and store massive amounts of carotenoids. They are responsible for the distinctive colors found in fruits, flowers, and roots. Chromoplasts exhibit various morphologies and are derived from either pre-existing chloroplas...

  18. Higher dimensional massive bigravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, Tuan Q.

    2016-08-01

    We study higher-dimensional scenarios of massive bigravity, which is a very interesting extension of nonlinear massive gravity since its reference metric is assumed to be fully dynamical. In particular, the Einstein field equations along with the following constraint equations for both physical and reference metrics of a five-dimensional massive bigravity will be addressed. Then, we study some well-known cosmological spacetimes such as the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker, Bianchi type I, and Schwarzschild-Tangherlini metrics for the five-dimensional massive bigravity. As a result, we find that massive graviton terms will serve as effective cosmological constants in both physical and reference sectors if a special scenario, in which reference metrics are chosen to be proportional to physical ones, is considered for all mentioned metrics. Thanks to the constancy property of massive graviton terms, consistent cosmological solutions will be figured out accordingly.

  19. Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative coded modulation scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation' (ARA coded modulation). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes that are combined with high level modulation. Thus at the decoder belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA coded modulation on a graph, provided a demapper transforms the received in-phase and quadrature samples to reliability of the bits.

  20. Extinction in young massive clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Marchi, Guido; Panagia, Nino

    2016-01-01

    Up to ages of ~100 Myr, massive clusters are still swamped in large amounts of gas and dust, causing considerable and uneven levels of extinction. At the same time, large grains (ices?) produced by type II supernovae profoundly alter the interstellar medium (ISM), thus resulting in extinction properties very different from those of the diffuse ISM. To obtain physically meaningful parameters of stars (luminosities, effective temperatures, masses, ages, etc.) we must understand and measure the local extinction law. We have developed a powerful method to unambiguously determine the extinction law everywhere across a cluster field, using multi-band photometry of red giant stars belonging to the red clump (RC) and are applying it to young massive clusters in the Local Group. In the Large Magellanic Cloud, with about 20 RC stars per arcmin2, for each field we can easily derive an accurate extinction curve over the entire wavelength range of the photometry. As an example, we present the extinction law of the Tarantula nebula (30 Dor) based on thousands of stars observed as part of the Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project. We discuss how the incautious adoption of the Milky Way extinction law in the analysis of massive star forming regions may lead to serious underestimates of the fluxes and of the star formation rates by factors of 2 or more.

  1. Octonic Massive Field Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demir, Süleyman; Kekeç, Seray

    2016-03-01

    In the present paper we propose the octonic form of massive field equations based on the analogy with electromagnetism and linear gravity. Using the advantages of octon algebra the Maxwell-Dirac-Proca equations have been reformulated in compact and elegant way. The energy-momentum relations for massive field are discussed.

  2. Octonic Massive Field Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demir, Süleyman; Kekeç, Seray

    2016-07-01

    In the present paper we propose the octonic form of massive field equations based on the analogy with electromagnetism and linear gravity. Using the advantages of octon algebra the Maxwell-Dirac-Proca equations have been reformulated in compact and elegant way. The energy-momentum relations for massive field are discussed.

  3. Tonoplast Sugar Transporters (SbTSTs) putatively control sucrose accumulation in sweet sorghum stems

    PubMed Central

    Bihmidine, Saadia; Julius, Benjamin T; Dweikat, Ismail; Braun, David M

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Carbohydrates are differentially partitioned in sweet versus grain sorghums. While the latter preferentially accumulate starch in the grain, the former primarily store large amounts of sucrose in the stem. Previous work determined that neither sucrose metabolizing enzymes nor changes in Sucrose transporter (SUT) gene expression accounted for the carbohydrate partitioning differences. Recently, 2 additional classes of sucrose transport proteins, Tonoplast Sugar Transporters (TSTs) and SWEETs, were identified; thus, we examined whether their expression tracked sucrose accumulation in sweet sorghum stems. We determined 2 TSTs were differentially expressed in sweet vs. grain sorghum stems, likely underlying the massive difference in sucrose accumulation. A model illustrating potential roles for different classes of sugar transport proteins in sorghum sugar partitioning is discussed. PMID:26619184

  4. 47 CFR 32.3100 - Accumulated depreciation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accumulated depreciation. 32.3100 Section 32... Accumulated depreciation. (a) This account shall include the accumulated depreciation associated with the... with depreciation amounts concurrently charged to Account 6561, Depreciation...

  5. Supersymmetrizing massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malaeb, O.

    2013-07-01

    When four scalar fields with global Lorentz symmetry are coupled to gravity and take a vacuum expectation value, breaking diffeomorphism invariance spontaneously, the graviton becomes massive. This model is supersymmetrized by considering four N=1 chiral superfields with global Lorentz symmetry. The global supersymmetry is promoted to a local one using the rules of tensor calculus of coupling the N=1 supergravity Lagrangian to the four chiral multiplets. When the scalar components of the chiral multiplets zA acquire a vacuum expectation value, both diffeomorphism invariance and local supersymmetry are broken spontaneously. The global Lorentz index A becomes identified with the space-time Lorentz index, making the scalar fields zA vectors and the chiral spinors ψA spin-3/2 Rarita-Schwinger fields. We show that the spectrum of the model in the broken phase consists of a massive spin-2 field, two massive spin-3/2 fields with different mass and a massive vector.

  6. Quantum massive conformal gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faria, F. F.

    2016-04-01

    We first find the linear approximation of the second plus fourth order derivative massive conformal gravity action. Then we reduce the linearized action to separated second order derivative terms, which allows us to quantize the theory by using the standard first order canonical quantization method. It is shown that quantum massive conformal gravity is renormalizable but has ghost states. A possible decoupling of these ghost states at high energies is discussed.

  7. Olivier Chesneau's Work on Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millour, F.

    2015-12-01

    Olivier Chesneau challenged several fields of observational stellar astrophysics with bright ideas and an impressive amount of work to make them real in the span of his career, from his first paper on P Cygni in 2000, up to his last one on V838 Mon in 2014. He was using all the so-called high-angular resolution techniques since it helped his science to be made, namely study in details the inner structure of the environments around stars, be it small mass (AGBs), more massive (supergiant stars), or explosives (Novae). I will focus here on his work on massive stars.

  8. Introduction to Massive Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Rham, Claudia

    We review recent progress on massive gravity. We first show how extra dimensions prove to be a useful tool in building theories of modified gravity, including Galileon theories and their DBI extensions. DGP arises from an infinite size extra dimension, and we show how massive gravity arises from `deconstructing' the extra dimension in the vielbein formalism. We then explain how the ghost issue is resolved in that special theory of massive gravity. The viability of such models relies on the Vainshtein mechanism which is best described in terms of Galileons. While its implementation is successful in most of these models it also comes hand in hand with superluminalities and strong coupling which are reviewed and their real consequences are discussed.

  9. [Massive ovarian edema in a 13-year-old girl].

    PubMed

    Sailer, V; Huss, S; Wardelmann, E; Müller, A M

    2013-11-01

    Massive ovarian edema is a rare tumor-like condition found in young women resulting from accumulation of fluid mostly due to partial or intermittent torsion of the ovary or secondary, to a preexisting ovarian lesion. We report a case of a 13-year-old girl presenting with an ovarian mass measuring 16 cm. CA-12-5 levels were slightly elevated. Concerns regarding underlying malignancy led to salpingo-oophorectomy. Pathological evaluation revealed a massive ovarian edema and multiple thromboses of ovarian veins. Differentiating massive ovarian edema from malignant ovarian tumor is crucial to prevent patients from undergoing unnecessary surgery. PMID:23649810

  10. Resummation of Massive Gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Rham, Claudia de; Gabadadze, Gregory; Tolley, Andrew J.

    2011-06-10

    We construct four-dimensional covariant nonlinear theories of massive gravity which are ghost-free in the decoupling limit to all orders. These theories resume explicitly all the nonlinear terms of an effective field theory of massive gravity. We show that away from the decoupling limit the Hamiltonian constraint is maintained at least up to and including quartic order in nonlinearities, hence excluding the possibility of the Boulware-Deser ghost up to this order. We also show that the same remains true to all orders in a similar toy model.

  11. Massive and Open

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasimpaur, Karen

    2013-01-01

    MOOCs--massive open online courses--are all the rage these days, with hundreds of thousands of participants signing up and investors plunking down millions to get a piece of the pie. Why is there so much excitement about this new disruptive form of online learning, and how does this model apply to professional learning for teachers? Traditional…

  12. Massive Stars: Stellar Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Luciana

    2007-07-01

    Massive stars dominate the chemical and dynamical evolution of the ISM, and ultimately of their parent galaxy and the universe, because of their fast evolution and intense supersonic winds. Four decades ago, the first rocket UV spectra of massive stars revealed the importance of mass loss and began to change our understanding of their evolution. Recently, advances in stellar modeling, and the observation of crucial ions in the far-UV spectral range, led to the resolution of long-standing issues in our understanding of massive star atmospheres. A revised (downwards) calibration of Teff for early spectral types is emerging as a result. Meanwhile, HST imaging, and large ground-based telescopes with multislit spectroscopic capabilities, had opened the possibility of resolved studies of stellar populations in Local Group galaxies, which sample a variety of metallicity and environment conditions. More recently, GALEX is providing a global, deep view of the young stellar populations for hundreds of nearby galaxies, revealing their recent star-formation history and modalities. The wide-field coverage and sensitivity of the GALEX UV imaging, easily detecting extremely low levels of star formation, is again changing some of our views on massive star formation in galaxies.

  13. New massive supergravity multiplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gates, S. James, Jr.; Kuzenko, Sergei M.; Tartaglino-Mazzucchelli, Gabriele

    2007-02-01

    We present new off-shell formulations for the massive superspin-3/2 multiplet. In the massless limit, they reduce respectively to the old minimal (n = -1/3) and non-minimal (n≠-1/3,0) linearized formulations for 4D Script N = 1 supergravity. Duality transformations, which relate the models constructed, are derived.

  14. Supertwistors and massive particles

    SciTech Connect

    Mezincescu, Luca; Routh, Alasdair J.; Townsend, Paul K.

    2014-07-15

    In the (super)twistor formulation of massless (super)particle mechanics, the mass-shell constraint is replaced by a “spin-shell” constraint from which the spin content can be read off. We extend this formalism to massive (super)particles (with N-extended space–time supersymmetry) in three and four space–time dimensions, explaining how the spin-shell constraints are related to spin, and we use it to prove equivalence of the massive N=1 and BPS-saturated N=2 superparticle actions. We also find the supertwistor form of the action for “spinning particles” with N-extended worldline supersymmetry, massless in four dimensions and massive in three dimensions, and we show how this simplifies special features of the N=2 case. -- Highlights: •Spin-shell constraints are related to Poincaré Casimirs. •Twistor form of 4D spinning particle for spin N/2. •Twistor proof of scalar/antisymmetric tensor equivalence for 4D spin 0. •Twistor form of 3D particle with arbitrary spin. •Proof of equivalence of N=1 and N=2 BPS massive 4D superparticles.

  15. 26 CFR 1.666(a)-1A - Amount allocated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Amount allocated. 1.666(a)-1A Section 1.666(a... Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(a)-1A Amount allocated. (a) In general. In the case of a trust that... trusts that may accumulate income or that distribute corpus), section 666(a) prescribes rules...

  16. 26 CFR 1.666(a)-1A - Amount allocated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Amount allocated. 1.666(a)-1A Section 1.666(a... Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(a)-1A Amount allocated. (a) In general. In the case of a trust that... trusts that may accumulate income or that distribute corpus), section 666(a) prescribes rules...

  17. 26 CFR 1.666(a)-1A - Amount allocated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Amount allocated. 1.666(a)-1A Section 1.666(a... Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(a)-1A Amount allocated. (a) In general. In the case of a trust that... trusts that may accumulate income or that distribute corpus), section 666(a) prescribes rules...

  18. 26 CFR 1.666(a)-1A - Amount allocated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amount allocated. 1.666(a)-1A Section 1.666(a... Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(a)-1A Amount allocated. (a) In general. In the case of a trust that is... that may accumulate income or that distribute corpus), section 666(a) prescribes rules for...

  19. 26 CFR 1.666(a)-1A - Amount allocated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Amount allocated. 1.666(a)-1A Section 1.666(a... Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(a)-1A Amount allocated. (a) In general. In the case of a trust that... trusts that may accumulate income or that distribute corpus), section 666(a) prescribes rules...

  20. Whole Genome Re-Sequencing Identifies a Quantitative Trait Locus Repressing Carbon Reserve Accumulation during Optimal Growth in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Goold, Hugh Douglas; Nguyen, Hoa Mai; Kong, Fantao; Beyly-Adriano, Audrey; Légeret, Bertrand; Billon, Emmanuelle; Cuiné, Stéphan; Beisson, Fred; Peltier, Gilles; Li-Beisson, Yonghua

    2016-01-01

    Microalgae have emerged as a promising source for biofuel production. Massive oil and starch accumulation in microalgae is possible, but occurs mostly when biomass growth is impaired. The molecular networks underlying the negative correlation between growth and reserve formation are not known. Thus isolation of strains capable of accumulating carbon reserves during optimal growth would be highly desirable. To this end, we screened an insertional mutant library of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii for alterations in oil content. A mutant accumulating five times more oil and twice more starch than wild-type during optimal growth was isolated and named constitutive oil accumulator 1 (coa1). Growth in photobioreactors under highly controlled conditions revealed that the increase in oil and starch content in coa1 was dependent on light intensity. Genetic analysis and DNA hybridization pointed to a single insertional event responsible for the phenotype. Whole genome re-sequencing identified in coa1 a >200 kb deletion on chromosome 14 containing 41 genes. This study demonstrates that, 1), the generation of algal strains accumulating higher reserve amount without compromising biomass accumulation is feasible; 2), light is an important parameter in phenotypic analysis; and 3), a chromosomal region (Quantitative Trait Locus) acts as suppressor of carbon reserve accumulation during optimal growth. PMID:27141848

  1. Whole Genome Re-Sequencing Identifies a Quantitative Trait Locus Repressing Carbon Reserve Accumulation during Optimal Growth in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    PubMed Central

    Goold, Hugh Douglas; Nguyen, Hoa Mai; Kong, Fantao; Beyly-Adriano, Audrey; Légeret, Bertrand; Billon, Emmanuelle; Cuiné, Stéphan; Beisson, Fred; Peltier, Gilles; Li-Beisson, Yonghua

    2016-01-01

    Microalgae have emerged as a promising source for biofuel production. Massive oil and starch accumulation in microalgae is possible, but occurs mostly when biomass growth is impaired. The molecular networks underlying the negative correlation between growth and reserve formation are not known. Thus isolation of strains capable of accumulating carbon reserves during optimal growth would be highly desirable. To this end, we screened an insertional mutant library of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii for alterations in oil content. A mutant accumulating five times more oil and twice more starch than wild-type during optimal growth was isolated and named constitutive oil accumulator 1 (coa1). Growth in photobioreactors under highly controlled conditions revealed that the increase in oil and starch content in coa1 was dependent on light intensity. Genetic analysis and DNA hybridization pointed to a single insertional event responsible for the phenotype. Whole genome re-sequencing identified in coa1 a >200 kb deletion on chromosome 14 containing 41 genes. This study demonstrates that, 1), the generation of algal strains accumulating higher reserve amount without compromising biomass accumulation is feasible; 2), light is an important parameter in phenotypic analysis; and 3), a chromosomal region (Quantitative Trait Locus) acts as suppressor of carbon reserve accumulation during optimal growth. PMID:27141848

  2. Correlation between cell killing and massive second-round superinfection by members of some subgroups of avian leukosis virus.

    PubMed Central

    Weller, S K; Joy, A E; Temin, H M

    1980-01-01

    Avian leukosis viruses of subgroups B, D, and F are cytopathic for chicken cells, whereas viruses of subgroups A, C, and E are not. The amounts of unintegrated linear viral DNA in cells at different times after infection with cytopathic or noncytopathic viruses were determined by hybridization and transfection assays. Shortly after infection, there is a transient accumulation of unintegrated linear viral DNA in cells infected with cytopathic avian leukosis viruses. By 10 days after infection, the majority of this unintegrated viral DNA is not present in the infected cells. The transient cytopathic effect seen in these infected cells also disappears by this time. Low amounts of unintegrated linear viral DNA persist in these cells. Cells infected with noncytopathic viruses do not show this transient accumulation of unintegrated viral DNA. Cells infected with cytopathic viruses and subsequently grown in the presence of neutralizing antibody do not show the transient accumulation of unintegrated viral DNA or cytopathic effects. These results demonstrate a correlation between envelope subgroup, transient accumulation of unintegrated linear viral DNA, and transient cell killing by avian leukosis viruses. The cell killing appears to be the result of massive second-round superinfection by the cytopathic avian leukosis viruses. Images PMID:6245246

  3. Guidelines for Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to set conditions for establishing and maintaining areas for the accumulation of hazardous waste at LBL. Areas designed for accumulation of these wastes in quantities greater than 100 kg (220 lb) per month of solid waste or 55 gallons per month of liquid waste are called Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs). Areas designed for accumulation of wastes in smaller amounts are called Satellite Accumulation Areas (SAAs). This document provides guidelines for employee and organizational responsibilities for WAAs; constructing a WAA; storing waste in a WAA; operating and maintaining a WAA, and responding to spills in a WAA. 4 figs.

  4. Massive cold cloud clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth, L. Viktor; Marton, Gabor; Zahorecz, Sarolta

    2015-08-01

    The all-sky Planck catalogue of Galactic Cold Clumps (PGCC, Planck 2015 results XXVIII 2015) allows an almost unbiased study of the early phases of star-formation in our Galaxy. Several thousand of the clumps have also distance estimates allowing a mass, and density determination. The nature of Planck clumps varies from IRDCs to tiny nearby cold clouds with masses ranging from one to several tens of thousands solar masses. Some of the clumps are embedded in GMCs, others are isolated. Some are close or even very close to OB associations, while others lay far from any UV luminous objects.The small scale clustering of these objects was studied with the improved Minimum Spanning Tree method of Cartwright & Whitworth identifying groups in 3D space. As a result also massive cold cloud clusters were identified. We analyse the MST structures, and discuss their relation to ongoing and future massive star formation.

  5. Skyrmions with massive pions

    SciTech Connect

    Battye, Richard A.; Sutcliffe, Paul M.

    2006-05-15

    In the Skyrme model with massless pions, the minimal energy multi-Skyrmions are shell-like, with the baryon density localized on the edges of a polyhedron that is approximately spherical and generically of the fullerene-type. In this paper we show that in the Skyrme model with massive pions these configurations are unstable for sufficiently large baryon number. Using numerical simulations of the full nonlinear field theory, we show that these structures collapse to form qualitatively different stable Skyrmion solutions. These new Skyrmions have a flat structure and display a clustering phenomenon into lower charge components, particularly components of baryon numbers three and four. These new qualitative features of Skyrmions with massive pions are encouraging in comparison with the expectations based on real nuclei.

  6. New improved massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dereli, T.; Yetişmişoğlu, C.

    2016-06-01

    We derive the field equations for topologically massive gravity coupled with the most general quadratic curvature terms using the language of exterior differential forms and a first-order constrained variational principle. We find variational field equations both in the presence and absence of torsion. We then show that spaces of constant negative curvature (i.e. the anti de-Sitter space AdS 3) and constant torsion provide exact solutions.

  7. Young Massive Star Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portegies Zwart, Simon F.; McMillan, Stephen L. W.; Gieles, Mark

    2010-09-01

    Young massive clusters (YMCs) are dense aggregates of young stars that form the fundamental building blocks of galaxies. Several examples exist in the Milky Way Galaxy and the Local Group, but they are particularly abundant in starburst and interacting galaxies. The few YMCs that are close enough to resolve are of prime interest for studying the stellar mass function and the ecological interplay between stellar evolution and stellar dynamics. The distant unresolved clusters may be effectively used to study the star-cluster mass function, and they provide excellent constraints on the formation mechanisms of young cluster populations. YMCs are expected to be the nurseries for many unusual objects, including a wide range of exotic stars and binaries. So far only a few such objects have been found in YMCs, although their older cousins, the globular clusters, are unusually rich in stellar exotica. In this review, we focus on star clusters younger than ˜100 Myr, more than a few current crossing times old, and more massive than ˜104M⊙; the size of the cluster and its environment are considered less relevant as distinguishing parameters. We describe the global properties of the currently known young massive star clusters in the Local Group and beyond, and discuss the state of the art in observations and dynamical modeling of these systems. In order to make this review readable by observers, theorists, and computational astrophysicists, we also review the cross-disciplinary terminology.

  8. HOW MASSIVE ARE MASSIVE COMPACT GALAXIES?

    SciTech Connect

    Muzzin, Adam; Van Dokkum, Pieter; Marchesini, Danilo; Franx, Marijn; Kriek, Mariska; Labbe, Ivo

    2009-11-20

    Using a sample of nine massive compact galaxies at zapprox 2.3 with rest-frame optical spectroscopy and comprehensive U -> 8 mum photometry, we investigate how assumptions in spectral energy distribution (SED) modeling change the stellar mass estimates of these galaxies, and how this affects our interpretation of their size evolution. The SEDs are fitted to tau-models with a range of metallicities, dust laws, and different stellar population synthesis codes. These models indicate masses equal to, or slightly smaller than, our default masses. The maximum difference is 0.16 dex for each parameter considered, and only 0.18 dex for the most extreme combination of parameters. Two-component populations with a maximally old stellar population superposed with a young component provide reasonable fits to these SEDs using the models of Bruzual and Charlot; however, when using models with updated treatment of TP-AGB stars, the fits are poorer. The two-component models predict masses that are 0.08-0.22 dex larger than the tau-models. We also test the effect of a bottom-light initial mass function (IMF) and find that it would reduce the masses of these galaxies by 0.3 dex. Considering the range of allowable masses from the tau-models, two-component fits, and IMF, we conclude that on average these galaxies lie below the mass-size relation of galaxies in the local universe by a factor of 3-9, depending on the SED models used.

  9. Has Research on Collaborative Learning Technologies Addressed Massiveness? A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manathunga, Kalpani; Hernández-Leo, Davinia

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing interest in understanding to what extent innovative educational technologies can be used to support massive courses. Collaboration is one of the main desired elements in massive learning actions involving large communities of participants. Accumulated research in collaborative learning technologies has proposed and evaluated…

  10. Natural variation in expression of genes associated with biosynthesis and accumulation in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) storage root

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several groups have reported on massive accumulation of total carotenoids in cassava storage root (CSR). Naturally occurring color variation associated with carotenoid accumulation was observed in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) storage root of landraces from Amazon. Here carotenoid profiles from...

  11. Natural variation in expression of genes associated with carotenoid biosynthesis and accumulation in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) storage root

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several groups have reported on massive accumulation of total carotenoids in cassava storage root (CSR). Naturally occurring color variation associated with carotenoid accumulation was observed in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) storage root of landraces from Amazon. Here carotenoid profiles from...

  12. Heat exchanger-accumulator

    DOEpatents

    Ecker, Amir L.

    1980-01-01

    What is disclosed is a heat exchanger-accumulator for vaporizing a refrigerant or the like, characterized by an upright pressure vessel having a top, bottom and side walls; an inlet conduit eccentrically and sealingly penetrating through the top; a tubular overflow chamber disposed within the vessel and sealingly connected with the bottom so as to define an annular outer volumetric chamber for receiving refrigerant; a heat transfer coil disposed in the outer volumetric chamber for vaporizing the liquid refrigerant that accumulates there; the heat transfer coil defining a passageway for circulating an externally supplied heat exchange fluid; transferring heat efficiently from the fluid; and freely allowing vaporized refrigerant to escape upwardly from the liquid refrigerant; and a refrigerant discharge conduit penetrating sealingly through the top and traversing substantially the length of the pressurized vessel downwardly and upwardly such that its inlet is near the top of the pressurized vessel so as to provide a means for transporting refrigerant vapor from the vessel. The refrigerant discharge conduit has metering orifices, or passageways, penetrating laterally through its walls near the bottom, communicating respectively interiorly and exteriorly of the overflow chamber for controllably carrying small amounts of liquid refrigerant and oil to the effluent stream of refrigerant gas.

  13. [Discussion on acupuncture treatment amount].

    PubMed

    Wu, Song; Liang, Fengxia; Wang, Hua; Li, Jia

    2015-05-01

    The amount of acupuncture treatment refers to the sum of acupuncture effects during the treatment. From the factors that constitutes the amount of acupuncture treatment, including the numbers of needling, the size of acupuncture instruments, the depth of acupuncture, the manipulation, the retained time of needle, etc., and combined with teaching and clinical experience, it is believed that the amount of acupuncture treatment is closely related with clinical efficacy, besides, moderate amount of acupuncture treatment is a key factor to improve acupuncture efficacy and guarantee the safety of acupuncture. The basic principles of regular treatment amount are arrival of qi and being moderate, indicating the retained time of needle, treatment frequency and course should be based on individual condition, time, location and disease. PMID:26255521

  14. Massively Parallel QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Soltz, R; Vranas, P; Blumrich, M; Chen, D; Gara, A; Giampap, M; Heidelberger, P; Salapura, V; Sexton, J; Bhanot, G

    2007-04-11

    The theory of the strong nuclear force, Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), can be numerically simulated from first principles on massively-parallel supercomputers using the method of Lattice Gauge Theory. We describe the special programming requirements of lattice QCD (LQCD) as well as the optimal supercomputer hardware architectures that it suggests. We demonstrate these methods on the BlueGene massively-parallel supercomputer and argue that LQCD and the BlueGene architecture are a natural match. This can be traced to the simple fact that LQCD is a regular lattice discretization of space into lattice sites while the BlueGene supercomputer is a discretization of space into compute nodes, and that both are constrained by requirements of locality. This simple relation is both technologically important and theoretically intriguing. The main result of this paper is the speedup of LQCD using up to 131,072 CPUs on the largest BlueGene/L supercomputer. The speedup is perfect with sustained performance of about 20% of peak. This corresponds to a maximum of 70.5 sustained TFlop/s. At these speeds LQCD and BlueGene are poised to produce the next generation of strong interaction physics theoretical results.

  15. Inconsistency of topologically massive hypergravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aragone, C.; Deser, S.

    1985-01-01

    The coupled topologically massive spin-5/2 gravity system in D = 3 dimensions whose kinematics represents dynamical propagating gauge invariant massive spin-5/2 and spin-2 excitations, is shown to be inconsistent, or equivalently, not locally hypersymmetric. In contrast to D = 4, the local constraints on the system arising from failure of the fermionic Bianchi identities do not involve the 'highest spin' components of the field, but rather the auxiliary spinor required to construct a consistent massive model.

  16. Massive Star Burps, Then Explodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-04-01

    Berkeley -- In a galaxy far, far away, a massive star suffered a nasty double whammy. On Oct. 20, 2004, Japanese amateur astronomer Koichi Itagaki saw the star let loose an outburst so bright that it was initially mistaken for a supernova. The star survived, but for only two years. On Oct. 11, 2006, professional and amateur astronomers witnessed the star actually blowing itself to smithereens as Supernova 2006jc. Swift UVOT Image Swift UVOT Image (Credit: NASA / Swift / S.Immler) "We have never observed a stellar outburst and then later seen the star explode," says University of California, Berkeley, astronomer Ryan Foley. His group studied the event with ground-based telescopes, including the 10-meter (32.8-foot) W. M. Keck telescopes in Hawaii. Narrow helium spectral lines showed that the supernova's blast wave ran into a slow-moving shell of material, presumably the progenitor's outer layers ejected just two years earlier. If the spectral lines had been caused by the supernova's fast-moving blast wave, the lines would have been much broader. artistic rendering This artistic rendering depicts two years in the life of a massive blue supergiant star, which burped and spewed a shell of gas, then, two years later, exploded. When the supernova slammed into the shell of gas, X-rays were produced. (Credit: NASA/Sonoma State Univ./A.Simonnet) Another group, led by Stefan Immler of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., monitored SN 2006jc with NASA's Swift satellite and Chandra X-ray Observatory. By observing how the supernova brightened in X-rays, a result of the blast wave slamming into the outburst ejecta, they could measure the amount of gas blown off in the 2004 outburst: about 0.01 solar mass, the equivalent of about 10 Jupiters. "The beautiful aspect of our SN 2006jc observations is that although they were obtained in different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, in the optical and in X-rays, they lead to the same conclusions," says Immler. "This

  17. Higher dimensional nonlinear massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, Tuan Q.

    2016-05-01

    Inspired by a recent ghost-free nonlinear massive gravity in four-dimensional spacetime, we study its higher dimensional scenarios. As a result, we are able to show the constantlike behavior of massive graviton terms for some well-known metrics such as the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker, Bianchi type I, and Schwarzschild-Tangherlini (anti-) de Sitter metrics in a specific five-dimensional nonlinear massive gravity under an assumption that its fiducial metrics are compatible with physical ones. In addition, some simple cosmological solutions of the five-dimensional massive gravity are figured out consistently.

  18. Problems of massive gravities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deser, S.; Izumi, K.; Ong, Y. C.; Waldron, A.

    2015-01-01

    The method of characteristics is a key tool for studying consistency of equations of motion; it allows issues such as predictability, maximal propagation speed, superluminality, unitarity and acausality to be addressed without requiring explicit solutions. We review this method and its application to massive gravity (mGR) theories to show the limitations of these models' physical viability: Among their problems are loss of unique evolution, superluminal signals, matter coupling inconsistencies and micro-acausality (propagation of signals around local closed time-like curves (CTCs)/closed causal curves (CCCs)). We extend previous no-go results to the entire three-parameter range of mGR theories. It is also argued that bimetric models suffer a similar fate.

  19. Massively parallel mathematical sieves

    SciTech Connect

    Montry, G.R.

    1989-01-01

    The Sieve of Eratosthenes is a well-known algorithm for finding all prime numbers in a given subset of integers. A parallel version of the Sieve is described that produces computational speedups over 800 on a hypercube with 1,024 processing elements for problems of fixed size. Computational speedups as high as 980 are achieved when the problem size per processor is fixed. The method of parallelization generalizes to other sieves and will be efficient on any ensemble architecture. We investigate two highly parallel sieves using scattered decomposition and compare their performance on a hypercube multiprocessor. A comparison of different parallelization techniques for the sieve illustrates the trade-offs necessary in the design and implementation of massively parallel algorithms for large ensemble computers.

  20. Massive acute arsenic poisonings.

    PubMed

    Lech, Teresa; Trela, Franciszek

    2005-07-16

    Arsenic poisonings are still important in the field of toxicology, though they are not as frequent as about 20-30 years ago. In this paper, the arsenic concentrations in ante- and post-mortem materials, and also forensic and anatomo-pathological aspects in three cases of massive acute poisoning with arsenic(III) oxide (two of them with unexplained criminalistic background, in which arsenic was taken for amphetamine and one suicide), are presented. Ante-mortem blood and urine arsenic concentrations ranged from 2.3 to 6.7 microg/ml, respectively. Post-mortem tissue total arsenic concentrations were also detected in large concentrations. In case 3, the contents of the duodenum contained as much as 30.1% arsenic(III) oxide. The high concentrations of arsenic detected in blood and tissues in all presented cases are particularly noteworthy in that they are very rarely detected at these concentrations in fatal arsenic poisonings. PMID:15939162

  1. Aspergilloma and massive haemoptysis

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Wern Yew; Chan, Tze; Yadavilli, Rajesh Kumar; McWilliams, Richard

    2014-01-01

    A 40-year-old homeless woman who was a known intravenous drug user and heroin smoker, presented with massive haemoptysis. Initial CT-pulmonary angiogram (CT-PA) did not show active haemorrhage but found an opacity in a right upper lobe cavity likely to represent a mycetoma. She was started on antifungal therapy but haemoptysis persisted and bronchial angiography was performed. Again no active haemorrhage was identified but abnormal vasculature was seen supplying the right upper lobe. This was empirically embolised with particles which did not improve her symptoms. A subsequent CT-PA identified a pulmonary artery pseudoaneurysm in the cavity wall which was successfully embolised. There was no further haemoptysis and a repeat CT-PA 3 weeks later showed continuing occlusion of the pulmonary artery aneurysm. Investigations for tuberculosis were negative and she was discharged clinically well and on long-term antifungal therapy. PMID:24739651

  2. Instability considerations for massive star eruptions

    SciTech Connect

    Guzik, J. A.

    2004-01-01

    We propose a mechanism to explain the observed properties of the giant eruptions of 'supernova imposters' such as {eta} Car and P Cyg. This mechanism must be episodic, generate a large amount of energy, and be very deep-seated, in order to lift about 10 solar masses out of the deep gravitational potential well of these massive evolved stars. We suggest that nonradial gravity mode oscillations capable of existing in the core grow slowly to sufficient amplitude to cause an episode of mixing. This mixing generates a burst of nuclear energy deep in the star that is responsible for the observed large mass ejection and bolometric magnitude increase.

  3. The evolution of massive stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The hypotheses underlying theoretical studies of the evolution of massive model stars with and without mass loss are summarized. The evolutionary tracks followed by the models across theoretical Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagrams are compared with the observed distribution of B stars in an HR diagram. The pulsational properties of models of massive star are also described.

  4. 10 CFR 205.286 - Limitations on amount of refunds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Limitations on amount of refunds. 205.286 Section 205.286 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND SANCTIONS Special Procedures for... to be remitted pursuant to the relevant DOE enforcement order, plus any accumulated interest,...

  5. 10 CFR 205.286 - Limitations on amount of refunds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limitations on amount of refunds. 205.286 Section 205.286 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND SANCTIONS Special Procedures for... to be remitted pursuant to the relevant DOE enforcement order, plus any accumulated interest,...

  6. Massive stars: Starbursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Delgado, Rosa María

    2007-07-01

    Starbursts are the preferred place where massive stars form; the main source of thermal and mechanical heating in the interstellar medium, and the factory where the heavy elements form. Thus, starbursts play an important role in the origin and evolution of galaxies. Starbursts are bright at ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths, and after the pioneering IUE program, high spatial and spectral resolution UV observations of local starburst galaxies, mainly taken with HST and FUSE, have made relevant contributions to the following issues: a) The determination of the initial mass function (IMF) in violent star forming systems in low and high metallicity environments, and in dense (e.g. in stellar clusters) and diffuse environments: A Salpeter IMF with high-mass stars constrains well the UV properties. b) Stellar clusters are an important mode of star formation in starbursts. c) The role of starbursts in AGN: Nuclear starbursts can dominate the UV light in Seyfert 2 galaxies, having bolometric luminosities similar to the estimated bolometric luminosities of the obscured AGN. d) The interaction between massive stars and the interstellar medium: Outflows in cold, warm and coronal phases leave their imprints on the UV interstellar lines. Outflows of a few hundred km s%u22121 are ubiquitous phenomena in starbursts. Despite the very significant progress obtained over the past two decades of UV observations of starbursts, there are important problems that still need to be solved. High-spatial resolution UV observations of nearby starbursts are crucial to further progress in understanding the violent star formation processes in galaxies, the interaction between the stellar clusters and the interstellar medium, and the variation of the IMF. High-spatial resolution spectra are also needed to isolate the light from the center to the disk in UV luminous galaxies found by GALEX. Thus, a new UV mission furnished with an intermediate spectral resolution spectrograph with high spatial

  7. Peer Assessment for Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suen, Hoi K.

    2014-01-01

    The teach-learn-assess cycle in education is broken in a typical massive open online course (MOOC). Without formative assessment and feedback, MOOCs amount to information dump or broadcasting shows, not educational experiences. A number of remedies have been attempted to bring formative assessment back into MOOCs, each with its own limits and…

  8. Massive gauge-flation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto, Carlos M.; Rodríguez, Yeinzon

    2016-06-01

    Gauge-flation model at zeroth-order in cosmological perturbation theory offers an interesting scenario for realizing inflation within a particle physics context, allowing us to investigate interesting possible connections between inflation and the subsequent evolution of the Universe. Difficulties, however, arise at the perturbative level, thus motivating a modification of the original model. In order to agree with the latest Planck observations, we modify the model such that the new dynamics can produce a relation between the spectral index ns and the tensor-to-scalar ratio r allowed by the data. By including an identical mass term for each of the fields of the system, we find interesting dynamics leading to slow-roll inflation of the right length. The presence of the mass term has the potential to modify the ns versus r relation so as to agree with the data. As a first step, we study the model at zeroth-order in cosmological perturbation theory, finding the conditions required for slow-roll inflation and the number of e-foldings of inflation. Numerical solutions are used to explore the impact of the mass term. We conclude that the massive version of gauge-flation offers a viable inflationary model.

  9. Massive soliton stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, Hong-Yee

    1990-01-01

    The structure of nontopological solutions of Einstein field equations as proposed by Friedberg, Lee, and Pang (1987) is examined. This analysis incorporates finite temperature effects and pair creation. Quarks are assumed to be the only species that exist in interior of soliton stars. The possibility of primordial creation of soliton stars in the incomplete decay of the degenerate vacuum in early universe is explored. Because of dominance of pair creation inside soliton stars, the luminosity of soliton stars is not determined by its radiative transfer characteristics, and the surface temperature of soliton stars can be the same as its interior temperature. It is possible that soliton stars are intense X-ray radiators at large distances. Soliton stars are nearly 100 percent efficient energy converters, converting the rest energy of baryons entering the interior into radiation. It is possible that a sizable number of baryons may also be trapped inside soliton stars during early epochs of the universe. In addition, if soliton stars exist they could assume the role played by massive black holes in galactic centers.

  10. Electromagnetic properties of massive neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Dobrynina, A. A. Mikheev, N. V.; Narynskaya, E. N.

    2013-10-15

    The vertex function for a virtual massive neutrino is calculated in the limit of soft real photons. A method based on employing the neutrino self-energy operator in a weak external electromagnetic field in the approximation linear in the field is developed in order to render this calculation of the vertex function convenient. It is shown that the electric charge and the electric dipole moment of the real neutrino are zero; only the magnetic moment is nonzero for massive neutrinos. A fourth-generation heavy neutrino of mass not less than half of the Z-boson mass is considered as a massive neutrino.

  11. On the Formation of Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yorke, Harold W.; Sonnhalter, Cordula

    2002-04-01

    We calculate numerically the collapse of slowly rotating, nonmagnetic, massive molecular clumps of masses 30, 60, and 120 Msolar, which conceivably could lead to the formation of massive stars. Because radiative acceleration on dust grains plays a critical role in the clump's dynamical evolution, we have improved the module for continuum radiation transfer in an existing two-dimensional (axial symmetry assumed) radiation hydrodynamic code. In particular, rather than using ``gray'' dust opacities and ``gray'' radiation transfer, we calculate the dust's wavelength-dependent absorption and emission simultaneously with the radiation density at each wavelength and the equilibrium temperatures of three grain components: amorphous carbon particles, silicates, and ``dirty ice''-coated silicates. Because our simulations cannot spatially resolve the innermost regions of the molecular clump, however, we cannot distinguish between the formation of a dense central cluster or a single massive object. Furthermore, we cannot exclude significant mass loss from the central object(s) that may interact with the inflow into the central grid cell. Thus, with our basic assumption that all material in the innermost grid cell accretes onto a single object, we are able to provide only an upper limit to the mass of stars that could possibly be formed. We introduce a semianalytical scheme for augmenting existing evolutionary tracks of pre-main-sequence protostars by including the effects of accretion. By considering an open outermost boundary, an arbitrary amount of material could, in principal, be accreted onto this central star. However, for the three cases considered (30, 60, and 120 Msolar originally within the computation grid), radiation acceleration limited the final masses to 31.6, 33.6, and 42.9 Msolar, respectively, for wavelength-dependent radiation transfer and to 19.1, 20.1, and 22.9 Msolar for the corresponding simulations with gray radiation transfer. Our calculations

  12. Quantitative trait loci controlling amounts and types of epicuticular waxes in onion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural variation exists in onion (Allium cepa L.) for amounts and types of epicuticular waxes on leaves. Wild-type waxy onion possesses copious amounts of these waxes, while the foliage of semi-glossy and glossy phenotypes accumulate significantly less wax. Reduced amounts of epicuticular waxes hav...

  13. Solar-Panel Dust Accumulation and Cleanings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Air-fall dust accumulates on the solar panels of NASA's Mars Exploration Rovers, reducing the amount of sunlight reaching the solar arrays. Pre-launch models predicted steady dust accumulation. However, the rovers have been blessed with occasional wind events that clear significant amounts of dust from the solar panels.

    This graph shows the effects of those panel-cleaning events on the amount of electricity generated by Spirit's solar panels. The horizontal scale is the number of Martian days (sols) after Spirit's Jan. 4, 2005, (Universal Time) landing on Mars. The vertical scale indicates output from the rover's solar panels as a fraction of the amount produced when the clean panels first opened. Note that the gradual declines are interrupted by occasional sharp increases, such as a dust-cleaning event on sol 420.

  14. Holographically viable extensions of topologically massive and minimal massive gravity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altas, Emel; Tekin, Bayram

    2016-01-01

    Recently [E. Bergshoeff et al., Classical Quantum Gravity 31, 145008 (2014)], an extension of the topologically massive gravity (TMG) in 2 +1 dimensions, dubbed as minimal massive gravity (MMG), which is free of the bulk-boundary unitarity clash that inflicts the former theory and all the other known three-dimensional theories, was found. Field equations of MMG differ from those of TMG at quadratic terms in the curvature that do not come from the variation of an action depending on the metric alone. Here we show that MMG is a unique theory and there does not exist a deformation of TMG or MMG at the cubic and quartic order (and beyond) in the curvature that is consistent at the level of the field equations. The only extension of TMG with the desired bulk and boundary properties having a single massive degree of freedom is MMG.

  15. Understanding the size growth of massive galaxies through stellar populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreras, I.; Trujillo, I.; Mármol-Queraltó, E.; Pérez-González, P.

    Massive early-type galaxies undergo a significant process of evolution with redshift on the stellar mass vs size plane. Furthermore, this trend does not depend on the age of their stellar populations. Therefore, such an evolution should involve processes that do not include a significant amount of star formation, leaving (mostly) dry mergers as the main growth channel. By studying close pairs involving a massive galaxy, one can quantify the role of mergers on the growth of massive galaxies. A recent study based on the SHARDS dataset reveals that minor mergers cannot be the dominant mechanism to explain the bulk of size growth in these systems. Merging is found to provide a constant fractional growth rate of ~10% per Gyr from redshift z=1, corresponding to an overall stellar mass increase of 2× between z=1 and z=0.

  16. Fast carry accumulator design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mastin, W. C.

    1971-01-01

    Simple iterative accumulator combined with gated-carry, carry-completion detection, and skip-carry circuits produces three accumulators with decreased carry propagation times. Devices are used in machine control, measurement equipment, and computer applications to increase speed of binary addition. NAND gates are used in combining network.

  17. Massive ascites of unknown origin

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Shi-Min

    2014-01-01

    Massive ascites of unknown origin is an uncommon condition, which represent a diagnostic challenge. Patients with delayed diagnosis and treatment may have a poor prognosis. A 22-year-old female was referred to this hospital due to a 4-year progressive abdominal distension with massive ascites of unknown origin. By thorough investigations, she was eventually diagnosed as chronic calcified constrictive pericarditis. She received pericardiectomy and had an uneventful postoperative course. With a few day paracentesis, ascites did not progress any more. She was doing well at 5-month follow-up and has returned to work. Extracardiac manifestations, such as massive ascites and liver cirrhosis, were rare in patients with constrictive pericarditis. Pericardiectomy can be a radical solution for the treatment of chronic constrictive pericarditis. In order to avoid delayed diagnosis and treatment, physicians have to bear in mind this rare manifestation of chronic calcified constrictive pericarditis. PMID:24600502

  18. Positive signs in massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Clifford; Remmen, Grant N.

    2016-04-01

    We derive new constraints on massive gravity from unitarity and analyticity of scattering amplitudes. Our results apply to a general effective theory defined by Einstein gravity plus the leading soft diffeomorphism-breaking corrections. We calculate scattering amplitudes for all combinations of tensor, vector, and scalar polarizations. The high-energy behavior of these amplitudes prescribes a specific choice of couplings that ameliorates the ultraviolet cutoff, in agreement with existing literature. We then derive consistency conditions from analytic dispersion relations, which dictate positivity of certain combinations of parameters appearing in the forward scattering amplitudes. These constraints exclude all but a small island in the parameter space of ghost-free massive gravity. While the theory of the "Galileon" scalar mode alone is known to be inconsistent with positivity constraints, this is remedied in the full massive gravity theory.

  19. Solid modeling on a massively parallel processor

    SciTech Connect

    Strip, D. ); Karasick, M. )

    1992-01-01

    Solid modeling underlies many technologies that are key to modern manufacturing. These range from computer-aided design systems to robot simulators, from finite element analysis to integrated circuit process modeling. The accuracy, and hence the utility, of these models is often constrained by the amount of computer time required to perform the desired operations. This paper presents a family of algorithms for solid modeling operations using the Connection Machine, a massively parallel SIMD processor. The authors describe a data structure for representing solid models and algorithms that use the representation to implement efficiently a variety of solid modeling operations. The authors give a sketch of the algorithm for intersecting solids and present computational experience using these algorithms. The data structure and algorithms are contrasted with those of serial architectures, and execution times are compared.

  20. Feedback During Massive Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Kei; Tan, Jonathan C.; Zhang, Yichen

    2016-01-01

    We present models of photoionization of massive protostellar cores, and show the impact of this ionization feedback on the efficiency of star formation and its observational features. Based on the Core Accretion scenario, we construct the collapse model of rotating massive-protostellar cloud cores together with a protostellar evolutional calculation, including feedback effects from a MHD disk wind, photoionization and radiation pressure. First, the MHD wind creates a bipolar outflow whose opening angle increases over the timescale of mass accretion. The ionizing luminosity dramatically increases after the protostar reaches ~ 5 Msun due to Kelvin-Helmholz contraction, and the MHD wind is photoionized when the protostellar mass reaches ~ 10 - 20 Msun. As the ionizing and bolometric luminosities increase, the outflow opening angle becomes wider due to radiation pressure feedback. By this combination of feedback processes, the envelope is eroded and the mass infall rate is significantly reduced to that arriving only from the disk-shielded equatorial region. At a protostellar mass of ~ 50 - 100 Msun, depending on the initial core properties, the mass accretion is halted by disk photoevaporation. In this way, feedback significantly reduces the star formation efficiency when forming massive stars from massive cloud cores, which could produce a cutoff at the high-mass end of the initial mass function. Along this evolutionary calculation, we also compute the detailed structure of the photoionized regions using a ray-tracing radiative transfer code and evaluate their emission signatures. Their free-free continuum and recombination line emissions are consistent with the variety of observed radio sources associated with massive protostars, i.e., jets and ultra/hyper-compact HII regions. The comparison between our models and such observations enables us to better define the evolutionary sequence of massive star formation.

  1. Massively Parallel Sequencing: The Next Big Thing in Genetic Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Tracy; Marra, Marco; Friedman, Jan M.

    2009-01-01

    Massively parallel sequencing has reduced the cost and increased the throughput of genomic sequencing by more than three orders of magnitude, and it seems likely that costs will fall and throughput improve even more in the next few years. Clinical use of massively parallel sequencing will provide a way to identify the cause of many diseases of unknown etiology through simultaneous screening of thousands of loci for pathogenic mutations and by sequencing biological specimens for the genomic signatures of novel infectious agents. In addition to providing these entirely new diagnostic capabilities, massively parallel sequencing may also replace arrays and Sanger sequencing in clinical applications where they are currently being used. Routine clinical use of massively parallel sequencing will require higher accuracy, better ways to select genomic subsets of interest, and improvements in the functionality, speed, and ease of use of data analysis software. In addition, substantial enhancements in laboratory computer infrastructure, data storage, and data transfer capacity will be needed to handle the extremely large data sets produced. Clinicians and laboratory personnel will require training to use the sequence data effectively, and appropriate methods will need to be developed to deal with the incidental discovery of pathogenic mutations and variants of uncertain clinical significance. Massively parallel sequencing has the potential to transform the practice of medical genetics and related fields, but the vast amount of personal genomic data produced will increase the responsibility of geneticists to ensure that the information obtained is used in a medically and socially responsible manner. PMID:19679224

  2. Population synthesis of massive stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanbeveren, Dany

    2014-09-01

    This review deals with massive star population synthesis with a realistic population of binaries. We focus on the comparison between observed star numbers (as a function of metallicity) and theoretically predicted numbers of stellar populations in regions of continuous star formation and in starburst regions. Special attention is given to the O-type/WR/red supergiant stellar population, the population of blue supergiants, the pulsar and binary pulsar population, and the supernova rates. Finally, we consider massive double compact star mergers and the link with gravitational wave sources (the advanced LIGO II) and r-process element production sites.

  3. Sedeonic Equations of Massive Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, Sergey V.; Mironov, Victor L.

    2015-01-01

    Prior work on space-time sedeon algebra models relativistic quantum mechanical equation of motion with corresponding field equations, mediated by massive or massless spin-1 or spin-1/2 particles. In the massless spin-1 case, such exchange particles mediate fields in analogy to Maxwell's equations in Lorentz gauge. This paper demonstrates fundamental aspects of massive field's theory, such as gauge invariance, charge conservation, Poynting's theorem, potential of a stationary scalar point source, plane wave solution, and interaction between point sources. We briefly discuss some aspects of sedeonic algebra and their potential physical applications.

  4. Massive Gravitons on Bohmian Congruences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathi, Mohsen; Mohseni, Morteza

    2016-08-01

    Taking a quantum corrected form of Raychaudhuri equation in a geometric background described by a Lorentz-violating massive theory of gravity, we go through investigating a time-like congruence of massive gravitons affected by a Bohmian quantum potential. We find some definite conditions upon which these gravitons are confined to diverging Bohmian trajectories. The respective behaviour of those quantum potentials are also derived and discussed. Additionally, and through a relativistic quantum treatment of a typical wave function, we demonstrate schematic conditions on the associated frequency to the gravitons, in order to satisfy the necessity of divergence.

  5. The Evolution and Stability of Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiode, Joshua Hajime

    Massive stars are the ultimate source for nearly all the elements necessary for life. The first stars forge these elements from the sparse set of ingredients supplied by the Big Bang, and distribute enriched ashes throughout their galactic homes via their winds and explosive deaths. Subsequent generations follow suit, assembling from the enriched ashes of their predecessors. Over the last several decades, the astrophysics community has developed a sophisticated theoretical picture of the evolution of these stars, but it remains an incomplete accounting of the rich set of observations. Using state of the art models of massive stars, I have investigated the internal processes taking place throughout the life-cycles of stars spanning those from the first generation ("Population III") to the present-day ("Population I"). I will argue that early-generation stars were not highly unstable to perturbations, contrary to a host of past investigations, if a correct accounting is made for the viscous effect of convection. For later generations, those with near solar metallicity, I find that this very same convection may excite gravity-mode oscillations that produce observable brightness variations at the stellar surface when the stars are near the main sequence. If confirmed with modern high-precision monitoring experiments, like Kepler and CoRoT, the properties of observed gravity modes in massive stars could provide a direct probe of the poorly constrained physics of gravity mode excitation by convection. Finally, jumping forward in stellar evolutionary time, I propose and explore an entirely new mechanism to explain the giant eruptions observed and inferred to occur during the final phases of massive stellar evolution. This mechanism taps into the vast nuclear fusion luminosity, and accompanying convective luminosity, in the stellar core to excite waves capable of carrying a super-Eddington luminosity out to the stellar envelope. This energy transfer from the core to the

  6. Mass loss of massive stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, F.

    2015-12-01

    In this contribution we review the properties of the winds of massive stars. We focus on OB stars, red supergiants, Luminous Blue Variables (LBVs) and Wolf-Rayet stars. For each type of star, we summarize the main wind properties and we give a brief description of the physical mechanism(s) responsible for mass loss.

  7. Massively parallel visualization: Parallel rendering

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, C.D.; Krogh, M.; White, W.

    1995-12-01

    This paper presents rendering algorithms, developed for massively parallel processors (MPPs), for polygonal, spheres, and volumetric data. The polygon algorithm uses a data parallel approach whereas the sphere and volume renderer use a MIMD approach. Implementations for these algorithms are presented for the Thinking Machines Corporation CM-5 MPP.

  8. Dark matter in massive galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerhard, Ortwin

    2013-07-01

    The spatial distributions of luminous and dark matter in massive early-type galaxies (ETGs) reflect the formation processes which shaped these systems. This article reviews the predictions of cosmological simulations for the dark and baryonic components of ETGs, and the observational constraints from lensing, hydrostatic X-ray gas atmospheres, and outer halo stellar dynamics.

  9. Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Pastakia, B.; Weiss, S.H.

    1987-11-01

    Gallium uptake corresponding to the extent of the disease in a patient with histologically proven sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (SHML) is reported. Computerized tomography confirmed the presence of bilateral retrobulbar masses, involvement of both lateral recti, erosion of the bony orbital floor with encroachment of tumor into the right maxillary antrum, and retropharyngeal involvement.

  10. Understanding massively open online courses.

    PubMed

    Billings, Diane M

    2014-02-01

    Massively open online courses (MOOCs) are an innovative delivery system for educational offerings. MOOCs have been hailed with optimism for making education accessible to many, but at the same time, they have been criticized for poor participant completion rates. Nurse educators are considering whether and how to use MOOCs; this column explains MOOCs and their advantages and disadvantages for nurse educators. PMID:24494660

  11. 46 CFR Sec. 2 - Amount of bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amount of bond. Sec. 2 Section 2 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY BONDING OF SHIP'S PERSONNEL Sec. 2 Amount of bond. The amount of the bond must be governed by the amount of monies advanced or value of...

  12. 46 CFR Sec. 2 - Amount of bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amount of bond. Sec. 2 Section 2 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY BONDING OF SHIP'S PERSONNEL Sec. 2 Amount of bond. The amount of the bond must be governed by the amount of monies advanced or value of...

  13. A different method for calculation of the deflection angle of light passing close to a massive object by Fermat's principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akkus, Harun

    2013-12-01

    We introduce a method for calculating the amount of deflection angle of light passing close to a massive object. It is based on Fermat's principle. The varying refractive index of medium around the massive object is obtained from the Buckingham pi-theorem.

  14. 47 CFR 36.503 - Accumulated depreciation-Account 3100.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accumulated depreciation-Account 3100. 36.503... Accumulated depreciation—Account 3100. (a) Amounts recorded in this account shall be separated on the basis of the separation of the associated primary Plant Accounts or related categories, excluding...

  15. 29 CFR 4219.13 - Amount of liability for de minimis amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amount of liability for de minimis amounts. 4219.13 Section... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.13 Amount of liability for de minimis amounts. An employer that is liable for de minimis amounts shall be liable to the plan for the amount by...

  16. Chiral description of massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrov, Sergei; Krasnov, Kirill; Speziale, Simone

    2013-06-01

    We propose and study a new first order version of the ghost-free massive gravity. Instead of metrics or tetrads, it uses a connection together with Plebanski's chiral 2-forms as fundamental variables, rendering the phase space structure similar to that of SU(2) gauge theories. The chiral description simplifies computations of the constraint algebra, and allows us to perform the complete canonical analysis of the system. In particular, we explicitly compute the secondary constraint and carry out the stabilization procedure, thus proving that in general the theory propagates 7 degrees of freedom, consistently with previous claims. Finally, we point out that the description in terms of 2-forms opens the door to an infinite class of ghost-free massive bi-gravity actions. Our results apply directly to Euclidean signature. The reality conditions to be imposed in the Lorentzian signature appear to be more complicated than in the usual gravity case and are left as an open issue.

  17. Massive gravity on a brane

    SciTech Connect

    Chacko, Z.; Graesser, M.L.; Grojean, C.; Pilo, L.

    2003-12-11

    At present no theory of a massive graviton is known that is consistent with experiments at both long and short distances. The problem is that consistency with long distance experiments requires the graviton mass to be very small. Such a small graviton mass however implies an ultraviolet cutoff for the theory at length scales far larger than the millimeter scale at which gravity has already been measured. In this paper we attempt to construct a model which avoids this problem. We consider a brane world setup in warped AdS spacetime and we investigate the consequences of writing a mass term for the graviton on a the infrared brane where the local cutoff is of order a large (galactic) distance scale. The advantage of this setup is that the low cutoff for physics on the infrared brane does not significantly affect the predictivity of the theory for observers localized on the ultraviolet brane. For such observers the predictions of this theory agree with general relativity at distances smaller than the infrared scale but go over to those of a theory of massive gravity at longer distances. A careful analysis of the graviton two-point function, however, reveals the presence of a ghost in the low energy spectrum. A mode decomposition of the higher dimensional theory reveals that the ghost corresponds to the radion field. We also investigate the theory with a brane localized mass for the graviton on the ultraviolet brane, and show that the physics of this case is similar to that of a conventional four dimensional theory with a massive graviton, but with one important difference: when the infrared brane decouples and the would-be massive graviton gets heavier than the regular Kaluza-Klein modes, it becomes unstable and it has a finite width to decay off the brane into the continuum of Kaluza-Klein states.

  18. Efficient, massively parallel eigenvalue computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huo, Yan; Schreiber, Robert

    1993-01-01

    In numerical simulations of disordered electronic systems, one of the most common approaches is to diagonalize random Hamiltonian matrices and to study the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of a single electron in the presence of a random potential. An effort to implement a matrix diagonalization routine for real symmetric dense matrices on massively parallel SIMD computers, the Maspar MP-1 and MP-2 systems, is described. Results of numerical tests and timings are also presented.

  19. Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation Information Page Synonym(s): Hallervorden-Spatz Disease, ... done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation? Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) ...

  20. Analytics for Massive Heat Maps

    SciTech Connect

    Bohn, Shawn J.; Payne, Deborah A.; Nakamura, Grant C.; Love, Douglas V.

    2009-01-19

    High throughput instrumentation for genomics is producing data orders of magnitude greater than even a decade before. Biologists often visualize the data of these experiments through the use of heat maps. For large datasets, heat map visualizations do not scale. These visualizations are only capable of displaying a portion of the data, making it difficult for scientists to find and detect patterns that span more than a subsection of the data. We present a novel method that provides an interactive visual display for massive heat maps [O(108)]. Our process shows how a massive heat map can be decomposed into multiple levels of abstraction to represent the underlying macrostructures. We aggregate these abstractions into a framework that can allow real-time navigation of the space. To further assist pattern discovery, we ground our system on the principle of focus+context. Our framework also addresses the issue of balancing the memory and display resolution and heat map size. We will show that this technique for biologists provides a powerful new visual metaphor for analyzing massive datasets.

  1. Massive photon and dark energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouwn, Seyen; Oh, Phillial; Park, Chan-Gyung

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the cosmology of massive electrodynamics and explore the possibility whether the massive photon could provide an explanation of dark energy. The action is given by the scalar-vector-tensor theory of gravity, which is obtained by nonminimal coupling of the massive Stueckelberg QED with gravity; its cosmological consequences are studied by paying particular attention to the role of photon mass. We find that the theory allows for cosmological evolution where the radiation- and matter-dominated epochs are followed by a long period of virtually constant dark energy that closely mimics a Λ CDM model. We also find that the main source of the current acceleration is provided by the nonvanishing photon mass governed by the relation Λ ˜m2 . A detailed numerical analysis shows that the nonvanishing photon mass on the order of ˜1 0-34 eV is consistent with current observations. This magnitude is far less than the most stringent limit on the photon mass available so far, which is on the order of m ≤1 0-27 eV .

  2. Analytics for massive heat maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohn, Shawn J.; Payne, Deborah; Nakamura, Grant; Love, Douglass

    2009-01-01

    High throughput instrumentation for genomics is producing data orders of magnitude greater than even a decade before. Biologists often visualize the data of these experiments through the use of heat maps. For large datasets, heat map visualizations do not scale. These visualizations are only capable of displaying a portion of the data, making it difficult for scientists to find and detect patterns that span more than a subsection of the data. We present a novel method that provides an interactive visual display for massive heat maps [O(108)]. Our process shows how a massive heat map can be decomposed into multiple levels of abstraction to represent the underlying macrostructures. We aggregate these abstractions into a framework that can allow near real-time navigation of the space. To further assist pattern discovery, we ground our system on the principle of focus+context. Our framework also addresses the issue of balancing the memory and display resolution and heat map size. We will show that this technique for biologists provides a powerful new visual metaphor for analyzing massive datasets.

  3. Plastids and Carotenoid Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Yuan, Hui; Zeng, Yunliu; Xu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Plastids are ubiquitously present in plants and are the organelles for carotenoid biosynthesis and storage. Based on their morphology and function, plastids are classified into various types, i.e. proplastids, etioplasts, chloroplasts, amyloplasts, and chromoplasts. All plastids, except proplastids, can synthesize carotenoids. However, plastid types have a profound effect on carotenoid accumulation and stability. In this chapter, we discuss carotenoid biosynthesis and regulation in various plastids with a focus on carotenoids in chromoplasts. Plastid transition related to carotenoid biosynthesis and the different capacity of various plastids to sequester carotenoids and the associated effect on carotenoid stability are described in light of carotenoid accumulation in plants. PMID:27485226

  4. Massive Stars in Interactive Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St.-Louis, Nicole; Moffat, Anthony F. J.

    Massive stars start their lives above a mass of ~8 time solar, finally exploding after a few million years as core-collapse or pair-production supernovae. Above ~15 solar masses, they also spend most of their lives driving especially strong, hot winds due to their extreme luminosities. All of these aspects dominate the ecology of the Universe, from element enrichment to stirring up and ionizing the interstellar medium. But when they occur in close pairs or groups separated by less than a parsec, the interaction of massive stars can lead to various exotic phenomena which would not be seen if there were no binaries. These depend on the actual separation, and going from wie to close including colliding winds (with non-thermal radio emission and Wolf-Rayet dust spirals), cluster dynamics, X-ray binaries, Roche-lobe overflow (with inverse mass-ratios and rapid spin up), collisions, merging, rejuventation and massive blue stragglers, black-hole formation, runaways and gamma-ray bursts. Also, one wonders whether the fact that a massive star is in a binary affects its parameters compared to its isolated equivalent. These proceedings deal with all of these phenomena, plus binary statistics and determination of general physical properties of massive stars, that would not be possible with their single cousins. The 77 articles published in these proceedings, all based on oral talks, vary from broad revies to the lates developments in the field. About a third of the time was spent in open discussion of all participants, both for ~5 minutes after each talk and 8 half-hour long general dialogues, all audio-recorded, transcribed and only moderately edited to yield a real flavour of the meeting. The candid information in these discussions is sometimes more revealing than the article(s) that preceded them and also provide entertaining reading. The book is suitable for researchers and graduate students interested in stellar astrophysics and in various physical processes involved when

  5. 46 CFR 308.403 - Insured amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... total amount of war risk insurance obtainable from companies authorized to do an insurance business in a... MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Builder's Risk Insurance § 308.403 Insured amounts. (a) Prelaunching period. The amount insured...

  6. 14 CFR 1261.102 - Maximum amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Maximum amount. 1261.102 Section 1261.102 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROCESSING OF MONETARY CLAIMS (GENERAL) Employees' Personal Property Claims § 1261.102 Maximum amount. From October 1, 1982, to October 30, 1988, the maximum amount that may be...

  7. 14 CFR 1261.102 - Maximum amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum amount. 1261.102 Section 1261.102 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROCESSING OF MONETARY CLAIMS (GENERAL) Employees' Personal Property Claims § 1261.102 Maximum amount. From October 1, 1982, to October 30, 1988, the maximum amount that may be...

  8. THE KINETICS OF PENETRATION : VIII. TEMPORARY ACCUMULATION.

    PubMed

    Osterhout, W J; Kamerling, S E

    1934-03-20

    solution it will tend to enter and displace the weaker acid HA (if this be carbonic it can readily escape): hence potassium may accumulate to a greater or less extent as KCl. Injury of the cell may produce a twofold effect, (1) increase of permeability, (2) lessened accumulation. The total amount of electrolyte taken up in a given time will be influenced by these factors and may be greater than normal in the injured cell or less, depending somewhat on the length of the interval of time chosen. PMID:19872797

  9. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing.

    PubMed

    Kühl, Hjalmar S; Kalan, Ammie K; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D'Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites. PMID:26923684

  10. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing

    PubMed Central

    Kühl, Hjalmar S.; Kalan, Ammie K.; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D’Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E.; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J.; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M.; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites. PMID:26923684

  11. Accumulation of the planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherill, G. W.

    1987-01-01

    In modeling the accumulation of planetesimals into planets, it is appropriate to distinguish between two stages: an early stage, during which approximately 10 km diameter planetesimals accumulate locally to form bodies approximate 10 to the 25th g in mass; and a later stage in which the approximately 10 to the 25th g planetesimals accumulate into the final planets. In the terrestrial planet region, an initial planetesimal swarm corresponding to the critical mass of dust layer gravitational instabilities is considered. In order to better understand the accumulation history of Mercury-sized bodies, 19 Monte-Carlo simulations of terrestrial planet growth were calculated. A Monte Carlo technique was used to investigate the orbital evolution of asteroidal collision debris produced interior to 2.6 AU. It was found that there are two regions primarily responsible for production of Earth-crossing meteoritic material and Apollo objects. The same techniques were extended to include the origin of Earth-approaching asteroidal bodies. It is found that these same two resonant mechanisms predict a steady-state number of Apollo-Amor about 1/2 that estimated based on astronomical observations.

  12. The Formation of Massive Stars and Star Clusters in the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battersby, C. D.

    2013-10-01

    The life cycle of stars and gas in the Milky Way illuminates and shapes our view of the universe. This cycle is driven largely by massive stars through their immense ionizing radiation, powerful winds and outflows, and explosive supernovae, yet the processes leading to their formation remain elusive. I review the status of our understanding of massive star and cluster formation, beginning with a theoretical framework outlining the varying modes proposed for the accumulation of material onto forming stars: core accretion and competitive accretion. The observable consequences of each theory and their current statuses are discussed. I then delve into the growing body of observations toward massive star and cluster forming regions, focusing on recent observations of the structure and evolution of cluster- forming regions at early stages. I conclude with an outlook for the next stages in the field of massive star formation.

  13. The amount effect and marginal value.

    PubMed

    Rachlin, Howard; Arfer, Kodi B; Safin, Vasiliy; Yen, Ming

    2015-07-01

    The amount effect of delay discounting (by which the value of larger reward amounts is discounted by delay at a lower rate than that of smaller amounts) strictly implies that value functions (value as a function of amount) are steeper at greater delays than they are at lesser delays. That is, the amount effect and the difference in value functions at different delays are actually a single empirical finding. Amount effects of delay discounting are typically found with choice experiments. Value functions for immediate rewards have been empirically obtained by direct judgment. (Value functions for delayed rewards have not been previously obtained.) The present experiment obtained value functions for both immediate and delayed rewards by direct judgment and found them to be steeper when the rewards were delayed--hence, finding an amount effect with delay discounting. PMID:26013159

  14. The Role of Ceased Deep Water Ventilation in Massive Organic Carbon Sedimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marino, G.; Rohling, E. J.; Rijpstra, I. W.; Sangiorgi, F.; Brinkhuis, H.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe-Damsté, J. S.

    2006-12-01

    Sapropels reflect periods of widespread deposition of organic-carbon in the eastern Mediterranean (eMed) in response to positive shifts in the freshwater budget of the basin driven by distinct minima in the precession cycle that led to increased primary productivity and/or improved organic matter preservation. Last interglacial sapropel S5 is intensively developed and holds excellent potential for high-resolution studies. This is essential to track the major changes that led the eMed thermohaline circulation to its sapropel mode and, in turn, to the massive organic sedimentation. However, to date, no S5 has been recovered and studied from the marginal basins of the eMed (Adriatic and the Aegean Sea), which currently play a critical role in the basin's deep-water ventilation. Here we present the first systematic high-resolution multi-proxy study of an extremely organic-rich (up to 14% Corg) sapropel S5 from the Aegean Sea (core LC21) and discuss it in the context of previously described contemporaneous records from key locations in the open eMed. Our results unequivocally support the previous notion that the increased runoff (160-300% greater than today), largely discharged into the open eMed along the North African margin, crucially forced the anoxic event with profound oceanographic and biotic reorganizations throughout the basin. The Aegean subsurface circulation collapsed shortly after the onset of the freshwater flooding, as indicated by the sudden disappearance of benthic fossils and major increase in the organic carbon accumulation. In a few centuries, the occurrence of large amounts of isorenieratene marks the development of euxinic conditions throughout the Aegean water-column up to 200 m or shallower. Similar conditions successively spread over the open eMed. This reconstruction provides an unprecedented decadal-scale insight into the actual processes involved in the S5 deposition and, in a more general sense, in other episodes of massive carbon burial (e

  15. Spontaneous Scalarization of Massive Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramazanoglu, Fethi M.; Pretorius, Frans

    2014-03-01

    Spontaneous scalarization is a phenomenon in certain scalar-tensor theories where large deviations from general relativity can be observed inside compact stars, while the known observational bounds can also be satisfied far away. This scenario has been investigated for massless scalars and binary neutron stars using numerical relativity, but the parameter space for such theories have been severely restricted by recent observations. Here, we present our results on the spontaneous scalarization of massive scalars. We simulate cases with different equations of state and scalar field parameters, and comment on the detectability of the scalar field effects from the gravitational wave signal.

  16. Detecting weakly interacting massive particles.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drukier, A. K.; Gelmini, G. B.

    The growing synergy between astrophysics, particle physics, and low background experiments strengthens the possibility of detecting astrophysical non-baryonic matter. The idea of direct detection is that an incident, massive weakly interacting particle could collide with a nucleus and transfer an energy that could be measured. The present low levels of background achieved by the PNL/USC Ge detector represent a new technology which yields interesting bounds on Galactic cold dark matter and on light bosons emitted from the Sun. Further improvements require the development of cryogenic detectors. The authors analyse the practicality of such detectors, their optimalization and background suppression using the "annual modulation effect".

  17. Quantum aspects of massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Minjoon

    2011-05-01

    We consider the effect of quantum interactions on Pauli-Fierz massive gravity. With generic graviton cubic interactions, we observe that the 1-loop counterterms do not conform to the tree level structure of Pauli-Fierz action, resulting in the reappearance of the sixth mode ghost. Then to explore the quantum effects to the full extent, we calculate the resummed graviton propagator with an arbitrary interaction and analyze its complete structure, from which a minimal condition for the absence of the ghost is obtained.

  18. Cosmological perturbations in massive bigravity

    SciTech Connect

    Lagos, Macarena; Ferreira, Pedro G. E-mail: p.ferreira1@physics.ox.ac.uk

    2014-12-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of classical scalar, vector and tensor cosmological perturbations in ghost-free massive bigravity. In particular, we find the full evolution equations and analytical solutions in a wide range of regimes. We show that there are viable cosmological backgrounds but, as has been found in the literature, these models generally have exponential instabilities in linear perturbation theory. However, it is possible to find stable scalar cosmological perturbations for a very particular choice of parameters. For this stable subclass of models we find that vector and tensor perturbations have growing solutions. We argue that special initial conditions are needed for tensor modes in order to have a viable model.

  19. Wind channeling, magnetospheres, and spindown of magnetic massive stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owocki, S. P.; ud-Doula, A.; Townsend, R. H. D.; Petit, V.; Sundqvist, J. O.; Cohen, D. H.

    2014-08-01

    A subpopulation (~10%) of hot, luminous, massive stars have been revealed through spectropolarimetry to harbor strong (hundreds to tens of thousand Gauss), steady, large-scale (often significantly dipolar) magnetic fields. This review focuses on the role of such fields in channeling and trapping the radiatively driven wind of massive stars, including both in the strongly perturbed outflow from open field regions, and the wind-fed ``magnetospheres'' that develop from closed magnetic loops. For B-type stars with weak winds and moderately fast rotation, one finds ``centrifugal magnetospheres'', in which rotational support allows magnetically trapped wind to accumulate to a large density, with quite distinctive observational signatures, e.g. in Balmer line emission. In contrast, more luminous O-type stars have generally been spun down by magnetic braking from angular momentum loss in their much stronger winds. The lack of centrifugal support means their closed loops form a ``dynamical magnetosphere'', with trapped material falling back to the star on a dynamical timescale; nonetheless, the much stronger wind feeding leads to a circumstellar density that is still high enough to give substantial Balmer emission. Overall, this review describes MHD simulations and semi-analytic dynamical methods for modeling the magnetospheres, the magnetically channeled wind outflows, and the associated spin-down of these magnetic massive stars.

  20. Solid holography and massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberte, Lasma; Baggioli, Matteo; Khmelnitsky, Andrei; Pujolàs, Oriol

    2016-02-01

    Momentum dissipation is an important ingredient in condensed matter physics that requires a translation breaking sector. In the bottom-up gauge/gravity duality, this implies that the gravity dual is massive. We start here a systematic analysis of holographic massive gravity (HMG) theories, which admit field theory dual interpretations and which, therefore, might store interesting condensed matter applications. We show that there are many phases of HMG that are fully consistent effective field theories and which have been left overlooked in the literature. The most important distinction between the different HMG phases is that they can be clearly separated into solids and fluids. This can be done both at the level of the unbroken spacetime symmetries as well as concerning the elastic properties of the dual materials. We extract the modulus of rigidity of the solid HMG black brane solutions and show how it relates to the graviton mass term. We also consider the implications of the different HMGs on the electric response. We show that the types of response that can be consistently described within this framework is much wider than what is captured by the narrow class of models mostly considered so far.

  1. [Treatment alternatives in massive hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Hinojosa, E; Murillo-Cabezas, F; Puppo-Moreno, A; Leal-Noval, S R

    2012-10-01

    Massive hemorrhage is the main cause of mortality and morbidity in trauma patients, and is one of the most important causes in any patient following major surgery. Conventional treatment consists of volume replacement, including the transfusion of blood products, so that tissue perfusion and oxygenation may be maintained. Associated hypothermia, acidosis and coagulopathy is a lethal triad. This review focuses on the latest therapeutic management of massive hemorrhage. The authors advocate the use of crystalloids as per protocol (controlled volumes) in order to achieve a systolic blood pressure of 85mmHg. The administration of the three blood products (red cells, plasma, and platelets) should be on a 1:1:1 basis. Where possible, this in turn should be guided by thromboelastography performed at point of care near the patient. Coagulopathy can occur early and late. With the exception of tranexamic acid, the cost-benefit relationships of the hemostatic agents, such as fibrinogen, prothrombin complex, and recombinant F VII, are subject to discussion. PMID:22321860

  2. Grain processes in massive star formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfire, M. G.; Cassinelli, J. P.

    1986-01-01

    Observational evidence suggests that stars greater than 100 M(solar) exist in the Galaxy and Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), however classical star formation theory predicts stellar mass limits of only approx. 60 M(solar). A protostellar accretion flow consists of inflowing gas and dust. Grains are destroyed as they are near the central protostar creating a dust shell or cocoon. Radiation pressure acting on the grain can halt the inflow of material thereby limiting the amount of mass accumulated by the protostar. We first consider rather general constraints on the initial grain to gas ratio and mass accretion rates that permit inflow. We further constrain these results by constructing a numerical model. Radiative deceleration of grains and grain destruction processes are explicitly accounted for in an iterative solution of the radiation-hydrodynamic equations. Findings seem to suggest that star formation by spherical accretion requires rather extreme preconditioning of the grain and gas environment.

  3. Efficient communication in massively parallel computers

    SciTech Connect

    Cypher, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    A fundamental operation in parallel computation is sorting. Sorting is important not only because it is required by many algorithms, but also because it can be used to implement irregular, pointer-based communication. The author studies two algorithms for sorting in massively parallel computers. First, he examines Shellsort. Shellsort is a sorting algorithm that is based on a sequence of parameters called increments. Shellsort can be used to create a parallel sorting device known as a sorting network. Researchers have suggested that if the correct increment sequence is used, an optimal size sorting network can be obtained. All published increment sequences have been monotonically decreasing. He shows that no monotonically decreasing increment sequence will yield an optimal size sorting network. Second, he presents a sorting algorithm called Cubesort. Cubesort is the fastest known sorting algorithm for a variety of parallel computers aver a wide range of parameters. He also presents a paradigm for developing parallel algorithms that have efficient communication. The paradigm, called the data reduction paradigm, consists of using a divide-and-conquer strategy. Both the division and combination phases of the divide-and-conquer algorithm may require irregular, pointer-based communication between processors. However, the problem is divided so as to limit the amount of data that must be communicated. As a result the communication can be performed efficiently. He presents data reduction algorithms for the image component labeling problem, the closest pair problem and four versions of the parallel prefix problem.

  4. Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy: a "massive" misnomer.

    PubMed

    Sardana, Divesh; Goyal, Ashima; Gauba, Krishan

    2015-04-01

    Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy also known as Rosai-Dorfman disease is a rare, benign, histiocytic disorder of unknown origin characterized by lymphadenopathy. Since its original description by Rosai and Dorfman in 1969, small number of cases has been reported; hence no specific diagnostic criteria and treatment guidelines have been suggested. The purpose of this article is to present and discuss a case of Rosai Dorfman Syndrome in 4-year-old child diagnosed with the help of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology. The swelling resolved over a period of 18 months without any recurrence in 2-year follow-up period. This case report highlights the role of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology in the diagnosis of Rosai-Dorfman disease and the importance of regular follow ups using a careful wait and watch approach in its management. The report also briefly discusses the various dilemmas associated with its diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25088489

  5. Massive Binaries in the Galactic Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figer, D. F.; Kim, S. S.

    We review the status of massive-star interaction research in the Galactic center (GC). Given the short lifetimes of massive stars, massive binaries will necessarily be located near their formation sites in starburst clusters. The GC contains three recently formed clusters having a very high stellar density, as high as 106 stars pc-3. We discuss these extreme environments, and possible massive binaries therein. In addition, we argue that they may host the products of massive stellar mergers and collisions. In particular, we predict that at least one massive star in the Arches cluster has already experienced stellar merger events in its short lifetime. Further, the Pistol Star, in the nearby Quintuplet cluster, might owe its apparent relative youth to a rejuvinating stellar merger. Finally, the apparently young stars in the central arcsecond could be products of either collisions, inducing atmospheric stripping, or mergers.

  6. Gas retention and accumulation in stellar clusters and galaxies: Implications for star formation and black hole accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naiman, Jill

    Star formation cannot proceed without the existence of an extensive gas reservoir. In particular, the supply of gas to form stars in dwarf galaxies and star clusters requires overcoming a variety of difficulties - namely, the effectiveness of different feedback mechanisms in removing gas from these shallow gravitational potentials. In addition, the supply of external gas to these systems is determined by the large scale galactic structure in which they reside. This thesis employs computational hydrodynamics coupled with physically realistic subgrid feedback prescriptions to resolve the interplay between the small scale feedback mechanisms and larger scale gas flows to determine the amount of gas a shallow potential can accumulate. First, we consider the flow of gas external to dwarf galaxies and star clusters into their cores as a generalized accretion process. Second, we explore the enhancement of gas accretion rates onto the compact members of young star clusters when the flow of external gas into the cluster cores is large. Third, we discuss how external gas flows initiated by the presence of a massive nuclear star cluster can enhance central massive black hole accretion rates during galaxy mergers. Fourth, we change our focus to exploring internal stellar wind retention in proto-globular clusters as a mechanism to supply gas for multiple episodes of star formation. Finally, the implications of stellar wind retention on the current gas reservoir in globular clusters is discussed.

  7. On "new massive" 4D gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Fernández-Melgarejo, J. J.; Rosseel, Jan; Townsend, Paul K.

    2012-04-01

    We construct a four-dimensional (4D) gauge theory that propagates, unitarily, the five polarization modes of a massive spin-2 particle. These modes are described by a "dual" graviton gauge potential and the Lagrangian is 4th-order in derivatives. As the construction mimics that of 3D "new massive gravity", we call this 4D model (linearized) "new massive dual gravity". We analyse its massless limit, and discuss similarities to the Eddington-Schrödinger model.

  8. Massive gravity with N=1 local supersymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malaeb, O.

    2013-09-01

    A consistent theory of massive gravity, where the graviton acquires mass by spontaneously breaking diffeomorphism invariance, is now well established. We supersymmetrize this construction using N=1 fields. Coupling to N=1 supergravity is done by applying the rules of tensor calculus to construct an action invariant under local N=1 supersymmetry. The supersymmetric action is shown, at the quadratic level, to be free of ghosts and have as its spectrum a massive graviton, two gravitinos (with different masses) and a massive vector.

  9. 13 CFR 400.202 - Loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....202 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Steel Guarantee Loans § 400.202 Loan amount. (a) The aggregate amount of loan principal guaranteed under this Program to a single Qualified Steel Company may not exceed $ 250 million. (b) Of...

  10. 13 CFR 400.202 - Loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....202 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Steel Guarantee Loans § 400.202 Loan amount. (a) The aggregate amount of loan principal guaranteed under this Program to a single Qualified Steel Company may not exceed $ 250 million. (b) Of...

  11. 13 CFR 400.202 - Loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....202 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Steel Guarantee Loans § 400.202 Loan amount. (a) The aggregate amount of loan principal guaranteed under this Program to a single Qualified Steel Company may not exceed $ 250 million. (b) Of...

  12. 13 CFR 400.202 - Loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....202 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Steel Guarantee Loans § 400.202 Loan amount. (a) The aggregate amount of loan principal guaranteed under this Program to a single Qualified Steel Company may not exceed $ 250 million. (b) Of...

  13. 13 CFR 400.202 - Loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....202 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Steel Guarantee Loans § 400.202 Loan amount. (a) The aggregate amount of loan principal guaranteed under this Program to a single Qualified Steel Company may not exceed $ 250 million. (b) Of...

  14. 23 CFR 1335.8 - Grant amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Grant amounts. 1335.8 Section 1335.8 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STATE HIGHWAY SAFETY DATA IMPROVEMENTS § 1335.8 Grant amounts. (a) Start-up grant. A State that qualifies for a start-up grant under §...

  15. 45 CFR 32.8 - Amounts withheld.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... debtor's disposable pay exceeds an amount equivalent to thirty times the minimum wage. See 29 CFR 870.10... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE WAGE GARNISHMENT § 32.8 Amounts... first pay day after the employer receives the order. However, if the first pay day is within 10...

  16. 45 CFR 32.8 - Amounts withheld.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... debtor's disposable pay exceeds an amount equivalent to thirty times the minimum wage. See 29 CFR 870.10... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE WAGE GARNISHMENT § 32.8 Amounts... first pay day after the employer receives the order. However, if the first pay day is within 10...

  17. 14 CFR 1261.102 - Maximum amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum amount. 1261.102 Section 1261.102 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROCESSING OF MONETARY CLAIMS (GENERAL) Employees' Personal Property Claims § 1261.102 Maximum amount. From October 1, 1982, to October 30,...

  18. 14 CFR 1261.102 - Maximum amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum amount. 1261.102 Section 1261.102 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROCESSING OF MONETARY CLAIMS (GENERAL) Employees' Personal Property Claims § 1261.102 Maximum amount. From October 1, 1982, to October 30,...

  19. 45 CFR 32.8 - Amounts withheld.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... debtor's disposable pay exceeds an amount equivalent to thirty times the minimum wage. See 29 CFR 870.10... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE WAGE GARNISHMENT § 32.8 Amounts... first pay day after the employer receives the order. However, if the first pay day is within 10...

  20. 20 CFR 617.34 - Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part 101-7) for the locality where the job search is... WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Job Search Allowances § 617.34 Amount. (a) Computation. The amount of a job search allowance shall be 90 percent of the total costs of each of the following...

  1. 20 CFR 617.34 - Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part 101-7) for the locality where the job search is... WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Job Search Allowances § 617.34 Amount. (a) Computation. The amount of a job search allowance shall be 90 percent of the total costs of each of the following...

  2. 20 CFR 617.34 - Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part 101-7) for the locality where the job search is... WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Job Search Allowances § 617.34 Amount. (a) Computation. The amount of a job search allowance shall be 90 percent of the total costs of each of the following...

  3. 20 CFR 617.34 - Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part 101-7) for the locality where the job search is... WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Job Search Allowances § 617.34 Amount. (a) Computation. The amount of a job search allowance shall be 90 percent of the total costs of each of the following...

  4. Estimation of Accumulation Parameters for Urban Runoff Quality Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alley, William M.; Smith, Peter E.

    1981-12-01

    Many recently developed watershed models utilize accumulation and washoff equations to simulate the quality of runofffrom urban impervious areas. These models often have been calibrated by trial and error and with little understanding of model sensitivity to the various parameters. Methodologies for estimating best fit values of the washoff parameters commonly used in these models have been presented previously. In this paper, parameter identification techniques for estimating the accumulation parameters from measured runoff quality data are presented along with a sensitivity analysis of the parameters. Results from application of the techniques and the sensitivity analysis suggest a need for data quantifying the magnitude and identifying the shape of constituent accumulation curves. An exponential accumulation curve is shown to be more general than the linear accumulation curves used in most urban runoff quality models. When determining accumulation rates, attention needs to be given to the effects of residual amounts of constituents remaining after the previous period of storm runoff or street sweeping.

  5. 78 FR 59702 - Medicare Program; Medicare Appeals: Adjustment to the Amount in Controversy Threshold Amounts for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ...This notice announces the annual adjustment in the amount in controversy (AIC) threshold amounts for Administrative Law Judge (ALJ) hearings and judicial review under the Medicare appeals process. The adjustment to the AIC threshold amounts will be effective for requests for ALJ hearings and judicial review filed on or after January 1, 2014. The calendar year 2014 AIC threshold amounts are......

  6. Merlin - Massively parallel heterogeneous computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wittie, Larry; Maples, Creve

    1989-01-01

    Hardware and software for Merlin, a new kind of massively parallel computing system, are described. Eight computers are linked as a 300-MIPS prototype to develop system software for a larger Merlin network with 16 to 64 nodes, totaling 600 to 3000 MIPS. These working prototypes help refine a mapped reflective memory technique that offers a new, very general way of linking many types of computer to form supercomputers. Processors share data selectively and rapidly on a word-by-word basis. Fast firmware virtual circuits are reconfigured to match topological needs of individual application programs. Merlin's low-latency memory-sharing interfaces solve many problems in the design of high-performance computing systems. The Merlin prototypes are intended to run parallel programs for scientific applications and to determine hardware and software needs for a future Teraflops Merlin network.

  7. PRISM Polarimetry of Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerkstra, Brennan; Lomax, Jamie R.; Bjorkman, Karen S.; Bjorkman, Jon Eric; Skiff, Brian; Covey, Kevin R.; Wisniewski, John P.

    2016-01-01

    We present the early results from our long-term, multi-epoch filter polarization survey of massive stars in and around young Galactic clusters. These BVRI polarization data were obtained using the PRISM instrument mounted on the 1.8m Perkins Telescope at Lowell Observatory. We first detail the creation of our new semi-automated polarization data reduction pipeline that we developed to process these data. Next, we present our analysis of the instrumental polarization properties of the PRISM instrument, via observations of polarized and unpolarized standard stars. Finally, we present early results on the total and intrinsic polarization behavior of several isolated, previously suggested classical Be stars, and discuss these results in the context of the larger project.BK acknowledges support from a NSF/REU at the University of Oklahoma. This program was also supported by NSF-AST 11411563, 1412110, and 1412135.

  8. Derivative couplings in massive bigravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xian; Heisenberg, Lavinia

    2016-03-01

    In this work we study the cosmological perturbations in massive bigravity in the presence of non-minimal derivative couplings. For this purpose we consider a specific subclass of Horndeski scalar-tensor interactions that live on the unique composite effective metric. For the viability of the model both metrics have to be dynamical. Nevertheless, the number of allowed kinetic terms is crucial. We adapt to the restriction of having one single kinetic term. After deriving the full set of equations of motion for flat Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker background, we study linear perturbations on top of it. We show explicitly that only four tensor, two vector and two scalar degrees of freedom propagate, one of which being the Horndeski scalar, while the Boulware-Deser ghost can be integrated out.

  9. Massively parallel MRI detector arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keil, Boris; Wald, Lawrence L.

    2013-04-01

    Originally proposed as a method to increase sensitivity by extending the locally high-sensitivity of small surface coil elements to larger areas via reception, the term parallel imaging now includes the use of array coils to perform image encoding. This methodology has impacted clinical imaging to the point where many examinations are performed with an array comprising multiple smaller surface coil elements as the detector of the MR signal. This article reviews the theoretical and experimental basis for the trend towards higher channel counts relying on insights gained from modeling and experimental studies as well as the theoretical analysis of the so-called “ultimate” SNR and g-factor. We also review the methods for optimally combining array data and changes in RF methodology needed to construct massively parallel MRI detector arrays and show some examples of state-of-the-art for highly accelerated imaging with the resulting highly parallel arrays.

  10. Massively Parallel MRI Detector Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Keil, Boris; Wald, Lawrence L

    2013-01-01

    Originally proposed as a method to increase sensitivity by extending the locally high-sensitivity of small surface coil elements to larger areas, the term parallel imaging now includes the use of array coils to perform image encoding. This methodology has impacted clinical imaging to the point where many examinations are performed with an array comprising multiple smaller surface coil elements as the detector of the MR signal. This article reviews the theoretical and experimental basis for the trend towards higher channel counts relying on insights gained from modeling and experimental studies as well as the theoretical analysis of the so-called “ultimate” SNR and g-factor. We also review the methods for optimally combining array data and changes in RF methodology needed to construct massively parallel MRI detector arrays and show some examples of state-of-the-art for highly accelerated imaging with the resulting highly parallel arrays. PMID:23453758

  11. Massively parallel MRI detector arrays.

    PubMed

    Keil, Boris; Wald, Lawrence L

    2013-04-01

    Originally proposed as a method to increase sensitivity by extending the locally high-sensitivity of small surface coil elements to larger areas via reception, the term parallel imaging now includes the use of array coils to perform image encoding. This methodology has impacted clinical imaging to the point where many examinations are performed with an array comprising multiple smaller surface coil elements as the detector of the MR signal. This article reviews the theoretical and experimental basis for the trend towards higher channel counts relying on insights gained from modeling and experimental studies as well as the theoretical analysis of the so-called "ultimate" SNR and g-factor. We also review the methods for optimally combining array data and changes in RF methodology needed to construct massively parallel MRI detector arrays and show some examples of state-of-the-art for highly accelerated imaging with the resulting highly parallel arrays. PMID:23453758

  12. Massively parallel quantum computer simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Raedt, K.; Michielsen, K.; De Raedt, H.; Trieu, B.; Arnold, G.; Richter, M.; Lippert, Th.; Watanabe, H.; Ito, N.

    2007-01-01

    We describe portable software to simulate universal quantum computers on massive parallel computers. We illustrate the use of the simulation software by running various quantum algorithms on different computer architectures, such as a IBM BlueGene/L, a IBM Regatta p690+, a Hitachi SR11000/J1, a Cray X1E, a SGI Altix 3700 and clusters of PCs running Windows XP. We study the performance of the software by simulating quantum computers containing up to 36 qubits, using up to 4096 processors and up to 1 TB of memory. Our results demonstrate that the simulator exhibits nearly ideal scaling as a function of the number of processors and suggest that the simulation software described in this paper may also serve as benchmark for testing high-end parallel computers.

  13. Stable massive particles at colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Fairbairn, M.; Kraan, A.C.; Milstead, D.A.; Sjostrand, T.; Skands, P.; Sloan, T.; /Lancaster U.

    2006-11-01

    We review the theoretical motivations and experimental status of searches for stable massive particles (SMPs) which could be sufficiently long-lived as to be directly detected at collider experiments. The discovery of such particles would address a number of important questions in modern physics including the origin and composition of dark matter in the universe and the unification of the fundamental forces. This review describes the techniques used in SMP-searches at collider experiments and the limits so far obtained on the production of SMPs which possess various colour, electric and magnetic charge quantum numbers. We also describe theoretical scenarios which predict SMPs, the phenomenology needed to model their production at colliders and interactions with matter. In addition, the interplay between collider searches and open questions in cosmology such as dark matter composition are addressed.

  14. Massive supersymmetric quantum gauge theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigore, D. R.; Gut, M.; Scharf, G.

    2005-08-01

    We continue the study of the supersymmetric vector multiplet in a purely quantum framework. We obtain some new results which make the connection with the standard literature. First we construct the one-particle physical Hilbert space taking into account the (quantum) gauge structure of the model. Then we impose the condition of positivity for the scalar product only on the physical Hilbert space. Finally we obtain a full supersymmetric coupling which is gauge invariant in the supersymmetric sense in the first order of perturbation theory. By integrating out the Grassmann variables we get an interacting Lagrangian for a massive Yang-Mills theory related to ordinary gauge theory; however the number of ghost fields is doubled so we do not obtain the same ghost couplings as in the standard model Lagrangian.

  15. Safety first: precautions for the massive weight loss patient.

    PubMed

    Davison, Steven P; Clemens, Mark W

    2008-01-01

    A significant increase in bariatric procedures has led to success in maintaining long-term weight loss. The increasing population of patients who have lost massive amounts of weight also has led to a growing responsibility placed on body-contouring surgeons to perform safe and cautious procedures in this inherently difficult patient population. We stratify risk groups and present several case reports and a systematic review of safety precautions. The risks and complications of body contouring can be minimized by a team approach with a meticulous attention to patient evaluation, preoperative planning, safe detailed operative measures, and thorough postoperative care. PMID:18061812

  16. 7 CFR 1424.8 - Payment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOENERGY PROGRAM § 1424.8 Payment amounts. (a) An eligible... whose annual bioenergy production is: (i) Less than 65 million gallons, by dividing by 2.5; (ii)...

  17. 7 CFR 1424.8 - Payment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOENERGY PROGRAM § 1424.8 Payment amounts. (a) An eligible... whose annual bioenergy production is: (i) Less than 65 million gallons, by dividing by 2.5; (ii)...

  18. 7 CFR 1424.8 - Payment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOENERGY PROGRAM § 1424.8 Payment amounts. (a) An eligible... whose annual bioenergy production is: (i) Less than 65 million gallons, by dividing by 2.5; (ii)...

  19. 7 CFR 1424.8 - Payment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOENERGY PROGRAM § 1424.8 Payment amounts. (a) An eligible... whose annual bioenergy production is: (i) Less than 65 million gallons, by dividing by 2.5; (ii)...

  20. 7 CFR 1424.8 - Payment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOENERGY PROGRAM § 1424.8 Payment amounts. (a) An eligible... whose annual bioenergy production is: (i) Less than 65 million gallons, by dividing by 2.5; (ii)...

  1. Thought Leaders during Crises in Massive Social Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Corley, Courtney D.; Farber, Robert M.; Reynolds, William

    2012-05-24

    The vast amount of social media data that can be gathered from the internet coupled with workflows that utilize both commodity systems and massively parallel supercomputers, such as the Cray XMT, open new vistas for research to support health, defense, and national security. Computer technology now enables the analysis of graph structures containing more than 4 billion vertices joined by 34 billion edges along with metrics and massively parallel algorithms that exhibit near-linear scalability according to number of processors. The challenge lies in making this massive data and analysis comprehensible to an analyst and end-users that require actionable knowledge to carry out their duties. Simply stated, we have developed language and content agnostic techniques to reduce large graphs built from vast media corpora into forms people can understand. Specifically, our tools and metrics act as a survey tool to identify thought leaders' -- those members that lead or reflect the thoughts and opinions of an online community, independent of the source language.

  2. Physical Conditions in Massive-Cluster-Forming Molecular Clumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schap, William; Barnes, Peter; Ginsburg, Adam; Ordonez, Tony

    2015-08-01

    The CHaMP project has identified a uniform sample of 303 massive (20-8000 M⊙), dense (200-30,000 cm-3) molecular clumps in a large sector of the southern Milky Way that includes much of the Carina Arm. These are the kinds of clumps that are likely to be the precursors to IRDCs, large stellar clusters, and massive stars. We report new results of the physical conditions in these clouds based on the J=1-0 emission at 3mm from the HCN molecule. Analysis of the HCN emission from these clumps reveals that the physical conditions in the gas (i.e., the excitation temperature, optical depth, and column density) do not follow the molecular line emissivity in a straightforward way. This means that large fractions of the molecular meterial involved in massive cluster formation, while not completely "dark", are under-luminous and easily missed in certain studies. Furthermore, the existence of significant amounts of under-luminous gas has important consequences for the interpretation of wider correlations, such as the star-formation efficiency (SFE, ie the stellar-to-gas mass ratio in a cloud) and, on the larger scale, the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation. Therefore, some widely-used correlations may have hidden biases that depend on the hitherto poorly-characterised spatial variations in physical conditions, illustrated by our results.

  3. Stefan-Boltzmann Law for Massive Photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, E. S.; Ribeiro, T. G.

    2016-08-01

    This paper generalizes the Stefan-Boltzmann law to include massive photons. A crucial ingredient to obtain the correct formula for the radiance is to realize that a massive photon does not travel at the speed of (massless) light. It follows that, contrary to what could be expected, the radiance is not proportional to the energy density times the speed of light.

  4. Gravitational massive modes from extended gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basini, Giuseppe; Capozziello, Salvatore; de Laurentis, Mariafelicia

    2016-02-01

    Further gravitational massive modes emerge by extending the geometrical sector of Hilbert-Einstein theory in the most general theory including curvature invariants. Besides massless spin-2, also spin-0 and spin-2 massive and ghost fields have to be considered. We investigate the possible detectability of such additional modes by the Large Hadron Collider and calculate the detectable energy density of the spectrum.

  5. Massive OB stars at varying Z

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrero, A.; Garcia, M.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Camacho, I.; Sabín-Sanjulián, C.; Castro, N.

    2015-01-01

    Massive stars play a key role in environments with very different metallicities. To interpret the role of massive stars in these systems we have to know their properties at different metallicities. The Local Group offers an excellent laboratory to this aim.

  6. Stefan-Boltzmann Law for Massive Photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, E. S.; Ribeiro, T. G.

    2016-04-01

    This paper generalizes the Stefan-Boltzmann law to include massive photons. A crucial ingredient to obtain the correct formula for the radiance is to realize that a massive photon does not travel at the speed of (massless) light. It follows that, contrary to what could be expected, the radiance is not proportional to the energy density times the speed of light.

  7. Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M. R.; Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.

    2012-09-26

    The objective of Solids Accumulation activities was to perform scaled testing to understand the behavior of remaining solids in a Double Shell Tank (DST), specifically AW-105, at Hanford during multiple fill, mix, and transfer operations. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles containing plutonium could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste staging tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids: Gibbsite, Zirconia, Sand, and Stainless Steel, with stainless steel particles representing the heavier particles, e.g., plutonium, and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to mix most of the solids while the simulant was pumped out. Subsequently, the volume and shape of the mounds of residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for heavier particles were measured. Several techniques were developed and equipment designed to accomplish the measurements needed and they included: 1. Magnetic particle separator to remove simulant stainless steel solids. A device was designed and built to capture these solids, which represent the heavier solids during a waste transfer from a staging tank. 2. Photographic equipment to determine the volume of the solids mounds. The mounds were photographed as they were exposed at different tank waste levels to develop a composite of topographical areas. 3. Laser rangefinders to determine the volume of

  8. Remark on massive particle's de Sitter tunneling

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Qing-Quan; Chen, De-You; Wen, Dan E-mail: deyouchen@126.com

    2013-11-01

    In the work [J. Y. Zhang and Z. Zhao, Massive particles's black hole tunneling and de Sitter tunneling, Nucl. Phys. B 725 (2005) 173.], the Hawking radiation of the massive particle via tunneling from the de Sitter cosmological horizon has been first described in the tunneling framework. However, the geodesic equation of the massive particle was unnaturally and awkwardly defined there by investigating the relation between the group and phase velocity. In this paper, we start from the Lagrangian analysis on the action to naturally produce the geodesic equation of the tunneling massive particle. Then, based on the new definition for the geodesic equation, we revisit the Hawking radiation of the massive particle via tunneling from the de Sitter cosmological horizon. It is noteworthy that, the highlight of our work is a new and important development of the Parikh-Wilczek's tunneling method, which can make it more physical.

  9. Massively parallel femtosecond laser processing.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Satoshi; Ito, Haruyasu; Toyoda, Haruyoshi; Hayasaki, Yoshio

    2016-08-01

    Massively parallel femtosecond laser processing with more than 1000 beams was demonstrated. Parallel beams were generated by a computer-generated hologram (CGH) displayed on a spatial light modulator (SLM). The key to this technique is to optimize the CGH in the laser processing system using a scheme called in-system optimization. It was analytically demonstrated that the number of beams is determined by the horizontal number of pixels in the SLM NSLM that is imaged at the pupil plane of an objective lens and a distance parameter pd obtained by dividing the distance between adjacent beams by the diffraction-limited beam diameter. A performance limitation of parallel laser processing in our system was estimated at NSLM of 250 and pd of 7.0. Based on these parameters, the maximum number of beams in a hexagonal close-packed structure was calculated to be 1189 by using an analytical equation. PMID:27505815

  10. Electrical properties of seafloor massive sulfides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spagnoli, Giovanni; Hannington, Mark; Bairlein, Katharina; Hördt, Andreas; Jegen, Marion; Petersen, Sven; Laurila, Tea

    2016-06-01

    Seafloor massive sulfide (SMS) deposits are increasingly seen as important marine metal resources for the future. A growing number of industrialized nations are involved in the surveying and sampling of such deposits by drilling. Drill ships are expensive and their availability can be limited; seabed drill rigs are a cost-effective alternative and more suitable for obtaining cores for resource evaluation. In order to achieve the objectives of resource evaluations, details are required of the geological, mineralogical, and physical properties of the polymetallic deposits and their host rocks. Electrical properties of the deposits and their ore minerals are distinct from their unmineralized host rocks. Therefore, the use of electrical methods to detect SMS while drilling and recovering drill cores could decrease the costs and accelerate offshore operations by limiting the amount of drilling in unmineralized material. This paper presents new data regarding the electrical properties of SMS cores that can be used in that assessment. Frequency-dependent complex electrical resistivity in the frequency range between 0.002 and 100 Hz was examined in order to potentially discriminate between different types of fresh rocks, alteration and mineralization. Forty mini-cores of SMS and unmineralized host rocks were tested in the laboratory, originating from different tectonic settings such as the intermediate-spreading ridges of the Galapagos and Axial Seamount, and the Pacmanus back-arc basin. The results indicate that there is a clear potential to distinguish between mineralized and non-mineralized samples, with some evidence that even different types of mineralization can be discriminated. This could be achieved using resistivity magnitude alone with appropriate rig-mounted electrical sensors. Exploiting the frequency-dependent behavior of resistivity might amplify the differences and further improve the rock characterization.

  11. Electrical properties of seafloor massive sulfides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spagnoli, Giovanni; Hannington, Mark; Bairlein, Katharina; Hördt, Andreas; Jegen, Marion; Petersen, Sven; Laurila, Tea

    2016-02-01

    Seafloor massive sulfide (SMS) deposits are increasingly seen as important marine metal resources for the future. A growing number of industrialized nations are involved in the surveying and sampling of such deposits by drilling. Drill ships are expensive and their availability can be limited; seabed drill rigs are a cost-effective alternative and more suitable for obtaining cores for resource evaluation. In order to achieve the objectives of resource evaluations, details are required of the geological, mineralogical, and physical properties of the polymetallic deposits and their host rocks. Electrical properties of the deposits and their ore minerals are distinct from their unmineralized host rocks. Therefore, the use of electrical methods to detect SMS while drilling and recovering drill cores could decrease the costs and accelerate offshore operations by limiting the amount of drilling in unmineralized material. This paper presents new data regarding the electrical properties of SMS cores that can be used in that assessment. Frequency-dependent complex electrical resistivity in the frequency range between 0.002 and 100 Hz was examined in order to potentially discriminate between different types of fresh rocks, alteration and mineralization. Forty mini-cores of SMS and unmineralized host rocks were tested in the laboratory, originating from different tectonic settings such as the intermediate-spreading ridges of the Galapagos and Axial Seamount, and the Pacmanus back-arc basin. The results indicate that there is a clear potential to distinguish between mineralized and non-mineralized samples, with some evidence that even different types of mineralization can be discriminated. This could be achieved using resistivity magnitude alone with appropriate rig-mounted electrical sensors. Exploiting the frequency-dependent behavior of resistivity might amplify the differences and further improve the rock characterization.

  12. 76 FR 59138 - Medicare Program; Medicare Appeals; Adjustment to the Amount in Controversy Threshold Amounts for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Medicare Program; Medicare Appeals; Adjustment to the Amount in Controversy Threshold Amounts for Calendar Year 2012 AGENCY: Centers for Medicare... review under the Medicare appeals process. The adjustment to the AIC threshold amounts will be...

  13. Nanoscale Cluster Detection in Massive Atom Probe Tomography Data

    SciTech Connect

    Seal, Sudip K; Yoginath, Srikanth B; Miller, Michael K

    2014-01-01

    Recent technological advances in atom probe tomography (APT) have led to unprecedented data acquisition capabilities that routinely generate data sets containing hundreds of millions of atoms. Detecting nanoscale clusters of different atom types present in these enormous amounts of data and analyzing their spatial correlations with one another are fundamental to understanding the structural properties of the material from which the data is derived. Extant algorithms for nanoscale cluster detection do not scale to large data sets. Here, a scalable, CUDA-based implementation of an autocorrelation algorithm is presented. It isolates spatial correlations amongst atomic clusters present in massive APT data sets in linear time using a linear amount of storage. Correctness of the algorithm is demonstrated using large synthetically generated data with known spatial distributions. Benefits and limitations of using GPU-acceleration for autocorrelation-based APT data analyses are presented with supporting performance results on data sets with up to billions of atoms. To our knowledge, this is the first nanoscale cluster detection algorithm that scales to massive APT data sets and executes on commodity hardware.

  14. Guidelines for Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs) at LBL. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to set conditions for establishing and containing areas for the accumulation of hazardous waste at LBL. Areas designed for accumulation of these wastes for up to 90 days in quantities greater than 55 gallons (208 liters) of hazardous waste, one quart (0.946 liter) of extremely hazardous waste, or one quart (0.946 liter) of acutely hazardous waste are called Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs). Areas designed for accumulation of wastes in smaller amounts are called Satellite Accumulation Areas (SAAs). This document provides guidelines for employee and organizational responsibilities for WAAs, constructing a WAA, storing waste in a WAA, operating and maintaining a WAA, and responding to spills in a WAA.

  15. ITER helium ash accumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, J.T.; Hillis, D.L.; Galambos, J.; Uckan, N.A. ); Dippel, K.H.; Finken, K.H. . Inst. fuer Plasmaphysik); Hulse, R.A.; Budny, R.V. . Plasma Physics Lab.)

    1990-01-01

    Many studies have shown the importance of the ratio {upsilon}{sub He}/{upsilon}{sub E} in determining the level of He ash accumulation in future reactor systems. Results of the first tokamak He removal experiments have been analysed, and a first estimate of the ratio {upsilon}{sub He}/{upsilon}{sub E} to be expected for future reactor systems has been made. The experiments were carried out for neutral beam heated plasmas in the TEXTOR tokamak, at KFA/Julich. Helium was injected both as a short puff and continuously, and subsequently extracted with the Advanced Limiter Test-II pump limiter. The rate at which the He density decays has been determined with absolutely calibrated charge exchange spectroscopy, and compared with theoretical models, using the Multiple Impurity Species Transport (MIST) code. An analysis of energy confinement has been made with PPPL TRANSP code, to distinguish beam from thermal confinement, especially for low density cases. The ALT-II pump limiter system is found to exhaust the He with maximum exhaust efficiency (8 pumps) of {approximately}8%. We find 1<{upsilon}{sub He}/{upsilon}{sub E}<3.3 for the database of cases analysed to date. Analysis with the ITER TETRA systems code shows that these values would be adequate to achieve the required He concentration with the present ITER divertor He extraction system.

  16. Massive pulmonary embolism: the place for embolectomy

    PubMed Central

    Buckels, N J; Mulholland, C; Galvin, I; Gladstone, D; Cleland, J

    1988-01-01

    Untreated massive pulmonary embolism is associated with a high mortality. Pulmonary embolectomy has been largely superceded by thrombolytic therapy, but there are cases in which pulmonary embolectomy remains the treatment of choice. We present three case reports and discuss the merits of the various treatments available for massive pulmonary embolism. The primary treatment of massive pulmonary embolism should be thrombolytic therapy, but for patients who are at risk of haemorrhage following surgery, who are in cardiogenic shock despite medical treatment, or fail to improve following cardiac arrest, then pulmonary embolectomy remains the treatment of choice. ImagesFig 1Fig 2Fig 3 PMID:3232251

  17. Evolved Massive Stars in the Local Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drout, M. R.; Massey, P.

    2015-05-01

    In this manuscript we describe a number of recent advances in the study of evolved massive stars in the Local Group, with an emphasis on how representative populations of these stars can be used to test models of massive star evolution. In honor of the 50th anniversary of the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) we attempt to put these finding in some historical context by discussing how our understanding of the various stages in the lives of massive stars has evolved since Cerro Tololo was first selected as the site for the observatory which would become CTIO.

  18. Massive star archeology in globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chantereau, W.; Charbonnel, C.; Meynet, G.

    2015-01-01

    Globular clusters are among the oldest structures in the Universe and they host today low-mass stars and no gas. However, there has been a time when they formed as gaseous objects hosting a large number of short-lived, massive stars. Many details on this early epoch have been depicted recently through unprecedented dissection of low-mass globular cluster stars via spectroscopy and photometry. In particular, multiple populations have been identified, which bear the nucleosynthetic fingerprints of the massive hot stars disappeared a long time ago. Here we discuss how massive star archeology can be done through the lense of these multiple populations.

  19. Venus - Volcano With Massive Landslides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This Magellan full-resolution mosaic which covers an area 143 by 146 kilometers (89 by 91 miles) is centered at 55 degrees north latitude, 266 degrees east longitude. The bright feature, slightly south of center is interpreted to be a volcano, 15-20 kilometers (9.3 to 12.4 miles) in diameter with a large apron of blocky debris to its right and some smaller aprons to its left. A preferred explanation is that several massive catastrophic landslides dropped down steep slopes and were carried by their momentum out into the smooth, dark lava plains. At the base of the east-facing or largest scallop on the volcano is what appears to be a large block of coherent rock, 8 to 10 kilometers (5 to 6 miles) in length. The similar margin of both the scallop and block and the shape in general is typical of terrestrial slumped blocks (masses of rock which slide and rotate down a slope instead of breaking apart and tumbling). The bright lobe to the south of the volcano may either be a lava flow or finer debris from other landslides. This volcanic feature, characterized by its scalloped flanks is part of a class of volcanoes called scalloped or collapsed domes of which there are more than 80 on Venus. Based on the chute-like shapes of the scallops and the existence of a spectrum of intermediate to well defined examples, it is hypothesized that all of the scallops are remnants of landslides even though the landslide debris is often not visible. Possible explanations for the missing debris are that it may have been covered by lava flows, the debris may have weathered or that the radar may not be recognizing it because the individual blocks are too small

  20. 7 CFR 1421.304 - Payment amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.304 Payment amount. (a) The grazing payment rate... payment rate in effect for the predominant class of wheat in the county where the farm is located as of... three (3) similar farms. For triticale, the payment yield shall be the yield for wheat from three...

  1. 7 CFR 1421.304 - Payment amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.304 Payment amount. (a) The grazing payment rate... payment rate in effect for the predominant class of wheat in the county where the farm is located as of... three (3) similar farms. For triticale, the payment yield shall be the yield for wheat from three...

  2. 7 CFR 1421.304 - Payment amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.304 Payment amount. (a) The grazing payment rate... payment rate in effect for the predominant class of wheat in the county where the farm is located as of... three (3) similar farms. For triticale, the payment yield shall be the yield for wheat from three...

  3. 24 CFR 201.10 - Loan amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Loan amounts. 201.10 Section 201.10 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE...

  4. 7 CFR 1421.304 - Payment amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.304 Payment amount. (a) The grazing payment rate... complete program application to CCC. For triticale, the grazing rate will be equal to the loan deficiency... three (3) similar farms. For triticale, the payment yield shall be the yield for wheat from three...

  5. 14 CFR 1300.13 - Guarantee amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Guarantee amount. 1300.13 Section 1300.13 Aeronautics and Space AIR TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM STABILIZATION OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET AVIATION DISASTER RELIEF-AIR CARRIER GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Minimum Requirements and Application Procedures §...

  6. 14 CFR 1300.13 - Guarantee amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Guarantee amount. 1300.13 Section 1300.13 Aeronautics and Space AIR TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM STABILIZATION OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET AVIATION DISASTER RELIEF-AIR CARRIER GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Minimum Requirements and Application Procedures §...

  7. 20 CFR 340.2 - Amount recoverable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... amount of unemployment, sickness, or maternity benefits paid under the Railroad Unemployment Insurance... been determined to be days of unemployment or sickness; (c) Recoverable under section 4(a-1)(ii) of the..., unemployment, sickness or maternity benefits under any law other than the Railroad Unemployment Insurance...

  8. 20 CFR 340.2 - Amount recoverable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... amount of unemployment, sickness, or maternity benefits paid under the Railroad Unemployment Insurance... been determined to be days of unemployment or sickness; (c) Recoverable under section 4(a-1)(ii) of the..., unemployment, sickness or maternity benefits under any law other than the Railroad Unemployment Insurance...

  9. 20 CFR 340.2 - Amount recoverable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... amount of unemployment, sickness, or maternity benefits paid under the Railroad Unemployment Insurance... been determined to be days of unemployment or sickness; (c) Recoverable under section 4(a-1)(ii) of the..., unemployment, sickness or maternity benefits under any law other than the Railroad Unemployment Insurance...

  10. 20 CFR 340.2 - Amount recoverable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... amount of unemployment, sickness, or maternity benefits paid under the Railroad Unemployment Insurance... been determined to be days of unemployment or sickness; (c) Recoverable under section 4(a-1)(ii) of the..., unemployment, sickness or maternity benefits under any law other than the Railroad Unemployment Insurance...

  11. 20 CFR 340.2 - Amount recoverable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... amount of unemployment, sickness, or maternity benefits paid under the Railroad Unemployment Insurance... been determined to be days of unemployment or sickness; (c) Recoverable under section 4(a-1)(ii) of the..., unemployment, sickness or maternity benefits under any law other than the Railroad Unemployment Insurance...

  12. 33 CFR 133.7 - Requests: Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; STATE ACCESS § 133.7... amount anticipated for immediate removal action for a single oil pollution incident, but, in any event... quantity and composition of the oil, weather conditions and customary costs of similar services in...

  13. 33 CFR 133.7 - Requests: Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; STATE ACCESS § 133.7... amount anticipated for immediate removal action for a single oil pollution incident, but, in any event... quantity and composition of the oil, weather conditions and customary costs of similar services in...

  14. 33 CFR 133.7 - Requests: Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; STATE ACCESS § 133.7... amount anticipated for immediate removal action for a single oil pollution incident, but, in any event... quantity and composition of the oil, weather conditions and customary costs of similar services in...

  15. 33 CFR 133.7 - Requests: Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; STATE ACCESS § 133.7... amount anticipated for immediate removal action for a single oil pollution incident, but, in any event... quantity and composition of the oil, weather conditions and customary costs of similar services in...

  16. 33 CFR 133.7 - Requests: Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; STATE ACCESS § 133.7... amount anticipated for immediate removal action for a single oil pollution incident, but, in any event... quantity and composition of the oil, weather conditions and customary costs of similar services in...

  17. 7 CFR 1421.304 - Payment amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.304 Payment amount. (a) The grazing payment rate... payment rate in effect for the predominant class of wheat in the county where the farm is located as of... three (3) similar farms. For triticale, the payment yield shall be the yield for wheat from three...

  18. 40 CFR 35.9050 - Assistance amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assistance amount. 35.9050 Section 35.9050 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9050...

  19. 40 CFR 35.9050 - Assistance amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Assistance amount. 35.9050 Section 35.9050 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9050...

  20. 40 CFR 35.9050 - Assistance amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Assistance amount. 35.9050 Section 35.9050 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9050...

  1. 40 CFR 35.9050 - Assistance amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Assistance amount. 35.9050 Section 35.9050 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9050...

  2. 40 CFR 35.9050 - Assistance amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Assistance amount. 35.9050 Section 35.9050 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9050...

  3. 27 CFR 70.243 - Exempt amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Exempt amount. 70.243 Section 70.243 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... as wages, salary, or other income for each payroll period described in § 70.244 of this part...

  4. 27 CFR 70.243 - Exempt amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exempt amount. 70.243 Section 70.243 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... as wages, salary, or other income for each payroll period described in § 70.244 of this part...

  5. 27 CFR 70.243 - Exempt amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exempt amount. 70.243 Section 70.243 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... as wages, salary, or other income for each payroll period described in § 70.244 of this part...

  6. 27 CFR 70.243 - Exempt amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Exempt amount. 70.243 Section 70.243 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... as wages, salary, or other income for each payroll period described in § 70.244 of this part...

  7. 27 CFR 70.243 - Exempt amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Exempt amount. 70.243 Section 70.243 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... as wages, salary, or other income for each payroll period described in § 70.244 of this part...

  8. Soft texture of atlantic salmon fillets is associated with glycogen accumulation.

    PubMed

    Torgersen, Jacob S; Koppang, Erling Olaf; Stien, Lars H; Kohler, Achim; Pedersen, Mona E; Mørkøre, Turid

    2014-01-01

    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) with soft fillets are not suited for manufacturing high quality products. Therefore fillets with insufficient firmness are downgraded, leading to severe economic losses to the farming and processing industries. In the current study, morphological characteristics of salmon fillets ranging from soft to hard were analysed. Different microscopic techniques were applied, including novel methods in this field of research: morphometric image analysis, periodic acid Schiff staining, immunofluorescence microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and fourier transform infrared microscopy. The results showed that the myocytes of soft muscle had detached cells with mitochondrial dysfunctions, large glycogen aggregates and enlarged inter cellular areas, void of extracellular matrix proteins, including lower amounts of sulfated glycoproteins. Myofibre-myofibre detachment and disappearance of the endomysium in soft muscles coincided with deterioration of important connective tissue constituents such as Collagen type I (Col I), Perlecan and Aggrecan. In summary our investigations show for the first time an association between soft flesh of Atlantic salmon and massive intracellular glycogen accumulation coinciding with degenerated mitochondria, myocyte detachment and altered extracellular matrix protein distribution. The results are important for further understanding the etiology of soft salmon. PMID:24416425

  9. Laparoscopic plication of partially twisted ovary with massive ovarian edema.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ming-Huei; Tseng, Jeng-Yu; Suen, Jeng-Hung; Yang, Chih-Chun

    2006-05-01

    Massive ovarian edema (MOE) is a rare entity characterized by an accumulation of stromal edema fluid and occurs primarily in young women. The etiology is not clear, but is suspected to be the result of partial torsion of the ovary. After the establishment of a correct diagnosis, organ-sparing surgical treatment is the standard treatment. With the assistance of laparoscopy, we diagnosed and managed MOE in a 26-year-old woman who had a 4-year history of primary infertility and intermittent lower abdominal pain that had lasted for more than 6 months. With de-torsion, wedge resection, and plication of the ovary, the patient was successfully relieved of the abdominal pain and experienced no recurrence in the follow-up period. A later spontaneous pregnancy demonstrated the practicality of this conservative treatment. PMID:16835988

  10. A cosmological study in massive gravity theory

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Supriya Chakraborty, Subenoy

    2015-09-15

    A detailed study of the various cosmological aspects in massive gravity theory has been presented in the present work. For the homogeneous and isotropic FLRW model, the deceleration parameter has been evaluated, and, it has been examined whether there is any transition from deceleration to acceleration in recent past, or not. With the proper choice of the free parameters, it has been shown that the massive gravity theory is equivalent to Einstein gravity with a modified Newtonian gravitational constant together with a negative cosmological constant. Also, in this context, it has been examined whether the emergent scenario is possible, or not, in massive gravity theory. Finally, we have done a cosmographic analysis in massive gravity theory.

  11. Massive Stars: Input Physics and Stellar Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Eid, M. F.; The, L.-S.; Meyer, B. S.

    2009-10-01

    We present a general overview of the structure and evolution of massive stars of masses ≥12 M ⊙ during their pre-supernova stages. We think it is worth reviewing this topic owing to the crucial role of massive stars in astrophysics, especially in the evolution of galaxies and the universe. We have performed several test computations with the aim to analyze and discuss many physical uncertainties still encountered in massive-star evolution. In particular, we explore the effects of mass loss, convection, rotation, 12C( α, γ)16O reaction and initial metallicity. We also compare and analyze the similarities and differences among various works and ours. Finally, we present useful comments on the nucleosynthesis from massive stars concerning the s-process and the yields for 26Al and 60Fe.

  12. Evolution of Massive Stars at Low Metallicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meynet, Georges; Walborn, Nolan R.; Hunter, Ian; Martayan, Christophe; van Marle, Allard Jan; Marchenko, Sergey; Vink, Jorick S.; Limongi, Marco; Levesque, Emily M.; Modjaz, Maryam

    2008-06-01

    This paper reports the contributions made on the occasion of the Special Session entitled “Evolution of Massive Stars at Low Metallicity” which was held on Sunday, December 9, 2007 in Kauai (USA).

  13. Recovering General Relativity from Massive Gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Babichev, E.; Deffayet, C.; Ziour, R.

    2009-11-13

    We obtain static, spherically symmetric, and asymptotically flat numerical solutions of massive gravity with a source. Those solutions show, for the first time explicitly, a recovery of the Schwarzschild solution of general relativity via the so-called Vainshtein mechanism.

  14. Management of massive and nonmassive pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Sekhri, Vishal; Mehta, Nimeshkumar; Rawat, Naveen; Lehrman, Stuart G.

    2012-01-01

    Massive pulmonary embolism (PE) is characterized by systemic hypotension (defined as a systolic arterial pressure < 90 mm Hg or a drop in systolic arterial pressure of at least 40 mm Hg for at least 15 min which is not caused by new onset arrhythmias) or shock (manifested by evidence of tissue hypoperfusion and hypoxia, including an altered level of consciousness, oliguria, or cool, clammy extremities). Massive pulmonary embolism has a high mortality rate despite advances in diagnosis and therapy. A subgroup of patients with nonmassive PE who are hemodynamically stable but with right ventricular (RV) dysfunction or hypokinesis confirmed by echocardiography is classified as submassive PE. Their prognosis is different from that of others with non-massive PE and normal RV function. This article attempts to review the evidence-based risk stratification, diagnosis, initial stabilization, and management of massive and nonmassive pulmonary embolism. PMID:23319967

  15. Dwarf Galaxies with Active Massive Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reines, Amy E.; Greene, J. E.; Geha, M. C.

    2014-01-01

    Supermassive black holes (BHs) live at the heart of essentially all massive galaxies with bulges, power AGN, and are thought to be important agents in the evolution of their hosts. However, the birth and growth of the first supermassive BH "seeds" is far from understood. While direct observations of these distant BHs in the infant Universe are unobtainable with current capabilities, massive BHs in present-day dwarf galaxies can place valuable constraints on the masses, formation path, and hosts of supermassive BH seeds. Using optical spectroscopy from the SDSS, we have systematically assembled the largest sample of dwarf galaxies hosting active massive BHs to date. These dwarf galaxies have stellar masses comparable to the Magellanic Clouds and contain some of the least-massive supermassive BHs known.

  16. Massive star birth: A crossroads of Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesaroni, R.; Felli, M.; Churchwell, E.; Walmsley, M.

    Massive stars, those with between 10 and 100 times the mass of the Sun, are among the rarest stars of all. They live fast and die young, but during their short lives produce the most dramatic effects on the surrounding interstellar medium in terms of dynamics, ionization, and chemical enrichment. Until a few decades ago massive star birth was literally shrouded in mystery, since these stars are born deep inside dense clouds of swirling dust and gas that obscures our view. At IAU S227, more than 200 of the world's leading astronomers presented a cornucopia of new results concerning the birth and infancy of massive stars. These proceedings show the achievements reached in this field, due to observations in the radio at mm and sub-mm wavelengths and in the infrared, and to theoretical models that simulate what happens in the cradle of a massive star.

  17. Self-protection of massive cosmological gravitons

    SciTech Connect

    Berkhahn, Felix; Dietrich, Dennis D.; Hofmann, Stefan E-mail: dietrich@cp3.sdu.dk

    2010-11-01

    Relevant deformations of gravity present an exciting window of opportunity to probe the rigidity of gravity on cosmological scales. For a single-graviton theory, the leading relevant deformation constitutes a graviton mass term. In this paper, we investigate the classical and quantum stability of massive cosmological gravitons on generic Friedman backgrounds. For a Universe expanding towards a de Sitter epoch, we find that massive cosmological gravitons are self-protected against unitarity violations by a strong coupling phenomenon.

  18. Primordial Li abundance and massive particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ðapo, H.

    2012-10-01

    The problem of the observed lithium abundance coming from the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis is as of yet unsolved. One of the proposed solutions is including relic massive particles into the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. We investigated the effects of such particles on 4HeX-+2H-->6Li+X-, where the X- is the negatively charged massive particle. We demonstrate the dominance of long-range part of the potential on the cross-section.

  19. Amplification of trace amounts of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Church, George M.; Zhang, Kun

    2008-06-17

    Methods of reducing background during amplification of small amounts of nucleic acids employ careful analysis of sources of low level contamination. Ultraviolet light can be used to reduce nucleic acid contaminants in reagents and equipment. "Primer-dimer" background can be reduced by judicious design of primers. We have shown clean signal-to-noise with as little as starting material as one single human cell (.about.6 picogram), E. coli cell (.about.5 femtogram) or Prochlorococcus cell (.about.3 femtogram).

  20. Measurement of intravenously administered γ-Fe2O3 particle amount in mice tissues using vibrating sample magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Mikio; Miyamoto, Ryoichi; Oda, Tatsuya; Ohara, Yusuke; Yanagihara, Hideto; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro; Kita, Eiji

    2014-12-01

    Dispersions of platelet γ-Fe2O3 particles 30-50nm in size were intravenously administered to mice and the amount of particles accumulated in each tissue was obtained by magnetization measurement using a vibrating sample magnetometer. Background noise was greatly reduced by measuring dried tissues under a magnetic field of 500 Oe so that the effect of diamagnetism was slight. Remarkable particle accumulation was observed in the liver and spleen. Considerable particle accumulation was observed in the lung when a large quantity of γ-Fe2 O3 particles was administered. There was no significant particle accumulation in the kidney and heart. PMID:25122839

  1. Elemental accumulation studied in biological species

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    At The Geysers, relatively little environmental baseline data were collected during the early years of development. In early 1983, the CEC awarded Sonoma County a geothermal grant to analyze the biological accumulation of trace elements in The Geysers Geothermal region. Prior studies in The Geysers region have established data for 27 different chemical elements, and suggest that chemicals are accumulating near power plants. This study examined selected species of rodents, fish, and lichen. Elevated amounts of chemical elements were found in their tissues. It is not clear if this accumulation is the result of geothermal development or due to naturally high backgrounds of these elements in the region. However, today these element loads serve as reference points for both developers and regulators. The CEC awarded a second grant in July 1985. The study funded by this grant will provide a more complete analysis of elemental loads by examining species such as western fence lizards and deer. Results and conclusions from these two studies can be used by regulatory agencies planning for future geothermal development in The Geysers region.

  2. Noise Reduction by Signal Accumulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show how the noise reduction by signal accumulation can be accomplished with a data acquisition system. This topic can be used for student projects. In many cases, the noise reduction is an unavoidable part of experimentation. Several techniques are known for this purpose, and among them the signal accumulation is the…

  3. 29 CFR 4219.14 - Amount of liability for 20-year-limitation amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amount of liability for 20-year-limitation amounts. 4219.14 Section 4219.14 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY FOR MULTIEMPLOYER PLANS NOTICE, COLLECTION, AND REDETERMINATION OF WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY Redetermination of Withdrawal...

  4. 24 CFR 576.45 - Reallocation of grant amounts; returned or unused amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Reallocation of grant amounts; returned or unused amounts. 576.45 Section 576.45 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING...

  5. 77 FR 59618 - Medicare Program; Medicare Appeals; Adjustment to the Amount in Controversy Threshold Amounts for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... for requests for ALJ hearings and judicial review filed on or after January 1, 2013. The calendar year 2013 AIC threshold amounts are $140 for ALJ hearings and $1,400 for judicial review. Effective Date...) threshold amounts for Administrative Law Judge (ALJ) hearing requests and judicial review at $100 and...

  6. Massive relic galaxies prefer dense environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peralta de Arriba, Luis; Quilis, Vicent; Trujillo, Ignacio; Cebrián, María; Balcells, Marc

    2016-09-01

    We study the preferred environments of z ˜ 0 massive relic galaxies (M⋆ ≳ 1010 M⊙ galaxies with little or no growth from star formation or mergers since z ˜ 2). Significantly, we carry out our analysis on both a large cosmological simulation and an observed galaxy catalogue. Working on the Millennium I-WMAP7 simulation we show that the fraction of today massive objects which have grown less than 10 per cent in mass since z ˜ 2 is ˜0.04 per cent for the whole massive galaxy population with M⋆ > 1010 M⊙. This fraction rises to ˜0.18 per cent in galaxy clusters, confirming that clusters help massive galaxies remain unaltered. Simulations also show that massive relic galaxies tend to be closer to cluster centres than other massive galaxies. Using the New York University Value-Added Galaxy Catalogue, and defining relics as M⋆ ≳ 1010 M⊙ early-type galaxies with colours compatible with single-stellar population ages older than 10 Gyr, and which occupy the bottom 5-percentile in the stellar mass-size distribution, we find 1.11 ± 0.05 per cent of relics among massive galaxies. This fraction rises to 2.4 ± 0.4 per cent in high-density environments. Our findings point in the same direction as the works by Poggianti et al. and Stringer et al. Our results may reflect the fact that the cores of the clusters are created very early on, hence the centres host the first cluster members. Near the centres, high-velocity dispersions and harassment help cluster core members avoid the growth of an accreted stellar envelope via mergers, while a hot intracluster medium prevents cold gas from reaching the galaxies, inhibiting star formation.

  7. Neutron autoradiography of trace amounts of gadolinium

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, J.L.A.; Brugger, R.M. )

    1992-05-01

    This paper reports that application of gadolinium in neutron capture therapy is under evaluation. Crucial to development of this therapy is an imaging technique that would show the distribution and concentration of parts-per-million amounts of {sup 157}Gd in sliced samples. A technique that utilizes the principles of autoradiography and neutron radiography has been tried. The images taken with this method display the gadolinium distribution and its relative concentration in samples. Concentrations of {sup 157}Gd ranging from {approximately}20 to 500 ppm can be determined. The intrinsic spatial resolution of the system used in the Missouri University Research Reactor is 70 {mu}m.

  8. Astronomers Discover Rotating Disk Around Young, Massive Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-01-01

    about six to 10 times more massive than the sun. The rotating disk and an "envelope" of material surrounding the star contain about 20 times the mass of the sun. VLA observations revealed the speed of material in the disk, indicating that the disk is rotating around the central star according to Kepler's laws of planetary motion, just as the planets of our Solar System do. The disk extends outward from the star more than 500 times the Earth-Sun distance. "This is comparable in size to the largest disks seen around smaller stars, but this one is at least four times more massive than those disks," Shepherd said. During star formation, the material in such disks is thought to be drawn into the new star by its gravitational pull, while other processes power an outflow of material into the surrounding space. The outflow in the region of G192.16-3.82 is one of the largest such outflows in our Milky Way Galaxy. The velocity measurements were possible because the disk contains water molecules that amplify microwave radio emissions in a manner similar to that in which a laser amplifies light. The water molecules that act as amplifiers -- masers -- both appear as bright spots on radio telescope images and are emitted at a specific, known radio frequency. The molecules' motion causes that frequency to be changed by the Doppler effect. The amount of change allows scientists to calculate the velocity. The VLA is an instrument of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  9. Tourmaline in Appalachian - Caledonian massive sulphide deposits and its exploration significance.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slack, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    Tourmaline is a common gangue mineral in several types of stratabound mineral deposits, including some massive base-metal sulphide ores of the Appalachian - Caledonian orogen. It is most abundant (sometimes forming massive foliated tourmalinite) in sediment-hosted deposits, such as those at the Elizabeth Cu mine and the Ore Knob Cu mine (North Carolina, USA). Trace amounts of tourmaline occur associated with volcanic-hosted deposits in the Piedmont and New England and also in the Trondheim district. Tourmaline associated with the massive sulphide deposits are Mg- rich dravites with major- and trace-element compositions significantly different from schorl. It is suggested that the necessary B was produced by submarine exhalative processes as a part of the same hydrothermal system that deposited the ores. An abundance of dravite in non-evaporitic terrains is believed to indicate proximity to former subaqueous fumarolic centres.-R.A.H.

  10. Quantized massive collective modes and massive spin fluctuations in high-Tc cuprates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanazawa, I.; Sasaki, T.

    2015-10-01

    We have analyzed angle-resolved photoemission spectra of the single- and double-layered Bi-family high-Tc superconductors by using quantized massive gauge fields, which might contain effects of spin fluctuations, charge fluctuations, and phonons. It is suggested strongly that the quantized massive gauge fields might be mediating Cooper pairing in high-Tc cuprates.

  11. Hot Massive Stars: The Impact of HST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowther, Paul A.

    We review the contribution of Hubble Space Telescope to the study of hot, luminous stars. Optical and IR imaging have permitted spatially resolved observations of young, massive clusters within Local Group galaxies, such as R136, NGC 3603 and Arches, revealing unprecedented concentrations of very massive O stars. UV spectroscopy of field OB stars in the Magellanic Clouds have provided suitable templates for interpretation of metal-poor star-forming galaxies at high-redshift. Spectacular imaging provides the detailed structure of ejecta nebulae from individual stars, including the Homunculus associated with η Carinae and M1-67, associated with a Wolf-Rayet star. HST has permitted individual massive stars to be spatially resolved in giant HII regions located beyond the Local Group, such as NGC 604, plus individual clusters, dominated by the light of massive stars within starburst galaxies at larger distances, such as NGC 3125. UV spectroscopy of young, massive clusters in the extremely metal-poor HII galaxy I Zw 18 include signatures of large numbers of Wolf-Rayet stars.

  12. Clarifying Massive Protostellar Evolution and Circumstellar Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indebetouw, Remy; Brogan, Crystal; Hoare, Melvin; Lumsden, Stuart; Robitaille, Thomas; Sewilo, Marta; Urquhart, James; Viti, Serena; Whitney, Barbara

    2008-03-01

    Massive stars dominate the evolution of galaxies and even as protostars, their feedback can affect their own formation and that of their host clusters. We propose a systematic study of massive protostars through the stages of their early evolution, to derive a clearer evolutionary sequence and a better link between the state of the central source and physical conditions in circumstellar material. This experiment will improve over existing work by careful source selection to systematically span evolutionary parameter space, resulting in a more uniform and comprehensive sample. Sophisticated radiative transfer, ionization, and chemical modeling will be used to extract the full riches of each IRS spectrum and find trends in how massive stars form and process their natal material: We will be able to determine the temperature, density, and chemical state (heating history) of circumstellar dust and ice in the accretion disk and envelope, and at later evolutionary stages the ionizing and soft (PAH-exciting) ultraviolet radiation emitted by the protostars and how that radiation is quenched and shadowed by circumstellar material. This investigation is the key to realizing the full potential of previous infrared imaging surveys like MSX and Spitzer's GLIMPSE and MIPSGAL to study massive star formation. These surveys have provided a basis for us to select a large relatively unbiased sample spanning evolutionary state. In return, revealing the spectroscopic signature of massive YSOs will greatly clarify the modeling and interpretation of the thousands of other protostars in these imaging survey data.

  13. Gypsum accumulation on carbonate stone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGee, E.S.; Mossotti, V.G.

    1992-01-01

    The accumulation of gypsum on carbonate stone has been investigated through exposure of fresh samples of limestone and marble at monitored sites, through examination of alteration crusts from old buildings and through laboratory experiments. Several factors contribute to gypsum accumulation on carbonate stone. Marble or limestone that is sheltered from direct washing by rain in an urban environment with elevated pollution levels is likely to accumulate a gypsum crust. Crust development may be enhanced if the stone is porous or has an irregular surface area. Gypsum crusts are a surficial alteration feature; gypsum crystals form at the pore opening-air interface, where evaporation is greatest.

  14. Accumulation of poly (3-hydroxybutyric acid) by some soil Streptomyces.

    PubMed

    Manna, A; Banerjee, R; Paul, A K

    1999-09-01

    In a limited-scale survey, 55 soil streptomycetes were screened for the accumulation of poly (3-hydroxybutyrate) [PHB]. Only 18% of the isolates accumulated PHB ranging between 1.9-7.8% of the dry biomass. The promising isolate DBCC-719, identified as Streptomyces griseorubiginosus, accumulated PHB amounting to 9.5% of the mycelial dry mass in the early stationary phase when grown in chemically defined medium with 2% (wt/vol) glucose as the sole source of carbon. Nitrogen-limiting conditions were inhibitory to growth and PHB accumulation. The isolated polymer was highly soluble in chloroform, gave a sharp peak at 235 nm on digestion with concentrated H(2)SO(4), and had a characteristic infrared spectrum. PMID:10441729

  15. The Formation and Early Evolution of Young Massive Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longmore, S. N.; Kruijssen, J. M. D.; Bastian, N.; Bally, J.; Rathborne, J.; Testi, L.; Stolte, A.; Dale, J.; Bressert, E.; Alves, J.

    We review the formation and early evolution of the most massive (> few 104 M⊙) and dense (radius of a few parsecs) young stellar clusters, focusing on the role that studies of these objects in our Galaxy can play in our understanding of star and planet formation as a whole. Comparing the demographics of young massive cluster (YMC) progenitor clouds and YMCs across the Galaxy shows that gas in the Galactic Center can accumulate to a high enough density that molecular clouds already satisfy the criteria used to define YMCs, without forming stars. In this case formation can proceed in situ — i.e., the stars form at protostellar densities close to the final stellar density. Conversely, in the disk, the gas either begins forming stars while it is being accumulated to high density, in a "conveyor belt" mode, or the timescale to accumulate the gas to such high densities must be much shorter than the star-formation timescale. The distinction between the formation regimes in the two environments is consistent with the predictions of environmentally dependent density thresholds for star formation. This implies that stars in YMCs of similar total mass and radius can have formed at widely different initial protostellar densities. The fact that no strong, systematic variations in fundamental properties (such as the IMF) are observed between YMCs in the disk and Galactic Center suggests that, statistically speaking, stellar mass assembly is not affected by the initial protostellar density. We then review recent theoretical advances and summarize the debate on three key open questions: the initial (proto)stellar distribution, infant (im)mortality, and age spreads within YMCs. We conclude that (1) the initial protostellar distribution is likely hierarchical, (2) YMCs likely experienced a formation history that was dominated by gas exhaustion rather than gas expulsion, (3) YMCs are dynamically stable from a young age, and (4) YMCs have age spreads much smaller than their mean

  16. Total carbon accumulation in a tropical forest landscape

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Regrowing tropical forests worldwide sequester important amounts of carbon and restore part of the C emissions emitted by deforestation. However, there are large uncertainties concerning the rates of carbon accumulation after the abandonment of agricultural and pasture land. We report here accumulation of total carbon stocks (TCS) in a chronosequence of secondary forests at a mid-elevation landscape (900-1200 m asl) in the Andean mountains of Colombia. Results We found positive accumulation rates for all ecosystem pools except soil carbon, which showed no significant trend of recovery after 36 years of secondary succession. We used these data to develop a simple model to predict accumulation of TCS over time. This model performed remarkably well predicting TCS at other chronosequences in the Americas (Root Mean Square Error < 40 Mg C ha-1), which provided an opportunity to explore different assumptions in the calculation of large-scale carbon budgets. Simulations of TCS with our empirical model were used to test three assumptions often made in carbon budgets: 1) the use of carbon accumulation in tree aboveground biomass as a surrogate for accumulation of TCS, 2) the implicit consideration of carbon legacies from previous land-use, and 3) the omission of landscape age in calculating accumulation rates of TCS. Conclusions Our simulations showed that in many situations carbon can be released from regrowing secondary forests depending on the amount of carbon legacies and the average age of the landscape. In most cases, the rates used to predict carbon accumulation in the Americas were above the rates predicted in our simulations. These biome level rates seemed to be realistic only in landscapes not affected by carbon legacies from previous land-use and mean ages of around 10 years. PMID:23249727

  17. 48 CFR 970.5215-1 - Total available fee: Base fee amount and performance fee amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the conclusion of each specified evaluation period, evaluate the Contractor's performance of all... available fee amount earned. At the Contracting Officer's discretion, evaluation of incentivized performance... Contractor performance shall be in accordance with the Performance Evaluation and Measurement...

  18. How to Find Young Massive Cluster Progenitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bressert, E.; Ginsburg, A.; Bally, J.; Battersby, C.; Longmore, S.; Testi, L.

    2012-10-01

    We propose that bound, young massive stellar clusters form from dense clouds that have escape speeds greater than the sound speed in photo-ionized gas. In these clumps, radiative feedback in the form of gas ionization is bottled up, enabling star formation to proceed to sufficiently high efficiency so that the resulting star cluster remains bound even after gas removal. We estimate the observable properties of the massive proto-clusters (MPCs) for existing Galactic plane surveys and suggest how they may be sought in recent and upcoming extragalactic observations. These surveys will potentially provide a significant sample of MPC candidates that will allow us to better understand extreme star-formation and massive cluster formation in the Local Universe.

  19. Massive Binaries: Dynamical and Evolutionary Transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gies, D. R.

    2012-12-01

    Observations of massive binaries offer us key insight about the formation, evolution, and destinies of massive stars. Here I review some advances in observational and theoretical studies of massive binaries. Surveys for binaries using radial velocity, photometric, and high angular resolution methods show that the binary frequency is high for O stars in clusters. Evolutionary models for interacting binaries demonstrate the importance of angular momentum transfer during Roche lobe overflow. The mass gainer may reach critical rotation and stem further accretion, and there are many observed cases that show the consequences of such mass loss and transfer. New hydrodynamical models describe colliding wind physics in eccentric binaries such as η Carinae and WR 140. All these research topics are championed by Tony Moffat, and the current richness of this field is due in large measure to his energetic pursuits.

  20. HOW TO FIND YOUNG MASSIVE CLUSTER PROGENITORS

    SciTech Connect

    Bressert, E.; Longmore, S.; Testi, L.; Ginsburg, A.; Bally, J.; Battersby, C.

    2012-10-20

    We propose that bound, young massive stellar clusters form from dense clouds that have escape speeds greater than the sound speed in photo-ionized gas. In these clumps, radiative feedback in the form of gas ionization is bottled up, enabling star formation to proceed to sufficiently high efficiency so that the resulting star cluster remains bound even after gas removal. We estimate the observable properties of the massive proto-clusters (MPCs) for existing Galactic plane surveys and suggest how they may be sought in recent and upcoming extragalactic observations. These surveys will potentially provide a significant sample of MPC candidates that will allow us to better understand extreme star-formation and massive cluster formation in the Local Universe.

  1. Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia causing massive breast enlargement.

    PubMed

    Bourke, Anita Geraldine; Tiang, Stephen; Harvey, Nathan; McClure, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) of the breast is a benign mesenchymal proliferative process, initially described by Vuitch et al. We report an unusual case of a 46-year-old woman who presented with a 6-week history of bilateral massive, asymmetrical, painful enlargement of her breasts, without a history of trauma. On clinical examination, both breasts were markedly enlarged and oedematous, but there were no discrete palpable masses. Preoperative image-guided core biopsies and surgery showed PASH. PASH is increasingly recognised as an incidental finding on image-guided core biopsy performed for screen detected lesions. There are a few reported cases of PASH presenting as rapid breast enlargement. In our case, the patient presented with painful, asymmetrical, massive breast enlargement. Awareness needs to be raised of this entity as a differential diagnosis in massive, painful breast enlargement. PMID:26475873

  2. Manganese As a Metal Accumulator

    EPA Science Inventory

    Manganese deposits in water distribution systems accumulate metals, radionuclides and oxyanions by a combination of surface complexation, adsorption and solid substitution, as well as a combination of oxidation followed by manganese reduction and sorption of the oxidized constitu...

  3. Evidence accumulation for spatial reasoning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsuyama, T.; Hwang, V. S. S.; Davis, L. S.

    1984-01-01

    The evidence accumulation proces of an image understanding system is described enabling the system to perform top-down(goal-oriented) picture processing as well as bottom-up verification of consistent spatial relations among objects.

  4. GT1_cdedes_1: Heating and cooling mechanics in massive star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dedes, C.

    2010-03-01

    Massive stars are important constituents of the interstellar medium (ISM) in our Galaxy and beyond. Their strong feedback processes influence the dynamics, energetics and chemistry of the surrounding interstellar medium both locally and on large scales. An important question to be answered is the one of cooling and heating mechanisms in regions of massive star formation. In the vicinity of massive stars, heating is provided mostly by far-UV (FUV) and infra-red radiation. Cooling is mostly provided by emission in the fine structure lines of CII. There are however other atomic and molecular lines such as OI, CO, OH and H_2O which can become significant coolants in the dense, embedded regions of massive star formation. This early phase when the forming massive star is still deeply embedded in its natal envelope, yet already interacting with, and potentially destroying, its environment through copious amounts of UV radiation, massive outflows and ultra compact HII (UCHII) regions, is an important phase in the star formation process. To understand the heating and cooling balance in this phase, one has to consider the contributions of various radiative and dynamical processes such as the FUV radiation from the young star itself, shocks created by strong stellar winds and the photon dominated regions (PDRs) where the radiation impinges on the molecular material. The tracers of these processes can be observed in the far-infrared, a wavelength range that is now accessible at unprecedented high spectral and spatial resolution with the Herschel Space Observatory. We propose to observe the aformentioned tracers of cooling and heating in the massive star forming region IRAS 12326-6245 to obtain a complete picture of the different processes, the regions they originate from and how they interact. This proposal is for time granted to the HIFI hardware team (PI: Frank Helmich) and to be accounted as part of the Swiss guaranteed time (Lead-Co-I: Arnold O. Benz).

  5. Evaluation of alternative concrete cutting techniques for massive concrete structures

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, K.; Boing, L.

    1994-12-31

    Various methods for removing massive concrete structures during decontamination and decommissioning (D&D), such as the map tube facility and waste storage vaults located in the 317 Area of Argonne National Laboratory, have been evaluated by NES, Inc./integrated Environmental Services. Five of the most feasible cutting technologies are described in terms of their ability to perform the required tasks; their performance characteristics; radiological, safety, and environmental impacts; and cost and schedule considerations. These cutting techniques are consequential in the D&D process for reducing the amount of radioactive waste requiring disposal and decreasing worker exposure to contamination. Table I lists the cutting technologies that were analyzed and the key parameters of each. This synopsis permits a rapid comparison of the techniques. For each cutting technique, the cutting speed is based on compilation of vendor information. Costs are given for the individual cutting system.

  6. Template based parallel checkpointing in a massively parallel computer system

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles Jens; Inglett, Todd Alan

    2009-01-13

    A method and apparatus for a template based parallel checkpoint save for a massively parallel super computer system using a parallel variation of the rsync protocol, and network broadcast. In preferred embodiments, the checkpoint data for each node is compared to a template checkpoint file that resides in the storage and that was previously produced. Embodiments herein greatly decrease the amount of data that must be transmitted and stored for faster checkpointing and increased efficiency of the computer system. Embodiments are directed to a parallel computer system with nodes arranged in a cluster with a high speed interconnect that can perform broadcast communication. The checkpoint contains a set of actual small data blocks with their corresponding checksums from all nodes in the system. The data blocks may be compressed using conventional non-lossy data compression algorithms to further reduce the overall checkpoint size.

  7. MASSIVE BLACK HOLES IN STELLAR SYSTEMS: 'QUIESCENT' ACCRETION AND LUMINOSITY

    SciTech Connect

    Volonteri, M.; Campbell, D.; Mateo, M.; Dotti, M.

    2011-04-01

    Only a small fraction of local galaxies harbor an accreting black hole, classified as an active galactic nucleus. However, many stellar systems are plausibly expected to host black holes, from globular clusters to nuclear star clusters, to massive galaxies. The mere presence of stars in the vicinity of a black hole provides a source of fuel via mass loss of evolved stars. In this paper, we assess the expected luminosities of black holes embedded in stellar systems of different sizes and properties, spanning a large range of masses. We model the distribution of stars and derive the amount of gas available to a central black hole through a geometrical model. We estimate the luminosity of the black holes under simple, but physically grounded, assumptions on the accretion flow. Finally, we discuss the detectability of 'quiescent' black holes in the local universe.

  8. Accumulation of dieldrin in an alga (Scenedesmus obliquus), Daphnia magna, and the guppy (Poecilia reticulata)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reinert, Robert E.

    1972-01-01

    Scenedesmus obliquus, Daphnia magna, and Poecilia reticulata accumulated dieldrin directly from water; average concentration factors (concentration in organism, dry weight, divided by concentration in water) were 1282 for the alga, 13,954 for D. magna, and 49,307 (estimated) for the guppy. The amount accumulated by each species at equilibrium (after about 1.5, 3-4, and 18 days, respectively) was directly proportional to the concentration of dieldrin in the water. Daphnia magna and guppies accumulated more dieldrin from water than from food that had been exposed to similar concentrations in water. When guppies were fed equal daily rations of D. magna containing different concentrations of insecticide, the amounts of dieldrin accumulated by the fish were directly proportional to the concentration in D. magna; when two lots of guppies were fed different quantities of D. magna (10 and 20 organisms per day) containing identical concentrations of dieldrin, however, the amounts accumulated did not differ substantially.

  9. Primordial Li abundance and massive particles

    SciTech Connect

    Latin-Capital-Letter-Eth apo, H.

    2012-10-20

    The problem of the observed lithium abundance coming from the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis is as of yet unsolved. One of the proposed solutions is including relic massive particles into the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. We investigated the effects of such particles on {sup 4}HeX{sup -}+{sup 2}H{yields}{sup 6}Li+X{sup -}, where the X{sup -} is the negatively charged massive particle. We demonstrate the dominance of long-range part of the potential on the cross-section.

  10. Massively parallel neurocomputing for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fijany, Amir; Barhen, Jacob; Toomarian, Nikzad

    1993-01-01

    An innovative hybrid, analog-digital charge-domain technology, for the massively parallel VLSI implementation of certain large scale matrix-vector operations, has recently been introduced. It employs arrays of Charge Coupled/Charge Injection Device cells holding an analog matrix of charge, which process digital vectors in parallel by means of binary, non-destructive charge transfer operations. The impact of this technology on massively parallel processing is discussed. Fundamentally new classes of algorithms, specifically designed for this emerging technology, as applied to signal processing, are derived.

  11. NON-AQUEOUS DISSOLUTION OF MASSIVE PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Reavis, J.G.; Leary, J.A.; Walsh, K.A.

    1959-05-12

    A method is presented for obtaining non-aqueous solutions or plutonium from massive forms of the metal. In the present invention massive plutonium is added to a salt melt consisting of 10 to 40 weight per cent of sodium chloride and the balance zinc chloride. The plutonium reacts at about 800 deg C with the zinc chloride to form a salt bath of plutonium trichloride, sodium chloride, and metallic zinc. The zinc is separated from the salt melt by forcing the molten mixture through a Pyrex filter.

  12. Discovering Event Evidence Amid Massive, Dynamic Datasets

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, Robert M; Potok, Thomas E

    2007-01-01

    Automated event extraction remains a very difficult challenge requiring information analysts to manually identify key events of interest within massive, dynamic data. Many techniques for extracting events rely on domain specific natural language processing or information retrieval techniques. As an alternative, this work focuses on detecting events based on identifying event characteristics of interest to an analyst. An evolutionary algorithm is developed as a proof of concept to demonstrate this approach. Initial results indicate that this approach represents a feasible approach to identifying critical event information in a massive data set with no apriori knowledgeof the data set.

  13. Prenatal ultrasound diagnosis of massive subchorionic thrombohematoma.

    PubMed

    Richards, D S; Bennett, B B

    1998-05-01

    Massive subchorionic thrombohematoma is a rare condition in which a large maternal blood clot separates the chorionic plate from the villous chorion. This condition is usually complicated by intrauterine growth restriction, and is often associated with fetal distress and perinatal death. We present a case in which the diagnosis of massive subchorionic thrombohematoma was made at 24 weeks' gestation. Doppler ultrasound helped to confirm the diagnosis and demonstrated severely abnormal umbilical blood flow. Two days after the diagnosis, fetal distress prompted emergency Cesarean delivery of a growth-restricted infant. PMID:9644779

  14. Spinal osteotomy in the presence of massive lumbar epidural scarring.

    PubMed

    Arlet, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    The combination of Massive epidural scarring and spinal deformity represents the ultimate challenge for the spinal deformity surgeon. This is observed more and more as the population is aging and the number of spine surgery is increasing. In assessing the patient with spinal deformity and epidural scarring, one should carry out a thorough medical work up including Dexa scan, comorbidities, and in most cases a Myelo-CT scan that will identify the extent of the previous fusion, the fixed or semi-rigid nature of the deformity with complete anterior fusion or only bone bridges, the evaluation of the previous instrumentation (if present) with possible screw misplacement, or halo around the screws, the extent of the previous laminectomy, the spinal stenosis and possible arachnoiditis and or meningocele. Once the requirement of deformity correction has been established with specific attention to the pelvic incidence and amount of lordosis required two basic choices can be made. The first one is to perform the spine realignment outside the massive epidural scarring whether this will be performed through simple posterior osteotomies, TLIF combined with Smith-Petersen osteotomies or Pedicle subtraction osteotomies. One should not forget about all the possibilities of an anterior or lateral approach to the spine that can also judiciously realign the spine at the level or at distance of the massive epidural scarring. These anterior realignments have to be supplemented with posterior fixation and or osteotomies. The other alternative is to perform the spine osteotomy at the level of the massive epidural scarring preferably at the junction of normal dura and epidural scar. Working around the dura that will require to be thinned down before the osteotomy is performed represents another challenge where incidental durotomies are not infrequent. During the closing of the osteotomy the dura may not be as giving as a normal dura and too aggressive closure of the osteotomy may not be

  15. Analyzing the importance of wind-blown snow accumulations on Mount

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nestler, Alexander; Huss, Matthias; Ambartsumian, Rouben; Hambarian, Artak; Mohr, Sandra; Santi, Flavio

    2013-04-01

    Armenia's climate has a predominantly continental character with high amounts of precipitation and low temperatures during wintertime and a lack of precipitation together with high temperatures during summer. On the volcano Mount Aragatz, snow is relocated by strong winds into massive accumulations between 2500 and 4100 m a.s.l. during the winter season. These snow accumulations appear every winter in regular patterns as cornices on the lee side of sharp edges, such as those of ridges and canyons, which are arranged in a radial manner around the central crater. The biggest cornices almost outlast the hot period and provide considerable amounts of melt water until they disappear completely by the end of August. Snow melt water is known to have a high economic importance for agriculture on the slopes of Mount Aragatz and in the surroundings of Armenia's captial Yerewan. The aim of this study is to estimate the quantity of water naturally stored as snow on Mount Aragatz, and to what degree the use of geotextiles can prolong the lives of these snow accumulations. The characteristics and the spatial distribution of snow cornices on Mount Aragatz were determined using classical glaciological methods in June/July 2011 and 2012, involving snow depth soundings, water equivalent measurements and snow melt monitoring using ablation stakes, together with GPS mappings and classifications obtained from satellite images of the snow cornices. The combination of these data with ASTER DEMs and local weather data allows the modelling of the formation of wind-driven snow accumulations. Statistical relationships between the measured extent and volume of the snow cornices and surface parameters such as slope, aspect and curvature are established. In order to analyze the meltdown of the snow accumulations and the consequent impacts on runoff generation and the hydrological regime, a glacio-hydrological model integrating topographic parameters and meteorological data is applied. The

  16. Nuclear DNA Amounts in Macaronesian Angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    SUDA, JAN; KYNCL, TOMÁŠ; FREIOVÁ, RADKA

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear DNA contents for 104 Macaronesian angiosperms, with particular attention on Canary Islands endemics, were analysed using propidium iodide flow cytometry. Prime estimates for more than one‐sixth of the whole Canarian endemic flora (including representatives of 11 endemic genera) were obtained. The resulting 1C DNA values ranged from 0·19 to 7·21 pg for Descurainia bourgeauana and Argyranthemum frutescens, respectively (about 38‐fold difference). The majority of species, however, possessed (very) small genomes, with C‐values <1·6 pg. The tendency towards small nuclear DNA contents and genome sizes was confirmed by comparing average values for Macaronesian and non‐Macaronesian representatives of individual families, genera and major phylogenetic lineages. Our data support the hypothesis that the insular selection pressures in Macaronesia favour small C‐values and genome sizes. Both positive and negative correlations between infrageneric nuclear DNA amount variation and environmental conditions on Tenerife were also found in several genera. PMID:12824074

  17. The accumulation of nickel in human lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Edelman, D.A.; Roggli, V.L. )

    1989-05-01

    Using data from published studies, lung concentrations of nickel were compare for persons with and without occupational exposure to nickel. As expected, the concentrations were much higher for persons with occupational exposure. To estimate the effects of nickel-containing tobacco smoke and nickel in the ambient air on the amount of nickel accumulated in lungs over time, a model was derived that took into account various variables related to the deposition of nickel in lungs. The model predicted nickel concentrations that were in the range of those of persons without known nickel exposure. Nickel is a suspected carcinogen and has been associated with an increased risk of respiratory tract cancer among nickel workers. However, before the nickel content of cigarettes can be implicated in the etiology of lung cancer, further studies are needed to evaluate the independent effects of smoking and exposure to nickel.

  18. Massive exophytic malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor.

    PubMed

    Khorsand, Derek; Porrino, Jack; Flaherty, Erin; Bandhlish, Anshu; Davidson, Darin

    2016-06-01

    We present a case of a solitary neurofibroma involving the right posterior shoulder of a 69-year-old man with degeneration into a massive, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor measuring more than 3 times the average reported size. The radiographic, magnetic resonance imaging, and computed tomographic features are compared with the gross appearance and pathology. PMID:27257459

  19. Recovery From Giant Eruptions in Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashi, A.; Davidson, K.; Humphreys, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    We perform radiation hydrodynamic simulations to study how very massive stars recover from giant eruptions. The post eruption star experience strong mass loss due to strong winds, driven by radial pulsations in the star*s interior, that operate by the κ-mechanism. The mass loss history obtained in our simulations resembles η Car*s history.

  20. Assessment in Massive Open Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Admiraal, Wilfried; Huisman, Bart; Pilli, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Open online distance learning in higher education has quickly gained popularity, expanded, and evolved, with Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) as the most recent development. New web technologies allow for scalable ways to deliver video lecture content, implement social forums and track student progress in MOOCs. However, we remain limited in…

  1. Massive Open Online Courses and Economic Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liyanagunawardena, Tharindu R.; Lundqvist, Karsten O.; Williams, Shirley A.

    2015-01-01

    Millions of users around the world have registered on Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) offered by hundreds of universities (and other organizations) worldwide. Creating and offering these courses costs thousands of pounds. However, at present, revenue generated by MOOCs is not sufficient to offset these costs. The sustainability of MOOCs is a…

  2. The Fate of Massive Closed Strings

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Bin; Li Miao; She Jianhuang

    2005-12-02

    We calculate the semi-inclusive decay rate of an average string state with toroidal compactification in the the superstring theory. We also apply this calculation to a brane-inflation model in a warped geometry and find that the decay rate is greatly suppressed if the final strings are both massive and enhanced for massless radiation.

  3. A Taxonomy of Massive Open Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilli, Olga; Admiraal, Wilfried

    2016-01-01

    Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) as a new approach to distance education, which originated from the open education resources (OER) movement, are becoming widespread throughout the world. Over time, early versions of cMOOCs have undergone changes in terms of use, name and structure. In their short life, MOOCs have been categorized into different…

  4. How I treat patients with massive hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Pär I; Stensballe, Jakob; Oliveri, Roberto; Wade, Charles E; Ostrowski, Sisse R; Holcomb, John B

    2014-11-13

    Massive hemorrhage is associated with coagulopathy and high mortality. The transfusion guidelines up to 2006 recommended that resuscitation of massive hemorrhage should occur in successive steps using crystalloids, colloids, and red blood cells (RBCs) in the early phase and plasma and platelets in the late phase. With the introduction of the cell-based model of hemostasis in the mid-1990s, our understanding of the hemostatic process and of coagulopathy has improved. This has contributed to a change in resuscitation strategy and transfusion therapy of massive hemorrhage along with an acceptance of the adequacy of whole blood hemostatic tests to monitor these patients. Thus, in 2005, a strategy aiming at avoiding coagulopathy by proactive resuscitation with blood products in a balanced ratio of RBC:plasma:platelets was introduced, and this has been reported to be associated with reduced mortality in observational studies. Concurrently, whole blood viscoelastic hemostatic assays have gained acceptance by allowing a rapid and timely identification of coagulopathy along with enabling an individualized, goal-directed transfusion therapy. These strategies joined together seem beneficial for patient outcome, although final evidence on outcome from randomized controlled trials are lacking. We present how we in Copenhagen and Houston, today, manage patients with massive hemorrhage. PMID:25293771

  5. Interactions in Massive Colliding Wind Binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcoran, M.

    2012-01-01

    The most massive stars (M> 60 Solar Mass) play crucial roles in altering the chemical and thermodynamic properties of their host galaxies. Stellar mass is the fundamental stellar parameter that determines their ancillary properties and which ultimately determines the fate of these stars and their influence on their galactic environs. Unfortunately, stellar mass becomes observationally and theoretically less well constrained as it increases. Theory becomes uncertain mostly because very massive stars are prone to strong, variable mass loss which is difficult to model. Observational constraints are uncertain too. Massive stars are rare, and massive binary stars (needed for dynamical determination of mass) are rarer still: and of these systems only a fraction have suitably high orbital inclinations for direct photometric and spectroscopic radial-velocity analysis. Even in the small number of cases in which a high-inclination binary near the upper mass limit can be identified, rotational broadening and contamination of spectral line features from thick circumstellar material (either natal clouds or produced by strong stellar wind driven mass loss from one or both of he stellar components) biases the analysis. In the wilds of the upper HR diagram, we're often left with indirect and circumstantial means of determining mass, a rather unsatisfactory state of affairs.

  6. Young Massive Clusters in the Galactic Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figer, D. F.

    2004-12-01

    The three young clusters in the Galactic Center represent the closest examples of massive starbursts and they define the upper mass limit of the Galactic cluster mass functions. In this review, I describe the characteristics and content of the Arches, Quintuplet, and Central clusters. They each are more massive than any other cluster in the Galaxy, and the Arches cluster, in particular, has a mass and age that make it ideal for studies of massive stellar evolution and dense stellar systems. A preliminary measurement indicates that the initial mass function in the Galactic center is top-heavy, suggesting an environmental effect that has otherwise been absent in similar observations for Galactic clusters. Given the relatively more evolved nature of the Quintuplet and Central clusters, these clusters contain stars in a wide range of evolutionary states, including Luminous Blue Variables and Wolf-Rayet stars. The Quintuplet cluster provides a particularly interesting view of the most massive stars that are known, the Pistol Star and FMM362. An analysis of the mass spectrum in the Arches cluster suggests an upper mass cutoff of ˜150-200 M⊙.

  7. Black Hole Phase Transition in Massive Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Shou-Li; Liu, Wen-Biao

    2016-07-01

    In massive gravity, some new phenomena of black hole phase transition are found. There are more than one critical points under appropriate parameter values and the Gibbs free energy near critical points also has some new properties. Moreover, the Maxwell equal area rule is also investigated and the coexistence curve of the black hole is given.

  8. Embeddings of the "New Massive Gravity"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalmazi, D.; Mendonça, E. L.

    2016-07-01

    Here we apply different types of embeddings of the equations of motion of the linearized "New Massive Gravity" in order to generate alternative and even higher-order (in derivatives) massive gravity theories in D=2+1. In the first part of the work we use the Weyl symmetry as a guiding principle for the embeddings. First we show that a Noether gauge embedding of the Weyl symmetry leads to a sixth-order model in derivatives with either a massive or a massless ghost, according to the chosen overall sign of the theory. On the other hand, if the Weyl symmetry is implemented by means of a Stueckelberg field we obtain a new scalar-tensor model for massive gravitons. It is ghost-free and Weyl invariant at the linearized level around Minkowski space. The model can be nonlinearly completed into a scalar field coupled to the NMG theory. The elimination of the scalar field leads to a nonlocal modification of the NMG. In the second part of the work we prove to all orders in derivatives that there is no local, ghost-free embedding of the linearized NMG equations of motion around Minkowski space when written in terms of one symmetric tensor. Regarding that point, NMG differs from the Fierz-Pauli theory, since in the latter case we can replace the Einstein-Hilbert action by specific f(R,Box R) generalizations and still keep the theory ghost-free at the linearized level.

  9. Geochemistry of a naturally occurring massive marine gas hydrate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kvenvolden, K.A.; Claypool, G.E.; Threlkeld, C.N.; Dendy, Sloan E.

    1984-01-01

    During Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) Leg 84 a core 1 m long and 6 cm in diameter of massive gas hydrate was unexpectedly recovered at Site 570 in upper slope sediment of the Middle America Trench offshore of Guatemala. This core contained only 5-7% sediment, the remainder being the solid hydrate composed of gas and water. Samples of the gas hydrate were decomposed under controlled conditions in a closed container maintained at 4??C. Gas pressure increased and asymptotically approached the equilibrium decomposition pressure for an ideal methane hydrate, CH4.5-3/4H2O, of 3930 kPa and approached to this pressure after each time gas was released, until the gas hydrate was completely decomposed. The gas evolved during hydrate decomposition was 99.4% methane, ???0.2% ethane, and ???0.4% CO2. Hydrocarbons from propane to heptane were also present, but in concentrations of less than 100 p.p.m. The carbon-isotopic composition of methane was -41 to -44 permil(( 0 00), relative to PDB standard. The observed volumetric methane/water ratio was 64 or 67, which indicates that before it was stored and analyzed, the gas hydrate probably had lost methane. The sample material used in the experiments was likely a mixture of methane hydrate and water ice. Formation of this massive gas hydrate probably involved the following processes: (i) upward migration of gas and its accumulation in a zone where conditions favored the growth of gas hydrates, (ii) continued, unusually rapid biological generation of methane, and (iii) release of gas from water solution as pressure decreased due to sea level lowering and tectonic uplift. ?? 1984.

  10. 17 CFR 210.12-28 - Real estate and accumulated depreciation. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Real estate and accumulated... AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 For Certain Real Estate Companies § 210.12-28 Real estate and accumulated..., furnish a reconciliation, in the following form, of the total amount at which real estate was carried...

  11. 17 CFR 210.12-28 - Real estate and accumulated depreciation. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Real estate and accumulated... AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 Form and Content of Schedules § 210.12-28 Real estate and accumulated..., furnish a reconciliation, in the following form, of the total amount at which real estate was carried...

  12. 17 CFR 210.12-28 - Real estate and accumulated depreciation. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Real estate and accumulated... AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 Form and Content of Schedules § 210.12-28 Real estate and accumulated..., furnish a reconciliation, in the following form, of the total amount at which real estate was carried...

  13. 18 CFR 367.2283 - Account 228.3, Accumulated provision for pensions and benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., Accumulated provision for pensions and benefits. 367.2283 Section 367.2283 Conservation of Power and Water....2283 Account 228.3, Accumulated provision for pensions and benefits. (a) This account must include provisions made by the service company and amounts contributed by employees for pensions, accident and...

  14. 18 CFR 367.2283 - Account 228.3, Accumulated provision for pensions and benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., Accumulated provision for pensions and benefits. 367.2283 Section 367.2283 Conservation of Power and Water....2283 Account 228.3, Accumulated provision for pensions and benefits. (a) This account must include provisions made by the service company and amounts contributed by employees for pensions, accident and...

  15. Modeling populations of rotationally mixed massive stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brott, I.

    2011-02-01

    Massive stars can be considered as cosmic engines. With their high luminosities, strong stellar winds and violent deaths they drive the evolution of galaxies through-out the history of the universe. Despite the importance of massive stars, their evolution is still poorly understood. Two major issues have plagued evolutionary models of massive stars until today: mixing and mass loss On the main sequence, the effects of mass loss remain limited in the considered mass and metallicity range, this thesis concentrates on the role of mixing in massive stars. This thesis approaches this problem just on the cross road between observations and simulations. The main question: Do evolutionary models of single stars, accounting for the effects of rotation, reproduce the observed properties of real stars. In particular we are interested if the evolutionary models can reproduce the surface abundance changes during the main-sequence phase. To constrain our models we build a population synthesis model for the sample of the VLT-FLAMES Survey of Massive stars, for which star-formation history and rotational velocity distribution are well constrained. We consider the four main regions of the Hunter diagram. Nitrogen un-enriched slow rotators and nitrogen enriched fast rotators that are predicted by theory. Nitrogen enriched slow rotators and nitrogen unenriched fast rotators that are not predicted by our model. We conclude that currently these comparisons are not sufficient to verify the theory of rotational mixing. Physical processes in addition to rotational mixing appear necessary to explain the stars in the later two regions. The chapters of this Thesis have been published in the following Journals: Ch. 2: ``Rotating Massive Main-Sequence Stars I: Grids of Evolutionary Models and Isochrones'', I. Brott, S. E. de Mink, M. Cantiello, N. Langer, A. de Koter, C. J. Evans, I. Hunter, C. Trundle, J.S. Vink submitted to Astronomy & Astrop hysics Ch. 3: ``The VLT-FLAMES Survey of Massive

  16. Accumulation of Poly (beta-Hydroxybutyrate) by Halobacteria.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Castillo, R; Rodriguez-Valera, F; Gonzalez-Ramos, J; Ruiz-Berraquero, F

    1986-01-01

    Some species of extremely halophilic archaebacteria, Halobacteriaceae, have been shown to accumulate large amounts of poly (beta-hydroxybutyrate) under conditions of nitrogen limitation and abundant carbon source. The production of poly (beta-hydroxybutyrate), at least in large quantities, was restricted to two carbohydrate-utilizing species, Halobacterium mediterranei and H. volcanii. In addition to the nutrients in the media, the salt concentration also influenced poly (beta-hydroxybutyrate) accumulation, which was greater at lower salt concentrations. The possible application of these microorganisms for the production of biodegradable plastics is discussed. PMID:16346972

  17. Copper accumulation by stickleback nests containing spiggin.

    PubMed

    Pinho, G L L; Martins, C M G; Barber, I

    2016-07-01

    The three-spined stickleback is a ubiquitous fish of marine, brackish and freshwater ecosystems across the Northern hemisphere that presents intermediate sensitivity to copper. Male sticklebacks display a range of elaborate reproductive behaviours that include nest construction. To build the nests, each male binds nesting material together using an endogenous glycoprotein nesting glue, known as 'spiggin'. Spiggin is a cysteine-rich protein and, therefore, potentially binds heavy metals present in the environment. The aim of this study was to investigate the capacity of stickleback nests to accumulate copper from environmental sources. Newly built nests, constructed by male fish from polyester threads in laboratory aquaria, were immersed in copper solutions ranging in concentration from 21.1-626.6 μg Cu L(-1). Bundles of polyester threads from aquaria without male fish were also immersed in the same copper solutions. After immersion, nests presented higher amounts of copper than the thread bundles, indicating a higher capacity of nests to bind this metal. A significant, positive correlation between the concentration of copper in the exposure solution and in the exposed nests was identified, but there was no such relationship for thread bundles. Since both spiggin synthesis and male courtship behaviour are under the control of circulating androgens, we predicted that males with high courtship scores would produce and secrete high levels of the spiggin protein. In the present study, nests built by high courtship score males accumulated more copper than those built by low courtship score males. Considering the potential of spiggin to bind metals, the positive relationship between fish courtship and spiggin secretion seems to explain the higher amount of copper on the nests from the fish showing high behaviour scores. Further work is now needed to determine the consequences of the copper binding potential of spiggin in stickleback nests for the health and survival of

  18. Dusty supernovae running the thermodynamics of the matter reinserted within young and massive super stellar clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; Silich, Sergiy; Martínez-González, Sergio; Muñoz-Tuñón, Casiana; Palouš, Jan; Wünsch, Richard E-mail: cmt@ll.iac.es

    2013-12-01

    Following the observational and theoretical evidence that points at core-collapse supernovae (SNe) as major producers of dust, here we calculate the hydrodynamics of the matter reinserted within young and massive super stellar clusters under the assumption of gas and dust radiative cooling. The large SN rate expected in massive clusters allows for a continuous replenishment of dust immersed in the high temperature thermalized reinserted matter and warrants a stationary presence of dust within the cluster volume during the type II SN era. We first show that such a balance determines the range of the dust-to-gas-mass ratio, and thus the dust cooling law. We then search for the critical line that separates stationary cluster winds from the bimodal cases in the cluster mechanical luminosity (or cluster mass) versus cluster size parameter space. In the latter, strong radiative cooling reduces considerably the cluster wind mechanical energy output and affects particularly the cluster central regions, leading to frequent thermal instabilities that diminish the pressure and inhibit the exit of the reinserted matter. Instead, matter accumulates there and is expected to eventually lead to gravitational instabilities and to further stellar formation with the matter reinserted by former massive stars. The main outcome of the calculations is that the critical line is almost two orders of magnitude or more, depending on the assumed value of V {sub A∞}, lower than when only gas radiative cooling is applied. And thus, many massive clusters are predicted to enter the bimodal regime.

  19. Dusty Supernovae Running the Thermodynamics of the Matter Reinserted within Young and Massive Super Stellar Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; Silich, Sergiy; Martínez-González, Sergio; Muñoz-Tuñón, Casiana; Palouš, Jan; Wünsch, Richard

    2013-12-01

    Following the observational and theoretical evidence that points at core-collapse supernovae (SNe) as major producers of dust, here we calculate the hydrodynamics of the matter reinserted within young and massive super stellar clusters under the assumption of gas and dust radiative cooling. The large SN rate expected in massive clusters allows for a continuous replenishment of dust immersed in the high temperature thermalized reinserted matter and warrants a stationary presence of dust within the cluster volume during the type II SN era. We first show that such a balance determines the range of the dust-to-gas-mass ratio, and thus the dust cooling law. We then search for the critical line that separates stationary cluster winds from the bimodal cases in the cluster mechanical luminosity (or cluster mass) versus cluster size parameter space. In the latter, strong radiative cooling reduces considerably the cluster wind mechanical energy output and affects particularly the cluster central regions, leading to frequent thermal instabilities that diminish the pressure and inhibit the exit of the reinserted matter. Instead, matter accumulates there and is expected to eventually lead to gravitational instabilities and to further stellar formation with the matter reinserted by former massive stars. The main outcome of the calculations is that the critical line is almost two orders of magnitude or more, depending on the assumed value of V A∞, lower than when only gas radiative cooling is applied. And thus, many massive clusters are predicted to enter the bimodal regime.

  20. Optimum Tolerance Design Using Component-Amount and Mixture-Amount Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Ozler, Cenk; Sehirlioglu, Ali Kemal

    2013-08-01

    One type of tolerance design problem involves optimizing component and assembly tolerances to minimize the total cost (sum of manufacturing cost and quality loss). Previous literature recommended using traditional response surface (RS) designs and models to solve this type of tolerance design problem. In this article, component-amount (CA) and mixture-amount (MA) approaches are proposed as more appropriate for solving this type of tolerance design problem. The advantages of the CA and MA approaches over the RS approach are discussed. Reasons for choosing between the CA and MA approaches are also discussed. The CA and MA approaches (experimental design, response modeling, and optimization) are illustrated using real examples.

  1. Placing Observational Constraints on Massive Star Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenfield, Philip

    2011-10-01

    The lives and deaths of massive stars are intricately linked to the evolution of galaxies. Yet, despite their integral importance to understanding galaxy evolution, models of massive stars are inconsistent with observations. These uncertainties can be traced to limited observational constraints available for improving massive star models. A sensitive test of the underlying physics of massive stars, e.g., convection, rotation, and mass loss is to measure the ratio of blue core helium burning stars {BHeB} to red core helium burning stars {RHeB}, 5-20Msun stars in the stage evolution immediately following the main sequence. Even the most sophisticated models cannot accurately predict the observed ratio over a range of metallicities, suggesting an insufficient understanding of the underlying physics. However, observational measurements of this ratio over a wide range of environments would provide substantial constraints on the physical parameters governing the evolution of all stars >5 Msun.We propose to place stringent observational constraints on the physics of massive star evolution by uniformly measuring the B/R HeB ratio in a wide range of galaxies. The HST archive contains high quality optical imaging of resolved stellar populations of dozens of nearby galaxies. From the ANGST program, we identified 38 galaxies, spanning 2 dex in metallicity that have significant BHeB and RHeB populations. Using this sample, we will empirically characterize the colors of the BHeB and RHeB sequences as a function of luminosity and metallicity, measure the B/R ratio, and constrain the lifetimes of the BHeB and RHeBs in the Padova stellar evolution models and the Cambridge STARS code.

  2. Maximum likelihood decoding analysis of Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    Repeat-Accumulate (RA) codes are the simplest turbo-like codes that achieve good performance. However, they cannot compete with Turbo codes or low-density parity check codes (LDPC) as far as performance is concerned. The Accumulate Repeat Accumulate (ARA) codes, as a subclass of LDPC codes, are obtained by adding a pre-coder in front of RA codes with puncturing where an accumulator is chosen as a precoder. These codes not only are very simple, but also achieve excellent performance with iterative decoding. In this paper, the performance of these codes with (ML) decoding are analyzed and compared to random codes by very tight bounds. The weight distribution of some simple ARA codes is obtained, and through existing tightest bounds we have shown the ML SNR threshold of ARA codes approaches very closely to the performance of random codes. We have shown that the use of precoder improves the SNR threshold but interleaving gain remains unchanged with respect to RA code with puncturing.

  3. 75 FR 58407 - Medicare Program; Medicare Appeals; Adjustment to the Amount in Controversy Threshold Amounts for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... for requests for ALJ hearings and judicial review filed on or after January 1, 2011. The 2011 AIC threshold amounts are $130 for ALJ hearings and $1,300 for judicial review. DATES: Effective Date: This... and judicial review at $100 and $1,000, respectively, for Medicare Part A and Part B appeals....

  4. Different approaches for improving skin accumulation of topical corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Senyiğit, Taner; Padula, Cristina; Ozer, Ozgen; Santi, Patrizia

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate the effect of vehicle, chemical enhancer and iontophoresis on the skin accumulation of clobetasol propionate (CP) and mometasone furoate (MF). In vitro permeation experiments were performed using pig ear skin as barrier and HPLC as quantification method. The formulations tested were chitosan gels, sodium-deoxycholate gels and commercial creams of CP and MF. The results obtained indicate that Na-DOC gel had an enhancing effect on the skin accumulation of both active agents. This effect was more evident with CP especially in the stratum corneum and epidermis which are the target sites of topical steroidal treatment. Two terpene derivatives (D-limonene and nerolidol) and Transcutol P were evaluated as chemical penetration enhancers. Nerolidol produced considerable increase in the amount of CP and MF accumulated without any permeation across the skin. The application of electric current (anodal iontophoresis) to the gels improved the accumulation of MF while it did not effect the accumulation of CP. Due to the best accumulation results of nerolidol, the enhancement effect in combination with iontophoresis was also investigated. It was shown that, the combination of anodal iontophoresis and chemical enhancer (nerolidol) produced no further enhancement for both active agents. PMID:19635541

  5. Origin of massive ice at Cape Marre-Sale, Yamal Peninsula, Siberia, Russia: contrasting views

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortier, D.; Kurchatova, A. N.; Jorgenson, M. T.; Godin, E.; M-Lepage, J.; Stephani, E.; Kanevskiy, M. Z.; Shur, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The origin of permafrost and ground ice of the Cape Marre-Sale polar station area, Western Yamal Peninsula, Russia, has been debated for decades. This can be explained by the extremely complex morphology of sedimentary strata and cryofacies exposed along the costal bluffs. Here, we report massive ice observations realized during summer 2012 as well as numerous laboratory and field analysis previously conducted on the massive ice bodies and reported in the literature. Our objective is to present contrasting views currently being proposed to explain the origin of massive ice at Cape Marre-Sale. Several types of massive ice bodies can be observed along the exposures. One striking cryofacies observed shows alternating cm-thick ice lenses and cm-to-dm thick bands of sediment-rich ice, which are commonly folded with an amplitude of several meters. This very ice-rich cryofacies is interpreted either as buried basal ice of the Eurasian ice-sheet or alternatively as massive segregated ice formed during epigenetic permafrost aggradation. This cryofacies comprised meters large clasts of stratified sand with organics, with some of these stratifications being folded and faulted and showing boudinage structure. The location of these large sand clasts within the foliated ice-rich massive ice could be explained either by glacio-tectonic activity (glacio-dislocation during ice flow) or alternatively by regional tectonic activity. Large m-thick and meters-long pure ice bodies were also observed within the foliated massive ice. The first type is withish and contains a very large amount of air bubbles without any clear orientation. The second type is made of blueish to clear ice and contains a few air bubbles and rare, randomly distributed, fine-grained sediment inclusions suspended in the ice. Ice crystallography revealed the presence of large (cm) ice crystals in both types of ice. These pure ice bodies cross-cut the massive foliated ice. They could be interpreted as refrozen water

  6. OMOSHI Effect: A New Mechanism for Mass Accretion under the Radiation Pressure in Massive Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Kei; Nakamoto, Taishi

    2009-08-01

    In a massive-star formation process, a high-mass accretion rate is considered to be needed to overcome the strong radiation pressure at the dust sublimation front. We examined the accretion structure near the dust sublimation front and found a new mechanism to overcome this radiation pressure. The weight of the accumulated mass in a stagnant flow near the dust sublimation front helps with the mass accretion. We call this mechanism the ``OMOSHI effect,'' where OMOSHI is an acronym for ``One Mechanism for Overcoming Stellar High radiation pressure by weight.'' OMOSHI is also a Japanese noun meaning a weight that is put on something to prevent it from moving. This mechanism relaxes the condition for the massive star formation.

  7. Nearby regions of massive star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bally, John; Cunningham, Nathaniel; Moeckel, Nickolas; Smith, Nathan

    Observations of the nearest regions of massive star formation such as Orion are reviewed. Early-type stars in the local OB associations, as well as their superbubbles and supershells provide a fossil record of massive star birth in the Solar vicinity over about the last 40 Myr. This record shows that most massive stars are born from dense, high-pressure, hot cores which spawn transient clusters that dissipate into the field soon after formation. A large fraction (15 to 30%) of massive stars are high-velocity runaways moving at more than 20 km s^{-1}. High-mass stars have a larger companion fraction than their lower-mass siblings. The Orion star forming complex contains the nearest site of on-going massive star formation. Studies of the Orion Nebula and the dense molecular cloud core located immediately behind the HII region provide our sharpest view of massive star birth. This region has formed a hierarchy of clusters within clusters. The Trapezium, OMC-1S, and OMC-1 regions represent three closely spaced sub-clusters within the more extended Orion Nebula Cluster. The oldest of these sub-clusters, which consists of the Trapezium stars, has completely emerged from its natal core. The OMC-1S and OMC-1 regions, are still highly embedded and forming clusters of additional moderate and high mass stars. Over a dozen YSOs embedded in OMC-1S are driving jets and outflows, many of which are injecting energy and momentum into the Orion Nebula. Recent proper motion measurements indicate that the Becklin-Neugebauer object is a high-velocity star moving away from the OMC1 core with a velocity of 30 km s^{-1}, making it the youngest high-velocity star known. Source I may be moving in the opposite direction with a velocity of about 12 km s^{-1}. The projected separation between source I and BN was less than few hundred AU about 500 years ago. The spectacular bipolar molecular outflow and system of shock-excited H_2 fingers emerging from OMC-1 has a dynamical age of about 1100

  8. SUPERDENSE MASSIVE GALAXIES IN WINGS LOCAL CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Valentinuzzi, T.; D'Onofrio, M.; Fritz, J.; Poggianti, B. M.; Bettoni, D.; Fasano, G.; Moretti, A.; Omizzolo, A.; Varela, J.; Cava, A.; Couch, W. J.; Dressler, A.; Moles, M.; Kjaergaard, P.; Vanzella, E.

    2010-03-20

    Massive quiescent galaxies at z > 1 have been found to have small physical sizes, and hence to be superdense. Several mechanisms, including minor mergers, have been proposed for increasing galaxy sizes from high- to low-z. We search for superdense massive galaxies in the WIde-field Nearby Galaxy-cluster Survey (WINGS) of X-ray selected galaxy clusters at 0.04 < z < 0.07. We discover a significant population of superdense massive galaxies with masses and sizes comparable to those observed at high redshift. They approximately represent 22% of all cluster galaxies more massive than 3 x 10{sup 10} M{sub sun}, are mostly S0 galaxies, have a median effective radius (R{sub e} ) = 1.61 +- 0.29 kpc, a median Sersic index (n) = 3.0 +- 0.6, and very old stellar populations with a median mass-weighted age of 12.1 +- 1.3 Gyr. We calculate a number density of 2.9 x 10{sup -2} Mpc{sup -3} for superdense galaxies in local clusters, and a hard lower limit of 1.3 x 10{sup -5} Mpc{sup -3} in the whole comoving volume between z = 0.04 and z = 0.07. We find a relation between mass, effective radius, and luminosity-weighted age in our cluster galaxies, which can mimic the claimed evolution of the radius with redshift, if not properly taken into account. We compare our data with spectroscopic high-z surveys and find that-when stellar masses are considered-there is consistency with the local WINGS galaxy sizes out to z {approx} 2, while a discrepancy of a factor of 3 exists with the only spectroscopic z > 2 study. In contrast, there is strong evidence for a large evolution in radius for the most massive galaxies with M{sub *} > 4 x 10{sup 11} M{sub sun} compared to similarly massive galaxies in WINGS, i.e., the brightest cluster galaxies.

  9. Massive binaries as the source of abundance anomalies in globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mink, S. E.; Pols, O. R.; Langer, N.; Izzard, R. G.

    2009-11-01

    Abundance anomalies observed in globular cluster stars indicate pollution with material processed by hydrogen burning. Two main sources have been suggested: asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and massive stars rotating near the break-up limit (spin stars). We propose massive binaries as an alternative source of processed material. We compute the evolution of a 20 {M}⊙ star in a close binary considering the effects of non conservative mass and angular momentum transfer and of rotation and tidal interaction to demonstrate the principle. We find that this system sheds about 10 {M}⊙ of material, nearly the entire envelope of the primary star. The ejecta are enriched in He, N, Na, and Al and depleted in C and O, similar to the abundance patterns observed in gobular cluster stars. However, Mg is not significantly depleted in the ejecta of this model. In contrast to the fast, radiatively driven winds of massive stars, this material is typically ejected with low velocity. We expect that it remains inside the potential well of a globular cluster and becomes available for the formation or pollution of a second generation of stars. We estimate that the amount of processed low-velocity material ejected by massive binaries is greater than the contribution of AGB stars and spin stars combined, assuming that the majority of massive stars in a proto-globular cluster interact with a companion and return their envelope to the interstellar medium. If we take the possible contribution of intermediate mass stars in binaries into account and assume that the ejecta are diluted with an equal amount of unprocessed material, we find that this scenario can potentially provide enough material to form a second generation of low-mass stars, which is as numerous as the first generation of low-mass stars, without the need to make commonly adopted assumptions, such as preferential loss of the first generation of stars, external pollution of the cluster, or an anomalous initial mass function.

  10. Efficiently modeling neural networks on massively parallel computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farber, Robert M.

    1993-01-01

    Neural networks are a very useful tool for analyzing and modeling complex real world systems. Applying neural network simulations to real world problems generally involves large amounts of data and massive amounts of computation. To efficiently handle the computational requirements of large problems, we have implemented at Los Alamos a highly efficient neural network compiler for serial computers, vector computers, vector parallel computers, and fine grain SIMD computers such as the CM-2 connection machine. This paper describes the mapping used by the compiler to implement feed-forward backpropagation neural networks for a SIMD (Single Instruction Multiple Data) architecture parallel computer. Thinking Machines Corporation has benchmarked our code at 1.3 billion interconnects per second (approximately 3 gigaflops) on a 64,000 processor CM-2 connection machine (Singer 1990). This mapping is applicable to other SIMD computers and can be implemented on MIMD computers such as the CM-5 connection machine. Our mapping has virtually no communications overhead with the exception of the communications required for a global summation across the processors (which has a sub-linear runtime growth on the order of O(log(number of processors)). We can efficiently model very large neural networks which have many neurons and interconnects and our mapping can extend to arbitrarily large networks (within memory limitations) by merging the memory space of separate processors with fast adjacent processor interprocessor communications. This paper will consider the simulation of only feed forward neural network although this method is extendable to recurrent networks.

  11. Ecology: accumulating threats to life

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, R.W.

    1980-04-01

    The accumulating impacts of toxic materials like polychloridnated bephenyls (PCBs), acid rain, deforestation in the Amazon River Basin, and nuclear energy are examined as life-threatening actions that the public must recognize. Immediate action is needed to abandon destructive human activities and search out those life-supporting choices which will replace immediate gratification with long-range benefits. (DCK)

  12. Pensions and Household Wealth Accumulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhardt, Gary V.; Kumar, Anil

    2011-01-01

    Economists have long suggested that higher private pension benefits "crowd out" other sources of household wealth accumulation. We exploit detailed information on pensions and lifetime earnings for older workers in the 1992 wave of the Health and Retirement Study and employ an instrumental-variable (IV) identification strategy to estimate…

  13. VLT/X-shooter spectroscopy of massive pre-main-sequence stars in M17

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez-Tannus, Maria Claudia; Kaper, Lex

    2015-08-01

    The formation process of massive stars is still poorly understood. Formation timescales are short, the corresponding accretion rates very high, and the forming stars are hidden from view due to vast amounts of interstellar extinction. On top of that, massive stars are rare, are located at relatively large distances, and play a major role in shaping the interstellar medium due to their strong UV radiation fields and stellar winds. Although massive stars show most spectral features in the UV and optical range, so far only for a handful of massive Young Stellar Objects (mYSOs) optical and near-infrared spectra have been obtained. For some of these their pre-main-sequence (PMS) nature has now been firmly established (e.g. Ochsendorf et al. 2011, Ellerbroek et al. 2013). The objective of our project is to determine the physical properties of mYSOs, to search for signatures remnant of their formation process and to better understand the feedback on their environment.To this aim the optical to near-infrared (300-2500 nm) spectra of six candidate mYSOs (Hanson et al. 1997), deeply embedded in the massive star forming region M17, have been obtained with X-Shooter on the ESO Very Large Telescope. These mYSO candidates have been identified based on their infrared excess and spectral features (double-peaked emission lines, CO band-head emission) indicating the presence of a disk. In most cases, we detect a photospheric spectrum allowing us to measure the physical properties of the mYSO and to confirm its PMS nature. We also uncover many emission features, including forbidden lines, providing information on the (active) formation process of these young (massive) stars.

  14. Long-term accumulation and transport of anthropogenic phosphorus in world river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powers, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    Global food production crucially depends on phosphorus (P). In agricultural and urban landscapes, much P is anthropogenic, entering via trade, and then can be transported by a combination of fluvial and human processes. To date there have been few long-term, large-scale analyses combining both fluvial and human modes of P transport. Here we present reconstructed historical records of anthropogenic P entering and leaving soils and aquatic systems via a combination of trade, infrastructure, food waste, and fluvial fluxes. We then report the net annual P inputs, and the mass of P that has accumulated over the long-term, for entire river basins. Our analyses reveal rapid historical P accumulation for two mixed agricultural-urban landscapes (Thames Basin, UK, Yangtze Basin, China), and one rural agricultural landscape (Maumee Basin, USA). We also show that the human P fluxes massively dominate over the fluvial fluxes in these large basins. For Thames and Maumee Basins, recently there has been modest P depletion/drawdown of the massive P pool accumulated in prior decades, whereas the Yangtze Basin has consistently and rapidly accumulated P since 1980. These first estimates of the magnitude of historical P accumulation in contrasting settings illustrate the scope of management challenges surrounding the storage, fate, exploitation, and reactivation of legacy P that is currently present in the Earth's critical zone.

  15. Early postischemic /sup 45/Ca accumulation in rat dentate hilus

    SciTech Connect

    Benveniste, H.; Diemer, N.H.

    1988-10-01

    Several studies have found postischemic regional accumulation of calcium to be time-dependent and coincident with the progression of ischemic cell change. In the most vulnerable cells in the hippocampus one would therefore expect to find a primary and specific early uptake of calcium after ischemia. Autoradiograms of /sup 45/Ca and /sup 3/H-inulin distribution were investigated before and 1 h after 20 min ischemia in the rat hippocampus. Two different methodological approaches were used for administration of /sup 45/Ca: (a) administration via microdialysis probes, (b) intraventricular injection. During control conditions the /sup 45/Ca autoradiograms showed variations in distribution volume in accordance with /sup 3/H-inulin determination of extracellular space size. One hour after ischemia a massive accumulation of /sup 45/Ca was found in the dentate hilus. No change in the distribution pattern of /sup 3/H-inulin could be demonstrated 1 h after ischemia. We suggest that /sup 45/Ca accumulation in dentate hilus 1 h after ischemia is a result of increased Ca/sup 2 +/ uptake before irreversible cell damage occurs and is not due to passive influx of calcium across a leaky plasma membrane.

  16. Massive binaries in R136 using Hubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caballero-Nieves, Saida; Crowther, Paul; Bostroem, K. Azalee; Maíz Apellániz, Jesus

    2014-09-01

    We have undertaken a complete HST/STIS spectroscopic survey of R136, the young, central dense starburst cluster of the LMC 30 Doradus nebula, which hosts the most massive stars currently known. Our CCD datasets, comprising 17 adjacent 0.2"×52" long slits, were split across Cycles 19 and 20 to allow us to search for spectroscopic binaries. We will present the results of our survey, including a comparison with the massive-star population in the wider 30 Doradus region from the VLT Flames Tarantula survey. We will also describe upcoming HST/FGS observations, which will probe intermediate-separation binaries in R136, and discuss this cluster in the context of unresolved young extragalactic star clusters.

  17. Superdense Massive Galaxies in the Nearby Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trujillo, Ignacio; Cenarro, A. Javier; de Lorenzo-Cáceres, Adriana; Vazdekis, Alexandre; de la Rosa, Ignacio G.; Cava, Antonio

    2009-02-01

    Superdense massive galaxies (re ~ 1 kpc; M ~ 1011 M sun) were common in the early universe (z gsim 1.5). Within some hierarchical merging scenarios, a non-negligible fraction (1%-10%) of these galaxies is expected to survive since that epoch, retaining their compactness and presenting old stellar populations in the present universe. Using the NYU Value-Added Galaxy Catalog from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 6, we find only a tiny fraction of galaxies (~0.03%) with re lsim 1.5 kpc and M sstarf gsim 8 × 1010 M sun in the local universe (z < 0.2). Surprisingly, they are relatively young (~2 Gyr) and metal-rich ([Z/H] ~0.2). The consequences of these findings within the current two competing size evolution scenarios for the most massive galaxies ("dry" mergers vs. "puffing up" due to quasar activity) are discussed.

  18. Massively parallel sequencing and rare disease

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Sarah B.; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Bamshad, Michael J.; Shendure, Jay

    2010-01-01

    Massively parallel sequencing has enabled the rapid, systematic identification of variants on a large scale. This has, in turn, accelerated the pace of gene discovery and disease diagnosis on a molecular level and has the potential to revolutionize methods particularly for the analysis of Mendelian disease. Using massively parallel sequencing has enabled investigators to interrogate variants both in the context of linkage intervals and also on a genome-wide scale, in the absence of linkage information entirely. The primary challenge now is to distinguish between background polymorphisms and pathogenic mutations. Recently developed strategies for rare monogenic disorders have met with some early success. These strategies include filtering for potential causal variants based on frequency and function, and also ranking variants based on conservation scores and predicted deleteriousness to protein structure. Here, we review the recent literature in the use of high-throughput sequence data and its analysis in the discovery of causal mutations for rare disorders. PMID:20846941

  19. Massive Smash-up at Vega

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This artist concept illustrates how a massive collision of objects perhaps as large as the planet Pluto smashed together to create the dust ring around the nearby star Vega. New observations from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope indicate the collision took place within the last one million years. Astronomers think that embryonic planets smashed together, shattered into pieces, and repeatedly crashed into other fragments to create ever finer debris.

    In the image, a collision is seen between massive objects that measured up to 2,000 kilometers (about 1,200 miles) in diameter. Scientists say the big collision initiated subsequent collisions that created dust particles around the star that were a few microns in size. Vega's intense light blew these fine particles to larger distances from the star, and also warmed them to emit heat radiation that can be detected by Spitzer's infrared detectors.

  20. Parallel rendering techniques for massively parallel visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, C.; Krogh, M.; Painter, J.

    1995-07-01

    As the resolution of simulation models increases, scientific visualization algorithms which take advantage of the large memory. and parallelism of Massively Parallel Processors (MPPs) are becoming increasingly important. For large applications rendering on the MPP tends to be preferable to rendering on a graphics workstation due to the MPP`s abundant resources: memory, disk, and numerous processors. The challenge becomes developing algorithms that can exploit these resources while minimizing overhead, typically communication costs. This paper will describe recent efforts in parallel rendering for polygonal primitives as well as parallel volumetric techniques. This paper presents rendering algorithms, developed for massively parallel processors (MPPs), for polygonal, spheres, and volumetric data. The polygon algorithm uses a data parallel approach whereas the sphere and volume render use a MIMD approach. Implementations for these algorithms are presented for the Thinking Ma.chines Corporation CM-5 MPP.

  1. Identifying new massive stars in Carina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Michael J.; McSwain, M. Virginia; Povich, Matthew S.; Hanes, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    We have conducted an optical and infrared spectroscopic survey of 94 candidate OB stars in the Great Carina Nebula. Candidates were selected on the basis of their infrared spectral energy distributions, which was used to estimate bolometric luminosity and effective temperature. Additionally, the presence of X-ray emission -- a sign of young, dynamic atmospheres -- was used to increase the likelihood of selecting newly formed massive stars associated with the Carina star formation region. Here, we present the preliminary results of this study including spectral types and the OB star confirmation rate. We also discuss the spatial distribution of the new OB stars with respect to the various clusters and sub-clusters and speculate on the implications of additional massive stars on the global mass function of the Carina star forming complex.

  2. Massively Parallel Computing: A Sandia Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Dosanjh, Sudip S.; Greenberg, David S.; Hendrickson, Bruce; Heroux, Michael A.; Plimpton, Steve J.; Tomkins, James L.; Womble, David E.

    1999-05-06

    The computing power available to scientists and engineers has increased dramatically in the past decade, due in part to progress in making massively parallel computing practical and available. The expectation for these machines has been great. The reality is that progress has been slower than expected. Nevertheless, massively parallel computing is beginning to realize its potential for enabling significant break-throughs in science and engineering. This paper provides a perspective on the state of the field, colored by the authors' experiences using large scale parallel machines at Sandia National Laboratories. We address trends in hardware, system software and algorithms, and we also offer our view of the forces shaping the parallel computing industry.

  3. Very Massive Stars in the local Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vink, Jorick S.; Heger, Alexander; Krumholz, Mark R.; Puls, Joachim; Banerjee, S.; Castro, N.; Chen, K.-J.; Chenè, A.-N.; Crowther, P. A.; Daminelli, A.; Gräfener, G.; Groh, J. H.; Hamann, W.-R.; Heap, S.; Herrero, A.; Kaper, L.; Najarro, F.; Oskinova, L. M.; Roman-Lopes, A.; Rosen, A.; Sander, A.; Shirazi, M.; Sugawara, Y.; Tramper, F.; Vanbeveren, D.; Voss, R.; Wofford, A.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-03-01

    Recent studies have claimed the existence of very massive stars (VMS) up to 300 M ⊙ in the local Universe. As this finding may represent a paradigm shift for the canonical stellar upper-mass limit of 150 M ⊙, it is timely to discuss the status of the data, as well as the far-reaching implications of such objects. We held a Joint Discussion at the General Assembly in Beijing to discuss (i) the determination of the current masses of the most massive stars, (ii) the formation of VMS, (iii) their mass loss, and (iv) their evolution and final fate. The prime aim was to reach broad consensus between observers and theorists on how to identify and quantify the dominant physical processes.

  4. Massive mesons in Weyl-Dirac theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirabotalebi, S.; Ahmadi, F.; Salehi, H.

    2008-01-01

    In order to study the mass generation of the vector fields in the framework of a conformal invariant gravitational model, the Weyl-Dirac theory is considered. The mass of the Weyl’s meson fields plays a principal role in this theory, it connects basically the conformal and gauge symmetries. We estimate this mass by using the large-scale characteristics of the observed universe. To do this we firstly specify a preferred conformal frame as a cosmological frame, then in this frame, we introduce an exact possible solution of the theory. We also study the dynamical effect of the massive vector meson fields on the trajectories of an elementary particle. We show that a local change of the cosmological frame leads to a Hamilton-Jacobi equation describing a particle with an adjustable mass. The dynamical effect of the massive vector meson field presents itself in the form of a correction term for the mass of the particle.

  5. Geometric massive gravity in multiconnection framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosravi, Nima

    2014-01-01

    What is the right way to interpret a massive graviton? We generalize the kinematical framework of general relativity to multiple connections. The average of the connections is itself a connection and plays the role of the canonical connection in standard general relativity. At the level of dynamics, the simplest choice of the Einstein-Hilbert action is indistinguishable from the single-connection case. However, inspired by Weyl geometry, we show how one can construct massive gravity to all orders in perturbation theory compatible with the de Rham-Gabadadze-Tolley ghost-free model. We conclude that the mass of the graviton can be interpreted as a geometrical property of spacetime arising from two connections. Furthermore, in the multiconnection framework there is no ambiguity in the definition of the physical metric and consequently coupling to matter.

  6. Visser's massive graviton bimetric theory revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Roany, Alain de; Chauvineau, Bertrand; Freitas Pacheco, Jose A. de

    2011-10-15

    A massive gravity theory was proposed by Visser in the late 1990s. This theory, based on a background metric b{sub {alpha}{beta}} and on an usual dynamical metric g{sub {alpha}{beta}} has the advantage of being free of ghosts as well as discontinuities present in other massive theories proposed in the past. In the present investigation, the equations of Visser's theory are revisited with particular care on the related conservation laws. It will be shown that a multiplicative factor is missing in the graviton tensor originally derived by Visser, which has no incidence on the weak field approach but becomes important in the strong field regime when, for instance, cosmological applications are considered. In this case, contrary to some previous claims found in the literature, we conclude that a nonstatic background metric is required in order to obtain a solution able to mimic the {Lambda}CDM cosmology.

  7. The initial conditions of massive star evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sana, Hugues

    2016-07-01

    Massive stars are some of the most energetic building blocks of galaxies. They are the progenitors of supernovae and of neutrons stars and black holes, the coallescence of which is one of the most likely detectable sources of gravitational waves. Yet their formation remains poorly understood. As a consequence, the mechanisms that set initial parameters such as rotation rates, multiplicity and orbital distributions are also ill constrained. These quantities are however critical as they affect the internal mixing, the rate and nature of the interactions, the stars final fates and their end-of-life products. In this presentation, I will review existing and new observations that allow us to better constraints these parameters, hence the initial conditions for massive star evolution.

  8. How Massive Single Stars End Their Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heger, A.; Fryer, C. L.; Woosley, S. E.; Langer, N.; Hartmann, D. H.

    2003-01-01

    How massive stars die-what sort of explosion and remnant each produces-depends chiefly on the masses of their helium cores and hydrogen envelopes at death. For single stars, stellar winds are the only means of mass loss, and these are a function of the metallicity of the star. We discuss how metallicity, and a simplified prescription for its effect on mass loss, affects the evolution and final fate of massive stars. We map, as a function of mass and metallicity, where black holes and neutron stars are likely to form and where different types of supernovae are produced. Integrating over an initial mass function, we derive the relative populations as a function of metallicity. Provided that single stars rotate rapidly enough at death, we speculate on stellar populations that might produce gamma-ray bursts and jet-driven supernovae.

  9. The most massive MaxBCG clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Stephen

    2014-09-01

    Great progress on galaxy clusters has been made in the last several years with SZ and optical surveys. Some new puzzles also emerged and one of them is the mismatch between the stacked Planck SZ fluxes and the model expectations for the MaxBCG clusters. While previous studies regarding this puzzle require the calibration of the true mass and the standard pressure template, we bypass the intermediate steps to directly compare the pressure content derived from the X-ray data with the SZ flux, for massive MaxBCG clusters. This proposal requests Chandra data for 3 clusters to complete a sample of 12 most massive MaxBCG clusters observed with either XMM or Chandra. The results will shed light on the mismatch puzzle and constrain the important scaling relations like Y_X - N_200 and Y_X - Y_SZ.

  10. Gas hydrate accumulation at the Hakon Mosby Mud Volcano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ginsburg, G.D.; Milkov, A.V.; Soloviev, V.A.; Egorov, A.V.; Cherkashev, G.A.; Vogt, P.R.; Crane, K.; Lorenson, T.D.; Khutorskoy, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    Gas hydrate (GH) accumulation is characterized and modeled for the Hakon Mosby mud volcano, ca. 1.5 km across, located on the Norway-Barents-Svalbard margin. Pore water chemical and isotopic results based on shallow sediment cores as well as geothermal and geomorphological data suggest that the GH accumulation is of a concentric pattern controlled by and formed essentially from the ascending mud volcano fluid. The gas hydrate content of sediment peaks at 25% by volume, averaging about 1.2% throughout the accumulation. The amount of hydrate methane is estimated at ca. 108 m3 STP, which could account for about 1-10% of the gas that has escaped from the volcano since its origin.

  11. Phenomenology in minimal theory of massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Felice, Antonio; Mukohyama, Shinji

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the minimal theory of massive gravity (MTMG) recently introduced. After reviewing the original construction based on its Hamiltonian in the vielbein formalism, we reformulate it in terms of its Lagrangian in both the vielbein and the metric formalisms. It then becomes obvious that, unlike previous attempts in the literature of Lorentz-violating massive gravity, not only the potential but also the kinetic structure of the action is modified from the de Rham-Gabadadze-Tolley (dRGT) massive gravity theory. We confirm that the number of physical degrees of freedom in MTMG is two at fully nonlinear level. This proves the absence of various possible pathologies such as superluminality, acausality and strong coupling. Afterwards, we discuss the phenomenology of MTMG in the presence of a dust fluid. We find that on a flat homogeneous and isotropic background we have two branches. One of them (self-accelerating branch) naturally leads to acceleration without the genuine cosmological constant or dark energy. For this branch both the scalar and the vector modes behave exactly as in general relativity (GR). The phenomenology of this branch differs from GR in the tensor modes sector, as the tensor modes acquire a non-zero mass. Hence, MTMG serves as a stable nonlinear completion of the self-accelerating cosmological solution found originally in dRGT theory. The other branch (normal branch) has a dynamics which depends on the time-dependent fiducial metric. For the normal branch, the scalar mode sector, even though as in GR only one scalar mode is present (due to the dust fluid), differs from the one in GR, and, in general, structure formation will follow a different phenomenology. The tensor modes will be massive, whereas the vector modes, for both branches, will have the same phenomenology as in GR.

  12. Antenna Splitting Functions for Massive Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Larkoski, Andrew J.; Peskin, Michael E.; /SLAC

    2011-06-22

    An antenna shower is a parton shower in which the basic move is a color-coherent 2 {yields} 3 parton splitting process. In this paper, we give compact forms for the spin-dependent antenna splitting functions involving massive partons of spin 0 and spin 1/2. We hope that this formalism we have presented will be useful in describing the QCD dynamics of the top quark and other heavy particles at LHC.

  13. Thoracic Cavernous Lymphangioma Provoking Massive Chyloptysis

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Robert; Hodges, Jeffrey; Harness-Brumley, Cayce; Girod, Carlos; Bartolome, Sonja

    2013-01-01

    Chyloptysis is a relatively rare embodiment of disease that encompasses a lengthy differential and provides many diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Presented here is the case of a young woman with massive chyloptysis due to a thoracic cavernous lymphangioma arising in the peripartum period. The severity of her condition mandated the use of cardiopulmonary bypass to resect her lymphangioma. We believe that the extent of her symptoms, etiology of disease, and surgical management represent a unique scenario in the literature. PMID:26425583

  14. Evolution of Massive Protostars Via Disk Accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosokawa, Takashi; Yorke, Harold W.; Omukai, Kazuyuki

    2010-09-01

    Mass accretion onto (proto-)stars at high accretion rates \\dot{M}_* > 10^{-4} M_{⊙} yr^{-1} is expected in massive star formation. We study the evolution of massive protostars at such high rates by numerically solving the stellar structure equations. In this paper, we examine the evolution via disk accretion. We consider a limiting case of "cold" disk accretion, whereby most of the stellar photosphere can radiate freely with negligible backwarming from the accretion flow, and the accreting material settles onto the star with the same specific entropy as the photosphere. We compare our results to the calculated evolution via spherically symmetric accretion, the opposite limit, whereby the material accreting onto the star contains the entropy produced in the accretion shock front. We examine how different accretion geometries affect the evolution of massive protostars. For cold disk accretion at 10-3 M sun yr-1, the radius of a protostar is initially small, R *sime a few R sun. After several solar masses have accreted, the protostar begins to bloat up and for M * ~= 10 M sun the stellar radius attains its maximum of 30-400 R sun. The large radius ~100 R sun is also a feature of spherically symmetric accretion at the same accreted mass and accretion rate. Hence, expansion to a large radius is a robust feature of accreting massive protostars. At later times, the protostar eventually begins to contract and reaches the zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) for M * ~= 30 M sun, independent of the accretion geometry. For accretion rates exceeding several 10-3 M sun yr-1, the protostar never contracts to the ZAMS. The very large radius of several hundreds R sun results in the low effective temperature and low UV luminosity of the protostar. Such bloated protostars could well explain the existence of bright high-mass protostellar objects, which lack detectable H II regions.

  15. THE STELLAR HALOS OF MASSIVE ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, Jenny E.; Murphy, Jeremy D.; Comerford, Julia M.; Gebhardt, Karl; Adams, Joshua J.

    2012-05-01

    We use the Mitchell Spectrograph (formerly VIRUS-P) on the McDonald Observatory 2.7 m Harlan J. Smith Telescope to search for the chemical signatures of massive elliptical galaxy assembly. The Mitchell Spectrograph is an integral-field spectrograph with a uniquely wide field of view (107'' Multiplication-Sign 107''), allowing us to achieve remarkably high signal-to-noise ratios of {approx}20-70 pixel{sup -1} in radial bins of 2-2.5 times the effective radii of the eight galaxies in our sample. Focusing on a sample of massive elliptical galaxies with stellar velocity dispersions {sigma}{sub *} > 150 km s{sup -1}, we study the radial dependence in the equivalent widths (EW) of key metal absorption lines. By twice the effective radius, the Mgb EWs have dropped by {approx}50%, and only a weak correlation between {sigma}{sub *} and Mgb EW remains. The Mgb EWs at large radii are comparable to those seen in the centers of elliptical galaxies that are {approx} an order of magnitude less massive. We find that the well-known metallicity gradients often observed within an effective radius continue smoothly to 2.5 R{sub e} , while the abundance ratio gradients remain flat. Much like the halo of the Milky Way, the stellar halos of our galaxies have low metallicities and high {alpha}-abundance ratios, as expected for very old stars formed in small stellar systems. Our observations support a picture in which the outer parts of massive elliptical galaxies are built by the accretion of much smaller systems whose star formation history was truncated at early times.

  16. Have massive cosmological neutrinos already been detected

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1980-01-01

    The possibility is investigated that the decay of massive cosmological neutrinos may have produced a spectral signature which has already been detected in observations of the ultraviolet background radiation. Various implications are discussed including a possible implied neutrino mass of 13.8-14.8 eV. A lower limit is also placed on the lifetime of heavy neutrinos with respect to decay into light neutrinos and gamma rays based on the cosmic UV observations.

  17. Magnetic fields and massive star formation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Qizhou; Keto, Eric; Ho, Paul T. P.; Ching, Tao-Chung; Chen, How-Huan; Qiu, Keping; Girart, Josep M.; Juárez, Carmen; Liu, Hauyu; Tang, Ya-Wen; Koch, Patrick M.; Rao, Ramprasad; Lai, Shih-Ping; Li, Zhi-Yun; Frau, Pau; Li, Hua-Bai; Padovani, Marco; Bontemps, Sylvain

    2014-09-10

    Massive stars (M > 8 M {sub ☉}) typically form in parsec-scale molecular clumps that collapse and fragment, leading to the birth of a cluster of stellar objects. We investigate the role of magnetic fields in this process through dust polarization at 870 μm obtained with the Submillimeter Array (SMA). The SMA observations reveal polarization at scales of ≲0.1 pc. The polarization pattern in these objects ranges from ordered hour-glass configurations to more chaotic distributions. By comparing the SMA data with the single dish data at parsec scales, we found that magnetic fields at dense core scales are either aligned within 40° of or perpendicular to the parsec-scale magnetic fields. This finding indicates that magnetic fields play an important role during the collapse and fragmentation of massive molecular clumps and the formation of dense cores. We further compare magnetic fields in dense cores with the major axis of molecular outflows. Despite a limited number of outflows, we found that the outflow axis appears to be randomly oriented with respect to the magnetic field in the core. This result suggests that at the scale of accretion disks (≲ 10{sup 3} AU), angular momentum and dynamic interactions possibly due to close binary or multiple systems dominate over magnetic fields. With this unprecedentedly large sample of massive clumps, we argue on a statistical basis that magnetic fields play an important role during the formation of dense cores at spatial scales of 0.01-0.1 pc in the context of massive star and cluster star formation.

  18. Comments on the Evolution of Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Eid, M. F.; The, L.-S.; Meyer, B. S.

    We describe in a brief form present results we have obtained from a careful and up to date study of the evolution of massive stars including their advanced evolutionary phases beyond the oxygen burning phase. We describe the effects of mass loss, treatment of convection in inhomogeneous stellar layers and the rate of the 12C(α,γ)16O reaction on the properties of stellar models in the interesting case of a 25 M⊙ star of solar-like initial metallicity.

  19. Surgical embolectomy for acute massive pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Yavuz, Senol; Toktas, Faruk; Goncu, Tugrul; Eris, Cuneyt; Gucu, Arif; Ay, Derih; Erdolu, Burak; Tenekecioglu, Erhan; Karaagac, Kemal; Vural, Hakan; Ozyazicioglu, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Acute massive pulmonary embolism (PE) is associated with significant mortality rate despite diagnostic and therapeutic advances. The aim of this study was to analyze our clinical outcomes of patients with acute massive PE who underwent emergency surgical pulmonary embolectomy. Methods: This retrospective study included 13 consecutive patients undergoing emergency surgical pulmonary embolectomy for acute massive PE at our institution from March 2000 to November 2013. The medical records of all patients were reviewed for demograhic and preoperative data and postoperative outcomes. All patients presented with cardiogenic shock with severe right ventricular dysfunction confirmed by echocardiography, where 4 (30.8%) of the patients experienced cardiac arrest requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation before surgery. Results: The mean age of patients was 61.8 ± 14 years (range, 38 to 82 years) with 8 (61.5%) males. The most common risk factors for PE was the history of prior deep venous thrombosis (n = 9, 69.2%). There were 3 (23.1%) in-hospital deaths including operative mortality of 7.7% (n = 1). Ten (76.9%) patients survived and were discharged from the hospital. The mean follow-up was 25 months; follow-up was 100% complete in surviving patients. There was one case (7.7%) of late death 12 months after surgery due to renal carcinoma. Postoperative echocardiographic pressure measurements demonstrated a significant reduction (P < 0.001). At final follow-up, all patients were in New York Heart Association class I and no readmission for a recurrent of PE was observed. Conclusion: Surgical pulmonary embolectomy is a reasonable option and could be performed with acceptable results, if it is performed early in patients with acute massive PE who have not reached the profound cardiogenic shock or cardiac arrest. PMID:25664045

  20. Massive Multi-Agent Systems Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campagne, Jean-Charles; Gardon, Alain; Collomb, Etienne; Nishida, Toyoaki

    2004-01-01

    In order to build massive multi-agent systems, considered as complex and dynamic systems, one needs a method to analyze and control the system. We suggest an approach using morphology to represent and control the state of large organizations composed of a great number of light software agents. Morphology is understood as representing the state of the multi-agent system as shapes in an abstract geometrical space, this notion is close to the notion of phase space in physics.

  1. Scintigraphic Images of Massive Tumoral Calcinosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiyan

    2016-06-01

    Tumoral calcinosis is a rare family disorder characterized by massive periarticular calcification deposits of the soft tissue. Although radiographic findings of tumoral calcinosis are recognized, there were very scant publications of scintigraphic imaging of the disease. We present here the images of FDG PET/CT and bone scintigraphy in a patient with idiopathic tumoral calcinosis, which are unique in the locations of the lesions and distribution of abnormal uptake. PMID:26909717

  2. Twistor form of massive 6D superparticle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Routh, Alasdair J.; Townsend, Paul K.

    2016-01-01

    The massive six-dimensional (6D) superparticle with manifest (n, 0) supersymmetry is shown to have a supertwistor formulation in which its ‘hidden’ (0, n) supersymmetry is also manifest. The mass-shell constraint is replaced by Spin(5) spin-shell constraints which imply that the quantum superparticle has zero superspin; for n = 1 it propagates the 6D Proca supermultiplet.

  3. Extreme parameter sensitivity in quasidilaton massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anselmi, Stefano; López Nacir, Diana; Starkman, Glenn D.

    2015-10-01

    We reanalyze the behavior of Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker cosmologies in the recently proposed quasidilaton massive-gravity model, and discover that the background dynamics present hitherto unreported features that require unexpected fine-tuning of the additional fundamental parameters of the theory for an observationally consistent background cosmology. We also identify new allowed regions in the parameter space and exclude some of the previously considered ones. The evolution of the mass of gravitational waves reveals nontrivial behavior, exhibiting a mass-squared that may be negative in the past, and that presently, while positive, is larger than the square of the Hubble parameter, H02 . These properties of the gravity-wave mass have the potential to lead to observational tests of the theory. While quasidilaton massive gravity is known to have issues with stability at short distances, the current analysis is a first step toward the investigation of the more stable extended quasidilaton massive-gravity theory, with some expectation that both the fine-tuning of parameters and the interesting behavior of the gravity-wave mass will persist.

  4. Hyper massive black holes in evolved galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero-Cruz, Fernando J.

    2015-09-01

    From the SDSS DR7 we took a sample of 16733 galaxies which do not show all of the emission lines required to classify their activity according to the classical BPT diagram (Baldwin et al. 1981 PASP). Since they do not show these emission lines they are thought to be evolved enough so to host Hyper Massive Black holes. We compared their statistical properties with other galaxies from the SDSS DR7 which do show emission lines and confirmed that their M-sigma relationship correspond to HMBHs (Gutelkin et al. 2009 ApJ) and also that their SFH confirms evolution. We also analyzed them with a new Diagnostic Diagram in the IR (Coziol et al. 2015 AJ) and found that their position in the IR color space (W3W4 vs W2W3) correspond to AGN activity with current low SF, another confirmation of an evolved galaxy. The position of our final sample in the IR diagram is in the same region in which Holm 15A lies, this galaxy is considered to host the most massive BHs in the nearby universe (Lopez-Cruz et al. 2014 ApJL). The morphology of these galaxies (all of them are classified as elliptical) confirms that they are very evolved. We claim that the hyper massive BH lie in galaxies very evolved and with very low SF and without clear AGN activity in the BPT diagram.

  5. Current management of massive hemorrhage in trauma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Hemorrhage remains a major cause of potentially preventable deaths. Trauma and massive transfusion are associated with coagulopathy secondary to tissue injury, hypoperfusion, dilution, and consumption of clotting factors and platelets. Concepts of damage control surgery have evolved prioritizing early control of the cause of bleeding by non-definitive means, while hemostatic control resuscitation seeks early control of coagulopathy. Hemostatic resuscitation provides transfusions with plasma and platelets in addition to red blood cells in an immediate and sustained manner as part of the transfusion protocol for massively bleeding patients. Although early and effective reversal of coagulopathy is documented, the most effective means of preventing coagulopathy of massive transfusion remains debated and randomized controlled studies are lacking. Viscoelastical whole blood assays, like TEG and ROTEM however appear advantageous for identifying coagulopathy in patients with severe hemorrhage as opposed the conventional coagulation assays. In our view, patients with uncontrolled bleeding, regardless of it´s cause, should be treated with hemostatic control resuscitation involving early administration of plasma and platelets and earliest possible goal-directed, based on the results of TEG/ROTEM analysis. The aim of the goal-directed therapy should be to maintain a normal hemostatic competence until surgical hemostasis is achieved, as this appears to be associated with reduced mortality. PMID:22776724

  6. MASSIVE STAR FORMATION IN NGC 2074

    SciTech Connect

    Fleener, Christine E.; Chu, Y.-H.; Gruendl, Robert A.; Payne, James T.; Chen, C.-H. Rosie

    2010-01-15

    Spitzer observations of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) have revealed a large population of young stellar objects (YSOs), but complementary high-resolution images in the optical or near-IR wavelengths are still needed to resolve the multiplicity and immediate environments of the YSOs. The Hubble Space Telescope imaged the star-forming region NGC 2074 in the LMC during its 100,000th orbit, providing an opportunity to more closely examine the YSOs and their environments in this region. We have studied the 10 YSO candidates identified from Spitzer observations, confirming their nature and determining their physical parameters by modeling their spectral energy distributions. The majority of the YSOs and central stars of ultracompact H II regions in NGC 2074 have masses consistent with spectral types of early B to late O. The co-existence of massive early-type O stars and the less massive YSOs indicates that their formation may have started at a similar time, a few 10{sup 5} yr ago. NGC 2074 provides an opportunity to study the evolution of massive stars at their infancy.

  7. Magnetism in massive early-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grunhut, J. H.; Wade, G. A.

    2013-02-01

    In the last five years our knowledge of magnetism in early-type stars has significantly improved because of the new gen- eration of high-resolution spectropolarimeters (ESPaDOnS@CFHT, Narval@TBL, HARPSpol@ESO). The success of the Magnetism in Massive Stars (MiMeS) Project, for example, has greatly improved our understanding of the magnetic properties of massive early-type stars; however, it was mainly focused on single stars. Summarized here is our general understanding of stellar magnetism in early-type stars and the recent findings from the MiMeS project. As recent results suggest a significant fraction of early-type stars are in binaries, this implies that the interplay between magnetic fields and binarity has yet to be investigated in any significant detail. To this end, the current analysis of the recently discovered magnetic field in the rapidly-rotating secondary star of the close, massive binary system known as Plaskett's star - a unique system that is testing our current theories of binarity and magnetism in early-type stars, and a target for investigation in the recently accepted Binarity and Magnetic Interactions in various classes of Stars (BinaMIcS) Large Programs at CFHT and TBL - is discussed.

  8. Radio jet interactions with massive clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiita, Paul J.; Wang, Zhongxiang; Hooda, Jagbir S.

    2002-05-01

    Three-dimensional simulations of light hydrodynamic jets are computed using the Zeus-3D code. We employ parameters corresponding to moderate to high power radio jets emerging through a galactic atmosphere or halo, and eventually crossing a tilted pressure matched interface with a hotter intracluster medium. These simulations aim the jets so that they hit massive dense clouds within the galactic halo. Such clouds are set up with radii several times that of the jet, and nominally correspond to giant molecular cloud complexes or small cannibalized galaxies. We find that powerful jets eventually disperse the clouds, but that, for the off-center collisions considered, non-axisymmetric instabilities are induced in those jets. Those instabilities grow faster for lower Mach number jets, and can produce disruptions substantially sooner than occurred in our earlier work on jets in the absence of collisions with massive clouds. Such interactions could be related to some Compact Steep Spectrum source morphologies. Very weak jets can be effectively halted by reasonably massive clouds, and this may have relevance for the paucity of radio jets in spiral galaxies. Slow, dense jets may be bent, yet remain stable for fairly extended times, thereby explaining some Wide-Angle-Tail and most "dog-leg" morphologies.

  9. Radio Jet Interactions with Massive Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Wiita, P. J.; Joyce, J.; Hooda, J. S.

    1998-12-01

    Rather high resolution three-dimensional simulations of hydrodynamical jets are computed using the Zeus-3D code. The parameters we employ are suitable for moderate to high power radio jets emerging through a galactic atmosphere or halo, and eventually crossing a tilted pressure matched interface with a hotter intracluster medium. Before they cross this interface, these simulations aim the jets so that they hit massive clouds within the galactic halo, with densities 10 or more times higher than the ambient atmospheric density, and 100's of times the jet density. Such clouds are set up with radii several times that of the jet, and could correspond to giant molecular cloud complexes or small cannibalized galaxies. We find that powerful jets eventually disperse the clouds, but that, for off-center collisions, non-axisymmetric instabilities are induced in those jets. Those instabilities grow faster for lower Mach number jets, and can produce disruptions substantially sooner than occurred in our earlier work on jets crossing tilted interfaces in the absence of collisions with massive clouds. Such interactions, particularly with weaker jets, could be related to some Compact Steep Spectrum source morphologies. Very weak jets can be effectively halted by reasonably massive clouds, and this may have relevance for the paucity of radio jets in spiral galaxies. The possibility of jets being bent, yet remaining stable, after such collisions is also investigated. This work was supported by NPACI allocation GSU200 on the Cray T90 and by RPE funds at Georgia State University.

  10. Cosmology in general massive gravity theories

    SciTech Connect

    Comelli, D.; Nesti, F.; Pilo, L. E-mail: fabrizio.nesti@aquila.infn.it

    2014-05-01

    We study the cosmological FRW flat solutions generated in general massive gravity theories. Such a model are obtained adding to the Einstein General Relativity action a peculiar non derivative potentials, function of the metric components, that induce the propagation of five gravitational degrees of freedom. This large class of theories includes both the case with a residual Lorentz invariance as well as the case with rotational invariance only. It turns out that the Lorentz-breaking case is selected as the only possibility. Moreover it turns out that that perturbations around strict Minkowski or dS space are strongly coupled. The upshot is that even though dark energy can be simply accounted by massive gravity modifications, its equation of state w{sub eff} has to deviate from -1. Indeed, there is an explicit relation between the strong coupling scale of perturbations and the deviation of w{sub eff} from -1. Taking into account current limits on w{sub eff} and submillimiter tests of the Newton's law as a limit on the possible strong coupling scale, we find that it is still possible to have a weakly coupled theory in a quasi dS background. Future experimental improvements on short distance tests of the Newton's law may be used to tighten the deviation of w{sub eff} form -1 in a weakly coupled massive gravity theory.

  11. On the generalized minimal massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setare, M. R.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we study the Generalized Minimal Massive Gravity (GMMG) in asymptotically AdS3 background. The generalized minimal massive gravity theory is realized by adding the CS deformation term, the higher derivative deformation term, and an extra term to pure Einstein gravity with a negative cosmological constant. We study the linearized excitations around the AdS3 background and find that at special point (tricritical) in parameter space the two massive graviton solutions become massless and they are replaced by two solutions with logarithmic and logarithmic-squared boundary behavior. So it is natural to propose that GMMG model could also provide a holographic description for a 3-rank Logarithmic Conformal Field Theory (LCFT). We calculate the energy of the linearized gravitons in AdS3 background, and show that the theory is free of negative-energy bulk modes. Then we obtain the central charges of the CFT dual explicitly and show GMMG also avoids the aforementioned "bulk-boundary unitarity clash". After that we show that General Zwei-Dreibein Gravity (GZDG) model can reduce to GMMG model. Finally by a Hamiltonian analysis we show that the GMMG model has no Boulware-Deser ghosts and this model propagates only two physical modes.

  12. Bigravity and Lorentz-violating massive gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Blas, D.; Garriga, J.; Deffayet, C.

    2007-11-15

    Bigravity is a natural arena where a nonlinear theory of massive gravity can be formulated. If the interaction between the metrics f and g is nonderivative, spherically symmetric exact solutions can be found. At large distances from the origin, these are generically Lorentz-breaking bi-flat solutions (provided that the corresponding vacuum energies are adjusted appropriately). The spectrum of linearized perturbations around such backgrounds contains a massless as well as a massive graviton, with two physical polarizations each. There are no propagating vectors or scalars, and the theory is ghost free (as happens with certain massive gravities with explicit breaking of Lorentz invariance). At the linearized level, corrections to general relativity are proportional to the square of the graviton mass, and so there is no van Dam-Veltam-Zakharov discontinuity. Surprisingly, the solution of linear theory for a static spherically symmetric source does not agree with the linearization of any of the known exact solutions. The latter coincide with the standard Schwarzschild-(anti)-de Sitter solutions of general relativity, with no corrections at all. Another interesting class of solutions is obtained where f and g are proportional to each other. The case of bi-de Sitter solutions is analyzed in some detail.

  13. Massive graph visualization : LDRD final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Wylie, Brian Neil; Moreland, Kenneth D.

    2007-10-01

    Graphs are a vital way of organizing data with complex correlations. A good visualization of a graph can fundamentally change human understanding of the data. Consequently, there is a rich body of work on graph visualization. Although there are many techniques that are effective on small to medium sized graphs (tens of thousands of nodes), there is a void in the research for visualizing massive graphs containing millions of nodes. Sandia is one of the few entities in the world that has the means and motivation to handle data on such a massive scale. For example, homeland security generates graphs from prolific media sources such as television, telephone, and the Internet. The purpose of this project is to provide the groundwork for visualizing such massive graphs. The research provides for two major feature gaps: a parallel, interactive visualization framework and scalable algorithms to make the framework usable to a practical application. Both the frameworks and algorithms are designed to run on distributed parallel computers, which are already available at Sandia. Some features are integrated into the ThreatView{trademark} application and future work will integrate further parallel algorithms.

  14. Associative massively parallel processor for video processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krikelis, Argy; Tawiah, T.

    1996-03-01

    Massively parallel processing architectures have matured primarily through image processing and computer vision application. The similarity of processing requirements between these areas and video processing suggest that they should be very appropriate for video processing applications. This research describes the use of an associative massively parallel processing based system for video compression which includes architectural and system description, discussion of the implementation of compression tasks such as DCT/IDCT, Motion Estimation and Quantization and system evaluation. The core of the processing system is the ASP (Associative String Processor) architecture a modular massively parallel, programmable and inherently fault-tolerant fine-grain SIMD processing architecture incorporating a string of identical APEs (Associative Processing Elements), a reconfigurable inter-processor communication network and a Vector Data Buffer for fully-overlapped data input-output. For video compression applications a prototype system is developed, which is using ASP modules to implement the required compression tasks. This scheme leads to a linear speed up of the computation by simply adding more APEs to the modules.

  15. Massive suprachoroidal hemorrhage: Surgical management and outcome

    PubMed Central

    Laube, Thomas; Brockmann, Claudia; Bornfeld, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe options for vitreoretinal surgery in the management of massive suprachoroidal hemorrhage (SCH). Methods: Visual acuity (VA), ocular findings, timing of surgical intervention, surgical procedures, and outcomes of four patients diagnosed with massive SCH and admitted to the University Eye Clinic Essen were reviewed retrospectively. Results: Four eyes of four patients (mean age, 82 years; range, 74–89 years) were studied. In three cases the occurrence of SCH was related to cataract surgery and occurred intra- or postoperatively. One patient developed spontaneous SCH of unclear origin. Three patients had a history of arterial hypertension; one eye had high myopia, two patients suffered from cardiovascular diseases, and two patients had glaucoma. Postoperative follow up of the patients ranged from 5 to 29.5 months (mean, 19.6 months). Transscleral drainage of SCH was in all cases combined with pars plana vitrectomy, use of heavy liquids (perfluorodecalin) and silicone oil tamponade. The mean time interval from hemorrhage to surgical intervention was 16.5 days (range 5–29 days). Preoperative VA of all eyes was light perception. Two patients achieved a final postoperative visual acuity of 20/20 and 20/320, respectively, one patient improved to hand motion, and one patient resulted in no light perception. Conclusions: Surgical interventions including transscleral drainage of SCH, vitrectomy, and silicone oil tamponade are valuable options in the management of massive SCH to save the eye and possibly improve the otherwise extreme poor prognosis.

  16. Massive Emission-Line Stars in Nearby Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, P. L.; Holtzman, J. A.; Walterbos, R. A. M.

    2003-12-01

    The evolution of massive stars is still poorly understood because of critical effects of mass loss during the post-main sequence phase. Of particular relevance is the Luminous Blue Variable phase, during which high mass loss may occur over a brief period. It would be useful to know the mass range of stars that enter this phase, and the life time of the phase. For that, better estimates of the numbers of LBVs in different environments is crucial. In a study of M31, we detected candidate LBVs as luminous stars with strong Hα emission-lines and no nebular [SII] emission. (King, N.L., Walterbos, R.A.M., & Braun, R., 1998, ApJ, 507:210-220). HST's sensitivity offers the capability to identify these candidate LBVs in galaxies beyond the Local Group. We identify massive Hα emmision-line stars in nearby spiral galaxies within 10 Mpc, using data from the HST WFPC2 archive. We obtained stellar photometry in Hα (F656N) and various broadband filters, with methods developed for the HST Local Group Stellar Photometry archive (Holtzman, J., Afonso, C., & Dolphin, A., 2003, ApJS, submitted). We identify candidates based on the amount of Hα excess in two-color plots. We also require an absolute magnitude MV ≤ -5, and photometry fit parameters consistent with point source characteristics. Candidates are inspected visually on the images for verification purpose. We find promising candidates in several nearby galaxies. We will present a catalog of the objects, and discuss their properties and the environments in which they are found. Support for this work was provided by NASA through grant numbers AR-08372.01-97A and HST-AR-08749.01-A from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc. under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  17. 20 CFR 340.13 - Compromise of amounts recoverable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... INSURANCE ACT RECOVERY OF BENEFITS § 340.13 Compromise of amounts recoverable. The Board or its designee may compromise an amount recoverable, provided such amount does not exceed $100,000, excluding interest, or such... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Compromise of amounts recoverable....

  18. 20 CFR 416.503 - Minimum monthly benefit amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... monthly benefit amount. If you receive an SSI benefit that does not include a State supplement the minimum monthly SSI benefit amount payable is $1. When an SSI benefit amount of less than $1 is payable, the benefit amount will be increased to $1. If you receive an SSI benefit that does include a State...

  19. 42 CFR 418.309 - Hospice cap amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hospice cap amount. 418.309 Section 418.309 Public...) MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPICE CARE Payment for Hospice Care § 418.309 Hospice cap amount. The hospice cap amount... until October 31 of the following year. (b) Each hospice's cap amount is calculated by the...

  20. 20 CFR 234.46 - Amount of the RLS payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Amount of the RLS payable. 234.46 Section 234...-SUM PAYMENTS Residual Lump-Sum Payment § 234.46 Amount of the RLS payable. The gross RLS amount is... this chapter, respectively.) The amount of the RLS payable is equal to the gross RLS minus the sum...

  1. 20 CFR 234.46 - Amount of the RLS payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Amount of the RLS payable. 234.46 Section 234...-SUM PAYMENTS Residual Lump-Sum Payment § 234.46 Amount of the RLS payable. The gross RLS amount is... this chapter, respectively.) The amount of the RLS payable is equal to the gross RLS minus the sum...

  2. 20 CFR 234.46 - Amount of the RLS payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Amount of the RLS payable. 234.46 Section 234...-SUM PAYMENTS Residual Lump-Sum Payment § 234.46 Amount of the RLS payable. The gross RLS amount is... this chapter, respectively.) The amount of the RLS payable is equal to the gross RLS minus the sum...

  3. 20 CFR 234.46 - Amount of the RLS payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Amount of the RLS payable. 234.46 Section 234...-SUM PAYMENTS Residual Lump-Sum Payment § 234.46 Amount of the RLS payable. The gross RLS amount is... this chapter, respectively.) The amount of the RLS payable is equal to the gross RLS minus the sum...

  4. 20 CFR 234.46 - Amount of the RLS payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amount of the RLS payable. 234.46 Section 234...-SUM PAYMENTS Residual Lump-Sum Payment § 234.46 Amount of the RLS payable. The gross RLS amount is... this chapter, respectively.) The amount of the RLS payable is equal to the gross RLS minus the sum...

  5. 46 CFR 58.30-25 - Accumulators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... RELATED SYSTEMS Fluid Power and Control Systems § 58.30-25 Accumulators. (a) An accumulator is an unfired... fluid. Accumulators must meet the applicable requirements in § 54.01-5 (c)(3), (c)(4), and (d) of this chapter or the remaining requirements in part 54. (b) If the accumulator is of the gas and fluid...

  6. 46 CFR 58.30-25 - Accumulators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... RELATED SYSTEMS Fluid Power and Control Systems § 58.30-25 Accumulators. (a) An accumulator is an unfired... fluid. Accumulators must meet the applicable requirements in § 54.01-5 (c)(3), (c)(4), and (d) of this chapter or the remaining requirements in part 54. (b) If the accumulator is of the gas and fluid...

  7. 46 CFR 58.30-25 - Accumulators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... RELATED SYSTEMS Fluid Power and Control Systems § 58.30-25 Accumulators. (a) An accumulator is an unfired... fluid. Accumulators must meet the applicable requirements in § 54.01-5 (c)(3), (c)(4), and (d) of this chapter or the remaining requirements in part 54. (b) If the accumulator is of the gas and fluid...

  8. 46 CFR 58.30-25 - Accumulators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... RELATED SYSTEMS Fluid Power and Control Systems § 58.30-25 Accumulators. (a) An accumulator is an unfired... fluid. Accumulators must meet the applicable requirements in § 54.01-5 (c)(3), (c)(4), and (d) of this chapter or the remaining requirements in part 54. (b) If the accumulator is of the gas and fluid...

  9. The Energetic Impact of Massive Stars on the ISM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freyer, Tim; Hensler, Gerhard

    We present results of numerical simulations carried out with a 2D radiation hydrodynamics code in order to study the impact of massive stars on their surrounding interstellar medium. The interaction of the photoionized H II region with the stellar wind bubble can form a variety of interesting structures like shells, clouds, fingers, and spokes. These results shed light on the open question whether the complex structures that can be found in H II regions are relics from the time before the gas became ionized, or rather formed by dynamical processes in the course of the H II region evolution. We have also analysed the transfer and deposit of the stellar wind and radiation energy into the circumstellar medium until the star explodes as a supernova. Though the total mechanical wind energy supplied by a 60 Msolar star is negligible compared to the accumulated energy of the Lyman continuum photons, at the end of the star's lifetime the kinetic energy of bulk motion in the circumstellar gas is 4 times higher than in the same model without wind while the thermal energy of warm, photoionized gas is lower by some 45 %. Our results document the necessity to consider both, the ionizing radiation and the stellar wind of the star for an appropriate description of the circumstellar medium.

  10. Hydrodynamical simulations of realistic massive cluster populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, David J.; Henson, Monique A.; Kay, Scott T.; McCarthy, Ian G.; Bahe, Yannick M.; Eagle Collaboration

    2015-09-01

    Galaxy clusters are seeded by density fluctuations in the early Universe and grow via hierarchical collapse to become the most massive virialised objects we observed today. They are powerful probes that study both cosmology and astrophysical processes. Their internal structure at the current epoch is the result of a non-trivial interplay between gravitational collapse and the energy fed into the intra-cluster medium (ICM) by star formation and active galactic nuclei (AGN). These processes shape the ICM during its formation at high redshift, but current observations of galaxy clusters are limited to z<0.5. The resolution and sensitivity of textit{Athena+} will allow it to study galaxy clusters in unprecedented detail. It will constrain cluster properties, such as its entropy, temperature and gas fraction, out to z˜2, enabling it to investigate the progenitors of today's massive clusters and observing the evolution of the properties of the ICM for the first time. Athena+ will produce a significant change in our understanding of the formation of galaxy clusters. Recently the theoretical modelling of clusters has advanced significantly and issues, such as the 'cooling catastophea', have been overcome by including feedback from star formation and AGN. We present the MAssive ClusterS and Intercluster Structures (MACSIS) project. The MACSIS project is a representative sample of 390 of galaxy clusters, with M_{FOF} > 10(15} M_{⊙) , re-simulated using the cosmo-OWLS model (Le Brun et al. 2014, McCarthy et al. in prep.) to extend it to the most massive and rarest objects. We demonstrate that this sample reproduces the scaling relations, with intrinsic scatter, observed with current instruments at low redshift. Under the hierarchical paradigm, the progenitors of these systems will be the first objects to collapse at high redshift and we examine to z=2 how the scaling relations of these massive objects evolve with redshift. Finally, we investigate methods of defining a

  11. Massive Stars in the Quintuplet Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figer, Donald F.; McLean, Ian S.; Morris, Mark

    1999-03-01

    We present near-infrared photometry and K-band spectra of newly identified massive stars in the Quintuplet cluster, one of the three massive clusters projected within 50 pc of the Galactic center. We find that the cluster contains a variety of massive stars, including more unambiguously identified Wolf-Rayet stars than any cluster in the Galaxy, and over a dozen stars in earlier stages of evolution, i.e., luminous blue variables (LBVs), Ofpe/WN9, and OB supergiants. One newly identified star is the second luminous blue variable in the cluster, after the ``Pistol star.'' Although we are unable to provide certain spectral classifications for the five enigmatic Quintuplet-proper members, we tentatively propose that they are extremely dusty versions of the WC stars found elsewhere in the cluster and similar to the dozen or so known examples in the Galaxy. Although the cluster parameters are uncertain because of photometric errors and uncertainties in stellar models, i.e., extrapolating initial masses and estimating ionizing fluxes, we have the following conclusions. Given the evolutionary stages of the identified stars, the cluster appears to be about 4+/-1 Myr old, assuming coeval formation. The total mass in observed stars is ~103 Msolar, and the implied mass is ~104 Msolar, assuming a lower mass cutoff of 1 Msolar and a Salpeter initial mass function. The implied mass density in stars is greater than or similar to a few thousand Msolar pc-3. The newly identified stars increase the estimated ionizing flux from this cluster by about an order of magnitude with respect to earlier estimates, to 1050.9 photons s-1, or roughly what is required to ionize the nearby ``Sickle'' H II region (G0.18-0.04). The total luminosity from the massive cluster stars is ~107.5 Lsolar, enough to account for the heating of the nearby molecular cloud, M0.20-0.033. We propose a picture that integrates most of the major features in this part of the sky, excepting the nonthermal filaments. We

  12. Molecular Outflows in Massive Star Forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Nichol

    2015-11-01

    This thesis presents millimetre continuum and molecular line observations exploring the properties of molecular outflows towards massive star forming regions. Massive stars produce some of the most energetic phenomena in the Galaxy, yet we still do not have a comprehensive understanding of how they actually form. Outflows are known to play a key role in this formation process and their properties, particularly how they change depending on the mass, luminosity and evolution of the driving source can shed light on how massive stars actually form. This thesis presents observations at both high (SMA 3 arcsecond) and low (JCMT 15 arcsecond) spatial resolution of the known jet/outflow tracers, SiO and 12CO, towards a sample massive star forming region drawn from the RMS survey. Furthermore, the presence of infall signatures is explored through observations of HCO+ and H13CO+, and the hot core nature of the regions is probed using tracers such as CH3CN, HC3N and CH3OH. SiO is detected towards approximately 50% of the massive young stellar objects and HII regions in the JCMT sample. The detection of SiO appears to be linked to the age of the RMS source, with the likely younger sources showing a stronger dependence with SiO. The presence of SiO also appears to be linked to the CO velocity, with SiO more efficiently tracing sources with higher velocity dispersions. In the MOPRA observations towards a sample of 33 RMS sources, CH3CN is detected towards 66% of the sources, with the redder likely younger sources having the largest rotational temperatures. This thesis presents the first interferometric SiO (5-4) and 12CO (2-1) observations, taken with the SMA, towards the massive star forming region G203.3166/NGC 2264-C. In this intermediate/massive star forming cluster, SiO is again tracing the youngest sources. Both the SiO and 12CO emission trace two bipolar, high velocity outflows towards the mm brightest, IR-dark, likely youngest sources in this reg! ion. In contrast the IR

  13. Metal accumulating plants: Medium's role

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabier, J.; Prudent, P.; Szymanska, B.; Mevy, J.-P.

    2003-05-01

    To evaluate phytoremediation potentialities by metal accumulation in tolerant plants, trials are carried out using in vitro cultures. Organie compounds influence on metal accumulation is studied with metals supplemented media. The tested compounds on zinc and lead absorption by Brassica juncea, are chelating agents (EDTA, citric acid) and soluble organic fractions of compost. EDTA seems to enhance the transfer of lead in plant but it is the opposite in the case of zinc. Citric acid stimulates root absorption for both zinc and lead. For the aqueous extracts of compost, variable effects are obtained according to the origin of compost (green wastes and food wastes). In'all tested conditions of cultures, zinc is mainly exported towards shoot while lead is stored in root.

  14. Mechanisms of intrahepatic triglyceride accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Ress, Claudia; Kaser, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis defined as lipid accumulation in hepatocytes is very frequently found in adults and obese adolescents in the Western World. Etiologically, obesity and associated insulin resistance or excess alcohol intake are the most frequent causes of hepatic steatosis. However, steatosis also often occurs with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and is also found in rare but potentially life-threatening liver diseases of pregnancy. Clinical significance and outcome of hepatic triglyceride accumulation are highly dependent on etiology and histological pattern of steatosis. This review summarizes current concepts of pathophysiology of common causes of hepatic steatosis, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), alcoholic fatty liver disease, chronic HCV infections, drug-induced forms of hepatic steatosis, and acute fatty liver of pregnancy. Regarding the pathophysiology of NAFLD, this work focuses on the close correlation between insulin resistance and hepatic triglyceride accumulation, highlighting the potential harmful effects of systemic insulin resistance on hepatic metabolism of fatty acids on the one side and the role of lipid intermediates on insulin signalling on the other side. Current studies on lipid droplet morphogenesis have identified novel candidate proteins and enzymes in NAFLD. PMID:26819531

  15. Dietary restriction, caloric value and the accumulation of hepatic fat

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies using laboratory animals under what are considered to be "standard" conditions normally offer unrestricted amounts of food to the animals, which can lead to metabolic disorders. Moreover, standard diets have different compositions. Aim Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the effects of two non-isocaloric diets (commercial Purina® and AIN-93M), which are considered standard diets, on the accumulation of fat in the liver of rats when offered ad libitum or in a restricted amount. Methods Thus, 40 Wistar rats (90 days old) were separated into 4 groups according to the amount of food offered (ad libitum or dietary restriction) and the type of diet (commercial diet, 3,028.0 kcal/g or AIN-93M, 3,802.7 kcal/g): animals fed the commercial Purina® diet ad libitum (AP), animals fed restricted amounts of the commercial Purina® diet (RP), animals fed the AIN-93M diet ad libitum (AD), and animals fed restricted amounts of the AIN-93M diet (RD). Dietary restriction consisted of pair-feeding the RP and RD groups with 60% of the total food consumed by the corresponding ad libitum groups. Results Because of its higher carbohydrate and calorie content, AIN-93M was found to accelerate weight gain, reduce glucose tolerance and peripheral insulin sensitivity, and increase the amount of fat in the liver when compared to the commercial diet. Conversely, a 40% dietary restriction assisted in weight loss without causing malnutrition, contributing to an improved glucose tolerance and higher levels of HDL cholesterol. Conclusion Therefore, differences in the amount of carbohydrates and calories provided by the diet can lead to important metabolic disorders, such as impaired tolerance and accumulation of hepatic fat, and dietary restriction improves serum and tissue lipid profiles in laboratory animals. PMID:22221448

  16. Multiscale Distribution and Bioaccumulation Analysis of Clofazimine Reveals a Massive Immune System-Mediated Xenobiotic Sequestration Response

    PubMed Central

    Baik, Jason; Stringer, Kathleen A.; Mane, Gerta

    2013-01-01

    Chronic exposure to some well-absorbed but slowly eliminated xenobiotics can lead to their bioaccumulation in living organisms. Here, we studied the bioaccumulation and distribution of clofazimine, a riminophenazine antibiotic used to treat mycobacterial infection. Using mice as a model organism, we performed a multiscale, quantitative analysis to reveal the sites of clofazimine bioaccumulation during chronic, long-term exposure. Remarkably, between 3 and 8 weeks of dietary administration, clofazimine massively redistributed from adipose tissue to liver and spleen. During this time, clofazimine concentration in fat and serum significantly decreased, while the mass of clofazimine in spleen and liver increased by >10-fold. These changes were paralleled by the accumulation of clofazimine in the resident macrophages of the lymphatic organs, with as much as 90% of the clofazimine mass in spleen sequestered in intracellular crystal-like drug inclusions (CLDIs). The amount of clofazimine associated with CLDIs of liver and spleen macrophages disproportionately increased and ultimately accounted for a major fraction of the total clofazimine in the host. After treatment was discontinued, clofazimine was retained in spleen while its concentrations decreased in blood and other organs. Immunologically, clofazimine bioaccumulation induced a local, monocyte-specific upregulation of various chemokines and receptors. However, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist was also upregulated, and the acute-phase response pathways and oxidant capacity decreased or remained unchanged, marking a concomitant activation of an anti-inflammatory response. These experiments indicate an inducible, immune system-dependent, xenobiotic sequestration response affecting the atypical pharmacokinetics of a small molecule chemotherapeutic agent. PMID:23263006

  17. Massive Collection of Full-Length Complementary DNA Clones and Microarray Analyses:. Keys to Rice Transcriptome Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Shoshi

    2009-02-01

    Completion of the high-precision genome sequence analysis of rice led to the collection of about 35,000 full-length cDNA clones and the determination of their complete sequences. Mapping of these full-length cDNA sequences has given us information on (1) the number of genes expressed in the rice genome; (2) the start and end positions and exon-intron structures of rice genes; (3) alternative transcripts; (4) possible encoded proteins; (5) non-protein-coding (np) RNAs; (6) the density of gene localization on the chromosome; (7) setting the parameters of gene prediction programs; and (8) the construction of a microarray system that monitors global gene expression. Manual curation for rice gene annotation by using mapping information on full-length cDNA and EST assemblies has revealed about 32,000 expressed genes in the rice genome. Analysis of major gene families, such as those encoding membrane transport proteins (pumps, ion channels, and secondary transporters), along with the evolution from bacteria to higher animals and plants, reveals how gene numbers have increased through adaptation to circumstances. Family-based gene annotation also gives us a new way of comparing organisms. Massive amounts of data on gene expression under many kinds of physiological conditions are being accumulated in rice oligoarrays (22K and 44K) based on full-length cDNA sequences. Cluster analyses of genes that have the same promoter cis-elements, that have similar expression profiles, or that encode enzymes in the same metabolic pathways or signal transduction cascades give us clues to understanding the networks of gene expression in rice. As a tool for that purpose, we recently developed "RiCES", a tool for searching for cis-elements in the promoter regions of clustered genes.

  18. 42 CFR 419.41 - Calculation of national beneficiary copayment amounts and national Medicare program payment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... amounts and national Medicare program payment amounts. 419.41 Section 419.41 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM... Calculation of national beneficiary copayment amounts and national Medicare program payment amounts. (a)...

  19. 42 CFR 419.41 - Calculation of national beneficiary copayment amounts and national Medicare program payment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... amounts and national Medicare program payment amounts. 419.41 Section 419.41 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM... Calculation of national beneficiary copayment amounts and national Medicare program payment amounts. (a)...

  20. Bromine accumulation in acidic black colluvial soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortizas, Antonio Martínez; Vázquez, Cruz Ferro; Kaal, Joeri; Biester, Harald; Casais, Manuela Costa; Rodríguez, Teresa Taboada; Lado, Luis Rodríguez

    2016-02-01

    Recent investigations showed that bromine is incorporated to soil organic matter (SOM), its content increasing with humification. But few research was done on its long-term accumulation and the role played by pedogenetic processes, as those involved in organic matter stabilization. We investigated bromine content and distribution in four deep, acidic, organic-rich, Holocene soils from an oceanic area of Western Europe. Bromine concentrations (93-778 μg g-1) in the silt + clay (<50 μm) fraction were on average 3-times higher than those (17-250 μg g-1) in the fine earth (<2 mm), the former containing almost all bromine (90 ± 5%). Inventories were between 148 and 314 g m-2, indicating a rather large variability in a small area, and total estimated retention was low (6-16%). The degree of SOM bromination, expressed as the Br/C molar ratio, varied between 0.03 and 1.20 mmol Br/mol C. The ratio was highly correlated (n = 23, r2 0.88, p < 0.01) with the age of the SOM for the last ∼12 ka. Partial least squares modeling indicates that bromine concentration depends on the amount of organic matter stabilized as aluminium-OM associations, and to a lesser extent on soil acidity (pH) and iron-OM associations. Thus, at scales of thousands of years, bromine accumulation in acidic soils is linked to the pool of metal-clay-stabilized organic matter.

  1. Effects of Weather, Time, and Pollution Level on the Amount of Particulate Matter Deposited on Leaves of Ligustrum lucidum

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huixia; Shi, Hui; Wang, Yanhui

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigated the spatial and temporal variations in the amounts of PM accumulated on leaves of Ligustrum lucidum, a common evergreen tree species in North China. The effects of rainfall and wind on the amounts of PM deposited on foliage were also determined. The amounts of PM (g·m−2) retained by leaves of L. lucidum differed significantly among the sites (from 0.96 to 5.56) and over time (from 2.51 to 4.48). The largest amounts of PM on foliage of L. lucidum were observed on plants growing at the most polluted site. During the year, the highest and lowest accumulation of PM occurred in November and August, respectively. A considerable proportion of the accumulated PM on leaves was removed by rainfall events (28–48% of PM) and strong winds (27–36% of PM), and more precipitation or higher maximum wind speed could remove more PM from leaves. Rainfall removed mainly large and coarse particles, while fine particles adhered more strongly to the foliage. These results suggested that the effects of local weather conditions (e.g., rainfall, strong wind), different seasons, and pollution levels should be considered in evaluating total PM accumulation on leaves. PMID:25685849

  2. Radiocesium accumulation properties of Chengiopanax sciadophylloides.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Yuki; Kanasashi, Tsutomu; Ogata, Yoshimune; Ozawa, Hajime; Takenaka, Chisato

    2016-01-01

    Through the assessments of radioactive contamination after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1NPP) accident, it has been reported that some sprouts of Chengiopanax sciadophylloides (Franch. et Sav.) at the site contained radiocesium (((134),)(137)Cs) at higher concentrations than the other plants. To assess the phytoremediation properties of C. sciadophylloides for (137)Cs decontamination, we aimed to quantify the (137)Cs accumulation in C. sciadophylloides. We measured the (137)Cs concentrations in various organs of C. sciadophylloides collected from the forest in the town of Kawamata, Fukushima prefecture, together with the concentrations of other elements [potassium (K), rubidium, (133)Cs, calcium, strontium, and manganese] present. In addition, we compared the foliar concentrations of these elements in C. sciadophylloides with those in four different deciduous tree species. The mean of foliar (137)Cs concentration in C. sciadophylloides was 28.1 kBq kg(-1) DW, one order of magnitude higher than that found in the other species. The (137)Cs concentrations were in the order of leaves > bark > wood. The wood of the treetop, leaf scars, and roots contained higher amounts of (137)Cs than that of the trunk. From the distribution of (137)Cs in C. sciadophylloides, we confirmed that (137)Cs tends to accumulate in the young growing parts. The difference in the distribution of (137)Cs and (133)Cs indicated that surface uptake of (137)Cs occurs. A significant correlation between K and (137)Cs concentrations in each organ was found, which suggested that (137)Cs in the plant body is transferred through the same pathway as K. On the other hand, there was no correlation between foliar K and (137)Cs concentrations, implying that the uptake ratio of K to (137)Cs was different for each individual. To determine the factors driving specific (137)Cs accumulation and/or the variability of the ratio between K and (137)Cs, the distribution of (137)Cs and the root in soil

  3. Birth of Massive Black Hole Binaries

    SciTech Connect

    Colpi, M.; Dotti, M.; Mayer, L.; Kazantzidis, S.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2007-11-19

    If massive black holes (BHs) are ubiquitous in galaxies and galaxies experience multiple mergers during their cosmic assembly, then BH binaries should be common albeit temporary features of most galactic bulges. Observationally, the paucity of active BH pairs points toward binary lifetimes far shorter than the Hubble time, indicating rapid inspiral of the BHs down to the domain where gravitational waves lead to their coalescence. Here, we review a series of studies on the dynamics of massive BHs in gas-rich galaxy mergers that underscore the vital role played by a cool, gaseous component in promoting the rapid formation of the BH binary. The BH binary is found to reside at the center of a massive self-gravitating nuclear disc resulting from the collision of the two gaseous discs present in the mother galaxies. Hardening by gravitational torques against gas in this grand disc is found to continue down to sub-parsec scales. The eccentricity decreases with time to zero and when the binary is circular, accretion sets in around the two BHs. When this occurs, each BH is endowed with it own small-size ({approx}< 0.01 pc) accretion disc comprising a few percent of the BH mass. Double AGN activity is expected to occur on an estimated timescale of {approx}< 1 Myr. The double nuclear point-like sources that may appear have typical separation of {approx}< 10 pc, and are likely to be embedded in the still ongoing starburst. We note that a potential threat of binary stalling, in a gaseous environment, may come from radiation and/or mechanical energy injections by the BHs. Only short-lived or sub-Eddington accretion episodes can guarantee the persistence of a dense cool gas structure around the binary necessary for continuing BH inspiral.

  4. A New Dynamic Accumulator for Batch Updates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Peishun; Wang, Huaxiong; Pieprzyk, Josef

    A dynamic accumulator is an algorithm, which gathers together a large set of elements into a constant-size value such that for a given element accumulated, there is a witness confirming that the element was indeed included into the value, with a property that accumulated elements can be dynamically added and deleted into/from the original set such that the cost of an addition or deletion operation is independent of the number of accumulated elements. Although the first accumulator was presented ten years ago, there is still no standard formal definition of accumulators. In this paper, we generalize formal definitions for accumulators, formulate a security game for dynamic accumulators so-called Chosen Element Attack (CEA), and propose a new dynamic accumulator for batch updates based on the Paillier cryptosystem. Our construction makes a batch of update operations at unit cost. We prove its security under the extended strong RSA (es-RSA) assumption.

  5. Different responses of low grain-Cd-accumulating and high grain-Cd-accumulating rice cultivars to Cd stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feijuan; Wang, Min; Liu, Zhouping; Shi, Yan; Han, Tiqian; Ye, Yaoyao; Gong, Ning; Sun, Junwei; Zhu, Cheng

    2015-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a major heavy metal pollutant which is highly toxic to plants and animals. The accumulation of Cd in rice grains is a major agricultural problem in regions with Cd pollution. A hydroponics experiment using low grain-Cd-accumulating rice (xiushui 11) and high grain-Cd-accumulating rice (xiushui 110) was carried out to characterize the different responses of rice cultivars to Cd stress. We found that xiushui 11 was more tolerant to Cd than xiushui 110, and xiushui 11 suffered less oxidative damage. Cell walls played an important role in limiting the amount of Cd that entered the protoplast, especially in xiushui 11. Cd stored in organelles as soluble fractions, leading to greater physiological stress of Cd detoxification. We found that Cd can disturb the ion homeostasis in rice roots because Cd(2+) and Ca(2+) may have a similar uptake route. Xiushui 11 had a faster root-to-shoot transport of Cd, and the expression level of OsPCR1 gene which was predicted related with Cd accumulation in rice was consist with the Cd transport of root-to-shoot in rice and maintain the greater Cd tolerance of xiushui 11. These results suggest there are different Cd detoxification and accumulation mechanisms in rice cultivars. PMID:26318143

  6. Covariant constraints in ghost free massive gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Deffayet, C.; Mourad, J.; Zahariade, G. E-mail: mourad@apc.univ-paris7.fr

    2013-01-01

    We show that the reformulation of the de Rham-Gabadadze-Tolley massive gravity theory using vielbeins leads to a very simple and covariant way to count constraints, and hence degrees of freedom. Our method singles out a subset of theories, in the de Rham-Gabadadze-Tolley family, where an extra constraint, needed to eliminate the Boulware Deser ghost, is easily seen to appear. As a side result, we also introduce a new method, different from the Stuckelberg trick, to extract kinetic terms for the polarizations propagating in addition to those of the massless graviton.

  7. Baryogenesis for weakly interacting massive particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yanou; Sundrum, Raman

    2013-06-01

    We propose a robust, unified framework, in which the similar baryon and dark matter cosmic abundances both arise from the physics of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), with the rough quantitative success of the so-called “WIMP miracle.” In particular the baryon asymmetry arises from the decay of a metastable WIMP after its thermal freeze-out at or below the weak scale. A minimal model and its embedding in R-parity violating supersymmetry are studied as examples. The new mechanism saves R-parity violating supersymmetry from the potential crisis of washing out primordial baryon asymmetry. Phenomenological implications for the LHC and precision tests are discussed.

  8. Spontaneous Massive Adrenal Hemorrhage: A Management Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Anshuman

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Adrenal hemorrhage (AH) is a rare but life-threatening condition. Small focal hemorrhage may present subclinically, but massive hemorrhage may lead to rapid cardiovascular collapse and ultimately death if not diagnosed appropriately and treated quickly. Most cases reported in the literature have been treated conservatively. In an event of increasing hemorrhage during conservative management, it may be tricky to intervene surgically because of the hematoma around the gland. Here we describe a case where we managed a large spontaneous AH by a combination of angioembolization and laparoscopic adrenalectomy. PMID:27579389

  9. A massive early atmosphere on Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lunine, Jonathan I.; Nolan, Michael C.

    1992-01-01

    The idea of an early greenhouse atmosphere for Triton is presented and the conditions under which it may have been sustained are quantified. The volatile content of primordial Triton is modeled, and tidal heating rates are assessed to set bounds on the available energy. The atmospheric model formalism is presented, and it is shown how a massive atmosphere could have been raised by modest tidal heating fluxes. The implications of the model atmospheres for the atmospheric escape rates, the chemical evolution, and the cratering record are addressed.

  10. Body contouring following massive weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Langer, Vijay; Singh, Amitabh; Aly, Al S.; Cram, Albert E.

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is a global disease with epidemic proportions. Bariatric surgery or modified lifestyles go a long way in mitigating the vast weight gain. Patients following these interventions usually undergo massive weight loss. This results in redundant tissues in various parts of the body. Loose skin causes increased morbidity and psychological trauma. This demands various body contouring procedures that are usually excisional. These procedures are complex and part of a painstaking process that needs a committed patient and an industrious plastic surgeon. As complications in these patients can be quite frequent, both the patient and the surgeon need to be aware and willing to deal with them. PMID:21713202

  11. Towards Realistic Modeling of Massive Star Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnedin, O.; Li, H.

    2016-06-01

    Cosmological simulations of galaxy formation are rapidly advancing towards smaller scales. Current models can now resolve giant molecular clouds in galaxies and predict basic properties of star clusters forming within them. I will describe new theoretical simulations of the formation of the Milky Way throughout cosmic time, with the adaptive mesh refinement code ART. However, many challenges - physical and numerical - still remain. I will discuss how observations of massive star clusters and star forming regions can help us overcome some of them. Video of the talk is available at https://goo.gl/ZoZOfX

  12. Massively Parallel Direct Simulation of Multiphase Flow

    SciTech Connect

    COOK,BENJAMIN K.; PREECE,DALE S.; WILLIAMS,J.R.

    2000-08-10

    The authors understanding of multiphase physics and the associated predictive capability for multi-phase systems are severely limited by current continuum modeling methods and experimental approaches. This research will deliver an unprecedented modeling capability to directly simulate three-dimensional multi-phase systems at the particle-scale. The model solves the fully coupled equations of motion governing the fluid phase and the individual particles comprising the solid phase using a newly discovered, highly efficient coupled numerical method based on the discrete-element method and the Lattice-Boltzmann method. A massively parallel implementation will enable the solution of large, physically realistic systems.

  13. Holographic superconductors from the massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Hua Bi; Wu, Jian-Pin

    2014-08-01

    A holographic superconductor is constructed in the background of a massive gravity theory. In the normal state without condensation, the conductivity exhibits a Drude peak that approaches a delta function in the massless gravity limit as studied by David Vegh. In the superconducting state, besides the infinite dc conductivity, the ac conductivity has Drude behavior at low frequency followed by a power-law fall. These results are in agreement with that found earlier by Horowitz and Santos, who studied a holographic superconductor with an implicit periodic potential beyond the probe limit. The results also agree with measurements on some cuprates.

  14. Non-Pauli-Fierz Massive Gravitons

    SciTech Connect

    Dvali, Gia; Pujolas, Oriol; Redi, Michele

    2008-10-24

    We study general Lorentz invariant theories of massive gravitons. We show that, contrary to the standard lore, there exist consistent theories where the graviton mass term violates Pauli-Fierz structure. For theories where the graviton is a resonance, this does not imply the existence of a scalar ghost if the deviation from a Pauli-Fierz structure becomes sufficiently small at high energies. These types of mass terms are required by any consistent realization of the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati model in higher dimension.

  15. Searching for Massive Photons with Ion Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durfee, Dallin; Neyenhuis, Brian; Christensen, Dan

    2008-05-01

    We will discuss an ion interferometer under construction that should enable the detection of a possible photon rest mass more than 100 times smaller than previous laboratory experiments. In the apparatus a beam of ^87Sr^+ ions will be split and recombined using stimulated Raman transitions inside of a conducting cylinder. Deviations from Coulomb's law can then be detected by measuring the phase shift of the interferometer as the potential applied to the conducting cylinder is changed. We will discuss both the details of the device and the theory connecting deviations from Coulomb's inverse-square law to a theory of massive photons.

  16. Casimir effect for massive scalar field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobassem, S.

    2014-10-01

    The energy-momentum tensor is used to introduce the Casimir force of the massive scalar field acting on a nonpenetrating surface. This expression can be used to evaluate the vacuum force by employing the appropriate field operators. To simplify our formalism, we also relate the vacuum force expression to the imaginary part of the Green function via the fluctuation-dissipation theorem and Kubo's formula. This allows one to evaluate the vacuum force without resorting to the process of field quantization. These two approaches are used to calculate the attractive force between two nonpenetrating plates. Special attention is paid to the generalization of the formalism to D+1 spacetime dimensions.

  17. f(R) Cosmology and Massive Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motohashi, Hayato; Starobinsky, Alexei A.; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi

    2012-02-01

    f(R) gravity provides viable cosmology alternative to the ΛCDM model. We discuss the effect of massive neutrinos on matter power spectrum in this theory, to show that the anomalous growth of density fluctuations on small scales due to the scalaron force can be compensated by free streaming of neutrinos. As a result, models which predict observable deviation of the equation-of-state parameter wDE from wDE = -1 may be reconciled with observations of matter clustering if the total neutrino mass is O(0.5 eV).

  18. The Λ2 limit of massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Rham, Claudia; Tolley, Andrew J.; Zhou, Shuang-Yong

    2016-04-01

    Lorentz-invariant massive gravity is usually associated with a strong coupling scale Λ3. By including non-trivial effects from the Stückelberg modes, we show that about these vacua, one can push the strong coupling scale to higher values and evade the linear vDVZ-discontinuity. For generic parameters of the theory and generic vacua for the Stückelberg fields, the Λ2-decoupling limit of the theory is well-behaved and free of any ghost or gradient-like instabilities. We also discuss the implications for nonlinear sigma models with Lorentzian target spaces.

  19. A new quasidilaton theory of massive gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Mukohyama, Shinji

    2014-12-01

    We present a new quasidilaton theory of Poincare invariant massive gravity, based on the recently proposed framework of matter coupling that makes it possible for the kinetic energy of the quasidilaton scalar to couple to both physical and fiducial metrics simultaneously. We find a scaling-type exact solution that expresses a self-accelerating de Sitter universe, and then analyze linear perturbations around it. It is shown that in a range of parameters all physical degrees of freedom have non-vanishing quadratic kinetic terms and are stable in the subhorizon limit, while the effective Newton's constant for the background is kept positive.

  20. 26 CFR 1.662(a)-1 - Inclusion of amounts in gross income of beneficiaries of estates and complex trusts; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inclusion of amounts in gross income of beneficiaries of estates and complex trusts; general. 1.662(a)-1 Section 1.662(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... Trusts Which May Accumulate Income Or Which Distribute Corpus § 1.662(a)-1 Inclusion of amounts in...

  1. Comparison between the Amount of Environmental Change and the Amount of Transcriptome Change

    PubMed Central

    Ogata, Norichika; Kozaki, Toshinori; Yokoyama, Takeshi; Hata, Tamako; Iwabuchi, Kikuo

    2015-01-01

    Cells must coordinate adjustments in genome expression to accommodate changes in their environment. We hypothesized that the amount of transcriptome change is proportional to the amount of environmental change. To capture the effects of environmental changes on the transcriptome, we compared transcriptome diversities (defined as the Shannon entropy of frequency distribution) of silkworm fat-body tissues cultured with several concentrations of phenobarbital. Although there was no proportional relationship, we did identify a drug concentration “tipping point” between 0.25 and 1.0 mM. Cells cultured in media containing lower drug concentrations than the tipping point showed uniformly high transcriptome diversities, while those cultured at higher drug concentrations than the tipping point showed uniformly low transcriptome diversities. The plasticity of transcriptome diversity was corroborated by cultivations of fat bodies in MGM-450 insect medium without phenobarbital and in 0.25 mM phenobarbital-supplemented MGM-450 insect medium after previous cultivation (cultivation for 80 hours in MGM-450 insect medium without phenobarbital, followed by cultivation for 10 hours in 1.0 mM phenobarbital-supplemented MGM-450 insect medium). Interestingly, the transcriptome diversities of cells cultured in media containing 0.25 mM phenobarbital after previous cultivation (cultivation for 80 hours in MGM-450 insect medium without phenobarbital, followed by cultivation for 10 hours in 1.0 mM phenobarbital-supplemented MGM-450 insect medium) were different from cells cultured in media containing 0.25 mM phenobarbital after previous cultivation (cultivation for 80 hours in MGM-450 insect medium without phenobarbital). This hysteretic phenomenon of transcriptome diversities indicates multi-stability of the genome expression system. Cellular memories were recorded in genome expression networks as in DNA/histone modifications. PMID:26657512

  2. Comparison between the Amount of Environmental Change and the Amount of Transcriptome Change.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Norichika; Kozaki, Toshinori; Yokoyama, Takeshi; Hata, Tamako; Iwabuchi, Kikuo

    2015-01-01

    Cells must coordinate adjustments in genome expression to accommodate changes in their environment. We hypothesized that the amount of transcriptome change is proportional to the amount of environmental change. To capture the effects of environmental changes on the transcriptome, we compared transcriptome diversities (defined as the Shannon entropy of frequency distribution) of silkworm fat-body tissues cultured with several concentrations of phenobarbital. Although there was no proportional relationship, we did identify a drug concentration "tipping point" between 0.25 and 1.0 mM. Cells cultured in media containing lower drug concentrations than the tipping point showed uniformly high transcriptome diversities, while those cultured at higher drug concentrations than the tipping point showed uniformly low transcriptome diversities. The plasticity of transcriptome diversity was corroborated by cultivations of fat bodies in MGM-450 insect medium without phenobarbital and in 0.25 mM phenobarbital-supplemented MGM-450 insect medium after previous cultivation (cultivation for 80 hours in MGM-450 insect medium without phenobarbital, followed by cultivation for 10 hours in 1.0 mM phenobarbital-supplemented MGM-450 insect medium). Interestingly, the transcriptome diversities of cells cultured in media containing 0.25 mM phenobarbital after previous cultivation (cultivation for 80 hours in MGM-450 insect medium without phenobarbital, followed by cultivation for 10 hours in 1.0 mM phenobarbital-supplemented MGM-450 insect medium) were different from cells cultured in media containing 0.25 mM phenobarbital after previous cultivation (cultivation for 80 hours in MGM-450 insect medium without phenobarbital). This hysteretic phenomenon of transcriptome diversities indicates multi-stability of the genome expression system. Cellular memories were recorded in genome expression networks as in DNA/histone modifications. PMID:26657512

  3. Massive Cerebral Gas Embolism under Discectomy due to Hydrogen Peroxide Irrigation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Junjie; Zhang, Chengliang; Yan, Jianqin

    2015-01-01

    Massive cerebral and spinal gas embolism occurs rarely as a complication of discectomy. We report a 54-year-old female who had undergone a discectomy (L3/4 and L4/5) under epidural anesthesia in a local hospital developed multiple massive gas embolisms. At closure, surgeons irrigated the incision wound with hydrogen peroxide. Soon after the irrigation, the patient suddenly developed tachycardia, hypotension, and rapid oxygen desaturation. Subsequently, patient progressed into unconsciousness and right hemianopsia quadriplegia. Computed tomography (CT) scan showed multiple hypointensity spots around the brain due to cerebral gas embolism, which indicated the pneumoencephalos. The likely mechanism was the absorption of hydrogen peroxide into blood. When the amount of oxygen evolved exceeded its maximal blood solubility, venous embolization occurred. Though the patient was treated with supportive treatments and hyperbaric oxygen, she did not get full recovery and was left with severe long-term cerebral injury. PMID:25688310

  4. A massively parallel computational approach to coupled thermoelastic/porous gas flow problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shia, David; Mcmanus, Hugh L.

    1995-01-01

    A new computational scheme for coupled thermoelastic/porous gas flow problems is presented. Heat transfer, gas flow, and dynamic thermoelastic governing equations are expressed in fully explicit form, and solved on a massively parallel computer. The transpiration cooling problem is used as an example problem. The numerical solutions have been verified by comparison to available analytical solutions. Transient temperature, pressure, and stress distributions have been obtained. Small spatial oscillations in pressure and stress have been observed, which would be impractical to predict with previously available schemes. Comparisons between serial and massively parallel versions of the scheme have also been made. The results indicate that for small scale problems the serial and parallel versions use practically the same amount of CPU time. However, as the problem size increases the parallel version becomes more efficient than the serial version.

  5. 13 CFR 108.2020 - Amount of Operational Assistance grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... (c) Pro rata reductions. In the event that the total amount of funds available to SBA for purposes of... in the amounts described in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section, SBA will make pro rata...

  6. 20 CFR 341.5 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... STATUTORY LIEN WHERE SICKNESS BENEFITS PAID § 341.5 Amount of reimbursement. (a) The Board shall receive as reimbursement the lesser of: (1) The amount of sickness benefits paid to the employee for the infirmity...

  7. 20 CFR 341.5 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... STATUTORY LIEN WHERE SICKNESS BENEFITS PAID § 341.5 Amount of reimbursement. (a) The Board shall receive as reimbursement the lesser of: (1) The amount of sickness benefits paid to the employee for the infirmity...

  8. 20 CFR 341.5 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... STATUTORY LIEN WHERE SICKNESS BENEFITS PAID § 341.5 Amount of reimbursement. (a) The Board shall receive as reimbursement the lesser of: (1) The amount of sickness benefits paid to the employee for the infirmity...

  9. 20 CFR 341.5 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... STATUTORY LIEN WHERE SICKNESS BENEFITS PAID § 341.5 Amount of reimbursement. (a) The Board shall receive as reimbursement the lesser of: (1) The amount of sickness benefits paid to the employee for the infirmity...

  10. 20 CFR 341.5 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... STATUTORY LIEN WHERE SICKNESS BENEFITS PAID § 341.5 Amount of reimbursement. (a) The Board shall receive as reimbursement the lesser of: (1) The amount of sickness benefits paid to the employee for the infirmity...

  11. The simultaneous formation of massive stars and stellar clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Rowan J.; Longmore, Steven; Bonnell, Ian

    2009-12-01

    We show that massive stars and stellar clusters are formed simultaneously, the global evolution of the forming cluster is what allows the central stars to become massive. We predict that massive star-forming clumps, such as those observed in Motte et al., contract and grow in mass leading to the formation of massive stars. This occurs as mass is continually channelled from large radii on to the central protostars, which can become massive through accretion. Using smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations of massive star-forming clumps in a giant molecular cloud, we show that clumps are initially diffuse and filamentary, and become more concentrated as they collapse. Simulated interferometry observations of our data provide an explanation as to why young massive star-forming regions show more substructure than older ones. The most massive stars in our model are found within the most bound cluster. Most of the mass accreted by the massive stars was originally distributed throughout the clump at low densities and was later funnelled to the star due to global infall. Even with radiative feedback no massive pre-stellar cores are formed. The original cores are of intermediate mass and gain their additional mass in the protostellar stage. We also find that cores which form low-mass stars exist within the volume from which the high-mass stars accrete, but are largely unaffected by this process.

  12. Two cases of asymptomatic massive fetomaternal hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Peedin, Alexis R; Mazepa, Marshall A; Park, Yara A; Weimer, Eric T; Schmitz, John L; Raval, Jay S

    2015-04-01

    Evaluation of fetomaternal hemorrhage (FMH) in the immediate postpartum period is critical for the timely administration of Rh immunoglobulin (RhIG) prophylaxis to minimize the risk of alloimmunization in D-negative mothers of D-positive newborns. We report a series of two clinically-unsuspected cases of massive FMHs identified at our university medical center. Retrospective records of two cases of massive FMH were investigated using the electronic medical record. After positive fetal bleed screens, flow cytometric analysis for hemoglobin F was performed to quantify the volume of the hemorrhages in both cases. Flow cytometric enumeration with anti-D was also performed in one case. The two patients had 209.5 and 75 mL of fetal blood in circulation, resulting in 8 and 4 doses of RhIG administered, respectively. For the former patient, flow cytometric analysis with anti-D ruled out hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin and supported the fetal origin of the red cells. Due to the clinically-silent nature of both hemorrhages, further evaluation of the newborns' blood was not performed. These cases highlight the importance of rapidly obtaining accurate measurements of fetal blood loss via flow cytometric analysis in cases of FMH, particularly in clinically-unsuspected cases, to ensure timely administration of adequate immunoprophylaxis to D-negative mothers. PMID:25736586

  13. Seismic imaging on massively parallel computers

    SciTech Connect

    Ober, C.C.; Oldfield, R.A.; Womble, D.E.; Mosher, C.C.

    1997-07-01

    A key to reducing the risks and costs associated with oil and gas exploration is the fast, accurate imaging of complex geologies, such as salt domes in the Gulf of Mexico and overthrust regions in US onshore regions. Pre-stack depth migration generally yields the most accurate images, and one approach to this is to solve the scalar-wave equation using finite differences. Current industry computational capabilities are insufficient for the application of finite-difference, 3-D, prestack, depth-migration algorithms. High performance computers and state-of-the-art algorithms and software are required to meet this need. As part of an ongoing ACTI project funded by the US Department of Energy, the authors have developed a finite-difference, 3-D prestack, depth-migration code for massively parallel computer systems. The goal of this work is to demonstrate that massively parallel computers (thousands of processors) can be used efficiently for seismic imaging, and that sufficient computing power exists (or soon will exist) to make finite-difference, prestack, depth migration practical for oil and gas exploration.

  14. Knowledge Discovery from Massive Healthcare Claims Data

    SciTech Connect

    Chandola, Varun; Sukumar, Sreenivas R; Schryver, Jack C

    2013-01-01

    The role of big data in addressing the needs of the present healthcare system in US and rest of the world has been echoed by government, private, and academic sectors. There has been a growing emphasis to explore the promise of big data analytics in tapping the potential of the massive healthcare data emanating from private and government health insurance providers. While the domain implications of such collaboration are well known, this type of data has been explored to a limited extent in the data mining community. The objective of this paper is two fold: first, we introduce the emerging domain of big"healthcare claims data to the KDD community, and second, we describe the success and challenges that we encountered in analyzing this data using state of art analytics for massive data. Specically, we translate the problem of analyzing healthcare data into some of the most well-known analysis problems in the data mining community, social network analysis, text mining, and temporal analysis and higher order feature construction, and describe how advances within each of these areas can be leveraged to understand the domain of healthcare. Each case study illustrates a unique intersection of data mining and healthcare with a common objective of improving the cost-care ratio by mining for opportunities to improve healthcare operations and reducing hat seems to fall under fraud, waste,and abuse.

  15. No Massive Elementary Bosons Exist in Nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morabito, D. L.; Fujita, S.; Godoy, S.

    1998-04-01

    Elementary particles are defined such that (a) elementary particles are indistinguishable (indistinguishability) and (b) particles can combine, in arbitrary high number, to form a composite. The resulting composite must be either a boson or a fermion (elementarity). The quantum statistics of a composite particle will be studied by looking at the center-of-mass motion. We postulate that the center-of-mass moves following general principles of quantum theory and special relativity. We show that two-identical-boson composites such as π-π are forbidden due to the fact that no center-of-mass states of definite statistics can be constructed. This means that there can be no massive elementary bosons in nature, which is in accord with Dirac's conclusion: there are only half-spin elementary fermions in nature. Experiments show that photons move as bosons. But photons are massless and always travel with the light speed in vacuum. They do not possess position observables and cannot form composites. Composites of two different bosons such as π-K are shown to move as fermions, which violates the spin-statistics theorem. We reject two-different-boson composites since the spin-statistics theorem should hold for the center-of-mass motion. Known massive bosons such as π, K, W, Z, ldots must be regarded as composites. Besides, they cannot form composites among them.

  16. Exact supersymmetric massive and massless white holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallosh, Renata; Linde, Andrei

    1995-12-01

    We study special points in the moduli space of vacua at which supersymmetric electric solutions of the heterotic string theory become massless. We concentrate on configurations for which the supersymmetric nonrenormalization theorem is valid. These are ten-dimensional supersymmetric string waves and generalized fundamental strings with SO(8) holonomy group. From these we find the four-dimensional spherically symmetric configurations which saturate the BPS bound, in particular, near the points of the vanishing ADM mass. The nontrivial massless supersymmetric states in this class exist only in the presence of non-Abelian vector fields. We also find a new class of supersymmetric massive solutions, closely related to the massless ones. A distinctive property of all these objects, either massless or massive, is the existence of gravitational repulsion. They reflect all particles with nonvanishing mass and/or angular momentum, and therefore they can be called white holes (repulsons), in contrast with black holes which tend to absorb particles of all kinds. If such objects can exist we will have the first realization of the universal gravitational force which repels all particles with the strength proportional to their mass and therefore can be associated with antigravity.

  17. Planckian Interacting Massive Particles as Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garny, Mathias; Sandora, McCullen; Sloth, Martin S.

    2016-03-01

    The standard model could be self-consistent up to the Planck scale according to the present measurements of the Higgs boson mass and top quark Yukawa coupling. It is therefore possible that new physics is only coupled to the standard model through Planck suppressed higher dimensional operators. In this case the weakly interacting massive particle miracle is a mirage, and instead minimality as dictated by Occam's razor would indicate that dark matter is related to the Planck scale, where quantum gravity is anyway expected to manifest itself. Assuming within this framework that dark matter is a Planckian interacting massive particle, we show that the most natural mass larger than 0.01 Mp is already ruled out by the absence of tensor modes in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). This also indicates that we expect tensor modes in the CMB to be observed soon for this type of minimal dark matter model. Finally, we touch upon the Kaluza-Klein graviton mode as a possible realization of this scenario within UV complete models, as well as further potential signatures and peculiar properties of this type of dark matter candidate. This paradigm therefore leads to a subtle connection between quantum gravity, the physics of primordial inflation, and the nature of dark matter.

  18. Theoretical Developments in Understanding Massive Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yorke, H. W.; Bodenheimer, P.

    2008-05-01

    Except under special circumstances massive stars in galactic disks will form through accretion. The gravitational collapse of a molecular cloud core will initially produce one or more low-mass quasi-hydrostatic objects of a few Jupiter masses. Through subsequent accretion the masses of these cores grow as they simultaneously evolve toward hydrogen-burning central densities and temperatures. We review the evolution of accreting (proto-)stars, including new results calculated with a publicly available stellar evolution code written by the authors. The evolution of accreting stars depends strongly on the accretion history. We find that for the high accretion rates considered, ˜10^{-3} M_⊙yr^{-1}, stars of ˜5-10 M_⊙ tend to bloat up to radii which may exceed 100 R_⊙. Because of the high rate of binarity among massive stars, we expect that these large radii during short phases of evolution will result in mass transfer, common envelope evolution, and a higher number of tight binaries with periods of a few days.

  19. Four open questions in massive star evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meynet, G.; Eggenberger, P.; Ekström, S.; Georgy, C.; Groh, J.; Maeder, A.; Saio, H.; Moriya, T.

    2013-12-01

    We discuss four questions dealing with massive star evolution. The first one is about the origin of slowly rotating, non-evolved, nitrogen rich stars. We propose that these stars may originate from initially fast rotating stars whose surface has been braked down. The second question is about the evolutionary status of α-Cygni variables. According to their pulsation properties, these stars should be post red supergiant stars. However, some stars at least present surface abundances indicating that they should be pre red supergiant stars. How to reconcile these two contradictory requirements? The third one concerns the various supernova types which are the end point of the evolution of stars with initial masses between 18 and 30M⊙, i.e. the most massive stars which go through a red supergiant phase during their lifetime. Do they produce types IIP, IIL, IIn, IIb or Ib supernovae or do they end without producing any SN event? Finally, we shall discuss reasons why so few progenitors of type Ibc supernovae have yet been detected?

  20. Linear Time Vertex Partitioning on Massive Graphs

    PubMed Central

    Mell, Peter; Harang, Richard; Gueye, Assane

    2016-01-01

    The problem of optimally removing a set of vertices from a graph to minimize the size of the largest resultant component is known to be NP-complete. Prior work has provided near optimal heuristics with a high time complexity that function on up to hundreds of nodes and less optimal but faster techniques that function on up to thousands of nodes. In this work, we analyze how to perform vertex partitioning on massive graphs of tens of millions of nodes. We use a previously known and very simple heuristic technique: iteratively removing the node of largest degree and all of its edges. This approach has an apparent quadratic complexity since, upon removal of a node and adjoining set of edges, the node degree calculations must be updated prior to choosing the next node. However, we describe a linear time complexity solution using an array whose indices map to node degree and whose values are hash tables indicating the presence or absence of a node at that degree value. This approach also has a linear growth with respect to memory usage which is surprising since we lowered the time complexity from quadratic to linear. We empirically demonstrate linear scalability and linear memory usage on random graphs of up to 15000 nodes. We then demonstrate tractability on massive graphs through execution on a graph with 34 million nodes representing Internet wide router connectivity. PMID:27336059

  1. Probing Massive Star Cluster Formation with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Kelsey

    2015-08-01

    Observationally constraining the physical conditions that give rise to massive star clusters has been a long-standing challenge. Now with the ALMA Observatory coming on-line, we can finally begin to probe the birth environments of massive clusters in a variety of galaxies with sufficient angular resolution. In this talk I will give an overview of ALMA observations of galaxies in which candidate proto-super star cluster molecular clouds have been identified. These new data probe the physical conditions that give rise to super star clusters, providing information on their densities, pressures, and temperatures. In particular, the observations indicate that these clouds may be subject to external pressures of P/k > 108 K cm-3, which is consistent with the prevalence of optically observed adolescent super star clusters in interacting galaxy systems and other high pressure environments. ALMA observations also enable an assessement of the molecular cloud chemical abundances in the regions surrounding super star clusters. Molecular clouds associated with existing super star clusters are strongly correlated with HCO+ emission, but appear to have relatively low ratio of CO/HCO+ emission compared to other clouds, indicating that the super star clusters are impacting the molecular abundances in their vicinity.

  2. METHYL CYANIDE OBSERVATIONS TOWARD MASSIVE PROTOSTARS

    SciTech Connect

    Rosero, V.; Hofner, P.; Kurtz, S.; Bieging, J.; Araya, E. D.

    2013-07-01

    We report the results of a survey in the CH{sub 3}CN J = 12 {yields} 11 transition toward a sample of massive proto-stellar candidates. The observations were carried out with the 10 m Submillimeter Telescope on Mount Graham, AZ. We detected this molecular line in 9 out of 21 observed sources. In six cases this is the first detection of this transition. We also obtained full beam sampled cross-scans for five sources which show that the lower K-components can be extended on the arcminute angular scale. The higher K-components, however, are always found to be compact with respect to our 36'' beam. A Boltzmann population diagram analysis of the central spectra indicates CH{sub 3}CN column densities of about 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2}, and rotational temperatures above 50 K, which confirms these sources as hot molecular cores. Independent fits to line velocity and width for the individual K-components resulted in the detection of an increasing blueshift with increasing line excitation for four sources. Comparison with mid-infrared (mid-IR) images from the SPITZER GLIMPSE/IRAC archive for six sources show that the CH{sub 3}CN emission is generally coincident with a bright mid-IR source. Our data clearly show that the CH{sub 3}CN J = 12 {yields} 11 transition is a good probe of the hot molecular gas near massive protostars, and provide the basis for future interferometric studies.

  3. Planckian Interacting Massive Particles as Dark Matter.

    PubMed

    Garny, Mathias; Sandora, McCullen; Sloth, Martin S

    2016-03-11

    The standard model could be self-consistent up to the Planck scale according to the present measurements of the Higgs boson mass and top quark Yukawa coupling. It is therefore possible that new physics is only coupled to the standard model through Planck suppressed higher dimensional operators. In this case the weakly interacting massive particle miracle is a mirage, and instead minimality as dictated by Occam's razor would indicate that dark matter is related to the Planck scale, where quantum gravity is anyway expected to manifest itself. Assuming within this framework that dark matter is a Planckian interacting massive particle, we show that the most natural mass larger than 0.01M_{p} is already ruled out by the absence of tensor modes in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). This also indicates that we expect tensor modes in the CMB to be observed soon for this type of minimal dark matter model. Finally, we touch upon the Kaluza-Klein graviton mode as a possible realization of this scenario within UV complete models, as well as further potential signatures and peculiar properties of this type of dark matter candidate. This paradigm therefore leads to a subtle connection between quantum gravity, the physics of primordial inflation, and the nature of dark matter. PMID:27015472

  4. Dipolar dark matter with massive bigravity

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchet, Luc; Heisenberg, Lavinia

    2015-12-14

    Massive gravity theories have been developed as viable IR modifications of gravity motivated by dark energy and the problem of the cosmological constant. On the other hand, modified gravity and modified dark matter theories were developed with the aim of solving the problems of standard cold dark matter at galactic scales. Here we propose to adapt the framework of ghost-free massive bigravity theories to reformulate the problem of dark matter at galactic scales. We investigate a promising alternative to dark matter called dipolar dark matter (DDM) in which two different species of dark matter are separately coupled to the two metrics of bigravity and are linked together by an internal vector field. We show that this model successfully reproduces the phenomenology of dark matter at galactic scales (i.e. MOND) as a result of a mechanism of gravitational polarisation. The model is safe in the gravitational sector, but because of the particular couplings of the matter fields and vector field to the metrics, a ghost in the decoupling limit is present in the dark matter sector. However, it might be possible to push the mass of the ghost beyond the strong coupling scale by an appropriate choice of the parameters of the model. Crucial questions to address in future work are the exact mass of the ghost, and the cosmological implications of the model.

  5. Dipolar dark matter with massive bigravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchet, Luc; Heisenberg, Lavinia

    2015-12-01

    Massive gravity theories have been developed as viable IR modifications of gravity motivated by dark energy and the problem of the cosmological constant. On the other hand, modified gravity and modified dark matter theories were developed with the aim of solving the problems of standard cold dark matter at galactic scales. Here we propose to adapt the framework of ghost-free massive bigravity theories to reformulate the problem of dark matter at galactic scales. We investigate a promising alternative to dark matter called dipolar dark matter (DDM) in which two different species of dark matter are separately coupled to the two metrics of bigravity and are linked together by an internal vector field. We show that this model successfully reproduces the phenomenology of dark matter at galactic scales (i.e. MOND) as a result of a mechanism of gravitational polarisation. The model is safe in the gravitational sector, but because of the particular couplings of the matter fields and vector field to the metrics, a ghost in the decoupling limit is present in the dark matter sector. However, it might be possible to push the mass of the ghost beyond the strong coupling scale by an appropriate choice of the parameters of the model. Crucial questions to address in future work are the exact mass of the ghost, and the cosmological implications of the model.

  6. QUARK MATTER IN MASSIVE COMPACT STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Weissenborn, Simon; Pagliara, Giuseppe; Schaffner-Bielich, Juergen; Sagert, Irina; Hempel, Matthias

    2011-10-10

    The recent observation of the pulsar PSR J1614-2230 with a mass of 1.97 {+-} 0.04 M{sub sun} gives a strong constraint on the quark and nuclear matter equations of state (EoS). We explore the parameter ranges for a parameterized EoS for quark stars. We find that strange stars, made of absolutely stable strange quark matter, comply with the new constraint only if effects from the strong coupling constant and color-superconductivity are taken into account. Hybrid stars, compact stars with a quark matter core and a hadronic outer layer, can be as massive as 2 M{sub sun}, but only for a significantly limited range of parameters. We demonstrate that the appearance of quark matter in massive stars crucially depends on the stiffness of the nuclear matter EoS. We show that the masses of hybrid stars stay below the ones of hadronic and pure quark stars, due to the softening of the EoS at the quark-hadron phase transition.

  7. Pancreatography after recovery from massive pancreatic necrosis.

    PubMed

    Howard, J M; Wagner, S M

    1989-01-01

    Massive retroperitoneal necrosis may follow life-threatening acute pancreatitis. At delayed operation, the surgeon may not be able to delineate dead pancreas from dead adipose tissue. The question arises: has "gloved hand" debridement resulted in pancreatectomy? The histologists report only "necrotic debris, of uncertain origin." To obtain objective data, pancreatography was performed in 13 patients, 10 weeks to 23 months after onset of massive pancreatic necrosis. Each patient had required delayed laparotomy for debridement and external drainage at some earlier stage of their illness. Pancreatography was correlated with the clinical assessment of diabetes and steatorrhea. Except in specific cases involving internal fistulae, pancreatography has not been previously reported in such patients. The results demonstrate that the main pancreatic duct usually maintained its normal length and configuration. Necrosis or stricture of the main duct, if it occurred, was more likely to be followed by diabetes. Steatorrhea was clinically detected in a single patient only. The necrotic tissue, up to several kilograms in wet weight, is largely dead adipose tissue. The pancreas, especially its head, is resistant to necrosis, much more resistant than is the retroperitoneal fat. PMID:2910213

  8. A MASSIVE RUNAWAY STAR FROM 30 DORADUS

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, C. J.; Walborn, N. R.; Massa, D.; Lennon, D. J.; Crowther, P. A.; Henault-Brunet, V.; Taylor, W. D.; Howarth, I. D.; Sana, H.; Van Loon, J. Th.

    2010-06-01

    We present the first ultraviolet (UV) and multi-epoch optical spectroscopy of 30 Dor 016, a massive O2-type star on the periphery of 30 Doradus in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The UV data were obtained with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope as part of the Servicing Mission Observatory Verification program after Servicing Mission 4, and reveal no. 016 to have one of the fastest stellar winds known. From analysis of the C IV {lambda}{lambda}1548-51 doublet we find a terminal velocity, v {sub {infinity}} = 3450 {+-} 50 km s{sup -1}. Optical spectroscopy is from the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey, from which we rule out a massive companion (with 2 days < P < 1 yr) to a confidence of 98%. The radial velocity of no. 016 is offset from the systemic value by -85 km s{sup -1}, suggesting that the star has traveled the 120 pc from the core of 30 Doradus as a runaway, ejected via dynamical interactions.

  9. Massive neutrinos in almost-commutative geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephan, Christoph A.

    2007-02-01

    In the noncommutative formulation of the standard model of particle physics by Chamseddine and Connes [Commun. Math. Phys. 182, 155 (1996), e-print hep-th/9606001], one of the three generations of fermions has to possess a massless neutrino. [C. P. Martin et al., Phys. Rep. 29, 363 (1998), e-print hep-th-9605001]. This formulation is consistent with neutrino oscillation experiments and the known bounds of the Pontecorvo-Maki-Nakagawa-Sakata matrix (PMNS matrix). But future experiments which may be able to detect neutrino masses directly and high-precision measurements of the PMNS matrix might need massive neutrinos in all three generations. In this paper we present an almost-commutative geometry which allows for a standard model with massive neutrinos in all three generations. This model does not follow in a straightforward way from the version of Chamseddine and Connes since it requires an internal algebra with four summands of matrix algebras, instead of three summands for the model with one massless neutrino.

  10. Massive neutrinos in almost-commutative geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Stephan, Christoph A.

    2007-02-15

    In the noncommutative formulation of the standard model of particle physics by Chamseddine and Connes [Commun. Math. Phys. 182, 155 (1996), e-print hep-th/9606001], one of the three generations of fermions has to possess a massless neutrino. [C. P. Martin et al., Phys. Rep. 29, 363 (1998), e-print hep-th-9605001]. This formulation is consistent with neutrino oscillation experiments and the known bounds of the Pontecorvo-Maki-Nakagawa-Sakata matrix (PMNS matrix). But future experiments which may be able to detect neutrino masses directly and high-precision measurements of the PMNS matrix might need massive neutrinos in all three generations. In this paper we present an almost-commutative geometry which allows for a standard model with massive neutrinos in all three generations. This model does not follow in a straightforward way from the version of Chamseddine and Connes since it requires an internal algebra with four summands of matrix algebras, instead of three summands for the model with one massless neutrino.

  11. 32 CFR 229.16 - Civil penalty amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Civil penalty amounts. 229.16 Section 229.16 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 229.16 Civil penalty amounts. (a) Maximum amount of penalty. (1) Where...

  12. 18 CFR 1312.16 - Civil penalty amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Civil penalty amounts. 1312.16 Section 1312.16 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 1312.16 Civil penalty amounts. (a) Maximum amount of penalty. (1) Where the person...

  13. 36 CFR 296.16 - Civil penalty amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Civil penalty amounts. 296.16 Section 296.16 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 296.16 Civil penalty amounts. (a) Maximum amount of penalty. (1) Where the person...

  14. 32 CFR 229.16 - Civil penalty amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Civil penalty amounts. 229.16 Section 229.16 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 229.16 Civil penalty amounts. (a) Maximum amount of penalty. (1) Where...

  15. 43 CFR 7.16 - Civil penalty amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Civil penalty amounts. 7.16 Section 7.16 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES Uniform Regulations § 7.16 Civil penalty amounts. (a) Maximum amount of penalty. (1) Where the person being assessed a civil penalty has...

  16. 77 FR 61423 - Notice of Adjustment of Disaster Grant Amounts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-09

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Notice of Adjustment of Disaster Grant Amounts AGENCY: Federal... amount for Small Project Grants to State and local governments and private nonprofit facilities for...), 42 U.S.C. 5121-5207, prescribes that FEMA must annually adjust the maximum grant amount made...

  17. 42 CFR 57.2207 - Amount of scholarship grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amount of scholarship grant. 57.2207 Section 57... CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Physician Shortage Area Scholarship Grants § 57.2207 Amount of scholarship grant. (a) The amount of the...

  18. 42 CFR 57.2207 - Amount of scholarship grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Amount of scholarship grant. 57.2207 Section 57... CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Physician Shortage Area Scholarship Grants § 57.2207 Amount of scholarship grant. (a) The amount of the...

  19. 42 CFR 57.2207 - Amount of scholarship grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Amount of scholarship grant. 57.2207 Section 57... CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Physician Shortage Area Scholarship Grants § 57.2207 Amount of scholarship grant. (a) The amount of the...

  20. 42 CFR 57.2207 - Amount of scholarship grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amount of scholarship grant. 57.2207 Section 57... CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Physician Shortage Area Scholarship Grants § 57.2207 Amount of scholarship grant. (a) The amount of the...

  1. 42 CFR 57.2207 - Amount of scholarship grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Amount of scholarship grant. 57.2207 Section 57... CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Physician Shortage Area Scholarship Grants § 57.2207 Amount of scholarship grant. (a) The amount of the...

  2. 76 FR 63933 - Notice of Adjustment of Disaster Grant Amounts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-14

    ... SECURITY Notice of Adjustment of Disaster Grant Amounts AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: FEMA gives notice of an increase of the maximum amount for Small Project Grants.... 5121-5207, prescribes that FEMA must annually adjust the maximum grant amount made under section...

  3. 46 CFR 249.3 - Amounts of insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OPERATORS APPROVAL OF UNDERWRITERS FOR MARINE HULL INSURANCE § 249.3 Amounts of insurance. MARAD will inform... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amounts of insurance. 249.3 Section 249.3 Shipping... initial placement and at least annually thereafter, of the minimum amount of insurance required to...

  4. 5 CFR 870.904 - Amount of insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amount of insurance. 870.904 Section 870.904 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE PROGRAM Assignments of Life Insurance § 870.904 Amount of insurance. The amount of insurance is...

  5. 5 CFR 870.702 - Amount of Basic insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

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  6. 5 CFR 870.202 - Basic insurance amount (BIA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basic insurance amount (BIA). 870.202 Section 870.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE PROGRAM Types and Amount of Insurance § 870.202 Basic insurance amount (BIA). (a)(1)...

  7. 5 CFR 870.205 - Amount of Optional insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

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  8. 24 CFR 761.13 - Amount of funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Amount of funding. 761.13 Section... PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING PROGRAMS) DRUG ELIMINATION PROGRAMS Grant Funding § 761.13 Amount of funding. (a) PHDEP formula funding—(1) Funding share formula—(i) Per unit amount. Subject to the...

  9. 24 CFR 761.13 - Amount of funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Amount of funding. 761.13 Section... PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING PROGRAMS) DRUG ELIMINATION PROGRAMS Grant Funding § 761.13 Amount of funding. (a) PHDEP formula funding—(1) Funding share formula—(i) Per unit amount. Subject to the...

  10. 7 CFR 3565.457 - Determination of claim amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of claim amount. 3565.457 Section 3565....457 Determination of claim amount. In all liquidation cases, final settlement will be made with the...) The estimated loss payment shall be applied as of the date of such payment. The total amount of...

  11. 42 CFR 493.649 - Methodology for determining fee amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Methodology for determining fee amount. 493.649 Section 493.649 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Methodology for determining fee amount. (a) General rule. The amount of the fee in each schedule...

  12. 24 CFR 92.60 - Allocation amounts for insular areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... this section, or for any other reason, HUD may increase the allocation amount for one or more of the... requirements. Funds that become available but which are not used to increase the allocation amount for one or... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation amounts for...

  13. 24 CFR 92.60 - Allocation amounts for insular areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... this section, or for any other reason, HUD may increase the allocation amount for one or more of the... requirements. Funds that become available but which are not used to increase the allocation amount for one or... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allocation amounts for...

  14. 20 CFR 229.66 - Changes in reduction amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Under a Federal, State, or Local Law or Plan § 229.66 Changes in reduction amount. (a) Change in DIB O/M. The amount of the worker's compensation or public disability benefit reduction does not change when..., the reduction amount does change if there is a change in the family members included in the DIB...

  15. 20 CFR 229.66 - Changes in reduction amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

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  16. 20 CFR 229.66 - Changes in reduction amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Under a Federal, State, or Local Law or Plan § 229.66 Changes in reduction amount. (a) Change in DIB O/M... decreases, the change in the reduction amount is effective with the month of the decrease, no matter when... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Changes in reduction amount. 229.66...

  17. 20 CFR 416.412 - Amount of benefits; eligible couple.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amount of benefits; eligible couple. 416.412... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Amount of Benefits § 416.412 Amount of benefits; eligible couple. The benefit under this part for an eligible couple (including couples where one or both members of the couple...

  18. 18 CFR 1312.16 - Civil penalty amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Civil penalty amounts. 1312.16 Section 1312.16 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 1312.16 Civil penalty amounts. (a) Maximum amount of penalty. (1) Where the person...

  19. 41 CFR 105-56.019 - Offset amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Administration 56-SALARY OFFSET FOR INDEBTEDNESS OF FEDERAL EMPLOYEES TO THE UNITED STATES Centralized Salary Offset (CSO) Procedures-GSA as Creditor Agency § 105-56.019 Offset amount. (a) The minimum dollar amount referred for offset under this subpart is $100. (b) The amount offset from a salary payment under...

  20. 41 CFR 105-56.029 - Offset amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Administration 56-SALARY OFFSET FOR INDEBTEDNESS OF FEDERAL EMPLOYEES TO THE UNITED STATES Centralized Salary Offset (CSO) Procedures-GSA as Paying Agency § 105-56.029 Offset amount. (a) The minimum dollar amount of salary offset under this subpart is $100. (b) The amount offset from a salary payment under this...

  1. 42 CFR 423.886 - Retiree drug subsidy amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Retiree drug subsidy amounts. 423.886 Section 423... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Payments to Sponsors of Retiree Prescription Drug Plans § 423.886 Retiree drug subsidy amounts. (a) Amount of subsidy payment. (1) For...

  2. 42 CFR 423.886 - Retiree drug subsidy amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retiree drug subsidy amounts. 423.886 Section 423... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Payments to Sponsors of Retiree Prescription Drug Plans § 423.886 Retiree drug subsidy amounts. (a) Amount of subsidy payment. (1) For...

  3. 20 CFR 625.6 - Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.6 Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions. (a) In all States... worker or unemployed self-employed individual for a week of total unemployment shall be the weekly amount... provisions of the applicable State law for a week of total unemployment. In no event shall such amount be...

  4. 20 CFR 625.6 - Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.6 Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions. (a) In all States... worker or unemployed self-employed individual for a week of total unemployment shall be the weekly amount... provisions of the applicable State law for a week of total unemployment. In no event shall such amount be...

  5. 9 CFR 89.1 - Amount of feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... TWENTY-EIGHT HOUR LAW § 89.1 Amount of feed. (a) Under normal conditions, the amount of feed designated... at the intervals required by the Twenty-Eight Hour Law: Species and quantity of livestock At first... car, the amount of shelled corn 2 indicated): Lots of not more than 18,000 lbs 2 bushels 2...

  6. 9 CFR 89.1 - Amount of feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... TWENTY-EIGHT HOUR LAW § 89.1 Amount of feed. (a) Under normal conditions, the amount of feed designated... at the intervals required by the Twenty-Eight Hour Law: Species and quantity of livestock At first... car, the amount of shelled corn 2 indicated): Lots of not more than 18,000 lbs 2 bushels 2...

  7. 20 CFR 229.66 - Changes in reduction amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Under a Federal, State, or Local Law or Plan § 229.66 Changes in reduction amount. (a) Change in DIB O/M. The amount of the worker's compensation or public disability benefit reduction does not change when..., the reduction amount does change if there is a change in the family members included in the DIB...

  8. 20 CFR 229.66 - Changes in reduction amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Under a Federal, State, or Local Law or Plan § 229.66 Changes in reduction amount. (a) Change in DIB O/M. The amount of the worker's compensation or public disability benefit reduction does not change when..., the reduction amount does change if there is a change in the family members included in the DIB...

  9. 10 CFR 205.286 - Limitations on amount of refunds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Limitations on amount of refunds. 205.286 Section 205.286 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND SANCTIONS Special Procedures for Distribution of Refunds § 205.286 Limitations on amount of refunds. (a) The aggregate amount of all...

  10. 10 CFR 205.286 - Limitations on amount of refunds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Limitations on amount of refunds. 205.286 Section 205.286 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND SANCTIONS Special Procedures for Distribution of Refunds § 205.286 Limitations on amount of refunds. (a) The aggregate amount of all...

  11. 10 CFR 205.286 - Limitations on amount of refunds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Limitations on amount of refunds. 205.286 Section 205.286 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND SANCTIONS Special Procedures for Distribution of Refunds § 205.286 Limitations on amount of refunds. (a) The aggregate amount of all...

  12. 26 CFR 301.6401-1 - Amounts treated as overpayments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Amounts treated as overpayments. 301.6401-1... General § 301.6401-1 Amounts treated as overpayments. (a) The term “overpayment” includes: (1) Any payment... limitation applicable thereto. (2) Any amount allowable for a taxable year as credits under sections...

  13. 26 CFR 301.6401-1 - Amounts treated as overpayments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amounts treated as overpayments. 301.6401-1... General § 301.6401-1 Amounts treated as overpayments. (a) The term “overpayment” includes: (1) Any payment... limitation applicable thereto. (2) Any amount allowable for a taxable year as credits under sections...

  14. 26 CFR 301.6401-1 - Amounts treated as overpayments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Amounts treated as overpayments. 301.6401-1... General § 301.6401-1 Amounts treated as overpayments. (a) The term “overpayment” includes: (1) Any payment... limitation applicable thereto. (2) Any amount allowable for a taxable year as credits under sections...

  15. 26 CFR 301.6401-1 - Amounts treated as overpayments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Amounts treated as overpayments. 301.6401-1... General § 301.6401-1 Amounts treated as overpayments. (a) The term “overpayment” includes: (1) Any payment... limitation applicable thereto. (2) Any amount allowable for a taxable year as credits under sections...

  16. 26 CFR 301.6401-1 - Amounts treated as overpayments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Amounts treated as overpayments. 301.6401-1... General § 301.6401-1 Amounts treated as overpayments. (a) The term “overpayment” includes: (1) Any payment... limitation applicable thereto. (2) Any amount allowable for a taxable year as credits under sections...

  17. 12 CFR 1806.202 - Estimated award amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Estimated award amounts. 1806.202 Section 1806... BANK ENTERPRISE AWARD PROGRAM Awards § 1806.202 Estimated award amounts. (a) General. An Applicant shall calculate and submit to the Fund an estimated award amount as part of the Bank Enterprise...

  18. 20 CFR 625.6 - Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.6 Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions. (a) In all States... worker or unemployed self-employed individual for a week of total unemployment shall be the weekly amount... provisions of the applicable State law for a week of total unemployment. In no event shall such amount be...

  19. 20 CFR 416.410 - Amount of benefits; eligible individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Amount of benefits; eligible individual. 416.410 Section 416.410 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Amount of Benefits § 416.410 Amount of benefits; eligible...

  20. 20 CFR 416.413 - Amount of benefits; qualified individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Amount of benefits; qualified individual. 416.413 Section 416.413 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Amount of Benefits § 416.413 Amount of benefits;...

  1. 20 CFR 416.412 - Amount of benefits; eligible couple.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Amount of benefits; eligible couple. 416.412 Section 416.412 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Amount of Benefits § 416.412 Amount of benefits; eligible couple. The...

  2. 42 CFR 423.886 - Retiree drug subsidy amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Retiree drug subsidy amounts. 423.886 Section 423... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Payments to Sponsors of Retiree Prescription Drug Plans § 423.886 Retiree drug subsidy amounts. (a) Amount of subsidy payment....

  3. 42 CFR 423.886 - Retiree drug subsidy amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Retiree drug subsidy amounts. 423.886 Section 423... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Payments to Sponsors of Retiree Prescription Drug Plans § 423.886 Retiree drug subsidy amounts. (a) Amount of subsidy payment....

  4. 42 CFR 423.886 - Retiree drug subsidy amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Retiree drug subsidy amounts. 423.886 Section 423... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Payments to Sponsors of Retiree Prescription Drug Plans § 423.886 Retiree drug subsidy amounts. (a) Amount of subsidy payment....

  5. 22 CFR 1104.15 - Civil penalty amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Civil penalty amounts. 1104.15 Section 1104.15... SECTION PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES § 1104.15 Civil penalty amounts. (a) Maximum amount of penalty. (1) Where the person being assessed a civil penalty has not committed any previous violation...

  6. 20 CFR 416.413 - Amount of benefits; qualified individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Amount of benefits; qualified individual. 416.413 Section 416.413 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Amount of Benefits § 416.413 Amount of benefits;...

  7. 20 CFR 416.412 - Amount of benefits; eligible couple.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Amount of benefits; eligible couple. 416.412 Section 416.412 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Amount of Benefits § 416.412 Amount of benefits; eligible couple. The...

  8. 20 CFR 416.413 - Amount of benefits; qualified individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Amount of benefits; qualified individual. 416.413 Section 416.413 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Amount of Benefits § 416.413 Amount of benefits;...

  9. 20 CFR 416.412 - Amount of benefits; eligible couple.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Amount of benefits; eligible couple. 416.412 Section 416.412 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Amount of Benefits § 416.412 Amount of benefits; eligible couple. The...

  10. 20 CFR 416.412 - Amount of benefits; eligible couple.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Amount of benefits; eligible couple. 416.412 Section 416.412 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Amount of Benefits § 416.412 Amount of benefits; eligible couple. The...

  11. 20 CFR 416.410 - Amount of benefits; eligible individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Amount of benefits; eligible individual. 416.410 Section 416.410 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Amount of Benefits § 416.410 Amount of benefits; eligible...

  12. 20 CFR 416.413 - Amount of benefits; qualified individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Amount of benefits; qualified individual. 416.413 Section 416.413 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Amount of Benefits § 416.413 Amount of benefits;...

  13. 20 CFR 416.410 - Amount of benefits; eligible individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Amount of benefits; eligible individual. 416.410 Section 416.410 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Amount of Benefits § 416.410 Amount of benefits; eligible...

  14. 20 CFR 416.410 - Amount of benefits; eligible individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Amount of benefits; eligible individual. 416.410 Section 416.410 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Amount of Benefits § 416.410 Amount of benefits; eligible...

  15. Modeling the Effect of Reward Amount on Probability Discounting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myerson, Joel; Green, Leonard; Morris, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    The present study with college students examined the effect of amount on the discounting of probabilistic monetary rewards. A hyperboloid function accurately described the discounting of hypothetical rewards ranging in amount from $20 to $10,000,000. The degree of discounting increased continuously with amount of probabilistic reward. This effect…

  16. Chronology protection in Galileon models and massive gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Burrage, Clare; Rham, Claudia de; Heisenberg, Lavinia; Tolley, Andrew J. E-mail: claudia.deRham@case.edu E-mail: andrew.j.tolley@case.edu

    2012-07-01

    Galileon models are a class of effective field theories that have recently received much attention. They arise in the decoupling limit of theories of massive gravity, and in some cases they have been treated in their own right as scalar field theories with a specific nonlinearly realized global symmetry (Galilean transformation). It is well known that in the presence of a source, these Galileon theories admit superluminal propagating solutions, implying that as quantum field theories they must admit a different notion of causality than standard local Lorentz invariant theories. We show that in these theories it is easy to construct closed timelike curves (CTCs) within the naive regime of validity of the effective field theory. However, on closer inspection we see that the CTCs could never arise since the Galileon inevitably becomes infinitely strongly coupled at the onset of the formation of a CTC. This implies an infinite amount of backreaction, first on the background for the Galileon field, signaling the break down of the effective field theory, and subsequently on the spacetime geometry, forbidding the formation of the CTC. Furthermore the background solution required to create CTCs becomes unstable with an arbitrarily fast decay time. Thus Galileon theories satisfy a direct analogue of Hawking's chronology protection conjecture.

  17. Racial Differences in Patterns of Wealth Accumulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gittleman, Maury; Wolff, Edward N.

    2004-01-01

    The race differences in patterns of asset accumulations were examined using PSD data for 1984, 1989 and 1994. The results indicate that inheritances led to wealth accumulations among whites as compared to the African Americans.

  18. Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/article/001225.htm Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (formerly known as Hallervorden-Spatz disease) is ...

  19. Proper Motions of Massive Stars in 30 Doradus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lennon, Daniel

    2013-10-01

    We propose an ambitious proper motion survey of massive stars in the 30 Doradus region of the Large Magellanic Cloud using the unique capabilities of HST. We will derive the directions of motion of massive runaway stars, searching in particular for massive stars which have been ejected from the central very massive cluster R136. These data will be combined with radial velocities from the VLT-FLAMES Survey of the Tarantula Nebula and with atmospheric analyses and stellar evolution models to constrain their origins. We will also search for very young isolated massive stars to test models of single-star formation. This work is highly relevant to star formation, cluster dynamics, the origin of field WR stars and GRBs, the creation of very massive stars by runaway mergers, and the possible formation of intermediate-mass black holes.

  20. Binary interaction dominates the evolution of massive stars.

    PubMed

    Sana, H; de Mink, S E; de Koter, A; Langer, N; Evans, C J; Gieles, M; Gosset, E; Izzard, R G; Le Bouquin, J-B; Schneider, F R N

    2012-07-27

    The presence of a nearby companion alters the evolution of massive stars in binary systems, leading to phenomena such as stellar mergers, x-ray binaries, and gamma-ray bursts. Unambiguous constraints on the fraction of massive stars affected by binary interaction were lacking. We simultaneously measured all relevant binary characteristics in a sample of Galactic massive O stars and quantified the frequency and nature of binary interactions. More than 70% of all massive stars will exchange mass with a companion, leading to a binary merger in one-third of the cases. These numbers greatly exceed previous estimates and imply that binary interaction dominates the evolution of massive stars, with implications for populations of massive stars and their supernovae. PMID:22837522