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Sample records for accumulate trace metals

  1. Abnormal accumulation of trace metals by plants

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, R.D.; Brooks, R.R.; Baker, A.J.M.

    1996-12-31

    The article describes the hyperaccumulation of metals by plants. Ranges for low, normal, high, and hyperaccumulating uptake are established. A partial list of hyperaccumulator species and their localities is included. Studies are reviewed and summarized for zinc, cadmium and lead, nickel, cobalt and copper, selenium, and cadmium and manganese hyperaccumulation.

  2. Trace metals accumulation in Bacopa monnieri and their bioaccessibility.

    PubMed

    Srikanth Lavu, Rama Venkata; Prasad, Majeti Narasimha Vara; Pratti, Varalakshmi Lalithya; Meißner, Ralph; Rinklebe, Jörg; Van De Wiele, Tom; Tack, Filip; Du Laing, Gijs

    2013-08-01

    Bacopa monnieri is commonly known as "Brahmi" or "Water hyssop" and is a source of nootropic drugs. Aboveground parts of plant samples collected from peri-urban Indian areas were analysed for total trace metal concentrations. Subsequently, three samples with high concentrations of Cd and Pb were subjected to in vitro gastrointestinal digestion to assess the bioaccessibility of the trace metals in these plants. The total concentrations of trace metals on a dry weight basis were 1.3 to 6.7 mg·kg⁻¹ Cd, 1.5 to 22 mg·kg⁻¹ Pb, 36 to 237 mg·kg⁻¹ Cu, and 78 to 186 mg·kg⁻¹ Zn. The majority of Bacopa monnieri samples exceeded threshold limits of Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn for use as raw medicinal plant material or direct consumption. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate Bacopa monnieri collected in nature for their trace metal content prior to human consumption and preparation of herbal formulations.

  3. Accumulation and trace-metal variability of estuarine sediments, St. Bernard delta geomorphic region, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Landrum, K.E.

    1995-10-01

    Prior to government regulation, little monitoring of metal discharges into the canals, bayous, and rivers that drain estuarine systems occured. Discharges of trace-metals by industries and municipalities into surface water bodies are presently regulated through the use of Federal and State mandated permit programs. Resource management of economically important estuarine systems has fostered increasing concern over the accumulation of trace-metal pollutants in water, sediments, and biota from these dynamic areas. The acid-leachable concentrations of fourteen trace-metals were determined for 125 bottom sediment samples and 50 core interval samples by plasma emission analysis. Bottom sediments of the St. Bernard estuarom complex consist predominantly of silty clays and clayey silts derived from the erosion of the St. Bernard lobe of the Mississippi River delta and sediments associated with historic crevasses along the Mississippi River. Within the 2 cm core intervals, trace-metal concentrations of Ba, Cr, Cd, Pb, and Zn increased by 10% to 18% in sediments accumulated within the last 75 years. Trace-metal concentrations from sediments for the study area tend to have greater mean concentrations than Florida estuarine sediments, basinwide and Gulf Coast trace-metal comparisons, sediment geochronology. Rates varied from 0.12 to 0.21 cm/yr. Within the 2 cm core intervals, trace-metal concentrations of Ba, Cr, Cd, Pb, and Zn increased by 10% to 18% in sediments accumulated within the last 75 years. Natural trace-metal variability was examined through the use of an aluminum normalization model based on Florida and Louisiana estuarine sediments, basinwide and Gulf Coast trace-metal comparisons, sediment geochronology, and grain-size corrected data. Elevated concentrations of As, Ba, Cd, Pb, V and Zn were noted from sediments associated with oil and gas drilling and production, sandblasting and shipbuilding, dredging, and stormwater, municipal, and industrial discharges.

  4. Record of the accumulation of sediment and trace metals in a Connecticut salt marsh

    SciTech Connect

    McCaffrey, R.J.; Thomson, J.

    1980-12-01

    The possibility that a useful, historical record of deposition might be found in a salt marsh is investigated by considering a record of the accumulation of sediment and trace metals in a Connecticut salt marsh. Evidence of salt-marsh deposition dominated by riverine runoff is presented.

  5. Trace Metal Accumulation in Sediments and Benthic Macroinvertebrates before and after Maintenance of a Constructed Wetland

    EPA Science Inventory

    Periodic maintenance of stormwater best management practices (BMP) includes the removal of accumulated sediment. The resulting impact on trace metal concentrations of copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in a constructed stormwater wetland BMP on Staten Island, NY was investiga...

  6. Trace metal accumulation in soil and their phytoavailability as affected by greenhouse types in north China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lanqin; Huang, Biao; Mao, Mingcui; Yao, Lipeng; Hickethier, Martina; Hu, Wenyou

    2015-05-01

    Long-term heavy organic fertilizer application has linked greenhouse vegetable production (GVP) with trace metal contamination in north China. Given that trace metals release from fertilizers and their availability may be affected by discrepant environmental conditions, especially temperature under different greenhouses, this study investigated Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn accumulation and contamination extent in soil as well as their phytoavailability under two major greenhouses in Tongshan, north China, namely solar greenhouse (SG) and round-arched plastic greenhouse (RAPG), to evaluate their presumed difference. The results showed significant Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn accumulation in GVP soil by comparing with those in open-field soil, but their accumulation extent and rates were generally greater in SG than those in RAPG. This may be related to more release of trace metals to soil due to the acceleration of decomposition and humification process of organic fertilizers under higher soil temperature in SG relative to that in RAPG. Overall, soil in both greenhouses was generally less polluted or moderately polluted by the study metals. Similarly, decreased soil pH and elevated soil available metals in SG caused higher trace metals in leaf vegetables in SG than those in RAPG, although there was no obvious risk via vegetable consumption under both greenhouses. Lower soil pH may be predominantly ascribed to more intensive farming practices in SG while elevated soil available metals may be attributed to more release of dissolved organic matter-metal complexes from soil under higher temperature in SG. The data provided in this study may assist in developing reasonable and sustainable fertilization strategies to abate trace metal contamination in both greenhouses.

  7. Accumulation and trace-metal variability of estuarine sediments, Barataria Basin, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Landrum, K.

    1994-09-01

    Prior to government regulation, little monitoring of metal discharges into the canals, bayous, and rivers that drain estuarine systems occurred. Discharges of heavy metals are now limited through the use of regulatory permit programs for industries and municipalities. Resource management of economically important estuarine systems has fostered increasing concern over the accumulation of heavy metal pollutants in water, sediments, and biota of these dynamic areas. As a result of the low solubility of most metals, very small amounts are transported in solution. Most metals transported by rivers are tightly bound in the aluminosilicate phases associated with the suspended and bottom sediments. The bottom sediments of lakes and estuaries have served as sinks for the accumulation of heavy metals from natural weathering products, spills, effluents, runoff, and atmospheric sources. These accumulations have left a metal signature upon essentially every bay and estuary in the northern Gulf. The acid-leachable concentrations of 14 metals (Al, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn) were determined for 136 bottom sediment samples and 40 core interval samples by plasma emission analysis. Elevated concentrations in heavy metals near the centers of the Barataria basin lakes reflect the strong correlations between increased trace-metal concentrations and smaller grain-size sediments. Heavy metal concentrations within the 2-cm core intervals indicate increases in Ba, Cr, Cd, Pb, and Zn (10-30%) within Barataria basin sediments accumulated in the last 75 yr. Although anthropogenic heavy metal contributions within Barataria basin exist, comparisons of average trace-metal concentrations from the study areas with those of other Gulf Coast estuaries and with the average shale indicate that the heavy metal contents of upper Barataria basin sediments have not reached alarming levels.

  8. Ecological risk assessment of trace metal accumulation in sediments of Veraval Harbor, Gujarat, Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Sundararajan, S; Khadanga, Mukunda Kesari; Kumar, J Prince Prakash Jeba; Raghumaran, S; Vijaya, R; Jena, Basanta Kumar

    2017-01-15

    In this study, different types of indices were used to assess the ecological risk of trace metal contamination in sediments on the basis of sediment quality guidelines at Veraval Fishery Harbor. Sediment samples were collected from three sectors in pre-, post-, and monsoon seasons in 2006. Trace metal concentrations were higher in the inner sector during post-monsoon, and it showed the highest statistical significance (p<0.01) among the stations. Pollution load index was higher than unity, indicating alternation by effluent discharge from industries. Enrichment factor and geo-accumulation index showed that Cd, Pb, and Zn were enriched in the northern part of the harbor and Pb had accumulated in the harbor sediment. The ecological risk assessment index revealed that Ni, Zn, and Pb were higher than the effect range median values, indicating their potential toxicity to the aquatic environment in the Veraval Harbor. Hence, the harbor is dominated by anthropogenic activities rather than natural process.

  9. Accumulation of Trace Metals by Mangrove Plants in Indian Sundarban Wetland: Prospects for Phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Ranju; Favas, Paulo J C; Pratas, J; Jonathan, M P; Ganesh, P Sankar; Sarkar, Santosh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The work investigates on the potential of ten mangrove species for absorption, accumulation and partitioning of trace metal(loid)s in individual plant tissues (leaves, bark and root/pneumatophore) at two study sites of Indian Sundarban Wetland. The metal(loid) concentration in host sediments and their geochemical characteristics were also considered. Mangrove sediments showed unique potential in many- fold increase for most metal(loid)s than plant tissues due to their inherent physicochemical properties. The ranges of concentration of trace metal(loid)s for As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in plant tissue were 0.006-0.31, 0.02-2.97, 0.10-4.80, 0.13-6.49, 4.46-48.30, 9.2-938.1, 0.02-0.13, 9.8-1726, 11-5.41, 0.04-7.64, 3.81-52.20 μg g (-1)respectively. The bio- concentration factor (BCF) showed its maximum value (15.5) in Excoecaria agallocha for Cd, suggesting that it can be considered as a high-efficient plant for heavy metal bioaccumulation. Among all metals, Cd and Zn were highly bioaccumulated in E. agallocha (2.97 and 52.2 μg g (-1) respectively. Our findings suggest that the species may be classified as efficient metal trap for Cd in aerial parts, as indicated by higher metal accumulation in the leaves combined with BCF and translocation factor (TF) values.

  10. Accumulation of trace metals in the embryos and hatchlings of Chelonia mydas from Peninsular Malaysia incubated at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Ikonomopoulou, Maria P; Olszowy, Henry; Francis, Rod; Ibrahim, Kamarruddin; Whittier, Joan

    2013-04-15

    A variety of trace metals were measured in the egg contents of three clutches of Chelonia mydas collected from Kuala Terengganu state in Peninsular Malaysia. We quantified Mn, Cu, Zn, Se (essential trace metals) and As (anthropogenic pollutant) at several developmental stages obtained by incubating eggs at two different temperatures (27 °C and 31 °C). The incubation temperatures were chosen because they produce predominantly male or predominantly female hatchlings, respectively. The eggs were removed from the sand and washed before being placed in incubators, to ensure that the only possible source of the detected metals was maternal transfer. Other metals: Mo, Co, Ni, Cd, Sn, Sb, Hg, Tl and Pb (all non-essential metals) were detected at concentrations below the lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ). Trace metal concentrations, particularly [Zn], increased during development, other metals (Cu, As, Se and Cr) accumulated to a lesser degree than zinc but no significant differences were observed between the incubation temperatures at any stage of incubation. To date, only a few studies on trace metals in turtle embryos and hatchlings have been reported; this study will provide basic knowledge on the accumulation of trace metals during development at two different incubation temperatures.

  11. Trace metal accumulation in sediments and benthic macroinvertebrates before and after maintenance of a constructed wetland.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Thomas P; Muthukrishnan, Swarna; Barshatzky, Kristen; Wallace, William

    2012-04-01

    Stormwater best management practices (BMPs) require regular maintenance. The impact on trace metal concentrations in a constructed stormwater wetland BMP on Staten Island, New York, was investigated by analyzing sediment concentrations and tissue residues of the dominant macroinvertebrates (Tubifex tubifex) prior and subsequent to maintenance. Trace metal concentrations were assessed using standard serial extraction (for sediment) and acid digestion (for tissue burdens) techniques, followed by quantitative determination using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, respectively. The results suggest that disturbance of sediment during maintenance of the BMP resulted in an increase in the most mobile fraction of trace metals, especially those associated with finer grained sediments (< 63 tm), and as a consequence, measured metal concentrations in macroinvertebrates increased. Regressions of a subset of metal concentrations (copper, lead, and zinc) in sediment and the macroinvertebrate tissue burden samples generally increased as a result of maintenance. A follow-up sampling event 9 months after maintenance demonstrated that the most readily available form of trace metal in the BMP was reduced, which supports (1) long-term sequestration of metals in the BMP and (2) that elevated bioavailability following maintenance was potentially a transient feature of the disturbance. This study suggests that in the long-term, performing sediment removal might help reduce bioavailability of trace metal concentrations in both the BMP and the receiving water to which a BMP discharges. However, alternative practices might need to be implemented to reduce trace metal bioavailability in the short-term.

  12. Accumulation and depuration of trace metals in Southern Toads, Bufo Terrestris, exposed to coal combustion waste

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, C.; Hassan, S.; Mendonca, M.

    2009-02-15

    Accumulation and depuration of metals by an organism are underrepresented in the literature. We collected southern toads (Bufo terrestris) from coal by-product (ash)-contaminated and uncontaminated sites to examine metal concentrations over time. Toads were placed in four exposure regimes, then sacrificed periodically over a 5-month period, and whole-body metal levels were measured. Toads exposed to ash accumulated significant concentrations of metals. Metal concentrations changed throughout the experiment, and profiles of accumulation and depuration differed depending on the metal and exposure regime. Ash-exposed toads exhibited elevated levels of 11 of 18 metals measured. Increases ranged from 47.5% for Pb to more than 5000% for As. Eight of 18 metals did not change in control toads, while 10 of 18 metals decreased in toads removed from ash, ranging from -25% for Co to -96% for Tl. Seven metals that decreased in toads removed from ash did not change in control toads.

  13. Effects of environmental and physiological variables on the accumulated concentrations of trace metals in the New Zealand cockle Austrovenus stutchburyi.

    PubMed

    Marsden, Islay D; Smith, Brian D; Rainbow, Phillip S

    2014-02-01

    We examined potential causes of variation in trace element accumulation in an estuarine bivalve Austrovenus stutchburyi from two estuarine systems in South Island, New Zealand which differed in their metal contamination and salinity regimes. Concentrations of Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Ti, V and Zn were measured (ICP-OES) in whole body tissues of bivalves collected from 10 sites, seston collected at high tide (a potential food resource) and in the sediment at the sites. All 13 elements showed a relationship between log bioaccumulated trace element concentration (mgkg(-1) dry weight tissue) and log shell length (mm), either in the whole data set or at least one site (ANCOVA). Growth rates of cockles varied significantly amongst sites. Accumulated soft tissue concentrations of Ag, As, Co and Cr increased with age of cockle, those of Pb and Zn decreased, with no clear age-related trend for the remaining metals (ANCOVA). Shell length was generally a good proxy for age when allowing for any size effect in metal accumulation by the cockle. There was no consistent pattern between the estuarine systems, probably reflecting unidentified contaminant inputs. Following depuration, tissue concentrations decreased significantly for some elements (Fe, Mn, Ti and V), indicating high concentrations of these metals in the gut contents. Trace element concentrations in the seston generally did not correlate with the bivalve tissue concentrations. There were few (Spearman's Rank) correlations between environmental variables at the time of sampling and cockle tissue trace element concentrations. The main sources of variation in bioaccumulated trace metal concentrations in the whole tissues of the cockle are location, shell length and age.

  14. Spatial and interspecific variation of accumulated trace metals between remote and urbane dwelling birds of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Naeem Akhtar; Khan, Muhammad Usman; Jaspers, Veerle Leontina Bernard; Chaudhry, Muhammad Jamshed Iqbal; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2015-03-01

    The current study was designed to evaluate the hypothesis that birds of urbanized and/or industrialized origin depict higher metal accumulation as compared to remote dwellers. We selected seven representative species from three families (Anatidae, Motacillidae and Sturnidae) at two different locations; Baroghil valley (remote location) and Soan valley (urbanized location) of Pakistan and analyzed the concentrations of 8 metals Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Cu, Mn, Fe and Zn in feathers of these species. Feathers from Soan valley which is under higher anthropogenic influence exhibited significantly (P<0.001) higher metal concentrations when compared with the feathers of the same species at Baroghil valley which has negligible anthropogenic input. Terrestrial birds of the Baroghil valley revealed greater metal loads than aquatic birds while at Soan valley it was vice versa. In general, elevated concentrations of metals were recorded in insectivorous species as compared to omnivorous species. Within each location, species belonging to Anatidae and Motacillidae revealed similar metal contamination patterns. Principal component Analysis (PCA) based on correlation matrices depicted a clear tendency of metals towards the species originating from areas with greater pollution load (Soan valley) than relatively undisturbed sites (Baroghil valley) and hence corroborated our hypothesis. The pattern of metal accumulation in feathers of both the locations suggested that there may be a flux of migration between the two regions and/or trans-boundary movement of pollutants/metals, which either singly or synergistically influence the overall metal profile in the studied bird species.

  15. Assessment of antioxidant responses and trace metal accumulation by digestive gland of ribbed mussel Aulacomya atra atra from Northern Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Giarratano, Erica; Gil, Mónica N; Malanga, Gabriela

    2013-06-01

    Seasonal and spatial variability of trace metal concentrations and of a battery of antioxidant parameters were evaluated in digestive gland of the ribbed mussel Aulacomya atra atra. Fe, Al and Cu accumulated in tissue exhibited maximum values in winter, coinciding partially with the highest labile concentrations of Fe and Cu in sediment. Metals, as other pollutants, are known to influence the oxidative status of organisms and antioxidant enzymes have been often proposed as biomarkers of contaminant effects. Seasonal variations of trace metals did not appear to influence those of biochemical parameters, which generally showed an opposite trend with higher enzymatic activities in summer when trace metal concentrations were lower. Organisms from Punta Cuevas (control site) showed higher induction of reactive oxygen species production than those from both considered impacted sites, suggesting the possibility of some biochemical adaptation in organisms or a higher modulation of environmental and physiological factors on antioxidant responses than levels of trace metals. This study, which is the first in the area in this matter, showed that seasonal variations of potential biomarkers should be incorporated into interpretation of long-term biomonitoring studies in this marine coastal ecosystem.

  16. Accumulation of heavy metals and trace elements in fluvial sediments received effluents from traditional and semiconductor industries

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Liang-Ching; Huang, Ching-Yi; Chuang, Yen-Hsun; Chen, Ho-Wen; Chan, Ya-Ting; Teah, Heng Yi; Chen, Tsan-Yao; Chang, Chiung-Fen; Liu, Yu-Ting; Tzou, Yu-Min

    2016-01-01

    Metal accumulation in sediments threatens adjacent ecosystems due to the potential of metal mobilization and the subsequent uptake into food webs. Here, contents of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) and trace elements (Ga, In, Mo, and Se) were determined for river waters and bed sediments that received sewage discharged from traditional and semiconductor industries. We used principal component analysis (PCA) to determine the metal distribution in relation to environmental factors such as pH, EC, and organic matter (OM) contents in the river basin. While water PCA categorized discharged metals into three groups that implied potential origins of contamination, sediment PCA only indicated a correlation between metal accumulation and OM contents. Such discrepancy in metal distribution between river water and bed sediment highlighted the significance of physical-chemical properties of sediment, especially OM, in metal retention. Moreover, we used Se XANES as an example to test the species transformation during metal transportation from effluent outlets to bed sediments and found a portion of Se inventory shifted from less soluble elemental Se to the high soluble and toxic selenite and selenate. The consideration of environmental factors is required to develop pollution managements and assess environmental risks for bed sediments. PMID:27681994

  17. Accumulation of heavy metals and trace elements in fluvial sediments received effluents from traditional and semiconductor industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Liang-Ching; Huang, Ching-Yi; Chuang, Yen-Hsun; Chen, Ho-Wen; Chan, Ya-Ting; Teah, Heng Yi; Chen, Tsan-Yao; Chang, Chiung-Fen; Liu, Yu-Ting; Tzou, Yu-Min

    2016-09-01

    Metal accumulation in sediments threatens adjacent ecosystems due to the potential of metal mobilization and the subsequent uptake into food webs. Here, contents of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) and trace elements (Ga, In, Mo, and Se) were determined for river waters and bed sediments that received sewage discharged from traditional and semiconductor industries. We used principal component analysis (PCA) to determine the metal distribution in relation to environmental factors such as pH, EC, and organic matter (OM) contents in the river basin. While water PCA categorized discharged metals into three groups that implied potential origins of contamination, sediment PCA only indicated a correlation between metal accumulation and OM contents. Such discrepancy in metal distribution between river water and bed sediment highlighted the significance of physical-chemical properties of sediment, especially OM, in metal retention. Moreover, we used Se XANES as an example to test the species transformation during metal transportation from effluent outlets to bed sediments and found a portion of Se inventory shifted from less soluble elemental Se to the high soluble and toxic selenite and selenate. The consideration of environmental factors is required to develop pollution managements and assess environmental risks for bed sediments.

  18. Accumulation and risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and trace metals in tropical urban soils.

    PubMed

    Khillare, P S; Hasan, Amreen; Sarkar, Sayantan

    2014-05-01

    The study deals with the combined contribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metals to health risk in Delhi soils. Surface soils (0-5 cm) collected from three different land-use regions (industrial, flood-plain and a reference site) in Delhi, India over a period of 1 year were characterized with respect to 16 US Environmental Protection Agency priority PAHs and five trace metals (Zn, Fe, Ni, Cr and Cd). Mean annual ∑16PAH concentrations at the industrial and flood-plain sites (10,893.2 ± 2826.4 and 3075.4 ± 948.7 μg/kg, respectively) were ~15 and ~4 times, respectively, higher than reference levels. Significant spatial and seasonal variations were observed for PAHs. Toxicity potentials of industrial and flood-plain soils were ~88 and ~8 times higher than reference levels. Trace metal concentrations in soils also showed marked dependencies on nearness to sources and seasonal effects. Correlation analysis, PAH diagnostic ratios and principal component analysis (PCA) led to the identification of sources such as coal and wood combustion, vehicular and industrial emissions, and atmospheric transport. Metal enrichment in soil and the degree of soil contamination were investigated using enrichment factors and index of geoaccumulation, respectively. Health risk assessment (incremental lifetime cancer risk and hazard index) showed that floodplain soils have potential high risk due to PAHs while industrial soils have potential risks due to both PAHs and Cr.

  19. Historical trace metal accumulation in the sediments of an urbanized region of the Lake Champlain watershed, Burlington, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mecray, E.L.; King, J.W.; Appleby, P.G.; Hunt, A.S.

    2001-01-01

    This study documents the history of pollution inputs in the Burlington region of Lake Champlain, Vermont using measurements of anthropogenic metals (Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Cd, and Ag) in four age-dated sediment cores. Sediments record a history of contamination in a region and can be used to assess the changing threat to biota over time and to evaluate the effectiveness of discharge regulations on anthropogenic inputs. Grain size, magnetic susceptibility, radiometric dating and pollen stratigraphy were combined with trace metal data to provide an assessment of the history of contamination over the last 350 yr in the Burlington region of Lake Champlain. Magnetic susceptibility was initially used to identify land-use history for each site because it is a proxy indicator of soil erosion. Historical trends in metal inputs in the Burlington region from the seventeenth through the twentieth centuries are reflected in downcore variations in metal concentrations and accumulation rates. Metal concentrations increase above background values in the early to mid nineteenth century. The metal input rate to the sediments increases around 1920 and maximum concentrations and accumulation rates are observed in the late 1960s. Decreases in concentration and accumulation rate between 1970 and the present are observed, for most metals. The observed trends are primarily a function of variations in anthropogenic inputs and not variations in sediment grain size. Grain size data were used to remove texture variations from the metal profiles and results show trends in the anthropogenic metal signals remain. Radiometric dating and pollen stratigraphy provide well-constrained dates for the sediments thereby allowing the metal profiles to be interpreted in terms of land-use history.This study documents the history of pollution inputs in the Burlington region of Lake Champlain, Vermont using measurements of anthropogenic metals (Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Cd, and Ag) in four age-dated sediment cores. Sediments

  20. Relative importance of burrow sediment and porewater to the accumulation of trace metals in the clam Amiantis umbonella.

    PubMed

    Tarique, Qaiser; Burger, Joanna; Reinfelder, John R

    2013-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the infaunal, facultative deposit-feeding clam Amiantis umbonella as a bioindicator of trace-metal contamination and the relative importance of clam burrow sediment and porewater to total accumulation in an urban/industrial coastal environment. Concentrations of eight trace metals (cadmium [Cd], chromium, copper, mercury [Hg], nickel, lead [Pb], vanadium, and zinc) were measured in the soft tissues of clams and in sediment and porewater from clam burrows along a 5-km transect from desalination/power plant discharges in inner Kuwait Bay. All metals had significantly greater concentrations in clams collected near the desalination/power plant discharges than from the reference site and exhibited decreasing trends with distance from the point source in clam soft tissues and burrow sediment and porewater. Concentrations of Hg (1-9 ppm [dry weight]) and the highest concentrations of Pb (3 ppm) and Cd (7 ppm) in clams from contaminated sites in Kuwait Bay were greater than human consumption limits. Metal concentrations in clams were correlated with those in burrow sediment and porewater across all sites and at sites closest to the point source but not within the reference site. The concentrations of all metals, except Pb, in clams from the contaminated sites were more highly correlated with those in clam burrow sediment than porewater. Concentrations of Pb in clam soft tissues were more strongly correlated with those in burrow porewater than sediment. These results indicate that A. umbonella is an excellent bioindicator of trace metal contamination and that sediment is an important source of contaminant metals to this infaunal clam; however, the source of each metal must be evaluated separately.

  1. Accumulation of trace metals in sediments in a Mediterranean Lagoon: Usefulness of metal sediment fractionation and elutriate toxicity assessment.

    PubMed

    Zaaboub, Noureddine; Martins, Maria Virgínia Alves; Dhib, Amel; Béjaoui, Béchir; Galgani, François; El Bour, Monia; Aleya, Lotfi

    2015-12-01

    The authors investigated sediment quality in Bizerte Lagoon (Tunisia) focusing on geochemical characteristics, metal sediment fractionation and elutriate toxicity assessment. Nickel, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr and Cd partitioning in sediments was studied; accumulation and bioavailability were elucidated using enrichment factors, sequential extractions, redox potential, acid volatile sulfide and biotest procedures in toxicity evaluation. Results revealed an accumulation for Pb and Zn, reaching 99 and 460 mg kg(-1) respectively. In addition, the acid volatile sulfide values were high in both eastern and western lagoon areas, thus affecting metal availability. Mean enrichment factor values for Pb and Zn were 4.8 and 4.9, respectively, with these elements as the main contributors to the lagoon's moderate enrichment level. Toxicity levels were influenced by accumulation of Zn in different surface sediment areas. Core sediments were investigated in areas with the highest metal concentrations; metal fractionation and biotest confirmed that Zn contributes to sediment toxicity.

  2. Accumulation, sources and health risks of trace metals in elevated geochemical background soils used for greenhouse vegetable production in southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haidong; Huang, Biao; Dong, Linlin; Hu, Wenyou; Akhtar, Mohammad Saleem; Qu, Mingkai

    2017-03-01

    Greenhouse vegetable cultivation with substantive manure and fertilizer input on soils with an elevated geochemical background can accumulate trace metals in soils and plants leading to human health risks. Studies on trace metal accumulation over a land use shift duration in an elevated geochemical background scenario are lacking. Accumulation characteristics of seven trace metals in greenhouse soil and edible plants were evaluated along with an assessment of the health risk to the consumers. A total of 118 greenhouse surface soils (0-20cm) and 30 vegetables were collected from Kunming City, Yunnan Province, southwestern China, and analyzed for total Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, As, Hg, and Cr content by ICP-MS and AFS. The trace metals were ordered Cu>Cd>Hg>Zn>Pb>As>Cr in greenhouse soils accumulation level, and the geo-accumulation index suggested the soil more severely polluted with Cd, Cu, Hg and Zn. The greenhouse and open-field soils had significant difference in Cd, Cr and Zn. The duration of shift from paddy to greenhouse land-use significantly influenced trace metal accumulation with a dramatic change during five to ten year greenhouse land-use, and continuous increase of Cd and Hg. A spatial pattern from north to south for Cd and Hg and a zonal pattern for Cu and Zn were found. An anthropogenic source primarily caused trace metal accumulation, where the principal component analysis/multiple linear regression indicated a contribution 61.2%. While the assessment showed no potential risk for children and adults, the hazard health risks index was greater than one for adolescents. The extended duration of land use as greenhouses caused the trace metal accumulation, rotation in land use should be promoted to reduce the health risks.

  3. Trace metals accumulation in soil irrigated with polluted water and assessment of human health risk from vegetable consumption in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Atikul; Romić, Davor; Akber, Md Ali; Romić, Marija

    2017-01-18

    Trace metals accumulation in soil irrigated with polluted water and human health risk from vegetable consumption was assessed based on the data available in the literature on metals pollution of water, soil, sediment and vegetables from the cites of Bangladesh. The quantitative data on metal concentrations, their contamination levels and their pollution sources have not been systematically gathered and studied so far. The data on metal concentrations, sources, contamination levels, sample collection and analytical tools used were collected, compared and discussed. The USEPA-recommended method for health risk assessment was used to estimate human risk from vegetable consumption. Concentrations of metals in water were highly variable, and the mean concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu and As in water were found to be higher than the FAO irrigation water quality standard. In most cases, mean concentrations of metals in soil were higher than the Bangladesh background value. Based on geoaccumulation index (I geo) values, soils of Dhaka city are considered as highly contaminated. The I geo shows Cd, As, Cu, Ni, Pb and Cr contamination of agricultural soils and sediments of the cities all over the Bangladesh. Polluted water irrigation and agrochemicals are identified as dominant sources of metals in agricultural soils. Vegetable contamination by metals poses both non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks to the public. Based on the results of the pollution and health risk assessments, Cd, As, Cr, Cu, Pb and Ni are identified as the priority control metals and the Dhaka city is recommended as the priority control city. This study provides quantitative evidence demonstrating the critical need for strengthened wastewater discharge regulations in order to protect residents from heavy metal discharges into the environment.

  4. Shallow Sediment Trace Metal Concentrations and Short-Term Accumulation Rates in the Neponset River Estuary, Massachusetts, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, J. R.; Zhu, J.; Olsen, C. R.

    2010-12-01

    The Neponset River estuary is a small estuary that drains into the Boston Harbor on the east coast of the United States. It is also a highly urbanized estuary and has a long history of urban development over 450 years. In July 2006, six sediment cores were collected in the Neponset River estuary to examine particle dynamics and sediment accumulation via radionuclide (Beryllium-7) dating, and to determine sediment metal concentrations (As, Cu, Pb, and Zn) via ED-XRF measurements. Measured sediment Be-7 profiles indicate various sedimentation environments, where sediment accumulation, resuspension or redeposition is likely to occur. High metal concentrations were often corresponding to high Be-7 inventories in sediment cores. Possible sources of trace metal contaminants in the water column include: storm water run-off, Combined Sewer Overflows (CSOs), a well-documented industrial pollution event that occurred upstream in the early to mid twentieth century, and the resuspension of sediment. Existing and future data will provide baseline information for quantifying the effects of the proposed and pending environmental restoration project, which includes the removal of the Baker Dam. The combined pre- and post-Dam removal data may then be used in cost-benefit analyses for other similar estuarine restoration projects.

  5. Accumulation and fractionation of trace metals in a Tunisian calcareous soil amended with farmyard manure and municipal solid waste compost.

    PubMed

    Achiba, W Ben; Lakhdar, Abdelbasset; Gabteni, Noureddine; Du Laing, Gijs; Verloo, Marc; Boeckx, Pascal; Van Cleemput, Oswald; Jedidi, Naceur; Gallali, Tahar

    2010-04-15

    A field plots experiment was carried out to assess the effects of repeated application of municipal solid waste compost in comparison to farmyard manure on the accumulation and distribution of trace metals, as well as organic carbon and nitrogen in Tunisian calcareous soil. Compared with untreated soil, the application of the two organic amendments significantly increased the organic carbon and nitrogen contents of the soil. Particle-size fractionations showed that carbon and nitrogen were mainly found to occur in the macro-organic matter fraction (80%). The two organic amendments significantly increased organic carbon in the macro-organic and mineral >150 microm fraction and the 150-50 microm fraction, as well as the organic nitrogen in 150-50 microm and macro-organic fraction. Compared with farmyard manure, municipal solid waste compost significantly increased total Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn contents in the topsoil. These trace metals were mainly present in the macro-organic matter fraction. Significant increases of Cu, Zn and Pb were detected in the 150-50 microm, <50 microm and macro-organic fractions after application of municipal solid waste compost. A significant increase of Cd content was only observed in the 150-50 microm fraction. The trace metals also showed different fractionation patterns when the BCR sequential extraction scheme was applied on untreated and compost-treated soil. The residual fraction was found to be the major fraction, especially for Cu, Cr, Ni and Zn. In contrast, Cd was mainly present in the acid-extractable and reducible fraction, whereas Pb was mainly associated with the reducible fraction.

  6. Landslide-induced iron mobilisation shapes benthic accumulation of nutrients, trace metals and REE fractionation in an oligotrophic alpine stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Scott G.; Rose, Andrew L.; Burton, Edward D.; Webster-Brown, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Large alpine landslides that entrain substantial organic material below the water table and create suspended floodplains may have long-term consequences for the mobilisation of redox sensitive elements, such as Fe, into streamwaters. In turn, the cycling of iron in aquatic systems can influence the fate of nutrients, alter primary productivity, enhance accumulation of trace metals and induce fractionation of rare earth elements (REE). In this study we examine a reach of a pristine oligotrophic alpine stream bracketing a 30 year-old landslide and explore the consequences of landslide-induced Fe mobilisation for aqueous geochemistry and the composition of benthic stream cobble biofilm. Elevated Fe2+ and Mn in landslide zone stream waters reflect inputs of circumneutral groundwater from the landslide debris-zone floodplain. Geochemical characteristics are consistent with reductive dissolution being a primary mechanism of Fe2+ and Mn mobilisation. Stream cobble biofilm in the landslide zone is significantly (P < 0.01) enriched in poorly crystalline Fe(III) (∼10-400 times background) and Mn (∼15-150 times background) (1 M HCl extractable; Fe(III)Ab). While the landslide zone accounts for less than ∼9% of the total stream length, we estimate it is responsible for approximately 60-80% of the stream's benthic biofilm load of poorly crystalline Fe(III) and Mn. Biofilm Fe(III) precipitates are comprised mainly of ferrihydrite, lepidocrocite and an organic-Fe species, while precipitate samples collected proximal to hyporheic seeps contain abundant sheath structures characteristic of the neutrophilic Fe(II)-oxidising bacteria Leptothrix spp. Stream-cobble Fe(III)-rich biofilm is accumulating PO43- (∼3-30 times background) and behaving as a preferential substrate for photosynthetic periphyton, with benthic PO43-, chlorophyll a, organic carbonHCl and total N all significantly positively correlated with Fe(III)Ab and significantly elevated within the landslide zone (P < 0

  7. Sources and accumulation of trace metals in sediments and the asiatic clam, corbicula fluminea in two South Carolina watersheds. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    A survey of trace element concentrations in the benthic bivalve, Corbicula fluminea, was conducted on the Santee-Cooper River Basin, S.C. from 1989-1991 as part of a nonpoint source water quality assessment. Trace metal concentrations in clam tissues were examined in relation to temporal and spatial variations in river water and sediment. It was found that C. fluminea was a suitable bio-indicator for monitoring trace metal inputs within the basin. Solute concentrations of Cd, Cu and Zn underwent appreciable accumulation as demonstrated by strong solute vs. tissue correlations and high bioconcentration factors. Conversely, the bioavailability of trace elements to C. fluminea was not necessarily related to sediment concentrations, as correlations were not observed between trace elements in sediment and clam tissue. The differences in the bioavailability of metals observed between the watersheds was likely a function of physicochemical factors affecting the partitioning of metals between the water and sediment compartments.

  8. Evaluation of the Accumulation of Trace Metals (as, U, CR, CU, PB, Zn) on Iron-Manganese Coatings on in Situ Stream Pebbles and Emplaced Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turpin, M. M.; Blake, J.; Crossey, L. J.; Ali, A.; Hansson, L.

    2015-12-01

    Exposure to trace metals (As, U, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn) has potential negative health effects on human populations and wildlife. Geothermal waters often have elevated concentrations of trace elements and understanding the geochemical cycling of these elements can be challenging. Previous studies have utilized in situ stream pebbles and glass or ceramic substrates with iron-manganese oxide coatings to understand contamination and or chemical cycling. This project's main focus is to develop an ideal tracing method using adsorption onto substrate surfaces and to define key parameters that are necessary for the phenomenon of adsorption between trace metals and these surface coatings to occur. Sampling locations include the Jemez River and Rio San Antonio in the Jemez mountains, northern New Mexico. Both streams have significant geothermal inputs. Pebbles and cobbles were gathered from the active stream channel and 6mm glass beads and 2 X1 in. ceramic plates were placed in streams for three weeks to allow for coating accumulation. Factors such as leachate type, water pH, substrate type, coating accumulation period and leach time were all considered in this experiment. It was found that of the three leachates (aqua regia, 10% aqua regia and hydroxylamine), hydroxylamine was the most effective at leaching coatings without dissolving substrates. Samples leached with aqua regia and 10% aqua regia were found to lose weight and mass over the following 5, 7, and 10 day measurements. Glass beads were determined to be more effective than in stream pebbles as an accumulation substrate: coatings were more easily controlled and monitored. Samples leached with hydroxylamine for 5 hours and 72 hours showed little difference in their leachate concentrations, suggesting that leach time has little impact on the concentration of leachate samples. This research aims to find the best method for trace metal accumulation in streams to aid in understanding geochemical cycling.

  9. The importance of biological factors affecting trace metal concentration as revealed from accumulation patterns in co-occurring terrestrial invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Hendrickx, Frederik; Maelfait, Jean-Pierre; Bogaert, Nicolas; Tojal, Catarina; Du Laing, Gijs; Tack, Filip M G; Verloo, Marc G

    2004-01-01

    As physicochemical properties of the soil highly influence the bioavailable fraction of a particular trace metal, measured metal body burdens in a particular species are often assumed to be more reliable estimators of the contamination of the biota. To test this we compared the Cd, Cu and Zn content of three spiders (generalist predators) and two amphipods (detritivores), co-occurring in seven tidal marshes along the river Schelde, between each other and with the total metal concentrations and the concentrations of four sequential extractions of the soils. Correlations were significant in only one case and significant site x species interactions for all metals demonstrate that factors affecting metal concentration were species and site specific and not solely determined by site specific characteristics. These results emphasize that site and species specific biological factors might be of the utmost importance in determining the contamination of the biota, at least for higher trophic levels. A hypothetical example clarifies these findings.

  10. Accumulation of Trace Metal Elements (Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb) in Surface Sediment via Decomposed Seagrass Leaves: A Mesocosm Experiment Using Zostera marina L.

    PubMed Central

    Konuma, Susumu; Nakamura, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Accumulation of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb in the sediment of seagrass ecosystems was examined using mesocosm experiments containing Zostera marina (eelgrass) and reference pools. Lead was approximately 20-fold higher in the surface sediment in the eelgrass pool than in eelgrass leaves and epiphytes on the eelgrass leaves, whereas zinc and cadmium were significantly lower in the surface sediment than in the leaves, with intermediate concentrations in epiphytes. Copper concentrations were similar in both the surface sediment and leaves but significantly lower in epiphytes. Carbon and nitrogen contents increased significantly with increasing δ13C in surface sediments of both the eelgrass and reference pools. Copper, Zn, Cd, and Pb also increased significantly with increasing δ13C in the surface sediment in the eelgrass pool but not in the reference pool. By decomposition of eelgrass leaves with epiphytes, which was examined in the eelgrass pool, copper and lead concentrations increased more than 2-fold and approximately a 10-fold, whereas zinc and cadmium concentrations decreased. The high copper and lead concentrations in the surface sediment result from accumulation in decomposed, shed leaves, whereas zinc and cadmium remobilized from decomposed shed leaves but may remain at higher concentrations in the leaves than in the original sediments. The results of our mesocosm study demonstrate that whether the accumulation or remobilization of trace metals during the decomposition of seagrass leaves is trace metal dependent, and that the decomposed seagrass leaves can cause copper and lead accumulation in sediments in seagrass ecosystems. PMID:27336306

  11. Accumulation of Trace Metal Elements (Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb) in Surface Sediment via Decomposed Seagrass Leaves: A Mesocosm Experiment Using Zostera marina L.

    PubMed

    Hosokawa, Shinya; Konuma, Susumu; Nakamura, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Accumulation of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb in the sediment of seagrass ecosystems was examined using mesocosm experiments containing Zostera marina (eelgrass) and reference pools. Lead was approximately 20-fold higher in the surface sediment in the eelgrass pool than in eelgrass leaves and epiphytes on the eelgrass leaves, whereas zinc and cadmium were significantly lower in the surface sediment than in the leaves, with intermediate concentrations in epiphytes. Copper concentrations were similar in both the surface sediment and leaves but significantly lower in epiphytes. Carbon and nitrogen contents increased significantly with increasing δ13C in surface sediments of both the eelgrass and reference pools. Copper, Zn, Cd, and Pb also increased significantly with increasing δ13C in the surface sediment in the eelgrass pool but not in the reference pool. By decomposition of eelgrass leaves with epiphytes, which was examined in the eelgrass pool, copper and lead concentrations increased more than 2-fold and approximately a 10-fold, whereas zinc and cadmium concentrations decreased. The high copper and lead concentrations in the surface sediment result from accumulation in decomposed, shed leaves, whereas zinc and cadmium remobilized from decomposed shed leaves but may remain at higher concentrations in the leaves than in the original sediments. The results of our mesocosm study demonstrate that whether the accumulation or remobilization of trace metals during the decomposition of seagrass leaves is trace metal dependent, and that the decomposed seagrass leaves can cause copper and lead accumulation in sediments in seagrass ecosystems.

  12. Accumulation of total trace metals due to rapid urbanization in microtidal zone of Pallikaranai marsh, South of Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Jayaprakash, M; Urban, B; Velmurugan, P M; Srinivasalu, S

    2010-11-01

    The article presents the results for enrichment of total trace metals (TTMs) from Pallikaranai salt marsh in South Chennai, a metropolis on the southeast coast of India. TTMs Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, Ni, Co, Pb, Zn, Cd, Sr, V, and Hg along with sediment texture, OC, and CaCO3 were analyzed in 36 surface sediments collected during August 2008 to recognize and observe the input of TTMs in the marsh from various sources in the city limits. In view of the rapid urbanization and industrialization in Chennai City, especially on the southern side, uncontrolled input of sewage, garbage, and industrial effluents into the Pallikaranai marsh land, the elevated concentrations are not surprising. The level of enrichment of TTMs has also increased by 20% to 60% for most of the elements when compared with all other ecosystems in the world as well as the nearby area. The results also indicate that the marshy region is more heavily contaminated with Cd, Hg, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn than other regions on the southeast coast of India. The Enrichment Factor, Contamination Factor, and I (geo) indexes are calculated, and these values are useful to assess the degree of pollution in sediments. The spatial distributions of TTMs are also controlled by other factors like geochemical, precipitation, and flocculation of particulate substances in the marsh. The results of the present study suggest the need for a regular monitoring and management program which will help to improve the quality of Pallikaranai pristine marsh land.

  13. Trace element accumulation in lotic dragonfly nymphs: Genus matters

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Dean E.; Lindell, Angela H.; Stillings, Garrett K.; Blas, Susan A.; McArthur, J. Vaun

    2017-01-01

    Constituents of coal combustion waste (CCW) expose aquatic organisms to complex mixtures of potentially toxic metals and metalloids. Multi-element trace element analyses were used to distinguish patterns of accumulation among 8 genera of dragonfly nymphs collected from two sites on a CCW contaminated coastal plain stream. Dragonfly nymphs are exceptional for comparing trace element accumulation in syntopic macroinvertebrates that are all predators within the same order (Odonata) and suborder (Anisoptera), but differ vastly in habitat use and body form. Sixteen trace element (Be, V, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sr, Cd, Sb, Cs, Ba, Hg, Tl, and Pb) were analyzed and trophic position and basal carbon sources assessed with stable isotope analyses (C and N). Trophic positions varied within relatively narrow ranges. Size did not appear to influence trophic position. Trophic position rarely influenced trace element accumulation within genera and did not consistently correlate with accumulation among genera. Patterns between δ13C and trace element accumulation were generally driven by differences between sites. An increase in trace element accumulation was associated with a divergence of carbon sources between sites in two genera. Higher trace element concentrations tended to accumulate in nymphs from the upstream site, closer to contaminant sources. Influences of factors such as body form and habitat use appeared more influential on trace element accumulation than phylogeny for several elements (Ni, Ba, Sr, V, Be, Cd, and Cr) as higher concentrations accumulated in sprawler and the climber-sprawler genera, irrespective of family. In contrast, As and Se accumulated variably higher in burrowers, but accumulation in sprawlers differed between sites. Greater variation between genera than within genera suggests genus as an acceptable unit of comparison in dragonfly nymphs. Overall, taxonomic differences in trace element accumulation can be substantial, often exceeding variation

  14. Trace element accumulation in lotic dragonfly nymphs: Genus matters.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Dean E; Lindell, Angela H; Stillings, Garrett K; Blas, Susan A; McArthur, J Vaun

    2017-01-01

    Constituents of coal combustion waste (CCW) expose aquatic organisms to complex mixtures of potentially toxic metals and metalloids. Multi-element trace element analyses were used to distinguish patterns of accumulation among 8 genera of dragonfly nymphs collected from two sites on a CCW contaminated coastal plain stream. Dragonfly nymphs are exceptional for comparing trace element accumulation in syntopic macroinvertebrates that are all predators within the same order (Odonata) and suborder (Anisoptera), but differ vastly in habitat use and body form. Sixteen trace element (Be, V, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sr, Cd, Sb, Cs, Ba, Hg, Tl, and Pb) were analyzed and trophic position and basal carbon sources assessed with stable isotope analyses (C and N). Trophic positions varied within relatively narrow ranges. Size did not appear to influence trophic position. Trophic position rarely influenced trace element accumulation within genera and did not consistently correlate with accumulation among genera. Patterns between δ13C and trace element accumulation were generally driven by differences between sites. An increase in trace element accumulation was associated with a divergence of carbon sources between sites in two genera. Higher trace element concentrations tended to accumulate in nymphs from the upstream site, closer to contaminant sources. Influences of factors such as body form and habitat use appeared more influential on trace element accumulation than phylogeny for several elements (Ni, Ba, Sr, V, Be, Cd, and Cr) as higher concentrations accumulated in sprawler and the climber-sprawler genera, irrespective of family. In contrast, As and Se accumulated variably higher in burrowers, but accumulation in sprawlers differed between sites. Greater variation between genera than within genera suggests genus as an acceptable unit of comparison in dragonfly nymphs. Overall, taxonomic differences in trace element accumulation can be substantial, often exceeding variation

  15. Trace metals in barnacles: the significance of trophic transfer.

    PubMed

    Rainbow, Philip S; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2005-05-01

    Barnacles have very high accumulated trace metal body concentrations that vary with local trace metal bioavailabilities and represent integrated measures of the supply of bioavailable metals. Pioneering work in Chinese waters in Hong Kong highlighted the potential value of barnacles (particularly Balanus amphitrite) as trace metal biomonitors in coastal waters, identifying differences in local trace metal bioavailabilities over space and time. Work in Hong Kong has also shown that although barnacles have very high rates of trace metal uptake from solution, they also have very high trace metal assimilation efficiencies from the diet. High assimilation efficiencies coupled with high ingestion rates ensure that trophic uptake is by far the dominant trace metal uptake route in barnacles, as verified for cadmium and zinc. Kinetic modelling has shown that low efflux rate constants and high uptake rates from the diet combine to bring about accumulated trace metal concentrations in barnacles that are amongst the highest known in marine invertebrates.

  16. Effects of aqueous stable fullerene nanocrystal (nC60) on copper (trace necessary nutrient metal): Enhanced toxicity and accumulation of copper in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Tao, Xianji; He, Yiliang; Fortner, John D; Chen, Yongsheng; Hughes, Joseph B

    2013-08-01

    Our focus herein is to evaluate the potential interaction between nC60 and copper, a trace necessary metal, in light of the impact on toxicity. The non-observable effects concentration (NOEC) of nC60 was confirmed as 100μgL(-1) before. When Daphnia magna was exposed to the mixture of copper solution and nC60 suspension (100μgL(-1)), LC50 of 48h was lower than that when they were exposed to copper solution alone. This result clearly showed the decrease in NOEC of copper at the presence of nC60. Cu(2+)-ATPase activity was enhanced at the presence of nC60, indicating that copper transport involved with the uptake, distribution and depuration in body was increased. We further conducted experiments on accumulation of copper in D. magna. The observed equilibrium copper concentration in D. magna in the mixture of 100μgL(-1) nC60 and 1μgL(-1) copper solution reached 131μg (kg wet weight)(-1), which was more than twice that in copper solution only: 60μg (kg wet weight)(-1). This result demonstrated that the accumulation of copper in D. magna was significantly enhanced at the presence of even low nC60 concentration. Experiments also showed that copper was quickly adsorbed onto nC60. The absorption of copper onto D. magna was statistically correlated to the absorption of nC60 onto D. magna; this might be caused by nC60 facilitating the transfer of copper into D. magna. The absorption and desorption of copper to nC60 (pH=5.0) reached equilibrium quickly, which may be involved with the co-bioaccumulation and decrease in NOEC of Cu(2+) and nC60.

  17. Toxicity and the fractional distribution of trace metals accumulated from contaminated sediments by the clam Scrobicularia plana exposed in the laboratory and the field.

    PubMed

    Kalman, J; Bonnail-Miguel, E; Smith, B D; Bury, N R; Rainbow, P S

    2015-02-15

    The relationship between the subcellular distribution of accumulated toxic metals into five operational fractions (subsequently combined into presumed detoxified and non-detoxified components) and toxicity in the clam Scrobicularia plana was investigated under different laboratory exposures. Clams were exposed to metal contaminated media (water and diet) and analysed for the partitioning of accumulated As, Cu and Zn into subcellular fractions. In general, metallothionein-like proteins, metal-rich granules and cellular debris in different proportions acted as main storage sites of accumulated metals in the clam soft tissues for these three metals. No significant differences were noted in the accumulation rates of As, Cu and Zn of groups of individuals with or without apparent signs of toxicity after up to 30 days of exposure to naturally contaminated sediment mixtures. There was, however, an increased proportional accumulation of Cu in the non-detoxified fraction with increased Cu accumulation rate in the clams, suggesting that the Cu uptake rate from contaminated sediments exceeded the combined rates of elimination and detoxification of Cu, with the subsequent likelihood for toxic effects in the clams.

  18. Manganese As a Metal Accumulator

    EPA Science Inventory

    Manganese deposits in water distribution systems accumulate metals, radionuclides and oxyanions by a combination of surface complexation, adsorption and solid substitution, as well as a combination of oxidation followed by manganese reduction and sorption of the oxidized constitu...

  19. The influence of diet on comparative trace metal cadmium, copper and zinc accumulation in Thais clavigera (Gastropoda: Muricidae) preying on intertidal barnacles or mussels.

    PubMed

    Blackmore, Graham; Morton, Brian

    2002-09-01

    The influence of diet on comparative metal accumulation was investigated using a predatory muricid gastropod Thais clavigera. Individuals were fed for up to 56 days on either barnacles, i.e., Tetraclita squamosa, or mussels, i.e., Perna viridis, collected from metal-contaminated and clean sites. Barnacles and mussels have contrasting metal handling strategies and, therefore, different body concentrations, intracellular distributions and detoxification systems. Field collection of prey items that accumulated body metal concentrations over a lifetime of exposure allowed bioavailability to the predator, T. clavigera, to be assessed naturally, which may not be the case for prey exposed to metals for a short time in the laboratory. T. clavigera that was fed cadmium- and copper-contaminated barnacles or mussels ingested significantly greater amounts compared to those fed conspecifics collected from clean locations. T. clavigera body cadmium and copper concentrations were not, however, significantly different between individuals fed either contaminated or clean prey. Amount of zinc ingested was similar in mussels collected from clean and contaminated environments but much less when compared to the barnacle prey. The body concentrations of zinc in T. clavigera fed mussels collected from both sites fell. In contrast, the amount of zinc ingested from barnacle prey was significantly greater from those collected from the metal-contaminated site as compared to the clean one. This was reflected as significantly greater body zinc concentrations in T. clavigera fed contaminated barnacles compared to those fed clean individuals. Copper and zinc accumulation from prey was, therefore, complex. It varied between metal and between prey type, but appeared to be related to the amount ingested and the metal handling strategy of the prey.

  20. Partitioning of accumulated trace metals in the talitrid amphipod crustacean Orchestia gammarellus: a cautionary tale on the use of metallothionein-like proteins as biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Mouneyrac, C; Amiard, J C; Amiard-Triquet, C; Cottier, A; Rainbow, P S; Smith, B D

    2002-06-01

    The induction of metallothionein-like proteins (MTLP) as biomarkers of trace metal pollution has been investigated in the talitrid amphipod Orchestia gammarellus, an established biomonitor of trace metal availabilities in coastal areas. Sensitivity to metal exposure, MTLP and copper and zinc concentrations have been examined in amphipods from a metal-contaminated site (Dulas Bay, Wales) and two clean sites (Millport, Scotland and Bradwell, England). Groups of 10 amphipods from Dulas Bay and Millport were exposed separately to one of a concentration series (1, 3.16, 10, 31.6, 100 microM) of Cu or Zn for 17 days at 10 degrees C. Specimens from Bradwell were exposed under similar conditions but the experiment was extended to 25 days with intermediate samplings at 5, 10 and 17 days and additional groups were exposed to a mixture of Cu+Zn (7:10 molar ratio). In addition, specimens from Millport were exposed to 1 or 31.6 microM Cd for 17 days. Amphipods from Dulas Bay, which had been chronically exposed to metals in their natural environment had not acquired any tolerance to Cu and Zn since the lowest LC 50s were registered in these samples. Whatever the origin of the amphipods experimentally exposed to metals and whatever the dose of exposure, both Cu and Zn remained approximately equally distributed between cytosolic and insoluble fractions in the amphipods, suggesting that mechanisms of metal storage were identical over the whole range of conditions. Concentrations of MTLP were higher in O. gammarellus from Dulas Bay than in those from Millport analysed directly after collection, although laboratory exposures to dissolved Cd, Cu or Zn have failed to demonstrate differences in the induction of MTLP between amphipods from the clean or contaminated sites. A potential role for metallothionein-like proteins as biomarkers is thus unlikely although it remains plausible that turnover of these proteins does increase in response to increased metal challenges, enabling MTLP to

  1. Metal accumulating plants: Medium's role

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabier, J.; Prudent, P.; Szymanska, B.; Mevy, J.-P.

    2003-05-01

    To evaluate phytoremediation potentialities by metal accumulation in tolerant plants, trials are carried out using in vitro cultures. Organie compounds influence on metal accumulation is studied with metals supplemented media. The tested compounds on zinc and lead absorption by Brassica juncea, are chelating agents (EDTA, citric acid) and soluble organic fractions of compost. EDTA seems to enhance the transfer of lead in plant but it is the opposite in the case of zinc. Citric acid stimulates root absorption for both zinc and lead. For the aqueous extracts of compost, variable effects are obtained according to the origin of compost (green wastes and food wastes). In'all tested conditions of cultures, zinc is mainly exported towards shoot while lead is stored in root.

  2. Analysis of serpentinophytes from north-east of Portugal for trace metal accumulation--relevance to the management of mine environment.

    PubMed

    Freitas, H; Prasad, M N V; Pratas, J

    2004-03-01

    In north-east of Portugal, the serpentinized area is about 8000 ha with a characteristic geology and flora. The serpentine plant community and respective soils were analyzed to examine the trace metal budget in different tissues of the plants exhibiting resistance to trace metals. One hundred and thirty five plant species belonging to 39 families and respective soils have been analyzed for total Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn. Substantial amounts of Ni, Cr, Co and Mn were detected in plant tissues which are listed below: NI: Alyssum serpyllifolium (38105); Bromus hordeaceus (1467); Linaria spartea (492); Plantago radicata (140); Lavandula stoechas (118) and Cistus salvifolius (114); CR: L. spartea (706.7); Ulmus procera (173.4); A. serpyllifolium (129.3); Cistus ladanifer (40.8); L. stoechas (29.5); P. radicata (27.81); Setariopsis verticillata (25.7); Plantago lanceolata (24); Digitalis purpurea (23.4); Logfia minima (23.1); Arenaria querioides (23); Hieracium peleteranum (22.7); Arenaria montana (14.5); CO: A. serpyllifolium (145.1); L. spartea (63.2); P. radicata (10.4); H. peleteranum (7.3); Lepidium heterophyllum (6.9); A. querioides (6.6); C. salvifolius (6.5); C. ladanifer (6.3); L. stoechas (6.1); Anthyllis lotoides (6.1); L. minima (6.1); Euphorbia falcata (5.7) and B. hordeaceus (5.6); MN: A. serpyllifolium (830); L. spartea (339); L. stoechas (187.1); L. minima (182.7); Castanea sativa (125); Spergula pentandra (124); P. radicata (119); Cytisus striatus (115.4); Quercus pyrenaica (110); Teucrium scorodonia (109.4); Fraxinus vulgaris (109); Anthyllis sampaiana (108); Quercus ilex (108). The significance of serpentine flora, need for conservation of these fragile and environmentally invaluable plant resources for possible use for in situ remediation of metalliferous substrates are presented in this paper.

  3. Trace element accumulation in aquatic plants: a literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Ganje, T.J.; Elseewi, A.A.; Page, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    Trace elements in sediments and its overlying waters are important constituents of an aquatic plant ecosystem. This review was undertaken to evaluate trace element accumulation in aquatic plants and ascertain to what extent sediment and its overlying waters play in trace element accumulation by aquatic plant species. Aquatic vascular plants tend to accumulate trace elements in relation to the trace element concentration of the water body and sediment in which they are grown and the extent of exposure to the water body. Trace element composition of bryophytes and algae is also closely related to composition of their aquatic environment. It is increasingly apparent that sediments and overlying waters alter the bioavailability of trace elements to aquatic plants in both natural and artificial water bodies, particularly where industrial and agricultural waters are discharged into waterways.

  4. Fate of Trace Metals in Anaerobic Digestion.

    PubMed

    Fermoso, F G; van Hullebusch, E D; Guibaud, G; Collins, G; Svensson, B H; Carliell-Marquet, C; Vink, J P M; Esposito, G; Frunzo, L

    2015-01-01

    A challenging, and largely uncharted, area of research in the field of anaerobic digestion science and technology is in understanding the roles of trace metals in enabling biogas production. This is a major knowledge gap and a multifaceted problem involving metal chemistry; physical interactions of metal and solids; microbiology; and technology optimization. Moreover, the fate of trace metals, and the chemical speciation and transport of trace metals in environments--often agricultural lands receiving discharge waters from anaerobic digestion processes--simultaneously represents challenges for environmental protection and opportunities to close process loops in anaerobic digestion.

  5. Heavy Metals and Related Trace Elements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leland, Harry V.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of heavy metals and related trace elements in the environment, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) trace treatment in natural water and in sediments; and (2) bioaccumulation and toxicity of trace elements. A list of 466 references is presented. (HM)

  6. TRACE METAL TRANSFORMATION MECHANISMS DURING COAL COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article reviews mechanisms governing the fate of trace metals during coal combustion and presents new theoretical results that interpret existing data. Emphasis is on predicting the size-segregated speciation of trace metals in pulverized-coal-fired power plant effluents. Thi...

  7. Analytical Methods for Trace Metals. Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    This training manual presents material on the theoretical concepts involved in the methods listed in the Federal Register as approved for determination of trace metals. Emphasis is on laboratory operations. This course is intended for chemists and technicians with little or no experience in analytical methods for trace metals. Students should have…

  8. Dissolved Trace Metals in the Tay Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, R. E.; Balls, P. W.

    1997-04-01

    Dissolved trace metals have been studied over an annual cycle in the relatively pristine Tay estuary (Scotland). The absence of a major anthropogenic signal has enabled some of the more subtle natural processes controlling trace metal distributions to be identified. Concentration ranges of dissolved metals in the Tay are similar to, or lower than, those observed in more industrialized estuaries. All metals behave non-conservatively in the Tay. Interactions with biogenic and detrital particulate phases are important in controlling dissolved trace metal concentrations. The degradation of organic matter appears to be particularly important for Cu. Removal of dissolved metals was observed in the turbidity maximum zone; a simple model was used to demonstrate that this could be accounted for by adsorption onto suspended particulate matter. At high salinity, coincident peaks of all six metals with ammonia and phosphate are attributed to sewage inputs from Dundee at the mouth of the estuary.

  9. Extraction of trace metals from fly ash

    DOEpatents

    Blander, M.; Wai, C.M.; Nagy, Z.

    1983-08-15

    A process is described for recovering silver, gallium and/or other trace metals from a fine grained industrial fly ash associated with a process for producing phosphorous. The fly ash has a silicate base and contains surface deposits of the trace metals as oxides, chlorides or the like. The process is carried out by contacting the fly ash with AlCl/sub 3/ in an alkali halide melt to react the trace metals with the AlCl/sub 3/ to form compositions soluble in the melt and a residue containing the silicate and aluminum oxide or other aluminum precipitate, and separating the desired trace metal or metals from the melt by electrolysis or other separation techniques.

  10. Extraction of trace metals from fly ash

    DOEpatents

    Blander, Milton; Wai, Chien M.; Nagy, Zoltan

    1984-01-01

    A process for recovering silver, gallium and/or other trace metals from a fine grained industrial fly ash associated with a process for producing phosphorous, the fly ash having a silicate base and containing surface deposits of the trace metals as oxides, chlorides or the like, with the process being carried out by contacting the fly ash with AlCl.sub.3 in an alkali halide melt to react the trace metals with the AlCl.sub.3 to form compositions soluble in the melt and a residue containing the silicate and aluminum oxide or other aluminum precipitate, and separating the desired trace metal or metals from the melt by electrolysis or other separation techniques.

  11. Exploring the Cellular Accumulation of Metal Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Puckett, Cindy A.; Ernst, Russell J.; Barton, Jacqueline K.

    2010-01-01

    Transition metal complexes offer great potential as diagnostic and therapeutic agents, and a growing number of biological applications have been explored. To be effective, these complexes must reach their intended target inside the cell. Here we review the cellular accumulation of metal complexes, including their uptake, localization, and efflux. Metal complexes are taken up inside cells through various mechanisms, including passive diffusion and entry through organic and metal transporters. Emphasis is placed on the methods used to examine cellular accumulation, to identify the mechanism(s) of uptake, and to monitor possible efflux. Conjugation strategies that have been employed to improve the cellular uptake characteristics of metal complexes are also described. PMID:20104335

  12. Trace metal transformations in gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, T.A.; Zygarlicke, C.J.; O`Keefe, C.A.

    1995-08-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) is carrying out an investigation that will provide methods to predict the fate of selected trace elements in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) systems to aid in the development of methods to control the emission of trace elements determined to be air toxics. The goal of this project is to identify the effects of critical chemical and physical transformations associated with trace element behavior in IGCC and IGFC systems. The trace elements included in this project are arsenic, chromium, cadmium, mercury, nickel, selenium, and lead. The research seeks to identify and fill, experimentally and/or theoretically, data gaps that currently exist on the fate and composition of trace elements. The specific objectives are to (1) review the existing literature to identify the type and quantity of trace elements from coal gasification systems, (2) perform laboratory-scale experimentation and computer modeling to enable prediction of trace element emissions, and (3) identify methods to control trace element emissions.

  13. Differential accumulation of mercury and other trace metals in the food web components of a reservoir impacted by a chlor-alkali plant (Flix, Ebro River, Spain): Implications for biomonitoring.

    PubMed

    Soto, David X; Roig, Romero; Gacia, Esperança; Catalan, Jordi

    2011-06-01

    Comparative studies of biomonitors of trace metal contamination are relatively scarce. We took advantage of a point source pollution in a reservoir (Flix, Spain) to compare trace metal (Hg, Pb, Cd, Se, As, Zn, Cu, Cr) bioaccumulation patterns among 16 food web components. Our results indicate that most organisms are suitable for Hg biomonitoring, whereas other metals are better monitored by only some of them. Biofilms and zebra mussel were the organisms with larger and more diverse biomonitoring capacity. However, we show that using groups of biomonitors increase the scope and strengths of the conclusions and specific goals can be better addressed. We conclude providing an overview of the strengths and weaknesses of the main organisms considered for biomonitoring trace metals in rivers and reservoirs.

  14. Metal accumulation by stream bryophytes, related to chemical speciation.

    PubMed

    Tipping, E; Vincent, C D; Lawlor, A J; Lofts, S

    2008-12-01

    Metal accumulation by aquatic bryophytes was investigated using data for headwater streams of differing chemistry. The Windermere Humic Aqueous Model (WHAM) was applied to calculate chemical speciation, including competitive proton and metal interactions with external binding sites on the plants. The speciation modelling approach gives smaller deviations between observed and predicted bryophyte contents of Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb than regressions based on total filtered metal concentrations. If all four metals, and Ni, are considered together, the WHAM predictions are superior at the 1% level. Optimised constants for bryophyte binding by the trace metals are similar to those for humic substances and simple carboxylate ligands. Bryophyte contents of Na, Mg and Ca are approximately explained by binding at external sites, while most of the K is intracellular. Oxide phases account for some of the Al, and most of the Mn, Fe and Co.

  15. Plasma trace metals during total parenteral alimentation.

    PubMed

    Solomons, N W; Layden, T J; Rosenberg, I H; Vo-Khactu, K; Sandstead, H H

    1976-06-01

    The plasma concentrations of the trace metals zinc and copper were studied prospectively in 13 patients with gastrointestinal diseases treated with parenteral alimentation (TPA) for periods of from 8 days to 7 1/2 weeks. Plasma copper levels fell rapidly and consistently in all patients, with an overall rate of - 11 mug per 100 ml per week. Zinc concentrations declined in 10 of 13 patients at a more gradual rate. Analysis of the standard parenteral alimentation fluids revealed zinc content equivalent to 50% of the daily requirement and a negligible content of copper. From combined analysis of plasma zinc, hair zinc, and taste acuity, there is evidence that increased utilization or redistribution within the body may effect plasma concentrations in some patients. Neither an increase in urinary excretion nor a primary decrease in plasma binding proteins appeared to be a major factor in lowering plasma trace metal concentrations. These findings indicate that a marked decrease in plasma copper is regular and a decline in plasma zinc is common during TPA using fluids unsupplemented with trace metals. Supplementation of parenteral alimentation fluids with the trace metals zinc and copper is recommended.

  16. Geomycology. [fungal biosolubilization and accumulation of metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puerner, N. J.; Siegel, S. M.

    1976-01-01

    Fungi have long been known to have capabilities for reduction and alkylation of arsenate and selenate but their general capabilities for solubilizing and accumulating metallic substances have been given serious attention only in recent years. Common members of the Aspergillaceae cultured on boron, copper, lead and other metals or oxides can solubilize and concentrate the elements or their compounds. To account for biosolubilization of the metals, we have set up a model study, incubating selected metals, e.g., mercury, in solutions of various metabolites including L-lysine and citric acid. Results of 100-300 days incubation showed that many metals can in fact be readily solubilized, and in some cases more effectively at pH 6-7 than at pH 1.5-2.

  17. Trace metals in Gulf of Mexico oysters.

    PubMed

    Presley, B J; Taylor, R J; Boothe, P N

    1990-11-01

    Oysters (Crassostrea virginica) from 50 to 69 locations (sites) along the Gulf of Mexico coastline, collected annually in 1986, 1987 and 1988, have been analyzed for 13 trace metals, including most of the metals of concern from an environmental quality perspective. Essentially the entire U.S. Gulf coastline was sampled, from far south Texas to far south Florida. Pooled samples of 20 oysters from three different stations at each site were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The concentrations found were generally less than or equal to literature values from other parts of the world thought to be uncontaminated by anthropogenic trace metal inputs. A few sites did, however, show apparent trace metal pollution and other sites gave anomalous values that cannot readily be explained by either known anthropogenic or natural causes. The range of values for the overall data set (maximum/minimum) varied from 15-fold for Mn to 624-fold for Pb, whereas the coefficient of variation (standard deviation/mean) was generally in the 50-60% range for most metals. Variations were much greater between stations than between years at a given station. Enrichments usually occurred in suites of three to four elements with Ag, Cd, Cu and Zn being the most common suite, thus several strong inter-element correlations were found. There was, however, little correlation between metal levels in oysters and in sediments from the collection sites even when sediment data were rationed to Al (sediment data are not given here). There was likewise little correlation between oyster metal levels and size, sex or reproductive stage of the oysters (data given elsewhere). Geographically, appreciably elevated (greater than 3 times average) metal levels were generally restricted to single sites within bays or estuaries, implying local control. On the other hand, regionally, Ag, Cd and Se levels were somewhat higher in Texas oysters than in those from Florida, whereas the reverse was true for As and

  18. Trace metal concentrations in shallow ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zelewski, L.M.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Armstrong, D.E.

    2001-01-01

    Trace metal clean sampling and analysis techniques were used to examine the temporal patterns or Hg, Cu, and Zn concentrations in shallow ground water, and the relationships between metal concentrations in ground water and in a hydrologically connected river. Hg, Cu, and Zn concentrations in ground water ranged from 0.07 to 4.6 ng L-1, 0.07 to 3.10 ??g L-1, and 0.17 to 2.18 ??g L-1, respectively. There was no apparent seasonal pattern in any of the metal concentrations. Filtrable Hg, Cu, and Zn concentrations in the North Branch of the Milwaukee River ranged from below the detection limit to 2.65 ng Hg L-1, 0.51 to 4.30 ??g Cu L-1, and 0.34 to 2.33 ??g Zn L-1. Thus, metal concentrations in ground water were sufficiently high to account for a substantial fraction of the filtrable trace metal concentration in the river. Metal concentrations in the soil ranged from 8 to 86 ng Hg g-1, 10 to 39 ??g Cu g-1, and 15 to 84 ??g Zn g-1. Distribution coefficients, KD, in the aquifer were 7900, 22,000, and 23,000 L kg-1 for Hg, Cu, and Zn, respectively. These values were three to 40 times smaller than KD values observed in the Milwaukee River for suspended particulate matter.

  19. Metal accumulation in wild-caught opossum.

    PubMed

    Lockhart, J Mitchell; Siddiqui, Samreen; Loughry, W J; Bielmyer-Fraser, Gretchen K

    2016-06-01

    The Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) is widespread in the USA, ranging south through Latin America. The ecology of opossums is such that they are in frequent contact with soils, suggesting that they may function as a valuable bioindicator for chemical contamination in terrestrial environments. Surprisingly, there have been virtually no toxicology studies on opossums. Here, we provide the first analysis of metal contaminants in opossum liver tissues. Liver samples were obtained from 471 opossums, collected from 2003 to 2006, at four sites in North Florida and South Georgia, USA, and concentrations of copper, lead, nickel, selenium, and zinc were measured. We found little evidence of age differences in the concentration of any of the metals. However, there were at least some significant differences between years, males and females, and between sites for each metal, although the pattern of these differences was not always consistent across metals. Concentrations of metals in liver tissue were positively correlated with one another, primarily of each metal (except Pb) with zinc. Reference levels of metal contaminants are not available for opossums, but concentrations of Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in our samples were for the most part significantly higher than those reported from liver tissues of nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) collected at the same sites and in the same years. Data from other small mammals studied elsewhere further indicate that metal concentrations in opossums were high, but at this time, it is not possible to determine if these elevated levels generated toxicity. The substantial temporal and spatial variation we found in metal concentrations suggests that determination of baseline levels for opossums may not be straightforward. Nonetheless, this is the first study quantifying metal accumulation in the livers of Didelphis virginiana and, as such, provides an important starting point for future research.

  20. Bioremoval of trace metals from rhizosediment by mangrove plants in Indian Sundarban Wetland.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Ranju; Favas, Paulo J C; Jonathan, M P; Venkatachalam, Perumal; Raja, P; Sarkar, Santosh Kumar

    2017-02-07

    The study accentuated the trace metal accumulation and distribution pattern in individual organs of 13 native mangrove plants along with rhizosediments in the Indian Sundarban Wetland. Enrichment of the essential micronutrients (Mn, Fe, Zn, Cu, Co, Ni) was recorded in all plant organs in comparison to non-essential ones, such as Cr, As, Pb, Cd, Hg. Trunk bark and root/pneumatophore showed maximum metal accumulation efficiency. Rhizosediment recorded manifold increase for most of the trace metals than plant tissue, with the following descending order: Fe>Mn>Zn>Cu>Pb>Ni>Cr>Co>As>Cd>Hg. Concentrations of Cu, Ni, Pb and Hg were found to exceed prescribed sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) indicating adverse effect on adjacent biota. Both index of geoaccumulation (Igeo) and enrichment factor (EF) also indicated anthropogenic contamination. Based on high (>1) translocation factor (TF) and bioconcentration factor (BCF) values Sonneratiaapetala and Avicenniaofficinalis could be considered as potential accumulators, of trace metals.

  1. Trace metal retention in mangrove ecosystems in Guanabara Bay, SE Brazil.

    PubMed

    Machado, W; Silva-Filho, E V; Oliveira, R R; Lacerda, L D

    2002-11-01

    Along contrasting environmental conditions (e.g., degree of trace metal contamination and mangrove forest structural development), sediments of Laguncularia racemosa-dominated mangrove stands in Guanabara Bay (SE Brazil) presented a trend of trace metal accumulation in forms with low potential of remobilization and biotic uptake. Concurrently, a relatively low transfer of sediment-bound metals to L. racemosa leaves was observed, which may moderate the metal export from the forests via leaf litter transport and the metal availability to enter in food chains based on leaf consumption.

  2. [Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizae on growth, heavy metal uptake and accumulation of Zenia insignis Chun seedlings].

    PubMed

    Li, Xia; Peng, Xia-Wei; Wu, Song-Lin; Li, Zhi-Ru; Feng, Hong-Mei; Jiang, Ze-Ping

    2014-08-01

    To solve the trace metal pollution of a Pd/Zn mine in Hunan province, a greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of two arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, Glomus mosseae (Gm) and Glomus intraradices (Gi), on the growth, heavy metal uptake and accumulation of Zenia insignis Chun, the pioneer plant there. The results showed that symbiotic associations were successfully established between the two isolates and Z. insignis in heavy metal contaminated soil. AM fungi improved P absorption, biomass and changed heavy metal uptake and distribution of Z. insignis. AM fungi-inoculated plants had significantly lower Fe, Cu, Zn, Pd concentrations and higher Fe, Cu, Zn, Pd accumulation than non-inoculated plants. However, Gm and Gi showed different mycorrhizal effects on the distribution of heavy metal in hosts, depending on the species of heavy metal. Gi-inoculated Z. insignis showed significantly lower TF values of Fe, Zn, Pd than Gm and non-inoculated plants, while both strains had no effect on TF value of Cu, which indicated that Gi enhanced trace metal accumulation in root system, playing a filtering/sequestering role in the presence of trace metals. The overall results demonstrated that AM fungi had positive effect on Z. insignis in enhancing the ability to adapt the heavy metal contaminated soil and played potential role in the revegetation of heavy metal contaminated soil. But in practical application, the combination of AM, hosts and heavy metal should be considered.

  3. Trace metal concentrations in Spartina densiflora and associated soil from a Patagonian salt marsh.

    PubMed

    Idaszkin, Yanina L; Bouza, Pablo J; Marinho, Carmen H; Gil, Mónica N

    2014-12-15

    The objectives of this study were to (i) assess in situ trace metal concentrations in soil and in Spartina densiflora in a Patagonian salt marsh (Rawson, Chubut, Argentina) and (ii) investigate the relationship between trace metal concentrations in soils and in plants to improve our knowledge regarding the ability of S. densiflora to take up and accumulate trace metals from the soil within its native region. Our results indicate that the soil and S. densiflora exhibit low metal concentrations in the Rawson salt marsh. S. densiflora accumulates Zn in below- and above-ground plant structures and Cr in below-ground parts. These results suggest at the time of this study there is scarce human impact associated with metals in the Rawson salt marsh.

  4. Trace metals in wine and vineyard environment in southern Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Vystavna, Yuliya; Rushenko, Liliya; Diadin, Dmytro; Klymenko, Olga; Klymenko, Mykola

    2014-03-01

    The study was focused on measuring the concentration levels of trace metals in the environment, vines and wine within the wine-growing region of Ukraine and comparing the findings to the data from well known wine-growing areas. Analysis was carried out of Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in irrigation water, grape juice and wine, Cu, Pb and Zn in soil (pseudo-total and acid-soluble fractions) and Vitis vinifera L. in leaves and grapes. The accumulation levels of Cu and Zn from soil to leaves were significantly higher than from soil to grapes. Pb had lower potential to accumulate in aerial parts than Cu and Zn. Higher contents of Cu and Zn were observed in Muscat white grape juice compared to Chardonnay. The concentration levels of Zn and Cu were higher in wine than in juice. Trace metals were regulated by the soil composition and biological specificity of cultivars. The data obtained from the study area did not exceed the international limits.

  5. Trace metal speciation and bioavailability in anaerobic digestion: A review.

    PubMed

    Thanh, Pham Minh; Ketheesan, Balachandran; Yan, Zhou; Stuckey, David

    2016-01-01

    Trace metals are essential for the growth of anaerobic microorganisms, however, in practice they are often added to anaerobic digesters in excessive amounts, which can lead to inhibition. The concept of bioavailability of metals in anaerobic digestion has been poorly understood in the past, and a lack of deep understanding of the relationship between trace metal speciation and bioavailability can result in ineffective metal dosing strategies for anaerobic digesters. Sequential extraction schemes are useful for fractionating trace metals into their different forms, and metal sulfides can serve as a store and source for trace metals during anaerobic digestion, while natural/synthetic chelating agents (soluble microbial products-SMPs, extracellular polysaccharides-EPS, and EDTA/NTA) are capable of controlling trace metal bioavailability. Nevertheless, more work is needed to: investigate the speciation and bioavailability of Ca, Mg, Mn, W, and Se; compare the bioavailability of different forms of trace metals e.g. carbonates, sulfides, phosphates to different anaerobic trophic groups; determine what factors influence metal sulfide dissolution; investigate whether chelating agents can increase trace metal bioavailability; develop and adapt specialized analytical techniques, and; determine how trace metal dynamics change in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR).

  6. Accumulation of metal ions by pectinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deiana, S.; Deiana, L.; Palma, A.; Premoli, A.; Senette, C.

    2009-04-01

    The knowledge of the mechanisms which regulate the interactions of metal ions with partially methyl esterified linear polymers of α-1,4 linked D-galacturonic acid units (pectinates), well represented in the root inner and outer apoplasm, is of great relevance to understand the processes which control their accumulation at the soil-root interface as well as their mobilization by plant metabolites. Accumulation of a metal by pectinates can be affected by the presence of other metals so that competition or distribution could be expected depending on the similar or different affinity of the metal ions towards the binding sites, mainly represented by the carboxylate groups. In order to better understand the mechanism of accumulation in the apoplasm of several metal ions, the sorption of Cd(II), Zn(II), Cu(II), Pb(II) and Cr(III) by a Ca-polygalacturonate gel, used as model of the soil-root interface, with a degree of esterification of 18% (PGAE1) and 65% (PGAE2) was studied at pH 3.0, 4.0, 5.0 and 6.0 in the presence of CaCl2 2.5 mM.. The results show that sorption increases with increasing both the initial metal concentration and pH. A similar sorption trend was evidenced for Cu(II) and Pb(II) and for Zn(II) and Cd(II), indicating that the mechanism of sorption for these two ionic couples is quite different. As an example, at pH 6.0 and an initial metal concentration equal to 2.0 mM, the amount of Cu(II) and Pb(II) sorbed was about 1.98 mg-1 of PGAE1 while that of Cd(II) and Zn(II) was about 1.2 mg-1. Cr(III) showed a rather different sorption trend and a much higher amount (2.8 mg-1of PGAE1 at pH 6.0) was recorded. The higher affinity of Cr(III) for the polysaccharidic matrix is attributable to the formation of Cr(III) polynuclear species in solution, as shown by the distribution diagrams obtained through the MEDUSA software. On the basis of these findings, the following affinity towards the PGAE1 can be assessed: Cr(III) > Cu(II) ? Pb(II) > Zn (II) ? Cd

  7. Influence of life history and sex on metal accumulation in two beetle species (insecta: Coleoptera)

    SciTech Connect

    Lindqvist, L.; Block, M.

    1997-04-01

    Insects are important components of most terrestrial environments owing to their great abundance, biomass and diversity. They also make up an important food resource for other animals. Consequently, in many food webs insects constitute important links in metal-transport chains between trophic levels. Therefore trace-metal concentrations in insects have an important influence on the trace-metal distribution in the biosphere. In various insects, Cd, Cu and Zn are usually accumulated to the extent that they reach levels above those of the food, whereas Fe is not. In response to metal pollution, accumulation of nonessential metals was found to increase markedly, whereas essential metals accumulated less owing to regulating mechanisms in the insects. In polluted environments, metal concentrations were found to be higher in predatory invertebrates than in phytophagous ones in studies where insects were analysed in broad categories such as families. However, no such trend was observed when species were treated separately. The pattern of metal accumulation can differ between species. This is true even for species utilizing the same food resource. For instance, concentrations of Cd, Cu and Fe differed between four species of sawflies feeding on pine needles from the same locality. It is therefore likely that insects with different food sources accumulate metals differently depending on the concentration and chemical form of the metals in the food. There have been few studies aimed at determining whether patterns of metal accumulation differ between males and females of the same species. In one such study on the sawfly Neodiprion sertifer concentrations of Cd, Cu and Fe tended to be higher in males than in females. However, this pattern was not found in two other sawfly species. Target organs for Cd were found to differ between males and females in the grasshopper Aiolopus thalassinus. The testis accumulated Cd to a higher degree than the ovaries.

  8. Source identification and assessment of sediment contamination of trace metals in Kogarah Bay, NSW, Australia.

    PubMed

    Alyazichi, Yasir M; Jones, Brian G; McLean, Errol

    2015-02-01

    The distribution of trace metals (spatial and temporal) and sedimentary fractions were investigated to identify the concentrations and sources of trace metals within Kogarah Bay, NSW, Australia. A total of 59 surface sediments and six subsurface samples from core of the sediment were collected. The contamination factor and pollution load index indices used to evaluate environmental effects of trace metals. The study area was found to be uncontaminated with Cr and Ni, moderately contaminated with As and considerably contaminated with Cu, Zn and Pb. The concentrations of Cr and Ni were below both effect range low and effect range median, while As, Cu, Zn and Pb were slightly above effect range low. The highest concentrations of these trace metals such as Cu, Zn and Pb were found in the north, northwest and southeast of the bay, close to discharge points, stormwater outlets and around boatyards and watercrafts. The spatial distributions of metals were strongly related to muddy particles and organic matter. The temporal sediments of metals declined with increased sediment depth, which reflects accumulation of trace metals since European settlement in this area. Furthermore, the source of the trace metals was found to be stormwater outlets, gasoline fumes, boatyards and other human activities.

  9. Temporal variability in trace metal solubility in a paddy soil not reflected in uptake by rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Pan, Yunyu; Koopmans, Gerwin F; Bonten, Luc T C; Song, Jing; Luo, Yongming; Temminghoff, Erwin J M; Comans, Rob N J

    2016-12-01

    Alternating flooding and drainage conditions have a strong influence on redox chemistry and the solubility of trace metals in paddy soils. However, current knowledge of how the effects of water management on trace metal solubility are linked to trace metal uptake by rice plants over time is still limited. Here, a field-contaminated paddy soil was subjected to two flooding and drainage cycles in a pot experiment with two rice plant cultivars, exhibiting either high or low Cd accumulation characteristics. Flooding led to a strong vertical gradient in the redox potential (Eh). The pH and Mn, Fe, and dissolved organic carbon concentrations increased with decreasing Eh and vice versa. During flooding, trace metal solubility decreased markedly, probably due to sulfide mineral precipitation. Despite its low solubility, the Cd content in rice grains exceeded the food quality standards for both cultivars. Trace metal contents in different rice plant tissues (roots, stem, and leaves) increased at a constant rate during the first flooding and drainage cycle but decreased after reaching a maximum during the second cycle. As such, the high temporal variability in trace metal solubility was not reflected in trace metal uptake by rice plants over time. This might be due to the presence of aerobic conditions and a consequent higher trace metal solubility near the root surface, even during flooding. Trace metal solubility in the rhizosphere should be considered when linking water management to trace metal uptake by rice over time.

  10. Statistical considerations for trace metal biomonitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Daskalakis, K.D.

    1995-12-31

    Collection and chemical analysis of oysters has been done by numerous programs, including the National Status and Trends (NS and T) program, as a convenient and relatively inexpensive method for monitoring contaminant inputs into aquatic environments. It was the goal of this work to quantify the within-site variability in oysters for concentrations of several trace metals. Oysters (Crassostrea virginica) were collected from three sites at the Potomac River and the soft tissue of each animal was analyzed for Ag, Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn. The combined analytical+ within-site Percent Relative Standard Deviation (%RSD) for 20 to 23 individual samples from the same site was between 25 and 97, depending on metal. The order of increasing %RSD was Fe < Cd < Ni < Zn < Pb < Ag < Cu. Triplicate analyses of the samples revealed that the analytical error was significant relative to within-site variability only for Pb, presumably due to low concentrations of the metal. Bootstrap analysis with replacement, a statistical resampling procedure, was used to estimate population parameters for pooled samples. Simulated sampling of 10,000 pooled samples verified that the sampling error decreases exponentially with increasing number of individuals per pool. For 95 percent confidence limit the mean standard error for pooled samples of 20 oysters varied from 5% to 20%, depending on metal. The standard mean error increased by a factor of approximately 1.5 when 10 individuals were used instead of 20, and decreased by a factor of 0.6 when 50 oysters were used per pooled sample. Given these results a cost estimation of monitoring programs will be presented, and implications on trend assessments will be discussed.

  11. Spatial distribution and ecological risk assessment of trace metals in urban soils in Wuhan, central China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chutian; Yang, Yong; Li, Weidong; Zhang, Chuanrong; Zhang, Ruoxi; Mei, Yang; Liao, Xiangsen; Liu, Yingying

    2015-09-01

    Surface soil samples from 467 sample sites were collected in urban area of Wuhan City in 2013, and total concentrations of five trace metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, and Cd) were measured. Multivariate and geostatistical analyses showed that concentrations of Pb, Zn, and Cu are higher along Yangtze River in the northern area of Wuhan, gradually decrease from city center to suburbs, and are mainly controlled by anthropogenic activities, while those of Cr and Cd are relatively spatially homogenous and mainly controlled by soil parent materials. Pb, Zn, Cu, and Cd have generally higher concentrations in roadsides, industrial areas, and residential areas than in school areas, greenbelts, and agricultural areas. Areas with higher road and population densities and longer urban construction history usually have higher trace metal concentrations. According to estimated results of the potential ecological risk index and Nemero synthesis pollution index, almost the whole urban area of Wuhan is facing considerable potential ecological risk caused by soil trace metals. These results reveal obvious trends of trace metal pollution, and an important impact of anthropogenic activities on the accumulation of trace metals in soil in Wuhan. Vehicular emission, industrial activities, and household wastes may be the three main sources for trace metal accumulation. Increasing vegetation cover may reduce this threat. It should be pointed out that Cd, which is strongly accumulated in soil, could be the largest soil pollution factor in Wuhan. Effective measures should be taken as soon as possible to deal with Cd enrichment, and other trace metals in soil should also be reduced, so as to protect human health in this important large city.

  12. Trophic transfer of trace metals: Subcellular compartmentalization in a polychaete and assimilation by a decapod crustacean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rainbow, P.S.; Poirier, L.; Smith, B.D.; Brix, K.V.; Luoma, S.N.

    2006-01-01

    The chemical form of accumulated trace metal in prey is important in controlling the bioavailataility of dietary metal to a predator. This study investigated the trophic transfer of radiolabelled Ag, Cd and Zn from the polychaete worm Nereis diversicolor to the decapod crustacean Palaemonetes varians. We used 2 populations of worms with different proportions of accumulated metals in different subcellular fractions as prey, and loaded the worms with radiolabelled metals either from sediment or from solution. Accumulated radiolabelled metals were fractionated into 5 components : metal-rich granules (MRG), cellular debris, organelles, metallothionein-like proteins (MTLP), and other (heat-sensitive) proteins (HSP). Assimilation efficiencies (AE) of the metals by P. varians were measured from the 4 categories of prey (i.e. 2 populations, radiolabelled from sediment or solution). There were significant differences for each metal between the AEs from the different prey categories, confirming that origin of prey and route of uptake of accumulated trace metal will cause intraspecific differences in subsequent metal assimilation. Correlations were sought between AEs and selected fractions or combinations of fractions of metals in the prey-MRG, Trophically Available Metal (TAM = MTLP + HSP + organelles) and total protein (MTLP + HSP). TAM explained 28% of the variance in AEs for Ag, but no consistent relationships emerged between AEs and TAM or total protein when the metals were considered separately. AEs did, however, show significant positive regressions with both TAM and total protein when the 3 metals were considered together, explaining only about 21 % of the variance in each case. A significant negative relationship was observed between MRG and AE for all metals combined. The predator (P. varians) can assimilate dietary metal from a range of the fractions binding metals in the prey (N. diversicolor), with different assimilation efficiencies summated across these

  13. Trace metals in water, sediment and bivalves of a tropical estuary, west coast of India.

    PubMed

    Parvez Al-Usmani, S M; Jagtap, T G; Patil, D N

    2015-10-15

    Trace metal pollution was studied in water, sediment and three selected bivalves in Mandovi and Chapora estuaries of Goa. The trace metal in water and sediment of Mandovi was higher than in Chapora. The concentration in the tissues was in the range of 1205.2-2506.7 ppm for Paphia malabarica, 1906.2-2802.6 ppm for Perna viridis and 778.7-1607.5 ppm for Saccostrea cucullata in Mandovi estuary. Tha values for Chapora were 199.4-625.8 ppm for P. malabarica, 812.6-1220.2 for P. viridis and 392.5-418.6 ppm for S. cucullata. The anthropogenic input of metal in Mandovi estuary appears to be mainly responsible for the high accumulation of trace metals. These bivalves have potential to serve as indicator for metal contamination in seafood of Goa.

  14. Geochronology and historical deposition of trace metals in three tropical estuaries in the Gulf of Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahu, Edem; Nyarko, Elvis; Hulme, Samuel; Swarzenski, Peter; Asiedu, Daniel K.; Coale, Kenneth H.

    2016-08-01

    The depositional histories of trace metals (Pb, Cu, and Zn) in sediment cores from three Ghanaian estuaries were reconstructed using radioisotope-derived (210Pb and 137Cs) geochronologies. A core collected from each of the Amisa, Sakumo II and Volta estuaries was analyzed for trace metals and radionuclides. Lead-210 and 137Cs dating via gamma spectroscopy, and trace metal analysis via inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were used in deriving sedimentation rates, geochronologies and accumulation trends of trace metals. The sedimentation rates in all three estuaries (in the range of 0.54-0.83 cm yr-1) were greater than the predicted sea level rise (∼0.33 cm yr-1) for the Accra Coast of Ghana. The 210Pb depositional rates of 6.83 dpm cm-2 y-1, 2.74 dpm cm-2 y-1 and 1.75 dpm cm-2 y-1 estimated for the Amisa, Sakumo II and Volta estuaries, respectively, are higher than those recorded in other latitudes. Trace metal analysis revealed differences in the concentrations of Cu, Pb and Zn between deeper and surficial layers of each core to be in the range of 10-20%, which is well within the natural variations attributed to geochemical factors. Relative to the Amisa and Volta estuaries, the temporal profiles of Al-normalized metal concentrations and estimated fluxes suggest anthropogenic processes augmented the natural fluxes of trace metals, particularly Zn into the Sakumo II estuary during the last 7 years.

  15. Trace metals in oysters and sediments of Botany Bay, Sydney.

    PubMed

    Hayes, W J; Anderson, I J; Gaffoor, M Z; Hurtado, J

    1998-03-05

    Trace metal concentrations (Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn) in Sydney rock oysters (Sacostera commercialis) and sediments (< 53 microns fraction) were determined for six sites in the northern regions of Botany Bay. Levels for lead, cadmium, copper and zinc in oysters ranged (in microgram g-1) from 1.38 to 15.3, 1.81 to 16.3, 56.1 to 212 and 1806 to 2902, respectively. In sediments, levels ranged (in microgram g-1) from 599 to 4081, 3.57 to 91.0, 191 to 1113 and 227 to 1472, respectively. Such values indicated high levels of contamination, especially in the sediments. Indeed, high proportions of the samples displayed metal concentrations that exceeded the prescribed limits for oysters and sediments. No significant correlations in metal concentrations were found between oysters and sediments, suggesting that changes in the sediment metal loading are not solely influencing the levels of bioavailable metal. The results supported the conclusion that different rates and mechanisms of metal accumulation are taking place in the two types of samples. Variability between sites was high, particularly for oysters. Multidimensional scaling identified that the Cooks River (site 3) and La Perouse (site 6) sites were most dissimilar, both to each other as well as to the other four sites. This was a reflection of high contamination in the Cooks River and the generally low levels in the La Perouse reference sample. The configuration was mainly influenced by the sediment parameters, rather than the oyster metal concentrations, indicating the sediment data were better for identifying site similarities. These ordinations provide evidence of the usefulness of multidimensional scaling in elucidating the physico-chemical variability of the sampling sites.

  16. Trace element accumulation in bivalve mussels Anodonta woodiana from Taihu Lake, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongbo; Yang, Jian; Gan, Juli

    2010-11-01

    Data are presented for 13 trace metals (Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Ag, Cd, and Pb) in 38 bivalve mussels Anodonta woodiana from four separate sites (Huzhou, Dapu, Sansandao, and Manshan) around the Taihu Lake of China. All elemental concentrations generally ranked in decreasing order, Mn > Fe > Zn > As ≈ Cu ≈ Cd ≈ Se > Pb > Mo ≈ Ag, except that Cr, Co, and Ni were not detected. Anodonta woodiana was able to bioaccumulate essential Mn and toxic Cd to the extremely high level of 19,240 and 53 mg/kg dry weight, respectively. Geographical differences in the concentrations of trace elements were usually significant between sampling sites except for As and Pb, and the mussels from Sanshandao site had mostly accumulated or were contaminated with essential and toxic elements. The residue level of Cd in A. woodiana from the Sanshandao and Manshan sites appeared to be even higher than those of the essential elements Cu and Se, and exceeded the corresponding maximum residue limits of China. The present study provides the most recent information on trace element bioaccumulation or contamination in Taihu Lake and, further, suggests that A. woodiana can be used as a suitable bioindicator for inland water environmental monitoring.

  17. Turritella attenuata (Kasinathan): as biological indicator of marine pollution--a trace metal analytical study.

    PubMed

    Paul, V I; Radhakrishnan, M V; Hemalatha, S

    1999-11-01

    A study to monitor marine pollution with reference to trace elements (Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu) on T. attenuata, commonly called as screw shell over a period of one year on the whole body and various organs, viz. digestive diverticula, foot, mantle and ovary was conducted from the sandy beach of Porto Novo Coast (Lat 11 degrees 29' N Long: 79 degrees 46' E) of Peninsular India using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). Higher concentration of all the four trace metals analysed were recorded in the digestive diverticula, whereas lower concentration of zinc and manganese were recorded in the ovary during the monsoon period. The higher level of trace metal concentration in the monsoon period may be due to the presence of these pollutants in large amounts in water. The accumulation of selected trace metals varies in different seasons according to the extent of pollution load in the marine environment.

  18. Microbial Influences on Trace Metal Cycling in a Meromictic Lake, Fayetteville Green Lake, NY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerkle, A. L.; House, C.; Kump, L.

    2002-12-01

    Microorganisms can exist in aquatic environments at very high cell densities of up to 1011 cells/L, and can accumulate significant quantities of trace metals. Bacteria actively take up bioactive trace metals, including Fe, Zn, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, and Mo, which function as catalytic centers in metalloproteins and metal-activated enzymes involved in virtually all cellular functions. In addition, bacteria may catalyze the release of trace metals from inorganic substrates by processes such as the reduction of iron and manganese oxides, suggesting that trace metal distributions within a natural environment dominated by microbial processes may be controlled primarily by microbial ecology. Fayetteville Green Lake (FGL), NY, is a permanently stratified meromictic lake that has a well-oxygenated surface water mass (mixolimnion) overlying a relatively stagnant, anoxic deep water mass (monimolimnion). A chemocline separates the water masses at around 20m depth, where oxygen concentrations decrease and sulfate and methane concentrations increase. In addition, previous studies have indicated that trace metals such as V, Cr, Co, Mn, and Fe reach elevated concentrations at the chemocline. Using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) of FGL samples from depths of up to 40m with bacterial and archaeal probes, we have shown that fluctuating redox conditions within the FGL water column correlate with significant variations in the composition and distribution of microbial populations with depth. The mixolimnion is dominated by Eubacteria, with increasing concentrations of Archaea in the lower anoxic zone. Increases in microbial cell densities coincide with increases in trace metals at the chemocline, suggesting microbial activity may be responsible for trace metal release at this boundary. 16S rRNA PCR cloning techniques are currently being used to identify dominant microbial populations at various levels within the FGL water column. Future studies will focus on the potential for these

  19. Trophic transfer of trace metals from the polychaete worm Nereis diversicolor to the polychaete N. virens and the decapod crustacean Palaemonetes varians

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rainbow, P.S.; Poirier, L.; Smith, B.D.; Brix, K.V.; Luoma, S.N.

    2006-01-01

    Diet is an important exposure route for the uptake of trace metals by aquatic invertebrates, with trace metal trophic transfer depending on 2 stages - assimilation and subsequent accumulation by the predator. This study investigated the trophic transfer of trace metals from the sediment-dwelling polychaete worm Nereis diversicolor from metal-rich estuarine sediments in southwestern UK to 2 predators - another polychaete N. virens (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Fe) and the decapod crustacean Palaemonetes varians (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Fe, Ag, As, Mn). N. virens showed net accumulation of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd from the prey; accumulation increased with increasing prey concentration, but a coefficient of trophic transfer decreased with increasing prey concentration, probably because a higher proportion of accumulated metal in the prey is bound in less trophically available (insoluble) detoxified forms. The trace metal accumulation patterns of P. varians apparently restricted significant net accumulation of metals from the diet of N. diversicolor to just Cd. There was significant mortality of the decapods fed on the diets of metal-rich worms. Metal-rich invertebrates that have accumulated metals from the rich historical store in the sediments of particular SW England estuaries can potentially pass these metals along food chains, with accumulation and total food chain transfer depending on the metal assimilation efficiencies and accumulation patterns of the animal at each trophic level. This trophic transfer may be significant enough to have ecotoxicological effects. ?? Inter-Research 2006.

  20. Trace metal concentrations in estuaries and coastal regions

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, C.D.

    1994-12-31

    Estuaries and coastal regions are highly variable in the physical and hydrographic conditions. As a result of heavy urbanization and industrialization of the head waters of most estuaries, there are substantial localized inputs of contaminants to the estuary. These factors combined with the flushing characteristics of individual estuaries to create relatively unique features that result in variation in the typical levels of trace metals for these systems. This makes intercomparison of the estuaries difficult. Comparability among estuaries becomes even more difficult when metals analyses are conducted without proper control of field and laboratory contamination, now firmly established in the trace metal analytical literature as a prerequisite for reliable marine trace metals analysis. This paper compares the concentrations of selected trace metal (Ag, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) concentrations in the waters of several major estuaries of the United States. The basis of comparison is that all samples war collected under rigid trace metal clean collection and analysis procedures. Generally, metal concentrations within the estuaries are similar. Metal concentrations in the higher salinity coastal regions are more similar in concentration. The comparison provides a baseline of typical concentrations of these trace metals in the coastal waters against which future analytical results can be compared.

  1. Arsenic and Associated Trace Metals in Texas Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, L.; Herbert, B. E.

    2002-12-01

    The value of groundwater has increased substantially worldwide due to expanding human consumption. Both the quantity and quality of groundwater are important considerations when constructing policies on natural resource conservation. This study is focused on evaluating groundwater quality in the state of Texas. Historical data from the Texas Water Development Board and the National Uranium Resource Evaluation were collected into a GIS database for spatial and temporal analyses. Specific attentions were placed on arsenic and other trace metals in groundwater. Recent studies in the United States have focused on isolated incidences of high arsenic occurrence, ignoring possible connections between arsenic and other trace metals. Descriptive statistics revealed strong correlations in groundwater between arsenic and other oxyanions including vanadium, selenium and molybdenum. Arsenic and associated trace metals were clustered at three physiographic hotspots, the Southern High Plains, the Gulf Coastal Plains of Texas, and West Texas. A geologic survey showed that arsenic and other trace metals in Texas groundwater follow local geologic trends. Uranium deposits and associated mineralization were found to occur in the same physiographic locations. Uranium mineralization may be a significant natural source of arsenic and other trace metals in Texas groundwater. Recharge, evaporative concentration, and aquifer characteristics were also contributing factors to the occurrence of trace metals in Texas groundwater. Spatial statistics were used to delineate natural sources from anthropogenic inputs. Similarly, the natural background was estimated from the spatial distribution of trace metal observations in Texas groundwater.

  2. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy of Trace Metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Stephen (Technical Monitor); VanderWal, Randall L.; Ticich, Thomas M.; West, Joseph R., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    An alternative approach for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) determination of trace metal determination in liquids is demonstrated. The limits of detection (LOD) for the technique ranged from 10 ppb to 10 ppm for 15 metals metals (Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Hg, Pb) tested.

  3. Trace-element accumulation by Hygrohypnum ochraceum in the upper Rio Grande Basin, Colorado and New Mexico, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, L.F.; Porter, S.D.

    1997-12-01

    Accumulation of 12 trace elements by transplanted aquatic bryophytes (Hygrohypnum ochraceum) was determined at 13 sites in the Rio Grande and tributary streams in southern Colorado and northern New Mexico as part of the US Geological Survey`s National Water-Quality Assessment Program. The purposes of the study were to determine the spatial distribution of trace elements in relation to land-use practices in the upper Rio Grande Basin, compare accumulation rates of metals in bryophytes at sites contaminated by trace elements, and evaluate transplanted aquatic bryophytes as a tool for examining the bioavailability of trace elements in relation to concentrations in water and bed sediment. Concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in bryophytes, water, and bed sediment were significantly higher at sites that receive drainage from mining areas than at sites near agricultural or urban activities. Concentrations of most trace elements were lower in a tributary stream below an urban source than at sites near mining or agricultural use. Concentrations of Cu and Zn in bryophytes correlated with concentrations in water and bed sediment. In addition, bryophyte concentrations of As, Cd, and Pb correlated with concentrations in bed sediment. Transplanted bryophytes can provide an indication of bioavailability. Rates of accumulation were related to the magnitude of ambient trace-element concentrations; maximal uptake occurred during the first 10 d of exposure. Trace-element concentrations in transplanted bryophytes could potentially be used to predict water and sediment concentrations that represent an integration of conditions over short to intermediate lengths of time, rather than instantaneous conditions as measured using water samples.

  4. Trace-element accumulation by Hygrohypnum ochraceum in the upper Rio Grande Basin, Colorado and New Mexico, Usa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, L.F.; Porter, S.D.

    1997-01-01

    Accumulation of 12 trace elements by transplanted aquatic bryophytes (Hygrohypnum ochraceum) was determined at 13 sites in the Rio Grande and tributary streams in southern Colorado and northern New Mexico as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. The purposes of the study were to determine the spatial distribution of trace elements in relation to land-use practices in the upper Rio Grande Basin, compare accumulation rates of metals in bryophytes at sites contaminated by trace elements, and evaluate transplanted aquatic bryophytes as a tool for examining the bioavailability of trace elements in relation to concentrations in water and bed sediment. Concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in bryophytes, water, and bed sediment were significantly higher at sites that receive drainage from mining areas than at sites near agricultural or urban activities. Concentrations of most trace elements were lower in a tributary stream below an urban source than at sites near mining or agricultural use. Concentrations of Cu and Zn in bryophytes correlated with concentrations in water and bed sediment. In addition, bryophyte concentrations of As, Cd, and Pb correlated with concentrations in bed sediment. Transplanted bryophytes can provide an indication of bioavailability. Rates of accumulation were related to the magnitude of ambient trace-element concentrations; maximal uptake occurred during the first 10 d of exposure. Trace-element concentrations in transplanted bryophytes could potentially be used to predict water and sediment concentrations that represent an integration of conditions over short to intermediate lengths of time, rather than instantaneous conditions as measured using water samples.

  5. Separation of traces of metal ions from sodium matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korkisch, J.; Orlandini, K. A.

    1969-01-01

    Method for isolating metal ion traces from sodium matrices consists of two extractions and an ion exchange step. Extraction is accomplished by using 2-thenoyltrifluoracetone and dithizone followed by cation exchange.

  6. Evaluation of metal trace detachment from dosing pumps using PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozano, Omar; Mejia, Jorge; Laloy, Julie; Alpan, Lütfiye; Toussaint, Olivier; Dogné, Jean-Michel; Lucas, Stéphane

    2014-07-01

    Metal trace detachment evaluation is essential for instruments destined for pharmaceutical applications, such as pumps. Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) was used to determine and quantify metal traces originated from stainless steel and ceramic dosing pumps. Metal traces were quantified from either distilled water samples or cellulose filters in two tests: a short-term test of 16 h mimicking a daily cycle of a dosing pump for industrial applications, and a long-term test of 9 days evaluating the pump wearing. The main result is that ceramic dosing pumps present lower metal detachment than stainless steel counterparts. Traces of Si and Al were found originating from pieces around the pumps (pipes and joints).

  7. Accumulation and effects of metal mixtures in two seaweed species.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Tayler A; Bielmyer-Fraser, Gretchen K

    2015-05-01

    Metal pollution, due to various anthropogenic sources, may pose a threat to marine ecosystems. Metals can be introduced into food chains via bioaccumulation in primary producers, and may potentially lead to toxic effects. Macroalgae are used as food by a wide variety of organisms, and are therefore extremely important in aquatic systems. This study investigated the accumulation and effects of metals in two macroalgae species. The green seaweed, Ulva lactuca and the red seaweed, Agardhiella subulata were each concurrently exposed to five metals (Cu, Ni, Pb, Cd, and Zn) and U. lactuca was also exposed to each metal individually for 48 h. Metal accumulation in the seaweed was measured, and various photosynthetic parameters were assessed, using imaging pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry. Increased metal accumulation occurred in both seaweed species after 48 h exposure to metal mixtures and each metal individually. The distribution of metals in both seaweed species changed with increasing metal exposure concentrations, resulting in higher proportions of Cu and Zn in the metal-exposed groups, as compared to respective controls. Further, U. lactuca accumulated higher concentrations of metals when exposed to each metal individually rather than in metal mixtures, suggesting interactions among metals for uptake and/or bioaccumulation. Significant impairment of photosynthetic parameters in U. lactuca was observed after exposure to 100 and 1000 μg/L metal mixtures, as well as 100 μg/L of either Cd or Cu. These results demonstrate metal bioaccumulation and toxic effects in important primary producers, and may have implications for higher trophic levels.

  8. Influence of biochar amendments on marine sediment trace metal bioavailability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrke, G. E.; Hsu-Kim, H.

    2014-12-01

    Biochar has become a desirable material for use in agricultural application to enhance soil quality and in-situ soil and sediment remediation to immobilize organic contaminants. We investigated the effects of biochar sediment amendments on the bioavailability of a suite of inorganic trace metals (Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb) in contaminated sediments from multiple sites in Elizabeth River, VA. We incubated sediments in microcosms with a variety of water column redox and salinity conditions and compared sediments amended with two types of woody biochar to sediments amended with charcoal activated carbon and unamended sediments. We leached sediments in artificial gut fluid mimic of the benthic invertebrate Arenicola marina as a measure of bioavailability of the trace metals analyzed. In unamended anaerobic sediments, the gut fluid mimic leachable fraction of each trace metal is 1-4% of the total sediment concentration for each metal. Initial results indicate that in anaerobic microcosms, woody biochar sediment amendments (added to 5% dry wt) decrease the gut fluid mimic leachable fraction by 30-90% for all trace metals analyzed, and have comparable performance to charcoal activated carbon amendments. However, in microcosms without controlled redox conditions, woody biochar amendments increase the bioavailable fraction of Ni and Cu by up to 80%, while decreasing the bioavailable fraction of Co, Zn, and Pb by approximately 50%; charcoal activated carbon amendments decreased the bioavailability of all trace metals analyzed by approximately 20%. In microcosms without an overlying water column, biochar and activated carbon amendments had no significant effects on trace metal bioavailability. This research demonstrates that biochar can effectively decrease the bioavailability of trace metals in marine sediments, but its efficiency is metal-specific, and environmental conditions impact biochar performance.

  9. Oyster-based national mapping of trace metals pollution in the Chinese coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Lu, Guang-Yuan; Ke, Cai-Huan; Zhu, Aijia; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2017-03-02

    To investigate the distribution and variability of trace metal pollution in the Chinese coastal waters, over 1000 adult oyster individuals were collected from 31 sites along the entire coastline, spanning from temperate to tropical regions (Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, East China Sea and South China Sea), between August and September 2015. Concentrations of macroelements [sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and phosphorus (P)] and trace elements [cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), silver (Ag), and titanium (Ti)] in these oysters were concurrently measured and analyzed. The results showed high Ti, Zn and Cu bioaccumulation in oysters from Guangdong (South China Sea) and Zhejiang (East China Sea). Oysters at Nanji Island (Wenzhou) and Daya Bay (Huizhou) accumulated significantly high concentrations of Ni and Cr. The elements in these oysters were several times higher than the national food safety limits of China. On the other hand, the present study found that normalization of metals by salinity (Na) and nutrient (P) could reflect more details of metal pollution in the oysters. Biomonitoring of metal pollution could benefit from incorporating the macroelement calibration instead of focusing only on the total metal concentrations. Overall, simultaneous measurement of macroelements and trace metals coupled with non-linear analysis provide a new perspective for revealing the underlying mechanism of trace metal bioavailability and bioaccumulation in marine organisms.

  10. Heavy metal capture and accumulation in bioretention media.

    PubMed

    Li, Houng; Davis, Allen P

    2008-07-15

    Heavy metal capture and accumulation in bioretention media were investigated through the use of a one-dimensional filtration equation for particulate metals, advection/dispersion/adsorption transport equations for dissolved metals, and sequential extractions. Predicted spatial profiles and partitioning patterns of captured metals were compared to data derived from a bioretention cell in the District of Columbia. Zinc, lead, and copper profiles showed a high surface accumulation, significantly decreasing with the media depth. Surface street particle-enriched areas had the highest heavy metal levels, demonstrating a close relationship between capture of metals and runoff particles. Sequential extractions suggested that most captured metals were of anthropogenic origin. Soluble-exchangeable bound metals from the sequential extraction correlated well with predicted aqueous dissolved metals; the more strongly associated metal fractions correlated with modeled runoff and media particulate metals. A simple risk evaluation indicated thatlead isthe limiting metal in bioretention accumulation. On the basis of information collected in this study, a shallow bioretention cell design is suggested for systems with a focus on metal capture.

  11. Accumulation of heavy metals by vegetables grown in mine wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, G.P.; Sands, K.; Waters, M.; Wixson, B.G.; Dorward-King, E.

    2000-03-01

    Lead, cadmium, arsenic, and zinc were quantified in mine wastes and in soils mixed with mine wastes. Metal concentrations were found to be heterogeneous in the wastes. Iceberg lettuce, Cherry Belle radishes, Roma bush beans, and Better Boy tomatoes were cultivated in mine wastes and in waste-amended soils. Lettuce and radishes had 100% survival in the 100% mine waste treatments compared to 0% and 25% survival for tomatoes and beans, respectively. Metal concentrations were determined in plant tissues to determine uptake and distribution of metals in the edible plant parts. Individual soil samples were collected beneath each plant to assess metal content in the immediate plant environment. This analysis verified heterogeneous metal content of the mine wastes. The four plant species effectively accumulated and translocated lead, cadmium, arsenic, and zinc. Tomato and bean plants contained the four metals mainly in the roots and little was translocated to the fruits. Radish roots accumulated less metals compared to the leaves, whereas lettuce roots and leaves accumulated similar concentrations of the four metals. Lettuce leaves and radish roots accumulated significantly more metals than bean and tomato fruits. This accumulation pattern suggests that consumption of lettuce leaves or radish roots from plants grown in mine wastes would pose greater risks to humans and wildlife than would consumption of beans or tomatoes grown in the same area. The potential risk may be mitigated somewhat in humans, as vegetables grown in mine wastes exhibited stunted growth and chlorosis.

  12. A primer on trace metal-sediment chemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horowitz, Arthur J.

    1985-01-01

    In most aquatic systems, concentrations of trace metals in suspended sediment and the top few centimeters of bottom sediment are far greater than concentrations of trace metals dissolved in the water column. Consequently, the distribution, transport, and availability of these constituents can not be intelligently evaluated, nor can their environmental impact be determined or predicted solely through the sampling and analysis of dissolved phases. This Primer is designed to acquaint the reader with the basic principles that govern the concentration and distribution of trace metals associated with bottom and suspended sediments. The sampling and analysis of suspended and bottom sediments are very important for monitoring studies, not only because trace metal concentrations associated with them are orders of magnitude higher than in the dissolved phase, but also because of several other factors. Riverine transport of trace metals is dominated by sediment. In addition, bottom sediments serve as a source for suspended sediment and can provide a historical record of chemical conditions. This record will help establish area baseline metal levels against which existing conditions can be compared. Many physical and chemical factors affect a sediment's capacity to collect and concentrate trace metals. The physical factors include grain size, surface area, surface charge, cation exchange capacity, composition, and so forth. Increases in metal concentrations are strongly correlated with decreasing grain size and increasing surface area, surface charge, cation exchange capacity, and increasing concentrations of iron and manganese oxides, organic matter, and clay minerals. Chemical factors are equally important, especially for differentiating between samples having similar bulk chemistries and for inferring or predicting environmental availability. Chemical factors entail phase associations (with such sedimentary components as interstitial water, sulfides, carbonates, and organic

  13. Control of Trace Metal Emissions During Coal Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas C. Ho

    1997-10-01

    Emissions of toxic trace metals in the form of metal fumes or submicron particulates from a coal-fired combustion source have received greater environmental and regulatory concern over the past years. Current practice of controlling these emissions is to collect them at the cold-end of the process by air-pollution control devices (APCDs) such as electrostatic precipitators and baghouses. However, trace metal fumes may not always be effectively collected by these devices because the formed fumes are extremely small. The proposed research is to explore the opportunities for improved control of toxic trace metal emissions, alternatively, at the hot-end of the coal combustion process, i.e., in the combustion chamber. The technology proposed is to prevent the metal fumes from forming during the process, which would effectively eliminate the metal emission problems. Specifically, the technology is to employ suitable sorbents to (1) reduce the amount of metal volatilization during combustion and (2) capture volatilized metal vapors. The objectives of the project are to demonstrate the technology and to characterize the metal capture process during coal combustion in a fluidized bed combustor. The project was started on July 1, 1994 and this is the thirteenth quarterly technical progress report. Specifically, the following progress has been made during this performance period from July 1, 1997 through September 30, 1997.

  14. New data on the trace metal composition of the planktonic foraminifera microfossils of the Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demina, L. L.; Oskina, N. S.

    2016-11-01

    This paper reports new data on the trace metal composition of planktonic foraminifer shells from surface sediments and cores (fraction >0.1 mm) in the central part of the Atlantic Ocean. This investigation has made it possible to identify a considerable accumulation of trace elements from water due to calcite entering into the crystal lattice under biomineralization and adsorption on the shell surface and pores, despite the fact that the shells are depleted in trace elements relative to pelagic clays. The trace element content in planktonic foraminifer microfossils is characterized by temporal variability, which is the most pronounced in long cores (Holocene-Upper Pleistocene) and reflects the sedimentation paleoenvironment in the ocean.

  15. Trophic relationships and health risk assessments of trace metals in the aquaculture pond ecosystem of Pearl River Delta, China.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhang; Man, Yu Bon; Nie, Xiang Ping; Wong, Ming Hung

    2013-02-01

    Cadmium, lead, zinc, Chromium, copper, nickel and manganese in sediments and in aquatic organisms were collected from the aquaculture pond ecosystem of the Pearl River Delta (PRD), China and analyzed to evaluate bioaccumulation and trophic transfer in food chains, as well as the potential health risk of exposure to the Hong Kong residents via dietary intake of these aquatic products. The results revealed that based on the biota-sediment accumulation factor, omnivorous fish and zooplankton accumulated more trace metals from sediment than carnivorous fish. Concentrations of seven trace metals in aquaculture pond of PRD significantly decreased with increasing trophic levels, showing that these trace metals were trophically diluted in predatory and omnivorous food chains. The hazard index values of all fish species were smaller than 1 for adults and children, indicating there was no health risk from the multiple metals via ingestion of the freshwater fish for the inhabitants.

  16. Estuaries as filters: the role of tidal marshes in trace metal removal.

    PubMed

    Teuchies, Johannes; Vandenbruwaene, Wouter; Carpentier, Roos; Bervoets, Lieven; Temmerman, Stijn; Wang, Chen; Maris, Tom; Cox, Tom J S; Van Braeckel, Alexander; Meire, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Flux calculations demonstrate that many estuaries are natural filters for trace metals. Yet, the underlying processes are poorly investigated. In the present study, it was hypothesized that intertidal marshes contribute significantly to the contaminant filter function of estuaries. Trace metal concentrations and sediment characteristics were measured along a transect from the subtidal, over an intertidal flat and marsh to a restored marsh with controlled reduced tide. Metal concentrations in the intertidal and restored marsh were found to be a factor two to five higher than values in the subtidal and intertidal flat sediments. High metal concentrations and high accretion rates indicate a high metal accumulation capacity of the intertidal marshes. Overbank sedimentation in the tidal marshes of the entire estuary was calculated to remove 25% to 50% of the riverine metal influx, even though marshes comprise less than 8% of the total surface of the estuary. In addition, the large-scale implementation of planned tidal marsh restoration projects was estimated to almost double the trace metal storage capacity of the present natural tidal marshes in the estuary.

  17. Estuaries as Filters: The Role of Tidal Marshes in Trace Metal Removal

    PubMed Central

    Teuchies, Johannes; Vandenbruwaene, Wouter; Carpentier, Roos; Bervoets, Lieven; Temmerman, Stijn; Wang, Chen; Maris, Tom; Cox, Tom J. S.; Van Braeckel, Alexander; Meire, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Flux calculations demonstrate that many estuaries are natural filters for trace metals. Yet, the underlying processes are poorly investigated. In the present study, it was hypothesized that intertidal marshes contribute significantly to the contaminant filter function of estuaries. Trace metal concentrations and sediment characteristics were measured along a transect from the subtidal, over an intertidal flat and marsh to a restored marsh with controlled reduced tide. Metal concentrations in the intertidal and restored marsh were found to be a factor two to five higher than values in the subtidal and intertidal flat sediments. High metal concentrations and high accretion rates indicate a high metal accumulation capacity of the intertidal marshes. Overbank sedimentation in the tidal marshes of the entire estuary was calculated to remove 25% to 50% of the riverine metal influx, even though marshes comprise less than 8% of the total surface of the estuary. In addition, the large-scale implementation of planned tidal marsh restoration projects was estimated to almost double the trace metal storage capacity of the present natural tidal marshes in the estuary. PMID:23950927

  18. Assessment of trace element accumulation by earthworms in an orchard soil remediation study using soil amendments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Centofantia, Tiziana; Chaney, Rufus L.; Beyer, W. Nelson; McConnell, Laura L.; Davis, A. P.; Jackson, Dana

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed potential bioaccumulation of various trace elements in grasses and earthworms as a consequence of soil incorporation of organic amendments for in situ remediation of an orchard field soil contaminated with organochlorine and Pb pesticide residues. In this experiment, four organic amendments of differing total organic carbon content and quality (two types of composted manure, composted biosolids, and biochar) were added to a contaminated orchard field soil, planted with two types of grasses, and tested for their ability to reduce bioaccumulation of organochlorine pesticides and metals in earthworms. The experiment was carried out in 4-L soil microcosms in a controlled environment for 90 days. After 45 days of orchardgrass or perennial ryegrass growth, Lumbricus terrestris L. were introduced to the microcosms and exposed to the experimental soils for 45 days before the experiment was ended. Total trace element concentrations in the added organic amendments were below recommended safe levels and their phytoavailablity and earthworm availability remained low during a 90-day bioremediation study. At the end of the experiment, total tissue concentrations of Cu, Cd, Mn, Pb, and Zn in earthworms and grasses were below recommended safe levels. Total concentrations of Pb in test soil were similar to maximum background levels of Pb recorded in soils in the Eastern USA (100 mg kg−1 d.w.) because of previous application of orchard pesticides. Addition of aged dairy manure compost and presence of grasses was effective in reducing the accumulation of soil-derived Pb in earthworms, thus reducing the risk of soil Pb entry into wildlife food chains.

  19. Trace metals in upland headwater lakes in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Burton, Andrew; Aherne, Julian; Hassan, Nouri

    2013-10-01

    Trace elements (n = 23) in Irish headwater lakes (n = 126) were investigated to determine their ambient concentrations, fractionation (total, dissolved, and non-labile), and geochemical controls. Lakes were generally located in remote upland, acid-sensitive regions along the coastal margins of the country. Total trace metal concentrations were low, within the range of natural pristine surface waters; however, some lakes (~20 %) had inorganic labile aluminum and manganese at levels potentially harmful to aquatic organisms. Redundancy analysis indicated that geochemical weathering was the dominant controlling factor for total metals, compared with acidity for dissolved metals. In addition, many metals were positively correlated with dissolved organic carbon indicating their affinity (or complexation) with humic substances (e.g., aluminum, iron, mercury, lead). However, a number of trace metals (e.g., aluminum, mercury, zinc) were correlated with anthropogenic acidic deposition (i.e., non-marine sulfate), suggesting atmospheric sources or elevated leaching owing to acidic deposition. As transboundary air pollution continues to decline, significant changes in the cycling of trace metals is anticipated.

  20. Trace metal anomalies in bleached Porites coral at Meiji Reef, tropical South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shu; Yu, Kefu; Zhao, Jianxin; Feng, Yuexing; Chen, Tianran

    2017-01-01

    Coral bleaching has generally been recognized as the main reason for tropical coral reef degradation, but there are few long-term records of coral bleaching events. In this study, trace metals including chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), tin (Sn), titanium (Ti), vanadium (V), and yttrium (Y), were analyzed in two Porites corals collected from Meiji Reef in the tropical South China Sea (SCS) to assess differences in trace metal concentrations in bleached compared with unbleached coral growth bands. Ti, V, Cr, and Mo generally showed irregular fluctuations in both corals. Bleached layers contained high concentrations of Mn, Cu, Sn, and Pb. Unbleached layers showed moderately high concentrations of Mn and Cu only. The different distribution of trace metals in Porites may be attributable to different selectivity on the basis of vital utility or toxicity. Ti, V, Cr, and Mo are discriminated against by both coral polyps and zooxanthellae, but Mn, Cu, Sn, and Pb are accumulated by zooxanthellae and only Mn and Cu are accumulated by polyps as essential elements. The marked increase in Cu, Mn, Pb, and Sn are associated with bleaching processes, including mucus secretion, tissue retraction, and zooxanthellae expulsion and occlusion. Variation in these trace elements within the coral skeleton can be used as potential tracers of short-lived bleaching events.

  1. Sedimentary input of trace metals from the Chukchi Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar-Islas, A. M.; Seguré, M.; Rember, R.; Nishino, S.

    2014-12-01

    The distribution of trace metals in the Arctic Ocean has implications for their global cycles, yet until recently few trace metal observations were available from this rapidly changing ocean. Profiles of dissolved Fe from recent Japanese field efforts in the Western Canada Basin (2008, 2010) indicate the broad Chukchi Shelf as a source of Fe to the halocline of the Western Canada Basin. Here we present dissolved and particulate data for crustal (Al, Mn, Fe) and non-crustal elements (Co, Cu, Zn) from the productive Chukchi Sea to characterize the sedimentary input of these metals to shelf waters contributing to the halocline layer of the Canada Basin. Water column profiles were collected in late summer 2013 onboard the R/V Mirai at 10 stations from the Bering Strait to the slope, and at a time-series (10 days) station located over the outer shelf. A narrow and variable (5-10 m) benthic boundary layer was sampled at the time-series station with highly elevated dissolved and suspended particulate metal concentrations. High metal concentrations were also observed in the subsurface at a station over Barrow Canyon where mixing is enhanced. Reactivity of suspended particulate metals was determined by the leachable vs. refractory fractions. Metal concentrations were determined by ICP-MS. Trace metal transport from the shelf to the interior will be discussed in context with shelf mechanisms contributing to this export, and to expected future changes in the Arctic Ocean.

  2. Oxidative stress in marine bivalves tissues in response to accumulation of heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Chelomin, V.P.; Belcheva, N.N.; Zakartsev, M.V.

    1995-12-31

    Using model aquarium experiments the authors have shown that the accumulation of heavy metals (copper and cadmium) by the tissues of marine bivalves (Mytilus edulis, Mizuhopecten yessoensis) is followed by a complex of alterations in the lipid matrix of some membrane organelles. It is supposed that the disturbance of balance of prooxidant and antioxidant processes is the main mechanism in heavy metal-inducible damage, of membranes. This possibility is supported by results of levels of conjugated dienes, malondialdehyde and Shiff`s bases, determined as indicators of lipid peroxidation in different tissues of molluscs, markedly increased with metal accumulation. Unlike to cadmium, the copper possess prooxidative activity, stimulating the peroxidation of membrane lipids directly. In spite of some distinctions the intracellular antioxidative systems (glutathione system and tocopherol) showed extreme sensitivity to the accumulation of both metals. It was demonstrated that the accumulation of these metals was followed by die changes of glutathione and tocopherol contents and the inhibition of glutathione-reductase. activity,, but it was not correlated with changes of Se-depending glutathioneperoxidase activity. As it results from kinetic data the most damages of glutathione system are revealed on this earliest stages of metal accumulation when metallothionein synthesis is on the low level. The amount of glutathione in the tissues was restored almost to their original level when metallothionein synthesis increases markedly. But, total amount of peroxides is retained on the high level for a long period of time. On the basis of results it is reasonable to assume that the accumulation of these metals by mollusc tissues does not proceed without leaving a trace. This process is a potential menace for increasing of destructive events in consequence of disturbance of balance of prooxidant and antioxidant processes.

  3. Trace metals in sediments and benthic animals from aquaculture ponds near a mangrove wetland in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hao; Liu, Jinling; Bi, Xiangyang; Lin, Guanghui; Feng, Christopher C; Li, Zhengjie; Qi, Fei; Zheng, Tianling; Xie, Liqi

    2017-04-15

    In this study, we measured the concentrations of trace metals (Cr, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Pb and Hg) in typical cultured animals (crabs, clams, and shrimps) and sediments from aquaculture ponds nearby mangrove wetlands in Zhangjiang estuary, China. The contents of Cr, Cu, Cd, and Pb in mangrove sediments were significantly higher than those in pond sediments, while an inverse distribution was observed for Zn, As, and Hg. Significantly higher concentrations of trace metals were found in clams from the mangrove mudflats compared to those from the aquaculture ponds. The sources of trace metals in the clams were primarily from organic fertilizer, whereas those in the shrimp were from contaminated sediment. The results of geo-accumulation index and the ecological risk assessment indicated that the aquaculture ponds near the mangrove wetlands in this subtropical estuary posed a special risk of endogenous and exogenous trace metal pollution to nearby systems.

  4. Clean Air Act requirements for trace-metals information

    SciTech Connect

    Pahl, D.; Hunt, W.; Evans, G.

    1992-01-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 have expanded the requirements for trace metal and air toxics information in urban areas and added new requirements for this information in rural areas and ecosystems. Specific provisions germane to trace metals and other air toxics compounds are found in Title III, Section 112 and in Title IX, Section 901. In response to these provisions, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) plans to conduct research in atmospheric monitoring networks in urban areas, in the Great Lakes watershed, and in regional components of a national Clean Air Act status and trends network.

  5. Early holocene trace metal enrichment in organic lake sediments, Baffin Island, Arctic Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, A.P.; Haertling, J.W.

    1997-02-01

    Trace metals having accumulated in preindustrial ({sup 14}C dated) sediments from two small, acid-sensitive, arctic lakes show unexpected stratigraphic trends. Concentrations of Cu, Cr, Pb, Ni, and Zn have successive maxima in early to mid-Holocene sediments, of amplitudes comparable to lakes affected by loading from industrial atmospheric fallout. These profiles contrast sharply the concentrations of elements primarily associated with catchment erosion (Ti, V, Zr), and are attributed to the enhanced transport of organic-bound trace metals from the catchments to the lakes in the early Holocene. Paleoliminological conditions conferred effective sedimentary sinks for each of the enriched elements, although a certain degree of diagenetic mobilization is also observed. The study verifies that natural conditions may, under specific circumstances, produce sediment chemical signatures of potentially toxic metals that bear similarities to those reported from lakes adversely impacted by atmospheric pollution. 31 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Effect of acute cadmium exposure on metal accumulation and oxidative stress biomarkers of Sparus aurata.

    PubMed

    Souid, Ghada; Souayed, Nouha; Yaktiti, Fatma; Maaroufi, Khira

    2013-03-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a non-essential metal which could be toxic in traces for aquatic species. Increasing Cd concentrations in sea water is mainly related to waste waters provided from growing industrial and agricultural activities. The present study investigated the accumulation of Cd (0.5mg/L) in different tissues of Sparus aurata under a short term exposure (2, 4 and 24h) using the atomic absorption. This work investigated also the impact of the metal on oxidative stress biomarkers and acetyl cholinesterase activity (AchE). Our results showed that Cd accumulation in different tissues depends largely on the length of the exposure period to the metal. Indeed, the highest concentrations were obtained after 24h. Cd accumulation in tissues was in the following order: intestines > liver > gills > dorsal muscle. Cadmium administration increased significantly catalase activity (CAT), glutathione level (GSH) and malondialdehyde production (MDA) after 24h of exposure. In contrast, AchE activity was decreased after the same period of exposure to the metal. There were no significant changes in oxidative stress biomarkers after 2 and 4h of exposure, except for superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity which attained the highest level after 4h. These results suggest that short-term exposure of Sparus aurata to Cd (0.5mg/L) induced an important metal accumulation in intestine and a notable oxidative stress response.

  7. Trace metal storage in recent floodplain sediments along the Dill River, central Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Charles W.

    2015-04-01

    Trace metals are stored in near-channel floodplain sediments along many rivers in industrial and mined watersheds of western European countries such as Germany. In this paper, I document the distribution of Cu, Pb, and Zn in 13 cores collected from near-channel floodplain sediments along a 25-km reach of the Dill River in central Germany. Mean concentrations of the three trace metals exceed background concentrations, an indication of anthropogenic enrichment along the study reach; many individual samples have concentrations several times the background levels and exceed standards for trace metals contained in the German Federal Soil Protection Act. Metal concentrations generally peak at depths of 0.2 to 0.7 m below the floodplain surface and are assumed to represent the period of maximum metal releases to the environment through upstream industrial activity, ore mining, or both. In eight of the cores, radiocarbon ages obtained below the depth of peak metal concentrations provide maximum dates for sediment accumulation of between 90 and 1700 years ago, with most ages clustering in the period of 90 to 300 years ago. The ages and depth to peak metal concentrations indicate 0.6 to 1.0 m of floodplain sedimentation over the last 150 to 300 years (0.3-0.4 cm y- 1), which exceed sedimentation amounts and rates found in surrounding watersheds. Surface sediments contain lower metal concentrations, suggesting deposition recently of cleaner sediments. Trace metals stored along the Dill River serve as a reminder that stores of contaminants exist in geomorphically sensitive locations of the fluvial system. These legacy sediments bear the chemical imprint of industrial or mining activities that no longer occur in the watershed.

  8. Biomonitor of Environmental Stress: Coral Trace Metal Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grumet, N.; Hughen, K.

    2006-12-01

    Tropical reef corals are extremely sensitive to changes in environmental conditions and, as a result of environmental degradation and global climate change, coral reefs around the globe are severely threatened. Increased human population and development in tropical regions is leading to higher turbidity and silt loading from terrestrial runoff, increased pesticides and nutrients from agricultural land-use and sewage, and the release of toxic trace metals to coastal waters from industrial pollution. The uptake of these metals and nutrients within the coral skeletal aragonite is a sensitive biomonitor of environmental stresses on coral health. We analyzed 18 trace metals from the surface of coral skeletons collected in Bermuda, Indonesia and Belize to assess a range of threats to coral reef health - including climate change, agricultural runoff and pesticides, and coastal development and tourism. This surface sample network also includes samples representing 4 different coral species. Trace metal analysis was performed on an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) to a high degree of accuracy and precision at extremely low (ppb) concentrations using a protocol we developed for samples less than 2 mg. Proper cleaning techniques were employed to minimize blank level concentrations for ultra-trace metal ICP-MS solution analysis. However, Zn/Ca and Ni/Ca concentrations remain below analytical detection limits. Initial results indicate that sea surface temperature proxies (e.g., Sr/Ca, B/Ca and Mg/Ca) display similar ratios between the different sites, whereas those metals associated with anthropogenic activities, such as Co, Pb and Cu, are site-specific and are linked to individual environmental stressors. Results from this study will be applied to down core trace metal records in the future. In doing so, we aim to understand the impacts of compounding environmental stresses on coral health, and to identify regional threshold values beyond which corals

  9. Trace metal mobilization in soil by bacterial polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jyh-Herng; Czajka, D.R.; Lion, L.W.

    1995-02-01

    Enhanced transport of trace metal in porous media can occur in the presence of a ligand or {open_quotes}carrier{close_quotes} that has a high affinity for binding the pollutant, is dispersed and mobile in the soil environment, is recalcitrant with respect to microbial degradation, and is acceptable to the public. These aspects of the facilitated transport to trace metals are discussed with respect to a naturally occurring carrier; extracellular polymers of bacterial origin. The literature is reviewed regarding the production and composition of bacterial extracellular polymers, the processes relevant to the facilitated transport of trace metals in soil by bacterial polymers, and potential for transformation of polymers in soils by microbial degradation. Model calculations of contaminant retardation are presented for the case of polymer-mediated transport of cadmium in a sandy aquifer material. The available information suggests that extracellular polymers can bind metal ions and are mobile in the soil environment. Extracellular polymers also appear to be relatively slowly degraded by soil microorganisms. These properties and the supporting model calculations indicate that extracellular polymers of bacterial origin merit consideration as agents that may be applied to contaminated soils to enhance trace metal mobility. 58 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Metallization Qualification for VLSI (TRACE Test).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    APPROVED: ~ CLYDE H. LANE Project Engineer APPROVED: W. S.. TUTHILL, Colonel, USAF Chief, Reliability & Compatibility Division FOR THE COMMANDER: 5 a JOHN A...Appl. Phys., Vol. 51, No. 8, August, 1980, pp. 4475-82. 3. J. Bardeen , "Electrical Conductivity of Metals," J. of Appl. Phys., Vol. 11, Feb., 1940

  11. Accumulation of neurotoxic organochlorines and trace elements in brain of female European eel (Anguilla anguilla).

    PubMed

    Bonnineau, C; Scaion, D; Lemaire, B; Belpaire, C; Thomé, J-P; Thonon, M; Leermaker, M; Gao, Y; Debier, C; Silvestre, F; Kestemont, P; Rees, J-F

    2016-07-01

    Xenobiotics such as organochlorine compounds (OCs) and metals have been suggested to play a significant role in the collapse of European eel stocks in the last decades. Several of these pollutants could affect functioning of the nervous system. Still, no information is so far available on levels of potentially neurotoxic pollutants in eel brain. In present study, carried out on female eels caught in Belgian rivers and canals, we analyzed brain levels of potentially-neurotoxic trace elements (Ag, Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, MeHg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn, Sb, Zn) and OCs (Polychlorinated biphenyls, PCBs; Hexachlorocyclohexanes, HCHs; Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites, DDTs). Data were compared to levels in liver and muscle tissues. Eel brain contained very high amounts of OCs, superior to those found in the two other tissues. Interestingly, the relative abundance of PCB congeners markedly differed between tissues. In brain, a predominance of low chlorinated PCBs was noted, whereas highly chlorinated congeners prevailed in muscle and liver. HCHs were particularly abundant in brain, which contains the highest amounts of β-HCH and ϒ-HCH. p,p'-DDTs concentration was similar between brain and muscle (i.e., about twice that of liver). A higher proportion of p,p'-DDT was noticed in brain. Except for Cr and inorganic Hg, all potentially neurotoxic metals accumulated in brain to levels equal to or lower than hepatic levels. Altogether, results indicate that eel brain is an important target for organic and, to a lesser extent, for inorganic neurotoxic pollutants.

  12. [Beijing common green tree leaves' accumulation capacity for heavy metals].

    PubMed

    Li, Shao-Ning; Kong, Ling-Wei; Lu, Shao-Wei; Chen, Bo; Gao, Chen; Shi, Yuan

    2014-05-01

    Seasonal variation of heavy metal contents in leaves and their relationships with soil heavy metal pollution levels were studied through measuring and analyzing the leaves of the common tree species in Beijing and soil heavy metal contents, to detect heavy metal accumulation ability of plant leaves. The results showed that: (1) the contents of Cu, Pb, Zn in plant leaves first decreased and then increased, again declined with changing the seasons (from spring to winter). Cr concentration showed the trend of first increase and then decrease from spring to winter, and the highest in the autumn; the accumulation capacities of Cu for Babylonica and Japonica were higher in the spring, summer and autumn, while Tabuliformis was in winter; the higher accumulation capacities for Cr, Pb were Japonica and Platycladus, and in winter were Platycladus and Bungeana; the higher accumulation capacities for Zn were Babylonica and Bungeana, while Platycladus in winter; (2) the pollution degree of four kinds of heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Pb, Zn) from downtown to suburbs showed that: Jingshan (C =2.48, C is contamination factor) > Olympic (C = 1.27) > Songshan (C = 1.20) > Shuiguan (C = 1. 18); (3) the heavy metals concentration of same plant leaves in the water of the Great Wall changed larger, but those in the other three areas showed that: Jingshan > Olympic > Songshan; the ability of same species leaf to absorb different sorts of heavy metals showed that: Zn >Cu >Pb >Cr; the difference between Zn content and Cr content was significant (P <0.01); (4) the relationship between heavy metal content in plant leaves and soil heavy metal pollution levels presented a quadratic polynomial relation; the significant correlation was found between other three heavy metal contents of plant samples and soil samples, but they were not the case for the Cu, and the correlation coefficients were above 0. 9.

  13. Elucidating the Composition and Distribution of Trace Metals in Corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farfan, G.; Webb, S. M.; Apprill, A.; Hansel, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    Coral reefs host a plethora of marine life and thereby provide a wealth of aesthetic and economic benefits to coastal countries. Anthropogenic influences, including local coastal water contamination, however threaten the health of these delicate ecosystems. Metal incorporation into carbonate minerals, the backbone of coral reefs, is known to have a large yet variable impact on carbonate structure and solubility. Yet, trace metal influences on the structure, porosity, composition, and solubility of coral skeletons is largely unknown. Here, we coupled synchrotron-based micro-X-ray fluorescence (u-XRF) mapping and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy with micro-X-ray diffraction (XRD) to explore the distribution and speciation of trace metals associated with corals and their impact on the carbonate structure of corals obtained from reefs varying in anthropogenic influence - Florida Keys, FL USA and the Federated States of Micronesia. Iron and copper were the most abundant metals in the biological tissue, while in some areas zinc was observed in the tissue, overlapping with the skeleton. Trace metals were not detectable in the aragonite skeletons; in fact, the distributions of Ca and Fe were anti-correlated. XANES spectra show that the iron is primarily Fe(III), likely as the poorly crystalline iron oxide ferrihydrite structure or trapped within ferretin proteins. The same trace metals were observed in corals of different species and from different environments. This in situ investigation corroborates previous studies that corals tend to incorporate iron into the biological components but not into the aragonite skeleton. Given the dominant partitioning of metals within the biological tissue rather than the coral skeleton, the specific carbon molecules responsible for metal attenuation and their fate under changing geochemical conditions and following coral death require exploration.

  14. Development of functional trait biomarkers for trace metal exposure in freshwater clams (Musculium spp.).

    PubMed

    Schoonover, Cody M; Wieker, Jessica; Pope, Rachelle; Brown, Chelsea; Cooper, Emily; DeWitt, Jariel; Gunselman, Samuel; Jensen, Cory; Stevens, Whitney; Yri, Jenae; Nezat, Carmen; Joyner-Matos, Joanna

    2016-10-01

    Exposure to trace metals typically causes oxidative stress; these consequences are better-characterized in estuarine and marine species than in freshwater species. How cellular-level responses to metal pollution influence whole-organism and population-level traits is poorly understood. We tested whether exposure to single metals (zinc and cadmium) and to metal mixtures (water in equilibrium with sediment from a highly polluted lake) alters two ecologically-relevant traits in freshwater clams, locomotion and reproduction. Fingernail clams (Musculium spp.) from unimpacted habitats were exposed to single metals and the metal mixture for up to 49days. The single metal doses (≤5mg/L Zn and ≤20μg/L Cd) were not toxicologically meaningful as clam survival, burial, and climbing activity did not differ across treatments. Water in equilibrium with the lake sediment contained cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc. Clams exposed to this metal mixture had decreased climbing activity but no change in burial activity. Metal-exposed clams had lower fecundity (number of shelled juveniles extruded by adult clams) and patterns in metal accumulation corresponded with lake sediment dose and clam activity. In contrast to the functional traits, stress protein expression and whole-clam glycogen content did not vary across treatment groups. These results indicate that fingernail clams of the genus Musculium are appropriate for development as sentinel species for metal pollution and can serve as a model for determining how metal pollution alters metabolic allocation patterns in freshwater organisms.

  15. Subcritical water extraction of trace metals from petroleum source rock.

    PubMed

    Akinlua, Akinsehinwa; Smith, Roger M

    2010-06-15

    The extraction of trace metals from petroleum source rock by superheated water was investigated and the conditions for maximum yield were determined. The results showed that no significant extraction was attained at 100 degrees C but the extraction was enhanced at higher temperatures. The optimum temperature for superheated water extraction of the metals from petroleum source rocks was 250 degrees C. Extraction yields increased with enhanced extraction time. Exhaustive extraction time for all the trace metals determined in this study was attained at 30min. Comparison of results of leaching these trace metals by superheated water with those of acid digestion revealed that cadmium, chromium, manganese and nickel had better yields with superheated water while vanadium had better yield with acid digestion. The results showed that the temperature and kinetic rates have significant effects on superheated water extraction of metals from petroleum source rocks. The results also revealed that effective leaching of some metals from petroleum source rocks by superheated water can be achieved without any modification except for vanadium.

  16. Two age-related accumulation profiles of toxic metals.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Kazuya; Yasuda, Yuichi; Tsutsui, Toyoharu

    2012-07-01

    In order to investigate the body burden levels of toxic metals in Japanese, five toxic metal concentrations in scalp hair samples from 28,424 subjects from infant to elderly were determined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The geometric mean of hair mercury concentrations showed a high-significant age-correlated increase (r = 0.341, p < 0.0001) with a peak at the 6th decade of life and then decreased with further aging in both sexes. The mean mercury concentrations in male adults were significantly higher than those in female (p < 0.001), indicating the gender difference (male > female) in mercury accumulation. Arsenic also showed a similar accumulation profile with age dependency and gender difference in adult subjects. In contrast, cadmium, lead and aluminium exhibited another type of accumulation profile: the highest burden level was observed in infants aged 0-3 years old for every element in both sexes. In addition, cadmium was found to have a character accumulating in aged females, with significant age-dependency (r = 0.134, p < 0.0001) and gender difference (female > male). These findings suggest that toxic metals are classified into two families on the basis of their accumulation profiles, and that the three elements of mercury, arsenic and cadmium which accumulate age-dependently in adults, may play a role in aging process and higher burden with them may lead to acceleration of aging.

  17. Unexpected Consequences: Gold Mining in Peru and Trace Metal Mobilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, R. Z.; Pinedo-Gonzalez, P.; Clark, K. E.; West, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    Artisanal miners in the Peruvian Amazon, especially in the Madre de Dios region, are targeting fluvial deposits along riverbanks as part of a modern-day gold rush. These miners often use mercury, causing Hg pollution and ecological damage. Research on the environmental consequences of these mines has focused primarily on the fate of Hg, and to date little work has considered whether mining river sediments affects the release and cycling of other trace metals. This project measures trace metal concentrations in soil and vegetation samples developed on fluvial sediments at one mine site and two non-mine (control) sites across gradients in natural plant succession and riverbank composition. Some metals, including Pb and Mo, showed leachable metal concentrations (determined using EPA Method 2050B and ICP-MS analysis) that were lower in mine site soils than control site soils, but higher in mine site vegetation than control site vegetation. These results held across all gradients in natural plant succession and soil composition. This suggests that metals may be preferentially mobilized from the soil and taken up by surrounding vegetation as a result of mining activities. Soils were also treated with a sequential leach to separate metals that are exchangeable, bound to carbonates, bound to Fe and Mn oxides, bound to organic matter and in the residual phase. Initial data shows that trace metal concentrations are generally lower in all phases from mine soils vs. control soils, across all gradients in natural plant succession and soil composition. Trace metal mobilization due to mining is facilitated by changing pH or redox conditions - e.g., by exposing buried minerals to water and oxygen. Fluvial sediments at these studied sites were already exposed during their erosion and transport, but anoxic conditions following deposition may allow a build-up of metals that are mobilized once sediments are re-worked by mining. It is also possible that Hg affects the mobility of other

  18. Trace metals in gills of fish from the Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Yakoob, S.; Bahloul, M. ); Bou-Olayan, A.H.

    1994-11-01

    Complexation of metals by coordinate linkages with appropriate organic molecules in biological tissues is an important process involved in metal accumulation by aquatic organisms. Fish respiratory systems differ from all other systems because damage to gills has immediate impacts on the rest of the fish's body. Veer et al. observed significant correlation between gill-metal concentration and whole-body weight. More nickel is accumulated in gill tissue of the catfish (Clarias batrachus) than in the liver or intestine. More cadmium is accumulated in gill tissue of the fish Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch) and Channa punctatus (Bloch) than in the liver or kidney. When exposed to lethal and sublethal concentrations of copper, gills of the freshwater fish Labeo rohita (Hamilton) showed the highest degree of copper accumulation. Petroleum and petrochemical industry wastes contribute significantly to metal enrichment of the Arabian Gulf marine environment. Because accumulation of metal ions is significant in gills, levels of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb were investigated in gills of fish from potentially impacted areas along the western side of the Arabian Gulf after the 1991 oil-spill. 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Physiological changes and tissue metal accumulation in rainbow trout exposed to foodborne and waterborne metals

    SciTech Connect

    Farag, A.A.; Boese, C.J.; Bergman, H.L. . Dept. of Zoology and Physiology); Woodward, D.F. )

    1994-12-01

    Sublethal physiological effects and metal residue accumulation in tissues were measured in adult and juvenile rainbow trout fed a metal-contaminated diet and/or exposed to waterborne metals for 21 d. The consumption of metal-contaminated invertebrates from the Clark Fork River, Montana, significantly affected scale loss and metal accumulation in gut tissue of adult trout. Survival, scale loss, and metal accumulation in gill and kidney tissue were affected by exposure to a waterborne mixture of Cd, Cu, and Pb at twice the acceptable levels and Zn at the maximum acceptable level established by the US Environmental Protection Agency for protection of aquatic wildlife. A combination of dietary and waterborne metals also caused lipid peroxidation in the kidney of adult fish and decreased whole-body potassium of juvenile trout. In general, metal accumulation in tissues was higher in gill and kidney with waterborne exposures and was higher in stomach and pyloric caeca with dietary exposure. And metal concentrations in juvenile whole-body tissues accumulated significantly with a combination of waterborne and dietary metals. Although some physiological changes were noted (scale loss, lipid peroxidation of kidney), an exposure time longer than 21 d is probably needed to observe more extensive physiological changes. Regardless, results from this study suggest that a full assessment of metal exposure to fish populations in natural systems must include evaluation of dietary as well as waterborne metal contamination.

  20. Phytoaccumulation of trace elements by wetland plants: 3. Uptake and accumulation of ten trace elements by twelve plant species

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, J.H.; Zayed, A.; Zhu, Y.L.; Yu, M.; Terry, N.

    1999-10-01

    Interest is increasing in using wetland plants in constructed wetlands to remove toxic elements from polluted wastewater. To identify those wetland plants that hyperaccumulate trace elements, 12 plant species were tested for their efficiency to bioconcentrate 10 potentially toxic trace elements including As, b, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, and Se. Individual plants were grown under carefully controlled conditions and supplied with 1 mg L{sup {minus}1} of each trace element individually for 10 d. Except B, all elements accumulated to much higher concentrations in roots than in shoots. Highest shoot tissue concentrations (mg kg{sup {minus}1} DW) of the various trace elements were attained by the following species: umbrella plant (Cyperus alternifolius L.) for Mn (198) and Cr (44); water zinnia (Wedelia trilobata Hitchc.) for Cd (148) and Ni (80); smartweed (Polygonum hydropiperoides Michx.) for Cu (95) and Pb (64); water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes L.) for Hg (92), As (34), and Se (39); and mare's tail (hippuris vulgaris L.) for B (1132). Whereas, the following species attained the highest root tissue concentrations (mg kg{sup {minus}1} DW); stripped rush (Baumia rubiginosa) for Mn (1683); parrot's feather (Myriophyllum brasiliense Camb.) for Cd (1426) and Ni (1077); water lettuce for Cu (1038), Hg (1217), and As (177); smartweed for Cr (2980) and Pb (1882); mare's tail for B (1277); and monkey flower (Mimulus guttatus Fisch.) for Se (384). From a phytoremediation perspective, smartweed was probably the best plant species for trace element removal from wastewater due to its faster growth and higher plant density.

  1. Traffic-Related Trace Element Accumulation in Roadside Soils and Wild Grasses in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guanxing; Yan, Xuedong; Zhang, Fan; Zeng, Chen; Gao, Dan

    2013-01-01

    This research examines traffic-source trace elements accumulations and distributions in roadside soils and wild grasses in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. A total of 100 soil samples and 100 grass samples including Achnatherum splendens, Anaphalis nepalensis, Artemisia sphaerocephala, Carex moorcroftii, Iris lacteal, Kobresia myosuroides, Oreosolen wattii, Oxytropis ochrocephala and Stellera chamaejasme were collected at 100 sites from different road segments. The contents of metals and metalloids, including Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr, Co, Ni and As, in the soil and grass samples were analyzed using ICP-MS. The total mean concentrations of the eight trace elements in soils are Cu (22.84 mg/kg), Zn (100.56 mg/kg), Cd (0.28 mg/kg), Pb (28.75 mg/kg), Cr (36.82 mg/kg), Co (10.24 mg/kg), Ni (32.44 mg/kg) and As (21.43 mg/kg), while in grasses are Cu (9.85 mg/kg), Zn (31.47 mg/kg), Cd (0.05 mg/kg), Pb (2.06 mg/kg), Cr (14.16 mg/kg), Co (0.55 mg/kg), Ni (4.03 mg/kg) and As (1.33 mg/kg). The metal and metalloid concentrations in the nine grass species were all below the critical values of hyperaccumulators. The mean values and Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) results indicate that: (1) the concentrations of the trace elements in the soils are higher than those in the grasses, (2) the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb in the soils decrease as the roadside distance increases, (3) the concentrations of trace elements in the grasses are the highest at 10 m from the road edge, (4) the higher the traffic volume, the higher the concentrations of the trace elements in the roadside soils and grasses, and (5) when the land cover is meadow, the lower the sand content in the soil, the lower the trace element concentrations. With a trace element’s bioavailability represented by its transfer factor (TF) from the soil to the grass, the TFs of the eight trace elements are not in the same orders for different grass species. PMID:24380977

  2. Traffic-related trace element accumulation in roadside soils and wild grasses in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guanxing; Yan, Xuedong; Zhang, Fan; Zeng, Chen; Gao, Dan

    2013-12-30

    This research examines traffic-source trace elements accumulations and distributions in roadside soils and wild grasses in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. A total of 100 soil samples and 100 grass samples including Achnatherum splendens, Anaphalis nepalensis, Artemisia sphaerocephala, Carex moorcroftii, Iris lacteal, Kobresia myosuroides, Oreosolen wattii, Oxytropis ochrocephala and Stellera chamaejasme were collected at 100 sites from different road segments. The contents of metals and metalloids, including Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr, Co, Ni and As, in the soil and grass samples were analyzed using ICP-MS. The total mean concentrations of the eight trace elements in soils are Cu (22.84 mg/kg), Zn (100.56 mg/kg), Cd (0.28 mg/kg), Pb (28.75 mg/kg), Cr (36.82 mg/kg), Co (10.24 mg/kg), Ni (32.44 mg/kg) and As (21.43 mg/kg), while in grasses are Cu (9.85 mg/kg), Zn (31.47 mg/kg), Cd (0.05 mg/kg), Pb (2.06 mg/kg), Cr (14.16 mg/kg), Co (0.55 mg/kg), Ni (4.03 mg/kg) and As (1.33 mg/kg). The metal and metalloid concentrations in the nine grass species were all below the critical values of hyperaccumulators. The mean values and Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) results indicate that: (1) the concentrations of the trace elements in the soils are higher than those in the grasses, (2) the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb in the soils decrease as the roadside distance increases, (3) the concentrations of trace elements in the grasses are the highest at 10 m from the road edge, (4) the higher the traffic volume, the higher the concentrations of the trace elements in the roadside soils and grasses, and (5) when the land cover is meadow, the lower the sand content in the soil, the lower the trace element concentrations. With a trace element's bioavailability represented by its transfer factor (TF) from the soil to the grass, the TFs of the eight trace elements are not in the same orders for different grass species.

  3. Trace metal levels in sediments of Pearl Harbor (Hawaii)

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwood, T.L.; Olsen, C.R.; Larsen, I.L.; Tamura, T.

    1986-09-01

    This study was conducted to measure the distribution of lead and other trace metals in the sediments of Pearl Harbon (Hawaii) to determine whether paint chips from vessels of the US Navy's Inactive Fleet have affected the environmental quality of Middle Loch. Sediment cores (ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 m long) were collected from Middle Loch near the Naval Inactive Ships Maintenance Facility and in an area of West Loch that is relatively isolated and unaffected by naval operations. Concentrations of copper, lead, and zinc averaged 180 ..mu..g/g, 49 ..mu..g/g, and 272 ..mu..g/g, respectively, in recent Middle Loch sediments. These concentrations are significantly higher than those in either historical Middle Loch sediments or recent West Loch sediments. However, except for lead, the concentrations in recent Middle Loch sediments are similar to those of older Middle Loch sediments, which indicates that the increase in trace metal contamination began before the onset of Inactive Fleet operations (about 1946). Increased trace metal levels in recent Middle Loch sediments might be expected to result from two potential sources: (1) sewage discharges and (2) paint from inactive vessels. Since paint contains elevated levels of lead and zinc but little copper, the elevated copper levels in Middle Loch sediments tend to implicate sewage as the source of trace metal contamination. Moreover, the lead:zinc ratio of recent Middle Loch sediments (0.18:1) is a factor of 10 lower than that measured in paint (2.1:1), and the Middle Loch lead:zinc ratio is not significantly greater than that measured in recent West Loch sediments (0.21:1). Hence, we suggest that sewage rather than paint is the major source of trace metal contamination of Middle Loch. This is consistent with the findings of a previous study by US navy personnel.

  4. Comparing the levels of trace metal from two fish species harvested from treated waste water in Pretoria, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Olowoyo, J O; Mdakane, S T R; Okedeyi, O O

    2011-06-15

    The persistent problem of water scarcity with the ever increasing demand of water has necessitated the reuse of effluent in agriculture. The present study evaluated the reuse of treated waste water and bioaccumulation properties of two fish species from a manmade lake. Trace metals content of two fish species: Clarias gariepinus and Cyprinus carpio and levels of trace metals from waste water in the lake where the fish species were harvested were determined by Inductive Couple Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES). The trace metal values from fish samples ranged between 0.45-4.41 microg g(-1) for Cu, 16.45-72.23 microg g(-1) for Zn, 1.92-4.71 microg g(-1) for Cr, 2.45-5.65 microg g(-1) for Ni, 10.23-44.31 microg g(-1) for Mn, 9.67-46.59 microg g(-1) for Fe and 0.12-0.56 microg g(-1) for Pb. The carp exhibited a significantly higher concentration for the trace metals for all the parts analyzed (p<0.01). The levels of trace metals concentration from Cyprinus carpio was in the order liver>gill>muscle>bone and metal accumulation was in the order Zn>Fe>Mn>Cr>Ni >Cu>Pb. The concentration of trace metals such as zinc, iron, chromium and nickel were higher than the recommended legal limits for human consumption. The result revealed that properly treated waste water could be used for the purpose of aquaculture. Clarias gariepinus bio accumulated more trace metals from the lake when compared with Cyprinus carpio.

  5. Biomonitoring of trace metal contamination in the Potengi estuary, Natal (Brazil), using the oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae, a local food source.

    PubMed

    Silva, C A; Rainbow, P S; Smith, B D; Santos, Z L

    2001-12-01

    The oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae was collected in September 1997 from 10 stations along the Potengi estuary, Natal, Brazil, a mangrove-lined estuary receiving anthropogenic inputs of trace metals. C. rhizophorae is a net accumulator of trace metals and can be used as a biomonitor, the accumulated soft tissue concentrations representing integrated records of bioavailable metal fractions over the life of the oyster. Significant differences in oyster accumulated concentrations (and hence bioavailabilities) of Fe, Zn, Cu, Cr, Pb, Cd, Ni and Ag (but not Mn) were found between stations, and attributed to anthropogenic inputs including discharges of sewage and industrial effluent. The oysters are also a local food source, and concentrations of zinc, copper and lead in some of the oysters are above typical public health recommended limits.

  6. Seedling emergence, growth and trace elements tolerance and accumulation by Lamiaceae species in a mine soil.

    PubMed

    Parra, A; Zornoza, R; Conesa, E; Gómez-López, M D; Faz, A

    2014-10-01

    The potential use of three Laminaceae species (Lavandula dentata, Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus vulgaris) for the phytostabilisation of a trace elements contaminated (acid) soil has been evaluated. These species were grown in mine tailing soil unamended (TS) and amended with calcium carbonate and pig manure (ATS), and unpolluted substrate for control (CT); plant growth, root characterisation, soil trace elements contents and their accumulation in plants were measured. Results indicated that seed emergence was independent from substrate characteristics, but seedlings died in TS with 40% survival in ATS. The biomass of L. dentata and T. vulgaris and root development in R. officinalis were negatively affected when grown in TS but without differences between ATS and CT. Applicating amendments reduced soil exchangeable and extractable fractions concentrations of trace elements in ATS compared with TS. The establishment of L. dentata and R. officinalis were related to trace elements immobilisation. Trace element concentrations in plants grown in tailing soils were similar to those reported for control, although applicating amendments reduced Zn accumulation in all species, and favoured increased absorption and aerial translocation of As and Pb by L. dentata and T. vulgaris; nonetheless, levels were below toxicity thresholds. Thus, these species fulfill the criteria for phytostabilisation purposes, aided by employing amendments.

  7. Trace elements and heavy metals in the Grand Bay National Estuarine Reserve in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve has the highest biotic diversity of habitats and offer a reserve of food resources and commercially significant species. Rapid human civilization has led to accumulation of heavy metals and trace elements in estuaries. The Grand Bay National Estuarin...

  8. Depth Profiling (ICP-MS) Study of Trace Metal `Grains' in Solid Asphaltenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillay, Avin E.; Bassioni, Ghada; Stephen, Sasi; Kühn, Fritz E.

    2011-08-01

    Knowledge of trace metal `grains' in asphaltenes could play a significant role in enhancing refining and processing of crudes and also in providing useful information on mechanistic and migratory features linked to asphaltenes. These metals originate directly from interaction of oils with source-rock, mineral matter, and formation water and their accumulation in asphaltene matrices could vary from oil well to oil well. Suitable asphaltene samples were subjected to high-performance ICP-MS laser depth profiling (213 nm) to depths of 50 μm at 5 μm intervals. The study was conducted in the absence of standardization and characteristic intensities originating from the metals of interest were measured. Ten metal profiles were investigated (Na, Mg, Al, Mn, Fe, Zn, Sr, Pb, V, and Ni). The experimental results showed non-uniform distribution of trace metals and identified areas where such metals agglomerate. The data suggested that certain chemical and physical conditions within the structure of asphaltenes are favorable for metal `grain' formation at specific points. The exact mechanism for this behavior is not clear at this stage, and has considerable scope for future studies, including mathematical modeling simulations of asphaltenes. We also found that solid asphaltenes could be a useful forerunner of scale formation.

  9. CONTROL OF TRACE METAL EMISSIONS DURING COAL COMBUSTION

    SciTech Connect

    THOMAS C. HO

    1998-02-18

    Emissions of toxic trace metals in the form of metal fumes or submicron particulates from a coal-fired combustion source have received greater environmental and regulatory concern over the past years. Current practice of controlling these emissions is to collect them at the cold-end of the process by air-pollution control devices (APCDs) such as electrostatic precipitators and baghouses. However, trace metal fumes may not always be effectively collected by these devices because the formed fumes are extremely small. The proposed research is to explore the opportunities for improved control of toxic trace metal emissions, alternatively, at the hot-end of the coal combustion process, i.e., in the combustion chamber. The technology proposed is to prevent the metal fumes from forming during the process, which would effectively eliminate the metal emission problems. Specifically, the technology is to employ suitable sorbents to (1) reduce the amount of metal volatilization during combustion and (2) capture volatilized metal vapors. The objectives of the project are to demonstrate the technology and to characterize the metal capture process during coal combustion in a fluidized bed combustor. This final technical report details the work performed, the conclusions obtained, and the accomplishments achieved over the project performance period from July 1, 1994 through December 31, 1997. Specifically, this report consists of the following five chapters: Chapter 1. Executive Summary; Chapter 2. Metal Capture by Various Sorbents; Chapter 3. Simultaneous Metal and Sulfur Capture; Chapter 4. Sorption and Desorption of Mercury on Sorbents; and Chapter 5. Project Conclusions. In summary, the metals involved in the project were arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury and selenium and the sorbents tested included bauxite, zeolite and calcined limestone. The three sorbents have been found to have various degree of metal capture capability on arsenic, cadmium, chromium and lead

  10. Seagrasses as indicators for coastal trace metal pollution: a global meta-analysis serving as a benchmark, and a Caribbean case study.

    PubMed

    Govers, Laura L; Lamers, Leon P M; Bouma, Tjeerd J; Eygensteyn, Jelle; de Brouwer, Jan H F; Hendriks, A Jan; Huijbers, Chantal M; van Katwijk, Marieke M

    2014-12-01

    Seagrass beds are highly productive coastal ecosystems providing a large array of ecosystem services including fisheries and carbon sequestration. As seagrasses are known to be highly sensitive to anthropogenic forcing, we evaluated the use of trace metal concentrations in seagrasses as bioindicators for trace metal pollution of coastal regions at both global and local scale. We carried out a meta-analysis based on literature data to provide a global benchmark list for trace metal accumulation in seagrasses, which was lacking in literature. We subsequently carried out a case study at the Caribbean islands of Curaçao and Bonaire to test for local-scale differences in trace metal concentrations in seagrasses, and internal metal allocation. The benchmark and local study show that trace metal concentrations in seagrass leaves, regardless of the species, can vary over a 100-1000-fold range, and are related to the level of anthropogenic pressure, making seagrasses highly valuable indicators.

  11. Trace Metal Source Terms in Carbon Sequestration Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Karamalidis, Athanasios; Torres, Sharon G.; Hakala, Jacqueline A.; Shao, Hongbo; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Carroll, Susan A.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Carbon dioxide sequestration in deep saline and depleted oil geologic formations is feasible and promising; however, possible CO2 or CO2-saturated brine leakage to overlying aquifers may pose environmental and health impacts. The purpose of this study was to experimentally define to provide a range of concentrations that can be used as the trace element source term for reservoirs and leakage pathways in risk simulations. Storage source terms for trace metals are needed to evaluate the impact of brines leaking into overlying drinking water aquifers. The trace metal release was measured from cements and sandstones, shales, carbonates, evaporites, and basalts from the Frio, In Salah, Illinois Basin, Decatur, Lower Tuscaloosa, Weyburn-Midale, Bass Islands, and Grand Ronde carbon sequestration geologic formations. Trace metal dissolution was tracked by measuring solution concentrations over time under conditions (e.g., pressures, temperatures, and initial brine compositions) specific to the sequestration projects. Existing metrics for maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for drinking water as defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) were used to categorize the relative significance of metal concentration changes in storage environments because of the presence of CO2. Results indicate that Cr and Pb released from sandstone reservoir and shale cap rocks exceed the MCLs byan order of magnitude, while Cd and Cu were at or below drinking water thresholds. In carbonate reservoirs As exceeds the MCLs by an order of magnitude, while Cd, Cu, and Pb were at or below drinking water standards. Results from this study can be used as a reasonable estimate of the trace element source term for reservoirs and leakage pathways in risk simulations to further evaluate the impact of leakage on groundwater quality.

  12. Trace metal source terms in carbon sequestration environments.

    PubMed

    Karamalidis, Athanasios K; Torres, Sharon G; Hakala, J Alexandra; Shao, Hongbo; Cantrell, Kirk J; Carroll, Susan

    2013-01-02

    Carbon dioxide sequestration in deep saline and depleted oil geologic formations is feasible and promising; however, possible CO(2) or CO(2)-saturated brine leakage to overlying aquifers may pose environmental and health impacts. The purpose of this study was to experimentally define a range of concentrations that can be used as the trace element source term for reservoirs and leakage pathways in risk simulations. Storage source terms for trace metals are needed to evaluate the impact of brines leaking into overlying drinking water aquifers. The trace metal release was measured from cements and sandstones, shales, carbonates, evaporites, and basalts from the Frio, In Salah, Illinois Basin, Decatur, Lower Tuscaloosa, Weyburn-Midale, Bass Islands, and Grand Ronde carbon sequestration geologic formations. Trace metal dissolution was tracked by measuring solution concentrations over time under conditions (e.g., pressures, temperatures, and initial brine compositions) specific to the sequestration projects. Existing metrics for maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for drinking water as defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) were used to categorize the relative significance of metal concentration changes in storage environments because of the presence of CO(2). Results indicate that Cr and Pb released from sandstone reservoir and shale cap rocks exceed the MCLs by an order of magnitude, while Cd and Cu were at or below drinking water thresholds. In carbonate reservoirs As exceeds the MCLs by an order of magnitude, while Cd, Cu, and Pb were at or below drinking water standards. Results from this study can be used as a reasonable estimate of the trace element source term for reservoirs and leakage pathways in risk simulations to further evaluate the impact of leakage on groundwater quality.

  13. A precious-metal free micro fuel cell accumulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretthauer, C.; Müller, C.; Reinecke, H.

    2011-05-01

    In recent years, integrated fuel cell (FC) type primary and secondary batteries attracted a great deal of attention as integrated on-chip power sources due to their high theoretical power densities. Unfortunately, the costs of these devices have been rather high. This is partially due to the involved clean-room processes, but also due to the fact that these devices generally rely on expensive precious-metals such as Pd and Pt. Therefore we developed a novel integrated FC type accumulator that is based on non-precious-metals only. The key component of the presented accumulator is its alkaline polymer electrolyte membrane that allows not only the usage of a low-cost AB5 type hydrogen storage electrode, but also the usage of La0.6Ca0.4CoO3 as a precious-metal free bifunctional catalyst for the air-breathing electrode. Additionally the presented design requires only comparatively few cleanroom processes which further reduces the overall production costs. Although abdicating precious-metals, the presented accumulator shows an open circuit voltage of 0.81 V and a maximum power density of 0.66 mW cm-2 which is comparable or even superior to former precious-metal based cells.

  14. Trace Metals and Nutrients in the Hudson River Buoyant Plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, D. D.; Reinfelder, J. R.; Chant, R. J.; Glenn, S. M.; Schofield, O.; Wilkin, J. L.; Houghton, R. W.; Chen, R. F.; Moline, M. A.; Frazier, T. K.

    2004-12-01

    In order to determine the spatial distribution and biological impacts of contaminant metals and nutrients associated with the Hudson River buoyant plume, the transport and transformations of mercury, other trace metals, and major nutrients are being measured as part of the LaGrangian Transport and Transformation Experiment (LaTTE). Beginning in the spring of 2004, a series of dye patch experiments will be carried out that will include continuous underway chemical and biological sampling within the well-sampled framework of an operational ocean observatory. During the first experiment in May 2004, surface water samples for dissolved and suspended particle concentrations of mercury, monomethylmercury, and bioactive and non-essential trace metals were collected using a trace metal clean, underway sampling system. A semi-continuous (5 min resolution) record of dissolved gaseous mercury (elemental mercury) in surface waters revealed diurnal patterns of mercury reduction and volatilization. The results of this project will improve predictions of contaminant movements and ecosystem impacts within the Middle Atlantic Bight.

  15. Trace metals in edible tissues of livestock and poultry

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, M.E.; Elder, R.S.; Basu, P.; Koppenaal, G.P.

    1992-07-01

    Data from a random-sampling study are presented for trace metals in edible tissues of livestock (bovine including bull, steer, cow heifer, calf; ovine including bull, steer, cow, heifer, calf; ovine including mature sheep and lambs; porcine including market hogs, boar/stag, and slow) and poultry (including young and mature chicken, young turkey, and duck). Tissue homogenates were ashed, and residual materials were dissolved in hydrochloric acid for analysis by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Statistical summaries of data are provided for the trace metals lead, cadmium, cobalt, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, and zinc. The heavy metals of toxicological concern, lead and cadmium, are emphasized in this study. Lead and cadmium were rarely detected in muscle (0.2-0.5% positive among 2314 animals sampled). Lead was also infrequently detected in liver (1.8% positive) and kidney (2.4% positive). Nearly 46% of livers analyzed were positive for cadmium, and approximately 78 of kidney samples were positive for cadmium. No regulatory limits are established in the United States for the trace metals reported in this study, although restrictions on the use of kidneys from mature poultry as human food have been established because of concern about potential cadmium levels. Kidneys from this study, more frequently than livers, bore cadmium levels that exceeded the regulatory limits of other countries or organizations. Regulatory implications of the data are discussed. 23 refs., 7 tabs.

  16. Investigating Jacaranda mimosifolia tree as biomonitor of atmospheric trace metals.

    PubMed

    Olowoyo, J O; van Heerden, E; Fischer, J L

    2010-05-01

    Studies on the use of tree bark as biomonitors for environmental pollutants are still very scarce. We evaluated the reliability of using Jacaranda mimosifolia, a common tree in Tshwane City of South Africa, as a suitable biomonitor of atmospheric trace metals. Bark samples were collected from ten different locations during two sampling periods. The concentrations of the metals were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The concentrations of the metals were 33.2-1,795 microg/g (Pb), 21.4-210 microg/g (Cu), 68.4-490 microg/g (Zn), 30.6-2,916 microg/g (Cr), 0.12-1.34 microg/g (Cd), and 6.04-68.0 microg/g (V), respectively. The differences obtained for the results from different sites were significant (p < 0.05). A significant difference was also observed between the two sampling periods. The trace metals concentrations suggested that automobile emissions are a major source of these metals. The study also confirms the suitability of J. mimosifolia as a biomonitor of atmospheric deposition of these metals.

  17. Removal of trace metal contaminants from potable water by electrocoagulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heffron, Joe; Marhefke, Matt; Mayer, Brooke K.

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of four operational and environmental variables on the removal of trace metal contaminants from drinking water by electrocoagulation (EC). Removal efficiencies for five metals (arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead and nickel) were compared under varying combinations of electrode material, post-treatment, water composition and pH. Iron electrodes out-performed aluminum electrodes in removing chromium and arsenic. At pH 6.5, aluminum electrodes were slightly more effective at removing nickel and cadmium, while at pH 8.5, iron electrodes were more effective for these metals. Regardless of electrode, cadmium and nickel removal efficiencies were higher at pH 8.5 than at pH 6.5. Post-EC treatment using membrane filtration (0.45 μm) enhanced contaminant removal for all metals but nickel. With the exception of lead, all metals exhibited poorer removal efficiencies as the ionic strength of the background electrolyte increased, particularly in the very high-solids synthetic groundwaters. Residual aluminum concentrations were lowest at pH 6.5, while iron residuals were lowest in low ionic strength waters. Both aluminum and iron residuals required post-treatment filtration to meet drinking water standards. EC with post-treatment filtration appears to effectively remove trace metal contaminants to potable water standards, but both reactor and source water parameters critically impact removal efficiency.

  18. Removal of trace metal contaminants from potable water by electrocoagulation

    PubMed Central

    Heffron, Joe; Marhefke, Matt; Mayer, Brooke K.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of four operational and environmental variables on the removal of trace metal contaminants from drinking water by electrocoagulation (EC). Removal efficiencies for five metals (arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead and nickel) were compared under varying combinations of electrode material, post-treatment, water composition and pH. Iron electrodes out-performed aluminum electrodes in removing chromium and arsenic. At pH 6.5, aluminum electrodes were slightly more effective at removing nickel and cadmium, while at pH 8.5, iron electrodes were more effective for these metals. Regardless of electrode, cadmium and nickel removal efficiencies were higher at pH 8.5 than at pH 6.5. Post-EC treatment using membrane filtration (0.45 μm) enhanced contaminant removal for all metals but nickel. With the exception of lead, all metals exhibited poorer removal efficiencies as the ionic strength of the background electrolyte increased, particularly in the very high-solids synthetic groundwaters. Residual aluminum concentrations were lowest at pH 6.5, while iron residuals were lowest in low ionic strength waters. Both aluminum and iron residuals required post-treatment filtration to meet drinking water standards. EC with post-treatment filtration appears to effectively remove trace metal contaminants to potable water standards, but both reactor and source water parameters critically impact removal efficiency. PMID:27324564

  19. Trace metal speciation in natural waters: Computational vs. analytical

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirk, Nordstrom D.

    1996-01-01

    Improvements in the field sampling, preservation, and determination of trace metals in natural waters have made many analyses more reliable and less affected by contamination. The speciation of trace metals, however, remains controversial. Chemical model speciation calculations do not necessarily agree with voltammetric, ion exchange, potentiometric, or other analytical speciation techniques. When metal-organic complexes are important, model calculations are not usually helpful and on-site analytical separations are essential. Many analytical speciation techniques have serious interferences and only work well for a limited subset of water types and compositions. A combined approach to the evaluation of speciation could greatly reduce these uncertainties. The approach proposed would be to (1) compare and contrast different analytical techniques with each other and with computed speciation, (2) compare computed trace metal speciation with reliable measurements of solubility, potentiometry, and mean activity coefficients, and (3) compare different model calculations with each other for the same set of water analyses, especially where supplementary data on speciation already exist. A comparison and critique of analytical with chemical model speciation for a range of water samples would delineate the useful range and limitations of these different approaches to speciation. Both model calculations and analytical determinations have useful and different constraints on the range of possible speciation such that they can provide much better insight into speciation when used together. Major discrepancies in the thermodynamic databases of speciation models can be evaluated with the aid of analytical speciation, and when the thermodynamic models are highly consistent and reliable, the sources of error in the analytical speciation can be evaluated. Major thermodynamic discrepancies also can be evaluated by simulating solubility and activity coefficient data and testing various

  20. Trace Metal Source Terms in Carbon Sequestration Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Karamalidis, Athanasios K; Torres, Sharon G; Hakala, J Alexandra; Shao, Hongbo; Cantrell, Kirk J; Carroll, Susan

    2012-02-05

    Carbon dioxide sequestration in deep saline and depleted oil geologic formations is feasible and promising, however, possible CO₂ or CO₂-saturated brine leakage to overlying aquifers may pose environmental and health impacts. The purpose of this study was to experimentally define trace metal source terms from the reaction of supercritical CO₂, storage reservoir brines, reservoir and cap rocks. Storage reservoir source terms for trace metals are needed to evaluate the impact of brines leaking into overlying drinking water aquifers. The trace metal release was measured from sandstones, shales, carbonates, evaporites, basalts and cements from the Frio, In Salah, Illinois Basin – Decatur, Lower Tuscaloosa, Weyburn-Midale, Bass Islands and Grand Ronde carbon sequestration geologic formations. Trace metal dissolution is tracked by measuring solution concentrations over time under conditions (e.g. pressures, temperatures, and initial brine compositions) specific to the sequestration projects. Existing metrics for Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) for drinking water as defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) were used to categorize the relative significance of metal concentration changes in storage environments due to the presence of CO₂. Results indicate that Cr and Pb released from sandstone reservoir and shale cap rock exceed the MCLs by an order of magnitude while Cd and Cu were at or below drinking water thresholds. In carbonate reservoirs As exceeds the MCLs by an order of magnitude, while Cd, Cu, and Pb were at or below drinking water standards. Results from this study can be used as a reasonable estimate of the reservoir and caprock source term to further evaluate the impact of leakage on groundwater quality.

  1. Effects of sewage sludge amendment on snail growth and trace metal transfer in the soil-plant-snail food chain.

    PubMed

    Bourioug, Mohamed; Gimbert, Frédéric; Alaoui-Sehmer, Laurence; Benbrahim, Mohammed; Badot, Pierre-Marie; Alaoui-Sossé, Badr; Aleya, Lotfi

    2015-11-01

    Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd concentrations in a soil plant (Lactuca sativa) continuum were measured after sewage sludge amendment. The effects of sewage sludge on growth and trace metal bioaccumulation in snails (Cantareus aspersus) were investigated in a laboratory experiment specifically designed to identify contamination sources (e.g., soil and leaves). Application of sewage sludge increased trace metal concentrations in topsoil. However, except Zn, metal concentrations in lettuce leaves did not reflect those in soil. Lettuce leaves were the main source of Zn, Cu, and Cd in exposed snails. Bioaccumulation of Pb suggested its immediate transfer to snails via the soil. No apparent toxic effects of trace metal accumulation were observed in snails. Moreover, snail growth was significantly stimulated at high rates of sludge application. This hormesis effect may be due to the enhanced nutritional content of lettuce leaves exposed to sewage sludge.

  2. A special comment on trace metals in the viscera of turbo marmoratus, a toxic snail, on Ryukyu Island.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Masa-Oki; Fujimori, Ken; Yamada, Gen; Satoh, Hiroyasu; Tohno, Setsuko; Tohno, Yoshiyuki; Moriwake, Yumi; Azuma, Cho; Minami, Takeshi

    2003-12-01

    Trace metals in the viscera of Turbo marmoratus, a huge conical spire, in the coral reef of Ryukyu Island were analyzed. The highest amount of Zn and Fe was detectable in the midgut gland known to be polluted by saxitoxin. This intestine maintained a considerable amount of Si (higher than Ca) which fluctuated in parallel with the taurine amount. These data suggest that the viscera of the alimentary tract accumulate some metals, especially Zn and Fe.

  3. Sponges as sentinels: Metal accumulation using transplanted sponges across a metal gradient.

    PubMed

    Davis, Andrew R; de Mestre, Corrine; Maher, William; Krikowa, Frank; Broad, Allison

    2014-12-01

    To be effective sentinels, organisms must be able to be readily translocated to contamination hotspots. The authors sought to assess metal accumulation in genetically identical explants of a relatively common estuarine sponge, Suberites cf. diversicolor. Explants were transplanted to 7 locations across a metal contamination gradient in a large coastal estuary in southeastern Australia to establish, first, that explants of this species could be successfully translocated; second, that explants accumulated metals (cadmium, copper, lead, selenium, and zinc) sufficiently rapidly to be effective sentinels; third, that rates of metal accumulation in explants were in agreement with metal concentrations within sediments (<63-µm fraction) at each of the transplant locations; and finally, that changes in explant biomass correlated with overall metal load. Suberites were readily transplanted, with no mortality observed for the 2 mo of transplantation. Metal accumulation for lead, cadmium, and zinc was in close agreement with sediment metal concentrations, and explants showed dramatic increases in these metals in the heavily contaminated northern sections of the estuarine lake. No striking patterns were apparent for copper and selenium. Finally, growth was negatively correlated with total metal load and standardized total metal load in our explants. Taken together, these outcomes confirm that explants of this sponge are amenable to translocation and show considerable promise as biomonitors.

  4. The effect of solid metal composition on solid metal/ liquid metal partitioning of trace elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, N.; van Westrenen, W.

    2010-12-01

    Fundamental understanding of the partitioning behaviour of elements between different core and/or mantle phases is needed to constrain processes of planetary differentiation and evolution. The partitioning behaviour of elements between solid metal and liquid metal in the Fe-S system, of relevance to core crystallisation in planetesimals and the terrestrial planets, has been investigated by several workers [1-6], most of whom [1-5] conclude that variations in partition coefficients can be explained by variations in melt composition. However, recently Stewart et al. [6] showed that the crystal-lattice strain model commonly used to describe silicate mineral - silicate melt partitioning can be applied to partially molten metallic systems. This suggests the structure of the solid metal also plays a role in determining solid metal / molten metal partitioning. Here, we investigate the effect of the structure of the solid metal in the Fe-S system on solid/liquid metal partitioning by obtaining new element partitioning data at pressures between 0.5 and 3 GPa. The effect of the solid metal is isolated from pressure-temperature-melt composition effects by performing experiments at constant P and T with two Fe-S bulk compositions on either side of the eutectic composition. In addition to the effect of solid metal composition we investigate the effects of pressure and S content on trace element partitioning behaviour and the application of the lattice strain model to our results. Starting mixtures were doped with several hundred ppm levels of trace elements Ni, Co, W, Mo, V, Nb, Ta, Sn, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Mn, P, Ge,. Experiments were performed using a QUICKPress piston cylinder apparatus at the VU University, Amsterdam using alumina capsules. Experiments were heated to 1073 K at pressure and allowed to sinter for a duration of 10 hours before the temperature was raised at a rate of 50 K / min to the target value. Preliminary EPMA data for a 1 GPa experiment with FeS as the solid

  5. Adsorption of humic acids and trace metals in natural waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leung, W. H.

    1982-01-01

    Studies concerning the interactions between suspended hydrous iron oxide and dissolved humic acids and trace metals are reported. As a major component of dissolved organic matters and its readiness for adsorption at the solid/water interface, humic acids may play a very important role in the organometallic geochemistry of suspended sediments and in determining the fate and distribution of trace metals, pesticides and anions in natural water systems. Most of the solid phases in natural waters contain oxides and hydroxides. The most simple promising theory to describe the interactions of hydrous iron oxide interface is the surface complex formation model. In this model, the adsorptions of humic acids on hydrous iron oxide may be interpreted as complex formation of the organic bases (humic acid oxyanions) with surface Fe ions. Measurements on adsorptions were made in both fresh water and seawater. Attempts have been made to fit our data to Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Adsorption equilibrium constants were determined.

  6. Trace metals in fleece wool and correlations with yellowness.

    PubMed

    King, A L; Millington, K R

    2013-03-01

    The presence of copper and iron in metal-doped wool has been shown previously to be associated with the production of free radicals and yellowing in photo-irradiated wool. In this study, the yellowness and trace metal content of 700 wool samples was measured to determine if photoyellowing, catalysed by metals, is a major determinant of the colour of fleece wool. Iron and copper content did not positively correlate with yellowness and yellower wool tended to have lower levels of these metals. Instead, a strong positive correlation of yellowness with the calcium, manganese and magnesium content was observed in yellow wools. High levels of calcium and magnesium is consistent with biofilm formation by Pseudomonas bacteria that have previously been associated with non-scourable staining of wool.

  7. Characterization of airborne trace metal and trace organic species from coal gasification.

    PubMed

    Osborn, J F; Santhanam, S; Davidson, C I; Flotard, R D; Stetter, J R

    1984-12-01

    Fugitive emissions from a slagging fixed-bed coal-gasification pilot plant were analyzed by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry, gas chromatography, and mass spectrometry for trace metal and trace organic species. Analysis of the size distributions of airborne particulate matter inside the plant showed an abundance of large metal-containing particles; outdoor distributions in the vicinity of the plant resembled the indoor distributions, suggesting the importance of the gasifier in influencing ambient air quality. This conclusion was further supported by identification of similar organic compounds inside and outside the plant. Trace element enrichment factors based on the earth's crustal composition were greater than those based on the composition of the lignite used in the gasifier, showing the importance of characterizing the proper source material when inverstigating chemical fraction during aerosol formation. Enrichments in the present study were much greater than those found in previous sampling during aborted start-up and cleaning procedures, where normal operating temperatures had not yet been reached. Both studies showed evidence of enrichment factors which decreased with increasing particle size. Although much of the airborne mass was associated with large particles having low respirability, the high concentrations of some metals indoors suggests that further assessment of potential occupational exposures is warranted.

  8. Trace metal and rare earth content of black precipitation events

    SciTech Connect

    Landsberger, S. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering); Davies, T.D. . School of Environmental Sciences); Tranter, M. )

    1990-01-01

    The authors have used the techniques of non-destructive neutron activation analysis to determine trace metal and rare earth content of black precipitation events occurring in the Cairngorm Mountains in remote areas of Scotland. Thirty-one elements were determined in the particulate matter of snowpack cores that were sliced into sections. An additional analysis was performed for a black acidic snow event. Based on these results and on wind trajectories, increased loadings of many of the heavy metals and rare earth elements appeared to have originated from central Europe. Enrichment factor calculations show anthropogenic emissions for indium, arsenic, zinc, and selenium.

  9. Critical evaluation of soil contamination assessment methods for trace metals.

    PubMed

    Desaules, André

    2012-06-01

    Correctly distinguishing between natural and anthropogenic trace metal contents in soils is crucial for assessing soil contamination. A series of assessment methods is critically outlined. All methods rely on assumptions of reference values for natural content. According to the adopted reference values, which are based on various statistical and geochemical procedures, there is a considerable range and discrepancy in the assessed soil contamination results as shown by the five methods applied to three weakly contaminated sites. This is a serious indication of their high methodological specificity and bias. No method with off-site reference values could identify any soil contamination in the investigated trace metals (Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni), while the specific and sensitive on-site reference methods did so for some sites. Soil profile balances are considered to produce the most plausible site-specific results, provided the numerous assumptions are realistic and the required data reliable. This highlights the dilemma between model and data uncertainty. Data uncertainty, however, is a neglected issue in soil contamination assessment so far. And the model uncertainty depends much on the site-specific realistic assumptions of pristine natural trace metal contents. Hence, the appropriate assessment of soil contamination is a subtle optimization exercise of model versus data uncertainty and specification versus generalization. There is no general and accurate reference method and soil contamination assessment is still rather fuzzy, with negative implications for the reliability of subsequent risk assessments.

  10. Accumulation of trace elements in harp seals (Phoca groenlandica) from Pangnirtung in the Baffin Island, Canada.

    PubMed

    Agusa, Tetsuro; Nomura, Kumiko; Kunito, Takashi; Anan, Yasumi; Iwata, Hisato; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2011-01-01

    Nineteen trace elements were determined in liver, muscle, kidney, gonads, and hair of 18 harp seals (Phoca groenlandica) from Pangnirtung in the Baffin Island, Canada. Concentrations of V, Mn, Fe, Cu, Mo, Ag, and Hg in the liver, Co, Cd, and Tl in the kidney, and Ba and Pb in the hair were significantly higher than those in other tissues. Significant positive correlations between Hg concentrations in the hair, and liver, kidney and testis imply usefulness of the hair sample for non-destructive monitoring of Hg in the harp seals. It is suggested that whereas Hg preferentially accumulates in the liver, the accumulation in other tissues is induced at higher hepatic Hg levels. In contrast, Se may not be accumulated in other tissues compared with the liver even at higher hepatic Hg levels because of the presence of excess Se for Hg detoxification in other tissues.

  11. Model for trace metal exposure in filter-feeding flamingos at alkaline Rift Valley Lake, Kenya

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Y.M.; DiSante, C.J.; Lion, L.W.; Thampy, R.J.; Raini, J.A.; Motelin, G.K.

    1998-11-01

    Toxic trace metals have been implicated as a potential cause of recent flamingo kills at Lake Nakuru, Kenya. Chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) have accumulated in the lake sediments as a result of unregulated discharges and because this alkaline lake has no natural outlet. Lesser flamingos (Phoeniconaias minor) at Lake Nakuru feed predominantly on the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis, and because of their filter-feeding mechanism, they are susceptible to exposure to particle-bound metals. Trace metal adsorption isotherms to lake sediments and S. platensis were obtained under simulated lake conditions, and a mathematical model was developed to predict metal exposure via filter feeding based on predicted trace metal phase distribution. Metal adsorption to suspended solids followed the trend Pb {much_gt} Zn > Cr > Cu, and isotherms were linear up to 60 {micro}g/L. Adsorption to S. platensis cells followed the trend Pb {much_gt} Zn > Cu > Cr and fit Langmuir isotherms for Cr, Cu and Zn and a linear isotherm for Pb. Predicted phase distributions indicated that Cr and Pb in Lake Nakuru are predominantly associated with suspended solids, whereas Cu and Zn are distributed more evenly between the dissolved phase and particulate phases of both S. platensis and suspended solids. Based on established flamingo feeding rates and particle size selection, predicted Cr and Pb exposure occurs predominantly through ingestion of suspended solids, whereas Cu and Zn exposure occurs through ingestion of both suspended solids and S. platensis. For the lake conditions at the time of sampling, predicted ingestion rates based on measured metal concentrations in lake suspended solids were 0.71, 6.2, 0.81, and 13 mg/kg-d for Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn, respectively.

  12. Short-term acute hypercapnia affects cellular responses to trace metals in the hard clams Mercenaria mercenaria.

    PubMed

    Ivanina, Anna V; Beniash, Elia; Etzkorn, Markus; Meyers, Tiffany B; Ringwood, Amy H; Sokolova, Inna M

    2013-09-15

    Estuarine and coastal habitats experience large fluctuations of environmental factors such as temperature, salinity, partial pressure of CO2 ( [Formula: see text] ) and pH; they also serve as the natural sinks for trace metals. Benthic filter-feeding organisms such as bivalves are exposed to the elevated concentrations of metals in estuarine water and sediments that can strongly affect their physiology. The effects of metals on estuarine organisms may be exacerbated by other environmental factors. Thus, a decrease in pH caused by high [Formula: see text] (hypercapnia) can modulate the effects of trace metals by affecting metal bioavailability, accumulation or binding. To better understand the cellular mechanisms of interactions between [Formula: see text] and trace metals in marine bivalves, we exposed isolated mantle cells of the hard clams (Mercenaria mercenaria) to different levels of [Formula: see text] (0.05, 1.52 and 3.01 kPa) and two major trace metal pollutants - cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu). Elevated [Formula: see text] resulted in a decrease in intracellular pH (pHi) of the isolated mantle cells from 7.8 to 7.4. Elevated [Formula: see text] significantly but differently affected the trace metal accumulation by the cells. Cd uptake was suppressed at elevated [Formula: see text] levels while Cu accumulation has greatly accelerated under hypercapnic conditions. Interestingly, at higher extracellular Cd levels, labile intracellular Cd(2+) concentration remained the same, while intracellular levels of free Zn(2+) increased suggesting that Cd(2+) substitutes bound Zn(2+) in these cells. In contrast, Cu exposure did not affect intracellular Zn(2+) but led to a profound increase in the intracellular levels of labile Cu(2+) and Fe(2+). An increase in the extracellular concentrations of Cd and Cu led to the elevated production of reactive oxygen species under the normocapnic conditions (0.05 kPa [Formula: see text] ); surprisingly, this effect was mitigated in

  13. Trace Metals in Urban Stormwater Runoff and their Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, T.; Hall, K.; Li, L. Y.; Schreier, H.

    2009-04-01

    In past decades, due to the rapid urbanization, land development has replaced forests, fields and meadows with impervious surfaces such as roofs, parking lots and roads, significantly affecting watershed quality and having an impact on aquatic systems. In this study, non-point source pollution from a diesel bus loop was assessed for the extent of trace metal contamination of Cu, Mn, Fe, and Zn in the storm water runoff. The study was carried out at the University of British Columbia (UBC) in the Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD) of British Columbia, Canada. Fifteen storm events were monitored at 3 sites from the diesel bus loop to determine spatial and temporal variations of dissolved and total metal concentrations in the storm water runoff. The dissolved metal concentrations were compared with the provincial government discharge criteria and the bus loop storm water quality was also compared with previous studies conducted across the GVRD urban area. To prevent storm water with hazardous levels of contaminants from being discharged into the urban drainage system, a storm water catch basin filter was installed and evaluated for its efficiency of contaminants removal. The perlite filter media adsorption capacities for the trace metals, oil and grease were studied for better maintenance of the catch basin filter. Dissolved copper exceeded the discharge criteria limit in 2 out of 15 cases, whereas dissolved zinc exceeded the criteria in 4 out of 15 cases, and dissolved manganese was below the criteria in all of the events sampled. Dissolved Cu and Zn accounted for 36 and 45% of the total concentration, whereas Mn and Fe only accounted for 20 and 4% of their total concentration, respectively. Since they are more mobile and have higher bioaccumulation potentials, Zn and Cu are considered to be more hazardous to the aquatic environment than Fe and Mn. With high imperviousness (100%) and intensive traffic at the UBC diesel bus loop, trace metal concentrations

  14. Accumulation of metals and histopathology in Oreochromis niloticus exposed to treated NNPC Kaduna (Nigeria) petroleum refinery effluent

    SciTech Connect

    Onwumere, B.G.; Oladimeji, A.A. )

    1990-04-01

    Accumulation of heavy metals and histopathology were observed in Oreochromis niloticus exposed to treated petroleum refinery effluent from the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation, Kaduna. Analysis of fish metal burden showed that the fish concentrated trace metals a thousand times above the levels existing in the exposure medium. Some metals were preferentially accumulated more than others and the accumulation was, in decreasing order, Pb, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Cr, Ni, and Cd. Whole fish metal burden was lower in fish from which the gill, liver, and kidney had been removed, suggesting that these organs accumulated the metals more than other tissues. Hemorrhaging of fins was observed in all treatment concentrations except that of the control, and fish exposed to 40 and 50% effluent were most affected. Erosion of the caudal fin was also observed in fish exposed to 40 and 50% effluent. Examination of the organs for histopathology revealed damages to the gills. Gills with edematous fused lamellae congested with blood were observed. No histopathological damage was observed in the liver and kidney. The extent of metal accumulation and histopathological damage were directly related to the effluent concentrations.

  15. Trace metal concentrations in southern right whale (Eubalaena australis) at Península Valdés, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Rosas, Clara L; Gil, Mónica N; Uhart, Marcela M

    2012-06-01

    The presence of essential (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni and Al) and non-essential trace metals (Cd and Pb) was tested in liver (N=26) and kidney (N=42) from dead Southern Right Whale (SRW--Eubalaena australis) calves found beached in Península Valdés, Argentina. Essential metals were detected in all samples, particularly in hepatic tissue; though Ni and Al were accumulated mainly in the kidney. Cd and Pb were not detected in any samples. Sex and length of calves did not influence metal levels found, nor did the geographic location of carcasses. Our findings for essential metals were similar to those reported for mysticetes in other parts of the world. Except for a previous report on one SRW calf, this is the first data on trace metals for this species in Patagonia. This information is vital for SRW management considering increasing human pressures impacting their feeding and breeding grounds.

  16. Arsenic and trace metals in commercially important bivalves, Anadara granosa and Paphia undulata

    SciTech Connect

    Mat, I. )

    1994-06-01

    The semi-culture of marine bivalves particularly Anadara granosa is of considerable economic importance in Malaysia. Currently, about 4-5000 ha of mudflats along the west coast are utilized for this purpose. Therefore, contamination of the highly productive mudflats with heavy metals tend to be accumulated in the filter feeding organisms such as bivalve molluscs which often serve as important environmental sinks of heavy metals. Bivalve molluscs, A. granosa and Paphia undulata are commercially important seafoods and popular among the locals in Malaysia. With this point in mind, it is intended to evaluate the concentration levels of arsenic as well as trace metals (Co, Cu, Ni, Cd, Zn, Cr and Pb) in both species derived from retail outlets in the city of Kuala Lumpur. Although this analysis may not indicate the site of capture but may act as a direct check on the contamination of seafoods available to the consumers. 17 refs., 2 tabs.

  17. Trace metals in flounder, Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758), and sediments from the Baltic Sea and the Portuguese Atlantic coast.

    PubMed

    Polak-Juszczak, Lucyna

    2013-10-01

    Trace metals were examined in the muscle tissue of flatfish species of flounder, Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758), sediments from two southern Baltic Sea sites (Gdańsk Bay and Ustecko-Łebskie as a reference) and in two areas of the Portuguese Atlantic coast (Douro River estuary and Atlantic fishing ground as a reference) to evaluate spatial differences in trace metals. Additionally, the accumulation of trace metals in flounder of different length classes was assessed. Flounder from the Gdańsk Bay area contained twofold more cupper (Cu), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) than did flounder from the Douro River estuary, but zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) were at similar concentrations. The sediments from Gdańsk Bay contained significantly more Zn and threefold more Cd, while concentrations of Cu and Pb were twofold lower. The concentrations of metals in the sediments did not correlate with those in the flounder. Spatial differences were noted in metal concentrations in flounder from the southern Baltic Sea and the Portuguese Atlantic coast as well as within these regions, with higher concentrations in the flounder from the Baltic Sea Gdańsk Bay. The flounder in length class 25-30 cm from Gdańsk Bay contained metal concentrations comparable to those of class 40-45 cm specimens from the Atlantic coast. The accumulation of metals in flounder length classes differed in the two regions.

  18. Trace metal seasonal variations in Texas marine sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holmes, C.W.

    1986-01-01

    Trace elements in coastal environments are derived from three major sources: (1) the bordering watershed; (2) the offshore marine environment; and (3) industrial and/or urban effluent. The site of deposition, however, is controlled by physical and chemical processes in the coastal zone. In many cases, these processes are controlled by climate and can vary seasonally. In the harbor at Corpus Christi, Texas, the summer climate creates an oxygen-poor environment in the water column near the sediment-water interface. This causes chalcophilic metals to precipitate from the water, resulting in high concentrations in the sediments near the source. During the winter, turbulence created by strong winds causes the entire water mass to become aerated and oxidizing, and remobilization of some metals results. In addition, this turbulence accelerates circulation which transports the metal-enriched waters from the harbor. On the outer continental shelf of south Texas, the infaunal activity varies seasonally with bottom water temperatures. As this infaunal activity has an effect on the chemical environment within the sediment near the sediment-water interface, the observed trace metal content at the interface also appears to change with the seasons. ?? 1986.

  19. Trace metals in the Góta river estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielsson, Lars-Göran; Magnusson, Bertil; Westerlund, Stig; Zhang, Kerong

    1983-07-01

    The concentrations of the trace metals Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn in the Göta River estuary have been investigated. The following metal fractions have been determined: acid-leachable, dissolved, labile and particulate. The estuary represents a salt wedge type estuary and is situated in a densely populated region of Sweden. The metal concentrations found for the dissolved fraction is in the range of what can be considered as background levels for freshwater. It is difficult to evaluate any estuarine processes other than conservative mixing for Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn. The dissolved levels in the freshwater end member are Cd, 9-25 ngl -1; Cu, 1·1-1·4 μgl -1; Fe, 20-75 μg l -1: Ni, 0·7-0·9 μg l -1: Pb 0·09-0·2 μg l -1; and Zn, 6-7 μg l -1: The results from the acid-leachable fraction show that at high suspended load the particles sediment in the river mouth. The trace metal levels in this fraction are subject to large variations.

  20. Trace metals in heavy crude oils and tar sand bitumens

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, J.G.

    1990-11-28

    Fe, Ni, and V are considered trace impurities in heavy crude oils and tar sand bitumens. In order to understand the importance of these metals, we have examined several properties: (1) bulk metals levels, (2) distribution in separated fractions, (3) size behavior in feeds and during processing, (4) speciation as a function of size, and (5) correlations with rheological properties. Some of the results of these studies show: (1) V and Ni have roughly bimodal size distributions, (2) groupings were seen based on location, size distribution, and Ni/V ratio of the sample, (3) Fe profiles are distinctively different, having a unimodal distribution with a maximum at relatively large molecular size, (4) Fe concentrations in the tar sand bitumens suggest possible fines solubilization in some cases, (5) SARA separated fractions show possible correlations of metals with asphaltene properties suggesting secondary and tertiary structure interactions, and (6) ICP-MS examination for soluble ultra-trace metal impurities show the possibility of unexpected elements such as U, Th, Mo, and others at concentrations in the ppB to ppM range. 39 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Trace metal dynamics in zooplankton from the Bay of Bengal during summer monsoon.

    PubMed

    Rejomon, G; Kumar, P K Dinesh; Nair, M; Muraleedharan, K R

    2010-12-01

    Trace metal (Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb) concentrations in zooplankton from the mixed layer were investigated at 8 coastal and 20 offshore stations in the western Bay of Bengal during the summer monsoon of 2003. The ecotoxicological importance of trace metal uptake was apparent within the Bay of Bengal zooplankton. There was a distinct spatial heterogeneity of metals, with highest concentrations in the upwelling zones of the southeast coast, moderate concentrations in the cyclonic eddy of the northeast coast, and lowest concentrations in the open ocean warm gyre regions. The average trace metal concentrations (μg g⁻¹) in coastal zooplankton (Fe, 44894.1 ± 12198.2; Co, 46.2 ± 4.6; Ni, 62.8 ± 6.5; Cu, 84.9 ± 6.7; Zn, 7546.8 ± 1051.7; Cd, 46.2 ± 5.6; Pb, 19.2 ± 2.6) were higher than in offshore zooplankton (Fe, 3423.4 ± 681.6; Co, 19.5 ± 3.81; Ni, 25.3 ± 7.3; Cu, 29.4 ± 4.2; Zn, 502.3 ± 124.3; Cd, 14.3 ± 2.9; Pb, 3.2 ± 2.0). A comparison of average trace metal concentrations in zooplankton from the Bay of Bengal showed enrichment of Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb in coastal zooplankton may be related to metal absorption from primary producers, and differences in metal concentrations in phytoplankton from coastal waters (upwelling zone and cyclonic eddy) compared with offshore waters (warm gyre). Zooplankton showed a great capacity for accumulations of trace metals, with average concentration factors of 4 867 929 ± 569 971, 246 757 ± 51 321, 337 180 ± 125 725, 43 480 ± 11 212, 1 046 371 ± 110 286, 601 679 ± 213 949, and 15 420 ± 9201 for Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb with respect to dissolved concentrations in coastal and offshore waters of the Bay of Bengal. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2009.

  2. Distribution of trace metals in anchialine caves of Adriatic Sea, Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuculić, Vlado; Cukrov, Neven; Kwokal, Željko; Mlakar, Marina

    2011-11-01

    This study presents results of the first comprehensive research on ecotoxic trace metals (Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn) in aquatic anchialine ecosystems. Data show the influence of hydrological and geological characteristics on trace metals in highly stratified anchialine water columns. Distribution of Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn in two anchialine water bodies, Bjejajka Cave and Lenga Pit in the Mljet National park, Croatia were investigated seasonally from 2006 to 2010. Behaviour and concentrations of dissolved and total trace metals in stratified water columns and metal contents in sediment, carbonate rocks and soil of the anchialine environment were evaluated. Trace metals and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in both anchialine water columns were significantly elevated compared to adjacent seawater. Zn and Cu concentrations were the highest in the Lenga Pit water column and sediment. Elevated concentrations of Zn, Pb and Cu in Bjejajka Cave were mainly terrigenous. Significantly elevated concentrations of cadmium (up to 0.3 μg L -1) were found in the water column of Bjejajka cave, almost two orders of magnitude higher compared to nearby surface seawater. Laboratory analysis revealed that bat guano was the major source of cadmium in Bjejajka Cave. Cadmium levels in Lenga Pit, which lacks accumulations of bat guano, were 20-fold lower. Moreover, low metal amounts in carbonate rocks in both caves, combined with mineral leaching experiments, revealed that carbonates play a minor role as a source of metals in both water columns. We observed two types of vertical distribution pattern of cadmium in the stratified anchialine Bjejajka Cave water column. At lower salinities, non-conservative behaviour was characterized by strong desorption and enrichment of dissolved phase while, at salinities above 20, Cd behaved conservatively and its dissolved concentration decreased. Conservative behaviour of Cu, Pb, Zn and DOC was observed throughout the water column. After heavy rains, Cd

  3. Sources and areal distribution of trace metals in recent sediments of Middle Loch, Pearl Harbor (Hawaii)

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwood, T.L.; Olsen, C.R.; Larsen, I.L.

    1989-05-01

    The primary objective of this project was to determine whether current operations of the Naval Inactive Ships Maintenance Facility contribute significant trace metal contamination to Middle Loch of Pearl Harbor. Secondary objectives were (1) to identify and quantify all major sources of trace metal contamination in Middle Loch and (2) to determine if trace metal concentrations in Middle Loch have declined following termination of direct discharges from the Pearl City Sewage Treatment Plant. Sediment samples from ten locations within Middle Loch and from two locations in each of the two major streams entering the loch were analyzed for radioisotopes and metals. Major elements (aluminum and calcium) as well as organic and inorganic carbon were used to help characterize sediment composition and source. High aluminum-to-calcium ratios and high organic carbon concentrations are associated with terrigenous material carried into Middle Loch by the streams. The presence of the natural, short-lived (53-d half-life) radioisotope /sup 7/Be was used to identify sites where the sedimentary material was recently deposited (i.e., within the past 3 months) and to identify patterns of recent sediment accumulation. Beryllium-7 was detected at eight of the ten sample sites within Middle Loch and in all stream samples. High /sup 7/Be inventories beneath the ships and at the mouths of the streams suggest that these are areas of rapid sediment accumulation, or sediment focusing. The concentrations of /sup 7/Be closely match the expected input based on rain-bucket data. This suggests that Middle Loch effectively traps all the /sup 7/Be through adsorption onto suspended matter and deposition to the sediments. 14 refs., 10 figs., 8 tabs.

  4. The role of Spartina maritima and Sarcocornia fruticosa on trace metals retention in Ria Formosa, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira da Silva, Manuela; Duarte, Duarte; Isidoro, Jorge; Chícharo, Luís

    2013-04-01

    Over the last years, phytoremediation has become an increasingly recognized pathway for contaminant removal from water and shallow soils. Assessing the phytoremediation potential of wetlands is complex due to variable conditions of hydrology, soil/sediment types, plant species diversity, growing season and water chemistry. Physico-chemical properties of wetlands provide many positive attributes for remediating contaminants. Saltmarsh plants can sequestrate and inherently tolerate high metal concentrations found in saltmarsh sediments. An increasing number of studies have been carried out to understand the role of halophyte vegetation on retention, biovailability and remediation of the pollutants in coastal areas (estuaries and lagoons). It is already known that the accumulation capacity and the pattern of metal distribution in the plant tissues vary among plant species, namely monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous, and with sediment characteristics. During the last decades, there has been a large increase in urbanization and industrialization of the area surrounding Ria Formosa. Due to this reality, anthropogenic contaminants, including trace metals, are transported via untreated sewage and agricultural effluents to several parts of the lagoon. The dominant producers are Spartina maritima (Poales: Poaceae) and Sarcocornia fruticosa (Caryophyllales: Chenopodiaceae), appearing in pure stands respectively in the lower and in the upper saltmarshes. The aim of this work was to survey, comparatively, the role of S. maritima and S. fruticosa on minor and trace element (Ag, Cd, Cu, Cr, Mo, Ni, Pb and Zn), contents and distribution amongst sediment and plant tissues. Both S. maritima and S. fruticosa could fix metals from the surrounding belowground environment and accumulate metals, mainly in roots (also in rhizomes in the case of the former). Metal translocation to aerial parts of the plants was, in general, residual.

  5. Lead isotopes and trace metals in dust at Yucca Mountain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kwak, Loretta; Neymark, Leonid A.; Peterman, Zell E.

    2008-01-01

    Lead (Pb)-isotope compositions and trace-metal concentrations were determined for samples of dust collected from underground and surface locations at and near the proposed radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Rare earth element concentrations in the dust samples from the underground tunnels are similar to those in wholerock samples of the repository host rocks (Miocene Tiva Canyon Tuff and Topopah Spring Tuff), supporting interpretation that the subsurface dust is mainly composed of rock comminuted during tunnel construction. Other trace metals (arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, manganese, nickel, lead, antimony, thallium, and zinc) are variably enriched in the subsurface dust samples relative to the average concentrations in the host rocks. Average concentrations of arsenic and lead in dust samples, high concentrations of which can cause corrosion of waste canisters, have enrichment factors from 1.2 to 1.6 and are insignificant relative to the range of concentrations for these metals observed in the host rock samples. Most dust samples from surface sites also are enriched in many of these trace metals relative to average repository host rocks. At least some of these enrichments may be artifacts of sampling. Plotted on a 208Pb/206Pb-207Pb/206Pb graph, Pb-isotope compositions of dust samples from underground sites form a mixing line extending from host-rock Pb-isotope compositions towards compositions of many of the dust samples from surface sites; however, combined Pb concentration and isotope data indicate the presence of a Pbenriched component in the subsurface dust that is not derived from host rock or surface dust and may derive from anthropogenic materials introduced into the underground environment.

  6. Trace metals geochemistry of Bengkulu river and estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firdaus, M. Lutfi; Darti, Puspa; Alwi, Wiwit; Swistoro, Eko; Sundaryono, Agus; Ruyani, Aceng

    2015-09-01

    Unique feature of Indonesian archipelago in addition to its location that settled between the Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean has made Indonesian seas as important parts of the world ocean system. In contrast, research on Indonesian seas including its marine geochemistry is scarce. Research findings have proven that Indonesian seas and its characteristics, such as Indonesian throughflow, are important in the seawater thermohaline circulation that affect world's global climate. The transports of mass and heat from the Pacific into the Indian Ocean are crucial for the oceanic circulation and sea surface temperatures. It is only until recently known that water masses movement could be traced using chemical elements such as Zr and Hf. In modern ocean, sources of these chemicals are mostly from continents. Chemicals had been brought to the oceans through river, estuary, coastal and eventually open seawater. We have analyzed selected important trace metals of Bengkulu river and estuary starting from upper stream of Bengkulu River to coastal seawater of the Indian Ocean. Concentrations of trace metals in the sample were determined by inductively coupled plasma - optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Dissolved and labile particulate concentrations of Al, Fe, Mn, V, Sr and Zn are reported in this study.

  7. Accumulation of heavy metals in the earthworm Eisenia foetida

    SciTech Connect

    Hartenstein, R.; Neuhauser, E.F.; Collier, J.

    1980-01-01

    Conversion of waste-activated sludge into egesta by the earthworm Eisenia foetida resulted in neither an increase nor decrease of 0.1 N HCl-extractable cadmium, copper, nickel, lead, or zinc. The addition of 2500 ppM copper as copper sulfate to activated sludge caused 100% mortality whthin 1 week, though feeding upon nonamended activated sludges with up to 1500 ppM copper over several months was innocuous. Amendment of sludge with 10, 50, and 100 ppM Cd as CdSO/sub 4/ resulted in 3.90-, 2.04-, and 1.44-fold concentrations in the earthworm over the quantities present in the sludge, with a range of 118 to 170 ppM being found on exposure to the highest level for periods of 1 to 5 weeks at 25/sup 0/C. In field trials with nonamended sludge, however, containing 12 to 27 ppM Cd, biweekly sampling for 28 weeks revealed accumulations in E. foetida ranging from 8 to 46 ppM; control earthworms not exposed to culture media with easily measurable Cd levels contained 0.3 to 2 ppM Cd. Upwards to about 50 ppM Ni, 325 ppM Pb, and 250 ppM Zn accumulated from sludges amended with ionic soluble forms of these metals. In the field, where these metals ranged from 2 to 46, 1 to 53, and 68 to 210 ppM, respectively, an upper concentration of about 50 ppM Ni, 55 ppM Pb, and 250 ppM Zn were found in the earthworm. Distinctions were made between accumulable and concentratable and a discussion is provided to show that each of the most problematic heavy metals, Cd, Zn, Ni, Pb, and Cu, may accumulate or concentrate in the earthworm.

  8. Assessment of trace element accumulation in surface sediments off Chennai coast after a major flood event.

    PubMed

    Gopal, V; Krishnakumar, S; Simon Peter, T; Nethaji, S; Suresh Kumar, K; Jayaprakash, M; Magesh, N S

    2017-01-30

    The present study was conducted to assess the trace element concentration in marine surface sediments after major flood event of Chennai metropolis, India. Thirty surface samples were collected from off Chennai coast. Trace elements, organic matter, CaCO3, sand-silt-clay and C/N ratios were studied to understand the accumulation dynamics on sediments. The elemental concentration, calcium carbonate and OM distribution suggest that they are derived from urban runoff and transported through Adyar and Cooum Rivers. The enrichment factor reveals that the sediments are enriched by Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr, Co, Ni followed by Fe. The observed Igeo value shows that the samples are contaminated by Pb, Cu and Zn. The elemental concentration of the surface sediments is low when compared to other coastal region except Pb. The elevated level of Pb in the surface sediments is probably due to migration of contaminated urban soil from industrial and transportation sectors into marine environment.

  9. Accumulation Rates of Trace Elements in the Cariaco Basin-A 20-kyr History of Seawater Chemistry and Global Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piper, D. Z.; Dean, W. E.

    2002-12-01

    A sediment core from the Cariaco Basin on the Venezuelan continental shelf, which collected sediment as old as 20 kyr, was analyzed for its major-element-oxide and trace-element concen-trations. The elements can be partitioned between a siliciclastic, terrigenous-derived fraction and two seawater-derived fractions. The marine fractions are (1) a biogenic fraction represented by nutrient trace elements taken up mostly by phytoplankton in the photic zone, and (2) a hydroge-nous fraction derived from bottom water via adsorption and precipitation reactions. The present-day export of organic matter from the photic zone, redox conditions and advection of bottom water, and the flux of terrigenous debris into the basin are used to calculate current trace-element accu-mulation rates. The sums of calculated accumulation rates of Cd, Cu, Mo, Ni, V, and Zn show excellent agreement with their measured bulk rates of accumulation in the uppermost surface sediment. This agreement between current measured and calculated accumulation rates of trace elements supports a model of trace-element accumulation rates in the subsurface sediment that gives a 20-kyr history of upwelling into the photic zone, bottom-water advection, and sediment provenance. Extrema in the trace-element accumulation rates and interpreted hydrographic properties of the water column correspond to changes in eustatic sea level and global climate.

  10. Evaluating heavy metal accumulation and potential health risks in vegetables irrigated with treated wastewater.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Asad Sarwar; Hussain, M Iftikhar; Ismail, Shoaib; Khan, Qaisar Mehmood

    2016-11-01

    Effect of irrigation with treated municipal wastewater on the accumulation of heavy metals in soils and food crops and potential health risks to human via consumption of these food crops are evaluated. The higher concentrations of iron (Fe), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr) and zinc (Zn) were found in lettuce, radish and carrots, respectively. However, trace metal levels in all vegetables were far lower than the food safety criteria of World Health Organization and European Union. Bioaccumulation factors (BAF) for heavy metals in different vegetables showed a trend in the order: Fe > Zn > Cu > Cr. The trends of estimated dietary intake (EDIs) for adults were in the order of Fe > Zn > Cr > Cu. The highest level of total coliform was recorded in spinach, followed by radish, egg plant, tomatoes and lettuce. The low uptake of heavy metals by vegetables shows that the health risks for human are insignificant. As the variations in transfer factor of metals is related to absorption capability of vegetables, soil properties and nutrient management, the risk of human exposure to metal contamination can be significantly reduced by selecting appropriate crops.

  11. Lability of trace metals in submerged soils: a column study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nimirciag, Ramona; Ajmone-Marsan, Franco

    2013-04-01

    The reduction of Fe (III) and Mn (IV) and the decomposition of organic matter exert a great influence on the biogeochemical cycles of many trace metals and nutrients in the environment. In the particular case of intermittently submerged soils, metals associated with Fe and Mn oxides become readily available due to the reductive dissolution of Fe and Mn oxides. The effects of oxido-reductive conditions on the release of Cu and Zn from heavy metal contaminated soils and the changes in their chemical speciation were studied. Column experiments were performed, using Rhizon soil moisture samplers inserted at different heights to monitor the mobility and transport of metals in the submerged soil samples. Cu was released in solution immediately, in the first red-ox cycle, either due to the solubilization of Fe and Mn oxides, or to the oxidation of organic matter with which Cu is commonly complexed, or both. During the following reductive half-cycles, the amount of Cu extracted from the soil solution decreased. However, the concentration of Cu in the solution leached from the column, which was percolated in aerobic conditions, increased. Since in the successive red-ox cycles the Eh decreases faster and to lower values, it is possible that Cu might have been removed from pore water by sulfide precipitation during the anaerobic half-cycle and released during the aerobic half-cycle, due to the oxidation of sulfides to sulfates. The release of Zn was similar to the dissolution of Fe and Mn oxyhydroxydes, and the amount extracted by Rhizon and by leaching increased during the four red-ox cycles. The chemical fractionation of the soils was also studied and the results showed that the alternate oxidative-reductive conditions cause, in general, an increase in the lability of trace metals. While Zn speciation suffers little change, Cu showed a much higher exchangeable fraction in the submerged soils, as compared to the initial, not submerged ones. The results of this study indicate

  12. Phytoremediation using microbially mediated metal accumulation in Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed

    Phieler, René; Merten, Dirk; Roth, Martin; Büchel, Georg; Kothe, Erika

    2015-12-01

    Reclaiming land that has been anthropogenically contaminated with multiple heavy metal elements, e.g., during mining operations, is a growing challenge worldwide. The use of phytoremediation has been discussed with varying success. Here, we show that a careful examination of options of microbial determination of plant performance is a key element in providing a multielement remediation option for such landscapes. We used both (a) mycorrhiza with Rhizophagus irregularis and (b) bacterial amendments with Streptomyces acidiscabies E13 and Streptomyces tendae F4 to mediate plant-promoting and metal-accumulating properties to Sorghum bicolor. In pot experiments, the effects on plant growth and metal uptake were scored, and in a field trial at a former uranium leaching heap site near Ronneburg, Germany, we could show the efficacy under field conditions. Different metals could be extracted at the same time, with varying microbial inoculation and soil amendment scenarios possible when a certain metal is the focus of interest. Especially, manganese was extracted at very high levels which might be useful even for phytomining approaches.

  13. Caddisflies Hydropsyche spp. as biomonitors of trace metal bioavailability thresholds causing disturbance in freshwater stream benthic communities.

    PubMed

    Awrahman, Zmnako A; Rainbow, Philip S; Smith, Brian D; Khan, Farhan R; Fialkowski, Wojciech

    2016-09-01

    Demonstration of an ecotoxicological effect of raised toxic metal bioavailabilities on benthic macroinvertebrate communities in contaminated freshwater streams typically requires the labour-intensive identification and quantification of such communities before the application of multivariate statistical analysis. A simpler approach is the use of accumulated trace metal concentrations in a metal-resistant biomonitor to define thresholds that indicate the presence of raised trace metal bioavailabilities causing ecotoxicological responses in populations of more metal-sensitive members of the community. We explore further the hypothesis that concentrations of toxic metals in larvae of species of the caddisfly genus Hydropsyche can be used to predict metal-driven ecotoxicological responses in more metal-sensitive mayflies, especially ephemerellid and heptageniid mayflies, in metal-contaminated rivers. Comparative investigation of two caddisflies, Hydropsyche siltalai and Hydropsyche angustipennis, from metal-contaminated rivers in Cornwall and Upper Silesia, Poland respectively, has provided preliminary evidence that this hypothesis is applicable across caddisfly species and contaminated river systems. Use of a combined toxic unit approach, relying on independent data sets, suggested that copper and probably also arsenic are the drivers of mayfly ecotoxicity in the River Hayle and the Red River in Cornwall, while cadmium, lead and zinc are the toxic agents in the Biala Przemsza River in Poland. This approach has great potential as a simple tool to detect the more subtle effects of mixed trace metal contamination in freshwater systems. An informed choice of suitable biomonitor extends the principle to different freshwater habitats over different ranges of severity of trace metal contamination.

  14. Divalent metal accumulation in freshwater bivalves: an inverse relationship with metal phosphate solubility.

    PubMed

    Markich, S J; Brown, P L; Jeffree, R A

    2001-07-25

    Whole soft tissue concentrations of Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd and U were measured in two species of freshwater (unionid) bivalves (Hyridella depressa and Velesunio ambiguus) from a minimally polluted site in the Hawkesbury-Nepean River, south-eastern Australia. Although the mean concentrations of metals in the tissue were similar for each bivalve species, their patterns of accumulation were dissimilar. For each metal, positive linear relationships between tissue concentration and shell length (r2 = 0.37-0.77; P < or = 0.001) and tissue dry weight (r2 = 0.29-0.51; P < or = 0.01) were found in H. depressa, but not in V. ambiguus. However, for both species, positive linear relationships were found between the tissue concentration of each divalent metal and Ca tissue concentration (r2 = 0.59-0.97; P < or = 0.001). For both bivalve species, the normalised rates of accumulation of the metals relative to increasing Ca concentration and/or size, were U approximately = Cd > or = Pb > or = Mn > Co > or = Zn > Cu > Ni. The differential rates of accumulation of divalent metals are interpreted as being predominantly governed by their varying loss rates, which are controlled by the differing solubilities (log Ksp values) of the metals in the phosphatic extracellular granules, the demonstrated major sites of metal deposition in the tissue of H. depressa and V. ambiguus. The rates of accumulation of Mn, Co, Zn, Cu and Ni were linearly and inversely related (r2 = 0.91-0.97; P < or = 0.001) to their solubilities as hydrogen phosphates, a finding consistent with the bioaccumulation model previously developed for the alkaline-earth metals. However, for U, Cd and Pb, this linear inverse relationship did not continue to hold, i.e. their rates of accumulation did not increase with decreasing solubility. However, these results are still consistent with the model if U, Cd and Pb are so insoluble in the granules of H. depressa and V. ambiguus over their lifetime (up to approx. 50 years

  15. A True Eddy Accumulation - Eddy Covariance hybrid for measurements of turbulent trace gas fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siebicke, Lukas

    2016-04-01

    sampling system closely reproduced dynamics of simulated TEA-TM fluxes. In conclusion this study introduces a new approach to trace gas flux measurements using transient-mode true eddy accumulation. First TEA-TM CO2 fluxes compared favorably with side-by-side EC fluxes, in agreement with our previous experiments comparing discrete TEA to EC. True eddy accumulation has thus potential for measuring turbulent fluxes of a range of atmospheric tracers using slow response analyzers.

  16. Trace elements accumulation in edible tissues of five sturgeon species from the Caspian Sea.

    PubMed

    Pourang, N; Tanabe, S; Rezvani, S; Dennis, J H

    2005-01-01

    This study is focused on twenty trace elements (Ag, Ba, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Ga, In, Mn, Mo, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sn, Sr, Ti, V, Zn) accumulation in muscles of five sturgeon species (Acipenser guldenstaedti, A. persicus, A. nudiventris, A. stellatus and Huso huso) from the southern part of the Caspian Sea. Moreover the relationships between some biological characteristics and the levels of the selected elements as well as inter-elemental relationships were assessed. The samples (10 specimens for each the five species) were collected from two important sturgeon fishery zones located in the Iranian part of the Sea in 2002. Concentrations of the elements were determined using ICP-MS. Only in the case of Cs could significant differences between two selected sampling areas be detected. There were significant differences in levels of Co, Ga, Rb, Sn, Ti, Pb and Bi in muscles of the species. Only in the case of Cd weight related differences among the species were found. The significant length dependent relationships were observed for Ga and Ba. Patterns of elements accumulation were assessed by statistical methods and compared to the other researches. In all the cases, the amounts of toxic trace elements (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) were markedly below the international guidelines for human consumption.

  17. Trace element accumulation in relation to trophic niches of shorebirds using intertidal mudflats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucia, Magali; Bocher, Pierrick; Chambosse, Mélanie; Delaporte, Philippe; Bustamante, Paco

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the link between trace element concentrations and respective diets of two shorebird species present in the Pertuis Charentais, Atlantic coast of France: the Dunlin (Calidris alpina) and Redshank (Tringa totanus). Trace element concentrations (Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn) were investigated in the liver, kidney, muscle and feathers of 28 dunlins and 15 redshanks accidentally dead during catches by mist net. Analyses of carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were carried out in liver, muscle and feathers to determine whether differences in diet explained the variations in elemental levels. These results were compared to previous data obtained on two other shorebird species present on the same sites: the Black-tailed Godwit (Limosa limosa) and the Red Knot (Calidris canutus). This study demonstrated that shorebirds of the Pertuis Charentais were characterized by differential trace element bioaccumulation. Arsenic and Se concentrations in internal tissues were elevated in red knots and dunlins, whereas redshanks displayed higher Cd concentrations. These trace element bioaccumulation discrepancies could mainly come from divergences of trophic habits between shorebirds. Species with the highest trophic position displayed the highest Hg concentrations in the liver, muscle and feathers demonstrating therefore the biomagnification potential of this metal, as opposed to Cd and Pb. The same trend was observed in muscle and feathers for Se and only in feathers for As. These data highlighted the need to study several tissues to obtain a full comprehension of trace element exposure and pathways especially for long-distance migrating species using various habitats and sites.

  18. Trace metal concentrations in post-hatching cuttlefish Sepia officinalis and consequences of dissolved zinc exposure.

    PubMed

    Le Pabic, Charles; Caplat, Christelle; Lehodey, Jean-Paul; Milinkovitch, Thomas; Koueta, Noussithé; Cosson, Richard Philippe; Bustamante, Paco

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the changes of 13 trace metal and metalloid concentrations (i.e. Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, V, Zn) and their subcellular fractionation in juvenile cuttlefish Sepia officinalis reared in controlled conditions between hatching and 2 months post-hatching. In parallel, metallothionein concentrations were determined. Our results highlighted contrasting changes of studied metals. Indeed, As and Fe concentrations measured in hatchlings suggested a maternal transfer of these elements in cuttlefish. The non-essential elements Ag and Cd presented the highest accumulation during our study, correlated with the digestive gland maturation. During the 6 first weeks of study, soluble fractions of most of essential trace metals (i.e. Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Se, Zn) slowly increased consistently with the progressive needs of cuttlefish metabolism during this period. In order to determine for the first time in a cephalopod how metal concentrations and their subcellular distributions are impacted when the animals are trace metal-exposed, we studied previously described parameters in juveniles exposed to dissolved Zn at environmental (i.e. 50 μg l(-1)) and sublethal (i.e. 200 μg l(-1)) levels. Moreover, oxidative stress (i.e. glutathione S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities, and lipid peroxidation (LPO)) was assessed in digestive gland and gills after 1 and 2 months exposures. Our results highlighted no or low ability of this stage of life to regulate dissolved Zn accumulation during the studied period, consistently with high sensitivity of this organism. Notably, Zn exposures caused a concentration-dependent Mn depletion in juvenile cuttlefish, and an increase of soluble fraction of Ag, Cd, Cu without accumulation modifications, suggesting substitution of these elements (i.e. Mn, Ag, Cd, Cu) by Zn. In parallel, metallothionein concentrations decreased in individuals most exposed to Zn. Finally, no

  19. Quantification and localization of trace metals in natural plancton using a synchrotron x-ray fluorescence microprobe.

    SciTech Connect

    Twining, B. S.; Baines, S. B.; Fisher, N. S.; Jacobsen, C.; Maser, J.; State Univ. of New York at Stony Brook

    2003-03-01

    The accumulation of trace metals by planktonic protists influences the growth of primary producers, metal biogeochemical cycling, and metal bioaccumulation in aquatic food chains. Despite their importance, unequivocal measurements of trace element concentrations in individual plankton cells have not been possible to date. We have used the 2-ID-E side-branch hard x-ray microprobe at the Advanced Photon Source to measure trace elements in individual marine plankton cells. This microprobe employs zoneplate optics to produce the sub-micron spatial resolution and low background fluorescence required to produce trace element maps of planktonic protist cells ranging in size from 3 to >50 {micro}m. We have developed preservation, rinsing, and mounting protocols that remove most of the salt from our marine samples, thus simplifying the identification of unknown cells and reducing high Cl-related background fluorescence. We have also developed spectral modeling techniques that account for the frequent overlap of adjacent fluorescence peaks and non-uniform detector response. Finally, we have used parallel soft x-ray transmission and epifluorescence microscopy images to estimate C normalized trace element concentrations, identify functional cell types (e.g., photosynthetic vs. non-photosynthetic), and correlate cell structures with spatial patterns in trace element fluorescence.

  20. Mobilization of Trace Metals in an Experimental Carbon Sequestration Scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcon, V.; Kaszuba, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    Mobilizing trace metals with injection of supercritical CO2 into deep saline aquifers is a concern for geologic carbon sequestration. The potential for leakage from these systems requires an understanding of how injection reservoirs interact with the overlying potable aquifers. Hydrothermal experiments were performed to evaluate metal mobilization and mechanisms of release in a carbonate storage reservoir and at the caprock-reservoir boundary. Experiments react synthetic Desert Creek limestone and/or Gothic Shale, formations in the Paradox Basin, Utah, with brine that is close to equilibrium with these rocks. A reaction temperature of 1600C accelerates the reaction kinetics without changing in-situ water-rock reactions. The experiments were allowed to reach steady state before injecting CO2. Changes in major and trace element water chemistry, dissolved carbon and sulfide, and pH were tracked throughout the experiments. CO2 injection decreases the pH by 1 to 2 units; concomitant mineral dissolution produces elevated Ba, Cu, Fe, Pb, and Zn concentrations in the brine. Concentrations subsequently decrease to approximately steady state values after 120-330 hours, likely due to mineral precipitation as seen in SEM images and predicted by geochemical modeling. In experiments that emulate the caprock-reservoir boundary, final Fe (0.7ppb), an element of secondary concern for the EPA, and Pb (0.05ppb) concentrations exceed EPA limits, whereas Ba (0.140ppb), Cu (48ppb), and Zn (433ppb) values remain below EPA limits. In experiments that simulate deeper reservoir conditions, away from the caprock boundary, final Fe (3.5ppb) and Pb (0.017ppb) values indicate less mobilization than seen at the caprock-reservoir boundary, but values still exceed EPA limits. Barium concentrations always remain below the EPA limit of 2ppb, but are more readily mobilized in experiments replicating deeper reservoir conditions. In both systems, transition elements Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn behave in a

  1. Daily intake of trace metals through coffee consumption in India.

    PubMed

    Suseela, B; Bhalke, S; Kumar, A V; Tripathi, R M; Sastry, V N

    2001-02-01

    The trace element contents of five varieties of instant coffee powder available in the Indian market have been analysed. Ca, Cr, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Ni, Sr, Zn and Pb, Cd, Cu have been determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry and differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry, respectively. The metal levels in the coffee powders observed in this study are comparable with those reported for green coffe beans (Arabica and Robusta variety) reported worldwide with the exception of Sr and Zn, which were on the lower side of the reported values. Concentrations of these metals have been converted into intake figures based on coffee consumption. The daily intakes of the above metals through ingestion of coffee are 1.4 mg, 1.58 microg, 124 microg, 41.5 mg, 4.9 mg, 17.9 microg, 2.9 microg, 3.8 microg, 12.5 microg, 0.2 microg, 0.03 microg and 15.5 microg, respectively. The values, which were compared with the total dietary, intake of metals through ingestion by the Mumbai population, indicate that the contribution from coffee is less than or around 1% for most of the elements except for Cr and Ni which are around 3%.

  2. Trace metal distributions in the Hudson River estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinkhammer, G. P.; Bender, M. L.

    1981-06-01

    Concentations of reactive PO 4, particulate Al and dissolved and particulate Cd, Fe, Zn, Ni, Cu and Mn were measured in the Hudson River estuary. Soluble trace metal concentrations ranged from 1 to 7 parts 10 -9 Cu; 1 to 60 parts 10 -9 Mn; 0·8 to 11 parts 10 -9 Ni; 3 to 33 parts 10 -9 Zn; 0·1 to 0·5 parts 10 -9 Cd and 5 to 96 parts 10 -9 Fe. The particulate levels were 0·2 to 6 parts 10 -9 Cu; 0·2 to 40 parts 10 -9 Mn; 0·1 to 8 parts 10 -9 Ni; 0·04 to 14 parts 10 -9 Zn; 0·005 to 0·3 parts 10 -9 Cd and 7 to 2200 parts 10 -9 Fe. With the exception of iron, the discharge of these metals with Manhattan/New Jersey sewage was comparable to the riverine flux. Anthropogenic Zn, Ni and Mn inputs were reflected in dissolved concentration maxima in New York Harbor. Mass-balance calculations demonstrate that the anthropogenic fraction of these metals left the Harbor in the dissolved form. Anthropogenic Cd, Fe and Cu were associated with solids and these metals were deposited in Harbor sediments.

  3. Effects of gypsum on trace metals in soils and earthworms.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liming; Kost, Dave; Tian, Yongqiang; Guo, Xiaolu; Watts, Dexter; Norton, Darrell; Wolkowski, Richard P; Dick, Warren A

    2014-01-01

    Mined gypsum has been beneficially used for many years as an agricultural amendment. A large amount of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum is produced by removal of SO from flue gas streams when fuels with high S content are burned. The FGD gypsum, similar to mined gypsum, can enhance crop production. However, information is lacking concerning the potential environmental impacts of trace metals, especially Hg, in the FGD gypsum. Flue gas desulfurization and mined gypsums were evaluated to determine their ability to affect concentrations of Hg and other trace elements in soils and earthworms. The study was conducted at four field sites across the United States (Ohio, Indiana, Alabama, and Wisconsin). The application rates of gypsums ranged from 2.2 Mg ha in Indiana to 20 Mg ha in Ohio and Alabama. These rates are 2 to 10 times higher than typically recommended. The lengths of time from gypsum application to soil and earthworm sampling were 5 and 18 mo in Ohio, 6 mo in Indiana, 11 mo in Alabama, and 4 mo in Wisconsin. Earthworm numbers and biomass were decreased by FGD and mined gypsums in Ohio. Among all the elements examined, Hg was slightly increased in soils and earthworms in the FGD gypsum treatments compared with the control and the mined gypsum treatments. The differences were not statistically significant except for the Hg concentration in the soil at the Wisconsin site. Selenium in earthworms in the FGD gypsum treatments was statistically higher than in the controls but not higher than in the mined gypsum treatments at the Indiana and Wisconsin sites. Bioaccumulation factors for nondepurated earthworms were statistically similar or lower for the FGD gypsum treatments compared with the controls for all elements. Use of FGD gypsum at normal recommended agricultural rates seems not to have a significant impact on concentrations of trace metals in earthworms and soils.

  4. Chemometric evaluation of trace metals in Prunus persica L. Batech and Malus domestica from Minićevo (Serbia).

    PubMed

    Alagić, Slađana Č; Tošić, Snežana B; Dimitrijević, Mile D; Petrović, Jelena V; Medić, Dragana V

    2017-02-15

    The samples of spatial soils and different organs of Prunus persica L. Batech and Malus domestica were analyzed by methods such as inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA), One-way ANOVA, and calculation of biological accumulation factors (BAFs) with the aim of investigating whether these methods may help in the evaluation of trace metals in plants, as well as in the estimation of plant bioaccumulation potentials. ICP-OES provided accurate data on present concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Cd, and Ni which showed that most concentrations were in normal ranges, except in some cases for Cu, Zn, and As. HCA illustrated nicely various specifics in the distribution of metals in both investigated systems plant-soil. One-way ANOVA pointed successfully on the existing statistical differences between metal concentrations. Calculated BAFs showed that both plants had very low accumulation rates for all elements; they acted as metal excluders.

  5. Trace metals pollution in seawater and groundwater in the ship breaking area of Sitakund Upazilla, Chittagong, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Asma Binta; Kabir, Sohail; Selim Reza, A H M; Zaman, Mohammad Nazim; Ahsan, Mohammad Aminul; Akbor, Mohammad Ahedul; Rashid, Mohammad Mamunur

    2013-06-15

    This study reveals potential accumulation of trace metals in the sea and groundwater due to ship breaking activities which take place along the Bay of Bengal in Sitakund Upazilla, Chittagong, Bangladesh. When compared with WHO and Bangladesh domestic standards for water quality, it is revealed that seawater was strongly polluted by Fe and Hg, moderately by Mn and Al, and slightly by Pb and Cd. Groundwater was strongly polluted by Fe, Pb and Hg, moderately by Mn and Al, and slightly by As. Trace element concentrations of all seawater samples exceeded the average concentration of elements in the Earth's seawater. The application of Principal Components Analysis identified two sources of pollution-marine and ship breaking. The mechanism of groundwater pollution inferred that if seawater is polluted, nearby groundwater is also polluted with trace metals due to the influence of seawater intrusion.

  6. Early diagenesis and trace element accumulation in North American Arctic margin sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzyk, Zou Zou A.; Gobeil, Charles; Goñi, Miguel A.; Macdonald, Robie W.

    2017-04-01

    combined with a shallow water column (average 64 m) leads to high rates of authigenic trace element accumulation in sediments from the Bering-Chukchi shelves. High to moderate primary production combined with deep water (average 610 m) leads to moderate rates of authigenic trace element accumulation in sediments from Lancaster Sound. Low to very low primary production combined with moderate water depths (average 380 m) leads to low rates of authigenic trace element accumulation in sediments in the Beaufort Shelf, Davis Strait and Canadian Archipelago. Authigenic Mo accumulation rates show a significant relationship with vascular plant input to the sediments, implying that terrestrial organic matter contributes significantly to metabolism in Arctic margin sediments. Our results suggest that the broad and shallow shelf of the Chukchi Sea, which has high productivity sustained by imported nutrients, contributes disproportionately to global biogeochemical cycles.

  7. Accumulation of elements by edible mushroom species: part I. Problem of trace element toxicity in mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Mleczek, Mirosław; Siwulski, Marek; Stuper-Szablewska, Kinga; Rissmann, Iwona; Sobieralski, Krzysztof; Goliński, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate Cd, Co, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn accumulation in six edible mushroom species and to assess their risk and benefits to human consumers. Mushrooms (Leccinium aurantiacum, Xerocomus badius, Lactarius deliciosus, Boletus edulis, Cantharellus cibarius and Suillus luteus) were collected from selected regions of Poland during 1990-2010. The highest diversity between studied mushroom species was observed in terms of Cu and Zn accumulation. Significant differences in the accumulation efficiency were found among the six mushroom species examined. The most efficient were Boletus edulis (Cd and Hg), Suillus luteus (Cu and Sr), and Lactarius deliciosus (Pb and Zn). In the case of Co and Ni, the most effective were Xerocomus badius and Leccinium aurantiacum, respectively. The calculated bioconcentration factor (BCF) values of Cd, Cu, Hg, Sr and Zn were > 1 for all species in this study while Co, Ni and Pb usually were bioexcluded (BCF < 1). Additionally, based on the calculated daily intake rates of trace elements determined it can be concluded that occasional consumption of fruiting bodies of L. aurantiacum, X. badius, L. deliciosus, B. edulis, C. cibarius and S. luteus collected in Poland is safe and this finding largely agrees with results from recent studies by other authors.

  8. Limited accumulation of copper in heavy metal adapted mosses.

    PubMed

    Antreich, Sebastian; Sassmann, Stefan; Lang, Ingeborg

    2016-04-01

    Copper is an essential micronutrient but has toxic effects at high concentrations. Bryophytes are remarkably tolerant to elevated levels of copper but we wondered if this tolerance might be species dependent. Therefore, in three moss species, Physcomitrella patens, Mielichhoferia elongata and Pohlia drummondii, the accumulation of copper was compared with semiquantitative SEM-EDX analyses after six weeks of cultivation on copper containing media. We investigated the role of the copper-linked anion and applied copper as CuCl2, CuSO4 and CuEDTA, respectively. Line scans along the growth axis of moss gametophores allowed for a detailed analysis of copper detection from the base towards the tip. Mosses originating from metal-containing habitats (i.e. M. elongata and P. drummondii) revealed a lower accumulation of copper when compared to the non-adapted P. patens. CuEDTA had a shielding effect in all three species and copper levels differed greatly from CuCl2 or CuSO4. The detection of reactive oxygen species (ROS), H2O2 and O2(-), was further used to indicate stress levels in the gametophore stems. ROS staining was increased along the whole stem and the tip in the non-adapted species P. patens whereas the tolerant species M. elongata and P. drummondii generally showed less staining located mainly at the base of the stem. We discuss the relation between metal accumulation and ROS production using indicator dyes in the three moss species. As moss gametophores are very delicate structures, ROS staining provide an excellent alternative to spectrophotometric analyses to estimate stress levels.

  9. A comparison of trace metal bioaccumulation and distribution in Typha latifolia and Phragmites australis: implication for phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Klink, Agnieszka

    2017-02-01

    The aims of the present investigation were to reveal various trace metal accumulation abilities of two common helophytes Typha latifolia and Phragmites australis and to investigate their potential use in the phytoremediation of environmental metal pollution. The concentrations of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cd, Pb and Ni were determined in roots, rhizomes, stems and leaves of both species studied as well as in corresponding water and bottom sediments from 19 sites selected within seven lakes in western Poland (Leszczyńskie Lakeland). The principal component and classification analysis showed that P. australis leaves were correlated with the highest Mn, Fe and Cd concentrations, but T. latifolia leaves with the highest Pb, Zn and Cu concentrations. However, roots of the P. australis were correlated with the highest Mn, Fe and Cu concentrations, while T. latifolia roots had the highest Pb, Zn and Cd concentrations. Despite the differences in trace metal accumulation ability between the species studied, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb and Ni concentrations in the P. australis and T. latifolia exhibited the following accumulation scheme: roots > rhizomes > leaves > stems, while Mn decreased in the following order: root > leaf > rhizome > stem. The high values of bioaccumulation factors and low values of translocation factors for Zn, Mn, Pb and Cu indicated the potential application of T. latifolia and P. australis in the phytostabilisation of contaminated aquatic ecosystems. Due to high biomass of aboveground organs of both species, the amount of trace metals stored in these organs during the vegetation period was considerably high, despite of the small trace metals transport.

  10. Anatomically-related variations in trace-metal concentrations in hair

    SciTech Connect

    DeAntonio, S.M.; Katz, S.A.; Scheiner, D.M.; Wood, J.D.

    1982-12-01

    Scalp-hair analysis is used as an indicator of trace-metal concentrations in the human body. The major shortcoming of this approach is the inability to differentiate between endogenous and exogenous trace metals. Our analyses show no correlation between the concentrations of calcium, magnesium, copper, iron, or zinc in scalp hair and pubic hair in 67 donor-matched hair samples. We interpret this as a strong indication that exogenous trace metals make a significant contribution to the results for trace metals in human hair.

  11. Metal accumulation in poplar plant grown with industrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Giachetti, Giorgio; Sebastiani, Luca

    2006-06-01

    In this study the effects of different levels of industrial wastes on growth traits and metal accumulation in aerial portions were determined for Populusxeuramericana clone I-214. The experiment started in April 2003. Scions of Populusxeuramericana clone I-214, were grown outdoor near Pisa (Italy), in lisimeters filled with soil naturally present in the land around the experimental site, were daily drip irrigated, hand weeded, monthly fertilized, pruned for a unique shoot and cultivated with four increasing treatments: soil non-amended, soil amended with 4.8 kgm(-2), with 9.6 kgm(-2) and with 19.2 kgm(-2) of fresh tannery waste. The climatic parameters were daily recorded throughout the whole experiment. Growth relieves were performed during the growing season. After six months since the plantation of the scions, aerial portions of every plant were harvested for biomass and metal content analyses. Data demonstrated that the waste exerted beneficial effects on poplars mainly through a general increase of growth traits and that the nutrients relocation is the mechanisms involved in modulating growth rate. The concentration and the amount of the mineral elements analysed (N, P, K, Na, Ca, Mg, S, B, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Cr) changed determinately among treatments, organs and position. We concluded that phytoremediation strategies of tannery wastes might be possible and sustainable for polar plantations in soil amended with non-hazardous levels of industrial waste, which maintain total heavy metals concentration close to background values.

  12. Changes in trace metals in Thalassia testudinum after hurricane impacts.

    PubMed

    Whelan, T; Van Tussenbroek, B I; Santos, M G Barba

    2011-12-01

    Major hurricanes Emily and Wilma hit the Mexican Caribbean in 2005. Changes in trace metals in the seagrass Thalassia testudinum prior to (May 2004, 2005) and following passage of these hurricanes (May, June 2006) were determined at four locations along a ≈ 130 km long stretch of coast. Before the hurricanes, essential metals were likely limiting and concentrations of potentially toxic Pb were high in a contaminated lagoon (27.5 μg g(-1)) and near submarine springs (6.10 μg g(-1)); the likely sources were inland sewage disposal or excessive boat traffic. After the hurricanes, Pb decreased to 2.0 μg g(-1) in the contaminated lagoon probably through flushing. At the northern sites, essential Fe increased >2-fold (from 26.8 to 68.3 μg g(-1) on average), possibly from remobilization of anoxic sediments or upwelling of deep seawater during Wilma. Thus, hurricanes can be beneficial to seagrass beds in flushing toxic metals and replenishing essential elements.

  13. Sediment trace metal concentrations from the mudflats of Kuala Juru and Kuala Muda of Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Mat, I.; Maah, M.J. )

    1994-11-01

    About 4-5000 ha of the mudflats along the western coast of Peninsular Malaysia are currently utilized for the semi-culture of the economically important marine bivalve, Anadara granosa. Therefore, information on the status of the trace metal pollution in the culture areas is of considerable value in the interest of public health when shellfish from this area are available for consumption. As an initial assessment of the degree of trace metal pollution in the sediments, an approach to analyze the non-residual (non-lattice held) trace metal concentrations should be of prime consideration rather than the total metal content in the sediments. This approach has the advantage that it is not necessary to restrict the comparison of the non- residual metal fraction to sediments having similar textural composition. For the above reasons, assorted acids are used to partially extract the non-residual trace metal fraction. The partial extraction of sediment-bound trace metals is not only providing information on the strength of association between metals and sediment compositions but also the potential availability of these metals to aquatic organisms. It has been shown that the bioavailability of trace metals to the aquatic biota is best related to the easily leachable, non-residual fraction rather than the total sediment bound trace metals. Therefore, it makes very little sense to consider the total metal content in the sediment to be bioavailable to cause damage to aquatic organisms or to the aquatic ecosystems. 12 refs., 1 fig., 3 tab.

  14. Effects of ocean acidification on trace element accumulation in the early-life stages of squid Loligo vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Lacoue-Labarthe, T; Réveillac, E; Oberhänsli, F; Teyssié, J L; Jeffree, R; Gattuso, J P

    2011-09-01

    The anthropogenic release of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) into the atmosphere leads to an increase in the CO(2) partial pressure (pCO(2)) in the ocean, which may reach 950 μatm by the end of the 21st century. The resulting hypercapnia (high pCO(2)) and decreasing pH ("ocean acidification") are expected to have appreciable effects on water-breathing organisms, especially on their early-life stages. For organisms like squid that lay their eggs in coastal areas where the embryo and then paralarva are also exposed to metal contamination, there is a need for information on how ocean acidification may influence trace element bioaccumulation during their development. In this study, we investigated the effects of enhanced levels of pCO(2) (380, 850 and 1500 μatm corresponding to pH(T) of 8.1, 7.85 and 7.60) on the accumulation of dissolved (110m)Ag, (109)Cd, (57)Co, (203)Hg, (54)Mn and (65)Zn radiotracers in the whole egg strand and in the different compartments of the egg of Loligo vulgaris during the embryonic development and also in hatchlings during their first days of paralarval life. Retention properties of the eggshell for (110m)Ag, (203)Hg and (65)Zn were affected by the pCO(2) treatments. In the embryo, increasing seawater pCO(2) enhanced the uptake of both (110m)Ag and (65)Zn while (203)Hg showed a minimum concentration factor (CF) at the intermediate pCO(2). (65)Zn incorporation in statoliths also increased with increasing pCO(2). Conversely, uptake of (109)Cd and (54)Mn in the embryo decreased as a function of increasing pCO(2). Only the accumulation of (57)Co in embryos was not affected by increasing pCO(2). In paralarvae, the CF of (110m)Ag increased with increasing pCO(2), whereas the (57)Co CF was reduced at the highest pCO(2) and (203)Hg showed a maximal uptake rate at the intermediate pCO(2). (54)Mn and (65)Zn accumulation in paralarvae were not significantly modified by hypercapnic conditions. Our results suggest a combined effect of pH on the adsorption and

  15. Trace element accumulation in Cassiopea sp. (Scyphozoa) from urban marine environments in Australia.

    PubMed

    Templeman, Michelle A; Kingsford, Michael J

    2010-03-01

    Jellyfishes are robust, short-lived animals, tolerant to a wide range of environmental conditions and pollutants. The benthic jellyfish, Cassiopea sp. was collected from five locations along the north and eastern coast of Australia and analysed for trace elements to determine if this species has potential as a marine biomonitor. Both the oral arm and bell tissues readily accumulated aluminium, arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, manganese and zinc above ambient seawater levels. In contrast, lithium appeared to be actively regulated within the tissues while calcium, magnesium and strontium reflected the ambient environment. The multi-element signatures showed spatial variation, reflecting the geographical separations between locations, with locations closer together showing more similar elemental patterns. The combination of bioaccumulative capacity, life history traits and biophysical aspects indicate that this species has high potential as a biomonitor in coastal marine systems.

  16. Bioavailability and toxicity of trace metals to the cladoceran Daphnia magna in relation to cadmium exposure history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Rui

    The cladoceran Daphnia magna is widely used in freshwater bioassessments and ecological risk assessments. This study designed a series of experiments employing radiotracer methodology to quantify the trace metals (mainly Cd and Zn) biokinetics in D. magna under different environmental and biological conditions and to investigate the influences of different Cd exposure histories on the bioavailability and toxicity of trace metals to D. magna. A bioenergetic-based kinetic model was finally applied in predicting the Cd accumulation dynamics in D. magna and the model validity under non-steady state was assessed. Cd assimilation was found in this study to be influenced by the food characteristics (e.g., metal concentration in food particles), the metal exposure history of the animals, and the genetic characteristics. Some of these influences could be interpreted by the capacity and/or competition of those metal binding sites within the digestive tract and/or the detoxifying proteins metallothionein (MT). My study demonstrated a significant induction of MT in response to Cd exposure and it was the dominant fraction in sequestering the internal nonessential trace metals in D. magna. The ratio of Cd body burden to MT might better predict the Cd toxicity on the digestion systems of D. magna than the Cd tissue burden alone within one-generational exposure to Cd. It was found that metal elimination (rate constant and contribution of different release routes) was independent of the food concentration and the dietary metal concentration, implying that the elimination may not be metabolically controlled. The incorporation of the bioenergetic-based kinetic model, especially under non-steady state, is invaluable in helping to understand the fate of trace metals in aquatic systems and potential environmental risks. The dependence of biokinetic parameters on environmental factors rather than on genotypes implies a great potential of using biokinetics in inter-laboratory comparisons.

  17. Metal accumulation rates in northwest Atlantic pelagic sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, J.; Carpenter, M. S. N.; Colley, S.; Wilson, T. R. S.; Elderfield, H.; Kennedy, H.

    1984-10-01

    Measurements of 230Th, 87Sr /86Sr and twenty-four metals were made on cores from the Nares Abyssal Plain. The sediment is characterized by slowly-accumulating (0.3-0.7 g/cm 2 10 3 yr) pelagic red clays and rapidly deposited grey clays transported by turbidity currents. Despite their colour differences and the enrichment of Mn, Fe, Cu, Co, Ni, Zn, V and, to a lesser degree, the rare earths in the red clays, Sr isotope evidence demonstrates that the clays have the same terrigenous origin. The excesses of metals in the red clays have been attributed to metal removal from the water column and a comparison with the grey clays has enabled the authigenic fluxes of metals to be estimated. The fluxes obtained are in the ranges 20-50 μmol/cm 2 10 3 yr for Mn and Fe, 0.1-0.4 μmol/cm 2 10 3 yr for Cu, Co, Ni, Zn, V, Sr and Ce, 10-20 nmol/cm 2 10 3 yr for La and Nd, and 0.5-3 nmol/cm 2 10 3 yr for Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, Er and Yb. Authigenic fluxes of Y, Nb, Cr, Zr, Rb, U and Th were not resolvable. Fluxes appear to be near constant on the Plain but comparison with other areas shows that they are quite variable both between and within ocean basins. The chief factor controlling authigenic fluxes is the geochemical abundances of the elements but fractionation within both the transition element and rare earth series can be recognized from inter-element comparisons and from differences in fluxes between Atlantic and Pacific red clays corresponding to the oceanic reactivities of the elements.

  18. Genome-wide association study of toxic metals and trace elements reveals novel associations.

    PubMed

    Ng, Esther; Lind, P Monica; Lindgren, Cecilia; Ingelsson, Erik; Mahajan, Anubha; Morris, Andrew; Lind, Lars

    2015-08-15

    The accumulation of toxic metals in the human body is influenced by exposure and mechanisms involved in metabolism, some of which may be under genetic control. This is the first genome-wide association study to investigate variants associated with whole blood levels of a range of toxic metals. Eleven toxic metals and trace elements (aluminium, cadmium, cobalt, copper, chromium, mercury, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, lead and zinc) were assayed in a cohort of 949 individuals using mass spectrometry. DNA samples were genotyped on the Infinium Omni Express bead microarray and imputed up to reference panels from the 1000 Genomes Project. Analyses revealed two regions associated with manganese level at genome-wide significance, mapping to 4q24 and 1q41. The lead single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the 4q24 locus was rs13107325 (P-value = 5.1 × 10(-11), β = -0.77), located in an exon of SLC39A8, which encodes a protein involved in manganese and zinc transport. The lead SNP in the 1q41 locus is rs1776029 (P-value = 2.2 × 10(-14), β = -0.46). The SNP lies within the intronic region of SLC30A10, another transporter protein. Among other metals, the loci 6q14.1 and 3q26.32 were associated with cadmium and mercury levels (P = 1.4 × 10(-10), β = -1.2 and P = 1.8 × 10(-9), β = -1.8, respectively). Whole blood measurements of toxic metals are associated with genetic variants in metal transporter genes and others. This is relevant in inferring metabolic pathways of metals and identifying subsets of individuals who may be more susceptible to metal toxicity.

  19. Genome-wide association study of toxic metals and trace elements reveals novel associations

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Esther; Lind, P. Monica; Lindgren, Cecilia; Ingelsson, Erik; Mahajan, Anubha; Morris, Andrew; Lind, Lars

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of toxic metals in the human body is influenced by exposure and mechanisms involved in metabolism, some of which may be under genetic control. This is the first genome-wide association study to investigate variants associated with whole blood levels of a range of toxic metals. Eleven toxic metals and trace elements (aluminium, cadmium, cobalt, copper, chromium, mercury, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, lead and zinc) were assayed in a cohort of 949 individuals using mass spectrometry. DNA samples were genotyped on the Infinium Omni Express bead microarray and imputed up to reference panels from the 1000 Genomes Project. Analyses revealed two regions associated with manganese level at genome-wide significance, mapping to 4q24 and 1q41. The lead single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the 4q24 locus was rs13107325 (P-value = 5.1 × 10−11, β = −0.77), located in an exon of SLC39A8, which encodes a protein involved in manganese and zinc transport. The lead SNP in the 1q41 locus is rs1776029 (P-value = 2.2 × 10−14, β = −0.46). The SNP lies within the intronic region of SLC30A10, another transporter protein. Among other metals, the loci 6q14.1 and 3q26.32 were associated with cadmium and mercury levels (P = 1.4 × 10−10, β = −1.2 and P = 1.8 × 10−9, β = −1.8, respectively). Whole blood measurements of toxic metals are associated with genetic variants in metal transporter genes and others. This is relevant in inferring metabolic pathways of metals and identifying subsets of individuals who may be more susceptible to metal toxicity. PMID:26025379

  20. Predicting the toxicity of sediment-associated trace metals with simultaneously extracted trace metal: Acid-volatile sulfide concentrations and dry weight-normalized concentrations: A critical comparison

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, E.R.; MacDonald, D.D.; Cubbage, J.C.; Ingersoll, C.G.

    1998-01-01

    The relative abilities of sediment concentrations of simultaneously extracted trace metal: acid-volatile sulfide (SEM:AVS) and dry weight- normalized trace metals to correctly predict both toxicity and nontoxicity were compared by analysis of 77 field-collected samples. Relative to the SEM:AVS concentrations, sediment guidelines based upon dry weight-normalized concentrations were equally or slightly more accurate in predicting both nontoxic and toxic results in laboratory tests.

  1. Mass balance of trace metals in the Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tankéré, S. P. C.; Price, N. B.; Statham, P. J.

    2000-07-01

    A first order mass balance of six different trace metals (Mn, Fe, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni) was presented for a 1-year period for the different compartments of the Adriatic Sea: compartment 1 (northern Adriatic Sea), compartment 2 (central Adriatic Sea and surface layer of the southern Adriatic Sea) and compartment 3 (deep water of the southern Adriatic Sea). The Adriatic Sea appeared to be a source of dissolved Cu, Mn and Fe for the Mediterranean Sea through the Strait of Otranto whereas for dissolved Zn and Pb the Adriatic Sea appeared to be a net sink. For dissolved Ni, inputs and outputs through the Strait of Otranto balanced each other. The residence times of all metals in compartment 1 were significantly shorter than that of water indicating significant removal. In compartments 2 and 3, residence times of Mn and Fe were relatively short suggesting removal from the water column whereas for the other metals their residence times were similar to that of water. Calculations of turnover times of metals with respect to different processes showed that in compartments 1 and 2, sedimentation was the main process that affected the content of the reservoirs whereas in compartment 3, the water flux exchanges played an important role for Zn, Cu and Ni. Most of the metals clearly undergo a very dynamic cycle of sedimentation/remobilization particularly in the Northern Adriatic Sea. In the northern Adriatic Sea, most of the Mn and Fe in deposited sediment were remobilized. This was related to diagenetic processes involving the utilisation and solubilisation of Mn and Fe oxides, which occur in the surface of the sediment in the northern Adriatic Sea. In the central Adriatic Sea, remobilization of Mn and Fe was less than in the northern Adriatic Sea, suggesting that diagenesis processes appear deeper in the sediment. Advective transport of sediment was a major source of metals for the deep basin. As much as 80% of the sediments in the South Adriatic Pit might be advected from the shelf

  2. Sources and Contents of Heavy Metals and Other Trace Elements in Animal Manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trace elements are natural and added components of livestock and poultry feeds. Appropriate amounts of these trace elements in the diet of livestock and poultry ensures both health and reproduction. Unfortunately, many times trace metals that are added to livestock diets by producers or feed compani...

  3. Bioaccessibility of trace metals in boat paint particles.

    PubMed

    Turner, Andrew; Radford, Abigail

    2010-07-01

    A ground composite of paint fragments collected from a leisure boatyard has been analysed for total and bioaccessible trace metal concentrations. The sample contained concentrations of Cu and Zn of about 1% due to their use in antifouling formulations, and significant quantities of Ba, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Sb and Sn. In a simulated stomach phase (pH 2.5), bioaccessible concentrations relative to respective total concentrations ranged from metal accessibility was either reduced or maintained. Increasing pH of the stomach phase from 1 to 4.5 resulted in a reduction in bioaccessibility, an effect that was propagated, in most cases, into the intestinal phase. These results are critical to the formulation of risk assessments for individuals exposed to paint particles during vessel maintenance or in home environments subjected to particulate track-in.

  4. Levels of essential and potentially toxic trace metals in Antarctic macro algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farías, Silvia; Arisnabarreta, Sebastián Pérez; Vodopivez, Cristian; Smichowski, Patricia

    2002-12-01

    Eleven species of Antarctic algae were examined for their accumulation ability in the uptake of different metals and metalloids from the Antarctic aquatic environment. Macro algae were collected during the 2000 austral summer season at Jubany Station (Argentinean base) around Potter Cove, King George Island. The elements quantified were: As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, V, and Zn. An optimized microwave-assisted digestion procedure was used to digest the samples and the elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. A wide range of metal retention capacity among the different species was observed. The highest levels of trace elements were found in Monostroma hariotii and Phaeurus antarcticus, with concentrations up to 3095 μg g -1 for Fe. On the basis of the levels of trace elements observed in Monostroma hariotii and its wide distribution in the Antarctic Peninsula, this organism accomplishes a number of prerequisites to be considered as an adequate biomonitor for future studies.

  5. Accumulation of airborne trace elements in mosses, lichens and synthetic materials exposed at urban monitoring stations: towards a harmonisation of the moss-bag technique.

    PubMed

    Giordano, S; Adamo, P; Spagnuolo, V; Tretiach, M; Bargagli, R

    2013-01-01

    Mosses, lichens and cellulose filters were exposed for 17 weeks at four urban monitoring stations in Naples (S Italy) to assess the accumulation of airborne Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Ti, V, and Zn. In each site, the element accumulation was significantly higher in the moss Hypnum cupressiforme than in the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea. Acid washed mosses accumulated the highest amount of trace elements, but the differences in element concentrations among the moss samples exposed after water washing and different devitalisation treatments (acid washing, oven drying and water boiling) and between the lichen samples exposed with and without the nylon bag were not statistically significant. The cellulose filters showed the lowest accumulation capability. The reciprocal ordination of sites and exposed materials showed an increasing contamination gradient (especially for Pb, Cu and Zn) from the background site to the trafficked city streets; this pattern was undetectable from PM(10) data recorded by the automatic monitoring devices operating in the four exposure sites. The element profile in exposed materials did not change substantially throughout the urban area and particles of polluted urban soils seem the main source of airborne metals in Naples. Through a comprehensive evaluation of the results from this and previous studies, a protocol is suggested for the moss-bag monitoring of trace element deposition in urban environments.

  6. The geochemistry of redox sensitive trace metals in sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Morford, J.L.; Emerson, S.

    1999-06-01

    The authors analyzed the redox sensitive elements V, Mo, U, Re and Cd in surface sediments from the Northwest African margin, the US Northwest margin and the Arabian Sea to determine their response under a range of redox conditions. Where oxygen penetrates 1 cm or less into the sediments, Mo and V diffuse to the overlying water as Mn is reduced and remobilized. Authigenic enrichments of U, Re and Cd are evident under these redox conditions. With the onset of sulfate reduction, all of the metals accumulate authigenically with Re being by far the most enriched. General trends in authigenic metal accumulation are described by calculating authigenic fluxes for the 3 main redox regimes: oxic, reducing where oxygen penetrates {le} 1 cm, and anoxic conditions. Using a simple diagenesis model and global estimates of organic carbon rain rate and bottom water oxygen concentrations, the authors calculate the area of sediments below 1,000 m water depth in which oxygen penetration is {le} 1 cm to be 4% of the ocean floor. They conclude that sediments where oxygen penetrates {le} 1 cm release Mn, V and Mo to seawater at rates of 140%--260%, 60%--150% and 5%--10% of their respective riverine fluxes, using the authigenic metal concentrations and accumulation rates from this work and other literature. These sediments are sinks for Re, Cd and U, with burial fluxes of 70%--140%, 30%--80% and 20%--40%, respectively, of their dissolved riverine inputs. They modeled the sensitivity of the response of seawater Re, Cd and V concentrations to changes in the area of reducing sediments where oxygen penetrates {le} 1 cm. The analysis suggests a negligible change in seawater Re concentration, whereas seawater concentrations of Cd and V could have decreased and increased, respectively, by 5%--10% over 20 kyr if the area of reducing sediments increased by a factor of 2 and by 10%--20% if the area increased by a factor of 3. The concentration variations for a factor of 2 increase in the area of

  7. Trace metals in field samples of zooplankton from the Fram Strait and the Greenland Sea.

    PubMed

    Ritterhoff, J; Zauke, G P

    1997-07-01

    Trace metals (Cd, Pb, Ni, Cu, Zn and Hg) were evaluated in 14 zooplankton taxa collected on cruise ARK IX/Ib of RV 'Polarstern' to the Fram Strait and the Greenland Sea in March and April 1993. We found a substantial interspecific heterogeneity, e.g. with rather low Cd concentrations in calanoid copepods (0.1-0.7 mg kg-1, dry wt.) but remarkably high levels in the decapod Hymenodora glacialis (7-9 mg kg-1) and in the amphipods Themisto abyssorum and T. libellula (24-34 kg-1). In general, Pb was low (< 1 mg kg-1), while some enhanced Ni concentrations were found in the ostracod Conchoecia borealis (66-86 mg kg-1). A comparison to world-wide reported data on marine crustaceans did not reveal any suggestions on increased metal availabilities in both areas investigated, although one might expect a transport of some metals from Siberian rivers across the pole by the Transpolar Ice Drift Stream. However, more information on accumulation strategies of zooplankton under winter and summer conditions is necessary before a full assessment of metals in Arctic waters will be possible.

  8. Trace metal interactions with microbial biofilms in natural and engineered systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lion, L.W.; Shuler, M.L.; Hsieh, K.M.; Ghiorse, W.C. )

    1988-01-01

    Trace metal adsorption and desorption are important processes in natural aquatic systems and in designed treatment systems. Adsorption of metals onto particulate matter and humic substances has been documented in fresh water and marine systems. Although biofilms coating surfaces are well documented, the chemical mechanisms concerning metal removal have not been investigated thoroughly. Biofilms consist predominantly of bacterial cells enmeshed in a network of negatively charged extracellular polymers. The biofilms are assumed to contain ferromanganese deposits which can play an important role in trace metal absorption. Microorganisms have developed resistance to metal toxicity, especially since the Industrial Revolution. Detoxification mechanisms include biomethylation, biosynthesis of intracellular traps, cellular efflux, synthesis of chelating agents, and surface precipitation. Mathematical models have been developed to describe various aspects of trace metal interaction with surfaces: (1) cellular growth, attachment, and polymer production; (2) metal binding to inorganic surfaces; (3) metal binding to cellular surfaces; and (4) biofilm model integrated with a metal-binding model.

  9. The spatial distribution, accumulation and potential source of seldom monitored trace elements in sediments of Three Gorges Reservoir, China

    PubMed Central

    Han, Lanfang; Gao, Bo; Zhou, Huaidong; Xu, Dongyu; Wei, Xin; Gao, Li

    2015-01-01

    The alteration of hydrologic condition of Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) after impoundment has caused numerous environmental changes. This study investigated the distribution, accumulation and potential sources of the seldom monitored trace elements (SMTEs) in sediments from three tributaries (ZY, MX and CT) and one mainstream (CJ) in TGR during different seasons. The average contents of most SMTEs excluding Sb in the winter were similar to that in the summer. For Sb, its average concentrations in the summer and winter were roughly six and three times higher than its background value, respectively. Contamination factor (CF) and geoaccumulation index (Igeo) demonstrated that most of the sediments were obviously contaminated by Sb. The enrichment factors (EF) of Ga and Sb were higher than 2.0, revealing the possible anthropogenic inputs; However, the EFs of other SMTEs were lower than 1.5, indicating the natural inputs. Correlation and principal component analysis suggested the most SMTEs were positively correlated with major elements (Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb) and clay contents, which implies that SMTEs had the same sources with these major metals, and the fine particles might be a major carrier for transporting SMTEs from the rivers to the TGR. PMID:26538153

  10. Effects of acidification on metal accumulation by aquatic plants and invertebrates. 2. Wetlands, ponds and small lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albers, P.H.; Camardese, M.B.

    1993-01-01

    High concentrations of trace metals in the water of low-pH lakes and streams could result in elevated amounts of metals within or adsorbed to aquatic plants and, possibly, invertebrates. Concentrations of Al, Cd, Ca, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mg, Mn, Hg, Ni, P, and Zn were compared in water, plants, and aquatic invertebrates of wetlands, ponds, and small lakes in Maryland and Maine. The accumulation of metals by aquatic plants and insects and the concentrations of metals in water were not greatly affected by pH. None of the metal concentrations significantly correlated with metals in insects. Plant metal concentrations poorly correlated with metal concentrations in water. Concentrations of metals exceeded acceptable dietary levels more frequently in plants than in invertebrates. Concerns about metal toxicity in birds that feed on invertebrates and plants from acidified waters seem to be unwarranted. Positive correlations among pH, Ca in water, Ca in insects, and Ca in plants imply that acidification can reduce the Ca content of aquatic biota. Aquatic insects were low in Ca, but crayfishes and snails, which are adversely affected by low pH, were very high. A concern for waterfowl is Ca deprivation from decreased Ca availability in low-pH wetlands, ponds, and small lakes.

  11. Canopy influence on trace metal atmospheric inputs on forest ecosystems: Speciation in throughfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandois, L.; Tipping, E.; Dumat, C.; Probst, A.

    2010-02-01

    Atmospheric inputs of selected Trace Metals (TM: Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sb, Zn, as well as Al, Fe and Mn) were studied on six forested sites in France. In order to evaluate canopy interaction with atmospheric inputs, TM were measured in both Open Field Bulk Deposition (BD) and Throughfall (TF). Anthropogenic contribution to BD composition is high for Zn, Cd and Sb, reflecting actual TM emissions trends. Canopy greatly influences precipitation composition, through different processes, including assimilation and leaching by canopy, complexation as well as accumulation/dissolution of dry deposition. TM and Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) physical fractionation between colloidal and truly dissolved phases was performed with ultrafiltration. Al, Fe, Pb and Cu are found in the colloidal fraction whereas Cd, Ni, Zn and Sb are mostly in the truly dissolved fraction. Chemical speciation predicted with WHAM-VI shows that in throughfall, Al, Fe, Pb and Cu are almost entirely complexed by DOC, whereas Ni, Cd and Zn are present in average 30% in the free metal ion form. TM present in labile forms (Cd, Ni, Zn) interact with the canopy, are cycled in the ecosystem, and their concentration is either slightly increased or even decreased in throughfall. Sb, Pb and Cu concentration are increased through canopy, as a consequence of dry deposition accumulation.

  12. The influence of sedimentation on metal accumulation and cellular oxidative stress markers in the Antarctic bivalve Laternula elliptica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husmann, G.; Abele, D.; Monien, D.; Monien, P.; Kriews, M.; Philipp, E. E. R.

    2012-10-01

    Recent rapid climate warming at the western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) results in elevated glacial melting, enhanced sedimentary run-off, increased turbidity and impact of ice-scouring in shallow coastal areas. Discharge of mineral suspension from volcanic bedrock ablation and chronic physical disturbance is expected to influence sessile filter feeders such as the Antarctic soft shell clam Laternula elliptica (King and Broderip, 1832). We investigated effects of sedimentary run-off on the accumulation of trace metals, and together with physical disturbance, the cumulative effect on oxidative stress parameters in younger and older L. elliptica from two stations in Potter Cove (King George Island, Antarctica) which are distinctly impacted by turbidity and ice-scouring. Fe, Mn, Sr, V and Zn concentrations were slightly higher in sediments of the station receiving more sediment run-off, but not enriched in bivalves of this station. The only element that increased in bivalves experimentally exposed to sediment suspension for 28 days was Mn. Concentration of the waste accumulation biomarker lipofuscin in nervous tissue was higher in L. elliptica from the “exposed” compared to the “less exposed” site, whereas protein carbonyl levels in bivalve mantle tissue were higher at the less sediment impacted site. Tissue metal content and lipofuscin in nervous tissue were generally higher in older compared to younger individuals from both field stations. We conclude that elevated sediment ablation does not per se result in higher metal accumulation in L. elliptica. Instead of direct absorbance from sediment particles, metal accumulation in gills seems to indicate uptake of compounds dissolved in the water column, whereas metals in digestive gland appear to originate from enriched planktonic or detritic food. Accumulation of cellular waste products and potentially reactive metals over lifetime presumably alters L. elliptica physiological performance with age and may

  13. Assessment of trace metals in four bird species from Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungsoo; Oh, Jong-Min

    2013-08-01

    In birds, heavy metal concentrations are influenced by diet intake, migratory pattern, and residence time. In the present study, heavy metal concentrations (in microgram per gram dry weight) were measured in livers of four bird species from Korea. Iron concentrations were greater in Eurasian Woodcocks (Scolopax rusticola) than in Grey Herons (Ardea cinerea), Little Egrets (Egretta garzetta), and Schrenck's Bitterns (Ixobrychus eurhythmus). Copper concentrations in Grey Herons were significantly higher than in other species. Lead concentrations were greater in Schrenck's Bitterns and Eurasian Woodcocks than in Grey Herons and Little Egrets. Eurasian Woodcocks had higher cadmium concentrations than in other species. Zinc and manganese concentrations did not differ among species. Iron, zinc, manganese, and copper concentrations from this study were within the range of other Korean bird studies, and these concentrations were far below toxic levels. Cadmium and lead accumulation trends in each species were different, and the results might be associated with their migration pattern and residence time in Korea. Grey Herons, Little Egrets, and Schrenck's Bitterns are usually summer visitors, and Eurasian Woodcocks are passage migrants. But herons and egrets were collected in spring, autumn, and winter, but not during breeding season. They might be residents, so they could more reflect Korean cadmium and lead contaminations than Schrenck's Bitterns. However, Eurasian Woodcocks could more reflect habitats outside Korea because of their short staying time in Korea.

  14. Manganese redox cycling in Lake Imandra: impact on nitrogen and the trace metal sediment record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingri, J.; Pekka, L.; Dauvalter, V.; Rodushkin, I.; Peinerud, E.

    2011-01-01

    Sediment and water samples from the mine-polluted Yokostrovskaya basin in Lake Imandra have been analysed. Three major processes have influenced the accumulation and distribution of metals in the sediment: (1) Development of the apatite-nepheline and the sulfide ore mining industries. (2) Secondary formation of sulphides in the upper sediment column. (3) Redox cycling of Mn in the surface sediment and in the bottom water. This study demonstrate the dominant role of the Mn redox cycling in controlling distribution of several major and trace elements, especially during the winter stratification period. Mn oxides act as a major scavenger and carrier for the non-detrital fraction of Al, Ca, K, Mg, P, Ba, Co, Cu, Ni, Mo and Zn in the bottom water. Aluminium, Ca, K, Mg, P, Cu, Ni and Zn are mainly sorbed at the surface of the particulate Mn phase, while Ba and Mo form a phase (or inner sphere complex) with Mn. Co is associated with the Mn-rich phase, probably by oxidation of Co(II) to a trivalent state by the particulate Mn surface. Formation and dissolution of Mn particles most likely also control anoxic ammonium oxidation to nitrate and reduction of nitrate to N2. It is shown that secondary sulphides in Lake Imandra sediments are fed with trace metals primarily scavenged from the dissolved phase in the water column. This enrichment process, driven by the Mn-redox cycle, therefore changes the sediment record by the transfer of a dissolved pollution signal to the particulate sediment record, thus making it more complicated to trace direct influence of particles from different pollution sources.

  15. Metals and trace elements in feathers: A geochemical approach to avoid misinterpretation of analytical responses.

    PubMed

    Borghesi, Fabrizio; Migani, Francesca; Andreotti, Alessandro; Baccetti, Nicola; Bianchi, Nicola; Birke, Manfred; Dinelli, Enrico

    2016-02-15

    Assessing trace metal pollution using feathers has long attracted the attention of ecotoxicologists as a cost-effective and non-invasive biomonitoring method. In order to interpret the concentrations in feathers considering the external contamination due to lithic residue particles, we adopted a novel geochemical approach. We analysed 58 element concentrations in feathers of wild Eurasian Greater Flamingo Phoenicopterus roseus fledglings, from 4 colonies in Western Europe (Spain, France, Sardinia, and North-eastern Italy) and one group of adults from zoo. In addition, 53 elements were assessed in soil collected close to the nesting islets. This enabled to compare a wide selection of metals among the colonies, highlighting environmental anomalies and tackling possible causes of misinterpretation of feather results. Most trace elements in feathers (Al, Ce, Co, Cs, Fe, Ga, Li, Mn, Nb, Pb, Rb, Ti, V, Zr, and REEs) were of external origin. Some elements could be constitutive (Cu, Zn) or significantly bioaccumulated (Hg, Se) in flamingos. For As, Cr, and to a lesser extent Pb, it seems that bioaccumulation potentially could be revealed by highly exposed birds, provided feathers are well cleaned. This comprehensive study provides a new dataset and confirms that Hg has been accumulated in feathers in all sites to some extent, with particular concern for the Sardinian colony, which should be studied further including Cr. The Spanish colony appears critical for As pollution and should be urgently investigated in depth. Feathers collected from North-eastern Italy were the hardest to clean, but our methods allowed biological interpretation of Cr and Pb. Our study highlights the importance of external contamination when analysing trace elements in feathers and advances methodological recommendations in order to reduce the presence of residual particles carrying elements of external origin. Geochemical data, when available, can represent a valuable tool for a correct

  16. Advanced Gasification Mercury/Trace Metal Control with Monolith Traps

    SciTech Connect

    Musich, Mark; Swanson, Michael; Dunham, Grant; Stanislowski, Joshua

    2010-10-05

    Two Corning monoliths and a non-carbon-based material have been identified as potential additives for mercury capture in syngas at temperatures above 400°F and pressure of 600 psig. A new Corning monolith formulation, GR-F1-2189, described as an active sample appeared to be the best monolith tested to date. The Corning SR Liquid monolith concept continues to be a strong candidate for mercury capture. Both monolith types allowed mercury reduction to below 5-μg/m{sup 3} (~5 ppb), a current U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) goal for trace metal control. Preparation methods for formulating the SR Liquid monolith impacted the ability of the monolith to capture mercury. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC)-prepared Noncarbon Sorbents 1 and 2 appeared to offer potential for sustained and significant reduction of mercury concentration in the simulated fuel gas. The Noncarbon Sorbent 1 allowed sustained mercury reduction to below 5-μg/m{sup 3} (~5 ppb). The non-carbon-based sorbent appeared to offer the potential for regeneration, that is, desorption of mercury by temperature swing (using nitrogen and steam at temperatures above where adsorption takes place). A Corning cordierite monolith treated with a Group IB metal offered limited potential as a mercury sorbent. However, a Corning carbon-based monolith containing prereduced metallic species similar to those found on the noncarbon sorbents did not exhibit significant or sustained mercury reduction. EERC sorbents prepared with Group IB and IIB selenide appeared to have some promise for mercury capture. Unfortunately, these sorbents also released Se, as was evidenced by the measurement of H2Se in the effluent gas. All sorbents tested with arsine or hydrogen selenide, including Corning monoliths and the Group IB and IIB metal-based materials, showed an ability to capture arsine or hydrogen selenide at 400°F and 600 psig. Based on current testing, the noncarbon metal-based sorbents appear to be the most

  17. ADVANCED GASIFICATION MERCURY/TRACE METAL CONTROL WITH MONOLITH TRAPS

    SciTech Connect

    Mark A. Musich; Michael L. Swanson; Grant E. Dunham; Joshua J. Stanislowski

    2010-07-31

    Two Corning monoliths and a non-carbon-based material have been identified as potential additives for mercury capture in syngas at temperatures above 400°F and pressure of 600 psig. A new Corning monolith formulation, GR-F1-2189, described as an active sample appeared to be the best monolith tested to date. The Corning SR Liquid monolith concept continues to be a strong candidate for mercury capture. Both monolith types allowed mercury reduction to below 5-μg/m3 (~5 ppb), a current U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) goal for trace metal control. Preparation methods for formulating the SR Liquid monolith impacted the ability of the monolith to capture mercury. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC)-prepared Noncarbon Sorbents 1 and 2 appeared to offer potential for sustained and significant reduction of mercury concentration in the simulated fuel gas. The Noncarbon Sorbent 1 allowed sustained mercury reduction to below 5-μg/m3 (~5 ppb). The non-carbon-based sorbent appeared to offer the potential for regeneration, that is, desorption of mercury by temperature swing (using nitrogen and steam at temperatures above where adsorption takes place). A Corning cordierite monolith treated with a Group IB metal offered limited potential as a mercury sorbent. However, a Corning carbon-based monolith containing prereduced metallic species similar to those found on the noncarbon sorbents did not exhibit significant or sustained mercury reduction. EERC sorbents prepared with Group IB and IIB selenide appeared to have some promise for mercury capture. Unfortunately, these sorbents also released Se, as was evidenced by the measurement of H2Se in the effluent gas. All sorbents tested with arsine or hydrogen selenide, including Corning monoliths and the Group IB and IIB metal-based materials, showed an ability to capture arsine or hydrogen selenide at 400°F and 600 psig. Based on current testing, the noncarbon metal-based sorbents appear to be the most effective arsine

  18. Trace metal concentration in Great Tit (Parus major) and Greenfinch (Carduelis sinica) at the Western Mountains of Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Deng, Haili; Zhang, Zhengwang; Chang, Chongyan; Wang, Yong

    2007-07-01

    We examined the concentrations of 11 trace metals in tissues from 10 body parts of Great Tits and Greenfinches collected at Badachu Park in the Western Mountains of Beijing, China to assess the metal accumulation level, distribution among body parts, and species and gender related variations. The highest concentrations of Hg, Ni, Zn, and Mn were found in the feather; Pb and Co in the bone; Cd, Cr, and Se in the kidney, and Cu in the liver and heart. Metal concentrations had substantial interspecific variation with Great Tits showing higher levels of Hg, Cr, Ni, and Mn than Greenfinches in tissues of most body parts. Gender related variations were body part and species specific. Meta-analyses using data from this study and other studies suggested that metal concentrations of Great Tits at our study site were relatively low and below the toxic levels.

  19. Release and systemic accumulation of heavy metals from preformed crowns used in restoration of primary teeth.

    PubMed

    Kodaira, Hiroe; Ohno, Kohachiro; Fukase, Naoko; Kuroda, Midori; Adachi, Shiki; Kikuchi, Motohiro; Asada, Yoshinobu

    2013-01-01

    Preformed crowns for restoration of primary teeth are used in various treatments and are essential for restoring the crowns of primary molars. However, there are concerns that mechanical, chemical, and thermal stimulation may cause release of components of such crowns. We examined systemic accumulation of heavy metals associated with preformed crowns (3M Stainless Steel Primary Molar Crowns) used in primary tooth restoration. The participants were 37 children who had visited the Pediatric Dental Clinic of Tsurumi University Dental Hospital. They were divided into two groups: 22 participants without a history of being fitted with a preformed crown for primary tooth restoration (controls), and 15 participants with preformed crowns for primary tooth restoration. Analysis of hair samples showed a significant difference in the level of the trace element Cr - an important component of the preformed crowns - between children with and without preformed crowns, but no significant differences in Fe or Ni levels. Levels of the trace elements Ni, Cr, and Fe were within allowable ranges, indicating that these minerals were not likely to be harmful.

  20. Advanced Gasification Mercury/Trace Metal Control with Monolith Traps

    SciTech Connect

    Michael L. Swanson; Grant E. Dunham; Mark A. Musich

    2007-02-01

    Three potential additives for controlling mercury emissions from syngas at temperatures ranging from 350 to 500 F (177 to 260 C) were developed. Current efforts are being directed at increasing the effective working temperature for these sorbents and also being able to either eliminate any potential mercury desorption or trying to engineer a trace metal removal system that can utilize the observed desorption process to repeatedly regenerate the same sorbent monolith for extended use. Project results also indicate that one of these same sorbents can also successfully be utilized for arsenic removal. Capture of the hydrogen selenide in the passivated tubing at elevated temperatures has resulted in limited results on the effective control of hydrogen selenide with these current sorbents, although lower-temperature results are promising. Preliminary economic analysis suggests that these Corning monoliths potentially could be more cost-effective than the conventional cold-gas (presulfided activated carbon beds) technology currently being utilized. Recent Hg-loading results might suggest that the annualized costs might be as high as 2.5 times the cost of the conventional technology. However, this annualized cost does not take into account the significantly improved thermal efficiency of any plant utilizing the warm-gas monolith technology currently being developed.

  1. Classification and identification of metal-accumulating plant species by cluster analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenhao; Li, He; Zhang, Taoxiang; Sen, Lin; Ni, Wuzhong

    2014-09-01

    Identification and classification of metal-accumulating plant species is essential for phytoextraction. Cluster analysis is used for classifying individuals based on measured characteristics. In this study, classification of plant species for metal accumulation was conducted using cluster analysis based on a practical survey. Forty plant samples belonging to 21 species were collected from an ancient silver-mining site. Five groups such as hyperaccumulator, potential hyperaccumulator, accumulator, potential accumulator, and normal accumulating plant were graded. For Cd accumulation, the ancient silver-mining ecotype of Sedum alfredii was treated as a Cd hyperaccumulator, and the others were normal Cd-accumulating plants. For Zn accumulation, S. alfredii was considered as a potential Zn hyperaccumulator, Conyza canadensis and Artemisia lavandulaefolia were Zn accumulators, and the others were normal Zn-accumulating plants. For Pb accumulation, S. alfredii and Elatostema lineolatum were potential Pb hyperaccumulators, Rubus hunanensis, Ajuga decumbens, and Erigeron annuus were Pb accumulators, C. canadensis and A. lavandulaefolia were potential Pb accumulators, and the others were normal Pb-accumulating plants. Plant species with the potential for phytoextraction were identified such as S. alfredii for Cd and Zn, C. canadensis and A. lavandulaefolia for Zn and Pb, and E. lineolatum, R. hunanensis, A. decumbens, and E. annuus for Pb. Cluster analysis is effective in the classification of plant species for metal accumulation and identification of potential species for phytoextraction.

  2. Sewage sludge application in a plantation: effects on trace metal transfer in soil-plant-snail continuum.

    PubMed

    Bourioug, Mohamed; Gimbert, Frédéric; Alaoui-Sehmer, Laurence; Benbrahim, Mohammed; Aleya, Lotfi; Alaoui-Sossé, Badr

    2015-01-01

    We studied the potential bioaccumulation of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd by the snail Cantareus aspersus and evaluated the risk of leaching after application of sewage sludge to forest plantation ecosystems. Sewage sludge was applied to the soil surface at two loading rates (0, and 6 tons ha(-1) in dry matter) without incorporation into the soil so as to identify the sources of trace metal contamination in soil and plants and to evaluate effects on snail growth. The results indicated a snail mortality rate of less than 1% during the experiment, while their dry weight decreased significantly (<0.001) in all treatment modalities. Thus, snails showed no acute toxicity symptoms after soil amendment with sewage sludge over the exposure period considered. Additions of sewage sludge led to higher levels of trace metals in forest litter compared to control subplots, but similar trace metal concentrations were observed in sampling plants. Bioaccumulation study demonstrated that Zn had not accumulated in snails compared to Cu which accumulated only after 28 days of exposure to amended subplots. However, Pb and Cd contents in snails increased significantly after 14 and 28 days of exposure in both the control and amended subplots. At the last sampling date, in comparison to controls the Cd increase was higher in snails exposed to amended subplots. Thus, sludge spread therefore appears to be responsible for the observed bioaccumulation for Cu and Cd after 28days of exposure. Concerning Pb accumulation, the results from litter-soil-plant compartments suggest that soil is this metal's best transfer source.

  3. Depositional record of trace metals and degree of contamination in core sediments from the Mandovi estuarine mangrove ecosystem, west coast of India.

    PubMed

    Veerasingam, S; Vethamony, P; Mani Murali, R; Fernandes, B

    2015-02-15

    The concentrations of seven trace metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Cr, Co, Pb and Zn) in three sediment cores were analysed to assess the depositional trends of metals and their contamination level in the Mandovi estuary, west coast of India. All sediment cores showed enrichment of trace metals in the upper part of core sediments and decrease in concentration with depth, suggesting excess of anthropogenic loading (including mining activities) occurred during the recent past. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images distinguished the shape, size and structure of particles derived from lithogenic and anthropogenic sources in core sediments. The geo-accumulation index (I(geo)) values indicate that Mandovi estuary is 'moderately polluted' with Pb, whereas 'unpolluted to moderately polluted' with Fe, Mn, Cu, Cr, Co and Zn. The comparative analysis of trace metals revealed that Fe and Mn were highly enriched in the Mandovi estuary compared to all other Indian estuaries.

  4. Bioaccumulation of trace metals in farmed fish from South China and potential risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yao-Wen; Lin, Duan; Liu, Jing-Qin; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2011-03-01

    Concentrations of trace metals were determined in water, sediment, fish feed and two species of farmed fish, pompano and snapper, collected from Daya Bay and Hailing Bay of South China in July 2007 and January 2008. Total average concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, Hg and As were 1.6, 2.7, 27.3, 0.025, 0.62, 0.18 and 0.59 μg/g dry wt in pompano and 1.5, 2.6, 23.6, 0.020, 0.55, 0.22 and 0.53 μg/g dry wt in snapper. In general, the concentrations of all target metals except Hg were positively correlated with lipid contents whereas negative correlations were observed between the metal concentrations and fish body weights. Model calculation indicated that dietary uptake of Zn and Cd predominate their accumulation in snapper, accounting for 99.9% and 98.2% of the total inputs. Risk assessments suggested that potential ecological and human health risk may be present due to elevated Pb concentrations in sediment and farmed fish.

  5. Trace metals assessment in water, sediment, mussel and seagrass species--validation of the use of Posidonia oceanica as a metal biomonitor.

    PubMed

    Lafabrie, C; Pergent, G; Kantin, R; Pergent-Martini, C; Gonzalez, J-L

    2007-08-01

    The accumulation of trace metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Hg, Ni and Pb) was measured in water, sediment, the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and the seagrass Posidonia oceanica. Samples were collected in three locations of the north-western Mediterranean (Canari, Livorno and Porto-Torres) which present different levels and sources of human impact. Analyses in the different compartments (water, sediment, M. galloprovincialis and P. oceanica) have allowed to identify Canari as the most Cd, Co, Cr and Ni contaminated site; Livorno as the most Hg contaminated and Porto-Torres as the most Pb contaminated. Furthermore, for the first time, metal concentrations found in P. oceanica have been compared with those found in the water column, in the sediment and in the recognized metal bio-indicator species M. galloprovincialis and the results obtained have led to the same conclusions. Thus, this study allows to validate the use of P. oceanica as metal biomonitor of coastal waters.

  6. Accumulation of metals in Elodea canadensis and Elodea nuttallii: implications for plant-macroinvertebrate interactions.

    PubMed

    Thiébaut, G; Gross, Y; Gierlinski, P; Boiché, A

    2010-10-15

    Elodea nuttallii and Elodea canadensis are considered good candidates for metal studies. Metal pollution can disturb the interactions between trophic levels. Our goals were 1) to analyse the metal content in plants, sediment and water from three polluted sites, and 2) to analyse the impact of metal contamination on plant consumption by macroinvertebrates. The concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn and Fe and S were measured in water, sediment and in the two Elodea species during two years. Our results showed that metal accumulation varied according to site, metal and season. The ability to uptake metal was similar in E. canadensis and in E. nuttallii. No significant seasonal metal accumulation was established for plants or sediment. Metal accumulation in Elodea species in polluted sites had no impact on their palatability. The plant palatability depends on the season and varies according to the part of the plant. In autumn, apex was less consumed than defoliated and foliated stems.

  7. Comparison of metal accumulation in the azooxanthellate scleractinian coral (Tubastraea coccinea) from different polluted environments.

    PubMed

    Chan, Isani; Hung, Jia-Jang; Peng, Shao-Hung; Tseng, Li-Chun; Ho, Tung-Yuan; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou

    2014-08-30

    The response of metal accumulation in coral Tubastraea coccinea to various degrees of metal enrichment was investigated from the Yin-Yang Sea (YYS) receiving abandoned mining effluents, the Kueishan Islet (KI) hydrothermal vent field, and the nearshore area of remoted Green Island (GI). The concentrations of most dissolved metals were highest in seawater at YYS, followed by KI, and then GI, showing the effects of anthropogenic and venting inputs on metal levels. Five metals (Co, Fe, Mn, Ni, and Zn) yielded significant differences (p<0.05) among the skeleton samples. We identified similar patterns in the metal-Ca ratios, indicating that the elevated metals in skeletons was a consequence of external inputs. The coral tissues were relatively sensitive in monitoring metal accumulation, showing significant differences among three locations for Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn. Specific bioconcentration factors provided strong support for the differential metal accumulation in skeletons and tissues.

  8. Macronutrients and trace metals in soil and food crops of Isfahan Province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Keshavarzi, Behnam; Moore, Farid; Ansari, Maryam; Rastegari Mehr, Meisam; Kaabi, Helena; Kermani, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of 10 macronutrients and trace metals in the arable soils of Isfahan Province, their phytoavailability, and associated health risks were investigated; 134 plant and 114 soil samples (from 114 crop fields) were collected and analyzed at harvesting time. Calculation of the soil pollution index (SPI) revealed that arable soil polluted by metals was more severe in the north and southwest of the study area. The results of cluster analysis indicated that Pb, Zn, and Cu share a similar origin from industries and traffic. The concentrations of macronutrients and trace metals in the sampled crops were found in the order of K > Ca > S > Mg > P and Fe > Mn > Zn > Cu > Pb, respectively, whereas calculation of the bioconcentration factor (BCF) indicated that the accumulation of the investigated elements in crops was generally in the order of S ≈ K > P > Mg > Ca and Zn > Cu > Mn > Pb > Fe, respectively. Thus, various parameters including crop species and the physical, chemical, and biological properties of soil also affected the bioavailability of the elements besides the total element contents in soil. Daily intake (DI) values of elements were lower than the recommended daily intake (RDI) levels in rice grains except for Fe and Mn, but for wheat grains, all elements displayed DI values higher than the RDI. Moreover, based on the hazard index (HI) values, inhabitants are experiencing a significant potential health risk solely due to the consumption of wheat and rice grains (particularly wheat grains). Mn health quotient (HQ) also indicated a high risk of Mn absorption for crop consumer inhabitants.

  9. Assessment of the contamination of riparian soil and vegetation by trace metals--A Danube River case study.

    PubMed

    Pavlović, P; Mitrović, M; Đorđević, D; Sakan, S; Slobodnik, J; Liška, I; Csanyi, B; Jarić, S; Kostić, O; Pavlović, D; Marinković, N; Tubić, B; Paunović, M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the spatial distribution of arsenic and heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn) in a riparian area influenced by periodical flooding along a considerable stretch of the Danube River. This screening was undertaken on soil and plant samples collected from 43 sites along 2386 km of the river, collected during the international Joint Danube Survey 3 expedition (ICPDR, 2015). In addition, data on the concentration of these elements in river sediment was used in order to describe the relationship between sediment, riparian soil and riparian plants. A significant positive correlation (Spearman r, for p<0.05) was found for trace metal concentrations in river sediment and soil (r=0.817). A significant correlation between soil and plants (r=0.438) and sediment and plants (r=0.412) was also found for trace metal concentrations. Elevated levels of Cd, Cr, Cu, and Ni were found at certain sites along the Serbian stretch, while elevated concentrations of Hg were also detected in Hungary, of Pb along the Romanian stretch and of As along the Bulgarian stretch (the Lower Danube). These results point to the presence of naturally-occurring metals derived from ore deposits in the Danube River Basin and anthropogenic metals, released by mining and processing of metal ores and other industrial facilities, which are responsible for the entry of metals such as Cu, Ni and Zn. Our results also indicated toxic Cd and Zn levels in plant samples, measured at the Hercegsznato site (Middle Danube, Hungary), which highlighted these elements as a potential limiting factor for riparian vegetation in that area. The distribution of the analysed elements in plant material also indicates the species-specific accumulation of trace metals. Based on our results, the Lower and Middle Danube were found to be more polluted in terms of the analysed elements.

  10. Geochemical index of trace metals in the surficial sediments from the western continental shelf of India, Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Laluraj, C M; Nair, S M

    2006-12-01

    The present study focuses on the determination and abundance of trace metals (viz. Cu, Ni, Zn, Cr, Co, Cd, Mn and Fe) in the surficial sediments of west coast of Arabian Sea along the Indian subcontinent. Sediment samples were collected from three transects along the western continental shelf of Arabian Sea. The enrichment of Fe and Mn in coastal oxic-sediments indicates the precipitation of these redox sensitive elements as Fe- and Mn-hydroxides and oxides, whereas the low Fe and Mn concentrations in the oxygen deficient sediments of deeper stations reflects the dissolution of their hydroxides and oxides. Concentrations of fairly redox insensitive trace metals like Cu, Ni, Zn, Cr and Cd (with the exceptions of Cr) showed higher values at nearshore sediments, then it decreased towards seaward and again showed a slight increase at oxygen minimum stations in all the three transects. This geochemical variability in their distributional characteristics is mainly associated with the extent to which the precipitation or dissolution of Fe- and Mn-oxides/hydroxides occur since the scavenging or releasing effects of Fe- and Mn-oxides/hydroxides act as significant 'sinks' or 'sources' of heavy metals. The change in wind pattern, coastal upwelling and increased productivity are also the reported factors which influence the biogeochemical cycling of trace metals in the surface sediments of west coast of India. Enrichment factor generally showed a high gradient accumulation from nearshore to shelf.

  11. Trace and ultratrace metals in bottled waters: survey of sources worldwide and comparison with refillable metal bottles.

    PubMed

    Krachler, Michael; Shotyk, William

    2009-01-15

    Bottled waters from diverse natural and industrial sources are becoming increasingly popular worldwide. Several potentially harmful trace metals (Ag, Be, Li, Ge, Sb, Sc, Te, Th, U) are not monitored regularly in such waters. As a consequence, there is extremely limited data on the abundance and potential health impacts of many potentially toxic trace elements. Containers used for the storage of bottled waters might also increase trace metal levels above threshold limits established for human consumption by the EPA or WHO. Applying strict clean room techniques and sector field ICP-MS, 23 elements were determined in 132 brands of bottled water from 28 countries. In addition, leaching experiments with high purity water and various popular metal bottles investigated the release of trace metals from these containers. The threshold limits for elements such as Al, Be, Mn and U in drinking water were clearly exceeded in some waters. Several bottled waters had Li concentrations in the low mg/L range, a level which is comparable to blood plasma levels of patients treated against manic depression with Li-containing drugs. The rate of release of trace metals from metal bottles assessed after 13 days was generally low, with one exception: Substantial amounts of both Sb and Tl were released from a commercially available pewter pocket flask, exceeding international guidelines 5- and 11-fold, respectively. Trace metal levels of most bottled waters are below guideline levels currently considered harmful for human health. The few exceptions that exist, however, clearly reveal that health concerns are likely to manifest through prolonged use of such waters. The investigated coated aluminium and stainless steel bottles are harmless with respect to leaching of trace metals into drinking water. Pocket flasks, in turn, should be selected with great care to avoid contamination of beverages with harmful amounts of potentially toxic trace metals such as Sb and Tl.

  12. Characterization of cadmium accumulation in willow as a woody metal accumulator using synchrotron radiation-based X-ray microanalyses.

    PubMed

    Harada, Emiko; Hokura, Akiko; Takada, Saori; Baba, Kei'ichi; Terada, Yasuko; Nakai, Izumi; Yazaki, Kazufumi

    2010-05-01

    Trees that accumulate metals are important plants for restoring contaminated soil because of their high biomass. We examined the cadmium (Cd) tolerance and growth rate of six willow (Salix) species common in Japan. To characterize in detail the localization of Cd and its ligands, synchrotron radiation-based micro X-ray fluorescence analysis was used. This revealed the accumulation of cadmium at the tips of the serrations in leaves, and the phellogen and/or the phelloderm under the stem surface. micro-X-ray absorption near edge structure spectra of Cd in all the accumulation sites were similar to that of the Cd ion coordinated by O ligands in S. gilgiana.

  13. Heavy metal-induced glutathione accumulation and its role in heavy metal detoxification in Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    PubMed

    Xu, Piao; Liu, Liang; Zeng, Guangming; Huang, Danlian; Lai, Cui; Zhao, Meihua; Huang, Chao; Li, Ningjie; Wei, Zhen; Wu, Haipeng; Zhang, Chen; Lai, Mingyong; He, Yibin

    2014-01-01

    Phanerochaete chrysosporium are known to be vital hyperaccumulation species for heavy metal removal with admirable intracellular bioaccumulation capacity. This study analyzes the heavy metal-induced glutathione (GSH) accumulation and the regulation at the intracellular heavy metal level in P. chrysosporium. P. chrysosporium accumulated high levels of GSH, accompanied with high intracellular concentrations of Pb and Cd. Pb bioaccumulation lead to a narrow range of fluctuation in GSH accumulation (0.72-0.84 μmol), while GSH plummeted under Cd exposure at the maximum value of 0.37 μmol. Good correlations between time-course GSH depletion and Cd bioaccumulation were determined (R (2) > 0.87), while no significant correlations have been found between GSH variation and Pb bioaccumulation (R (2) < 0.38). Significantly, concentration-dependent molar ratios of Pb/GSH ranging from 0.10 to 0.18 were observed, while molar ratios of Cd/GSH were at the scope of 1.53-3.32, confirming the dominant role of GSH in Cd chelation. The study also demonstrated that P. chrysosporium showed considerable hypertolerance to Pb ions, accompanied with demand-driven stimulation in GSH synthesis and unconspicuous generation of reactive oxygen stress. GSH plummeted dramatically response to Cd exposure, due to the strong affinity of GSH to Cd and the involvement of GSH in Cd detoxification mechanism mainly as Cd chelators. Investigations into GSH metabolism and its role in ameliorating metal toxicity can offer important information on the application of the microorganism for wastewater treatment.

  14. Content and distribution of trace metals in pristine permafrost environments of Northeastern Siberia, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antcibor, I.; Eschenbach, A.; Kutzbach, L.; Bolshiyanov, D.; Pfeiffer, E.-M.

    2012-04-01

    Arctic regions are one of the most sensitive areas with respect to climatic changes and human impacts. Research is required to discover how the function of permafrost soils as a buffering system for metal pollutants could change in response to the predicted changes. The goal of this work is to determine the background levels of trace metals in the pristine arctic ecosystems of the Lena River Delta in Northeastern Siberia and to evaluate the possible effect of human impacts on this arctic region. The Lena River Delta represents areas with different dominating geomorphologic processes that can generally be divided between accumulation and erosion sites. Frequent changes of the river water level create different periods of sedimentation and result in the formation of stratified soils and sediment layers which are dominated either by mineral substrates with allochthonous organic matter or pure autochthonous peat. The deposited sediments that have formed the delta islands are mostly composed of sand fractions; therefore the buffering effects of clay materials can be neglected. Samoylov Island is representative of the south-central and eastern modern delta surfaces of the Lena River Delta and is selected as a pilot study site. We determined total element contents of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cd, Ni, Cu, As, Pb, Co and Hg in soil horizons from different polygonal elevated rims, polygonal depressed centers and the middle floodplain. High gravimetric concentrations (related to dry mass of soil material) of Mn and Fe are found within all soil profiles and vary from 0.14 to 1.39 g kg-1 and from 10.7 to 41.2 g kg-1, respectively. While the trace element concentrations do not exceed typical crustal abundances, the maximum values of most of the metals are observed within the soil profile situated at the middle floodplain. This finding suggests that apart from the parent material the second potential source of trace metals is due to allochthonous substance input during annual flooding of the

  15. Differential patterns of accumulation and retention of dietary trace elements associated with coal ash during larval development and metamorphosis of an amphibian.

    PubMed

    Heyes, Andrew; Rowe, Christopher L; Conrad, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    We performed an experiment in which larval gray tree frogs (Hyla chrysoscelis) were raised through metamorphosis on diets increased with a suite of elements associated with coal combustion residues (silver [Ag], arsenic [As], cadmium [Cd], chromium [Cr], copper [Cu], mercury [Hg], lead [Pb], selenium [Se], vanadium [V], and zinc [Zn]) at "low" and "high" concentrations. We quantified accumulation of metals at three life stages (mid-larval development, initiation of metamorphosis, and completion of metamorphosis) as well as effects on survival, metabolic rate, size at metamorphosis, and duration and loss of weight during metamorphosis. Most elements were accumulated in a dose-dependent pattern by some or all life stages, although this was not the case for Hg. For most elements, larval body burdens exceeded those of later life stages in some or all treatments (control, low, or high). However for Se, As, and Hg, body burdens in control and low concentrations were increased in later compared with earlier life stages. A lack of dose-dependent accumulation of Hg suggests that the presence of high concentrations of other elements (possibly Se) either inhibited accumulation or increased depuration of Hg. The duration of metamorphosis (forelimb emergence through tail resorption) was lengthened in individuals exposed to the highest concentrations of elements, but there were no other statistically significant biological effects. This study shows that patterns of accumulation and possibly depuration of metals and trace elements are complex in animals possessing complex life cycles. Further study is required to determine specific interactions affecting these patterns, in particular which elements may be responsible for affecting accumulation or retention of Hg when organisms are exposed to complex mixtures of elements.

  16. Trophic relationships in an Arctic food web and implications for trace metal transfer.

    PubMed

    Dehn, Larissa-A; Follmann, Erich H; Thomas, Dana L; Sheffield, Gay G; Rosa, Cheryl; Duffy, Lawrence K; O'Hara, Todd M

    2006-06-01

    Tissues of subsistence-harvested Arctic mammals were analyzed for silver (Ag), cadmium (Cd), and total mercury (THg). Muscle (or total body homogenates of potential fish and invertebrate prey) was analyzed for stable carbon (delta13C) and nitrogen (delta15N) isotopes to establish trophic interactions within the Arctic food chain. Food web magnification factors (FWMFs) and biomagnification factors for selected predator-prey scenarios (BMFs) were calculated to describe pathways of heavy metals in the Alaskan Arctic. FWMFs in this study indicate that magnification of selected heavy metals in the Arctic food web is not significant. Biomagnification of Cd occurs mainly in kidneys; calculated BMFs are higher for hepatic THg than renal THg for all predator-prey scenarios with the exception of polar bears (Ursus maritimus). In bears, the accumulation of renal THg is approximately 6 times higher than in liver. Magnification of hepatic Ag is minimal for all selected predator-prey scenarios. Though polar bears occupy a higher trophic level than belugas (Delphinapterus leucas), based on delta15N, the metal concentrations are either not statistically different between the two species or lower for bears. Similarly, concentrations of renal and hepatic Cd are significantly lower or not statistically different in polar bears compared to ringed (Phoca hispida) and bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus), their primary prey. THg, on the other hand, increased significantly from seal to polar bear tissues. Mean delta15N was lowest in muscle of Arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) and foxes also show the lowest levels of Hg, Cd and Ag in liver and kidney compared to the other species analyzed. These values are in good agreement with a diet dominated by terrestrial prey. Metal deposition in animal tissues is strongly dependent on biological factors such as diet, age, sex, body condition and health, and caution should be taken when interpreting magnification of dynamic and actively regulated trace

  17. Determination of trace metals in drinking water in Irbid City-Northern Jordan.

    PubMed

    Alomary, Ahmed

    2013-02-01

    Drinking water samples from Irbid, the second populated city in Jordan were analyzed for trace metals (As, Ba, Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu, Fe, Zn, Mn, Ni, and Se) content. The study was undertaken to determine if the metal concentrations were within the national and international guidelines. A total of 90 drinking water samples were collected from Al-Yarmouk University area. The samples were collected from three different water types: tap water (TW), home-purified water (HPW), and plant-purified water (PPW). All the samples were analyzed for trace metals using an inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. All the samples analyzed were within the United States Environmental Protection Agency admissible pH limit (6.5-8.5). The results showed that concentrations of the trace metals vary significantly between the three drinking water types. The results showed that HPW samples have the lowest level of trace metals and the concentrations of some essential trace metals in these samples are less than the recommended amounts. Slight differences in the metal contents were found between HPW samples, little differences between PPW samples; however, significant differences were found between TW samples. Although some TW samples showed high levels of trace metals, however, the mean level of most elements determined in the samples were well within the Jordanian standards as well as the World Health Organization standards for drinking water.

  18. Comparative Study of the Effects of Long and Short Term Biological Processes on the Cycling of Colloidal Trace Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinedo, P.; Sanudo-Wilhelmy, S. A.; West, A.

    2013-05-01

    Nanoparticle (or colloids), with sizes operationally defined as ranging from 1nm to 1000nm diameter, are thought to play an important role in metal cycling in the ocean due to their high surface area to volume ratio and abundance in marine systems. In coastal waters, the bulk of marine nanoparticles are organic, so short and long term biological processes are expected to influence the dynamics of these types of particles in marine environments. This is, in turn, expected to influence metal concentrations. Here we selected two different environments to study the influence of long-term biological events (phytoplankton blooms) and short-term biological events (diel cycles of photosynthesis and respiration) on the cycling of colloidal trace metals. We focus on Cu and Fe, both biogeochemically important metals but with differing colloidal behavior. Long term processes (West Neck Bay): A bay (West Neck Bay, Long Island) with predictable natural phytoplankton blooms, but with limited inputs of freshwater, nutrients and metals, was selected to study the partitioning of Cu and Fe between colloidal and soluble pools over the course of a bloom. During the bloom, there was a significant build-up of Cu associated with DOM accumulation and a removal of Fe via particle stripping. Fraction-specific metal concentrations, and metal accumulation and removal rates, were found to be significantly correlated with chlorophyll-a concentration and with dissolved organic matter (DOM). Short term processes (Catalina Island): To identify the cyclical variation in metal speciation during diel (24-hour) cycles of photosynthesis and respiration, we conducted a study off Catalina Island, a pristine environment where trace metal cycling is solely controlled by biological processes and changes in the phytoplankton community are well characterized. The speciation of Fe between soluble and colloidal pools showed that Fe has a high affinity for colloidal material and that the distribution between

  19. Leaching and accumulation of trace elements in sulfate reducing granular sludge under concomitant thermophilic and low pH conditions.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Gil, G; Lopes, S I C; Saikaly, P E; Lens, P N L

    2012-12-01

    The leaching and/or accumulation of trace elements in sulfate reducing granular sludge systems was investigated. Two thermophilic up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactors operated at pH 5 were fed with sucrose (4 gCOD l(reactor)(-1)d(-1)) and sulfate at different COD/SO(4)(2-) ratios. During the start-up of such acidogenic systems, an initial leaching of trace elements from the inoculum sludge occurred regardless of trace elements supplementation in the reactor influent. The granular sludge maintained the physical structure despite high Fe leaching. After start-up and nonetheless the acidic conditions, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo and Se were retained or accumulated by the sludge when added. Particularly, Ni and Co accumulated in the carbonates and exchangeable fractions ensuring potential bioavailability. Otherwise, the initial stock in the inoculum sludge sufficed to operate the process for nearly 1 year without supplementation of trace elements and no significant sludge wash-out occurred.

  20. Pollution status of the Bohai Sea: an overview of the environmental quality assessment related trace metals.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xuelu; Zhou, Fengxia; Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur

    2014-01-01

    It is well recognized that the ecosystem of the Bohai Sea is being rapidly degraded and the Sea has basically lost its function as a fishing ground. Billions of funds have been spent in slowing down, halting and finally reversing the environmental deterioration of the Bohai Sea. Although trace metals are routinely monitored, the data with high temporal resolution for a clear understanding of biogeochemical processes in the ecosystem of the Bohai Sea are insufficient, especially in the western literature. In this review, status of trace metal contamination in the Bohai Sea is assessed based on a comprehensive review of their concentrations recorded in the waters, sediments and organisms over the past decades. Studies show that metal contamination in the Bohai Sea is closely associated with the fast economic growth in the past decades. Concentrations of trace metals are high in coastal areas especially in the estuaries. Alarmingly high metal concentrations are observed in the waters, sediments and organisms from the western Bohai Bay and the northern Liaodong Bay, especially the coasts near Huludao in the northernmost area of the Bohai Sea, which is being polluted by industrial sewage from the surrounding areas. The knowledge of the speciation and fractionation of trace metals and the influence of submarine groundwater discharge on the biogeochemistry of trace metals in the Bohai Sea is far from enough and related work needs to be done urgently to get a better understanding of the influence of trace metals on the ecosystem of the Bohai Sea. A clear understanding of the trace metal pollution status of the Bohai Sea could not be achieved presently for lack of systematic cooperation in different research fields. It is quite necessary to apply the environmental and ecological modeling to the investigation of trace metals in the Bohai Sea and then provide foundations for the protection of the environment and ecosystem of the Bohai Sea.

  1. 210Pb geochronology and trace metal fluxes (Cd, Cu and Pb) in the Gulf of Tehuantepec, South Pacific of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Fernández, Ana Carolina; Páez-Osuna, Federico; Machain-Castillo, María Luisa; Arellano-Torres, Elsa

    2004-01-01

    Distributions of Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn and Pb were analyzed in a sediment core collected in the Gulf of Tehuantepec, an important fisheries region located in the South Pacific of Mexico, where data on metal accumulation and accretion rates were previously almost nonexistent. Depth profiles of metal concentrations were converted to time-based profiles by using a 210Pb-derived vertical accretion rate, estimated to be 0.05 cm year(-1) on the average. Sediments were dated up to 8 cm depth, corresponding to a layer of ca. 140 years old. The historical changes of metal accumulation along the sediment core have shown a moderate enrichment of Cd, Cu and Pb concentrations at present, of about threefold the corresponding background concentrations. Chronological trace metal records showed that metal fluxes have increased over the last 20 years, reaching the maximum values at present of 2.5, 22.5 and 45.8 (microg cm(-2) year(-1)) for Cd, Pb and Cu, respectively. These increments in metal fluxes are likely influenced by the development of anthropogenic land-based activities since over this period of time oil production activities in the region have had a significant development.

  2. Efficient shedding of accumulated metals during metamorphosis in metal-adapted populations of the midge Chironomus riparius

    SciTech Connect

    Groenendijk, D.; Kraak, M.H.S.; Admiraal, W. . Dept. of Aquatic Ecology and Ecotoxicology)

    1999-06-01

    Metal accumulation and loss during metamorphosis were investigated in Chironomus riparius populations in a metal contaminated lowland river. Cadmium and zinc levels were measured in imagoes and larvae at reference and metal-exposed sites. It was hypothesized that the relationship between metal concentrations in biota and environmental compartments would be influenced by the presence of metal-adapted chironomids. In contrast to the large interpopulation differences in larval body burdens of cadmium, body burdens in imagoes vanished to background levels for all midge populations. This indicated that any cadmium accumulated in larval stages was lost during metamorphosis. This nearly 100% efficiency in shedding of cadmium is most likely caused by an increased metal handling capacity present in exposed midges. In agreement with the cadmium measurements, larval body burdens of zinc showed also highly significant interpopulation differences. In contrast with the cadmium values, however, body burdens of zinc in imagoes showed highly significant interpopulation differences and differences were even recorded between the two exposed sites, indicating interpopulation differences in shedding capacity for zinc. It is concluded that the highly efficient shedding of accumulated metals reflected the metal adaptation recorded in earlier studies of metal-exposed C. riparius populations from the River Dommel. Based on the differences in metal accumulation and the differences found in shedding of metals between the two exposed midge populations, it was concluded that population differentiation due to metal stress is a gradual process rather than an all-or-nothing situation.

  3. On nutrients and trace metals: Effects from Enhanced Weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amann, T.; Hartmann, J.

    2015-12-01

    The application of rock flour on suitable land ("Enhanced Weathering") is one proposed strategy to reduce the increase of atmospheric CO2 concentrations. At the same time it is an old and established method to add fertiliser and influence soil properties. Investigations of this method focused on the impact on the carbonate system, as well as on engineering aspects of a large-scale application, but potential side effects were never discussed quantitatively. We analysed about 120,000 geochemically characterised volcanic rock samples from the literature. Applying basic statistics, theoretical release rates of nutrients and potential contaminants by Enhanced Weathering were evaluated for typical rock types. Applied rock material can contain significant amounts of essential or beneficial nutrients (potassium, phosphorus, micronutrients). Their release can partly cover the demand of major crops like wheat, rice or corn, thereby increasing crop yield on degraded soils. However, the concentrations of considered elements are variable within a specific rock type, depending on the geological setting. High heavy metal concentrations are found in (ultra-) basic rocks, the class with the highest CO2 drawdown potential. More acidic rocks contain less or no critical amounts, but sequester less CO2. Findings show that the rock selection determines the capability to supply significant amounts of nutrients, which could partly substitute industrial mineral fertiliser usage. At the same time, the release of harmful trace element has to be considered. Through careful selection of regionally available rocks, benefits could be maximised and drawbacks reduced. The deployment of Enhanced Weathering to sequester CO2 and to ameliorate soils necessitates an ecosystem management, considering the release and fate of weathered elements in plants, soils and water. Cropland with degraded soils would benefit while having a net negative CO2 effect, while other carbon dioxide removal strategies, like

  4. Trace element accumulation in short-tailed albatrosses (Diomedea albatrus) and black-footed albatrosses (Diomedea nigripes) from Torishima Island, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinsuke, T.; Tokutaka, I.; Takashi, K.; Miyako, T.; Fumio, S.; Nariko, O.

    2003-05-01

    Concentrations of 19 trace elements (V, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Ga, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sb, Cs, Ba, Hg, Tl, and Pb) were determined in liver, kidney, muscle, feather and stomach content of short-tailed albatross and feather of black-footed albatross from Torishima Island, Japan. For most of the elements, concentrations in liver and kidney were higher than those in muscle and feather, whereas concentrations of Ga, Sr and Ba were highest in feather of short-taled albatross. Metal concentrations in tissues of short-tailed albatross were within the range of those reported for albatrosses from other locations. Concentrations of Cr, Mn, Hg and Pb were relatively low in the tissues of short-tailed albatross, indicating less contamination by those metals in this species of Torishima Island. No significant differences were observed in metal concentrations in feather between short-tailed albatross and black-footed albatross. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the trace element accumulation in tissues of short-tailed albatross.

  5. Bioaccumulation of metallic trace elements and organic pollutants in marine sponges from the South Brittany Coast, France.

    PubMed

    Gentric, Charline; Rehel, Karine; Dufour, Alain; Sauleau, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the accumulation of metallic and organic pollutants in marine sponges with the oyster Crassostrea gigas used as sentinel species. The concentrations of 12 Metallic Trace Elements (MTEs), 16 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), 7 PolyChlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), and 3 organotin derivatives were measured in 7 marine sponges collected in the Etel River (South Brittany, France). Results indicated Al, Co, Cr, Fe, Pb, and Ti particularly accumulated in marine sponges such as Hymeniacidon perlevis and Raspailia ramosa at higher levels compared to oysters. At the opposite, Cu and Zn accumulated significantly at higher concentrations in oysters. Among PAHs analyzed, benzo(a)pyrene bioaccumulated in H. perlevis at levels up to 17-fold higher than in oysters. In contrast, PCBs bioaccumulated preferentially in oysters. Significant differences exist in the abilities of marine phyla and sponge species to accumulate organic and metallic pollutants however, among the few sponge species studied, H. perlevis showed impressive bioaccumulation properties. The use of this species as bioindicator and/or bioremediator near shellfish farming areas is also discussed.

  6. Accumulation of trace elements and organochlorines by surf scoters wintering in the Pacific northwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Blus, L.J.; Grove, R.A.; Thompson, S.P.

    1991-01-01

    Selenium, cadmium, mercury, copper, manganese, zinc, aluminum, lead, PCBs and DDE were accumulated by segments of the surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata) population that winters in the Pacific Northwest, but whether the uptake occurred on breeding and/or wintering grounds was uncertain for some contaminants. Surf scoters collected in Puget Sound and San Francisco Bay (in another study) during the same period (January 1985) contained similar concentrations of cadmium, but Alsea Bay scoters contained more. Cadmium was inversely related to both liver and body weights of Northwest scoters in January; similar weight losses were reported in experimental laboratory studies. Northwest and north San Francisco Bay scoters contained similar mercury concentrations, but those in south San Francisco Bay contained higher concentrations. San Francisco Bay scoters contained higher arsenic and selenium concentrations than those in the Northwest; however, the 43.4 ppm (geometric mean, dry wt) selenium in livers at Commencement Bay in January was above levels associated with the reproductive problems in aquatic birds at Kesterson National Wildlife Refuge. Even higher concentrations of some elements may be found in surf scoters in March, because a later collection (March) at San Francisco Bay yielded higher concentrations than found there in January. Trace element concentrations in birds at a given wintering location are variable among species and may be influenced by diet, breeding grounds, and physiology (e.g., at Commencement Bay surf scoters with a sediment-associated diet contained 50X more cadmium in their kidneys than did fish-eating western grebes [Aechmophorus occidentalis]). The numerous wildlife species that live on estuaries require further attention.

  7. Novel Sorbent-Based Process for High Temperature Trace Metal Removal

    SciTech Connect

    Gokhan Alptekin

    2008-09-30

    intermittent operation of the PSDF gasifier (due to the difficulties in the handling of the low quality lignite), only a small fraction of the sorbent capacity was utilized (we measured a mercury capacity of 3.27 mg/kg, which is only a fraction of the 680 mg/kg Hg capacity measured for the same sorbent used at our bench-scale evaluations at TDA). Post reaction examination of the sorbent by chemical analysis also indicated some removal As and Se (we did not detect any significant amounts of Cd in the synthesis gas or over the sorbent). The tests at UNDEERC was more successful and showed clearly that the TDA sorbent can effectively remove Hg and other trace metals (As and Se) at high temperature. The on-line gas measurements carried out by TDA and UNDEERC separately showed that TDA sorbent can achieve greater than 95% Hg removal efficiency at 260 C ({approx}200g sorbent treated more than 15,000 SCF synthesis gas). Chemical analysis conducted following the tests also showed modest amounts of As and Se accumulation in the sorbent bed (the test durations were still short to show higher capacities to these contaminants). We also evaluated the stability of the sorbent and the fate of mercury (the most volatile and unstable of the trace metal compounds). The Synthetic Ground Water Leaching Procedure Test carried out by an independent environmental laboratory showed that the mercury will remain on the sorbent once the sorbent is disposed. Based on a preliminary engineering and cost analysis, TDA estimated the cost of mercury removal from coal-derived synthesis gas as $2,995/lb (this analysis assumes that this cost also includes the cost of removal of all other trace metal contaminants). The projected cost will result in a small increase (less than 1%) in the cost of energy.

  8. Altitudinal patterns and controls of trace metal distribution in soils of a remote high mountain, Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui; Bing, Haijian; Wu, Yanhong; Zhou, Jun; Xiang, Zhongxiang

    2017-03-16

    The aim of this study is to reveal the effects of regional human activity on trace metal accumulation in remote alpine ecosystems under long-distance atmospheric transport. Trace metals (Cd, Pb, and Zn) in soils of the Mt. Luoji, Southwest China, were investigated along a large altitudinal gradient [2200-3850 m above sea level (a.s.l.)] to elaborate the key factors controlling their distribution by Pb isotopic composition and statistical models. The concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Zn in the surface soils (O and A horizons) were relatively low at the altitudes of 3500-3700 m a.s.l. The enrichment factors of trace metals in the surface soils increased with altitude. After normalization for soil organic matter, the concentrations of Cd still increased with altitude, whereas those of Pb and Zn did not show a clear altitudinal trend. The effects of vegetation and cold trapping (CTE) (pollutant enrichment by decreasing temperature with increasing altitude) mainly determined the distribution of Cd and Pb in the O horizon, whereas CTE and bedrock weathering (BW) controlled that of Zn. In the A horizon, the distribution of Cd and Pb depended on the vegetation regulation, whereas that of Zn was mainly related to BW. Human activity, including ores mining and fossil fuels combustion, increased the trace metal deposition in the surface soils. The anthropogenic percentage of Cd, Pb, and Zn quantified 92.4, 67.8, and 42.9% in the O horizon, and 74.5, 33.9, and 24.9% in the A horizon, respectively. The anthropogenic metals deposited at the high altitudes of Mt. Luoji reflected the impact of long-range atmospheric transport on this remote alpine ecosystem from southern and southwestern regions.

  9. Quantitative Trait Loci and Inter-Organ Partitioning for Essential Metal and Toxic Analogue Accumulation in Barley

    PubMed Central

    Reuscher, Stefan; Kolter, Andreas; Hoffmann, Astrid; Pillen, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    The concentrations of both essential nutrients and chemically similar toxic analogues accumulated in cereal grains have a major impact on the nutritional quality and safety of crops. Naturally occurring genetic diversity can be exploited for the breeding of improved varieties through introgression lines (ILs). In this study, multi-element analysis was conducted on vegetative leaves, senesced flag leaves and mature grains of a set of 54 ILs of the wild ancestral Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum in the cultivated variety Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare cv. Scarlett. Plants were cultivated on an anthropogenically heavy metal-contaminated soil collected in an agricultural field, thus allowing simultaneous localization of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for the accumulation of both essential nutrients and toxic trace elements in barley as a model cereal crop. For accumulation of the micronutrients Fe and Zn and the interfering toxin Cd, we identified 25, 16 and 5 QTL, respectively. By examining the gene content of the introgressions, we associated QTL with candidate genes based on homology to known metal homeostasis genes of Arabidopsis and rice. Global comparative analyses suggested the preferential remobilization of Cu and Fe, over Cd, from the flag leaf to developing grains. Our data identifies grain micronutrient filling as a regulated and nutrient-specific process, which operates differently from vegetative micronutrient homoeostasis. In summary, this study provides novel QTL for micronutrient accumulation in the presence of toxic analogues and supports a higher degree of metal specificity of trace element partitioning during grain filling in barley than previously reported for other cereals. PMID:27078500

  10. Trace metals, metal-binding proteins and histopathology of the hepatopancreas in Dungeness crab

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, J.A.J.; Brand, D.; Yunker, M.B.

    1995-12-31

    The authors have been examining trace metals and histopathology of the hepatopancreas in the Dungeness crab, Cancer magister, from four sites in the Fraser R. estuary and at two reference sites. Animals were collected at the same time over a two-year period. Tissues were analyzed for their trace metal content using ICPS and for metal-binding protein using pulse polarography. ANOVA and principal component analysis (PCA) were performed on all data. Copper, cadmium and silver are significantly higher in areas receiving sewage discharge. Copper and silver covary in all PCA models and form a cluster distinct from all other metals. The strong covariance raises the possibility that animals are taking up Ag along with Cu. In all PCA models, Ca and Sr (and to lesser extent Ba) form a distinct cluster in the third PC. Histopathological examination of crab hepatopancreatic tissue was carried out to determine if any idiopathic differences existed among populations from the Fraser River estuary and the reference sites. Four cell types were identified in all tissues examined: E-cell (embryonic), R-cell (reserve), B-cell (basophilic) and F-cell (fibrillar). The degree of vacuolation and glycogen storage within the R-cells was significantly greater in crabs collected from the estuary. Also, a significantly higher number of crabs from this site possessed proliferative invasive granulocytes associated with the hepatopancreas. Additionally, nucleolar hypertrophy within the F-cells occurred in crabs collected from the Fraser estuary, relative to those from the reference sites. The hepatopancreas may serve as a suitable subject for further examination of contaminant effects, since cell types show a varied response to exposure.

  11. Investigation of Water Safety in Non-treated Drinking Water with Trace Toxic Metals.

    PubMed

    Ly, Suw Young; Kim, Dae Hong; Lee, Ga Eun

    2013-09-01

    The trace toxic metal copper was assayed using mercury immobilized on a carbon nanotube electrode (MCW), with a graphite counter and a reference electrode. In this study, a macro-scale convection motor was interfaced with a MCW three-electrode system, in which a handmade MCW was optimized using cyclic- and square-wave stripping voltammetry. An analytical electrolyte for tap water was used instead of an expensive acid or base ionic solution. Under these conditions, optimum parameters were 0.09 V amplitude, 40 Hz frequency, 0.01 V incremental potential, and a 60-s accumulation time. A diagnostic working curve was obtained from 50.0 to 350 μg/L. At a constant Cu(II) concentration of 10.0 μg/L, the statistical relative standard deviation was 1.78% (RSD, n = 15), the analytical accumulation time was only 60 s, and the analytical detection limit approached 4.6 μg/L (signal/noise = 3). The results were applied to nontreated drinking water. The content of the analyzed copper using 9.0 and 4.0 μg/L standards were 8.68 μg/L and 3.96 μg/L; statistical values R(2) = 0.9987 and R(2) = 0.9534, respectively. This method is applicable to biological diagnostics or food surveys.

  12. Correlation between some selected trace metal concentrations in six species of fish from the Arabian Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Ashraf, M.; Jaffar, M.

    1988-07-01

    The role of trace metals in marine ecosystems has been keenly investigated during recent years. It is known that abundance of essential trace metals regulates the metal content in the organisms by homeostatic control mechanisms, which when cease to function cause essential trace metals to act in an either acutely or chronically toxic manner. Therefore, a correlation study based on essential and non-essential trace metal concentrations is imperative for extending the existing knowledge of bioaccumulation of trace metals in marine organisms. An attempt has been made in the present investigation to bring out quantitative correlations between the concentrations of iron, copper, lead and zinc in the edible muscle tissue of six species of marine fish: Salmon (salmon sole); tuna (thunnus thynnus); pomfret silver (pampus argenteus); Pomfret black (formioniger); long tail tuna (thynnus tonggel) and Indian oil sardine (sardinella longiceps). These fish are abundantly available in Pakistan along the coastal line of the Arabian Sea and have great commercial value. The computational analysis on the trace metal correlation was conducted using an MSTAT statistical package.

  13. Effects of elevated CO2 concentrations and fly ash amended soils on trace element accumulation and translocation among roots, stems and seeds of Glycine max (L.) Merr.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, J H; Klumpp, A; Fangmeier, A; Pignata, M L

    2011-03-15

    The carbon dioxide (CO(2)) levels of the global atmosphere and the emissions of heavy metals have risen in recent decades, and these increases are expected to produce an impact on crops and thereby affect yield and food safety. In this study, the effects of elevated CO(2) and fly ash amended soils on trace element accumulation and translocation in the root, stem and seed compartments in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] were evaluated. Soybean plants grown in fly ash (FA) amended soil (0, 1, 10, 15, and 25% FA) at two CO(2) regimes (400 and 600 ppm) in controlled environmental chambers were analyzed at the maturity stage for their trace element contents. The concentrations of Br, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in roots, stems and seeds in soybeans were investigated and their potential risk to the health of consumers was estimated. The results showed that high levels of CO(2) and lower concentrations of FA in soils were associated with an increase in biomass. For all the elements analyzed except Pb, their accumulation in soybean plants was higher at elevated CO(2) than at ambient concentrations. In most treatments, the highest concentrations of Br, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Pb were found in the roots, with a strong combined effect of elevated CO(2) and 1% of FA amended soils on Pb accumulation (above maximum permitted levels) and translocation to seeds being observed. In relation to non-carcinogenic risks, target hazard quotients (TQHs) were significant in a Chinese individual for Mn, Fe and Pb. Also, the increased health risk due to the added effects of the trace elements studied was significant for Chinese consumers. According to these results, soybean plants grown for human consumption under future conditions of elevated CO(2) and FA amended soils may represent a toxicological hazard. Therefore, more research should be carried out with respect to food consumption (plants and animals) under these conditions and their consequences for human health.

  14. Assessing the trace metal pollution in the sediments of Mahshahr Bay, Persian Gulf, via a novel pollution index.

    PubMed

    Vaezi, A R; Karbassi, A R; Fakhraee, M

    2015-10-01

    Sediment samples were collected from the Petrochemical Special Economic Zone of Mahshahr Bay, Persian Gulf, and analyzed for possible trace metal contamination by means of a chemical partitioning method. The heavy metal contents in the sediments follow the order of Al > Sr > Mn > Zn > Ni > Ba > Cr > Cu > As > Co. The degree of sediment contamination was evaluated using pollution load index (PLI), modified degree of contamination (mC d), geo-accumulation index (I geo), and enrichment factor (EF). All these indices compare present concentrations of metals to their background levels in crust and shale. In a specific area with high geological background like Mahshahr Bay, such a comparison may lead to erroneous conclusions. Due to the remarkable contribution of lithogenous fraction, as the natural component, to the bulk concentration of trace metals in the sediments of such an area, assessment of chemical hazard to the surrounding aquatic environment should not be carried out through traditional approaches. In the present study, anthropogenic portion of the metals was determined through one-step chemical sequential extraction and lithogenous portion substituted for the mean crust and shale levels in the new pollution index (RIAquatic). PLI, mC d, and I geo revealed overall low values, but EF, pollution index (I POLL), and newly developed pollution index were relatively high for all samples.

  15. Characterizing the Environmental Availability of Trace Metals in Savannah River Site Soils

    SciTech Connect

    Serkiz, S.M.

    1999-03-18

    An eight step sequential extraction technique was used to characterize the environmental availability of trace metals from background and waste site soil samples collected from the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS).

  16. Trace Element Composition of Metal and Sulphides in Iron Meteorites Determined Using ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giscard, M. D.; Hammond, S. J.; Bland, P. A.; Benedix, G. K.; Rogers, N. W.; Russell, S. S.; Genge, M. J.; Rehkamper, M.

    2012-09-01

    We measured trace element concentrations in Nantan, Toluca, Cape York, Carthage, Gibeon and Dronino. Poikiloblastic daubreelite in Gibeon indicates shock metamorphism. There is a volatile depletion in metal and sulphides.

  17. TRACE ELEMENT CHEMISTRY IN RESIDUAL-TREATED SOIL: KEY CONCEPTS AND METAL BIOAVAILABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Trace element solubility and availability in land-applied residuals is governed by fundamental chemical reactions between metal constituents, soil, and residual components. Iron, aluminum, and manganese oxides; organic matter; and phosphates, carbonates, and sulfides are importan...

  18. Consumer-producer relationships for trace metals in Chorthippus brunneus (Thunberg. )

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.S.

    1986-08-01

    The behavior of trace metals in terrestrial food chains is a subject of ecological interest, particularly in polluted environments where the potential exists for bioconcentration of metals known to be essential in trace amounts for normal plant and animal metabolism, as well as those with no known metabolic function but recognized toxicological properties. Laboratory studies of food chain relationships afford a means by which direct comparisons can be made between trace metals as a basis for interpretation of data collected from wild plant and animal populations. This study compares the behavior of three trace elements, copper, zinc and cadmium, in terms of their assimilation under experimental conditions by the herbivorous common field grasshopper, Chorthippus brunneus (Thunberg.). This voracious orthopteran is widely distributed in Britain and is particularly prominent in the restricted invertebrate community of some metal smelter-affected grasslands where it forms important seasonal prey for insectivorous small mammals.

  19. Potential of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) and corn (Zea mays L.) for phytoremediation of dredging sludge contaminated by trace metals.

    PubMed

    Arbaoui, Sarra; Evlard, Aricia; Mhamdi, Mohamed El Wafi; Campanella, Bruno; Paul, Roger; Bettaieb, Taoufik

    2013-07-01

    The potential of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) and corn (Zea mays L.) for accumulation of cadmium and zinc was investigated. Plants have been grown in lysimetres containing dredging sludge, a substratum naturally rich in trace metals. Biomass production was determined. Sludge and water percolating from lysimeters were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. No visible symptoms of toxicity were observed during the three- month culture. Kenaf and corn tolerate trace metals content in sludge. Results showed that Zn and Cd were found in corn and kenaf shoots at different levels, 2.49 mg/kg of Cd and 82.5 mg/kg of Zn in kenaf shoots and 2.1 mg/kg of Cd and 10.19 mg/kg in corn shoots. Quantities of extracted trace metals showed that decontamination of Zn and Cd polluted substrates is possible by corn and kenaf crops. Tolerance and bioaccumulation factors indicated that both species could be used in phytoremediation.

  20. Risk assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and trace metals in River Nile up- and downstream of a densely populated area.

    PubMed

    Omar, Wael A; Mahmoud, Hamada M

    2017-02-01

    Cairo city is the largest populated area along the whole course of River Nile with a wide range of anthropogenic activities. Efforts to restore fish habitat and recreational use of the river have raised concerns about its water, sediment and biota quality. This study provides a baseline data on the levels of PCBs and trace metals in River Nile along Cairo sector and implements the formulation of monitoring activities of the river's pollution status. Water, sediment and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) samples were collected during summer season, 2013 from two sites, up- and downstream, for detection and determination of 11 PCB congeners (PCBs 28, 44, 52, 70, 101, 105, 118, 138, 152, 180 and 192) as well as six trace metals (Cu, Zn, Mn, Cd, Pb and Fe). Evidences of long- or short-term exposures to these contaminants as well as its accumulation tendency were assessed by integrating the obtained analytical results of biotic and abiotic components of this aquatic ecosystem. All calculated lifetime cancer risk values for PCBs showed unacceptable risk of cancer for human consumers at both normal and subsistence fish consumption rates. The calculated hazard index for total PCBs indicates that fish are not safe for human consumption except in site 1 at normal consumption rate. Meanwhile, trace metals do not pose unacceptable risks at both consumption rates except for Pb in site 1 at subsistence consumption rate.

  1. Zn, Cd, S and trace metal bioaccumulation in willow (Salix spp.) cultivars grown hydroponically.

    PubMed

    McBride, M B; Martinez, C E; Kim, B

    2016-12-01

    Willows (Salix spp.) can be used to phytoremediate soils contaminated by Zn and Cd under certain conditions. In this study, the ability of 14 Salix cultivars to concentrate Cd, Zn and S in leaves was measured in hydroponic culture with 10 and 200 µM Cd and Zn, respectively, in the nutrient medium. The cultivars showed a wide range of biomass yields, tolerance to metals, and foliar concentrations of Zn and Cd, with some cultivars accumulating up to 1000 mg kg(-1) Zn, 70 mg kg(-1) Cd and 10,000 mg kg(-1) S with only mild phytotoxicity symptoms attributable to excess Zn. Cultivars with higher foliar Zn concentrations tended to have higher foliar Cd concentrations as well, and competition between Zn and Cd for uptake was observed. Exposure of Salix cultivars to Cd and Zn did not affect foliar concentrations of secondary metabolites such as polyphenols, but trace metal concentrations in leaves were significantly reduced (Fe and Cu) or increased (Mn) by exposure to excess Zn and Cd. Sulfur-XANES spectroscopy showed foliar S to be predominantly in highly oxidized (sulfate plus sulfonate) and reduced (thiol) forms, with oxidized S more prevalent in willows with the highest total S content.

  2. Effects of Trace Metal Concentrations on the Growth of the Coral Endosymbiont Symbiodinium kawagutii

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Irene B.; Lin, Senjie; Ho, Jiaxuan; Ho, Tung-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Symbiodinium is an indispensable endosymbiont in corals and the most important primary producer in coral reef ecosystems. During the past decades, coral bleaching attributed to the disruption of the symbiosis has frequently occurred resulting in reduction of coral reef coverage globally. Growth and proliferation of corals require some specific trace metals that are essential components of pertinent biochemical processes, such as in photosynthetic systems and electron transport chains. In addition, trace metals are vital in the survival of corals against oxidative stress because these metals serve as enzymatic cofactors in antioxidative defense mechanisms. The basic knowledge about trace metal requirements of Symbiodinium is lacking. Here we show that the requirement of Symbiodinium kawagutii for antioxidant-associated trace metals exhibits the following order: Fe >> Cu/Zn/Mn >> Ni. In growth media with Cu, Zn, Mn, and varying Fe concentrations, we observed that Cu, Zn, and Mn cellular quotas were inversely related to Fe concentrations. In the absence of Cu, Zn, and Mn, growth rates increased with increasing inorganic Fe concentrations up to 1250 pM, indicating the relatively high Fe requirement for Symbiodinium growth and potential functional complementarity of these metals. These results demonstrate the relative importance of trace metals to sustain Symbiodinium growth and a potential metal inter replacement strategy in Symbiodinium to ensure survival of coral reefs in an oligotrophic and stressful environment. PMID:26903964

  3. Effects of Trace Metal Concentrations on the Growth of the Coral Endosymbiont Symbiodinium kawagutii.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Irene B; Lin, Senjie; Ho, Jiaxuan; Ho, Tung-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Symbiodinium is an indispensable endosymbiont in corals and the most important primary producer in coral reef ecosystems. During the past decades, coral bleaching attributed to the disruption of the symbiosis has frequently occurred resulting in reduction of coral reef coverage globally. Growth and proliferation of corals require some specific trace metals that are essential components of pertinent biochemical processes, such as in photosynthetic systems and electron transport chains. In addition, trace metals are vital in the survival of corals against oxidative stress because these metals serve as enzymatic cofactors in antioxidative defense mechanisms. The basic knowledge about trace metal requirements of Symbiodinium is lacking. Here we show that the requirement of Symbiodinium kawagutii for antioxidant-associated trace metals exhibits the following order: Fe > Cu/Zn/Mn > Ni. In growth media with Cu, Zn, Mn, and varying Fe concentrations, we observed that Cu, Zn, and Mn cellular quotas were inversely related to Fe concentrations. In the absence of Cu, Zn, and Mn, growth rates increased with increasing inorganic Fe concentrations up to 1250 pM, indicating the relatively high Fe requirement for Symbiodinium growth and potential functional complementarity of these metals. These results demonstrate the relative importance of trace metals to sustain Symbiodinium growth and a potential metal inter replacement strategy in Symbiodinium to ensure survival of coral reefs in an oligotrophic and stressful environment.

  4. Effects of trace metal ions on secondary metabolism and the morphological development of streptomycetes.

    PubMed

    Locatelli, Fabricio M; Goo, Kian-Sim; Ulanova, Dana

    2016-05-01

    Bacteria belonging to the Streptomyces genus are characterized by a complex life cycle and the production of many bioactive secondary metabolites. Trace metals play an important role in streptomycete metabolism and development, however, their mechanism of action is not fully understood. In this review, we summarize the present knowledge on metallosensing regulators and trace metal action, as well as discuss the possible application in natural product discovery.

  5. Metal accumulation without enhanced oxalate secretion in wood degraded by brown rot fungi.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Jonathan S; Jellison, Jody

    2006-08-01

    Brown rot fungi were incubated in agar and agar-wood microcosms containing metallic or hydroxide forms of Al, Cu, and Fe. Metal dissolution was associated with elevated oxalate concentrations in agar, but metals translocated into wood did not affect oxalate accumulation, crystal production, or decay rate, demonstrating a substrate-dependent oxalate dynamic.

  6. Trace metal enrichments in core sediments in Muthupet mangroves, SE coast of India: application of acid leachable technique.

    PubMed

    Janaki-Raman, D; Jonathan, M P; Srinivasalu, S; Armstrong-Altrin, J S; Mohan, S P; Ram-Mohan, V

    2007-01-01

    Core sediments from Mullipallam Creek of Muthupet mangroves on the southeast coast of India were analyzed for texture, CaCO(3), organic carbon, sulfur and acid leachable trace metals (Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, Ni, Co, Pb, Zn and Cd). Textural analysis reveals a predominance of mud while CaCO(3) indicates dissolution in the upper half of the core, and reprecipitation of carbonates in reduction zones. Trace metals are diagenetically modified and anthropogenic processes control Pb and, to some extent, Ni, Zn and Fe. A distinct event is identified at 90 cm suggesting a change in deposition. Strong relationship of trace metals with Fe indicates that they are associated with Fe-oxyhydroxides. The role of carbonates in absorbing trace metals is evident from their positive relationship with trace metals. Comparison of acid leachable trace metals indicates increase in concentrations in the study area and the sediments act as a sink for trace metals contributed from multiple sources.

  7. Modelling metal accumulation using humic acid as a surrogate for plant roots.

    PubMed

    Le, T T Yen; Swartjes, Frank; Römkens, Paul; Groenenberg, Jan E; Wang, Peng; Lofts, Stephen; Hendriks, A Jan

    2015-04-01

    Metal accumulation in roots was modelled with WHAM VII using humic acid (HA) as a surrogate for root surface. Metal accumulation was simulated as a function of computed metal binding to HA, with a correction term (E(HA)) to account for the differences in binding site density between HA and root surface. The approach was able to model metal accumulation in roots to within one order of magnitude for 95% of the data points. Total concentrations of Mn in roots of Vigna unguiculata, total concentrations of Ni, Zn, Cu and Cd in roots of Pisum sativum, as well as internalized concentrations of Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn in roots of Lolium perenne, were significantly correlated to the computed metal binding to HA. The method was less successful at modelling metal accumulation at low concentrations and in soil experiments. Measured concentrations of Cu internalized in L. perenne roots were not related to Cu binding to HA modelled and deviated from the predictions by over one order of magnitude. The results indicate that metal uptake by roots may under certain conditions be influenced by conditional physiological processes that cannot simulated by geochemical equilibrium. Processes occurring in chronic exposure of plants grown in soil to metals at low concentrations complicate the relationship between computed metal binding to HA and measured metal accumulation in roots.

  8. Effects of dietary intake of trace metals on tissue contents of sodium and calcium in mice (Mus musculus).

    PubMed

    Pettersen, Aslaug-Johanne; Andersen, Rolf A; Zachariassen, Karl Erik

    2002-05-01

    Mice were given either cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu) or zinc (Zn) ad lib, and levels of the metals in the heart, kidneys and liver were measured together with organ contents of sodium (Na) and calcium (Ca). The contents of Cd increased more than 100-fold in all organs, whereas Zn increased by a factor of 2-4. Copper accumulated only in the liver. Cadmium exposure caused the Na and Ca contents in the kidneys to increase by a factor of 2-3, but caused a statistically significant reduction in the Na content of the liver. Cadmium also caused a reduction in the Ca content of the heart. Copper caused a statistically significant doubling of the Na content in the heart, but a significant reduction in the Ca content in this organ. Zinc caused a reduction in the Ca content of the heart. However, the mechanisms behind these effects are not clear. The accumulation of Cd in the kidneys and heart was associated with a gradual change in the Na and Ca levels in these organs, but trace metal accumulation was not associated with any conspicuous changes in the Na or Ca contents in any other organ. Copper was not accumulated in heart, but Cu intake still had marked effects on the Na and Ca contents in this organ. Since the tissue contents of Na and Ca are likely to be physiologically important, these ions may have potential as biomarkers for toxic stress. Since the effects of Cd and Cu differed markedly, the tissue contents of Na and Ca may also be used in a trace metal-specific system of fingerprint biomarkers.

  9. Long-term biomonitoring of soil contamination using poplar trees: accumulation of trace elements in leaves and fruits.

    PubMed

    Madejón, P; Ciadamidaro, L; Marañón, T; Murillo, J M

    2013-01-01

    Phytostabilization aims to immobilize soil contaminants using higher plants. The accumulation of trace elements in Populus alba leaves was monitored for 12 years after a mine spill. Concentrations of As and Pb significantly decreased, while concentrations of Cd and Zn did not significantly over time. Soil concentrations extracted by CaCl2 were measured by ICP-OES and results of As and Pb were below the detection limit. Long-term biomonitoring of soil contamination using poplar leaves was proven to be better suited for the study of trace elements. Plants suitable for phytostabilization must also be able to survive and reproduce in contaminated soils. Concentrations of trace elements were also measured in P. alba fruiting catkins to determine the effect on its reproduction potential. Cadmium and Zn were found to accumulate in fruiting catkins, with the transfer coefficient for Cd significantly greater than Zn. It is possible for trace elements to translocate to seed, which presents a concern for seed germination, establishment and colonization. We conclude that white poplar is a suitable tree for long-term monitoring of soil contaminated with Cd and Zn, and for phytostabilization in riparian habitats, although some caution should be taken with the possible effects on the food web. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of International Journal of Phytoremediation to view the supplemental file.

  10. Holm Oak (Quercus ilex L.) canopy as interceptor of airborne trace elements and their accumulation in the litter and topsoil.

    PubMed

    Fantozzi, Federica; Monaci, Fabrizio; Blanusa, Tijana; Bargagli, Roberto

    2013-12-01

    We investigated the role of urban Holm Oak (Quercus ilex L.) trees as an airborne metal accumulators and metals' environmental fate. Analyses confirmed Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn as a main contaminants in Siena's urban environment; only Pb concentrations decreased significantly compared to earlier surveys. Additionally, we determined chemical composition of tree leaves, litter and topsoil (underneath/outside tree crown) in urban and extra-urban oak stands. Most notably, litter in urban samples collected outside the canopy had significantly lower concentrations of organic matter and higher concentrations of Pb, Cu, Cd and Zn than litter collected underneath the canopy. There was a greater metals' accumulation in topsoil, in samples collected under the tree canopy and especially near the trunk ('stemflow area'). Thus, in urban ecosystems the Holm Oak stands likely increase the soil capability to bind metals.

  11. Distribution, enrichment, and potential toxicity of trace metals in the surface sediments of Sundarban mangrove ecosystem, Bangladesh: a baseline study before Sundarban oil spill of December, 2014.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Alok; Ramanathan, Al; Prasad, M B K; Datta, Dilip; Kumar, Manoj; Sappal, Swati Mohan

    2016-05-01

    The distribution, enrichment, and ecotoxicity potential of Bangladesh part of Sundarban mangrove was investigated for eight trace metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn) using sediment quality assessment indices. The average concentration of trace metals in the sediments exceeded the crustal abundance suggesting sources other than natural in origin. Additionally, the trace metals profile may be a reflection of socio-economic development in the vicinity of Sundarban which further attributes trace metals abundance to the anthropogenic inputs. A total of eleven surficial sediment samples were collected along a vertical transect along the freshwater-saline water gradient. The sediment samples were digested using EPA 3051 method and were analyzed on ICP-MS. Geo-accumulation index suggests moderately polluted sediment quality with respect to Ni and As and background concentrations for Al, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, Co, As, and Cd. Contamination factor analysis suggested low contamination by Zn, Cr, Co, and Cd, moderate by Fe, Mn, Cu, and Pb while Ni and As show considerable and high contamination, respectively. Enrichment factors for Ni, Pb, and As suggests high contamination from either biota or anthropogenic inputs besides natural enrichment. As per the three sediment quality guidelines, Fe, Mn, Cu, Ni, Co, and As would be more of a concern with respect to ecotoxicological risk in the Sundarban mangroves. The correlation between various physiochemical variables and trace metals suggested significant role of fine grained particles (clay) in trace metal distribution whereas owing to low organic carbon content in the region the organic complexation may not be playing significant role in trace metal distribution in the Sundarban mangroves.

  12. Spatial distribution and sources of dissolved trace metals in surface water of the Wei River, China.

    PubMed

    Jing, Li; Fadong, Li; Qiang, Liu; Shuai, Song; Guangshuai, Zhao

    2013-01-01

    For this study, 34 water samples were collected along the Wei River and its tributaries. Multivariate statistical analyses were employed to interpret the environmental data and to identify the natural and anthropogenic trace metal inputs to the surface waters of the river. Our results revealed that Zn, Se, B, Ba, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni and V were all detected in the Wei River. Compared to drinking water guidelines, the primary trace metal pollution components (B, Ni, Zn and Mn) exceeded drinking water standard levels by 47.1, 50.0, 44.1 and 26.5%, respectively. Inter-element relationships and landscape features of trace metals conducted by hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) identified a uniform source of trace metals for all sampling sites, excluding one site that exhibited anomalous concentrations. Based on the patterns of relative loadings of individual metals calculated by principal component analysis (PCA), the primary trace metal sources were associated with natural/geogenic contributions, agro-chemical processes and discharge from local industrial sources. These results demonstrated the impact of human activities on metal concentrations in the Wei River.

  13. Enhanced anaerobic digestion of food waste by trace metal elements supplementation and reduced metals dosage by green chelating agent [S, S]-EDDS via improving metals bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wanli; Zhang, Lei; Li, Aimin

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effects of trace metals on methane production from food waste and examining the feasibility of reducing metals dosage by ethylenediamine-N,N'-disuccinic acid (EDDS) via improving metals bioavailability. The results indicated that the effects of metal elements highly depended on the supplemental concentrations. Trace metals supplemented under moderate concentrations greatly enhanced the methane yield. However, the excessive supplementation of Fe (1000 mg/L) and Ni (50 mg/L) exhibited the obvious toxicity to methanogens. The combinations of trace metals exhibited remarkable synergistic effects. The supplementation of Fe (100 mg/L) + Co (1 mg/L) + Mo (5 mg/L) + Ni (5 mg/L) obtained the greatest methane yield of 504 mL/g VSadded and the highest increment of 35.5% compared to the reactor without metals supplementation (372 mL/g VSadded). The changes of metals speciation showed the reduction of metals bioavailability during anaerobic digestion, which might weaken the stimulative effects of trace metals. However, the addition of EDDS improved metals bioavailability for microbial uptake and stimulated the activity of methanogens, and therefore, strengthened the stimulative effects of metals on anaerobic digestion of food waste. The batch and semi-continuous experiments confirmed that the addition of EDDS (20 mg/L) bonded to trace metals prior to their supplementation could obtain a 50% reduction of optimal metals dosage. This study provided a feasible method to reduce trace metals dosage without the degeneration of process performance of anaerobic digestion.

  14. Determination of trace and heavy metals in some commonly used medicinal herbs in Ayurveda.

    PubMed

    Nema, Neelesh K; Maity, Niladri; Sarkar, Birendra K; Mukherjee, Pulok K

    2014-11-01

    Traditionally, the herbal drugs are well established for their therapeutic benefits. Depending upon their geographical sources sometimes the trace and heavy metals' content may differ, which may lead to severe toxicity. So, the toxicological and safety assessment of these herbal drugs are one of the major issues in recent days. Eight different plant species including Aloe vera, Centella asiatica, Calendula officinalis, Cucumis sativus, Camellia sinensis, Clitoria ternatea, Piper betel and Tagetes erecta were selected to determine their heavy and trace metals content and thereby to assure their safer therapeutic application. The trace and heavy metals were detected through atomic absorption spectrometry analysis. The selected medicinal plant materials were collected from the local cultivated regions of West Bengal, India, and were digested with nitric acid and hydrochloric acid as specified. Absorbance was measured through atomic absorption spectrometer (AA 303) and the concentration of different trace and heavy metals in the plant samples were calculated. The quantitative determinations were carried out using standard calibration curve obtained by the standard solutions of different metals. The contents of heavy metals were found to be within the prescribed limit. Other trace metals were found to be present in significant amount. Thus, on the basis of experimental outcome, it can be concluded that the plant materials collected from the specific region are safe and may not produce any harmful effect of metal toxicity during their therapeutic application. The investigated medicinal plants contain trace metals such as copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe) and nickel (Ni) as well as heavy metals such as arsenic (As), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg), which were present within the permissible limit.

  15. Traffic and industrial activities around Riyadh cause the accumulation of heavy metals in legumes: A case study.

    PubMed

    Alyemeni, Mohammed Nasser; Almohisen, Ibrahem A A

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse the effect of the continuously increasing anthropogenic activities around Riyadh, Saudi Arabia on the accumulation of heavy metals in leguminous crops. This study determined whether four legume crops, Pisum sativum L., Vicia faba L., Glycine max and Vigna sinensis, could accumulate the heavy metals Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn in their leaves, pods and grains during the summer when grown under conditions with ambient air pollution from heavy traffic and industrial activities in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The effect of the air pollution was examined by quantifying the protein and trace element Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn concentrations in the leaves, pods and grains of the four plant species. Analysis of the results indicated that air pollution significantly increased the heavy metal concentrations in the leaves, pods and grains. Toxic concentrations of the heavy metals were found in the plants grown at L3, L4 and L5. In conclusion, the air pollution increases as the traffic, industrial activities and population density increase.

  16. Trace element differentiation in ferruginous accumulation soil patterns under tropical rainforest of southern Cameroon, the role of climatic change.

    PubMed

    Temgoua, Emile; Pfeifer, Hans-Rudolf; Bitom, Dieudonné

    2003-03-01

    Regions under tropical rainforest cover, such as central Africa and Brazil are characterised by degradation and dismantling of old ferricrete structures. In southern Cameroon, these processes are relayed by present-day ferruginous accumulation soil facies, situated on the middle and the lower part of hill slopes. These facies become progressively harder towards the surface, containing from bottom to top, mainly kaolinite, kaolinite-goethite and Al-rich goethite-hematite, and are discontinuous to the relictic hematite-dominated ferricrete that exist in the upper part of the hill slope. These features were investigated in terms of geochemical differentiation of trace elements. It appears that, in contrast to the old ferricrete facies, the current ferruginous accumulations are enriched in transitional trace elements (V, Cr, Co, Y, Sc) and Pb, while alkali-earth elements are less differentiated. This recent chemical accumulation is controlled both by intense weathering of the granodiorite bedrock and by mobilisation of elements previously accumulated in the old ferricrete. The observed processes are clearly linked to the present-day humid climate with rising groundwater tables. They slowly replace the old ferricretes formed during Cretaceous time under more seasonal climatic conditions, representing an instructive case of continuos global change.

  17. Depuration effects on trace metals in Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin, 1791)

    SciTech Connect

    Wallner-Kersanach, M. ); Lobo, S.E.; Silva, E.M. da )

    1994-06-01

    Bivalves have been regarded as suitable bioindicators of metal pollution in the marine and estuarine environments. However, the metal concentrations of the soft parts of individual bivalves can vary considerably depending on size variations, geographic and genetic differences, individual variability in metal uptake, ingestion of sediment particles and induction of metal-binding proteins. Metal-containing particulate matter in the gut can also be significant. These authors showed that if deputation is not carried out, then large variations in metal concentrations are more likely to occur. In the Todos os Santos Bay on the northeastern coast of Brazil, the cockle A. brasiliana is the most abundant bivalve and is well adapted to area conditions. An important source of food for many local communities, this species has been frequently used as an indicator for heavy metals pollution; however, no data have been published on metal concentrations of A. brasiliana of different size classes and on the effects of deputation on overall concentration. It is therefore important to determine the metal concentrations in A. brasiliana both from the point of view of how the concentrations relate to metal loading of the area. The effect of size upon metal concentration of shellfish has been examined by Boyden, who found that zinc in Mytilus edulis was greater in smaller individuals while cadmium was independent of size. The objective of this study was to determine concentrations of copper, zinc, cadmium and lead in A. brasiliana collected from a site with a relatively low impact of heavy metal contamination, to examine metals in different size classes and to assess the effect of depuration on tissue concentration of the metals. These elements were selected due to their toxicity to marine organisms, when their excess as free metal may interact with cell structures and/or enzymes affecting metabolic activities. 22 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Metal pollution in a contaminated bay: relationship between metal geochemical fractionation in sediments and accumulation in a polychaete.

    PubMed

    Fan, Wenhong; Xu, Zhizhen; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2014-08-01

    Jinzhou Bay in Northern China has been seriously contaminated with metals due to the impacts of smelting activities. In this study, we investigated the relationship between metal accumulation in a deposit-feeding polychaete Neanthes japonica and metal concentration and geochemical fractionation (Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn and Ni) in sediments of Jinzhou Bay. Compared with the historical data, metals in the more mobile geochemical fraction (exchangeable and carbonate fractions) were gradually partitioned into the more stable fraction (Fe-Mn oxides) over time. Metal concentration and geochemical fractionation in sediment significantly affected metal bioavailability and accumulation in polychaetes, except for Ni. Metal accumulation in polychaetes was significantly influenced by Fe or Mn content, and to a lesser degree by organic matter. Prediction of metal bioaccumulation in polychaetes was greatly improved by normalizing metal concentrations to Mn content in sediment. The geochemical fractionation of metals in sediments including the exchangeable, organic matter and Fe-Mn oxides were important in controlling the sediment metal bioavailability to polychaetes.

  19. Trace metal concentrations in Posidonia oceanica of North Corsica (northwestern Mediterranean Sea): use as a biological monitor?

    PubMed Central

    Gosselin, Marc; Bouquegneau, Jean-Marie; Lefèbvre, Frédéric; Lepoint, Gilles; Pergent, Gerard; Pergent-Martini, Christine; Gobert, Sylvie

    2006-01-01

    Background Within semi-closed areas like the Mediterranean Sea, anthropic wastes tend to concentrate in the environment. Metals, in particular, are known to persist in the environment and can affect human health due to accumulation in the food chain. The seagrass Posidonia oceanica, widely found in Mediterranean coastal waters, has been chosen as a "sentinel" to quantify the distribution of such pollutants within the marine environment. Using a technique similar to dendrochronology in trees, it can act as an indicator of pollutant levels over a timeframe of several months to years. In the present study, we measured and compared the levels of eight trace metals (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd, and Pb) in sheaths dated by lepidochronology and in leaves of shoots sampled from P. oceanica meadows collected from six offshore sites in northern Corsica between 1988 and 2004; in the aim to determine 1) the spatial and 2) temporal variations of these metals in these areas and 3) to compared these two types of tissues. Results We found low trace metal concentrations with no increase over the last decade, confirming the potential use of Corsican seagrass beds as reference sites for the Mediterranean Sea. Temporal trends of trace metal concentrations in sheaths were not significant for Cr, Ni, Cu, As or Se, but Zn, Cd, and Pb levels decreased, probably due to the reduced anthropic use of these metals. Similar temporal trends between Cu levels in leaves (living tissue) and in sheaths (dead tissue) demonstrated that lepidochronology linked with Cu monitoring is effective for surveying the temporal variability of this metal. Conclusion Leaves of P. oceanica can give an indication of the metal concentration in the environment over a short time period (months) with good accuracy. On the contrary, sheaths, which gave an indication of changes over long time periods (decades), seem to be less sensitive to variations in the metal concentration in the environment. Changes in human

  20. Trace metal pyritization variability in response to mangrove soil aerobic and anaerobic oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Machado, W; Borrelli, N L; Ferreira, T O; Marques, A G B; Osterrieth, M; Guizan, C

    2014-02-15

    The degree of iron pyritization (DOP) and degree of trace metal pyritization (DTMP) were evaluated in mangrove soil profiles from an estuarine area located in Rio de Janeiro (SE Brazil). The soil pH was negatively correlated with redox potential (Eh) and positively correlated with DOP and DTMP of some elements (Mn, Cu and Pb), suggesting that pyrite oxidation generated acidity and can affect the importance of pyrite as a trace metal-binding phase, mainly in response to spatial variability in tidal flooding. Besides these aerobic oxidation effects, results from a sequential extraction analyses of reactive phases evidenced that Mn oxidized phase consumption in reaction with pyrite can be also important to determine the pyritization of trace elements. Cumulative effects of these aerobic and anaerobic oxidation processes were evidenced as factors affecting the capacity of mangrove soils to act as a sink for trace metals through pyritization processes.

  1. Spatial distribution of heavy metal accumulation in the sediments after dam construction.

    PubMed

    Shim, Moo Joon; Yang, Yun Mo; Oh, Da Yeon; Lee, Soo Hyung; Yoon, Yi Yong

    2015-12-01

    The sedimentary environment has been modified in the Geum River where an estuary dam and midstream dams were constructed. Furthermore, the Geum River tributaries deliver contaminants from the wastewater of an industrial complex. However, the influence of tributaries and dams on sedimentary metal deposition has not been extensively studied. The objectives of this study are to assess metal accumulation and to investigate the source of the metals. Sediments were collected in the main channel and two tributaries on October 2013. Abnormal accumulations of fine sediments were not observed above the midstream dams. Chromium, Ni, and Zn showed higher concentrations in above the midstream dam, but their concentrations were not related to grain size. Cadmium, Cu, Pb, and Hg were much higher upstream from the first midstream dam and came from one of the major tributaries. Arsenic was the only element found at higher concentrations downstream from the last midstream dam and was likely sourced from abandoned mines and/or agricultural activity. The pollution indexes indicated deposition of all metals, except Cr and Ni, may have been affected by anthropogenic activity. With respect to long-term accumulation of the metals, accumulation of Pb, Zn, and Cu by anthropogenic input largely increased, implying accumulation of these metals has continued due to anthropogenic activity since the estuary dam was constructed. Our results suggest that changes in river flow caused by the estuary dam and anthropogenic input from tributaries sources increased the accumulation of heavy metals (e.g., Pb, Zn, Cu, and As).

  2. Redox conditions and trace metal cycling in coastal sediments from the maritime Antarctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monien, Patrick; Lettmann, Karsten Alexander; Monien, Donata; Asendorf, Sanja; Wölfl, Anne-Cathrin; Lim, Chai Heng; Thal, Janis; Schnetger, Bernhard; Brumsack, Hans-Jürgen

    2014-09-01

    Redox-sensitive trace metals (Mn, Fe, U, Mo, Re), nutrients and terminal metabolic products (NO3-, NH4+, PO43-, total alkalinity) were investigated for the first time in pore waters of Antarctic coastal sediments. The results of this study reveal a high spatial variability in redox conditions in surface sediments from Potter Cove, King George Island, western Antarctic Peninsula. Particularly in the shallower areas of the bay the significant correlation between sulphate depletion and total alkalinity, the inorganic product of terminal metabolism, indicates sulphate reduction to be the major pathway of organic matter mineralisation. In contrast, dissimilatory metal oxide reduction seems to be prevailing in the newly ice-free areas and the deeper troughs, where concentrations of dissolved iron of up to 700 μM were found. We suggest a combination of several factors to be responsible for the domination of metal oxide reduction over sulphate reduction in these areas. These include the increased accumulation of fine-grained material with high amounts of reducible metal oxides, a reduced availability of metabolisable organic matter and an enhanced physical and biological disturbance by bottom water currents, ice scouring and burrowing organisms. Based on modelled iron fluxes we calculate the contribution of the Antarctic shelf to the pool of potentially bioavailable iron (Feb) to be 6.9 × 103 to 790 × 103 t yr-1. Consequently, these shelf sediments would provide an Feb flux of 0.35-39.5 mg m-2 yr-1 (median: 3.8 mg m-2 yr-1) to the Southern Ocean. This contribution is in the same order of magnitude as the flux provided by icebergs and significantly higher than the input by aeolian dust. For this reason suboxic shelf sediments form a key source of iron for the high nutrient-low chlorophyll (HNLC) areas of the Southern Ocean. This source may become even more important in the future due to rising temperatures at the WAP accompanied by enhanced glacier retreat and the

  3. Soil microbial communities as suitable bioindicators of trace metal pollution in agricultural volcanic soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parelho, Carolina; dos Santos Rodrigues, Armindo; do Carmo Barreto, Maria; Gonçalo Ferreira, Nuno; Garcia, Patrícia

    2015-04-01

    Summary: The biological, chemical and physical properties of soil confer unique characteristics that enhance or influence its overall biodiversity. The adaptive character of soil microbial communities (SMCs) to metal pollution allows discriminating soil health, since changes in microbial populations and activities may function as excellent indicators of soil pollutants. Volcanic soils are unique naturally fertile resources, extensively used for agricultural purposes and with particular physicochemical properties that may result in accumulation of toxic substances, such as trace metals (TM). In our previous works, we identified priority TM affecting agricultural Andosols under different agricultural land uses. Within this particular context, the objectives of this study were to (i) assess the effect of soil TM pollution in different agricultural systems (conventional, traditional and organic) on the following soil properties: microbial biomass carbon, basal soil respiration, metabolic quotient, enzymatic activities (β-glucosidase, acid phosphatase and dehydrogenase) and RNA to DNA ratio; and (ii) evaluate the impact of TM in the soil ecosystem using the integrated biomarker response (IBR) based on a set of biochemical responses of SMCs. This multi-biomarker approach will support the development of the "Trace Metal Footprint" for different agricultural land uses in volcanic soils. Methods: The study was conducted in S. Miguel Island (Azores, Portugal). Microbial biomass carbon was measured by chloroform-fumigation-incubation-assay (Vance et al., 1987). Basal respiration was determined by the Jenkinson & Powlson (1976) technique. Metabolic quotient was calculated as the ratio of basal respiration to microbial biomass C (Sparkling & West, 1988). The enzymatic activities of β-glucosidase and acid phosphatase were determined by the Dick et al. (1996) method and dehydrogenase activity by the Rossel et al. (1997) method. The RNA and DNA were co-extracted from the same

  4. Downwash of atmospherically deposited trace metals in peat and the influence of rainfall intensity: an experimental test.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Sophia V; Tolu, Julie; Bindler, Richard

    2015-02-15

    Accumulation records of pollutant metals in peat have been frequently used to reconstruct past atmospheric deposition rates. While there is good support for peat as a record of relative changes in metal deposition over time, questions remain whether peat archives represent a quantitative or a qualitative record. Several processes can potentially influence the quantitative record of which downwashing is particularly pertinent as it would have a direct influence on how and where atmospherically deposited metals are accumulated in peat. The aim of our study was two-fold: first, to compare and contrast the retention of dissolved Pb, Cu, Zn and Ni in peat cores; and second, to test the influence of different precipitation intensities on the potential downwashing of metals. We applied four 'rainfall' treatments to 13 peat cores over a 3-week period, including both daily (2 or 5.3 mm day(-1)) and event-based additions (37 mm day(-1), added over 1h or over a 10h rain event). Two main trends were apparent: 1) there was a difference in retention of the added dissolved metals in the surface layer (0-2 cm): 21-85% for Pb, 18-63% for Cu, 10-25% for Zn and 10-20% for Ni. 2) For all metals and both peat types (sphagnum lawn and fen), the addition treatments resulted in different downwashing depths, i.e., as the precipitation-addition increased so did the depth at which added metals could be detected. Although the largest fraction of Pb and Cu was retained in the surface layer and the remainder effectively immobilized in the upper peat (≤ 10 cm), there was a smearing effect on the overall retention, where precipitation intensity exerts an influence on the vertical distribution of added trace metals. These results indicate that the relative position of a deposition signal in peat records would be preserved, but it would be quantitatively attenuated.

  5. Interaction of metals during their uptake and accumulation in rabbit renal cortical slices.

    PubMed Central

    Keith, R L; McGuinness, S J; Gandolfi, A J; Lowe, T P; Chen, Q; Fernando, Q

    1995-01-01

    The uptake and accumulation of metals occurs in the kidney, which is a key site for interaction between metal nephrotoxicants. The uptake/accumulation and interaction of CdCl2, HgCl2, K2Cr2O7, and NaAsO2 was examined in precision-cut rabbit renal cortical slices. Slices were incubated with 10(-6) to 10(-3) M of a single metal toxicant or combinations of metal toxicants for 12 hr in DME-F12 media. Slices were blotted and sandwiched between two mylar films stretched across XRF sample cups. Quantitation of the metal in the slices was performed by proton-induced X-ray emission analysis (PIXE). The uptake of the metals was rapid, often reaching a maximum between 3 to 6 hr; the accumulation of Hg was highest, followed in order by Cd, Cr, and As. When two metals were present together, substantial alterations were observed in the uptake of the metals in the slices. HgCl2 hindered the uptake of K2Cr2O7, NaAsO2, CdCl2 (in this order), whereas these metals facilitated the uptake of HgCl2. However, a decreased uptake of both metals was often noted after exposure to other combinations of metals. PIXE analysis of metal content in slices is attractive since all elements (atomic number > 20) can be determined simultaneously. This information will be particularly useful in studying potential toxic interactions. PMID:7621806

  6. Linking trace metals and agricultural land use in volcanic soils--a multivariate approach.

    PubMed

    Parelho, C; Rodrigues, A S; Cruz, J V; Garcia, P

    2014-10-15

    The concern about the environmental impacts caused by agriculture intensification is growing as large amounts of nutrients and contaminants are introduced into soil ecosystems. Volcanic soils are unique naturally fertile resources extensively used for agricultural purposes, with particular physical and chemical properties that may result in possible accumulation of toxic substances, such as metals. Within this particular geological context, the present study aims to evaluate the impact of different agricultural systems (conventional, traditional and organic) in trace metal (TM) soil pollution and define the tracers for each one. Physicochemical properties and TM contents in agricultural topsoils were determined. Enrichment Factors (EF) were calculated to distinguish geogenic and anthropogenic contribution to TM contents in agricultural soils. An ensemble of multivariate statistical analyses (PCA and FDA) was performed to reduce the multidimensional space of variables and samples, thus defining a set of TM as tracers of distinct agricultural farming systems. Results show that agricultural soils have low organic matter content (<5%) compared to reference soil (>30%); in addition, electric conductivity in conventional farming soils is higher (262.3 ± 162.6 μS cm(-1)) while pH is lower (5.8 ± 0.3). Regarding metal inputs, V, Ba and Hg soil contents are mainly of geogenic origin, while Li, P, K, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Mo, Cd and Pb result primarily from anthropogenic inputs. Li revealed to be a tracer of agricultural pollution in conventional farming soils, whereas V allowed the discrimination of traditional farming soils. This study points to agriculture as a diffuse source of anthropogenic TM soil pollution and is the first step to identify priority chemicals affecting agricultural Andosols.

  7. Chemcatcher and DGT passive sampling devices for regulatory monitoring of trace metals in surface water.

    PubMed

    Allan, Ian J; Knutsson, Jesper; Guigues, Nathalie; Mills, Graham A; Fouillac, Anne-Marie; Greenwood, Richard

    2008-07-01

    This work aimed to evaluate whether the performance of passive sampling devices in measuring time-weighted average (TWA) concentrations supports their application in regulatory monitoring of trace metals in surface waters, such as for the European Union's Water Framework Directive (WFD). The ability of the Chemcatcher and the diffusive gradient in thin film (DGT) device sampler to provide comparable TWA concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn was tested through consecutive and overlapping deployments (7-28 days) in the River Meuse (The Netherlands). In order to evaluate the consistency of these TWA labile metal concentrations, these were assessed against total and filtered concentrations measured at relatively high frequencies by two teams using standard monitoring procedures, and metal species predicted by equilibrium speciation modeling using Visual MINTEQ. For Cd and Zn, the concentrations obtained with filtered water samples and the passive sampling devices were generally similar. The samplers consistently underestimated filtered concentrations of Cu and Ni, in agreement with their respective predicted speciation. For Pb, a small labile fraction was mainly responsible for low sampler accumulation and hence high measurement uncertainty. While only the high frequency of spot sampling procedures enabled the observation of higher Cd concentrations during the first 14 days, consecutive DGT deployments were able to detect it and provide a reasonable estimate of ambient concentrations. The range of concentrations measured by spot and passive sampling, for exposures up to 28 days, demonstrated that both modes of monitoring were equally reliable. Passive sampling provides information that cannot be obtained by a realistic spot sampling frequency and this may impact on the ability to detect trends and assess monitoring data against environmental quality standards when concentrations fluctuate.

  8. Trace metals adhered to urban sediments. Results from fieldwork in Poços de Caldas, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isidoro, Jorge; Silveira, Alexandre; Júnior, José; Poleto, Cristiano; de Lima, João; Gonçalves, Flávio; Alvarenga, Lívia

    2016-04-01

    The urbanization process has consequences such as the introduction of new sources of pollution and changes in the natural environment, like increase of impervious areas that accumulate pollutants between rainfall events. The pollution caused by the washing of accumulated sediment on the gutters, ultimately carried to water bodies through the stormwater drainage system, stands out in this process. This study aimed to quantify and characterize the sediments accumulated in the gutters of roads in an urban area of Poços de Caldas (MG), Brazil. Fieldwork took place during the period of 21.05.2013 to 27.08.2013. Main goal was to investigate the process of accumulation of dry sediments on impervious surfaces and find how this process relates with the urban occupation. More specific goals were to quantify the average mass and characterize the granulometric distribution of accumulated sediments, and identify the occurrence of trace metals Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd, Cu and Pb in the fraction of sediments with diameter smaller or equal to 63μm. The samples were weighed to find the aggregate mass and then sieved through meshes of 63μm, 125μm, 250μm, 600μm, 1180μm, and 2000μm for the granulometric analysis. Samples of the sediment fraction smaller than 63μm of diameter were subjected to analysis by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) for the identification of trace metals. We found that the aggregate mass of accumulated sediments varies in time and space and is particularly influenced by the land use of the sampling areas. Areas under construction produced more sediments than built areas or areas without construction. This study may serve as an input for creating diffuse pollution control and mitigation strategies towards the reduction of accumulated pollutants in the urban environment of Poços de Caldas. Pb and Zn shown the highest concentrations. The heavy metal concentration decreases after wet

  9. Heavy Metal and Trace Metal Analysis in Soil by Sequential Extraction: A Review of Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Amanda Jo; Weindorf, David C.

    2010-01-01

    Quantification of heavy and trace metal contamination in soil can be arduous, requiring the use of lengthy and intricate extraction procedures which may or may not give reliable results. Of the many procedures in publication, some are designed to operate within specific parameters while others are designed for more broad application. Most procedures have been modified since their inception which creates ambiguity as to which procedure is most acceptable in a given situation. For this study, the Tessier, Community Bureau of Reference (BCR), Short, Galán, and Geological Society of Canada (GCS) procedures were examined to clarify benefits and limitations of each. Modifications of the Tessier, BCR, and GCS procedures were also examined. The efficacy of these procedures is addressed by looking at the soils used in each procedure, the limitations, applications, and future of sequential extraction. PMID:20414344

  10. Accumulation of heavy metals in four grasses grown on lead and zinc mine tailings.

    PubMed

    Shu, Wen-Sheng; Zhao, Yun-Lin; Yang, Bing; Xia, Han-Ping; Lan, Chong-Yu

    2004-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to compare the growth and metal accumulation of Vetiveria zizanioides, Paspalum notatum, Cynodon dactylon and Imperata cylindraca var. major on the tailings, amended with 10 cm domestic refuse + complex NPK fertilizer(Treatment A), 10 cm domestic refuse(Treatment B) and complex NPK fertilizer (Treatment C) respectively, and without any amendment used as control (Treatment D). The results indicated that V. zizanioides was a typical heavy metal excluder, because the concentrations in shoots of the plants were the lowest among the four plants tested. The most of metal accumulated in V. zizanioides distributed in its root, and transportation of metal in this plant from root to shoot was restricted. Therefore, V. zizanioides was more suitable for phytostabilization of toxic mined lands than P. notatum and C. dactylon, which accumulated a relatively high level of metals in their shoots and roots. It was also found that I. cylindraca var. major accumulated lower amounts of Pb, Zn and Cu than C. dactylon and P. notatum, and could also be considered for phytostalilisaton of tailings. Although the metal(Pb, Zn and Cu) concentrations in shoots and roots of V. zizanioides were the lowest, the total amounts of heavy metals accumulated in shoots of V. zizanioides were the highest among the four tested plants due to the highest dry weight yield of it. The results indicated that V. zizanioides was the best choice among the four species used for phytoremediation (for both phytostabilization and phytoextraction) of metal contaminated soils.

  11. Accumulation of trace elements, pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls in sediments and the clam Corbicula manilensis of the Apalachicola River, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elder, J.F.; Mattraw, H.C.

    1984-01-01

    A survey of trace element and synthetic organic compound concentrations in botton materials was conducted on the Apalachichola River in northwest Florida in 1979-80 as part of the Apalachicola River Quality Assessment. Substances analyzed included trace elements (predominantly heavy metals), organochlorine insecticides, organophosphorus insecticides, chlorinated phenoxy-acid herbicides, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Three kinds of materials were surveyed: fine-grained sediments, whole-body tissue of the Asiatic clam Corbicula manilensis, and bottom-load organic detritus. No hazardous levels of any of the substances were found. Concentrations in the fine-grained sediments and clams were generally at least ten times lower than maximum limits considered safe for biota of aquatic systems. A comparison of trace-substance data from the Apalachicola River with data from Lake Seminole (upstream) and Apalachicola Bay (downstream) showed lower concentrations in riverine clams. Sediment concentrations in all parts of the system were comparable. Most trace substances in the Apalachicola River enter the river from the upstream part of the basin (the Chattahoochee and Flint Rivers in Georgia and Alabama) and from nonpoint sources throughout the basin. There are no major point discharges along the Apalachicola. Trend analysis was limited by the scope of the study, but did not reveal any spatial or temporal trends in concentrations of any of the substances analyzed. Concentrations of organic compounds and most metals in Corbicula manilensis did not correlate with those in sediments.

  12. Modelling of trace metal uptake by roots taking into account complexation by exogenous organic ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jean-Marc, Custos; Christian, Moyne; Sterckeman, Thibault

    2010-05-01

    The context of this study is phytoextraction of soil trace metals such as Cd, Pb or Zn. Trace metal transfer from soil to plant depends on physical and chemical processes such as minerals alteration, transport, adsorption/desorption, reactions in solution and biological processes including the action of plant roots and of associated micro-flora. Complexation of metal ions by organic ligands is considered to play a role on the availability of trace metals for roots in particular in the event that synthetic ligands (EDTA, NTA, etc.) are added to the soil to increase the solubility of the contaminants. As this role is not clearly understood, we wanted to simulate it in order to quantify the effect of organic ligands on root uptake of trace metals and produce a tool which could help in optimizing the conditions of phytoextraction.We studied the effect of an aminocarboxilate ligand on the absorption of the metal ion by roots, both in hydroponic solution and in soil solution, for which we had to formalize the buffer power for the metal. We assumed that the hydrated metal ion is the only form which can be absorbed by the plants. Transport and reaction processes were modelled for a system made up of the metal M, a ligand L and the metal complex ML. The Tinker-Nye-Barber model was adapted to describe the transport of solutes M, L and ML in the soil and absorption of M by the roots. This allowed to represent the interactions between transport, chelating reactions, absorption of the solutes at the root surface, root growth with time, in order to simulate metal uptake by a whole root system.Several assumptions were tested such as i) absorption of the metal by an infinite sink and according to a Michaelis-Menten kinetics, solutes transport by diffusion with and without ii) mass flow and iii) soil buffer power for the ligand L. In hydroponic solution (without soil buffer power), ligands decreased the trace metal flux towards roots, as they reduced the concentration of hydrated

  13. Distribution and behavior of trace metals in the sediment and porewater of a tropical coastal wetland.

    PubMed

    Man, Kwok-Wai; Zheng, Jinshu; Leung, Amy P K; Lam, Paul K S; Lam, Michael Hon-Wah; Yen, Yu-Fong

    2004-07-05

    Vertical profiles (0-30 cm below surface) of four trace metals-Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn)-in the sediment and sediment porewater of an ecologically important intertidal mudflat in the Mai Po and Inner Deep Bay Ramsar Site were thoroughly studied over a period of 10 months (from March 1999 to January 2000). Two surveys, one in summer and another in winter, involving a total of eight sampling stations were conducted to study the seasonal variation of the remobilization characteristics of these trace metals in the mudflat sediment. The range of depth averaged concentration of these trace metals in the mudflat sediment was: 0.3-0.8 microg/g (Cd); 9.8-91.0 microg/g (Cr); 7.3-69.1 microg/g (Pb); and 39.5-192.0 microg/g (Zn), while that in the sediment porewater was: 0.3-121.1 microg/l (Cd); 3.0-2704.1 microg/l (Cr); 2.6-105.6 microg/l (Pb); and 32.6-4238.3 microg/l (Zn). In general, levels of dissolved trace metals in the sediment porewater were much higher in the summer than in the winter while their concentrations in the sediment were more or less the same throughout the year. Enrichment of Cd, Pb and Zn in the sediment porewater of the upper oxic layer and that of Cr in the oxic-sub-oxic boundary was generally observed. Regions in the vicinity of the Mai Po mangroves and the river mouths of Shenzhen River and Shan Pui River were found to be hotspots of trace metal pollution. Benthic diffusive fluxes of trace metals from the mudflat sediment were also estimated. Of the four trace metals, cadmium showed the greatest tendency toward remobilization from the sediment phase to the more bio-available porewater phase.

  14. Vegetation and Cold Trapping Modulating Elevation-dependent Distribution of Trace Metals in Soils of a High Mountain in Eastern Tibetan Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Bing, Haijian; Wu, Yanhong; Zhou, Jun; Li, Rui; Luo, Ji; Yu, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Trace metals adsorbed onto fine particles can be transported long distances and ultimately deposited in Polar Regions via the cold condensation effect. This study indicated the possible sources of silver (Ag), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), antimony (Sb) and zinc (Zn) in soils on the eastern slope of Mt. Gongga, eastern Tibetan Plateau, and deciphered the effects of vegetation and mountain cold condensation on their distributions with elevation. The metal concentrations in the soils were comparable to other mountains worldwide except the remarkably high concentrations of Cd. Trace metals with high enrichment in the soils were influenced from anthropogenic contributions. Spatially, the concentrations of Cu and Zn in the surface horizons decreased from 2000 to 3700 m a.s.l., and then increased with elevation, whereas other metals were notably enriched in the mid-elevation area (approximately 3000 m a.s.l.). After normalization for soil organic carbon, high concentrations of Cd, Pb, Sb and Zn were observed above the timberline. Our results indicated the importance of vegetation in trace metal accumulation in an alpine ecosystem and highlighted the mountain cold trapping effect on trace metal deposition sourced from long-range atmospheric transport. PMID:27052807

  15. Risk assessment of dissolved trace metals in drinking water of Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Karim, Zahida

    2011-06-01

    Health risk caused by the exposure to trace metals in water through different exposure pathways was investigated. Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry was used for the determination of trace metals (nickel, copper, chromium, lead, cobalt, manganese and iron) in drinking water samples. The concentration of metals was compared with the world health organization (WHO) drinking water quality guideline values. Risk of metals on human health was evaluated using Hazard Quotient (HQ). Hazard quotients of all metals through oral ingestion and dermal absorption are found in the range of 1.11 × 10⁻² to 1.35 × 10⁻¹ and 8.52 × 10⁻⁵ to 9.75 × 10⁻², respectively. The results of the present study reflect the unlikely potential for adverse health effects to the inhabitants of Karachi due to the oral ingestion and dermal absorption of water containing these metals.

  16. Metal accumulation capacity of five species of Sphagnum moss

    SciTech Connect

    Aulio, K.

    1985-10-01

    The present paper describes the first experimental evidence of the species-specific differences in the cation accumulation properties in Sphagnum mosses. Manganese was chosen for the object of the experiments because this element appears to show the greatest variability under natural conditions.

  17. Remediation studies of trace metals in natural and treated water using surface modified biopolymer nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musyoka, Stephen Makali; Ngila, Jane Catherine; Mamba, Bhekie B.

    In this study, remediation results of trace metals in natural water and treated water using three functionalized nanofiber mats of cellulose and chitosan are reported. The nanofiber materials, packed in mini-columns, were employed for the remediation of five toxic trace metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Cr and Ni) from natural water samples. Trace metals in real water samples were undetectable as the concentrations were lower than the instrument’s detection limits of 0.27 × 10-3 (Cd) and 4.2 × 10-2 (Pb) μg mL-1, respectively. However, after percolation through the functionalised biosorbents in cartridges, detectability of the metal ions was enhanced. The starting volume of the natural water sample was 100 mL, which was passed through a column containing the nanofibers sorbent and the retained metals eluted with 5 mL of 2.0 M nitric acid. The eluate was analyzed for metals concentrations. An enrichment factor of 20 for the metals was realized as a result of the pre-concentration procedure applied to handle the determination of the metals at trace levels. The order of remediation of the studied metals using the nanofibers was as follows: chitosan/PAM-g-furan-2,5-dione < cellulose-g-furan-2,5-dione < cellulose-g-oxolane-2,5-dione. The modified biopolymer nanofibers were able to adsorb trace metals from the river water and treated water, thereby confirming their capability of water purification. These materials are proposed as useful tools and innovative approach for improving the quality of drinking for those consumers in small scale households.

  18. Research to determine the accumulation of organic constituents and heavy metals from petroleum-impacted sediments by marine detritivores of the Alaskan Outer Continental Shelf. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.W.; Roesijadi, G.; Augenfeld, J.M.; Riley, R.G.; Credilius, E.A.

    1980-04-01

    The major objective of this research program was to investigate the fate of petroleum hydrocarbons in the water column and intertidal zone and their bioavailability to, and effects on, the biota. The work has advanced the level of knowledge by demonstrating that exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons in sediments can result in accumulation and retention of heavier polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, but does not enhance uptake of trace metals.

  19. Toxic metal accumulation, responses to exposure and mechanisms of tolerance in plants.

    PubMed

    Clemens, S

    2006-11-01

    Over the past 200 years emissions of toxic heavy metals have risen tremendously and significantly exceed those from natural sources for practically all metals. Uptake and accumulation by crop plants represents the main entry pathway for potentially health-threatening toxic metals into human and animal food. Of major concern are the metalloids arsenic (As) and selenium (Se), and the metals cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb). This review discusses the molecular mechanisms of toxic metal accumulation in plants and algae, the responses to metal exposure, as well as our understanding of metal tolerance and its evolution. The main emphasis will be on cadmium, which is by far the most widely studied of the non-essential toxic metals/metalloids. Entry via Zn2+, Fe2+, and Ca2+ transporters is the molecular basis of Cd2+ uptake into plant cells. Much less is known about the partitioning of non-essential metals and about the genes underlying the enormous diversity among plants with respect to Cd accumulation in different tissues. Numerous studies have described symptoms and responses of plants upon toxic metal exposure. Mysterious are primary targets of toxicity, the degree of specificity of responses, the sensing and the signaling events that lead to transcriptional activation. All plants apparently possess a basal tolerance of toxic non-essential metals. For Cd and As, this is largely dependent on the phytochelatin pathway. Not understood is the molecular biology of Cd hypertolerance in certain plant species such as the metallophytes Arabidopsis halleri or Thlaspi caerulescens.

  20. Species-specific heavy metal accumulation patterns of earthworms on a floodplain in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kamitani, Takafumi; Kaneko, Nobuhiro

    2007-01-01

    We identified all earthworm species found on a floodplain contaminated by heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb) from an old mine in central Japan and compared their abundance, biomass, and heavy metal concentrations in tissue. There were six species belonging to three families: Megascolecidae, Moniligastridae, and Lumbricidae. Earthworm community structure seemed to be influenced mostly by soil properties, especially pH and clay fraction. Despite the same endogeic characteristics, species-specific patterns of heavy metal accumulation were observed: species in Megascolecidae and Lumbricidae had relatively lower concentrations compared to those in Moniligastridae. Within Moniligastridae, Drawida sp. accumulated Cu and Pb markedly higher than Drawida japonica. Based on heavy metal concentrations in extracts of CaCl(2) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, the aging caused remarkably low concentrations in pore water, indicating low availability by dermal uptake. Therefore the different patterns of heavy metal accumulation among species would partly result from species-specific gut process.

  1. Trace Metals Monitoring In Water: Ability of Dgt Measurements For The Estimation of Bioavailability.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbin, R.; Bakkaus, E.; Tusseau-Vuillemin, M.-H.

    The European Water Framework Directive point out the need for characterisation and monitoring of river waters in order to review the impact of human activity. Concern- ing trace metals pollution, it is now well established that the analysis of total con- centrations does not provide a good estimation of aquatic ecosystems exposure. Trace metals bioavailability depends on their speciation, i.e. their distribution among differ- ent forms (oxidation state, complexation with various ligands). Among these species, only the reactive species on cells surface are regarded as bioavailable (hydrated metal- lic ions and kinetically labile metal complexes). In this context, trace metals bioavail- ability was theorised by the formulation of the SFree Ion Activity ModelT and the & cedil;SBiotic Ligand ModelT. However, analytical methods used for the estimation of the & cedil; labile fraction of trace metals generally require a delicate calibration and are not eas- ily usable for field studies. Recently, a new technique for the measurement of effective hazardous metal concentrations was developed: Diffusion Gradients in Thin Films (Davison and Zhang, 1994). It allows to avoid some of the difficulties related to the traditional techniques, especially for in situ studies and monitoring: several in situ studies with this technique gave encouraging results. But prior to propose this ap- proach for a large use in trace metals monitoring in rivers, we still have to validate the technique by laboratory studies, by model simulations and an enlarge experience in field studies. The aim our work was to compare the experimental measurement by the DGT method with the measurement of biological effects by bioassays (acute toxicity) and the evaluation of free ion by chemical modelling (MINEQL+). Bioavailability of trace metals (Cu, Cd) in water was studied in the presence of characterised ligands (inorganic ligands, citrate, EDTA, standard humic substances). The results obtained should allow to

  2. Fundamental Studies of Underpotential Metal Deposition and Trace Analysis Using Solid Electrodes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    7AD-At30 099 FUNDAMENTAL STUDIES OF UNDERPOTENTIAL METAL DEPOSITION 1 BUFFALO DEPT OF CHEMISTRY S BRUCKENSTEIN 1982 UNCLASSIFIED AFOSR-TR-83-0557...T’S CAT A--CG t,-V5EP A . ITE(ad utilS TYPE OF REPCRT 0 0 .’EOEt’ Fundamental Studies of Underpotential Metal Final Deposition and Trace411111110...siectrocatalyls (by underpotential metal deposition ). A second objective was to develop new approaches to studying electrcxhemical reactions at solid

  3. Environmental relevance of laboratory-derived kinetic models to predict trace metal bioaccumulation in gammarids: Field experimentation at a large spatial scale (France).

    PubMed

    Urien, N; Lebrun, J D; Fechner, L C; Uher, E; François, A; Quéau, H; Coquery, M; Chaumot, A; Geffard, O

    2016-05-15

    Kinetic models have become established tools for describing trace metal bioaccumulation in aquatic organisms and offer a promising approach for linking water contamination to trace metal bioaccumulation in biota. Nevertheless, models are based on laboratory-derived kinetic parameters, and the question of their relevance to predict trace metal bioaccumulation in the field is poorly addressed. In the present study, we propose to assess the capacity of kinetic models to predict trace metal bioaccumulation in gammarids in the field at a wide spatial scale. The field validation consisted of measuring dissolved Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb concentrations in the water column at 141 sites in France, running the models with laboratory-derived kinetic parameters, and comparing model predictions and measurements of trace metal concentrations in gammarids caged for 7 days to the same sites. We observed that gammarids poorly accumulated Cu showing the limited relevance of that species to monitor Cu contamination. Therefore, Cu was not considered for model predictions. In contrast, gammarids significantly accumulated Pb, Cd, and Ni over a wide range of exposure concentrations. These results highlight the relevance of using gammarids for active biomonitoring to detect spatial trends of bioavailable Pb, Cd, and Ni contamination in freshwaters. The best agreements between model predictions and field measurements were observed for Cd with 71% of good estimations (i.e. field measurements were predicted within a factor of two), which highlighted the potential for kinetic models to link Cd contamination to bioaccumulation in the field. The poorest agreements were observed for Ni and Pb (39% and 48% of good estimations, respectively). However, models developed for Ni, Pb, and to a lesser extent for Cd, globally underestimated bioaccumulation in caged gammarids. These results showed that the link between trace metal concentration in water and in biota remains complex, and underlined the limits of

  4. Grain size effect on trace metals distribution in sediments from two coastal areas of Chile

    SciTech Connect

    I. De Gregori, H.; H. Pinochet, C.; M. Arancibia, J.; A. Vidal, B.

    1996-07-01

    Marine environment contamination by trace metals has received increased global attention during recent years. Presently it is widely recognized that marine ecosystem can become contaminated by trace metals from numerous and diverse sources. However, anthropogenic activities, such as mining and industrial processing of ores and metals, still remain the principal cause of the increased amount of heavy metals which have been dumped into oceans. After entering the aquatic environment trace metals are distributed among water, biotic and sediment compartments, this latter serving as a final sink for metal pollutants. The magnitude of this scavenging action of sediments depends on the physical, chemical and biological properties of the sediments. Concentrations of trace metals in sediments are usually of a greater magnitude order than concentrations in water. Sediments were considered as an important indicator for environmental pollution, they act as permanent or temporary traps for material spread into the environment. The purpose of this study was to determine the grain size effect on the copper, cadmium and zinc levels distribution in surface marine sediments along the Chilean Coast. 18 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  5. Mechanisms of enhanced mobilisation of trace metals by anionic surfactants in soil.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Soriano, Maria del Carmen; Degryse, Fien; Smolders, Erik

    2011-03-01

    Long-term applications of small concentrations of surfactants in soil via wastewater irrigation or pesticide application may enhance trace metal solubility. Mechanisms by which anionic surfactants (Aerosol 22, SDS and Biopower) affect trace metal solubility were assessed using batch, incubation and column experiments. In batch experiments on seven soils, the concentrations of Cu, Cd, Ni and Zn in the dissolved fraction of soils increased up to 100-fold at the high application rates, but increased less than 1.5-fold below the critical micelle concentration. Dissolved metal concentrations were less than 20% affected by surfactants in long-term incubations (70 days) up to the largest dose of 200 mg C kg(-1) soil. Leaching soil columns with A22 (100-1000 mg C L(-1)) under unsaturated conditions increased trace metal concentrations in the leachates 2-4 fold over the control. Correlation analysis and speciation modelling showed that the increased solubility of metals upon surfactant application was more related to the solubilisation of soil organic matter from soil than to complexation of the metals with the surfactant. Organic matter from soil was solubilised in response to a decrease of solution Ca(2+) as a result of Ca-surfactant precipitation. At environmentally relevant concentrations, surfactant application is unlikely to have a significant effect on trace metal mobility.

  6. Target organs of the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum for studying metal accumulation and biomarkers in pollution monitoring: laboratory and in-situ transplantation experiments.

    PubMed

    Won, Eun-Ji; Kim, Kyung-Tae; Choi, Jin-Young; Kim, Eun-Soo; Ra, Kongtae

    2016-08-01

    To characterize the target organs of the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum for use in environmental study, the accumulation of trace metals and three biomarkers was measured in different organs. Exposure with Cu and Pb carried out under laboratory conditions revealed a linear uptake of metals throughout the experimental period in each tissue. In particular, significant increase was observed in gills and mantle. The increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species showed the great potential of gills as a target tissue for both Cu and Pb exposure. The highest activity of glutathione S-transferase and their relative increase in activity were also observed in gills. Metallothionein-like protein levels, however, increased greatly in the digestive gland and mantle during Cu and Pb exposure, respectively, although all tissues, except the foot, showed significant changes after 24 h of metal exposure. In the field study, the highest concentration of metals was recorded in the gills and mantle, accounting for over 50 % of the total accumulated metal in all sites. Additionally, Cu and Pb increased significantly in these two organs, respectively. However, the order of accumulation rate in laboratory exposure was not concomitant with those of the lab-based study, suggesting that different routes of metal uptake and exposure duration induce distinct partitioning of metals and regulating system in R. philippinarum. These series of exposure studies demonstrated that gills, mantle, and digestive gland in R. philippinarum are potential target tissues in environmental monitoring study using metal concentrations and biomarkers.

  7. Uncoupling of reactive oxygen species accumulation and defence signalling in the metal hyperaccumulator plant Noccaea caerulescens.

    PubMed

    Fones, Helen N; Eyles, Chris J; Bennett, Mark H; Smith, J Andrew C; Preston, Gail M

    2013-09-01

    The metal hyperaccumulator plant Noccaea caerulescens is protected from disease by the accumulation of high concentrations of metals in its aerial tissues, which are toxic to many pathogens. As these metals can lead to the production of damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS), metal hyperaccumulator plants have developed highly effective ROS tolerance mechanisms, which might quench ROS-based signals. We therefore investigated whether metal accumulation alters defence signalling via ROS in this plant. We studied the effect of zinc (Zn) accumulation by N. caerulescens on pathogen-induced ROS production, salicylic acid accumulation and downstream defence responses, such as callose deposition and pathogenesis-related (PR) gene expression, to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola. The accumulation of Zn caused increased superoxide production in N. caerulescens, but inoculation with P. syringae did not elicit the defensive oxidative burst typical of most plants. Defences dependent on signalling through ROS (callose and PR gene expression) were also modified or absent in N. caerulescens, whereas salicylic acid production in response to infection was retained. These observations suggest that metal hyperaccumulation is incompatible with defence signalling through ROS and that, as metal hyperaccumulation became effective as a form of elemental defence, normal defence responses became progressively uncoupled from ROS signalling in N. caerulescens.

  8. Accumulation dynamics and acute toxicity of silver nanoparticles to Daphnia magna and Lumbriculus variegatus: implications for metal modeling approaches.

    PubMed

    Khan, Farhan R; Paul, Kai B; Dybowska, Agnieszka D; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Lead, Jamie R; Stone, Vicki; Fernandes, Teresa F

    2015-04-07

    Frameworks commonly used in trace metal ecotoxicology (e.g., biotic ligand model (BLM) and tissue residue approach (TRA)) are based on the established link between uptake, accumulation and toxicity, but similar relationships remain unverified for metal-containing nanoparticles (NPs). The present study aimed to (i) characterize the bioaccumulation dynamics of PVP-, PEG-, and citrate-AgNPs, in comparison to dissolved Ag, in Daphnia magna and Lumbriculus variegatus; and (ii) investigate whether parameters of bioavailability and accumulation predict acute toxicity. In both species, uptake rate constants for AgNPs were ∼ 2-10 times less than for dissolved Ag and showed significant rank order concordance with acute toxicity. Ag elimination by L. variegatus fitted a 1-compartment loss model, whereas elimination in D. magna was biphasic. The latter showed consistency with studies that reported daphnids ingesting NPs, whereas L. variegatus biodynamic parameters indicated that uptake and efflux were primarily determined by the bioavailability of dissolved Ag released by the AgNPs. Thus, principles of BLM and TRA frameworks are confounded by the feeding behavior of D. magna where the ingestion of AgNPs perturbs the relationship between tissue concentrations and acute toxicity, but such approaches are applicable when accumulation and acute toxicity are linked to dissolved concentrations. The uptake rate constant, as a parameter of bioavailability inclusive of all available pathways, could be a successful predictor of acute toxicity.

  9. Impact of long-term organic residue recycling in agriculture on soil solution composition and trace metal leaching in soils.

    PubMed

    Cambier, Philippe; Pot, Valérie; Mercier, Vincent; Michaud, Aurélia; Benoit, Pierre; Revallier, Agathe; Houot, Sabine

    2014-11-15

    Recycling composted organic residues in agriculture can reduce the need of mineral fertilizers and improve the physicochemical and biological properties of cultivated soils. However, some trace elements may accumulate in soils following repeated applications and impact other compartments of the agrosystems. This study aims at evaluating the long-term impact of such practices on the composition of soil leaching water, especially on trace metal concentrations. The field experiment QualiAgro started in 1998 on typical loess Luvisol of the Paris Basin, with a maize-wheat crop succession and five modalities: spreading of three different urban waste composts, farmyard manure (FYM), and no organic amendment (CTR). Inputs of trace metals have been close to regulatory limits, but supplies of organic matter and nitrogen overpassed common practices. Soil solutions were collected from wick lysimeters at 45 and 100 cm in one plot for each modality, during two drainage periods after the last spreading. Despite wide temporal variations, a significant effect of treatments on major solutes appears at 45 cm: DOC, Ca, K, Mg, Na, nitrate, sulphate and chloride concentrations were higher in most amended plots compared to CTR. Cu concentrations were also significantly higher in leachates of amended plots compared to CTR, whereas no clear effect emerged for Zn. The influence of amendments on solute concentrations appeared weaker at 1 m than at 45 cm, but still significant and positive for major anions and DOC. Average concentrations of Cu and Zn at 1m depth lied in the ranges [2.5; 3.8] and [2.5; 10.5 μg/L], respectively, with values slightly higher for plots amended with sewage sludge compost or FYM than for CTR. However, leaching of both metals was less than 1% of their respective inputs through organic amendments. For Cd, most values were <0.05 μg/L. So, metals added through spreading of compost or manure during 14 years may have increased metal concentrations in leachates of

  10. Bioaccumulation and depuration of some trace metals in the mussel, Perna viridis (Linnaeus)

    SciTech Connect

    Lakshmanan, P.T. ); Nambisan, P.N.K. )

    1989-07-01

    Bivalves are well known for their ability to concentrate heavy metals in their tissue from environmental water. Experimental studies on the accumulation of these pollutants by molluscs have been extensively conducted. The depuration of accumulated metals in a toxicant free medium has also been studied. Bivalve molluscs may form useful tools in monitoring heavy metal pollution. However, such studies are scant in tropical species. This paper reports the bioaccumulation and depuration of Hg, Cu, Zn and Pb by the mussel Perna viridis (Linnaeus) from seawater and explores its suitability as an indicator organism for metal pollution.

  11. Accumulation of trace elements and growth responses in Corbicula fluminea downstream of a coal-fired power plant.

    PubMed

    Peltier, Gretchen Loeffler; Wright, Meredith S; Hopkins, William A; Meyer, Judy L

    2009-07-01

    Lentic organisms exposed to coal-fired power plant (CFPP) discharges can have elevated trace element concentrations in their tissues, but this relationship and its potential consequences are unclear for lotic organisms. To explore these patterns in a lotic environment, we transplanted Corbicula fluminea from a reference stream to a stream receiving CFPP discharge. We assessed trace element accumulation and glutathione concentration in clam tissue, shell growth, and condition index at five sites along a contamination gradient. Clams at the most upstream and contaminated site had the highest growth rate, condition index, glutathione concentrations, and concentrations of arsenic (7.85+/-0.25 microg/g [dry mass]), selenium (17.75+/-0.80 microg/g), and cadmium (7.28+/-0.34 microg/g). Mercury concentrations declined from 4.33+/-0.83 to 0.81+/-0.11 microg/g [dry mass] in clams transplanted into the selenium-rich environment nearest the power plant, but this effect was not as evident at less impacted, downstream sites. Even though dilution of trace elements within modest distances from the power plant reduced bioaccumulation potential in clams, long-term loading of trace elements to downstream depositional regions (e.g., slow moving, silty areas) is likely significant.

  12. Accumulation of trace elements and growth responses in Corbicula fluminea downstream of a coal-fired power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Peltier, G.L.; Wright, M.S.; Hopkins, W.A.; Meyer, J.L.

    2009-07-15

    Lentic organisms exposed to coal-fired power plant (CFPP) discharges can have elevated trace element concentrations in their tissues, but this relationship and its potential consequences are unclear for lotic organisms. To explore these patterns in a lotic environment, we transplanted Corbicula fluminea from a reference stream to a stream receiving CFPP discharge. We assessed trace element accumulation and glutathione concentration in clam tissue, shell growth, and condition index at five sites along a contamination gradient. Clams at the most upstream and contaminated site had the highest growth rate, condition index, glutathione concentrations, and concentrations of arsenic (7.85 {+-} 0.25 {mu} g/g (dry mass)), selenium (17.75 {+-} 0.80 {mu} g/g), and cadmium (7.28 {+-} 0.34 {mu} g/g). Mercury concentrations declined from 4.33 {+-} 0.83 to 0.81 {+-} 0.11 {mu} g/g (dry mass) in clams transplanted into the selenium-rich environment nearest the power plant, but this effect was not as evident at less impacted, downstream sites. Even though dilution of trace elements within modest distances from the power plant reduced bioaccumulation potential in clams, long-term loading of trace elements to downstream depositional regions (e.g., slow moving, silty areas) is likely significant.

  13. Metal accumulation and metallothionein induction in the spotted dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula.

    PubMed

    De Boeck, G; Eyckmans, M; Lardon, I; Bobbaers, R; Sinha, A K; Blust, R

    2010-04-01

    Recent studies indicate that elasmobranch fish respond differently to metal exposure than marine teleosts. Accumulation rates can be high, which despite the fact that normal background levels for metals in the marine environment are low, is worrying due to the long life span and late fecundity of most shark. The goals of the present study were to examine differences in accumulation rates and toxicity of a range of metals at equimolar concentrations (10microM) in the Mediterranean or spotted dogfish, Scyliorhinus canicula. For this purpose, we exposed the dogfish to Ni (587microg/L), Cd (1124microg/L), Pb (2072microg/L), Cu (635microg/L), and Ag (1079microg/L and two additional exposures at 10microg/L and 1microg/L) for one week and measured total metal accumulation, metallothionein induction, and parameters related to osmoregulation. Our study confirms the high toxicity and accumulation rates of Ag for elasmobranch fish, even at levels 100 to 1000 times lower than exposure levels of other metals. Also Pb accumulated readily in all organs, but did not cause any osmoregulatory disturbance at the exposure levels used. Ni and Cd seem to accumulate primarily in the kidney while Cu mainly accumulated in liver. In contrast to Ni and Cd, the three other metals Ag, Cu and Pb accumulated in the rectal gland, an important organ for osmoregulation and possible target organ for metal toxicity. Only Cu succeeded in initiating a protective response by inducing MT synthesis in liver and gills.

  14. Trace metals supplementation in anaerobic membrane bioreactors treating highly saline phenolic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Muñoz Sierra, Julian David; Lafita, Carlos; Gabaldón, Carmen; Spanjers, Henri; van Lier, Jules B

    2017-06-01

    Biomass requires trace metals (TM) for maintaining its growth and activity. This study aimed to determine the effect of TM supplementation and partitioning on the specific methanogenic activity (SMA), with a focus on cobalt and tungsten, during the start-up of two lab-scale Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactors (AnMBRs) treating saline phenolic wastewater. The TM partitioning revealed a strong accumulation of sodium in the biomass matrix and a wash-out of the majority of TM in the reactors, which led to an SMA decrease and a low COD removal of about 30%. The SMA exhibits a maximum at about 6g Na(+) L(-1) and nearly complete inhibition at 34g Na(+) L(-1). The dose of 0.5mgL(-1) of tungsten increases the SMA by 17%, but no improvement was observed with the addition of cobalt. The results suggested that TM were not bioavailable at high salinity. Accordingly, an increased COD removal was achieved by doubling the supply of TM.

  15. Sorbent flotation in trace metal analysis: Preconcentration of uranium traces on hydrophobized hyphan-cellulose

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, T.; Galsan, V.; Toelgyessy, J.

    1994-01-01

    The use of flotation in analytical chemistry has established itself as a reliable technique for the separation and preconcentration of trace elements. In most of the applications in situ generated inorganic and organic precipitates were used as trace element gatherers and floated to the surface of large volumes of solution with the aid of a rising stream of gas bubbles and well selected collector surfactants. This procedure of {open_quotes}precipitate flotation{close_quotes} has been well studied and applied to many problems of preconcentration chemistry. As far as the present authors are aware of solid preformed sorbents have not yet been separated from large volumes of solution by flotation after batch type sorption of trace elements on them. That is why the authors considered it worthwhile to explore the analytical potentialities of the separation of commercial and non-commercial solid sorbents by flotation. The new procedure the authors like to call {open_quotes}sorbent flotation{close_quotes} refers to the separation of preformed solid sorbents from large volumes of solution and can be viewed as an extension to the already known flotation of in situ formed inorganic and organic precipitates.

  16. Interaction Between Trace Metals, Sodium and Sorbents in Combustion.

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, O.L.; Davis, S.

    1997-10-17

    The proposed research is directed at an understanding of how to exploit interactions between sodium, toxic metals and sorbents, in order to optimize sorbents injection procedures, which can be used to capture and transform these metals into environmentally benign forms. The research will use a 17kW downflow, laboratory combustor, to yield data that can be interpreted in terms of fundamental kinetic mechanisms. Metals to be considered are lead, cadmium, and arsenic. Sorbents will be kaolinite, bauxite, and limestone. The role of sulfur will also be determined.

  17. Effects of surrounding land use on metal accumulation in environments and submerged plants in subtropical ponds.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Bu, Hongmei; Liu, Guihua; Wang, Zhixiu; Liu, Wenzhi

    2015-12-01

    Ponds are widely used as stormwater treatment facilities to retain contaminants, including metals, and to improve water quality throughout the world. However, there is still a limited understanding of the effects of surrounding land use on metal accumulation in pond environments and organisms. To address this gap, we measured the concentrations of nine metals (i.e., Al, Ba, Ca, K, Li, Mg, Na, Se, and Sr) in water, sediments, and submerged plants collected from 37 ponds with different surrounding land uses in southwestern China and assessed the metal accumulation capacity of four dominant submerged plant species. Our results showed that Al, Ca, and K concentrations in the water were above drinking water standards. In the sediments, the average concentrations of Ca and Sr were higher than the corresponding soil background values. Ceratophyllum demersum L. could accumulate more K in aboveground biomass than Myriophyllum spicatum L. and Potamogeton maackianus A. Benn. The K concentration in submerged plants was positively influenced by the corresponding metal concentration in the water and negatively influenced by water temperature. Among the nine studied metals, only the water K concentration in ponds receiving agricultural runoff was significantly higher than that for ponds receiving urban and forested runoff. This result suggests that surrounding land use types have no significant effect on metal accumulation in sediments and submerged plants in the studied ponds. A large percentage of the metals in these ponds may be derived from natural sources such as the weathering of rocks.

  18. The distribution of the heavy metal accumulation rate in the biomass of three Daphnia species

    SciTech Connect

    Gajula, V.K.; Hovorka, J.; Stuchlik, E.

    1995-12-31

    The difference in the accumulation rate of a mixture of heavy metals in aquatic organisms is of considerable interest because of its importance in the prediction of the effect of pollutants in aquatic systems. In this study the authors are making an effort to evaluate the accumulation patterns of pollutants in aquatic organisms by establishing a relation between the level of an accumulated mixture of heavy metals (Cd, Zn, Pb, As, Hg) in individuals of Daphnia magna, Daphnia pulicaria and Daphnia galeata and its dry weight with respect to the form of heavy metals in the aquatic environment. One age group of Daphnia species (10 day old) were exposed to 5 ppb, 10 ppb and 20 ppb of the mixture of heavy metals for 24 hours in three different experiments. In the first experiment the mixture of heavy metals was present exclusively in labelled algae (Scendesmus actus), in the second in an aquatic medium with non labelled algae, and in the third experiment the mixture of heavy metals was dissolved in the aquatic medium only without the addition of algae. The concentration of the heavy metal mixture in individuals of D.magna; D.pulicaria and D.galeata was determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. Results were statistically evaluated and the rate of accumulation and influence of various heavy metals in the biomass of three Daphnia species is discussed.

  19. Remineralization of particulate authigenic trace metals in the middle Atlantic Bight: Implications for proxies of export production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, N.; Anderson, R. F.; Biscaye, P. E.

    1996-09-01

    Samples collected by time-series sediment traps deployed in the Middle Atlantic Bight were studied to better understand the formation, and preservation, of particulate authigenic forms of trace metals (Cu, Ni, Ba) That hold potential to serve as proxies in the sedimentary record of past changes in the flux of biogenic detritus sinking from the surface ocean into the deep sea (export production). Particulate biogenic and authigenic phases are extremely labile, as evidenced by the observation that as much as 70% of the particulate fluxes of organic carbon and of certain metals (Cu, Ni, and Mn), and up to 25% of the particulate fluxes of authigenic Ba and of opal collected by sediment traps are released rapidly into solution during the time period between particle collection and trap retrieval. Further remineralization on the seabed reduces concentrations of authigenic Cu and Ni in surface sediments below the limit of detection. Approximately 80% of authigenic Ba is remineralized during early diagenesis on the seabed, much more than is expected for conditions of high sediment mass accumulation rate that exist in the study area. Extensive remineralization during early diagenesis, combined with large corrections required to remove the aluminosilicate contribution to the concentrations of Cu, Ni, and Ba in sediments, preclude the successful use of down-core profiles of these trace metals to reconstruct past changes in export production of the Middle Atlantic Bight. Similar problems are likely to plague paleoproductivity reconstructions in other ocean-margin regions, or wherever high fluxes of aluminosilicate phases occur.

  20. Trace metals variability in sediments of the Adour estuary, southwestherm france.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bareille, G.; Point, D.; Amouroux, D.; Stoichev, T.; Donard, O.

    2003-04-01

    Once release into the environment, trace metals may interact with suspended matter, and subsequently be removed from the water column by deposition. Estuarine environments are important sink of fine-grained suspended sediments in relation to the complex chemical and physical processes associated with the mixing zone between fresh and salts waters. In such area, the removal of trace metals may be only temporary, however, as metals become subject to a variety of physical, chemical and biological processes following deposition and burial. The spatial and temporal distribution of trace metals Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni and Cd has been studied in sediments of the Adour estuary during two sampling periods, October 2000 and June 2001. This estuary is flowing into the Gulf of Biscay (Atlantic Ocean) with an average mean flow of 255 m^3 s-1. The Adour estuary has a catchment area of about 16.000 km^2 and is characterized by urban and industrial activities located both along its tributary Adour and Gaves and at its mouth. Trace metal data were obtained by complete sample digestion using a microwave digestion and were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (Perkin-Elmer/Sciex Elan 6000). In order to compare samples from different places and periods, sediment trace metal content were normalized according to grain size content. Higher metal loads were observed in sediments collected in October 2000 compared to June 2001, especially for Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb but not for Ni. The magnitude of the concentrations rise ranged from 80 % to 100 % for most of the metals and they were related to different river flow regimes. Long period (at least 3 months) of low river flow (less than 100 m^3 s-1) were prevailing before October sampling, although June sampling followed high river flow conditions (average 400 m^3 s-1 ranging from 200 to 800). This leads to the conclusion that probably both natural and man-induced inputs and process account for the observed rise in sediment trace metals

  1. Metal accumulation and metallothionein concentrations in tree swallow nestlings near acidified lakes

    SciTech Connect

    St. Louis, V.; Breebaart, L. . Dept. of Zoology); Barlow, J.C. . Dept. of Zoology Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Ontario . Dept. of Ornithology); Klaverkamp, J.F. . Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans)

    1993-07-01

    The authors studied metal accumulation in hepatic and renal tissues of tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) nestlings at acidified and nonacid reference lakes in northwestern Ontario. Hepatic concentrations of metallothionein (metal-binding proteins, MT) in tree swallow nestlings were negatively correlated with pH of the nest-site lake. Combined concentrations of Cu and Zn in the liver were correlated with liver MT concentrations, but Cd was not. Although no overt signs of metal toxicity were observed in nestlings near acid lakes, the results clearly provided evidence that metals are transferred from acid lakes to birds and that these metals are correlated with increases in hepatic MT production.

  2. A trace metal survey of non-occupationally exposed Gauteng residents.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kerry; Kielkowski, Danuta; Theodoru, Penny; Naik, Ina

    2011-10-01

    Specific reference values for background levels of body burden of trace metals are not available for South Africa. Currently, laboratories measuring trace metal levels in workers use internationaly established values for comparison. A preliminary cross-sectional survey of 107 non-occupationally exposed volunteers of both genders and all races provided blood and urine samples. The samples were collected with consideration for possible routes of contamination. Seven metals were measured in blood and ten in urine. Reference ranges for a Gauteng population were then calculated using the central 95% of data to provide lower and upper limits, which were then compared to international limits. The trace metal levels described had both lower and higher reference ranges in blood and urine compared to international studies. This reflects the differences in the environments. Statistically significant differences in metal levels were observed by gender. The differences in detected trace metal levels in our sample as compared to other published data demonstrate the need for the establishment of local reference values for laboratories. The establishment of local 95% reference ranges would also allow South Africa to determine its exposure levels compared to those internationally. This would assist with establishing pollution control priorities.

  3. Trace Metals Affect Early Maternal Transfer of Immune Components in the Feral Pigeon.

    PubMed

    Chatelain, M; Gasparini, J; Haussy, C; Frantz, A

    2016-01-01

    Maternal early transfers of immune components influence eggs' hatching probability and nestlings' survival. They depend on females' own immunity and, because they are costly, on their physiological state. Therefore, trace metals, whether toxic and immunosuppressive (e.g., lead, cadmium, etc.) or necessary and immunostimulant (e.g., zinc, copper, iron, etc.), are likely to affect the amount of immune components transferred into the eggs. It may also vary with plumage eumelanin level, which is known to be linked to immunity, to transfer of antibodies, and to metal detoxification. In feral pigeons (Columba livia) injected with an antigen and experimentally exposed to lead and/or zinc (two highly abundant trace metals in urban areas), we measured specific antibody transfer and concentrations of two antimicrobial proteins (lysozyme and ovotransferrin) in eggs. As expected, lead had negative effects on specific antibody transfer, while zinc positively affected lysozyme egg concentrations. Moreover, eggs from lead-exposed females exhibited higher ovotransferrin concentrations; because it binds metal ions, ovotransferrin may enable egg detoxification and embryo protection. Finally, eggs' lysozyme concentrations increased with plumage darkness of females not exposed to zinc, while the relation was opposite among zinc-exposed females, suggesting that benefits and costs of plumage melanism depend on trace metal environmental levels. Overall, our study underlines the potential ecotoxicological effects of trace metals on maternal transfers of immune components and the role of plumage melanism in modulating these effects.

  4. Using stable isotope systematics and trace metals to constrain the dispersion of fish farm pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torchinsky, A.; Shiel, A. E.; Price, M.; Weis, D. A.

    2010-12-01

    Fish farming is a growing industry of great economic importance to coastal communities. Unfortunately, open-net fish farming is associated with the release of organic and metal pollution, which has the potential to adversely affect the coastal marine environment. The dispersion of fish farm pollution and its environmental impact are not well understood/quantified. Pollutants released by fish farms include organic products such as uneaten feed pellets and fish feces, as well as chemicals and pharmaceuticals, all of which may enter marine ecosystems. In this study, we took advantage of bioaccumulation in passive suspension feeding Manila Clams collected at varying distances from an open-net salmon farm located in the Discovery Islands of British Columbia. Measurements of stable C and N isotopes, as well as trace metal concentrations, in the clams were used to investigate the spread of pollutants by detecting the presence of fish farm waste in the clams’ diet. Lead isotopic measurements were used to identify other significant anthropogenic pollution sources, which may impact the study area. Clams located within the areal extent of waste discharged by a fish farm are expected to exhibit anomalous light stable isotope ratios and metal concentrations, reflecting the presence of pollutants accumulated directly from seawater and from their diet. Clams were collected in the Discovery Islands from three sites in the Octopus Islands, located 850 m, 2100 m and 3000 m north of the Cyrus Rocks salmon farm (near Quadra Island) and from a reference site on Penn Island. Light stable isotope ratios (δN = ~10‰, with little variation between sites, and δC from -14.5 to -17.3‰) of the clams suggest that the most distal site (i.e., 3000 m away) is most impacted by organic fish farm waste (i.e., food pellets and feces) and that contributions of organic waste actually decrease closer to the farm. Not surprisingly, the smallest contribution of organic waste was detected in clams

  5. Accumulation of heavy metals in epidermal glands of the waterlily (Nymphaeaceae).

    PubMed

    Lavid, N; Barkay, Z; Tel-Or, E

    2001-02-01

    This study investigates the anatomical aspects of heavy-metal accumulation in the waterlily (Nymphaea 'Aurora', Nymphaeaceae). Epidermal glands were identified by light microscopy on the abaxial side of the leaf laminae and on the epidermis of the rhizome; glandular trichomes were observed in the petiole epidermis. Glands were not observed in the roots. Accumulation of heavy metals in these glands was monitored using a scanning electron microscope equipped for energy-dispersive spectroscopy. Further experiments showed maximal cadmium and calcium accumulation in the mature leaf lamina in daylight, and this accumulation was inhibited by the herbicide 3-(3',4'-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea. These results suggest that, in Nymphaea, heavy metals are accumulated primarily in association with glands found in plant organs that have direct contact with water or mud. Deposition and storage of heavy metals by these glands may represent a stage in the sequestration and detoxification of the metals. Our results raise the possibility of utilizing waterlilies for the removal of heavy metals from polluted environments.

  6. Growth and metal accumulation in vetiver and two Sesbania species on lead/zinc mine tailings.

    PubMed

    Yang, B; Shu, W S; Ye, Z H; Lan, C Y; Wong, M H

    2003-09-01

    The lead (Pb)/zinc (Zn) tailings contained high concentrations of heavy metals (total Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd concentrations 4164, 4377, 35 and 32 mg kg(-1), respectively), and low contents of major nutrient elements (N, P, and K) and organic matter. A field trial was conducted to compare growth performance, metal accumulation of Vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides) and two legume species (Sesbania rostrata and Sesbania sesban) grown on the tailings amended with domestic refuse and/or fertilizer. It was revealed that domestic refuse alone and the combination of domestic refuse and artificial fertilizer significantly improved the survival rates and growth of V. zizanioides and two Sesbania species, especially the combination. However, artificial fertilizer alone did not improve both the survival rate and growth performance of the plants grown on tailings. Roots of these species accumulated similar levels of heavy metals, but the shoots of two Sesbania species accumulated higher (3-4 folds) concentrations of Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd than shoots of V. zizanioides. Most of the heavy metals in V. zizanioides were accumulated in roots, and the translocation of metals from roots to shoots was restricted. Intercropping of V. zizanioides and S. rostrata did not show any beneficial effect on individual plant species, in terms of height, biomass, survival rate, and metal accumulation, possibly due to the rather short experimental period of 5 months.

  7. The Little Penguin (Eudyptula minor) as an indicator of coastal trace metal pollution.

    PubMed

    Finger, Annett; Lavers, Jennifer L; Dann, Peter; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Orbell, John D; Robertson, Bruce; Scarpaci, Carol

    2015-10-01

    Monitoring trace metal and metalloid concentrations in marine animals is important for their conservation and could also reliably reflect pollution levels in their marine ecosystems. Concentrations vary across tissue types, with implications for reliable monitoring. We sampled blood and moulted feathers of the Little Penguin (Eudyptula minor) from three distinct colonies, which are subject to varying levels of anthropogenic impact. Non-essential trace metal and metalloid concentrations in Little Penguins were clearly linked to the level of industrialisation adjacent to the respective foraging zones. This trend was more distinct in blood than in moulted feathers, although we found a clear correlation between blood and feathers for mercury, lead and iron. This study represents the first reported examination of trace metals and metalloids in the blood of any penguin species and demonstrates that this high trophic feeder is an effective bioindicator of coastal pollution.

  8. Heavy metal accumulation and source analysis in greenhouse soils of Wuwei District, Gansu Province, China.

    PubMed

    Bai, L Y; Zeng, X B; Su, S M; Duan, R; Wang, Y N; Gao, X

    2015-04-01

    Greenhouse soils and arable (wheat field) soil samples were collected to identify the effects of greenhouse cultivation on the accumulation of six heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, and Ni) and to evaluate the likely sources responsible for heavy metal accumulation in the irrigated desert soils of Wuwei District, China. The results indicated that the mean concentrations of Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, and Ni were 0.421, 33.85, 85.31, 20.76, 53.12, and 28.59 mg kg(-1), respectively. The concentrations of Cd, Cu, and Zn in greenhouse soils were 60, 23, and 14% higher than those in arable soils and 263, 40, and 25% higher than background concentrations of natural soils in the study area, respectively. These results indicated that Cd, Cu, and Zn accumulation occurred in the greenhouse soils, and Cd was the most problematically accumulated heavy metal, followed by Cu and Zn. There was a significant positive correlation between the concentrations of Cd, Cu, and Zn in greenhouse soils and the number of years under cultivation (P < 0.05). Greenhouse cultivation had little impact on the accumulation of Cr, Ni, or Pb. Correlation analysis and principal component analysis suggested that the accumulation of Cd, Cu, and Zn in greenhouse soils resulted mainly from fertilizer applications. Our results indicated that the excessive and long-term use of fertilizers and livestock manures with high heavy metal levels leads to the accumulation of heavy metals in soils. Therefore, rational fertilization programs and reductions in the concentrations of heavy metals in both fertilizers and manure must be recommended to maintain a safe concentration of heavy metals in greenhouse soils.

  9. Trends of labile trace metals in tropical urban water under highly contrasted weather conditions.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, J D; Le Coustumer, P; Denis, A; Abuyan, R; Huneau, F; Motelica-Heino, M; Peyraube, N; Celle-Jeanton, H; Perez, T R; Espaldon, M V O

    2015-09-01

    The spatio-temporal trend of trace metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in a tropical urban estuary under the influence of monsoon was determined using diffusive gradient in thin films (DGT) in situ samplers. Three different climatic periods were observed: period 1, dry with dredging activity; period 2, intermediate meaning from dry to wet event; and period 3, wet having continuous rainfall. Conforming to monsoon regimes, these periods correspond to the following: transition from winter to summer, winter, and summer monsoons, respectively. The distinction of each period is defined by their specific hydrological and physico-chemical conditions. Substantial concentrations of the trace metals were detected. The distribution and trend of the trace metals under the challenge of a tropical climate were able to follow using DGT as a sensitive in situ sampler. In order to identify the differences among periods, statistical analyses were performed. This allowed discriminating period 2 (oxic water) as significantly different compared to other periods. The spatio-temporal analysis was then applied in order to distinguish the trend of the trace metals. Results showed that the trend of trace metals can be described according to their response to (i) seasonal variations (Cd and Cr), (ii) spatio-temporal conditions (Co, Cu, Ni, and Pb), and (iii) neither (i) nor (ii) meaning exhibiting no response or having constant change (Zn). The correlation of the trace metals and the physico-chemical parameters reveals that Cd, Co, Cu, and Cr are proportional to the dissolved oxygen (DO), Cd and Ni are correlated pH, and Zn lightly influenced by salinity.

  10. Trace metals in mussels from mariculture zones, Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Chiu, S T; Lam, F S; Tze, W L; Chau, C W; Ye, D Y

    2000-07-01

    In 1997, concentrations of cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and nickel (Ni) were analysed in green-lipped mussels (Perna viridis) from three mariculture zones located in the north-east (Kat O), south (Lo Tik Wan) and to the west (Ma Wan) of Hong Kong. Spatial differences in the concentration of metals were found, chromium and copper were higher at Ma Wan and Lo Tik Wan compared to Kat O in the north-east. In contrast, the highest levels of lead (mean = 4.37 microg/g dry wt) were recorded at Kat O. There were no differences in the level of nickel between the study sites. A comparison of the metal concentrations in mussels with the results of a previous study seven years before, in 1990, showed a twofold increase in the mean levels of cadmium for all three sites. However, levels of the other metals in 1997 were lower by 12-32% for chromium, 32-39% for copper and 24-25% for nickel. The greatest reductions were recorded for lead: Kat O (39%), Ma Wan (51%) and Lo Tik Wan (75%). This may be related to the introduction of lead-free petrol in 1991. Despite the apparent reduction in some heavy metal bioaccumulation between 1990 and 1997, from a public health risk perspective, the data suggest a continued need for monitoring of heavy metals in mussels from mariculture zones.

  11. Flexible digestion strategies and trace metal assimilation in marine bivalves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Decho, Alan W.; Luoma, Samuel N.

    1996-01-01

    Pulse-chase experiments show that two marine bivalves take optimal advantage of different types of particulate food by varying food retention time in a flexible two-phase digestive system. For example, carbon is efficiently assimilated from bacteria by subjecting nearly all the ingested bacteria to prolonged digestion. Prolonging digestion also enhances assimilation of metals, many of which are toxic in minute quantities if they are biologically available. Detritus-feeding aquatic organisms have always lived in environments naturally rich in particle-reactive metals. We suggest that avoiding excess assimilation of metals could be a factor in the evolution of digestion strategies. We tested that suggestion by studying digestion of particles containing different Cr concentrations. We show that bivalves are capable of modifying the digestive processing of food to reduce exposure to high, biologically available, Cr concentrations. The evolution of a mechanism in some species to avoid high concentrations of metals in food could influence how effects of modern metal pollution are manifested in marine ecosystems.

  12. Seasonal trends in growth and biomass accumulation of selected nutrients and metals in six species of emergent aquatic macrophytes

    SciTech Connect

    Behrends, L.L.; Bailey, E.; Bulls, M.J.; Coonrod, H.S.; Sikora, F.J.

    1996-05-01

    Growth and biomass accumulation of selected nutrients and trace metals were monitored for six species of aquatic macrophytes during June, August and November, 1993. Plant species were cultivated in two polyculture treatments, each replicated three times. Polyculture I consisted of Scirpus acutus (hardstem bullrush), Phragmites communes (common reed), and Phalaris arundinacea (canary grass). Polyculture H consisted of Typha spp. (cattail), Scirpus atrovirens (green bullrush), and Scirpus cyperinus (wool grass). Each of the six cells (6 x 9 x 0.6 m), was operated as a gravel-substrate, subsurface-flow wetlands in a continuous recirculating mode. At six week intervals, macro, micro and trace elements were dissolved and added to the sump of the recirculating system. On each of three sampling dates, replicate shoot and root samples were collected, segregated by species and tissue type (roots, rhizomes, stems and leaves), and prepared for gravimetric biomass estimates and chemical analysis. Tissue specific concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu, were determined on each date for each species and tissue type. Results will be discussed with respect to species specific growth rates, biomass accumulation, and seasonal uptake and translocation of plant nutrients.

  13. Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Vegetable Species Planted in Contaminated Soils and the Health Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hang; Yang, Wen-Tao; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Li; Gu, Jiao-Feng; Wang, Wen-Lei; Zou, Jia-Ling; Tian, Tao; Peng, Pei-Qin; Liao, Bo-Han

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate heavy metal accumulation in 22 vegetable species and to assess the human health risks of vegetable consumption. Six vegetable types were cultivated on farmland contaminated with heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, and As). The target hazard quotient (THQ) method was used to assess the human health risks posed by heavy metals through vegetable consumption. Clear differences were found in the concentrations of heavy metals in edible parts of the different vegetables. The concentrations of heavy metals decreased in the sequence as leafy vegetables > stalk vegetables/root vegetables/solanaceous vegetables > legume vegetables/melon vegetables. The ability of leafy vegetables to uptake and accumulate heavy metals was the highest, and that of melon vegetables was the lowest. This indicated that the low accumulators (melon vegetables) were suitable for being planted on contaminated soil, while the high accumulators (leafy vegetables) were unsuitable. In Shizhuyuan area, China, the total THQ values of adults and children through consumption of vegetables were 4.12 and 5.41, respectively, suggesting that the residents may be facing health risks due to vegetable consumption, and that children were vulnerable to the adverse effects of heavy metal ingestion. PMID:26959043

  14. Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Vegetable Species Planted in Contaminated Soils and the Health Risk Assessment.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hang; Yang, Wen-Tao; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Li; Gu, Jiao-Feng; Wang, Wen-Lei; Zou, Jia-Ling; Tian, Tao; Peng, Pei-Qin; Liao, Bo-Han

    2016-03-04

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate heavy metal accumulation in 22 vegetable species and to assess the human health risks of vegetable consumption. Six vegetable types were cultivated on farmland contaminated with heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, and As). The target hazard quotient (THQ) method was used to assess the human health risks posed by heavy metals through vegetable consumption. Clear differences were found in the concentrations of heavy metals in edible parts of the different vegetables. The concentrations of heavy metals decreased in the sequence as leafy vegetables > stalk vegetables/root vegetables/solanaceous vegetables > legume vegetables/melon vegetables. The ability of leafy vegetables to uptake and accumulate heavy metals was the highest, and that of melon vegetables was the lowest. This indicated that the low accumulators (melon vegetables) were suitable for being planted on contaminated soil, while the high accumulators (leafy vegetables) were unsuitable. In Shizhuyuan area, China, the total THQ values of adults and children through consumption of vegetables were 4.12 and 5.41, respectively, suggesting that the residents may be facing health risks due to vegetable consumption, and that children were vulnerable to the adverse effects of heavy metal ingestion.

  15. Accumulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fenwick, J. R.; Karigan, G. H. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An accumulator particularly adapted for use in controlling the pressure of a stream of fluid in its liquid phase utilizing the fluid in its gaseous phase was designed. The accumulator is characterized by a shell defining a pressure chamber having an entry throat for a liquid and adapted to be connected in contiguous relation with a selected conduit having a stream of fluid flowing through the conduit in its liquid phase. A pressure and volume stabilization tube, including an array of pressure relief perforations is projected into the chamber with the perforations disposed adjacent to the entry throat for accommodating a discharge of the fluid in either gaseous or liquid phases, while a gas inlet and liquid to gas conversion system is provided, the chamber is connected with a source of the fluid for continuously pressuring the chamber for controlling the pressure of the stream of liquid.

  16. Evaluation of urban environment pollution based on the accumulation of macro- and trace elements in epiphytic lichens.

    PubMed

    Parzych, Agnieszka; Astel, Aleksander; Zduńczyk, Anna; Surowiec, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, zinc, nickel, copper, manganese, iron and lead accumulation properties of three epiphytic lichen species (Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl., Parmelia sulcata Taylor and Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th. Fr.) were compared. An assessment of pollution of the municipal environment in Słupsk (Poland) according to macro- and trace elements was also done. Lichen samples were taken in Autumn 2013 from Betula pendula, Fraxinus excelsior, Acer platanoides, A. pseudoplatanus and Populus sp. trees. Sampling stations comprised of house development areas, green urban parks, vicinity of streets with heavy traffic and industrial enterprises. It was found that lichens represent diverse accumulation properties to pollutants according to the species. X. parietina indicated the highest bioaccumulation in relation to N, K, Mg, Zn and Fe, the thalli of H. physodes accumulated the largest amounts of Ni and Pb, while P. sulcata P and Cu. Manganese was accumulated in similar quantities by all species. Evidences acquired by the use of factor analysis proved that pollution in Słupsk municipal environment is a serious issue with three major sources domination: street dust, marine factor and residual oil combustion. The high-risk areas were detected and visualized using surface maps based on Kriging algorithm. It was seen that the highest pollution occurs in the town centre, while the smallest happened on its outskirts and in urban parks.

  17. Trace metal content in aspirin and women's cosmetics via proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE)

    SciTech Connect

    Hichwa, B.P.; Pun, D.D.; Wang, D.

    1981-04-01

    A multielemental analysis to determine the trace metal content of generic and name-brand aspirins and name-brand lipsticks was done via proton induced x-ray (PIXE) measurements. The Hope College PIXE system is described as well as the target preparation methods. The trace metal content of twelve brands of aspirin and aspirin substitutes and fourteen brands of lipstick are reported. Detection limits for most elements are in the range of 100 parts per billion (ppb) to 10 parts per million (ppm).

  18. Reconnaissance for trace metals in bed sediment, Wright Patman Lake, near Texarkana, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, Paul W.

    2001-01-01

    Many contaminants can be introduced into the environment by urban and industrial activities. The drainage area of Wright Patman Lake is influenced by these activities. Among the contaminants associated with urban and industrial activities are trace metals such as arsenic, lead, mercury, and zinc. These contaminants are relatively insoluble in water and commonly are found in stream, lake, and reservoir bottom sediment, especially the clays and silts within the sediment.Wright Patman Lake serves as the major potable water supply for the city of Texarkana and surrounding communities. Texarkana, located in the northeastern corner of Texas and the southwestern corner of Arkansas, had a population of about 56,000 in 1998, which reflects an increase of about 3.4 percent from the 1990 census (Ramos, 1999). Texarkana Water Utilities, which manages the water-treatment facilities for Texarkana, proposes to dredge the lake bed near the water intake in the Elliot Creek arm of Wright Patman Lake. It is possible that arsenic, lead, mercury, and other trace metals might be released into the water if the bed sediment is disturbed. Bed sediment in the Elliot Creek arm of the lake, in particular, could contain trace metals because of its proximity to Red River Army Depot and because industrial land use is prevalent in the headwaters of Elliot Creek.The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Reconnaissance for Trace Metals in Bed Sediment, Wright Patman Lake, Near Texarkana, Texas In cooperation with the Texarkana Water Utilities conducted a reconnaissance of Wright Patman Lake to collect bed-sediment samples for analysis of trace metals. This report presents trace metal concentrations in bed-sediment samples collected at six sites along the Elliot Creek arm of the lake, one site each in two adjacent arms, and one site near the dam on June 16, 1999 (fig. 1). One bed-sediment sample was collected at each of the nine sites, and one sediment core was collected at each of two

  19. The relation between Acid Volatile Sulfides (AVS) and metal accumulation in aquatic invertebrates: implications of feeding behavior and ecology.

    PubMed

    De Jonge, Maarten; Blust, Ronny; Bervoets, Lieven

    2010-05-01

    The present study evaluates the relationship between Acid Volatile Sulfides (AVS) and metal accumulation in invertebrates with different feeding behavior and ecological preferences. Natural sediments, pore water and surface water, together with benthic and epibenthic invertebrates were sampled at 28 Flemish lowland rivers. Different metals as well as metal binding sediment characteristics including AVS were measured and multiple regression was used to study their relationship with accumulated metals in the invertebrates taxa. Bioaccumulation in the benthic taxa was primarily influenced by total metal concentrations in the sediment. Regarding the epibenthic taxa metal accumulation was mostly explained by the more bioavailable metal fractions in both the sediment and the water. AVS concentrations were generally better correlated with metal accumulation in the epibenthic invertebrates, rather than with the benthic taxa. Our results indicated that the relation between AVS and metal accumulation in aquatic invertebrates is highly dependent on feeding behavior and ecology.

  20. Accumulation of heavy metals in mosses: a biomonitoring study.

    PubMed

    Macedo-Miranda, G; Avila-Pérez, P; Gil-Vargas, P; Zarazúa, G; Sánchez-Meza, J C; Zepeda-Gómez, C; Tejeda, S

    2016-01-01

    The metropolitan area of the Toluca Valley (MATV) extends over an area of 1208.55 km(2) and has 1,361,500 inhabitants making it the fifth highest populated area in the country and the second highest in the state. The MATV has several environmental problems, with regards to the air quality. Particles PM10 and PM2.5 are considered to be the main pollutant due to these particles frequently exceeding the limit laid down in the standards of the air quality in the country. For this reason, samples of the mosses Fabriona ciliaris and Leskea angustata were collected at different sites in MATV, Mexico in order to establish the atmospheric deposition of heavy metals by means of the analysis of the mosses tissues. Results show the average metal concentrations in the mosses in the order of: Zn > Pb > Cr > Cd. The concentration capacities of heavy metals were higher in Fabriona ciliaris than Leskea angustata. Enrichment factors for Cr, Zn, Pb and Cd were obtained using the soils from the same sampling area. Enrichment factors results show that Cr is conservative in both sampling seasons with a terrigenous origin; Zn is moderately enriched in both sampling seasons and mainly associated to pedological-soil or substrate contribution and anthropogenic activities and Cd is highly enriched in the rainy season and Pb is highly enriched in both sampling seasons, with a predominantly anthropogenic origin. This study provides information to be considered in the strategies for similar environmental problems in the world.

  1. Patterns of metal accumulation by natural river biofilms during their growth and seasonal succession.

    PubMed

    Tien, Chien-Jung; Chen, Colin S

    2013-05-01

    To evaluate the factors influencing patterns of metal accumulation by river biofilms, concentrations of chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), and lead (Pb) in biofilms from Erh-Jen River and San-Yeh-Kung Creek were investigated during their growth and seasonal succession. Different metal-accumulation patterns during biofilm development were observed between the two rivers. Mature biofilms (grown for 21-28 days) in both rivers showed maximum metal accumulation (≤3.24 × 10(4), 1.55 × 10(4), 7.40 × 10(3), and 7.80 × 10(2) μg g(-1) of Cr, Ni, Cu, and Pb, respectively) and bioconcentration factors (≤7.15 × 10(5), 1.60 × 10(5), 2.60 × 10(5), and 4.22 × 10(5) l kg(-1) of Cr, Ni, Cu, and Pb, respectively). These types of biofilms had the characteristics of being good metal accumulators and the ability to integrate metal-exposure conditions, suggesting that they were suitable biomonitors for metal-contaminated water. Seasonal succession in metal-accumulation ability of 1-month-old biofilms from Erh-Jen River was mainly affected by changes in bacterial and algal biomass and chemical oxygen demand in water, whereas that from San-Yeh-Kung Creek was primary influenced by concentrations of total nitrogen in water. Synergistic interaction between these four metals on metal-binding sites within biofilms was also shown.

  2. Elevated concentrations of trace elements in soil do not necessarily reflect metals available to plants.

    PubMed

    Antonious, George F; Silitonga, Maifan R; Tsegaye, Teferi D; Unrine, Jason M; Coolong, Timothy; Snyder, John C

    2013-01-01

    Bioaccumulation and entry of trace elements from soil into the food chain have made trace-elements major environmental pollutants. The main objective of this investigation was to study the impact of mixing native agricultural soil with municipal sewage sludge (SS) or SS mixed with yard waste (SS+YW) compost on total concentration of trace elements in soil, metals available to plants, and mobility of metals from soil into peppers and melon fruits. Regardless of soil treatment, the average concentrations of Ni, Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn, and Mo in melon fruits were 5.2, 0.7, 3.9, 0.9, 34.3, 96.1, and 3.5μg g(-1), respectively. Overall concentrations of Ni, Cd, Pb, and Zn in melon fruits were significantly greater (P < 0.05) than pepper fruits. No significant differences were found in Cr, Cu, and Mo concentrations between pepper and melon fruits at harvest time. Total metal concentrations and metal ions in soil available to melon and pepper plants were also determined. Total concentration of each metal in the soil was significantly greater than concentration of metal ions available to plants. Elevated Ni and Mo bioaccumulation factor (BAF > 1) of melon fruits of plants grown in SS+YW mixed soil is a characteristic that would be less favorable when plants grown on sites having high concentrations of these metals.

  3. Sediment-bound trace metals in Golfe-Juan Bay, northwestern Mediterranean: Distribution, availability and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Tiquio, Ma Gregoria Joanne; Hurel, Charlotte; Marmier, Nicolas; Taneez, Mehwish; Andral, Bruno; Jordan, Norbert; Francour, Patrice

    2017-03-18

    The concentration, potential mobility, cation exchange capacity and toxicity of eight sediment-bound metals in Golfe-Juan Bay, France were examined. Results revealed significant spatial gradient of metal contamination along Golfe-Juan coast. The distribution and concentration of the metals appear to be influenced by the geochemical properties of the sediment, proximity to anthropogenic sources and general water circulation in the bay. The portion of trace metals found in the exchangeable, carbonate, oxidizable and reducible fractions of the sediment constitute 31%-58% of the total sediment-bound trace metal content, suggesting significant potential for remobilization of metals into the water column. Pb and Ni content of the sediment exceed the limits of the French marine sediment quality. Whole sediment extracts showed acute toxicity to marine rotifers. This study concludes that monitoring and management of sediment-bound trace metals in Golfe-Juan Bay are important so as not to underestimate their availability and risk to the marine ecosystems.

  4. Effect of heavy metals combined stress on growth and metals accumulation of three Salix species with different cutting position.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenwen; Wu, Yajing; Akbar, Siddiq; Jia, Xiuqin; He, Zaihua; Tian, Xingjun

    2016-08-02

    This study aimed to compare growth performance and heavy metal (HM) accumulation at different cutting positions of Salix species grown in multi-metal culture. Three Salix species stems cut at different positions (apical to basal) were grown hydroponically for four weeks. The plants were then treated for three weeks with 0, 5, 10, and 20 μM Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn, resulting in total metal concentrations of 0, 20, 40, and 80 μM. The growth parameters and HM content in shoots and initial cutting were measured. Results showed that, compared with S. fragilis, S. matsudana grew more poorly in uncontaminated condition but grew better and accumulated lower metal in shoots under mixed HM treatment. In addition, cuttings from apical parent stem position exhibited poorer growth performance before and after treatment, as well as greater metal content in shoots than base parts under the HM treatment. These results suggest that S. matsudana may undergo a special mechanism to hinder metals in the initial cutting, thus mitigating growth damage. The apical portion also showed poor resistance against the invasion of mixed HMs because of the immature structure. Therefore, in the selection of phytoremediation plants, metal accumulation ability is not proportional to growth performance.

  5. Metals pollution tracing in the sewerage network using the diffusive gradients in thin films technique.

    PubMed

    Thomas, P

    2009-01-01

    Diffusive Gradients in Thin-films (DGT) is a quantitative, passive monitoring technique that can be used to measure concentrations of trace species in situ in solutions. Its potential for tracing metals pollution in the sewer system has been investigated by placing the DGT devices into sewage pumping stations and into manholes, to measure the concentration of certain metals in the catchment of a sewage treatment works with a known metals problem. In addition the methodology and procedure of using the DGT technique in sewers was investigated. Parameters such as temperature and pH were measured to ensure they were within the limits required by the DGT devices, and the optimum deployment time was examined. It was found that although the results given by the DGT technique could not be considered to be fully quantitative, they could be used to identify locations that were showing an excess concentration of metals, and hence trace pollution back to its source. The DGT technique is 'user friendly' and requires no complicated equipment for deployment or collection, and minimal training for use. It is thought that this is the first time that the DGT technique has been used in situ in sewers for metals pollution tracing.

  6. Geological factors affecting the distribution of trace metals in glacial sediments of central Newfoundland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klassen, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    In central Newfoundland (NTS 12A/10, 15, 16, 2H/1), As, Pb, and Zn concentrations in the clay-sized ( 1000 ppm), exceeding levels commonly set for purposes of environmental protection. Near Pb-Zn mines at Buchans, geochemical variation with depth reflects the dispersal of detritus from mineralized bedrock, and differences in sediment type and provenance. There, surface sediments are rich in granitic debris derived from the Topsails igneous terrane 5 km north of Buchans and contain low concentrations of trace metals. These sediments are compositionally unrelated to either Buchans Group volcanic rock or an underlying, older till enriched in sulphide minerals and trace metals. Metal-rich till extending up to 10 km southwest of Buchans results from combined glacial and debris flow transport related to two distinct geological events. Trace metals are enriched (two- to fourfold) in the clay-sized fraction of till compared to the silt and clay-sized, and are associated with Al- and Mg-bearing minerals that preferentially concentrate in the clay fraction. The geochemistry of the silt and clay-sized fraction can approximate that of the < 2-mm fraction. Background variations in till illustrate the important role of a geological framework to the interpretation of geochemical surveys and the origins of trace metals in the environment.

  7. Trace metals and radionuclides in macroalgae from Moroccan coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Benkdad, Azzouz; Laissaoui, Abdelmourhit; Tornero, Maria Victoria; Benmansour, Moncef; Chakir, ElMahjoub; Garrido, Ignacio Moreno; Moreno, Julian Blasco

    2011-11-01

    Macroalgae species Codium sp, Bangia atropurpurea, Membranoptera alata, Plocamium cartilagineum, Dictyota dichotoma, Fucus spiralis and Stypocaulon scoparia were collected from seven stations along the north coast of Morocco. Samples were analysed to determine activities of naturally occurring radionuclides ((210)Pb, U isotopes and (40)K) and concentrations of metals (Zn, Fe, Co, Cu, Ni, Mn, Pb, Cd, As and Cr) using radiometric and ICP-OES techniques, respectively. Metal concentrations were within ranges reported in the scientific literature, and concentrations of bio-essential elements were in the order Mn>Fe> Zn>Cu in all samples. Brown algae had the highest concentrations of almost all metals, and concentrations decreased in the order brown>red>green algae. With respect to radionuclides, the red alga P. cartilagineum had the highest activities of (210)Pb, in most cases an order of magnitude higher than for the green alga Codium sp. (234)U and (238)U activities in all algae samples were in the range 0.96- 7.61 and 1.16-6.14 Bq/kg dry weight, respectively. Our analyses of radionuclide activities and metal concentrations in marine macroalgae showed large differences among taxa. These results provide insights into which algal species should be used for biomonitoring programmes.

  8. Reconstructing Early Industrial Contributions to Legacy Trace Metal Contamination in Southwestern Pennsylvania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, R.; Bain, D.; Hillman, A. L.; Pompeani, D. P.; Abbott, M. B.

    2015-12-01

    The remobilization of legacy contamination stored in floodplain sediments remains a threat to ecosystem and human health, particularly with potential changes in global precipitation patterns and flooding regimes. Vehicular and industrial emissions are often the dominant, recognized source of anthropogenic trace metal loadings to ecosystems today. However, loadings from early industrial activities are poorly characterized and potential sources of trace metal inputs. While potential trace metal contamination from these activities is recognized (e.g., the historical use of lead arsenate as a pesticide), the magnitude and distribution of legacy contamination is often unknown. This presentation reconstructs a lake sediment record of trace metal inputs from an oxbow lake in Southwestern Pennsylvania. Sediment cores were analyzed for major and trace metal chemistry, carbon to nitrogen ratios, bulk density, and magnetic susceptibility. Sediment trace metal chemistry in this approximately 250 year record (180 cm) record changes in land use and industry both in the 19th century and the 20th century. Of particular interest is early 19th century loadings of arsenic and calcium to the lake, likely attributable to pesticides and lime used in tanning processes near the lake. After this period of tanning dominated inputs, sediment barium concentrations rise, likely reflecting the onset of coal mining operations and resulting discharge of acid mine drainage to surface waters. In the 20th century portion of our record (70 -20 cm), patterns in sediment zinc, cadmium, and lead concentrations are dominated by the opening and closing of the nearby Donora Zinc Works and the American Steel & Wire Works, infamous facilities in the history of air quality regulation. The most recent sediment chemistry records periods include the enactment of air pollution legislation (~ 35 cm), and the phase out of tetraethyl leaded gasoline (~30 cm). Our study documents the impact of early industry in the

  9. Crabs tell the difference--Relating trace metal content with land use and landscape attributes.

    PubMed

    Álvaro, Nuno V; Neto, Ana I; Couto, Ruben P; Azevedo, José M N; Rodrigues, Armindo S

    2016-02-01

    Heavy metal concentration in a given locality depends upon its natural characteristics and level of anthropogenic pressure. Volcanic sites have a different heavy metal footprint from agriculture soils and both differ from urban centres. Different animal species absorb heavy metals differently according to their feeding behaviour and physiology. Depending on the capability to accumulate heavy metals, some species can be used in biomonitoring programs for the identification of disturbed areas. Crabs are included in these species and known to accumulate heavy metals. The present study investigates the potential of Pachygrapsus marmoratus (Fabricius, 1787), a small crab abundant in the Azores intertidal, as an indicator of the presence of heavy metals in Azorean coastal environments, comparing hydrothermal vent locations, urban centres and locations adjacent to agricultural activity. Specimens were collected in the same period and had their hepatopancreas removed, dried and analysed for heavy metals. Results revealed differences in concentration of the studied elements between all sampling sites, each one revealing a distinct heavy metal content. Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn and Cd are the metals responsible for separating the various sites. The concentration levels of the heavy metals recorded in the present study reflect the environmental available metals where the organisms live. This, associated to the large availability of P. marmoratus specimens in the Azores, and to the fact that these animals are easy to capture and handle, suggests this species as a potential bioindicator for heavy metal concentration in Azorean coastal areas, both humanized and naturally disturbed.

  10. Metal-free” catalytic oxygen reduction reaction on heteroatom- doped graphene is caused by trace metal impurities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Ambrosi, Adriano; Pumera, Martin

    2013-12-16

    The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is of high industrial importance. There is a large body of literature showing that metal-based catalytic nanoparticles (e.g. Co, Mn, Fe or hybrid Mn/Co-based nanoparticles) supported on graphene act as efficient catalysts for the ORR. A significant research effort is also directed to the so-called “metal-free” oxygen reduction reaction on heteroatom-doped graphene surfaces. While such studies of the ORR on nonmetallic heteroatom-doped graphene are advertised as “metal-free” there is typically no sufficient effort to characterize the doped materials to verify that they are indeed free of any trace metal. Here we argue that the claimed “metal-free” electrocatalysis of the oxygen reduction reaction on heteroatom-doped graphene is caused by metallic impurities present within the graphene materials.

  11. Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Crayfish and Fish from Selected Czech Reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Kuklina, Iryna; Kouba, Antonín; Buřič, Miloš; Horká, Ivona; Ďuriš, Zdeněk; Kozák, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the accumulation of aluminium, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, and zinc in crayfish and fish organ tissues, specimens from three drinking water reservoirs (Boskovice, Landštejn, and Nová Říše) and one contaminated site (Darkovské moře) in the Czech Republic were examined. Crayfish hepatopancreas was confirmed to be the primary accumulating site for the majority of metals (Cu > Zn > Ni > Cd > Cr), while Hg and Cr were concentrated in abdominal muscle, and Al and Pb were concentrated in gill. Metals found in Nová Říše specimens included Cu > Zn > Ni and those found in Boskovice included Zn > Hg > Cr. Cd concentrations were observed only in Landštejn specimens, while contaminated Darkovské moře specimens showed the highest levels of accumulation (Cu > Al > Zn > Pb). The majority of evaluated metals were found in higher concentrations in crayfish: Cu > Al > Zn > Ni > Cr > Cd > Pb, with Hg being the only metal accumulating higher in fish. Due to accumulation similarities of Al in crayfish and fish gill, differences of Hg in muscle, and features noted for the remaining metals in examined tissues, biomonitoring should incorporate both crayfish and fish to produce more relevant water quality surveys. PMID:24738051

  12. Accumulation of heavy metals in crayfish and fish from selected Czech reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Kuklina, Iryna; Kouba, Antonín; Buřič, Miloš; Horká, Ivona; Duriš, Zdeněk; Kozák, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the accumulation of aluminium, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, and zinc in crayfish and fish organ tissues, specimens from three drinking water reservoirs (Boskovice, Landštejn, and Nová Říše) and one contaminated site (Darkovské moře) in the Czech Republic were examined. Crayfish hepatopancreas was confirmed to be the primary accumulating site for the majority of metals (Cu > Zn > Ni > Cd > Cr), while Hg and Cr were concentrated in abdominal muscle, and Al and Pb were concentrated in gill. Metals found in Nová Říše specimens included Cu > Zn > Ni and those found in Boskovice included Zn > Hg > Cr. Cd concentrations were observed only in Landštejn specimens, while contaminated Darkovské moře specimens showed the highest levels of accumulation (Cu > Al > Zn > Pb). The majority of evaluated metals were found in higher concentrations in crayfish: Cu > Al > Zn > Ni > Cr > Cd > Pb, with Hg being the only metal accumulating higher in fish. Due to accumulation similarities of Al in crayfish and fish gill, differences of Hg in muscle, and features noted for the remaining metals in examined tissues, biomonitoring should incorporate both crayfish and fish to produce more relevant water quality surveys.

  13. Study of geochemical association of some trace metals in the sediments of Chilika lake: a multivariate statistical approach.

    PubMed

    Panda, Unmesh Chandra; Rath, Prasanta; Sahu, Kali Charan; Majumdar, Sabyasachi; Sundaray, Sanjay K

    2006-12-01

    In order to establish the natural processes and geochemical factors responsible for enrichment of trace metal ions (Cu, Co, Ni, Zn and Cr) with respect to textural parameters (sand, silt and clay weight percentages) along with depth, multivariate statistical approach has been carried out for sediments in different water zones of Chilika lake, the largest brackish water lagoon in Asia. The rotated varimax factor results reveal that Cobalt enrichment is controlled by both textural parameters as well as adsorption mechanism. In fresh and saline water region, textural parameters and in mixed water, adsorption phenomenon predominates. Zn in fresh water is related to clay, whereas it is in adsorbed state in mixed water. Cu in fresh water sediments is in absorbed state and in mixed water it is related to depth and Co concentration. Cr does not show any specific association in fresh water, but in both mixed and saline water it is associated with clay minerals. Although both textural parameters and adsorption mechanism play an important role for the enrichment of trace metal ions in these lagoonal sediments, their relative importance varies with specific metal ions as well as the water quality. Sequential extraction technique was used to characterize the various forms of metals in the < 63 micro size sediments of Chilika lake. The concentrations determined indicated selective accumulation of the various metals in the different phases with spatial variability in different water zones. Slightly higher availability of Co and Zn near Balugaon township in exchangeable phase may be related to anthropogenic activities. Among the non-lithogenous (NL) phases, reducible phase associated with higher concentration of Ni, Cu and Cr. Organic bound Zn and Co contributed highest percentages among NL fractions. Residual fraction contributed more than 50% in most of the cases, reflected the predominance of physical weathering, high erosion rate along the drainage basin.

  14. Accumulation of heavy metals in water, sediments and wetland plants of kizilirmak delta (samsun, Turkey).

    PubMed

    Engin, M S; Uyanik, A; Kutbay, H G

    2015-01-01

    In this study, concentrations of heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Ni, Co, Zn, Cu, and Pb) were measured in water bodies including streams, bottom sediments and various wetland plants of Kızılırmak Delta. Kızılırmak Delta is one of the largest and the most important natural wetlands in Turkey and has been protected by Ramsar convention since 1993. The heavy metal concentrations in water were found lower than that of national standards for protected lakes and reserves. In bottom sediments and wetland plants, however, the accumulated amounts of different heavy metals varied in the following order: Fe>Mn>Zn>Ni>Co>Cu>Pb, and Fe>Mn>Zn>Ni>Co respectively. Heavy metal uptake of Hydrocharis morsus-ranae and Myriophyllum verticillatum plants among others were found far above the toxic levels and they might be used as bio-indicators and heavy metal accumulators in polluted natural areas.

  15. Trace metal capture by various sorbents during fluidized bed coal combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, T.C.; Ghebremeskel, A.; Wang, K.S.; Hopper, J.R.

    1997-07-01

    This study investigated the potential of employing suitable sorbents to capture toxic trace metallic substances during fluidized bed coal combustion. Metal capture experiments were carried out in a 25.4 mm (1 inch) quartz fluidized bed combustor enclosed in an electric furnace. The metals involved were cadmium, lead, chromium, arsenic and selenium, and the sorbents tested included bauxite, zeolite and lime. In addition to the experimental investigations, potential metal-sorbent reactions were also identified through chemical equilibrium calculations based on the minimization of system free energy. The observed experimental results indicated that metal capture by sorbents can be as high as 88% depending on the metal species and sorbent involved. Results from thermodynamic equilibrium simulations suggested the formation of metal-sorbent compounds such as Pb{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}(s), CdAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}(s) and CdSiO{sub 3}(s) under the combustion conditions.

  16. Effects of low-level dams on the distribution of sediment, trace metals, and organic substances in the lower Schuylkill River basin, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yorke, Thomas H.; Stamer, John K.; Pederson, Gary L.

    1985-01-01

    Heavy use of the Schuylkill River for municipal water supplies and a history of accidental spills and discharges of trace metals and organic substances have been a concern of State and local officials for many years. The U.S. Geological Survey, as part of their River Quality Assessment Program, developed a study to assess the occurrence and distribution of trace substances that pose a threat to human health and aquatic life. This report presents the results of the part of the study that evaluates the effects of low-level dams in the lower basin on the distribution and transport of sediment and trace substances. A combination of historical and current data were used in the assessment. Suspended-sediment data collected at several mainstem and tributary sites from 1954 to 1979 and sedimentation surveys of the six pools in the lower basin were used to define the sediment-transport characteristics of the river. These data provided a base for assessing the transport of trace substances, which are associated closely with riverbed sediments and suspended particles. Water and riverbed samples were collected for analyses of trace substances at numerous sites in the lower basin from 1978 to 1980. The six dams on the river between Pottstown and Philadelphia have had a significant effect on the transport of sediment and trace substances. Between 1954 and 1970, more than 4.7 million cubic yards of sediment accumulated in the pools formed by the dams. The quantity of sediment deposited in the pools ranged from 150,000 cubic yards in Plymouth Pool to 1.6 million cubic yards in Fairmount Pool. The rate of accumulation in the pools was a function of pool size and geometry and the frequency of storms. About 35 percent of the total sediment discharged by the river was stored in the six pools from 1954 to 1970. Since 1970, the net change in sediment accumulation has been minimal. More than 24 percent of the sediment in Fairmount Pool in 1970 was scoured from the pool during Hurricane

  17. Trace metal biogeochemistry in mangrove ecosystems: a comparative assessment of acidified (by acid sulfate soils) and non-acidified sites.

    PubMed

    Nath, Bibhash; Birch, Gavin; Chaudhuri, Punarbasu

    2013-10-01

    The generation of acidity and subsequent mobilization of toxic metals induced by acid sulfate soils (ASSs) are known to cause severe environmental damage to many coastal wetlands and estuaries of Australia and worldwide. Mangrove ecosystems serve to protect coastal environments, but are increasingly threatened from such ASS-induced acidification due to variable hydrological conditions (i.e., inundation-desiccation cycles). However, the impact of such behaviors on trace metal distribution, bio-availability and accumulation in mangrove tissues, i.e., leaves and pneumatophores, are largely unknown. In this study, we examined how ASS-induced acidifications controlled trace metal distribution and bio-availability in gray mangrove (Avicennia marina) soils and in tissues in the Kooragang wetland, New South Wales, Australia. We collected mangrove soils, leaves and pneumatophores from a part of the wetland acidified from ASS (i.e., an affected site) for detailed biogeochemical studies. The results were compared with samples collected from a natural intertidal mangrove forest (i.e., a control site) located within the same wetland. Soil pH (mean: 5.90) indicated acidic conditions in the affected site, whereas pH was near-neutral (mean: 7.17) in the control site. The results did not show statistically significant differences in near-total and bio-available metal concentrations, except for Fe and Mn, between affected and control sites. Iron concentrations were significantly (p values≤0.001) greater in the affected site, whereas Mn concentrations were significantly (p values≤0.001) greater in the control site. However, large proportions of near-total metals were potentially bio-available in control sites. Concentrations of Fe and Ni were significantly (p values≤0.001) greater in leaves and pneumatophores of the affected sites, whereas Mn, Cu, Pb and Zn were greater in control sites. The degree of metal bio-accumulation in leaves and pneumatophores suggest contrasting

  18. Rapid and gradual modes of aerosol trace metal dissolution in seawater

    PubMed Central

    Mackey, Katherine R. M.; Chien, Chia-Te; Post, Anton F.; Saito, Mak A.; Paytan, Adina

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric deposition is a major source of trace metals in marine surface waters and supplies vital micronutrients to phytoplankton, yet measured aerosol trace metal solubility values are operationally defined, and there are relatively few multi-element studies on aerosol-metal solubility in seawater. Here we measure the solubility of aluminum (Al), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) from natural aerosol samples in seawater over a 7 days period to (1) evaluate the role of extraction time in trace metal dissolution behavior and (2) explore how the individual dissolution patterns could influence biota. Dissolution behavior occurs over a continuum ranging from rapid dissolution, in which the majority of soluble metal dissolved immediately upon seawater exposure (Cd and Co in our samples), to gradual dissolution, where metals dissolved slowly over time (Zn, Mn, Cu, and Al in our samples). Additionally, dissolution affected by interactions with particles was observed in which a decline in soluble metal concentration over time occurred (Fe and Pb in our samples). Natural variability in aerosol chemistry between samples can cause metals to display different dissolution kinetics in different samples, and this was particularly evident for Ni, for which samples showed a broad range of dissolution rates. The elemental molar ratio of metals in the bulk aerosols was 23,189Fe: 22,651Al: 445Mn: 348Zn: 71Cu: 48Ni: 23Pb: 9Co: 1Cd, whereas the seawater soluble molar ratio after 7 days of leaching was 11Fe: 620Al: 205Mn: 240Zn: 20Cu: 14Ni: 9Pb: 2Co: 1Cd. The different kinetics and ratios of aerosol metal dissolution have implications for phytoplankton nutrition, and highlight the need for unified extraction protocols that simulate aerosol metal dissolution in the surface ocean. PMID:25653645

  19. The accumulation of metal (Co, Cr, Cu, Mn and Zn) in freshwater Ulva (Chlorophyta) and its habitat.

    PubMed

    Rybak, Andrzej; Messyasz, Beata; Łęska, Bogusława

    2013-04-01

    The possibility of using freshwater Ulva (Chlorophyta) as a bioaccumulator of metals (Co, Cr, Cu, Mn and Zn) in lake and river water was examined weekly in the summer of 2010 in three types of samples: the water, the sediment and the thalli of Ulva. Samples of freshwater Ulva were collected from two aqueous ecosystems lie 250 km away from the basin of the Baltic Sea and 53 km from each other. A flow lake located in the centre of the big city was the first water reservoir (ten sites) and second, the suburban river (six sites). The mean metal concentrations in the Ulva tissue from the river and the lake decreased in the following order: Mn > Zn > Cr > Cu > Co and Mn > Cr > Zn > Cu > Co, respectively. Moreover, a negative and statistically significant correlation between Mn concentrations in the Ulva thalli and the river water was observed. Additionally, numerous correlations were noted between the different concentrations of metals within the Ulva thalli, in the water and in the sediment. The great concentrations of Mn and Zn and the smallest of Co were found in thalli of Ulva, irrespective of the type of the ecosystem from which samples of algal thalli originated. Freshwater Ulva populations examined in this study were clearly characterized a dozen or so times by the higher Mn and Cr accumulation than taxa from that genera coming from sea ecosystems. The calculated bioconcentration factor confirm the high potential for freshwater Ulva to be a bioaccumulator of trace metals in freshwater ecosystems.

  20. Octanol-solubility of dissolved and particulate trace metals in contaminated rivers: implications for metal reactivity and availability.

    PubMed

    Turner, Andrew; Mawji, Edward

    2005-05-01

    The lipid-like, amphiphilic solvent, n-octanol, has been used to determine a hydrophobic fraction of dissolved and particulate trace metals (Al, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) in contaminated rivers. In a sample from the River Clyde, southwest Scotland, octanol-solubility was detected for all dissolved metals except Co, with conditional octanol-water partition coefficients, D(ow), ranging from about 0.2 (Al and Cu) to 1.25 (Pb). In a sample taken from the River Mersey, northwest England, octanol-solubility was detected for dissolved Al and Pb, but only after sample aliquots had been spiked with individual ionic metal standards and equilibrated. Spiking of the River Clyde sample revealed competition among different metals for hydrophobic ligands. Metal displacement from hydrophobic complexes was generally most significant following the addition of ionic Al or Pb, although the addition of either of these metals had little effect on the octanol-solubility of the other. In both river water samples hydrophobic metals were detected on the suspended particles retained by filtration following their extraction in n-octanol. In general, particulate Cu and Zn (up to 40%) were most available, and Al, Co and Pb most resistant (<1%) to octanol extraction. Distribution coefficients defining the concentration ratio of octanol-soluble particle-bound metal to octanol-soluble dissolved metal were in the range 10(3.3)-10(5.3)mlg(-1). The presence of hydrophobic dissolved and particulate metal species has implications for our understanding of the biogeochemical behaviour of metals in aquatic environments. Specifically, such species are predicted to exhibit characteristics of non-polar organic contaminants, including the potential to penetrate the lipid bilayer. Current strategies for assessing the bioavailability and toxicity of dissolved and particulate trace metals in natural waters may, therefore, require revision.

  1. Influence of pH shocks on trace metal dynamics and performance of methanol fed granular sludge bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Zandvoort, Marcel H; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Peerbolte, Annemarie; Golubnic, Svetlana; Lettinga, Gatze; Lens, Piet N L

    2005-12-01

    The influence of pH shocks on the trace metal dynamics and performance of methanol fed upflow anaerobic granular sludge bed (UASB) reactors was investigated. For this purpose, two UASB reactors were operated with metal pre-loaded granular sludge (1 mM Co, Ni and Fe; 30 degrees C; 96 h) at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 5 g COD 1 reactor(-1) d(-1). One UASB reactor (R1) was inoculated with sludge that originated from a full scale reactor treating alcohol distillery wastewater, while the other reactor (R2) was inoculated with sludge from a full scale reactor treating paper mill wastewater. A 30 h pH shock (pH 5) strongly affected the metal retention dynamics within the granular sludge bed in both reactors. Iron losses in soluble form with the effluent were considerable: 2.3 and 2.9% for R1 and R2, respectively, based on initial iron content in the reactors, while losses of cobalt and nickel in soluble form were limited. Sequential extraction of the metals from the sludge showed that cobalt, nickel, iron and sulfur were translocated from the residual to the organic/sulfide fraction during the pH shock in R2, increasing 34, 47, 109 and 41% in the organic/sulfide fraction, respectively. This is likely due to the modification of the iron sulfide precipitate stability, which influences the extractability of iron and trace metals. Such a translocation was not observed for the R1 sludge during the first 30 h pH shock, but a second 4 day pH shock induced significant losses of cobalt (18%), iron (29%) and sulfur (29%) from the organic/sulfide fraction, likely due to iron sulfide dissolution and concomitant release of cobalt. After the 30 h pH shock, VFA accumulated in the R2 effluent, whereas both VFA and methanol accumulated in R1 after the 4 day pH shock. The formed VFA, mainly acetate, were not converted to methane due to the loss of methanogenic activity of the sludge on acetate. The VFA accumulation gradually disappeared, which is likely to be related to out

  2. Trace element accumulation and trophic relationships in aquatic organisms of the Sundarbans mangrove ecosystem (Bangladesh).

    PubMed

    Borrell, Asunción; Tornero, Victoria; Bhattacharjee, Dola; Aguilar, Alex

    2016-03-01

    The Sundarbans forest is the largest and one of the most diverse and productive mangrove ecosystems in the world. Located at the northern shoreline of the Bay of Bengal in the Indian Ocean and straddling India and Bangladesh, the mangrove forest is the result of three primary river systems that originate further north and northwest. During recent decades, the Sundarbans have been subject to increasing pollution by trace elements caused by the progressive industrialization and urbanization of the basins of these three rivers. As a consequence, animals and plants dwelling downstream in the mangroves are exposed to these pollutants in varying degrees, and may potentially affect human health when consumed. The aim of the present study was to analyse the concentrations of seven trace elements (Zn, Cu, Cr, Hg, Pb, Cd and As) in 14 different animal and plant species collected in the Sundarbans in Bangladesh to study their transfer through the food web and to determine whether their levels in edible species are acceptable for human consumption. δ(15)N values were used as a proxy of the trophic level. A decrease in Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd levels was observed with increasing trophic position. Trace element concentrations measured in all organisms were, in general, lower than the concentrations obtained in other field studies conducted in the same region. When examined with respect to accepted international standards, the concentrations observed in fish and crustaceans were generally found to be safe for human consumption. However, the levels of Zn in Scylla serrata and Cr and Cd in Harpadon nehereus exceeded the proposed health advisory levels and may be of concern for human health.

  3. Authigenesis of trace metals in energetic tropical shelf environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breckel, E.J.; Emerson, S.; Balistrieri, L.S.

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated authigenic changes of Fe, Mn, V, U, Mo, Cd and Re in suboxic, periodically remobilized, tropical shelf sediments from the Amazon continental shelf and the Gulf of Papua. The Cd/Al, Mo/Al, and U/Al ratios in Amazon shelf sediments were 82%, 37%, and 16% less than those in Amazon River suspended sediments, respectively. Very large depletions of U previously reported in this environment were not observed. The Cd/Al ratios in Gulf of Papua sediments were 76% lower than measurements made on several Papua New Guinea rivers, whereas U/Al ratios in the shelf sediments were enriched by approximately 20%. Other metal/Al ratios in the Papua New Guinea river suspended sediments and continental shelf sediments were not distinguishably different. Comparison of metal/Al ratios to grain size distributions in Gulf of Papua samples indicates that our observations cannot be attributed to differences in grain size between the river suspended sediments and continental shelf sediments. These two shelves constitute a source of dissolved Cd to the world ocean equal to 29-100% of the dissolved Cd input from rivers, but only 3% of the dissolved Mo input and 4% of the dissolved U input. Release of Cd, Mo, and U in tropical shelf sediments is likely a result of intense Fe and Mn oxide reduction in pore waters and resuspension of the sediments. Since we do not observe depletions of particulate Fe and Mn in the shelf sediments most of these dissolved metals must reoxidize in the overlying waters and reprecipitate. As Cd exhibits the largest losses on these tropical shelves, we examined the ability of newly formed Fe and Mn oxides to adsorb dissolved Cd using a geochemical diffuse double-layer surface complexation model and found the oxide surfaces are relatively ineffective at readsorbing Cd in seawater due to surface-site competition by Mg and Ca. If the remobilization and reoxidation of Fe and Mn occurs frequently enough before sediment is buried significant amounts of Cd may be

  4. PIXE as a complement to trace metal analysis of sediments by ICP-OES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunderberg, J. M.; Bartlett, R. J.; Behm, A. M.; Contreras, C.; DeYoung, P. A.; Hoogeveen, N. L.; Huisman, A. J.; Peaslee, G. F.; Postma, J. K.

    2008-11-01

    The adverse effects of metal contamination in sediments require methods that can quickly and accurately assess the extent of environmental pollution. Particle induced X-ray emission spectrometry (PIXE) is demonstrated to be a viable alternative to an established method, which consists of acid digestion and Inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) to measure trace metals in sediment. The analysis of trace metal composition by both techniques on a NIST Standard Reference Material mud gives results that are consistent with the certified values for fourteen measured metals, seven of which are common to both methods. A comparison study conducted on a sediment core from a freshwater lake with a known chromium contamination in Muskegon County, MI also shows a good correlation between the methods for transition metals of environmental interest over a wide range of metal concentrations. Total sample preparation and analysis time for the PIXE measurements is roughly one third that of acid digestion and ICP-OES. Also, the acid digestion step does not elute all the metal, while the nondestructive PIXE approach is a total metals analysis method. However the PIXE method generally has higher limits of detection for many environmental metal contaminants. By combining the two techniques, the acid digestion elution factor can be quantified by running PIXE on an original sample and on the residue resulting from acid digestion.

  5. Trace element accumulation and elutriate toxicity in surface sediment in northern Tunisia (Tunis Gulf, southern Mediterranean).

    PubMed

    Oueslati, Walid; Zaaboub, Noureddine; Helali, Mohamed Amine; Ennouri, Rym; Martins, Maria Virgínia Alves; Dhib, Amel; Galgani, Francois; El Bour, Monia; Added, Ayed; Aleya, Lotfi

    2017-03-15

    Metal concentrations in sediments were investigated in the Gulf of Tunis, Tunisia, in relation to anthropic activities along the Mejerda River and Ghar El Melh Lagoon, with effluents discharged into the gulf. Distribution of grain size showed that the silty fraction is dominant with 53%, while sand and clay averages are 34 and 12% respectively. Zn concentration increased in the vicinity of the Mejerda River while Pb was at its highest levels at the outlet of Ghar El Mehl Lagoon. Sediment elutriate toxicity, as measured by oyster embryo bioassays, ranged from 10 to 45% abnormalities after 24h, but no relation was found between metal concentration and sediment toxicity. The AVS fraction that represents monosulfide concentrations in the sediment was higher in the central part of the gulf than in the coastal zone. The results reveal the influence of AVS, TOC and grain size on metal speciation and sediment toxicity.

  6. Water and acid soluble trace metals in atmospheric particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindberg, S. E.; Harriss, R. C.

    1983-01-01

    Continental aerosols are collected above a deciduous forest in eastern Tennessee and subjected to selective extractions to determine the water-soluble and acid-leachable concentrations of Cd, Mn, Pb, and Zn. The combined contributions of these metals to the total aerosol mass is 0.5 percent, with approximately 70 percent of this attributable to Pb alone. A substantial fraction (approximately 50 percent or more) of the acid-leachable metals is soluble in distilled water. In general, this water-soluble fraction increases with decreasing particle size and with increasing frequency of atmospheric water vapor saturation during the sampling period. The pattern of relative solubilities (Zn being greater than Mn, which is approximately equal to Cd, which is greater than Pb) is found to be similar to the general order of the thermodynamic solubilities of the most probable salts of these elements in continental aerosols with mixed fossil fuel and soil sources.

  7. Trace metal dynamics in floodplain soils of the river Elbe: a review.

    PubMed

    Schulz-Zunkel, Christiane; Krueger, Frank

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews trace metal dynamics in floodplain soils using the Elbe floodplains in Germany as an example of extraordinary importance because of the pollution level of its sediments and soils. Trace metal dynamics are determined by processes of retention and release, which are influenced by a number of soil properties including pH value, redox potential, organic matter, type and amount of clay minerals, iron-, manganese- and aluminum-oxides. Today floodplains act as important sinks for contaminants but under changing hydraulic and geochemical conditions they may also act as sources for pollutants. In floodplains such changes may be extremes in flooding or dry periods that particularly lead to altered redox potentials and that in turn influence the pH value, the mineralization of organic matter as well as the charge of the pedogenic oxides. Such reactions may affect the bioavailability of trace metals in soils and it can be clearly seen that the bioavailability of metals is an important factor for estimating trace metal remobilization in floodplain soils. However as bioavailability is not a constant factor, there is still a lack of quantification of metal mobilization particularly on the basis of changing geochemical conditions. Moreover, mobile amounts of metals in the soil solution do not indicate to which extent remobilized metals will be transported to water bodies or plants and therefore potentially have toxicological effects. Consequently, floodplain areas still need to be taken into consideration when studying the role and behavior of sediments and soils for transporting pollutants within river systems, particularly concerning the Water Framework Directive.

  8. Trace Metal and Nutrient Cycling in San Francisco Bay

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-09-30

    interest in the cycling of contaminant metals and the role of benthic macrofauna in the Bay (especially the invasive species such as Potamocorbula) but...potential role of benthic macrofauna in collaboration with Dr. Jan Thompson (USGS/WRD) and are working with her to improve the chamber design as...study of South San Francisco Bay. In addition, we also included an objective to increase our understanding of the direct influence of benthic

  9. Atmospherically deposited trace metals from bulk mineral concentrate port operations.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Mark Patrick

    2015-05-15

    Although metal exposures in the environment have declined over the last two decades, certain activities and locations still present a risk of harm to human health. This study examines environmental dust metal and metalloid hazards (arsenic, cadmium, lead and nickel) associated with bulk mineral transport, loading and unloading port operations in public locations and children's playgrounds in the inner city of Townsville, northern Queensland. The mean increase in lead on post-play hand wipes (965 μg/m(2)/day) across all sites was more than 10-times the mean pre-play loadings (95 μg/m(2)/day). Maximum loading values after a 10-minute play period were 3012 μg/m(2), more than seven times the goal of 400 μg/m(2) used by the Government of Western Australia (2011). Maximum daily nickel post-play hand loadings (404 μg/m(2)) were more than 26 times above the German Federal Immission Control Act 2002 annual benchmark of 15 μg/m(2)/day. Repeat sampling over the 5-day study period showed that hands and surfaces were re-contaminated daily from the deposition of metal-rich atmospheric dusts. Lead isotopic composition analysis of dust wipes ((208)Pb/(207)Pb and (206)Pb/(207)Pb) showed that surface dust lead was similar to Mount Isa type ores, which are exported through the Port of Townsville. While dust metal contaminant loadings are lower than other mining and smelting towns in Australia, they exceeded national and international benchmarks for environmental quality. The lessons from this study are clear - even where operations are considered acceptable by managing authorities, targeted assessment and monitoring can be used to evaluate whether current management practices are truly best practice. Reassessment can identify opportunities for improvement and maximum environmental and human health protection.

  10. Study of Plant Cell Wall Polymers Affected by Metal Accumulation Using Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Shi-You

    2015-03-02

    This project aims to employ newly-developed chemical imaging techniques to measure, in real-time, the concentration, dynamics and spatial distribution of plant cell wall polymers during biomass growth with inoculation of transgenic symbiotic fungi, and to explore a new pathway of delivering detoxified metal to plant apoplast using transgenic symbiotic fungi, which will enhance metal accumulation from soil, and potentially these metals may in turn be used as catalysts to improve the efficiency of biomass conversion to biofuels. The proposed new pathway of biomass production will: 1) benefit metal and radionuclide contaminant mobility in subsurface environments, and 2) potentially improve biomass production and process for bioenergy

  11. High concentrations of trace metals in oysters from the Patuxent River, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Riedel, G.; Sanders, J.; Abbe, G.

    1995-12-31

    Oyster (Crassostrea virginica) populations from the Patuxent River have been analyzed for trace metals by a number of organizations over at least the past 19 years. During that period, high concentrations of Cu (200--500 {micro}g/g dry weight), Cd (3--7 {micro}g/g) and Ag (2--8 /{micro}g/g) have been found in oysters from the oyster bars furthest up river. In particular, Cd values in oysters from this region have had concentrations approaching or exceeding current FDA warning levels throughout the period. In previous studies it was suggested that a coal-burning power plant located in that region, Chalk Point Steam Electric Station, was responsible for the copper enrichment due to the corrosion of Cu/Ni alloy condenser tubes. However, a monthly survey of trace elements in the nearby oyster populations from 1986 to the present showed only a small decline in copper concentrations after the plant switched from Cu/Ni to Ti alloy condenser tubes in 1987. Other potential sources for trace metals in the region include municipal and industrial discharges, atmospheric deposition, and biocides (anti-fouling paint in particular). The very rapid rise in trace element concentrations in oysters with position up river, and the lack of such a response by another local bivalve, the hooked mussel (Ischadium recurvum), suggests that a physiological effect of low salinity stress on oysters may be in part responsible for the high concentrations of trace metals in oysters in this region.

  12. Trace metals, stable isotope ratios, and trophic relations in seabirds from the North Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Elliott, John E

    2005-12-01

    Trace elements including mercury, cadmium, selenium, and stable nitrogen isotope ratios (sigma15N) were measured in tissues of Pacific seabirds. Two species of albatross (Diomedea immutabilis, Diomedea nigripes), four species of shearwaters (Puffinus bulleri, Puffinus carneipes, Puffinus griseus, Puffinus tenuirostris), northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis), and horned puffin (Fratercula corniculata) were collected opportunistically by an experimental fishery in the North Pacific Ocean. Two species each of petrels (Oceanodroma leucorhoa, Oceanodroma furcata) and auklets (Ptychoramphus aleuticus, Cerorhinca monocerata) were collected at breeding colonies on the north coast of British Columbia, Canada. Concentrations of toxic trace metals varied considerably among the pelagic nonbreeders; highest concentrations consistently were in D. nigripes (e.g., Hg), 70-fold greater than F. corniculata (e.g., Cd), eightfold greater than P. tenuirostris (e.g., Se), and fourfold greater than F. corniculata. Most essential trace elements varied little among species, consistent with physiological regulation. Values for sigma15N correlated positively with hepatic Se (r = 0.771, p = 0.025) and negatively with Co (r = 0.817, p = 0.013). Among the four breeding species, there were significant positive associations for sigma15N in muscle and hepatic Se (r = 0.822, p = 0.002), Hg (r = 0.744, p = 0.0001), and Cd (r = 0.589, p = 0.003). Differences in time scales integrated by sigma15N versus trace metals in tissues probably reduced the apparent associations between trace-metal exposure and diet.

  13. Vermicomposting of Tea Factory Coal Ash: metal accumulation and metallothionein response in Eisenia fetida (Savigny) and Lampito mauritii (Kinberg).

    PubMed

    Goswami, L; Sarkar, S; Mukherjee, S; Das, S; Barman, S; Raul, P; Bhattacharyya, P; Mandal, N C; Bhattacharya, S; Bhattacharya, S S

    2014-08-01

    Earthworms can accumulate heavy metals in their intestines to a great extent. Impact of feed materials and duration of metal exposure on natural activity of earthworms are rather unclear; this investigation therefore addresses the impact of metal rich Tea Factory Coal Ash (TFCA) on reproduction, composting and metal accumulation ability of Eisenia fetida and Lampito mauritii. Earthworm count and cocoon production increased significantly during vermicomposting. pH of the vermicomposted mixtures shifted toward neutrality, total organic C decreased substantially and total N enhanced significantly compared to composting. High heavy metal (Mn, Zn, Cu, As) accumulation was recorded in the intestine of both the earthworm species. Moreover, gradual increase in the metal-inducible metallothionein concentration indicated the causal mechanism of metal accumulation in these species. TFCA+cow dung (CD) (1:1) were most favorable feed mixture for E. fetida and TFCA+CD (1:2) were good for L. mauritii in regard to metal accumulation and compost quality.

  14. Historical changes in trace metals and hydrocarbons in nearshore sediments, Alaskan Beaufort Sea, prior and subsequent to petroleum-related industrial development: Part I. Trace metals.

    PubMed

    Naidu, A Sathy; Blanchard, Arny L; Misra, Debasmita; Trefry, John H; Dasher, Douglas H; Kelley, John J; Venkatesan, M Indira

    2012-10-01

    Concentrations of Fe, As, Ba, Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb, Mn, Ni, Sn, V and Zn in mud (<63μm size), and total and methyl Hg in gross sediment are reported for Arctic Alaska nearshore. Multivariate-PCA analysis discriminated seven station clusters defined by differences in metal concentrations, attributed to regional variations in granulometry and, as in Elson Lagoon, to focused atmospheric fluxes of contaminants from Eurasia. In Colville Delta-Prudhoe Bay, V increase was noted in 1985 and 1997 compared to 1977, and Ba increase from 1985 to 1997. Presumably the source of increased V is the local gas flaring plant, and the elevated Ba is due to barite accumulation from oil drilling effluents. In Prudhoe Bay, concentration spikes of metals in ∼1988 presumably reflect enhanced metals deposition following maximum oil drilling in 1980s. In summary, the Alaskan Arctic nearshore has remained generally free of metal contamination despite petroleum-related activities in past 40 years.

  15. Metal accumulation in the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus. Model predictions compared to field data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Veltman, K.; Huijbregts, M.A.J.; Vijver, M.G.; Peijnenburg, W.J.G.M.; Hobbelen, P.H.F.; Koolhaas, J.E.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; van Vliet, P.C.J.; Jan, Hendriks A.

    2007-01-01

    The mechanistic bioaccumulation model OMEGA (Optimal Modeling for Ecotoxicological Applications) is used to estimate accumulation of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus. Our validation to field accumulation data shows that the model accurately predicts internal cadmium concentrations. In addition, our results show that internal metal concentrations in the earthworm are less than linearly (slope < 1) related to the total concentration in soil, while risk assessment procedures often assume the biota-soil accumulation factor (BSAF) to be constant. Although predicted internal concentrations of all metals are generally within a factor 5 compared to field data, incorporation of regulation in the model is necessary to improve predictability of the essential metals such as zinc and copper. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Airborne trace metals and organochlorine compounds in arctic Alaska and Siberia: How important?

    SciTech Connect

    Landers, D.H.; Allen-Gil, S.; Gubala, C.P.; Ford, J.

    1995-12-31

    Metal contaminants of anthropogenic origin identified in the arctic atmosphere and the presence of organochlorines in arctic marine mammal tissues has raised the question of the importance of long-range transport of contaminants to the Arctic. Research focused on arctic regions in Alaska and the Taimyr peninsula of north central Russia. Inland watersheds were examined for evidence of increases in trace metal flux during the past 150 years and the presence of organochlorine compounds. Fish and ground squirrels were examined for body burdens of organic contaminants and plasma biomarkers were examined to evaluate biological effects. Sediment data from several lakes suggest that over broad regions, trace metal fluxes have increased only slightly (< 10%), if at all, since the pre-industrial era. The highest metal concentrations in lake sediments are associated with known elevated geologic sources of metals within the respective watersheds. Organochlorines are present in remote inland arctic ecosystems and are most concentrated in the tissues (e.g. liver) of organisms representing higher trophic levels. Arctic Siberia and Alaska (Taimyr peninsula) are similar with regard to contaminant concentrations. However, lichen and moss data suggest that Pb from Eurasian sources does not reach arctic Alaska. The results indicate that long range, transpolar transport and deposition of trace metals is not a large scale current phenomena in the two study regions. The transport and deposition of organochlorine compounds, however, is occurring but at relatively low levels.

  17. Source apportionment and health risk assessment of trace metals in surface soils of Beijing metropolitan, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haiyang; Teng, Yanguo; Lu, Sijin; Wang, Yeyao; Wu, Jin; Wang, Jinsheng

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the exposure risks of trace metals in contamination soils and apportioning their sources are the basic preconditions for soil pollution prevention and control. In this study, a detailed investigation was conducted to assess the health risks of trace metals in surface soils of Beijing which is one of the most populated cities in the world and to apportion their potential sources. The data set of metals for 12 elements in 240 soil samples was collected. Pollution index and enrichment factor were used to identify the general contamination characteristic of soil metals. The probabilistic risk model was employed for health risk assessment, and a chemometrics technique, multivariate curve resolution-weighted alternating least squares (MCR-WALS), was applied to apportion sources. Results suggested that the soils in Beijing metropolitan region were contaminated by Hg, Cd, Cu, As, and Pb in varying degree, lying in the moderate pollution level. As a whole, the health risks posed by soil metals were acceptable or close to tolerable. Comparatively speaking, children and adult females were the relatively vulnerable populations for the non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks, respectively. Atmospheric deposition, fertilizers and agrochemicals, and natural source were apportioned as the potential sources determining the contents of trace metals in soils of Beijing area with contributions of 15.5%-16.4%, 5.9%-7.7% and 76.0%-78.6%, respectively.

  18. Trace metal geochemistry in mangrove sediments and their transfer to mangrove plants (New Caledonia).

    PubMed

    Marchand, C; Fernandez, J-M; Moreton, B

    2016-08-15

    Because of their physico-chemical inherent properties, mangrove sediments may act as a sink for pollutants coming from catchments. The main objective of this study was to assess the distribution of some trace metals in the tissues of various mangrove plants developing downstream highly weathered ferralsols, taking into account metals partitioning in the sediment. In New Caledonia, mangroves act as a buffer between open-cast mines and the world's largest lagoon. As a result of the erosion of lateritic soils, Ni and Fe concentrations in the sediment were substantially higher than the world average. Whatever the mangrove stand and despite low bioaccumulation and translocations factors, Fe and Ni were also the most abundant metals in the different plant tissues. This low bioaccumulation may be explained by: i) the low availability of metals, which were mainly present in the form of oxides or sulfur minerals, and ii) the root systems acting as barriers towards the transfer of metals to the plant. Conversely, Cu and Zn metals had a greater mobility in the plant, and were characterized by high bioconcentration and translocation factors compared to the other metals. Cu and Zn were also more mobile in the sediment as a result of their association with organic matter. Whatever the metal, a strong decrease of trace metal stock was observed from the landside to the seaside of the mangrove, probably as a result of the increased reactivity of the sediment due to OM enrichment. This reactivity lead to higher dissolution of bearing phases, and thus to the export of dissolved trace metals trough the tidal action. Cu and Zn were the less concerned by the phenomenon probably as a result of higher plant uptake and their restitution to the sediment with litter fall in stands where tidal flushing is limited.

  19. Tissue distribution and correlation profiles of heavy-metal accumulation in the freshwater crayfish Astacus leptodactylus.

    PubMed

    Tunca, Evren; Ucuncu, Esra; Ozkan, Alper Devrim; Ulger, Zeynep Ergul; Tekinay, Turgay

    2013-05-01

    The present work details the analysis of heavy-metal and metalloid concentrations in exoskeleton, gill, hepatopancreas, and abdominal muscle tissues of 60 crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus) specimens collected from Lake Hirfanlı, a dam lake located in Kırşehir (Turkey) with a low metal-contamination profile. Concentrations of 11 metals (aluminum [Al], chromium [Cd], manganese [Mn], cobalt [Co], nickel [Ni], copper [Cu], molybdenum [Mo], silver [Ag], cadmium [Cd], mercury [Hg], and lead [Pb]) and a metalloid (arsenic [As]) were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, and the relative frequencies of the most abundant isotopes of Cr, Cu, Ag, Cd, Hg, and Pb were evaluated. Three correlation trends were evaluated between the following: (1) different elements in the each individual tissue, (2) individual elements in different tissues, and (3) different elements in different tissues. In addition, correlation rates of growth parameters (weight, cephalothorax length, and total length) with heavy-metal and metalloid concentrations in each tissue were investigated. Our results suggest that substantial differences in metal and metalloid-accumulation levels exist between male and female specimens, with stronger correlations between the heavy-metal concentrations observed in the male cohort. It is notable that correlation trends of Co, Cu, (52)As, Cr, and Ni in exoskeleton of the male specimens display strong similarities. Likewise, a very strong correlation is present in Ni-Cd and Ni-Pb accumulations in abdominal muscle of the male specimens; a similar trend is present between Cd and Pb concentrations in the same tissue of female specimens. For correlation rates of different heavy metals and metalloid in different tissues, the strongest positive association observed was between (63)Cu in gill and As in hepatopancreas, whereas the strongest negative correlation was between accumulated Ni in abdominal muscle and As in exoskeleton. Strong correlations between

  20. Proline accumulation in lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus Stapf.) due to heavy metal stress.

    PubMed

    Handique, G K; Handique, A K

    2009-03-01

    Toxic heavy metals viz. lead, mercury and cadmium induced differential accumulation of proline in lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus Stapf.) grown in soil amended with 50, 100, 200, 350 and 500 mg kg(-1) of the metals have been studied. Proline accumulation was found to be metal specific, organ specific and linear dose dependant. Further, proline accumulation following short term exposure (two months after transplantation) was higher than long term exposure (nine months after transplantation). Proline accumulation following short term exposure was 2.032 to 3.839 micro moles g(-1) for cadmium (50-200 mg kg(-1)); the corresponding range for mercury was 1.968 to 5.670 micro moles g(-1) and 0.830 to 4.567 micro moles g(-1) for lead (50-500 mg kg(-1) for mercury and lead). Proline accumulation was consistently higher in young tender leaf than old leaf, irrespective of the metal or duration of exposure. For cadmium treatment proline level was 2.032 to 3.839 micro moles g(-1) for young leaves while the corresponding value for old leaf was 1.728 to 2.396 micro moles g(-1) following short term exposure. The same trend was observed for the other two metals and duration of exposure. For control set proline accumulation in root was 0.425 micro moles g(-1) as against 0.805 and 0.533 micro moles g(-1) in young and old leaves respectively indicating that proline accumulation in root are lower than leaves, under both normal and stressed condition.

  1. Influences of ambient carbon nanotubes on toxic metals accumulation in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhi-Guo; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2013-08-01

    With the rapid increase of carbon nanotube (CNT) applications, there are considerable concerns of their inevitable releases into the aquatic environments. CNTs may interact with and further influence the fate and transport of other pollutants such as toxic metals. In the present study, non-covalent and nontoxic dispersant polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) was used to provide a relatively stable test solution for CNTs. The dissolved uptake rate constant (ku) and the dietary assimilation efficiency (AE) of cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) were then quantified in a freshwater zooplankton Daphnia magna in the presence of different CNTs (without functionalized - single-walled nanotubes-SWNTs, multi-walled nanotubes-MWNTs, and with functionalized - F-SWNTs, F-MWNTs, containing oxygen functional groups at the defect sites of CNTs) concentrations. We demonstrated that different CNTs exposures led to distinctive metal accumulation patterns. Non-functionalized CNTs significantly decreased the metal uptake rate from the dissolved phase, possibly because of their effects on the physiological activity of animals. In contrast, the F-CNTs (F-SWNTs and F-MWNTs) adsorbed the metals and increased the metal accumulation in daphnids in a concentration-dependent manner, due to the ingestion of F-CNTs associated metals. The AEs of metals in D. magna were elevated by CNTs physical blocking of the animal guts. Our present study showed that CNTs could serve as a new pathway for metal accumulation. This raised a new environmental problem of CNTs since they may induce the accumulation of toxic metals from the dietary exposure.

  2. Evaluating Insects as Bioindicators of Heavy Metal Contamination and Accumulation near Industrial Area of Gujrat, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Azam, Iqra; Afsheen, Sumera; Zia, Ahmed; Javed, Muqaddas; Saeed, Rashid; Sarwar, Muhammad Kaleem; Munir, Bushra

    2015-01-01

    To study the accumulation and contamination of heavy metals (i.e., Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn) in soil, air, and water, few insect species were assayed as ecological indicators. Study area comes under industrial zone of district Gujrat of Punjab, Pakistan. Insects used as bioindicators included a libellulid dragonfly (Crocothemis servilia), an acridid grasshopper (Oxya hyla hyla), and a nymphalid butterfly (Danaus chrysippus) near industrial zone of Gujrat. Accumulation of Cd was highest in insect species followed by Cu, Cr, Zn, and Ni at p < 0.05. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HACA) was carried out to study metal accumulation level in all insects. Correlation and regression analysis confirmed HACA observations and declared concentration of heavy metals above permissible limits. Metal concentrations in insects were significantly higher near industries and nallahs in Gujrat and relatively higher concentrations of metals were found in Orthoptera than Odonata and Lepidoptera. The total metal concentrations in insects were pointed significantly higher at sites S3 (Mid of HalsiNala), S9 (End of HalsiNala), and S1 (Start of HalsiNala), whereas lowest value was detected at site S6 (Kalra Khasa) located far from industrial area. HACA indicates that these insect groups are potential indicators of metal contamination and can be used in biomonitoring.

  3. Evaluating Insects as Bioindicators of Heavy Metal Contamination and Accumulation near Industrial Area of Gujrat, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Azam, Iqra; Afsheen, Sumera; Zia, Ahmed; Javed, Muqaddas; Saeed, Rashid; Sarwar, Muhammad Kaleem; Munir, Bushra

    2015-01-01

    To study the accumulation and contamination of heavy metals (i.e., Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn) in soil, air, and water, few insect species were assayed as ecological indicators. Study area comes under industrial zone of district Gujrat of Punjab, Pakistan. Insects used as bioindicators included a libellulid dragonfly (Crocothemis servilia), an acridid grasshopper (Oxya hyla hyla), and a nymphalid butterfly (Danaus chrysippus) near industrial zone of Gujrat. Accumulation of Cd was highest in insect species followed by Cu, Cr, Zn, and Ni at p < 0.05. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HACA) was carried out to study metal accumulation level in all insects. Correlation and regression analysis confirmed HACA observations and declared concentration of heavy metals above permissible limits. Metal concentrations in insects were significantly higher near industries and nallahs in Gujrat and relatively higher concentrations of metals were found in Orthoptera than Odonata and Lepidoptera. The total metal concentrations in insects were pointed significantly higher at sites S3 (Mid of HalsiNala), S9 (End of HalsiNala), and S1 (Start of HalsiNala), whereas lowest value was detected at site S6 (Kalra Khasa) located far from industrial area. HACA indicates that these insect groups are potential indicators of metal contamination and can be used in biomonitoring. PMID:26167507

  4. Toxicity, accumulation, and removal of heavy metals by three aquatic macrophytes.

    PubMed

    Basile, A; Sorbo, S; Conte, B; Cobianchi, R Castaldo; Trinchella, F; Capasso, C; Carginale, V

    2012-04-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the uptake, tolerance, and transport of heavy metals by plants will be essential for the development of phytoremediation technologies. In the present paper, we investigated accumulation, tissue and intracellular localization, and toxic effects of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu) in three aquatic macrophytes (the angiosperms Lemna minor and Elodea canadensis, and the moss Leptodictyum riparium). We also tested and compared their capacity to absorb heavy metal from water under laboratory conditions. Our data showed that all the three species examined could be considered good bioaccumulators for the heavy metals tested. L. riparium was the most resistant species and the most effective in accumulating Cu, Zn, and Pb, whereas L. minor was the most effective in accumulating Cd. Cd was the most toxic metal, followed by Pb, Cu, and Zn. At the ultrastructural level, sublethal concentrations of the heavy metals tested caused induced cell plasmolysis and alterations of the chloroplast arrangement. Heavy metal removal experiments revealed that the three macrophytes showed excellent performance in removing the selected metals from the solutions in which they are maintained, thus suggesting that they could be considered good candidates for wastewaters remediation purpose.

  5. Fungal accumulation of metals from building materials during brown rot wood decay.

    PubMed

    Hastrup, Anne Christine Steenkjær; Jensen, Bo; Jellison, Jody

    2014-08-01

    This study analyzes the accumulation and translocation of metal ions in wood during the degradation performed by one strain of each of the three brown rot fungi; Serpula lacrymans, Meruliporia incrassata and Coniophora puteana. These fungi species are inhabitants of the built environment where the prevention and understanding of fungal decay is of high priority. This study focuses on the influence of various building materials in relation to fungal growth and metal uptake. Changes in the concentration of iron, manganese, calcium and copper ions in the decayed wood were analyzed by induced coupled plasma spectroscopy and related to wood weight loss and oxalic acid accumulation. Metal transport into the fungal inoculated wood was found to be dependent on the individual strain/species. The S. lacrymans strain caused a significant increase in total iron whereas the concentration of copper ions in the wood appeared decreased after 10 weeks of decay. Wood inoculated with the M. incrassata isolate showed the contrary tendency with high copper accumulation and low iron increase despite similar weight losses for the two strains. However, significantly lower oxalic acid accumulation was recorded in M. incrassata degraded wood. The addition of a building material resulted in increased weight loss in wood degraded by C. puteana in the soil-block test; however, this could not be directly linked specifically to the accumulation of any of the four metals recorded. The accumulation of oxalic acid seemed to influence the iron uptake. The study assessing the influence of the presence of soil and glass in the soil-block test revealed that soil contributed the majority of the metals for uptake by the fungi and contributed to increased weight loss. The varying uptake observed among the three brown rot fungi strains toward the four metals analyzed may be related to the specific non-enzymatic and enzymatic properties including bio-chelators employed by each of the species during wood

  6. Quantitative Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction for Trace-Metal Determination: An Experiment for Analytical Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavilla, Isela; Costas, Marta; Pena-Pereira, Francisco; Gil, Sandra; Bendicho, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) is introduced to upper-level analytical chemistry students as a simple strategy focused on sample preparation for trace-metal determination in biological tissues. Nickel extraction in seafood samples and quantification by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) are carried out by a team of four…

  7. Levels of PCBs and trace metals in Crab Orchard Lake sediment, benthos, zooplankton, and fish

    SciTech Connect

    Kohler, C.C.; Heidinger, R.C.; Call, T.

    1990-02-01

    Concentrations of trace metals and PCBs in six species of fish, zooplankton, macrobenthos, sediment, and water were studied in Crab Orchard Lake, Williamson County, Illinois. Eleven sites were chosen throughout the lake, including one site (site 10) near an abandoned dumpsite of a former electrical transformer manufacturing facility. PCB levels in the selected components from site 10 were considerably higher than the other sites. Thirty-eight percent (17/45) of fish fillets from various species at this site exceeded the 2.00 mg/kg FDA guideline for PCBs. PCB concentrations in fish were variable, and little relationship existed between age or size and PCB concentrations in most species. Common carp and channel catfish had higher PCB levels than the other species examined. Trace metals were low in fish and other components analyzed and were comparable to literature values for the midwestern United States. Mercury was the only trace metal to exhibit a significant positive relationship with age or size of fish. Mercury was also the only trace metal to exhibit biomagnification.

  8. Continuous renal replacement therapy amino acid, trace metal and folate clearance in critically ill children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We hypothesized that continuous veno-venous hemodialysis (CVVHD) results in amino acid, trace metals, and folate losses, thereby adversely impacting nutrient balance. Critically ill children receiving CVVHD were studied prospectively for 5 days. Blood concentrations, amino acids, copper, zinc, man...

  9. Representativeness of laboratory sampling procedures for the analysis of trace metals in soil.

    PubMed

    Dubé, Jean-Sébastien; Boudreault, Jean-Philippe; Bost, Régis; Sona, Mirela; Duhaime, François; Éthier, Yannic

    2015-08-01

    This study was conducted to assess the representativeness of laboratory sampling protocols for purposes of trace metal analysis in soil. Five laboratory protocols were compared, including conventional grab sampling, to assess the influence of sectorial splitting, sieving, and grinding on measured trace metal concentrations and their variability. It was concluded that grinding was the most important factor in controlling the variability of trace metal concentrations. Grinding increased the reproducibility of sample mass reduction by rotary sectorial splitting by up to two orders of magnitude. Combined with rotary sectorial splitting, grinding increased the reproducibility of trace metal concentrations by almost three orders of magnitude compared to grab sampling. Moreover, results showed that if grinding is used as part of a mass reduction protocol by sectorial splitting, the effect of sieving on reproducibility became insignificant. Gy's sampling theory and practice was also used to analyze the aforementioned sampling protocols. While the theoretical relative variances calculated for each sampling protocol qualitatively agreed with the experimental variances, their quantitative agreement was very poor. It was assumed that the parameters used in the calculation of theoretical sampling variances may not correctly estimate the constitutional heterogeneity of soils or soil-like materials. Finally, the results have highlighted the pitfalls of grab sampling, namely, the fact that it does not exert control over incorrect sampling errors and that it is strongly affected by distribution heterogeneity.

  10. FATE AND TRANSPORT OF EMISSIONS FOR SEVERAL TRACE METALS OVER THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A regional model for atmospheric photochemistry and particulate matter is used to predict the fate and transport of five trace metals: lead, manganese, total chromium, nickel, and cadmium over the continental United States during January and July 2001. Predicted concentrations of...

  11. Trace metal concentration in Trade Wind aerosols collected over Barbados and Miami.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trapp, J. M.; Millero, F. J.; Prospero, J. M.

    2007-12-01

    African mineral dust aerosols are transported by trade winds to Barbados and often reach Miami. The trace metals contained in these aerosols play an important role in biogeochemical processes and thus the global carbon cycle. High-volume bulk aerosols were collected in the summer dust season (June-September) of 2003 and 2004 in Miami and Barbados on Whatman-41 filters and microwave digested using a modified version of EPA method 3051. Aliquots of digested samples were tested for trace metal concentrations by ICP-MS. Excellent agreement with gravimetrically determined ashed weights was observed with dust concentrations calculated based on Al crustal abundance. As a major component, aluminum averaged 8.7% content in agreement to 8.1% crustal abundance, and was used to examine other trace metals. Al, Fe, V, Cr, Mn, Cu, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Tl, Ba, Cd, Pb and REE's were examined and deviations from average crustal abundance are discussed in relationship to temporal variation and meteorological conditions. In addition, trace metal pollutants in Miami aerosols were examined relative to the relatively clean samples offered by Barbados.

  12. Behavior of trace metals in the sediment pore waters of intertidal mudflats of a tropical wetland

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, K.T.; Lam, M.H.W.; Yen, Y.F.; Leung, A.P.K.

    2000-03-01

    Vertical profiles of dissolved Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe, and Mn in the sediment pore waters of the intertidal mudflats of the Mai Po and Inner Deep Bay Ramsar Site of Hong Kong, People's Republic of China, were measured using the polyacrylamide gel diffusive equilibration thin film (DET) technique. The ranges of concentrations of dissolved Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe, and Mn in the pore water of the top 0 to 20 cm of sediment were 2.2 to 10.0 nM, 346.0 to 950.0 nM 243.8 to 454.8 nM, 23.2 to 51.2 nM, 39.8 to 249.5 {micro}M, and 13.4 to 20.7 {micro}M, respectively. Enrichment of these trace metals was observed in the upper 0- to 7-cm layer. Profiles of conditional distribution coefficient, log(K{sub D}), of the trace metals and results of multiple regression analysis have revealed that reduction of Mn (hydrous) oxides was the major remobilization mechanism for Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn in the mudflats. Benthic diffusive fluxes of these trace metals from the mudflats were also estimated on the basis of the concentration gradients of trace metals between surface sediments and the overlying water column. The magnitude of the estimated diffusive fluxes followed the order Zn > Cr > Cu > Pb > Cd.

  13. Steady-state model of biota sediment accumulation factor for metals in two marine bivalves

    SciTech Connect

    Thomann, R.V.; Mahony, J.D.; Mueller, R.

    1995-11-01

    A model of the biota sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) is developed to relate the ratio of metal concentrations in two marine bivalves (Crassostrea virginica and Mytilus edulis) to sediment metal concentration. A generalized metal BSAF can be approximated by a simple relationship that is a function of sediment to water column partitioning, the bioconcentration factor (BCF), the depuration rate, the metal assimilation efficiency from food, the bivalve feeding rate, and the growth rate. Analyses of Mussel Watch data indicate that the medium BSAF across stations varies by about three orders of magnitude from Zn, Cd, and Cu at the highest levels of BSAF = 1 to 10, while Cr has the lowest BSAF at 0.01. Total Hg is about 1.0 and Ni and Pb are approximately 0.1. Calibration of the model indicates that the food route of metal accumulation is significant for all metals but specially for Zn, Cd, Cu, and Hg where virtually all of the observed BSAF is calculated to be due to ingestion of metal from food in the overlying water. These results indicate a potential significance of the metal-binding protein metallothionein, which results in relatively high binding of metal and resulting low depuration rates.

  14. Heavy metal accumulation by periphyton is related to eutrophication in the Hai River Basin, Northern China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wenzhong; Cui, Jingguo; Shan, Baoqing; Wang, Chao; Zhang, Wenqiang

    2014-01-01

    The Hai River Basin (HRB) is one of the most polluted river basins in China. The basin suffers from various types of pollutants including heavy metals and nutrients due to a high population density and rapid economic development in this area. We assessed the relationship between heavy metal accumulation by periphyton playing an important role in fluvial food webs and eutrophication in the HRB. The concentrations of the unicellular diatoms (type A), filamentous algae with diatoms (type B), and filamentous algae (type C) varied along the river, with type A dominating upstream, and types B then C increasing in concentration further downstream, and this was consistent with changes in the trophic status of the river. The mean heavy metal concentrations in the type A, B and C organisms were Cr: 18, 18 and 24 mg/kg, respectively, Ni: 9.2, 10 and 12 mg/kg, respectively, Cu: 8.4, 19 and 29 mg/kg, respectively, and Pb: 11, 9.8 and 7.1 mg/kg respectively. The bioconcentration factors showed that the abilities of the organisms to accumulate Cr, Ni and Pb decreased in the order type A, type B, then type C, but their abilities to accumulate Cu increased in that order. The Ni concentration was a good predictor of Cr, Cu and Pb accumulation by all three periphyton types. Our study shows that heavy metal accumulation by periphyton is associated with eutrophication in the rivers in the HRB.

  15. Heavy Metal Accumulation by Periphyton Is Related to Eutrophication in the Hai River Basin, Northern China

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Wenzhong; Cui, Jingguo; Shan, Baoqing; Wang, Chao; Zhang, Wenqiang

    2014-01-01

    The Hai River Basin (HRB) is one of the most polluted river basins in China. The basin suffers from various types of pollutants including heavy metals and nutrients due to a high population density and rapid economic development in this area. We assessed the relationship between heavy metal accumulation by periphyton playing an important role in fluvial food webs and eutrophication in the HRB. The concentrations of the unicellular diatoms (type A), filamentous algae with diatoms (type B), and filamentous algae (type C) varied along the river, with type A dominating upstream, and types B then C increasing in concentration further downstream, and this was consistent with changes in the trophic status of the river. The mean heavy metal concentrations in the type A, B and C organisms were Cr: 18, 18 and 24 mg/kg, respectively, Ni: 9.2, 10 and 12 mg/kg, respectively, Cu: 8.4, 19 and 29 mg/kg, respectively, and Pb: 11, 9.8 and 7.1 mg/kg respectively. The bioconcentration factors showed that the abilities of the organisms to accumulate Cr, Ni and Pb decreased in the order type A, type B, then type C, but their abilities to accumulate Cu increased in that order. The Ni concentration was a good predictor of Cr, Cu and Pb accumulation by all three periphyton types. Our study shows that heavy metal accumulation by periphyton is associated with eutrophication in the rivers in the HRB. PMID:24482681

  16. Metal accumulation by an epigean and a hypogean freshwater amphipod: Considerations for water quality assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Pienet, S.

    1999-12-01

    To evaluate their potential as biomonitors of surface and underground water quality, the accumulation of essential metals, zinc and copper, by two species of amphipod crustaceans, Gammarus fossarum (an epigean amphipod) and Niphargus rhenorhodanensis (a similar but blind and hypogean form) was investigated. These two species were exposed, under controlled laboratory conditions, to different metal concentrations for 12 days. Several concentrations of each of the two metals separately and one concentration of a mixture of both were tested. Percent mortality revealed that the hypogean species was more resistant than the epigean. During the 12 days of experiment, accumulation patterns differed between species and between metals. G. fossarum, but not N. rhenorhodanensis, accumulated zinc at exposures of up to 12 days and concentrations as great as 1,000 {micro}g/L. Zinc levels in tissue of G. fossarum were greater than in those of N. rhenorhodanensis. Epigean and hypogean amphipods did not clearly accumulate copper in exposures as great at 65 {micro}g/L. Possible reasons for the differences in zinc and copper accumulation between the two species are discussed. Finally, the suitability of the two species as biomonitors for surface and underground water is discussed.

  17. Bellows-Type Accumulators for Liquid Metal Loops of Space Reactor Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tournier, Jean-Michel; El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    2006-01-01

    In many space nuclear power systems, the primary and/or secondary loops use liquid metal working fluids, and require accumulators to accommodate the change in the liquid metal volume and maintain sufficient subcooling to avoid boiling. This paper developed redundant and light-weight bellows-type accumulators with and without a mechanical spring, and compared the operating condition and mass of the accumulators for different types of liquid metal working fluids and operating temperatures: potassium, NaK-78, sodium and lithium loops of a total capacity of 50 liters and nominal operating temperatures of 840 K, 860 K, 950 K and 1340 K, respectively. The effects of using a mechanical spring and different structural materials on the design, operation and mass of the accumulators are also investigated. The structure materials considered include SS-316, Hastelloy-X, C-103 and Mo-14Re. The accumulator without a mechanical spring weighs 23 kg and 40 kg for a coolant subcooling of 50 K and 100 K, respectively, following a loss of the fill gas. The addition of a mechanical spring comes with a mass penalty, in favor of higher redundancy and maintaining a higher liquid metal subcooling.

  18. Bellows-Type Accumulators for Liquid Metal Loops of Space Reactor Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tournier, Jean-Michel; El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    2006-01-20

    In many space nuclear power systems, the primary and/or secondary loops use liquid metal working fluids, and require accumulators to accommodate the change in the liquid metal volume and maintain sufficient subcooling to avoid boiling. This paper developed redundant and light-weight bellows-type accumulators with and without a mechanical spring, and compared the operating condition and mass of the accumulators for different types of liquid metal working fluids and operating temperatures: potassium, NaK-78, sodium and lithium loops of a total capacity of 50 liters and nominal operating temperatures of 840 K, 860 K, 950 K and 1340 K, respectively. The effects of using a mechanical spring and different structural materials on the design, operation and mass of the accumulators are also investigated. The structure materials considered include SS-316, Hastelloy-X, C-103 and Mo-14Re. The accumulator without a mechanical spring weighs 23 kg and 40 kg for a coolant subcooling of 50 K and 100 K, respectively, following a loss of the fill gas. The addition of a mechanical spring comes with a mass penalty, in favor of higher redundancy and maintaining a higher liquid metal subcooling.

  19. Complexation of trace metals by adsorbed natural organic matter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    The adsorption behavior and solution speciation of Cu(II) and Cd(II) were studied in model systems containing colloidal alumina particles and dissolved natural organic matter. At equilibrium a significant fraction of the alumina surface was covered by adsorbed organic matter. Cu(II) was partitioned primarily between the surface-bound organic matter and dissolved Cu-organic complexes in the aqueous phase. Complexation of Cu2+ with the functional groups of adsorbed organic matter was stronger than complexation with uncovered alumina surface hydroxyls. It is shown that the complexation of Cu(II) by adsorbed organic matter can be described by an apparent stability constant approximately equal to the value found for solution phase equilibria. In contrast, Cd(II) adsorption was not significantly affected by the presence of organic matter at the surface, due to weak complex formation with the organic ligands. The results demonstrate that general models of trace element partitioning in natural waters must consider the presence of adsorbed organic matter. ?? 1984.

  20. Trends in trace organic and metal concentrations in the Pechora and Kara Seas and adjacent rivers

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, J.M.; Champ, M.A.; Wade, T.L.; Kennicutt, M.C. II; Chambers, L.; Davis, T.

    1995-12-31

    Trace organic (pesticides, PCBs, PAHs and dioxin/furan) and trace metal concentrations have been measured in surficial sediment and tissue (i.e., clam, fish liver and flesh) samples from the Pechora and Kara Seas and their adjacent rivers -- Pechora, Ob and Yenisey Rivers. Total PAH, PCB and total DDT and chlordane concentrations ranged in surficial sediments from n.d. to 810 ppb, n.d.--8.7 ppb, n.d.--1.2 ppb, and n.d.--1.2 ppb, respectively, in a suite of 40 samples from the Kara Sea and its adjacent rivers. The highest concentrations of many of the trace organic and metal contaminants were found in the lower part of the Yenisey River below the salt wedge. Some trace metals (As for example) were elevated in the Pechora River dispositional plume region. Dioxin ranged from 1.36 to 413 ppt in a subset of 20 sediment samples. Higher trace organic contaminant concentrations compared to sediments were found in tissue samples from the region, especially fish liver samples. Concentrations as high as 1,114 ppb total PAHs, 89 ppb chlordane, 1,011 ppb for total DDT and 663 ppb PCBs were found in some fish liver samples. Dioxin concentrations in tissue samples ranged from 11.7 to 61 ppt. Concentrations of many trace organic and metal contaminants in these Russian marginal seas are influenced by inputs from these large Arctic rivers. Many organic contaminant concentrations in sediments are low, however detecting these compounds in tissue show they are bioavailable.

  1. Levels of selected trace metals in hair of urban and rural adult male population of Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Ashraf, W.; Jaffar, M.; Mohammad, D.

    1995-02-01

    Human scalp hair as a biopsy material may well serve the purpose of estimating the degree of human exposure to environmental contaminants, especially trace metals. To this effect, the levels of trace metals in hair of various groups of population living in areas with varying extent of environmental exposure are generally compared together. Such comparative evaluations are important since they are unique for each group of population and probably reflect not only a number of factors of genetical, nutritional and environmental origin, but also indicate relationship with factors such as food, ambient air, drinking water, occupational exposure, age, race, sex and metabolic condition etc. Also there are some elements which are selectively deposited in hair and may thus provide clinical information on the level of exposure and toxication. The aim of the present study was two-fold: to collect base-line trace metal data on hair and to evaluate the metal levels as measure of the nutritional status of the relevant groups of urban and rural population in terms of industrial, agricultural and occupation exposure. For this purpose, scalp hair samples were obtained from donors belonging to urban adult male population from the city of Peshawer and a rural town, Jamrood and were investigated for three essential metals (Na, K and Zn) and four non-essential metals (Co, Hg, As and Ag) by AAS technique. The impact of urban and rural environments, including the food habits of individuals, on trace metal distribution in scalp hair of the two classes of population is then reviewed with reference to the literature data available from other parts of the world. 16 refs., 5 tabs.

  2. Contamination characteristics and source apportionment of trace metals in soils around Miyun Reservoir.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haiyang; Teng, Yanguo; Chen, Ruihui; Li, Jiao; Wang, Jinsheng

    2016-08-01

    Due to their toxicity and bioaccumulation, trace metals in soils can result in a wide range of toxic effects on animals, plants, microbes, and even humans. Recognizing the contamination characteristics of soil metals and especially apportioning their potential sources are the necessary preconditions for pollution prevention and control. Over the past decades, several receptor models have been developed for source apportionment. Among them, positive matrix factorization (PMF) has gained popularity and was recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency as a general modeling tool. In this study, an extended chemometrics model, multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares based on maximum likelihood principal component analysis (MCR-ALS/MLPCA), was proposed for source apportionment of soil metals and applied to identify the potential sources of trace metals in soils around Miyun Reservoir. Similar to PMF, the MCR-ALS/MLPCA model can incorporate measurement error information and non-negativity constraints in its calculation procedures. Model validation with synthetic dataset suggested that the MCR-ALS/MLPCA could extract acceptable recovered source profiles even considering relatively larger error levels. When applying to identify the sources of trace metals in soils around Miyun Reservoir, the MCR-ALS/MLPCA model obtained the highly similar profiles with PMF. On the other hand, the assessment results of contamination status showed that the soils around reservoir were polluted by trace metals in slightly moderate degree but potentially posed acceptable risks to the public. Mining activities, fertilizers and agrochemicals, and atmospheric deposition were identified as the potential anthropogenic sources with contributions of 24.8, 14.6, and 13.3 %, respectively. In order to protect the drinking water source of Beijing, special attention should be paid to the metal inputs to soils from mining and agricultural activities.

  3. [Trace metals in coastal sediments from Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    García-Céspedes, Jairo; Acuña-González, Jenaro; Vargas-Zamora, José A

    2004-12-01

    Marine sediment samples from four coastal ecosystems in Costa Rica were taken between the years 2000-2002 and their iron, lead, copper and zinc concentrations were determined by the atomic absorption technique with flame or graphite furnace. In the Pacific coast, Culebra Bay (Papagayo Gulf), Gulf of Nicoya, and Golfito Bay (Dulce Gulf), were selected as representative sites, and Moín Bay, at the Caribbean coast. Mean metal concentrations for all ecosystems followed the same pattern: Fe > Zn > Cu > Pb. No temporal pattern was found for any metal. Iron and copper mean concentrations were higher in Golfito Bay (5.8% and 87 microg/g, respectively) and lower in Moín Bay (3.4% and 52 microg/g, respectively). Zinc mean concentration was also higher in Golfito Bay (96 microg/g), but lower in Culebra Bay (66 microg/g). Lead mean concentration was higher in Moín Bay (6.4 microg/g) and lower in Culebra Bay (3.0 microg/g). Lead highest concentrations occurred in the Caribbean and in Golfito Bay, and for the rest of the elements the maximum values were found in Golfito Bay. On the basis of data obtained in this work, Culebra Bay was considered a relatively unpolluted location; Golfito Bay was more contaminated, and Moín Bay and the Gulf of Nicoya showed an intermediate condition.

  4. Determination of trace metals in air particulate matters by capillary electrophoresis with spectrophotometric detection

    SciTech Connect

    Fung, Y.S.; Tung, H.S.

    1998-12-31

    Chemical analysis of trace metals in air particulate matters are required for studies in the apportionment of major air pollution sources, occupational health protection, environmental monitoring of ambient and indoor air, and for atmospheric aerosol research purpose. The demand for the required analysis is towards more sensitive, cheaper and automated method, as well as capability of differentiating different chemical species present in the air particulate matters. The recent advance of capillary electrophoresis provides an alternative method for multi-element determination with capability of speciation of different chemical elements for both total and leachable metal determination. It also uses equipment available in many chemical laboratories with reasonable capital and low running cost. In the present paper, the application of CE for trace metal analysis in air particulate matters will be investigated in three areas. The first area is the development of sample pretreatment method. For total metal analysis, the microwave digestion method is chosen based on short digestion time and reduced contamination. The second area is the optimization of the CE buffers. The use of strong and weak complex system is compared using histidine and 4-methylbenzylamine for indirect UV detection and 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulphonic acid (HQS) for direct UV detection for CE separation of alkali and alkaline earth metals (ammonium, potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, barium, strontium) with transition metals (cobalt, cadmium, nickel, zinc, lead and copper). The role of lactic acid, 18-crown-6 and other additives to effect satisfactory separation of closely co-migrated pairs and to achieve suitable separation of large amounts of alkali metals (ppm) from trace levels of transition metals (ppb) will be discussed for both leachable and total metals present in air particulate matters.

  5. Biogeochemical and hydrological controls on fate and distribution of trace metals in oiled Gulf salt marshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keevan, J.; Natter, M.; Lee, M.; Keimowitz, A.; Okeke, B.; Savrda, C.; Saunders, J.

    2011-12-01

    On April 20, 2010, the drilling rig Deepwater Horizon exploded in the Gulf of Mexico, resulting in the release of approximately 5 million barrels of crude oil into the environment. Oil and its associated trace metals have been demonstrated to have a detrimental effect on coastal wetland ecosystems. Wetlands are particularly susceptible to oil contamination because they are composed largely of fine-grained sediments, which have a high capacity to adsorb organic matter and metals. The biogeochemical cycling of trace metals can be strongly influenced by microbial activity, specifically those of sulfate- and iron-reducing bacteria. Microbial activity may be enhanced by an increase in amounts of organic matter such as oil. This research incorporates an assessment of levels of trace metals and associated biogeochemical changes from ten coastal marshes in Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana. These sampling sites range in their pollution levels from pristine to highly contaminated. A total digestion analysis of wetland sediments shows higher concentrations of certain trace metals (e.g., Ni, Cu, Pb, Zn, Sr, Co, V, Ba, Hg, As) in heavily-oiled areas compared to less-affected and pristine sites. Due to chemical complexation among organic compounds and metals, crude oils often contain elevated levels (up to hundreds of mg/kg) of trace metals At the heavily-oiled Louisiana sites (e.g., Bay Jimmy, Bayou Dulac, Bay Batiste), elevated levels of metals and total organic carbon have been found in sediments down to depths of 30 cm. Clearly the contamination is not limited to shallow sediments and oil, along with various associated metals, may be invading into deeper (pre-industrial) portions of the marsh sediments. Pore-waters extracted from contaminated sediments are characterized by very high levels of reduced sulfur (up to 80 mg/kg), in contrast to fairly low ferrous iron concentrations (<0.02 mg/kg). The influx of oil into the wetlands might provide the initial substrate and

  6. Speciation and Distribution of Trace Metals Associated with Iron Sulfides in the Marcellus Shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, D. M.; Cahill, M.

    2014-12-01

    Black shales underlying the areas from Eastern Ohio, through Pennsylvania, and into Central New York State have become of economic interest lately due to the recent economic viability of shale gas extraction. Sulfide minerals such as pyrite and marcasite occurring in these shales are often the primary phases that trace metals are associated with. Trace metals can be incorporated into these sulfides via various pathways during initial shale deposition and secondary diagenesis including substitution for Fe (Co and Ni), substitution for S (As and Se), and excluded to form other sulfide phases (Cu and Zn). The manner in which these trace metals are incorporated directly influences how they are released into the environment during sulfide oxidation following shale weathering or hydraulic fracturing. The aim of this research is to examine the distribution of trace metals in iron sulfides from black shales using Synchrotron-based X-ray microprobe techniques including micro-X-ray fluorescence and micro-X-ray diffraction of shale thin sections. Marcellus Shale samples were collected from: (1) outcrops from the Oatka member in Leroy, NY and Jersey Shore, PA and the Union Springs member in Lewiston, PA, and (2) drilling core sample from Beaver Meadow, NY and Hancock Co, TN (Chattanooga shale). Analyses have shown that the sulfide grains are a combination of pyrite and marcasite. As and Se are spatially correlated with each other and within the pyrite grains. Ni is spatially correlated with larger euhedral pyrite, as well as smaller non-iron sulfide grains. Cu and Zn are not spatially correlated with the pyrite and form separate Cu- and Zn- sulfides. During iron sulfide oxidative dissolution, these differences in distribution of trace metals will affect the order and rate in which they are released into the environment.

  7. Trace metals, PCBs, and PAHs in benthic (epipelic) diatoms from intertidal sediments; a pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Stronkhorst, J.; Misdorp, R. ); Vos, P.C. )

    1994-06-01

    Intertidal sediments in many estuaries around the world have a history of contamination resulting from long term discharges of industrial, agricultural and domestic waste effluents. These contaminated sediments are now regarded as a major source of toxicants for bottom-related organisms which, in turn, may pass on certain contaminants (e.g. methylmercury, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)) to organisms higher in the foodchain. Many studies have been conducted on the contamination of benthic macrofauna, estuarine fish and birds, but to our knowledge no research has yet been carried out on benthic diatoms which form the lowest trophic level of an intertidal ecosystem. Research on the effects of micro-contaminants on primary producers in marine ecosystems is mainly performed with phytoplankton. In the estuaries of temperate regions, benthic diatoms make a significant contribution to primary production in the ecosystem and are predated especially by deposit feeding Polychaete and Mollusca. Knowledge of the level of contamination in benthic diatoms is of major importance to recognize possible effects on growth rate and species composition of the benthic diatom populations and to understand the accumulation of toxicants into the foodchain. For chemical analysis it is difficult to obtain [open quote]pure[close quote] samples of benthic diatoms because they form part of the sediment. A similar problem occurs with the sampling of phytoplankton in turbid estuarine waters. The aim of this pilot study was (a) to improve a trap technique to collect pure samples of benthic diatoms of at least 2 gram dry weight for analysis of trace metals, PCBs and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and (b) to compare the concentrations in benthic diatoms with levels in sediment and some bottom-related organisms. 16 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Origin of enormous trace metal enrichments in weathering mantles of Jurassic carbonates: evidence from Sr, Nd and Pb isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hissler, C.; Stille, P.; Juilleret, J.; Iffly, J.; Perrone, T.; Morvan, G.

    2013-12-01

    ) and Cd (2.4ppm). The underlying limestone and marl show, compared to average world carbonates, enrichments in the same elements and trace element distribution patterns similar to the soil suggesting their close genetic relationship. Pb, Sr and Nd isotope data allow to identify three principal components in the soil: a silicate-rich phase at close to the surface, a strongly trace metal enriched component at the bottom of the soil profile and an anthropogenic, atmosphere- derived component detected in the soil leachates. The isotopic mixing curves defined by the soil samples point to the close genetic connection between upper and lowermost soil horizons. The Nd isotopic composition of the leachates of all soil horizons are in contrast to the untreated soil and residual soil samples very homogeneous suggesting that the leachable phases of the upper and lower soil horizons are genetically connected. The downward migration of the trace metals is stopped at this soil level due to the presence of important secondary calcite precipitations, smectite and Fe-oxide accumulations. Mass balance calculations indicate that the enrichment process goes along with a volume increase relative to the bottom soil horizons.

  9. Petroleum coke and soft tailings sediment in constructed wetlands may contribute to the uptake of trace metals by algae and aquatic invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Baker, Leanne F; Ciborowski, Jan J H; MacKinnon, Michael D

    2012-01-01

    The fate of trace metals in pore water collected from wetland sediments and organisms exposed to petroleum coke were evaluated within in situ aquatic microcosms. Oil sands operators of Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada produced 60 million tonnes of petroleum coke by 2008, containing elevated concentrations of sulphur and several trace metals commonly seen in oil sands materials. This material may be included in the construction of reclaimed wetlands. Microcosms were filled with a surface layer of petroleum coke over mine-waste sediments and embedded in a constructed wetland for three years to determine how these materials would affect the metal concentrations in the sediment pore water, colonizing wetland plants and benthic invertebrates. Petroleum coke treatments produced significantly elevated levels of Ni. We also found unexpectedly higher concentrations of metals in "consolidated tailings" waste materials, potentially due to the use of oil sands-produced gypsum, and higher background concentration of elements in the sediment used in the controls. A trend of higher concentrations of V, Ni, La, and Y was present in the tissues of the colonizing macrophytic alga Chara spp. Aeshnid dragonflies may also be accumulating V. These results indicate that the trace metals present in some oil sands waste materials could be taken up by aquatic macro-algae and some wetland invertebrates if these materials are included in reclaimed wetlands.

  10. Review-Factors involving in fluctuation of trace metals concentrations in bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Perween, Rubina

    2015-05-01

    Milk makes a significant contribution to human diet through provision of macronutrients, vitamins and minerals. The exact composition of milk varies with species among domestic animals according to their neonatal needs. It is recognized that imbalance in the quantity of minerals and trace elements is a serious health hazard especially for infants. Many studies reported the fluctuation in the level of metals in milk due to the influence of several factors such as geographical and exposure to environmental pollution caused by anthropogenic activity. Amongst all sources, industries take lion's share to alter the metal content in milk. The importance of different nutritional and toxic metals in milk from different geographical areas is discussed.

  11. Hydroponical estimation of interactions among selected heavy metals accumulated by Salix viminalis in phytoremediation process.

    PubMed

    Mleczek, Mirosław; Magdziak, Zuzanna; Kaczmarek, Zygmunt; Golinski, Piotr

    2010-09-01

    Determination of interactions between selected heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in their phytoremediation by one-year-old cuttings of Salix viminalis 'Cannabina' was the purpose of this work. The achieved results indicate that Salix cuttings may successfully be used in phytoremediation of polluted soil and/or sewage not only with one metal at high concentrations but also in different combinations with the other metals. Under controlled conditions (the hydroponic experiment) new interactions were found as well as known data concerning interactions between-presented in the matrix-heavy metals, depending on whether their concentration and composition were confirmed. The results showed that the ratio of metal concentration can change the interaction intensity. The achieved results enable one to indirectly estimate the accumulation efficiency of dominating metals as well as accompanying ones at lower concentrations.

  12. Trace elements and heavy metals in the Grand Bay National Estuarine Reserve in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    McComb, Jacqueline Q.; Han, Fengxiang X.; Rogers, Christian; Thomas, Catherine; Arslan, Zikri; Ardeshir, Adeli; Tchounwou, Paul B.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to investigate distribution of trace elements and heavy metals in the salt marsh and wetland soil and biogeochemical processes in the Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve of the northern Gulf of Mexico. The results show that Hg, Cd and to some extent, As and Pb have been significantly accumulated in soils. The strongest correlations were found between concentrations of Ni and total organic matter contents. The correlations decreased in the order: Ni > Cr > Sr > Co > Zn, Cd > Cu > Cs. Strong correlations were also observed between total P and concentrations of Ni, Co, Cr, Sr, Zn, Cu, and Cd. This may be related to the P spilling accident in 2005 in the Bangs Lake site. Lead isotopic ratios in soils matched well those of North American coals, indicating the contribution of Pb through atmospheric fallout from coal power plants. PMID:26238403

  13. Trace elements and heavy metals in the Grand Bay National Estuarine Reserve in the northern Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    McComb, Jacqueline Q; Han, Fengxiang X; Rogers, Christian; Thomas, Catherine; Arslan, Zikri; Ardeshir, Adeli; Tchounwou, Paul B

    2015-10-15

    The objectives of this study are to investigate distribution of trace elements and heavy metals in the salt marsh and wetland soil and biogeochemical processes in the Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve of the northern Gulf of Mexico. The results show that Hg, Cd and to some extent, As and Pb have been significantly accumulated in soils. The strongest correlations were found between concentrations of Ni and total organic matter contents. The correlations decreased in the order: Ni>Cr>Sr>Co>Zn, Cd>Cu>Cs. Strong correlations were also observed between total P and concentrations of Ni, Co, Cr, Sr, Zn, Cu, and Cd. This may be related to the P spilling accident in 2005 in the Bangs Lake site. Lead isotopic ratios in soils matched well those of North American coals, indicating the contribution of Pb through atmospheric fallout from coal power plants.

  14. Trace metals and otolith defects in mocha mice.

    PubMed

    Rolfsen, R M; Erway, L C

    1984-01-01

    Mocha mice with pigment anomalies of the coat, eyes, and inner ears also have congenital otolith defects, and they exhibit progressive cochlear degeneration. Mocha mice were first reported to exhibit otolith defects comparable to those of pallid mice. Since manganese supplementation is effective in preventing the otolith defects in pallid mice and in pastel mink, we sought to establish whether or not manganese also might be effective in mocha mice. The otolith defects of mocha mice were prevented or reduced by supplementing the pregnant dams with manganese and/or zinc. The mocha mice also exhibited high perinatal mortality that was not reduced by the supplementary metals. Surviving mocha mice have behavioral anomalies associated with their inner ear defects. Preliminary observations of auditory-evoked brainstem responses and of cochlear degeneration in the mocha mice are discussed.

  15. Geochemical and biological controls on trace metal transport in an acid mine impacted watershed.

    PubMed

    Butler, Thomas W

    2006-06-01

    Water samples collected in an acid mine impacted watershed indicated that the concentrations of dissolved trace metals were diurnally influenced by mineral saturation, which is controlled primarily by pH and water temperature. Measurements taken suggested that these variations only occur at sample locations immediately downstream from the confluence of acidic and alkaline waters. It is at these locations where initial mineral precipitation occurred and where subtle changes in solubility were most affected, increasing trace metal removal when both the rate of photosynthesis (influencing pH in headwaters) and water temperature were at a maximum. The role of iron photoreduction (increased midday production of ferrous iron) on overall Cu, Mn, and Zn transport was also evaluated, but found to be inconclusive. Iron photoreduction may however influence adsorption and/or coprecipitation of trace metals through associated changes in oxidation state, solubility, and mineralogy of various iron colloids, which are produced upon the neutralization of acidic, metal enriched water. Furthermore, measured values of copper and zinc were compared to relative USEPA chronic criterion for exposure to continuous concentration (CCC) of metals by the calculation of a "toxicity unit" (TU). It was found that average values of both copper and zinc only exceeded the CCC (TU>1) in the acid mine-impacted Leona Creek. In general, zinc toxicity decreased while copper toxicity increased downstream of the confluence of the mine impacted Leona Creek and background Lion Creek (sampled at Lake Aliso), indicating a significant source of zinc in upstream, non mine-impacted samples.

  16. Transplanted aquatic mosses for monitoring trace metal mobilization in acidified streams of the Vosges Mountains, France

    SciTech Connect

    Mersch, J.; Guerold, F.; Rousselle, P.; Pihan, J.C. )

    1993-08-01

    As a result of acid depositions, trace metals are mobilized from the soils to the aquatic environment. Especially in poorly mineralized waters, elevated metal concentrations may rapidly have adverse effects on aquatic organisms. In particular, it has been shown that aluminium, a key element in the acidification process, is a toxic cofactor for fish and other biota. An accurate assessment of this specific form of water pollution may not be possible when only based on analyses of single water samples. On the one hand, water metal concentrations are often close to the detection limit of usual analytical techniques, and on the other hand, levels in acidified streams undergo strong temporal variations caused by acid pulses following meteorological events such as heavy rainfall and snowmelt. Compared to water analyses, indirect monitoring methods provide undeniable advantages for assessing water contamination. Aquatic bryophytes, in particular, have been regarded as interesting indicator organisms for trace metal pollution. However, their use has mainly been restricted to the lower course of streams for evaluating the impact of industrial discharges. The purpose of this study was to test the suitability of transplanted aquatic mosses for monitoring aluminium and four other trace metals (copper, iron, lead and zinc) in the particular context of acidifed streams draining a forested headwater catchment. 15 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Application of Heavy Metal Rich Tannery Sludge on Sustainable Growth, Yield and Metal Accumulation by Clarysage (Salvia sclarea L.).

    PubMed

    Chand, Sukhmal; Yaseen, M; Rajkumari; Patra, D D

    2015-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effective utilization of tannery sludge for cultivation of clarysage (Salvia sclarea) at CIMAP research farm, Lucknow, India during the year 2012-2013. Six doses (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 tha(-1)) of processed tannery sludge were tested in randomised block design with four replications. Results revealed that maximum shoot, root, dry matter and oil yield were obtained with application of 80 tha(-1)of tannery sludge and these were 94, 113 and 61% higher respectively, over control. Accumulation of heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Fe, Pb) were relatively high in shoot portion of the plant than root. Among heavy metals, magnitude of chromium accumulation was higher than nickel, iron and lead in shoot as well as in root. Linalool, linalyl acetate and sclareol content in oil increased by 13,8 and 27% respectively over control, with tannery sludge application at 80 tha(-1). Heavy metals such as chromium, cadmium and lead content reduced in postharvest soil when compared to initial status. Results indicated that clarysage (Salvia sclarea) can be grown in soil amended with 80 tha(-1)sludge and this can be a suitable accumulator of heavy metals for phytoremediation of metal polluted soils.

  18. Assessment of trace metal toxicity in soils of Raniganj Coalfield, India.

    PubMed

    Das, Supriyo Kumar; Chakrapani, Govind J

    2011-06-01

    Soil, rock and water samples were collected from India's oldest coalfield Raniganj to investigate trace metal contamination from mining activity. Our data reveal that trace metal concentration in soil samples lies above the average world soil composition; especially, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn concentrations exceed the maximum allowable concentration proposed by the European Commission for agricultural soils. In particular, Cr, Cu and Ni exceed the ecotoxicological limit, and Ni exceeds the typical value for cultivated soils. Mineral dissolution from overburden material and high adsorption capacity of laterite soil are responsible for the elevated concentrations. This is evident from enrichment factor (E (f)), geoaccumulation index (I (geo)) and metal pollution index values. Sediment quality guideline index indicates toxicity to local biota although enrichment index suggests no threat from consuming crops cultivated in the contaminated soil.

  19. Source Evaluation and Trace Metal Contamination in Benthic Sediments from Equatorial Ecosystems Using Multivariate Statistical Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Nsikak U.; Asuquo, Francis E.; Williams, Akan B.; Essien, Joseph P.; Ekong, Cyril I.; Akpabio, Otobong; Olajire, Abaas A.

    2016-01-01

    Trace metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb) concentrations in benthic sediments were analyzed through multi-step fractionation scheme to assess the levels and sources of contamination in estuarine, riverine and freshwater ecosystems in Niger Delta (Nigeria). The degree of contamination was assessed using the individual contamination factors (ICF) and global contamination factor (GCF). Multivariate statistical approaches including principal component analysis (PCA), cluster analysis and correlation test were employed to evaluate the interrelationships and associated sources of contamination. The spatial distribution of metal concentrations followed the pattern Pb>Cu>Cr>Cd>Ni. Ecological risk index by ICF showed significant potential mobility and bioavailability for Cu, Cu and Ni. The ICF contamination trend in the benthic sediments at all studied sites was Cu>Cr>Ni>Cd>Pb. The principal component and agglomerative clustering analyses indicate that trace metals contamination in the ecosystems was influenced by multiple pollution sources. PMID:27257934

  20. Health hazards and heavy metals accumulation by summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) cultivated in contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Galal, Tarek M

    2016-07-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the heavy metal concentration accumulated by summer squash cultivated in contaminated soil and their health hazards for public consumers at south Cairo Province, Egypt. Soil and plants were sampled from contaminated and reference farms, using 1 m(2) quadrats, for biomass estimation and nutrient analysis. The daily intake of metals (DIM) and health risk index (HRI) were estimated. Significant differences in soil variables (except As) between contaminated and reference sites were recognized. Summer squash showed remarkable reduction in fresh and dry biomass, fruit production, and photosynthetic pigments under pollution stress. The inorganic and organic nutrients in the aboveground and belowground parts showed significant reduction in contaminated site. In addition, higher concentrations of heavy metals were accumulated in the edible parts and roots more than shoots. The bioaccumulation factor of summer squash for investigated metals was greater than 1, while the translocation factor did not exceed unity in both contaminated and reference sites. The DIM for all investigated metals in the reference site and in the contaminated site (except Fe and Mn) did not exceed 1 in both adults and children. However, HRI of Ni and Mn in the reference site and Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni, Fe, Mn, and Zn in the contaminated one exceeded unity indicating great potential to pose health risk to the consumers. The author recommends that people living in the contaminated area should not eat large quantities of summer squash, so as to avoid excess accumulation of heavy metals in their bodies.

  1. Trace metal contamination study on scalp hair of occupationally exposed workers

    SciTech Connect

    Ashraf, W.; Jaffar, M. ); Mohammad, D. )

    1994-10-01

    Scalp hair is a metabolic end product that incorporates metals into its structure during the growth process. The levels of trace elements in the hair are considered to be influenced in particular by food, air and occupational exposure, and in general by race, age, sex, metabolism, hygienic condition and geographical location of individuals. Recently, trace metal content of human hair has been explored as a tool for monitoring the impact of environmental pollution on the inhabitants of a community. In this respect, the endogenous and exogenous contents of metals in hair are understood to play important role towards exposure assessment. The exogenous metal content of hair reflects exposure to the occupational, domestic and recreational environments, provided the donor is not suffering from heavy metal poisoning and depressed endogenous levels arising from dietary deficiencies. Keeping this in view, the exogenous and endogenous metal contents of scalp hair of occupationally exposed workers from various workshops were determined in the present study, both in unwashed and washed hair samples to assess the extent of metal contamination. All donors, within the age group of 6-45 years, were full-time workers of various autoworkshops situated in the densely populated and industrialized city of Lahore. ICP atomic emission and atomic absorption spectrophotometric methods were used for determining the levels of five non-essential and three essential elements in the scalp hair. 20 refs., 6 tabs.

  2. Monitoring trace metals in different tissues of Cyprinus carpio from the Indus River in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Jabeen, Farhat; Chaudhry, Abdul Shakoor

    2010-11-01

    This replicated 4×2 factorial study investigated the bioaccumulation of selected metals (Mn, Pb, Zn, Hg and Cr) in four tissues (gills, liver, muscle and skin) of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) domiciled in two sites (upstream and downstream) of Indus River in Mianwali district of Pakistan. The data were statistically compared for the main effects of the site and fish organs and their interaction on the bioaccumulation pattern of these metals in fish organs at P<0.05. It appeared that the fish sampled from downstream had higher trace metals than the fish from upstream. Significant differences between fish organs were observed for these trace metals (P<0.001). The fish showed higher bioaccumulation of vital metals like Zn and lower bioaccumulation for the toxic metals like Pb. The gills had the highest metal load followed by liver, skin and muscles. High concentrations of Mn, Hg and Cr were observed in different fish organs as compared to the WHO and Federal Environmental Protection Agency standards for food fish. However, the mean concentration of Pb and Zn were under the permissible limits of food fish. It implies that higher levels of Mn, Hg and Cr in fish muscles would have detrimental effects on the health of fish consumers such as pregnant women, children and elderly people of this study area.

  3. Trace metal residues in soil as markers of ancient site occupance in Greece

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, B.E.; Bintliff, J.L.; Gaffney, C.F.; Waters, A.T.

    1988-01-01

    Modern evidence shows that wherever people work or live the concentrations of heavy metals rise in nearby soils and these residues persist for many years. This paper reports similar accumulations of Cu and Pb in soils at sites of ancient occupation in Greece. It is proposed that such accumulations can act as markers of such occupation and complement evidence derived from other archaeological survey methods.

  4. Source apportionment of trace metals in river sediments: A comparison of three methods.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haiyang; Teng, Yanguo; Li, Jiao; Wu, Jin; Wang, Jinsheng

    2016-04-01

    Increasing trace metal pollution in river sediment poses a significant threat to watershed ecosystem health. Identifying potential sources of sediment metals and apportioning their contributions are of key importance for proposing prevention and control strategies of river pollution. In this study, three advanced multivariate receptor models, factor analysis with nonnegative constraints (FA-NNC), positive matrix factorization (PMF), and multivariate curve resolution weighted-alternating least-squares (MCR-WALS), were comparatively employed for source apportionment of trace metals in river sediments and applied to the Le'an River, a main tributary of Poyang Lake which is the largest freshwater lake in China. The pollution assessment with contamination factor and geoaccumulation index suggested that the river sediments in Le'an River were contaminated severely by trace metals due to human activities. With the three apportionment tools, similar source profiles of trace metals in sediments were extracted. Especially, the MCR-WALS and PMF models produced essentially the same results. Comparatively speaking, the weighted schemes might give better solutions than the unweighted FA-NNC because the uncertainty information of environmental data was considered by PMF and MCR-WALS. Anthropogenic sources were apportioned as the most important pollution sources influencing the sediment metals in Le'an River with contributions of about 90%. Among them, copper tailings occupied the largest contribution (38.4-42.2%), followed by mining wastewater (29.0-33.5%), and agricultural activities (18.2-18.7%). To protect the ecosystem of Le'an River and Poyang Lake, special attention should be paid to the discharges of mining wastewater and the leachates of copper tailing ponds in that region.

  5. Trace metals in Antarctica related to climate change and increasing human impact.

    PubMed

    Bargagli, R

    2000-01-01

    Metals are natural constituents of the abiotic and biotic components of all ecosystems, and under natural conditions they are cycled within and between the geochemical spheres--the atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere--at quite steady fluxes. In the second half of the twentieth century, the huge increase in energy and mineral consumption determined anthropogenic emissions of several metals exceeding those from natural sources, e.g., volcanoes and windborne soil particles. In the Northern Hemisphere, the biogeochemical cycles of Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, and other metals were significantly altered, even in Arctic regions. On the contrary, available data on trace metal concentrations in abiotic matrices from continental Antarctica, summarized in this review, suggest that the biogeochemical cycle of Pb is probably the only one that has been significantly altered by anthropogenic emissions in Antarctica and elsewhere in the Southern Hemisphere, especially in the period 1950-1975. Environmental contamination by other metals from anthropogenic sources in Antarctica itself can generally only be detected in snow samples taken within a range of a few kilometers or several hundred meters from scientific stations. Local metal pollution from human activities in Antarctica may compromise studies aimed at assessing the biogeochemical cycle of trace elements and the effects of global climate change. Thus, this review focuses on concentrations of metals in atmospheric particulate, snow, surface soils, and freshwater from the Antarctic continent and surface sediments and seawater from the Southern Ocean, which can plausibly be regarded as global background values of trace elements. These baselines are also necessary in view of the construction of new stations, the expansion of existing facilities to support research, and the growth of tourism and fisheries. Despite difficulties in making comparisons with data from other remote areas of the world, concentrations of trace metals

  6. Heavy metal contamination from mining sites in South Morocco: 2. Assessment of metal accumulation and toxicity in plants.

    PubMed

    Boularbah, Ali; Schwartz, Christophe; Bitton, Gabriel; Aboudrar, Wafae; Ouhammou, Ahmed; Morel, Jean Louis

    2006-05-01

    Metalliferous soils cover a relatively large surface area in Morocco, and up to now no hyperaccumulating plants have been identified on these mining or these industrial sites. The aim of this work was to assess the extent of metal accumulation by plants found in three mining areas in southern Morocco with the ultimate goal of finding metal hyperaccumulating species by using the MetPAD biotest. The biotest helps to obtain information on the selective metal toxicity of aqueous extracts from the plants. A strong metal toxicity, as revealed by the biotest is an indication of a hyperaccumulating plant. Toxicity tests were run concurrently with chemicals analyses of metals in plants and their water extracts. The chemical analyses allow the determination of the hyperaccumulated metal(s). Specimens of the plant species mainly growing on and in the vicinity of the three mines were sampled with their corresponding soils. The results show that all plants analyzed had lower heavy metal content and toxicity despite the relatively very high soil concentrations. A comparison of our results with the criterion used to classify the hyperaccumulator plants indicates that plants we collected from mining sites were hypertolerant but not hyperaccumulators. This was confirmed by transfer factors generally lower than 1. Nevertheless, these tolerant plants species can be used as tools for revegetation for erosion control in metals-contaminated sites (phytostabilization).

  7. Trace metals in Suisun Bay, California; a preliminary report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luoma, S.N.; Cascos, P.V.; Dagovitz, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    A 5-month partial study (February to July 1983) was completed in Suisun Bay, a shallow embayment of San Francisco Bay, Calif., to determine characteristic heavy metal concentrations present in sediments and organisms (Corbicula clams) prior to possible discharge of San Luis Drain irrigation tile return water. Preliminary results show sediments are typical of other San Francisco Bay study sites, ranging from coarse sands to fine silt-clays. The sediments are enriched in manganese and low in organic carbon; iron is moderately enriched, with acid-extractable iron concentrations of 162-3,521 micro-g/g. Sediment concentrations of silver, zinc, lead, and cadmium measured between April and July are reported. Previous area studies have shown increased concentrations during autumn and winter, a period not covered in the data set. Due to insufficient data, interpretations are incomplete. Clam-tissue burdens for silver and zinc are similar to those found in Corbicula from pristine areas. Lead concentrations are typically below the 2-micrograms/g detection level. Corbicula do show indications of more tissue enrichment for cadmium and copper at estuarine stations than at riverine stations. (USGS)

  8. Biodynamic modelling of the bioaccumulation of trace metals (Ag, As and Zn) by an infaunal estuarine invertebrate, the clam Scrobicularia plana.

    PubMed

    Kalman, J; Smith, B D; Bury, N R; Rainbow, P S

    2014-09-01

    Biodynamic modelling was used to investigate the uptake and accumulation of three trace metals (Ag, As, Zn) by the deposit feeding estuarine bivalve mollusc Scrobicularia plana. Radioactive labelling techniques were used to quantify the rates of trace metal uptake (and subsequent elimination) from water and sediment diet. The uptake rate constant from solution (±SE) was greatest for Ag (3.954±0.375 l g(-1) d(-1)) followed by As (0.807±0.129 l g(-1) d(-1)) and Zn (0.103±0.016 l g(-1) d(-1)). Assimilation efficiencies from ingested sediment were 40.2±1.3% (Ag), 31.7±1.0% (Zn) and 25.3±0.9% (As). Efflux rate constants after exposure to metals in the solution or sediment fell in the range of 0.014-0.060 d(-1). By incorporating these physiological parameters into biodynamic models, our results showed that dissolved metal is the predominant source of accumulated Ag, As and Zn in S. plana, accounting for 66-99%, 50-97% and 52-98% of total accumulation of Ag, As and Zn, respectively, under different field exposure conditions. In general, model-predicted steady state concentrations of Ag, As and Zn matched well with those observed in clams collected in SW England estuaries. Our findings highlight the potential of biodynamic modelling to predict Ag, As and Zn accumulation in S. plana, taking into account specific dissolved and sediment concentrations of the metals at a particular field site, together with local water and sediment geochemistries.

  9. Differential accumulation of heavy metals by web spiders and ground spiders in an old-field

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, K.J.; Brewer, S.R.; Taylor, D.H. . Dept. of Zoology)

    1994-03-01

    Accumulation of the heavy metals Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn by web spiders (orb weavers: Araneidae) and ground spiders was examined in an old-field that had been subjected to 11 years of nutrient enrichment. The study area consistent of six 0.1-ha plots treated from 1978 to 1988 with municipal sewage sludge containing heavy-metal contaminants, urea-phosphate fertilizer, or left as untreated controls. In 1991 and 1992, heavy-metal concentrations in the soil, ground spiders, and web spiders were measured with a flame AA spectrophotometer. Spiders accumulated Cd, Cu, and Zn to concentrations greater than those present in the soil but did not accumulate Pb. Ground spiders contained significantly higher levels of Cd and Cu than web spiders, whereas web spiders contained slightly greater levels of Pb than ground spiders. No trend between spider guilds was apparent for Zn accumulation. To understand the impact of the application of metal-contaminated municipal sludge on ecosystem, the toxicological effects on the biology and behavior of major biotic components in terrestrial food webs must be known.

  10. The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae induces growth and metal accumulation changes in Cannabis sativa L.

    PubMed

    Citterio, Sandra; Prato, Nadia; Fumagalli, Pietro; Aina, Roberta; Massa, Nadia; Santagostino, Angela; Sgorbati, Sergio; Berta, Graziella

    2005-03-01

    The effect of arbuscular mycorrhiza on heavy metal uptake and translocation was investigated in Cannabis sativa. Hemp was grown in the presence and absence of 100 microg g-1 Cd and Ni and 300 microg g-1 Cr(VI), and inoculated or not with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae. In our experimental condition, hemp growth was reduced in inoculated plants and the reduction was related to the degree of mycorrhization. The percentage of mycorrhizal colonisation was 42% and 9% in plants grown in non-contaminated and contaminated soil, suggesting a significant negative effect of high metal concentrations on plant infection by G. mosseae. Soil pH, metal bioavailability and plant metal uptake were not influenced by mycorrhization. The organ metal concentrations were not statistically different between inoculated and non-inoculated plants, apart from Ni which concentration was significantly higher in stem and leaf of inoculated plants grown in contaminated soil. The distribution of absorbed metals inside plant was related to the soil heavy metal concentrations: in plant grown in non-contaminated soil the greater part of absorbed Cr and Ni was found in shoots and no significant difference was determined between inoculated and non-inoculated plants. On the contrary, plants grown in artificially contaminated soil accumulated most metal in root organ. In this soil, mycorrhization significantly enhanced the translocation of all the three metals from root to shoot. The possibility to increase metal accumulation in shoot is very interesting for phytoextraction purpose, since most high producing biomass plants, such as non-mycorrhized hemp, retain most heavy metals in roots, limiting their application.

  11. Concentration is not enough to evaluate accumulation of heavy metals and nutrients in plants.

    PubMed

    Vymazal, Jan

    2016-02-15

    Wetland plants produce high aboveground biomass and possess the ability to accumulate heavy metals and nutrients. This ability is used for phytoremediation purposes including removal of nutrients and heavy metals from polluted waters. The concentrations of heavy metals are usually much higher in the belowground then in aboveground biomass, especially in roots which are primary sites of uptake. This may lead to the conclusion that accumulation of heavy metals is higher in the belowground biomass. However, in case the aboveground is much higher than belowground biomass the accumulation could be higher in the aboveground biomass. Concentration of nitrogen and phosphorus is always higher in leaves than in stems. However, the stem biomass is often much higher in robust emergent species such as Phragmites australis and therefore, more nutrients can be stored in stems. The examples shown in this communication clearly reveal that to evaluate properly the accumulation of heavy metals and nutrients in particular plant compartment biomass amount must be taken into consideration. In the first study, concentrations of Cd, Cr and Hg in Phalaris arundinacea belowground/aboveground biomass were 150/80 μg/kg, 5420/228 μg/kg and 38/18 μg/kg. The high aboveground biomass (1196 g/m(2)) and low belowground biomass (244 g/(2)) resulted in much higher accumulation of Cd and Hg in aboveground biomass (96 μg/m(2) and 21.2 μg/m(2), respectively) than in belowground biomass (36 μg/m(2) and 9.3 μg/m(2), respectively). Only for chromium, belowground accumulation (1312 μg/m(2)) was higher than aboveground accumulation (272 μg/m(2)). In the second study, both nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were higher (26.7 mg/g and 749 mg/kg, respectively) in leaves than in stems (8.2mg/g and 534 mg/kg, respectively) of P. australis. The higher biomass of stems (1835 g/m(2)) than leaves (967 g/m(2)) resulted in higher accumulation of nitrogen but lower accumulation of phosphorus in leaves as

  12. Trace metal partitioning in Thalassia testudinum and sediments in the Lower Laguna Madre, Texas.

    PubMed

    Whelan, Thomas; Espinoza, Jorge; Villarreal, Xiomara; Cottagoma, Maria

    2005-01-01

    Seagrass communities dominate the Laguna Madre, which accounts for 25% of the coastal region of Texas. Seagrasses are essential to the health of the Laguna Madre (LM) and have experienced an overall decline in coverage in the Lower Laguna Madre (LLM) since 1967. Little is known on the existing environmental status of the LLM. This study focuses on the trace metal chemistry of four micronutrient metals, Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn, and two non-essential metals, Pb and As, in the globally important seagrass Thalassia testudinum. Seasonal trends show that concentrations of most essential trace metals increase in the tissue during the summer months. With the exception of (1) Cu in the vertical shoot and root, and (2) Mn in the roots, no significant positive correlation exists between the rhizosphere sediment and T. testudinum tissue. Iron indicates a negative correlation between the morphological units and the rhizosphere sediments. No other significant relationship was found between the sediments and the T. testudinum tissue. Mn was enriched up to 10-fold in the leaf tissue relative to the other morphological units and also enriched relative to the rhizosphere sediments. Both Cu and Mn appear to be enriched in leaf tissue compared to other morphological units and also enriched relative to the Cu and Mn in the rhizoshpere sediments. Sediments cores taken in barren areas were slightly elevated in Zn relative to the rhizosphere sediments, whereas no other metals showed statistical differences between barren sediment cores and rhizosphere sediments. However, no correlation was measured in T. testudinum tissue and Zn in rhizosphere sediments. Previous studies suggested that Fe/Mn ratios could indicate differences between seagrass environments. Our results indicate that there is an influence from the Rio Grande in the Fe/Mn signature in sediments, and that ratio is not reflected in the T. testudinum tissue. The results from this study show that the LLM contains trace metal

  13. Heavy Metal Accumulation in Leaves of Hydrocharis Morsus-Ranae L. and Biomonitoring Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polechońska, Ludmiła; Dambiec, Małgorzata

    2014-06-01

    In present study the concentrations of Hg, Mn, Zn, Fe and Cu in water, bottom sediments and leaves of Hydrocharis morsus-ranae from 11 oxbow lakes of the Odra River were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Trace metal concentration in water and bottom sediments were below the geochemical background, indicating no anthropogenic impact in the studied area. On average, the concentrations of metals in leaves of H. morsus ranae exceeded natural thresholds. A high bioaccumulation factors for metals were recorded. The significant positive correlations found between the content Zn, Fe and Hg of in water and in the H. morsus ranae indicate the potential use of the species in the biomonitoring of environmental contamination with these metals.

  14. Baseline trace metals in seagrass, algae, and mollusks in a southern Tyrrhenian ecosystem (Linosa Island, Sicily).

    PubMed

    Conti, Marcelo Enrique; Bocca, Beatrice; Iacobucci, Marta; Finoia, Maria Grazia; Mecozzi, Mauro; Pino, Anna; Alimonti, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    Trace elements were analyzed in organisms collected at five sampling stations along coastal areas of Linosa Island, Sicily (southern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy). Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn were measured in Posidonia oceanica L. Delile tissues, the two brown algae Padina pavonica (L.) Thivy and Cystoseira sp., and the two gastropod mollusks Monodonta turbinata Born and Patella caerulea L. Seawater samples were also collected at each site to assess soluble metal concentrations and to gain relevant information on their bioaccumulation ability. Data were processed by multivariate techniques, such as principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis on PCA factors. The scoreplots obtained showed that the pollutant distribution is more significantly correlated with species than with sites. For seaweeds, P. oceanica was associated with higher Cd, Cu, and Zn levels; Padina species had higher Cr concentrations, and Cystoseira had higher Pb levels. For mollusks, Monodonta species had high concentrations of Cu and Cr and Patella species were associated with Cd. Some general metal bioaccumulation patterns are described but no one sampling site was more contaminated than the others. The hypothesis of Linosa island serving as a reference ecosystem for baseline trace metal levels in southern Tyrrhenian areas is indeed supported by the statistical comparison among other southern Tyrrhenian ecosystems performed with Kruskall Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. For P. oceanica leaves, P. pavonica, M. turbinata, and P. caerulea, this study confirms their usefulness as possible cosmopolitan biomonitors of trace metals in marine Mediterranean areas.

  15. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and trace metal contamination of coastal sediment and biota from Togo.

    PubMed

    Gnandi, Kissao; Musa Bandowe, Benjamin A; Deheyn, Dimitri D; Porrachia, Magali; Kersten, Michael; Wilcke, Wolfgang

    2011-07-01

    The state of contamination of tropical environments, particularly in Africa, remains a relatively under explored subject. Here, we determined polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and trace metal concentrations in coastal sediment and biota samples (fish and mussels) from Togo (West Africa). In the sediments, the ∑21 PAH concentrations ranged from <4 ng g(-1) to 257 ng g(-1), averaging 92 ng g(-1). Concentration ratios of low molecular weight PAHs (2-3 rings) versus high molecular weight PAHs (≥4 rings) were always lower than 1 (ranging from 0.08 to 0.46) indicating that high molecular weight PAHs were dominant in all sediment samples, and that PAHs originated mainly from anthropogenic combustion activities. The sediments were also analyzed for major elements and a total of 15 trace metals, which were found in elevated concentrations. The calculated enrichment factor (EF) values relative to the Earth's crust show that the contamination is extremely severe for Cd (EF = 191), severe for Cr (EF = 18) and U (EF = 17.8), moderately severe for Zr (EF = 8.8), for Ni (EF = 6.8), Sr (EF = 5.9) and Ba (EF = 5.4), and moderate for V (EF = 3.6) and Zn (EF = 3.4). Sediments sampled in areas affected by the dumping of phosphorite mine tailings showed particularly high concentrations of trace metals. Overall, concentrations of both PAHs and trace metals in sediment tend to increase from the coastline to the open sea (2 km offshore). This is attributable to the increasingly finer texture of coastal sediment found offshore, which has a terrigenous origin and appears loaded with various contaminants through adsorption processes. Such high loads of trace metals were also found in the biota (fish and mussels). The ratio of measured trace metal concentrations in biota to threshold limits set by the World Health Organization herein defined as relative health factor (RHF) was high. Average RHF values in fish were hi