Science.gov

Sample records for accumulated considerable amounts

  1. 48 CFR 915.404-4-71-4 - Considerations affecting fee amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Considerations affecting fee amounts. 915.404-4-71-4 Section 915.404-4-71-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 915.404-4-71-4 Considerations affecting fee amounts....

  2. 48 CFR 915.404-4-71-4 - Considerations affecting fee amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Considerations affecting fee amounts. 915.404-4-71-4 Section 915.404-4-71-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 915.404-4-71-4 Considerations affecting fee amounts....

  3. 48 CFR 915.404-4-71-4 - Considerations affecting fee amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Considerations affecting fee amounts. 915.404-4-71-4 Section 915.404-4-71-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 915.404-4-71-4 Considerations affecting fee amounts....

  4. 17 CFR 229.1007 - (Item 1007) Source and amount of funds or other consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 AND ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975-REGULATION S-K Mergers and Acquisitions (Regulation M-A) § 229.1007 (Item 1007) Source and amount of funds or other consideration. (a... financing plans fall through. If none, so state. (c) Expenses. Furnish a reasonably itemized statement...

  5. 17 CFR 229.1007 - (Item 1007) Source and amount of funds or other consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 AND ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975-REGULATION S-K Mergers and Acquisitions (Regulation M-A) § 229.1007 (Item 1007) Source and amount of funds or other consideration. (a... financing plans fall through. If none, so state. (c) Expenses. Furnish a reasonably itemized statement...

  6. SNS Accumulator Ring design and space charge considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, W.T.

    1998-11-01

    The goal of the proposed Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is to provide a short pulse proton beam of about 0.5 {mu}s with average beam power of 1MW. To achieve such purpose, a proton storage ring operated at 60Hz with 1{times}10{sup 14} protons per pulse at 1GeV is required. The Accumulator Ring (AR) receives 1msec long H{sup {minus}} beam bunches of 28mA from a 1GeV linac. Scope and design performance goals of the AR are presented. About 1200 turns of charge exchange injection is needed to accumulate 1mA in the ring. After a brief description of the lattice design and machine performance parameters, space charge related issues, such as: tune shifts, stopband corrections, halo generation and beam collimation etc. will be discussed. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. SNS Accumulator Ring design and space charge considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, W. T.

    1998-11-05

    The goal of the proposed Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is to provide a short pulse proton beam of about 0.5 {mu}s with average beam power of 1MW. To achieve such purpose, a proton storage ring operated at 60Hz with 1x10{sup 14} protons per pulse at 1GeV is required. The Accumulator Ring (AR) receives 1msec long H{sup -} beam bunches of 28mA from a 1GeV linac. Scope and design performance goals of the AR are presented. About 1200 turns of charge exchange injection is needed to accumulate 1mA in the ring. After a brief description of the lattice design and machine performance parameters, space charge related issues, such as: tune shifts, stopband corrections, halo generation and beam collimation etc. will be discussed.

  8. SNS ACCUMULATOR RING DESIGN AND SPACE CHARGE CONSIDERATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    WENG,W.T.

    1998-05-04

    The goal of the proposed Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is to provide a short pulse proton beam of about 0.5{micro}s with average beam power of 1MW. To achieve such purpose, a proton storage ring operated at 60Hz with 1 x 10{sup 14} protons per pulse at 1GeV is required. The Accumulator Ring (AR) receives 1msec long H{sup {minus}} beam bunches of 28mA from a 1GeV linac. Scope and design performance goals of the AR are presented. About 1,200 turns of charge exchange injection is needed to accumulate 1mA in the ring. After a brief description of the lattice design and machine performance parameters, space charge related issues, such as: tune shifts, stopband corrections, halo generation and beam collimation etc. is discussed.

  9. Dual Mode NOx Sensor: Measuring Both the Accumulated Amount and Instantaneous Level at Low Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Groß, Andrea; Beulertz, Gregor; Marr, Isabella; Kubinski, David J.; Visser, Jaco H.; Moos, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    The accumulating-type (or integrating-type) NOx sensor principle offers two operation modes to measure low levels of NOx: The direct signal gives the total amount dosed over a time interval and its derivative the instantaneous concentration. With a linear sensor response, no baseline drift, and both response times and recovery times in the range of the gas exchange time of the test bench (5 to 7 s), the integrating sensor is well suited to reliably detect low levels of NOx. Experimental results are presented demonstrating the sensor’s integrating properties for the total amount detection and its sensitivity to both NO and to NO2. We also show the correlation between the derivative of the sensor signal and the known gas concentration. The long-term detection of NOx in the sub-ppm range (e.g., for air quality measurements) is discussed. Additionally, a self-adaption of the measurement range taking advantage of the temperature dependency of the sensitivity is addressed. PMID:22736980

  10. How and why does tomato accumulate a large amount of GABA in the fruit?

    PubMed Central

    Takayama, Mariko; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) has received much attention as a health-promoting functional compound, and several GABA-enriched foods have been commercialized. In higher plants, GABA is primarily metabolized via a short pathway called the GABA shunt. The GABA shunt bypasses two steps (the oxidation of α-ketoglutarate to succinate) of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle via reactions catalyzed by three enzymes: glutamate decarboxylase, GABA transaminase, and succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase. The GABA shunt plays a major role in primary carbon and nitrogen metabolism and is an integral part of the TCA cycle under stress and non-stress conditions. Tomato is one of the major crops that accumulate a relatively high level of GABA in its fruits. The GABA levels in tomato fruits dramatically change during fruit development; the GABA levels increase from flowering to the mature green stage and then rapidly decrease during the ripening stage. Although GABA constitutes up to 50% of the free amino acids at the mature green stage, the molecular mechanism of GABA accumulation and the physiological function of GABA during tomato fruit development remain unclear. In this review, we summarize recent studies of GABA accumulation in tomato fruits and discuss the potential biological roles of GABA in tomato fruit development. PMID:26322056

  11. Energy expended and knee joint load accumulated when walking, running, or standing for the same amount of time.

    PubMed

    Miller, Ross H; Edwards, W Brent; Deluzio, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests prolonged bouts of sitting are unhealthy, and some public health messages have recently recommended replacing sitting with more standing. However, the relative benefits of replacing sitting with standing compared to locomotion are not known. Specifically, the biomechanical consequences of standing compared to other sitting-alternatives like walking and running are not well known and are usually not considered in studies on sitting. We compared the total knee joint load accumulated (TKJLA) and the total energy expended (TEE) when performing either walking, running, or standing for a common exercise bout duration (30 min). Walking and running both (unsurprisingly) had much more TEE than standing (+300% and +1100%, respectively). TKJLA was similar between walking and standing and 74% greater in running. The results suggest that standing is a poor replacement for walking and running if one wishes to increases energy expenditure, and may be particularly questionable for use in individuals at-risk for knee osteoarthritis due to its surprisingly high TKJLA (just as high as walking, 56% of the load in running) and the type of loading (continuous compression) it places on cartilage. However, standing has health benefits as an "inactivity interrupter" that extend beyond its direct energy expenditure. We suggest that future studies on standing as an inactivity intervention consider the potential biomechanical consequences of standing more often throughout the day, particularly in the case of prolonged bouts of standing. PMID:25455208

  12. Consideration of Preparation Technique of Membrane Electrode Assembly of Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell for Reduction of Platinum Amount

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidaka, Hiroaki; Sakaguchi, Yujiro; Suenaga, Yutaka; Tashima, Daisuke; Otsubo, Masahisa

    The purpose of this research is to design a structure of membrane electrode assembly (MEA) for reduction of a platinum amount considering with a reaction surface area, a various polarizations and a max power density by changing structure of catalyst layer numbers of MEA. Firstly, an operation of the multi-layered MEA was evaluated. As the result, the reaction surface area increases and the activation polarization decreases as increasing the number of catalyst layers in anode and cathode. In addition, the max power density increases with increasing the reaction surface area and the max power density increases with decreasing the activation polarization. However, a tendency of increasing of the reaction surface area and decreasing of the activation polarization saturated and the max power density decreased in the five-layered MEA. It was thought that flooding occurred by excessive stacking of the catalyst layers on cathode. Therefore, the optimal structure of multi-layered MEA was four-layered structure. In this study, it was clearly understood that multi-layered MEA was effective in increase of reaction surface area of the platinum catalyst, reduction of activation polarization and improvement of maximum output density. In addition, fuel cell module with multi-layered MEA was effective for reducing platinum amount.

  13. Accumulation and elimination of14C-γ-HCH (lindane) in Nereis virens (Polychaeta) with consideration of metabolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goerke, H.; Ernst, W.

    1980-03-01

    In two experiments, conducted at 6° and 16 °C, 43 Nereis virens were exposed to14C-labelled γ-HCH (lindane) at a concentration of 1 µg/l, which was maintained by intermittent monitoring and redosing. A closed system with individuals living in glass tubes was used. At equilibrium and during the subsequent phase of elimination, both γ-HCH and metabolites were determined in individual worms as well as in the water and faeces throughout the entire experiment. The bioconcentration factors of γ-HCH were 480 and 440 at 6° and 16 °C, respectively; those based on total radioactivity were 500 and 410. These factors were in the upper range of those known for other aquatic animals. The elimination may be described by an exponential function. The initial 50% decrease of γ-HCH and γ-HCH+metabolites in the worms occurred at both temperatures in 2 and 3 days, respectively. The percentage of γ-HCH metabolites in worms increased considerably during the elimination period. At least four metabolites were detected in worms and water. If pollutants are evaluated by accumulation and elimination kinetics, metabolization has to be taken into account.

  14. Acidophilic green alga Pseudochlorella sp. YKT1 accumulates high amount of lipid droplets under a nitrogen-depleted condition at a low-pH.

    PubMed

    Hirooka, Shunsuke; Higuchi, Sumio; Uzuka, Akihiro; Nozaki, Hisayoshi; Miyagishima, Shin-ya

    2014-01-01

    Microalgal storage lipids are considered to be a promising source for next-generation biofuel feedstock. However, microalgal biodiesel is not yet economically feasible due to the high cost of production. One of the reasons for this is that the use of a low-cost open pond system is currently limited because of the unavoidable contamination with undesirable organisms. Extremophiles have an advantage in culturing in an open pond system because they grow in extreme environments toxic to other organisms. In this study, we isolated the acidophilic green alga Pseudochlorella sp. YKT1 from sulfuric acid mine drainage in Nagano Prefecture, Japan. The vegetative cells of YKT1 display the morphological characteristics of Trebouxiophyceae and molecular phylogenetic analyses indicated it to be most closely related to Pseudochlorella pringsheimii. The optimal pH and temperature for the growth of YKT1 are pH 3.0-5.0 and a temperature 20-25°C, respectively. Further, YKT1 is able to grow at pH 2.0 and at 32°C, which corresponds to the usual water temperature in the outdoors in summer in many countries. YKT1 accumulates a large amount of storage lipids (∼30% of dry weigh) under a nitrogen-depleted condition at low-pH (pH 3.0). These results show that acidophilic green algae will be useful for industrial applications by acidic open culture systems. PMID:25221913

  15. Accumulation of Polyhydroxyalkanoic Acid Containing Large Amounts of Unsaturated Monomers in Pseudomonas fluorescens BM07 Utilizing Saccharides and Its Inhibition by 2-Bromooctanoic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ho-Joo; Choi, Mun Hwan; Kim, Tae-Un; Yoon, Sung Chul

    2001-01-01

    A psychrotrophic bacterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens BM07, which is able to accumulate polyhydroxyalkanoic acid (PHA) containing large amounts of 3-hydroxy-cis-5-dodecenoate unit up to 35 mol% in the cell from unrelated substrates such as fructose, succinate, etc., was isolated from an activated sludge in a municipal wastewater treatment plant. When it was grown on heptanoic acid (C7) to hexadecanoic acid (C16) as the sole carbon source, the monomer compositional characteristics of the synthesized PHA were similar to those observed in other fluorescent pseudomonads belonging to rRNA homology group I. However, growth on stearic acid (C18) led to no PHA accumulation, but instead free stearic acid was stored in the cell. The existence of the linkage between fatty acid de novo synthesis and PHA synthesis was confirmed by using inhibitors such as acrylic acid and two other compounds, 2-bromooctanoic acid and 4-pentenoic acid, which are known to inhibit β-oxidation enzymes in animal cells. Acrylic acid completely inhibited PHA synthesis at a concentration of 4 mM in 40 mM octanoate-grown cells, but no inhibition of PHA synthesis occurred in 70 mM fructose-grown cells in the presence of 1 to 5 mM acrylic acid. 2-Bromooctanoic acid and 4-pentenoic acid were found to much inhibit PHA synthesis much more strongly in fructose-grown cells than in octanoate-grown cells over concentrations ranging from 1 to 5 mM. However, 2-bromooctanoic acid and 4-pentenoic acid did not inhibit cell growth at all in the fructose media. Especially, with the cells grown on fructose, 2-bromooctanoic acid exhibited a steep rise in the percent PHA synthesis inhibition over a small range of concentrations below 100 μM, a finding indicative of a very specific inhibition, whereas 4-pentenoic acid showed a broad, featureless concentration dependence, suggesting a rather nonspecific inhibition. The apparent inhibition constant Ki (the concentration for 50% inhibition of PHA synthesis) for 2

  16. Exploring Effective Strategies for Increasing the Amount of Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity Children Accumulate during Recess: A Quasi-Experimental Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efrat, Merav W.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Less than half of elementary children meet the physical activity recommendations of 30 to 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) on a daily basis. Recess provides the single biggest opportunity for children to accumulate MVPA. This study explored whether a teacher's social prompting to be active during recess…

  17. Accumulation of planets into the proto-planetary cloud as a process of occurring an amount of characteristic scales into the nonlinear self organized dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Professor Khachay, Yurie

    2015-04-01

    Two characteristic times are significant for evolution the interior of the homogeneous proto-planetary cloud: the time of bodies free fall towards the clouds mass center and the time of sound distribution through the cloud. With the beginning of proto-planetary disk fragmentation and accumulation of the proto-planets from the bodies and particles there are formed matter content heterogeneities of the finite dimension, heterogeneities of temperature, density and values of kinetic coefficients. The system became more and more complicated with interior interconnections. By the growing of the bodies the difference between the values of the characteristic times and dimensions become larger. The dynamical evolution of the system we could observe with use the numerical modeling of the Earth and Moon formation into the 3-D model [1,2]. The fact, that the linear dimensions of the objects during the accumulation process change from the centimeter and meter dimensions to some thousands of kilometers significantly prevent the mathematical description of these processes. The corresponding values of the no dimensional similarity criterions, which are included into the systems of differential equations, which describe the proto-planetary growing, the conditions for entropy and mass on the growing surface, the equations of the impulse balance, energy and mass into the interior parts of the planet change on an orders of values. Therefore we used very detailed space and time grids for solution the problem using the method of finite differences. The additional complications occur according to necessity to take into account the nonlinear dependence of matter viscosity from the temperature, pressure and chemical matter content. At last we took into account the principal random distribution of heterogeneities, stipulated by bodies and particles falling. Only progression towards that direction and constructing corresponding systems of observation and interpretation allow to hope

  18. Getting my child to eat the right amount. Mothers' considerations when deciding how much food to offer their child at a meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feeding young children successfully requires parenting skills,trust that children will eat, and nutrition and child development knowledge to ensure that foods and the amounts offered are developmentally appropriate. Mothers are often responsible for determining how much food is offered to their chil...

  19. Correlated Changes in the Activity, Amount of Protein, and Abundance of Transcript of NADPH:Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductase and Chlorophyll Accumulation during Greening of Cucumber Cotyledons.

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, K.; Chen, R. M.; Tanaka, A.; Teramoto, H.; Tanaka, R.; Timko, M. P.; Tsuji, H.

    1995-01-01

    Changes in the activity and abundance of NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (NPR) and the abundance of mRNA encoding it were examined during the greening of 5-d-old etiolated cucumber cotyledons under continuous illumination. To measure NPR activity in the extracts from fully greened tissues, we have developed an improved method of assay. Upon exposure of etiolated cotyledons to light, NPR activity decreased rapidly within the first 2 h of exposure. Thereafter, enzymatic activity increased transiently, reaching a submaximum level at 12 h, and decreased slowly. The level of immunodetectable NPR protein followed the same pattern of changes during 96 h of greening as observed for NPR activity. The NPR mRNA in etiolated cotyledons disappeared quickly in the 1st h of irradiation. However, the level of mRNA increased thereafter to reach 3-fold or more of the dark level at 12 h and then decreased. The changes in the activity, protein level, and mRNA level after the first rapid decreases corresponded chronologically and nearly paralleled the increase in the rate of chlorophyll accumulation. These findings suggest that the greening of cucumber cotyledons is regulated basically by the level of NPR protein without activation or repression of enzymatic activity and that NPR mRNA increased by light maintains the level of enzyme protein necessary for greening. PMID:12228591

  20. Getting my child to eat the right amount. Mothers' considerations when deciding how much food to offer their child at a meal.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Susan L; Goodell, L Suzanne; Williams, Kimberly; Power, Thomas G; Hughes, Sheryl O

    2015-05-01

    Feeding young children successfully requires parenting skills, trust that children will eat, and nutrition and child development knowledge to ensure that foods and the amounts offered are developmentally appropriate. Mothers are often responsible for determining how much food is offered to their children; however, the influences on mothers' decisions regarding how much to offer their children--their motivations, goals for feeding and child consumption--have not been investigated. Study aims included gathering qualitative data regarding mothers' decisional processes related to preparing a dinner meal plate for her preschooler. Low income mothers (n = 15 African American and n = 15 Latina mothers) were recruited from preschools in the Denver, CO metropolitan area to participate in semi-structured interviews. Mothers prepared a plate for their preschooler and were asked about influences on their decisions about portion sizes and their expectations for children's eating. Data were coded by 2 independent coders using a consensus coding process and analyzed by investigators. Three themes emerged: (1) portion sizes differ for children who are "good" eaters and "picky" eaters; (2) mothers know the "right amounts" to serve their child; and (3) mothers have emotional investments in their children's eating. Some influencing factors were child-centered (e.g. child's likes and dislikes, "picky" and "good" eaters, and foods previously eaten in the day) and some related to adult expectations and concerns (nutrient content and waste). Interventions focusing on portion size may be more effective if tailored to the mothers' perceptions regarding her child's eating characteristics. PMID:25510530

  1. Basic considerations for determining the amount of press fit in acetabular cup endoprostheses as a function of the elastic bone behavior.

    PubMed

    Winter, Werner; Karl, Matthias

    2014-10-01

    Acetabular cup endoprostheses are frequently placed in pelvic bone, employing the mechanical principle of press fit. While a sufficiently stable bone-implant connection is desirable, deformation of the cup and fracture of the pelvis should be avoided. The goal of this work is to demonstrate the importance of the elastic properties of bone on the amount of press fit achievable in a specific situation. On the basis of previous work describing the relation between relative bone mineral density and relative elastic modulus for cortical and trabecular bone, mechanical equations were used for analyzing the press-fit loading situation of an acetabular cup. Additionally, a two-dimensional finite element model was used for visualizing the stress and strain situation in the host bone occurring as a consequence of implant insertion, as well as the effect of moment loads acting on the acetabular cup. Given the fact that oversizing the implant for a specific recipient site is the only clinical means of optimizing press fit, knowledge of the elastic properties of the host bone before implant selection would be beneficial. Such information could, for instance, be derived from intraoperative compressive testing of the host bone. PMID:24937501

  2. Accumulate repeat accumulate codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative channel coding scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate codes' (ARA). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, thus belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA codes on a graph. The structure of encoder for this class can be viewed as precoded Repeat Accumulate (RA) code or as precoded Irregular Repeat Accumulate (IRA) code, where simply an accumulator is chosen as a precoder. Thus ARA codes have simple, and very fast encoder structure when they representing LDPC codes. Based on density evolution for LDPC codes through some examples for ARA codes, we show that for maximum variable node degree 5 a minimum bit SNR as low as 0.08 dB from channel capacity for rate 1/2 can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Thus based on fixed low maximum variable node degree, its threshold outperforms not only the RA and IRA codes but also the best known LDPC codes with the dame maximum node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators any desired high rate codes close to code rate 1 can be obtained with thresholds that stay close to the channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results are provided. The ARA codes also have projected graph or protograph representation that allows for high speed decoder implementation.

  3. Isolation and characterization of a radiation-resistant bacterium from Taklamakan Desert showing potent ability to accumulate Lead (II) and considerable potential for bioremediation of radioactive wastes.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xuesong; Zeng, Xian-Chun; He, Zhancan; Lu, Xiaolu; Yuan, Jie; Shi, Jingjing; Liu, Ming; Pan, Yunfan; Wang, Yan-Xin

    2014-12-01

    Radioactive wastes always contain radioactive substances and a lot of Pb compound and other heavy metals, which severely contaminate soils and groundwater. Thus, search for radiation-resistant microorganisms that are capable of sequestering Pb contaminants from the contaminated sites is urgently needed. However, very few such microorganisms have been found so far. In the present study, we discovered a novel Gram-negative bacterium from the arid Taklamakan desert, which can strongly resist both radiation and Pb(2+). Phylogenetic and phenotypic analysis indicated that this bacterial strain is closely affiliated with Microvirga aerilata, and was thus referred to as Microvirga aerilata LM (=CCTCC AB 208311). We found that M. aerilata LM can effectively accumulate Pb and form intracellular precipitations. It also keeps similar ability to remove Pb(2+) under radioactive stress. Our data suggest that M. aerilata LM may offer an effective and eco-friendly in situ approach to remove soluble Pb contaminants from radioactive wastes. PMID:25182517

  4. Measurement of intravenously administered γ-Fe2O3 particle amount in mice tissues using vibrating sample magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Mikio; Miyamoto, Ryoichi; Oda, Tatsuya; Ohara, Yusuke; Yanagihara, Hideto; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro; Kita, Eiji

    2014-12-01

    Dispersions of platelet γ-Fe2O3 particles 30-50nm in size were intravenously administered to mice and the amount of particles accumulated in each tissue was obtained by magnetization measurement using a vibrating sample magnetometer. Background noise was greatly reduced by measuring dried tissues under a magnetic field of 500 Oe so that the effect of diamagnetism was slight. Remarkable particle accumulation was observed in the liver and spleen. Considerable particle accumulation was observed in the lung when a large quantity of γ-Fe2 O3 particles was administered. There was no significant particle accumulation in the kidney and heart. PMID:25122839

  5. Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate-Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2004-01-01

    Inspired by recently proposed Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate (ARA) codes [15], in this paper we propose a channel coding scheme called Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate (ARAA) codes. These codes can be seen as serial turbo-like codes or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, and they have a projected graph or protograph representation; this allows for a high-speed iterative decoder implementation using belief propagation. An ARAA code can be viewed as a precoded Repeat-and-Accumulate (RA) code with puncturing in concatenation with another accumulator, where simply an accumulator is chosen as the precoder; thus ARAA codes have a very fast encoder structure. Using density evolution on their associated protographs, we find examples of rate-lJ2 ARAA codes with maximum variable node degree 4 for which a minimum bit-SNR as low as 0.21 dB from the channel capacity limit can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Such a low threshold cannot be achieved by RA or Irregular RA (IRA) or unstructured irregular LDPC codes with the same constraint on the maximum variable node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators we can construct families of higher rate ARAA codes with thresholds that stay close to their respective channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results show comparable performance with the best-known LDPC codes but with very low error floor even at moderate block sizes.

  6. Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Samuel; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    Accumulate-repeat-accumulate-accumulate (ARAA) codes have been proposed, inspired by the recently proposed accumulate-repeat-accumulate (ARA) codes. These are error-correcting codes suitable for use in a variety of wireless data-communication systems that include noisy channels. ARAA codes can be regarded as serial turbolike codes or as a subclass of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes, and, like ARA codes they have projected graph or protograph representations; these characteristics make it possible to design high-speed iterative decoders that utilize belief-propagation algorithms. The objective in proposing ARAA codes as a subclass of ARA codes was to enhance the error-floor performance of ARA codes while maintaining simple encoding structures and low maximum variable node degree.

  7. The Indefinite Accumulation of Finite Amounts: A Socratic Educative Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Maria Angeles; Carreras, Pedro Perez

    2011-01-01

    We present a semi-structured clinic interview designed to ease the mental construction of a suitable concept-image of the notion of convergence for series of positive numbers. Cognitive obstacles will manifest themselves along the interview and we shall deal with them and teach the student how to overcome them. A special computer generated tool…

  8. Influence of molybdenum on the accumulation and composition of the water-soluble polysaccharides of Plantago psyllium

    SciTech Connect

    Lichino, I.P.; Gomanova, M.I.; Milenysheva, L.I.; Yakovlev, A.I.

    1986-07-01

    The authors have studied the dynamics of the accumulation of polysaccharides in flaxseed plantain when it is given a foliar top dressing with molybdenum, and also their monosaccaride composition and physicochemical properties. The amounts of galacturonic acid were determined by potentiometric titration. The results of the investigations permit the conclusions that molybdenum somewhat decreases the amounts of total monosaccaride complex and of galacturonic acid while considerably raising the amount of -OCH/sub 3/.

  9. Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative coded modulation scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation' (ARA coded modulation). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes that are combined with high level modulation. Thus at the decoder belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA coded modulation on a graph, provided a demapper transforms the received in-phase and quadrature samples to reliability of the bits.

  10. Total carbon accumulation in a tropical forest landscape

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Regrowing tropical forests worldwide sequester important amounts of carbon and restore part of the C emissions emitted by deforestation. However, there are large uncertainties concerning the rates of carbon accumulation after the abandonment of agricultural and pasture land. We report here accumulation of total carbon stocks (TCS) in a chronosequence of secondary forests at a mid-elevation landscape (900-1200 m asl) in the Andean mountains of Colombia. Results We found positive accumulation rates for all ecosystem pools except soil carbon, which showed no significant trend of recovery after 36 years of secondary succession. We used these data to develop a simple model to predict accumulation of TCS over time. This model performed remarkably well predicting TCS at other chronosequences in the Americas (Root Mean Square Error < 40 Mg C ha-1), which provided an opportunity to explore different assumptions in the calculation of large-scale carbon budgets. Simulations of TCS with our empirical model were used to test three assumptions often made in carbon budgets: 1) the use of carbon accumulation in tree aboveground biomass as a surrogate for accumulation of TCS, 2) the implicit consideration of carbon legacies from previous land-use, and 3) the omission of landscape age in calculating accumulation rates of TCS. Conclusions Our simulations showed that in many situations carbon can be released from regrowing secondary forests depending on the amount of carbon legacies and the average age of the landscape. In most cases, the rates used to predict carbon accumulation in the Americas were above the rates predicted in our simulations. These biome level rates seemed to be realistic only in landscapes not affected by carbon legacies from previous land-use and mean ages of around 10 years. PMID:23249727

  11. 47 CFR 32.3100 - Accumulated depreciation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accumulated depreciation. 32.3100 Section 32... Accumulated depreciation. (a) This account shall include the accumulated depreciation associated with the... with depreciation amounts concurrently charged to Account 6561, Depreciation...

  12. Different approaches for improving skin accumulation of topical corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Senyiğit, Taner; Padula, Cristina; Ozer, Ozgen; Santi, Patrizia

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate the effect of vehicle, chemical enhancer and iontophoresis on the skin accumulation of clobetasol propionate (CP) and mometasone furoate (MF). In vitro permeation experiments were performed using pig ear skin as barrier and HPLC as quantification method. The formulations tested were chitosan gels, sodium-deoxycholate gels and commercial creams of CP and MF. The results obtained indicate that Na-DOC gel had an enhancing effect on the skin accumulation of both active agents. This effect was more evident with CP especially in the stratum corneum and epidermis which are the target sites of topical steroidal treatment. Two terpene derivatives (D-limonene and nerolidol) and Transcutol P were evaluated as chemical penetration enhancers. Nerolidol produced considerable increase in the amount of CP and MF accumulated without any permeation across the skin. The application of electric current (anodal iontophoresis) to the gels improved the accumulation of MF while it did not effect the accumulation of CP. Due to the best accumulation results of nerolidol, the enhancement effect in combination with iontophoresis was also investigated. It was shown that, the combination of anodal iontophoresis and chemical enhancer (nerolidol) produced no further enhancement for both active agents. PMID:19635541

  13. Effects of Weather, Time, and Pollution Level on the Amount of Particulate Matter Deposited on Leaves of Ligustrum lucidum

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huixia; Shi, Hui; Wang, Yanhui

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigated the spatial and temporal variations in the amounts of PM accumulated on leaves of Ligustrum lucidum, a common evergreen tree species in North China. The effects of rainfall and wind on the amounts of PM deposited on foliage were also determined. The amounts of PM (g·m−2) retained by leaves of L. lucidum differed significantly among the sites (from 0.96 to 5.56) and over time (from 2.51 to 4.48). The largest amounts of PM on foliage of L. lucidum were observed on plants growing at the most polluted site. During the year, the highest and lowest accumulation of PM occurred in November and August, respectively. A considerable proportion of the accumulated PM on leaves was removed by rainfall events (28–48% of PM) and strong winds (27–36% of PM), and more precipitation or higher maximum wind speed could remove more PM from leaves. Rainfall removed mainly large and coarse particles, while fine particles adhered more strongly to the foliage. These results suggested that the effects of local weather conditions (e.g., rainfall, strong wind), different seasons, and pollution levels should be considered in evaluating total PM accumulation on leaves. PMID:25685849

  14. Bioethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Leyser-Whalen, Ophra; Lawson, Erma; Macdonald, Arlene; Temple, Jeff R; Phelps, John Y

    2014-11-01

    The clinical literature notes that pregnancy has become an expected benefit of solid organ transplant. Establishing "best practices" in the management of this particular transplant population requires careful consideration of the ethical dimensions, broadly speaking, of posttransplant pregnancies and these women's lived experiences. In this article, we present the current clinical and social science posttransplant pregnancy research. We specifically address the psychosocial and ethical issues surrounding preconception counseling and posttransplant health quality of life and mothering and suggest areas for future research. PMID:25151472

  15. 26 CFR 1.666(a)-1A - Amount allocated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Amount allocated. 1.666(a)-1A Section 1.666(a... Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(a)-1A Amount allocated. (a) In general. In the case of a trust that... trusts that may accumulate income or that distribute corpus), section 666(a) prescribes rules...

  16. 26 CFR 1.666(a)-1A - Amount allocated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Amount allocated. 1.666(a)-1A Section 1.666(a... Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(a)-1A Amount allocated. (a) In general. In the case of a trust that... trusts that may accumulate income or that distribute corpus), section 666(a) prescribes rules...

  17. 26 CFR 1.666(a)-1A - Amount allocated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Amount allocated. 1.666(a)-1A Section 1.666(a... Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(a)-1A Amount allocated. (a) In general. In the case of a trust that... trusts that may accumulate income or that distribute corpus), section 666(a) prescribes rules...

  18. 26 CFR 1.666(a)-1A - Amount allocated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amount allocated. 1.666(a)-1A Section 1.666(a... Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(a)-1A Amount allocated. (a) In general. In the case of a trust that is... that may accumulate income or that distribute corpus), section 666(a) prescribes rules for...

  19. 26 CFR 1.666(a)-1A - Amount allocated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Amount allocated. 1.666(a)-1A Section 1.666(a... Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(a)-1A Amount allocated. (a) In general. In the case of a trust that... trusts that may accumulate income or that distribute corpus), section 666(a) prescribes rules...

  20. Guidelines for Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to set conditions for establishing and maintaining areas for the accumulation of hazardous waste at LBL. Areas designed for accumulation of these wastes in quantities greater than 100 kg (220 lb) per month of solid waste or 55 gallons per month of liquid waste are called Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs). Areas designed for accumulation of wastes in smaller amounts are called Satellite Accumulation Areas (SAAs). This document provides guidelines for employee and organizational responsibilities for WAAs; constructing a WAA; storing waste in a WAA; operating and maintaining a WAA, and responding to spills in a WAA. 4 figs.

  1. Heat exchanger-accumulator

    DOEpatents

    Ecker, Amir L.

    1980-01-01

    What is disclosed is a heat exchanger-accumulator for vaporizing a refrigerant or the like, characterized by an upright pressure vessel having a top, bottom and side walls; an inlet conduit eccentrically and sealingly penetrating through the top; a tubular overflow chamber disposed within the vessel and sealingly connected with the bottom so as to define an annular outer volumetric chamber for receiving refrigerant; a heat transfer coil disposed in the outer volumetric chamber for vaporizing the liquid refrigerant that accumulates there; the heat transfer coil defining a passageway for circulating an externally supplied heat exchange fluid; transferring heat efficiently from the fluid; and freely allowing vaporized refrigerant to escape upwardly from the liquid refrigerant; and a refrigerant discharge conduit penetrating sealingly through the top and traversing substantially the length of the pressurized vessel downwardly and upwardly such that its inlet is near the top of the pressurized vessel so as to provide a means for transporting refrigerant vapor from the vessel. The refrigerant discharge conduit has metering orifices, or passageways, penetrating laterally through its walls near the bottom, communicating respectively interiorly and exteriorly of the overflow chamber for controllably carrying small amounts of liquid refrigerant and oil to the effluent stream of refrigerant gas.

  2. Microbial accumulation of uranium, radium, and cesium

    SciTech Connect

    Strandberg, G.W.; Shumate, S.E. II; Parrott, J.R. Jr.; North, S.E.

    1981-05-01

    Diverse microbial species varied considerably in their ability to accumulate uranium, cesium, and radium. Mechanistic differences in uranium uptake by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were indicated. S. serevisiae exhibited a slow (hours) surface accumulation of uranium which was subject to environmental factors, while P. aeruginosa accumulated uranium rapidly (minutes) as dense intracellular deposits and did not appear to be affected by environmental parameters. Metabolism was not required for uranium uptake by either organism. Cesium and radium were concentrated to a considerably lesser extent than uranium by the several species tested.

  3. [Discussion on acupuncture treatment amount].

    PubMed

    Wu, Song; Liang, Fengxia; Wang, Hua; Li, Jia

    2015-05-01

    The amount of acupuncture treatment refers to the sum of acupuncture effects during the treatment. From the factors that constitutes the amount of acupuncture treatment, including the numbers of needling, the size of acupuncture instruments, the depth of acupuncture, the manipulation, the retained time of needle, etc., and combined with teaching and clinical experience, it is believed that the amount of acupuncture treatment is closely related with clinical efficacy, besides, moderate amount of acupuncture treatment is a key factor to improve acupuncture efficacy and guarantee the safety of acupuncture. The basic principles of regular treatment amount are arrival of qi and being moderate, indicating the retained time of needle, treatment frequency and course should be based on individual condition, time, location and disease. PMID:26255521

  4. Accumulation of particulate matter and trace elements on vegetation as affected by pollution level, rainfall and the passage of time.

    PubMed

    Przybysz, A; Sæbø, A; Hanslin, H M; Gawroński, S W

    2014-05-15

    Particulate matter is harmful to human health. To reduce its concentration in air, plants could be used as biological filters, accumulating particulate matter on their foliage. In a study carried out at three sites with differing pollution levels and exposure to precipitation, the capacity of evergreen species (Taxus baccata L., Hedera helix L. and Pinus sylvestris L.) to accumulate particulate matter and trace elements from ambient air in urban areas was investigated. The effects of rainfall and the passage of time on particulate matter deposition on foliage were also determined. The results showed that foliage accumulated an increasing quantity of particulate matter in successive months, but the actual amount of particulate matter and trace elements accumulated differed considerably between sites and plant species. The greatest accumulation of air pollutants occurred on the foliage of plants protected from the rain at a site exposed to traffic related pollution and the smallest accumulation at a rural site. Among the species analysed, the deposited mass of particulate matter and trace elements was the greatest on P. sylvestris. In all species, precipitation removed a considerable proportion of particles accumulated on foliage. Most of the removed particulate matter was large size fraction, but little belong to the smallest size fraction. These results showed that both, the dynamics of deposition and leaf washing by rain during the season need to be considered when evaluating the total effect of vegetation in pollutant remediation. PMID:24607629

  5. 10 CFR 205.286 - Limitations on amount of refunds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Limitations on amount of refunds. 205.286 Section 205.286 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND SANCTIONS Special Procedures for... to be remitted pursuant to the relevant DOE enforcement order, plus any accumulated interest,...

  6. 10 CFR 205.286 - Limitations on amount of refunds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limitations on amount of refunds. 205.286 Section 205.286 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND SANCTIONS Special Procedures for... to be remitted pursuant to the relevant DOE enforcement order, plus any accumulated interest,...

  7. Cultivar variation in morphological response of peanut roots to cadmium stress and its relation to cadmium accumulation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ziwei; Zhang, Zheng; Su, Ying; Liu, Caifeng; Shi, Gangrong

    2013-05-01

    This study aimed to test the hypothesis that root morphology may play a crucial role in the variation in Cd accumulation among peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cultivars. The biomass, Cd accumulation and root morphology of five peanut cultivars were determined under 2 and 20μM CdCl2 in a hydroponic experiment. Excess Cd considerably decreased the root lengths (RL), surface area (SA), specific root length (SRL) and number of root tips, but increased the root diameters (RD). Cd-induced decreases in RL and SA were significant in the 0-0.2 and 0.2-0.4mm diameter classes. Peanut cultivars differ in Cd accumulation and root morphological parameters. A positive correlation was observed between RL and Cd amount in shoots. RD negatively correlated to Cd concentrations in roots and shoots. Positive correlations were also found between RL vs. shoot Cd concentration, SA vs. Cd amount in shoots, SRL vs. root Cd concentration, SRL vs. shoot Cd concentration, and SRL vs. Cd amount in shoots. The fine roots play a crucial role in determining Cd accumulation in peanut plants. Cultivars with more fine roots in their root system (i.e. Haihua 1 and Zhenghong 3) have high capability of Cd accumulation. PMID:23410837

  8. 26Al uptake and accumulation in the rat brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yumoto, S.; Nagai, H.; Imamura, M.; Matsuzaki, H.; Hayashi, K.; Masuda, A.; Kumazawa, H.; Ohashi, H.; Kobayashi, K.

    1997-03-01

    To investigate the cause of Alzheimer's disease (senile dementia), 26Al incorporation in the rat brain was studied by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). When 26Al was injected into healthy rats, a considerable amount of 26Al entered the brain (cerebrum) through the blood-brain barrier 5 days after a single injection, and the brain 26Al level remained almost constant from 5 to 270 days. On the other hand, the level of 26Al in the blood decreased remarkably 75 days after injection. Approximately 89% of the 26Al taken in by the brain cell nuclei bound to chromatin. This study supports the theory that Alzheimer's disease is caused by irreversible accumulation of aluminium (Al) in the brain, and brain cell nuclei.

  9. Quantitative trait loci controlling amounts and types of epicuticular waxes in onion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural variation exists in onion (Allium cepa L.) for amounts and types of epicuticular waxes on leaves. Wild-type waxy onion possesses copious amounts of these waxes, while the foliage of semi-glossy and glossy phenotypes accumulate significantly less wax. Reduced amounts of epicuticular waxes hav...

  10. 49 CFR 190.225 - Assessment considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assessment considerations. 190.225 Section 190.225 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PROCEDURES Enforcement Civil Penalties § 190.225 Assessment considerations. In determining the amount of...

  11. 49 CFR 190.225 - Assessment considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Assessment considerations. 190.225 Section 190.225 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PROCEDURES Enforcement Civil Penalties § 190.225 Assessment considerations. In determining the amount of...

  12. Solar-Panel Dust Accumulation and Cleanings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Air-fall dust accumulates on the solar panels of NASA's Mars Exploration Rovers, reducing the amount of sunlight reaching the solar arrays. Pre-launch models predicted steady dust accumulation. However, the rovers have been blessed with occasional wind events that clear significant amounts of dust from the solar panels.

    This graph shows the effects of those panel-cleaning events on the amount of electricity generated by Spirit's solar panels. The horizontal scale is the number of Martian days (sols) after Spirit's Jan. 4, 2005, (Universal Time) landing on Mars. The vertical scale indicates output from the rover's solar panels as a fraction of the amount produced when the clean panels first opened. Note that the gradual declines are interrupted by occasional sharp increases, such as a dust-cleaning event on sol 420.

  13. Holocene Carbon Accumulation Rates in the SPRUCE Bog Prior to Warming and Elevated CO2 Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarlane, K. J.; Iversen, C. M.; Phillips, J. R.; Brice, D. J.; Hanson, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    In the Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climatic and Environmental Change (SPRUCE) experiment warming and elevated CO2 treatments are being applied to an ombrotrophic spruce bog: the S1 Bog (S1) at Marcell Experimental Forest in northern Minnesota. To provide a historical context for recent and expected experimentally-induced changes in the bog's belowground carbon balance, we reconstructed historical carbon accumulation rates in peat using radiocarbon from 19 peat cores collected from randomly distributed SPRUCE plots. This unusually high number of cores allows us to assess spatial variability in age-depth profiles and accumulation rates across the SPRUCE study area within S1. This data, along with recent C flux measurements, show that the bog has been accumulating carbon for at least 12,0000 years and has continued to be a sink for atmospheric carbon of approximately 150 g C m-2 yr-1 in recent decades. Early Holocene accumulation rates are similar to those reported for other northern peatlands (approximately 25 g C m-2 yr-1), but apparent carbon accumulation decreased substantially around 3,000 years ago (to 5-15 g C m-2 yr-1) and stayed low until the last century. This decrease is considerably larger than that reported for other peatlands and is therefore unlikely to result only from cooling during the Holocene or bog succession. Although no charcoal has been found in peat at this site, evidence from a neighboring bog indicates a considerable amount of peat formed during this period was consumed by fire and it is possible that smoldering fires consumed peat, resulting in low apparent accumulation rates. Past droughts may have also contributed to observed trends by lowering the acrotelm/catotelm boundary, allowing for enhanced aerobic peat decomposition. This work provides important background information on spatial variability and carbon biogeochemistry that will aid in interpretation of climate change simulation experiments at S1.

  14. Fast carry accumulator design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mastin, W. C.

    1971-01-01

    Simple iterative accumulator combined with gated-carry, carry-completion detection, and skip-carry circuits produces three accumulators with decreased carry propagation times. Devices are used in machine control, measurement equipment, and computer applications to increase speed of binary addition. NAND gates are used in combining network.

  15. Changes on organic acid secretion and accumulation in Plantago almogravensis Franco and Plantago algarbiensis Samp. under aluminum stress.

    PubMed

    Martins, Neusa; Gonçalves, Sandra; Andrade, Paula B; Valentão, Patrícia; Romano, Anabela

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effect of Al (400μM) on organic acids secretion, accumulation and metabolism in Plantago almogravensis Franco and Plantago algarbiensis Samp. Al induced a significant reduction on root elongation only in P. algarbiensis. Both species accumulated considerable amounts of Al (>120μgg(-1)) in their tissues, roots exhibiting the highest contents (>900μgg(-1)). Al stimulated malonic acid secretion in P. algarbiensis, while citric, succinic and malic acids were secreted by P. almogravensis. Moreover, Al uptake was accompanied by substantial increases of citric, oxalic, malonic and fumaric acids contents in the plantlets of either species. Overall, the acid metabolizing enzymes were not directly involved in the Al induced organic acid secretion and accumulation. Our data suggest that Al detoxification in P. almogravensis implies both secretion of organic acids from roots and tolerance to high Al tissue concentrations, while in P. algarbiensis only the tolerance mechanism seems to be involved. PMID:23199681

  16. Screening for new accumulator plants in Andes Range mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bech, Jaume; Roca, Núria

    2016-04-01

    accumulated considerable concentrations of Cu and Zn. The species from the genus Bidens (Asteraceae) were able not only to accumulate high shoot As concentrations (> 1000 μg g-1 in B. cynapiifolia from Peru) but also considerable amounts of Pb (B. humilis from Chile). The highest Cu shoot concentrations were found in Mullinum spinosum (870 μg g-1) and in B. cynapiifolia (620 μg g-1). The shoot accumulation of Zn was highest in Baccharis amdatensis (>1900 μg g-1) and in Rumex crispus (1300 μg g-1) from the Ag mine in Ecuador (Bech et al., 2002). In the Peruvian Andes, B. triplinervia can be considered interesting for phytostabilization, due to its capacity to restrict the accumulation of elevated amounts of Pb and Zn in the shoots.

  17. 46 CFR Sec. 2 - Amount of bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amount of bond. Sec. 2 Section 2 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY BONDING OF SHIP'S PERSONNEL Sec. 2 Amount of bond. The amount of the bond must be governed by the amount of monies advanced or value of...

  18. 46 CFR Sec. 2 - Amount of bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amount of bond. Sec. 2 Section 2 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY BONDING OF SHIP'S PERSONNEL Sec. 2 Amount of bond. The amount of the bond must be governed by the amount of monies advanced or value of...

  19. Carbon Monoxide Accumulation in the Extravehicular Mobility Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conkin, J.; Norcrosss, J. R.; Alexander, D. J.; Sanders, R. W.; Makowski, M. S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Life support technology in large closed systems like submarines and space stations catalyzes carbon monoxide (CO) to carbon dioxide, which is easily removed. However, in a small system like the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), spacesuit, CO from exogenous (contaminated oxygen (O (sub 2) supply) and endogenous (human metabolism) sources will accumulate in the free suit volume. The free volume becomes a sink for CO that is rebreathed by the astronaut. The accumulation through time depends on many variables: the amount absorbed by the astronaut, the amount produced by the astronaut (between 0.28 and 0.34 ?moles per hour per kilogram)[1], the amount that enters the suit from contaminated O (sub 2), the amount removed through suit leak, the free volume of the suit, and the O (sub 2) partial pressure[2], just to list a few. Contamination of the EMU O (sub 2) supply with no greater than 1 part per million CO was the motivation for empirical measurements from CO pulse oximetry (SpCO) as well as mathematical modeling of the EMU as a rebreather for CO. Methods: We developed a first-order differential mixing equation as well as an iterative method to compute CO accumulation in the EMU. Pre-post measurements of SpCO (Rad-57, Masimo Corporation) from EMU ground training and on-orbit extravehicular activities (EVAs) were collected. Results: Initial modeling without consideration of the astronaut as a sink but only the source of CO showed that after 8 hours breathing 100 percent O (sub 2) with a 10 milliliter per minute (760 millimeters Hg at 21 degrees Centigrade standard) suit leak, an endogenous production rate of 0.23 moles per hour per kilogram for a 70 kilogram person with 42 liters (1.5 cubic feet) free suit volume resulted in a peak CO partial pressure (pCO) of 0.047 millimeters Hg at 4.3 pounds per square inch absolute (222 millimeters Hg). Preliminary results based on a 2008 model[3] with consideration of the astronaut as a sink and source of CO

  20. Accumulation of metals by microorganisms — processes and importance for soil systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledin, Maria

    2000-08-01

    Metal accumulation by solid substances can counteract metal mobilization in the environment if the solid substance is immobile. Microorganisms have a high surface area-to-volume ratio because of their small size and therefore provide a large contact area that can interact with metals in the surrounding environment. Microbial metal accumulation has received much attention in the last years due to the potential use of microorganisms for cleaning metal-polluted water. However, considerably less attention has been paid to the role of microorganisms for metal mobility in soil even though the same processes may occur there. Therefore, this paper highlights this area. The different accumulation processes that microorganisms perform are analyzed and their potential significance in soil systems is discussed. Different kinds of mechanisms can be involved in the accumulation of metals by microorganisms, e.g. adsorption, precipitation, complexation and active transport into the cell. Physicochemical parameters like pH and ionic composition, as well as biological factors are of importance for the magnitude of accumulation. Often large amounts of metals can be accumulated with varying specificity, and microorganisms may provide nucleation sites for mineral formation. Several studies of microbial metal accumulation have been made with different methods and aims. Most of these studies concern single-component systems with one organism at a time. Data from accumulation experiments with pure cultures of microorganisms have been used to model the overall metal retention in soil. A further development is experimental model systems using various solid soil components in salt medium. Microbial metal accumulation is difficult to study in situ, but some experimental methods have been applied as tools for studying real soil systems, e.g. litter bags buried in soil containing microorganisms, a method where discs with microorganisms have been put onto agar plates with soil extracts, and

  1. 47 CFR 36.503 - Accumulated depreciation-Account 3100.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accumulated depreciation-Account 3100. 36.503... Accumulated depreciation—Account 3100. (a) Amounts recorded in this account shall be separated on the basis of the separation of the associated primary Plant Accounts or related categories, excluding...

  2. 48 CFR 915.404-4-71-4 - Considerations affecting fee amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... reactors; atomic particle accelerators; complex laboratories or industrial units especially designed for... weight, positively or negatively, for the period of services or length of time involved in the...

  3. 48 CFR 915.404-4-71-4 - Considerations affecting fee amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... reactors; atomic particle accelerators; complex laboratories or industrial units especially designed for... weight, positively or negatively, for the period of services or length of time involved in the...

  4. 29 CFR 4219.13 - Amount of liability for de minimis amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amount of liability for de minimis amounts. 4219.13 Section... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.13 Amount of liability for de minimis amounts. An employer that is liable for de minimis amounts shall be liable to the plan for the amount by...

  5. Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation Information Page Synonym(s): Hallervorden-Spatz Disease, ... done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation? Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) ...

  6. Substrate role in the accumulation of heavy metals in sporocarps of wild fungi.

    PubMed

    Campos, Juan A; Tejera, Noel A; Sánchez, Carlos J

    2009-10-01

    The distribution of neodymium, lead, thorium and uranium was investigated in about 100 samples of 12 different species of common, edible and non-edible mushrooms collected in unpolluted areas in the province of Ciudad Real, Central Spain. The quantitative analysis of heavy metals was performed by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (a simple, accurate and non-destructive method). The concentration of these elements was related to three factors: mushroom specie, life style/substrate and study area. The results reveal considerable amounts of the four metals in all species analyzed as well as significant differences on the capability to accumulate these elements. The maximum absorption of Nd and Pb was found in the ectomycorrhizal Cantharellus cibarius, reaching values of 7.10 and 4.86 microg g(-1), respectively. Thorium and uranium were mainly accumulated (3.63 and 4.13 microg g(-1), respectively) in Hypholoma fasciculare although it is an epiphyte species, isolated from the mineral particles of soil. The distribution patterns of these metals in sporocarps of different habitats and locations showed no significant differences, except for thorium, mainly accumulated in mushrooms living on wood regarding these living on soil organic matter. The species-specific is therefore the determining factor for accumulation of Nd, Pb, Th and U, more than substrate, in this study. PMID:19333556

  7. Accumulation of Cd, Pb and Zn by 19 wetland plant species in constructed wetland.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianguo; Dong, Yuan; Xu, Hai; Wang, Deke; Xu, Jiakuan

    2007-08-25

    Uptake and distribution of Cd, Pb and Zn by 19 wetland plant species were investigated with experiments in small-scale plot constructed wetlands, into which artificial wastewater dosed with Cd, Pb and Zn at concentrations of 0.5, 2.0 and 5.0mgl(-1) was irrigated. The results showed that the removal efficiency of Cd, Pb and Zn from the wastewater were more than 90%. Generally, there were tens differences among the 19 plant species in the concentrations and quantity accumulations of the heavy metals in aboveground part, underground part and whole plants. The distribution ratios into aboveground parts for the metals absorbed by plants varied also largely from about 30% to about 90%. All the plants accumulated, in one harvest, 19.85% of Cd, 22.55% of Pb and 23.75% of Zn that were added into the wastewater. Four plant species, e.g. Alternanthera philoxeroides, Zizania latifolia, Echinochloa crus-galli and Polygonum hydropiper, accumulated high amounts of Cd, Pb and Zn. Monochoria vaginalis was capable for accumulating Cd and Pb, Isachne globosa for Cd and Zn, and Digitaria sanguinalis and Fimbristylis miliacea for Zn. The results indicated that the plants, in constructed wetland for the treatment of wastewater polluted by heavy metals, can play important roles for removal of heavy metals through phytoextraction. Selection of plant species for use in constructed wetland will influence considerably removal efficiency and the function duration of the wetland. PMID:17353090

  8. Heat accumulation during pulsed laser materials processing.

    PubMed

    Weber, Rudolf; Graf, Thomas; Berger, Peter; Onuseit, Volkher; Wiedenmann, Margit; Freitag, Christian; Feuer, Anne

    2014-05-01

    Laser materials processing with ultra-short pulses allows very precise and high quality results with a minimum extent of the thermally affected zone. However, with increasing average laser power and repetition rates the so-called heat accumulation effect becomes a considerable issue. The following discussion presents a comprehensive analytical treatment of multi-pulse processing and reveals the basic mechanisms of heat accumulation and its consequence for the resulting processing quality. The theoretical findings can explain the experimental results achieved when drilling microholes in CrNi-steel and for cutting of CFRP. As a consequence of the presented considerations, an estimate for the maximum applicable average power for ultra-shorts pulsed laser materials processing for a given pulse repetition rate is derived. PMID:24921828

  9. Plastids and Carotenoid Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Yuan, Hui; Zeng, Yunliu; Xu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Plastids are ubiquitously present in plants and are the organelles for carotenoid biosynthesis and storage. Based on their morphology and function, plastids are classified into various types, i.e. proplastids, etioplasts, chloroplasts, amyloplasts, and chromoplasts. All plastids, except proplastids, can synthesize carotenoids. However, plastid types have a profound effect on carotenoid accumulation and stability. In this chapter, we discuss carotenoid biosynthesis and regulation in various plastids with a focus on carotenoids in chromoplasts. Plastid transition related to carotenoid biosynthesis and the different capacity of various plastids to sequester carotenoids and the associated effect on carotenoid stability are described in light of carotenoid accumulation in plants. PMID:27485226

  10. 46 CFR 308.403 - Insured amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... total amount of war risk insurance obtainable from companies authorized to do an insurance business in a... MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Builder's Risk Insurance § 308.403 Insured amounts. (a) Prelaunching period. The amount insured...

  11. 14 CFR 1261.102 - Maximum amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Maximum amount. 1261.102 Section 1261.102 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROCESSING OF MONETARY CLAIMS (GENERAL) Employees' Personal Property Claims § 1261.102 Maximum amount. From October 1, 1982, to October 30, 1988, the maximum amount that may be...

  12. 14 CFR 1261.102 - Maximum amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum amount. 1261.102 Section 1261.102 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROCESSING OF MONETARY CLAIMS (GENERAL) Employees' Personal Property Claims § 1261.102 Maximum amount. From October 1, 1982, to October 30, 1988, the maximum amount that may be...

  13. THE KINETICS OF PENETRATION : VIII. TEMPORARY ACCUMULATION.

    PubMed

    Osterhout, W J; Kamerling, S E

    1934-03-20

    solution it will tend to enter and displace the weaker acid HA (if this be carbonic it can readily escape): hence potassium may accumulate to a greater or less extent as KCl. Injury of the cell may produce a twofold effect, (1) increase of permeability, (2) lessened accumulation. The total amount of electrolyte taken up in a given time will be influenced by these factors and may be greater than normal in the injured cell or less, depending somewhat on the length of the interval of time chosen. PMID:19872797

  14. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing.

    PubMed

    Kühl, Hjalmar S; Kalan, Ammie K; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D'Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites. PMID:26923684

  15. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing

    PubMed Central

    Kühl, Hjalmar S.; Kalan, Ammie K.; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D’Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E.; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J.; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M.; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites. PMID:26923684

  16. Accumulation of the planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherill, G. W.

    1987-01-01

    In modeling the accumulation of planetesimals into planets, it is appropriate to distinguish between two stages: an early stage, during which approximately 10 km diameter planetesimals accumulate locally to form bodies approximate 10 to the 25th g in mass; and a later stage in which the approximately 10 to the 25th g planetesimals accumulate into the final planets. In the terrestrial planet region, an initial planetesimal swarm corresponding to the critical mass of dust layer gravitational instabilities is considered. In order to better understand the accumulation history of Mercury-sized bodies, 19 Monte-Carlo simulations of terrestrial planet growth were calculated. A Monte Carlo technique was used to investigate the orbital evolution of asteroidal collision debris produced interior to 2.6 AU. It was found that there are two regions primarily responsible for production of Earth-crossing meteoritic material and Apollo objects. The same techniques were extended to include the origin of Earth-approaching asteroidal bodies. It is found that these same two resonant mechanisms predict a steady-state number of Apollo-Amor about 1/2 that estimated based on astronomical observations.

  17. The amount effect and marginal value.

    PubMed

    Rachlin, Howard; Arfer, Kodi B; Safin, Vasiliy; Yen, Ming

    2015-07-01

    The amount effect of delay discounting (by which the value of larger reward amounts is discounted by delay at a lower rate than that of smaller amounts) strictly implies that value functions (value as a function of amount) are steeper at greater delays than they are at lesser delays. That is, the amount effect and the difference in value functions at different delays are actually a single empirical finding. Amount effects of delay discounting are typically found with choice experiments. Value functions for immediate rewards have been empirically obtained by direct judgment. (Value functions for delayed rewards have not been previously obtained.) The present experiment obtained value functions for both immediate and delayed rewards by direct judgment and found them to be steeper when the rewards were delayed--hence, finding an amount effect with delay discounting. PMID:26013159

  18. Geographic variability in organic carbon stock and accumulation rate in sediments of East and Southeast Asian seagrass meadows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyajima, Toshihiro; Hori, Masakazu; Hamaguchi, Masami; Shimabukuro, Hiromori; Adachi, Hiroshi; Yamano, Hiroya; Nakaoka, Masahiro

    2015-04-01

    Organic carbon (OC) stored in the sediments of seagrass meadows has been considered a globally significant OC reservoir. However, the sparsity and regional bias of studies on long-term OC accumulation in coastal sediments have limited reliable estimation of the capacity of seagrass meadows as a global OC sink. We evaluated the amount and accumulation rate of OC in sediment of seagrass meadows and adjacent areas in East and Southeast Asia. In temperate sites, the average OC concentration in the top 30 cm of sediment was higher in seagrass meadows (780-1080 mmol g-1) than in sediments without seagrass cover (52-430 mmol g-1). The average OC in the top 30 cm of subtropical and tropical seagrass meadow sediments ranged from 140 to 440 mmol g-1. Carbon isotope mass balancing suggested that the contribution of seagrass-derived carbon to OC stored in sediments was often relatively minor (temperate: 10-40%; subtropical: 35-82%; tropical: 4-34%) and correlated to the habitat type, being particularly low in estuarine habitats. Stock of OC in the top meter of sediment of all the studied meadows ranged from 38 to 120 Mg ha-1. The sediment accumulation rates were estimated by radiocarbon dating of six selected cores (0.32-1.34 mm yr-1). The long-term OC accumulation rates calculated from the sediment accumulation rate and the top 30 cm average OC concentration for the seagrass meadows (24-101 kg ha-1 yr-1) were considerably lower than the OC accumulation rates previously reported for Mediterranean Posidonia oceanica meadows (580 kg ha-1 yr-1 on average). Current estimates for the global carbon sink capacity of seagrass meadows, which rely largely on Mediterranean studies, may be considerable overestimations.

  19. 32 CFR 643.83 - Consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE... consideration in an amount equal to the fair market value as established by recognized appraisal practices. As... thereof, will not require fair market value when the purpose of the easement is to serve the...

  20. Ultraviolet Light: Some Considerations for Vision Stimulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowlton, Marie

    1986-01-01

    The article examines evidence of visual impairment caused by excessive amounts of ultraviolet (UV) light. Among considerations when using a source of UV light for vision stimulation are the position of the child and teacher, use of window glass filters or protective glasses, and careful recordkeeping of all UV stimulation. (Author/JW)[

  1. Concentration is not enough to evaluate accumulation of heavy metals and nutrients in plants.

    PubMed

    Vymazal, Jan

    2016-02-15

    Wetland plants produce high aboveground biomass and possess the ability to accumulate heavy metals and nutrients. This ability is used for phytoremediation purposes including removal of nutrients and heavy metals from polluted waters. The concentrations of heavy metals are usually much higher in the belowground then in aboveground biomass, especially in roots which are primary sites of uptake. This may lead to the conclusion that accumulation of heavy metals is higher in the belowground biomass. However, in case the aboveground is much higher than belowground biomass the accumulation could be higher in the aboveground biomass. Concentration of nitrogen and phosphorus is always higher in leaves than in stems. However, the stem biomass is often much higher in robust emergent species such as Phragmites australis and therefore, more nutrients can be stored in stems. The examples shown in this communication clearly reveal that to evaluate properly the accumulation of heavy metals and nutrients in particular plant compartment biomass amount must be taken into consideration. In the first study, concentrations of Cd, Cr and Hg in Phalaris arundinacea belowground/aboveground biomass were 150/80μg/kg, 5420/228μg/kg and 38/18μg/kg. The high aboveground biomass (1196g/m(2)) and low belowground biomass (244g/(2)) resulted in much higher accumulation of Cd and Hg in aboveground biomass (96μg/m(2) and 21.2μg/m(2), respectively) than in belowground biomass (36μg/m(2) and 9.3μg/m(2), respectively). Only for chromium, belowground accumulation (1312μg/m(2)) was higher than aboveground accumulation (272μg/m(2)). In the second study, both nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were higher (26.7mg/g and 749mg/kg, respectively) in leaves than in stems (8.2mg/g and 534mg/kg, respectively) of P. australis. The higher biomass of stems (1835g/m(2)) than leaves (967g/m(2)) resulted in higher accumulation of nitrogen but lower accumulation of phosphorus in leaves as compared to stems

  2. DOE handbook: Design considerations

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    The Design Considerations Handbook includes information and suggestions for the design of systems typical to nuclear facilities, information specific to various types of special facilities, and information useful to various design disciplines. The handbook is presented in two parts. Part 1, which addresses design considerations, includes two sections. The first addresses the design of systems typically used in nuclear facilities to control radiation or radioactive materials. Specifically, this part addresses the design of confinement systems and radiation protection and effluent monitoring systems. The second section of Part 1 addresses the design of special facilities (i.e., specific types of nonreactor nuclear facilities). The specific design considerations provided in this section were developed from review of DOE 6430.1A and are supplemented with specific suggestions and considerations from designers with experience designing and operating such facilities. Part 2 of the Design Considerations Handbook describes good practices and design principles that should be considered in specific design disciplines, such as mechanical systems and electrical systems. These good practices are based on specific experiences in the design of nuclear facilities by design engineers with related experience. This part of the Design Considerations Handbook contains five sections, each of which applies to a particular engineering discipline.

  3. 13 CFR 400.202 - Loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....202 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Steel Guarantee Loans § 400.202 Loan amount. (a) The aggregate amount of loan principal guaranteed under this Program to a single Qualified Steel Company may not exceed $ 250 million. (b) Of...

  4. 13 CFR 400.202 - Loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....202 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Steel Guarantee Loans § 400.202 Loan amount. (a) The aggregate amount of loan principal guaranteed under this Program to a single Qualified Steel Company may not exceed $ 250 million. (b) Of...

  5. 13 CFR 400.202 - Loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....202 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Steel Guarantee Loans § 400.202 Loan amount. (a) The aggregate amount of loan principal guaranteed under this Program to a single Qualified Steel Company may not exceed $ 250 million. (b) Of...

  6. 13 CFR 400.202 - Loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....202 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Steel Guarantee Loans § 400.202 Loan amount. (a) The aggregate amount of loan principal guaranteed under this Program to a single Qualified Steel Company may not exceed $ 250 million. (b) Of...

  7. 13 CFR 400.202 - Loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....202 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Steel Guarantee Loans § 400.202 Loan amount. (a) The aggregate amount of loan principal guaranteed under this Program to a single Qualified Steel Company may not exceed $ 250 million. (b) Of...

  8. 23 CFR 1335.8 - Grant amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Grant amounts. 1335.8 Section 1335.8 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STATE HIGHWAY SAFETY DATA IMPROVEMENTS § 1335.8 Grant amounts. (a) Start-up grant. A State that qualifies for a start-up grant under §...

  9. 45 CFR 32.8 - Amounts withheld.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... debtor's disposable pay exceeds an amount equivalent to thirty times the minimum wage. See 29 CFR 870.10... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE WAGE GARNISHMENT § 32.8 Amounts... first pay day after the employer receives the order. However, if the first pay day is within 10...

  10. 45 CFR 32.8 - Amounts withheld.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... debtor's disposable pay exceeds an amount equivalent to thirty times the minimum wage. See 29 CFR 870.10... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE WAGE GARNISHMENT § 32.8 Amounts... first pay day after the employer receives the order. However, if the first pay day is within 10...

  11. 14 CFR 1261.102 - Maximum amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum amount. 1261.102 Section 1261.102 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROCESSING OF MONETARY CLAIMS (GENERAL) Employees' Personal Property Claims § 1261.102 Maximum amount. From October 1, 1982, to October 30,...

  12. 14 CFR 1261.102 - Maximum amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum amount. 1261.102 Section 1261.102 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROCESSING OF MONETARY CLAIMS (GENERAL) Employees' Personal Property Claims § 1261.102 Maximum amount. From October 1, 1982, to October 30,...

  13. 45 CFR 32.8 - Amounts withheld.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... debtor's disposable pay exceeds an amount equivalent to thirty times the minimum wage. See 29 CFR 870.10... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE WAGE GARNISHMENT § 32.8 Amounts... first pay day after the employer receives the order. However, if the first pay day is within 10...

  14. 20 CFR 617.34 - Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part 101-7) for the locality where the job search is... WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Job Search Allowances § 617.34 Amount. (a) Computation. The amount of a job search allowance shall be 90 percent of the total costs of each of the following...

  15. 20 CFR 617.34 - Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part 101-7) for the locality where the job search is... WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Job Search Allowances § 617.34 Amount. (a) Computation. The amount of a job search allowance shall be 90 percent of the total costs of each of the following...

  16. 20 CFR 617.34 - Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part 101-7) for the locality where the job search is... WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Job Search Allowances § 617.34 Amount. (a) Computation. The amount of a job search allowance shall be 90 percent of the total costs of each of the following...

  17. 20 CFR 617.34 - Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part 101-7) for the locality where the job search is... WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Job Search Allowances § 617.34 Amount. (a) Computation. The amount of a job search allowance shall be 90 percent of the total costs of each of the following...

  18. Estimation of Accumulation Parameters for Urban Runoff Quality Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alley, William M.; Smith, Peter E.

    1981-12-01

    Many recently developed watershed models utilize accumulation and washoff equations to simulate the quality of runofffrom urban impervious areas. These models often have been calibrated by trial and error and with little understanding of model sensitivity to the various parameters. Methodologies for estimating best fit values of the washoff parameters commonly used in these models have been presented previously. In this paper, parameter identification techniques for estimating the accumulation parameters from measured runoff quality data are presented along with a sensitivity analysis of the parameters. Results from application of the techniques and the sensitivity analysis suggest a need for data quantifying the magnitude and identifying the shape of constituent accumulation curves. An exponential accumulation curve is shown to be more general than the linear accumulation curves used in most urban runoff quality models. When determining accumulation rates, attention needs to be given to the effects of residual amounts of constituents remaining after the previous period of storm runoff or street sweeping.

  19. 78 FR 59702 - Medicare Program; Medicare Appeals: Adjustment to the Amount in Controversy Threshold Amounts for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ...This notice announces the annual adjustment in the amount in controversy (AIC) threshold amounts for Administrative Law Judge (ALJ) hearings and judicial review under the Medicare appeals process. The adjustment to the AIC threshold amounts will be effective for requests for ALJ hearings and judicial review filed on or after January 1, 2014. The calendar year 2014 AIC threshold amounts are......

  20. Analysis of triacylglycerol accumulation under nitrogen deprivation in the red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae.

    PubMed

    Toyoshima, Masakazu; Mori, Natsumi; Moriyama, Takashi; Misumi, Osami; Sato, Naoki

    2016-05-01

    Triacylglycerol (TAG) produced by microalgae is a potential source of biofuel. Although various metabolic pathways in TAG synthesis have been identified in land plants, the pathway of TAG synthesis in microalgae remains to be clarified. The unicellular rhodophyte Cyanidioschyzon merolae has unique properties as a producer of biofuel because of easy culture and feasibility of genetic engineering. Additionally, it is useful in the investigation of the pathway of TAG synthesis, because all of the nuclear, mitochondrial and plastid genomes have been completely sequenced. We found that this alga accumulated TAG under nitrogen deprivation. Curiously, the amount and composition of plastid membrane lipids did not change significantly, whereas the amount of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lipids increased with considerable changes in fatty acid composition. The nitrogen deprivation did not decrease photosynthetic oxygen evolution per chlorophyll significantly, while phycobilisomes were degraded preferentially. These results suggest that the synthesis of fatty acids is maintained in the plastid, which is used for the synthesis of TAG in the ER. The accumulated TAG contained mainly 18 : 2(9,12) at the C-2 position, which could be derived from phosphatidylcholine, which also contains this acid at the C-2 position. PMID:26925574

  1. 7 CFR 1424.8 - Payment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOENERGY PROGRAM § 1424.8 Payment amounts. (a) An eligible... whose annual bioenergy production is: (i) Less than 65 million gallons, by dividing by 2.5; (ii)...

  2. 7 CFR 1424.8 - Payment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOENERGY PROGRAM § 1424.8 Payment amounts. (a) An eligible... whose annual bioenergy production is: (i) Less than 65 million gallons, by dividing by 2.5; (ii)...

  3. 7 CFR 1424.8 - Payment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOENERGY PROGRAM § 1424.8 Payment amounts. (a) An eligible... whose annual bioenergy production is: (i) Less than 65 million gallons, by dividing by 2.5; (ii)...

  4. 7 CFR 1424.8 - Payment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOENERGY PROGRAM § 1424.8 Payment amounts. (a) An eligible... whose annual bioenergy production is: (i) Less than 65 million gallons, by dividing by 2.5; (ii)...

  5. 7 CFR 1424.8 - Payment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOENERGY PROGRAM § 1424.8 Payment amounts. (a) An eligible... whose annual bioenergy production is: (i) Less than 65 million gallons, by dividing by 2.5; (ii)...

  6. Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M. R.; Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.

    2012-09-26

    The objective of Solids Accumulation activities was to perform scaled testing to understand the behavior of remaining solids in a Double Shell Tank (DST), specifically AW-105, at Hanford during multiple fill, mix, and transfer operations. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles containing plutonium could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste staging tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids: Gibbsite, Zirconia, Sand, and Stainless Steel, with stainless steel particles representing the heavier particles, e.g., plutonium, and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to mix most of the solids while the simulant was pumped out. Subsequently, the volume and shape of the mounds of residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for heavier particles were measured. Several techniques were developed and equipment designed to accomplish the measurements needed and they included: 1. Magnetic particle separator to remove simulant stainless steel solids. A device was designed and built to capture these solids, which represent the heavier solids during a waste transfer from a staging tank. 2. Photographic equipment to determine the volume of the solids mounds. The mounds were photographed as they were exposed at different tank waste levels to develop a composite of topographical areas. 3. Laser rangefinders to determine the volume of

  7. Philosophical Considerations and Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    This paper explores the philosophical considerations involved in literacy. It explains that one concept that is emphasized in discussions of literacy is "the basics," which are defined as essential skills, such as the association of phonemes with graphemes. This paper notes that "the basics" movement presently stresses the importance of statewide…

  8. 76 FR 59138 - Medicare Program; Medicare Appeals; Adjustment to the Amount in Controversy Threshold Amounts for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Medicare Program; Medicare Appeals; Adjustment to the Amount in Controversy Threshold Amounts for Calendar Year 2012 AGENCY: Centers for Medicare... review under the Medicare appeals process. The adjustment to the AIC threshold amounts will be...

  9. Light might regulate divergently depside and depsidone accumulation in the lichen Parmotrema hypotropum by affecting thallus temperature and water potential.

    PubMed

    Armaleo, Daniele; Zhang, Yi; Cheung, Sonia

    2008-01-01

    Depsides and depsidones are the most common secondary products uniquely produced in lichens by the fungal symbiont, and they accumulate on the outer surface of its hyphae. Their biological roles are subject to debate. Quantitatively the compounds typical of a given lichen can vary dramatically from thallus to thallus. Several studies have addressed whether this variability is correlated with the light reaching different thalli, but the conclusions are contradictory. We addressed the question with the lichen Parmotrema hypotropum growing on unshaded, vertical tree trunks, a controlled natural environment where the light absorbed by each thallus over its lifetime is the only major position-dependent variable. The exact north-east-south-west orientation of each thallus was used to calculate its yearly light exposure based on astronomical and meteorological considerations. The calculated irradiation around the trunk, distributed over a continuous 40-fold intensity range, then was compared with the amount of compound per unit thallus weight, determined by quantitative thin layer chromatography. P. hypotropum accumulates the depside atranorin in the cortex and the depsidone norstictic acid in the medulla and around the algae. A direct correlation was observed between the yearly amount of light reaching the lichen and the amount of atranorin. In contrast, the amount of norstictic acid decreased with increasing light. Although we did not measure thallus temperature and water potential, a unifying interpretation of these and other published data is that depside/depsidone accumulation in lichens is mediated by localized changes in temperature and water potential produced by light absorption within each thallus. This suggests water relations-based functions for depsides and depsidones. PMID:18833750

  10. 31 CFR Appendix C to Part 356 - Investment Considerations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Investment Considerations C Appendix C..., App. C Appendix C to Part 356—Investment Considerations I. Inflation-Protected Securities A. Principal... may be enhanced over time as we issue additional amounts or more entities participate in the market....

  11. Human factors workplace considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, Richard F.

    1988-01-01

    Computer workstations assume many different forms and play different functions today. In order for them to assume the effective interface role which they should play they must be properly designed to take into account the ubiguitous human factor. In addition, the entire workplace in which they are used should be properly configured so as to enhance the operational features of the individual workstation where possible. A number of general human factors workplace considerations are presented. This ongoing series of notes covers such topics as achieving comfort and good screen visibility, hardware issues (e.g., mouse maintenance), screen symbology features (e.g., labels, cursors, prompts), and various miscellaneous subjects. These notes are presented here in order to: (1) illustrate how one's workstation can be used to support telescience activities of many other people working within an organization, and (2) provide a single complete set of considerations for future reference.

  12. Considerations for Multiprocessor Topologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrd, Gregory T.; Delagi, Bruce A.

    1987-01-01

    Choosing a multiprocessor interconnection topology may depend on high-level considerations, such as the intended application domain and the expected number of processors. It certainly depends on low-level implementation details, such as packaging and communications protocols. The authors first use rough measures of cost and performance to characterize several topologies. They then examine how implementation details can affect the realizable performance of a topology.

  13. Guidelines for Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs) at LBL. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to set conditions for establishing and containing areas for the accumulation of hazardous waste at LBL. Areas designed for accumulation of these wastes for up to 90 days in quantities greater than 55 gallons (208 liters) of hazardous waste, one quart (0.946 liter) of extremely hazardous waste, or one quart (0.946 liter) of acutely hazardous waste are called Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs). Areas designed for accumulation of wastes in smaller amounts are called Satellite Accumulation Areas (SAAs). This document provides guidelines for employee and organizational responsibilities for WAAs, constructing a WAA, storing waste in a WAA, operating and maintaining a WAA, and responding to spills in a WAA.

  14. ITER helium ash accumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, J.T.; Hillis, D.L.; Galambos, J.; Uckan, N.A. ); Dippel, K.H.; Finken, K.H. . Inst. fuer Plasmaphysik); Hulse, R.A.; Budny, R.V. . Plasma Physics Lab.)

    1990-01-01

    Many studies have shown the importance of the ratio {upsilon}{sub He}/{upsilon}{sub E} in determining the level of He ash accumulation in future reactor systems. Results of the first tokamak He removal experiments have been analysed, and a first estimate of the ratio {upsilon}{sub He}/{upsilon}{sub E} to be expected for future reactor systems has been made. The experiments were carried out for neutral beam heated plasmas in the TEXTOR tokamak, at KFA/Julich. Helium was injected both as a short puff and continuously, and subsequently extracted with the Advanced Limiter Test-II pump limiter. The rate at which the He density decays has been determined with absolutely calibrated charge exchange spectroscopy, and compared with theoretical models, using the Multiple Impurity Species Transport (MIST) code. An analysis of energy confinement has been made with PPPL TRANSP code, to distinguish beam from thermal confinement, especially for low density cases. The ALT-II pump limiter system is found to exhaust the He with maximum exhaust efficiency (8 pumps) of {approximately}8%. We find 1<{upsilon}{sub He}/{upsilon}{sub E}<3.3 for the database of cases analysed to date. Analysis with the ITER TETRA systems code shows that these values would be adequate to achieve the required He concentration with the present ITER divertor He extraction system.

  15. 7 CFR 1421.304 - Payment amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.304 Payment amount. (a) The grazing payment rate... payment rate in effect for the predominant class of wheat in the county where the farm is located as of... three (3) similar farms. For triticale, the payment yield shall be the yield for wheat from three...

  16. 7 CFR 1421.304 - Payment amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.304 Payment amount. (a) The grazing payment rate... payment rate in effect for the predominant class of wheat in the county where the farm is located as of... three (3) similar farms. For triticale, the payment yield shall be the yield for wheat from three...

  17. 7 CFR 1421.304 - Payment amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.304 Payment amount. (a) The grazing payment rate... payment rate in effect for the predominant class of wheat in the county where the farm is located as of... three (3) similar farms. For triticale, the payment yield shall be the yield for wheat from three...

  18. 24 CFR 201.10 - Loan amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Loan amounts. 201.10 Section 201.10 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE...

  19. 7 CFR 1421.304 - Payment amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.304 Payment amount. (a) The grazing payment rate... complete program application to CCC. For triticale, the grazing rate will be equal to the loan deficiency... three (3) similar farms. For triticale, the payment yield shall be the yield for wheat from three...

  20. 14 CFR 1300.13 - Guarantee amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Guarantee amount. 1300.13 Section 1300.13 Aeronautics and Space AIR TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM STABILIZATION OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET AVIATION DISASTER RELIEF-AIR CARRIER GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Minimum Requirements and Application Procedures §...

  1. 14 CFR 1300.13 - Guarantee amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Guarantee amount. 1300.13 Section 1300.13 Aeronautics and Space AIR TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM STABILIZATION OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET AVIATION DISASTER RELIEF-AIR CARRIER GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Minimum Requirements and Application Procedures §...

  2. 20 CFR 340.2 - Amount recoverable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... amount of unemployment, sickness, or maternity benefits paid under the Railroad Unemployment Insurance... been determined to be days of unemployment or sickness; (c) Recoverable under section 4(a-1)(ii) of the..., unemployment, sickness or maternity benefits under any law other than the Railroad Unemployment Insurance...

  3. 20 CFR 340.2 - Amount recoverable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... amount of unemployment, sickness, or maternity benefits paid under the Railroad Unemployment Insurance... been determined to be days of unemployment or sickness; (c) Recoverable under section 4(a-1)(ii) of the..., unemployment, sickness or maternity benefits under any law other than the Railroad Unemployment Insurance...

  4. 20 CFR 340.2 - Amount recoverable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... amount of unemployment, sickness, or maternity benefits paid under the Railroad Unemployment Insurance... been determined to be days of unemployment or sickness; (c) Recoverable under section 4(a-1)(ii) of the..., unemployment, sickness or maternity benefits under any law other than the Railroad Unemployment Insurance...

  5. 20 CFR 340.2 - Amount recoverable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... amount of unemployment, sickness, or maternity benefits paid under the Railroad Unemployment Insurance... been determined to be days of unemployment or sickness; (c) Recoverable under section 4(a-1)(ii) of the..., unemployment, sickness or maternity benefits under any law other than the Railroad Unemployment Insurance...

  6. 20 CFR 340.2 - Amount recoverable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... amount of unemployment, sickness, or maternity benefits paid under the Railroad Unemployment Insurance... been determined to be days of unemployment or sickness; (c) Recoverable under section 4(a-1)(ii) of the..., unemployment, sickness or maternity benefits under any law other than the Railroad Unemployment Insurance...

  7. 33 CFR 133.7 - Requests: Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; STATE ACCESS § 133.7... amount anticipated for immediate removal action for a single oil pollution incident, but, in any event... quantity and composition of the oil, weather conditions and customary costs of similar services in...

  8. 33 CFR 133.7 - Requests: Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; STATE ACCESS § 133.7... amount anticipated for immediate removal action for a single oil pollution incident, but, in any event... quantity and composition of the oil, weather conditions and customary costs of similar services in...

  9. 33 CFR 133.7 - Requests: Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; STATE ACCESS § 133.7... amount anticipated for immediate removal action for a single oil pollution incident, but, in any event... quantity and composition of the oil, weather conditions and customary costs of similar services in...

  10. 33 CFR 133.7 - Requests: Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; STATE ACCESS § 133.7... amount anticipated for immediate removal action for a single oil pollution incident, but, in any event... quantity and composition of the oil, weather conditions and customary costs of similar services in...

  11. 33 CFR 133.7 - Requests: Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; STATE ACCESS § 133.7... amount anticipated for immediate removal action for a single oil pollution incident, but, in any event... quantity and composition of the oil, weather conditions and customary costs of similar services in...

  12. 7 CFR 1421.304 - Payment amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.304 Payment amount. (a) The grazing payment rate... payment rate in effect for the predominant class of wheat in the county where the farm is located as of... three (3) similar farms. For triticale, the payment yield shall be the yield for wheat from three...

  13. 40 CFR 35.9050 - Assistance amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assistance amount. 35.9050 Section 35.9050 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9050...

  14. 40 CFR 35.9050 - Assistance amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Assistance amount. 35.9050 Section 35.9050 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9050...

  15. 40 CFR 35.9050 - Assistance amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Assistance amount. 35.9050 Section 35.9050 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9050...

  16. 40 CFR 35.9050 - Assistance amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Assistance amount. 35.9050 Section 35.9050 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9050...

  17. 40 CFR 35.9050 - Assistance amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Assistance amount. 35.9050 Section 35.9050 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9050...

  18. 27 CFR 70.243 - Exempt amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Exempt amount. 70.243 Section 70.243 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... as wages, salary, or other income for each payroll period described in § 70.244 of this part...

  19. 27 CFR 70.243 - Exempt amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exempt amount. 70.243 Section 70.243 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... as wages, salary, or other income for each payroll period described in § 70.244 of this part...

  20. 27 CFR 70.243 - Exempt amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exempt amount. 70.243 Section 70.243 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... as wages, salary, or other income for each payroll period described in § 70.244 of this part...

  1. 27 CFR 70.243 - Exempt amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Exempt amount. 70.243 Section 70.243 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... as wages, salary, or other income for each payroll period described in § 70.244 of this part...

  2. 27 CFR 70.243 - Exempt amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Exempt amount. 70.243 Section 70.243 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... as wages, salary, or other income for each payroll period described in § 70.244 of this part...

  3. Considerations for an exercise prescription

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    1989-01-01

    A number of past and most recent research findings that describe some of the physiological responses to exercise in man and their relationship with exposure to various gravitational environments are discussed. Most of the data pertain to adaptations of the cardiovascular and body fluid systems. It should be kept in mind that the data from studies on microgravity simulation in man include exposures of relatively short duration (5 hours to 14 days). However, it is argued that the results may provide important guidelines for the consideration of many variables which are pertinent to the development of exercise prescription for long-duration space flight. The following considerations for exercise prescriptions during long-duration space flight are noted: (1) Relatively high aerobic fitness and strength, especially of the upper body musculature, should be a criterion for selection of astronauts who will be involved in EVA, since endurance and strength appear to be predominant characteristics for work performance. (2) Some degree of upper body strength will probably be required for effective performance of EVA. However, the endurance and strength required by the upper body for EVA can probably be obtained through preflight exercise prescription which involves swimming. (3) Although some degree of arm exercise may be required to maintain preflight endurance and strength, researchers propose that regular EVA will probably be sufficient to maintain the endurance and strength required to effectively perform work tasks during space flight. (4) A minimum of one maximal aerobic exercise every 7 to 10 days during space flight may be all that is necessary for maintenance of normal cardiovascular responsiveness and replacement of body fluids for reentry following prolonged space flight. (5) The possible reduction in the amount of exercise required for maintenance of cardiovascular system and body fluids in combination with the use of electromyostimulation (EMS) or methods other

  4. Highly accumulative production of L(+)-lactate from glucose by crystallization fermentation with immobilized Rhizopus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Yamane, Tsuneo; Tanaka, Ryohsuke

    2013-01-01

    In order to produce microbiologically large amount of l(+)-lactic acid (LA) from glucose, batch and fed-batch (intermittent addition of sterilized glucose powder aseptically) cultures of Rhizopus oryzae NBRC 5384 (identical to NRRL 395 and ATCC 9363) whose mycelia were immobilized in situ within sponge-like cubic particles (3.5 mm edge long) were carried out at 37°C in a three baffled shake flask. Appropriately calculated amount of fine powdery calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) was added initially or intermittently to control pH of the culture liquids. High accumulations of LA (145 g/L and 231 g/L, in reality 176 g/L and 280 g/L as anhydrous calcium lactate) were achieved by a batch (glucose concentration = 150 g/L) and a fed-batch cultures (the initial glucose concentration = 150 g/L and the intermittent addition of glucose equivalent to 100 g/L). In these cultures the yields and productivities of LA were, 95.0%, 1.42 g/L·h and 92.5%, 1.83 g/L·h, respectively. Existence of considerable amounts of calcium lactate (Ca(LA)(2)) as crystals in the culture broth was experimentally proved by two evidences: (i) heating up (70°C) followed by quick low centrifugal force to remove remaining CaCO(3) solids from culture broth and then cooling down (37°C) followed by incubation of the culture supernatant at 37°C to observe recrystallization of Ca(LA)(2), and (ii) the measurement of solubility of Ca(LA)(2) in the culture media. It was conceptually discussed to be able to avoid the product inhibition by means of crystallization fermentation for the high accumulation of LA by R. oryzae. PMID:22938823

  5. Amplification of trace amounts of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Church, George M.; Zhang, Kun

    2008-06-17

    Methods of reducing background during amplification of small amounts of nucleic acids employ careful analysis of sources of low level contamination. Ultraviolet light can be used to reduce nucleic acid contaminants in reagents and equipment. "Primer-dimer" background can be reduced by judicious design of primers. We have shown clean signal-to-noise with as little as starting material as one single human cell (.about.6 picogram), E. coli cell (.about.5 femtogram) or Prochlorococcus cell (.about.3 femtogram).

  6. Elemental accumulation studied in biological species

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    At The Geysers, relatively little environmental baseline data were collected during the early years of development. In early 1983, the CEC awarded Sonoma County a geothermal grant to analyze the biological accumulation of trace elements in The Geysers Geothermal region. Prior studies in The Geysers region have established data for 27 different chemical elements, and suggest that chemicals are accumulating near power plants. This study examined selected species of rodents, fish, and lichen. Elevated amounts of chemical elements were found in their tissues. It is not clear if this accumulation is the result of geothermal development or due to naturally high backgrounds of these elements in the region. However, today these element loads serve as reference points for both developers and regulators. The CEC awarded a second grant in July 1985. The study funded by this grant will provide a more complete analysis of elemental loads by examining species such as western fence lizards and deer. Results and conclusions from these two studies can be used by regulatory agencies planning for future geothermal development in The Geysers region.

  7. Noise Reduction by Signal Accumulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show how the noise reduction by signal accumulation can be accomplished with a data acquisition system. This topic can be used for student projects. In many cases, the noise reduction is an unavoidable part of experimentation. Several techniques are known for this purpose, and among them the signal accumulation is the…

  8. 29 CFR 4219.14 - Amount of liability for 20-year-limitation amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amount of liability for 20-year-limitation amounts. 4219.14 Section 4219.14 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY FOR MULTIEMPLOYER PLANS NOTICE, COLLECTION, AND REDETERMINATION OF WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY Redetermination of Withdrawal...

  9. 24 CFR 576.45 - Reallocation of grant amounts; returned or unused amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Reallocation of grant amounts; returned or unused amounts. 576.45 Section 576.45 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING...

  10. 77 FR 59618 - Medicare Program; Medicare Appeals; Adjustment to the Amount in Controversy Threshold Amounts for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... for requests for ALJ hearings and judicial review filed on or after January 1, 2013. The calendar year 2013 AIC threshold amounts are $140 for ALJ hearings and $1,400 for judicial review. Effective Date...) threshold amounts for Administrative Law Judge (ALJ) hearing requests and judicial review at $100 and...

  11. Calcium Oxalate Accumulation in Malpighian Tubules of Silkworm (Bombyx mori)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyman, Aaron J.; Webb, Mary Alice

    2007-04-01

    Silkworm provides an ideal model system for study of calcium oxalate crystallization in kidney-like organs, called Malpighian tubules. During their growth and development, silkworm larvae accumulate massive amounts of calcium oxalate crystals in their Malpighian tubules with no apparent harm to the organism. This manuscript reports studies of crystal structure in the tubules along with analyses identifying molecular constituents of tubule exudate.

  12. Medical marijuana: legal considerations.

    PubMed

    Schouten, J T

    1999-01-01

    In 1998, Washington State passed a law, Initiative 692 (I-692), that gives individuals who are charged with possession of marijuana for medical purposes a possible affirmative defense. The law lets these individuals provide a note from their doctor or a copy of their medical records stating they have a condition that may benefit from the use of marijuana. I-692 does not legalize the medical use of marijuana and does not affect Federal law, which makes obtaining, possessing, and growing marijuana illegal. The Washington law limits the amount of marijuana a patient can possess to a 60-day supply and defines the conditions for which medical marijuana may be used. These conditions include HIV, cancer, multiple sclerosis, and epilepsy. PMID:11366751

  13. On flavonoid accumulation in different plant parts: variation patterns among individuals and populations in the shore campion (Silene littorea)

    PubMed Central

    del Valle, José C.; Buide, Ma L.; Casimiro-Soriguer, Inés; Whittall, Justen B.; Narbona, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    The presence of anthocyanins in flowers and fruits is frequently attributed to attracting pollinators and dispersers. In vegetative organs, anthocyanins and other non-pigmented flavonoids such as flavones and flavonols may serve protective functions against UV radiation, cold, heat, drought, salinity, pathogens, and herbivores; thus, these compounds are usually produced as a plastic response to such stressors. Although, the independent accumulation of anthocyanins in reproductive and vegetative tissues is commonly postulated due to differential regulation, the accumulation of flavonoids within and among populations has never been thoroughly compared. Here, we investigated the shore campion (Silene littorea, Caryophyllaceae) which exhibits variation in anthocyanin accumulation in its floral and vegetative tissues. We examined the in-situ accumulation of flavonoids in floral (petals and calyxes) and vegetative organs (leaves) from 18 populations representing the species' geographic distribution. Each organ exhibited considerable variability in the content of anthocyanins and other flavonoids both within and among populations. In all organs, anthocyanin and other flavonoids were correlated. At the plant level, the flavonoid content in petals, calyxes, and leaves was not correlated in most of the populations. However, at the population level, the mean amount of anthocyanins in all organs was positively correlated, which suggests that the variable environmental conditions of populations may play a role in anthocyanin accumulation. These results are unexpected because the anthocyanins are usually constitutive in petals, yet contingent to environmental conditions in calyxes and leaves. Anthocyanin variation in petals may influence pollinator attraction and subsequent plant reproduction, yet the amount of anthocyanins may be a direct response to environmental factors. In populations on the west coast, a general pattern of increasing accumulation of flavonoids toward

  14. On flavonoid accumulation in different plant parts: variation patterns among individuals and populations in the shore campion (Silene littorea).

    PubMed

    Del Valle, José C; Buide, Ma L; Casimiro-Soriguer, Inés; Whittall, Justen B; Narbona, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    The presence of anthocyanins in flowers and fruits is frequently attributed to attracting pollinators and dispersers. In vegetative organs, anthocyanins and other non-pigmented flavonoids such as flavones and flavonols may serve protective functions against UV radiation, cold, heat, drought, salinity, pathogens, and herbivores; thus, these compounds are usually produced as a plastic response to such stressors. Although, the independent accumulation of anthocyanins in reproductive and vegetative tissues is commonly postulated due to differential regulation, the accumulation of flavonoids within and among populations has never been thoroughly compared. Here, we investigated the shore campion (Silene littorea, Caryophyllaceae) which exhibits variation in anthocyanin accumulation in its floral and vegetative tissues. We examined the in-situ accumulation of flavonoids in floral (petals and calyxes) and vegetative organs (leaves) from 18 populations representing the species' geographic distribution. Each organ exhibited considerable variability in the content of anthocyanins and other flavonoids both within and among populations. In all organs, anthocyanin and other flavonoids were correlated. At the plant level, the flavonoid content in petals, calyxes, and leaves was not correlated in most of the populations. However, at the population level, the mean amount of anthocyanins in all organs was positively correlated, which suggests that the variable environmental conditions of populations may play a role in anthocyanin accumulation. These results are unexpected because the anthocyanins are usually constitutive in petals, yet contingent to environmental conditions in calyxes and leaves. Anthocyanin variation in petals may influence pollinator attraction and subsequent plant reproduction, yet the amount of anthocyanins may be a direct response to environmental factors. In populations on the west coast, a general pattern of increasing accumulation of flavonoids toward

  15. Neutron autoradiography of trace amounts of gadolinium

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, J.L.A.; Brugger, R.M. )

    1992-05-01

    This paper reports that application of gadolinium in neutron capture therapy is under evaluation. Crucial to development of this therapy is an imaging technique that would show the distribution and concentration of parts-per-million amounts of {sup 157}Gd in sliced samples. A technique that utilizes the principles of autoradiography and neutron radiography has been tried. The images taken with this method display the gadolinium distribution and its relative concentration in samples. Concentrations of {sup 157}Gd ranging from {approximately}20 to 500 ppm can be determined. The intrinsic spatial resolution of the system used in the Missouri University Research Reactor is 70 {mu}m.

  16. Gypsum accumulation on carbonate stone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGee, E.S.; Mossotti, V.G.

    1992-01-01

    The accumulation of gypsum on carbonate stone has been investigated through exposure of fresh samples of limestone and marble at monitored sites, through examination of alteration crusts from old buildings and through laboratory experiments. Several factors contribute to gypsum accumulation on carbonate stone. Marble or limestone that is sheltered from direct washing by rain in an urban environment with elevated pollution levels is likely to accumulate a gypsum crust. Crust development may be enhanced if the stone is porous or has an irregular surface area. Gypsum crusts are a surficial alteration feature; gypsum crystals form at the pore opening-air interface, where evaporation is greatest.

  17. Accumulation of poly (3-hydroxybutyric acid) by some soil Streptomyces.

    PubMed

    Manna, A; Banerjee, R; Paul, A K

    1999-09-01

    In a limited-scale survey, 55 soil streptomycetes were screened for the accumulation of poly (3-hydroxybutyrate) [PHB]. Only 18% of the isolates accumulated PHB ranging between 1.9-7.8% of the dry biomass. The promising isolate DBCC-719, identified as Streptomyces griseorubiginosus, accumulated PHB amounting to 9.5% of the mycelial dry mass in the early stationary phase when grown in chemically defined medium with 2% (wt/vol) glucose as the sole source of carbon. Nitrogen-limiting conditions were inhibitory to growth and PHB accumulation. The isolated polymer was highly soluble in chloroform, gave a sharp peak at 235 nm on digestion with concentrated H(2)SO(4), and had a characteristic infrared spectrum. PMID:10441729

  18. Cadmium accumulation and tolerance of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) seedlings for phytoextraction applications.

    PubMed

    Fan, Kui-Chu; Hsi, Hsing-Cheng; Chen, Chun-Wei; Lee, Hung-Lin; Hseu, Zeng-Yei

    2011-10-01

    Mahogany, a high biomass fast-growing tropical tree, has recently garnered considerable interest for potential use in heavy metal phytoremediation. This study performed hydroponic experiments with Cd concentration gradients at concentrations of 0, 7.5, 15, and 30 mg L(-1) to identify Cd accumulation and tolerance of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) seedlings as well as their potential for phytoextraction. Experimental results indicate that Cd inhibited mahogany seedling growth at the highest Cd exposure concentration (30 mg L(-1)). Nevertheless, this woody species demonstrated great potential for phytoextraction at Cd concentrations of 7.5 and 15 mg L(-1). The roots, twigs, and leaves had extremely large bioaccumulation factors at 10.3-65.1, indicating that the plant extracted large amounts of Cd from hydroponic solutions. Mahogany seedlings accumulated up to 154 mg kg(-1) Cd in twigs at a Cd concentration of 15 mg L(-1). Although Cd concentrations in leaves were <100 mg kg(-1), these concentrations markedly exceed the normal ranges for other plants. Due to the high biomass production and Cd uptake capacity of mahogany shoots, this plant is a potential candidate for remediating Cd-contaminated sites in tropical regions. PMID:21741155

  19. A greenhouse and field-based study to determine the accumulation of arsenic in common homegrown vegetables grown in mining-affected soils

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Andreotta, Monica D.; Brusseau, Mark L.; Artiola, Janick F.; Maier, Raina M.

    2012-01-01

    The uptake of arsenic by plants from contaminated soils presents a health hazard that may affect home gardeners neighboring contaminated environments. A controlled greenhouse study was conducted in parallel with a co-created citizen science program (home garden experiment) to characterize the uptake of arsenic by common homegrown vegetables near the Iron King Mine and Humboldt Smelter Superfund site in southern Arizona. The greenhouse and home garden arsenic soil concentrations varied considerably, ranging from 2.35 to 533 mg kg−1. In the greenhouse experiment four vegetables were grown in three different soil treatments and in the home garden experiment a total of 63 home garden produce samples were obtained from 19 properties neighboring the site. All vegetables accumulated arsenic in both the greenhouse and home garden experiments, ranging from 0.01 to 23.0 mg kg−1 dry weight. Bioconcentration factors were determined and show that arsenic uptake decreased in the order: Asteraceae > Brassicaceae > Amaranthaceae > Cucurbitaceae > Liliaceae > Solanaceae > Fabaceae. Certain members of the Asteraceae and Brassicaceae plant families have been previously identified as hyperaccumulator plants, and it can be inferred that members of these families have genetic and physiological capacity to accumulate, translocate, and resist high amounts of metals. Additionally, a significant linear correlation was observed between the amount of arsenic that accumulated in the edible portion of the plant and the arsenic soil concentration for the Asteraceae, Brassicaceae, Amaranthaceae, and Fabaceae families. The results suggest that home gardeners neighboring mining operations or mine tailings with elevated arsenic levels should be made aware that arsenic can accumulate considerably in certain vegetables, and in particular, it is recommended that gardeners limit consumption of vegetables from the Asteraceae and Brassicaceae plant families. PMID:23201696

  20. 48 CFR 970.5215-1 - Total available fee: Base fee amount and performance fee amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the conclusion of each specified evaluation period, evaluate the Contractor's performance of all... available fee amount earned. At the Contracting Officer's discretion, evaluation of incentivized performance... Contractor performance shall be in accordance with the Performance Evaluation and Measurement...

  1. Manganese As a Metal Accumulator

    EPA Science Inventory

    Manganese deposits in water distribution systems accumulate metals, radionuclides and oxyanions by a combination of surface complexation, adsorption and solid substitution, as well as a combination of oxidation followed by manganese reduction and sorption of the oxidized constitu...

  2. Evidence accumulation for spatial reasoning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsuyama, T.; Hwang, V. S. S.; Davis, L. S.

    1984-01-01

    The evidence accumulation proces of an image understanding system is described enabling the system to perform top-down(goal-oriented) picture processing as well as bottom-up verification of consistent spatial relations among objects.

  3. Manufacturability considerations for DSA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, Richard A.; Hosler, Erik R.; Schmid, Gerard M.; Xu, Ji; Preil, Moshe E.; Rastogi, Vinayak; Mohanty, Nihar; Kumar, Kaushik; Cicoria, Michael J.; Hetzer, David R.; DeVilliers, Anton

    2014-03-01

    Implementation of Directed Self-Assembly (DSA) as a viable lithographic technology for high volume manufacturing will require significant efforts to co-optimize the DSA process options and constraints with existing work flows. These work flows include established etch stacks, integration schemes, and design layout principles. The two foremost patterning schemes for DSA, chemoepitaxy and graphoepitaxy, each have their own advantages and disadvantages. Chemoepitaxy is well suited for regular repeating patterns, but has challenges when non-periodic design elements are required. As the line-space polystyrene-block-polymethylmethacrylate chemoepitaxy DSA processes mature, considerable progress has been made on reducing the density of topological (dislocation and disclination) defects but little is known about the existence of 3D buried defects and their subsequent pattern transfer to underlayers. In this paper, we highlight the emergence of a specific type of buried bridging defect within our two 28 nm pitch DSA flows and summarize our efforts to characterize and eliminate the buried defects using process, materials, and plasma-etch optimization. We also discuss how the optimization and removal of the buried defects impacts both the process window and pitch multiplication, facilitates measurement of the pattern roughness rectification, and demonstrate hard-mask open within a back-end-of-line integration flow. Finally, since graphoepitaxy has intrinsic benefits in terms of design flexibility when compared to chemoepitaxy, we highlight our initial investigations on implementing high-chi block copolymer patterning using multiple graphoepitaxy flows to realize sub-20 nm pitch line-space patterns and discuss the benefits of using high-chi block copolymers for roughness reduction.

  4. Accumulation of dieldrin in an alga (Scenedesmus obliquus), Daphnia magna, and the guppy (Poecilia reticulata)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reinert, Robert E.

    1972-01-01

    Scenedesmus obliquus, Daphnia magna, and Poecilia reticulata accumulated dieldrin directly from water; average concentration factors (concentration in organism, dry weight, divided by concentration in water) were 1282 for the alga, 13,954 for D. magna, and 49,307 (estimated) for the guppy. The amount accumulated by each species at equilibrium (after about 1.5, 3-4, and 18 days, respectively) was directly proportional to the concentration of dieldrin in the water. Daphnia magna and guppies accumulated more dieldrin from water than from food that had been exposed to similar concentrations in water. When guppies were fed equal daily rations of D. magna containing different concentrations of insecticide, the amounts of dieldrin accumulated by the fish were directly proportional to the concentration in D. magna; when two lots of guppies were fed different quantities of D. magna (10 and 20 organisms per day) containing identical concentrations of dieldrin, however, the amounts accumulated did not differ substantially.

  5. Correlations between some hazardous inorganic pollutants in the Gomti River and their accumulation in selected macrophytes under aquatic ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Shah, Abdul Barey; Rai, U N; Singh, Rana Pratap

    2015-06-01

    Water quality of the Gomti River and phytoremediation potential of native macrophytes dwelling therein at six different sites were evaluated. River water showed high biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, nitrate, ammonium and phosphate (12.84, 77.94, 36.88, 6.04 and 2.25 mg L(-1), respectively). Gomti water was found to be contaminated with different metals like Fe, Cd, Cu, Cr and Pb (5.54, 1.05, 3.74, 2.57 and 0.73 mg L(-1), respectively). Macrophytes growing in the river accumulated considerable amounts of Fe, Cd, Cu, Cr and Pb in different parts. Among the studied plants, Eichhornia crassipes showed maximum remediation potential for Fe, Cd and Pb; Jussiaea repens for Cr; and Pistia stratiotes for Cd. However, in Typha latifolia, Cu accumulation was maximum. Except for Fe, translocation factor of E. crassipes, P. stratiotes, Hydrilla verticellata and T. latifolia was >1 for the studied metals, showing their potential to accumulate multiple metals in different plant parts. PMID:25894347

  6. Antagonism of eosinophil accumulation in asthma.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Garry M

    2010-11-01

    There is considerable evidence that implicates eosinophils as important effector cells and immunomodulators in the inflammation characteristic of asthma. Numerous in vitro and animal studies have demonstrated essential roles for cell adhesion molecules in eosinophil adhesion and transendothelial migration including the selectins, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 together with many of the 1 and β2 integrins. A large body of evidence has also implicated several cytokines and chemokines in the selective recruitment of eosinophils to sites of asthmatic inflammation. Biopharmaceutical approaches have been used to identify inhibitory molecules that target key elements in the processes controlling eosinophil accumulation in asthma. This review will summarise, the problems and successes regarding recent patents and developments in adhesion-based therapeutic strategies aimed at reducing eosinophil-mediated inflammation in the asthmatic lung. PMID:20804449

  7. Some considerations on robotics for environmental friendliness

    SciTech Connect

    Pin, F.G.

    1993-12-01

    This paper presents a series of considerations regarding the use and potential of robotic devices for supporting humans in a variety of tasks, while maintaining, if not improving, environmental friendliness. One of the main considerations brought forward here relates to the type of human-support functions which the robots are, or will be, expected to perform, and from this, a clear differentiation appears between robots designed to replace humans in environments that were engineered in the past for best human functionality, and robots designed to take functions in the future, in environments which could be better engineered for large-scale human-robot synergy. Other considerations discussed involve the ``life-cycle`` cleanliness of robotic systems, including the materials needs for their construction, their operation, their disposal and, more importantly, their energy consumption which will impact the cycle of natural resources utilization. These considerations are discussed using a variety of possible robotic systems applications in contexts varied as manufacturing, energy recovery and production, emergency situations handling, traffic improvement, waste management, agriculture, and space exploration. In all these applications, the operation costs and complexity of the robots seem to vary in inverse proportion to the amount of engineering that is feasible to make the task environment more robot-friendly, but with no seemingly direct impact on the potential for environmental friendliness of the robots.

  8. Test Plan - Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M. R.; Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.; Fowley, M. D.

    2012-05-10

    This plan documents the highlights of the Solids Accumulations Scouting Studies test; a project, from Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), that began on February 1, 2012. During the last 12 weeks considerable progress has been made to design and plan methods that will be used to estimate the concentration and distribution of heavy fissile solids in accumulated solids in the Hanford double-shell tank (DST) 241-AW-105 (AW-105), which is the primary goal of this task. This DST will be one of the several waste feed delivery staging tanks designated to feed the Pretreatment Facility (PTF) of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Note that over the length of the waste feed delivery mission AW-105 is currently identified as having the most fill empty cycles of any DST feed tanks, which is the reason for modeling this particular tank. At SRNL an existing test facility, the Mixing Demonstration Tank, which will be modified for the present work, will use stainless steel particles in a simulant that represents Hanford waste to perform mock staging tanks transfers that will allow solids to accumulate in the tank heel. The concentration and location of the mock fissile particles will be measured in these scoping studies to produce information that will be used to better plan larger scaled tests. Included in these studies is a secondary goal of developing measurement methods to accomplish the primary goal. These methods will be evaluated for use in the larger scale experiments. Included in this plan are the several pretest activities that will validate the measurement techniques that are currently in various phases of construction. Aspects of each technique, e.g., particle separations, volume determinations, topographical mapping, and core sampling, have been tested in bench-top trials, as discussed herein, but the actual equipment to be employed during the full test will need evaluation after fabrication and integration into the test facility.

  9. Nuclear DNA Amounts in Macaronesian Angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    SUDA, JAN; KYNCL, TOMÁŠ; FREIOVÁ, RADKA

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear DNA contents for 104 Macaronesian angiosperms, with particular attention on Canary Islands endemics, were analysed using propidium iodide flow cytometry. Prime estimates for more than one‐sixth of the whole Canarian endemic flora (including representatives of 11 endemic genera) were obtained. The resulting 1C DNA values ranged from 0·19 to 7·21 pg for Descurainia bourgeauana and Argyranthemum frutescens, respectively (about 38‐fold difference). The majority of species, however, possessed (very) small genomes, with C‐values <1·6 pg. The tendency towards small nuclear DNA contents and genome sizes was confirmed by comparing average values for Macaronesian and non‐Macaronesian representatives of individual families, genera and major phylogenetic lineages. Our data support the hypothesis that the insular selection pressures in Macaronesia favour small C‐values and genome sizes. Both positive and negative correlations between infrageneric nuclear DNA amount variation and environmental conditions on Tenerife were also found in several genera. PMID:12824074

  10. Accumulation Features of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Organochlorine Pesticides in Resident and Migratory Birds from South India

    PubMed

    Tanabe; Senthilkumar; Kannan; Subramanian

    1998-05-01

    Persistent organochlorines such as DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in whole-body homogenates of resident and migratory birds collected from South India. Organochlorine contamination pattern in birds varied depending on their migratory behaviour. Resident birds contained relatively greater concentrations of HCHs (14-8,800 ng/g wet wt) than DDTs and PCBs concentrations. In contrast, migrants exhibited elevated concentrations of PCBs (20-4,400 ng/g wet wt). The sex differences in concentrations and burdens of organochlorines in birds were pronounced, with females containing lower levels than males. Inland piscivores and scavengers accumulated greater concentrations of HCHs and DDTs while coastal piscivores contained comparable or greater amounts of PCBs. Global comparison of organochlorine concentrations indicated that resident birds in India had the highest residues of HCHs and moderate to high residues of DDTs. It is, therefore, proposed that migratory birds wintering in India acquire considerable amounts of HCHs and DDTs. Estimates of hazards associated with organochlorine levels in resident and migratory birds in India suggested that Pond Heron, Little Ringed Plover, and Terek Sandpiper may be at risk from exposure to DDTs. PMID:9543510

  11. The accumulation of nickel in human lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Edelman, D.A.; Roggli, V.L. )

    1989-05-01

    Using data from published studies, lung concentrations of nickel were compare for persons with and without occupational exposure to nickel. As expected, the concentrations were much higher for persons with occupational exposure. To estimate the effects of nickel-containing tobacco smoke and nickel in the ambient air on the amount of nickel accumulated in lungs over time, a model was derived that took into account various variables related to the deposition of nickel in lungs. The model predicted nickel concentrations that were in the range of those of persons without known nickel exposure. Nickel is a suspected carcinogen and has been associated with an increased risk of respiratory tract cancer among nickel workers. However, before the nickel content of cigarettes can be implicated in the etiology of lung cancer, further studies are needed to evaluate the independent effects of smoking and exposure to nickel.

  12. 17 CFR 210.12-28 - Real estate and accumulated depreciation. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Real estate and accumulated... AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 For Certain Real Estate Companies § 210.12-28 Real estate and accumulated..., furnish a reconciliation, in the following form, of the total amount at which real estate was carried...

  13. 17 CFR 210.12-28 - Real estate and accumulated depreciation. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Real estate and accumulated... AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 Form and Content of Schedules § 210.12-28 Real estate and accumulated..., furnish a reconciliation, in the following form, of the total amount at which real estate was carried...

  14. 17 CFR 210.12-28 - Real estate and accumulated depreciation. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Real estate and accumulated... AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 Form and Content of Schedules § 210.12-28 Real estate and accumulated..., furnish a reconciliation, in the following form, of the total amount at which real estate was carried...

  15. 18 CFR 367.2283 - Account 228.3, Accumulated provision for pensions and benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., Accumulated provision for pensions and benefits. 367.2283 Section 367.2283 Conservation of Power and Water....2283 Account 228.3, Accumulated provision for pensions and benefits. (a) This account must include provisions made by the service company and amounts contributed by employees for pensions, accident and...

  16. 18 CFR 367.2283 - Account 228.3, Accumulated provision for pensions and benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., Accumulated provision for pensions and benefits. 367.2283 Section 367.2283 Conservation of Power and Water....2283 Account 228.3, Accumulated provision for pensions and benefits. (a) This account must include provisions made by the service company and amounts contributed by employees for pensions, accident and...

  17. Accumulation of Poly (beta-Hydroxybutyrate) by Halobacteria.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Castillo, R; Rodriguez-Valera, F; Gonzalez-Ramos, J; Ruiz-Berraquero, F

    1986-01-01

    Some species of extremely halophilic archaebacteria, Halobacteriaceae, have been shown to accumulate large amounts of poly (beta-hydroxybutyrate) under conditions of nitrogen limitation and abundant carbon source. The production of poly (beta-hydroxybutyrate), at least in large quantities, was restricted to two carbohydrate-utilizing species, Halobacterium mediterranei and H. volcanii. In addition to the nutrients in the media, the salt concentration also influenced poly (beta-hydroxybutyrate) accumulation, which was greater at lower salt concentrations. The possible application of these microorganisms for the production of biodegradable plastics is discussed. PMID:16346972

  18. Copper accumulation by stickleback nests containing spiggin.

    PubMed

    Pinho, G L L; Martins, C M G; Barber, I

    2016-07-01

    The three-spined stickleback is a ubiquitous fish of marine, brackish and freshwater ecosystems across the Northern hemisphere that presents intermediate sensitivity to copper. Male sticklebacks display a range of elaborate reproductive behaviours that include nest construction. To build the nests, each male binds nesting material together using an endogenous glycoprotein nesting glue, known as 'spiggin'. Spiggin is a cysteine-rich protein and, therefore, potentially binds heavy metals present in the environment. The aim of this study was to investigate the capacity of stickleback nests to accumulate copper from environmental sources. Newly built nests, constructed by male fish from polyester threads in laboratory aquaria, were immersed in copper solutions ranging in concentration from 21.1-626.6 μg Cu L(-1). Bundles of polyester threads from aquaria without male fish were also immersed in the same copper solutions. After immersion, nests presented higher amounts of copper than the thread bundles, indicating a higher capacity of nests to bind this metal. A significant, positive correlation between the concentration of copper in the exposure solution and in the exposed nests was identified, but there was no such relationship for thread bundles. Since both spiggin synthesis and male courtship behaviour are under the control of circulating androgens, we predicted that males with high courtship scores would produce and secrete high levels of the spiggin protein. In the present study, nests built by high courtship score males accumulated more copper than those built by low courtship score males. Considering the potential of spiggin to bind metals, the positive relationship between fish courtship and spiggin secretion seems to explain the higher amount of copper on the nests from the fish showing high behaviour scores. Further work is now needed to determine the consequences of the copper binding potential of spiggin in stickleback nests for the health and survival of

  19. Optimum Tolerance Design Using Component-Amount and Mixture-Amount Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Ozler, Cenk; Sehirlioglu, Ali Kemal

    2013-08-01

    One type of tolerance design problem involves optimizing component and assembly tolerances to minimize the total cost (sum of manufacturing cost and quality loss). Previous literature recommended using traditional response surface (RS) designs and models to solve this type of tolerance design problem. In this article, component-amount (CA) and mixture-amount (MA) approaches are proposed as more appropriate for solving this type of tolerance design problem. The advantages of the CA and MA approaches over the RS approach are discussed. Reasons for choosing between the CA and MA approaches are also discussed. The CA and MA approaches (experimental design, response modeling, and optimization) are illustrated using real examples.

  20. 26 CFR 1.1551-1 - Disallowance of surtax exemption and accumulated earnings credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... both, was not a major factor in relationship to the other consideration or considerations which... preponderance of the evidence that the securing of such exemption or credit was not a major purpose of the... section 11(d) or the accumulated earnings credit provided in section 535, or both, was not a major...

  1. Exploring metal detoxification and accumulation potential during vermicomposting of Tea factory coal ash: sequential extraction and fluorescence probe analysis

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, Linee; Pratihar, Sanjay; Dasgupta, Suman; Bhattacharyya, Pradip; Mudoi, Pronab; Bora, Jayanta; Bhattacharya, Satya Sundar; Kim, Ki Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Metal contamination from coal ashes (CAs) is widely recognized as a significant environmental concern. To learn more about metal detoxification and accumulation potential of earthworm species, metal-rich tea factory coal ashes (TFCA) were fed to Eisenia fetida and Lampito mauritii by employing a fluorescent tag detection method. Fascinatingly, on feeding fluorescence probed Zn and Cd along with cow dung to Eisenia fetida, the detection of the gut-proteins with a molecular mass higher than 100 kDa was a distinct evidence of metal binding. Significant increases were observed in the content of humified organic C [humic acid (HAC) and fulvic acid C (FAC)] and degree of humification during vermicomposting. Concurrently, considerably large amount of toxic metals (Cr, Cd, Pb, and Zn) was transformed from exchangeable to recalcitrant (organic matter and mineral bound) fractions. Moreover, total metal concentrations were reduced with high removal efficiency upon vermicomposting. PMID:27456167

  2. Exploring metal detoxification and accumulation potential during vermicomposting of Tea factory coal ash: sequential extraction and fluorescence probe analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Linee; Pratihar, Sanjay; Dasgupta, Suman; Bhattacharyya, Pradip; Mudoi, Pronab; Bora, Jayanta; Bhattacharya, Satya Sundar; Kim, Ki Hyun

    2016-07-01

    Metal contamination from coal ashes (CAs) is widely recognized as a significant environmental concern. To learn more about metal detoxification and accumulation potential of earthworm species, metal-rich tea factory coal ashes (TFCA) were fed to Eisenia fetida and Lampito mauritii by employing a fluorescent tag detection method. Fascinatingly, on feeding fluorescence probed Zn and Cd along with cow dung to Eisenia fetida, the detection of the gut-proteins with a molecular mass higher than 100 kDa was a distinct evidence of metal binding. Significant increases were observed in the content of humified organic C [humic acid (HAC) and fulvic acid C (FAC)] and degree of humification during vermicomposting. Concurrently, considerably large amount of toxic metals (Cr, Cd, Pb, and Zn) was transformed from exchangeable to recalcitrant (organic matter and mineral bound) fractions. Moreover, total metal concentrations were reduced with high removal efficiency upon vermicomposting.

  3. Exploring metal detoxification and accumulation potential during vermicomposting of Tea factory coal ash: sequential extraction and fluorescence probe analysis.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Linee; Pratihar, Sanjay; Dasgupta, Suman; Bhattacharyya, Pradip; Mudoi, Pronab; Bora, Jayanta; Bhattacharya, Satya Sundar; Kim, Ki Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Metal contamination from coal ashes (CAs) is widely recognized as a significant environmental concern. To learn more about metal detoxification and accumulation potential of earthworm species, metal-rich tea factory coal ashes (TFCA) were fed to Eisenia fetida and Lampito mauritii by employing a fluorescent tag detection method. Fascinatingly, on feeding fluorescence probed Zn and Cd along with cow dung to Eisenia fetida, the detection of the gut-proteins with a molecular mass higher than 100 kDa was a distinct evidence of metal binding. Significant increases were observed in the content of humified organic C [humic acid (HAC) and fulvic acid C (FAC)] and degree of humification during vermicomposting. Concurrently, considerably large amount of toxic metals (Cr, Cd, Pb, and Zn) was transformed from exchangeable to recalcitrant (organic matter and mineral bound) fractions. Moreover, total metal concentrations were reduced with high removal efficiency upon vermicomposting. PMID:27456167

  4. Maximum likelihood decoding analysis of Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    Repeat-Accumulate (RA) codes are the simplest turbo-like codes that achieve good performance. However, they cannot compete with Turbo codes or low-density parity check codes (LDPC) as far as performance is concerned. The Accumulate Repeat Accumulate (ARA) codes, as a subclass of LDPC codes, are obtained by adding a pre-coder in front of RA codes with puncturing where an accumulator is chosen as a precoder. These codes not only are very simple, but also achieve excellent performance with iterative decoding. In this paper, the performance of these codes with (ML) decoding are analyzed and compared to random codes by very tight bounds. The weight distribution of some simple ARA codes is obtained, and through existing tightest bounds we have shown the ML SNR threshold of ARA codes approaches very closely to the performance of random codes. We have shown that the use of precoder improves the SNR threshold but interleaving gain remains unchanged with respect to RA code with puncturing.

  5. Tyrosine decarboxylase activity of enterococci grown in media with different nutritional potential: tyramine and 2-phenylethylamine accumulation and tyrDC gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Bargossi, Eleonora; Tabanelli, Giulia; Montanari, Chiara; Lanciotti, Rosalba; Gatto, Veronica; Gardini, Fausto; Torriani, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    The ability to accumulate tyramine and 2-phenylethylamine by two strains of Enterococcus faecalis and two strains Enterococcus faecium was evaluated in two cultural media added or not with tyrosine. All the enterococcal strains possessed a tyrosine decarboxylase (tyrDC) which determined tyramine accumulation in all the conditions tested, independently on the addition of high concentration of free tyrosine. Enterococci differed in rate and level of biogenic amines accumulation. E. faecalis EF37 and E. faecium FC12 produced tyramine in high amount since the exponential growth phase, while 2-phenylethylamine was accumulated when tyrosine was depleted. E. faecium FC12 and E. faecalis ATCC 29212 showed a slower tyraminogenic activity which took place mainly in the stationary phase up to 72 h of incubation. Moreover, E. faecalis ATCC 29212 produced 2-phenylethylamine only in the media without tyrosine added. In BHI added or not with tyrosine the tyrDC gene expression level differed considerably depending on the strains and the growth phase. In particular, the tyrDC gene expression was high during the exponential phase in rich medium for all the strains and subsequently decreased except for E. faecium FC12. Even if tyrDC presence is common among enterococci, this study underlines the extremely variable decarboxylating potential of strains belonging to the same species, suggesting strain-dependent implications in food safety. PMID:25914676

  6. Dust Accumulation and Solar Panel Array Performance on the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turgay, Eren H.

    2004-01-01

    One of the most fundamental design considerations for any space vehicle is its power supply system. Many options exist, including batteries, fuel cells, nuclear reactors, radioisotopic thermal generators (RTGs), and solar panel arrays. Solar arrays have many advantages over other types of power generation. They are lightweight and relatively inexpensive, allowing more mass and funding to be allocated for other important devices, such as scientific instruments. For Mars applications, solar power is an excellent option, especially for long missions. One might think that dust storms would be a problem; however, while dust blocks some solar energy, it also scatters it, making it diffuse rather than beamed. Solar cells are still able to capture this diffuse energy and convert it into substantial electrical power. For these reasons, solar power was chosen to be used on the 1997 Mars Pathfinder mission. The success of this mission set a precedent, as NASA engineers have selected solar power as the energy system of choice for all future Mars missions, including the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Project. Solar sells have their drawbacks, however. They are difficult to manufacture and are relatively fragile. In addition, solar cells are highly sensitive to different parts of the solar spectrum, and finding the correct balance is crucial to the success of space missions. Another drawback is that the power generated is not a constant with respect to time, but rather changes with the relative angle to the sun. On Mars, dust accumulation also becomes a factor. Over time, dust settles out of the atmosphere and onto solar panels. This dust blocks and shifts the frequency of the incoming light, degrading solar cell performance. My goal is to analyze solar panel telemetry data from the two MERs (Spirit and Opportunity) in an effort to accurately model the effect of dust accumulation on solar panels. This is no easy process due to the large number of factors involved. Changing solar

  7. 75 FR 58407 - Medicare Program; Medicare Appeals; Adjustment to the Amount in Controversy Threshold Amounts for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... for requests for ALJ hearings and judicial review filed on or after January 1, 2011. The 2011 AIC threshold amounts are $130 for ALJ hearings and $1,300 for judicial review. DATES: Effective Date: This... and judicial review at $100 and $1,000, respectively, for Medicare Part A and Part B appeals....

  8. Senior academic physicians and retirement considerations.

    PubMed

    Moss, Arthur J; Greenberg, Henry; Dwyer, Edward M; Klein, Helmut; Ryan, Daniel; Francis, Charles; Marcus, Frank; Eberly, Shirley; Benhorin, Jesaia; Bodenheimer, Monty; Brown, Mary; Case, Robert; Gillespie, John; Goldstein, Robert; Haigney, Mark; Krone, Ronald; Lichstein, Edgar; Locati, Emanuela; Oakes, David; Thomsen, Poul Erik Bloch; Zareba, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of academic senior physicians are approaching their potential retirement in good health with accumulated clinical and research experience that can be a valuable asset to an academic institution. Considering the need to let the next generation ascend to leadership roles, when and how should a medical career be brought to a close? We explore the roles for academic medical faculty as they move into their senior years and approach various retirement options. The individual and institutional considerations require a frank dialogue among the interested parties to optimize the benefits while minimizing the risks for both. In the United States there is no fixed age for retirement as there is in Europe, but European physicians are initiating changes. What is certain is that careful planning, innovative thinking, and the incorporation of new patterns of medical practice are all part of this complex transition and timing of senior academic physicians into retirement. PMID:23621971

  9. Ecology: accumulating threats to life

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, R.W.

    1980-04-01

    The accumulating impacts of toxic materials like polychloridnated bephenyls (PCBs), acid rain, deforestation in the Amazon River Basin, and nuclear energy are examined as life-threatening actions that the public must recognize. Immediate action is needed to abandon destructive human activities and search out those life-supporting choices which will replace immediate gratification with long-range benefits. (DCK)

  10. Pensions and Household Wealth Accumulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhardt, Gary V.; Kumar, Anil

    2011-01-01

    Economists have long suggested that higher private pension benefits "crowd out" other sources of household wealth accumulation. We exploit detailed information on pensions and lifetime earnings for older workers in the 1992 wave of the Health and Retirement Study and employ an instrumental-variable (IV) identification strategy to estimate…

  11. Heavy metals accumulation in wood tissues of the forest-forming species growed in the Steppe technogenic landscapes in Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovinska, Viktoriia; Wiche, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    Territory of Steppe in Ukraine is affected by significant anthropogenic impact caused with mining, metallurgical, chemicalplants and heat power stations. The priority pollutants of the region emissions of these enterprises are presented such heavy metals as Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni, Mn. The regional forest ecosystems can be considered as potential concentrators of pollutants borned with different technogenic impact. It is necessary to study an ability of forests wood to accumulate heavy metals because accumulated toxins are eliminated from biogeochemical cycle in forest ecosystem for a long time. This study goal is to determine the accumulation properties of forest-forming species - Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine) and Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust) difference age group in relation to heavy metals. It was considerable also to assess the heavy metal distribution in the wood tissue of referred species.Heavy metals content were determined with atomic absorption spectrophotometer using. Scots pine and black locust are the main forest-forming species of natural and artificial forests within Northern Steppe.They can be seen as transformers of the heavy metals cycle and selective concentrators of toxic elements, under the conditions of their excessive concentrations in the environment.It was established that wood tissue of Scots pine and black locust accumulated cadmium in high concentrations according to the age in both species. Indexes of zinc accumulation in the wood of Scots pine exceeded the maximal value in the wood tissue of black locust. The results of our research demonstrated antagonistic interaction of cadmium and zinc. The highest copper concentrations was found for the trees at the age of 45 years. Lead has been identified in wood sample of all ages. Accumulation maximum was fixed in the oldest samples. The trend of concentration increasing of metal didn't find for both species. As for nickel there was established the opposite tendention for both studied species

  12. Ethical Considerations in Technology Transfer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froehlich, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    Examines ethical considerations involved in the transfer of appropriate information technology to less developed countries. Approaches to technology are considered; two philosophical frameworks for studying ethical considerations are discussed, i.e., the Kantian approach and the utilitarian perspective by John Stuart Mill; and integration of the…

  13. Advanced LBB methodology and considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, R.; Rahman, S.; Scott, P.

    1997-04-01

    LBB applications have existed in many industries and more recently have been applied in the nuclear industry under limited circumstances. Research over the past 10 years has evolved the technology so that more advanced consideration of LBB can now be given. Some of the advanced considerations for nuclear plants subjected to seismic loading evaluations are summarized in this paper.

  14. Gas hydrate accumulation at the Hakon Mosby Mud Volcano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ginsburg, G.D.; Milkov, A.V.; Soloviev, V.A.; Egorov, A.V.; Cherkashev, G.A.; Vogt, P.R.; Crane, K.; Lorenson, T.D.; Khutorskoy, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    Gas hydrate (GH) accumulation is characterized and modeled for the Hakon Mosby mud volcano, ca. 1.5 km across, located on the Norway-Barents-Svalbard margin. Pore water chemical and isotopic results based on shallow sediment cores as well as geothermal and geomorphological data suggest that the GH accumulation is of a concentric pattern controlled by and formed essentially from the ascending mud volcano fluid. The gas hydrate content of sediment peaks at 25% by volume, averaging about 1.2% throughout the accumulation. The amount of hydrate methane is estimated at ca. 108 m3 STP, which could account for about 1-10% of the gas that has escaped from the volcano since its origin.

  15. Magnesium and manganese interactively modulate parthenolide accumulation and the antioxidant defense system in the leaves of Tanacetum parthenium.

    PubMed

    Farzadfar, Soudeh; Zarinkamar, Fatemeh; Behmanesh, Mehrdad; Hojati, Mostafa

    2016-09-01

    A balanced nutrient supply is a critical factor affecting accumulation of terpenoids in plants, yet data related to the interactive effects of two essential nutrients for the biosynthesis of sesquiterpenes are scarce. Here, the interactional effects between magnesium (Mg) and manganese (Mn) on plant growth, oxidative status, parthenolide accumulation and expression of key genes involved in parthenolide biosynthesis including 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR), hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl-4-diphosphate reductase (HDR), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutarylcoenzyme A reductase (HMGR), germacrene A synthase (GAS), germacrene A oxidase (GAO), costunolide synthase (COS) and parthenolide synthase (PTS) in the leaves of feverfew plants grown at different Mn and Mn levels were assessed. Plant growth and leaf pigment concentrations were associated with the amount of applied Mg but could be modified by the Mn level. Deprivation and the addition of both Mg and Mn induce oxidative stress. Mg supply also alleviated the adverse effects of Mn excess on plant growth and oxidative status. In addition, parthenolide biosynthesis decreased under deprivation of Mg or Mn, but the addition of Mn up to 50μM under 2mM Mg supply considerably increased its accumulation. The parthenolide accumulation trend might reflect the up-regulation of terpenoid-related genes and enzyme activities as well as the oxidative status of feverfew leaves. Our data suggest a profound effect of the combined supply of Mg and Mn on parthenolide biosynthesis through the activation of terpene synthases, which concomitantly modulate by oxidative status. PMID:27450490

  16. 20 CFR 340.13 - Compromise of amounts recoverable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... INSURANCE ACT RECOVERY OF BENEFITS § 340.13 Compromise of amounts recoverable. The Board or its designee may compromise an amount recoverable, provided such amount does not exceed $100,000, excluding interest, or such... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Compromise of amounts recoverable....

  17. 20 CFR 416.503 - Minimum monthly benefit amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... monthly benefit amount. If you receive an SSI benefit that does not include a State supplement the minimum monthly SSI benefit amount payable is $1. When an SSI benefit amount of less than $1 is payable, the benefit amount will be increased to $1. If you receive an SSI benefit that does include a State...

  18. 42 CFR 418.309 - Hospice cap amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hospice cap amount. 418.309 Section 418.309 Public...) MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPICE CARE Payment for Hospice Care § 418.309 Hospice cap amount. The hospice cap amount... until October 31 of the following year. (b) Each hospice's cap amount is calculated by the...

  19. 20 CFR 234.46 - Amount of the RLS payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Amount of the RLS payable. 234.46 Section 234...-SUM PAYMENTS Residual Lump-Sum Payment § 234.46 Amount of the RLS payable. The gross RLS amount is... this chapter, respectively.) The amount of the RLS payable is equal to the gross RLS minus the sum...

  20. 20 CFR 234.46 - Amount of the RLS payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Amount of the RLS payable. 234.46 Section 234...-SUM PAYMENTS Residual Lump-Sum Payment § 234.46 Amount of the RLS payable. The gross RLS amount is... this chapter, respectively.) The amount of the RLS payable is equal to the gross RLS minus the sum...

  1. 20 CFR 234.46 - Amount of the RLS payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Amount of the RLS payable. 234.46 Section 234...-SUM PAYMENTS Residual Lump-Sum Payment § 234.46 Amount of the RLS payable. The gross RLS amount is... this chapter, respectively.) The amount of the RLS payable is equal to the gross RLS minus the sum...

  2. 20 CFR 234.46 - Amount of the RLS payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Amount of the RLS payable. 234.46 Section 234...-SUM PAYMENTS Residual Lump-Sum Payment § 234.46 Amount of the RLS payable. The gross RLS amount is... this chapter, respectively.) The amount of the RLS payable is equal to the gross RLS minus the sum...

  3. 20 CFR 234.46 - Amount of the RLS payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amount of the RLS payable. 234.46 Section 234...-SUM PAYMENTS Residual Lump-Sum Payment § 234.46 Amount of the RLS payable. The gross RLS amount is... this chapter, respectively.) The amount of the RLS payable is equal to the gross RLS minus the sum...

  4. 46 CFR 58.30-25 - Accumulators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... RELATED SYSTEMS Fluid Power and Control Systems § 58.30-25 Accumulators. (a) An accumulator is an unfired... fluid. Accumulators must meet the applicable requirements in § 54.01-5 (c)(3), (c)(4), and (d) of this chapter or the remaining requirements in part 54. (b) If the accumulator is of the gas and fluid...

  5. 46 CFR 58.30-25 - Accumulators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... RELATED SYSTEMS Fluid Power and Control Systems § 58.30-25 Accumulators. (a) An accumulator is an unfired... fluid. Accumulators must meet the applicable requirements in § 54.01-5 (c)(3), (c)(4), and (d) of this chapter or the remaining requirements in part 54. (b) If the accumulator is of the gas and fluid...

  6. 46 CFR 58.30-25 - Accumulators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... RELATED SYSTEMS Fluid Power and Control Systems § 58.30-25 Accumulators. (a) An accumulator is an unfired... fluid. Accumulators must meet the applicable requirements in § 54.01-5 (c)(3), (c)(4), and (d) of this chapter or the remaining requirements in part 54. (b) If the accumulator is of the gas and fluid...

  7. 46 CFR 58.30-25 - Accumulators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... RELATED SYSTEMS Fluid Power and Control Systems § 58.30-25 Accumulators. (a) An accumulator is an unfired... fluid. Accumulators must meet the applicable requirements in § 54.01-5 (c)(3), (c)(4), and (d) of this chapter or the remaining requirements in part 54. (b) If the accumulator is of the gas and fluid...

  8. An Instructional Satellite System for the United States: Preliminary Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuMolin, James R.; Morgan, Robert P.

    Based on educational, social, political, and other considerations, an instructional satellite system, AVSIN (Ausio-Visual Satellite Instruction), is hypothesized which represents one possible organizational and administrative arrangement for delivering large amounts of quality software to schools and learning centers. The AVSIN system is conceived…

  9. Lipid accumulation and biosynthesis genes response of the oleaginous Chlorella pyrenoidosa under three nutrition stressors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Microalgae can accumulate considerable amounts of lipids under different nutrient-deficient conditions, making them as one of the most promising sustainable sources for biofuel production. These inducible processes provide a powerful experimental basis for fully understanding the mechanisms of physiological acclimation, lipid hyperaccumulation and gene expression in algae. In this study, three nutrient-deficiency strategies, viz nitrogen-, phosphorus- and iron-deficiency were applied to trigger the lipid hyperaccumulation in an oleaginous Chlorella pyrenoidosa. Regular patterns of growth characteristics, lipid accumulation, physiological parameters, as well as the expression patterns of lipid biosynthesis-related genes were fully analyzed and compared. Results Our results showed that all the nutrient stress conditions could enhance the lipid content considerably compared with the control. The total lipid and neutral lipid contents exhibit the most marked increment under nitrogen deficiency, achieving 50.32% and 34.29% of dry cell weight at the end of cultivation, respectively. Both photosynthesis indicators and reactive oxygen species parameters reveal that physiological stress turned up when exposed to nutrient depletions. Time-course transcript patterns of lipid biosynthesis-related genes showed that diverse expression dynamics probably contributes to the different lipidic phenotypes under stress conditions. By analyzing the correlation between lipid content and gene expression level, we pinpoint several genes viz. rbsL, me g6562, accA, accD, dgat g2354, dgat g3280 and dgat g7063, which encode corresponding enzymes or subunits of malic enzyme, ACCase and diacylglycerol acyltransferase in the de novo TAG biosynthesis pathway, are highly related to lipid accumulation and might be exploited as target genes for genetic modification. Conclusion This study provided us not only a comprehensive picture of adaptive mechanisms from physiological perspective, but

  10. Metal accumulating plants: Medium's role

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabier, J.; Prudent, P.; Szymanska, B.; Mevy, J.-P.

    2003-05-01

    To evaluate phytoremediation potentialities by metal accumulation in tolerant plants, trials are carried out using in vitro cultures. Organie compounds influence on metal accumulation is studied with metals supplemented media. The tested compounds on zinc and lead absorption by Brassica juncea, are chelating agents (EDTA, citric acid) and soluble organic fractions of compost. EDTA seems to enhance the transfer of lead in plant but it is the opposite in the case of zinc. Citric acid stimulates root absorption for both zinc and lead. For the aqueous extracts of compost, variable effects are obtained according to the origin of compost (green wastes and food wastes). In'all tested conditions of cultures, zinc is mainly exported towards shoot while lead is stored in root.

  11. Mechanisms of intrahepatic triglyceride accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Ress, Claudia; Kaser, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis defined as lipid accumulation in hepatocytes is very frequently found in adults and obese adolescents in the Western World. Etiologically, obesity and associated insulin resistance or excess alcohol intake are the most frequent causes of hepatic steatosis. However, steatosis also often occurs with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and is also found in rare but potentially life-threatening liver diseases of pregnancy. Clinical significance and outcome of hepatic triglyceride accumulation are highly dependent on etiology and histological pattern of steatosis. This review summarizes current concepts of pathophysiology of common causes of hepatic steatosis, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), alcoholic fatty liver disease, chronic HCV infections, drug-induced forms of hepatic steatosis, and acute fatty liver of pregnancy. Regarding the pathophysiology of NAFLD, this work focuses on the close correlation between insulin resistance and hepatic triglyceride accumulation, highlighting the potential harmful effects of systemic insulin resistance on hepatic metabolism of fatty acids on the one side and the role of lipid intermediates on insulin signalling on the other side. Current studies on lipid droplet morphogenesis have identified novel candidate proteins and enzymes in NAFLD. PMID:26819531

  12. Dietary restriction, caloric value and the accumulation of hepatic fat

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies using laboratory animals under what are considered to be "standard" conditions normally offer unrestricted amounts of food to the animals, which can lead to metabolic disorders. Moreover, standard diets have different compositions. Aim Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the effects of two non-isocaloric diets (commercial Purina® and AIN-93M), which are considered standard diets, on the accumulation of fat in the liver of rats when offered ad libitum or in a restricted amount. Methods Thus, 40 Wistar rats (90 days old) were separated into 4 groups according to the amount of food offered (ad libitum or dietary restriction) and the type of diet (commercial diet, 3,028.0 kcal/g or AIN-93M, 3,802.7 kcal/g): animals fed the commercial Purina® diet ad libitum (AP), animals fed restricted amounts of the commercial Purina® diet (RP), animals fed the AIN-93M diet ad libitum (AD), and animals fed restricted amounts of the AIN-93M diet (RD). Dietary restriction consisted of pair-feeding the RP and RD groups with 60% of the total food consumed by the corresponding ad libitum groups. Results Because of its higher carbohydrate and calorie content, AIN-93M was found to accelerate weight gain, reduce glucose tolerance and peripheral insulin sensitivity, and increase the amount of fat in the liver when compared to the commercial diet. Conversely, a 40% dietary restriction assisted in weight loss without causing malnutrition, contributing to an improved glucose tolerance and higher levels of HDL cholesterol. Conclusion Therefore, differences in the amount of carbohydrates and calories provided by the diet can lead to important metabolic disorders, such as impaired tolerance and accumulation of hepatic fat, and dietary restriction improves serum and tissue lipid profiles in laboratory animals. PMID:22221448

  13. 42 CFR 419.41 - Calculation of national beneficiary copayment amounts and national Medicare program payment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... amounts and national Medicare program payment amounts. 419.41 Section 419.41 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM... Calculation of national beneficiary copayment amounts and national Medicare program payment amounts. (a)...

  14. 42 CFR 419.41 - Calculation of national beneficiary copayment amounts and national Medicare program payment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... amounts and national Medicare program payment amounts. 419.41 Section 419.41 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM... Calculation of national beneficiary copayment amounts and national Medicare program payment amounts. (a)...

  15. Regulatory Considerations in Toxicological Neuropathology

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pathological assessment of the nervous system is included in several US Environmental Protection Agency [US EPA or Agency] and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development [OECD] testing guidelines for health effects of chemicals. A variety of considerations are importan...

  16. Regulation of starch and lipid accumulation in a microalga Chlorella sorokiniana.

    PubMed

    Li, Tingting; Gargouri, Mahmoud; Feng, Jie; Park, Jeong-Jin; Gao, Difeng; Miao, Chao; Dong, Tao; Gang, David R; Chen, Shulin

    2015-03-01

    Microalgae have attracted growing attention due to their potential in biofuel feedstock production. However, current understanding of the regulatory mechanisms for lipid biosynthesis and storage in microalgae is still limited. This study revealed that the microalga Chlorella sorokiniana showed sequential accumulation of starch and lipids. When nitrogen was replete and/or depleted over a short period, starch was the predominant carbon storage form with basal levels of lipid accumulation. After prolonged nitrogen depletion, lipid accumulation increased considerably, which was partially due to starch degradation, as well as the turnover of primary metabolites. Lipid accumulation is also strongly dependent on the linear electron flow of photosynthesis, peaking at lower light intensities. Collectively, this study reveals a relatively clear regulation pattern of starch and lipid accumulation that is basically controlled by nitrogen levels. The mixotrophic growth of C. sorokiniana shows promise for biofuel production in terms of lipid accumulation in the final biomass. PMID:25616239

  17. Heavy metals in plants in constructed and natural wetlands: concentration, accumulation and seasonality.

    PubMed

    Vymazal, J; Březinová, T

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of heavy metals in plants is a function of uptake capacity and intracellular binding sites. The concentrations of heavy metals in plants growing in constructed wetlands vary considerably between species and systems but in general, the concentrations are within the range commonly found in natural stands. The highest concentrations are mostly found in roots, followed by rhizomes, leaves and stems. Unfortunately, concentration values are commonly used to evaluate the 'accumulation' of heavy metals, but this approach is not correct. In order to evaluate heavy metal accumulation, the biomass of particular plant parts must be taken into consideration. In addition, there are two other factors, which need to be taken into consideration when accumulation is evaluated, namely seasonality and distribution within the plant shoot. It has been found that the seasonal distribution of heavy metals in the biomass varies between heavy metals and mostly does not follow the pattern known for nutrients. In addition, the concentration and accumulation of heavy metals vary considerably within the shoot and this fact should be taken into consideration when analyses are carried out. PMID:25633951

  18. Bromine accumulation in acidic black colluvial soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortizas, Antonio Martínez; Vázquez, Cruz Ferro; Kaal, Joeri; Biester, Harald; Casais, Manuela Costa; Rodríguez, Teresa Taboada; Lado, Luis Rodríguez

    2016-02-01

    Recent investigations showed that bromine is incorporated to soil organic matter (SOM), its content increasing with humification. But few research was done on its long-term accumulation and the role played by pedogenetic processes, as those involved in organic matter stabilization. We investigated bromine content and distribution in four deep, acidic, organic-rich, Holocene soils from an oceanic area of Western Europe. Bromine concentrations (93-778 μg g-1) in the silt + clay (<50 μm) fraction were on average 3-times higher than those (17-250 μg g-1) in the fine earth (<2 mm), the former containing almost all bromine (90 ± 5%). Inventories were between 148 and 314 g m-2, indicating a rather large variability in a small area, and total estimated retention was low (6-16%). The degree of SOM bromination, expressed as the Br/C molar ratio, varied between 0.03 and 1.20 mmol Br/mol C. The ratio was highly correlated (n = 23, r2 0.88, p < 0.01) with the age of the SOM for the last ∼12 ka. Partial least squares modeling indicates that bromine concentration depends on the amount of organic matter stabilized as aluminium-OM associations, and to a lesser extent on soil acidity (pH) and iron-OM associations. Thus, at scales of thousands of years, bromine accumulation in acidic soils is linked to the pool of metal-clay-stabilized organic matter.

  19. Radiocesium accumulation properties of Chengiopanax sciadophylloides.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Yuki; Kanasashi, Tsutomu; Ogata, Yoshimune; Ozawa, Hajime; Takenaka, Chisato

    2016-01-01

    Through the assessments of radioactive contamination after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1NPP) accident, it has been reported that some sprouts of Chengiopanax sciadophylloides (Franch. et Sav.) at the site contained radiocesium (((134),)(137)Cs) at higher concentrations than the other plants. To assess the phytoremediation properties of C. sciadophylloides for (137)Cs decontamination, we aimed to quantify the (137)Cs accumulation in C. sciadophylloides. We measured the (137)Cs concentrations in various organs of C. sciadophylloides collected from the forest in the town of Kawamata, Fukushima prefecture, together with the concentrations of other elements [potassium (K), rubidium, (133)Cs, calcium, strontium, and manganese] present. In addition, we compared the foliar concentrations of these elements in C. sciadophylloides with those in four different deciduous tree species. The mean of foliar (137)Cs concentration in C. sciadophylloides was 28.1 kBq kg(-1) DW, one order of magnitude higher than that found in the other species. The (137)Cs concentrations were in the order of leaves > bark > wood. The wood of the treetop, leaf scars, and roots contained higher amounts of (137)Cs than that of the trunk. From the distribution of (137)Cs in C. sciadophylloides, we confirmed that (137)Cs tends to accumulate in the young growing parts. The difference in the distribution of (137)Cs and (133)Cs indicated that surface uptake of (137)Cs occurs. A significant correlation between K and (137)Cs concentrations in each organ was found, which suggested that (137)Cs in the plant body is transferred through the same pathway as K. On the other hand, there was no correlation between foliar K and (137)Cs concentrations, implying that the uptake ratio of K to (137)Cs was different for each individual. To determine the factors driving specific (137)Cs accumulation and/or the variability of the ratio between K and (137)Cs, the distribution of (137)Cs and the root in soil

  20. A New Dynamic Accumulator for Batch Updates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Peishun; Wang, Huaxiong; Pieprzyk, Josef

    A dynamic accumulator is an algorithm, which gathers together a large set of elements into a constant-size value such that for a given element accumulated, there is a witness confirming that the element was indeed included into the value, with a property that accumulated elements can be dynamically added and deleted into/from the original set such that the cost of an addition or deletion operation is independent of the number of accumulated elements. Although the first accumulator was presented ten years ago, there is still no standard formal definition of accumulators. In this paper, we generalize formal definitions for accumulators, formulate a security game for dynamic accumulators so-called Chosen Element Attack (CEA), and propose a new dynamic accumulator for batch updates based on the Paillier cryptosystem. Our construction makes a batch of update operations at unit cost. We prove its security under the extended strong RSA (es-RSA) assumption.

  1. Different responses of low grain-Cd-accumulating and high grain-Cd-accumulating rice cultivars to Cd stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feijuan; Wang, Min; Liu, Zhouping; Shi, Yan; Han, Tiqian; Ye, Yaoyao; Gong, Ning; Sun, Junwei; Zhu, Cheng

    2015-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a major heavy metal pollutant which is highly toxic to plants and animals. The accumulation of Cd in rice grains is a major agricultural problem in regions with Cd pollution. A hydroponics experiment using low grain-Cd-accumulating rice (xiushui 11) and high grain-Cd-accumulating rice (xiushui 110) was carried out to characterize the different responses of rice cultivars to Cd stress. We found that xiushui 11 was more tolerant to Cd than xiushui 110, and xiushui 11 suffered less oxidative damage. Cell walls played an important role in limiting the amount of Cd that entered the protoplast, especially in xiushui 11. Cd stored in organelles as soluble fractions, leading to greater physiological stress of Cd detoxification. We found that Cd can disturb the ion homeostasis in rice roots because Cd(2+) and Ca(2+) may have a similar uptake route. Xiushui 11 had a faster root-to-shoot transport of Cd, and the expression level of OsPCR1 gene which was predicted related with Cd accumulation in rice was consist with the Cd transport of root-to-shoot in rice and maintain the greater Cd tolerance of xiushui 11. These results suggest there are different Cd detoxification and accumulation mechanisms in rice cultivars. PMID:26318143

  2. Chromoplast biogenesis and carotenoid accumulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chromoplasts are special organelles that possess superior ability to synthesize and store massive amounts of carotenoids. They are responsible for the distinctive colors found in fruits, flowers, and roots. Chromoplasts exhibit various morphologies and are derived from either pre-existing chloroplas...

  3. 26 CFR 1.662(a)-1 - Inclusion of amounts in gross income of beneficiaries of estates and complex trusts; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inclusion of amounts in gross income of beneficiaries of estates and complex trusts; general. 1.662(a)-1 Section 1.662(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... Trusts Which May Accumulate Income Or Which Distribute Corpus § 1.662(a)-1 Inclusion of amounts in...

  4. Comparison between the Amount of Environmental Change and the Amount of Transcriptome Change

    PubMed Central

    Ogata, Norichika; Kozaki, Toshinori; Yokoyama, Takeshi; Hata, Tamako; Iwabuchi, Kikuo

    2015-01-01

    Cells must coordinate adjustments in genome expression to accommodate changes in their environment. We hypothesized that the amount of transcriptome change is proportional to the amount of environmental change. To capture the effects of environmental changes on the transcriptome, we compared transcriptome diversities (defined as the Shannon entropy of frequency distribution) of silkworm fat-body tissues cultured with several concentrations of phenobarbital. Although there was no proportional relationship, we did identify a drug concentration “tipping point” between 0.25 and 1.0 mM. Cells cultured in media containing lower drug concentrations than the tipping point showed uniformly high transcriptome diversities, while those cultured at higher drug concentrations than the tipping point showed uniformly low transcriptome diversities. The plasticity of transcriptome diversity was corroborated by cultivations of fat bodies in MGM-450 insect medium without phenobarbital and in 0.25 mM phenobarbital-supplemented MGM-450 insect medium after previous cultivation (cultivation for 80 hours in MGM-450 insect medium without phenobarbital, followed by cultivation for 10 hours in 1.0 mM phenobarbital-supplemented MGM-450 insect medium). Interestingly, the transcriptome diversities of cells cultured in media containing 0.25 mM phenobarbital after previous cultivation (cultivation for 80 hours in MGM-450 insect medium without phenobarbital, followed by cultivation for 10 hours in 1.0 mM phenobarbital-supplemented MGM-450 insect medium) were different from cells cultured in media containing 0.25 mM phenobarbital after previous cultivation (cultivation for 80 hours in MGM-450 insect medium without phenobarbital). This hysteretic phenomenon of transcriptome diversities indicates multi-stability of the genome expression system. Cellular memories were recorded in genome expression networks as in DNA/histone modifications. PMID:26657512

  5. Comparison between the Amount of Environmental Change and the Amount of Transcriptome Change.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Norichika; Kozaki, Toshinori; Yokoyama, Takeshi; Hata, Tamako; Iwabuchi, Kikuo

    2015-01-01

    Cells must coordinate adjustments in genome expression to accommodate changes in their environment. We hypothesized that the amount of transcriptome change is proportional to the amount of environmental change. To capture the effects of environmental changes on the transcriptome, we compared transcriptome diversities (defined as the Shannon entropy of frequency distribution) of silkworm fat-body tissues cultured with several concentrations of phenobarbital. Although there was no proportional relationship, we did identify a drug concentration "tipping point" between 0.25 and 1.0 mM. Cells cultured in media containing lower drug concentrations than the tipping point showed uniformly high transcriptome diversities, while those cultured at higher drug concentrations than the tipping point showed uniformly low transcriptome diversities. The plasticity of transcriptome diversity was corroborated by cultivations of fat bodies in MGM-450 insect medium without phenobarbital and in 0.25 mM phenobarbital-supplemented MGM-450 insect medium after previous cultivation (cultivation for 80 hours in MGM-450 insect medium without phenobarbital, followed by cultivation for 10 hours in 1.0 mM phenobarbital-supplemented MGM-450 insect medium). Interestingly, the transcriptome diversities of cells cultured in media containing 0.25 mM phenobarbital after previous cultivation (cultivation for 80 hours in MGM-450 insect medium without phenobarbital, followed by cultivation for 10 hours in 1.0 mM phenobarbital-supplemented MGM-450 insect medium) were different from cells cultured in media containing 0.25 mM phenobarbital after previous cultivation (cultivation for 80 hours in MGM-450 insect medium without phenobarbital). This hysteretic phenomenon of transcriptome diversities indicates multi-stability of the genome expression system. Cellular memories were recorded in genome expression networks as in DNA/histone modifications. PMID:26657512

  6. Radar detection of surface oil accumulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, J. E.; Oneill, P.; Wilson, M.

    1980-01-01

    The United States Coast Guard is developing AIREYE, an all weather, day/night airborne surveillance system, for installation aboard future medium range surveillance aircraft. As part of this program, a series of controlled tests were conducted off southern California to evaluate the oil slick detection capabilities of two Motorola developed, side looking radars. The systems, a real aperture AN/APS-94D and a synthetic aperture coherent on receive (COR) were flown over the Santa Barbara Channel on May 19, 1976. Targets imaged during the coincident overflights included natural oil seepage, simulated oil spills, oil production platforms, piers, mooring buoys, commercial boats and barges at other targets. Based on an analysis of imagery from the coincident radar runs, COR provides better detection of natural and man made oil slicks, whereas the AN/APS-94D consistently exhibited higher surface target detection results. This and other tests have shown that active microwave systems have considerable potential for aiding in the detection and analysis of surface oil accumulations.

  7. 13 CFR 108.2020 - Amount of Operational Assistance grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... (c) Pro rata reductions. In the event that the total amount of funds available to SBA for purposes of... in the amounts described in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section, SBA will make pro rata...

  8. 20 CFR 341.5 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... STATUTORY LIEN WHERE SICKNESS BENEFITS PAID § 341.5 Amount of reimbursement. (a) The Board shall receive as reimbursement the lesser of: (1) The amount of sickness benefits paid to the employee for the infirmity...

  9. 20 CFR 341.5 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... STATUTORY LIEN WHERE SICKNESS BENEFITS PAID § 341.5 Amount of reimbursement. (a) The Board shall receive as reimbursement the lesser of: (1) The amount of sickness benefits paid to the employee for the infirmity...

  10. 20 CFR 341.5 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... STATUTORY LIEN WHERE SICKNESS BENEFITS PAID § 341.5 Amount of reimbursement. (a) The Board shall receive as reimbursement the lesser of: (1) The amount of sickness benefits paid to the employee for the infirmity...

  11. 20 CFR 341.5 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... STATUTORY LIEN WHERE SICKNESS BENEFITS PAID § 341.5 Amount of reimbursement. (a) The Board shall receive as reimbursement the lesser of: (1) The amount of sickness benefits paid to the employee for the infirmity...

  12. 20 CFR 341.5 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... STATUTORY LIEN WHERE SICKNESS BENEFITS PAID § 341.5 Amount of reimbursement. (a) The Board shall receive as reimbursement the lesser of: (1) The amount of sickness benefits paid to the employee for the infirmity...

  13. Ultrastructural and flow cytometric analyses of lipid accumulation in microalgae

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, J.A.; Hand, R.E. Jr.; Mann, R.C.

    1986-12-01

    Lipid accumulation in three species of microalgae was investigated with flow cytometry (FCM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Previous studies using batch cultures of a algae have led to the assumption that lipid accumulation in microalgae is a gradual process requiring at least several days for completion. However, FCM reveals, through changes in the chlorophyll:lipid ratio, that the time span required for individual cells to change metabolic state is short. Simultaneous FCM measurements of chlorophyll and nile red (neutral lipid) fluorescence in individual cells of nitrogen-deficient Isochrysis populations revealed a bimodal population distribution as one stage in the lipid accumulation process. The fact that two discrete populations exist, with few cells in an intermediate stage, suggests rapid response to a liqid trigger. Interpretations of light and electron microscopic observations are consistent with this hypothesis. The time required for an entire population to achieve maximum lipid content is considerably longer than that required for a single cell, due to the variation in response time among cells. In this study high lipid cultures were sometimes obtained by using FCM to separate high lipid cells from the remainder of the population. FCM holds much promise for strain enhancement but considerable developmental work, directed at providing more consistent results, remains to be done. 8 refs., 35 figs.

  14. 32 CFR 229.16 - Civil penalty amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Civil penalty amounts. 229.16 Section 229.16 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 229.16 Civil penalty amounts. (a) Maximum amount of penalty. (1) Where...

  15. 18 CFR 1312.16 - Civil penalty amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Civil penalty amounts. 1312.16 Section 1312.16 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 1312.16 Civil penalty amounts. (a) Maximum amount of penalty. (1) Where the person...

  16. 36 CFR 296.16 - Civil penalty amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Civil penalty amounts. 296.16 Section 296.16 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 296.16 Civil penalty amounts. (a) Maximum amount of penalty. (1) Where the person...

  17. 32 CFR 229.16 - Civil penalty amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Civil penalty amounts. 229.16 Section 229.16 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 229.16 Civil penalty amounts. (a) Maximum amount of penalty. (1) Where...

  18. 43 CFR 7.16 - Civil penalty amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Civil penalty amounts. 7.16 Section 7.16 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES Uniform Regulations § 7.16 Civil penalty amounts. (a) Maximum amount of penalty. (1) Where the person being assessed a civil penalty has...

  19. 77 FR 61423 - Notice of Adjustment of Disaster Grant Amounts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-09

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Notice of Adjustment of Disaster Grant Amounts AGENCY: Federal... amount for Small Project Grants to State and local governments and private nonprofit facilities for...), 42 U.S.C. 5121-5207, prescribes that FEMA must annually adjust the maximum grant amount made...

  20. 42 CFR 57.2207 - Amount of scholarship grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amount of scholarship grant. 57.2207 Section 57... CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Physician Shortage Area Scholarship Grants § 57.2207 Amount of scholarship grant. (a) The amount of the...

  1. 42 CFR 57.2207 - Amount of scholarship grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Amount of scholarship grant. 57.2207 Section 57... CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Physician Shortage Area Scholarship Grants § 57.2207 Amount of scholarship grant. (a) The amount of the...

  2. 42 CFR 57.2207 - Amount of scholarship grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Amount of scholarship grant. 57.2207 Section 57... CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Physician Shortage Area Scholarship Grants § 57.2207 Amount of scholarship grant. (a) The amount of the...

  3. 42 CFR 57.2207 - Amount of scholarship grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amount of scholarship grant. 57.2207 Section 57... CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Physician Shortage Area Scholarship Grants § 57.2207 Amount of scholarship grant. (a) The amount of the...

  4. 42 CFR 57.2207 - Amount of scholarship grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Amount of scholarship grant. 57.2207 Section 57... CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Physician Shortage Area Scholarship Grants § 57.2207 Amount of scholarship grant. (a) The amount of the...

  5. 76 FR 63933 - Notice of Adjustment of Disaster Grant Amounts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-14

    ... SECURITY Notice of Adjustment of Disaster Grant Amounts AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: FEMA gives notice of an increase of the maximum amount for Small Project Grants.... 5121-5207, prescribes that FEMA must annually adjust the maximum grant amount made under section...

  6. 46 CFR 249.3 - Amounts of insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OPERATORS APPROVAL OF UNDERWRITERS FOR MARINE HULL INSURANCE § 249.3 Amounts of insurance. MARAD will inform... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amounts of insurance. 249.3 Section 249.3 Shipping... initial placement and at least annually thereafter, of the minimum amount of insurance required to...

  7. 5 CFR 870.904 - Amount of insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amount of insurance. 870.904 Section 870.904 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE PROGRAM Assignments of Life Insurance § 870.904 Amount of insurance. The amount of insurance is...

  8. 5 CFR 870.702 - Amount of Basic insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amount of Basic insurance. 870.702 Section 870.702 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE PROGRAM Annuitants and Compensationers § 870.702 Amount of Basic insurance. (a) The amount...

  9. 5 CFR 870.202 - Basic insurance amount (BIA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basic insurance amount (BIA). 870.202 Section 870.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE PROGRAM Types and Amount of Insurance § 870.202 Basic insurance amount (BIA). (a)(1)...

  10. 5 CFR 870.205 - Amount of Optional insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amount of Optional insurance. 870.205 Section 870.205 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE PROGRAM Types and Amount of Insurance § 870.205 Amount of Optional insurance. (a) Option...

  11. 24 CFR 761.13 - Amount of funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Amount of funding. 761.13 Section... PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING PROGRAMS) DRUG ELIMINATION PROGRAMS Grant Funding § 761.13 Amount of funding. (a) PHDEP formula funding—(1) Funding share formula—(i) Per unit amount. Subject to the...

  12. 24 CFR 761.13 - Amount of funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Amount of funding. 761.13 Section... PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING PROGRAMS) DRUG ELIMINATION PROGRAMS Grant Funding § 761.13 Amount of funding. (a) PHDEP formula funding—(1) Funding share formula—(i) Per unit amount. Subject to the...

  13. 7 CFR 3565.457 - Determination of claim amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of claim amount. 3565.457 Section 3565....457 Determination of claim amount. In all liquidation cases, final settlement will be made with the...) The estimated loss payment shall be applied as of the date of such payment. The total amount of...

  14. 42 CFR 493.649 - Methodology for determining fee amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Methodology for determining fee amount. 493.649 Section 493.649 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Methodology for determining fee amount. (a) General rule. The amount of the fee in each schedule...

  15. 24 CFR 92.60 - Allocation amounts for insular areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... this section, or for any other reason, HUD may increase the allocation amount for one or more of the... requirements. Funds that become available but which are not used to increase the allocation amount for one or... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation amounts for...

  16. 24 CFR 92.60 - Allocation amounts for insular areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... this section, or for any other reason, HUD may increase the allocation amount for one or more of the... requirements. Funds that become available but which are not used to increase the allocation amount for one or... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allocation amounts for...

  17. 20 CFR 229.66 - Changes in reduction amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Under a Federal, State, or Local Law or Plan § 229.66 Changes in reduction amount. (a) Change in DIB O/M. The amount of the worker's compensation or public disability benefit reduction does not change when..., the reduction amount does change if there is a change in the family members included in the DIB...

  18. 20 CFR 229.66 - Changes in reduction amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Under a Federal, State, or Local Law or Plan § 229.66 Changes in reduction amount. (a) Change in DIB O/M. The amount of the worker's compensation or public disability benefit reduction does not change when..., the reduction amount does change if there is a change in the family members included in the DIB...

  19. 20 CFR 229.66 - Changes in reduction amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Under a Federal, State, or Local Law or Plan § 229.66 Changes in reduction amount. (a) Change in DIB O/M... decreases, the change in the reduction amount is effective with the month of the decrease, no matter when... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Changes in reduction amount. 229.66...

  20. 20 CFR 416.412 - Amount of benefits; eligible couple.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amount of benefits; eligible couple. 416.412... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Amount of Benefits § 416.412 Amount of benefits; eligible couple. The benefit under this part for an eligible couple (including couples where one or both members of the couple...

  1. 18 CFR 1312.16 - Civil penalty amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Civil penalty amounts. 1312.16 Section 1312.16 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 1312.16 Civil penalty amounts. (a) Maximum amount of penalty. (1) Where the person...

  2. 41 CFR 105-56.019 - Offset amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Administration 56-SALARY OFFSET FOR INDEBTEDNESS OF FEDERAL EMPLOYEES TO THE UNITED STATES Centralized Salary Offset (CSO) Procedures-GSA as Creditor Agency § 105-56.019 Offset amount. (a) The minimum dollar amount referred for offset under this subpart is $100. (b) The amount offset from a salary payment under...

  3. 41 CFR 105-56.029 - Offset amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Administration 56-SALARY OFFSET FOR INDEBTEDNESS OF FEDERAL EMPLOYEES TO THE UNITED STATES Centralized Salary Offset (CSO) Procedures-GSA as Paying Agency § 105-56.029 Offset amount. (a) The minimum dollar amount of salary offset under this subpart is $100. (b) The amount offset from a salary payment under this...

  4. 42 CFR 423.886 - Retiree drug subsidy amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Retiree drug subsidy amounts. 423.886 Section 423... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Payments to Sponsors of Retiree Prescription Drug Plans § 423.886 Retiree drug subsidy amounts. (a) Amount of subsidy payment. (1) For...

  5. 42 CFR 423.886 - Retiree drug subsidy amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retiree drug subsidy amounts. 423.886 Section 423... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Payments to Sponsors of Retiree Prescription Drug Plans § 423.886 Retiree drug subsidy amounts. (a) Amount of subsidy payment. (1) For...

  6. 20 CFR 625.6 - Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.6 Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions. (a) In all States... worker or unemployed self-employed individual for a week of total unemployment shall be the weekly amount... provisions of the applicable State law for a week of total unemployment. In no event shall such amount be...

  7. 20 CFR 625.6 - Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.6 Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions. (a) In all States... worker or unemployed self-employed individual for a week of total unemployment shall be the weekly amount... provisions of the applicable State law for a week of total unemployment. In no event shall such amount be...

  8. 9 CFR 89.1 - Amount of feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... TWENTY-EIGHT HOUR LAW § 89.1 Amount of feed. (a) Under normal conditions, the amount of feed designated... at the intervals required by the Twenty-Eight Hour Law: Species and quantity of livestock At first... car, the amount of shelled corn 2 indicated): Lots of not more than 18,000 lbs 2 bushels 2...

  9. 9 CFR 89.1 - Amount of feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... TWENTY-EIGHT HOUR LAW § 89.1 Amount of feed. (a) Under normal conditions, the amount of feed designated... at the intervals required by the Twenty-Eight Hour Law: Species and quantity of livestock At first... car, the amount of shelled corn 2 indicated): Lots of not more than 18,000 lbs 2 bushels 2...

  10. 20 CFR 229.66 - Changes in reduction amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Under a Federal, State, or Local Law or Plan § 229.66 Changes in reduction amount. (a) Change in DIB O/M. The amount of the worker's compensation or public disability benefit reduction does not change when..., the reduction amount does change if there is a change in the family members included in the DIB...

  11. 20 CFR 229.66 - Changes in reduction amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Under a Federal, State, or Local Law or Plan § 229.66 Changes in reduction amount. (a) Change in DIB O/M. The amount of the worker's compensation or public disability benefit reduction does not change when..., the reduction amount does change if there is a change in the family members included in the DIB...

  12. 10 CFR 205.286 - Limitations on amount of refunds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Limitations on amount of refunds. 205.286 Section 205.286 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND SANCTIONS Special Procedures for Distribution of Refunds § 205.286 Limitations on amount of refunds. (a) The aggregate amount of all...

  13. 10 CFR 205.286 - Limitations on amount of refunds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Limitations on amount of refunds. 205.286 Section 205.286 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND SANCTIONS Special Procedures for Distribution of Refunds § 205.286 Limitations on amount of refunds. (a) The aggregate amount of all...

  14. 10 CFR 205.286 - Limitations on amount of refunds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Limitations on amount of refunds. 205.286 Section 205.286 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND SANCTIONS Special Procedures for Distribution of Refunds § 205.286 Limitations on amount of refunds. (a) The aggregate amount of all...

  15. 26 CFR 301.6401-1 - Amounts treated as overpayments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Amounts treated as overpayments. 301.6401-1... General § 301.6401-1 Amounts treated as overpayments. (a) The term “overpayment” includes: (1) Any payment... limitation applicable thereto. (2) Any amount allowable for a taxable year as credits under sections...

  16. 26 CFR 301.6401-1 - Amounts treated as overpayments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amounts treated as overpayments. 301.6401-1... General § 301.6401-1 Amounts treated as overpayments. (a) The term “overpayment” includes: (1) Any payment... limitation applicable thereto. (2) Any amount allowable for a taxable year as credits under sections...

  17. 26 CFR 301.6401-1 - Amounts treated as overpayments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Amounts treated as overpayments. 301.6401-1... General § 301.6401-1 Amounts treated as overpayments. (a) The term “overpayment” includes: (1) Any payment... limitation applicable thereto. (2) Any amount allowable for a taxable year as credits under sections...

  18. 26 CFR 301.6401-1 - Amounts treated as overpayments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Amounts treated as overpayments. 301.6401-1... General § 301.6401-1 Amounts treated as overpayments. (a) The term “overpayment” includes: (1) Any payment... limitation applicable thereto. (2) Any amount allowable for a taxable year as credits under sections...

  19. 26 CFR 301.6401-1 - Amounts treated as overpayments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Amounts treated as overpayments. 301.6401-1... General § 301.6401-1 Amounts treated as overpayments. (a) The term “overpayment” includes: (1) Any payment... limitation applicable thereto. (2) Any amount allowable for a taxable year as credits under sections...

  20. 12 CFR 1806.202 - Estimated award amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Estimated award amounts. 1806.202 Section 1806... BANK ENTERPRISE AWARD PROGRAM Awards § 1806.202 Estimated award amounts. (a) General. An Applicant shall calculate and submit to the Fund an estimated award amount as part of the Bank Enterprise...

  1. 20 CFR 625.6 - Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.6 Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions. (a) In all States... worker or unemployed self-employed individual for a week of total unemployment shall be the weekly amount... provisions of the applicable State law for a week of total unemployment. In no event shall such amount be...

  2. 20 CFR 416.410 - Amount of benefits; eligible individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Amount of benefits; eligible individual. 416.410 Section 416.410 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Amount of Benefits § 416.410 Amount of benefits; eligible...

  3. 20 CFR 416.413 - Amount of benefits; qualified individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Amount of benefits; qualified individual. 416.413 Section 416.413 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Amount of Benefits § 416.413 Amount of benefits;...

  4. 20 CFR 416.412 - Amount of benefits; eligible couple.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Amount of benefits; eligible couple. 416.412 Section 416.412 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Amount of Benefits § 416.412 Amount of benefits; eligible couple. The...

  5. 42 CFR 423.886 - Retiree drug subsidy amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Retiree drug subsidy amounts. 423.886 Section 423... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Payments to Sponsors of Retiree Prescription Drug Plans § 423.886 Retiree drug subsidy amounts. (a) Amount of subsidy payment....

  6. 42 CFR 423.886 - Retiree drug subsidy amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Retiree drug subsidy amounts. 423.886 Section 423... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Payments to Sponsors of Retiree Prescription Drug Plans § 423.886 Retiree drug subsidy amounts. (a) Amount of subsidy payment....

  7. 42 CFR 423.886 - Retiree drug subsidy amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Retiree drug subsidy amounts. 423.886 Section 423... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Payments to Sponsors of Retiree Prescription Drug Plans § 423.886 Retiree drug subsidy amounts. (a) Amount of subsidy payment....

  8. 22 CFR 1104.15 - Civil penalty amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Civil penalty amounts. 1104.15 Section 1104.15... SECTION PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES § 1104.15 Civil penalty amounts. (a) Maximum amount of penalty. (1) Where the person being assessed a civil penalty has not committed any previous violation...

  9. 20 CFR 416.413 - Amount of benefits; qualified individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Amount of benefits; qualified individual. 416.413 Section 416.413 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Amount of Benefits § 416.413 Amount of benefits;...

  10. 20 CFR 416.412 - Amount of benefits; eligible couple.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Amount of benefits; eligible couple. 416.412 Section 416.412 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Amount of Benefits § 416.412 Amount of benefits; eligible couple. The...

  11. 20 CFR 416.413 - Amount of benefits; qualified individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Amount of benefits; qualified individual. 416.413 Section 416.413 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Amount of Benefits § 416.413 Amount of benefits;...

  12. 20 CFR 416.412 - Amount of benefits; eligible couple.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Amount of benefits; eligible couple. 416.412 Section 416.412 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Amount of Benefits § 416.412 Amount of benefits; eligible couple. The...

  13. 20 CFR 416.412 - Amount of benefits; eligible couple.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Amount of benefits; eligible couple. 416.412 Section 416.412 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Amount of Benefits § 416.412 Amount of benefits; eligible couple. The...

  14. 20 CFR 416.410 - Amount of benefits; eligible individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Amount of benefits; eligible individual. 416.410 Section 416.410 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Amount of Benefits § 416.410 Amount of benefits; eligible...

  15. 20 CFR 416.413 - Amount of benefits; qualified individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Amount of benefits; qualified individual. 416.413 Section 416.413 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Amount of Benefits § 416.413 Amount of benefits;...

  16. 20 CFR 416.410 - Amount of benefits; eligible individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Amount of benefits; eligible individual. 416.410 Section 416.410 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Amount of Benefits § 416.410 Amount of benefits; eligible...

  17. 20 CFR 416.410 - Amount of benefits; eligible individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Amount of benefits; eligible individual. 416.410 Section 416.410 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Amount of Benefits § 416.410 Amount of benefits; eligible...

  18. Modeling the Effect of Reward Amount on Probability Discounting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myerson, Joel; Green, Leonard; Morris, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    The present study with college students examined the effect of amount on the discounting of probabilistic monetary rewards. A hyperboloid function accurately described the discounting of hypothetical rewards ranging in amount from $20 to $10,000,000. The degree of discounting increased continuously with amount of probabilistic reward. This effect…

  19. Accumulation and fragmentation of plastic debris in global environments

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, David K. A.; Galgani, Francois; Thompson, Richard C.; Barlaz, Morton

    2009-01-01

    One of the most ubiquitous and long-lasting recent changes to the surface of our planet is the accumulation and fragmentation of plastics. Within just a few decades since mass production of plastic products commenced in the 1950s, plastic debris has accumulated in terrestrial environments, in the open ocean, on shorelines of even the most remote islands and in the deep sea. Annual clean-up operations, costing millions of pounds sterling, are now organized in many countries and on every continent. Here we document global plastics production and the accumulation of plastic waste. While plastics typically constitute approximately 10 per cent of discarded waste, they represent a much greater proportion of the debris accumulating on shorelines. Mega- and macro-plastics have accumulated in the highest densities in the Northern Hemisphere, adjacent to urban centres, in enclosed seas and at water convergences (fronts). We report lower densities on remote island shores, on the continental shelf seabed and the lowest densities (but still a documented presence) in the deep sea and Southern Ocean. The longevity of plastic is estimated to be hundreds to thousands of years, but is likely to be far longer in deep sea and non-surface polar environments. Plastic debris poses considerable threat by choking and starving wildlife, distributing non-native and potentially harmful organisms, absorbing toxic chemicals and degrading to micro-plastics that may subsequently be ingested. Well-established annual surveys on coasts and at sea have shown that trends in mega- and macro-plastic accumulation rates are no longer uniformly increasing: rather stable, increasing and decreasing trends have all been reported. The average size of plastic particles in the environment seems to be decreasing, and the abundance and global distribution of micro-plastic fragments have increased over the last few decades. However, the environmental consequences of such microscopic debris are still poorly

  20. Racial Differences in Patterns of Wealth Accumulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gittleman, Maury; Wolff, Edward N.

    2004-01-01

    The race differences in patterns of asset accumulations were examined using PSD data for 1984, 1989 and 1994. The results indicate that inheritances led to wealth accumulations among whites as compared to the African Americans.

  1. Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/article/001225.htm Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (formerly known as Hallervorden-Spatz disease) is ...

  2. Compositional characterization and imaging of "Wall-bound" acylesters of Populus trichocarpa Reveal Differential Accumulation of acyl Molecules in Normal and Reactive Woods

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, J.; Park, S; Yu, X; Liu, C

    2008-01-01

    Acylesterification is one of the common modifications of cell wall non-cellulosic polysaccharides and/or lignin primarily in monocot plants. We analyzed the cell-wall acylesters of black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa Torr. & Gray) with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy, and synchrotron infrared (IR) imaging facility. The results revealed that the cell wall of dicotyledonous poplar, as the walls of many monocot grasses, contains a considerable amount of acylesters, primarily acetyl and p-hydroxycinnamoyl molecules. The 'wall-bound' acetate and phenolics display a distinct tissue specific-, bending stress responsible- and developmental-accumulation pattern. The 'wall-bound' p-coumarate predominantly accumulated in young leaves and decreased in mature leaves, whereas acetate and ferulate mostly amassed in the cell wall of stems. Along the development of stem, the level of the 'wall-bound' ferulate gradually increased, while the basal level of p-coumarate further decreased. Induction of tension wood decreased the accumulation of the 'wall-bound' phenolics while the level of acetate remained constant. Synchrotron IR-mediated chemical compositional imaging revealed a close spatial distribution of acylesters with cell wall polysaccharides in poplar stem. These results indicate that different 'wall-bound' acylesters play distinct roles in poplar cell wall structural construction and/or metabolism of cell wall matrix components.

  3. Extreme accumulation of nucleotides in simulated hydrothermal pore systems

    PubMed Central

    Baaske, Philipp; Weinert, Franz M.; Duhr, Stefan; Lemke, Kono H.; Russell, Michael J.; Braun, Dieter

    2007-01-01

    We simulate molecular transport in elongated hydrothermal pore systems influenced by a thermal gradient. We find extreme accumulation of molecules in a wide variety of plugged pores. The mechanism is able to provide highly concentrated single nucleotides, suitable for operations of an RNA world at the origin of life. It is driven solely by the thermal gradient across a pore. On the one hand, the fluid is shuttled by thermal convection along the pore, whereas on the other hand, the molecules drift across the pore, driven by thermodiffusion. As a result, millimeter-sized pores accumulate even single nucleotides more than 108-fold into micrometer-sized regions. The enhanced concentration of molecules is found in the bulk water near the closed bottom end of the pore. Because the accumulation depends exponentially on the pore length and temperature difference, it is considerably robust with respect to changes in the cleft geometry and the molecular dimensions. Whereas thin pores can concentrate only long polynucleotides, thicker pores accumulate short and long polynucleotides equally well and allow various molecular compositions. This setting also provides a temperature oscillation, shown previously to exponentially replicate DNA in the protein-assisted PCR. Our results indicate that, for life to evolve, complicated active membrane transport is not required for the initial steps. We find that interlinked mineral pores in a thermal gradient provide a compelling high-concentration starting point for the molecular evolution of life. PMID:17494767

  4. Calcium: Some aspects of subcellular accumulation and distribution in milk

    SciTech Connect

    Shappell, N.W.

    1989-01-01

    Distribution and bioavailability of {sup 47}calcium in milk labeled by extrinsic and intrinsic methods was investigated. Milk from Sprague Dawley rats was labeled by both methods, and milk from a cow was labeled by the extrinsic method. Retention of {sup 47}Ca from milks administered to young male Sprague Dawley rats was determined through whole body counting for 6 days after administration of milk. Percent of {sup 47}Ca dose retained was 72% for extrinsically labeled cow milk, 62% for extrinsically labeled rat milk, and 55% for intrinsically labeled rat milk. Samples were fractionated by ultracentrifugation and by gel exclusion chromatography. {sup 47}Calcium distributions in rat milk labeled intrinsically or extrinsically were similar. The majority of {sup 47}Ca was found in a particulate, >30,000 molecular weight fraction. The amount of milk calcium retained by rats appeared to be related to the amount of noncasein micelle-associated calcium. When administered by intraperitoneal injection into rats, {sup 45}Ca specific activity of milk peaked in 60 to 90 minutes. In vitro {sup 45}Ca accumulation was compared in Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum from liver and mammary gland of lactating Dunkin Hartley guinea pigs. In the presence of ATP, highest accumulation per unit total fraction protein was found in Golgi apparatus (mammary gland 28% of available {sup 45}Ca, liver 11%) while 8% was accumulated by endoplasmic reticulum fractions.

  5. Relevance of mesocatalytic hybrid reactors for accumulation of fissile nuclei and energy balance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chigrinov, S. E.; Kievitskaya, A. I.; Petlitskij, V. A.

    1993-05-01

    On the basis of the energy and angular spectra of particles emitted from the lateral surfaces of light element targets, the energy balance of a mesocatalytic hybrid reactor (MCHR) has been estimated, with the dependence upon fuel enrichment, type and volume fraction of coolant in the mesocatalytic and electronuclear channel blankets taken into account. It is shown that it is possible to generate a considerable amount of electric power in an MCHR due to burning up fissile nuclides in an MCHR blanket by choosing appropriate types of fuel composition and coolant. Despite some reduction of the fissile nuclide breeding ratio and of the number of nuclear reactors (NR) in the MCHR-NR system, the primary beam power gain is of the same magnitude as in the case of a natural uranium blanket with a hard neutron spectrum. A simplification in solving ecological, economic and safety problems in nuclear fuel reprocessing can be reached by burning the accumulated fissile nuclides directly in the MCHR blanket

  6. Analyzing the importance of wind-blown snow accumulations on Mount

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nestler, Alexander; Huss, Matthias; Ambartsumian, Rouben; Hambarian, Artak; Mohr, Sandra; Santi, Flavio

    2013-04-01

    Armenia's climate has a predominantly continental character with high amounts of precipitation and low temperatures during wintertime and a lack of precipitation together with high temperatures during summer. On the volcano Mount Aragatz, snow is relocated by strong winds into massive accumulations between 2500 and 4100 m a.s.l. during the winter season. These snow accumulations appear every winter in regular patterns as cornices on the lee side of sharp edges, such as those of ridges and canyons, which are arranged in a radial manner around the central crater. The biggest cornices almost outlast the hot period and provide considerable amounts of melt water until they disappear completely by the end of August. Snow melt water is known to have a high economic importance for agriculture on the slopes of Mount Aragatz and in the surroundings of Armenia's captial Yerewan. The aim of this study is to estimate the quantity of water naturally stored as snow on Mount Aragatz, and to what degree the use of geotextiles can prolong the lives of these snow accumulations. The characteristics and the spatial distribution of snow cornices on Mount Aragatz were determined using classical glaciological methods in June/July 2011 and 2012, involving snow depth soundings, water equivalent measurements and snow melt monitoring using ablation stakes, together with GPS mappings and classifications obtained from satellite images of the snow cornices. The combination of these data with ASTER DEMs and local weather data allows the modelling of the formation of wind-driven snow accumulations. Statistical relationships between the measured extent and volume of the snow cornices and surface parameters such as slope, aspect and curvature are established. In order to analyze the meltdown of the snow accumulations and the consequent impacts on runoff generation and the hydrological regime, a glacio-hydrological model integrating topographic parameters and meteorological data is applied. The

  7. 46 CFR 58.30-25 - Accumulators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accumulators. 58.30-25 Section 58.30-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Fluid Power and Control Systems § 58.30-25 Accumulators. (a) An accumulator is an unfired pressure vessel in which energy is...

  8. 42 CFR 419.41 - Calculation of national beneficiary copayment amounts and national Medicare program payment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... amounts and national Medicare program payment amounts. 419.41 Section 419.41 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM... § 419.41 Calculation of national beneficiary copayment amounts and national Medicare program...

  9. 42 CFR 419.41 - Calculation of national beneficiary copayment amounts and national Medicare program payment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... amounts and national Medicare program payment amounts. 419.41 Section 419.41 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM... § 419.41 Calculation of national beneficiary copayment amounts and national Medicare program...

  10. 42 CFR 419.41 - Calculation of national beneficiary copayment amounts and national Medicare program payment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... amounts and national Medicare program payment amounts. 419.41 Section 419.41 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM... § 419.41 Calculation of national beneficiary copayment amounts and national Medicare program...

  11. Asbestos Abatement--Practical Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedrel, Roy A.

    Illinois Senate Bill 1644, the recently passed "Asbestos Abatement Act," requires all schools in the state, public and private alike, to remove friable asbestos by whichever comes first: July 1, 1989, or 3 years following the establishment of a system for state funding for corrective action. This document addresses practical considerations in…

  12. Ethical considerations in revision rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Wayne, Ivan

    2012-08-01

    The problems that arise when reviewing another surgeon's work, the financial aspects of revision surgery, and the controversies that present in marketing and advertising will be explored. The technological advances of computer imaging and the Internet have introduced new problems that require our additional consideration. PMID:22872552

  13. LABORATORY DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR SAFETY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Safety Council, Chicago, IL. Campus Safety Association.

    THIS SET OF CONSIDERATIONS HAS BEEN PREPARED TO PROVIDE PERSONS WORKING ON THE DESIGN OF NEW OR REMODELED LABORATORY FACILITIES WITH A SUITABLE REFERENCE GUIDE TO DESIGN SAFETY. THERE IS NO DISTINCTION BETWEEN TYPES OF LABORATORY AND THE EMPHASIS IS ON GIVING GUIDES AND ALTERNATIVES RATHER THAN DETAILED SPECIFICATIONS. AREAS COVERED INCLUDE--(1)…

  14. Basic Considerations in Interviewing Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Rick L.

    This manual summarizes and highlights basic considerations in interviewing children. The relationship between interviewing for data collection and interviewing within the counseling or psychotherapeutic context is discussed. The Interviewer's Functional Checklist is presented to provide a method for self-evaluating interviewer behavior, and for…

  15. Chip integrated fuel cell accumulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, M.; Erdler, G.; Frerichs, H.-P.; Müller, C.; Reinecke, H.

    A unique new design of a chip integrated fuel cell accumulator is presented. The system combines an electrolyser and a self-breathing polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell with integrated palladium hydrogen storage on a silicon substrate. Outstanding advantages of this assembly are the fuel cell with integrated hydrogen storage, the possibility of refuelling it by electrolysis and the opportunity of simply refilling the electrolyte by adding water. By applying an electrical current, wiring the palladium hydrogen storage as cathode and the counter-electrode as anode, the electrolyser produces hydrogen at the palladium surface and oxygen at the electrolyser cell anode. The generated hydrogen is absorbed by the palladium electrode and the hydrogen storage is refilled consequently enabling the fuel cell to function.

  16. Characters related to higher starch accumulation in cassava storage roots

    PubMed Central

    Li, You-Zhi; Zhao, Jian-Yu; Wu, San-Min; Fan, Xian-Wei; Luo, Xing-Lu; Chen, Bao-Shan

    2016-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is valued mainly for high content starch in its roots. Our understanding of mechanisms promoting high starch accumulation in the roots is, however, still very limited. Two field-grown cassava cultivars, Huanan 124(H124) with low root starch and Fuxuan 01(F01) with high root starch, were characterised comparatively at four main growth stages. Changes in key sugars in the leaves, stems and roots seemed not to be strongly associated with the final amount of starch accumulated in the roots. However, when compared with H124, F01 exhibited a more compact arrangement of xylem vascular bundles in the leaf axils, much less callose around the phloem sieve plates in the stems, higher starch synthesis-related enzymatic activity but lower amylase activity in the roots, more significantly up-regulated expression of related genes, and a much higher stem flow rate (SFR). In conclusion, higher starch accumulation in the roots results from the concurrent effects of powerful stem transport capacity highlighted by higher SFR, high starch synthesis but low starch degradation in the roots, and high expression of sugar transporter genes in the stems. A model of high starch accumulation in cassava roots was therefore proposed and discussed. PMID:26892156

  17. Significant accumulation of nitrate in Chinese semi-humid croplands

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Junyu; Gu, Baojing; Schlesinger, William H.; Ju, Xiaotang

    2016-01-01

    Soil nitrate is important for crop growth, but it can also leach to groundwater causing nitrate contamination, a threat to human health. Here, we report a significant accumulation of soil nitrate in Chinese semi-humid croplands based upon more than 7000 samples from 141 sites collected from 1994 to 2015. In the 0–4 meters depth of soil, total nitrate accumulation reaches 453 ± 39, 749 ± 75, 1191 ± 89, 1269 ± 114, 2155 ± 330 kg N ha−1 on average in wheat, maize, open-field vegetables (OFV), solar plastic-roofed greenhouse vegetables (GHV) and orchard fields, respectively. Surprisingly, there is also a comparable amount of nitrate accumulated in the vadose-zone deeper than 4 meters. Over-use of N fertilizer (and/or manure) and a declining groundwater table are the major causes for this huge nitrate reservoir in the vadose-zone of semi-humid croplands, where the nitrate cannot be denitrified due to the presence of oxygen and lack of carbon sources. Future climatic change with more extreme rainfall events would increase the risk of accumulated nitrate moving downwards and threatening groundwater nitrate contamination. PMID:27114032

  18. Characters related to higher starch accumulation in cassava storage roots.

    PubMed

    Li, You-Zhi; Zhao, Jian-Yu; Wu, San-Min; Fan, Xian-Wei; Luo, Xing-Lu; Chen, Bao-Shan

    2016-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is valued mainly for high content starch in its roots. Our understanding of mechanisms promoting high starch accumulation in the roots is, however, still very limited. Two field-grown cassava cultivars, Huanan 124(H124) with low root starch and Fuxuan 01(F01) with high root starch, were characterised comparatively at four main growth stages. Changes in key sugars in the leaves, stems and roots seemed not to be strongly associated with the final amount of starch accumulated in the roots. However, when compared with H124, F01 exhibited a more compact arrangement of xylem vascular bundles in the leaf axils, much less callose around the phloem sieve plates in the stems, higher starch synthesis-related enzymatic activity but lower amylase activity in the roots, more significantly up-regulated expression of related genes, and a much higher stem flow rate (SFR). In conclusion, higher starch accumulation in the roots results from the concurrent effects of powerful stem transport capacity highlighted by higher SFR, high starch synthesis but low starch degradation in the roots, and high expression of sugar transporter genes in the stems. A model of high starch accumulation in cassava roots was therefore proposed and discussed. PMID:26892156

  19. Significant accumulation of nitrate in Chinese semi-humid croplands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Junyu; Gu, Baojing; Schlesinger, William H.; Ju, Xiaotang

    2016-04-01

    Soil nitrate is important for crop growth, but it can also leach to groundwater causing nitrate contamination, a threat to human health. Here, we report a significant accumulation of soil nitrate in Chinese semi-humid croplands based upon more than 7000 samples from 141 sites collected from 1994 to 2015. In the 0–4 meters depth of soil, total nitrate accumulation reaches 453 ± 39, 749 ± 75, 1191 ± 89, 1269 ± 114, 2155 ± 330 kg N ha‑1 on average in wheat, maize, open-field vegetables (OFV), solar plastic-roofed greenhouse vegetables (GHV) and orchard fields, respectively. Surprisingly, there is also a comparable amount of nitrate accumulated in the vadose-zone deeper than 4 meters. Over-use of N fertilizer (and/or manure) and a declining groundwater table are the major causes for this huge nitrate reservoir in the vadose-zone of semi-humid croplands, where the nitrate cannot be denitrified due to the presence of oxygen and lack of carbon sources. Future climatic change with more extreme rainfall events would increase the risk of accumulated nitrate moving downwards and threatening groundwater nitrate contamination.

  20. Accumulation of silver nanoparticles by cultured primary brain astrocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luther, Eva M.; Koehler, Yvonne; Diendorf, Joerg; Epple, Matthias; Dringen, Ralf

    2011-09-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) are components of various food industry products and are frequently used for medical equipment and materials. Although such particles enter the vertebrate brain, little is known on their biocompatibility for brain cells. To study the consequences of an AgNP exposure of brain cells we have treated astrocyte-rich primary cultures with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-coated AgNP. The incubation of cultured astrocytes with micromolar concentrations of AgNP for up to 24 h resulted in a time- and concentration-dependent accumulation of silver, but did not compromise the cell viability nor lower the cellular glutathione content. In contrast, the incubation of astrocytes for 4 h with identical amounts of silver as AgNO3 already severely compromised the cell viability and completely deprived the cells of glutathione. The accumulation of AgNP by astrocytes was proportional to the concentration of AgNP applied and significantly lowered by about 30% in the presence of the endocytosis inhibitors chloroquine or amiloride. Incubation at 4 °C reduced the accumulation of AgNP by 80% compared to the values obtained for cells that had been exposed to AgNP at 37 °C. These data demonstrate that viable cultured brain astrocytes efficiently accumulate PVP-coated AgNP in a temperature-dependent process that most likely involves endocytotic pathways.

  1. Significant accumulation of nitrate in Chinese semi-humid croplands.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Junyu; Gu, Baojing; Schlesinger, William H; Ju, Xiaotang

    2016-01-01

    Soil nitrate is important for crop growth, but it can also leach to groundwater causing nitrate contamination, a threat to human health. Here, we report a significant accumulation of soil nitrate in Chinese semi-humid croplands based upon more than 7000 samples from 141 sites collected from 1994 to 2015. In the 0-4 meters depth of soil, total nitrate accumulation reaches 453 ± 39, 749 ± 75, 1191 ± 89, 1269 ± 114, 2155 ± 330 kg N ha(-1) on average in wheat, maize, open-field vegetables (OFV), solar plastic-roofed greenhouse vegetables (GHV) and orchard fields, respectively. Surprisingly, there is also a comparable amount of nitrate accumulated in the vadose-zone deeper than 4 meters. Over-use of N fertilizer (and/or manure) and a declining groundwater table are the major causes for this huge nitrate reservoir in the vadose-zone of semi-humid croplands, where the nitrate cannot be denitrified due to the presence of oxygen and lack of carbon sources. Future climatic change with more extreme rainfall events would increase the risk of accumulated nitrate moving downwards and threatening groundwater nitrate contamination. PMID:27114032

  2. Accumulation and retention of No. 2 fuel-oil compounds in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus' rathbun

    SciTech Connect

    Melzian, B.D.; Lake, J.

    1987-01-01

    In order to determine if Blue Crabs (Callinectes sapidus) can bioaccumulate and retain complex mixtures of petroleum hydrocarbons, adult crabs were exposed for 14 days or 30-35 days in continuous flow-through seawater systems to three sublethal concentrations, nominally 0.00 (control), 0.01, or 1.0 ppm (mg/liter), of the water-accomodated fraction (WAF) of Number (No.) 2 fuel oil. Crabs exposed for 14 days were subsequently exposed to clean running seawater for a 30 day depuration period. Gill, hepatopancreas, and muscle tissue samples were collected from control, WAF exposed, and depurated crabs and analyzed by gas chromatography and/or gas chomatography-mass spectrometry. No. 2 fuel-oil compounds were not detected in any of the tissues of the control crabs. Trace amounts of fuel-oil compounds were detected in gill and hepatopancreas tissues collected from crabs exposed to the 0.01 ppm WAF and no fuel-oil compounds were detected in muscle tissues. All tissues of crabs exposed to the 1.0 ppm WAF accumulated No. 2 fuel-oil compounds and considerable amounts remained in hepatopancreas and gill tissues following depuration for 30 days in clean seawater.

  3. Zinc and dexamethasone induce metallothionein accumulation by endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Briske-Anderson, M.; Bobilya, D.J.; Reeves, P.G. )

    1991-03-11

    Several tissues increase their metallothionein (MT) concentration when exposed to elevated amounts of plasma Zn. Endothelial cells form the blood vessels that supply all tissues and constitute a barrier between cells of tissues and the blood. This study examined the ability of endothelial cells to synthesize MT and accumulate Zn in response to high amounts of Zn and dexamethasone. Bovine pulmonary endothelial cells were grown to confluence in Minimum Essential Medium with Earle's salts and 10% fetal calf serum. The monolayer was maintained for 2 d prior to use in medium containing EDTA-dialyzed serum. This low Zn medium was replaced with one containing 1, 6, 25, 50, 100, 150, or 200 {mu}M Zn and incubated for 24 hr before harvesting the cells. MT was quantified by the cadmium binding assay. Cellular Zn concentrations were analyzed by atomic absorption after a nitric acid digestion. The MT concentration was elevated in response to Zn concentrations of 100 {mu}M or more. Cellular Zn concentration was elevated when media Zn was 25 {mu}M or more. MT and cellular Zn concentrations were positively correlated. In another study, inclusion of 0.1 {mu}M dexamethasone in the media increased concentration at all Zn concentrations studied. However, the inclusion of 0.3 {mu}M cis-platinum had no effect. In conclusion, endothelial cells in culture respond to elevated amounts of Zn and dexamethasone in the media by accumulating Zn and MT.

  4. Cadmium accumulation, activities of antioxidant enzymes, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in Pistia stratiotes L.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong; Zhang, Shanshan; Jiang, Wusheng; Liu, Donghua

    2013-02-01

    The aquatic plant Pistia stratiotes L. (water lettuce) was studied due to its capability of absorption of contaminants in water and its subsequent use in wetlands constructed for wastewater treatment. The effects of Cd on root growth, accumulation of Cd, antioxidant enzymes, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in P. stratiotes were investigated. The results indicated that P. stratiotes has considerable ability to accumulate Cd. Cadmium induced higher superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities than catalase activity, suggesting that SOD and POD provided a better defense mechanism against Cd-induced oxidative damage. The accumulation of Cd promoted MDA production. PMID:22791349

  5. Design considerations for silicon HLE solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindholm, F. A.; Neugroschel, A.; Pao, S. C.; Fossum, J. G.; Sah, C. T.

    1978-01-01

    The high-low (H-L) junction in the emitter region that defines the high-low-junction emitter (HLE) solar cell suppresses the dark emitter recombination current J sub E so that the base recombination current dominates in determining the open-circuit voltage. For silicon cells this enables the achievement of considerably larger values of open-circuit voltage than those achievable in conventional structures. This paper describes experiments that demonstrate the achievement of J sub E suppression (to less than 5 x 10 to the -14th A/sq cm) and large open-circuit voltage (640 mV) in HLE test cells of two distinct types. In the first type (the diffused HLE structure) impurity diffusion forms the H-L junction in the emitter; in the second type (the oxide-charge-induced HLE structure) the H-L junction is formed in emitter material of relatively low doping concentration by an oxide-charge-induced electron accumulation layer.

  6. Strategies and considerations for protein purifications.

    PubMed

    Linn, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    Prior to embarking upon the purification of a protein, one should begin by considering what the protein is to be used for. In particular, how much of the protein is needed, what should be its state of purity, and must it be folded correctly and associated with various other peptides or cofactors. Using such criteria, an appropriate assay should be chosen and a procedure be planned taking into account the source of the protein, how it is to be extracted from the source, and what agents the protein ought to be exposed to or ultimately be stored in. One is often surprised at the time necessary to develop an appropriate protein purification procedure relative to the time required to clone a gene or to accumulate information with the purified protein. There are an overwhelming number of options for protein purification steps, so forethought is necessary to expedite the tedious job of developing the purification scheme, or to avoid having to redesign it upon attempting to use the protein. This chapter points out general considerations to be undertaken in designing, organizing, and executing the purification, while subsequent chapters of this volume supply more specific options and technical details. PMID:19892162

  7. Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation: Diagnosis and Management

    PubMed Central

    Hogarth, Penelope

    2015-01-01

    Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) encompasses a group of inherited disorders that share the clinical features of an extrapyramidal movement disorder accompanied by varying degrees of intellectual disability and abnormal iron deposition in the basal ganglia. The genetic basis of ten forms of NBIA is now known. The clinical features of NBIA range from rapid global neurodevelopmental regression in infancy to mild parkinsonism with minimal cognitive impairment in adulthood, with wide variation seen between and within the specific NBIA sub-type. This review describes the clinical presentations, imaging findings, pathologic features, and treatment considerations for this heterogeneous group of disorders. PMID:25614780

  8. Site of Fluoride Accumulation in Navel Orange Leaves 1

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chong W.; Thompson, C. Ray

    1966-01-01

    Fluoride-polluted navel orange leaves, Citrus sinensis (Linn.) Osbeck, were fractionated into the subcellular components in hexane/carbon tetrachloride mixtures having various densities. Fluoride was determined at each fraction. Analyses were also made for the subcellular distribution of chlorophyll, nitrogen, and DNA to assess the extent of cross-contamination of each component. The fraction containing cell wall, nuclei, and partly broken cells apparently contained a major amount of fluoride. However, if allowance was made for the cross-contamination of chloroplasts and chloroplast fragments, the fraction of chloroplasts was found to be the site of the highest fluoride accumulation. When each particulate component was washed with water after drying, the combined washings contained more than 50% of the total fluoride of the isolated fractions. The usual method of subcellular fractionation with aqueous solvent shifted the major site of fluoride accumulation from the fraction of chloroplasts to that of the supernatant. PMID:5908632

  9. Atomistic simulation of damage accumulation and amorphization in Ge

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez-Selles, Jose L. Martin-Bragado, Ignacio; Claverie, Alain; Benistant, Francis

    2015-02-07

    Damage accumulation and amorphization mechanisms by means of ion implantation in Ge are studied using Kinetic Monte Carlo and Binary Collision Approximation techniques. Such mechanisms are investigated through different stages of damage accumulation taking place in the implantation process: from point defect generation and cluster formation up to full amorphization of Ge layers. We propose a damage concentration amorphization threshold for Ge of ∼1.3 × 10{sup 22} cm{sup −3} which is independent on the implantation conditions. Recombination energy barriers depending on amorphous pocket sizes are provided. This leads to an explanation of the reported distinct behavior of the damage generated by different ions. We have also observed that the dissolution of clusters plays an important role for relatively high temperatures and fluences. The model is able to explain and predict different damage generation regimes, amount of generated damage, and extension of amorphous layers in Ge for different ions and implantation conditions.

  10. Elevation changes in Antarctica mainly determined by accumulation variability.

    PubMed

    Helsen, Michiel M; van den Broeke, Michiel R; van de Wal, Roderik S W; van de Berg, Willem Jan; van Meijgaard, Erik; Davis, Curt H; Li, Yonghong; Goodwin, Ian

    2008-06-20

    Antarctic Ice Sheet elevation changes, which are used to estimate changes in the mass of the interior regions, are caused by variations in the depth of the firn layer. We quantified the effects of temperature and accumulation variability on firn layer thickness by simulating the 1980-2004 Antarctic firn depth variability. For most of Antarctica, the magnitudes of firn depth changes were comparable to those of observed ice sheet elevation changes. The current satellite observational period ( approximately 15 years) is too short to neglect these fluctuations in firn depth when computing recent ice sheet mass changes. The amount of surface lowering in the Amundsen Sea Embayment revealed by satellite radar altimetry (1995-2003) was increased by including firn depth fluctuations, while a large area of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet slowly grew as a result of increased accumulation. PMID:18511656

  11. Nutrient-contaminant (Pu) plant accumulation model

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, C.E.; Jenne, E.A.; Simpson, J.C.; Cataldo, D.A.

    1981-12-01

    A model was developed which simulates the movement and daily accumulation of nutrients and contaminants in crop plants resulting from known physiological processes in the plant. In the model, the daily contaminant accumulation is governed by daily increase in plant biomass derived from photosynthesis and by the specified thermodynamic activity of the bioavailable contaminant species in soil or hydroponic solutin. Total accumulation and resulting concentration in the plant's root, stem and branch, leaf, and reproductive compartments can be simulated any time during the growing season. Parameters were estimated from data on plutonium accumulation in soybeans and the model was calibrated against this same data set. The plutonium distribution in the plant was found to be most sensitive to parameters related to leaf accumulation. Contamination at different times during the growing season resulted in a large change in predicted leaf accumulation but very little change in predicted accumulation in other plant parts except when contamination occurred very late in the growing season.

  12. Self-Neglect: Ethical Considerations.

    PubMed

    Day, Mary Rose; Leahy-Warren, Patricia; McCarthy, Geraldine

    2016-01-01

    Self-neglect is a significant international public health issue. Estimates suggest that there may be over one million cases per year in the United States. Aging populations will put more people at risk of self-neglect. This chapter presents background literature, self-neglect definitions and policy context, risk factors, and a brief overview of research on perspectives of self-neglect from both clients and community health and social care professionals. A case study is presented from the perspective of an individual and is used to explore ethical issues therein. A person-centered assessment within a multidisciplinary team approach is required for building a therapeutic relationship with clients. Capacity is a central issue in the management of responses to self-neglect. Ethical considerations of importance for community health and social care professionals include beneficence and nonmaleficence, autonomy and capacity, and respect for people's rights and dignity. A model of ethical justification is presented to explain dilemmas, challenges, and actions. Competence of professionals, multidisciplinary team working, informed consent, privacy, confidentiality, and best interest are also critical considerations. Effective decision making by an interdisciplinary team of professionals needs to be person-centered and give due consideration to the best interest of self-neglecting clients. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an in-depth discussion and examination of ethical issues and challenges relating to self-neglecting clients. PMID:26673378

  13. Plants accumulating heavy metals in the Danube River wetlands

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We present herein our results regarding the accumulation of four heavy metals (copper, cadmium, lead, and zinc) in four aquatic species plants (Ceratophyllum demersum, Potamogeton pectinatus, Potamogeton lucens, Potamogeton perfoliatus) collected from the Danube River, South-Western part of Romania and their possible use as indicators of aquatic ecosystems pollution with heavy metals. Methods Elements concentration from the vegetal material was determined through Inductively Coupled Plasma – Mass Spectrometry. Results The species were chosen based on their previous use as bioindicators in aquatic ecosystems and due to the fact they are one of the most frequent aquatic plant species of the Danube River ecosystems within the Iron Gates Natural Park. Highest amounts are recorded for Ceratophyllum demersum (3.52 μg/g for Cd; 22.71 μg/g for Cu; 20.06 μg/g for Pb; 104.23 μg/g for Zn). Among the Potamogeton species, the highest amounts of heavy metals are recorded in Potamogeton perfoliatus (1.88 μg/g for Cd; 13.14 μg/g for Cu; 13.32 μg/g for Pb; 57.96 μg/g for Zn). The sequence for the bioconcentration factors (BCFs) calculated in order to describe the accumulation of the four metals is Cd >> Zn > Pb > Cu. Increase of the zinc concentration determines an increase of the cadmium concentration (Spearman rho=0.40, p=0.02). Conclusions Despite the low ambiental levels of heavy metals, the four aquatic plants have the ability to accumulate significant amounts, which make them useful as biological indicators. BCF value for Ceratophyllum demersum indicated this species as a cadmium hyperaccumulator. PMID:24359799

  14. Infectious Considerations in Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddon, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Slightly more than 500 people have flown in space, most of them for short periods of time. The total number of person years in space is small. Given this fact, and given rigorous astronaut screening, it is not surprising that the accumulated infectious disease experience in space is also small, and mostly, theoretical. As the human space presence expands, we may expect mission length, total accumulated person years and the environmental complexity to increase. Add to the mix both changes in human immunity and microbial virulence, and it becomes realistic to consider infectious scenarios and the means to mitigate them. This lecture will cover the inhabited space environment from the perspective of host-microbe interactions, current relevant research, and the current countermeasures used. Future challenges will be discussed and there will be opportunity to ask questions about Space Operations. The audience is encouraged to think about what medical tools you would choose to have in different types of mission, what you would be willing to leave behind, and how you would compensate for the necessary trade offs in mission design.

  15. Influence of altered low cloud parameterizations for seasonal variation of Arctic cloud amount on climate feedbacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yoojin; Choi, Yong-Sang; Kim, Baek-Min; Kim, Hyerim

    2015-12-01

    This study investigates the alteration of climate feedbacks due to overestimated wintertime low-level cloud amount bias over the Arctic region (60°N-90°N) in a climate model. The climate feedback was quantitatively examined through radiative kernels that are pre-calculated radiative responses of climate variables to doubling of carbon dioxide concentration in NCAR Community Atmosphere Model version 3 (CAM3). Climate models have various annual cycle of the Arctic cloud amount at the low-level particularly with large uncertainty in winter and CAM3 may tend to overestimate the Arctic low-level cloud. In this study, the seasonal variation of low-level cloud amount was modified by reducing the wintertime cloud amount by up to 35 %, and then compared with the original without seasonal variation. Thus, we investigate how that bias may affect climate feedbacks and the projections of future Arctic warming. The results show that the decrease in low-level cloud amount slightly affected the radiation budgets because of a small amount of incident solar insolation in winter, but considerably changed water vapor and temperature profiles. Consequently, the most distinctive was decreases in water vapor feedback and contribution of heat transport (by -0.20 and -0.55 W m-2 K-1, respectively) and increases in the lapse rate feedback and cloud feedback (by 0.13 and 0.58 W m-2 K-1, respectively) during winter in this model experiment. This study suggests that the change in Arctic cloud amount effectively reforms the contributions of individual climate feedbacks to Arctic climate system and leads to opposing effects on different feedbacks, which cancel out in the model.

  16. Natural radionuclide accumulation by raindrops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, Anatoly; Martin, Inacio; Shkevov, Rumen; Alves, Mauro

    2016-07-01

    The laboratory of environmental radiation of ITA (São José dos Campos, 23°11'11″S, 45°52'43″W, 650 MAMSL) performs simultaneous monitoring of a natural radiation background and meteorological parameters. A time resolution of up to 1 minute allows a detailed comparison of changes in meteorological parameters with those of a concentration of ambient radon progenies in the atmosphere. Results of a study of variation of a fallout of radon progenies ^{214}Pb and ^{214}Bi concomitanting rainfalls are present. The radionuclide fallout rate is reconstructed from the observed gamma rate through a simulation of the first kind Volterra integral equation with difference kernel, determined by ratio of precipitating rates of 214Pb and 214Bi and their decay half times. An original straightforward step-by-step procedure was used for the numerical solution of the equation. The radionuclide concentration in the rainwater is calculated as a ratio of the reconstructed fallout to the measured rainfall. It was observed that the radionuclide fallout rate increases as the rainfall one in approximately power 0.6, i.e. the same as the mean raindrop volume. The concentration thereafter decreases as the rainfall rate in power 0.4. A numerical simulation of the process of accumulation of the radionuclides during diffusion and coalescence drop growth and aerosol scavenging during a passage from a cloud to the ground was performed. The results of the simulations agree with the experimental data.

  17. Assessing the Capacity of Plant Species to Accumulate Particulate Matter in Beijing, China

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Li; Ma, Zeyu; Xu, Yansen; Sun, Fengbin; Lun, Xiaoxiu; Liu, Xuhui; Chen, Jungang; Yu, Xinxiao

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution causes serious problems in spring in northern China; therefore, studying the ability of different plants to accumulate particulate matter (PM) at the beginning of the growing season may benefit urban planners in their attempts to control air pollution. This study evaluated deposits of PM on the leaves and in the wax layer of 35 species (11 shrubs, 24 trees) in Beijing, China. Differences in the accumulation of PM were observed between species. Cephalotaxus sinensis, Euonymus japonicus, Broussonetia papyriferar, Koelreuteria paniculata and Quercus variabilis were all efficient in capturing small particles. The plants exhibiting high amounts of total PM accumulation (on leaf surfaces and/or in the wax layer), also showed comparatively high levels of PM accumulation across all particle sizes. A comparison of shrubs and trees did not reveal obvious differences in their ability to accumulate particles based on growth form; a combination of plantings with different growth forms can efficiently reduce airborne PM concentrations near the ground. To test the relationships between leaf traits and PM accumulation, leaf samples of selected species were observed using a scanning electron microscope. Growth forms with greater amounts of pubescence and increased roughness supported PM accumulation; the adaxial leaf surfaces collected more particles than the abaxial surfaces. The results of this study may inform the selection of species for urban green areas where the goal is to capture air pollutants and mitigate the adverse effects of air pollution on human health. PMID:26506104

  18. 14 CFR 198.7 - Amount of insurance coverage available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Amount of insurance coverage available. 198.7 Section 198.7 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) WAR RISK INSURANCE AVIATION INSURANCE § 198.7 Amount of insurance coverage available. (a)...

  19. 14 CFR 198.7 - Amount of insurance coverage available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Amount of insurance coverage available. 198.7 Section 198.7 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) WAR RISK INSURANCE AVIATION INSURANCE § 198.7 Amount of insurance coverage available. (a)...

  20. 14 CFR 198.7 - Amount of insurance coverage available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Amount of insurance coverage available. 198.7 Section 198.7 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) WAR RISK INSURANCE AVIATION INSURANCE § 198.7 Amount of insurance coverage available. (a)...

  1. 46 CFR 151.45-6 - Maximum amount of cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Maximum amount of cargo. 151.45-6 Section 151.45-6 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Operations § 151.45-6 Maximum amount of cargo. (a) Tanks carrying liquids or liquefied gases at...

  2. 46 CFR 151.45-6 - Maximum amount of cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Maximum amount of cargo. 151.45-6 Section 151.45-6 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Operations § 151.45-6 Maximum amount of cargo. (a) Tanks carrying liquids or liquefied gases at...

  3. 31 CFR 50.71 - Determination of recoupment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... 50.71 Section 50.71 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM... recoupment amounts for that Program Year. (b)(1) Within 90 days after certification of an act of terrorism... Terrorism Policy Surcharge previously established to determine whether any additional amount will...

  4. 31 CFR 50.71 - Determination of recoupment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... 50.71 Section 50.71 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM... recoupment amounts for that Program Year. (b)(1) Within 90 days after certification of an act of terrorism... Terrorism Policy Surcharge previously established to determine whether any additional amount will...

  5. 42 CFR 51c.106 - Amount of grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR COMMUNITY HEALTH SERVICES General Provisions § 51c.106 Amount of grant. (a) The amount of any award under this part will be... the grantee to finance its share of project costs from non-Federal sources; (B) The need in the...

  6. 42 CFR 56.106 - Amount of grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES General Provisions § 56.106 Amount of grant. (a) The amount of any award under this part will be... the grantee to finance its share of project costs from non-Federal sources; (B) The need in the...

  7. 42 CFR 56.106 - Amount of grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES General Provisions § 56.106 Amount of grant. (a) The amount of any award under this part will be... the grantee to finance its share of project costs from non-Federal sources; (B) The need in the...

  8. 42 CFR 51c.106 - Amount of grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR COMMUNITY HEALTH SERVICES General Provisions § 51c.106 Amount of grant. (a) The amount of any award under this part will be... the grantee to finance its share of project costs from non-Federal sources; (B) The need in the...

  9. 43 CFR 3904.15 - Amount of bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... that a change in amount is appropriate to cover the costs and obligations of complying with the... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amount of bond. 3904.15 Section 3904.15 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND...

  10. 43 CFR 3904.15 - Amount of bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... that a change in amount is appropriate to cover the costs and obligations of complying with the... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Amount of bond. 3904.15 Section 3904.15 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND...

  11. 43 CFR 3904.15 - Amount of bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... that a change in amount is appropriate to cover the costs and obligations of complying with the... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Amount of bond. 3904.15 Section 3904.15 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND...

  12. 43 CFR 3904.15 - Amount of bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... that a change in amount is appropriate to cover the costs and obligations of complying with the... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Amount of bond. 3904.15 Section 3904.15 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND...

  13. 20 CFR 625.6 - Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions. 625.6 Section 625.6 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.6 Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions. (a) In all...

  14. 42 CFR 1003.104 - Amount of assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Amount of assessment. 1003.104 Section 1003.104 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES, ASSESSMENTS AND EXCLUSIONS § 1003.104 Amount of assessment. (a) The OIG...

  15. 42 CFR 1003.104 - Amount of assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amount of assessment. 1003.104 Section 1003.104 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES, ASSESSMENTS AND EXCLUSIONS § 1003.104 Amount of assessment. (a) The OIG...

  16. 42 CFR 1003.104 - Amount of assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Amount of assessment. 1003.104 Section 1003.104 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES, ASSESSMENTS AND EXCLUSIONS § 1003.104 Amount of assessment. (a) The OIG...

  17. 40 CFR 35.930-2 - Grant amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grant amount. 35.930-2 Section 35.930-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.930-2 Grant amount. The...

  18. 29 CFR 531.38 - Amounts deducted for taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amounts deducted for taxes. 531.38 Section 531.38 Labor... Employees § 531.38 Amounts deducted for taxes. Taxes which are assessed against the employee and which are... unemployment insurance taxes, as well as other Federal, State, or local taxes, levies, and assessments....

  19. 50 CFR 296.8 - Amount of award.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Amount of award. 296.8 Section 296.8 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTINENTAL SHELF FISHERMEN'S CONTINGENCY FUND § 296.8 Amount of award. (a)...

  20. 50 CFR 296.8 - Amount of award.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amount of award. 296.8 Section 296.8 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTINENTAL SHELF FISHERMEN'S CONTINGENCY FUND § 296.8 Amount of award. (a)...

  1. 26 CFR 1.21-2 - Limitations on amount creditable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Limitations on amount creditable. 1.21-2 Section 1.21-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Changes in Rates During A Taxable Year § 1.21-2 Limitations on amount creditable. (a) Annual...

  2. 26 CFR 1.21-2 - Limitations on amount creditable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Limitations on amount creditable. 1.21-2 Section 1.21-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Changes in Rates During A Taxable Year § 1.21-2 Limitations on amount creditable. (a) Annual...

  3. 26 CFR 1.21-2 - Limitations on amount creditable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Limitations on amount creditable. 1.21-2 Section 1.21-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Changes in Rates During A Taxable Year § 1.21-2 Limitations on amount creditable. (a) Annual...

  4. 42 CFR 130.3 - Amount of payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amount of payments. 130.3 Section 130.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPASSIONATE PAYMENTS RICKY RAY HEMOPHILIA RELIEF FUND PROGRAM General Provisions § 130.3 Amount of payments. If there are sufficient...

  5. 42 CFR 130.3 - Amount of payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amount of payments. 130.3 Section 130.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPASSIONATE PAYMENTS RICKY RAY HEMOPHILIA RELIEF FUND PROGRAM General Provisions § 130.3 Amount of payments. If there are sufficient...

  6. 42 CFR 130.3 - Amount of payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Amount of payments. 130.3 Section 130.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPASSIONATE PAYMENTS RICKY RAY HEMOPHILIA RELIEF FUND PROGRAM General Provisions § 130.3 Amount of payments. If there are sufficient...

  7. 42 CFR 130.3 - Amount of payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Amount of payments. 130.3 Section 130.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPASSIONATE PAYMENTS RICKY RAY HEMOPHILIA RELIEF FUND PROGRAM General Provisions § 130.3 Amount of payments. If there are sufficient...

  8. 42 CFR 130.3 - Amount of payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Amount of payments. 130.3 Section 130.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPASSIONATE PAYMENTS RICKY RAY HEMOPHILIA RELIEF FUND PROGRAM General Provisions § 130.3 Amount of payments. If there are sufficient...

  9. 40 CFR 47.115 - Award amount and matching requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Award amount and matching requirements. 47.115 Section 47.115 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION ACT GRANTS § 47.115 Award amount and...

  10. 40 CFR 47.115 - Award amount and matching requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Award amount and matching requirements. 47.115 Section 47.115 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION ACT GRANTS § 47.115 Award amount and...

  11. 24 CFR 904.108 - Break-even amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Break-even amount. 904.108 Section... LOW RENT HOUSING HOMEOWNERSHIP OPPORTUNITIES Turnkey III Program Description § 904.108 Break-even amount. (a) Definition. The term “break-even amount” as used herein means the minimum average...

  12. 40 CFR 35.930-2 - Grant amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Grant amount. 35.930-2 Section 35.930-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.930-2 Grant amount. The...

  13. 40 CFR 35.930-2 - Grant amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Grant amount. 35.930-2 Section 35.930-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.930-2 Grant amount. The...

  14. 40 CFR 35.930-2 - Grant amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grant amount. 35.930-2 Section 35.930-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.930-2 Grant amount. The...

  15. 40 CFR 35.930-2 - Grant amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Grant amount. 35.930-2 Section 35.930-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.930-2 Grant amount. The...

  16. 78 FR 14179 - Adjustments to Civil Monetary Penalty Amounts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... Monetary Penalty Amounts, Release No. 33-8530 (Feb. 4, 2005) [70 FR 7606 (Feb. 14, 2005)]. The DCIA... Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule implements the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation... a rule adjusting for inflation the maximum amount of civil monetary penalties under the...

  17. 20 CFR 404.260 - Special minimum primary insurance amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special minimum primary insurance amounts. 404.260 Section 404.260 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts Special Minimum...

  18. 41 CFR 105-57.008 - Amounts withheld.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... amount equivalent to thirty times the minimum wage. See 29 CFR 870.10. (c) When a debtor's pay is subject... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Amounts withheld. 105-57.008 Section 105-57.008 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property...

  19. 41 CFR 105-57.008 - Amounts withheld.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... amount equivalent to thirty times the minimum wage. See 29 CFR 870.10. (c) When a debtor's pay is subject... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amounts withheld. 105-57.008 Section 105-57.008 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property...

  20. 20 CFR 226.73 - Changes in reduction amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Benefits Under a Federal, State, or Local Law or Plan § 226.73 Changes in reduction amount. The reduction... in annuity rates, such as a cost-of-living increase. However, the reduction amount may change for the... entitled to an annuity with a tier I component of $500 on May 1, 1991. He was also receiving a...

  1. 20 CFR 226.73 - Changes in reduction amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Benefits Under a Federal, State, or Local Law or Plan § 226.73 Changes in reduction amount. The reduction... in annuity rates, such as a cost-of-living increase. However, the reduction amount may change for the... entitled to an annuity with a tier I component of $500 on May 1, 1991. He was also receiving a...

  2. 31 CFR 353.10 - Amounts which may be purchased.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of purchase was an exempt organization under the terms of 26 CFR 1.501(c)(3)-1. ...) Special limitation. $4,000 (face amount) multiplied by the highest number of employees participating in an... issued. (b) Series HH—(1) General annual limitation. $20,000 (face amount). (2) Special limitation....

  3. 31 CFR 353.10 - Amounts which may be purchased.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of purchase was an exempt organization under the terms of 26 CFR 1.501(c)(3)-1. ...) Special limitation. $4,000 (face amount) multiplied by the highest number of employees participating in an... issued. (b) Series HH—(1) General annual limitation. $20,000 (face amount). (2) Special limitation....

  4. 26 CFR 301.6334-3 - Determination of exempt amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... deductions on account of age or blindness); and (ii) The aggregate amount of the deductions for personal... account of age or blindness); and (B) The aggregate amount of the deductions for personal exemptions... standard deduction (including additional standard deductions on account of age or blindness) for...

  5. 26 CFR 1.666(a)-1 - Amount allocated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Amount allocated. 1.666(a)-1 Section 1.666(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED... Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(a)-1 Amount allocated. (a)(1) If a trust other than a foreign...

  6. Learner Preferences and Achievement Under Differing Amounts of Learner Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnackenberg, Heidi L.; Sullivan, Howard J.; Leader, Lars F.; Jones, Elizabeth E. K.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the effects of program mode (i.e., a lean program version containing a basic amount of learner practice versus a full mode containing expanded practice) and learner preference (matched or unmatched) for amount of practice on the achievement, time-in-program, and attitudes of university undergraduate students. Students preferred the lean…

  7. 13 CFR 120.348 - Amount of guarantee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amount of guarantee. 120.348 Section 120.348 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Special Purpose Loans International Trade Loans § 120.348 Amount of guarantee. SBA can guarantee up to...

  8. 14 CFR 383.2 - Amount of penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Amount of penalty. 383.2 Section 383.2 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS CIVIL PENALTIES § 383.2 Amount of penalty. Civil penalties payable to the U.S. Government...

  9. 42 CFR 438.704 - Amounts of civil money penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amounts of civil money penalties. 438.704 Section... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Sanctions § 438.704 Amounts of civil money penalties. (a) General rule. The limit on, or the maximum civil money penalty the State may impose...

  10. 29 CFR 530.302 - Amounts of civil money penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amounts of civil money penalties. 530.302 Section 530.302... EMPLOYMENT OF HOMEWORKERS IN CERTAIN INDUSTRIES Civil Money Penalties § 530.302 Amounts of civil money penalties. (a) A civil money penalty, not to exceed $500 per affected homeworker for any one violation,...

  11. 20 CFR 404.342 - Mother's and father's benefit amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mother's and father's benefit amounts. 404... Disability Benefits for Spouses and Divorced Spouses § 404.342 Mother's and father's benefit amounts. Your mother's or father's monthly benefit is equal to 75 percent of the insured person's primary...

  12. 20 CFR 404.342 - Mother's and father's benefit amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mother's and father's benefit amounts. 404... Disability Benefits for Spouses and Divorced Spouses § 404.342 Mother's and father's benefit amounts. Your mother's or father's monthly benefit is equal to 75 percent of the insured person's primary...

  13. 20 CFR 404.353 - Child's benefit amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Child's benefit amounts. 404.353 Section 404... Child's Benefits § 404.353 Child's benefit amounts. (a) General. Your child's monthly benefit is equal... as explained in § 404.304. (b) Entitlement to more than one benefit. If you are entitled to a...

  14. 20 CFR 404.353 - Child's benefit amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Child's benefit amounts. 404.353 Section 404... Child's Benefits § 404.353 Child's benefit amounts. (a) General. Your child's monthly benefit is equal... as explained in § 404.304. (b) Entitlement to more than one benefit. If you are entitled to a...

  15. 20 CFR 404.353 - Child's benefit amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Child's benefit amounts. 404.353 Section 404... Child's Benefits § 404.353 Child's benefit amounts. (a) General. Your child's monthly benefit is equal... as explained in § 404.304. (b) Entitlement to more than one benefit. If you are entitled to a...

  16. 20 CFR 404.353 - Child's benefit amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Child's benefit amounts. 404.353 Section 404... Child's Benefits § 404.353 Child's benefit amounts. (a) General. Your child's monthly benefit is equal... as explained in § 404.304. (b) Entitlement to more than one benefit. If you are entitled to a...

  17. 20 CFR 404.353 - Child's benefit amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Child's benefit amounts. 404.353 Section 404... Child's Benefits § 404.353 Child's benefit amounts. (a) General. Your child's monthly benefit is equal... as explained in § 404.304. (b) Entitlement to more than one benefit. If you are entitled to a...

  18. 12 CFR 347.120 - Computation of investment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Computation of investment amounts. 347.120 Section 347.120 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY INTERNATIONAL BANKING § 347.120 Computation of investment amounts. In computing the...

  19. 12 CFR 347.120 - Computation of investment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Computation of investment amounts. 347.120 Section 347.120 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY INTERNATIONAL BANKING § 347.120 Computation of investment amounts. In computing the...

  20. 12 CFR 347.120 - Computation of investment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Computation of investment amounts. 347.120 Section 347.120 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY INTERNATIONAL BANKING § 347.120 Computation of investment amounts. In computing the...

  1. 12 CFR 347.120 - Computation of investment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Computation of investment amounts. 347.120 Section 347.120 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY INTERNATIONAL BANKING § 347.120 Computation of investment amounts. In computing the...

  2. 12 CFR 347.120 - Computation of investment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Computation of investment amounts. 347.120 Section 347.120 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY INTERNATIONAL BANKING § 347.120 Computation of investment amounts. In computing the...

  3. The Amount of English Use: Effects on L2 Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vo, Son Ca; Vo, Yen Thi Hoang; Vo, Quyen Thanh

    2014-01-01

    The amount of second language (L2) use has significant influence on native speakers' comprehension of L2 learners' speech. Nonetheless, few empirical studies examine how differences in the amount of language use affect the intelligibility and comprehensibility of nonnative speakers' reading and spontaneous speech. This study aims to…

  4. 26 CFR 1.1441-2 - Amounts subject to withholding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Withholding of Tax on Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Corporations and Tax-Free Covenant Bonds § 1.1441-2 Amounts subject to withholding. (a) In general. For... certain gambling winnings exempt from tax under section 871(j)); (5) Amounts paid as part of the...

  5. 42 CFR 422.382 - Minimum net worth amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... percent of the minimum net worth amount is not met by cash or cash equivalents. (3) Health care delivery... depreciated value of health care delivery assets (HCDAs) to satisfy the minimum net worth amount. (4) Other assets. A PSO may apply other assets not used in the delivery of health care provided that those...

  6. 46 CFR 308.303 - Amounts insured under interim binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amounts insured under interim binder. 308.303 Section 308.303 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.303 Amounts insured under interim binder. The...

  7. 46 CFR 308.203 - Amount insured under interim binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amount insured under interim binder. 308.203 Section 308.203 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Protection and Indemnity Insurance § 308.203 Amount insured under interim binder....

  8. 42 CFR 423.279 - National average monthly bid amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... bid amounts for each prescription drug plan (not including fallbacks) and for each MA-PD plan...(h) of the Act. (b) Calculation of weighted average. (1) The national average monthly bid amount is a....258(c)(1) of this chapter) and the denominator equal to the total number of Part D...

  9. 42 CFR 423.279 - National average monthly bid amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... bid amounts for each prescription drug plan (not including fallbacks) and for each MA-PD plan...(h) of the Act. (b) Calculation of weighted average. (1) The national average monthly bid amount is a....258(c)(1) of this chapter) and the denominator equal to the total number of Part D...

  10. 14 CFR § 1261.102 - Maximum amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maximum amount. § 1261.102 Section § 1261.102 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROCESSING OF MONETARY CLAIMS (GENERAL) Employees' Personal Property Claims § 1261.102 Maximum amount. From October 1, 1982, to...

  11. 9 CFR 89.1 - Amount of feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Amount of feed. 89.1 Section 89.1 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS STATEMENT OF POLICY UNDER THE TWENTY-EIGHT HOUR LAW § 89.1 Amount of feed....

  12. 45 CFR 305.31 - Amount of incentive payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amount of incentive payment. 305.31 Section 305.31... PROGRAM PERFORMANCE MEASURES, STANDARDS, FINANCIAL INCENTIVES, AND PENALTIES § 305.31 Amount of incentive payment. (a) The incentive payment for a State for a fiscal year is equal to the incentive payment...

  13. 20 CFR 226.73 - Changes in reduction amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Benefits Under a Federal, State, or Local Law or Plan § 226.73 Changes in reduction amount. The reduction... in annuity rates, such as a cost-of-living increase. However, the reduction amount may change for the... entitled to an annuity with a tier I component of $500 on May 1, 1991. He was also receiving a...

  14. 20 CFR 226.73 - Changes in reduction amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Benefits Under a Federal, State, or Local Law or Plan § 226.73 Changes in reduction amount. The reduction... in annuity rates, such as a cost-of-living increase. However, the reduction amount may change for the... entitled to an annuity with a tier I component of $500 on May 1, 1991. He was also receiving a...

  15. 34 CFR 682.204 - Maximum loan amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... academic year in 34 CFR 668.3. (m) Any TEACH Grants that have been converted to Direct Unsubsidized Loans... amounts under paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section. (e) Combined Federal Stafford, SLS and Federal... Loans and SLS Loans, but excluding the amount of capitalized interest, may not exceed the following:...

  16. 34 CFR 682.204 - Maximum loan amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... academic year in 34 CFR 668.3. (m) Any TEACH Grants that have been converted to Direct Unsubsidized Loans... amounts under paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section. (e) Combined Federal Stafford, SLS and Federal... Loans and SLS Loans, but excluding the amount of capitalized interest, may not exceed the following:...

  17. 34 CFR 682.204 - Maximum loan amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... academic year in 34 CFR 668.3. (m) Any TEACH Grants that have been converted to Direct Unsubsidized Loans... amounts under paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section. (e) Combined Federal Stafford, SLS and Federal... Loans and SLS Loans, but excluding the amount of capitalized interest, may not exceed the following:...

  18. 26 CFR 1.615-4 - Limitation of amount deductible.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Limitation of amount deductible. 1.615-4 Section 1.615-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Natural Resources § 1.615-4 Limitation of amount deductible. (a) Taxable years beginning before July 7,...

  19. 26 CFR 1.617-2 - Limitation on amount deductible.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Limitation on amount deductible. 1.617-2 Section 1.617-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Natural Resources § 1.617-2 Limitation on amount deductible. (a) Expenditures paid or incurred before January...

  20. 26 CFR 1.615-4 - Limitation of amount deductible.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Limitation of amount deductible. 1.615-4 Section 1.615-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Natural Resources § 1.615-4 Limitation of amount deductible. (a)...

  1. 26 CFR 1.617-2 - Limitation on amount deductible.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Limitation on amount deductible. 1.617-2 Section 1.617-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Natural Resources § 1.617-2 Limitation on amount deductible....

  2. 28 CFR 94.23 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amount of reimbursement. 94.23 Section 94.23 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Coverage § 94.23 Amount of reimbursement....

  3. 28 CFR 94.23 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Amount of reimbursement. 94.23 Section 94.23 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Coverage § 94.23 Amount of reimbursement....

  4. 28 CFR 94.23 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amount of reimbursement. 94.23 Section 94.23 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Coverage § 94.23 Amount of reimbursement....

  5. 28 CFR 94.23 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amount of reimbursement. 94.23 Section 94.23 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Coverage § 94.23 Amount of reimbursement....

  6. 24 CFR 582.105 - Rental assistance amounts and payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Rental assistance amounts and... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES SHELTER PLUS CARE Assistance Provided § 582.105 Rental assistance amounts and payments. (a) Eligible activity. S+C grants may be used for providing...

  7. 24 CFR 582.105 - Rental assistance amounts and payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rental assistance amounts and... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES SHELTER PLUS CARE Assistance Provided § 582.105 Rental assistance amounts and payments. (a) Eligible activity. S+C grants may be used for providing...

  8. 24 CFR 582.105 - Rental assistance amounts and payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rental assistance amounts and... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES SHELTER PLUS CARE Assistance Provided § 582.105 Rental assistance amounts and payments. (a) Eligible activity. S+C grants may be used for providing...

  9. 24 CFR 582.105 - Rental assistance amounts and payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rental assistance amounts and... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES SHELTER PLUS CARE Assistance Provided § 582.105 Rental assistance amounts and payments. (a) Eligible activity. S+C grants may be used for providing...

  10. 28 CFR 94.23 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amount of reimbursement. 94.23 Section 94.23 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Coverage § 94.23 Amount of reimbursement....

  11. 26 CFR 1.666(a)-1 - Amount allocated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Amount allocated. 1.666(a)-1 Section 1.666(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED... Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(a)-1 Amount allocated. (a)(1) If a trust other than a foreign...

  12. 26 CFR 1.666(a)-1 - Amount allocated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amount allocated. 1.666(a)-1 Section 1.666(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED... January 1, 1969 § 1.666(a)-1 Amount allocated. (a)(1) If a trust other than a foreign trust created by a...

  13. 26 CFR 1.666(a)-1 - Amount allocated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Amount allocated. 1.666(a)-1 Section 1.666(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED... Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(a)-1 Amount allocated. (a)(1) If a trust other than a foreign...

  14. 26 CFR 1.666(a)-1 - Amount allocated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Amount allocated. 1.666(a)-1 Section 1.666(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED... Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(a)-1 Amount allocated. (a)(1) If a trust other than a foreign...

  15. 26 CFR 1.1441-2 - Amounts subject to withholding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amounts subject to withholding. 1.1441-2 Section 1.1441-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Withholding of Tax on Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Corporations and Tax-Free Covenant Bonds § 1.1441-2 Amounts...

  16. 45 CFR 149.100 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE EARLY RETIREE REINSURANCE PROGRAM Reinsurance Amounts § 149.100 Amount of reimbursement. (a) For each early retiree enrolled in a certified plan in a plan year, the sponsor...

  17. 45 CFR 149.100 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE EARLY RETIREE REINSURANCE PROGRAM Reinsurance Amounts § 149.100 Amount of reimbursement. (a) For each early retiree enrolled in a certified plan in a plan year, the sponsor...

  18. 45 CFR 149.100 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE EARLY RETIREE REINSURANCE PROGRAM Reinsurance Amounts § 149.100 Amount of reimbursement. (a) For each early retiree enrolled in a certified plan in a plan year, the sponsor...

  19. 45 CFR 149.100 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE EARLY RETIREE REINSURANCE PROGRAM Reinsurance Amounts § 149.100 Amount of reimbursement. (a) For each early retiree enrolled in a certified plan in a plan year, the sponsor...

  20. 27 CFR 19.700 - Amount of bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use Bonds § 19.700 Amount... the level of production and receipts at the alcohol fuel plant increases so that the current bond no... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Amount of bond....

  1. 27 CFR 19.700 - Amount of bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use Bonds § 19.700 Amount... the level of production and receipts at the alcohol fuel plant increases so that the current bond no... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Amount of bond....

  2. 34 CFR 682.204 - Maximum loan amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... academic year in 34 CFR 668.3. (m) Any TEACH Grants that have been converted to Direct Unsubsidized Loans... amount the student may borrow for any academic year of study under the Stafford Loan Program in... undergraduate program, the total amount the student may borrow for any academic year of study under the...

  3. 14 CFR 198.7 - Amount of insurance coverage available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WAR RISK INSURANCE AVIATION INSURANCE § 198.7 Amount of insurance coverage available. (a) For... arising from any risk. In the case of hull insurance, the amount insured may not exceed the reasonable value of the aircraft as determined by the FAA or its designated agent. (b) Policies issued...

  4. 14 CFR 198.7 - Amount of insurance coverage available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WAR RISK INSURANCE AVIATION INSURANCE § 198.7 Amount of insurance coverage available. (a) For... arising from any risk. In the case of hull insurance, the amount insured may not exceed the reasonable value of the aircraft as determined by the FAA or its designated agent. (b) Policies issued...

  5. 38 CFR 39.50 - Amount of grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE, OF VETERANS CEMETERIES Establishment, Expansion, and Improvement Projects Award of Grant § 39.50 Amount of grant. (a) The amount of an Establishment, Expansion, and Improvement Project grant awarded under this subpart may not exceed 100 percent...

  6. 38 CFR 39.50 - Amount of grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE, OF VETERANS CEMETERIES Establishment, Expansion, and Improvement Projects Award of Grant § 39.50 Amount of grant. (a) The amount of an Establishment, Expansion, and Improvement Project grant awarded under this subpart may not exceed 100 percent...

  7. 38 CFR 39.50 - Amount of grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE, OF VETERANS CEMETERIES Establishment, Expansion, and Improvement Projects Award of Grant § 39.50 Amount of grant. (a) The amount of an Establishment, Expansion, and Improvement Project grant awarded under this subpart may not exceed 100 percent...

  8. 38 CFR 39.50 - Amount of grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... STATES FOR ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE, OF VETERANS CEMETERIES Establishment, Expansion, and Improvement Projects Award of Grant § 39.50 Amount of grant. (a) The amount of an Establishment, Expansion, and Improvement Project grant awarded under this subpart may...

  9. 20 CFR 416.724 - Amounts of penalty deductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Amounts of penalty deductions. 416.724 Section 416.724 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Reports Required Penalty Deductions § 416.724 Amounts of penalty...

  10. 20 CFR 416.724 - Amounts of penalty deductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Amounts of penalty deductions. 416.724 Section 416.724 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Reports Required Penalty Deductions § 416.724 Amounts of penalty...

  11. 13 CFR 108.2020 - Amount of Operational Assistance grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Amount of Operational Assistance grant. 108.2020 Section 108.2020 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Requirements and Procedures for Operational Assistance Grants to NMVC Companies and SSBICs § 108.2020 Amount...

  12. 13 CFR 108.2020 - Amount of Operational Assistance grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... making Operational Assistance grant awards to NMVC Companies and SSBICs is not sufficient to award grants... NMVC Company. NMVC Companies are eligible for an Operational Assistance grant award equal to the amount....2030. (b) Amount of grant to SSBIC. SSBICs are eligible for an Operational Assistance grant award...

  13. 13 CFR 108.2020 - Amount of Operational Assistance grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... making Operational Assistance grant awards to NMVC Companies and SSBICs is not sufficient to award grants... NMVC Company. NMVC Companies are eligible for an Operational Assistance grant award equal to the amount....2030. (b) Amount of grant to SSBIC. SSBICs are eligible for an Operational Assistance grant award...

  14. 13 CFR 108.2020 - Amount of Operational Assistance grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... making Operational Assistance grant awards to NMVC Companies and SSBICs is not sufficient to award grants... NMVC Company. NMVC Companies are eligible for an Operational Assistance grant award equal to the amount....2030. (b) Amount of grant to SSBIC. SSBICs are eligible for an Operational Assistance grant award...

  15. 26 CFR 1.50A-1 - Determination of amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Computing Credit for Expenses of Work Incentive Programs § 1.50A-1 Determination of amount. (a) In general. Except as otherwise provided in this section and in § 1.50A-2, the amount of the work incentive program... certain capital gains of subchapter S corporations), and any additional tax imposed for the taxable...

  16. 24 CFR 904.108 - Break-even amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Break-even amount. 904.108 Section... LOW RENT HOUSING HOMEOWNERSHIP OPPORTUNITIES Turnkey III Program Description § 904.108 Break-even amount. (a) Definition. The term “break-even amount” as used herein means the minimum average...

  17. 24 CFR 904.108 - Break-even amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Break-even amount. 904.108 Section... LOW RENT HOUSING HOMEOWNERSHIP OPPORTUNITIES Turnkey III Program Description § 904.108 Break-even amount. (a) Definition. The term “break-even amount” as used herein means the minimum average...

  18. 24 CFR 904.108 - Break-even amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Break-even amount. 904.108 Section... LOW RENT HOUSING HOMEOWNERSHIP OPPORTUNITIES Turnkey III Program Description § 904.108 Break-even amount. (a) Definition. The term “break-even amount” as used herein means the minimum average...

  19. 24 CFR 904.108 - Break-even amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Break-even amount. 904.108 Section... LOW RENT HOUSING HOMEOWNERSHIP OPPORTUNITIES Turnkey III Program Description § 904.108 Break-even amount. (a) Definition. The term “break-even amount” as used herein means the minimum average...

  20. 26 CFR 1.51-1 - Amount of credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of the assistance unit (within the meaning of 45 CFR 205.40(a)(1)) that the individual is a member of... Credit for Expenses of Work Incentive Programs § 1.51-1 Amount of credit. (a) Determination of amount—(1... beginning work for the employer after such date, the amount of the targeted jobs credit for the taxable...

  1. 12 CFR 313.128 - Disposition of amounts collected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PROCEDURES FOR CORPORATE DEBT COLLECTION Tax Refund Offset § 313.128 Disposition of amounts collected. FMS... section, to the FDIC's account. The FDIC will reimburse FMS and the IRS for the cost of administering the tax refund offset program. FMS will deduct the fees from amounts collected prior to disposition...

  2. 12 CFR 313.128 - Disposition of amounts collected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCEDURES FOR CORPORATE DEBT COLLECTION Tax Refund Offset § 313.128 Disposition of amounts collected. FMS... section, to the FDIC's account. The FDIC will reimburse FMS and the IRS for the cost of administering the tax refund offset program. FMS will deduct the fees from amounts collected prior to disposition...

  3. 12 CFR 313.128 - Disposition of amounts collected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PROCEDURES FOR CORPORATE DEBT COLLECTION Tax Refund Offset § 313.128 Disposition of amounts collected. FMS... section, to the FDIC's account. The FDIC will reimburse FMS and the IRS for the cost of administering the tax refund offset program. FMS will deduct the fees from amounts collected prior to disposition...

  4. 12 CFR 313.128 - Disposition of amounts collected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PROCEDURES FOR CORPORATE DEBT COLLECTION Tax Refund Offset § 313.128 Disposition of amounts collected. FMS... section, to the FDIC's account. The FDIC will reimburse FMS and the IRS for the cost of administering the tax refund offset program. FMS will deduct the fees from amounts collected prior to disposition...

  5. 12 CFR 313.128 - Disposition of amounts collected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PROCEDURES FOR CORPORATE DEBT COLLECTION Tax Refund Offset § 313.128 Disposition of amounts collected. FMS... section, to the FDIC's account. The FDIC will reimburse FMS and the IRS for the cost of administering the tax refund offset program. FMS will deduct the fees from amounts collected prior to disposition...

  6. 42 CFR 438.704 - Amounts of civil money penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Amounts of civil money penalties. 438.704 Section... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Sanctions § 438.704 Amounts of civil money penalties. (a) General rule. The limit on, or the maximum civil money penalty the State may impose...

  7. 42 CFR 438.704 - Amounts of civil money penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Amounts of civil money penalties. 438.704 Section... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Sanctions § 438.704 Amounts of civil money penalties. (a) General rule. The limit on, or the maximum civil money penalty the State may impose...

  8. 42 CFR 438.704 - Amounts of civil money penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amounts of civil money penalties. 438.704 Section... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Sanctions § 438.704 Amounts of civil money penalties. (a) General rule. The limit on, or the maximum civil money penalty the State may impose...

  9. 42 CFR 438.704 - Amounts of civil money penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Amounts of civil money penalties. 438.704 Section... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Sanctions § 438.704 Amounts of civil money penalties. (a) General rule. The limit on, or the maximum civil money penalty the State may impose...

  10. 29 CFR 530.302 - Amounts of civil money penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amounts of civil money penalties. 530.302 Section 530.302... EMPLOYMENT OF HOMEWORKERS IN CERTAIN INDUSTRIES Civil Money Penalties § 530.302 Amounts of civil money penalties. (a) A civil money penalty, not to exceed $500 per affected homeworker for any one violation,...

  11. 29 CFR 530.302 - Amounts of civil money penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amounts of civil money penalties. 530.302 Section 530.302... EMPLOYMENT OF HOMEWORKERS IN CERTAIN INDUSTRIES Civil Money Penalties § 530.302 Amounts of civil money penalties. (a) A civil money penalty, not to exceed $500 per affected homeworker for any one violation,...

  12. 29 CFR 530.302 - Amounts of civil money penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amounts of civil money penalties. 530.302 Section 530.302... EMPLOYMENT OF HOMEWORKERS IN CERTAIN INDUSTRIES Civil Money Penalties § 530.302 Amounts of civil money penalties. (a) A civil money penalty, not to exceed $500 per affected homeworker for any one violation,...

  13. 29 CFR 530.302 - Amounts of civil money penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Amounts of civil money penalties. 530.302 Section 530.302... EMPLOYMENT OF HOMEWORKERS IN CERTAIN INDUSTRIES Civil Money Penalties § 530.302 Amounts of civil money penalties. (a) A civil money penalty, not to exceed $500 per affected homeworker for any one violation,...

  14. 38 CFR 17.197 - Amount of aid payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to States for Care of Veterans in State Homes § 17.197 Amount of aid payable. The amount of aid payable to a recognized State home shall be at the per diem rates established by title 38 U.S.C., section 1741(a)(1) for domiciliary care; and section 1741(a)(3) for hospital care. In no case shall...

  15. 14 CFR 383.2 - Amount of penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amount of penalty. 383.2 Section 383.2... REGULATIONS CIVIL PENALTIES § 383.2 Amount of penalty. Civil penalties payable to the U.S. Government for... (discrimination against the disabled) and rules and orders issued thereunder (see 49 U.S.C. 46301(a)(5) (A));...

  16. 14 CFR 383.2 - Amount of penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Amount of penalty. 383.2 Section 383.2... REGULATIONS CIVIL PENALTIES § 383.2 Amount of penalty. Civil penalties payable to the U.S. Government for... (discrimination against the disabled) and rules and orders issued thereunder (see 49 U.S.C. 46301(a)(5) (A));...

  17. 26 CFR 1.809-4 - Gross amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... amounts refunded due to policy cancellations or erroneously computed premiums. Furthermore, amounts of... premiums, reinsurance, dividends to policyholders, dividends left on deposit with the company, discounts on... return premiums, see section 811 (relating to dividends to policyholders). (iii) For purposes of...

  18. Procrastination, consideration of future consequences, and episodic future thinking.

    PubMed

    Rebetez, Marie My Lien; Barsics, Catherine; Rochat, Lucien; D'Argembeau, Arnaud; Van der Linden, Martial

    2016-05-01

    Despite the intrinsic temporal nature of procrastination, little research has examined the link between this form of self-regulatory failure and the consideration of future consequences, and no study has addressed the link between procrastination and episodic future thinking. The aim of the present study was to explore these relationships. Participants were asked to project themselves into possible future events and to rate the amount of sensory-perceptual details and autonoetic consciousness associated with their representations. They were also asked to complete questionnaires that assessed procrastination, the consideration of future consequences, and negative affect. Results showed that both the consideration of future consequences and episodic future thinking were associated with procrastination, and in particular with procrastination-related decision making abilities and procrastination-related motivational dispositions, respectively. PMID:27107893

  19. Small herbivores suppress algal accumulation on Agatti atoll, Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cernohorsky, Nicole H.; McClanahan, Timothy R.; Babu, Idrees; Horsák, Michal

    2015-12-01

    Despite large herbivorous fish being generally accepted as the main group responsible for preventing algal accumulation on coral reefs, few studies have experimentally examined the relative importance of herbivore size on algal communities. This study used exclusion cages with two different mesh sizes (1 × 1 cm and 6 × 6 cm) to investigate the impact of different-sized herbivores on algal accumulation rates on the shallow (<2 m) back-reef of Agatti atoll, Lakshadweep. The fine-mesh cages excluded all visible herbivores, which had rapid and lasting effects on the benthic communities, and, after 127 d of deployment, there was a visible and significant increase in algae (mainly macroalgae) with algal volume being 13 times greater than in adjacent open areas. The coarse-mesh cages excluded larger fishes (>8 cm body depth) while allowing smaller fishes to access the plots. In contrast to the conclusions of most previous studies, the exclusion of large herbivores had no significant effect on the accumulation of benthic algae and the amount of algae present within the coarse-mesh cages was relatively consistent throughout the experimental period (around 50 % coverage and 1-2 mm height). The difference in algal accumulation between the fine-mesh and coarse-mesh cages appears to be related to the actions of small individuals from 12 herbivorous fish species (0.17 ind. m-2 and 7.7 g m-2) that were able to enter through the coarse mesh. Although restricted to a single habitat, these results suggest that when present in sufficient densities and diversity, small herbivorous fishes can prevent the accumulation of algal biomass on coral reefs.

  20. Commercial considerations in tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Mansbridge, Jonathan

    2006-10-01

    Tissue engineering is a field with immense promise. Using the example of an early tissue-engineered skin implant, Dermagraft, factors involved in the successful commercial development of devices of this type are explored. Tissue engineering has to strike a balance between tissue culture, which is a resource-intensive activity, and business considerations that are concerned with minimizing cost and maximizing customer convenience. Bioreactor design takes place in a highly regulated environment, so factors to be incorporated into the concept include not only tissue culture considerations but also matters related to asepsis, scaleup, automation and ease of use by the final customer. Dermagraft is an allogeneic tissue. Stasis preservation, in this case cryopreservation, is essential in allogeneic tissue engineering, allowing sterility testing, inventory control and, in the case of Dermagraft, a cellular stress that may be important for hormesis following implantation. Although the use of allogeneic cells provides advantages in manufacturing under suitable conditions, it raises the spectre of immunological rejection. Such rejection has not been experienced with Dermagraft. Possible reasons for this and the vision of further application of allogeneic tissues are important considerations in future tissue-engineered cellular devices. This review illustrates approaches that indicate some of the criteria that may provide a basis for further developments. Marketing is a further requirement for success, which entails understanding of the mechanism of action of the procedure, and is illustrated for Dermagraft. The success of a tissue-engineered product is dependent on many interacting operations, some discussed here, each of which must be performed simultaneously and well. PMID:17005024

  1. Considerations for the Management of Medial Orbital Wall Blowout Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Park, Youngsoo; Chung, Kyu Jin

    2016-01-01

    Recently, diagnoses of and operations for medial orbital blowout fracture have increased because of the development of imaging technology. In this article, the authors review the literature, and overview the accumulated knowledge about the orbital anatomy, fracture mechanisms, surgical approaches, reconstruction materials, and surgical methods. In terms of surgical approaches, transcaruncular, transcutaneous, and transnasal endoscopic approaches are discussed. Reconstruction methods including onlay covering, inlay implantation, and repositioning methods are also discussed. Consideration and understanding of these should lead to more optimal outcomes. PMID:27218019

  2. Considerations for the Management of Medial Orbital Wall Blowout Fracture.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Ha; Park, Youngsoo; Chung, Kyu Jin

    2016-05-01

    Recently, diagnoses of and operations for medial orbital blowout fracture have increased because of the development of imaging technology. In this article, the authors review the literature, and overview the accumulated knowledge about the orbital anatomy, fracture mechanisms, surgical approaches, reconstruction materials, and surgical methods. In terms of surgical approaches, transcaruncular, transcutaneous, and transnasal endoscopic approaches are discussed. Reconstruction methods including onlay covering, inlay implantation, and repositioning methods are also discussed. Consideration and understanding of these should lead to more optimal outcomes. PMID:27218019

  3. Circuit considerations for repetitive railguns

    SciTech Connect

    Honih, E.M.

    1986-01-01

    Railgun electromagnetic launchers have significant military and scientific potential. They provide direct conversion of electrical energy to projectile kinetic energy, and they offer the hope of achieving projectile velocities greatly exceeding the limits of conventional guns. With over 10 km/sec already demonstrated, railguns are attracting attention for tactical and strategic weapons systems and for scientific equation-of-state research. The full utilization of railguns will require significant improvements in every aspect of system design - projectile, barrel, and power source - to achieve operation on a large scale. This paper will review fundamental aspects of railguns, with emphasis on circuit considerations and repetitive operation.

  4. Gas Accumulations and Wide-Spread BSRs Observed on Central Black SEA*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Küçük, H. M.; Dondurur, D.; ćifçi, G.

    2012-04-01

    temperature distribution due to the rapid sedimentation. Interpretation of the seismic sections also show possible gas accumulations as transparent and scattered zones. Seismic attributes of the gas related zones are clearly point out gas accumulations in the study area. Possible gassy zones have bright reflections at top side and these levels have negative polarity within the low frequency zone below the bright reflections. In addition, Akçakoca-1 and Ayazlı-1 wells which are very close to the study area produces considerable amount of gas from Eocene turbidites and study area is suggested to have high potential in terms of energy resources. * This presentation was supported by the EUROCORES programme TOPO-EUROPE of the European Science Foundation

  5. Dieldrin and DDT: accumulation from water and food by lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in the laboratory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reinert, Robert E.; Stone, Linda J.; Bergman, Harold L.

    1974-01-01

    In the laboratory we measured the amounts of dieldrin and p,p'DDT accumulated by fish from contaminated water and food to determine how fish from Lake Michigan accumulate high concentrations of these insecticides from an environment where the concentrations in water are generally less than 0.01 ppb. Eight groups of yearling lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) were exposed to different combinations of dieldrin and p,p'DDT in water and food. Concentrations of dieldrin and p,p'DDT ranged from 0.006 to 0.010 ppb in water and from 1,700 to 2,300 ppb in food (Oregon moist pellets). After 152 days of exposure to insecticides in water, fish had accumulated an average of 478 ppb dieldrin or 352 ppb p,p'DDT. Fish exposed to dieldrin and p,p'DDT in food accumulated 470 and 648 ppb, respectively. However, it was difficult to determine exactly how much of either insecticide was accumulated from the food because trace amounts (0.003-0.004 ppb) had leached from food or feces. After exposure to the insecticide was terminated, fish eliminated dieldrin at a much faster rate than p,p'DDT. In fish exposed to a combination of dieldrin and p,p'DDT in water and then held for 125 days in uncontaminated water, the total amount of dieldrin (I?g) declined 89%, but the total amount of p,p'DDT remained unchanged. We used data from this study to estimate how much p,p'DDT adult Lake Michigan coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) accumulated from water and from food during a 104-day period (May-August 1968). The estimates suggest that during these months coho salmon accumulated most of the body burden of p,p'DDT from food.

  6. Rapidly growing tropical trees mobilize remarkable amounts of nitrogen, in ways that differ surprisingly among species

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Ann E.; Raich, James W.

    2012-01-01

    Fast-growing forests such as tropical secondary forests can accumulate large amounts of carbon (C), and thereby play an important role in the atmospheric CO2 balance. Because nitrogen (N) cycling is inextricably linked with C cycling, the question becomes: Where does the N come from to match high rates of C accumulation? In unique experimental 16-y-old plantations established in abandoned pasture in lowland Costa Rica, we used a mass-balance approach to quantify N accumulation in vegetation, identify sources of N, and evaluate differences among tree species in N cycling. The replicated design contained four broad-leaved evergreen tree species growing under similar environmental conditions. Nitrogen uptake was rapid, reaching 409 (±30) kg⋅ha−1⋅y−1, double the rate reported from a Puerto Rican forest and greater than four times that observed at Hubbard Brook Forest (New Hampshire, USA). Nitrogen amassed in vegetation was 874 (±176) kg⋅ha−1, whereas net losses of soil N (0–100 cm) varied from 217 (±146) to 3,354 (±915) kg⋅ha−1 (P = 0.018) over 16 y. Soil C:N, δ13C values, and N budgets indicated that soil was the main source of biomass N. In Vochysia guatemalensis, however, N fixation contributed >60 kg⋅ha−1⋅y−1. All species apparently promoted soil N turnover, such that the soil N mean residence time was 32–54 y, an order of magnitude lower than the global mean. High rates of N uptake were associated with substantial N losses in three of the species, in which an average of 1.6 g N was lost for every gram of N accumulated in biomass. PMID:22689942

  7. Amounts of substrate carbon and nitrogen control the decomposition of soil organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X. J. A.; Sun, J.; Finley, B. K.; Dijkstra, P.; Schwartz, E.; Hungate, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change, mainly caused by rising atmospheric CO2 and nitrogen (N) deposition due to human activities, is postulated to increase energy and nutrient inputs to soils that can accelerate or retard soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition, a phenomenon called the priming effect. Yet, the direction and magnitude of priming in response to different amounts of energy and nutrient inputs remain elusive. Here we examined the effects of carbon (C) and N additions on priming, microbial turnover, extracellular enzyme activities, CO2 fluxes, and C accumulation in four different ecosystems. We applied low and high C (13C glucose; 350 and 1000 μg C g-1 wk-1) and C with N (NH4NO3; 35 and 100 μg N g-1 wk-1) for five weeks. We found: 1) high C and high C+N stimulated weekly priming in the first two weeks and then leveled off, indicating soil microorganisms may have a short-term of accelerated growth and activity but quickly adapt to frequent inputs of high substrate amounts, 2) high C induced greater cumulative priming, microbial turnover, and β-glucosidase activities than low C, 3) high C+N had significantly lower cumulative priming, turnover, and β-glucosidase activities than high C, 4) high C and high C+N stimulated greater CO2 fluxes and C accumulations than low substrate inputs. These results suggest that the amount of substrate (energy and nutrient) was a determinant factor in modulating the rate of SOM decomposition, microbial turnover, enzyme activities, and C balance. Overall we demonstrate that increased energy inputs can quickly accelerate SOM decomposition, but concurrent nutrient inputs can suppress such process, which could have a huge impact on terrestrial C storage and global biogeochemical C cycling under climate change.

  8. Investigation of mechanisms of gas hydrates accumulation in permafrost environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuvilin, E. M.

    2012-12-01

    The feature of permafrost sediments is capability to accumulate a quantity of natural gases foremost methane with low admixture of carbon dioxide. In consequence of natural and climatic changes, formation of favorable thermobaric conditions for transformation of intra-permafrost gas accumulations from free state into gas hydrate is possible. In consideration of high gas-saturation of frozen sediments, the active processes of hydrate formation in permafrost during the transgression of arctic seas or under continental glaciations can be expected. A special experimental technique was elaborated to perform physical modeling of hydrate formation conditions in cryogenic ice-containing sediments. The experiments were carried out under constant negative temperatures in interval from -2 oC to -9 oC. Methane (99.98%) was used as hydrate-former gas. During the experiments the kinetics of gas consumption in porous media was investigated and also part of porous water turned into hydrate and hydrate- saturation of sediment samples were estimated. Experiments show that hydrate formation in gas saturated sediments occurs actively not only in freezing sediments (above 0 oC) but also in frozen sediments (below 0 oC). Intensity of hydrate formation in frozen sediments depends on such factors as ice-saturation, thermobaric conditions and gas composition. Experimental data shows that after attenuation of hydrate formation in frozen sediments the considerable activization of hydrate accumulation processes during the increasing of temperature above 0 oC can occur. That leads to the thawing of porous ice, which does not turn into hydrate, and attendant this process structural-textural changes result in appearance of new gas-water contacts. As a result there is second hydrate formation on background of thawing of ice. Based on analysis of geological data and experimental researches possible geological models of gas hydrates formation in shallow permafrost under the sea transgression and

  9. Amounts served and consumed of school lunch differed by gender in Japanese elementary schools.

    PubMed

    Nozue, Miho; Yoshita, Katsushi; Jun, Kyungyul; Ishihara, Yoko; Taketa, Yasuko; Naruse, Akiko; Nagai, Narumi; Ishida, Hiromi

    2010-10-01

    School lunches serve to improve nutritional status and to promote the health of children. The purpose of this study was to investigate the portion sizes of school lunches served and consumed in Japanese elementary schools. In addition, gender difference in servings and consumption were also studied. A cross-sectional study was undertaken between October 2007 and February 2008 in schools located in Tokyo and Okayama, Japan. A total of 192 fifth-grade children attending four elementary schools participated in this study. Weighed plate waste methods and observation were used to collect dietary data for two non-consecutive days. The proportion of children who chose staple foods along with main dishes and/or side dishes for at least one day was higher in boys than in girls (respectively, for staple food: 42.1% vs. 9.3%, for main dish and/or side dish: 68.4% vs. 44.3%, P < 0.001). The ratio of initial amount served to amount offered was 0.88 ± 0.11 for boys and 0.84 ± 0.10 for girls (P < 0.05). The ratio of amount consumed to amount offered was 1.04 ± 0.19 for boys and 0.88 ± 0.12 for girls (P < 0.001). Weight was related to amount consumed both in boys (r = 0.222, P < 0.05) and in girls (r = 0.201, P < 0.05). These findings suggest that the nutritional standards of school lunch programs should take into account gender differences. Clearly, boys were more likely to consume more than the initial amounts served due to their higher propensity to take second helpings. Boys feel few reservations about taking second helpings to adjust their total intake. However, school lunch plans should take into consideration girls' reluctance to do so, by serving appropriate initial portion sizes. PMID:21103086

  10. Arsenic accumulation by the aquatic fern Azolla: comparison of arsenate uptake, speciation and efflux by A. caroliniana and A. filiculoides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Lin, Ai-Jun; Zhao, Fang-Jie; Xu, Guo-Zhong; Duan, Gui-Lan; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2008-12-01

    This study investigates As accumulation and tolerance of the aquatic fern Azolla. Fifty strains of Azolla showed a large variation in As accumulation. The highest- and lowest-accumulating ferns among the 50 strains were chosen for further investigations. Azolla caroliniana accumulated two times more As than Azolla filiculoides owing to a higher influx velocity for arsenate. A. filiculoides was more resistant to external arsenate due to a lower uptake. Both strains showed a similar degree of tolerance to internal As. Arsenate and arsenite were the dominant As species in both Azolla strains, with methylated As species accounting for <5% of the total As. A. filiculoides had a higher proportion of arsenite than A. caroliniana. Both strains effluxed more arsenate than arsenite, and the amount of As efflux was proportional to the amount of As accumulation. The potential of growing Azolla in paddy fields to reduce As transfer from soil and water to rice should be further evaluated. PMID:18457908

  11. Dietary protein considerations to support active aging.

    PubMed

    Wall, Benjamin T; Cermak, Naomi M; van Loon, Luc J C

    2014-11-01

    Given our rapidly aging world-wide population, the loss of skeletal muscle mass with healthy aging (sarcopenia) represents an important societal and public health concern. Maintaining or adopting an active lifestyle alleviates age-related muscle loss to a certain extent. Over time, even small losses of muscle tissue can hinder the ability to maintain an active lifestyle and, as such, contribute to the development of frailty and metabolic disease. Considerable research focus has addressed the application of dietary protein supplementation to support exercise-induced gains in muscle mass in younger individuals. In contrast, the role of dietary protein in supporting the maintenance (or gain) of skeletal muscle mass in active older persons has received less attention. Older individuals display a blunted muscle protein synthetic response to dietary protein ingestion. However, this reduced anabolic response can largely be overcome when physical activity is performed in close temporal proximity to protein consumption. Moreover, recent evidence has helped elucidate the optimal type and amount of dietary protein that should be ingested by the older adult throughout the day in order to maximize the skeletal muscle adaptive response to physical activity. Evidence demonstrates that when these principles are adhered to, muscle maintenance or hypertrophy over prolonged periods can be further augmented in active older persons. The present review outlines the current understanding of the role that dietary protein occupies in the lifestyle of active older adults as a means to increase skeletal muscle mass, strength and function, and thus support healthier aging. PMID:25355192

  12. Effect of minerals on accumulation of Cs by fungus Saccaromyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Sakamoto, Fuminori; Yamasaki, Shinya; Kozai, Naofumi; Shiotsu, Hiroyuki; Utsunomiya, Satoshi; Watanabe, Naoko; Kozaki, Tamotsu

    2015-06-01

    The accumulation of Cs by unicellular fungus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the presence of minerals has been studied to elucidate the role of microorganisms in the migration of radioactive Cs in the environment. Two different types of experiments were employed: experiments using stable Cs to examine the effect of a carbon source on the accumulation of Cs, and accumulation experiments of radioactive Cs from agar medium containing (137)Cs and zeolite, vermiculite, phlogopite, smectite, mica, or illite as mineral supplements. In the former type of experiments, the Cs-accumulated cells were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDS). In the latter type, the radioactivity in the yeast cells was measured by an autoradiography technique. When a carbon source was present, higher amounts of Cs accumulated in the cells than in the resting condition without a carbon source. Analyses with SEM-EDS showed that no mineral formed on the cell surface. These results indicate that the yeast cells accumulate Cs by adsorption on the cell surface and intracellular accumulation. In the presence of minerals in the agar medium, the radioactivity in the yeast cells was in the order of mica > smectite, illite > vermiculite, phlogopite, zeolite. This order is inversely correlated to the ratio of the concentration of radioactive Cs between the minerals and the medium solution. These results strongly suggest that the yeast accumulates radioactive Cs competitively with minerals. PMID:25841115

  13. Phosphorus in soil treatment systems: accumulation and mobility.

    PubMed

    Eveborn, David; Gustafsson, Jon Petter; Elmefors, Elin; Yu, Lin; Eriksson, Ann-Kristin; Ljung, Emelie; Renman, Gunno

    2014-11-01

    Septic tanks with subsequent soil treatment systems (STS) are a common treatment technique for domestic wastewater in rural areas. Phosphorus (P) leakage from such systems may pose a risk to water quality (especially if they are located relatively close to surface waters). In this study, six STS in Sweden (11-28 years old) were examined. Samples taken from the unsaturated subsoil beneath the distribution pipes were investigated by means of batch and column experiments, and accumulated phosphorus were characterized through X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analysis. At all sites the wastewater had clearly influenced the soil. This was observed through decreased pH, increased amounts of oxalate extractable metals and at some sites altered P sorption properties. The amount of accumulated P in the STS were found to be between 0.32 and 0.87 kg m(-3), which in most cases was just a fraction of the estimated P load (<30%). Column studies revealed that high P concentrations (up to 6 mg L(-1)) were leached from the material when deionized water was applied. However, the response to deionized water varied between the sites. As evidenced by XANES analysis, aluminium phosphates or P adsorbed to aluminium (hydr)oxides, as well as organically bound P, were important sinks for P. Generally soils with a high content of oxalate-extractable Al were also less vulnerable to P leakage. PMID:25036667

  14. Healthy Amount of Vitamin C Might Keep Cataracts at Bay

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_157952.html Healthy Amount of Vitamin C Might Keep Cataracts at Bay Key is ... 24, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- While many believe that vitamin C helps ward off colds, a new study ...

  15. 24 CFR 241.565 - Maximum loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Purchase and Installation of Energy Conserving Improvements, Solar Energy Systems, and Individual Utility... energy conserving improvements including the purchase thereof, cost of installation, architect's fees... of the energy conserving improvements. (b) An amount which, when added to the existing...

  16. 24 CFR 241.565 - Maximum loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Purchase and Installation of Energy Conserving Improvements, Solar Energy Systems, and Individual Utility... energy conserving improvements including the purchase thereof, cost of installation, architect's fees... of the energy conserving improvements. (b) An amount which, when added to the existing...

  17. 24 CFR 241.565 - Maximum loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Purchase and Installation of Energy Conserving Improvements, Solar Energy Systems, and Individual Utility... energy conserving improvements including the purchase thereof, cost of installation, architect's fees... of the energy conserving improvements. (b) An amount which, when added to the existing...

  18. 24 CFR 241.565 - Maximum loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Purchase and Installation of Energy Conserving Improvements, Solar Energy Systems, and Individual Utility... energy conserving improvements including the purchase thereof, cost of installation, architect's fees... of the energy conserving improvements. (b) An amount which, when added to the existing...

  19. 24 CFR 241.565 - Maximum loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Purchase and Installation of Energy Conserving Improvements, Solar Energy Systems, and Individual Utility... energy conserving improvements including the purchase thereof, cost of installation, architect's fees... of the energy conserving improvements. (b) An amount which, when added to the existing...

  20. Interior. Distillation apparatus used for extracting small test amounts of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior. Distillation apparatus used for extracting small test amounts of latex from plant fiber. - Thomas A. Edison Laboratories, Building No. 2, Main Street & Lakeside Avenue, West Orange, Essex County, NJ