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Sample records for accumulated degree days

  1. Climate change impact on growing degree day accumulation values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekere, Liga; Sile, Tija; Bethers, Uldis; Sennikovs, Juris

    2015-04-01

    A well-known and often used method to assess and forecast plant growth cycle is the growing degree day (GDD) method with different formulas used for accumulation calculations. With this method the only factor that affects plant development is temperature. So with climate change and therefore also change in temperature the typical times of plant blooming or harvest can be expected to change. The goal of this study is to assess this change in the Northern Europe region. As an example strawberry bloom and harvest times are used. As the first part of this study it was required to define the current GDD amounts required for strawberry bloom and harvest. It was done using temperature data from the Danish Meteorological Institute's (DMI) NWP model HIRLAM for the years 2010-2012 and general strawberry growth observations in Latvia. This way we acquired an example amount of GDD required for strawberry blooming and harvest. To assess change in the plant growth cycle we used regional climate models (RCM) - Euro-CORDEX. RCM temperature data for both past and future periods was analyzed and bias correction was carried out. Then the GDD calculation methodology was applied on corrected temperature data and results showing change in strawberry growth cycle - bloom and harvest times - in Northern Europe were visualized.

  2. Growing degree day calculator

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Degree-day benchmarks indicate discrete biological events in the development of insect pests. For the Sparganothis fruitworm, we have isolated all key development events and linked them to degree-day accumulations. These degree-day accumulations can greatly improve treatment timings for cranberry IP...

  3. Population Dynamics of Meloidogyne chitwoodi on Russet Burbank Potatoes in Relation to Degree-day Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Pinkerton, J. N.; Santo, G. S.; Mojtahedi, H.

    1991-01-01

    Population dynamics of Meloidogyne chitwoodi were studied for 2 years in a commercial potato field and microplots. Annual second-stage juvenile (J2) densities peaked at harvest in mid-fall, declined through the winter, and were lowest in early summer. In the field and in one microplot study, population increase displayed trimodal patterns during the 1984 and 1985 seasons. Overwintering nematodes produced egg masses on roots by 600-800 degree-days base 5 C (DD₅) after planting. Second-generation and third-generation eggs hatched by 950-1,100 DD₅ and 1,500-1,600 DD₅, respectively, and J2 densities rapidly increased in the soil. A fourth generation was observed at 2,150 DD₅ in 1985 microplot studies. Tubers were initiated by 450-500 DD₅, but J2 were not observed in the tubers until after the second generation hatched at 988-1,166 DD₅. A second period of tuber invasion was observed when third generation J2 hatched. The regional variation in M. chitwoodi damage on potato may be explained by degree-day accumulation in different potato production regions of the western United States. PMID:19283128

  4. The influence of diurnal temperature variation on degree-day accumulation and insect life history.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shi; Fleischer, Shelby J; Saunders, Michael C; Thomas, Matthew B

    2015-01-01

    Ectotherms, such as insects, experience non-constant temperatures in nature. Daily mean temperatures can be derived from the daily maximum and minimum temperatures. However, the converse is not true and environments with the same mean temperature can exhibit very different diurnal temperate ranges. Here we apply a degree-day model for development of the grape berry moth (Paralobesia viteana, a significant vineyard pest in the northeastern USA) to investigate how different diurnal temperature range conditions can influence degree-day accumulation and, hence, insect life history. We first consider changes in diurnal temperature range independent of changes in mean temperatures. We then investigate grape berry moth life history under potential climate change conditions, increasing mean temperature via variable patterns of change to diurnal temperature range. We predict that diurnal temperature range change can substantially alter insect life history. Altering diurnal temperature range independent of the mean temperature can affect development rate and voltinism, with the magnitude of the effects dependent on whether changes occur to the daily minimum temperature (Tmin), daily maximum temperature (Tmax), or both. Allowing for an increase in mean temperature produces more marked effects on life history but, again, the patterns and magnitude depend on the nature of the change to diurnal temperature range together with the starting conditions in the local environment. The study highlights the importance of characterizing the influence of diurnal temperature range in addition to mean temperature alone.

  5. The Influence of Diurnal Temperature Variation on Degree-Day Accumulation and Insect Life History

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shi; Fleischer, Shelby J.; Saunders, Michael C.; Thomas, Matthew B.

    2015-01-01

    Ectotherms, such as insects, experience non-constant temperatures in nature. Daily mean temperatures can be derived from the daily maximum and minimum temperatures. However, the converse is not true and environments with the same mean temperature can exhibit very different diurnal temperate ranges. Here we apply a degree-day model for development of the grape berry moth (Paralobesia viteana, a significant vineyard pest in the northeastern USA) to investigate how different diurnal temperature range conditions can influence degree-day accumulation and, hence, insect life history. We first consider changes in diurnal temperature range independent of changes in mean temperatures. We then investigate grape berry moth life history under potential climate change conditions, increasing mean temperature via variable patterns of change to diurnal temperature range. We predict that diurnal temperature range change can substantially alter insect life history. Altering diurnal temperature range independent of the mean temperature can affect development rate and voltinism, with the magnitude of the effects dependent on whether changes occur to the daily minimum temperature (Tmin), daily maximum temperature (Tmax), or both. Allowing for an increase in mean temperature produces more marked effects on life history but, again, the patterns and magnitude depend on the nature of the change to diurnal temperature range together with the starting conditions in the local environment. The study highlights the importance of characterizing the influence of diurnal temperature range in addition to mean temperature alone. PMID:25790195

  6. Study on the postmortem submersion interval and accumulated degree days for a multiple drowning accident.

    PubMed

    Mateus, M; Vieira, V

    2014-05-01

    Recreational accidents in aquatic environments leading to death by drowning are quite frequent. Even if they do not usually require forensic investigation, they may provide useful information on the post mortem submersion interval (PMSI) and its relation with accumulated degree days (ADD). This is particularly useful to forensic science since most studies dealing with these matters rely mostly on animal carcasses as human analogues. In this work we report on a multiple drowning accident resulting in 6 victims. ADD was calculated based on the PMSI and water temperature during this period. PMSI varied between ∼7.4 days and ∼11.4 days, and estimated body drift from the accident site ranged from 0.5km to 8.0km. Surface water temperature in the accident area showed little variation during the PMSI (14.5-16.0°C). Estimated ADD varied between 115°C and 174°C, and between 104°C and 191°C when considering the cumulative lower (ADDmin) and upper (ADDmax) limits for ADD. We compare the results with recently published data on two similar cases, and suggest a range for ADD that can be assumed as necessary before body floatability is regain after a drowning accident.

  7. Degree-day accumulation influences annual variability in growth of age-0 walleye

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Uphoff, Christopher S.; Schoenebeck, Casey W.; Hoback, W. Wyatt; Koupal, Keith D.; Pope, Kevin L.

    2013-01-01

    The growth of age-0 fishes influences survival, especially in temperate regions where size-dependent over-winter mortality can be substantial. Additional benefits of earlier maturation and greater fecundity may exist for faster growing individuals. This study correlated prey densities, growing-degree days, water-surface elevation, turbidity, and chlorophyll a with age-0 walleye Sander vitreus growth in a south-central Nebraska irrigation reservoir. Growth of age-0 walleye was variable between 2003 and 2011, with mean lengths ranging from 128 to 231 mm by fall (September 30th–October 15th). A set of a priori candidate models were used to assess the relative support of explanatory variables using Akaike's information criterion (AIC). A temperature model using the growing degree-days metric was the best supported model, describing 65% of the variability in annual mean lengths of age-0 walleye. The second and third best supported models included the variables chlorophyll a (r2 = 0.49) and larval freshwater drum density (r2 = 0.45), respectively. There have been mixed results concerning the importance of temperature effects on growth of age-0 walleye. This study supports the hypothesis that temperature is the most important predictor of age-0 walleye growth near the southwestern limits of its natural range.

  8. Caution! All data are not created equal: The hazards of using National Weather Service data for calculating accumulated degree days.

    PubMed

    Dabbs, Gretchen R

    2010-10-10

    An increasing number of anthropological decomposition studies are utilizing accumulated degree days (ADD) to quantify and estimate the post-mortem interval (PMI) at given decompositional stages, or the number of ADD required for certain events, such as tooth exfoliation, to occur. This study addresses the utility of retroactively applying temperature data from the closest National Weather Service (NWS) station to these calculations as prescribed in the past. Hourly temperature readings were collected for 154 days at a research site in Farmington, AR between June 30 and December 25, 2008. These were converted to average daily temperatures by calculating the mean of the 24 hourly values, following the NWS reporting procedure. These data were compared to comparable data from the Owl Creek and Drake Field NWS stations, the two closest to the research site, located 5.7 and 9.9km away, respectively. Paired samples t-tests between the research site and each of the NWS stations show significant differences between the average daily temperature data collected at the research station, and both Owl Creek (2.0°C, p<0.001) and Drake Field (0.6°C, p<0.001). When applied to a simulated recovery effort, the further NWS station also proved to represent the better model for the recovery site. Using a published equation for estimating post-mortem interval using ADD and total body decomposition scores (Megyesi et al., 2005 [1]), the Drake Field data produced estimates of PMI more closely mirroring those of the research site than did Owl Creek. This demonstrates that instead of automatically choosing the nearest NWS station, care must be taken when choosing an NWS station for retroactively gathering temperature data for application of PMI estimation techniques using accumulated degree days to ensure the station adequately reflects temperature conditions at the recovery site. PMID:20303684

  9. Sparganothis fruitworm degree-day benchmarks provide key treatmen timings for cranberry IPM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Degree-day benchmarks indicate discrete biological events in the development of insect pests. For the Sparganothis fruitworm, we have isolated all key development events and linked them to degree-day accumulations. These degree-day accumulations can greatly improve treatment timings for cranberry ...

  10. Optimizing eastern gamagrass forage harvests using growing degree days

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tripsacum dactyloides (L.) L., commonly known as eastern gamagrass is useful for grazing, stored forage, soil amelioration and conservation, and potentially as a biofuel feedstock. Our goal was to calculate accumulated growing degree days (GDD) from existing datasets collected for eastern gamagrass...

  11. Upstream Material Accumulation and Meandering on Present Day Gully Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquon, K.; Gargani, J.; Massé, M.; Conway, S. J.; Vincendon, M.; Séjourné, A.

    2016-09-01

    Here we show the present day evolution of a martian gully during the last 4 MY: (1) non-seasonal material accumulation in the alcove, (2) seasonal evolution of meanders, (3) extension of the channel, (4) significant modifications of the debris apron.

  12. Temperature thresholds and degree-day model for Marmara gulosa (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae).

    PubMed

    O'Neal, M J; Headrick, D H; Montez, Gregory H; Grafton-Cardwell, E E

    2011-08-01

    The developmental thresholds for Marmara gulosa Guillén & Davis (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) were investigated in the laboratory by using 17, 21, 25, 29, and 33 degrees C. The lowest mortality occurred in cohorts exposed to 25 and 29 degrees C. Other temperatures caused >10% mortality primarily in egg and first and second instar sap-feeding larvae. Linear regression analysis approximated the lower developmental threshold at 12.2 degrees C. High mortality and slow developmental rate at 33 degrees C indicate the upper developmental threshold is near this temperature. The degree-day (DD) model indicated that a generation requires an accumulation of 322 DD for development from egg to adult emergence. Average daily temperatures in the San Joaquin Valley could produce up to seven generations of M. gulosa per year. Field studies documented two, five, and three overlapping generations of M. gulosa in walnuts (Juglans regia L.; Juglandaceae), pummelos (Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr.; Rutaceae), and oranges (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck; Rutaceae), for a total of seven observed peelminer generations. Degree-day units between generations averaged 375 DD for larvae infesting walnut twigs; however, availability of green wood probably affected timing of infestations. Degree-day units between larval generations averaged 322 for pummelos and 309 for oranges, confirming the laboratory estimation. First infestation of citrus occurred in June in pummelo fruit and August in orange fruit when fruit neared 60 mm in diameter. Fruit size and degree-day units could be used as management tools to more precisely time insecticide treatments to target the egg stage and prevent rind damage to citrus. Degree-day units also could be used to more precisely time natural enemy releases to target larval instars that are preferred for oviposition.

  13. Determining degree-day thresholds from field observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, R. L.; Spano, Donatella; Cesaraccio, Carla; Duce, Pierpaolo

    This paper compares several methods for determining degree-day (°D) threshold temperatures from field observations. Three of the methods use the mean developmental period temperature and simple equations to estimate: (1) the smallest standard deviation in °D, (2) the least standard deviation in days, and (3) a linear regression intercept. Two additional methods use iterations of cumulative °D and threshold temperatures to determine the smallest root mean square error (RMSE). One of the iteration methods uses a linear model and the other uses a single triangle °D calculation method. The method giving the best results was verified by comparing observed and predicted phenological periods using 7 years of kiwifruit data and 10 years of cherry tree data. In general, the iteration method using the single triangle method to calculate °D provided threshold temperatures with the smallest RMSE values. However, the iteration method using a linear °D model also worked well. Simply using a threshold of zero gave predictions that were nearly as good as those obtained using the other two methods. The smallest standard deviation in °D performed the worst. The least standard deviation in days and the regression methods did well sometimes; however, the threshold temperatures were sometimes negative, which does not support the idea that development rates are related to heat units.

  14. Projecting Future Change in Growing Degree Days of Winter Wheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz Castillo, N.; Gaitan Ospina, C. F.; Mcpherson, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    Southwest Oklahoma is one of the most productive regions in the Great Plains where winter wheat is produced. To assess the effect of climate change on the growing degree days (GDD) available for winter wheat production, we selected from the CMIP5 archive, two of the best performing Global Climate Models (GCMs) for the region (MIROC5 and CCSM4) to project the future change in GDD under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 —a "business as usual" future trajectory for greenhouse gas concentrations. Two quantile mapping downscaling methods were applied to both GCMs to obtain local scale projections. The downscaled outputs were applied to a GDD formula to show the GDD changes between the historical period (1961-2004) and the future period (2006-2098) in terms of mean differences. The results show that at the end of the 2098 growing season, the increase in GDD is expected to be between -2.0 and 6. Depending on the GCM used, Southwest Oklahoma is expected to see an increase in future GDD under the CCSM4 GCM and a mix of increase, no change and decrease under the MIROC5 GCM.

  15. Estimating degree-day factors from MODIS for snowmelt runoff modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Z. H.; Parajka, J.; Tian, F. Q.; Blöschl, G.

    2014-12-01

    Degree-day factors are widely used to estimate snowmelt runoff in operational hydrological models. Usually, they are calibrated on observed runoff, and sometimes on satellite snow cover data. In this paper, we propose a new method for estimating the snowmelt degree-day factor (DDFS) directly from MODIS snow covered area (SCA) and ground-based snow depth data without calibration. Subcatchment snow volume is estimated by combining SCA and snow depths. Snow density is estimated to be the ratio between observed precipitation and changes in the snow volume for days with snow accumulation. Finally, DDFS values are estimated to be the ratio between changes in the snow water equivalent and difference between the daily temperature and the melt threshold value for days with snow melt. We compare simulations of basin runoff and snow cover patterns using spatially variable DDFS estimated from snow data with those using spatially uniform DDFS calibrated on runoff. The runoff performances using estimated DDFS are slightly improved, and the simulated snow cover patterns are significantly more plausible. The new method may help reduce some of the runoff model parameter uncertainty by reducing the total number of calibration parameters. This method is applied to the Lienz catchment in East Tyrol, Austria, which covers an area of 1198 km2. Approximately 70% of the basin is covered by snow in the early spring season.

  16. Degree-Day Benchmarks for Sparganothis sulfureana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Development in Cranberries.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Annie E; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar R; Kyryczenko-Roth, Vera; Sojka, Jayne; Zalapa, Juan E; Steffan, Shawn A

    2014-12-01

    Sparganothis sulfureana Clemens is a severe pest of cranberries in the Midwest and northeast United States. Timing for insecticide applications has relied primarily on calendar dates and pheromone trap-catch; however, abiotic conditions can vary greatly, rendering such methods unreliable as indicators of optimal treatment timing. Phenology models based on degree-day (DD) accrual represent a proven, superior approach to assessing the development of insect populations, particularly for larvae. Previous studies of S. sulfureana development showed that the lower and upper temperature thresholds for larval development were 10.0 and 29.9°C (49.9 and 85.8°F), respectively. We used these thresholds to generate DD accumulations specific to S. sulfureana, and then linked these DD accumulations to discrete biological events observed during S. sulfureana development in Wisconsin and New Jersey cranberries. Here, we provide the DDs associated with flight initiation, peak flight, flight termination, adult life span, preovipositional period, ovipositional period, and egg hatch. These DD accumulations represent key developmental benchmarks, allowing for the creation of a phenology model that facilitates wiser management of S. sulfureana in the cranberry system. PMID:26470078

  17. Degree-Day Benchmarks for Sparganothis sulfureana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Development in Cranberries.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Annie E; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar R; Kyryczenko-Roth, Vera; Sojka, Jayne; Zalapa, Juan E; Steffan, Shawn A

    2014-12-01

    Sparganothis sulfureana Clemens is a severe pest of cranberries in the Midwest and northeast United States. Timing for insecticide applications has relied primarily on calendar dates and pheromone trap-catch; however, abiotic conditions can vary greatly, rendering such methods unreliable as indicators of optimal treatment timing. Phenology models based on degree-day (DD) accrual represent a proven, superior approach to assessing the development of insect populations, particularly for larvae. Previous studies of S. sulfureana development showed that the lower and upper temperature thresholds for larval development were 10.0 and 29.9°C (49.9 and 85.8°F), respectively. We used these thresholds to generate DD accumulations specific to S. sulfureana, and then linked these DD accumulations to discrete biological events observed during S. sulfureana development in Wisconsin and New Jersey cranberries. Here, we provide the DDs associated with flight initiation, peak flight, flight termination, adult life span, preovipositional period, ovipositional period, and egg hatch. These DD accumulations represent key developmental benchmarks, allowing for the creation of a phenology model that facilitates wiser management of S. sulfureana in the cranberry system.

  18. Forecasting plant phenology: evaluating the degree-day method for Betula pendula and Padus racemosa spring phases in Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitāne, Māra; Kalvans, Andis; Kalvāne, Gunta

    2013-04-01

    A phenological and meteorological data series for period 1960-2009 were used to evaluate the usefulness of the degree-day approach for forecasting beginning of leaf unfolding and flowering for two tree species - silver birch Betula pendula and bird cherry Padus racemosa in Latvia (Kalvane et al, 2009). The degree days - sum of the active temperatures accumulated after the winter calm period - were calculated for a range of base temperatures (0, 3, 5, 7 and 10oC). The results were compared to the timing of the phenological events observed at eight stations in order to evaluate year-to-year as well as regional variations. Different base temperatures gave surprisingly similar results. The most appropriate threshold temperatures was found to be +7° C for both the budburst and flowering of silver birch, +3oC for the budburst of bird cherry and +5oC for flowering of bird cherry. Giving the most appropriate estimated base temperatures, it is found that the budburst of the Betula pendula takes place when 70 degree-days after the winter calm is accumulated and the flowering takes place when 85 degree days are accumulated. The respective degree day values for the Padus racemosa are 117 and 164. The conclusions should be considered as indicative because the exact locations of the phenological observations originating from the network of the volunteers are not known exactly. The research is supported by the European Union through the European Social Fund Mobilitas grant No MJD309 and grant No. 2009/0212/1DP/1.1.1.2.0/09/APIA/VIAA/060. Key words: phenology, degree day, Betula pendula, Padus racemosa, Latvia References: Kalvane, G., Romanovskaja, D., Briede, A., Baksiene, E. 2009. Influence of the climate change to the phenological changes in Latvia and Lithuania. Climate Research. Vol. 39, 209-219.

  19. Changes In The Heating Degree-days In Norway Due Toglobal Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skaugen, T. E.; Tveito, O. E.; Hanssen-Bauer, I.

    A continuous spatial representation of temperature improves the possibility topro- duce maps of temperature-dependent variables. A temperature scenario for the period 2021-2050 is obtained for Norway from the Max-Planck-Institute? AOGCM, GSDIO ECHAM4/OPEC 3. This is done by an ?empirical downscaling method? which in- volves the use of empirical links between large-scale fields and local variables to de- duce estimates of the local variables. The analysis is obtained at forty-six sites in Norway. Spatial representation of the anomalies of temperature in the scenario period compared to the normal period (1961-1990) is obtained with the use of spatial interpo- lation in a GIS. The temperature scenario indicates that we will have a warmer climate in Norway in the future, especially during the winter season. The heating degree-days (HDD) is defined as the accumulated Celsius degrees be- tween the daily mean temperature and a threshold temperature. For Scandinavian countries, this threshold temperature is 17 Celsius degrees. The HDD is found to be a good estimate of accumulated cold. It is therefore a useful index for heating energy consumption within the heating season, and thus to power production planning. As a consequence of the increasing temperatures, the length of the heating season and the HDD within this season will decrease in Norway in the future. The calculations of the heating season and the HDD is estimated at grid level with the use of a GIS. The spatial representation of the heating season and the HDD can then easily be plotted. Local information of the variables being analysed can be withdrawn from the spatial grid in a GIS. The variable is prepared for further spatial analysis. It may also be used as an input to decision making systems.

  20. Photoperiod and growing degree days effect on dry matter partitioning in Jerusalem artichoke

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of photoperiod and growing degree days (GDD) on dry matter and dry partitioning in Jerusalem artichoke was investigated during 2008-09 and 2009-10. Three Jerusalem artichoke genotypes (CN-52867, JA-89 and HEL-65) were planted in 15 day-intervals between with thirteen different dates (Sep...

  1. Effect of end-of-day irradiations on polyamine accumulation in petal cultures of Araujia sericifera.

    PubMed

    Moysset, Luisa; Trull, Olga; Santos, M. Asunción; Simón, Esther; Torné, Josep M

    2002-01-01

    We have studied photoperiodic control and the effect of phytochrome photoconversion at the end-of-day (EOD) on polyamine (PA) accumulation in petal explants of Araujia sericifera. Petals from immature flowers were cultured under long (LD) and short (SD) days. Light was provided by Gro-lux fluorescent lamps (90-100 &mgr;mol m-2 s-1). Red (R), far red (FR), red followed by far-red (R-FR) and far-red followed by red (FR-R) light treatments were applied daily at the end of the photoperiod. The free and bound putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) fractions in petal explants were determined 40 days after the beginning of the culture. We also aimed to clarify the involvement of PA changes by using two inhibitors of PA biosynthesis: D-l-alpha-difluoromethylarginine (DFMA) and methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) (MGBG). We found PA accumulation to be under photoperiodic control, and the inhibitory effect of DFMA on this accumulation suggests that arginine decarboxylase (ADC) is the major pathway for Put biosynthesis. Polyamine levels were higher under LD, mainly as a result of the accumulation of free and bound Put. FR-EOD treatment, which dramatically reduced the R : FR ratio after LD, increased the accumulation of PA, mainly as free Put and free and bound Spd. Sequential R-FR and FR-R-EOD treatments strongly increased bound Spd. The concentration of MGBG used increased total PA accumulation, mainly as Put. However, all EOD light treatments dramatically reduced Put accumulation in the presence of MGBG. This may be due to a dual role of FR light in PA accumulation: (1) FR per se stimulates PA production, probably via ADC, and (2) in the presence of MGBG, FR inhibits Put accumulation, probably via ethylene production.

  2. Growing degree-days for the `Niagara Rosada' grapevine pruned in different seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarpare, Fábio Vale; Scarpare Filho, João Alexio; Rodrigues, Alessandro; Reichardt, Klaus; Angelocci, Luiz Roberto

    2012-09-01

    Plant growth and development are proportional to biological time, or the thermal time of the species, which can be defined as the integral of the temperature over time between the lower and upper temperature developmental thresholds. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficiency of the growing degree-day (GDD) approach for vines of the `Niagara Rosada' cultivar pruned in winter and summer seasons, and physiological phases (mobilisation and reserve accumulation) in a humid subtropical region. The experiment was carried out on 13-year-old plants in Piracicaba, São Paulo State-Brazil, evaluating 24 production cycles, 12 from the winter pruning, and 12 from the summer pruning. The statistical design was comprised of randomised blocks, using the pruning dates as treatment: 20 July, 4 August, 19 August, and 3 September (winter); 1 February, 15 February, 2 March, and 16 March (summer). Comparison of the mean values of GDD among pruning dates was evaluated by the Tukey test, and comparison between pruning seasons was made by the F test for orthogonal contrasts, both at the 5% probability level. The results showed good agreement between the values of GDD required to complete the cycle from the winter pruning until harvest when compared with other studies performed with the same cultivar grown in the Southern and Southeastern regions of Brazil. However, there was a consistent statistical difference between GDD computed for winter and summer pruning, which allowed us to conclude that this bio-meteorological index is not sufficient to distinguish vines pruned in different seasons and physiological phases applied in humid subtropical climates.

  3. Growing degree-days for the 'Niagara Rosada' grapevine pruned in different seasons.

    PubMed

    Scarpare, Fábio Vale; Scarpare Filho, João Alexio; Rodrigues, Alessandro; Reichardt, Klaus; Angelocci, Luiz Roberto

    2012-09-01

    Plant growth and development are proportional to biological time, or the thermal time of the species, which can be defined as the integral of the temperature over time between the lower and upper temperature developmental thresholds. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficiency of the growing degree-day (GDD) approach for vines of the 'Niagara Rosada' cultivar pruned in winter and summer seasons, and physiological phases (mobilisation and reserve accumulation) in a humid subtropical region. The experiment was carried out on 13-year-old plants in Piracicaba, São Paulo State-Brazil, evaluating 24 production cycles, 12 from the winter pruning, and 12 from the summer pruning. The statistical design was comprised of randomised blocks, using the pruning dates as treatment: 20 July, 4 August, 19 August, and 3 September (winter); 1 February, 15 February, 2 March, and 16 March (summer). Comparison of the mean values of GDD among pruning dates was evaluated by the Tukey test, and comparison between pruning seasons was made by the F test for orthogonal contrasts, both at the 5% probability level. The results showed good agreement between the values of GDD required to complete the cycle from the winter pruning until harvest when compared with other studies performed with the same cultivar grown in the Southern and Southeastern regions of Brazil. However, there was a consistent statistical difference between GDD computed for winter and summer pruning, which allowed us to conclude that this bio-meteorological index is not sufficient to distinguish vines pruned in different seasons and physiological phases applied in humid subtropical climates.

  4. Growing degree-days for the 'Niagara Rosada' grapevine pruned in different seasons.

    PubMed

    Scarpare, Fábio Vale; Scarpare Filho, João Alexio; Rodrigues, Alessandro; Reichardt, Klaus; Angelocci, Luiz Roberto

    2012-09-01

    Plant growth and development are proportional to biological time, or the thermal time of the species, which can be defined as the integral of the temperature over time between the lower and upper temperature developmental thresholds. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficiency of the growing degree-day (GDD) approach for vines of the 'Niagara Rosada' cultivar pruned in winter and summer seasons, and physiological phases (mobilisation and reserve accumulation) in a humid subtropical region. The experiment was carried out on 13-year-old plants in Piracicaba, São Paulo State-Brazil, evaluating 24 production cycles, 12 from the winter pruning, and 12 from the summer pruning. The statistical design was comprised of randomised blocks, using the pruning dates as treatment: 20 July, 4 August, 19 August, and 3 September (winter); 1 February, 15 February, 2 March, and 16 March (summer). Comparison of the mean values of GDD among pruning dates was evaluated by the Tukey test, and comparison between pruning seasons was made by the F test for orthogonal contrasts, both at the 5% probability level. The results showed good agreement between the values of GDD required to complete the cycle from the winter pruning until harvest when compared with other studies performed with the same cultivar grown in the Southern and Southeastern regions of Brazil. However, there was a consistent statistical difference between GDD computed for winter and summer pruning, which allowed us to conclude that this bio-meteorological index is not sufficient to distinguish vines pruned in different seasons and physiological phases applied in humid subtropical climates. PMID:21866380

  5. A degree-day model of sheep grazing influence on alfalfa weevil and crop characteristics.

    PubMed

    Goosey, Hayes B

    2012-02-01

    Domestic sheep (Ovis spp.) grazing is emerging as an integrated pest management tactic for alfalfa weevil, Hypera postica (Gyllenhal), management and a degree-day model is needed as a decision and support tool. In response to this need, grazing exclosures with unique degree-days and stocking rates were established at weekly intervals in a central Montana alfalfa field during 2008 and 2009. Analyses indicate that increased stocking rates and grazing degree-days were associated with decreased crop levels of weevil larvae. Larval data collected from grazing treatments were regressed against on-site and near-site temperatures that produced the same accuracy. The near-site model was chosen to encourage producer acceptance. The regression slope differed from zero, had an r2 of 0.83, and a root mean square error of 0.2. Crop data were collected to achieve optimal weevil management with forage quality and yield. Differences were recorded in crude protein, acid and neutral detergent fibers, total digestible nutrients, and mean stage by weight. Stem heights differed with higher stocking rates and degree-days recording the shortest alfalfa canopy height at harvest. The degree-day model was validated at four sites during 2010 with a mean square prediction error of 0.74. The recommendation from this research is to stock alfalfa fields in the spring before 63 DD with rates between 251 and 583 sheep days per hectare (d/ha). Sheep should be allowed to graze to a minimum of 106 and maximum of 150 DD before removal. This model gives field entomologists a new method for implementing grazing in an integrated pest management program.

  6. Energy consumption based on heating/cooling degree days within the urban environment of Athens, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moustris, K. P.; Nastos, P. T.; Bartzokas, A.; Larissi, I. K.; Zacharia, P. T.; Paliatsos, A. G.

    2015-11-01

    The degree-day method is considered to be a fundamental and a rather simple method to estimate heating and cooling energy demand. This study aims in a detailed and accurate assessment of cooling and heating degree days in different locations within the Greater Athens area (GAA), Greece. To achieve this goal, hourly values of air temperature from eight different locations within the GAA, covering the period 2001-2005, were used. Thus, the monthly and the annual number of cooling and heating degree days for each one of the examined locations could be estimated separately. Furthermore, an effort is made to evaluate the energy consumption for a specific building, based on the degree-day method, to indicate the impact of the canopy layer urban heat island on neighboring regions within the GAA. Results reveal that there is great spatial variability of energy demand and energy consumption along with significant differences in expenses for heating and cooling among neighboring regions within the GAA. Finally, regarding the energy demands of buildings, it is important to take into account intra-urban variability of canopy layer climates against an ensemble mean throughout the city, because the latter can result in inaccurate estimations and conclusions.

  7. Citizen science: Plant and insect phenology with regards to degree-days

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Daily minimum and maximum temperatures collected from grower-collaborators were used to calculate site specific degree-days. Using our new understanding of Sparganothis phenology, plant phenology were examined relative to moth phenology, allowing us to predict moth development in parallel with plant...

  8. Using degree-days to maximize your pest management tool box

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insecticide control is limited by many factors: insecticide coverage, insecticide half-life, insect life stage, and plant growth. Using degree-day models to time insecticide applications accurately is a powerful tactic that increases the efficacy of each insecticide application. Mating disruption op...

  9. Global Warming Impacts on Heating and Cooling Degree-Days in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petri, Y.; Caldeira, K.

    2014-12-01

    Anthropogenic climate change is expected to significantly alter residential air conditioning and space heating requirements, which account for 41% of U.S. household energy expenditures. The degree-day method can be used for reliable estimation of weather related building energy consumption and costs, as well as outdoor climatic thermal comfort. Here, we use U.S. Climate Normals developed by NOAA based on weather station observations along with Climate Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) multi-model ensemble simulations. We add the projected change in heating and cooling degree-days based on the climate models to the estimates based on the NOAA U.S. Climate Normals to project future heating and cooling degree-days. We find locations with the lowest and highest combined index of cooling (CDDs) and heating degree-days (HDDs) for the historical period (1981 - 2010) and future period (2080 - 2099) under the Representation Concentration Pathway 8.5 (RCP8.5) climate change scenario. Our results indicate that in both time frames and among the lower 48 states, coastal areas in the West and South California will have the smallest degree-day sum (CDD + HDD), and hence from a climatic perspective become the best candidates for residential real estate. The Rocky Mountains region in Wyoming, in addition to northern Minnesota and North Dakota, will have the greatest CDD + HDD. While global warming is projected to reduce the median heating and cooling demand (- 5%) at the end of the century, CDD + HDD will decrease in the North, with an opposite effect in the South. This work could be helpful in deciding where to live in the United States based on present and future thermal comfort, and could also provide a basis for estimates of changes in heating and cooling energy demand.

  10. A Predictive Degree Day Model for the Development of Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae) Infesting Solanum tuberosum.

    PubMed

    Lewis, O M; Michels, G J; Pierson, E A; Heinz, K M

    2015-08-01

    Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is a pest of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) that vectors the bacterium that putatively causes zebra chip disease in potatoes, 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum.' Zebra chip disease is managed by controlling populations of B. cockerelli in commercial potato fields. Lacking an integrated pest management strategy, growers have resorted to an intensive chemical control program that may be leading to insecticide-resistant B. cockerelli populations in south Texas and Mexico. To initiate the development of an integrated approach of controlling B. cockerelli, we used constant temperature studies, nonlinear and linear modeling, and field sampling data to determine and validate the degree day parameters for development of B. cockerelli infesting potato. Degree day model predictions for three different B. cockerelli life stages were tested against data collected from pesticide-free plots. The model was most accurate at predicting egg-to-egg and nymph-to-nymph peaks, with less accuracy in predicting adult-to-adult peaks. It is impractical to predict first occurrence of B. cockerelli in potato plantings as adults are present as soon cotyledons break through the soil. Therefore, we suggest integrating the degree day model into current B. cockerelli management practices using a two-phase method. Phase 1 occurs from potato planting through to the first peak in a B. cockerelli field population, which is managed using current practices. Phase 2 begins with the first B. cockerelli population peak and the degree day model is initiated to predict the subsequent population peaks, thus providing growers a tool to proactively manage this pest. PMID:26314066

  11. A Predictive Degree Day Model for the Development of Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae) Infesting Solanum tuberosum.

    PubMed

    Lewis, O M; Michels, G J; Pierson, E A; Heinz, K M

    2015-08-01

    Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is a pest of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) that vectors the bacterium that putatively causes zebra chip disease in potatoes, 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum.' Zebra chip disease is managed by controlling populations of B. cockerelli in commercial potato fields. Lacking an integrated pest management strategy, growers have resorted to an intensive chemical control program that may be leading to insecticide-resistant B. cockerelli populations in south Texas and Mexico. To initiate the development of an integrated approach of controlling B. cockerelli, we used constant temperature studies, nonlinear and linear modeling, and field sampling data to determine and validate the degree day parameters for development of B. cockerelli infesting potato. Degree day model predictions for three different B. cockerelli life stages were tested against data collected from pesticide-free plots. The model was most accurate at predicting egg-to-egg and nymph-to-nymph peaks, with less accuracy in predicting adult-to-adult peaks. It is impractical to predict first occurrence of B. cockerelli in potato plantings as adults are present as soon cotyledons break through the soil. Therefore, we suggest integrating the degree day model into current B. cockerelli management practices using a two-phase method. Phase 1 occurs from potato planting through to the first peak in a B. cockerelli field population, which is managed using current practices. Phase 2 begins with the first B. cockerelli population peak and the degree day model is initiated to predict the subsequent population peaks, thus providing growers a tool to proactively manage this pest.

  12. Distribution of Snow and Maximum Snow Water Equivalent Obtained by LANDSAT Data and Degree Day Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takeda, K.; Ochiai, H.; Takeuchi, S.

    1985-01-01

    Maximum snow water equivalence and snowcover distribution are estimated using several LANDSAT data taken in snowmelting season over a four year period. The test site is Okutadami-gawa Basin located in the central position of Tohoku-Kanto-Chubu District. The year to year normalization for snowmelt volume computation on the snow line is conducted by year to year correction of degree days using the snowcover percentage within the test basin obtained from LANDSAT data. The maximum snow water equivalent map in the test basin is generated based on the normalized snowmelt volume on the snow line extracted from four LANDSAT data taken in a different year. The snowcover distribution on an arbitrary day in snowmelting of 1982 is estimated from the maximum snow water equivalent map. The estimated snowcover is compared with the snowcover area extracted from NOAA-AVHRR data taken on the same day. The applicability of the snow estimation using LANDSAT data is discussed.

  13. Spatial distributions of heating, cooling, and industrial degree-days in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildiz, I.; Sosaoglu, B.

    2007-11-01

    The degree-day method is commonly used to estimate energy consumption for heating and cooling in residential, commercial and industrial buildings, as well as in greenhouses, livestock facilities, storage facilities and warehouses. This article presents monthly and yearly averages and spatial distributions of heating, cooling, and industrial degree-days at the base temperatures of 18 °C and 20 °C, 18 °C and 24 °C, and 7 °C and 13 °C, respectively; as well as the corresponding number of days in Turkey. The findings presented here will facilitate the estimation of heating and cooling energy consumption for any residential, commercial and industrial buildings in Turkey, for any period of time (monthly, seasonal, etc.). From this analysis it will also be possible to compare and design alternative building systems in terms of energy efficiencies. If one prefers to use set point temperatures to indicate the resumption of the heating season would also be possible using the provided information in this article. In addition, utility companies and manufacturing/marketing companies of HVAC systems would be able to easily determine the demand, marketing strategies and policies based on the findings in this study.

  14. Projecting Monthly Natural Gas Sales for Space Heating Using a Monthly Updated Model and Degree-days from Monthly Outlooks.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehman, Richard L.; Warren, Henry E.

    1994-01-01

    The problem of projecting monthly residential natural gas sales and evaluating interannual changes in demand is investigated using a linear regression model adjusted monthly. with lagged monthly heating degree-days as the independent variable. The relationship between sales and degree-day data for customers of Columbia Gas Company (serving the Columbus, Ohio, area) is studied for a 20-yr period ending in June 1990. Analysis of the phases of the monthly billed sales and the degree-day data indicated that monthly sales reports lagged degree-days and gas consumption by 15 days on average. Running 12-month regressions of Columbia Gas sales on 15-day-lagged degree-days show that lagged degree-days explain, on average, 97% of the variability in the monthly sales reports for the study years. Annualized trends in the regression coefficients indicate changes in consumption due to conservation and changes in price. Since 1974 75 the trends indicate declines of 50% in non-weather- sensitive sales per customer, and 35% in monthly sales per degree-day per customer, with most of the changes occurring prior to 1985. The mode is adapted by using a regression equation based on historical data through the prior 12 months with degree-days as the independent variable. Estimates for sales in the coming period are based on official National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) monthly temperature outlooks (outlooks) for the Columbus region. For comparison purposes, four lagged monthly degree-day sets are used in a model: 1) a set of degree-day normals, 2) a set of 100% projected degree-day values obtained by use of NOAA outlooks, 3) a set in which the first half of the degree-days in each monthly period are observations and the second half are projected, and 4) a set that is 100% observed (the perfect case). The skill of the degree-day sets for projecting monthly sales is evaluated by a statistical analysis of the projection errors (differences between projected and reported

  15. Impacts of global warming on residential heating and cooling degree-days in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Petri, Yana; Caldeira, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is expected to decrease heating demand and increase cooling demand for buildings and affect outdoor thermal comfort. Here, we project changes in residential heating degree-days (HDD) and cooling degree-days (CDD) for the historical (1981–2010) and future (2080–2099) periods in the United States using median results from the Climate Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) simulations under the Representation Concentration Pathway 8.5 (RCP8.5) scenario. We project future HDD and CDD values by adding CMIP5 projected changes to values based on historical observations of US climate. The sum HDD + CDD is an indicator of locations that are thermally comfortable, with low heating and cooling demand. By the end of the century, station median HDD + CDD will be reduced in the contiguous US, decreasing in the North and increasing in the South. Under the unmitigated RCP8.5 scenario, by the end of this century, in terms of HDD and CDD values considered separately, future New York, NY, is anticipated to become more like present Oklahoma City, OK; Denver, CO, becomes more like Raleigh, NC, and Seattle, WA, becomes more like San Jose, CA. These results serve as an indicator of projected climate change and can help inform decision-making. PMID:26238673

  16. Present and future assessment of growing degree days over selected Greek areas with different climate conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattanaik, D. R.; Mohapatra, M.; Srivastava, A. K.; Kumar, Arun

    2016-06-01

    The determination of heat requirements in the first developing phases of plants has been expressed as Growing Degree Days (GDD). The current study focuses on three selected study areas in Greece that are characterised by different climatic conditions due to their location and aims to assess the future variation and spatial distribution of Growing Degree Days (GDD) and how these can affect the main cultivations in the study areas. Future temperature data were obtained and analysed by the ENSEMBLES project. The analysis was performed for the future periods 2021-2050 and 2071-2100 with the A1B and B1 scenarios. Spatial distribution was performed using a combination of dynamical and statistical downscaling technique through ArcGIS 10.2.1. The results indicated that for all the future periods and scenarios, the GDD are expected to increase. Furthermore, the increase in the Sperchios River basin will be the highest, followed by the Ardas and the Geropotamos River basins. Moreover, the cultivation period will be shifted from April-October to April-September which will have social, economical and environmental benefits. Additionally, the spatial distribution indicated that in the upcoming years the existing cultivations can find favourable conditions and can be expanded in mountainous areas as well. On the other hand, due to the rough topography that exists in the study areas, the wide expansion of the existing cultivations into higher altitudes is unaffordable. Nevertheless, new more profitable cultivations can be introduced which can find propitious conditions in terms of GDD.

  17. Estimating West Nile virus transmission period in Pennsylvania using an optimized degree-day model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shi; Blanford, Justine I; Fleischer, Shelby J; Hutchinson, Michael; Saunders, Michael C; Thomas, Matthew B

    2013-07-01

    Abstract We provide calibrated degree-day models to predict potential West Nile virus (WNV) transmission periods in Pennsylvania. We begin by following the standard approach of treating the degree-days necessary for the virus to complete the extrinsic incubation period (EIP), and mosquito longevity as constants. This approach failed to adequately explain virus transmission periods based on mosquito surveillance data from 4 locations (Harrisburg, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, and Williamsport) in Pennsylvania from 2002 to 2008. Allowing the EIP and adult longevity to vary across time and space improved model fit substantially. The calibrated models increase the ability to successfully predict the WNV transmission period in Pennsylvania to 70-80% compared to less than 30% in the uncalibrated model. Model validation showed the optimized models to be robust in 3 of the locations, although still showing errors for Philadelphia. These models and methods could provide useful tools to predict WNV transmission period from surveillance datasets, assess potential WNV risk, and make informed mosquito surveillance strategies.

  18. Impacts of global warming on residential heating and cooling degree-days in the United States.

    PubMed

    Petri, Yana; Caldeira, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is expected to decrease heating demand and increase cooling demand for buildings and affect outdoor thermal comfort. Here, we project changes in residential heating degree-days (HDD) and cooling degree-days (CDD) for the historical (1981-2010) and future (2080-2099) periods in the United States using median results from the Climate Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) simulations under the Representation Concentration Pathway 8.5 (RCP8.5) scenario. We project future HDD and CDD values by adding CMIP5 projected changes to values based on historical observations of US climate. The sum HDD + CDD is an indicator of locations that are thermally comfortable, with low heating and cooling demand. By the end of the century, station median HDD + CDD will be reduced in the contiguous US, decreasing in the North and increasing in the South. Under the unmitigated RCP8.5 scenario, by the end of this century, in terms of HDD and CDD values considered separately, future New York, NY, is anticipated to become more like present Oklahoma City, OK; Denver, CO, becomes more like Raleigh, NC, and Seattle, WA, becomes more like San Jose, CA. These results serve as an indicator of projected climate change and can help inform decision-making. PMID:26238673

  19. Present and future assessment of growing degree days over selected Greek areas with different climate conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattanaik, D. R.; Mohapatra, M.; Srivastava, A. K.; Kumar, Arun

    2016-08-01

    The determination of heat requirements in the first developing phases of plants has been expressed as Growing Degree Days (GDD). The current study focuses on three selected study areas in Greece that are characterised by different climatic conditions due to their location and aims to assess the future variation and spatial distribution of Growing Degree Days (GDD) and how these can affect the main cultivations in the study areas. Future temperature data were obtained and analysed by the ENSEMBLES project. The analysis was performed for the future periods 2021-2050 and 2071-2100 with the A1B and B1 scenarios. Spatial distribution was performed using a combination of dynamical and statistical downscaling technique through ArcGIS 10.2.1. The results indicated that for all the future periods and scenarios, the GDD are expected to increase. Furthermore, the increase in the Sperchios River basin will be the highest, followed by the Ardas and the Geropotamos River basins. Moreover, the cultivation period will be shifted from April-October to April-September which will have social, economical and environmental benefits. Additionally, the spatial distribution indicated that in the upcoming years the existing cultivations can find favourable conditions and can be expanded in mountainous areas as well. On the other hand, due to the rough topography that exists in the study areas, the wide expansion of the existing cultivations into higher altitudes is unaffordable. Nevertheless, new more profitable cultivations can be introduced which can find propitious conditions in terms of GDD.

  20. Evaluation of different methods for determining growing degree-day thresholds in apricot cultivars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruml, Mirjana; Vuković, Ana; Milatović, Dragan

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine different methods for determining growing degree-day (GDD) threshold temperatures for two phenological stages (full bloom and harvest) and select the optimal thresholds for a greater number of apricot ( Prunus armeniaca L.) cultivars grown in the Belgrade region. A 10-year data series were used to conduct the study. Several commonly used methods to determine the threshold temperatures from field observation were evaluated: (1) the least standard deviation in GDD; (2) the least standard deviation in days; (3) the least coefficient of variation in GDD; (4) regression coefficient; (5) the least standard deviation in days with a mean temperature above the threshold; (6) the least coefficient of variation in days with a mean temperature above the threshold; and (7) the smallest root mean square error between the observed and predicted number of days. In addition, two methods for calculating daily GDD, and two methods for calculating daily mean air temperatures were tested to emphasize the differences that can arise by different interpretations of basic GDD equation. The best agreement with observations was attained by method (7). The lower threshold temperature obtained by this method differed among cultivars from -5.6 to -1.7°C for full bloom, and from -0.5 to 6.6°C for harvest. However, the “Null” method (lower threshold set to 0°C) and “Fixed Value” method (lower threshold set to -2°C for full bloom and to 3°C for harvest) gave very good results. The limitations of the widely used method (1) and methods (5) and (6), which generally performed worst, are discussed in the paper.

  1. A physiologically based approach for degree-day calculation in pest phenology models: the case of the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hbn.) in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Maiorano, Andrea

    2012-07-01

    Phenological models based on degree-day accumulation have been developed to support the integrated pest management of many insects. Most of these models are based on linear relationships between temperature and development, and on daily time step simulations using daily minimum and maximum temperatures. This approach represents an approximation that does not take into account the insect physiological response to temperature, and daily temperature fluctuations. The objective of this work has been to develop a phenological model for the European corn borer (ECB) based on the insect physiological response to temperature and running at an hourly time step. Two modeling solutions based on the same generic compartmental system have been compared: the first based on a physiologically based relationship between temperature and development, and using hourly derived temperatures as input (HNL modeling solution); and the second based on a linear relationship between temperature and degree-day accumulation and using daily temperature (DL modeling solution). The two approaches have been compared using ECB moth capture data from the Piemonte region in Northern Italy. The HNL modeling solution showed the best results for all the accuracy indicators. The DL modeling solution showed a tendency to anticipate ECB phenological development too early. This tendency is attributable to the linear relationship between temperature and development, which does not take into account (1) the decline of this relationship at high temperatures, and (2) the daily fluctuation of temperature. As a consequence, degree-days accumulation is accelerated in the DL modeling solution and the phenological development anticipated.

  2. A physiologically based approach for degree-day calculation in pest phenology models: the case of the European Corn Borer ( Ostrinia nubilalis Hbn.) in Northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiorano, Andrea

    2012-07-01

    Phenological models based on degree-day accumulation have been developed to support the integrated pest management of many insects. Most of these models are based on linear relationships between temperature and development, and on daily time step simulations using daily minimum and maximum temperatures. This approach represents an approximation that does not take into account the insect physiological response to temperature, and daily temperature fluctuations. The objective of this work has been to develop a phenological model for the European corn borer (ECB) based on the insect physiological response to temperature and running at an hourly time step. Two modeling solutions based on the same generic compartmental system have been compared: the first based on a physiologically based relationship between temperature and development, and using hourly derived temperatures as input (HNL modeling solution); and the second based on a linear relationship between temperature and degree-day accumulation and using daily temperature (DL modeling solution). The two approaches have been compared using ECB moth capture data from the Piemonte region in Northern Italy. The HNL modeling solution showed the best results for all the accuracy indicators. The DL modeling solution showed a tendency to anticipate ECB phenological development too early. This tendency is attributable to the linear relationship between temperature and development, which does not take into account (1) the decline of this relationship at high temperatures, and (2) the daily fluctuation of temperature. As a consequence, degree-days accumulation is accelerated in the DL modeling solution and the phenological development anticipated.

  3. Present-day Block Motions and Strain Accumulation on Active Faults in the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symithe, S. J.; Calais, E.; Freed, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    The quasi-frontal subduction of the north and south American plates under the Lesser Antilles and the left and right lateral strike-slip along the northern and southern margins of the Caribbean plate offer the opportunity to study the transition from subduction to strike-slip between major plates. In addition, the segmentation and degree of interplate coupling at the Lesser Antilles subduction is key to our understanding of the earthquake potential of a subduction whose length is similar to the rupture area of the Mw9.0, 2011, Tohoku earthquake in Japan. We used the block modeling approach described in Meade and Loveless (2009) to test the optimal block geometry for the northern, eastern and southern boundaries of the Caribbean plate. We solved for angular velocities for each block/plate and strain accumulation rates for all major faults in the region. Then we calculated the variations in interplate coupling along the subduction plate boundaries using the accumulated strain rates. We tested 11 different block geometries; they are all based on geological evidences unless they are suggested by discrepancies within the GPS and seismological data or by previously published results. We confirm the existence of the micro Gonave plate. The boundary between the Micro-Gonave plate and the Hispaniola crustal block is better suited along the Haitian-Thrust-Belt instead of the Neiba-Matheux fault. The interseismic GPS velocities do not show evidence for a distinct North Lesser Antilles block. We found a totally uncoupled section of the subduction starting from the Puerto-Rico trench to the end of the Lesser Antilles section. All the relative motion of the Caribbean block is lost aseismically along the boundary of that portion of the subduction. While we found strong coupling along the northern Hispaniola section, most of the deformation on this region is being accumulated along intrablock faults with very low strain (~2mm/yr) along the intraplate subduction interface. We also

  4. Degree-Day Prediction Models for the Flight Phenology of Western Bean Cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Assessed with the Concordance Correlation Coefficient.

    PubMed

    Hanson, A A; Moon, R D; Wright, R J; Hunt, T E; Hutchison, W D

    2015-08-01

    Western bean cutworm, Striacosta albicosta (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a native, univoltine pest of corn and dry beans in North America. The current degree-day model for predicting a specified percentage of yearly moth flight involves heat unit accumulation above 10°C after 1 May. However, because the moth's observed range has expanded into the northern and eastern United States, there is concern that suitable temperatures before May could allow for significant S. albicosta development. Daily blacklight moth catch and temperature data from four Nebraska locations were used to construct degree-day models using simple or sine-wave methods, starting dates between 1 January and 1 May, and lower (-5 to 15°C) and upper (20 to 43.3°C) developmental thresholds. Predicted dates of flight from these models were compared with observed flight dates using independent datasets to assess model performance. Model performance was assessed with the concordance correlation coefficient to concurrently evaluate precision and accuracy. The best model for predicting timing of S. albicosta flight used simple degree-day calculations beginning on 1 March, a 3.3°C (38°F) lower threshold, and a 23.9°C (75°F) upper threshold. The revised cumulative flight model indicated field scouting to estimate moth egg density at the time of 25% flight should begin when 1,432 degree-days (2,577 degree-days °F) have accumulated. These results underscore the importance of assessing multiple parameters in phenological models and utilizing appropriate assessment methods, which in this case may allow for improved timing of field scouting for S. albicosta.

  5. Combination of remote sensing data products to derive spatial climatologies of "degree days" and downscale meteorological reanalyses: application to the Upper Indus Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsythe, N. D.; Rutter, N.; Brock, B. W.; Fowler, H. J.; Blenkinsop, S.

    2014-12-01

    Lack of observations for the full range of required variables is a critical reason why many cryosphere-dominated hydrological modelling studies adopt a temperature index (degree day) approach to meltwater simulation rather than resolving the full surface energy balance. Thus spatial observations of "degree days" would be extremely useful in constraining model parameterisations. Even for models implementing a full energy balance, "degree day" observations provide a characterisation of the spatial distribution of climate inputs to the cryosphere-hydrological system. This study derives "degree days" for the Upper Indus Basin by merging remote sensing data products: snow cover duration (SCD), from MOD10A1 and land surface temperature (LST), from MOD11A1 and MYD11A1. Pixel-wise "degree days" are calculated, at imagery-dependent spatial resolution, by multiplying SCD by (above-freezing) daily LST. This is coherent with the snowpack-energy-to-runoff conversion used in temperature index algorithms. This allows assessment of the spatial variability of mass inputs (accumulated snowpack) because in nival regime areas - where complete ablation is regularly achieved - mass is the limiting constraint. The GLIMS Randolph Glacier Inventory is used to compare annual totals and seasonal timings of "degree days" over glaciated and nival zones. Terrain-classified statistics (by elevation and aspect) for the MODIS "degree-day" hybrid product are calculated to characterise of spatial precipitation distribution. While MODIS data products provide detailed spatial resolution relative to tributary catchment areas, the limited instrument record length is inadequate for assessing climatic trends and greatly limits use for hydrological model calibration and validation. While multi-decadal MODIS equivalent data products may be developed in the coming years, at present alternative methods are required for "degree day" trend analysis. This study thus investigates the use of the hybrid MODIS

  6. Variability of growing degree days in Poland in response to ongoing climate changes in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wypych, Agnieszka; Sulikowska, Agnieszka; Ustrnul, Zbigniew; Czekierda, Danuta

    2016-05-01

    An observed increase in air temperature can lead to significant changes in the phenology of plants and, consequently, changes in agricultural production. The aim of the study was to evaluate the spatial differentiation of thermal resources in Poland and their variability during a period of changing thermal conditions in Europe. Since the variability of thermal conditions is of paramount importance for perennial crops, the study focused on apple, plum, and cherry orchard regions in Poland. The analysis was conducted for the period of 1951-2010 using air temperature daily data. Thermal resources have been defined using the growing degree days (GDD) index calculated independently for the whole year and during in frost-free season for three air temperature thresholds: 0, 5, and 10 °C, which determine the non-winter period, growing season, and the period of full plant growth, respectively. In addition, due to the high significance for perennials in particular, the incidence and intensity of frost during flowering were calculated. In this study, a detailed analysis of the spatial differentiation of thermal resources was first performed, followed by an evaluation of long-term variability and associated change patterns. The obtained results confirmed an increase in thermal resources in Poland as a consequence of the lengthening of the growing season. However, the frequency and intensity of spring frost, especially during flowering or even during ripening of plants, remain a threat to harvests in both the eastern and western parts of the country.

  7. An improved temperature index model for alpine glaciers using derived degree-day factors from climatic inputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeler, D. G.; Havens, A. P.; Rupper, S.; Christensen, W. F.

    2013-12-01

    Glacier melt rates are strongly affected by minor perturbations in climatic systems. Quantifying changes in glacier melt rates is therefore important, particularly in areas where melt-water contributes to hydroelectric power generation, irrigation, or flood risks. Several methods currently exist for modeling glacier melt rates, but one widely used method is temperature index modeling, also called positive degree-day modeling. This model is often applied due to its simplicity and small number of input variables, but it still depends on an empirically-measured scaling constant (the degree-day factor). These degree-day factors can vary by a factor of five from one glacier to the next, complicating the applicability of the approach to new regions, or to different time periods. Previous work suggests the degree-day factor may be a function of the surface albedo, solar radiation, and near-surface air temperature. Thus, it is possible the degree-day factor itself is predictable. In this study we present a method to derive these melt factors directly from easily obtained climatic variables, thus allowing for the ready application of temperature index modeling to a much wider suite of glaciers with greater accuracy. We used a full energy-balance model to calculate possible degree-day factors over the full range of climate conditions commonly encountered with alpine glaciers. We then constructed a statistical emulator (a linear model which considers numerous interactions and polynomial effects) using select climate variables (insolation, positive degree-days, and albedo) as inputs. The statistical model is tuned using the energy-balance output as training data. The model skill will be tested against a suite of empirically-derived degree-day factors. These results would allow for the application of more accurate glacier melt models with quantified uncertainties to under-sampled glacial regions and paleoclimate reconstructions.

  8. Improving the degree-day model for forecasting Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen) (Orthoptera: Acridoidea).

    PubMed

    Tu, Xiongbing; Li, Zhihong; Wang, Jie; Huang, Xunbing; Yang, Jiwen; Fan, Chunbin; Wu, Huihui; Wang, Qinglei; Zhang, Zehua

    2014-01-01

    The degree-day (DD) model is an important tool for forecasting pest phenology and voltinism. Unfortunately, the DD model is inaccurate, as is the case for the Oriental migratory locust. To improve the existing DD model for this pest, we first studied locust development in seven growth chambers, each of which simulated the complete growing-season climate of a specific region in China (Baiquan, Chengde, Tumotezuoqi, Wenan, Rongan, Qiongzhong, or Qiongshan). In these seven treatments, locusts completed 0.95, 1, 1.1, 2.2, 2.95, 3.95, and 4.95 generations, respectively. Hence, in the Baiquan (700), Rongan (2400), Qiongzhong (3200), and Qiongshan (2400) treatments, the final generation were unable to lay eggs. In a second experiment, we reared locusts for a full generation in growth chambers, at different constant temperatures. This experiment provided two important findings. First, temperatures between 32 and 42°C did not influence locust development rate. Hence, the additional heat provided by temperatures above 32°C did not add to the total heat units acquired by the insects, according to the traditional DD model. Instead, temperatures above 32°C represent overflow heat, and can not be included when calculating total heat acquired during development. We also noted that females raised at constant 21°C failed to oviposit. Hence, temperatures lower than 21°C should be deducted when calculating total heat acquired during adult development. Using our experimental findings, we next micmiked 24-h temperature curve and constructed a new DD model based on a 24-h temperature integral calculation. We then compared our new model with the traditional DD model, results showed the DD deviation was 166 heat units in Langfang during 2011. At last we recalculated the heat by our new DD model, which better predicted the results from our first growth chamber experiment.

  9. Development of an effective and potentially scalable weather generator for temperature and growing degree days

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmani, Elham; Friederichs, Petra; Keller, Jan; Hense, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    The main purpose of this study is to develop an easy-to-use weather generator (WG) for the downscaling of gridded data to point measurements at regional scale. The WG is applied to daily averaged temperatures and annual growing degree days (GDD) of wheat. This particular choice of variables is motivated by future investigations on temperature impacts as the most important climate variable for wheat cultivation under irrigation in Iran. The proposed statistical downscaling relates large-scale ERA-40 reanalysis to local daily temperature and annual GDD. Long-term local observations in Iran are used at 16 synoptic stations from 1961 to 2001, which is the common period with ERA-40 data. We perform downscaling using two approaches: the first is a linear regression model that uses the ERA-40 fingerprints (FP) defined by the squared correlation with local variability, and the second employs a linear multiple regression (MR) analysis to relate the large-scale information at the neighboring grid points to the station data. Extending the usual downscaling, we implement a WG providing uncertainty information and realizations of the local temperatures and GDD by adding a Gaussian random noise. ERA-40 reanalysis well represents the local daily temperature as well as the annual GDD variability. For 2-m temperature, the FPs are more localized during the warm compared with the cold season. While MR is slightly superior for daily temperature time series, FP seems to perform best for annual GDD. We further assess the quality of the WGs applying probabilistic verification scores like the continuous ranked probability score (CRPS) and the respective skill score. They clearly demonstrate the superiority of WGs compared with a deterministic downscaling.

  10. Improving the Degree-Day Model for Forecasting Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen) (Orthoptera: Acridoidea)

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Xiongbing; Li, Zhihong; Wang, Jie; Huang, Xunbing; Yang, Jiwen; Fan, Chunbin; Wu, Huihui; Wang, Qinglei; Zhang, Zehua

    2014-01-01

    The degree-day (DD) model is an important tool for forecasting pest phenology and voltinism. Unfortunately, the DD model is inaccurate, as is the case for the Oriental migratory locust. To improve the existing DD model for this pest, we first studied locust development in seven growth chambers, each of which simulated the complete growing-season climate of a specific region in China (Baiquan, Chengde, Tumotezuoqi, Wenan, Rongan, Qiongzhong, or Qiongshan). In these seven treatments, locusts completed 0.95, 1, 1.1, 2.2, 2.95, 3.95, and 4.95 generations, respectively. Hence, in the Baiquan (700), Rongan (2400), Qiongzhong (3200), and Qiongshan (2400) treatments, the final generation were unable to lay eggs. In a second experiment, we reared locusts for a full generation in growth chambers, at different constant temperatures. This experiment provided two important findings. First, temperatures between 32 and 42°C did not influence locust development rate. Hence, the additional heat provided by temperatures above 32°C did not add to the total heat units acquired by the insects, according to the traditional DD model. Instead, temperatures above 32°C represent overflow heat, and can not be included when calculating total heat acquired during development. We also noted that females raised at constant 21°C failed to oviposit. Hence, temperatures lower than 21°C should be deducted when calculating total heat acquired during adult development. Using our experimental findings, we next micmiked 24-h temperature curve and constructed a new DD model based on a 24-h temperature integral calculation. We then compared our new model with the traditional DD model, results showed the DD deviation was 166 heat units in Langfang during 2011. At last we recalculated the heat by our new DD model, which better predicted the results from our first growth chamber experiment. PMID:24599091

  11. Infestation of grain fields and degree-day phenology of the cereal leaf beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Utah: long-term patterns.

    PubMed

    Evans, Edward W; Carlile, Nolan R; Innes, Matthew B; Pitigala, Nadishan

    2014-02-01

    Scouting at key times in the seasonal development of insect pest populations, as guided by degree-day accumulation, is important for minimizing unwarranted insecticide application. Fields of small grains in northern Utah were censused weekly from 2001 to 2011, to assess infestation by the cereal leaf beetle, Oulema melanopus (L.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), and develop degree-day guidelines for measuring cereal leaf beetle abundance at peak egg and larval densities in any given year. Even in years of high overall numbers of cereal leaf beetle, relatively few fields were heavily infested (with 20 or more cereal leaf beetle eggs + larvae per 0.09 m2) at either egg or larval peak density during the growing season. In individual fields, the number of immature cereal leaf beetle (eggs + larvae) at peak larval density was positively related to the number of immature cereal leaf beetles present earlier at peak egg density. Although there was large variation among years in when cereal leaf beetle egg and larval numbers peaked during the season as measured by degree-day accumulation from 1 January, much of this variation was accounted for by the warmth of the early spring before significant egg laying occurred. Hence, degree-day estimates that account for early spring warmth can guide growers in scouting grain fields at peak egg densities to identify fields at high risk of subsequent economic damage from cereal leaf beetle larval feeding. The relatively low incidence of fields heavily infested by cereal leaf beetle in northern Utah emphasizes the benefit that growers can gain by scouting early before applying insecticide treatments.

  12. Cautioning the use of degree-day models for climate change projections in the presence of parametric uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Moore, Julia L; Liang, Song; Akullian, Adam; Remais, Justin V

    2012-12-01

    Developmental models, such as degree-day models, are commonly used to predict the impact of future climate change on the intensity, distribution, and timing of the transmission of infectious diseases, particularly those caused by pathogens carried by vectors or intermediate hosts. Resulting projections can be useful in policy discussions concerning regional or national responses to future distributions of important infectious diseases. Although the simplicity of degree-day models is appealing, little work has been done to analyze their ability to make reliable projections of the distribution of important pathogens, vectors, or intermediate hosts in the presence of the often considerable parametric uncertainty common to such models. Here, a population model of Oncomelania hupensis, the intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum, was used to investigate the sensitivity of host range predictions in Sichuan Province, China, to uncertainty in two key degree-day model parameters: delta(min) (minimum temperature threshold for development) and K (total degree-days required for completion of snail development). The intent was to examine the consequences of parametric uncertainty in a plausible biological model, rather than to generate the definitive model. Results indicate that model output, the seasonality of population dynamics, and range predictions, particularly along the edge of the range, are highly sensitive to changes in model parameters, even at levels of parametric uncertainty common to such applications. Caution should be used when interpreting the results of degree-day models used to generate predictions of disease distribution and risk under scenarios of future climate change, and predictions should be considered most reliable when the temperature ranges used in projections resemble those used to estimate model parameters. Given the potential for substantial changes in degree-day model output with modest changes in parameter values, caution is warranted when

  13. Non-linear degree day models for post-diapause development of the sunflower stem weevil (Curculionidae: Coleoptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sunflower stem weevil, Cylindrocopturus adspersus (LeConte) (Coloptera: Curculionidae), has caused yield losses across much of the western Great Plains. Little is known about the field biology of this pest. Simple prediction models, such as degree day models, are an integral tool for development...

  14. The influence of consecutive sea and land breeze days on the accumulation of photochemical oxidants and nitrogen oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Ko; Takahashi, Hideo

    2015-04-01

    Efforts have been made to improve the air pollution environment, in Japan, since the first photochemical smog was reported in 1970. While nitrogen oxide and non-methane hydrocarbon levels, both of which are precursors of photochemical oxidants (Ox), are tending to decrease, Ox levels are tending to increase. Local wind, such as sea and land breeze circulation, plays important roles in the production and accumulation of Ox. It has been suggested that continuous sea and land breeze circulation serves to accumulate pollutants. However, pollutant concentrations do not necessarily increase compared with the previous day even if similar weather conditions persist, such as sea and land breeze circulation. As such, the factors related to changes in the pollutant concentrations are not well understood. The purpose of this study is to analyze the accumulation and distribution of air pollutants for days in which sea and land breeze days was consecutive for two days. We chose to study sea breeze days in which a southerly wind develops in the southern Kanto plain, north of Tokyo Bay, during July and August for the years 19902012. We used principal component analysis and cluster analysis to classify the variations in pollutant concentrations. We classified sea breeze days into four groups, i.e., Group 1: days when the pollutant concentration decreased around Tokyo Bay and increased inland, Group 2: days when the concentration increased across almost the entire study region, Group 3: days when the concentration decreased inland and in southern Tokyo Bay, and Group 4: days when the concentration increased, particularly around Tokyo Bay. In Group 2, in which the pollutant concentration increased as compared with the previous day, the wind direction had clearly changed from southerly to northerly during the night of the first day and a land breeze penetrated toward the coastal area. In the other groups, wind velocity also became weaker but there was no change from sea-breeze to

  15. A degree-day model initiated by pheromone trap captures for managing pecan nut casebearer (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in pecans.

    PubMed

    Knutson, Allen E; Muegge, Mark A

    2010-06-01

    Field observations from pecan, Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) Koch, orchards in Texas were used to develop and validate a degree-day model of cumulative proportional adult flight and oviposition and date of first observed nut entry by larvae of the first summer generation of the pecan nut casebearer, Acrobasis nuxvorella Nuenzig (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). The model was initiated on the date of first sustained capture of adults in pheromone traps. Mean daily maximum and minimum temperatures were used to determine the sum of degree-days from onset to 99% moth flight and oviposition and the date on which first summer generation larvae were first observed penetrating pecan nuts. Cumulative proportional oviposition (y) was described by a modified Gompertz equation, y = 106.05 x exp(-(exp(3.11 - 0.00669 x (x - 1), with x = cumulative degree-days at a base temperature of 3.33 degrees C. Cumulative proportional moth flight (y) was modeled as y = 102.62 x exp(- (exp(1.49 - 0.00571 x (x - 1). Model prediction error for dates of 10, 25, 50, 75, and 90% cumulative oviposition was 1.3 d and 83% of the predicted dates were within +/- 2 d of the observed event. Prediction error for date of first observed nut entry was 2.2 d and 77% of model predictions were within +/- 2 d of the observed event. The model provides ample lead time for producers to implement orchard scouting to assess pecan nut casebearer infestations and to apply an insecticide if needed to prevent economic loss. PMID:20568619

  16. Orthostatic Intolerance Is Independent of the Degree of Autonomic Cardiovascular Adaptation after 60 Days of Head-Down Bed Rest

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiexin; Li, Yongzhi; Verheyden, Bart; Chen, Zhanghuang; Wang, Jingyu; Li, Yinghui; Aubert, André E.; Yuan, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Spaceflight and head-down bed rest (HDBR) can induce the orthostatic intolerance (OI); the mechanisms remain to be clarified. The aim of this study was to determine whether or not OI after HDBR relates to the degree of autonomic cardiovascular adaptation. Fourteen volunteers were enrolled for 60 days of HDBR. A head-up tilt test (HUTT) was performed before and after HDBR. Our data revealed that, in all nonfainters, there was a progressive increase in heart rate over the course of HDBR, which remained higher until 12 days of recovery. The mean arterial pressure gradually increased until day 56 of HDBR and returned to baseline after 12 days of recovery. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia and baroreflex sensitivity decreased during HDBR and remained suppressed until 12 days of recovery. Low-frequency power of systolic arterial pressure increased during HDBR and remained elevated during recovery. Three subjects fainted during the HUTT after HDBR, in which systemic vascular resistance did not increase and remained lower until syncope. None of the circulatory patterns significantly differed between the fainters and the nonfainters at any time point. In conclusion, our data indicate that the impaired orthostatic tolerance after HDBR could not be distinguished by estimation of normal hemodynamic and/or neurocardiac data. PMID:26425559

  17. Orthostatic Intolerance Is Independent of the Degree of Autonomic Cardiovascular Adaptation after 60 Days of Head-Down Bed Rest.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiexin; Li, Yongzhi; Verheyden, Bart; Chen, Zhanghuang; Wang, Jingyu; Li, Yinghui; Aubert, André E; Yuan, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Spaceflight and head-down bed rest (HDBR) can induce the orthostatic intolerance (OI); the mechanisms remain to be clarified. The aim of this study was to determine whether or not OI after HDBR relates to the degree of autonomic cardiovascular adaptation. Fourteen volunteers were enrolled for 60 days of HDBR. A head-up tilt test (HUTT) was performed before and after HDBR. Our data revealed that, in all nonfainters, there was a progressive increase in heart rate over the course of HDBR, which remained higher until 12 days of recovery. The mean arterial pressure gradually increased until day 56 of HDBR and returned to baseline after 12 days of recovery. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia and baroreflex sensitivity decreased during HDBR and remained suppressed until 12 days of recovery. Low-frequency power of systolic arterial pressure increased during HDBR and remained elevated during recovery. Three subjects fainted during the HUTT after HDBR, in which systemic vascular resistance did not increase and remained lower until syncope. None of the circulatory patterns significantly differed between the fainters and the nonfainters at any time point. In conclusion, our data indicate that the impaired orthostatic tolerance after HDBR could not be distinguished by estimation of normal hemodynamic and/or neurocardiac data. PMID:26425559

  18. Flowering induction in the bioenergy grass Miscanthus sacchariflorus is a quantitative short-day response, whilst delayed flowering under long days increases biomass accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Donnison, Iain

    2013-01-01

    Miscanthus sacchariflorus is a fast-growing C4 perennial grass that can naturally hybridize with M. sinensis to produce interspecific hybrids, such as the sterile triploid M.× giganteus. The creation of such hybrids is essential for the rapid domestication of this novel bioenergy crop. However, progress has been hindered by poor understanding of the environmental cues promoting floral transition in M. sacchariflorus, which flowers less readily than M. sinensis. The purpose of this work was to identify the flowering requirements of M. sacchariflorus genotypes in order to expedite the introduction of new germplasm optimized to different environments. Six M. sacchariflorus accessions collected from a range of latitudes were grown under controlled photoperiod and temperature conditions, and flowering, biomass, and morphological phenotypic data were captured. Results indicated that M. sacchariflorus, irrespective of origin, is a quantitative short-day plant. Flowering under static long days (15.3h daylength), compared with shorter photoperiods, was delayed by an average 61 d, with an average associated increase of 52% of above-ground biomass (DM plant–1). Timing of floral initiation occurred between photoperiods of 14.2h and 12.1h, and accumulated temperatures of 553–1157 °C above a base temperature of 10 °C. Miscanthus sacchariflorus flowering phenology closely resembles that of Sorghum and Saccharum, indicating potentially similar floral pathways and suggesting that determination of the underlying genetic mechanisms will be facilitated by the syntenic relationships existing between these important C4 grasses. PMID:23183254

  19. Changes in the timing, length and heating degree days of the heating season in central heating zone of China.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiangjin; Liu, Binhui

    2016-09-21

    Climate change affects the demand for energy consumption, especially for heating and cooling buildings. Using daily mean temperature (Tmean) data, this study analyzed the spatiotemporal changes of the starting date for heating (HS), ending date for heating (HE), length (HL) and heating degree day (HDD) of the heating season in central heating zone of China. Over China's central heating zone, regional average HS has become later by 0.97 day per decade and HE has become earlier by 1.49 days per decade during 1960-2011, resulting in a decline of HL (-2.47 days/decade). Regional averaged HDD decreased significantly by 63.22 °C/decade, which implies a decreasing energy demand for heating over the central heating zone of China. Spatially, there are generally larger energy-saving rate in the south, due to low average HDD during the heating season. Over China's central heating zone, Tmean had a greater effect on HL in warm localities and a greater effect on HDD in cold localities. We project that the sensitivity of HL (HDD) to temperature change will increase (decrease) in a warmer climate. These opposite sensitivities should be considered when we want to predict the effects of climate change on heating energy consumption in China in the future.

  20. Degree of ambulation and factors associated with the median distance moved per day in Alzheimer's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Nishikata, Shiori; Yamakawa, Miyae; Shigenobu, Kazue; Suto, Shunji; Makimoto, Kiyoko

    2013-09-01

    The Integrated Circuit tag monitoring system became available to measure wandering in terms of the distance moved by dementia patients. The purposes of the study were to describe degree of ambulation in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to examine factors associated with the distance moved. AD patients were recruited at a dementia care unit in Asakayama Hospital, Osaka, Japan. The monitoring system generated the distance moved per day. Demographic and clinical data were abstracted from medical records. Mini-Mental State Examination was used to measure cognitive function. A multiple linear regression was used to predict the distance moved per day. The research was approved by the ethics committee of the university and the hospital, and written informed consent was obtained from the patients' proxies. Majority of the AD subjects monitored had moderate to advance stage of dementia. Patients' age and cognitive function were predictors of the median distance moved/day, and these two variables explained almost half of the variance. Older age and lower cognitive function were associated with reduced median distance moved per day in AD patients.

  1. Changes in the timing, length and heating degree days of the heating season in central heating zone of China

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xiangjin; Liu, Binhui

    2016-01-01

    Climate change affects the demand for energy consumption, especially for heating and cooling buildings. Using daily mean temperature (Tmean) data, this study analyzed the spatiotemporal changes of the starting date for heating (HS), ending date for heating (HE), length (HL) and heating degree day (HDD) of the heating season in central heating zone of China. Over China’s central heating zone, regional average HS has become later by 0.97 day per decade and HE has become earlier by 1.49 days per decade during 1960–2011, resulting in a decline of HL (−2.47 days/decade). Regional averaged HDD decreased significantly by 63.22 °C/decade, which implies a decreasing energy demand for heating over the central heating zone of China. Spatially, there are generally larger energy-saving rate in the south, due to low average HDD during the heating season. Over China’s central heating zone, Tmean had a greater effect on HL in warm localities and a greater effect on HDD in cold localities. We project that the sensitivity of HL (HDD) to temperature change will increase (decrease) in a warmer climate. These opposite sensitivities should be considered when we want to predict the effects of climate change on heating energy consumption in China in the future. PMID:27651063

  2. Changes in the timing, length and heating degree days of the heating season in central heating zone of China.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiangjin; Liu, Binhui

    2016-01-01

    Climate change affects the demand for energy consumption, especially for heating and cooling buildings. Using daily mean temperature (Tmean) data, this study analyzed the spatiotemporal changes of the starting date for heating (HS), ending date for heating (HE), length (HL) and heating degree day (HDD) of the heating season in central heating zone of China. Over China's central heating zone, regional average HS has become later by 0.97 day per decade and HE has become earlier by 1.49 days per decade during 1960-2011, resulting in a decline of HL (-2.47 days/decade). Regional averaged HDD decreased significantly by 63.22 °C/decade, which implies a decreasing energy demand for heating over the central heating zone of China. Spatially, there are generally larger energy-saving rate in the south, due to low average HDD during the heating season. Over China's central heating zone, Tmean had a greater effect on HL in warm localities and a greater effect on HDD in cold localities. We project that the sensitivity of HL (HDD) to temperature change will increase (decrease) in a warmer climate. These opposite sensitivities should be considered when we want to predict the effects of climate change on heating energy consumption in China in the future. PMID:27651063

  3. L-Arginine supplementation 0.5% of diet during the last 90 days of gestation and 14 days postpartum reduced uterine fluid accumulation in the broodmare.

    PubMed

    Mesa, A M; Warren, L K; Sheehan, J M; Kelley, D E; Mortensen, C J

    2015-08-01

    L-Arginine is an essential amino acid in many species that has been shown to influence reproduction. However, in horses a dose of 1% L-arginine of total dietary intake impaired absorption of other amino acids, whereas a dose of 0.5% did not. The objectives of this experiment were to evaluate postpartum parameters on mares supplemented with 0.5% L-arginine through the last 90d of gestation and 14d postpartum. Sixteen light-horse mares were randomly divided in two groups: 8 mares supplemented with 0.5% L-arginine and 8 mares fed an isonitrogenous equivalent. Gestation length, days to uterine clearance and days to first ovulation were compared. Uterine body depth, diameter of uterine horns, and length of largest pocket of uterine fluid were recorded daily via transrectal ultrasound. Measurements of foal weight, height, and cannon bone circumference were recorded for 9 weeks. Arginine treatment had no effect on gestation length (P=0.58). Supplemented mares cleared fluid quicker postpartum (6.8±0.53d; P=0.026) compared to control (9.0±0.38d). Mares supplemented with L-arginine had smaller diameter of fluid present in the postpartum uterus (P≤0.05). Days to first postpartum ovulation were not affected by treatment nor any influence on uterine involution. Finally, treatment had no effect on any foal's measured parameters. L-Arginine supplementation fed at 0.5% of daily intake during the last 90d of gestation and early postpartum in mares decreased uterine fluid accumulation, yet did not appear to have any effect on any other parameters measured.

  4. Development and Evaluation of Degree-Day Models for Acrolepiopsis assectella (Lepidoptera: Acrolepiidae) Based on Hosts and Flight Patterns.

    PubMed

    Seto, Masanori; Shelton, Anthony M

    2016-04-01

    The leek moth, Acrolepiopsis assectella (Zeller), was first discovered in Ottawa, Canada, during the 1993 growing season, representing the first known occurrence of this species in North America. Since then, it has become a significant concern in Allium vegetable production including garlic, leeks, and onions. Acrolepiopsis assectella was first detected in the contiguous United States during the 2009 growing season in northern New York. In this study, we evaluated the development of the US A. assectella population in the laboratory and commercial onion fields. Our results showed that this population required 443.9 degree-days to complete its life cycle on onions in the laboratory. The development of A. assectella on onion did not significantly differ from populations reared on garlic or leeks. Field studies revealed three distinct flight periods for overwintered, first- and second-generation adult males in northern New York. Life cycle duration in the field ranged from 4 to 8 wk. The degree-day prediction model evaluated in this study provided accurate estimates of the occurrence of the following generation. We conclude that this model can help growers to implement appropriate management strategies for different life stages in a timely manner and lessen damage by this new invasive pest.

  5. Gender differences in endocrine responses to posture and 7 days of -6 degrees head-down bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos, J.; Dallman, M. F.; Keil, L. C.; O'Hara, D.; Convertino, V. A.

    1993-01-01

    Endocrine regulation of fluids and electrolytes during 7 days of -6 degrees head-down bed rest (HDBR) was compared in male (n = 8) and, for the first time, female (n = 8) volunteers. The subjects' responses to quiet standing for 2 h before and after HDBR were also tested. In both sexes, diuresis and natriuresis were evident during the first 2-3 days of HDBR, resulting in a marked increase in the urinary Na(+)-to-K+ ratio and significant Na+ retention on re-ambulation. After the 1st day of HDBR, plasma renin activity (PRA) was increased relative to aldosterone (Aldo), plasma volume was decreased, and the renal response to Aldo appeared to be appropriate. Circulating levels of arginine vasopressin, cortisol, and ACTH were unchanged during HDBR. Plasma testosterone decreased slightly on day 2 of HDBR in males. The ratio of early morning ACTH to cortisol was lower in females than in males because ACTH was lower in females. Urinary cortisol increased and remained elevated throughout the HDBR in males only. There were no gender differences in the responses to 7 days of HDBR, except those in the pituitary-adrenal system; those differences appeared unrelated to the postural change. The provocative cardiovascular test of quiet standing before and after HDBR revealed both sex differences and effects of HDBR. There were significant sex differences in cardiovascular responses to standing before and after HDBR. Females had greater PRA and Aldo responses to standing before HDBR and larger Aldo responses to standing after HDBR than males.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  6. Gender differences in endocrine responses to posture and 7 days of -6 degrees head-down bed rest.

    PubMed

    Vernikos, J; Dallman, M F; Keil, L C; O'Hara, D; Convertino, V A

    1993-07-01

    Endocrine regulation of fluids and electrolytes during 7 days of -6 degrees head-down bed rest (HDBR) was compared in male (n = 8) and, for the first time, female (n = 8) volunteers. The subjects' responses to quiet standing for 2 h before and after HDBR were also tested. In both sexes, diuresis and natriuresis were evident during the first 2-3 days of HDBR, resulting in a marked increase in the urinary Na(+)-to-K+ ratio and significant Na+ retention on re-ambulation. After the 1st day of HDBR, plasma renin activity (PRA) was increased relative to aldosterone (Aldo), plasma volume was decreased, and the renal response to Aldo appeared to be appropriate. Circulating levels of arginine vasopressin, cortisol, and ACTH were unchanged during HDBR. Plasma testosterone decreased slightly on day 2 of HDBR in males. The ratio of early morning ACTH to cortisol was lower in females than in males because ACTH was lower in females. Urinary cortisol increased and remained elevated throughout the HDBR in males only. There were no gender differences in the responses to 7 days of HDBR, except those in the pituitary-adrenal system; those differences appeared unrelated to the postural change. The provocative cardiovascular test of quiet standing before and after HDBR revealed both sex differences and effects of HDBR. There were significant sex differences in cardiovascular responses to standing before and after HDBR. Females had greater PRA and Aldo responses to standing before HDBR and larger Aldo responses to standing after HDBR than males.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8338147

  7. Biology, temperature thresholds, and degree-day requirements for development of the cucumber moth, Diaphania indica, under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzade, Sareh; Izadi, Hamzeh; Namvar, Pyman; Samih, Mohamad Amin

    2014-05-02

    The cucumber moth, Diaphania indica (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a tropical and sub-tropical cucurbits pest and a key greenhouse pest in the Jiroft region of Iran. In this study, the effect of different temperatures on the development of this pest was investigated on cucumber, Cucumis sativus L. (Cucurbitales: Cucurbitaceae), leaves in a growth chamber at various constant temperatures (20, 25, 30, and 35ºC). The results indicated that the development period from egg to adult death at the decreased with increasing temperature. Mortality was greatest at 35ºC. Based on a linear model, the highest and lowest temperature thresholds were recorded for male insects and pupal stage as 16ºC and 9.04ºC with thermal constants of 100 and 144.92 degree days, respectively.

  8. A growing degree-days based time-series analysis for prediction of Schistosoma japonicum transmission in Jiangsu province, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guo-Jing; Gemperli, Armin; Vounatsou, Penelope; Tanner, Marcel; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Utzinger, Jürg

    2006-09-01

    It has been suggested that global warming may alter the frequency and transmission dynamics of vector-borne diseases. To test this claim for schistosomiasis, we conducted a time-series analysis from 1972-2002 for 39 of the 70 counties of Jiangsu province, eastern China, where Schistosoma japonicum is partially endemic. We used a modeling approach to estimate the annual growing degree-days (AGDD), employing a lower temperature threshold of 15.3 degrees C. Our final model included both temporal and spatial components, the former consisting of second order polynomials in time plus a seasonality component, whereas the spatial trend was formed by second order polynomials of the coordinates plus the thin-plate smoothing splines. We found that temperature increased over the past 30 years in all observing stations. There were distinct temporal trends with seasonality and periodicities of 12, 6, and 3 months, whereas only marginal spatial variation was observed. The predicted AGDDs for 2006 and 2003 showed increases for the entire Jiangsu province, with the AGDDs difference between these two time points exhibiting an increase from north to south. Our data suggest that changes in temperature will alter the extent and level of schistosomiasis transmission, which is relevant for the control of S. japonicum in a future warmer China.

  9. Motility parameters and intracellular ATP content of rabbit spermatozoa stored for 3 days at 15 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Gogol, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    The effect of semen storage duration on motility parameters and ATP content of rabbit spermatozoa were investigated. Ejaculates were collected from 9 New Zealand White male rabbits and diluted with a commercial rabbit semen extender Galap. Semen was stored at 15 degrees C for 3 days. On each day of storage sperm motility and intracellular ATP content were evaluated. Sperm motility parameters were assessed using the computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system and ATP content using the bioluminescence method. The time of storage had a significant effect on sperm motility parameters (except straight-line velocity) and ATP content. A significant correlation was observed between motility parameters and sperm ATP content. The motility parameters most strongly correlated with ATP content were total motile spermatozoa (r = 0.6364), progressively motile spermatozoa (r = 0.529), amplitude of lateral head displacement (r = 0.4178), curvilinear velocity (r = 0.4111) and average path velocity (r = 0.3743). Results show that motility parameters determined using the CASA system and intracellular ATP content are sensitive indicators of sperm quality during in vitro storage and may be useful for estimation of in vivo fertilizing ability of rabbit semen. PMID:23767298

  10. Winter wheat production forecast in United States of America using AVHRR historical data and NCAR Growing Degree Day

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claverie, M.; Franch, B.; Vermote, E.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Justice, C. O.

    2015-12-01

    Wheat is one of the key cereals crop grown worldwide. Thus, accurate and timely forecasts of its production are critical for informing agricultural policies and investments, as well as increasing market efficiency and stability. Becker-Reshef et al. (2010) used an empirical generalized model for forecasting winter wheat production using combined BRDF-corrected daily surface reflectance from the Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Climate Modeling Grid (CMG) with detailed official crop statistics and crop type masks. It is based on the relationship between the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) at the peak of the growing season, percent wheat within the CMG pixel, and the final yields. This method predicts the yield approximately one month to six weeks prior to harvest. Recently, Franch et al. (2015) included Growing Degree Day (GDD) information extracted from NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data in order to improve the winter wheat production forecast by increasing the timeliness of the forecasts between a month to a month and a half prior to the peak NDVI (i.e. 1-2.5 months prior to harvest), while conserving the accuracy of the original model. In this study, we apply these methods to historical data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). We apply both the original and the modified model to United States of America from 1990 to 2014 and inter-compare the AVHRR results to MODIS from 2000 to 2014.

  11. Reliability of Degree-Day Models to Predict the Development Time of Plutella xylostella (L.) under Field Conditions.

    PubMed

    Marchioro, C A; Krechemer, F S; de Moraes, C P; Foerster, L A

    2015-12-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), is a cosmopolitan pest of brassicaceous crops occurring in regions with highly distinct climate conditions. Several studies have investigated the relationship between temperature and P. xylostella development rate, providing degree-day models for populations from different geographical regions. However, there are no data available to date to demonstrate the suitability of such models to make reliable projections on the development time for this species in field conditions. In the present study, 19 models available in the literature were tested regarding their ability to accurately predict the development time of two cohorts of P. xylostella under field conditions. Only 11 out of the 19 models tested accurately predicted the development time for the first cohort of P. xylostella, but only seven for the second cohort. Five models correctly predicted the development time for both cohorts evaluated. Our data demonstrate that the accuracy of the models available for P. xylostella varies widely and therefore should be used with caution for pest management purposes.

  12. Temperature dependence of an estuarine harmful algal bloom: Resolving interannual variability in bloom dynamics using a degree day approach.

    PubMed

    Ralston, David K; Keafer, Bruce A; Brosnahan, Michael L; Anderson, Donald M

    2014-01-01

    Observations of harmful algal blooms (HABs) of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense in an estuary over multiple years were used to assess drivers of their spatial and temporal variability. Nauset Estuary on Cape Cod, Massachusetts has a recurrent, self-seeding A. fundyense population that produces paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins and leads to nearly annual closure to shellfishing. Weekly surveys of the entire estuary were made in 3 of 4 consecutive years, with surveys of a subembayment during the intervening year. Major A. fundyense blooms were observed all 4 years, with maximum concentrations >10(6) cells L(-1). Concentrations were greatest in three salt ponds at the distal edges of the estuary. The bloom timing varied among the salt ponds and among years, although the blooms had similar durations and maximum cell concentrations. Nutrient concentrations did not correlate with the growth of the bloom, but differences in water temperature among years and ponds were significant. Net growth rates inferred from the surveys were similar to those from laboratory experiments, and increased linearly with temperature. A growing degree day calculation was used to account for effects of interannual variability and spatial gradients in water temperature on population development. The approach collapsed variability in the timing of bloom onset, development, and termination across years and among ponds, suggesting that this relatively simple metric could be used as an early-warning indicator for HABs in Nauset and similar areas with localized, self-seeding blooms.

  13. The CARN/ARNA Inaugural Study Day Inquiry: What Happens to Action Research after the Master's Degree?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shosh, Joseph M.; McAteer, Mary

    2016-01-01

    The Collaborative Action Research Network (CARN) held its first American study day on the east coast of the United States in conjunction with the Action Research Network of the Americas (ARNA) 2014 conference in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, USA. Study day participants visited three American secondary schools, one each in Pennsylvania, New York, and…

  14. The Degree of Lipiodol Accumulation Can Be an Indicator of Successful Treatment for Unresectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) Patients - in the Case of Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization (TACE) and External Beam Radiotherapy (EBRT)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ping; Zeng, Zhao-Chong; Wang, Bin-Liang; Zhang, Jian-Ying; Fan, Jia; Zhou, Jian; Hu, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) in combination with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) results in improved survival due to better local control in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The purpose of this study was to investigate lipiodol accumulation, as it reflects tumor burden and is a potential prognostic factor, in HCC patients treated with TACE/EBRT. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively studied 147 patients with unresectable HCC treated with TACE and EBRT. Clinical features, adverse reactions, and prognostic factors were analyzed. All patients were treated with TACE 1-6 times in combination with EBRT (44-66 Gy) in dose of 2 Gy/fraction given once a day five times a week. Tumor status and laboratory findings were followed. The degree of lipiodol accumulation was assessed by computed tomography before EBRT, and was categorized as either complete/intense or low/moderate. Results: The response rate of tumor size after EBRT was 68.2%, median survival was 23.1 months, and overall survival rates were 86.6%, 49.2%, and 28.2% at 1, 2, and 3 years, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that lower hemoglobin levels, higher alkaline phosphatase levels, Child-Pugh B, negative alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) response after EBRT, poor treatment response after EBRT, tumor diameter >10 cm, and poor lipiodol accumulation were unfavorable prognostic factors. On multivariate analysis, higher hemoglobin levels, Child-Pugh A, decreased AFP levels after treatment, Helical Tomotherapy (HT) and intense lipiodol accumulation after TACE were significant favorable predictors. Conclusions: The degree of lipiodol accumulation before EBRT is a prognostic factor in patients with unresectable HCC. Increased AFP levels after EBRT are always associated with poor survival. HT is recommended as a potentially better EBRT modality than three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT). PMID:27471557

  15. Sporogonic Cycles Calculated Using Degree-Days, as a Basis for Comparison of Malaria Parasite Development in Different Eco-Epidemiological Settings in India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Poonam; Dhiman, Ramesh C

    2016-01-01

    In India, malaria transmission is prevalent across diverse geologies and ecologies. Temperature is one of the key determinants of malarial transmission, causing low endemicity in some areas than in others. Using a degree-day model, we estimated the maximum and minimum possible number of days needed to complete a malarial sporogonic cycle (SC), in addition to the possible number of SCs for Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum under two different ecological settings with either low or high endemicity for malaria at different elevations. In Raikhalkhatta (in the Himalayan foothills) SCs were modeled as not occurring from November to February, whereas in Gandhonia village (forested hills), all but only one month were suitable for malarial SCs. A minimum of 6 days and maximum of 46 days were required for completion of one SC. Forested hilly areas were more suitable for malaria parasite development in terms of SCs (25 versus 21 for P. falciparum and 32 versus 27 for P. vivax). Degree-days also provided a climatic explanation for the current transmission of malaria at different elevations. The calculation of degree-days and possible SC has applications in the regional analysis of transmission dynamics and management of malaria in view of climate change.

  16. Successful production of Nile and blue tilapia fry - findings based on degree days and demonstrated for earthen ponds in subtropical climates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Degree-days can be used to adjust for seasonal variation in water temperature when planning tilapia fingerling production strategies and are calculated by subtracting a threshold temperature ("biological zero") from the mean daily water temperature; the threshold temperature is the temperature below...

  17. Caregivers of Demented Elders: The Impact of Adult Day Care Service on Reducing Perceived Degree of Burden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eddowes, Jeannette Rickner

    The New Jersey State Department of Health, Gerontology Program, awarded grants to 32 adult day care centers statewide for the provision of specialized service for victims of Alzheimer's disease and related disorders and their caregivers. The primary goals of the programs were to reduce caregiver burden through providing social supports and to…

  18. Effect of leg exercise training on vascular volumes during 30 days of 6 degrees head-down bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Vernikos, J.; Wade, C. E.; Barnes, P. R.

    1992-01-01

    Plasma and red cell volumes, body density, and water balance were measured in 19 men (32-42 yr) confined to bed rest (BR). One group (n = 5) had no exercise training (NOE), another near-maximal variable-intensity isotonic exercise for 60 min/day (ITE; n = 7), and the third near-maximal intermittent isokinetic exercise for 60 min/day (IKE; n = 7). Caloric intake was 2,678-2,840 kcal/day; mean body weight (n = 19) decreased by 0.58 +/- 0.35 (SE) kg during BR due to a negative fluid balance (diuresis) on day 1. Mean energy costs for the NOE, and IKE, and ITE regimens were 83 (3.6 +/- 0.2 ml O2.min-1.kg-1), 214 (8.9 +/- 0.5 ml.min-1.kg-1), and 446 kcal/h (18.8 +/- 1.6 ml.min-1.kg-1), respectively. Body densities within groups and mean urine volumes (1,752-1,846 ml/day) between groups were unchanged during BR. Resting changes in plasma volume (ml/kg) after BR were -1.5 +/- 2.3% (NS) in ITE, -14.7 +/- 2.8% (P less than 0.05) in NOE, and -16.8 +/- 2.9% (P less than 0.05) in IKE, and mean water balances during BR were +295, -106, and +169 ml/24 h, respectively. Changes in red cell volume followed changes in plasma volume. The significant chronic decreases in plasma volume in the IKE and NOE groups and its maintenance in the ITE group could not be accounted for by water balance or by responses of the plasma osmotic, protein, vasopressin, or aldosterone concentrations or plasma renin activity. There was close coupling between resting plasma volume and plasma protein and osmotic content.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  19. Accumulate repeat accumulate codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative channel coding scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate codes' (ARA). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, thus belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA codes on a graph. The structure of encoder for this class can be viewed as precoded Repeat Accumulate (RA) code or as precoded Irregular Repeat Accumulate (IRA) code, where simply an accumulator is chosen as a precoder. Thus ARA codes have simple, and very fast encoder structure when they representing LDPC codes. Based on density evolution for LDPC codes through some examples for ARA codes, we show that for maximum variable node degree 5 a minimum bit SNR as low as 0.08 dB from channel capacity for rate 1/2 can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Thus based on fixed low maximum variable node degree, its threshold outperforms not only the RA and IRA codes but also the best known LDPC codes with the dame maximum node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators any desired high rate codes close to code rate 1 can be obtained with thresholds that stay close to the channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results are provided. The ARA codes also have projected graph or protograph representation that allows for high speed decoder implementation.

  20. WISE-2005: Adrenergic Responses Before and After 60 Days of 6 Degree Head-Down Bed-Rest in Women

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgell, H.; Dyson, K.; Shoemaker, J. K.; Custaud, M. A.; Arbeille, Ph.; Greaves, D.; Hughson, R. L.; Hughson, R. L.

    2006-01-01

    Sixteen women who participated in the WISE-2005 headdown bed rest (HDBR) were studied before and on day 56 of bed rest to test the hypothesis that chronic changes in circulating norepinephrine (NOR) would change the response to adrenergic receptor agonists. Five minute infusions of 2 doses of isoproterenol (ISO), and 2 doses of NOR were administered while heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were measured. Before HDBR, the higher dose of ISO increased HR by 13 beats/min (Pday 56, subjects who took part in daily exercise+lower body negative pressure (EX+LBNP) countermeasures had no change in HR response to ISO while the control group (CON) had greater increases in HR. MAP tended to be lower post-HDBR in CON but not in EX+LBNP, while TPR was higher in both groups. In response to NOR, MAP increased with elevated TPR with no change in HR. Post-HDBR TPR increased more in the EX+LBNP group. These studies indicate that HDBR alters the HR response to IS0 but that EX+LBNP countermeasure prevented this change. The greater TPR response to NOR in the post-HDBR for the EX+LBNP group might reflect enhanced peripheral vasoconstrictor response that could reduce the risk of orthostatic intolerance after this countermeasure.

  1. Leg muscle volume during 30-day 6-degree head-down bed rest with isotonic and isokinetic exercise training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Lee, P. L.; Ellis, S.; Selzer, R. H.; Ortendahl, D. A.

    1994-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to compare the effect of two modes of lower-extremity exercise training on the mass (volume) of posterior leg group (PLG) muscles (soleus, flexor hallucis longus, tibialis posterior, lateral and medial gastrocnemius, and flexor digitorum longus) on 19 men (ages 32-42 years) subjected to intense dynamic-isotonic (ITE, cycle ergometer, number of subjects (N) = 7), isokinetic (IKE, torque egrometer, N = 7), and no exercise (NOE, N = 5) training for 60 min/day during head-down bed rest (HDBR). Total volume of the PLG muscles decreased (p less than 0.05) similarly: ITE = 4.3 +/- SE 1.6%, IKE = 7.7 +/- 1.6%, and NOE = 6.3 +/- 0.8%; combined volume (N = 19) loss was 6.1 +/- 0.9%. Ranges of volume changes were 2.6% to -9.0% (ITE), -2.1% to -14.9% (IKE), and -3.4% to -8/1% (NOE). Correlation coefficients (r) of muscle volume versus thickness measured with ultrasonography were: ITE r + 0.79 (p less than 0.05), IKE r = 0.27 (not significant (NS)), and NOE r = 0.63 (NS). Leg-muscle volume and thickness were highly correlated (r = 0.79) when plasma volume was maintained during HDBR with ITE. Thus, neither intensive lower extremity ITE nor IKE training influence the normal non-exercised posterior leg muscle atrophy during HDBR. The relationship of muscle volume and thickness may depend on the mode of exercise training associated with the maintenance of plasma volume.

  2. Insolation data manual: long-term monthly averages of solar radiation, temperature, degree-days and global anti K/sub T/ for 248 national weather service stations

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, C L; Stoffel, T L; Whitaker, S D

    1980-10-01

    Monthly averaged data is presented which describes the availability of solar radiation at 248 National Weather Service stations. Monthly and annual average daily insolation and temperature values have been computed from a base of 24 to 25 years of data. Average daily maximum, minimum, and monthly temperatures are provided for most locations in both Celsius and Fahrenheit. Heating and cooling degree-days were computed relative to a base of 18.3/sup 0/C (65/sup 0/F). For each station, global anti K/sub T/ (cloudiness index) were calculated on a monthly and annual basis. (MHR)

  3. Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate-Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2004-01-01

    Inspired by recently proposed Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate (ARA) codes [15], in this paper we propose a channel coding scheme called Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate (ARAA) codes. These codes can be seen as serial turbo-like codes or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, and they have a projected graph or protograph representation; this allows for a high-speed iterative decoder implementation using belief propagation. An ARAA code can be viewed as a precoded Repeat-and-Accumulate (RA) code with puncturing in concatenation with another accumulator, where simply an accumulator is chosen as the precoder; thus ARAA codes have a very fast encoder structure. Using density evolution on their associated protographs, we find examples of rate-lJ2 ARAA codes with maximum variable node degree 4 for which a minimum bit-SNR as low as 0.21 dB from the channel capacity limit can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Such a low threshold cannot be achieved by RA or Irregular RA (IRA) or unstructured irregular LDPC codes with the same constraint on the maximum variable node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators we can construct families of higher rate ARAA codes with thresholds that stay close to their respective channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results show comparable performance with the best-known LDPC codes but with very low error floor even at moderate block sizes.

  4. Influence of second- and third-degree heart block on 30-day outcome following acute myocardial infarction in the drug-eluting stent era.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hack-Lyoung; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Seo, Jae-Bin; Chung, Woo-Young; Zo, Joo-Hee; Kim, Myung-A; Park, Kyung-Woo; Koo, Bon-Kwon; Kim, Hyo-Soo; Chae, In-Ho; Choi, Dong-Ju; Cho, Myeong-Chan; Kim, Young-Jo; Kim, Ju Han; Ahn, Youngkeun; Jeong, Myung Ho

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the prognostic value of heart block among patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) treated with drug-eluting stents. A total of 13,862 patients with AMI, registered in the nation-wide AMI database from January 2005 to June 2013, were analyzed. Second- (Mobitz type I or II) and third-degree atrioventricular block were considered as heart block in this study. Thirty-day major adverse cardiac events (MACE) including all causes of death, recurrent myocardial infarction, and revascularization were evaluated. Percutaneous coronary intervention with implantation of drug-eluting stent was performed in 89.8% of the patients. Heart block occurred in 378 patients (2.7%). Thirty-day MACE occurred in 1,144 patients (8.2%). Patients with heart block showed worse clinical parameters at initial admission, and the presence of heart block was associated with 30-day MACE in univariate analyses. However, the prognostic impact of heart block was not significant after adjustment of potential confounders (p = 0.489). Among patients with heart block, patients with a culprit in the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery had worse clinical outcomes than those of patients with a culprit in the left circumflex or right coronary artery. LAD culprit was a significant risk factor for 30-day MACE even after controlling for confounders (odds ratio 5.28, 95% confidence interval 1.22 to 22.81, p = 0.026). In conclusion, despite differences in clinical parameters at the initial admission, heart block was not an independent risk factor for 30-day MACE in adjusted analyses. However, a LAD culprit was an independent risk factor for 30-day MACE among patients with heart block.

  5. Effects of 10 days 6 degrees head-down tilt on the responses to fluid loading and lower body negative pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baisch, F.; Heer, M.; Beck, L.; Blomqvist, C. G.; Kropp, J.; Schulz, H.; Hillebrecht, A.; Meyer, M.

    1991-01-01

    In an international collaborative project six normal male subjects were studied before, during and after 10 days 6 degrees HDT. Fluid intake was controlled at 40 ml/(kgbw day). Urine volume and body weight were determined daily. Fluid loading and LBNP were performed in all three phases of the study. Body weight diminished by 2.6% because of fluid loss. Blood volume diminished by 13%. The responses to fluid loading were similar in the three phases of the study. Sixty minutes after end of infusion only 5.5% of the infused saline remained in the intravascular compartment. Excess interstitial fluid was eliminated in the next 24 hs but a negative balance was recorded also in the following day. The compliance of the lower limbs expressed as the rate of limb volume change/unit LBNP change was increased at the end of the HDT phase and during the post HDT phase. The set point of intravascular volume was defended, as shown by the response to FL. HDT increased the compliance of the lower limbs.

  6. Automatic Calibration of a Distributed Rainfall-Runoff Model, Using the Degree-Day Formulation for Snow Melting, Within DMIP2 Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frances, F.; Orozco, I.

    2010-12-01

    This work presents the assessment of the TETIS distributed hydrological model in mountain basins of the American and Carson rivers in Sierra Nevada (USA) at hourly time discretization, as part of the DMIP2 Project. In TETIS each cell of the spatial grid conceptualizes the water cycle using six tanks connected among them. The relationship between tanks depends on the case, although at the end in most situations, simple linear reservoirs and flow thresholds schemes are used with exceptional results (Vélez et al., 1999; Francés et al., 2002). In particular, within the snow tank, snow melting is based in this work on the simple degree-day method with spatial constant parameters. The TETIS model includes an automatic calibration module, based on the SCE-UA algorithm (Duan et al., 1992; Duan et al., 1994) and the model effective parameters are organized following a split structure, as presented by Francés and Benito (1995) and Francés et al. (2007). In this way, the calibration involves in TETIS up to 9 correction factors (CFs), which correct globally the different parameter maps instead of each parameter cell value, thus reducing drastically the number of variables to be calibrated. This strategy allows for a fast and agile modification in different hydrological processes preserving the spatial structure of each parameter map. With the snowmelt submodel, automatic model calibration was carried out in three steps, separating the calibration of rainfall-runoff and snowmelt parameters. In the first step, the automatic calibration of the CFs during the period 05/20/1990 to 07/31/1990 in the American River (without snow influence), gave a Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) index of 0.92. The calibration of the three degree-day parameters was done using all the SNOTEL stations in the American and Carson rivers. Finally, using previous calibrations as initial values, the complete calibration done in the Carson River for the period 10/01/1992 to 07/31/1993 gave a NSE index of

  7. Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Samuel; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    Accumulate-repeat-accumulate-accumulate (ARAA) codes have been proposed, inspired by the recently proposed accumulate-repeat-accumulate (ARA) codes. These are error-correcting codes suitable for use in a variety of wireless data-communication systems that include noisy channels. ARAA codes can be regarded as serial turbolike codes or as a subclass of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes, and, like ARA codes they have projected graph or protograph representations; these characteristics make it possible to design high-speed iterative decoders that utilize belief-propagation algorithms. The objective in proposing ARAA codes as a subclass of ARA codes was to enhance the error-floor performance of ARA codes while maintaining simple encoding structures and low maximum variable node degree.

  8. Submaximal exercise VO2 and Qc during 30-day 6 degrees head-down bed rest with isotonic and isokinetic exercise training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Ertl, A. C.; Bernauer, E. M.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Maintaining intermediary metabolism is necessary for the health and well-being of astronauts on long-duration spaceflights. While peak oxygen uptake (VO2) is consistently decreased during prolonged bed rest, submaximal VO2 is either unchanged or decreased. METHODS: Submaximal exercise metabolism (61 +/- 3% peak VO2) was measured during ambulation (AMB day-2) and on bed rest days 4, 11, and 25 in 19 healthy men (32-42 yr) allocated into no exercise (NOE, N = 5) control, and isotonic exercise (ITE, N = 7) and isokinetic exercise (IKE, N = 7) training groups. Exercise training was conducted supine for two 30-min periods per day for 6 d per week: ITE training was intermittent at 60-90% peak VO2; IKE training was 10 sets of 5 repetitions of peak knee flexion-extension force at a velocity of 100 degrees s-1. Cardiac output was measured with the indirect Fick CO2 method, and plasma volume with Evans blue dye dilution. RESULTS: Supine submaximal exercise VO2 decreased significantly (*p < 0.05) by 10.3%* with ITE and by 7.3%* with IKE; similar to the submaximal cardiac output decrease of 14.5%* (ITE) and 20.3%* (IKE), but different from change in peak VO2 (+1.4% with ITE and -10.2%* with IKE) and decrease in plasma volume of -3.7% (ITE) and -18.0%* (IKE). Reduction of submaximal VO2 during bed rest correlated 0.79 (p < 0.01) with submaximal Qc, but was not related to change in peak VO2 or plasma volume. CONCLUSION: Reduction in submaximal oxygen uptake during prolonged bed rest is related to decrease in exercise but not resting cardiac output; perturbations in active skeletal muscle metabolism may be involved.

  9. Improving Timeliness of Winter Wheat Production Forecast in United States of America, Ukraine and China Using MODIS Data and NCAR Growing Degree Day

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermote, E.; Franch, B.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Claverie, M.; Huang, J.; Zhang, J.; Sobrino, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Wheat is the most important cereal crop traded on international markets and winter wheat constitutes approximately 80% of global wheat production. Thus, accurate and timely forecasts of its production are critical for informing agricultural policies and investments, as well as increasing market efficiency and stability. Becker-Reshef et al. (2010) used an empirical generalized model for forecasting winter wheat production. Their approach combined BRDF-corrected daily surface reflectance from Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Climate Modeling Grid (CMG) with detailed official crop statistics and crop type masks. It is based on the relationship between the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) at the peak of the growing season, percent wheat within the CMG pixel, and the final yields. This method predicts the yield approximately one month to six weeks prior to harvest. In this study, we include the Growing Degree Day (GDD) information extracted from NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data in order to improve the winter wheat production forecast by increasing the timeliness of the forecasts while conserving the accuracy of the original model. We apply this modified model to three major wheat-producing countries: United States of America, Ukraine and China from 2001 to 2012. We show that a reliable forecast can be made between one month to a month and a half prior to the peak NDVI (meaning two months to two and a half months prior to harvest) while conserving an accuracy of 10% in the production forecast.

  10. WISE-2005: adrenergic responses of women following 56-days, 6 degrees head-down bed rest with or without exercise countermeasures.

    PubMed

    Edgell, Heather; Zuj, Kathryn A; Greaves, Danielle K; Shoemaker, J Kevin; Custaud, Marc-Antoine; Kerbeci, Pascaline; Arbeille, Phillipe; Hughson, Richard L

    2007-12-01

    We tested the hypotheses that women completing 56 days, 6 degrees head-down bed-rest (HDBR) would have changes in sensitivity of cardiovascular responses to adrenergic receptor stimulation and that frequent aerobic and resistive exercise would prevent these changes. Twenty-four women, eight controls, eight exercisers (lower body negative pressure treadmill and flywheel resistance exercise), and eight receiving nutritional supplement but no exercise were studied in baseline and during administration of the beta-agonist isoproterenol (ISO) and the alpha- and beta-agonist norepinephrine (NOR). In the control and nutrition groups, HDBR increased heart rate (HR) and reduced stroke volume (SV), and there was a significantly greater increase in HR with ISO after HDBR. In contrast, the HR and SV of the exercise group were unchanged from pre-HDBR. After HDBR, leg vascular resistance (LVR) was greater than pre-HDBR in the exercise group but reduced in control and nutrition. LVR was reduced with ISO and increased with NOR. Changes in total peripheral resistance were similar to those of LVR but of smaller magnitude, perhaps because changes in cerebrovascular resistance index were directionally opposite to those of LVR. There were no changes in sensitivity of the vascular resistance responses to adrenergic stimulation. The HR response might reflect a change in sensitivity or a necessary response to the reduction in SV after HDBR in control and nutrition groups. The reduced peripheral vascular resistance after HDBR might help to explain orthostatic intolerance in women. Exercise was an effective countermeasure to the HDBR effects. PMID:17928515

  11. A new spatially and temporally variable sigma parameter in degree-day melt modelling of the Greenland Ice Sheet 1870-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jowett, A. E.; Hanna, E.; Ng, F.; Huybrechts, P.; Janssens, I.

    2015-10-01

    The degree-day based method of calculating ice-/snow-melt across the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) commonly includes the temperature parameter sigma (σ) accounting for temperature variability on short (sub-monthly down to hourly) timescales, in order to capture melt in months where the mean temperature is below 0 °C. Sigma is typically assumed to be constant in space and time, with values ranging from ~ 2.5 to 5.5 °C. It is unclear in many cases how these values were derived and little sensitivity analysis or validation has been conducted. Here we determine spatially and temporally varying monthly values of σ for the unique, extended 1870-2013 timescale based on downscaled, corrected European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Interim (ERA-I) and Twentieth Century Reanalysis (20CR) meteorological reanalysis 2 m air temperatures on a 5 km × 5 km polar stereographic grid for the GrIS. The resulting monthly σ values reveal a distinct seasonal cycle. The mean summer σ value for the study period is ~ 3.2 °C, around 1 °C lower than the value of 4.2 °C commonly used in the literature. Sigma values for individual summers range from 1.7 to 5.9 °C. Since the summer months dominate the melt calculation, use of the new variable σ parameter would lead to a smaller melt area and a more positive surface mass balance for the GrIS. Validation of our new variable σ dataset shows good agreement with standard deviations calculated from automatic weather station observations across the ice sheet. Trend analysis shows large areas of the ice sheet exhibit statistically significant increasing temperature variability from 1870-2013 in all seasons, with notable exceptions around Summit in spring, and Summit and South Dome in winter. More recently, since 1990, σ has been decreasing, significantly so in the north-west during July. These interannual σ trends reflect climate change and variability processes operating across the ice sheet, several mechanisms of which

  12. Hourly and Spatial Analysis of Degrees of Congestion in the Observation Camera Scene by Accumulating Local Changes in the Image Sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niwakawa, Makoto; Onda, Toshikazu

    We can see a lot of observation cameras at public or private facilities such as stations, halls, shopping malls, hallways and gates. Some janitors of the facilities want to detect and investigate passing people or congestion existences in the camera scene. In order to respond to these requests, we extracted moving areas in the image and accumulated these data and then displayed them on the monitor. Consequently, we obtained spatial distributions and hourly changes of congestion in the observation camera scene. To extract moving areas, we estimated the differences of correlation value of segmented small windows in the image. This paper describes our procedure to analyze the congestion from the image sequence of observation camera, and some experimental results.

  13. Adjustment of diurnal starch turnover to short days: depletion of sugar during the night leads to a temporary inhibition of carbohydrate utilization, accumulation of sugars and post-translational activation of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase in the following light period.

    PubMed

    Gibon, Yves; Bläsing, Oliver E; Palacios-Rojas, Natalia; Pankovic, Dejana; Hendriks, Janneke H M; Fisahn, Joachim; Höhne, Melanie; Günther, Manuela; Stitt, Mark

    2004-09-01

    A larger proportion of the fixed carbon is retained as starch in the leaf in short days, providing a larger store to support metabolism and carbon export during the long night. The mechanisms that facilitate this adjustment of the sink-source balance are unknown. Starchless pgm mutants were analysed to discover responses that are triggered when diurnal starch turnover is disturbed. Sugars accumulated to high levels during the day, and fell to very low levels by the middle of the night. Sugars rose rapidly in the roots and rosette after illumination, and decreased later in the light period. Global transcript profiling revealed only small differences between pgm and Col0 at the end of the day but large differences at the end of the night, when pgm resembled Col0 after a 4-6 h prolongation of the night and many genes required for biosynthesis and growth were repressed [Plant J. 37 (2004) 914]. It is concluded that transient sugar depletion at the end of the night inhibits carbon utilization at the start of the ensuing light period. A second set of experiments investigated the stimulation of starch synthesis in response to short days in wild-type Col0. In short days, sugars were very low in the roots and rosette at the end of the dark period, and after illumination accumulated rapidly in both organs to levels that were higher than in long days. The response resembles pgm, except that carbohydrate accumulated in the leaf as starch instead of sugars. A similar response was found after transfer from long to short days. Inclusion of sugar in the rooting medium attenuated the stimulation of starch synthesis. Post-translational activation of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) was increased in pgm, and in Col0 in short days. It is concluded that starch synthesis is stimulated in short day conditions because sugar depletion at the end of the night triggers a temporary inhibition of growth and carbohydrate utilization in the first part of the light period, leading to

  14. Nisin, rosemary, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid affect the growth of Listeria monocytogenes on ready-to-eat turkey ham stored at four degrees Celsius for sixty-three days.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, A; Williams, S K; Djeri, N; Hinton, A; Rodrick, G E

    2009-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the anti-Listeria and general antimicrobial properties of nisin, rosemary, and EDTA alone and in combination on Listeria monocytogenes inoculated on ready-to-eat vacuum-packaged diced turkey ham and to ascertain the effects of the treatments on pH and objective color. The turkey hams were cut into 0.5-cm pieces, inoculated with a L. monocytogenes cocktail containing 5 strains of the bacterium, and treated with either no treatment and no inoculum (negative control), inoculum only (positive control), 0.5% nisin, 20 mM EDTA, 1% rosemary, 0.5% nisin + 20 mM EDTA, 0.5% nisin + 1% rosemary, 0.5% nisin + 20 mM EDTA + 1% rosemary, or 20 mM EDTA + 1% rosemary. All samples were vacuum-packaged, stored for 63 d at 4 degrees C +/- 1 degrees C, and analyzed at 1-wk intervals for total aerobes, L. monocytogenes, lactic acid organisms, pH, and objective color. Nisin, nisin with rosemary, nisin with EDTA, and nisin with rosemary and EDTA treatments reduced (P < 0.05) L. monocytogenes counts by 4.42, 4.20, 3.73, and 4.11 log cfu/g when compared with the positive control, respectively, on d 0. Listeria monocytogenes counts remained less than 2.75 log cfu/g for all hams treated with nisin. The EDTA and rosemary treatments alone and in combination were ineffective in inhibiting growth of L. monocytogenes. Although none of the treatments completely eliminated L. monocytogenes, the results indicated that ready-to-eat turkey ham can have significantly decreased L. monocytogenes when treated with nisin alone or in combination with rosemary or EDTA, or both.

  15. Relationship between male moths of Cryptoblabes gnidiella (Millière) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) caught in sex pheromone traps and cumulative degree-days in vineyards in southern Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Vidart, María Valeria; Mujica, María Valentina; Calvo, María Victoria; Duarte, Felicia; Bentancourt, Carlos María; Franco, Jorge; Scatoni, Iris Beatriz

    2013-12-01

    Cryptoblabes gnidiella (Millière) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) has been known in Uruguay for 30 years and only in vineyards, despite being polyphagous. In recent years, this pest has caused sporadic but serious damage on some grapevine cultivars. Understanding the insect's phenology and developing a monitoring program are essential aspects of integrated pest management. We monitored males using sexual pheromone traps on four cultivars of vine, Pinot noir, Tannat, Gewürztraminer, and Cabernet Sauvignon, in two vine-growing establishments in the Department of Canelones and compiled data on the accumulated effective temperatures for the southern area of Uruguay. We determined that this species undergoes three generations per year and overwinters without diapause as larvae on dried grapes remaining after harvest. Using the proportion of cumulative male moths caught from December to May from 2003-2007 on the four cultivars and the sum of effective temperatures above two previously-published lower-threshold temperatures for development, 12.26°C and 13°C, statistically significant logistic models were estimated. Predictions based on the resulting models suggested that they would be acceptable tools to improve the efficiency of integrated management of this pest in Uruguay.

  16. Submaximal Exercise VO2 and Q During 30-Day 6 degree Head-Down Bed Rest with Isotonic and Isokinetic Exercise Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Bernauer, E. M.; Erti, A. C.

    1995-01-01

    Submaximal exercise (61+3% peak VO2) metabolism was measured before (AC day-2) and on bed rest day 4, 11, and 25 in 19 healthy men (32-42 yr) allocated into no exercise (NOE, N=5) control, and isotonic exercise (ITE, N=7)and isokinetic exercise (IKE, N=7) training groups. Training was conducting supine for two 30-min periods/d for 6 d/wk: ITE was 60-90% peak VO2: IKE was peak knee flexion-extension at 100 deg/s. Supine submaximal exercise 102 decreased significantly (*p<0.05) by 10.3%, with ITE and by 7.3%* with IKE; similar to the submaximal cardiac output (Q) change of -14.5%* (ITE) and -203%* (IKE), but different from change in peak VO2 (+1.4% with ITE and - 10.2%, with IKE) and plasma volume of -3.7% (ITE) and - 18.0% * (IKE). Thus, reduction of submaximal V02 during prolonged bed rest appears to respond to submaximal Q but is not related to change in peak VO2 or plasma volume.

  17. Dealing with Climate Change and Variability in the Growing Season: a U2U Decision Support Tool for Central United States Corn Producers Based on Corn Growing Degree Days

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angel, J. R.; Todey, D.; Massey, R.; Widhalm, M.; Biehl, L. L.; Andresen, J.

    2014-12-01

    Climate extremes are a major challenge for corn producers in the central United States. Among those extremes are wet springs that lead to planting delays, late spring and early fall frosts that can damage crops, and extreme summer temperatures either too warm or too cool. A newly-operational corn growing degree-day (CGDD) tool helps producers manage and adapt to these extremes. For example, a challenge in recent years has been exceptionally wet springs that have led to significant planting delays. Producers have been forced to re-assess their planting strategies on short notice, such as switching to a faster-growing but lower-yielding hybrids. With this pattern of wetter springs projected to continue or worsen in the central United States, the problem will remain and likely get worse. Another example is helping producers identify the risk of early or late frost/freezes. The CGDD tool puts current conditions into a 30-year historical perspective and offers trend projections (based on climatology or forecasts) through the end of the calendar year. Corn, or sometimes called modified, growing degree-days use a temperature base of 10 C (50 F) and a ceiling of 30 C (86 F) and is strongly correlated with the development of the corn crop. This tool was developed as part of USDA-supported U2U Useful to Usable Project for transforming climate variability and change information for cereal crop producers.

  18. Day to Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurecki, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    A clean, healthy and safe school provides students, faculty and staff with an environment conducive to learning and working. However, budget and staff reductions can lead to substandard cleaning practices and unsanitary conditions. Some school facility managers have been making the switch to a day-schedule to reduce security and energy costs, and…

  19. Day to day with COPD

    MedlinePlus

    ... day; Chronic obstructive airways disease - day to day; Chronic obstructive lung disease - day to day; Chronic bronchitis - day to day; ... strategy for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of chronic ... disease. Updated 2015. www.goldcopd.it/materiale/2015/GOLD_ ...

  20. Online Degrees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolezalek, Holly

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the trend of trainers who are getting degrees through online courses delivered via the Internet. Addresses accreditation issues and what to ask before enrolling in online degree programs. (JOW)

  1. Dishonorary Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Carlin

    2008-01-01

    If an honorary degree lacks values to begin with, does withdrawing it deliver a rebuke to the recipient? Is whatever honor that comes with the distinction embedded in the fancy paper, or is it wholly in the eye of the degree holder? Are honorary degrees really such silly things that individuals should mock their bestowal or withdrawal? The case of…

  2. Forecasting method of ice blocks fall by logistic model and melting degree-days calculation: a case study in northern Gaspésie, Québec, Canada.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauthier, Francis; Hétu, Bernard; Allard, Michel

    2013-04-01

    Ice blocks fall is a serious natural hazard that frequently happens in mountainous cold region. The ice blocks result from the melting and collapse of rockwall icings (ice walls or frozen waterfalls). Environment Canada weather data were analysed for 440 cases of ice blocks fall events reported in northern Gaspésie by the "Ministère des Transports du Québec" (M.T.Q.). The analysis shows that the ice blocks fall are mainly controlled by an increase of the air temperature above 0oC. The melting degree-days (DDmelt) can be used to follow the temperature variations and the heat transfer into the ice bodies. Furthermore, large daily temperature changes, especially drastic drops of temperatures and freeze-thaw cycles, can induce enough mechanical stress to favour the opening of cracks and possibly cause the collapse of unstable ice structures such as freestanding ice formations. By following the evolution of the DDmelt and the best logistic model, it is possible to forecast the collapse of some of the most problematic rockwall icings and target the most hazardous periods along the northern Gaspésie roads.

  3. The Relationship among Health Education Systems, Inc. Progression and Exit Examination Scores, Day or Evening Enrollment, Final Grade Point Average and NCLEX-RN® Success in Associate Degree Nursing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnwell-Sanders, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Graduates of associate degree (AD) nursing programs form the largest segment of first-time National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN®) test takers, yet also experience the highest rate of NCLEX-RN® failures. NCLEX-RN® failure delays entry into the profession, adding an emotional and financial toll to the unsuccessful…

  4. Jupiter Night and Day

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Day and night side narrow angle images taken on January 1, 2001 illustrating storms visible on the day side which are the sources of visible lightning when viewed on the night side. The images have been enhanced in contrast. Note the two day-side occurrences of high clouds, in the upper and lower parts of the image, are coincident with lightning storms seen on the darkside. The storms occur at 34.5 degrees and 23.5 degrees North latitude, within one degree of the latitudes at which similar lightning features were detected by the Galileo spacecraft. The images were taken at different times. The storms' longitudinal separation changes from one image to the next because the winds carrying them blow at different speeds at the two latitudes.

  5. Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative coded modulation scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation' (ARA coded modulation). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes that are combined with high level modulation. Thus at the decoder belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA coded modulation on a graph, provided a demapper transforms the received in-phase and quadrature samples to reliability of the bits.

  6. The effect of electron beam irradiation on the survival of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium and psychrotrophic bacteria on raw chicken breasts stored at four degrees celsius for fourteen days.

    PubMed

    Sarjeant, K C; Williams, S K; Hinton, A

    2005-06-01

    The effect of high-energy electron beam irradiation on the survival of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and psychrotrophic bacteria on commercial chicken breast meat was evaluated. Fresh chicken breast meat was purchased from a local poultry processor, inoculated with 8 log10 cfu/mL Salmonella, packaged in Styrofoam trays and over wrapped with a polyvinyl chloride film, and subjected to 0, 1, 2, or 3 kGy of irradiation. The packaged samples were stored at 4 degrees C and analyzed for Salmonella Typhimurium and psychrotrophic organisms at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14 d of storage. Direct plating and enrichment methods were used for S. Typhimurium analyses. The direct plating method revealed a 4 log reduction in Salmonella for chicken breasts inoculated and treated with 1, 2, or 3 kGy of irradiation. Psychrotrophic counts were conducted at 7 degrees C for 10 d and 25 degrees C for 5 d to determine the effect of incubation methods on the recovery of psychrotrophic organisms. The enrichment method resulted in the repair of injured Salmonella cells and an elevated Salmonella Typhimurium count for all irradiation dosages when compared with data reported for the direct plating method. In general, psychrotrophic counts increased as storage time increased. However, psychrotrophic counts decreased (P < 0.05) as the irradiation dosage increased.

  7. CEMI Days

    SciTech Connect

    2015-07-01

    CEMI Days are an important channel of engagement between DOE and the manufacturing industry to identify challenges and opportunities for increasing U.S. manufacturing competitiveness. CEMI Days that are held at manufacturing companies’ facilities can include tours of R&D operations or other points of interest determined by the host company.

  8. Dinosaur Day!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamura, Sandra; Baptiste, H. Prentice

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe how they capitalized on their first-grade students' love of dinosaurs by hosting a fun-filled Dinosaur Day in their classroom. On Dinosaur Day, students rotated through four dinosaur-related learning stations that integrated science content with art, language arts, math, and history in a fun and time-efficient…

  9. Career Day

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's 2013 Career Days was a joint collaboration between NASA Langley and the Newport News Shipbuilding where 600 high school students from Virginia took on two design challenges -- designing a ca...

  10. Zoo Day.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warden, Marian

    1978-01-01

    Zoo Day was one of the culminating activities of Art Extravaganza, a pilot summer art program for high ability first-and second-graders. Field trips, art history lessons, box sculpture, and a study of cavemen were included. (SJL)

  11. Heat accumulator

    SciTech Connect

    Bracht, A.

    1981-09-29

    A heat accumulator comprises a thermally-insulated reservoir full of paraffin wax mixture or other flowable or meltable heat storage mass, heat-exchangers immersed in the mass, a heat-trap connected to one of the heat-exchangers, and a heat user connected to the other heat-exchanger. Pumps circulate fluids through the heat-trap and the heat-using means and the respective heat-exchangers, and a stirrer agitates and circulates the mass, and the pumps and the stirrer and electric motors driving these devices are all immersed in the mass.

  12. Inspire Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohach, Barbara M.; Meade, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    The authors collaborated on hosting a "Spring Inspire Day." planned and delivered by preservice elementary teachers as a social studies/science methods project. Projects that have authentic application opportunities can make learning meaningful for prospective teachers as well as elementary students. With the impetus for an integrated…

  13. Energy Day.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Describes a program in which students present their displays in the normal science-fair style but without the competitive element and more as a "science-share". Describes an "energy day" celebration which included an energy exhibition and engaged students in an "energy decathlon" that challenged them with tasks encompassing many aspects of energy.…

  14. Low temperatures counteract short-day induced nitrogen storage, but not accumulation of bark storage protein transcripts in bark of grey poplar (Populus × canescens) trees.

    PubMed

    Wildhagen, H; Bilela, S; Rennenberg, H

    2013-01-01

    According to climate change scenarios, the seasonal course of temperature will change in most regions of the world, raising the question of how this will influence seasonal nitrogen (N) storage in deciduous trees. The key to this question is a detailed understanding of the underlying regulatory mechanisms, which was addressed in this study by analysing (i) the effects of low temperatures (13-1 °C) on bark storage protein (BSP) transcription, BSP and total protein accumulation and amino acid metabolism; (ii) the effects of interactions between low temperatures and photoperiod on these processes; and (iii) the regulatory role of amino acids in the bark. For this purpose, we exposed grey poplar trees (Populus × canescens) to three different treatments of changing photoperiod at constant temperature, changing temperature at constant photoperiod, and both changing photoperiod and temperature. Under a shortened photoperiod, a substantial increase of BSP transcripts was observed that was correlated with the accumulation of bark proteins, indicating a metabolic shift to promote long-term N storage. Irrespective of the applied photoperiod, exposure to low temperatures (5 or 1 °C) caused a strong increase of BSP transcripts, which was not paralled by significant increases of BSP and total bark proteins. We conclude that the interaction between effects of photoperiod and temperature is dependent on the carbon status of the trees, and reflects a metabolic adjustment of reduced carbon consumption for BSP synthesis. These results demonstrate the differential temperature sensitivity of processes involved in seasonal N storage, implying vulnerability to changing environmental conditions.

  15. 34 CFR 300.11 - Day; business day; school day.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Day; business day; school day. 300.11 Section 300.11... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.11 Day; business day; school day. (a) Day means calendar day unless otherwise indicated as business day or school day. (b) Business...

  16. Valentine's Day

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA02174 Valentine's Day

    This isolated mesa [lower left center of the image] has an almost heart-shaped margin. Happy Valentine's Day from Mars.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 29.4N, Longitude 79.1E. 18 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  17. Thermal accumulation and the early development of Ixodes scapularis.

    PubMed

    Rand, Peter W; Holman, Mary S; Lubelczyk, Charles; Lacombe, Eleanor H; DeGaetano, Arthur T; Smith, Robert P

    2004-06-01

    We examined the relationship between the accumulation of thermal energy and the onset of oviposition and eclosion of the northern deer tick, Ixodes scapularis, and explored the usefulness of comparing degree days (DD) required for larval emergence with area-wide National Weather Service (NWS) data to construct maps indicating where the establishment of this vector tick would be climatologically constrained. Initially, the validity of basal temperatures for egg and larval development was confirmed by prolonged incubations of gravid females and eggs at 6 degrees C and 10 degrees C respectively. Next, the number of DD accumulated in situ from the placement of gravid females to oviposition, and from oviposition to larval emergence, were measured using temperature data loggers placed next to fall- and spring-fed ticks held within individual vials under leaf litter in multiple enclosures located in diverse biophysical regions of Maine. Finally, when it was found that total DD to larval emergence, as measured in ambient air above the enclosures, compared favorably with DD accumulated simultaneously at nearby NWS stations, maps were constructed, based on archived NWS data, to demonstrate where temperatures were sufficient to allow the hatching of larvae both within one season and over the last three decades as I. scapularis has advanced into northern New England. PMID:15266754

  18. Sixty-One Martian Days of Weather Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Canadian Meteorological Station on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander tracked some changes in daily weather patterns over the first 61 Martian days of the mission (May 26 to July 22, 2008), a period covering late spring to early summer on northern Mars.

    This summary weather report notes that daily temperature ranges have changed only about 4 Celsius degrees (7 Fahrenheit degrees) since the start of the mission. The average daily high has been minus 30 degrees C (minus 22 degrees F), and the average daily low has been minus 79 degrees C (minus 110 degrees F).

    The mission has been accumulating enough wind data to recognize daily patterns, such as a change in direction between day and night, and to begin analyzing whether the patterns are driven by local factors or larger-scale movement of the atmosphere.

    The air pressure has steadily decreased. Scientists attribute this to a phenomenon on Mars that is not shared by Earth. The south polar cap of carbon dioxide ice grows during the southern winter on Mars, pulling enough carbon dioxide out of the thin atmosphere to cause a seasonal decrease in the amount of atmosphere Mars has. Most of the Martian atmosphere is carbon dioxide. This measurable dip in atmospheric pressure, even near the opposite pole, is a sign of large amounts of carbon dioxide being pulled out of the atmosphere as carbon-dioxide ice accumulates at the south pole.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  19. [Effects of air temperature and soil moisture on flavonoids accumulation in Ginkgo biloba leaves].

    PubMed

    Wang, Gui-Bin; Guo, Xu-Qin; Chang, Li; Cao, Fu-Liang

    2013-11-01

    Taking the 2-year old Ginkgo biloba seedlings as test materials, a pot experiment was conducted in an artificial climate chamber to study the effects of air temperature and soil moisture on the flavonoids accumulation in leaves. Three levels of air temperature (15/5 degrees C, 25/15 degrees C, and 35/25 degrees C day/night) and three levels of soil moisture (55%-60%, 40%-45%, and 30%-35% of field capacity) were installed, yielding nine temperature-soil moisture combinations. Under the three levels of soil moisture, the quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, and total flavonoids contents in the leaves were higher at 15/5 degrees C than at 25/15 degrees C and 35/25 degrees C. Soil moisture had minor effects on the flavonoids accumulation. The leaf kaempferol content was the highest, followed by quercetin and isorhamnetin. The total flavonoids yield per plant at 35/25 degrees C was higher than that at 15/5 degrees C and 25/15 degrees C. It was suggested that to adopt appropriate soil covering and watering before harvesting to decrease the ambient temperature could benefit the enhancement of leaf flavonoids content and the improvement of per unit area flavonoids production in G. biloba leaf-harvesting plantation.

  20. Day Jobs/Nightwork: Academic Staff Studying towards Higher Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winberg, C.; Adams, A.; Esbach, J.; Groenewald, W.; Lakay, D.; Muzondo, I.; Randall, K.; Seane, G.; Siyepu, S.; Veeran, P.

    2010-01-01

    Universities of Technology (UTs) offer career-focused education in a wide variety of disciplines and fields. Traditionally, UTs recruited academic staff with relevant workplace experience, rather than academic qualifications. The result of this strategy was, while many lecturers possessed professional qualifications in their field, they did not…

  1. Your College Degree: The External Degree Way.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haponski, William C.; And Others

    Information on undertaking an external degree program to obtain a college education is presented. An external degree program is one that has no, or minimal requirements for residence (on-campus attendance). Most often it can be entered at any time of the year and usually grants credit for documented learning already acquired. An external degree…

  2. Insolation data manual: Long-term monthly averages of solar radiation, temperature, degree-days, and global KT for 248 National Weather Service stations and direct normal solar radiation data manual: Long-term, monthly mean, daily totals for 235 National Weather Service stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-07-01

    The Insolation Data Manual presents monthly averaged data which describes the availability of solar radiation at 248 National Weather Service (NWS) stations, principally in the United States. Monthly and annual average daily insolation and temperature values have been computed from a base of 24 to 25 years of data, generally from 1952 to 1975, and listed for each location. Insolation values represent monthly average daily totals of global radiation on a horizontal surface and are depicted using the three units of measurement: kJ/sq m per day, Btu/sq ft per day and langleys per day. Average daily maximum, minimum and monthly temperatures are provided for most locations in both Celsius and Fahrenheit. Heating and cooling degree-days were computed relative to a base of 18.3 C (65 F). For each station, global KT (cloudiness index) values were calculated on a monthly and annual basis. Global KT is an index of cloudiness and indicates fractional transmittance of horizontal radiation, from the top of the atmosphere to the earth's surface. The second section of this volume presents long-term monthly and annual averages of direct normal solar radiation for 235 NWS stations, including a discussion of the basic derivation process. This effort is in response to a generally recognized need for reliable direct normal data and the recent availability of 23 years of hourly averages for 235 stations. The relative inaccessibility of these data on microfiche further justifies reproducing at least the long-term averages in a useful format. In addition to a definition of terms and an overview of the ADIPA model, a discussion of model validation results is presented.

  3. The External Degree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houle, Cyril O.

    This book examines the external degree in relation to the extremes of attitudes, myths, and data. Emphasis is placed on the emergence of the American external degree, foreign external-degree programs, the purpose of the external degree, the current scene, institutional issues, and problems of general policy. (MJM)

  4. Enhancing the Transition from a Foundation Degree to the Third Year of an Undergraduate Degree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mytton, Graham; Rumbold, Penny

    2011-01-01

    One-day transition to university workshops have been successful in enhancing peer networks. This study aimed to influence the transition from a Foundation Degree to a third year Undergraduate Degree programme through the use of peer led workshops. Two 2-hour workshops were planned and delivered by five previous students of the Foundation Degree,…

  5. Associate Degree Preferred.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parnell, Dale, Ed.

    Designed to encourage dialogue and inform decision making about the associate degree, this book presents perspectives on the role of the associate degree in the nation's two-year colleges. First, "Toward a Greater Degree: A Plan of Action," by Dale Parnell, suggests a plan for preserving and enhancing the value of the education being provided by…

  6. Metal accumulation by wood-decaying fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, G.

    1982-01-01

    Metal concentrations (Na, K, Rb, Mg, Ca, Sr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd, Al, and Pb) in the sporophores of ten wood-decaying macromycete species were related to concentrations in the wood substrates. Manganese, Sr, Ca, and Pb were usually excluded by the fungi; K, Rb, and to a lower degree, Cd, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mg and Na were accumulated. Accumulation ratios are compared with similar ratios for soil and litter inhabiting species previously studied.

  7. Actions and interactions of temperature and photoperiod on mercury accumulation by Elodea densa from sediment source

    SciTech Connect

    Maury-Brachet, R.; Ribeyre, F.; Boudou, A. )

    1990-10-01

    Actions and interactions of two abiotic parameters--temperature (18, 21, and 24 degrees C) and photoperiod (8, 12, and 16 hr/day)--on mercury bioaccumulation (HgCl2 and CH3HgCl) by a rooted macrophyte species, Elodea densa, from the sediment source were studied using experimental designs. Comparative analysis of shoot growth (weight and length criteria) was made to look for a possible inhibiting action by the metal and to establish quantitative data for the interpretation of accumulation results. Total mercury accumulation by E. densa was quantified using two criteria--concentration and content. The amount of total mercury accumulated in the whole plant after a 28-day exposure was 40 times greater for the organic form, if the two compounds were initially added to the sediment at the same concentration. Temperature and photoperiod had a strong influence on methyl mercury accumulation by the plants, separately and in interaction. The interactions generally represent an amplification of effects produced by each abiotic factor, although this synergy varied according to the two accumulation criteria being considered or to the level of analysis (whole plant, leaves, and stems).

  8. Degree Accreditation in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Dave

    2004-01-01

    Until recently, the meaning and origin of the Canadian university degree was well understood by Canadians and around the world. Degrees were only offered by universities and the use of the label university was controlled by legislation in each of the ten provinces and three territories. Institutional membership in the Association of Universities…

  9. What price a degree?

    PubMed

    Corbett, Kevin

    2016-05-25

    Let's face it, nurse education is big business for British universities. The lobby group of universities offering nursing degrees, the Council of Deans of health (CoDH), argues that the true cost of nursing degrees is subsidised by their members. PMID:27224609

  10. 360-degree Color Panorama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This is a 'geometrically improved' version of the 360- degree panorama heretofore known as the 'Gallery Pan', the first contiguous, uniform panorama taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) over the course of Sols 8, 9, and 10. Different regions were imaged at different times over the three Martian days to acquire consistent lighting and shadow conditions for all areas of the panorama.

    The IMP is a stereo imaging system that, in its fully deployed configuration, stands 1.8 meters above the Martian surface, and has a resolution of two millimeters at a range of two meters. In this geometrically improved version of the panorama, distortion due to a 2.5 degree tilt in the IMP camera mast has been removed, effectively flattening the horizon.

    The IMP has color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye'. Its red, green, and blue filters were used to take this image.

    At left is a Lander petal and a metallic mast which is a portion of the low-gain antenna. Misregistration in the antenna and other Lander features is due to parallax in the extreme foreground. On the horizon the double 'Twin Peaks' are visible, about 1-2 kilometers away. The rock 'Couch' is the dark, curved rock at right of Twin Peaks. Another Lander petal is at left-center, showing the fully deployed forward ramp at far left, and rear ramp at right, which rover Sojourner used to descend to the surface of Mars on July 5. Immediately to the left of the rear ramp is the rock 'Barnacle Bill', which scientists found to be andesitic, possibly indicating that it is a volcanic rock (a true andesite) or a physical mixture of particles. Just beyond Barnacle Bill, rover tracks lead to Sojourner, shown using its Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) instrument to study the large rock 'Yogi'. Yogi, low in quartz content, appears to be more primitive than Barnacle Bill, and appears more like the common basalts found on Earth.

    The tracks and circular pattern in the soil

  11. Schoolwide Literacy Days.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polder, Darlene D.

    2000-01-01

    Describes 10 "literacy day" activities that one California elementary school has used successfully schoolwide, typically one such day per month, to make reading fun and purposeful, while developing a sense of community. Includes: spread-a-quilt day; teacher exchange day; turn off the TV; Dr. Seuss day; community readers; schoolwide poets; original…

  12. GATEWAYS: Degree program alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Strong, K.R.; Thayer, M.M.

    1991-11-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is using non-traditional solutions to assist employees in attaining degrees required for essential Laboratory operations. Varieties of distance learning technologies have been implemented to meet some degree needs. While distance learning is not always a perfect solution, it enables the Laboratory to provide education that would otherwise not be practical for full-time employees. The Laboratory has also formed partnerships with local colleges to design programs to fill particular needs. Meeting the challenge of providing cost-effective, viable degree programs in an isolated location requires both patience and innovation.

  13. First Day of Life

    MedlinePlus

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy The First Day of Life KidsHealth > For Parents > The First Day ... continue What Your Baby Does on the First Day Many parents are surprised to see how alert ...

  14. Degree by Thesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtis, Barbara

    1974-01-01

    Discusses a student's experience with a research project on the synthesis and reactions of an organo-platinum complex with an organo-Group IV linkage, including the advantages and disadvantages of such a degree by thesis course. (CC)

  15. Latitude 90 Degrees North to 90 Degrees South and Longitude 0 Degrees to 180 Degrees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The coordinates of the Lambert azimuthal equal area projection are latitude 90 degrees N. to 90 degrees S. and longitude 0 degree to 180 degrees. Both polar residual ice caps are seen at top and bottom. The central part is dominated by the four largest and youngest volcanoes on Mars--Olympus, Arsia, Pavonis, and Ascraeus Montes--and by a vast system of canyons several thousand kilometers long--Valles Marineris. Directly to the northeast of Valles Marineris, several large outflow channels terminate at a dark depression, Chryse basin. The lower-right corner is marked by the large Argyre basin, defined by an expanse of light-colored plains 800 km across.

  16. Latitude 90 Degrees North to 90 Degrees South and Longitude -180 Degrees to 0 Degrees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The coordinates of the Lambert azimuthal equal area projection are latitude 90 degrees N. to 90 degrees S. and longitude -180 degrees to 0 degrees. The north polar residual ice cap of the Planum Boreum region, which is cut by spiral-patterned troughs, is located at top. The upper part is marked by large depression, Isidis basin, which contains light-colored plains. The upper part also includes the light-colored smooth plains of Elysium Planitia and dark plains of Vastitas Borealis. Together, these form a vast expanse of contiguous plains. Toward the bottom, on the other hand, the southern hemisphere is almost entirely made up of heavily cratered highlands. Toward the bottom, a conspicuous, relatively bright circular depression marks the ancient large Hellas impact basin.

  17. Adult Day Services

    MedlinePlus

    A Smart Choice Adult Day Services Comparison At-a-Glance 1 Adult Day Services Assisted Living Home Care Nursing Homes Live at home with family ... supervision Nursing care available as needed during the day Flexibility to receive care only on days when ...

  18. Trends in Undergraduate Economics Degrees, 1991-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegfried, John J.

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on the trends in undergraduate economics degrees from 1991-2007. Undergraduate degrees in economics awarded by U.S. colleges and universities enjoyed a substantial upward trajectory for seven consecutive years from 1997 through 2004, accumulating a 57 percent rise over the seven years. But, like all good things that eventually…

  19. Accumulation of Welfare Problems in a Longitudinal Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallerod, Bjorn; Bask, Miia

    2008-01-01

    The central aim of the present paper is to analyse the degree to which welfare problems accumulate over time and to what extent such an accumulation is related to class position and household formation. We utilize longitudinal data from the Swedish Survey of Living Conditions, following a panel that was first interviewed in 1979 and, thereafter,…

  20. Accumulative Equating Error after a Chain of Linear Equatings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Hongwen

    2010-01-01

    After many equatings have been conducted in a testing program, equating errors can accumulate to a degree that is not negligible compared to the standard error of measurement. In this paper, the author investigates the asymptotic accumulative standard error of equating (ASEE) for linear equating methods, including chained linear, Tucker, and…

  1. The "Clinical" Masters Degree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlman, Baron; Lane, Robert

    1981-01-01

    Discusses issues surrounding the clinical master's degree: the belief that the only true psychologist is a PhD, public confusion between doctoral and subdoctoral psychologists, training guidelines, role responsibility, employment, licensing and competency, accreditation, and supervision. Suggests an APA sponsored conference to discuss and resolve…

  2. Top Hispanic Degree Producers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a list of the top 100 producers of associate, bachelor's and graduate degrees awarded to minority students based on research conducted by Dr. Victor M.H. Borden, professor of educational leadership and policy students at the Indiana University Bloomington. For the year 2012, the listings focus on Hispanic students. Data for…

  3. One Degree of Separation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jean

    2012-01-01

    A 2011 survey of young adults conducted by Public Agenda found that a cluster of obstacles have prevented many of them from competing college. The author describes the opportunity, college awareness, and funding gaps that put a postsecondary degree out of the reach of so many young people. For example, just 3 in 10 non-college-completers are aware…

  4. Registered Nurse (Associate Degree).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of registered nurse (with an associate degree), lists technical competencies and competency builders for 19 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general and 5 units specific to the occupation of registered nurse. The following…

  5. Charting Journalism Degrees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borden, Victor M. H.

    1998-01-01

    Data are presented on the numbers of African Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, and total minority group members receiving associate, bachelor's, master's and doctoral degrees in journalism and mass communication in 1997-98. Colleges and universities graduating the most minorities are also ranked. (MSE)

  6. Every Day Is National Lab Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Glen

    2010-01-01

    President Barack Obama recently issued a call for increased hands-on learning in U.S. schools in an address at the National Academy of Sciences. Obama concluded that the future of the United States depends on one's ability to encourage young people to "create, and build, and invent." In this article, the author discusses National Lab Day (NLD)…

  7. Every Day Is Mathematical

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barger, Rita H.; Jarrah, Adeeb M.

    2012-01-01

    March 14 is special because it is Pi Day. Mathematics is celebrated on that day because the date, 3-14, replicates the first three digits of pi. Pi-related songs, websites, trivia facts, and more are at the fingertips of interested teachers and students. Less celebrated, but still fairly well known, is National Metric Day, which falls on October…

  8. Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation Information Page Synonym(s): Hallervorden-Spatz Disease, ... done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation? Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) ...

  9. Plastids and Carotenoid Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Yuan, Hui; Zeng, Yunliu; Xu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Plastids are ubiquitously present in plants and are the organelles for carotenoid biosynthesis and storage. Based on their morphology and function, plastids are classified into various types, i.e. proplastids, etioplasts, chloroplasts, amyloplasts, and chromoplasts. All plastids, except proplastids, can synthesize carotenoids. However, plastid types have a profound effect on carotenoid accumulation and stability. In this chapter, we discuss carotenoid biosynthesis and regulation in various plastids with a focus on carotenoids in chromoplasts. Plastid transition related to carotenoid biosynthesis and the different capacity of various plastids to sequester carotenoids and the associated effect on carotenoid stability are described in light of carotenoid accumulation in plants. PMID:27485226

  10. Plastids and Carotenoid Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Yuan, Hui; Zeng, Yunliu; Xu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Plastids are ubiquitously present in plants and are the organelles for carotenoid biosynthesis and storage. Based on their morphology and function, plastids are classified into various types, i.e. proplastids, etioplasts, chloroplasts, amyloplasts, and chromoplasts. All plastids, except proplastids, can synthesize carotenoids. However, plastid types have a profound effect on carotenoid accumulation and stability. In this chapter, we discuss carotenoid biosynthesis and regulation in various plastids with a focus on carotenoids in chromoplasts. Plastid transition related to carotenoid biosynthesis and the different capacity of various plastids to sequester carotenoids and the associated effect on carotenoid stability are described in light of carotenoid accumulation in plants.

  11. Spatio-temporal reconstruction of air temperature maps and their application to estimate rice growing season heat accumulation using multi-temporal MODIS data.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-wen; Huang, Jing-feng; Guo, Rui-fang; Li, Xin-xing; Sun, Wen-bo; Wang, Xiu-zhen

    2013-02-01

    The accumulation of thermal time usually represents the local heat resources to drive crop growth. Maps of temperature-based agro-meteorological indices are commonly generated by the spatial interpolation of data collected from meteorological stations with coarse geographic continuity. To solve the critical problems of estimating air temperature (T(a)) and filling in missing pixels due to cloudy and low-quality images in growing degree days (GDDs) calculation from remotely sensed data, a novel spatio-temporal algorithm for T(a) estimation from Terra and Aqua moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) data was proposed. This is a preliminary study to calculate heat accumulation, expressed in accumulative growing degree days (AGDDs) above 10 °C, from reconstructed T(a) based on MODIS land surface temperature (LST) data. The verification results of maximum T(a), minimum T(a), GDD, and AGDD from MODIS-derived data to meteorological calculation were all satisfied with high correlations over 0.01 significant levels. Overall, MODIS-derived AGDD was slightly underestimated with almost 10% relative error. However, the feasibility of employing AGDD anomaly maps to characterize the 2001-2010 spatio-temporal variability of heat accumulation and estimating the 2011 heat accumulation distribution using only MODIS data was finally demonstrated in the current paper. Our study may supply a novel way to calculate AGDD in heat-related study concerning crop growth monitoring, agricultural climatic regionalization, and agro-meteorological disaster detection at the regional scale.

  12. Spatio-temporal reconstruction of air temperature maps and their application to estimate rice growing season heat accumulation using multi-temporal MODIS data*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li-wen; Huang, Jing-feng; Guo, Rui-fang; Li, Xin-xing; Sun, Wen-bo; Wang, Xiu-zhen

    2013-01-01

    The accumulation of thermal time usually represents the local heat resources to drive crop growth. Maps of temperature-based agro-meteorological indices are commonly generated by the spatial interpolation of data collected from meteorological stations with coarse geographic continuity. To solve the critical problems of estimating air temperature (T a) and filling in missing pixels due to cloudy and low-quality images in growing degree days (GDDs) calculation from remotely sensed data, a novel spatio-temporal algorithm for T a estimation from Terra and Aqua moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) data was proposed. This is a preliminary study to calculate heat accumulation, expressed in accumulative growing degree days (AGDDs) above 10 °C, from reconstructed T a based on MODIS land surface temperature (LST) data. The verification results of maximum T a, minimum T a, GDD, and AGDD from MODIS-derived data to meteorological calculation were all satisfied with high correlations over 0.01 significant levels. Overall, MODIS-derived AGDD was slightly underestimated with almost 10% relative error. However, the feasibility of employing AGDD anomaly maps to characterize the 2001–2010 spatio-temporal variability of heat accumulation and estimating the 2011 heat accumulation distribution using only MODIS data was finally demonstrated in the current paper. Our study may supply a novel way to calculate AGDD in heat-related study concerning crop growth monitoring, agricultural climatic regionalization, and agro-meteorological disaster detection at the regional scale. PMID:23365013

  13. Spatio-temporal reconstruction of air temperature maps and their application to estimate rice growing season heat accumulation using multi-temporal MODIS data.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-wen; Huang, Jing-feng; Guo, Rui-fang; Li, Xin-xing; Sun, Wen-bo; Wang, Xiu-zhen

    2013-02-01

    The accumulation of thermal time usually represents the local heat resources to drive crop growth. Maps of temperature-based agro-meteorological indices are commonly generated by the spatial interpolation of data collected from meteorological stations with coarse geographic continuity. To solve the critical problems of estimating air temperature (T(a)) and filling in missing pixels due to cloudy and low-quality images in growing degree days (GDDs) calculation from remotely sensed data, a novel spatio-temporal algorithm for T(a) estimation from Terra and Aqua moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) data was proposed. This is a preliminary study to calculate heat accumulation, expressed in accumulative growing degree days (AGDDs) above 10 °C, from reconstructed T(a) based on MODIS land surface temperature (LST) data. The verification results of maximum T(a), minimum T(a), GDD, and AGDD from MODIS-derived data to meteorological calculation were all satisfied with high correlations over 0.01 significant levels. Overall, MODIS-derived AGDD was slightly underestimated with almost 10% relative error. However, the feasibility of employing AGDD anomaly maps to characterize the 2001-2010 spatio-temporal variability of heat accumulation and estimating the 2011 heat accumulation distribution using only MODIS data was finally demonstrated in the current paper. Our study may supply a novel way to calculate AGDD in heat-related study concerning crop growth monitoring, agricultural climatic regionalization, and agro-meteorological disaster detection at the regional scale. PMID:23365013

  14. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing.

    PubMed

    Kühl, Hjalmar S; Kalan, Ammie K; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D'Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites.

  15. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing

    PubMed Central

    Kühl, Hjalmar S.; Kalan, Ammie K.; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D’Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E.; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J.; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M.; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites. PMID:26923684

  16. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing.

    PubMed

    Kühl, Hjalmar S; Kalan, Ammie K; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D'Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites. PMID:26923684

  17. Emerging distance degree programs.

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, D; Greenhalgh, T

    2000-01-01

    The variation in program focus and style is examined in this column, which also identifies resources for evaluation. The integration of Web-based or other distance modality materials to conventional courses, and the expansion of traditional universities to include a virtual campus, should proceed with caution and systematic evaluation. It is an evolution that offers both rewards and pitfalls, but requires more rigorous examination. This article provides information about pedagogical issues and additional distance-education master's degree programs. Some are new, while others are established.

  18. Open Day at SHMI.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarosova, M.

    2010-09-01

    During the World Meteorological Day there has been preparing "Open Day" at Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute. This event has more than 10 years traditions. "Open Day" is one of a lot of possibilities to give more information about meteorology, climatology, hydrology too to public. This "Day" is executed in whole Slovakia. People can visit the laboratories, the forecasting room....and meteo and clima measuring points. The most popular is visiting forecasting room. Visitors are interested in e.g. climatologic change in Slovakia territory, preparing weather forecasting, dangerous phenomena.... Every year we have more than 500 visitors.

  19. When Graduate Degrees Prostitute the Educational Process: Degrees Gone Wild

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumadue, Richard T.

    2006-01-01

    Graduate degrees prostitute the educational process when they are sold to consumers by unaccredited degree/diploma mills as being equivalent to legitimate, bona-fide degrees awarded by accredited graduate schools. This article carefully analyzes the serious problems of bogus degrees and their association with the religious higher education…

  20. Rainy Day Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Experienced caregivers plan ahead for rainy days. This article describes specific rainy day activities for young children, such as books and crafts to learn about rain (rain in a jar, making a rainbow), simple cooking activities (taffy pull, cinnamon candy tea), and games (mummy wrap, hunt the thimble, rain lotto). (EV)

  1. RED-LETTER DAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The word "red-letter" is an adjective meaning "of special significance." It's origin is from the practice of marking Christian holy days in red letters on calendars. The "red-letter days" to which I refer occurred while I was a graduate student of ...

  2. The Presidents' Day Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, D. Jackson

    2008-01-01

    The history behind the holiday commonly called "Presidents' Day" is a bit confusing. It started as a federal holiday called Washington's Birthday. It was a day set aside to honor George Washington for his accomplishments as a founding father of the country. Later, many northern states began to recognize Abraham Lincoln's Birthday as well for his…

  3. Science Challenge Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Science fairs can be good motivators, but as extracurricular activities, they leave some students behind. However, by staging a Science Challenge Day at school, educators can involve all students in doing everything from choosing activities to judging projects. This article presents a model for running a successful Science Challenge Day. The…

  4. School Building Day, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Educational Facility Planners, International, Scottsdale, AZ.

    This document presents information and development materials about "School Building Day" (an event spotlighting the school facility and developing support and pride in the community's schools) to help local school districts conduct their own "School Building Day" to be held on April 20th of 2001. Included are lists of suggested activities and…

  5. My Lucky Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olvey, Maura

    2010-01-01

    Teaching based on problem solving brings challenges for the teacher, primarily that of finding problems with multiple access points that accommodate all students. This article narrates the author's lucky day as she discovers the Four fours problem which impacted her passion for teaching math. The day she presented the Four fours problem to her…

  6. Day of the Dead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dann, Tammy; Murphy, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Foreign Language in Elementary School (FLES) teachers in the West Des Moines schools incorporate the Day of the Dead into the fourth grade curriculum each year. The teachers discuss the Day of the Dead celebration at the Art Center, and many ask for volunteers from fourth grade to participate in the event. Student presentations include a wide…

  7. Family Science Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCubbins, Sara; Thomas, Bethany; Vetere, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a family-friendly science day event that encourages scientific discovery through hands-on activities, while also providing an opportunity to learn about scientific careers from actual research scientists and science educators, thereby raising awareness of the importance of STEM in our society. The one-day event bought…

  8. Day Care Personnel Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levi Strauss Foundation, Inc., San Francisco, CA.

    The information presented in this guide focuses on the knowledge, skills, values, and attitudes needed for effective personnel management in day care settings. Information included in this publication came from the suggestions of day care directors who participated in Training for Child Care Project workshops on administration, as well as from…

  9. Popular Chat Day Q & A

    MedlinePlus

    ... Day / Popular Chat Day Q & A Popular Chat Day Q & A Print Read students’ most popular questions ... Cool Order Free Materials National Drugs & Alcohol Chat Day Chat Day Participant FAQs Popular Chat Day Q & ...

  10. Accumulator with preclosing preventer

    SciTech Connect

    Murthy, R.R.; Rice, B.J.

    1981-11-24

    A guided-float accumulator suitable for use with a hydraulic system for an oil well blowout preventer is provided with a wing shut-off valve. Radially inwardly directed outlet parts are aimed at the bottom of the valve wing to generate unbalanced reaction forces which oppose the bernoulli effect forces caused by rapid movement of fluid through the chamber of the shut-off valve, thus preventing premature closing of the valve.

  11. Pregnancy - identifying fertile days

    MedlinePlus

    ... between days 7 and 20 of a woman's menstrual cycle. In order to become pregnant, having sex every ... hours of ovulation. If you have an irregular menstrual cycle, an ovulation predictor kit can help you know ...

  12. Career Day 2012

    NASA Video Gallery

    More than 200 high school juniors and seniors with interests in science, technology, engineering and math met one-on-one with professionals at NASA's Langley Research Center during Career Day 2012,...

  13. Day care health risks

    MedlinePlus

    ... after going to the bathroom or changing a diaper, and then preparing food. In addition to good ... washing, important policies include: Preparing food and changing diapers in different areas Making sure day care staff ...

  14. Stennis Day Camper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Sara Beth Casey, 5, proudly displays her artwork, 'Planets.' Sara Beth created the art as a student of Stennis Day Camp, a free camp for Stennis Space Center employees' children whose schools have not resumed since Hurricane Katrina hit the region on Aug. 29. The camp has registered nearly 200 children and averages 100 children each day. The camp will continue until all schools are back in session.

  15. AAS 228: Day 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    began the session by explaining his new models which trace the diffusive cooling of an initial supernova shock. His team has created an open source code, the SuperNova Explosion Code or SNEC, to allow others to explore a variety of explosion properties.Janie De La Rosa then spoke about her work on observing Type IIn supernovae (those with narrow emission lines in their spectra) at ultraviolet and optical wavelengths. These wavelengths are sensitive to progenitor models and the geometry of the surrounding material.Composite image of the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A, using data from the Chandra X-ray telescope, NASAs Spitzer Space Telescope, and ground-based facilities. [NASA/CXC/SAO]Following the exploration of progenitor geometry, Douglas C. Leonard spoke about his work in hunting for polarization in type IIP supernovae (those with long, plateaued light curves). A high degree of polarization implies asymmetry in the explosion itself, and he has been able to find such asymmetry in a number of type IIP supernovae. He pointed out that bubble-like structure (like what we see in the beautiful supernova remnant Cassiopeia A) might explain the polarization as well. Switching gears, Karri Kolijonen spoke about an interesting X-ray binary (a binary consistent of a compact object and star that emits strongly in X-rays) known as GS 1354-64. This pair has an extremely short orbital period of just two and a half days! He explained how an instability in the black holes accretion disk might explain a recent outburst in the system.Thomas Pannuti explained the basic morphologies of supernova remnants: shell, composite, and mixed. He has taken extensive, multiwavelength images of a mixed remnant known as W28 from radio through X-ray wavelengths. He notes that the radio masers in the remnant are offset from the X-ray light, although the significance of this is still an open question.Finally, Maria Dainotti wrapped up the session with a discussion of long duration GRBs as standard

  16. Aerobic degradation of a hydrocarbon mixture in natural uncontaminated potting soil by indigenous microorganisms at 20 degrees C and 6 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, M; Dalhammar, G; Borg-Karlson, A K

    1999-04-01

    A hydrocarbon mixture containing p-xylene, naphthalene, Br-naphthalene and straight aliphatic hydrocarbons (C14 to C17) was aerobically degraded without lag phase by a natural uncontaminated potting soil at 20 degrees C and 6 degrees C. Starting concentrations were approximately 46 ppm for the aromatic and 13 ppm for the aliphatic compounds. All aliphatic hydrocarbons were degraded within 5 days at 20 degrees C, to levels below detection (ppb levels) but only down to 10% of initial concentration at 6 degrees C. Naphthalene was degraded within 12 days at 20 degrees C and unaffected at 6 degrees C. At 20 degrees C p-xylene was degraded within 20 days, but no degradation occurred at 6 degrees C. Br-naphthalene was only removed down to 30% of initial concentration at 20 degrees C, with no significant effect at 6 degrees C. The biodegradation was monitored with head space solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

  17. Heat exchanger-accumulator

    DOEpatents

    Ecker, Amir L.

    1980-01-01

    What is disclosed is a heat exchanger-accumulator for vaporizing a refrigerant or the like, characterized by an upright pressure vessel having a top, bottom and side walls; an inlet conduit eccentrically and sealingly penetrating through the top; a tubular overflow chamber disposed within the vessel and sealingly connected with the bottom so as to define an annular outer volumetric chamber for receiving refrigerant; a heat transfer coil disposed in the outer volumetric chamber for vaporizing the liquid refrigerant that accumulates there; the heat transfer coil defining a passageway for circulating an externally supplied heat exchange fluid; transferring heat efficiently from the fluid; and freely allowing vaporized refrigerant to escape upwardly from the liquid refrigerant; and a refrigerant discharge conduit penetrating sealingly through the top and traversing substantially the length of the pressurized vessel downwardly and upwardly such that its inlet is near the top of the pressurized vessel so as to provide a means for transporting refrigerant vapor from the vessel. The refrigerant discharge conduit has metering orifices, or passageways, penetrating laterally through its walls near the bottom, communicating respectively interiorly and exteriorly of the overflow chamber for controllably carrying small amounts of liquid refrigerant and oil to the effluent stream of refrigerant gas.

  18. A Hazy Day in Mexico City

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Mexico City has one of the world's most serious air pollution problems. The city is located atop a high plain at an altitude of 2200 meters, and is surrounded on three sides by mountains and snow-capped volcanoes. Since incident solar radiation does not vary significantly with season at tropical latitudes, photochemical smog is produced much of the year. In winter, air quality can worsen significantly when thermal inversions keep polluted air masses close to the surface.

    Atmospheric particulates (aerosols) are readily visible at oblique view angles, and differences in aerosol amount on two days are indicated by these images of central Mexico from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR). The images at left and center are natural color views acquired by MISR's 70-degree forward-viewing camera on April 9 and December 5, 2001, respectively. Mexico City can be identified in the center panel by the large area of haze accumulation above image center. Two small brighter patches within the hazy area indicate low fog. In the left-hand panel, the city basin appears significantly clearer, but some haze remains apparent across the Sierra Madre mountains in the lower portion of the images. On the right is an elevation field corresponding to the December 5 view. Automated MISR stereoscopic retrievals reveal the clouds at lower right to be at very high altitudes, in contrast to the low-lying haze and fog near Mexico City. When the stereo retrieval determines that a location is not covered by clouds, digital terrain elevation data are displayed instead. High clouds appear as the orange and red areas, and mountainous areas appear light blue and green. The position of the clouds within the 70-degree image are slightly southward of their location in the elevation map as a consequence of geometric parallax.

    Major sources of air pollutants within the basin enclosing the Mexico City urban area include exhaust from 3.5 million vehicles, thousands of industries, and

  19. Spirit 360-Degree View, Sol 388

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 360-degree view of the rover's surroundings on Spirit's 388th martian day, or sol (Feb. 4, 2005). Spirit had driven about 13 meters (43 feet) uphill toward 'Cumberland Ridge' on this sol. This location is catalogued as Spirit's Site 102, Position 513. The view is presented in a cylindrical projection with geometric and brightness seam correction.

  20. Spirit 360-Degree View, Sol 388 (vertical)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 360-degree view of the rover's surroundings on Spirit's 388th martian day, or sol (Feb. 4, 2005). Spirit had driven about 13 meters (43 feet) uphill toward 'Cumberland Ridge' on this sol. This location is catalogued as Spirit's Site 102, Position 513. The view is presented in a vertical projection with geometric and brightness seam correction.

  1. Spirit 360-Degree View, Sol 388 (polar)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 360-degree view of the rover's surroundings on Spirit's 388th martian day, or sol (Feb. 4, 2005). Spirit had driven about 13 meters (43 feet) uphill toward 'Cumberland Ridge' on this sol. This location is catalogued as Spirit's Site 102, Position 513. The view is presented in a cylindrical projection with geometric and brightness seam correction.

  2. 70 Days of Jupiter Winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This global movie of 70 days of Jupiter's cloud movements photographed by NASA's Cassini spacecraft shows that zones of eastward and westward winds cover the planet virtually from pole to pole.

    Cassini's narrow-angle camera captured the images of Jupiter's atmosphere from October 1 to December 9, 2000, in the near-infrared region of the spectrum. The view here is a cylindrical projection centered in the planet's equator.

    The movie allows tracking of individual storms' movements in the familiar zonal bands of the lower latitudes, in the swirling turbulence around the Great Red Spot and in the high latitudes where still images show chaotic mottling instead of stripes.

    Cassini collected images of Jupiter for months before and after it passed the planet on December 30, 2000. Six or more images of the planet in each of several spectral filters were taken at evenly spaced intervals over the course of Jupiter's 10-hour rotation period. The entire sequence was repeated generally every other Jupiter rotation, yielding views of every sector of the planet at least once every 20 hours.

    The images used for the movie shown here were taken every 20 hours through a filter centered at a wavelength of 756 nanometers, where there are almost no absorptions in the planet's atmosphere. Six images covering each rotation were mosaiced together to form a cylindrical map extending from 75 degrees north to 75 degrees south in latitude and covering 360 degrees in longitude. The movie consists of 84 such maps, spanning 70Earth days in time or 168 Jupiter rotations.

    For more information, see the Cassini Project home page, http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/cassini/ and the Cassini Imaging Team home page, http://ciclops.lpl.arizona.edu/ciclops/ .

    Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini mission for NASA's Office of

  3. First Day of School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bort, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    In this brief article, the author, a science teacher at F. C. Hammond Middle School in Alexandria, Virginia, describes how the setting up of a simple science experiment on the first day of school can get students excited about learning science. The experiment involves heating a small amount of water in a flask, then covering the opening of the…

  4. Scheduling: Seven Period Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Driven by stable or declining financial resources many school districts are considering the costs and benefits of a seven-period day. While there is limited evidence that any particular scheduling model has a greater impact on student learning than any other, it is clear that the school schedule is a tool that can significantly impact teacher…

  5. Fabulous Weather Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Candice; Mogil, H. Michael

    2007-01-01

    Each year, first graders at Kensington Parkwood Elementary School in Kensington, Maryland, look forward to Fabulous Weather Day. Students learn how meteorologists collect data about the weather, how they study wind, temperature, precipitation, basic types/characteristics of clouds, and how they forecast. The project helps the students grow in…

  6. 90-Day Cycle Handbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sandra; Takahashi, Sola

    2013-01-01

    90-Day Cycles are a disciplined and structured form of inquiry designed to produce and test knowledge syntheses, prototyped processes, or products in support of improvement work. With any type of activity, organizations inevitably encounter roadblocks to improving performance and outcomes. These barriers might include intractable problems at…

  7. Day Care: Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Florence P.; And Others

    This collection of 12 short, bilingual papers on nutrition and preschool children is part of a series of papers on various aspects of day care published by the Canadian Department of Health and Welfare. Each paper is presented in both English and French. Topics dealt with include an overview of children's nutritional needs; development of…

  8. An Earth Day Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Don, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Presents what the author believes to be some of the most important environmental books published since Earth Day 1970. Discusses each selection and how it provides the historical background, basic information, and appreciation necessary to understand the character of our environmental dilemma and our need to address it. (MCO)

  9. Sun-Earth Day

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Michael Sandras, a member of the Pontchartrain Astronomical Society, explains his solar telescope to students of Second Street in Bay St. Louis, Hancock County and Nicholson elementary schools in StenniSphere's Millennium Hall on April 10. The students participated in several hands-on activities at Stennis Space Center's Sun-Earth Day celebration.

  10. Make a Splash Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coverdale, Greg; Rust, April; Jensen, Belinda

    2004-01-01

    At the annual, all-day events-sponsored by Project WET (Water Education for Teachers) and held in nearly every state across the country each September--students participate in interactive activities and exhibits to learn about water resources and explore how human behaviors, such as development and recreation, can affect the quality of the…

  11. One Play a Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankenship, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Undergraduate theater students rarely get the chance to work on a major world premiere, but this year hundreds of them will. Currently, more than 70 colleges and universities are participating in "365 Days/365 Plays," an ambitious project from Pulitzer Prize-winning playwright Suzan-Lori Parks. Every week, as they mount their portion of this epic…

  12. Seize the Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkey, Tim

    2008-01-01

    In order to improve what happens in classrooms, a considerable amount of work needs to take place between teachers and principals. This can only happen if campus leaders make dramatic shifts in how and where they spend their daily time. Principals can have a greater impact on teaching and learning by transforming their work one day at a time. The…

  13. STS-79 Flight Day 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    On this third day of the STS-79 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. William F. Readdy, Pilot Terrence W. Wilcutt, Mission Specialists, Thomas D. Akers, John E. Blaha, Jay Apt, and Carl E. Walz, start another busy day on orbit activating experiments in the Spacehab module. Readdy and Wilcutt are seen conducting two rendezvous burns while other crew members are seen working in the Spacehab module. The Active Rack Isolation System, or ARIS, is tended to by Walz, who performs a minor maintenance procedure on one of ARIS' vibration-damping pushrods while Akers works with an inventory management system using a bar code reader to more effectively keep track of items that will be transferred back and forth between the Shuttle and the Mir. Apt continues work with a furnace which heats to nearly 1,600 degrees centigrade to melt metal samples for study after the flight. Apt also provides a television tour of the Spacehab, which is twice its normal size for this flight to allow extra room for science experiments and logistical items slated for transfer to Mir.

  14. The Master's Degree. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazer, Judith S.

    The master's degree is reviewed in terms of its current status and rate of conferral, its diversity, standards, and the dominant program models. Changes in the patterns of master's degrees conferred, by discipline, are examined, and problems associated with the proliferation of degrees are noted. Diversity in curricular models is cited as a source…

  15. Foundation Degrees: A Risky Business?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowley, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Foundation degrees, the new proposal for sub-degree vocational education in the UK, are characterised by innovation both in their design (curriculum, teaching, learning and assessment) and in the marketplace for which they are designed. This article argues that the development and delivery of foundation degrees carry a high level of risk,…

  16. Students' Perceptions of Foundation Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ooms, A.; Burke, L. M.; Marks-Maran, D. J.; Webb, M.; Cooper, D.

    2012-01-01

    In 2008 there were 87,339 people enrolled on foundation degrees (FDs) in the UK (Foundation Degree Forward, 2009), and educational institutions in the UK offered 1700 different foundation degrees in over 25 subjects, with nearly 900 more in development (Action on Access, 2010). In addition, student views are seen to be of importance, as…

  17. Engineering and Technology Degrees, 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engineers Joint Council, New York, NY. Engineering Manpower Commission.

    This report gives the number of engineering and technology degrees for the school year ending in June 1974. Tables appear in the following order: engineering degrees (bachelor's, master's, engineer's, doctor's) and technology degrees (associate, bachelor's, certificate, master's). The engineering tables include all 284 schools known to offer…

  18. Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M. R.; Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.

    2012-09-26

    The objective of Solids Accumulation activities was to perform scaled testing to understand the behavior of remaining solids in a Double Shell Tank (DST), specifically AW-105, at Hanford during multiple fill, mix, and transfer operations. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles containing plutonium could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste staging tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids: Gibbsite, Zirconia, Sand, and Stainless Steel, with stainless steel particles representing the heavier particles, e.g., plutonium, and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to mix most of the solids while the simulant was pumped out. Subsequently, the volume and shape of the mounds of residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for heavier particles were measured. Several techniques were developed and equipment designed to accomplish the measurements needed and they included: 1. Magnetic particle separator to remove simulant stainless steel solids. A device was designed and built to capture these solids, which represent the heavier solids during a waste transfer from a staging tank. 2. Photographic equipment to determine the volume of the solids mounds. The mounds were photographed as they were exposed at different tank waste levels to develop a composite of topographical areas. 3. Laser rangefinders to determine the volume of

  19. Melas Chasma, Day and Night.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image is a mosaic of day and night infrared images of Melas Chasma taken by the camera system on NASA's Mars Odyssey spacecraft. The daytime temperature images are shown in black and white, superimposed on the martian topography. A single nighttime temperature image is superimposed in color. The daytime temperatures range from approximately -35 degrees Celsius (-31 degrees Fahrenheit) in black to -5 degrees Celsius (23 degrees Fahrenheit) in white. Overlapping landslides and individual layers in the walls of Melas Chasma can be seen in this image. The landslides flowed over 100 kilometers (62 miles) across the floor of Melas Chasma, producing deposits with ridges and grooves of alternating warm and cold materials that can still be seen. The temperature differences in the daytime images are due primarily to lighting effects, where sunlit slopes are warm (bright) and shadowed slopes are cool (dark). The nighttime temperature differences are due to differences in the abundance of rocky materials that retain their heat at night and stay relatively warm (red). Fine grained dust and sand (blue) cools off more rapidly at night. These images were acquired using the thermal infrared imaging system infrared Band 9, centered at 12.6 micrometers.

    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science in Washington, D.C. Investigators at Arizona State University in Tempe, the University of Arizona in Tucson and NASA's Johnson Space Center, Houston, operate the science instruments. Additional science partners are located at the Russian Aviation and Space Agency and at Los Alamos National Laboratories, New Mexico. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL. Aviation and Space Agency and at Los Alamos National

  20. Correlates of School-Day Physical Activity in Preschool Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Leah E.; Wadsworth, Danielle D.; Peoples, Christina M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship among sex, body mass index, motor skill competence (MSC), perceived physical competence (PPC), and school-day physical activity in preschool students (N = 34). Physical activity was assessed by steps accumulated during the school day, while MSC and PPC were assessed with the Test of Gross Motor Development--2nd…

  1. Degree distributions of growing networks.

    PubMed

    Krapivsky, P L; Rodgers, G J; Redner, S

    2001-06-01

    The in-degree and out-degree distributions of a growing network model are determined. The in-degree is the number of incoming links to a given node (and vice versa for out-degree). The network is built by (i) creation of new nodes which each immediately attach to a preexisting node, and (ii) creation of new links between preexisting nodes. This process naturally generates correlated in-degree and out-degree distributions. When the node and link creation rates are linear functions of node degree, these distributions exhibit distinct power-law forms. By tuning the parameters in these rates to reasonable values, exponents which agree with those of the web graph are obtained.

  2. Market day midwives.

    PubMed

    1994-06-01

    In August 1994 in Uganda, the Social Marketing for Change (SOMARC) project invited midwives to counsel clients and sell low-dose oral contraceptives (OCs), condoms, and the progestin-only OCs in local markets. They now sell these contraceptives from vendor stalls in busy markets, which allows clients to speak privately with the midwives. The midwives refer clients to their maternity clinics or to hospitals for other contraceptive methods and reproductive/maternal and child health (MCH) services. All Market Day Midwives have taken a 1-month family planning course and a course in quality of customer service. By the end of March 1994, 17 midwives served 22 marketplaces ranging from rural village markets operating once every 2 weeks to very busy, daily city markets. Some markets have 15 permanent stalls, while other midwives move within markets. Market Day Midwives have been able to add more than 1900 women to the list of women using the OC Pilplan. 65% of the new acceptors had not used any OC before Pilplan. 46% of them would be women considered to be high risk if they were to become pregnant (teenagers, women over 35, and women with many children). These midwives have been successful because they operate where the people are and they provide anonymity. Market Day Midwives have also brought in men who seek them out for family planning/sexually transmitted disease prevention services. They have sold more than 1000 Protector condoms. Another benefit of the market day approach is professional growth of the midwives. They often invest their earnings into new equipment and their private maternity clinics. They have learned the significance of advertising and the value of high-quality customer service. They look to expand into other markets and to integrate MCH products (e.g., oral rehydration) into their contraceptive business.

  3. Flight Day 2 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The STS-107 second flight day begins with a shot of the Spacehab Research Double Module. Live presentations of experiments underway inside of the Spacehab Module are presented. Six experiments are shown. As part of the Space Technology and Research Student Payload, students from Australia, China, Israel, Japan, New York, and Liechtenstein are studying the effect that microgravity has on ants, spiders, silkworms, fish, bees, granular materials, and crystals. Mission Specialist Kalpana Chawla is seen working with the zeolite crystal growth experiment.

  4. The Dying Day

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiles, Carl

    1993-05-01

    The 85-foot telescope's dying day was part of a week of memorably unusual weather---which, in turn, was part of a memorable winter in California (and elsewhere!). On this day, it spent several hours finishing a months-long, apparently successful observation of Zeeman splitting of the 18-cm OH lines in absorption against the Galactic center continuum source Sgr A. Later, it continued a survey of weak diffuse radio recombination lines near the Galactic plane---observations that were interrupted by strong winds, which made the telescope move to the stow position. We know the rest. Had the telescope not been destroyed, it would have been reconfigured the following day to observe the 21-cm line. It would have continued an ongoing survey of interstellar magnetic fields using Zeeman splitting of the 21-cm line. It would have begun a search for broad, weak line wings, which had been previously discovered in association with supernova remnants. It would have been involved in a number of H I mapping projects. And it would have continued its measurements of diffuse radio recombination lines. Had it not been for the inclement weather, the weekend would have seen it being used in laboratory exercises for undergraduates at UC Berkeley.

  5. Percolation transition in networks with degree-degree correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noh, Jae Dong

    2007-08-01

    We introduce an exponential random graph model for networks with a fixed degree distribution and a tunable degree-degree correlation. We then investigate the nature of the percolation transition in a correlated network with a Poisson degree distribution. It is found that negative correlation is irrelevant in that the percolation transition in the disassortative network belongs to the same universality class as in the uncorrelated network. Positive correlation turns out to be relevant. The percolation transition in the assortative network is characterized by the nondiverging mean size of finite clusters and power-law scalings of the density of the largest cluster and the cluster size distribution in the nonpercolating phase as well as at the critical point. Our results suggest that the unusual type of percolation transition in the growing network models reported recently may be inherited from the assortative degree-degree correlation.

  6. Landscape Evolution and Carbon Accumulation: Uniformitarianism Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbloom, N. A.; Harden, J. W.; Neff, J. C.; Schimel, D. S.

    2003-12-01

    What is the role of hillslope transport in long-term carbon accumulation in soils? How do parent material, climate, and landform interact to produce the landscapes we observe today and to what extent can we use present day conditions to infer the dominant processes of the past? We use the CREEP [Rosenbloom, N.A. et al., 2001] process-response model to ask these questions, exploring the time-evolution of landscape form, soil distribution, and carbon accumulation in an undisturbed prairie site in western Iowa [Harden, J.W. et al., 2002]. The CREEP model simulates differential transport of soil particles, blanket deposition of atmospheric 10Be with eolian dust, and passive advection of soil carbon and 10Be, enabling the preferential enrichment and burial of rapidly moving soil constituents. By comparing landscape-wide average accumulations of 10Be to borehole observations at three hillslope positions, we conclude that the distribution of clay-adsorbed 10Be cannot be explained by co-transport with clay particles alone. Rather, 10Be appears to behave as a more complex tracer than originally assumed, requiring an explicit, independent parameterization of wet deposition and transport. By comparison, model carbon accumulation strongly reflects patterns of clay redistribution indicating that in situ carbon turnover is faster than redistribution. Observed vertical distributions of soil properties, including 10Be, could only be explained by assuming variations in deposition and erosion rates, specifically periods of accumulation, followed by periods of transport. This effect might not be apparent if only landform shape, geometry, and soil depth were considered and vertical distributions of soil properties were not explicitly simulated. The current landscape reflects a history of strong shifts in erosion and accumulation rates that cannot be simulated using a uniform parameterization of long-term landscape-evolution processes.

  7. Graduate Physics Degrees: Largest Departments and Degree Distribution. Focus On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvey, Patrick J.; Nicholson, Starr

    2014-01-01

    In the 2011-12 academic year there were 751 degree-granting physics departments in the U.S. Of these, 195 offered a PhD and 62 departments offered a master's as the highest physics degree. The remaining 494 departments offered a bachelor's as their highest physics degree. There were six universities that had two doctoral-granting physics…

  8. AAS 227: Day 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or at astrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the @astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Things kicked off last night at our undergraduate reception booth. Thanks to all of you who stopped by we were delightedto have so many people tell us that they already know about and useastrobites, and we were excited to introduce a new cohort of students at AAS to astrobites for the first time.Tuesday morning was the official start of the meeting. Here are just a few of the talks and workshops astrobiters attended today.Opening Address (by Becky Smethurst)The President of the AAS, aka our fearless leader Meg Urry kicked off the meeting this morning at the purely coffee powered hour of 8am this morning. She spoke about the importance of young astronomers at the meeting (heres looking at you reader!) and also the importance of the new Working Group for Accessibility and Disabilities (aka WGAD pronounced like wicked) at the AAS. The Society has made extra effort this year to make the conference accessible to all,a message which was very well received by everyone in attendance.Kavli Lecture: New Horizons Alan Stern (by Becky Smethurst)We were definitely spoilt with the first Plenary lecture at this years conference Alan Stern gave us a a review of the New Horizons mission of the Pluto Fly By (astrobites covered the mission back in July with this post). We were treated to beautiful images, wonderful results and a foray into geology.Before (Hubble) and after #NewHorizons. #thatisall #science #astro alanstern #aas227 pic.twitter.com/kkMt6RsSIR Science News (@topsciencething) January 5, 2016Some awesome facts from the lecture that blew my mind:New Horizons is now 2AU (!) beyond Pluto

  9. Sugar Accumulation in Sugarcane

    PubMed Central

    Gayler, K. R.; Glasziou, K. T.

    1972-01-01

    The rate-limiting reaction for glucose uptake in storage tissue of sugarcane, Saccharum officinarum L., appears to be the movement of glucose across the boundary between the free space and the metabolic compartments. The mechanism for uptake of glucose across this boundary has been studied using 3-O-methyl glucose, an analogue of glucose which is not metabolized by sugar-cane tissue. This analogue is taken up by sugarcane storage tissue at a similar rate to glucose. Its rate of uptake follows Michaelis-Menten kinetics, Km = 1.9 mm, and it is competitively inhibited by glucose, Ki = 2 to 3 mm. Glucose uptake is similarly inhibited by 3-O-methyl glucose. Uptake of 3-O-methyl glucose is energy-dependent and does not appear to be the result of counterflow of glucose. It is concluded that glucose and 3-O-methyl glucose uptake across the boundary between the free space and the metabolic compartment in this tissue is mediated by an energy-dependent carrier system capable of accumulating the sugars against a concentration gradient. PMID:16658002

  10. TTX accumulation in pufferfish.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Tamao; Arakawa, Osamu; Takatani, Tomohiro

    2006-03-01

    Tetrodotoxin (TTX) has been detected in a variety of animals. The finding of TTX in the trumpet shell Charonia sauliae strongly suggested that its origin was its food, a TTX-bearing starfish Astropecten polyacanthus. Since then, the food chain has been consistently implicated as the principal means of TTX intoxication. To identify the primary producer of TTX, intestinal bacteria isolated from several TTX-bearers were investigated for their TTX production. The results demonstrated that some of them could produce TTX. Thus the primary TTX producers in the sea are concluded to be marine bacteria. Subsequently, detritus feeders and zooplankton can be intoxicated with TTX through the food chain, or in conjunction with parasitism or symbiosis. The process followed by small carnivores, omnivores or scavengers, and by organisms higher up the food chain would result in the accumulation of higher concentrations of TTX. Finally, pufferfish at the top of the food chain are intoxicated with TTX. This hypothesis is supported by the fact that net cage and land cultures produce non-toxic pufferfish that can be made toxic by feeding with a TTX-containing diet.

  11. [Size distribution characteristics of particulate mercury on haze and non-haze days].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qiong-yu; Cheng, Jin-ping; Wei, Yu-qing; Bo, Dan-dan; Chen, Xiao-jia; Jiang, Xuan; Wang, Wen-hua

    2015-02-01

    With the rapid economic development, China suffers from the severe haze and atmospheric mercury pollution. Particulate mercury transport has an important significance in its global cycle. In order to investigate the distribution characteristics of particulate mercury, 12 degrees Nano-moudi (6.2-9.9 μm, 3.1-6.2 μm, 1.8-3.1 μm, 1.0-1.8 μm, 0.56-1.0 μm, 0.32-0.56 μm, 0.18- 0.32 μm, 0.10-0.18 μm, 0.056-0.10 μm, 0.032-0.056 μm, 0.018-0.032 μm, 0.010-0.018 μm) impactor was used to measure the size distributions of atmospheric particulate mercury on both haze and non-haze days in Shanghai. The results indicated that particulate mercury levels were positively correlated with those of the particles. The average concentration of particulate mercury (0.31 ng x m (-3)) on haze days was 2-3 times than that on non-haze days (0.11 ng x m(-3)). The mass size distributions of aerosols and particulate mercury showed bimodal distributions. The peak shifted from 0.56-1.0 μm and 3.1-6.2 μm on haze days to 0.32-0.56 μm and 3.1-6.2 μm on non-haze days. The particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 1 μm which could stay for a long time and transport for a long distance, had higher particulate mercury concentrations. The average contribution of particulate mercury to total PM aerosol were higher on haze days (0.029 ng x μg(-1)) than on non-haze days (0.015 ng x μg(-1)), indicating that secondary particles typically grew faster than mercury during the haze pollution events. The particulate mercury concentration in accumulation mode was 2.06 ng x m(-3) on haze days, while it was 0.55 ng x m(-3) on non-haze days. The large increase of the accumulation mode particles was a main reason for the formation of haze. Emissions from the coal burning as well as road surface dust and dust from long-range transport accounted for the serious pollution on haze days.

  12. One Cold Autumn Day

    PubMed Central

    de Schweinitz, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral change is at the heart of effective primary care, but when patients don’t change, how do we account for our days? In this personal essay, I relate an encounter with a patient who wants to quit smoking, lose weight, and control her diabetes. I am discouraged when she deflects my recommendations, but a colleague’s comment encourages a deeper inquiry. Knowing the patient’s story and deepening the conversation, however, do not guarantee change. The experience reminds me why patience, humility, and faith are core values of the primary care physician. PMID:25964410

  13. Preventing 30-day readmissions.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Sherri

    2015-03-01

    Preventing 30-day readmissions to hospitals is a top priority in the era of health care reform. New regulations will be costly to health care facilities because of payment guidelines. The most frequently readmitted medical conditions are acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, and pneumonia. The transition from the hospital and into the home has been classified as a vulnerable time for many patients. During this time of transition patients may fail to fully understand their discharge instructions. Ineffective communication, low health literacy, and compliance issues contribute to readmissions. Telehealth and the use of technology may be used to prevent some readmissions.

  14. Degree Depreciation: A Fait Accompli for the Liberal Arts Degree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duplass, James A.

    1976-01-01

    The liberal arts degree will continue to lack the credibility needed to compete with professional school degrees in the job market unless a return is made to rigourous standards, subjective tests, term papers, comprehensive exams, improvement in instructional methods, and more stringent curriculum requirements for foreign language, composition,…

  15. Day Fire in Ventura County

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Version

    The Day fire has been burning in Ventura County in Southern California since Labor Day, and has consumed more than 160,000 acres. As of September 29, it was 63 percent contained. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer on NASA's Terra satellite flew over the fire at 10 p.m. Pacific Time on September 28, and imaged the fire with its infrared camera. The hottest areas of active burning appear as red spots on the image. The blue-green background is a daytime image acquired in June, used as a background to allow firefighters to localize the hot spots.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission directorate.

    Size: 22.5 by 31.0 kilometers (12.6 by 15.2 miles) Location: 34

  16. Stress-induced accumulation of glycerol in the flesh fly, Sarcophaga bullata: evidence indicating anti-desiccant and cryoprotectant functions of this polyol and a role for the brain in coordinating the response.

    PubMed

    Yoder, Jay A; Benoit, Joshua B; Denlinger, David L; Rivers, David B

    2006-02-01

    Nondiapausing larvae of the flesh fly, Sarcophaga bullata, responded to several forms of short-term environmental stress (low temperature, anoxia and desiccation) by accumulating glycerol. Elevation of this polyol, regardless of the type of stress that induced accumulation, conferred cold resistance: larvae with high glycerol levels were 3-4 times more tolerant of a 2h exposure to -10 degrees C than unstressed larvae. Protection against low temperature injury, as well as dehydration, was also attained by injection of exogenous glycerol into third instar larvae. This artificially induced cold hardiness was only temporary: when glycerol-injected larvae were exposed to -10 degrees C immediately after injection, survival was high, but none survived if they were injected and then held at 25 degrees C for 2 days before the -10 degrees C exposure. Larvae ligated behind the brain immediately after low temperature exposure failed to accumulate glycerol, but glycerol did accumulate in larvae ligated 6-24h after cold treatment, thus implying a critical role for the brain in initiating glycerol production. Interestingly, a much shorter exposure (2h) to low temperature was sufficient to reduce the maximum rate of water loss. Collectively, these observations suggest that multiple pathways may be exploited in response to stress: one pathway is most likely associated with rapid cold hardening (RCH) which generates immediate protection, and a second pathway remains activated for a longer period to enhance the initial protection afforded by glycerol.

  17. Solar-Panel Dust Accumulation and Cleanings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Air-fall dust accumulates on the solar panels of NASA's Mars Exploration Rovers, reducing the amount of sunlight reaching the solar arrays. Pre-launch models predicted steady dust accumulation. However, the rovers have been blessed with occasional wind events that clear significant amounts of dust from the solar panels.

    This graph shows the effects of those panel-cleaning events on the amount of electricity generated by Spirit's solar panels. The horizontal scale is the number of Martian days (sols) after Spirit's Jan. 4, 2005, (Universal Time) landing on Mars. The vertical scale indicates output from the rover's solar panels as a fraction of the amount produced when the clean panels first opened. Note that the gradual declines are interrupted by occasional sharp increases, such as a dust-cleaning event on sol 420.

  18. Proceedings, Dean's Day 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Zanner, M.A.

    1999-03-01

    On January 14--15, 1999, Sandia National Laboratories sponsored Deans Day, a conference for the Deans of Engineering and other executive-level representatives from 29 invited universities. Through breakout sessions and a wrap-up discussion, university and Sandia participants identified activities to further develop their strategic relationships. The four primary activities are: (A) concentrate joint efforts on current and future research strengths and needs; (B) attract the best students (at all grade levels) to science and engineering; (C) promote awareness of the need for and work together to influence a national science and technology R and D policy; and (D) enable the universities and Sandia to be true allies, jointly pursuing research opportunities and funding from government agencies and industry.

  19. Quaternary geologic map of the Sudbury 4 degree by 6 degree quadrangle, United States and Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fullerton, David S.; Sado, Edward V.; Baker, C.L.; Farrand, William R.

    2004-01-01

    The Quaternary Geologic Map of the Sudbury 4 degrees x 6 degrees Quadrangle was mapped as part of the Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States. The atlas was begun as an effort to depict the areal distribution of surficial geologic deposits and other materials that accumulated or formed during the past 2+ million years, the period that includes all activities of the human species. These materials are at the surface of the earth. They make up the 'ground' on which we walk, the 'dirt' in which we dig foundations, and the 'soil' in which we grow crops. Most of our human activity is related in one way or another to these surface materials that are referred to collectively by many geologists as regolith, the mantle of fragmental and generally unconsolidated material that overlies the bedrock foundation of the continent. The maps were compiled at 1:1,000,000 scale.

  20. Quaternary geologic map of the Chicago 4 degrees x 6 degrees quadrangle, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    State compilations by Lineback, Jerry A.; Bleuer, Ned K.; Mickelson, David M.; Farrand, William R.; Goldthwait, Richard P.; Edited and integrated by Richmond, Gerald M.; Fullerton, David S.

    1983-01-01

    The Quaternary Geologic Map of the Chicago 4 degree x 6 degree Quadrangle was mapped as part of the Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States. The atlas was begun as an effort to depict the areal distribution of surficial geologic deposits and other materials that accumulated or formed during the past 2+ million years, the period that includes all activities of the human species. These materials are at the surface of the earth. They make up the 'ground' on which we walk, the 'dirt' in which we dig foundations, and the 'soil' in which we grow crops. Most of our human activity is related in one way or another to these surface materials that are referred to collectively by many geologists as regolith, the mantle of fragmental and generally unconsolidated material that overlies the bedrock foundation of the continent. The maps were compiled at 1:1,000,000 scale.

  1. Quaternary geologic map of the Ottawa 4 degrees x 6 degrees quadrangle, United States and Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fullerton, David S.; Gadd, N. R.; Veillette, J.J.; Wagner, P.W.; Chapman, W.F.

    1993-01-01

    The Quaternary Geologic Map of the Ottawa 4 degree x 6 degree Quadrangle was mapped as part of the Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States. The atlas was begun as an effort to depict the areal distribution of surficial geologic deposits and other materials that accumulated or formed during the past 2+ million years, the period that includes all activities of the human species. These materials are at the surface of the earth. They make up the 'ground' on which we walk, the 'dirt' in which we dig foundations, and the 'soil' in which we grow crops. Most of our human activity is related in one way or another to these surface materials that are referred to collectively by many geologists as regolith, the mantle of fragmental and generally unconsolidated material that overlies the bedrock foundation of the continent. The maps were compiled at 1:1,000,000 scale.

  2. Degree, Yes--Education, No

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheahan, Sister Dorothy

    1974-01-01

    The external degree program, based solely on test proficiency, offers to its students not an educational opportunity; not a learning situation but a schema for securing a degree, with any kind of socialization into the profession conspicuously missing from the program. (Author/DS)

  3. Bachelor's Degree Recipients, 1996 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvey, Patrick J.; Nicholson, Starr; Dodge, Elizabeth

    1997-01-01

    This report presents the results of a survey of senior-level physics majors at U.S. colleges and universities who received a Bachelor's degree between September 1995 and August 1996. Completed questionnaires were received from 1,956 students. It was found that the number of undergraduates receiving Bachelor's degrees in physics continued to…

  4. Research Degrees as Professional Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnacle, Robyn; Dall'Alba, Gloria

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing trend within higher education and, more specifically, in higher degrees by research, to treat a professional skills set as a desirable graduate outcome. The increasing value that is being placed on a professional skills set in large part reflects growing interest around the world in the role of research degrees in labour…

  5. NLN: Celebrating Associate Degree Nursing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoddick, Nancy A.

    1981-01-01

    Introduces a project celebrating the thirtieth anniversary of associate degree nursing (ADN) education. Reviews the efforts and plans of two national associations to identify and resolve recurring ADN issues and recognize the associate degree nurse's contributions. Describes the forums and publications planned to meet these objectives. Includes…

  6. Guide to Teaching Degrees 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Caralee

    2011-01-01

    Getting a master's degree means lots of late nights, busy weekends, and probably taking on student loan debt. The commitment raises the question: Is it worth it? This article takes a comprehensive look at how much a master's is worth, which degree one should pursue, and how one can find a balance in graduate school.

  7. Anthocyanins facilitate tungsten accumulation in Brassica

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, K.L.

    2002-11-01

    Accumulation of molybdenum in Brassica was recently found to be correlated with anthocyanin content, involving the formation of a blue complex. Here the role of anthocyanins in tungsten sequestration was investigated using three species of Brassica: B. rapa (cv. Fast plants), B. juncea (Indian mustard) and B. oleracea (red cabbage). Seedlings of B. rapa and B. juncea turned blue when supplied with colourless tungstate. The blue compound co-localized with anthocyanins in the peripheral cell layers, and the degree of blueness was correlated with anthocyanin content. The direct involvement of anthocyanins in the blue coloration was evident when purified anthocyanins showed a colour change from pink to blue in vitro upon addition of tungstate, over a wide pH range. Anthocyanin production was upregulated 3-fold by W in B. juncea, possibly reflecting a function for anthocyanins in W tolerance or sequestration. The presence of anthocyanins facilitated W accumulation in B. rapa: anthocyanin-containing seedlings accumulated 3-fold more W than an anthocyaninless mutant. There was no correlation between anthocyanin content and W tolerance under these conditions. The nature of the interaction between anthocyanins and tungstate was investigated. X-ray absorption spectroscopy showed no change in the local chemical environment of Wupon uptake of tungstate by the plant; HPLC analysis of purified anthocyanin with or without tungstate showed no peak shift after metal treatment.

  8. Guidelines for Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs) at LBL. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to set conditions for establishing and containing areas for the accumulation of hazardous waste at LBL. Areas designed for accumulation of these wastes for up to 90 days in quantities greater than 55 gallons (208 liters) of hazardous waste, one quart (0.946 liter) of extremely hazardous waste, or one quart (0.946 liter) of acutely hazardous waste are called Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs). Areas designed for accumulation of wastes in smaller amounts are called Satellite Accumulation Areas (SAAs). This document provides guidelines for employee and organizational responsibilities for WAAs, constructing a WAA, storing waste in a WAA, operating and maintaining a WAA, and responding to spills in a WAA.

  9. Time-dependent degree-degree correlations in epileptic brain networks: from assortative to dissortative mixing.

    PubMed

    Geier, Christian; Lehnertz, Klaus; Bialonski, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the long-term evolution of degree-degree correlations (assortativity) in functional brain networks from epilepsy patients. Functional networks are derived from continuous multi-day, multi-channel electroencephalographic data, which capture a wide range of physiological and pathophysiological activities. In contrast to previous studies which all reported functional brain networks to be assortative on average, even in case of various neurological and neurodegenerative disorders, we observe large fluctuations in time-resolved degree-degree correlations ranging from assortative to dissortative mixing. Moreover, in some patients these fluctuations exhibit some periodic temporal structure which can be attributed, to a large extent, to daily rhythms. Relevant aspects of the epileptic process, particularly possible pre-seizure alterations, contribute marginally to the observed long-term fluctuations. Our findings suggest that physiological and pathophysiological activity may modify functional brain networks in a different and process-specific way. We evaluate factors that possibly influence the long-term evolution of degree-degree correlations.

  10. Lactate accumulation, glycogen depletion, and shell composition of hatchling turtles during simulated aquatic hibernation.

    PubMed

    Reese, Scott A; Ultsch, Gordon R; Jackson, Donald C

    2004-07-01

    We submerged hatchling western painted turtles Chrysemys picta Schneider, snapping turtles Chelydra serpentina L. and map turtles Graptemys geographica Le Sueur in normoxic and anoxic water at 3 degrees C. Periodically, turtles were removed and whole-body [lactate] and [glycogen] were measured along with relative shell mass, shell water, and shell ash. We analyzed the shell for [Na+], [K+], total calcium, total magnesium, Pi and total CO2. All three species were able to tolerate long-term submergence in normoxic water without accumulating any lactate, indicating sufficient extrapulmonary O2 extraction to remain aerobic even after 150 days. Survival in anoxic water was 15 days in map turtles, 30 days in snapping turtles, and 40 days in painted turtles. Survival of hatchlings was only about one third the life of their adult conspecifics in anoxic water. Much of the decrease in survival was attributable to a dramatically lower shell-bone content (44% ash in adult painted turtles vs. 3% ash in hatchlings of all three species) and a smaller buffer content of bone (1.3 mmol g(-1) CO2 in adult painted turtles vs. 0.13-0.23 mmol g(-1) CO2 in hatchlings of the three species). The reduced survivability of turtle hatchlings in anoxic water requires that hatchlings either avoid aquatic hibernacula that may become severely hypoxic or anoxic (snapping turtles), or overwinter terrestrially (painted turtles and map turtles). PMID:15235017

  11. Noise Reduction by Signal Accumulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show how the noise reduction by signal accumulation can be accomplished with a data acquisition system. This topic can be used for student projects. In many cases, the noise reduction is an unavoidable part of experimentation. Several techniques are known for this purpose, and among them the signal accumulation is the…

  12. Accumulation by fish of contaminants released from dredged sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seelye, James G.; Hesselberg, Robert J.; Mac, Michael J.

    1982-01-01

    Inasmuch as the process of dredging and disposing of dredged materials causes a resuspension of these materials and an increase in bioavailability of associated contaminants, we conducted a series of experiments to examine the potential accumulation by fish of contaminants from suspended sediments. In the first experiment we compared accumulation of contaminants by yellow perch of hatchery and lake origin and found that after 10 days of exposure to nonaerated sediments, fish of hatchery origin accumulated PCBs and Fe, while fish of lake origin accumulated As, Cr, Fe, and Na. Two additional exposures were conducted to evaluate the effects of aerating the sediments prior to measuring bioavailability of associated contaminants. Fish of hatchery origin exposed to nonaerated sediments for 10 days accumulated PCBs and Hg, while fish of hatchery origin exposed to aerated sediments for 10 days accumulated PCBs, DDE, Zn, Fe, Cs, and Se. These results demonstrated not only the potential for uptake of contaminants by fish as a result of dredging but also the potential utility of fish bioassays in evaluating proposed dredging operations.

  13. Comparison of activated sludge processes at different temperatures: 35 degrees C, 27-55 degrees C, and 55 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Suvilampi, J; Rintala, J

    2002-10-01

    The performance of mesophilic (35 degrees C; referred to as R1) and thermophilic (55 degrees C; R3) laboratory activated sludge processes (ASPs) as well as ASP with a fluctuating temperature (27-56 degrees C; R2) was compared. During the 124-day runs, in R1 and R3 hydraulic retention time was gradually reduced from 18 h to 3 h, corresponding to an increase in volumetric loading rate from 2 to 10 kg soluble COD m(-3) d(-1); in R2 hydraulic retention time was gradually reduced from 18 to 4.5 h, corresponding to an increase in volumetric loading rate from 2 to 7.5 kg soluble COD m(-3) d(-1). R1 removed on average 85% of soluble COD (GF50-filtered) that was approximately 10% more than R3. In R2 SCOD removal was dependent on the operating temperature, being comparable to R1 and R3 at respective temperature. However, the COD for 0.45 microm-filtered (bacteria-free) effluent samples was lower for R3 than for R1, indicating the role of free bacteria on effluent quality. Furthermore, 24 h post-aeration of R3 effluent at 35 degrees C decreased SCOD (GF50-filtrated) markedly (43% removal), whereas at 55 degrees C no SCOD removal occurred, which suggest mesophilic post-treatment ability to remove thermophilically recalcitrant matter or, more probably, the ability of free bacteria to aggregate more efficiently under lower temperatures. The results indicate that temperature may not be as crucial a factor in high temperature biological wastewater treatment as previously believed. On the other hand, in thermophilic ASP the importance of solids separation is emphasized. PMID:12465839

  14. Center is at Latitude 30 Degrees South, Longitude 210 Degrees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Center of the orthographic projection is at latitude 30 degrees S., longitude 210 degrees. Toward the top, the lowland plains of Elysium and Utopia Planitiae are separated from the darker heavily cratered highlands by a broad escarpment. The far bottom left is marked by the large light-colored ancient Hellas impact basin. The permanent south polar residual ice cap is located near the bottom.

  15. Center is at Latitude 30 Degrees North, Longitude 30 Degrees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Center of the orthographic projection is at latitude 30 degrees N., longitude 30 degrees. The north polar residual ice cap, which is cut by spiral-patterned troughs, is located at the top. The central part is characterized by a dark depression, Chryse basin, where several large outflow channels terminate. The lower-left corner is marked by a vast system of canyons, Valles Marineris, which extends eastward for several thousand kilometers.

  16. Center is at Latitude 30 Degrees South., Longitude 330 Degrees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Center of the orthographic projection is at latitude 30 degrees S., longitude 330 degrees. Heavily cratered highlands dominate this view. Toward the lower right, a conspicuous light-colored circular depression marks the ancient large Hellas impact basin. Directly northeast of Hellas, several large ancient impacts dot the landscape, including Cassini, Schiaparelli, and Huygens. Several large outflow channels are located in the upper left-hand corner. The permanent, residual south polar ice cap is located near the bottom.

  17. AAS 227: Day 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 2 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Plenary Session: Black Hole Physics with the Event Horizon Telescope (by Susanna Kohler)If anyone needed motivation to wake up early this morning, they got it in the form of Feryal Ozel (University of Arizona) enthralling us all with exciting pictures, videos, and words about black holes and the Event Horizon Telescope. Ozel spoke to a packed room (at 8:30am!) about where the project currently stands, and where its heading in the future.The EHT has pretty much the coolest goal ever: actually image the event horizons of black holes in our universe. The problem is that the largest black hole we can look at (Sgr A*, in the center of our galaxy) has an event horizon size of 50 as. For this kind of resolution roughly equivalent to trying to image a DVD on the Moon! wed need an Earth-sized telescope. EHT has solved this problem by linking telescopes around the world, creating one giant, mm-wavelength effective telescope with a baseline the size of Earth.Besides producing awesome images, the EHT will be able to test properties of black-hole spacetime, the no-hair theorem, and general relativity (GR) in new regimes.Ozel walked us through some of the theory prep work we need to do now in order to get the most science out of the EHT, including devising new

  18. The triple day.

    PubMed

    Smith, V

    1980-08-01

    The risks are high and the returns low when Peruvian women work outside the home, but they have few other options. Most have large families, and their husbands scramble to earn a few dollars. For some women the day begins at 3:30 a.m. when they go to Lima to peddle fish, combs, or whatever commodity is available. The poor women who live in the pueblos jovenes of Lima, the newly formed outskirts, have banded together in a Christian group called Luz y Esperanza, or Light and Hope. The group has a 10-year history of coping with unsanitary water and resultant health problems, child care, and lack of electricity. The women began with neighborhood issues but have also developed an interest in trade unions and other less local concerns. Members have also started to attend union meetings in Lima and involved themselves in recent trade union struggles. The development of the women's political consciousness is closely intertwined with their Christian faith. They believe Christ is the source of the energy they need to persevere. PMID:12262074

  19. Day-1 chick development.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Guojun

    2014-03-01

    The first day of chick development takes place inside the mother hen (in utero), during which the embryo progresses from fertilization to late blastula/early gastrula formation. The salient features of developmental anatomy in this period are conserved among the sauropsids (birds and reptiles). Many of these features are also shared in prototherian (monotreme) embryos, whereas metatherian (marsupial) and eutherian (placental) embryos display significant variations. Important for understanding the evolution of early development in amniotes, the knowledge of cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating in utero chick development may also offer valuable insight into early lineage specification in prototherians and conserved features in mammalian early development. This commentary provides a snapshot of what is currently known about intrauterine chick development and identifies key issues that await further clarification, including the process of cellularization, allocation of maternal determinants, zygotic gene activation, mid-blastula transition, cell layer increase and reduction, radial symmetry breaking, early lineage segregation, and role of yolk syncytium in early patterning. PMID:24550174

  20. AAS 227: Day 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 3 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Henry Norris Russell Lecture: Viewing the Universe with Infrared Eyes: The Spitzer Space Telescope (by Erika Nesvold)The Henry Norris Russell Award is the highest honor given by the AAS, for a lifetime of eminence in astronomy research. This years award went to Giovanni Fazio of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. Fazio became a leader in gamma ray astronomy before switching mid-career to the study of infrared astronomy, and he gave his award lecture on the latter subject, specifically on the Spitzer Space Telescope, one of the most successful infrared telescopes of all time.Artists rendering of the Spitzer space telescope. [NASA/JPL-Caltech]Spitzer has been operating for more than twelve years, and has resulted in over six thousand papers in refereed journals in that time. The telescope sits in an Earth-trailing orbit around the Sun, and is now farther from the Earth (1.4 AU) than the Earth is from the Sun. Fazio gave the audience a fascinating overview of the science done by Spitzer over more than a decade. One of the most productive areas of research for Spitzer is the study of exoplanets, which hadnt even been discovered when the Spitzer Telescope was first conceived. Spitzers high sensitivity and ability to observe exoplanets over

  1. AAS 227: Day 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 4 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Helen B. Warner Prize: Origins of Structure in Planetary Systems (by Erika Nesvold)Another excellent prize lecture started off todays sessions. The Helen B. Warner Prize is awarded for achievement in observational or theoretical astrophysics by a young researcher (no more than eight years after their Ph.D.). This years Warner Prize was presented to Ruth Murray-Clay of UC Santa Barbara. For her award lecture, Murray-Clay told us all about planetary system architecture: the number, masses, and orbits of planets in a given system.Ruth Murray-Clay [photo from http://web.physics.ucsb.edu/ ~murray/biocv.html]The underlying question motivating this type of research is: How rare is the Solar System? In other words, how likely is it that a given planetary system will have rocky planets close to their star, gas giants farther out, and ice giants at the outer reaches of the system? Answering this question will help us solve the physics problem of how and where planets form, and will also help us on our search for other planets like Earth.The data on exoplanet population from transit and radial velocity observations and from direct imaging tell us that our Solar System is not common (many systems we observe have much more eccentric gas giants), but that doesnt

  2. Spirit 360-Degree View on Sol 409

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 360-degree view of the rover's surroundings on Spirit's 409th martian day, or sol (Feb. 26, 2005). Spirit had driven 2 meters (7 feet) on this sol to get in position on 'Cumberland Ridge' for looking into 'Tennessee Valley' to the east. This location is catalogued as Spirit's Site 108. Rover-wheel tracks from climbing the ridge are visible on the right. The summit of 'Husband Hill' is at the center, to the south. This view is presented in a cylindrical projection with geometric and brightness seam correction.

  3. AAS 227: Day 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 4 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Helen B. Warner Prize: Origins of Structure in Planetary Systems (by Erika Nesvold)Another excellent prize lecture started off todays sessions. The Helen B. Warner Prize is awarded for achievement in observational or theoretical astrophysics by a young researcher (no more than eight years after their Ph.D.). This years Warner Prize was presented to Ruth Murray-Clay of UC Santa Barbara. For her award lecture, Murray-Clay told us all about planetary system architecture: the number, masses, and orbits of planets in a given system.Ruth Murray-Clay [photo from http://web.physics.ucsb.edu/ ~murray/biocv.html]The underlying question motivating this type of research is: How rare is the Solar System? In other words, how likely is it that a given planetary system will have rocky planets close to their star, gas giants farther out, and ice giants at the outer reaches of the system? Answering this question will help us solve the physics problem of how and where planets form, and will also help us on our search for other planets like Earth.The data on exoplanet population from transit and radial velocity observations and from direct imaging tell us that our Solar System is not common (many systems we observe have much more eccentric gas giants), but that doesnt

  4. Joint venture on degree course.

    PubMed

    1987-12-19

    A ground breaking joint venture between South Glamorgan's Health Authority and Institute of Higher Education will bear fruit next year when the first students enrol for a new part time post registration degree course in nursing studies. The four-year course will be split into two equal sections, diploma and degree, and will be open to any first level registered nurse. Nurses who have already obtained their diploma will be able to opt in for the degree course only and there are plans to introduce access courses for applicants with the old London University Diploma so they too can qualify.

  5. International Women's Day speech.

    PubMed

    Kazibwe, S W

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of the International Women's Day are: 1) to celebrate the struggle for women's rights in the economic, social, political, and cultural domain; 2) to reaffirm women's solidarity in the struggle for peace; 3) and to show what women have achieved. In 1988, Uganda's government of the National Resistance Movement created the Ministry of Women in Development. The period 1988-1990 was one of consultations, needs assessment, planning, and recruiting staff for the Ministry. From 1990 to 1993, measurable results have been achieved. The Ministry's gender concerns pertained to the sector policies of the Ministries of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries, Education, Health, Water, Energy, Minerals, and Environment Protection. Under the Umbrella Project for Women in Development, gender sensitization has been achieved with policy makers in ministries, at district level, and in the media. Gender issues have also been incorporated in the National Political School Curriculum. The Ministry has also trained a corps of 73 women trainers from 38 districts. The Ministry, with funding from DANIDA, collected women's views on the constitution through meetings and seminars in all the districts in the country. Recommendations were submitted in a consolidated report to the Constitution Commission. A pilot para-legal scheme is successfully being implemented in Kamuli district. A community-based pool of legal advisors has been developed. Legal matters that affect both women and men are undertaken at the community level. The economic emancipation of women is a crucial part of the Ministry's mandate. In conjunction with NGOs, pilot credit programs are being run in Mukono, Jinja, Mbale, and Kapchorwa districts. Cross-sectoral programs are in close collaboration with the rural water and sanitation program, the Northern Uganda rehabilitation program, and the integrated Basic Education Pilot Project to be implemented in 8 districts. PMID:12345405

  6. AAS 227: Day 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 3 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Henry Norris Russell Lecture: Viewing the Universe with Infrared Eyes: The Spitzer Space Telescope (by Erika Nesvold)The Henry Norris Russell Award is the highest honor given by the AAS, for a lifetime of eminence in astronomy research. This years award went to Giovanni Fazio of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. Fazio became a leader in gamma ray astronomy before switching mid-career to the study of infrared astronomy, and he gave his award lecture on the latter subject, specifically on the Spitzer Space Telescope, one of the most successful infrared telescopes of all time.Artists rendering of the Spitzer space telescope. [NASA/JPL-Caltech]Spitzer has been operating for more than twelve years, and has resulted in over six thousand papers in refereed journals in that time. The telescope sits in an Earth-trailing orbit around the Sun, and is now farther from the Earth (1.4 AU) than the Earth is from the Sun. Fazio gave the audience a fascinating overview of the science done by Spitzer over more than a decade. One of the most productive areas of research for Spitzer is the study of exoplanets, which hadnt even been discovered when the Spitzer Telescope was first conceived. Spitzers high sensitivity and ability to observe exoplanets over

  7. Franco, the Early Days

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siemssen, R. H.

    2004-04-01

    As this meeting is to honour Franco on the occasion of his 60 birthday I thought that it might be fitting to report on some early reminiscences of Franco of the pre-IBA days. Franco first came to Groningen in 1972 for a seminar on the invitation of Alex Lande. Alex and Franco had known each other from the Niels Bohr Institute in Copenhagen, where they had collaborated. In 1972 both Alex and I had been freshly appointed at Groningen, Alex on the Faculty of the Theory Department, and I myself as the new director of the KVI. A position for a Senior Scientist in theory had been newly created at the KVI with the aim to establish a strong in-house theory group. Needless to say that everyone who met Franco was deeply impressed by him. We thus were extremely happy to be able to entice Franco to join the KVI as a Senior Scientist in 1974, after he had spent a few weeks in Groningen in 1973 as a visitor. So characteristic of Franco he immediately took a strong interest in the experimental program as evidenced by the following publications on the weak-coupling description of three-nucleon pickup in the (p, α) reaction [1] and the spreading width of deep-hole states [2]. Both topics appear to have maintained their actuality, looking at the many papers that have been published since on these and related topics. But this brief citation of the "other Franco" would not do justice to him without mentioning the diverse palette of Franco's work also listed in the KVI 1974 Annual Report, reflecting Franco's extremely broad and diversified scientific interests. [3-10]...

  8. International Women's Day speech.

    PubMed

    Kazibwe, S W

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of the International Women's Day are: 1) to celebrate the struggle for women's rights in the economic, social, political, and cultural domain; 2) to reaffirm women's solidarity in the struggle for peace; 3) and to show what women have achieved. In 1988, Uganda's government of the National Resistance Movement created the Ministry of Women in Development. The period 1988-1990 was one of consultations, needs assessment, planning, and recruiting staff for the Ministry. From 1990 to 1993, measurable results have been achieved. The Ministry's gender concerns pertained to the sector policies of the Ministries of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries, Education, Health, Water, Energy, Minerals, and Environment Protection. Under the Umbrella Project for Women in Development, gender sensitization has been achieved with policy makers in ministries, at district level, and in the media. Gender issues have also been incorporated in the National Political School Curriculum. The Ministry has also trained a corps of 73 women trainers from 38 districts. The Ministry, with funding from DANIDA, collected women's views on the constitution through meetings and seminars in all the districts in the country. Recommendations were submitted in a consolidated report to the Constitution Commission. A pilot para-legal scheme is successfully being implemented in Kamuli district. A community-based pool of legal advisors has been developed. Legal matters that affect both women and men are undertaken at the community level. The economic emancipation of women is a crucial part of the Ministry's mandate. In conjunction with NGOs, pilot credit programs are being run in Mukono, Jinja, Mbale, and Kapchorwa districts. Cross-sectoral programs are in close collaboration with the rural water and sanitation program, the Northern Uganda rehabilitation program, and the integrated Basic Education Pilot Project to be implemented in 8 districts.

  9. Potential effect of atmospheric warming on grapevine phenology and post-harvest heat accumulation across a range of climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Andrew; Mathews, Adam J.; Holzapfel, Bruno P.

    2016-09-01

    Carbohydrates are accumulated within the perennial structure of grapevines when their production exceeds the requirements of reproduction and growth. The period between harvest and leaf-fall (the post-harvest period) is a key period for carbohydrate accumulation in relatively warmer grape-growing regions. The level of carbohydrate reserves available for utilisation in the following season has an important effect on canopy growth and yield potential and is therefore an important consideration in vineyard management. In a warming climate, the post-harvest period is lengthening and becoming warmer, evidenced through studies in wine regions worldwide that have correlated recent air temperature increases with changing grapevine phenology. Budbreak, flowering, veraison, and harvest have all been observed to be occurring earlier than in previous decades. Additionally, the final stage of the grapevine phenological cycle, leaf-fall, occurs later. This study explored the potential for increased post-harvest carbohydrate accumulation by modelling heat accumulation following harvest dates for the recent climate (1975-2004) and two warmer climate projections with mean temperature anomalies of +1.26 and +2.61 °C. Summaries of post-harvest heat accumulation between harvest and leaf-fall were produced for each of Australia's Geographical Indications (wine regions) to provide comparisons from the base temperatures to projected warmer conditions across a range of climates. The results indicate that for warmer conditions, all regions observe earlier occurring budbreak and harvest as well as increasing post-harvest growing degree days accumulation before leaf-fall. The level of increase varies depending upon starting climatic condition, with cooler regions experiencing the greatest change.

  10. Potential effect of atmospheric warming on grapevine phenology and post-harvest heat accumulation across a range of climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Andrew; Mathews, Adam J.; Holzapfel, Bruno P.

    2016-01-01

    Carbohydrates are accumulated within the perennial structure of grapevines when their production exceeds the requirements of reproduction and growth. The period between harvest and leaf-fall (the post-harvest period) is a key period for carbohydrate accumulation in relatively warmer grape-growing regions. The level of carbohydrate reserves available for utilisation in the following season has an important effect on canopy growth and yield potential and is therefore an important consideration in vineyard management. In a warming climate, the post-harvest period is lengthening and becoming warmer, evidenced through studies in wine regions worldwide that have correlated recent air temperature increases with changing grapevine phenology. Budbreak, flowering, veraison, and harvest have all been observed to be occurring earlier than in previous decades. Additionally, the final stage of the grapevine phenological cycle, leaf-fall, occurs later. This study explored the potential for increased post-harvest carbohydrate accumulation by modelling heat accumulation following harvest dates for the recent climate (1975-2004) and two warmer climate projections with mean temperature anomalies of +1.26 and +2.61 °C. Summaries of post-harvest heat accumulation between harvest and leaf-fall were produced for each of Australia's Geographical Indications (wine regions) to provide comparisons from the base temperatures to projected warmer conditions across a range of climates. The results indicate that for warmer conditions, all regions observe earlier occurring budbreak and harvest as well as increasing post-harvest growing degree days accumulation before leaf-fall. The level of increase varies depending upon starting climatic condition, with cooler regions experiencing the greatest change.

  11. AAS 227: Day 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 2 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Plenary Session: Black Hole Physics with the Event Horizon Telescope (by Susanna Kohler)If anyone needed motivation to wake up early this morning, they got it in the form of Feryal Ozel (University of Arizona) enthralling us all with exciting pictures, videos, and words about black holes and the Event Horizon Telescope. Ozel spoke to a packed room (at 8:30am!) about where the project currently stands, and where its heading in the future.The EHT has pretty much the coolest goal ever: actually image the event horizons of black holes in our universe. The problem is that the largest black hole we can look at (Sgr A*, in the center of our galaxy) has an event horizon size of 50 as. For this kind of resolution roughly equivalent to trying to image a DVD on the Moon! wed need an Earth-sized telescope. EHT has solved this problem by linking telescopes around the world, creating one giant, mm-wavelength effective telescope with a baseline the size of Earth.Besides producing awesome images, the EHT will be able to test properties of black-hole spacetime, the no-hair theorem, and general relativity (GR) in new regimes.Ozel walked us through some of the theory prep work we need to do now in order to get the most science out of the EHT, including devising new

  12. 2016 SPD: Day 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors note: This week were in Boulder, Colorado at the 47th meeting of the AAS Solar Physics Division (SPD). Follow along to catch some of the latest news from the field of solar physics!The 2016 SPD meeting was launched this morning from the University of Colorado Boulder campus. Two of the hot topics at this years meeting include celebration of the recent move of the National Solar Observatorys headquarters to Boulder, and discussion of the future Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST, formerly the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope, ATST). DKIST, planned for a 2019 completion in Hawaii, is the next big telescope on the horizon for solar physics.Todays press conference had an interesting focus: instruments providing new high-energy observations of the Sun. Representatives from four different instruments were here to talk about some of the latest X-ray solar observations.GRIPSThe GRIPS payload flew at 130,000 ft over Antarctica on a giant balloon in January 2016. [NASA/Albert Shih]First up, Albert Shih (NASA Goddard) described the Gamma-Ray Imager/Polarimeter for Solar flares, or GRIPS. GRIPS is a balloon-borne instrument designed to detect X-rays and gamma rays emitted during solar flares. Up to tens of a percent of the energy in solar flares is emitted in the form of accelerated particles, but the physics behind this process is not well understood. GRIPS observes where the highest-energy particles are accelerated, in an effort to learn more about the process.GRIPS was launched on 19 January, 2016 and flew for roughly 12 days gathering ~1 million seconds of data! The logistics of this instruments flight are especially interesting, since it was launched from Antarctica and carried by a balloon at a whopping elevation of 130,000 ft (to get high enough that the atmosphere doesnt absorb all the photons GRIPS is trying to observe). Though the data from the mission has been retrieved, the bulk of the hardware remains where it landed at the end of January. It must

  13. Lead accumulation potential in Acacia victoria.

    PubMed

    Mahdavi, Ali; Khermandar, Khadijeh; Asbchin, Salman Ahmady; Tabaraki, Reza

    2014-01-01

    To assess the potential of Pb+2 accumulation in different parts of Acacia victoria, one year old A. victoria seedlings were exposed to Pb2+(NO3)2 in 5 different concentrations: 0, 50, 250, 500 and 1000 (mg Pb2+ L(-1)) for 45 days. Subsequently, Pb2+ uptake was quantified in roots, shoots and leaves of the seedlings by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). In addition, some physiological parameters such as biomass production, shoots and roots length, plant appearance, tissue concentrations and chlorophyll content were examined. Tissue concentrations increased as Pb2+ concentration increased for A. victoria. The visible toxicity symptoms (chlorosis and necrosis) appeared only to the highest concentration (1000 mg Pb2+ L(-1)), resulting in photosynthesis decrease, plant height, root length and dry biomass reduction. Almost 70% (up to 3580 mg Kg(-1) of dry tissue) from the Pb2+ was accumulated in the entire plant tissues was retained in the roots in the seedlings exposed to 1000 mg Pb2+ L(-1). The seedlings accumulated between 403 to 913 mg Kg(-1) of Pb2+ in shoots and 286 to 650 mg Kg(-1) of Pb2+ in leaves at different treatments. Bioconcentration and translocation factors were determined 5.14 and 0.255, respectively. The results show that A. victoria is suitable for lead-phytostabilization in Pb(2+) -contaminated soil.

  14. Gypsum accumulation on carbonate stone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGee, E.S.; Mossotti, V.G.

    1992-01-01

    The accumulation of gypsum on carbonate stone has been investigated through exposure of fresh samples of limestone and marble at monitored sites, through examination of alteration crusts from old buildings and through laboratory experiments. Several factors contribute to gypsum accumulation on carbonate stone. Marble or limestone that is sheltered from direct washing by rain in an urban environment with elevated pollution levels is likely to accumulate a gypsum crust. Crust development may be enhanced if the stone is porous or has an irregular surface area. Gypsum crusts are a surficial alteration feature; gypsum crystals form at the pore opening-air interface, where evaporation is greatest.

  15. 2016 SPD: Day 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    advances in simulating sunspot formation. He and his collaborators have used high-performance computing to build a model that successfully reproduces many of the key properties of sunspots that are observed.In particular, these simulations track the motions of the magnetic field starting within the interior of the Sun (8000 km below the surface!). The magnetic field is generated and intensified by convection deep within the solar interior. Bundles of magnetic field then rise through the convection zone, eventually breaking through the solar surface and giving rise to sunspots.This process of tracking the flow as it travels from the convective layer all the way through the solar surface has resulted in what may be some of the highest fidelity simulations of sunspots thus far. The structures produced in these simulations compares very favorably with actual observations of sunspots including the asymmetry seen in most sunspots.Counting Spots on the SunContinuing the discussion of sunspots, Leif Svalgaard (Stanford University) next took us on a historical journey from the 1600s through the present. For the last 400 years starting with Galileo people have kept records of the number of sunspots visible on the Suns disk.One of Galileos drawings of his sunspot observations from 1612. [The Galileo Project]This turns out to be a very useful practice! Total solar irradiance, a measure used as input into climate models, is reconstructed from sunspot numbers. Therefore, the historical record of sunspots over the last 400 years impacts our estimates of the long-term trends in solar activity.Based on raw sunspot counts, studies have argued that solar activity has been steadily increasing over time. But could this be a misinterpretation resulting from the fact that our technology and therefore our ability to detect sunspots has improved over time? Svalgaard believes so.By studying and reconstructing 18th century telescopes, he demonstrates that modern-day sunspot counts are able to detect

  16. 2016 SPD: Day 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors note: This week were in Boulder, Colorado at the 47th meeting of the AAS Solar Physics Division (SPD). Follow along to catch some of the latest news from the field of solar physics!The 2016 SPD meeting was launched this morning from the University of Colorado Boulder campus. Two of the hot topics at this years meeting include celebration of the recent move of the National Solar Observatorys headquarters to Boulder, and discussion of the future Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST, formerly the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope, ATST). DKIST, planned for a 2019 completion in Hawaii, is the next big telescope on the horizon for solar physics.Todays press conference had an interesting focus: instruments providing new high-energy observations of the Sun. Representatives from four different instruments were here to talk about some of the latest X-ray solar observations.GRIPSThe GRIPS payload flew at 130,000 ft over Antarctica on a giant balloon in January 2016. [NASA/Albert Shih]First up, Albert Shih (NASA Goddard) described the Gamma-Ray Imager/Polarimeter for Solar flares, or GRIPS. GRIPS is a balloon-borne instrument designed to detect X-rays and gamma rays emitted during solar flares. Up to tens of a percent of the energy in solar flares is emitted in the form of accelerated particles, but the physics behind this process is not well understood. GRIPS observes where the highest-energy particles are accelerated, in an effort to learn more about the process.GRIPS was launched on 19 January, 2016 and flew for roughly 12 days gathering ~1 million seconds of data! The logistics of this instruments flight are especially interesting, since it was launched from Antarctica and carried by a balloon at a whopping elevation of 130,000 ft (to get high enough that the atmosphere doesnt absorb all the photons GRIPS is trying to observe). Though the data from the mission has been retrieved, the bulk of the hardware remains where it landed at the end of January. It must

  17. AAS 227: Day 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or at astrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the @astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Things kicked off last night at our undergraduate reception booth. Thanks to all of you who stopped by we were delightedto have so many people tell us that they already know about and useastrobites, and we were excited to introduce a new cohort of students at AAS to astrobites for the first time.Tuesday morning was the official start of the meeting. Here are just a few of the talks and workshops astrobiters attended today.Opening Address (by Becky Smethurst)The President of the AAS, aka our fearless leader Meg Urry kicked off the meeting this morning at the purely coffee powered hour of 8am this morning. She spoke about the importance of young astronomers at the meeting (heres looking at you reader!) and also the importance of the new Working Group for Accessibility and Disabilities (aka WGAD pronounced like wicked) at the AAS. The Society has made extra effort this year to make the conference accessible to all,a message which was very well received by everyone in attendance.Kavli Lecture: New Horizons Alan Stern (by Becky Smethurst)We were definitely spoilt with the first Plenary lecture at this years conference Alan Stern gave us a a review of the New Horizons mission of the Pluto Fly By (astrobites covered the mission back in July with this post). We were treated to beautiful images, wonderful results and a foray into geology.Before (Hubble) and after #NewHorizons. #thatisall #science #astro alanstern #aas227 pic.twitter.com/kkMt6RsSIR Science News (@topsciencething) January 5, 2016Some awesome facts from the lecture that blew my mind:New Horizons is now 2AU (!) beyond Pluto

  18. Family Day Care Training Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakatsu, Gail

    California's Family Day Care Training Program was designed to recruit and train in 7 weeks, Lao, Vietnamese, and Chinese refugees to establish their own state-licensed, family day care homes. Topics in the program's curriculum include an introduction to family day care, state licenses for family day care, state licensing requirements for family…

  19. Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate Accumulation and beta-Adrenergic Binding in Unweighted and Denervated Rat Soleus Muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirby, Christopher R.; Woodman, Christopher R.; Woolridge, Dale; Tischler, Marc E.

    1992-01-01

    Unweighting, but not denervation, of muscle reportedly "spares" insulin receptors, increasing insulin sensitivity. Unweighting also increases beta-adrenergic responses of carbohydrate metabolism. These differential characteristics were studied further by comparing cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) accumulation and beta-adrenergic binding in normal and 3-day unweighted or denervated soleus muscle. Submaximal amounts of isoproterenol, a p-agonist, increased cAMP accumulation in vitro and in vivo (by intramuscular (IM) injection) to a greater degree (P less than .05) in unweighted muscles. Forskolin or maximal isoproterenol had similar in vitro effects in all muscles, suggesting increased beta-adrenergic sensitivity following unweighting. Increased sensitivity was confirmed by a greater receptor density (B(sub max)) for iodo-125(-)-pindolol in particulate preparations of unweighted (420 x 10(exp -18) mol/mg muscle) than of control or denervated muscles (285 x 10(exp-18) mol/mg muscle). The three dissociation constant (Kd) values were similar (20.3 to 25.8 pmol/L). Total binding capacity (11.4 fmol/muscle) did not change during 3 days of unweighting, but diminished by 30% with denervation. This result illustrates the "sparing" and loss of receptors, respectively, in these two atrophy models. In diabetic animals, IM injection of insulin diminished CAMP accumulation in the presence of theophylline in unweighted muscle (-66% +/- 2%) more than in controls (-42% +'- 6%, P less than .001). These results show that insulin affects CAMP formation in muscle, and support a greater in vivo insulin response following unweighting atrophy. These various data support a role for lysosomal proteolysis in denervation, but not in unweighting, atrophy.

  20. Influence of orbital precession on the polar methane accumulation on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.; Schneider, T.

    2014-12-01

    Data collected by Cassini Spacecraft indicate that lakes on Titan are primarily found in the polar regions, preferentially in the north. It has been suggested that the hemispherical asymmetry in lake distribution is related to Saturn's orbital precession, which changes the seasonal distribution of solar radiation on Titan, but not the annual mean (Aharonson et al., 2009; Schneider et al., 2012). Saturn's current longitude of perihelion is near northern winter solstice. Hence, the northern summer on Titan is longer and less intense than the southern summer. The longer northern summer leads to greater net precipitation in the annual mean and the methane accumulation over the northern polar region (Schneider et al. 2012). Saturn's perihelion precesses over an approximately 45-kyr period, so the solar radiation at the top of Titan's atmosphere varies on this time scale. Here we investigate how the orbital precession influences the polar methane accumulation with a three-dimensional atmospheric model coupled to a dynamic surface reservoir of methane (Schneider et al. 2012). We find that methane accumulation is closely tied to Saturn's orbital precession. At the time when Saturn's longitude of perihelion is 180 degree away from the present day value, methane is mainly accumulated in the southern polar region due to the stronger annual-mean precipitation there induced by the longer southern summer. The annual-mean evaporation is largely unchanged with orbital precession, since it scales with the annual-mean insolation, which does not change under orbital precession. When Saturn's longitude of perihelion is close to equinox, methane is approximately evenly distributed in the northern and southern polar regions, and the lake dichotomy disappears. The timescale of methane redistribution from one pole to the other is short compared with the timescale of orbital precession, so the surface methane distribution can be viewed as being approximately in equilibrium with the solar

  1. Ares Valles: Night and Day

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 15 June 2004 This pair of images shows part of the Ares Valles region.

    Day/Night Infrared Pairs

    The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top.

    Infrared image interpretation

    Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark.

    Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 3.6, Longitude 339.9 East (20.1 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released

  2. Lomonosov Crater, Day and Night

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 16 June 2004 This pair of images shows part of Lomonosov Crater.

    Day/Night Infrared Pairs

    The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top.

    Infrared image interpretation

    Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark.

    Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 64.9, Longitude 350.7 East (9.3 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through

  3. Channel by Day and Night

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 17 June 2004 This pair of images shows part of a small channel.

    Day/Night Infrared Pairs

    The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top.

    Infrared image interpretation

    Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark.

    Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 19.8, Longitude 141.5 East (218.5 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through

  4. 2016 SPD: Day 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    last the longest 2 minutes and 40 seconds is the small town of Hopkinsville, KY. WKU is located a little over an hour away, and both locations are prepared for a large influx of people on eclipse day!Partial solar eclipse as viewed by the space-based Solar Dynamics Observatory. [NASA/SDO]WKU is located just off the centerline of eclipse path, which has some advantages: this provides better viewing of some of the chromospheric features of the Sun during the eclipse, like priminences and solar loops. WKU is setting up a variety of educational and public outreach activities at their football stadium and the WKU farm, and they encourage you to come visit for the eclipse!In addition, they are participating in a nationwide experiment called Citizen CATE, short for the Continental American Telescopic Eclipse. This project will use 60 telescopes spanning the 2500 mile path of totality to record continuous data of the eclipse as it travels across the US. The result will be data of a remarkable 90 minutes of totality, revealing the activity of the solar corona and providing an extended view of the eclipse as has never been seen before.Science During the EclipseNext up was Shadia Habbal (University of Hawaii), who is a co-leader of the AAS 2017 Eclipse Task Force. In addition to her education and outreach efforts associated with the eclipse, however, Habbal is a solar eclipse researcher. She and her collaborators are known as the Solar Wind Sherpas, due to the fact that they hand-carry their science equipment around the world for solar eclipses!Solar corona during a 2008 eclipse, with color overlay indicating emission from highly ionized iron lines. [Habbal et al. 2010]The primary science done during solar eclipses is the study of the solar corona, the region that extends from the solar surface out to several solar radii. This region is too faint to observe normally, but when the light from the Suns disk is blocked out, we can examine it.Unfortunately, the space telescopes that

  5. Creation of citizen science project to correlate growing degree days with cranberry phenology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We are coordinating a citizen science project among cranberry growers. Collaborators will be collecting daily high and low temperatures and recording plant phenology throughout the summer according to a standardized protocol. This project will allow for more accurate correlation between cranberry gr...

  6. Citizen science project to correlate growing degree days with cranberry phenology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We are coordinating a citizen science project among cranberry growers. Collaborators will be collecting daily high and low temperatures and recording plant phenology throughout the summer according to a standardized protocol. This project will allow for more accurate correlation between cranberry gr...

  7. Degree-day benchmarks for Sparganothis sulfureana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) development in cranberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sparganothis sulfureana Clemens, is a severe insect pest of cranberries in the Midwest and Northeast. Timing for insecticide applications has relied primarily on calendar dates and pheromone trap-catch. However, abiotic conditions can vary greatly, rendering such methods unreliable indicators of opt...

  8. On degree-degree correlations in multilayer networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Arruda, Guilherme Ferraz; Cozzo, Emanuele; Moreno, Yamir; Rodrigues, Francisco A.

    2016-06-01

    We propose a generalization of the concept of assortativity based on the tensorial representation of multilayer networks, covering the definitions given in terms of Pearson and Spearman coefficients. Our approach can also be applied to weighted networks and provides information about correlations considering pairs of layers. By analyzing the multilayer representation of the airport transportation network, we show that contrasting results are obtained when the layers are analyzed independently or as an interconnected system. Finally, we study the impact of the level of assortativity and heterogeneity between layers on the spreading of diseases. Our results highlight the need of studying degree-degree correlations on multilayer systems, instead of on aggregated networks.

  9. Robustness of networks of networks with degree-degree correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Byungjoon; Canals, Santiago; Makse, Hernan

    Many real-world complex systems ranging from critical infrastructure and transportation networks to living systems including brain and cellular networks are not formed by an isolated network but by a network of networks. Randomly coupled networks with interdependency between different networks may easily result in abrupt collapse. Here, we seek a possible explanation of stable functioning in natural networks of networks including functional brain networks. Specifically, we analyze the robustness of networks of networks focused on one-to-many interconnections between different networks and degree-degree correlation. Implication of the network robustness on functional brain networks of rats is also discussed.

  10. Center is at Latitude 30 Degrees North, Longitude 150 Degrees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Center of the orthographic projection is at latitude 30 degrees N., longitude 150 degrees. The north polar residual ice cap, which is cut by spiral-patterned troughs and surrounded by the dark lowland plains of Vastitas Borealis, is located at the top. The right-central part is dominated by the Tharsis Montes volcanoes. The most prominent of the Tharsis Montes volcanoes is the largest known volcano in the solar system, Olympus Mons. The light-colored lowland plains of Amazonis, Elysium, and Arcadia Planitiae lies north and west of Olympus Mons. The heavily cratered highlands dominate the lower one-third.

  11. Center is at Latitude 30 Degrees South, Longitude 90 Degrees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Center of the orthographic projection is at latitude 30 degrees S., longitude 90 degrees. The top half is dominated by the Tharsis Montes volcanoes, the large Alba Patera shield volcano, the dark Chryse basin, and a vast canyon system, Valles Marineris. In the central part, a prominent physiographic feature, Thaumasia plateau, includes a complex array of small- and large-scale faults and ridges and ancient volcanoes. The large conspicuous Argyre basin, southeast of the Thaumasia plateau, contains a broad expanse of light-colored plains 800 km across. The permanent south polar ice cap is located near the bottom.

  12. Manganese As a Metal Accumulator

    EPA Science Inventory

    Manganese deposits in water distribution systems accumulate metals, radionuclides and oxyanions by a combination of surface complexation, adsorption and solid substitution, as well as a combination of oxidation followed by manganese reduction and sorption of the oxidized constitu...

  13. 2016 SPD: Day 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    last the longest 2 minutes and 40 seconds is the small town of Hopkinsville, KY. WKU is located a little over an hour away, and both locations are prepared for a large influx of people on eclipse day!Partial solar eclipse as viewed by the space-based Solar Dynamics Observatory. [NASA/SDO]WKU is located just off the centerline of eclipse path, which has some advantages: this provides better viewing of some of the chromospheric features of the Sun during the eclipse, like priminences and solar loops. WKU is setting up a variety of educational and public outreach activities at their football stadium and the WKU farm, and they encourage you to come visit for the eclipse!In addition, they are participating in a nationwide experiment called Citizen CATE, short for the Continental American Telescopic Eclipse. This project will use 60 telescopes spanning the 2500 mile path of totality to record continuous data of the eclipse as it travels across the US. The result will be data of a remarkable 90 minutes of totality, revealing the activity of the solar corona and providing an extended view of the eclipse as has never been seen before.Science During the EclipseNext up was Shadia Habbal (University of Hawaii), who is a co-leader of the AAS 2017 Eclipse Task Force. In addition to her education and outreach efforts associated with the eclipse, however, Habbal is a solar eclipse researcher. She and her collaborators are known as the Solar Wind Sherpas, due to the fact that they hand-carry their science equipment around the world for solar eclipses!Solar corona during a 2008 eclipse, with color overlay indicating emission from highly ionized iron lines. [Habbal et al. 2010]The primary science done during solar eclipses is the study of the solar corona, the region that extends from the solar surface out to several solar radii. This region is too faint to observe normally, but when the light from the Suns disk is blocked out, we can examine it.Unfortunately, the space telescopes that

  14. AAS 228: Day 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note: Lastweek we were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Here is a final post aboutselectedevents on the last day of the meeting, written by authors fromastrobites.com, a grad-student collaborative project with which we recently announced a new partnership! Starting in July,keep an eye out for astrobites postsat AAS Nova in between Highlights(i.e., on Tuesdays and Thursdays).Were excited to be working together to bring you more recent astronomy research from AAS journals!Extrasolar Planets: Detection (by Leonardo dos Santos)Thursdays first session on exoplanets was about detecting these distant worlds, and the opening talk was given by Robert Siverd (Las Cumbres Observatory). He describes the NRES, a network of spectrographs that will look for exoplanets using the radial velocity method. One of the coolest aspects of this instrument is that it will feature an on the fly scheduling system that will perform observations as efficiently as possible. The spectrograph is still being tested, but a unit will be deployed at CTIO later this year.@lcogt contracted by @NASA_TESS for follow up of their candidates. #aas228 Jessie Christiansen (@aussiastronomer) June 16, 2016Measuring the depths of transits and eclipses in Spitzer has been problematic in the past, since the Spitzer instrument IRAC (InfraRed Array Camera) has a non-uniform response in its detectors pixels. But, as reported by James Ingalls (Spitzer Science Center, Caltech), observers are circumventing this issue by using what they call the staring mode (avoiding large pointing jumps) and an algorithm to pick sweet spot pixels. Moreover, the results from the IRAC Data Challenge are helping to better understand its behavior. Giuseppe Morello (University College London), on the other hand, explained how his research group gets rid of instrumental effects from IRAC using machine learning. This method removes systematics from exoplanet transit data no matter if the noise source is from an instrument or

  15. 2016 SPD: Day 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    advances in simulating sunspot formation. He and his collaborators have used high-performance computing to build a model that successfully reproduces many of the key properties of sunspots that are observed.In particular, these simulations track the motions of the magnetic field starting within the interior of the Sun (8000 km below the surface!). The magnetic field is generated and intensified by convection deep within the solar interior. Bundles of magnetic field then rise through the convection zone, eventually breaking through the solar surface and giving rise to sunspots.This process of tracking the flow as it travels from the convective layer all the way through the solar surface has resulted in what may be some of the highest fidelity simulations of sunspots thus far. The structures produced in these simulations compares very favorably with actual observations of sunspots including the asymmetry seen in most sunspots.Counting Spots on the SunContinuing the discussion of sunspots, Leif Svalgaard (Stanford University) next took us on a historical journey from the 1600s through the present. For the last 400 years starting with Galileo people have kept records of the number of sunspots visible on the Suns disk.One of Galileos drawings of his sunspot observations from 1612. [The Galileo Project]This turns out to be a very useful practice! Total solar irradiance, a measure used as input into climate models, is reconstructed from sunspot numbers. Therefore, the historical record of sunspots over the last 400 years impacts our estimates of the long-term trends in solar activity.Based on raw sunspot counts, studies have argued that solar activity has been steadily increasing over time. But could this be a misinterpretation resulting from the fact that our technology and therefore our ability to detect sunspots has improved over time? Svalgaard believes so.By studying and reconstructing 18th century telescopes, he demonstrates that modern-day sunspot counts are able to detect

  16. Southeast Elevation, Attic Stair Nosing, Day Room Fireplace Details, Day ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Southeast Elevation, Attic Stair Nosing, Day Room Fireplace Details, Day Room Mantel Shelf, Northeast Elevation - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers - Battle Mountain Sanitarium, Ward 4, 500 North Fifth Street, Hot Springs, Fall River County, SD

  17. Atmospheric angular momentum and the length of day - A common fluctuation with a period near 50 days

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langley, R. B.; King, R. W.; Shapiro, I. I.; Rosen, R. D.; Salstein, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    Four astronomical measures of changes in the length of day obtained in 1979 have been shown to exhibit the same, approximately 50-day fluctuation. To find whether this fluctuation was persistent, and of meteorological origin, lunar laser ranging observations and wind data deduced from sources distributed over the globe were analyzed. A high degree of correlation was found between the two sets of data. It is implied that the 50-day period fluctuations in length of day are real and related to meteorological effects. Observed changes in length of day can provide a constraint for models for atmospheric flow, and a partial check for global analyses of such motions.

  18. Do arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi affect arsenic accumulation and speciation in rice with different radial oxygen loss?

    PubMed

    Li, H; Man, Y B; Ye, Z H; Wu, C; Wu, S C; Wong, M H

    2013-11-15

    The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on the temporal variation of arsenic (As) speciation and accumulation in two paddy rice cultivars (TD 71 and Xiushui 11) with different degrees of radial oxygen loss (ROL) at three growth periods (day 7, day 35, day 63 after flooding the soil) were investigated in soil, spiked with and without 30 mg As kg(-1). The results showed that TD 71 with high ROL colonized by Glomus intraradices led to higher root colonization rates than Xiushui 11 at three growth periods, both in soil with or without 30 mg As kg(-1) (p<0.05). Mycorrhizal inoculation led to elevated (p<0.05) root ratios of arsenite (As(III)) conc./arsenate (As(V)) conc. (concentration) in TD 71 with high ROL at three growth periods in As contaminated flooding soils. Furthermore, the ratios of As(III) conc./As(V) conc. in roots of TD71 were significantly more than Xiushui 11 when colonized by AMF at three growth periods in 30 mg As kg(-1) soil (p<0.05). Therefore, rice with high ROL can favor AM fungal infection and enhance root ratio of As(III) conc./As(V) conc. in the presence of AMF.

  19. Do arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi affect arsenic accumulation and speciation in rice with different radial oxygen loss?

    PubMed

    Li, H; Man, Y B; Ye, Z H; Wu, C; Wu, S C; Wong, M H

    2013-11-15

    The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on the temporal variation of arsenic (As) speciation and accumulation in two paddy rice cultivars (TD 71 and Xiushui 11) with different degrees of radial oxygen loss (ROL) at three growth periods (day 7, day 35, day 63 after flooding the soil) were investigated in soil, spiked with and without 30 mg As kg(-1). The results showed that TD 71 with high ROL colonized by Glomus intraradices led to higher root colonization rates than Xiushui 11 at three growth periods, both in soil with or without 30 mg As kg(-1) (p<0.05). Mycorrhizal inoculation led to elevated (p<0.05) root ratios of arsenite (As(III)) conc./arsenate (As(V)) conc. (concentration) in TD 71 with high ROL at three growth periods in As contaminated flooding soils. Furthermore, the ratios of As(III) conc./As(V) conc. in roots of TD71 were significantly more than Xiushui 11 when colonized by AMF at three growth periods in 30 mg As kg(-1) soil (p<0.05). Therefore, rice with high ROL can favor AM fungal infection and enhance root ratio of As(III) conc./As(V) conc. in the presence of AMF. PMID:22673057

  20. Factors influencing 7Be accumulation on rock varnish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Willard S.; Liu, Tanzhuo; Broecker, Wallace S.; Finkel, Robert C.; Wright, Allen

    Rocks coated with desert varnish were translocated from Scottsdale, Arizona, and Panamint Valley, California, to a fenced-in plot near Biosphere 2 where they were allowed to accumulate a new crop of the 53 day half life, cosmic ray-produced 7Be. Those exposed to precipitation accumulated several times more of this isotope than those shielded from precipitation. No significant difference in 7Be accumulation was observed between a set which was UV irradiated (in an attempt to kill resident bacteria) and a set which received no UV irradiation. This experiment suggests that 62 ± 10 percent of the beryllium accumulated on the varnish was supplied by precipitation and 38 ± 10 percent by some combination of dew, dust, and aerosols. If bacteria are, as has been proposed, responsible for varnish growth, then either our UV irradiation was inadequate to squelch their activity or the 7Be we measured had not yet been built into the varnish.

  1. Last Days of Life (PDQ)

    MedlinePlus

    ... for more information. Symptoms During the Final Months, Weeks, and Days of Life Key Points Delirium Delirium ... may get worse during the final days or weeks of life. Shortness of breath or not being ...

  2. Accumulating Brisk Walking for Fitness, Cardiovascular Risk, and Psychological Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Marie; Nevill, Alan; Neville, Charlotte; Biddle, Stuart; Hardman, Adrianne

    2002-01-01

    Compared the effects of different patterns of regular brisk walking on fitness, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and psychological well-being in previously sedentary adults. Data on adults who completed either short-bout or long-bout walking programs found that three short bouts of brisk walking accumulated throughout the day were as effective…

  3. Reexamining the Associate Degree Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahill, Marion; Devlin, Martha; LeBlanc, Phyllis; Lowe, Barbara; Norton, Betty; Tassin, Karen; Vallette, Elaine; Jamieson, Marjorie K.; Irons, Patricia D.; Meehan, Susan; Reilly, Margaret J.

    1998-01-01

    Includes "Assessing the Need for Community Concepts" (Marion Cahill et al.); "Expanding the Associate Degree Curriculum without Adding Time" (Marjorie K. Jamieson); and "A Community College Responds to Changes in Health Care Delivery" (Patricia D. Irons, Susan Meehan, and Margaret J. Reilly). (SK)

  4. Life after a Humanities Degree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masola, Athambile

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the experiences of a humanities graduate after leaving the academy. The author considers her own education in light of the historical changes in South Africa's education system. The article is a personal account of the questions and challenges encountered in choosing a humanities degree in a context where a tertiary education…

  5. The Top Theological Degree Producers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Each year, "Diverse: Issues in Higher Education" publishes a list of the Top 100 producers of associate, bachelor's and graduate degrees awarded to minority students based on research conducted by Dr. Victor M. H. Borden, professor of educational leadership and policy studies at Indiana University Bloomington. This year, for the first time, it has…

  6. The Top STEM Degree Producers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a list of the top Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) degree producers in the U.S. This list is broken down into seven categories: (1) Total Minority Research/Scholarship and Other Doctoral: Mathematics and Statistics; (2) Total Minority Bachelors: Biological and Biomedical Sciences; (3) Total Minority…

  7. Family Day Care Provider Handbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Office of Children and Family Services, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Family day care providers are responsible for creating a high-quality program where children have opportunities to grow, learn and thrive. Part of providing high-quality child care includes complying with the family day care regulations from the New York State Office of Children and Family Services (OCFS). This Handbook will help day care…

  8. Perspectives on Infant Day Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elardo, Richard, E.; Pagan, Betty, Ed.

    These proceedings of the first annual SACUS workshop on infant day care contain the papers presented at the conference, plus an appendix--Developmental Objectives for Infants and Toddlers. The papers are: "Infant Day Care--Fads, Facts, and Fancies" by Bettye M. Caldwell; "Family Day Care""A Broad Perspective" by Malcolm S. Host; "Getting…

  9. Myth or Truth: Independence Day.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Traci

    Most Americans think of the Fourth of July as Independence Day, but is it really the day the U.S. declared and celebrated independence? By exploring myths and truths surrounding Independence Day, this lesson asks students to think critically about commonly believed stories regarding the beginning of the Revolutionary War and the Independence Day…

  10. The 4 Day School Week

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dam, Ai

    2006-01-01

    Colorado law requires school districts to schedule 1080 hours per year of instructional time for secondary schools and 990 instructional hours for elementary schools. The 1080 hours equate to six hours per day for 180 days. The 990 hours equate to five and one-half hours per day. Up to 24 hours may be counted for parent-teacher conferences, staff…

  11. Comparison of 180-degree and 90-degree needle rotation to reduce wound size in PIT-injected juvenile Chinook salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Bryson, Amanda J.; Woodley, Christa M.; Karls, Rhonda K.; Hall, Kathleen D.; Weiland, Mark A.; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Eppard, Matthew B.

    2013-04-30

    Animal telemetry, which requires the implantation of passive transponders or active transmitters, is used to monitor and assess fish stock and conservation to gain an understanding of fish movement and behavior. As new telemetry technologies become available, studies of their effects on species of interest are imperative as is development of implantation techniques. In this study, we investigated the effects of bevel rotation (0-, 90-, 180-degree axis rotation) on wound extent, tag loss, and wound healing rates in juvenile Chinook salmon injected with an 8-gauge needle, which is required for implantation of the novel injectable Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry Systems (JSATS) acoustic transmitter or large passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. Although the injection sites were not closed after injection (e.g., with sutures or glue), there were no mortalities, dropped tags, or indications of fungus, ulceration, and/or redness around the wound. On Day 0 and post-implantation Day 7, the 90-degree bevel rotation produced smaller wound extent than the 180-degree bevel rotation. No axis rotation (0-degrees) resulted in the PIT tag frequently misleading or falling out upon injection. The results of this study indicated the 90-degree bevel rotation was the more efficient technique, produced less wound extent. Given the wound extent compared to size of fish, we recommend researchers should consider a 90-degree rotation over the 180-degree rotation in telemetry studies. Highlights •Three degrees of needle rotation were examined for effects in Chinook salmon. •Mortality, tag loss, wound extent, healing, and infection indicators were measured. •There were no mortalities, tag loss, or indications of infection. •The 90-degree needle rotation through Day 7 produced the smallest wound extent.

  12. Center is at Latitude 30 Degrees North, Longitude 270 Degrees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Center of the orthographic projection is at latitude 30 degrees N., longitude 270 degrees. The north polar residual ice cap of the Planum Boreum region, which is cut by spiral-patterned troughs, is located at top. The upper part is marked by a large depression, Isidis basin, which contains light-colored plains. The upper part also includes the light-colored smooth plains of Elysium Planitia and dark plains of Vastitas Borealis. Together, these form a vast expanse of contiguous plains. Toward the bottom, on the other hand, the southern hemisphere is almost entirely made up of heavily cratered highlands. At bottom left, a conspicuous, relatively bright circular depression marks the ancient large Hellas impact basin.

  13. Maximum likelihood decoding analysis of Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    Repeat-Accumulate (RA) codes are the simplest turbo-like codes that achieve good performance. However, they cannot compete with Turbo codes or low-density parity check codes (LDPC) as far as performance is concerned. The Accumulate Repeat Accumulate (ARA) codes, as a subclass of LDPC codes, are obtained by adding a pre-coder in front of RA codes with puncturing where an accumulator is chosen as a precoder. These codes not only are very simple, but also achieve excellent performance with iterative decoding. In this paper, the performance of these codes with (ML) decoding are analyzed and compared to random codes by very tight bounds. The weight distribution of some simple ARA codes is obtained, and through existing tightest bounds we have shown the ML SNR threshold of ARA codes approaches very closely to the performance of random codes. We have shown that the use of precoder improves the SNR threshold but interleaving gain remains unchanged with respect to RA code with puncturing.

  14. Effects of acute chlorpyrifos exposure on in vivo acetylcholine accumulation in rat striatum

    SciTech Connect

    Karanth, Subramanya; Liu, Jing; Mirajkar, Nikita; Pope, Carey . E-mail: carey.pope@okstate.edu

    2006-10-01

    This study examined the acute effects of chlorpyrifos (CPF) on cholinesterase inhibition and acetylcholine levels in the striatum of freely moving rats using in vivo microdialysis. Adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with vehicle (peanut oil, 2 ml/kg) or CPF (84, 156 or 279 mg/kg, sc) and functional signs of toxicity, body weight and motor activity recorded. Microdialysis was conducted at 1, 4 and 7 days after CPF exposure for measurement of acetylcholine levels in striatum. Rats were then sacrificed and the contralateral striatum and diaphragm were collected for biochemical measurements. Few overt signs of cholinergic toxicity were noted in any rats. Body weight gain was significantly affected in the high-dose (279 mg/kg) group only, while motor activity (nocturnal rearing) was significantly reduced in all CPF-treated groups at one day (84 mg/kg) or from 1-4 days (156 and 279 mg/kg) after dosing. Cholinesterase activities in both diaphragm and striatum were markedly inhibited (50-92%) in a time-dependent manner, but there were relatively minimal dose-related changes. In contrast, time- and dose-dependent changes in striatal acetylcholine levels were noted, with significantly higher levels noted in the high-dose group compared to other groups. Maximal increases in striatal acetylcholine levels were observed at 4-7 days after dosing (84 mg/kg, 7-9-fold; 156 mg/kg, 10-13-fold; 279 mg/kg, 35-57-fold). Substantially higher acetylcholine levels were noted when an exogenous cholinesterase inhibitor was included in the perfusion buffer, but CPF treatment-related differences were substantially lower in magnitude under those conditions. The results suggest that marked differences in acetylcholine accumulation can occur with dosages of CPF eliciting relatively similar degrees of cholinesterase inhibition. Furthermore, the minimal expression of classic signs of cholinergic toxicity in the presence of extensive brain acetylcholine accumulation suggests that some

  15. Accumulation and elimination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in mule ducks.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ting-Wei; Lee, Jai-Wei; Liu, Hsueh-Yen; Lin, Wei-Hsiao; Chu, Chun-Yen; Lin, Sheng-Lun; Chang-Chien, Guo Ping; Yu, Chi

    2014-11-01

    In Taiwan, a food safety crisis involving a presence of high concentrations of dioxin residues in duck eggs occurred in 2004. The dioxin content in duck meat sampled from supermarkets was also reported to be substantially higher than in products from other farm animals. Despite increased awareness of the potential for contamination and exposure to dioxins, the accumulation and elimination of dioxins in ducks have not been well characterized. In the present study, mule ducks were fed capsules containing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) for 14 days and the trial was continued for another 28 days without PCDD/Fs supplementation. Ducks were sacrificed on the 14th, 28th, and 42nd days from the beginning of administration and samples of abdominal fat, breast, and liver tissue were obtained. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs were analyzed in the samples to investigate their distribution and elimination in various duck tissues. The bioaccumulation of PCDD/Fs in ducks was found to be tissue-dependent. In the abdominal fat, the bioconcentration factor was negatively correlated with the degree of chlorination. Conversely, more chlorinated PCDD/Fs (hexa- or hepta-congeners) were associated with higher bioconcentration in the liver and breast tissue. In terms of the efficiency of PCDD/Fs elimination, the liver was found to be the fastest, followed by the breast and the abdominal fat. The clearance rate positively correlated with the degree of chlorination, as determined by comparing the apparent elimination rate constant (k) of PCDD/Fs in various tissues. Overall, lower k values observed in this study imply that mule ducks have a reduced clearance of PCDD/Fs in comparison with layer and broiler chickens. PMID:25129161

  16. Accumulation and elimination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in mule ducks.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ting-Wei; Lee, Jai-Wei; Liu, Hsueh-Yen; Lin, Wei-Hsiao; Chu, Chun-Yen; Lin, Sheng-Lun; Chang-Chien, Guo Ping; Yu, Chi

    2014-11-01

    In Taiwan, a food safety crisis involving a presence of high concentrations of dioxin residues in duck eggs occurred in 2004. The dioxin content in duck meat sampled from supermarkets was also reported to be substantially higher than in products from other farm animals. Despite increased awareness of the potential for contamination and exposure to dioxins, the accumulation and elimination of dioxins in ducks have not been well characterized. In the present study, mule ducks were fed capsules containing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) for 14 days and the trial was continued for another 28 days without PCDD/Fs supplementation. Ducks were sacrificed on the 14th, 28th, and 42nd days from the beginning of administration and samples of abdominal fat, breast, and liver tissue were obtained. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs were analyzed in the samples to investigate their distribution and elimination in various duck tissues. The bioaccumulation of PCDD/Fs in ducks was found to be tissue-dependent. In the abdominal fat, the bioconcentration factor was negatively correlated with the degree of chlorination. Conversely, more chlorinated PCDD/Fs (hexa- or hepta-congeners) were associated with higher bioconcentration in the liver and breast tissue. In terms of the efficiency of PCDD/Fs elimination, the liver was found to be the fastest, followed by the breast and the abdominal fat. The clearance rate positively correlated with the degree of chlorination, as determined by comparing the apparent elimination rate constant (k) of PCDD/Fs in various tissues. Overall, lower k values observed in this study imply that mule ducks have a reduced clearance of PCDD/Fs in comparison with layer and broiler chickens.

  17. Six degree of freedom sensor

    DOEpatents

    Vann, C.S.

    1999-03-16

    This small, non-contact optical sensor increases the capability and flexibility of computer controlled machines by detecting its relative position to a workpiece in all six degrees of freedom (DOF). At a fraction of the cost, it is over 200 times faster and up to 25 times more accurate than competing 3-DOF sensors. Applications range from flexible manufacturing to a 6-DOF mouse for computers. Until now, highly agile and accurate machines have been limited by their inability to adjust to changes in their tasks. By enabling them to sense all six degrees of position, these machines can now adapt to new and complicated tasks without human intervention or delay--simplifying production, reducing costs, and enhancing the value and capability of flexible manufacturing. 3 figs.

  18. Six degree of freedom sensor

    DOEpatents

    Vann, Charles S.

    1999-01-01

    This small, non-contact optical sensor increases the capability and flexibility of computer controlled machines by detecting its relative position to a workpiece in all six degrees of freedom (DOF). At a fraction of the cost, it is over 200 times faster and up to 25 times more accurate than competing 3-DOF sensors. Applications range from flexible manufacturing to a 6-DOF mouse for computers. Until now, highly agile and accurate machines have been limited by their inability to adjust to changes in their tasks. By enabling them to sense all six degrees of position, these machines can now adapt to new and complicated tasks without human intervention or delay--simplifying production, reducing costs, and enhancing the value and capability of flexible manufacturing.

  19. Accelerometry-Derived Physical Activity of First through Third Grade Children during the Segmented School Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, R. Glenn; Crimarco, Anthony; Brusseau, Timothy A.; Webster, Collin A.; Burns, Ryan D.; Hannon, James C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Schools should provide children 30 minutes/day of moderate-to-vigorous-physical-activity (MVPA). Determining school day segments that contribute to children's MVPA can inform school-based activity promotion. The purpose of this paper was to identify the proportion of children accumulating 30 minutes/day of school-based MVPA, and to…

  20. Pensions and Household Wealth Accumulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhardt, Gary V.; Kumar, Anil

    2011-01-01

    Economists have long suggested that higher private pension benefits "crowd out" other sources of household wealth accumulation. We exploit detailed information on pensions and lifetime earnings for older workers in the 1992 wave of the Health and Retirement Study and employ an instrumental-variable (IV) identification strategy to estimate…

  1. Degree Attainment. Snapshot™ Report, Winter 2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Student Clearinghouse, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This Snapshot Report presents information on student degree attainment in science and engineering disciplines for 2004 and 2014. It offers data on the following: (1) Science and Engineering Degrees as Percentage of All Degrees; (2) Gender Distribution of Science and Engineering Degrees by Level; (3) Gender Distribution of Bachelor's Degrees in…

  2. Variability in Vowel Production within and between Days

    PubMed Central

    Heald, Shannon L. M.; Nusbaum, Howard C.

    2015-01-01

    Although the acoustic variability of speech is often described as a problem for phonetic recognition, there is little research examining acoustic-phonetic variability over time. We measured naturally occurring acoustic variability in speech production at nine specific time points (three per day over three days) to examine daily change in production as well as change across days for citation-form vowels. Productions of seven different vowels (/EE/, /IH/, /AH/, /UH/, /AE/, /OO/, /EH/) were recorded at 9AM, 3PM and 9PM over the course of each testing day on three different days, every other day, over a span of five days. Results indicate significant systematic change in F1 and F0 values over the course of a day for each of the seven vowels recorded, whereas F2 and F3 remained stable. Despite this systematic change within a day, however, talkers did not show significant changes in F0, F1, F2, and F3 between days, demonstrating that speakers are capable of producing vowels with great reliability over days without any extrinsic feedback besides their own auditory monitoring. The data show that in spite of substantial day-to-day variability in the specific listening and speaking experiences of these participants and thus exposure to different acoustic tokens of speech, there is a high degree of internal precision and consistency for the production of citation form vowels. PMID:26331478

  3. Study of the Half-Day/Full-Day Kindergarten Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInroy, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    This case study and problem analysis was an in-depth investigation of the half-day/full-day kindergarten model by utilizing interviews and focus groups to provide insight from parents, teachers, and other district personnel as to how the model has impacted the social, emotional, and academic development of the participating students. This study…

  4. Geomycology. [fungal biosolubilization and accumulation of metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puerner, N. J.; Siegel, S. M.

    1976-01-01

    Fungi have long been known to have capabilities for reduction and alkylation of arsenate and selenate but their general capabilities for solubilizing and accumulating metallic substances have been given serious attention only in recent years. Common members of the Aspergillaceae cultured on boron, copper, lead and other metals or oxides can solubilize and concentrate the elements or their compounds. To account for biosolubilization of the metals, we have set up a model study, incubating selected metals, e.g., mercury, in solutions of various metabolites including L-lysine and citric acid. Results of 100-300 days incubation showed that many metals can in fact be readily solubilized, and in some cases more effectively at pH 6-7 than at pH 1.5-2.

  5. Alumni from One External Degree Program: Profile, Perceptions, and Preference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firenze, Louis

    1983-01-01

    The importance to alumni of a nontraditional program and the negotiability of the degree to the alumni, their employers and peers, and graduate schools was examined. Data indicated that the main reasons for selecting a nontraditional program were a flexible schedule and the need to maintain a regular working day. (Author/MLW)

  6. Rethinking the Day of Silence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    Back in 2006, 7th and 8th graders at Green Acres, the K-8 independent school where the author taught in suburban Maryland, participated in the Day of Silence. The Day of Silence is a national event: Students across the country take a one-day pledge of silence to show that they want to make schools safe for all students, regardless of their sexual…

  7. Accumulation of formamide in hydrothermal pores to form prebiotic nucleobases.

    PubMed

    Niether, Doreen; Afanasenkau, Dzmitry; Dhont, Jan K G; Wiegand, Simone

    2016-04-19

    Formamide is one of the important compounds from which prebiotic molecules can be synthesized, provided that its concentration is sufficiently high. For nucleotides and short DNA strands, it has been shown that a high degree of accumulation in hydrothermal pores occurs, so that temperature gradients might play a role in the origin of life [Baaske P, et al. (2007)Proc Natl Acad Sci USA104(22):9346-9351]. We show that the same combination of thermophoresis and convection in hydrothermal pores leads to accumulation of formamide up to concentrations where nucleobases are formed. The thermophoretic properties of aqueous formamide solutions are studied by means of Infrared Thermal Diffusion Forced Rayleigh Scattering. These data are used in numerical finite element calculations in hydrothermal pores for various initial concentrations, ambient temperatures, and pore sizes. The high degree of formamide accumulation is due to an unusual temperature and concentration dependence of the thermophoretic behavior of formamide. The accumulation fold in part of the pores increases strongly with increasing aspect ratio of the pores, and saturates to highly concentrated aqueous formamide solutions of ∼85 wt% at large aspect ratios. Time-dependent studies show that these high concentrations are reached after 45-90 d, starting with an initial formamide weight fraction of[Formula: see text]wt % that is typical for concentrations in shallow lakes on early Earth. PMID:27044100

  8. Accumulation of formamide in hydrothermal pores to form prebiotic nucleobases.

    PubMed

    Niether, Doreen; Afanasenkau, Dzmitry; Dhont, Jan K G; Wiegand, Simone

    2016-04-19

    Formamide is one of the important compounds from which prebiotic molecules can be synthesized, provided that its concentration is sufficiently high. For nucleotides and short DNA strands, it has been shown that a high degree of accumulation in hydrothermal pores occurs, so that temperature gradients might play a role in the origin of life [Baaske P, et al. (2007)Proc Natl Acad Sci USA104(22):9346-9351]. We show that the same combination of thermophoresis and convection in hydrothermal pores leads to accumulation of formamide up to concentrations where nucleobases are formed. The thermophoretic properties of aqueous formamide solutions are studied by means of Infrared Thermal Diffusion Forced Rayleigh Scattering. These data are used in numerical finite element calculations in hydrothermal pores for various initial concentrations, ambient temperatures, and pore sizes. The high degree of formamide accumulation is due to an unusual temperature and concentration dependence of the thermophoretic behavior of formamide. The accumulation fold in part of the pores increases strongly with increasing aspect ratio of the pores, and saturates to highly concentrated aqueous formamide solutions of ∼85 wt% at large aspect ratios. Time-dependent studies show that these high concentrations are reached after 45-90 d, starting with an initial formamide weight fraction of[Formula: see text]wt % that is typical for concentrations in shallow lakes on early Earth.

  9. Accumulation of formamide in hydrothermal pores to form prebiotic nucleobases

    PubMed Central

    Niether, Doreen; Afanasenkau, Dzmitry; Dhont, Jan K. G.

    2016-01-01

    Formamide is one of the important compounds from which prebiotic molecules can be synthesized, provided that its concentration is sufficiently high. For nucleotides and short DNA strands, it has been shown that a high degree of accumulation in hydrothermal pores occurs, so that temperature gradients might play a role in the origin of life [Baaske P, et al. (2007) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104(22):9346−9351]. We show that the same combination of thermophoresis and convection in hydrothermal pores leads to accumulation of formamide up to concentrations where nucleobases are formed. The thermophoretic properties of aqueous formamide solutions are studied by means of Infrared Thermal Diffusion Forced Rayleigh Scattering. These data are used in numerical finite element calculations in hydrothermal pores for various initial concentrations, ambient temperatures, and pore sizes. The high degree of formamide accumulation is due to an unusual temperature and concentration dependence of the thermophoretic behavior of formamide. The accumulation fold in part of the pores increases strongly with increasing aspect ratio of the pores, and saturates to highly concentrated aqueous formamide solutions of ∼85 wt% at large aspect ratios. Time-dependent studies show that these high concentrations are reached after 45–90 d, starting with an initial formamide weight fraction of 10−3 wt % that is typical for concentrations in shallow lakes on early Earth. PMID:27044100

  10. Sun-Earth Day, 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Mitzi L.; Mortfield, P.; Hathaway, D. H.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    To promote awareness of the Sun-Earth connection, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, in collaboration with the Stanford SOLAR Center, sponsored a one-day Sun-Earth Day event on April 27, 2001. Although "celebrated" on only one day, teachers and students from across the nation, prepared for over a month in advance. Workshops were held in March to train teachers. Students performed experiments, results of which were shared through video clips and an internet web cast. Our poster includes highlights from student experiments (grades 2 - 12), lessons learned from the teacher workshops and the event itself, and plans for Sun-Earth Day 2002.

  11. Detection of high-degree nonradial pulsations in Gamma Bootis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennelly, E. J.; Yang, S.; Walker, G. A. H.; Hubeny, I.

    1992-01-01

    The line-profile variations of the rapidly rotating Delta-Scuti star Gamma Bootis can be explained by high-degree nonradial pulsations (NRPs) with an apparent period approximately equal to 0.047 days. This same period was derived from two data sets taken three months apart wherein the amplitude increased by 30 percent. Such high-degree NRP cannot explain the apparent reversals previously observed by Auvergne at al. (1979) for this star in the cores of the hydrogen Balmer lines and Ca-II K line. The present radial-velocity variations can be reconciled with their 0.25-day spectroscopic period if an amplitude of about 1 km/s is adopted, an order of magnitude less than previous measurements. The presence of line-profile variations from high-degree modes probably limits the accuracy of radial-velocity measurents and can appear as bumps in the radial-velocity curve.

  12. Quaternary Geologic Map of the Platte River 4 Degrees x 6 Degrees Quadrangle, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swinehart, James B.; Dreeszen, Vincent H.; Richmond, Gerald Martin; Tipton, Merlin J.; Bretz, Richard F.; Steece, Fred V.; Hallberg, George R.; Goebel, Joseph E.; edited and integrated by Richmond, Gerald Martin

    1994-01-01

    The Quaternary Geologic Map of the Platte River 4 degree x 6 degree Quadrangle was mapped as part of the Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States. The atlas was begun as an effort to depict the areal distribution of surficial geologic deposits and other materials that accumulated or formed during the past 2+ million years, the period that includes all activities of the human species. These materials are at the surface of the earth. They make up the 'ground' on which we walk, the 'dirt' in which we dig foundations, and the 'soil' in which we grow crops. Most of our human activity is related in one way or another to these surface materials that are referred to collectively by many geologists as regolith, the mantle of fragmental and generally unconsolidated material that overlies the bedrock foundation of the continent. The maps were compiled at 1:1,000,000 scale. This map is part of the Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States (I-1420). It was first published as a printed edition in 1994. The geologic data have now been captured digitally and are presented here along with images of the printed map sheet and component parts as PDF files.

  13. Quaternary Geologic Map of the Des Moines 4 Degrees x 6 Degrees Quadrangle, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hallberg, George R.; Lineback, Jerry A.; Mickelson, David M.; Knox, James C.; Goebel, Joseph E.; Hobbs, Howard C.; Whitfield, John W.; Ward, Ronald A.; Boellstorff, John D.; Swinehart, James B.; Dreeszen, Vincent H.; edited and integrated by Richmond, Gerald Martin; Fullerton, David S.; Christiansen, Ann Coe

    1994-01-01

    The Quaternary Geologic Map of the Des Moines 4 degree x 6 degree Quadrangle was mapped as part of the Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States. The atlas was begun as an effort to depict the areal distribution of surficial geologic deposits and other materials that accumulated or formed during the past 2+ million years, the period that includes all activities of the human species. These materials are at the surface of the earth. They make up the 'ground' on which we walk, the 'dirt' in which we dig foundations, and the 'soil' in which we grow crops. Most of our human activity is related in one way or another to these surface materials that are referred to collectively by many geologists as regolith, the mantle of fragmental and generally unconsolidated material that overlies the bedrock foundation of the continent. The maps were compiled at 1:1,000,000 scale. This map is part of the Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States (I-1420). It was first published as a printed edition in 1994. The geologic data have now been captured digitally and are presented here along with images of the printed map sheet and component parts as PDF files.

  14. Requirements for satellite accumulation areas. RCRA Information Brief

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, J.

    1993-07-01

    In 1980, EPA promulgated hazardous waste management regulations under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), which included standard for generators of hazardous waste. With respect to storage of hazardous waste on-site by generators, these regulations originally made no distinction between the initial accumulation of hazardous waste at various points of generation (i.e., ``satellite`` accumulation) and storage at locations where hazardous waste is consolidated for on-site management or transportation off-site. EPA amended the hazardous waste generator regulations on December 20, 1984, to allow generators to store hazardous waste in satellite areas as long as certain conditions were met. State programs, however, do not have to allow for the accumulation of hazardous waste in satellite areas or may have more stringent requirements for these waste accumulation areas. A satellite accumulation area is a storage location at or near any point of generation where hazardous wastes initially accumulate, which is under the control of the operator of the process generating the waste. Wastes stored in these areas are subject to regulatory requirements that are less stringent than requirements applicable to hazardous wastes stored in permitted, interim status, or 90-day storage areas meeting the applicable provisions of 40 CFR 264, 265, or 262.34(a), respectively.

  15. Day Care Infection Control Protocol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seattle-King County Dept. of Public Health, Seattle, WA.

    This day care infection control manual was assembled to provide technical guidance for the prevention and control of communicable diseases to child day care facilities in Seattle and King County, Washington. For each disease, the manual provides background information, public health control recommendations, and letters that can be used to…

  16. Day Care for America's Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaCrosse, E. Robert

    High quality day care is a pressing social need for the 1970's. Factors responsible for the strong interest in day care include pressures for welfare reform, the growing number of women in the labor force, minority pressures for equal opportunities, and research findings stressing the importance of development during the early years of a child's…

  17. Montessori All Day, All Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Connie; Davis, Liza

    2015-01-01

    Introducing real community into the Children's House goes back to the roots of Montessori education through all-day Montessori. The all-day environment is a house where children live with a "developmental room" of Montessori materials including a living room, kitchen, dining area, bedroom, bathroom, greeting rooms, and outdoor spaces.…

  18. Good References on Day Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Bureau (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    This annotated bibliography, with about 70 entries, deals with many facets of day care programs. Citations are divided by the following subjects: day care guides and standards, environmental standards, education and child development, social services, health and nutrition, training of staff, parent involvement, administration and coordination, and…

  19. Families, Day Care, and Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Marian

    Stress in relationship to preschool children, day care environments, and the parents of children in day care is examined in this conference paper. Some events that may cause stress in individuals and the defense mechanisms associated with stressful experiences are indicated. Guidelines are provided for identifying children under stress and for…

  20. Child Day Care Health Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fookson, Maxine; And Others

    Developed to meet Washington State Day Care Minimum Licensing Requirements, guidelines in this handbook concern 10 health topics. Discussion focuses on (1) preventing illness in day care settings; (2) illnesses, their treatment, ways to limit their spread, and what caregivers can do when they have a sick child at their center; (3) caregivers'…

  1. Day Care: Facilities and Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Sheila; And Others

    This collection of 4 bilingual papers on facilities and equipment in day care centers is part of a series of papers on various aspects of day care published by the Canadian Department of Health and Welfare. Each paper is presented in both English and French. Paper I, concerning space and equipment in the playground, consists of short lists of…

  2. Day Care: Resources for Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grotberg, Edith H., Ed.

    The question of federal day care programs on a mass scale oriented toward influencing family life is discussed, and a number of issues concerning the behavioral and social effects of such a system are raised. This document is divided into six parts. Part I discusses the following: day care settings--social, cultural, and anthropological…

  3. In Defense of Snow Days

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    In snowy climates, school superintendents must frequently decide whether an impending storm warrants closing schools for the day. Concerns about student and teacher safety must be weighed against the loss of student learning time, along with state requirements for days of instruction and the cost and inconvenience of extending the school year into…

  4. Youth Field Day Planning Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Natural Resources, Madison.

    Youth field days expose children to outdoor activities, land use ethics, and habitat conservation and encourage adults to be mentors in these areas. A typical youth field day could have programs in archery, fishing, boating, shooting, or safety. The event requires a diverse steering committee that usually includes sporting clubs and state…

  5. Day Care Center Enrichment Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Virginia State Dept. of Welfare, Charleston.

    This guide to a West Virginia Department of Welfare project for upgrading the quality of day care centers throughout the state presents samples of the forms used in the program, accompanied by a brief description of the program's format, requirements and procedures. The Day Care Center Enrichment Program provides a monetary incentive for…

  6. 45 CFR 2400.41 - Degree programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... degree in education that permits a concentration in American history, American government, social studies, or political science. Graduate degrees under which study is excluded from fellowship support...

  7. 45 CFR 2400.41 - Degree programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... degree in education that permits a concentration in American history, American government, social studies, or political science. Graduate degrees under which study is excluded from fellowship support...

  8. 45 CFR 2400.41 - Degree programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... degree in education that permits a concentration in American history, American government, social studies, or political science. Graduate degrees under which study is excluded from fellowship support...

  9. Degrees with Almost Universal Cupping Property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiang; Wu, Guohua

    The notion of cupping/noncupping has played an essential role in the study of various degree structures in the Ershov hierarchy. As an approach to refute Shoenfield conjecture, Yates (see [2]) proved the existence of a nonzero noncuppable r.e. degree, a degree cupping no incomplete r.e. degree to 0'. In contrast to this, Arslanov proved in [1] that nonzero noncuppable degrees do not exist in the structure of d.r.e. degrees, which shows that the structures of r.e. degrees and d.r.e. degrees are not elementary equivalent.

  10. Chromoplast biogenesis and carotenoid accumulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Yuan, Hui

    2013-11-15

    Chromoplasts are special organelles that possess superior ability to synthesize and store massive amounts of carotenoids. They are responsible for the distinctive colors found in fruits, flowers, and roots. Chromoplasts exhibit various morphologies and are derived from either pre-existing chloroplasts or other non-photosynthetic plastids such as proplastids, leucoplasts or amyloplasts. While little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying chromoplast biogenesis, research progress along with proteomics study of chromoplast proteomes signifies various processes and factors important for chromoplast differentiation and development. Chromoplasts act as a metabolic sink that enables great biosynthesis and high storage capacity of carotenoids. The formation of chromoplasts enhances carotenoid metabolic sink strength and controls carotenoid accumulation in plants. The objective of this review is to provide an integrated view on our understanding of chromoplast biogenesis and carotenoid accumulation in plants.

  11. Effect of spaceflight on isoflavonoid accumulation in etiolated soybean seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, L. H.; Levine, H. G.; Stryjewski, E. C.; Prima, V.; Piastuch, W. C.; Sager, J. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    In order to explore the potential impact of microgravity on flavonoid biosynthesis, we examined isoflavonoid levels in soybean (Glycine max) tissues generated under both spaceflight and clinorotation conditions. A 6-day Space Shuttle-based microgravity exposure resulted in enhanced accumulation of isoflavone glycosides (daidzin, 6"-O-malonyl-7-O-glucosyl daidzein, genistin, 6"-O-malonyl-7-O-glucosyl genistein) in hypocotyl and root tissues, but reduced levels in cotyledons (relative to 1g controls on Earth). Soybean seedlings grown on a horizontally rotating clinostat for 3, 4 and 5 days exhibited (relative to a vertical clinorotation control) an isoflavonoid accumulation pattern similar to the space-grown tissues. Elevated isoflavonoid levels attributable to the clinorotation treatment were transient, with the greatest increase observed in the three-day-treated tissues and smaller increases in the four- and five-day-treated tissues. Differences between stresses presented by spaceflight and clinorotation and the resulting biochemical adaptations are discussed, as is whether the increase in isoflavonoid concentrations were due to differential rates of development under the "gravity" treatments employed. Results suggest that spaceflight exposure does not impair isoflavonoid accumulation in developing soybean tissues and that isoflavonoids respond positively to microgravity as a biochemical strategy of adaptation.

  12. Mechanisms of intrahepatic triglyceride accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Ress, Claudia; Kaser, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis defined as lipid accumulation in hepatocytes is very frequently found in adults and obese adolescents in the Western World. Etiologically, obesity and associated insulin resistance or excess alcohol intake are the most frequent causes of hepatic steatosis. However, steatosis also often occurs with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and is also found in rare but potentially life-threatening liver diseases of pregnancy. Clinical significance and outcome of hepatic triglyceride accumulation are highly dependent on etiology and histological pattern of steatosis. This review summarizes current concepts of pathophysiology of common causes of hepatic steatosis, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), alcoholic fatty liver disease, chronic HCV infections, drug-induced forms of hepatic steatosis, and acute fatty liver of pregnancy. Regarding the pathophysiology of NAFLD, this work focuses on the close correlation between insulin resistance and hepatic triglyceride accumulation, highlighting the potential harmful effects of systemic insulin resistance on hepatic metabolism of fatty acids on the one side and the role of lipid intermediates on insulin signalling on the other side. Current studies on lipid droplet morphogenesis have identified novel candidate proteins and enzymes in NAFLD. PMID:26819531

  13. Bromine accumulation in acidic black colluvial soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortizas, Antonio Martínez; Vázquez, Cruz Ferro; Kaal, Joeri; Biester, Harald; Casais, Manuela Costa; Rodríguez, Teresa Taboada; Lado, Luis Rodríguez

    2016-02-01

    Recent investigations showed that bromine is incorporated to soil organic matter (SOM), its content increasing with humification. But few research was done on its long-term accumulation and the role played by pedogenetic processes, as those involved in organic matter stabilization. We investigated bromine content and distribution in four deep, acidic, organic-rich, Holocene soils from an oceanic area of Western Europe. Bromine concentrations (93-778 μg g-1) in the silt + clay (<50 μm) fraction were on average 3-times higher than those (17-250 μg g-1) in the fine earth (<2 mm), the former containing almost all bromine (90 ± 5%). Inventories were between 148 and 314 g m-2, indicating a rather large variability in a small area, and total estimated retention was low (6-16%). The degree of SOM bromination, expressed as the Br/C molar ratio, varied between 0.03 and 1.20 mmol Br/mol C. The ratio was highly correlated (n = 23, r2 0.88, p < 0.01) with the age of the SOM for the last ∼12 ka. Partial least squares modeling indicates that bromine concentration depends on the amount of organic matter stabilized as aluminium-OM associations, and to a lesser extent on soil acidity (pH) and iron-OM associations. Thus, at scales of thousands of years, bromine accumulation in acidic soils is linked to the pool of metal-clay-stabilized organic matter.

  14. Demonstration of anaerobic stabilization of black water in accumulation systems under tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Chaggu, Esnati J; Sanders, Wendy; Lettinga, Gatze

    2007-11-01

    The anaerobic digestion of "human waste" was studied at Mlalakuwa residential settlement in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania at ambient tropical temperatures (24-31 degrees C). This settlement experiences a high water table with flooding during the rainy season, resulting in a very costly emptying of the latrines once per month. To improve the situation, two plastic tanks (while one is in use, the other one is on stand-by) of 3000 l capacity each, named as Improved Pit-Latrines Without Urine Separation (IMPLWUS), were used as latrine pits. They received faeces+urine+wash water; basically, an accumulation system. Septic tank seed sludge was used. The dissolved chemical oxygen demand (COD(dis)) remaining when the reactor was closed after 380 days was about 8 g COD/l, volatile fatty acids were 100 mg COD/l and total ammonium nitrogen was about 2.8 g N/l, implying the possibility of methanogenesis inhibition. Stability results indicated a need for more degradation time after reactor closure. Estimated biogas production from wastewater generated by 10 people was 544 g COD-CH(4)/day, not enough for cooking purposes.

  15. The ocean sampling day consortium.

    PubMed

    Kopf, Anna; Bicak, Mesude; Kottmann, Renzo; Schnetzer, Julia; Kostadinov, Ivaylo; Lehmann, Katja; Fernandez-Guerra, Antonio; Jeanthon, Christian; Rahav, Eyal; Ullrich, Matthias; Wichels, Antje; Gerdts, Gunnar; Polymenakou, Paraskevi; Kotoulas, Giorgos; Siam, Rania; Abdallah, Rehab Z; Sonnenschein, Eva C; Cariou, Thierry; O'Gara, Fergal; Jackson, Stephen; Orlic, Sandi; Steinke, Michael; Busch, Julia; Duarte, Bernardo; Caçador, Isabel; Canning-Clode, João; Bobrova, Oleksandra; Marteinsson, Viggo; Reynisson, Eyjolfur; Loureiro, Clara Magalhães; Luna, Gian Marco; Quero, Grazia Marina; Löscher, Carolin R; Kremp, Anke; DeLorenzo, Marie E; Øvreås, Lise; Tolman, Jennifer; LaRoche, Julie; Penna, Antonella; Frischer, Marc; Davis, Timothy; Katherine, Barker; Meyer, Christopher P; Ramos, Sandra; Magalhães, Catarina; Jude-Lemeilleur, Florence; Aguirre-Macedo, Ma Leopoldina; Wang, Shiao; Poulton, Nicole; Jones, Scott; Collin, Rachel; Fuhrman, Jed A; Conan, Pascal; Alonso, Cecilia; Stambler, Noga; Goodwin, Kelly; Yakimov, Michael M; Baltar, Federico; Bodrossy, Levente; Van De Kamp, Jodie; Frampton, Dion Mf; Ostrowski, Martin; Van Ruth, Paul; Malthouse, Paul; Claus, Simon; Deneudt, Klaas; Mortelmans, Jonas; Pitois, Sophie; Wallom, David; Salter, Ian; Costa, Rodrigo; Schroeder, Declan C; Kandil, Mahrous M; Amaral, Valentina; Biancalana, Florencia; Santana, Rafael; Pedrotti, Maria Luiza; Yoshida, Takashi; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Ingleton, Tim; Munnik, Kate; Rodriguez-Ezpeleta, Naiara; Berteaux-Lecellier, Veronique; Wecker, Patricia; Cancio, Ibon; Vaulot, Daniel; Bienhold, Christina; Ghazal, Hassan; Chaouni, Bouchra; Essayeh, Soumya; Ettamimi, Sara; Zaid, El Houcine; Boukhatem, Noureddine; Bouali, Abderrahim; Chahboune, Rajaa; Barrijal, Said; Timinouni, Mohammed; El Otmani, Fatima; Bennani, Mohamed; Mea, Marianna; Todorova, Nadezhda; Karamfilov, Ventzislav; Ten Hoopen, Petra; Cochrane, Guy; L'Haridon, Stephane; Bizsel, Kemal Can; Vezzi, Alessandro; Lauro, Federico M; Martin, Patrick; Jensen, Rachelle M; Hinks, Jamie; Gebbels, Susan; Rosselli, Riccardo; De Pascale, Fabio; Schiavon, Riccardo; Dos Santos, Antonina; Villar, Emilie; Pesant, Stéphane; Cataletto, Bruno; Malfatti, Francesca; Edirisinghe, Ranjith; Silveira, Jorge A Herrera; Barbier, Michele; Turk, Valentina; Tinta, Tinkara; Fuller, Wayne J; Salihoglu, Ilkay; Serakinci, Nedime; Ergoren, Mahmut Cerkez; Bresnan, Eileen; Iriberri, Juan; Nyhus, Paul Anders Fronth; Bente, Edvardsen; Karlsen, Hans Erik; Golyshin, Peter N; Gasol, Josep M; Moncheva, Snejana; Dzhembekova, Nina; Johnson, Zackary; Sinigalliano, Christopher David; Gidley, Maribeth Louise; Zingone, Adriana; Danovaro, Roberto; Tsiamis, George; Clark, Melody S; Costa, Ana Cristina; El Bour, Monia; Martins, Ana M; Collins, R Eric; Ducluzeau, Anne-Lise; Martinez, Jonathan; Costello, Mark J; Amaral-Zettler, Linda A; Gilbert, Jack A; Davies, Neil; Field, Dawn; Glöckner, Frank Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Ocean Sampling Day was initiated by the EU-funded Micro B3 (Marine Microbial Biodiversity, Bioinformatics, Biotechnology) project to obtain a snapshot of the marine microbial biodiversity and function of the world's oceans. It is a simultaneous global mega-sequencing campaign aiming to generate the largest standardized microbial data set in a single day. This will be achievable only through the coordinated efforts of an Ocean Sampling Day Consortium, supportive partnerships and networks between sites. This commentary outlines the establishment, function and aims of the Consortium and describes our vision for a sustainable study of marine microbial communities and their embedded functional traits. PMID:26097697

  16. The Ocean Sampling Day Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Kopf, Anna; Bicak, Mesude; Kottmann, Renzo; Schnetzer, Julia; Kostadinov, Ivaylo; Lehmann, Katja; Fernandez-Guerra, Antonio; Jeanthon, Christian; Rahav, Eyal; Ullrich, Matthias; Wichels, Antje; Gerdts, Gunnar; Polymenakou, Paraskevi; Kotoulas, Giorgos; Siam, Rania; Abdallah, Rehab Z.; Sonnenschein, Eva C.; Cariou, Thierry; O’Gara, Fergal; Jackson, Stephen; Orlic, Sandi; Steinke, Michael; Busch, Julia; Duarte, Bernardo; Caçador, Isabel; Canning-Clode, João; Bobrova, Oleksandra; Marteinsson, Viggo; Reynisson, Eyjolfur; Loureiro, Clara Magalhães; Luna, Gian Marco; Quero, Grazia Marina; Löscher, Carolin R.; Kremp, Anke; DeLorenzo, Marie E.; Øvreås, Lise; Tolman, Jennifer; LaRoche, Julie; Penna, Antonella; Frischer, Marc; Davis, Timothy; Katherine, Barker; Meyer, Christopher P.; Ramos, Sandra; Magalhães, Catarina; Jude-Lemeilleur, Florence; Aguirre-Macedo, Ma Leopoldina; Wang, Shiao; Poulton, Nicole; Jones, Scott; Collin, Rachel; Fuhrman, Jed A.; Conan, Pascal; Alonso, Cecilia; Stambler, Noga; Goodwin, Kelly; Yakimov, Michael M.; Baltar, Federico; Bodrossy, Levente; Van De Kamp, Jodie; Frampton, Dion M. F.; Ostrowski, Martin; Van Ruth, Paul; Malthouse, Paul; Claus, Simon; Deneudt, Klaas; Mortelmans, Jonas; Pitois, Sophie; Wallom, David; Salter, Ian; Costa, Rodrigo; Schroeder, Declan C.; Kandil, Mahrous M.; Amaral, Valentina; Biancalana, Florencia; Santana, Rafael; Pedrotti, Maria Luiza; Yoshida, Takashi; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Ingleton, Tim; Munnik, Kate; Rodriguez-Ezpeleta, Naiara; Berteaux-Lecellier, Veronique; Wecker, Patricia; Cancio, Ibon; Vaulot, Daniel; Bienhold, Christina; Ghazal, Hassan; Chaouni, Bouchra; Essayeh, Soumya; Ettamimi, Sara; Zaid, El Houcine; Boukhatem, Noureddine; Bouali, Abderrahim; Chahboune, Rajaa; Barrijal, Said; Timinouni, Mohammed; El Otmani, Fatima; Bennani, Mohamed; Mea, Marianna; Todorova, Nadezhda; Karamfilov, Ventzislav; ten Hoopen, Petra; Cochrane, Guy; L’Haridon, Stephane; Bizsel, Kemal Can; Vezzi, Alessandro; Lauro, Federico M.; Martin, Patrick; Jensen, Rachelle M.; Hinks, Jamie; Gebbels, Susan; Rosselli, Riccardo; De Pascale, Fabio; Schiavon, Riccardo; dos Santos, Antonina; Villar, Emilie; Pesant, Stéphane; Cataletto, Bruno; Malfatti, Francesca; Edirisinghe, Ranjith; Silveira, Jorge A. Herrera; Barbier, Michele; Turk, Valentina; Tinta, Tinkara; Fuller, Wayne J.; Salihoglu, Ilkay; Serakinci, Nedime; Ergoren, Mahmut Cerkez; Bresnan, Eileen; Iriberri, Juan; Nyhus, Paul Anders Fronth; Bente, Edvardsen; Karlsen, Hans Erik; Golyshin, Peter N.; Gasol, Josep M.; Moncheva, Snejana; Dzhembekova, Nina; Johnson, Zackary; Sinigalliano, Christopher David; Gidley, Maribeth Louise; Zingone, Adriana; Danovaro, Roberto; Tsiamis, George; Clark, Melody S.; Costa, Ana Cristina; El Bour, Monia; Martins, Ana M.; Collins, R. Eric; Ducluzeau, Anne-Lise; Martinez, Jonathan; Costello, Mark J.; Amaral-Zettler, Linda A.; Gilbert, Jack A.; Davies, Neil; Field, Dawn; Glöckner, Frank Oliver

    2015-06-19

    In this study, Ocean Sampling Day was initiated by the EU-funded Micro B3 (Marine Microbial Biodiversity, Bioinformatics, Biotechnology) project to obtain a snapshot of the marine microbial biodiversity and function of the world’s oceans. It is a simultaneous global mega-sequencing campaign aiming to generate the largest standardized microbial data set in a single day. This will be achievable only through the coordinated efforts of an Ocean Sampling Day Consortium, supportive partnerships and networks between sites. This commentary outlines the establishment, function and aims of the Consortium and describes our vision for a sustainable study of marine microbial communities and their embedded functional traits.

  17. STS-79 Flight Day 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    On this tenth day of the STS-79 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. William F. Readdy, Pilot Terrence W. Wilcutt, Mission Specialists, Thomas D. Akers, Shannon Lucid, Jay Apt, and Carl E. Walz spent the day stowing equipment and deactivating experiments in preparation for the planned landing at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida. All systems aboard the orbiter were checked out overnight in preparation for landing day, including testing the flight control surfaces and thruster jets that will be used to maneuver the spacecraft through the atmosphere.

  18. STS-70 flight: Day 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-07-01

    The third day of the STS-70 mission of Space Shuttle Discovery is contained on this video. Astronauts Kregal and Thomas begin the day by working with the Hercules camera, which will record pinpoint data on the surface location of Earth observation imagery. Other work includes operations with an experiment that gauges astronauts' reflexes and hand-eye coordination. During the day, the crew spoke with World War 2 veteran, Harland Claussen,and ABC's Mike and Maty Show and the Toledo Blade newspaper (Toledo, Ohio) interviewed the astronauts via satellite link.

  19. The ocean sampling day consortium.

    PubMed

    Kopf, Anna; Bicak, Mesude; Kottmann, Renzo; Schnetzer, Julia; Kostadinov, Ivaylo; Lehmann, Katja; Fernandez-Guerra, Antonio; Jeanthon, Christian; Rahav, Eyal; Ullrich, Matthias; Wichels, Antje; Gerdts, Gunnar; Polymenakou, Paraskevi; Kotoulas, Giorgos; Siam, Rania; Abdallah, Rehab Z; Sonnenschein, Eva C; Cariou, Thierry; O'Gara, Fergal; Jackson, Stephen; Orlic, Sandi; Steinke, Michael; Busch, Julia; Duarte, Bernardo; Caçador, Isabel; Canning-Clode, João; Bobrova, Oleksandra; Marteinsson, Viggo; Reynisson, Eyjolfur; Loureiro, Clara Magalhães; Luna, Gian Marco; Quero, Grazia Marina; Löscher, Carolin R; Kremp, Anke; DeLorenzo, Marie E; Øvreås, Lise; Tolman, Jennifer; LaRoche, Julie; Penna, Antonella; Frischer, Marc; Davis, Timothy; Katherine, Barker; Meyer, Christopher P; Ramos, Sandra; Magalhães, Catarina; Jude-Lemeilleur, Florence; Aguirre-Macedo, Ma Leopoldina; Wang, Shiao; Poulton, Nicole; Jones, Scott; Collin, Rachel; Fuhrman, Jed A; Conan, Pascal; Alonso, Cecilia; Stambler, Noga; Goodwin, Kelly; Yakimov, Michael M; Baltar, Federico; Bodrossy, Levente; Van De Kamp, Jodie; Frampton, Dion Mf; Ostrowski, Martin; Van Ruth, Paul; Malthouse, Paul; Claus, Simon; Deneudt, Klaas; Mortelmans, Jonas; Pitois, Sophie; Wallom, David; Salter, Ian; Costa, Rodrigo; Schroeder, Declan C; Kandil, Mahrous M; Amaral, Valentina; Biancalana, Florencia; Santana, Rafael; Pedrotti, Maria Luiza; Yoshida, Takashi; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Ingleton, Tim; Munnik, Kate; Rodriguez-Ezpeleta, Naiara; Berteaux-Lecellier, Veronique; Wecker, Patricia; Cancio, Ibon; Vaulot, Daniel; Bienhold, Christina; Ghazal, Hassan; Chaouni, Bouchra; Essayeh, Soumya; Ettamimi, Sara; Zaid, El Houcine; Boukhatem, Noureddine; Bouali, Abderrahim; Chahboune, Rajaa; Barrijal, Said; Timinouni, Mohammed; El Otmani, Fatima; Bennani, Mohamed; Mea, Marianna; Todorova, Nadezhda; Karamfilov, Ventzislav; Ten Hoopen, Petra; Cochrane, Guy; L'Haridon, Stephane; Bizsel, Kemal Can; Vezzi, Alessandro; Lauro, Federico M; Martin, Patrick; Jensen, Rachelle M; Hinks, Jamie; Gebbels, Susan; Rosselli, Riccardo; De Pascale, Fabio; Schiavon, Riccardo; Dos Santos, Antonina; Villar, Emilie; Pesant, Stéphane; Cataletto, Bruno; Malfatti, Francesca; Edirisinghe, Ranjith; Silveira, Jorge A Herrera; Barbier, Michele; Turk, Valentina; Tinta, Tinkara; Fuller, Wayne J; Salihoglu, Ilkay; Serakinci, Nedime; Ergoren, Mahmut Cerkez; Bresnan, Eileen; Iriberri, Juan; Nyhus, Paul Anders Fronth; Bente, Edvardsen; Karlsen, Hans Erik; Golyshin, Peter N; Gasol, Josep M; Moncheva, Snejana; Dzhembekova, Nina; Johnson, Zackary; Sinigalliano, Christopher David; Gidley, Maribeth Louise; Zingone, Adriana; Danovaro, Roberto; Tsiamis, George; Clark, Melody S; Costa, Ana Cristina; El Bour, Monia; Martins, Ana M; Collins, R Eric; Ducluzeau, Anne-Lise; Martinez, Jonathan; Costello, Mark J; Amaral-Zettler, Linda A; Gilbert, Jack A; Davies, Neil; Field, Dawn; Glöckner, Frank Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Ocean Sampling Day was initiated by the EU-funded Micro B3 (Marine Microbial Biodiversity, Bioinformatics, Biotechnology) project to obtain a snapshot of the marine microbial biodiversity and function of the world's oceans. It is a simultaneous global mega-sequencing campaign aiming to generate the largest standardized microbial data set in a single day. This will be achievable only through the coordinated efforts of an Ocean Sampling Day Consortium, supportive partnerships and networks between sites. This commentary outlines the establishment, function and aims of the Consortium and describes our vision for a sustainable study of marine microbial communities and their embedded functional traits.

  20. Dust Accumulation and Cleaning of the MER Opportunity Solar Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, J.

    2015-12-01

    The solar array of the NASA Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Opportunity was expected to accumulate a sufficient quantity of dust after ninety Martian days (sols) such that it could no longer provide enough energy to guarantee continued surface operations. Instead, due in part to low dust accumulation rates and numerous dust cleaning events, Opportunity continues to operate on the Martian surface for over 4000 sols (over six Mars years). During this time period, the rover experienced six Martian winters and several dust storms. Because the sources of solar energy loss are known, the solar array energy output offers a method to scientifically estimate the loading and aeolian removal of dust from the solar array each sol. We will discuss the accumulation of dust on the solar panels as a proxy for dust movement at Meridiani Planum over the course of the entire mission to date.

  1. Dust Accumulation and Cleaning of the MER Spirit Solar Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, J. A.; Lemmon, M. T.; Johnson, J. R.; Cantor, B. A.; Stella, P. M.; Chin, K. B.; Wood, E. G.

    2012-12-01

    The solar array of the NASA Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Spirit was expected to accumulate so much dust after ninety Martian days (sols) that it could no longer provide enough energy to guarantee continued surface operations. Instead, due in part to low dust accumulation rates and numerous dust cleaning events, Spirit carried out surface operations for over 2200 sols (over three Mars years). During this time period, the rover experienced four Martian winters and several dust storms. Because the sources of solar energy loss are known, the solar array energy output offers a tool to quantitatively estimate the loading and aeolian removal of dust from the solar array each sol. We will discuss the accumulation of dust on the solar panels as a proxy for dust movement at Gusev Crater over the course of the entire mission.

  2. Dust Accumulation and Cleaning of the MER Solar Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, J. A.; Lemmon, M. T.; Stella, P.; Chin, K. B.; Wood, E. G.

    2010-12-01

    The solar arrays of the two NASA Mars Exploration Rovers (MER), Spirit and Opportunity, were expected to accumulate so much dust after 90 Martian days (sols) that they could no longer provide enough energy to guarantee continued surface operations. Instead, due in part to low dust accumulation rates and numerous dust cleaning events, they have carried out surface operations for over 2200 sols each. During this time period, the rovers experienced four Martian winters and several dust storms. Because the sources of solar energy loss are known, the solar array energy output offers a tool to scientifically estimate the loading and aeolian removal of dust from the solar arrays each sol. We will discuss the accumulation of dust on the solar panels as a proxy for dust movement on the Martian surface over the last 6 years.

  3. Making Those First Days Count.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soloway, Rhoda Kahn

    1979-01-01

    The author describes three "icebreaker" activities she uses to help a class of students get acquainted with one another--learning names and personal information--during the first days of the school year. (SJL)

  4. STS-79 Flight Day 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    On this fifth day of the STS-79 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. William F. Readdy, Pilot Terrence W. Wilcutt, Mission Specialists, Thomas D. Akers, Shannon Lucid, Jay Apt, and Carl E. Walz, in the first full day of joint Shuttle/Mir operations begin in with the transfer of a biotechnology investigation and logistical supplies from Atlantis to Mir. The Biotechnology System, an investigation that will study the long-term development of cartilage cells in microgravity, was transported to Mir early this morning. During his planned four-month stay on Mir, John Blaha will take weekly samples of the culture which may provide researchers with information on engineering cartilage cells for possible use in transplantation. They also took time out of their schedules to talk with Good Morning America's Elizabeth Vargas in a brief interview. Prior to beginning the day's transfer activities, all nine astronauts and cosmonauts participated in a joint planning session to outline the day's schedule.

  5. AeroSpace Days 2013

    NASA Video Gallery

    At the eighth annual AeroSpace Days, first mom in space, Astronaut AnnaFisher, and Sen. Louise Lucas, interacted with students from Mack BennJr. Elementary School in Suffolk, Va. through NASA’s...

  6. How Much Debt Do Science Ph.D.s Accrue? Data Brief. The Price and Cost of Science Degrees Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delta Cost Project at American Institutes for Research, 2013

    2013-01-01

    While undergraduates in the STEM and SBE fields tend to accumulate considerable student loan debt, this AIR Data Brief finds the opposite is true for many individuals pursuing doctorates in the sciences. Early debt accumulation at the undergraduate level can have dramatic implications for participation in advanced degrees, the brief explains. This…

  7. Changing Doctoral Degrees: An International Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Keith Allan

    This book examines the origin and development of doctoral degrees and offers recommendations for the improvement of doctoral programs and degrees. It discusses the birth of universities and doctoral degrees in medieval Europe and reviews the spread of the degree to the United States, Britain, Canada, and Australia. Contemporary concerns about…

  8. STS-79 Flight Day 11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    On this eleventh day of the STS-79 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. William F. Readdy, Pilot Terrence W. Wilcutt, Mission Specialists, Thomas D. Akers, Shannon Lucid, Jay Apt, and Carl E. Walz aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis glided into the Kennedy Space Center to mark the ending of the fourth docking flight with Mir and the end of Shannon Lucid's record setting 188 day stay on board the Russian space station.

  9. Go-To-Blazes Day.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Ross

    THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT: Last year, the Bruce Trail Association held its first annual Go-To-Blazes Day in which a record number of volunteers gave the 700 kilometres of Trail from Queenston to Tobermory a spring-cleaning. One key section of Trail near Dyer's Bay had been closed for over a year. On this day, over four miles…

  10. STS-73 flight day 16

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-11-01

    On this last day of the STS-73 sixteen day mission, the crew Cmdr. Kenneth Bowersox, Pilot Kent Rominger, Payload Specialists Albert Sacco and Fred Gregory, and Mission Specialists Kathryn Thornton, Catherine 'Cady' Collman, and Michael Lopez-Alegria are shown preparing the United States Microgravity Lab-2 (USML-2) and the shuttle for return to Earth. There is footage of the shuttle from the robot arm cameras and of Earth. Earth views include cloud cover, various land masses, mountain ranges, and oceans.

  11. STS-73 flight day 13

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-11-01

    On this thirteenth day of the STS-73 sixteen day mission, the crew Cmdr. Kenneth Bowersox, Pilot Kent Rominger, Payload Specialists Albert Sacco and Fred Gregory, and Mission Specialists Kathryn Thornton, Catherine 'Cady' Collman, and Michael Lopez-Alegria are shown performing several of the spaceborne experiments onboard the United States Microgravity Lab-2 (USML-2). The experiments shown included the Drop Physics Module (DPM) experiment, human physiological experiments, and a Crystal Gel experiment.

  12. Antarctica Day: An International Celebration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, A.; Hambrook Berkman, J.; Berkman, P. A.

    2013-12-01

    For more than half a century, the 1959 Antarctic Treaty continues to shine as a rare beacon of international cooperation. To celebrate this milestone of peace in our civilization with hope and inspiration for future generations, Antarctica Day is celebrated each year on December 1st , the anniversary of the Antarctic Treaty signing. As an annual event - initiated by the Foundation for the Good Governance of International Spaces (www.internationalspaces.org/) in collaboration with the Association of Polar Early Carer Scientists (www.apecs.is) - Antarctica Day encourages participation from around the world. The Antarctic Treaty set aside 10% of the earth, 'forever to be used exclusively for peaceful purposes in the interest of mankind.' It was the first nuclear arms agreement and the first institution to govern all human activities in an international region beyond sovereign jurisdictions. In this spirit, Antarctica Day aims to: - Demonstrate how diverse nations can work together peacefully, using science as a global language of cooperation for decision making beyond national boundaries, - Provide strategies for students learning about Antarctica through art, science and history at all school levels, - Increase collaboration and communication between classrooms, communities, researchers and government officials around the world, and - Provide a focus for polar educators to build on each year. Through close collaboration with a number of partners. Antarctica Day activities have included: a Polar Film Festival convened by The Explorers Club; live sessions connecting classrooms with scientists in Antarctica thanks to PolarTREC and ARCUS; an international activity that involved children from 13 countries who created over 600 flags which exemplify Antarctica Day (these were actually flown in Antarctica with signed certificates then returned to the classes); a map where Antarctica Day participants all over the world could share what they were doing; an Antarctic bird count

  13. Female Combat Medics Fight Every Day & Earn Respect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberts, Mike

    2007-01-01

    Temperatures exceeded 115 degrees on July 11 during the five-hour mission in the city of Amerli. More than 50 soldiers were on site and tensions were high; Amerli was the scene of a massive suicide truck bombing just four days earlier. Soldiers kept alert but visibly struggled under the weight of dozens of pounds of battle gear. Throughout the…

  14. The Technology of Two Degrees

    SciTech Connect

    Edmonds, James A.; Smith, Steven J.

    2006-09-29

    This paper examines the technology implications of limiting the change in mean global surface temperature (GMST) to two degrees Celsius (2oC) relative to preindustrial temperatures. Understanding the implications of this goal is clouded by uncertainty in key physical science parameters, particularly the climate sensitivity. If the climate sensitivity is 2.5oC then stabilization implies stabilization of CO2 concentrations at less than 500 parts per million (ppm) with a peak in global CO2 emissions occurring in the next 15 years and with a decline in emissions to 3.1 petagrams of carbon per year (PgC/y) by 2095. Under such circumstances the value of technology improvements beyond those assumed in the reference case is found to be exceptionally high, denominated in trillions of 1990 USD. The role of non-CO2 greenhouse gases is important. Aerosols could produce significant feedbacks, though uncertainty is significant. If the climate sensitivity is 4.5oC or greater, it may be impossible to hold GMST change below 2oC. On the other hand if the climate sensitivity is 1.5oC, limiting GMST change to 2oC may be a trivial matter requiring little deviation from a reference emissions path until after the middle of the 21st century.

  15. Doctorate nursing degree in Spain

    PubMed Central

    López-Montesinos, Mª José; Maciá-Soler, Loreto

    2015-01-01

    Analytical and descriptive study of the process of change being experienced in the Spanish university system over the last decade (2005-2014). OBJECTIVE: To describe the structural changes occurring in Nursing Education in Spain, reaching access to doctoral studies from the European Convergence Process and the subsequent legislative development. METHODOLOGY: Bibliographical review of royal decrees and reference literature on the subject of study and descriptive analysis of the situation. RESULTS: Carries various changes suffered in the curricula of nursing education in the last decade, the legislation of the European Higher Education sets the guidelines for current studies of Masters and Doctorates. CONCLUSIONS: The implementation of the Master and Doctorate stages after a basic degree, which is now possible with the new legislation. A formal beginning made of scientific nursing in order to generate their own lines of research led by Doctors of nursing who can integrate in research groups under the same condition as other researcher, yet now, from the nursing discipline itself. PMID:26312628

  16. Accumulation and depuration of pectenotoxins in brown crab Cancer pagurus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhaoxin

    2009-06-01

    Pectenotoxins (PTXs) are a group of marine algal toxins. In this study, the accumulation and depuration of pectenotoxins in brown crab Cancer pagurus were investigated. Crabs were fed with toxic blue mussels Mytilus edulis for 21 days and then depurated for 42 days. Toxins were extracted with methanol from the digestive glands of contaminated crabs, uncontaminated crabs (control group) and from blue mussels for comparison. Extracts were analyzed by liquid chromatograph coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). The concentrations of PTX-2, PTX-2 SA, 7- epi-PTX-2 SA, and PTX-12 were analyzed in two batches of toxic blue mussels and the crabs. A one-compartment model was applied to describe the depuration of PTXs. The half-life of PTXs was estimated to be 6-7.5 days. After depuration for 42 days, the amount of PTXs measured in the crab digestive glands was less than 1 μg/kg.

  17. Starting a Day Care Center: The Day Care Center Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Checkett, Donald

    Designed to be of help to individuals and groups seeking to establish a day care center in the metropolitan St. Louis area, this manual calls attention to important and basic information which must be taken into account if planning is to produce tangible results. Following a brief section defining commonly used terms referring to organized…

  18. Holy Day or Graduation Day in Fairfax County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hentoff, Nat

    1980-01-01

    Discusses court cases which involved the First Amendment rights of two Jewish high school seniors. Presents the arguments between the seniors and their school board to have graduation day changed from the Jewish Sabbath so the seniors could participate in both events. (MK)

  19. Degree correlation in scale-free graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fotouhi, Babak; Rabbat, Michael G.

    2013-12-01

    We obtain closed form expressions for the expected conditional degree distribution and the joint degree distribution of the linear preferential attachment model for network growth in the steady state. We consider the multiple-destination preferential attachment growth model, where incoming nodes at each timestep attach to β existing nodes, selected by degree-proportional probabilities. By the conditional degree distribution p( ℓ| k), we mean the degree distribution of nodes that are connected to a node of degree k. By the joint degree distribution p( k,ℓ), we mean the proportion of links that connect nodes of degrees k and ℓ. In addition to this growth model, we consider the shifted-linear preferential growth model and solve for the same quantities, as well as a closed form expression for its steady-state degree distribution.

  20. Temporary accumulation of glycogen in the epithelial cells of the developing mouse submandibular gland.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Sachiko; Koyama, Noriko; Kashimata, Masanori; Hayashi, Haruki; Kikuta, Akio

    2007-09-01

    Temporary accumulation of glycogen in the epithelial cells of the developing mouse submandibular gland was examined under light microscopic histochemistry and electron microscopy. To avoid loss of water-soluble glycogen during histological tissue preparation, fixation with ethanol and embedding in hydrophilic glycol methacrylate resin was used for light microscopy, and high-pressure freezing/freeze substitution for electron microscopy. Glycogen was detected on periodic acid-Schiff stain, periodic acid-thiosemicarbazide-silver proteinate reaction, and the digestion test with alpha-amylase. On embryonic day 14, glycogen began to accumulate in the proximal portions of the developing epithelial cords. On embryonic day 17, marked glycogen particles were seen at the basal portion of the ductal epithelial cells and an abrupt increase of glycogen accumulation occurred in the secretory cells in the terminal bulbs. Ultrastructural observation indicated large clumps of glycogen particles localized in the basal portion of the terminal bulb cells. The initiation of glycogen accumulation preceded the formation of lumens in the ducts and terminal bulbs. Furthermore, proliferation analysis by bromodeoxyuridine labeling showed that this glycogen accumulation followed the cessation of the epithelial cell proliferation. Postnatally, glycogen accumulation in the terminal bulbs became gradually inconspicuous and completely disappeared by postnatal day 3, but that in the ducts was retained until around postnatal day 12. Temporary glycogen accumulation after the cell proliferation and before/during the lumen formation and secretory granule formation suggests significant involvement of the carbohydrate metabolism in the organogenesis of the submandibular gland. PMID:17867343

  1. Accumulation of dieldrin in an alga (Scenedesmus obliquus), Daphnia magna, and the guppy (Poecilia reticulata)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reinert, Robert E.

    1972-01-01

    Scenedesmus obliquus, Daphnia magna, and Poecilia reticulata accumulated dieldrin directly from water; average concentration factors (concentration in organism, dry weight, divided by concentration in water) were 1282 for the alga, 13,954 for D. magna, and 49,307 (estimated) for the guppy. The amount accumulated by each species at equilibrium (after about 1.5, 3-4, and 18 days, respectively) was directly proportional to the concentration of dieldrin in the water. Daphnia magna and guppies accumulated more dieldrin from water than from food that had been exposed to similar concentrations in water. When guppies were fed equal daily rations of D. magna containing different concentrations of insecticide, the amounts of dieldrin accumulated by the fish were directly proportional to the concentration in D. magna; when two lots of guppies were fed different quantities of D. magna (10 and 20 organisms per day) containing identical concentrations of dieldrin, however, the amounts accumulated did not differ substantially.

  2. Co-digestion of concentrated black water and kitchen refuse in an accumulation system within the DESAR (decentralized sanitation and reuse) concept.

    PubMed

    Kujawa-Roeleveld, K; Elmitwalli, T; Gaillard, A; van Leeuwen, M; Zeeman, G

    2003-01-01

    Co-digestion of concentrated black water and kitchen refuse within the DESAR concept was the objective of this pilot research. The digestion took place in two, non-mixed accumulation reactors (AC1 and AC2) inoculated with digested primary sludge from a WWTP at a temperature of 20 degrees C for a period of around 150 days. Reactor AC1 was fed with a mixture of faeces, urine and kitchen refuse in the equivalent amount that one individual generates per day. The AC2 was fed with a mixture of faeces and kitchen refuse in the equivalent amount that two individuals produce per day. Some contribution of urine to AC2 was not to be avoided. Detailed characterisation of waste(water) was performed. The performance of the stratified reactor was followed by monitoring the reactor content for several reactors' heights as well as being based on the biogas production. In general the system exposed good process stability. The methanisation of 34 and 61% was obtained for AC1 and AC2 respectively. The biogas yield was 26.5 and 50.8 L/p/d for the respective reactors. Proper choice of inoculum as well as good buffering capacity did not lead to accumulation of VFA and an inhibitive effect due to relatively high ammonium concentration. The chosen process is a promising technology showing good process stability especially for high strength influent.

  3. The Ocean Sampling Day Consortium

    DOE PAGES

    Kopf, Anna; Bicak, Mesude; Kottmann, Renzo; Schnetzer, Julia; Kostadinov, Ivaylo; Lehmann, Katja; Fernandez-Guerra, Antonio; Jeanthon, Christian; Rahav, Eyal; Ullrich, Matthias; et al

    2015-06-19

    In this study, Ocean Sampling Day was initiated by the EU-funded Micro B3 (Marine Microbial Biodiversity, Bioinformatics, Biotechnology) project to obtain a snapshot of the marine microbial biodiversity and function of the world’s oceans. It is a simultaneous global mega-sequencing campaign aiming to generate the largest standardized microbial data set in a single day. This will be achievable only through the coordinated efforts of an Ocean Sampling Day Consortium, supportive partnerships and networks between sites. This commentary outlines the establishment, function and aims of the Consortium and describes our vision for a sustainable study of marine microbial communities and theirmore » embedded functional traits.« less

  4. [Day surgery for anal disease].

    PubMed

    Takano, M

    2000-10-01

    Historically, patients with anal diseases treated on a day surgery basis had inadequate cure rates and a high complication rate. After World War II, modern treatment methods were learned from the UK and USA and improved in Japan. However, the improved radical methods were so complex that approximately 2 weeks' hospitalization was needed. Recently, day surgery for various diseases including hemorrhoids has been recommended by the Japanese ministry of Health and Welfare. However, the characteristics of anal anatomy and physiology make the smooth healing of wounds difficult and tend to cause postoperative pain, bleeding, infection, prolonged healing time, etc. To prevent such difficulties, care must be well planned following the critical path of informed consent, careful surgery, postoperative observation, and management at home. However, hospital staff in charge of such surgery are under so much stress that only patients with less severe anal disease without local or systemic complications should be selected for day surgery.

  5. Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/article/001225.htm Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (formerly known as Hallervorden-Spatz disease) is ...

  6. Maturation of Rb+ and PAH accumulation by rabbit anterior uvea and choroid plexus

    SciTech Connect

    Krupin, T.; Fritz, C.; Becker, B.

    1985-02-01

    In vitro accumulation of radioactive para-aminohippuric acid (/sup 3/H-PAH) and rubidium (/sup 86/Rb+) by the anterior uvea, ciliary processes, and the choroid plexus was evaluated in tissues from newborn and various aged rabbits. Accumulation of PAH was present in the anterior uvea at 1 day of age (tissue to media ratio, T/M, of 2.1 +/- 0.2) and remained at this level for the first 14 days of life. Accumulation did not rise to adult levels until 21 days of age (T/M 5.5 +/- 0.6). Rubidium accumulation in the anterior uvea, a measure of Na+, K+-pump activity, was higher than adult values 6 hr after birth (T/M25.2 +/- 0.9). Activity remained elevated through day 28 and did not fall to adult levels until day 60 (T/M 13.4 +/- 0.6). Accumulation studies on isolated ciliary processes were similar to those obtained from anterior uveal tissue. Daily subcutaneous injections of penicillin (300,000 units/kg/day) for 1 week had no effect on anterior uvea PAH accumulation (penicillin T/M was 1.7 +/- 0.1 and saline control T/M was 2.0 +/- 0.2). Accumulation of either /sup 3/H-PAH or /sup 86/Rb+ by the choroid plexus was present 1 day after birth in amounts that were similar to adult values and did not change during the 90 days of testing.

  7. STS-79 Flight Day 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    On this seventh day of the STS-79 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. William F. Readdy, Pilot Terrence W. Wilcutt, Mission Specialists, Thomas D. Akers, Shannon Lucid, Jay Apt, and Carl E. Walz, share a brief video tour of the Mir Space Station with flight controllers, taking a break from the transfer activities that has occupied the astronauts' time during three days of docked operations. Readdy and Apt floated through several of Mir's modules and back into Atlantis' double Spacehab module during the tour pointing out the numerous transfer items stowed on both spacecraft. Readdy, Wilcutt, Lucid and Blaha are seen discussing their mission in an interview with CNN's John Holliman.

  8. STS-73 flight day 7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-10-01

    On this seventh day of the STS-73 sixteen day mission, the crew Cmdr. Kenneth Bowersox, Pilot Kent Rominger, Payload Specialists Albert Sacco and Fred Gregory, and Mission Specialists Kathryn Thornton, Catherine 'Cady' Collman, and Michael Lopez-Alegria are shown performing several of the spaceborne experiments onboard the United States Microgravity Lab-2 (USML-2). The experiments shown included the Surface Tension Driven Convection Experiment (STDCE), the Drop Physics Module (DPM), the Protein Crystal Growth (PCG) experiment, and the Glovebox (GBX) demonstration. All the experiments were monitored by the High-Packed Digital Television (HI-PAC) system onboard the shuttle.

  9. STS-73 flight day 9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-10-01

    On this ninth day of the STS-73 sixteen day mission, the crew Cmdr. Kenneth Bowersox, Pilot Kent Rominger, Payload Specialists Albert Sacco and Fred Gregory, and Mission Specialists Kathryn Thornton, Catherine 'Cady' Collman, and Michael Lopez-Alegria are shown performing several of the spaceborne experiments onboard the United States Microgravity Lab-2 (USML-2). The experiments shown include the Surface Tension Driven Convection Experiment (STDCE) and the Protein Crystal Growth (PCG) experiment with different types of solution mixtures used. The imagery of the experiments inside the Spacelab were downlinked to Mission Control with the High-Packed Digital Television (HI-PAC) system.

  10. STS-73 flight day 11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-10-01

    On this eleventh day of the STS-73 sixteen day mission, the crew Cmdr. Kenneth Bowersox, Pilot Kent Rominger, Payload Specialists Albert Sacco and Fred Gregory, and Mission Specialists Kathryn Thornton, Catherine 'Cady' Collman, and Michael Lopez-Alegria are shown performing several of the spaceborne experiments onboard the United States Microgravity Lab-2 (USML-2). The experiments shown included the Drop Physics Module (DPM) and the Surface Tension Driven Convection Experiment (STDCE). Thermistors are used in the STDCE to study the fluid dynamics behind particle motion.

  11. STS-73 flight day 12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-10-01

    On this twelfth day of the STS-73 sixteen day mission, the crew Cmdr. Kenneth Bowersox, Pilot Kent Rominger, Payload Specialists Albert Sacco and Fred Gregory, and Mission Specialists Kathryn Thornton, Catherine 'Cady' Collman, and Michael Lopez-Alegria are shown performing several of the spaceborne experiments onboard the United States Microgravity Lab-2 (USML-2). The experiments shown included the Drop Physics Module (DPM) experiment, the Surface Tension Driven Convection Experiment (STDCE), and the Astroculture (tm)(ASC) demonstration. Rominger was interviewed by a Colorado radio news show and asked questions about the mission and living in space. Earth views included cloud cover.

  12. STS-73 flight day 10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-10-01

    On this tenth day of the STS-73 sixteen day mission, the crew Cmdr. Kenneth Bowersox, Pilot Kent Rominger, Payload Specialists Albert Sacco and Fred Gregory, and Mission Specialists Kathryn Thornton, Catherine 'Cady' Collman, and Michael Lopez-Alegria are shown performing several of the spaceborne experiments onboard the United States Microgravity Lab-2 (USML-2). The experiments shown include the Surface Tension Driven Convection Experiment (STDCE), the Drop Physics Module (DPM) experiment, and the Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell Experiment (GFFC). All experiment imagery was downlinked from the shuttle to Mission Control using the High-Packed Digital Television (HI-PAC) system.

  13. STS-91 Day 08 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On this eighth day of the STS-91 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. Charles J. Precourt, Pilot Dominic L. Pudwill Gorie and Mission Specialists Wendy B. Lawrence, Franklin R. Chang-Diaz, Janet L. Kavandi, and Valery Victorovitch Ryumin focus on science investigations and participate in several special interviews and phone calls. Following yesterday's undocking with the Russian Mir space station, crew members are given a couple of hours off duty during the day to provide a brief rest break from the hectic pace of their flight.

  14. Quaternary geologic map of the Mobile 4 degrees x 6 degrees quadrangle, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    State compilations by Copeland, Charles W.; Rheams, K.F.; Neathery, T.L.; Gilliland, W.A.; Schmidt, Walter; Clark, W.C.; Pope, D.E.; edited and integrated by Richmond, Gerald Martin; Fullerton, David S.; Weide, David L.; Digital database by Bush, Charles A.

    1988-01-01

    This map is part of the Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States (I-1420). It was first published as a printed edition in 1988. The geologic data have now been captured digitally and are presented here along with images of the printed map sheet and component parts as PDF files. The Quaternary Geologic Map of the Mobile 4 degrees x 6 degrees Quadrangle was mapped as part of the Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States. The atlas was begun as an effort to depict the areal distribution of surficial geologic deposits and other materials that accumulated or formed during the past 2+ million years, the period that includes all activities of the human species. These materials are at the surface of the Earth. They make up the ground on which we walk, the dirt in which we dig foundations, and the soil in which we grow crops. Most of our human activity is related in one way or another to these surface materials that are referred to collectively by many geologists as regolith, the mantle of fragmental and generally unconsolidated material that overlies the bedrock foundation of the continent. The maps were compiled at 1:1,000,000 scale. In recent years, surficial deposits and materials have become the focus of much interest by scientists, environmentalists, governmental agencies, and the general public. They are the foundations of ecosystems, the materials that support plant growth and animal habitat, and the materials through which travels much of the water required for our agriculture, our industry, and our general well being. They also are materials that easily can become contaminated by pesticides, fertilizers, and toxic wastes. In this context, the value of the surficial geologic map

  15. Quaternary geologic map of the Monterrey 4 degrees x 6 degrees quadrangle, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, David W.; Wermund, E.G.; edited and integrated by Moore, David W.; Richmond, Gerald Martin

    1993-01-01

    This map is part of the Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States (I-1420). It was first published as a printed edition in 1993. The geologic data have now been captured digitally and are presented here along with images of the printed map sheet and component parts as PDF files. The Quaternary Geologic Map of the Monterrey 4 degrees x 6 degrees Quadrangle was mapped as part of the Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States. The atlas was begun as an effort to depict the areal distribution of surficial geologic deposits and other materials that accumulated or formed during the past 2+ million years, the period that includes all activities of the human species. These materials are at the surface of the Earth. They make up the ground on which we walk, the dirt in which we dig foundations, and the soil in which we grow crops. Most of our human activity is related in one way or another to these surface materials that are referred to collectively by many geologists as regolith, the mantle of fragmental and generally unconsolidated material that overlies the bedrock foundation of the continent. The maps were compiled at 1:1,000,000 scale. In recent years, surficial deposits and materials have become the focus of much interest by scientists, environmentalists, governmental agencies, and the general public. They are the foundations of ecosystems, the materials that support plant growth and animal habitat, and the materials through which travels much of the water required for our agriculture, our industry, and our general well being. They also are materials that easily can become contaminated by pesticides, fertilizers, and toxic wastes. In this context, the value of the surficial geologic map is evident.

  16. Quaternary geologic map of the Jacksonville 4 degrees x 6 degrees quadrangle, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    State compilations by Scott, Thomas M.; Knapp, M.S.; Friddell, M.S.; Weide, David L.; edited and integrated by Richmond, Gerald Martin; Fullerton, David S.

    1986-01-01

    This map is part of the Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States (I-1420). It was first published as a printed edition in 1986. The geologic data have now been captured digitally and are presented here along with images of the printed map sheet and component parts as PDF files. The Quaternary Geologic Map of the Jacksonville 4 degrees x 6 degrees Quadrangle was mapped as part of the Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States. The atlas was begun as an effort to depict the areal distribution of surficial geologic deposits and other materials that accumulated or formed during the past 2+ million years, the period that includes all activities of the human species. These materials are at the surface of the Earth. They make up the ground on which we walk, the dirt in which we dig foundations, and the soil in which we grow crops. Most of our human activity is related in one way or another to these surface materials that are referred to collectively by many geologists as regolith, the mantle of fragmental and generally unconsolidated material that overlies the bedrock foundation of the continent. The maps were compiled at 1:1,000,000 scale. In recent years, surficial deposits and materials have become the focus of much interest by scientists, environmentalists, governmental agencies, and the general public. They are the foundations of ecosystems, the materials that support plant growth and animal habitat, and the materials through which travels much of the water required for our agriculture, our industry, and our general well being. They also are materials that easily can become contaminated by pesticides, fertilizers, and toxic wastes. In this context, the value of the surficial geologic map is evident.

  17. Quaternary geologic map of the Florida Keys 4 degrees x 6 degrees quadrangle, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Compilations: Scott, Thomas M.; Knapp, Michael S.; Weide, David L.; Edited and integrated by Richmond, Gerald M.; Fullerton, David S.; Digital edition by Bush, Charles A.

    2010-01-01

    This map is part of the Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States (I-1420). It was first published as a printed edition in 1986. The geologic data have now been captured digitally and are presented here along with images of the printed map sheet and component parts as PDF files. The Quaternary Geologic Map of the Florida Keys 4 degrees x 6 degrees Quadrangle was mapped as part of the Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States. The atlas was begun as an effort to depict the areal distribution of surficial geologic deposits and other materials that accumulated or formed during the past 2+ million years, the period that includes all activities of the human species. These materials are at the surface of the Earth. They make up the ground on which we walk, the dirt in which we dig foundations, and the soil in which we grow crops. Most of our human activity is related in one way or another to these surface materials that are referred to collectively by many geologists as regolith, the mantle of fragmental and generally unconsolidated material that overlies the bedrock foundation of the continent. The maps were compiled at 1:1,000,000 scale. In recent years, surficial deposits and materials have become the focus of much interest by scientists, environmentalists, governmental agencies, and the general public. They are the foundations of ecosystems, the materials that support plant growth and animal habitat, and the materials through which travels much of the water required for our agriculture, our industry, and our general well being. They also are materials that easily can become contaminated by pesticides, fertilizers, and toxic wastes. In this context, the value of the surficial geologic map is evident.

  18. Biomass accumulation in hydroponically grown sweetpotato in a controlled environment: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Hill, J; Douglas, D; David, P; Mortley, D; Trotman, A; Bonsi, C

    1996-12-01

    In the development of a plant growth model, the assumptions made and the general equations representing an understanding of plant growth are gradually refined as more information is acquired through experimentation. One such experiment that contributed to sweetpotato model development consisted of measuring biomass accumulation of sweetpotato grown in hydroponic culture in a plant growth chamber. Plants were started from fifteen centimeter long 'TU-82-155' sweetpotato vine cuttings spaced 25 cm apart in each of 18 rectangular growing channels (0.15 by 0.15 by 1.2m) in a system designed to use the nutrient film technique (NFT). Each channel contained four plants. The 3.5m by 5.2m plant growth chamber environmental parameters included an 18h photoperiod, 500 micromoles m-2 s-1 of photosynthetic photon flux (PPF), and a diurnal light/dark temperature of 28 degrees C/22 degrees C. The relative humidity was 80 +/- 5% and the CO2 partial pressure was ambient (350 ppm). The nutrient solution contained in 30L reservoirs was a modified half Hoagland's solution with a 1:2.4 N:K ratio and a pH of 6.2. Solution replenishment occurred when the electrical conductivity (EC) level dropped below 1050. Plants were harvested at 15 days after planting (DAP) and weekly thereafter until day 134. By 57 DAP, stems and fibrous roots had acquired 90% of their total dry biomass, while leaves had reached 84% of their maximum dry biomass. Beginning at 64 DAP dry biomass accumulation in the storage roots dominated the increase in dry biomass for the plants. Dry weight of storage roots at 120 DAP was 165 g/plant or 1.1 kg/m2. Resulting growth curves were consistent with the physiological processes occurring in the plant. Results from this study will be incorporated in a plant growth model for use in conjunction with controlled life support systems for long-term manned space missions. PMID:11541575

  19. Biomass accumulation in hydroponically grown sweetpotato in a controlled environment: a preliminary study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, J.; Douglas, D.; David, P.; Mortley, D.; Trotman, A.; Bonsi, C.

    1996-01-01

    In the development of a plant growth model, the assumptions made and the general equations representing an understanding of plant growth are gradually refined as more information is acquired through experimentation. One such experiment that contributed to sweetpotato model development consisted of measuring biomass accumulation of sweetpotato grown in hydroponic culture in a plant growth chamber. Plants were started from fifteen centimeter long 'TU-82-155' sweetpotato vine cuttings spaced 25 cm apart in each of 18 rectangular growing channels (0.15 by 0.15 by 1.2m) in a system designed to use the nutrient film technique (NFT). Each channel contained four plants. The 3.5m by 5.2m plant growth chamber environmental parameters included an 18h photoperiod, 500 micromoles m-2 s-1 of photosynthetic photon flux (PPF), and a diurnal light/dark temperature of 28 degrees C/22 degrees C. The relative humidity was 80 +/- 5% and the CO2 partial pressure was ambient (350 ppm). The nutrient solution contained in 30L reservoirs was a modified half Hoagland's solution with a 1:2.4 N:K ratio and a pH of 6.2. Solution replenishment occurred when the electrical conductivity (EC) level dropped below 1050. Plants were harvested at 15 days after planting (DAP) and weekly thereafter until day 134. By 57 DAP, stems and fibrous roots had acquired 90% of their total dry biomass, while leaves had reached 84% of their maximum dry biomass. Beginning at 64 DAP dry biomass accumulation in the storage roots dominated the increase in dry biomass for the plants. Dry weight of storage roots at 120 DAP was 165 g/plant or 1.1 kg/m2. Resulting growth curves were consistent with the physiological processes occurring in the plant. Results from this study will be incorporated in a plant growth model for use in conjunction with controlled life support systems for long-term manned space missions.

  20. Biomass accumulation in hydroponically grown sweetpotato in a controlled environment: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Hill, J; Douglas, D; David, P; Mortley, D; Trotman, A; Bonsi, C

    1996-12-01

    In the development of a plant growth model, the assumptions made and the general equations representing an understanding of plant growth are gradually refined as more information is acquired through experimentation. One such experiment that contributed to sweetpotato model development consisted of measuring biomass accumulation of sweetpotato grown in hydroponic culture in a plant growth chamber. Plants were started from fifteen centimeter long 'TU-82-155' sweetpotato vine cuttings spaced 25 cm apart in each of 18 rectangular growing channels (0.15 by 0.15 by 1.2m) in a system designed to use the nutrient film technique (NFT). Each channel contained four plants. The 3.5m by 5.2m plant growth chamber environmental parameters included an 18h photoperiod, 500 micromoles m-2 s-1 of photosynthetic photon flux (PPF), and a diurnal light/dark temperature of 28 degrees C/22 degrees C. The relative humidity was 80 +/- 5% and the CO2 partial pressure was ambient (350 ppm). The nutrient solution contained in 30L reservoirs was a modified half Hoagland's solution with a 1:2.4 N:K ratio and a pH of 6.2. Solution replenishment occurred when the electrical conductivity (EC) level dropped below 1050. Plants were harvested at 15 days after planting (DAP) and weekly thereafter until day 134. By 57 DAP, stems and fibrous roots had acquired 90% of their total dry biomass, while leaves had reached 84% of their maximum dry biomass. Beginning at 64 DAP dry biomass accumulation in the storage roots dominated the increase in dry biomass for the plants. Dry weight of storage roots at 120 DAP was 165 g/plant or 1.1 kg/m2. Resulting growth curves were consistent with the physiological processes occurring in the plant. Results from this study will be incorporated in a plant growth model for use in conjunction with controlled life support systems for long-term manned space missions.

  1. Physics Graduate Degrees: Results from the Enrollments and Degrees & the Degree Recipient Follow-Up Surveys. Focus On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvey, Patrick J.; Nicholson, Starr

    2011-01-01

    Each fall the Statistical Research Center conducts its Survey of Enrollments and Degrees, which asks all degree-granting physics and astronomy departments in the US and Puerto Rico to provide information concerning the number of students they have enrolled and counts of recent degree recipients. In the academic year 2007-08 there were 252…

  2. Governance: Blending Bureaucratic Rules with Day to Day Operational Realities

    PubMed Central

    Chinitz, David P

    2016-01-01

    Richard Saltman and Antonio Duran take up the challenging issue of governance in their article "Governance, Government and the Search for New Provider Models," and use two case studies of health policy changes in Sweden and Spain to shed light on the subject. In this commentary, I seek to link their conceptualization of governance, especially its interrelated roles at the macro, meso, and micro levels of health systems, with the case studies on which they report. While the case studies focus on the shifts in governance between the macro and meso levels and their impacts on achievement of desired policy outcomes, they also highlight the need to better integrate the dynamics of day to day operations within micro organizations into the overall governance picture. PMID:27694682

  3. STS-106 Crew Activity Report / Flight Day Highlights Day 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    STS-106 was launched on Sept 8, 2000 at 8:45 a.m. The crew was commanded by Terrence W. Wilcutt, the pilot was Scott D. Altman. The mission specialists were Daniel C. Burbank, Edward T. Lu, Richard A. Mastracchio, Yuri Ivanovich Malenchenko, and Boris V. Morukov. During the 11-day mission, the crew spent a week inside the International Space Station (ISS) unloading supplies from both a double SPACEHAB cargo module in the rear of the Atlantis cargo bay and from a Russian Progress M-1 resupply craft docked to the aft end of the Zvezda Service Module. The videotape shows the activities of the second day of the flight and the preparations for docking with the ISS. Shown on the video are shots of the flight deck on the shuttle, the shuttle payload arm, and shots of the crew eating lunch.

  4. Governance: Blending Bureaucratic Rules with Day to Day Operational Realities

    PubMed Central

    Chinitz, David P

    2016-01-01

    Richard Saltman and Antonio Duran take up the challenging issue of governance in their article "Governance, Government and the Search for New Provider Models," and use two case studies of health policy changes in Sweden and Spain to shed light on the subject. In this commentary, I seek to link their conceptualization of governance, especially its interrelated roles at the macro, meso, and micro levels of health systems, with the case studies on which they report. While the case studies focus on the shifts in governance between the macro and meso levels and their impacts on achievement of desired policy outcomes, they also highlight the need to better integrate the dynamics of day to day operations within micro organizations into the overall governance picture.

  5. Giving Students Their School Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watchorn, Vince; Willingham, Daniel T.

    2016-01-01

    Opportunities, not obligations. That is how Providence Country Day School (Rhode Island) characterizes its daily one-hour "Community Time." The block, from 9:25 to 10:25 a.m., is used chiefly for students to partake in activities of their own making--as a daily lesson in the value of students taking charge of their own education. On any…

  6. Bright Ideas for Dark Days

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easley, Dauna

    2005-01-01

    In this brief column, the author of "Teachers Touch Eternity," provides 20 tips that teachers can use to motivate themselves and others through the dark days of winter: (1) Fake it till you make it; (2) Allow for spontaneity; (3) Build an encouragement folder; (4) Lighten up! (5) Read motivational books or inspirational thoughts late at night or…

  7. Festivals of the Darkest Days.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cacha, Frances B.

    1980-01-01

    Presents historical background on various winter festivals around the world including Saturnalia, Christmas, winter solstice, Yule festivals, Hannukah, Divali, and New Year's Day. Suggests how teachers can help elementary school students understand their own culture by studying these and other festivals using maps, mobiles, discussion, and reading…

  8. International Literacy Day Tool Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This tool kit suggests various International Literacy Day activities to raise awareness of the issues of adult literacy and language learning, to connect local literacy programs with national programs, and to help achieve the National Literacy Summit goal by 2010. The kit is intended for individuals, programs, and organizations that want to call…

  9. Infant Nurseries and Day Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Children's Centre, Paris (France).

    In four brief pamphlets, background information concerning aspects of the provision of day care services for infants and young children is directed to (1) policy makers, (2) mass media specialists, (3) academic level workers and professionals, and (4) nurses, midwives, social workers, teachers, and parents. Topics discussed include child…

  10. Let's Celebrate! Canada's Special Days.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parry, Caroline

    Designed for children ages 8 to 13, this teaching resource presents an explanation of seasons, calendars, and why people celebrate particular days. The four seasons are discussed. Canada's national holidays, and the seasonal, social and religious holidays celebrated by diverse Canadian culture groups are described. A separate section presents…

  11. State Trees and Arbor Days.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forest Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Provides information on state trees for each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Includes for each state: (1) year in which state tree was chosen; (2) common and scientific names of the tree; (3) arbor day observance; (4) address of state forester; and (5) drawings of the tree, leaf, and fruit or cone. (JN)

  12. Take Advantage of Constitution Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCune, Bonnie F.

    2008-01-01

    The announcement of the mandate for Constitution and Citizenship Day shortly before September, 2005, probably led to groans of dismay. Not another "must-do" for teachers and schools already stressed by federal and state requirements for standardized tests, increasingly rigid curricula, and scrutiny from the public and officials. But the idea and…

  13. Experiments for a Special Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluck, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Special events like science days, teacher's meetings and physics recruiting efforts require spectacular and, if possible, interactive experiments for the audience. Based on past experience with such events, we have gathered and present here a series of demonstration experiments in mechanics, optics, waves and electricity which are suitable, and…

  14. Earth Day Changes in Attitude.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Betty; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes recycling related activities associated with the Earth Day celebration at the University School of East Tennessee State University. Activities involve tree planting, campus clean-up, student posters, assemblies, a schoolwide rally, and displays of recyclable items. A study examining attitude change revealed that hands-on activities…

  15. Infectious Diseases in Day Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleator, Esther K.

    Discussed in this publication are infectious illnesses for which children attending day care appear to be at special risk. Also covered are the common cold, some infectious disease problems receiving media attention, and some other annoying but not serious diseases, such as head lice, pinworms, and contagious skin conditions. Causes,…

  16. Make Your Own Snow Day!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robeck, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Children love snow days, even when they come during the warmest weather. In this lesson the snow isn't falling outside, it's in the classroom--thanks to "Snowflake Bentley" (Briggs Martin 1998) and several models of snowflakes. A lesson on snow demonstrates several principles of practice for using models in elementary science. Focusing on snow was…

  17. A New Day for Kids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farbman, David

    2007-01-01

    The Martin Luther King School in Boston and nine other Massachusetts public schools used a grant from the Massachusetts Department of Education to expand their school days by at least two hours. Each school lengthened the time students spent in reading and math instruction. Farbman focuses on the Martin Luther King School's foray into an extended…

  18. A New Day for Intellectuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delbanco, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Soon after election day, the columnist Nicholas D. Kristof wrote in "The New York Times" that the "second most remarkable thing" about the election was that "American voters have just picked a president who is an open, out-of-the-closet, practicing intellectual." Surely, one of the secrets of President Obama's rhetorical power is his ability to…

  19. Accumulation of polychlorobiphenyl congeners and p,p'-DDE at environmental concentrations by corn and beans

    SciTech Connect

    Shane, L.A.; Bush, B.

    1989-02-01

    The uptake of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners present at low concentrations in the environment was investigated in leaf composites of four crop species and final fruits at two sites. All four species preferentially accumulated the same eight congeners, although not in the same degree or rank. No bean species demonstrated a significant increase in accumulation over time, and corn significantly reduced its PCB load over time. Mechanisms are suggested for such behavior. Fruits were 100 times less contaminated than plant leaves.

  20. Ectoine accumulation in Brevibacterium epidermis.

    PubMed

    Onraedt, Annelies; De Muynck, Cassandra; Walcarius, Bart; Soetaert, Wim; Vandamme, Erick

    2004-10-01

    As a halotolerant bacterial species, Brevibacterium epidermis DSM 20659 can grow at relatively high salinity, tolerating up to 2 M NaCl. It synthesizes ectoine and the intracellular content increases with the medium salinity, with a maximum of 0.14 g ectoine/g CDW at 1 M NaCl. Sugar-stressed cells do not synthesize ectoine. Ectoine synthesis is also affected by the presence of external osmolytes. Added betaine is taken up and completely replaced ectoine, while L-proline is only temporarily accumulated after which ectoine is synthesized. The strain can metabolize ectoine; L-glutamate is a better carbon source for ectoine synthesis than L-aspartate.

  1. Accumulation of platinum group elements by the marine gastropod Littorina littorea.

    PubMed

    Mulholland, Rachel; Turner, Andrew

    2011-04-01

    The accumulation and trophic transfer of the platinum group elements (PGE): Rh, Pd and Pt; have been studied in short-term (5 day) exposures conducted in aquaria containing the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, and/or the grazing mollusc, Littorina littorea. Metals added to sea water (to concentrations of 20 μg L⁻¹) were taken up by U. lactuca in the order Rh, Pt > Pd and by L. littorea in the order Pd ≥ Pt ≥ Rh, with greatest metal accumulation in the latter generally occurring in the visceral complex and kidney. When fed contaminated alga, accumulation of Rh and Pd by L. littorea, relative to total available metal, increased by an order of magnitude, while accumulation of Pt was not readily detected. We conclude that the diet is the most important vector for accumulation of Rh and Pd, while accumulation of Pt appears to proceed mainly from the aqueous phase. PMID:21237543

  2. Sources and Information on Transfer Associate Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayon, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    This chapter provides an annotated bibliography of articles about the effects of transfer associate degrees and related statewide transfer and articulation policies. It also provides links to transfer degree legislation in several states.

  3. Assessment of gas accumulation and retention -- Tank 241-SY-101

    SciTech Connect

    Alleman, R.T.; Burke, T.M.; Reynolds, D.A.; Simpson, D.E.

    1993-03-01

    An approximate analysis has been carried out to assess and estimate the maximum quantity of gas that is likely to be accumulated within waste tank 241-SY-101, and the maximum quantity which is likely to be retained after gas release events (GRE). According to the phenomenological models used for this assessment, based on interpretation of current and recent operational data, the estimated gas generation rate in the tank is approximately 4 m{sup 3}/day (147 ft{sup 3}/day). About half of this gas is released as it is generated, which is (essentially) continuously. The remainder is accumulated within the slurry layer of settled solids at the bottom of the tank, and released episodically in GREs, known as ``burps,`` that are induced by unstable buoyant conditions which develop when sufficient gas accumulates in the slurry. Calculations based on gas volumes to cause neutral buoyancy in the slurry predict the following: the maximum gas accumulation (at 1 atm pressure) that can occur without triggering a GRE is in the range of 606 to 1,039 m{sup 3} (21,400 to 36,700 ft{sup 3}); and the maximum gas retention immediately after a GRE is equal to the maximum accumulation minus the gas released in the GRE. GREs do not necessarily involve all of the slurry. In the largest GREs, which are assumed to involve all of the slurry, the minimum gas release (at 1 atm pressure) is calculated to be in the range of 193 to 328 m{sup 3} (6,800 to 11,600 ft{sup 3}). The corresponding maximum gas retention would be 413 to 711 m{sup 3} (14,600 to 25,100 ft{sup 3}).

  4. Guidelines for Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to set conditions for establishing and maintaining areas for the accumulation of hazardous waste at LBL. Areas designed for accumulation of these wastes in quantities greater than 100 kg (220 lb) per month of solid waste or 55 gallons per month of liquid waste are called Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs). Areas designed for accumulation of wastes in smaller amounts are called Satellite Accumulation Areas (SAAs). This document provides guidelines for employee and organizational responsibilities for WAAs; constructing a WAA; storing waste in a WAA; operating and maintaining a WAA, and responding to spills in a WAA. 4 figs.

  5. How Adult Online Graduates Portray Their Degree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagan, Eric J.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative case study investigated how adult graduates of online Bachelor's degree programs describe the online aspect of their degree. Online education is promoted as a method for adult students to access the benefits of a college degree. Therefore, it is important for prospective online students, higher education institutions and…

  6. 45 CFR 2400.41 - Degree programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... degree in history or political science (including government or politics), the degree of Master of Arts in Teaching in history or political science (including government or politics), or a related master's degree in education that permits a concentration in American history, American government, social...

  7. Regents External Degrees. College Proficiency Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Albany.

    Information on both Regents External Degrees and the College Proficiency Examination Programs for the State of New York is presented in a single catalog. Part One on the Regents External Degrees covers general information on accreditation, degrees offered, enrollment, credit, grading, status reports and transcripts, costs, counseling, and the…

  8. Profile of the Nontraditional Doctoral Degree Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offerman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    What type of individual pursues a nontraditional doctoral degree? Although answering this question is the main purpose of this chapter, there is an underlying story that provides context for how and why these individuals came to pursue a doctoral degree. The tremendous growth in the number of doctoral students and doctoral degree-granting…

  9. 45 CFR 2400.41 - Degree programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... degree in history or political science (including government or politics), the degree of Master of Arts in Teaching in history or political science (including government or politics), or a related master's degree in education that permits a concentration in American history, American government, social...

  10. First Professional Degree Awards to Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, George H.

    Changes in the percentage representation of women among recipients of first professional degrees are examined between the academic years 1970-71 and 1975-76. The data were collected through the annual Survey of Degrees and Other Formal Awards Conferred. A first professional degree is one that "signifies completion of the academic requirements for…

  11. Accumulation of formamide in hydrothermal pores to form prebiotic nucleobases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niether, Doreen; Afanasenkau, Dzmitry; Dhont, Jan K. G.

    2016-04-01

    Formamide is one of the important compounds from which prebiotic molecules can be synthesized, provided that its concentration is sufficiently high. For nucleotides and short DNA strands, it has been shown that a high degree of accumulation in hydrothermal pores occurs, so that temperature gradients might play a role in the origin of life [Baaske P, et al. (2007) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104(22):9346-9351]. We show that the same combination of thermophoresis and convection in hydrothermal pores leads to accumulation of formamide up to concentrations where nucleobases are formed. The thermophoretic properties of aqueous formamide solutions are studied by means of Infrared Thermal Diffusion Forced Rayleigh Scattering. These data are used in numerical finite element calculations in hydrothermal pores for various initial concentrations, ambient temperatures, and pore sizes. The high degree of formamide accumulation is due to an unusual temperature and concentration dependence of the thermophoretic behavior of formamide. The accumulation fold in part of the pores increases strongly with increasing aspect ratio of the pores, and saturates to highly concentrated aqueous formamide solutions of ˜85 wt% at large aspect ratios. Time-dependent studies show that these high concentrations are reached after 45-90 d, starting with an initial formamide weight fraction of 10-310-3 wt % that is typical for concentrations in shallow lakes on early Earth.

  12. Bilirubin Binding to PPARα Inhibits Lipid Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Stec, David E; John, Kezia; Trabbic, Christopher J; Luniwal, Amarjit; Hankins, Michael W; Baum, Justin; Hinds, Terry D

    2016-01-01

    Numerous clinical and population studies have demonstrated that increased serum bilirubin levels protect against cardiovascular and metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes. Bilirubin is a potent antioxidant, and the beneficial actions of moderate increases in plasma bilirubin have been thought to be due to the antioxidant effects of this bile pigment. In the present study, we found that bilirubin has a new function as a ligand for PPARα. We show that bilirubin can bind directly to PPARα and increase transcriptional activity. When we compared biliverdin, the precursor to bilirubin, on PPARα transcriptional activation to known PPARα ligands, WY 14,643 and fenofibrate, it showed that fenofibrate and biliverdin have similar activation properties. Treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with biliverdin suppressed lipid accumulation and upregulated PPARα target genes. We treated wild-type and PPARα KO mice on a high fat diet with fenofibrate or bilirubin for seven days and found that both signal through PPARα dependent mechanisms. Furthermore, the effect of bilirubin on lowering glucose and reducing body fat percentage was blunted in PPARα KO mice. These data demonstrate a new function for bilirubin as an agonist of PPARα, which mediates the protection from adiposity afforded by moderate increases in bilirubin. PMID:27071062

  13. Radar detection of surface oil accumulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, J. E.; Oneill, P.; Wilson, M.

    1980-01-01

    The United States Coast Guard is developing AIREYE, an all weather, day/night airborne surveillance system, for installation aboard future medium range surveillance aircraft. As part of this program, a series of controlled tests were conducted off southern California to evaluate the oil slick detection capabilities of two Motorola developed, side looking radars. The systems, a real aperture AN/APS-94D and a synthetic aperture coherent on receive (COR) were flown over the Santa Barbara Channel on May 19, 1976. Targets imaged during the coincident overflights included natural oil seepage, simulated oil spills, oil production platforms, piers, mooring buoys, commercial boats and barges at other targets. Based on an analysis of imagery from the coincident radar runs, COR provides better detection of natural and man made oil slicks, whereas the AN/APS-94D consistently exhibited higher surface target detection results. This and other tests have shown that active microwave systems have considerable potential for aiding in the detection and analysis of surface oil accumulations.

  14. Bilirubin Binding to PPARα Inhibits Lipid Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Stec, David E.; John, Kezia; Trabbic, Christopher J.; Luniwal, Amarjit; Hankins, Michael W.; Baum, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Numerous clinical and population studies have demonstrated that increased serum bilirubin levels protect against cardiovascular and metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes. Bilirubin is a potent antioxidant, and the beneficial actions of moderate increases in plasma bilirubin have been thought to be due to the antioxidant effects of this bile pigment. In the present study, we found that bilirubin has a new function as a ligand for PPARα. We show that bilirubin can bind directly to PPARα and increase transcriptional activity. When we compared biliverdin, the precursor to bilirubin, on PPARα transcriptional activation to known PPARα ligands, WY 14,643 and fenofibrate, it showed that fenofibrate and biliverdin have similar activation properties. Treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with biliverdin suppressed lipid accumulation and upregulated PPARα target genes. We treated wild-type and PPARα KO mice on a high fat diet with fenofibrate or bilirubin for seven days and found that both signal through PPARα dependent mechanisms. Furthermore, the effect of bilirubin on lowering glucose and reducing body fat percentage was blunted in PPARα KO mice. These data demonstrate a new function for bilirubin as an agonist of PPARα, which mediates the protection from adiposity afforded by moderate increases in bilirubin. PMID:27071062

  15. Nutrient-contaminant (Pu) plant accumulation model

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, C.E.; Jenne, E.A.; Simpson, J.C.; Cataldo, D.A.

    1981-12-01

    A model was developed which simulates the movement and daily accumulation of nutrients and contaminants in crop plants resulting from known physiological processes in the plant. In the model, the daily contaminant accumulation is governed by daily increase in plant biomass derived from photosynthesis and by the specified thermodynamic activity of the bioavailable contaminant species in soil or hydroponic solutin. Total accumulation and resulting concentration in the plant's root, stem and branch, leaf, and reproductive compartments can be simulated any time during the growing season. Parameters were estimated from data on plutonium accumulation in soybeans and the model was calibrated against this same data set. The plutonium distribution in the plant was found to be most sensitive to parameters related to leaf accumulation. Contamination at different times during the growing season resulted in a large change in predicted leaf accumulation but very little change in predicted accumulation in other plant parts except when contamination occurred very late in the growing season.

  16. STS-79 Flight Day 8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    On this eighth day of the STS-79 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. William F. Readdy, Pilot Terrence W. Wilcutt, Mission Specialists, Thomas D. Akers, Shannon Lucid, Jay Apt, and Carl E. Walz, are seen bidding the crew of Mir farewell and then closing the hatches between their two spacecraft in preparation for undocking. The nine astronauts and cosmonauts gathered in the Core Module of the Russian space station for a formal goodbye. With the official ceremony complete, the crewmembers shared a final meal together and exchanged private farewells as Shannon Lucid prepared to return home in Atlantis and her replacement on Mir, John Blaha, began a four month stay on the station. Walz and Apt and Mir 22 Commander Valery Korzun with assistance from Flight Engineer 2 John Blaha, swung the hatches between their spacecraft closed concluding five days of joint operations. The vestibule between Atlantis and Mir was depressurized and leak checks were performed in readiness for undocking.

  17. STS-73 flight day 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-10-01

    On this third day of the STS-73 sixteen day mission, the crew, Cmdr. Kenneth Bowersox, Pilot Kent Rominger, Payload Specialists Albert Sacco and Fred Gregory, and Mission Specialists Kathryn Thornton, Catherine 'Cady' Collman, and Michael Lopez-Alegria are shown performing several of the spaceborne experiments onboard the United States Microgravity Lab-2 (USML-2). The experiments shown include the Surface Tension Driven Convection Experiment (STDCE), the Drop Physics Module (DPM) experiment, and the High-Packed Digital Television (HI-PAC) demonstration. The HI-PAC allows the digitization of up to six video downlink signals from the Spacelab experiments and other cameras onboard the Shuttle, where previously only one downlink was allowed.

  18. STS-73 flight day 15

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-11-01

    On this fifteenth day of the STS-73 sixteen day mission, the crew Cmdr. Kenneth Bowersox, Pilot Kent Rominger, Payload Specialists Albert Sacco and Fred Gregory, and Mission Specialists Kathryn Thornton, Catherine 'Cady' Collman, and Michael Lopez-Alegria are shown hosting an in-orbit interview with various newspaper reporters from Johnson Space Center, Kennedy Space Center, and Marshall Space Flight Center via satellite hookup. The astronauts were asked questions regarding the status of the United States Microgravity Lab-2 (USML-2) experiments, their personal goals regarding their involvement in the mission, their future in the space program, and general questions about living in space. Earth views included cloud cover and a tropical storm.

  19. STS-73 flight day 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-10-01

    On this fourth day of the STS-73 sixteen day mission, the crew Cmdr. Kenneth Bowersox, Pilot Kent Rominger, Payload Specialists Albert Sacco and Fred Gregory, and Mission Specialists Kathryn Thornton, Catherine 'Cady' Collman, and Michael Lopez-Alegria are shown performing several of the spaceborne experiments onboard the United States Microgravity Lab-2 (USML-2). The experiments shown include the High-Packed Digital Television (HI-PAC) demonstration, the Surface Tension Driven Convection Experiment (STDCE), and the Drop Physics Module (DPM) experiment. Video footage is shown of the crew working in the Spacelab along with a split screen Shuttle downlink/Ground-Air Television (GATV) uplink from Mission Control. Several of the astronauts are interviewed by Mission Control regarding the status of the experiments.

  20. STS-73 flight day 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-10-01

    On this second day of the STS-73 sixteen day mission, the crew Cmdr. Kenneth Bowersox, Pilot Kent Rominger, Payload Specialists Albert Sacco and Fred Gregory, and Mission Specialists Kathryn Thornton, Catherine 'Cady' Collman, and Michael Lopez-Alegria are shown performing several of the spaceborne experiments on the United States Microgravity Lab-2 (USML-2). These experiments included the Astroculture (tm)(ASC) experiment, the Protein Crystal Growth (PCG) experiment using liquid/liquid diffusion methods, and the Drop Physics Module (DPM) experiment. A High-Packed Digital Television (HI-PAC) system is used to downlink video images of the various experiments from the Shuttle to Mission Control. Video from Mission Control is uplinked to the shuttle using a Ground-Air Television (GATV) system.

  1. STS-73 flight day 14

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-11-01

    On this fourteenth day of the STS-73 sixteen day mission, the crew Cmdr. Kenneth Bowersox, Pilot Kent Rominger, Payload Specialists Albert Sacco and Fred Gregory, and Mission Specialists Kathryn Thornton, Catherine 'Cady' Collman, and Michael Lopez-Alegria are shown performing several of the spaceborne experiments onboard the United States Microgravity Lab-2 (USML-2). The experiments shown include the Drop Physics Module (DPM) experiment, the Surface Tension Driven Convection Experiment (STDCE), the Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell (GFFC) experiment, and an experiment on fuel combustion and combustion products. Bowersox, Sacco, Thornton, and Rominger (the red team) were interviewed by high school students from Worcester, Massachusetts, who asked questions regarding the mission's experiments and general questions about living in space. Earth views included a black and white image of the Earth's atmospheric boundary layers.

  2. STS-73 flight day 8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-10-01

    On this eighth day of the STS-73 sixteen day mission, the crew Cmdr. Kenneth Bowersox, Pilot Kent Rominger, Payload Specialists Albert Sacco and Fred Gregory, and Mission Specialists Kathryn Thornton, Catherine 'Cady' Collman, and Michael Lopez-Alegria are shown performing several of the spaceborne experiments onboard the United States Microgravity Lab-2 (USML-2). The experiments shown include the Astroculture(tm)(ASC) experiment, the Protein Crystal Growth (PCG) experiment, the Surface Tension Driven Convection Experiment (STDCE), the Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA),and further testing of the High-Packed Digital Television (HI-PAC) system. An interview with Bowersox and Thornton regarding the mission's status was conducted by radio World News Now in Houston.

  3. STS-73 flight day 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-10-01

    On this fifth day of the STS-73 sixteen day mission, the crew Cmdr. Kenneth Bowersox, Pilot Kent Rominger, Payload Specialists Albert Sacco and Fred Gregory, and Mission Specialists Kathryn Thornton, Catherine 'Cady' Collman, and Michael Lopez-Alegria are shown performing several of the spaceborne experiments onboard the United States Microgravity Lab-2 (USML-2). These experiments are downlinked to Mission Control from the Spacelab using the High-Packed Digital Television (HI-PAC) systems onboard the Shuttle. The experiments shown include the Drop Physics Module (DPM) experiment, the Surface Tension Driven Convection Experiment (STDCE), the Protein Crystal Growth (PCG) experiment, and a Hand-Held Diffusion Test Cell experiment. Lopez-Alegria is interviewed in Spanish by two Spanish radio show hosts. Earth views include cloud cover, the Earth's horizon and atmospheric boundary layers, and several oceans.

  4. STS-90 Day 01 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On this first day of the STS-90 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. Richard A. Searfoss, Pilot Scott D. Altman, and Mission Specialists Richard M. Linnehan, Dafydd Rhys Williams and Kathryn P. Hire, and Payload Specialists Jay C. Buckey and James A. Pawelczyk, can be seen performing pre-launch activities such as eating the traditional breakfast, crew suit-up, and the ride out to the launch pad. Also, included are various panoramic views of the shuttle on the pad. The crew is readied in the white room' for their mission. After the closing of the hatch and arm retraction, launch activities are shown including countdown, engine ignition, launch, and the separation of the Solid Rocket Boosters. The shuttle's payload bay doors are then opened in anticipation of the 16-day scientific mission. The astronauts then are seen readying the Spacelab module for various experiments.

  5. The early days of incineration

    SciTech Connect

    Valenti, M.

    1995-05-01

    Landfills reaching capacity, beaches fouled with trash, neighborhood residents protesting waste disposal sites in their backyards, and municipalities forced to recycle. Sound familiar? These issues might have been taken from today`s headlines, but they were also problems facing mechanical engineers a century ago. Conditions such as these were what led engineers to design the first incinerators for reducing the volume of municipal garbage, as well as for producing heat and electricity. The paper discusses these early days.

  6. Argonne's 2012 Earth Day Event

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    Argonne's 2012 Earth Day event drew crowds from across the laboratory. Argonne and U.S. Department of Energy employees toured booths and interactive displays set up by Argonne programs and clubs. Several of Argonne's partners participated, including U.S. Department of Energy, University of Chicago, Abri Credit Union, DuPage County Forest Preserve, DuPage Water Commission, PACE and Morton Arboretum. Argonne scientists and engineers also participated in a poster session, discussing their clean energy research.

  7. Argonne's 2012 Earth Day Event

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Argonne's 2012 Earth Day event drew crowds from across the laboratory. Argonne and U.S. Department of Energy employees toured booths and interactive displays set up by Argonne programs and clubs. Several of Argonne's partners participated, including U.S. Department of Energy, University of Chicago, Abri Credit Union, DuPage County Forest Preserve, DuPage Water Commission, PACE and Morton Arboretum. Argonne scientists and engineers also participated in a poster session, discussing their clean energy research.

  8. STS-79 Flight Day 9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    On this ninth day of the STS-79 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. William F. Readdy, Pilot Terrence W. Wilcutt, Mission Specialists, Thomas D. Akers, Shannon Lucid, Jay Apt, and Carl E. Walz having completed five days of joint operations between the American astronauts and the Russian cosmonauts are seen flying solo once again after undocking from the Mir Space Station. As Atlantis/Mir flew over the Ural Mountains of central Asia, the docking hooks and latches that joined the vehicles together were commanded open and Atlantis drifted slowly away from Mir. Wilcutt then initiated a tail-forward fly-around of the Russian space station. After one and one-half revolutions around Mir, Atlantis' jets were fired in a separation maneuver to enable Atlantis to break away from Mir. On board Atlantis, the six-member crew is settling back into its normal routine with a fairly light schedule for the remainder of the day. Early in the morning as Atlantis flew over the United States, the crew took time to talk with anchors for the CBS Up to the Minute' network news broadcast.

  9. STS-79 Flight Day 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    On this fourth day of the STS-79 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. William F. Readdy, Pilot Terrence W. Wilcutt, Mission Specialists, Thomas D. Akers, John Blaha, Jay Apt, and Carl E. Walz, are seen docking with the Mir Space Station. After two hours of pressure and leak checks, the hatches between the two spacecraft is then opened. The two crews are seen greeting one another to begin five days of joint operations. The rendezvous and docking went flawlessly as Readdy flew the orbiter manually through the final 2,000 feet. Docking occurred within seconds of the pre-planned time and flight controllers reported that only slight oscillations were felt through the Orbiter Docking System as the two spacecraft locked together. Within hours of the hatch opening, crew members John Blaha and Shannon Lucid formally swapped places before going to bed with Blaha becoming a member of the Mir-22 crew and Lucid joining the STS-79 crew to wrap up 179 days as a member of the Mir station. Blaha joins Mir 22 Commander Valery Korzun and Flight Engineer Alexander Kaleri on Mir for the next four months. Soon after the crew members completed their welcoming ceremony, they went to work, hauling bags of water and other supplies from the Shuttle's Spacehab module into the Mir. More than 4000 pounds of equipment and logistical supplies will be transferred to the Mir before Atlantis undocks from the space station.

  10. Ozonation of coal vitrinites of different metamorphism degrees in gas and liquid phases

    SciTech Connect

    S.A. Semenova; Y.F. Patrakov

    2007-02-15

    The comparative analysis of the dynamics of accumulation of oxygen-containing groups in coals of different metamorphism degrees under their ozonation in the gas phase and in chloroform has been performed. The coals of the middle stage of metamorphism demonstrate the highest reactivity. The ozonation in chloroform proceeds with a higher intensity.

  11. [Laparoscopic surgery in day surgery].

    PubMed

    Micali, S; Bitelli, M; Torelli, F; Valitutti, M; Micali, F

    1998-06-01

    Since ten years laparoscopic techniques have been employed as alternatives of many established open procedures in gynecologic, abdominal and finally urologic surgery. Laparoscopic techniques show significant advantages compared to open surgery, such as less hospitalization, reduced need of analgesic drugs, quick return to daily activities and far a better cosmetic results. Laparoscopic surgery has been advocated for urologic, uro-gynecologic and andrologic diseases. Since 1983 one-day surgery was proposed for only a few gynecologic and abdominal procedures and only recently for laparoscopic renal biopsy and abdominal testis evaluation. In these preliminary experiences the conditions for a correct management of laparoscopic one-day surgery have been clearly pointed out: 1. correct surgical indication; 2. through knowledge of surgical technique; 3. duration of the procedure less than 90 minutes; 4. correct anesthesia. Technique of anesthesia must be adapted to the surgical procedure required, its duration and the physical features of the patient. General anesthesia is usually preferred for either longer and more complex procedures or when a higher abdominal insufflation pressure is needed. Spinal or local anesthesia are preferred for simpler procedures or when only one trocar is required. At date only few urologic procedures seem to be suitable to one-day laparoscopic surgery. 1) Varicocele: although laparoscopic varicocelectomy in one-day surgery has never been reported previously, it can be performed in a short time, only 3 trocars are needed and insufflation pressure can be maintained within 15 mm Hg. 2) Renal biopsy and marsupialization of renal cysts. These are usually managed percutaneously but in some particular indications procedures under direct vision should be preferable. Both are short-lasting and only superficial general anesthesia is required; as surgical access is retroperitoneal only two trocars are sufficient; at date only renal biopsies have

  12. Portion of Enhanced 360-degree Gallery Pan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This is a sub-section of the 'geometrically improved, color enhanced' version of the 360-degree panorama heretofore known as the 'Gallery Pan', the first contiguous, uniform panorama taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) over the course of Sols 8, 9, and 10. Different regions were imaged at different times over the three Martian days to acquire consistent lighting and shadow conditions for all areas of the panorama.

    The IMP is a stereo imaging system that, in its fully deployed configuration, stands 1.8 meters above the Martian surface, and has a resolution of two millimeters at a range of two meters. In this geometrically improved version of the panorama, distortion due to a 2.5 degree tilt in the IMP camera mast has been removed, effectively flattening the horizon.

    The IMP has color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye'. Its red, green, and blue filters were used to take this image. The color was digitally balanced according to the color transmittance capability of a high-resolution TV at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and is dependent on that device. In this color enhanced version of the panorama, detail in surface features are brought out via changes to saturation and intensity, holding the original hue constant. A threshold was applied to avoid changes to the sky.

    At left is a Lander petal and a metallic mast which is a portion of the low-gain antenna. Misregistration in the antenna and other Lander features is due to parallax in the extreme foreground. Another Lander petal is at the right, showing the fully deployed forward ramp.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The IMP was developed by the University

  13. Long-term phenological trends, species accumulation rates, aphid traits and climate: five decades of change in migrating aphids.

    PubMed

    Bell, James R; Alderson, Lynda; Izera, Daniela; Kruger, Tracey; Parker, Sue; Pickup, Jon; Shortall, Chris R; Taylor, Mark S; Verrier, Paul; Harrington, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Aphids represent a significant challenge to food production. The Rothamsted Insect Survey (RIS) runs a network of 12·2-m suction-traps throughout the year to collect migrating aphids. In 2014, the RIS celebrated its 50th anniversary. This paper marks that achievement with an extensive spatiotemporal analysis and the provision of the first British annotated checklist of aphids since 1964. Our main aim was to elucidate mechanisms that advance aphid phenology under climate change and explain these using life-history traits. We then highlight emerging pests using accumulation patterns. Linear and nonlinear mixed-effect models estimated the average rate of change per annum and effects of climate on annual counts, first and last flights and length of flight season since 1965. Two climate drivers were used: the accumulated day degrees above 16 °C (ADD16) indicated the potential for migration during the aphid season; the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) signalled the severity of the winter before migration took place. All 55 species studied had earlier first flight trends at rate of β = -0·611 ± SE 0·015 days year(-1). Of these species, 49% had earlier last flights, but the average species effect appeared relatively stationary (β = -0·010 ± SE 0·022 days year(-1)). Most species (85%) showed increasing duration of their flight season (β = 0·336 ± SE 0·026 days year(-1)), even though only 54% increased their log annual count (β = 0·002 ± SE <0·001 year(-1)). The ADD16 and NAO were shown to drive patterns in aphid phenology in a spatiotemporal context. Early in the year when the first aphids were migrating, the effect of the winter NAO was highly significant. Further into the year, ADD16 was a strong predictor. Latitude had a near linear effect on first flights, whereas longitude produced a generally less-clear effect on all responses. Aphids that are anholocyclic (permanently parthenogenetic) or are monoecious (non

  14. Long-term phenological trends, species accumulation rates, aphid traits and climate: five decades of change in migrating aphids

    PubMed Central

    Bell, James R; Alderson, Lynda; Izera, Daniela; Kruger, Tracey; Parker, Sue; Pickup, Jon; Shortall, Chris R; Taylor, Mark S; Verrier, Paul; Harrington, Richard

    2015-01-01

    1. Aphids represent a significant challenge to food production. The Rothamsted Insect Survey (RIS) runs a network of 12·2-m suction-traps throughout the year to collect migrating aphids. In 2014, the RIS celebrated its 50th anniversary. This paper marks that achievement with an extensive spatiotemporal analysis and the provision of the first British annotated checklist of aphids since 1964. 2. Our main aim was to elucidate mechanisms that advance aphid phenology under climate change and explain these using life-history traits. We then highlight emerging pests using accumulation patterns. 3. Linear and nonlinear mixed-effect models estimated the average rate of change per annum and effects of climate on annual counts, first and last flights and length of flight season since 1965. Two climate drivers were used: the accumulated day degrees above 16 °C (ADD16) indicated the potential for migration during the aphid season; the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) signalled the severity of the winter before migration took place. 4. All 55 species studied had earlier first flight trends at rate of β = −0·611 ± SE 0·015 days year−1. Of these species, 49% had earlier last flights, but the average species effect appeared relatively stationary (β = −0·010 ± SE 0·022 days year−1). Most species (85%) showed increasing duration of their flight season (β = 0·336 ± SE 0·026 days year−1), even though only 54% increased their log annual count (β = 0·002 ± SE <0·001 year−1). 5. The ADD16 and NAO were shown to drive patterns in aphid phenology in a spatiotemporal context. Early in the year when the first aphids were migrating, the effect of the winter NAO was highly significant. Further into the year, ADD16 was a strong predictor. Latitude had a near linear effect on first flights, whereas longitude produced a generally less-clear effect on all responses. Aphids that are anholocyclic (permanently parthenogenetic) or are monoecious (non-host-alternating) were

  15. Infinite-degree-corrected stochastic block model.

    PubMed

    Herlau, Tue; Schmidt, Mikkel N; Mørup, Morten

    2014-09-01

    In stochastic block models, which are among the most prominent statistical models for cluster analysis of complex networks, clusters are defined as groups of nodes with statistically similar link probabilities within and between groups. A recent extension by Karrer and Newman [Karrer and Newman, Phys. Rev. E 83, 016107 (2011)] incorporates a node degree correction to model degree heterogeneity within each group. Although this demonstrably leads to better performance on several networks, it is not obvious whether modeling node degree is always appropriate or necessary. We formulate the degree corrected stochastic block model as a nonparametric Bayesian model, incorporating a parameter to control the amount of degree correction that can then be inferred from data. Additionally, our formulation yields principled ways of inferring the number of groups as well as predicting missing links in the network that can be used to quantify the model's predictive performance. On synthetic data we demonstrate that including the degree correction yields better performance on both recovering the true group structure and predicting missing links when degree heterogeneity is present, whereas performance is on par for data with no degree heterogeneity within clusters. On seven real networks (with no ground truth group structure available) we show that predictive performance is about equal whether or not degree correction is included; however, for some networks significantly fewer clusters are discovered when correcting for degree, indicating that the data can be more compactly explained by clusters of heterogenous degree nodes. PMID:25314493

  16. Macrocognition in Day-To-Day Police Incident Response

    PubMed Central

    Baber, Chris; McMaster, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Using examples of incidents that UK Police Forces deal with on a day-to-day basis, we explore the macrocognition of incident response. Central to our analysis is the idea that information relating to an incident is translated from negotiated to structured and actionable meaning, in terms of the Community of Practice of the personnel involved in incident response. Through participant observation of, and interviews with, police personnel, we explore the manner in which these different types of meaning shift over the course of incident. In this way, macrocognition relates to gathering, framing, and sharing information through the collaborative sensemaking practices of those involved. This involves two cycles of macrocognition, which we see as ‘informal’ (driven by information gathering as the Community of Practice negotiates and actions meaning) and ‘formal’ (driven by the need to assign resources to the response and the need to record incident details). The examples illustrate that these cycles are often intertwined, as are the different forms of meaning, in situation-specific ways that provide adaptive response to the demands of the incident. PMID:27014117

  17. Sequential biases in accumulating evidence

    PubMed Central

    Huggins, Richard; Dogo, Samson Henry

    2015-01-01

    Whilst it is common in clinical trials to use the results of tests at one phase to decide whether to continue to the next phase and to subsequently design the next phase, we show that this can lead to biased results in evidence synthesis. Two new kinds of bias associated with accumulating evidence, termed ‘sequential decision bias’ and ‘sequential design bias’, are identified. Both kinds of bias are the result of making decisions on the usefulness of a new study, or its design, based on the previous studies. Sequential decision bias is determined by the correlation between the value of the current estimated effect and the probability of conducting an additional study. Sequential design bias arises from using the estimated value instead of the clinically relevant value of an effect in sample size calculations. We considered both the fixed‐effect and the random‐effects models of meta‐analysis and demonstrated analytically and by simulations that in both settings the problems due to sequential biases are apparent. According to our simulations, the sequential biases increase with increased heterogeneity. Minimisation of sequential biases arises as a new and important research area necessary for successful evidence‐based approaches to the development of science. © 2015 The Authors. Research Synthesis Methods Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26626562

  18. Natural radionuclide accumulation by raindrops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, Anatoly; Martin, Inacio; Shkevov, Rumen; Alves, Mauro

    2016-07-01

    The laboratory of environmental radiation of ITA (São José dos Campos, 23°11'11″S, 45°52'43″W, 650 MAMSL) performs simultaneous monitoring of a natural radiation background and meteorological parameters. A time resolution of up to 1 minute allows a detailed comparison of changes in meteorological parameters with those of a concentration of ambient radon progenies in the atmosphere. Results of a study of variation of a fallout of radon progenies ^{214}Pb and ^{214}Bi concomitanting rainfalls are present. The radionuclide fallout rate is reconstructed from the observed gamma rate through a simulation of the first kind Volterra integral equation with difference kernel, determined by ratio of precipitating rates of 214Pb and 214Bi and their decay half times. An original straightforward step-by-step procedure was used for the numerical solution of the equation. The radionuclide concentration in the rainwater is calculated as a ratio of the reconstructed fallout to the measured rainfall. It was observed that the radionuclide fallout rate increases as the rainfall one in approximately power 0.6, i.e. the same as the mean raindrop volume. The concentration thereafter decreases as the rainfall rate in power 0.4. A numerical simulation of the process of accumulation of the radionuclides during diffusion and coalescence drop growth and aerosol scavenging during a passage from a cloud to the ground was performed. The results of the simulations agree with the experimental data.

  19. 40 CFR 422.63 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology... Subcategory § 422.63 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable... limitations Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values for 30 consecutive days shall not exceed—...

  20. Accumulation of chlorinated benzenes in earthworms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.

    1996-01-01

    Chlorinated benzenes are widespread in the environment. Hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorobenzene and all isomers of dichlorobenzenes, trichlorobenzenes, and tetrachlorobenzenes, have been detected in fish, water, and sediments from the Great Lakes. This paper describes a long-term (26 week) experiment relating the concentrations of chlorinated benzenes in earthworms to 1) the length of exposure, and it describes three 8-week experiments relating concentrations of chlorinated benzenes in earthworms to 2) their concentration in soil 3) the soil organic matter content and, 4) the degree of chlorination. In the 26-week experiment, the concentration of 1,2,4 - trichlorobenzene in earthworms fluctuated only slightly about a mean of 0.63 ppm (Fig. 1). Although a statistically significant decrease can be demonstrated over the test (Pearson correlation coefficient, r = -0.62 p < 0.05), the decrease was minor. Hexachlorobenzene in earthworms showed a cyclical trend that coincided with replacement of the media, and a slight but statistically significant tendency to increase from about 2 to 3 ppm over the 26 weeks (r = 0.55, p < 0.05). Concentrations of both trichlorobenzene and hexachlorobenzene in earthworms increased as the concentrations in the soil increased (Fig. 2), but leveled off at the highest soil concentrations. The most surprising result of this study was the relatively low concentrations in earthworms compared to those in soils. The average concentration of each of the six isomers of trichlorobenzene and tetrachlorobenzene in earthworms was only about 1 ppm (Table 2); the isomeric structure did not affect accumulation. The concentration of organic matter in soil had a prominent effect on hexachlorobenzene concentrations in earthworms (Fig. 3). Hexachlorobenzene concentrations decreased steadily from 9.3 ppm in earthworms kept in soil without any peat moss added to about 1 ppm in soil containing 16 or 32% organic matter.

  1. 26Al uptake and accumulation in the rat brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yumoto, S.; Nagai, H.; Imamura, M.; Matsuzaki, H.; Hayashi, K.; Masuda, A.; Kumazawa, H.; Ohashi, H.; Kobayashi, K.

    1997-03-01

    To investigate the cause of Alzheimer's disease (senile dementia), 26Al incorporation in the rat brain was studied by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). When 26Al was injected into healthy rats, a considerable amount of 26Al entered the brain (cerebrum) through the blood-brain barrier 5 days after a single injection, and the brain 26Al level remained almost constant from 5 to 270 days. On the other hand, the level of 26Al in the blood decreased remarkably 75 days after injection. Approximately 89% of the 26Al taken in by the brain cell nuclei bound to chromatin. This study supports the theory that Alzheimer's disease is caused by irreversible accumulation of aluminium (Al) in the brain, and brain cell nuclei.

  2. Accumulation of trace elements by Pistia stratiotes: implications for phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Odjegba, V J; Fasidi, I O

    2004-10-01

    The toxicity of eight potentially toxic trace elements (Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn) to Pistia stratiotes was examined to determine if this plant showed sufficient tolerance and metal accumulation to be used to phytoremediate waste water and/or natural water bodies polluted with these heavy metals. Young plants of equal size were grown hydroponically and amended with 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0 mM of each heavy metal individually for 21 days. Root elongation as well as emergence of new roots decreased significantly with increase in metal concentrations. The plant had the lowest and the highest tolerance indices for Hg and Zn respectively. The study indicated reduction in the rate of leaf expansion relative to metal type, their concentrations and the duration of exposure. A significant reduction in biomass production was observed in metal treated plants compared with the control plants. The relative growth rate of P. stratiotes was retarded by heavy metals under study. All trace elements accumulated to higher concentrations in root tissue rather than in shoot. Trace element accumulation in tissues and the bioconcentration factors were proportional to the initial concentration of individual metals in the growth medium and the duration of exposure. In terms of trace element removal, P. stratiotes presented differential accumulation and tolerance levels for different metals at similar treatment conditions. The implications of these results for phytoremediation are discussed. PMID:15673213

  3. Accumulation of Zn, Cu and Cd by crabs and barnacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rainbow, P. S.

    1985-11-01

    The crab Carcinus maenas (L.) and the barnacle Elminius modestus Darwin were exposed to a range of dissolved concentrations of Zn, Cu and Cd for 21 days in artificial seawater. Accumulation of Zn and Cu by crabs has been interpreted in terms of the presence of a regulation mechanism to maintain constant body concentrations (83·2 ± 19·4 μg Zn g -1 dry wt.; 39·8 ± 9·8 μg Cu g -1 dry wt.) under varying external dissolved metal levels, until a threshold dissolved metal concentration ( c. 400 μg Zn l -1; c. 170 μg Cu l -1) beyond which net accumulation of metal begins. Cadium appears to be accumulated by C. maenas at all exposures with no evidence for regulation of body cadmium concentrations. Exposure of E. modestus to Zn, Cu or Cd caused net accumulation of the respective metal in the bodies of the barnacles, with no evidence for regulation of body metal concentrations.

  4. Simulation of Biomass Accumulation Pattern in Vapor-Phase Biofilters.

    PubMed

    Xi, Jin-Ying; Hu, Hong-Ying; Zhang, Xian

    2012-06-01

    Existence of inert biomass and its impact on biomass accumulation patterns and biofilter performance were investigated. Four biofilters were set up in parallel to treat gaseous toluene. Each biofilter operated under different inlet toluene loadings for 100 days. Two microbial growth models, one with an inert biomass assumption and the other without, were established and compared. Results from the model with the inert biomass assumption showed better agreement with the experimental data than those based on the model without the inert biomass assumption thus verifying that inert biomass accumulation cannot be ignored in the long-term operation of biofilters. According to the model with an inert biomass assumption, the ratio of active biomass to total biomass will decrease and the inert biomass will become dominant in total biomass after a period of time. Filter bed structure simulation results showed that the void fraction is more sensitive to biomass accumulation than the specific surface area. The final void fraction of the biofilters with the highest inlet toluene loading is only 67% of its initial level while the final specific surface area is 82%. Identification and quantification of inert biomass will give a better understanding of biomass accumulation in biofilters and will result in a more exact simulation of biomass change during long-term operations. Results also indicate that an ideal biomass control technique should be able to remove most inert biomass while simultaneously preserving as much active biomass as possible.

  5. STS-75 Flight Day 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    On this seventh day of the STS-75 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. Andrew Allen, Pilot Scott Horowitz, Payload Cmdr. Franklin Chang-Diaz, Payload Specialist Umberto Guidoni (Italy), and Mission Specialists Jeffrey Hoffman, Maurizio Cheli (ESA) and Claude Nicollier (ESA), are shown performing several of the United States Microgravity Payload-3 (USMP-3) experiments. There is an in-orbit interview by several of the astronauts with newspaper reporters. An announcement is made by Mission Control that Cmdr. Allen has become the first American Astronaut to log 1000 flight hours in space, with Payload Cmdr. Franklin Chang-Diaz coming in second.

  6. STS-88 Day 06 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On this sixth day of the STS-88 mission, the flight crew, Commander Robert D. Cabana, Pilot Frederick W. Sturckow, and Mission Specialists Nancy J. Currie, James H. Newman, Jerry L. Ross, and Sergei Krikalev are awakened by Dwight Yokum's "Streets of Bakersfield," requested by the wife of Pilot Rick Sturckow, a California native. Cabana and Sturckow fire Endeavour's primary reaction control jets to raise the altitude of the International Space Station by about 5-1/2 statute miles. Later on Cabana, Sturckow and Currie are interviewed by the ABC News/Discovery Channel and MSNBC.

  7. STS-95 Day 02 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On this second day of the STS-95 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. Curtis L. Brown, Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Mission Specialists Scott E. Parazynski, Stephen K. Robinson, and Pedro Duque, and Payload Specialists Chiaki Mukai and John H. Glenn, are seen preparing a glovebox device in the middeck area of Discovery, an enclosed research facility that will support numerous science investigations throughout the mission. Payload Specialist John Glenn, activates the Microgravity Encapsulation Process experiment (MEPS). This experiment will study the formation of capsules containing two kinds of anti-tumor drugs that could be delivered directly to solid tumors with applications for future chemotherapy treatments and the pharmaceutical industry.

  8. STS-88 Day 01 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On this first day of the STS-88 mission, the flight crew, Commander Robert D. Cabana, Pilot Frederick W. Sturckow, and Mission Specialists Nancy J. Currie, James H. Newman, Jerry L. Ross, and Sergei Krikalev can be seen performing pre-launch activities such as eating the traditional breakfast, crew suit-up, and the ride out to the launch pad. Also, included are various panoramic views of the shuttle on the pad. The crew is readied in the "white room" for their mission. After the closing of the hatch and arm retraction, launch activities are shown including countdown, engine ignition, launch, and the separation of the Solid Rocket Boosters.

  9. STS-79 Flight Day 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    On this first day of the STS-79 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. William F. Readdy, Pilot Terrence W. Wilcutt, and Mission Specialists, Thomas D. Akers, John E. Blaha, Jay Apt, and Carl E. Walz, can be seen preforming pre-launch activities such as eating the traditional breakfast, crew suit-up, and the ride out to the launch pad. Also, included are various panoramic views of the shuttle on the pad. The crew can be seen being readied in the white room' for their mission. After the closing of the hatch and arm retraction, launch activities are shown including countdown, engine ignition, launch, and the separation of the Solid Rocket Boosters.

  10. STS-90 Day 05 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On this fifth day of the STS-90 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. Richard A. Searfoss, Pilot Scott D. Altman, and Mission Specialists Richard M. Linnehan, Dafydd Rhys Williams and Kathryn P. Hire, and Payload Specialists Jay C. Buckey and James A. Pawelczyk perform tests associated with the STS-90 Neurolab Vestibular Team's efforts to gain insight into the balance organs in the ear and all the connections that system has to the eyes, brain, and muscles in adapting to the weightless condition in space and then readapts to the gravity environment found on Earth.

  11. Strain Accumulation in Montenegro Using GPS Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glavatovic, B.; Vucic, L.; D'Agostino, N.; D'Anastasio, E.; Selvaggi, G.

    2011-12-01

    In this work we present the preliminary results of the analysis of GPS measurements collected from continuous stations belonging to networks deployed for both sceintific and societal purposes. The area is particularly interesting in relationship with the large Mw 7.1 earthquake that affected the Montenegro coastal areas in 1979 and the large uncertainties associated with recurrence times of large events and the present-day rate of strain accumulation. The dataset from the MEPOS (Montenegro), MONTEPOS (Montenegro), AGROS (Serbia) and MAKPOS (Macedonia) networks, combined with data from the RING (http://ring.gm.ingv.it) and other continuous GPS networks in the Mediterranean, Eurasian and African regions, has been analyzed using the GIPSY-OASIS II software package and the precise point positioning method [Zumberge et al., 1997]. Carrier phase ambiguities have been successfully resolved across the entire network using an algorithm based on a fixed-point theorem that closely approximates a full-network resolution [Blewitt, 2008]. Satellite orbit and clock parameters, and daily coordinate transformation parameters into ITRF2005 were provided by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). ITRF2005 positions were transformed into an Eurasia fixed reference frame by performing daily transformations into a frame that is defined by minimizing the horizontal velocities of 30 stations across the stable part of the Eurasian continent (away from areas affected by glacial isostatic adjustments). Common mode errors for this continental scale frame are further reduced by including an additional 60 stations as far away as Iceland, Eastern Eurasia, and Africa in a daily spatial (7 parameters) filter [D'Anastasio et al., 2008]. We estimate velocities from the continuous GPS time-series using the CATS software package [Williams, 2003] while accounting for annual and semi-annual constituents, simultaneously estimating rate uncertainties given the assumption that the error model is dominated by

  12. STS-90 Day 14 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On this fourteenth day of the STS-90 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. Richard A. Searfoss, Pilot Scott D. Altman, and Mission Specialists Richard M. Linnehan, Dafydd Rhys Williams and Kathryn P. Hire, and Payload Specialists Jay C. Buckey and James A. Pawelczyk focus on the efforts of Neurolab's Neuronal Plasticity Team to better understand how the adult nervous system adapts to the new environment of space. Columbia's science crew -- Mission Specialists Rick Linnehan and Dave Williams and Payload Specialists Jay Buckey and Jim Pawelczyk -- perform the second and final in-flight dissections of the adult male rats on board. The crew euthanizes and dissects nine rats and remove the vestibular or balance organs of the inner ear; the cerebellum, the part of the brain critical for maintaining balance and for processing information from the limbs so they can be moved smoothly; and the cerebrum, one part of which controls automatic functions such as body temperature regulation and the body's internal clock, and the cortical region that controls cognitive functions such as thinking. The first dissection, which was performed on the second day of the flight, went extremely well, according to Neurolab scientists.

  13. STS-79 Flight Day 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    On this sixth day of the STS-79 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. William F. Readdy, Pilot Terrence W. Wilcutt, Mission Specialists, Thomas D. Akers, Shannon Lucid, Jay Apt, and Carl E. Walz, continue activities aboard Atlantis/Mir as the nine astronauts and cosmonauts work in their second full day of docked operations. The continuing transfer of logistical supplies and scientific hardware can be seen proceeding smoothly. Apt and Walz once again worked with the Active Rack Isolation System experiment to replace a broken pushrod. With that complete, Apt monitors the ARIS experiment as Readdy and Korzun fire small maneuvering jets on their spacecraft to test the ability of ARIS to damp out any disturbances created by the firings. Walz also is continuing his work with the Mechanics of Granular Materials experiment in Atlantis' double Spacehab module. The astronauts used the large format IMAX camera to conduct a photographic survey of Mir from the Shuttle's flight deck windows while Akers shot IMAX movie scenes of Readdy, Wilcutt, and Korzun in the Spektr module.

  14. Earth Day 25 years later

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, G.

    1995-08-01

    The idea of Earth Day 1970 was to have a national demonstration of environmental concern big enough to shake up the political establishment--get its attention, get some action, force environmental issues onto the political agenda of national priorities. The idea worked, thanks to the spontaneous response of millions of concerned Americans, and the event served as a wake-up call to the political establishment. Suddenly, the environment became a national political priority. Since Earth Day 1970, Congress has enacted nearly 40 major federal environmental laws addressing a wide range of issues, including clean air, clean water, energy conservation, hazardous wastes, and herbicides and other pesticides. Dozens of individual public land bills have been enacted since 1970 to designate or expand wilderness areas, wild and scenic rivers, national parks, and wildlife refuges. Perhaps most important, more than 80 percent of Americans now regard themselves as environmentalists. Since 1970 man has come a long way. After 25 years of researching, debating, and learning, increasing numbers of people recognize that the state of the environment is the key factor in determining this way of life and the quality of it.

  15. STS-73 flight day 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-10-01

    On this first day of the STS-73 sixteen day mission, the crew Cmdr. Kenneth Bowersox, Pilot Kent Rominger, Payload Specialists Albert Sacco and Fred Gregory, and Mission Specialists Kathryn Thornton, Catherine 'Cady' Collman, and Michael Lopez-Alegria are shown in various stages of prelaunch and launch activities. This mission carries the United States Microgravity Lab-2 (USML-2) payload, in which a variety of spaceborne microgravity experiments will be performed. These experiments include the Advanced Protein Crystallization Facility (APCF), The Astroculture (tm)(ASC) hardware and experiment, the Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA), the Crystal Growth Furnace (CGF), the Drop Physics Module (DPM), the Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell (GFFC), the Glovebox (GBX), the Zeolite Crystal Growth (ZCG) experiment, the Surface Tension Driven Convection Experiment (STDCE), the Protein Crystal Growth (PCG) experiment, three Measuring Microgravity experiments (the Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS), the Three Dimensional Microgravity Accelerometer (3DMA), and the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE)), and the High-Packed Digital Television (HI-PAC) demonstration system. Earth views include some cloud cover and various Earth land masses.

  16. STS-73 flight day 6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-10-01

    On this sixth day of the STS-73 sixteen day mission, the crew Cmdr. Kenneth Bowersox, Pilot Kent Rominger, Payload Specialists Albert Sacco and Fred Gregory, and Mission Specialists Kathryn Thornton, Catherine 'Cady' Collman, and Michael Lopez-Alegria are shown performing several of the spaceborne experiments onboard the United States Microgravity Lab-2 (USML-2). The experiments shown include the Protein Crystal Growth (PCG) experiment, the Astroculture(tm)(ASC) experiment, the Drop Physics Module (DPM) experiment, and the Surface Tension Driven Convection Experiment (STDCE). The High-Packed Digital Television (HI-PAC) system is further tested and an in-orbit interview with Lopez-Alegria by NBC Nightside is conducted. The entire flightcrew salutes the 5th game of the World Series between the Atlanta Braves and Cleveland Indians by pretending to throw out the first ball of the game through a downlink to the stadium. Earth views taken from the payload bay cameras include some cloud cover, oceans, land masses, and the Nile River and the Red Sea.

  17. First Complete Day from MODIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This spectacular, full-color image of the Earth is a composite of the first full day of data gathered by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. MODIS collected the data for each wavelength of red, green, and blue light as Terra passed over the daylit side of the Earth on April 19, 2000. Terra is orbiting close enough to the Earth so that it cannot quite see the entire surface in a day, resulting in the narrow gaps around the equator. Although the sensor's visible channels were combined to form this true-color picture, MODIS collects data in a total of 36 wavelengths, ranging from visible to thermal infrared energy. Scientists use these data to measure regional and global-scale changes in marine and land-based plant life, sea and land surface temperatures, cloud properties, aerosols, fires, and land surface properties. Notice how cloudy the Earth is, and the large differences in brightness between clouds, deserts, oceans, and forests. The Antarctic, surrounded by clockwise swirls of cloud, is shrouded in darkness because the sun is north of the equator at this time of year. The tropical forests of Africa, Southeast Asia, and South America are shrouded by clouds. The bright Sahara and Arabian deserts stand out clearly. Green vegetation is apparent in the southeast United States, the Yucatan Peninsula, and Madagascar. Image by Mark Gray, MODIS Atmosphere Team, NASA GSFC

  18. [Effects of low temperature at 10 degrees C on some antioxidant enzyme activities and ultrastructures of hypocotylar cells in mung bean and garden pea].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xu-Wei; Yang, Ling; Zhang, Yi; Gong, Ju-Fang

    2005-10-01

    Mung bean (Phaseolus radiatus Linn.) and garden pea (Pisum satium Linn.), which were stressed 4 days under a low temperature of 10 degrees C, were used as materials to study the cold tolerance of plant with different resistance. On the 2nd and 3rd day under 10 degrees C stress, both the malondialdehyde (MDA) content and the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activities increased significantly in hypocotylar cells of mung bean, so did SOD activity in garden pea, but other physiological indexes in garden pea were not different from the non-treatment groups (Figs. 1-5). In hypocotylar cells of mung bean, SOD activity always maintain at the highest level in a period of time,and so does POD activity (Figs. 3, 4). Ultrastructural results after stress indicated as follows: (1) Plastids in hypocotylar cells of mung bean accumulated much starch (Plate I-6), whereas the form of plastids in hypocotylar cells of garden pea changed maskedly to become dumb-bell-shaped, round or irregular, with the last one being the most common form (Plate I-8, 12); (2) In both mung bean and garden pea, central vacuole was divided into small vacuoles (Plate I-4, 10), and the number of mitochondria increased and became aggregated (Plate I-3, 11, 12). Judging from the activities of protective enzymes and ultrastructures, 10 degrees C low temperature caused non-lethal, temporary injuries to hypocotyls ultrastructures in mung bean, but no visible injury at all, and even improved its cold tolerance to a certain degree in garden pea.

  19. Anaerobic biodegradability and digestion in accumulation systems for concentrated black water and kitchen organic-wastes.

    PubMed

    Elmitwalli, T A; van Leeuwen, M; Kujawa-Roeleveld, K; Sanders, W; Zeeman, G

    2006-01-01

    The feasibility of two accumulation-systems (AC) for anaerobic digestion and storage of concentrated black water with (AC1) or without (AC2) urine + kitchen organic-wastes was investigated. The waste(water) was collected by two vacuum toilet/transport systems. The influent-total COD of the AC2 (53,000 mg/L) was more concentrated by four times than that of the AC1. The suspended COD represented the major part (71-73%) of influent total COD of the two systems. The batch-experiments results showed a high anaerobic biodegradability of the waste(water) (> 85%). The AC systems demonstrated stable performance. There was no inhibition effect of NH4 and VFA concentration decreased in time. Total COD removal of 58% was achieved in both systems, after 105 days at 20 degrees C. Moreover, if only the supernatant in AC1 is withdrawn and the settled sludge stays for the next runs, only 20% of the influent total COD will be in the supernatant. In AC2, 74% of influent ortho-P was removed by precipitation. Therefore, the settled sludge in the AC2 had a high total-P concentration of 1,300 mg/L. The C:N:P ratios of the supernatant and the sludge were 26:13:1 and 35:4.5:1, respectively, in the AC1, and were 28:14:1 and 32:2.4:1, respectively, in AC2.

  20. Core temperature response to immersed bicycle ergometer exercise at water temperatures of 21 degrees, 25 degrees, and 29 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Israel, D J; Heydon, K M; Edlich, R F; Pozos, R S; Wittmers, L E

    1989-01-01

    A bicycle ergometer modified for aquatic exercise was used to determine the effects of immersion on core temperature during submaximal exercise at different water temperatures. An exercise intensity (60% of maximal oxygen consumption) and duration (30 minutes) considered appropriate for cardiovascular conditioning were used. These data will be useful in cardiovascular and leg-strengthening hydrotherapy programs. Rectal temperature, skin temperature, and a rating of thermal comfort were studied in five normal men (14.8% +/- 5.6% fat) during headout immersion at water temperatures of 21.1 degrees, 25.3 degrees, and 29.4 degrees C and exercise in air of 21.1 degrees C. Subjects were immersed for 30 minutes during static and exercise (63% +/- 0.6% maximal oxygen consumption) conditions. Data were collected every 5 minutes and analyzed by repeated measured analysis of variance. At water temperatures, rectal temperature fell from control during static immersion (p less than or equal to 0.05) and was lower than control at the end of the 30-minute recovery period (p less than or equal to 0.05). During exercise there was no change in rectal temperature at water temperatures of 21.1 degrees and 25.3 degrees C; however, rectal temperature rose at water temperatures of 29.4 degrees (p less than or equal to 0.05) and air 21.1 degrees C (p less than or equal to 0.05). At the end of recovery rectal temperature was lower than control at water temperatures 21.1 degrees C (p less than or equal to 0.05) and greater than control at water temperatures 29.4 degrees C (p less than or equal to 0.05). There was no change from control in rectal temperatures at water temperatures 25.3 degrees C and air at 21.1 degrees C. These results indicate that immersion in 25.3 degrees and 21.1 degrees C water effectively attenuates the rise in rectal temperature during exercise at 63% of maximal oxygen consumption, whereas immersion in 29.4 degrees C water does not. In addition, both skin and rectal

  1. Degree landscapes in scale-free networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Axelsen, Jacob Bock; Bernhardsson, Sebastian; Rosvall, Martin; Sneppen, Kim; Trusina, Ala

    2006-09-01

    We generalize the degree-organizational view of real-world networks with broad degree distributions in a landscape analog with mountains (high-degree nodes) and valleys (low-degree nodes). For example, correlated degrees between adjacent nodes correspond to smooth landscapes (social networks), hierarchical networks to one-mountain landscapes (the Internet), and degree-disassortative networks without hierarchical features to rough landscapes with several mountains. To quantify the topology, we here measure the widths of the mountains and the separation between different mountains. We also generate ridge landscapes to model networks organized under constraints imposed by the space the networks are embedded in, associated to spatial or in molecular networks to functional localization.

  2. Appendix D-16A Building 515 Waste Accumulation Area

    SciTech Connect

    Tidwell, L

    2005-03-29

    The B-515 WAA is located in the southeast quadrant of the LLNL Main Site (see Figure D-1) along the west side of Building 515 (B-515). Hazardous wastes may be stored at the B-515 WAA for 90 days or less, until transferred to the appropriate Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management (RHWM) facility or other permitted treatment, storage or disposal facility (TSDF). The design storage capacity of this WAA is 4,840 gallons. This appendix is designed to provide information specific to the Building 515 Waste Accumulation Area (B-515 WAA), a waste storage area. This appendix is not designed to be used as a sole source of information. All general information that is not specific to the B-515 WAA is included in the Contingency Plan for Waste Accumulation Areas, dated July 2004, and should be referenced.

  3. Three day crisis resolution unit.

    PubMed

    Dubin, S E; Ananth, J; Bajwa-Goldsmith, B; Stuller, S; Lewis, C; Miller, M; Noel, N; Fernandez, L

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a three day crisis resolution unit within the confines of the psychiatric emergency service of a general hospital. It utilizes a crisis model of acute intervention, time limited psychotherapeutic approach combined with family therapy, and psychotropic meditation when indicated. One hundred thirty six consecutive admissions were rev ie.wed. 19% were discharged within 72 hours, and 51% required further hospitalization. Seventy seven percent of the patients discharged had involved families (significant others) in the treatment process, in comparison with only 28% family involvement with those patients who needed further hospitalization. This may be even more significant for psychotic patients who were discharged (14/18 family involvement) versus those who needed long hospitalization (13/50 family involvement).

  4. STS-95 Day 01 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On this first day of the STS-95 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. Curtis L. Brown, Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Mission Specialists Scott E. Parazynski, Stephen K. Robinson, and Pedro Duque, and Payload Specialists Chiaki Mukai and John H. Glenn, can be seen performing pre-launch activities such as eating the traditional breakfast, crew suit-up, and the ride out to the launch pad. Also, included are various panoramic views of the shuttle on the pad. The crew is readied in the 'white room' for their mission. After the closing of the hatch and arm retraction, launch activities are shown including countdown, engine ignition, launch, and the separation of the Solid Rocket Boosters.

  5. STS-88 Day 03 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On this third day of the STS-88 mission, the flight crew, Commander Robert D. Cabana, Pilot Frederick W. Sturckow, and Mission Specialists Nancy J. Currie, James H. Newman, Jerry L. Ross, and Sergei Krikalev check out the various tools they will use during the three scheduled spacewalks to be conducted later in the flight. They then begin an early set-up of the Shuttle's airlock in preparation for that first spacewalk. Newman and Russian cosmonaut Sergei Krikalev take part in an on-line interview by the New York Times. Currie is seen placing Unity just inches above the extended outer ring on Endeavour's docking mechanism, enabling Commander Bob Cabana to fire downward maneuvering jets to lock the shuttle's docking system to one of two Pressurized Mating Adapters (PMA's) attached to Unity.

  6. STS-88 Day 04 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On this forth day of the STS-88 mission, the flight crew, Commander Robert D. Cabana, Pilot Frederick W. Sturckow, and Mission Specialists Nancy J. Currie, James H. Newman, Jerry L. Ross, and Sergei are awakened to the sounds of "Somewhere Over the Rainbow," requested by Commander Bob Cabana's daughter, Sarah. With the three-story-high Unity connecting module latched upright in the shuttle's payload bay, Cabana takes manual control of the shuttle as it moves to within about a half-mile of Zarya. Cabana and Sturckow execute a sequence of maneuvers that will bring Endeavour directly above the module. Currie uses the robotic arm to capture the module. She then positions Zarya above Unity's docking mechanism.

  7. STS-95 Day 08 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On this eighth day of the STS-95 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. Curtis L. Brown, Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Mission Specialists Scott E. Parazynski, Stephen K. Robinson, and Pedro Duque, and Payload Specialists Chiaki Mukai and John H. Glenn, continue to perform microgravity experiments. Specialist John Glenn completes a back-pain questionnaire as part of a study of how the muscle, intervertebral discs and bone marrow change due to microgravity. The results will then be compared with data provided by astronauts during previous missions. Glenn continues blood sample analysis and blood processing that are part of the Protein Turnover (PTO) experiment, which is studying the muscle loss that occurs during space flight.

  8. STS-95 Day 07 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On this seventh day of the STS-95 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. Curtis L. Brown, Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Mission Specialists Scott E. Parazynski, Stephen K. Robinson, and Pedro Duque, and Payload Specialists Chiaki Mukai and John H. Glenn, again test the Orbiter Space Vision System. OSVS uses special markings on Spartan and the shuttle cargo bay to provide an alignment aid for the arm's operator using shuttle television images. It will be used extensively on the next Space Shuttle flight in December as an aid in using the arm to join together the first two modules of the International Space Station. Specialist John Glenn will complete a daily back-pain questionnaire by as part of a study of how the muscle, intervertebral discs and bone marrow change after exposure to microgravity.

  9. Cadmium uptake and accumulation by the decapod crustacean Penaeus indicus.

    PubMed

    Nuñez-Nogueira, Gabriel; Rainbow, Philip S

    2005-09-01

    Juveniles of the dendrobranchiate decapod Penaeus indicus take up radiolabelled cadmium from solution over the exposure concentration range of 1.8-31.5 microg L(-1), with an uptake rate constant of 0.090 L g(-1)d(-1) at 15 salinity and 25 degrees C. New cadmium taken up is added to the existing cadmium content of the prawn with no significant excretion, and the rate of accumulation of radiolabelled cadmium is a measure of the absolute cadmium uptake rate from solution. Moulting had no significant effect on the accumulation of cadmium. Newly accumulated cadmium is distributed to all organs with the highest proportions of body content being found in the hepatopancreas, exoskeleton, gills and remaining soft tissues, the hepatopancreas and gills containing the highest labelled cadmium concentrations. Like other crustaceans, penaeid prawns inhabiting anthropogenically contaminated coastal waters with raised cadmium bioavailabilities can be expected to contain raised body concentrations of cadmium. Cadmium concentrations of most field-collected adult penaeids are relatively low, as a probable consequence of the growth dilution of their cadmium contents as a result of the rapid growth rates of penaeid prawns. PMID:15769503

  10. Accumulation Rates in the Dry Snow Zone of the Greenland Ice Sheet Inferred from L-band InSAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, A. C.; Zebker, H. A.

    2012-12-01

    The Greenland ice sheet contains about 2.9 million km3 of ice and would raise global sea levels by about 7.1 m if it melted completely. Two unusually large iceberg calving events at Petermann Glacier in the past several years, along with the unusually large extent of ice sheet melt this summer point to the relevance of understanding the mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet. In this study, we use data from the PALSAR instrument aboard the ALOS satellite to form L-band (23-centimeter carrier wavelength) InSAR images of the dry snow zone of the Greenland ice sheet. We form geocoded differential interferograms, using the ice sheet elevation model produced by Howat et.al. [1]. By applying phase and radiometric calibration, we can examine interferograms formed between any pair of transmit and receive polarization channels. In co-polarized interferograms, the InSAR correlation ranges from about 0.35 at the summit (38.7 deg W, 73.0 deg N) where accumulation is about 20 cm w.e./yr to about 0.70 at the north-eastern part of the dry snow zone (35.1 deg W, 77.1 deg N), where accumulation is about 11.7 cm w.e./yr. Cross-polarized interferograms show similar geographic variation with overall lower correlation. We compare our InSAR data with in-situ measurements published by Bales et.al. [2]. We examine the applicability of dense-medium radiative transfer electromagnetic scattering models for estimating accumulation rates from L-band InSAR data. The large number and broad coverage of ALOS scenes acquired between 2007 and 2009 with good InSAR coherence at 46-day repeat times and 21.5 degree incidence angles gives us the opportunity to examine the empirical relationship between in-situ accumulation rate observations and the polarimetric InSAR correlation and radar brightness at this particular imaging geometry. This helps us quantify the accuracy of accumulation rates estimated from InSAR data. In some regions, 46-day interferograms acquired in the winters of several consecutive

  11. Income Class and the Accumulation of Net Worth in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozawa, Martha N.; Kim, Jeounghee; Joo, Myungkook

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the differential rates of accumulating net worth among low- and high-income households. To achieve this objective, the authors, using a sample drawn from the 1998 Survey of Consumer Finances, investigated the degree of elasticity of household net worth (or wealth) to household income among five income…

  12. FLOWER BUD FORMATION IN SHORT-DAY CULTIVARS UNDER NON-PHOTOINDUCTIVE CONDITIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the mid-Atlantic coast region (39 degrees Latitude N, 77 degrees Longitude W), the main strawberry harvest season is from early May to late June. Out-of-season fruit production in the region is low. We developed a simple propagation scheme for short-day type strawberry cultivars to produce frui...

  13. Molecular analysis of polyphosphate accumulation in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, A; Ohtake, H

    2000-03-01

    The dynamic behavior of inorganic polyphosphate (polyP), its accumulation and disappearance, is the most striking aspect of polyP metabolism in bacteria. Imbalance between polyP synthesis and degradation results in fluctuations of polyP by 100- to 1000-fold. We here review recent results with respect to this polyP metabolism in bacteria. PolyP accumulation in response to amino acid starvation, accompanied by increased levels of stringent factors, has been observed in Escherichia coli. Inhibition by stringent factors of polyphosphatase interrupts the dynamic balance between the synthesis and degradation of polyP, accounting for polyP accumulation. Polyphosphate kinase is required for activation of intracellular protein degradation, which is required for adaptation at the onset of amino acid starvation. The adaptation to amino acid starvation is mediated by the network of stringent response and polyP metabolism. PolyP accumulation independent of stringent response has also been observed. Novobiocin, an inhibitor for DNA gyrase, stimulated accumulation of polyP but not that of stringent factors. However, a temperature-sensitive DNA gyrase mutant did not exhibit polyP accumulation at the non-permissive temperature. Antagonistic relationship of polyP to nucleic acid synthesis, explored by Harold, appears to be more complicated. We discuss relationship of Pi regulation to polyP accumulation in E. coli and Klebsiella aerogenes. A function of polyP as an in vivo phosphagen affecting polyP accumulation is also discussed.

  14. 46 CFR 58.30-25 - Accumulators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... RELATED SYSTEMS Fluid Power and Control Systems § 58.30-25 Accumulators. (a) An accumulator is an unfired pressure vessel in which energy is stored under high pressure in the form of a gas or a gas and hydraulic... result in contamination of the hydraulic fluid and loss of gas through absorption. (c) Each...

  15. 46 CFR 58.30-25 - Accumulators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... RELATED SYSTEMS Fluid Power and Control Systems § 58.30-25 Accumulators. (a) An accumulator is an unfired pressure vessel in which energy is stored under high pressure in the form of a gas or a gas and hydraulic... result in contamination of the hydraulic fluid and loss of gas through absorption. (c) Each...

  16. Competency-Based Business Degree. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2014

    2014-01-01

    In January 2015, thirteen Washington community colleges launched an online, competency-based business transfer degree--the first in the state's community and technical college system. This issue brief provides answers to commonly asked questions about the new competency-based degree.

  17. Associate Degree Standards. Task Force Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Higher Education Coordinating Board, St. Paul.

    Developed by the Minnesota Higher Education Coordinating Board's (MHECB's) Task Force on Associate Degree Standards, this report recommends standards for all associate degrees granted by Minnesota post-secondary institutions. Chapter I provides introductory and background information on the creation and legislative charge of the task force and…

  18. The Top 100 Bachelor's Degrees Conferred

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borden, Victor M. H.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents this year's Top 100 institutions that conferred the most bachelor's degrees to students of color in academic year 2009-2010. It shows the total number of bachelor's degrees for a specific minority group or for total minorities, with subtotals for women and men in that ethnic group. The author also includes the prior year…

  19. Master's Degree Studies: Expectations versus Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanepoel, C. H.

    2010-01-01

    During the past two decades, higher education in South Africa has been affected drastically by transformation. An issue that has specifically been influenced is master's degrees. A significant increase in the demand for access to course work master's degrees has been experienced, while universities themselves have been confronted with a new…

  20. Engineering and Engineering Technology Degrees, 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, R. A.

    1991-01-01

    The number of B.S., M.S./P.E., and Ph.D. degrees in engineering and engineering technology awarded by U.S. colleges and universities is tabulated according to the following criteria: by state, by school, curriculum, type of recipient, and by school and degree level. (KR)

  1. Nuclear Engineering Enrollments and Degrees, 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Deborah H.; And Others

    This report presents data on the number of students enrolled and the number of bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees awarded in academic year 1981-82 from 72 United States institutions offering degree programs in nuclear engineering or nuclear options within other engineering fields. Presented as well are historical data for the last decade…

  2. Powers of the degree of coherence.

    PubMed

    Mei, Zhangrong; Korotkova, Olga; Mao, Yonghua

    2015-04-01

    We establish conditions under which a legitimate degree of coherence of a statistically stationary beam-like field raised to a power results in a novel legitimate degree of coherence. The general results and examples relate to scalar beams having uniform and non-uniform correlations.

  3. Experiencing Higher Degree Research Supervision as Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Christine; Stoodley, Ian

    2013-01-01

    This article describes higher degree research supervisors' experiences of supervision as teaching. While research education is considered central to the higher degree research experience, comparatively little is known to date of the teaching lenses adopted by supervisors as they go about their supervision. We worked with 35 supervisors…

  4. New High in Engineering Degree Production. Facts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    Several of the state's key industry sectors depend heavily on employees with advanced scientific, analytic and technical knowledge. Among the fields closely related to these sectors, engineering degrees have posted the largest gain. This paper presents details on the following facts: (1) 2009 represented a record high for engineering degrees; (2)…

  5. Dental Care Every Day: A Caregiver's Guide

    MedlinePlus

    ... Every Day: A Caregiver's Guide Dental Care Every Day: A Caregiver's Guide Main Content Getting Started Three ... regularly. Back to Top Step 1. Brush Every Day Angle the brush at the gumline and brush ...

  6. Cadmium toxicity in diazotrophic Anabaena spp. adjudged by hasty up-accumulation of transporter and signaling and severe down-accumulation of nitrogen metabolism proteins.

    PubMed

    Singh, Prashant Kumar; Shrivastava, Alok Kumar; Chatterjee, Antra; Pandey, Sarita; Rai, Snigdha; Singh, Shilpi; Rai, L C

    2015-09-01

    Present study demonstrates interspecies variation in proteome and survival strategy of three Anabaena species i.e., Anabaena L31, Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 and Anabaena doliolum subjected to respective LC50 doses of Cd at 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7day intervals. The proteome coverage with 452 differentially accumulated proteins unveiled species and time specific expression and interaction network of proteins involved in important cellular functions. Statistical analysis of protein abundance across Cd-treated proteomes clustered their co-expression pattern into four groups viz., (i) early (days 1 and 3) accumulated proteins, (ii) proteins up-accumulated for longer duration, (iii) late (days 5 and 7) accumulated proteins, and (iv) mostly down-accumulated proteins. Appreciable growth of Cd treated A L31 over other two species may be ascribed to proteins contained in the first and second groups (belonging to energy and carbohydrate metabolism (TK, G6-PI, PGD, FBA, PPA, ATP synthase)), sulfur metabolism (GR, GST, PGDH, PAPS reductase, GDC-P, and SAM synthetase), fatty acid metabolism (AspD, PspA, SQD-1), phosphorous metabolism (PhoD, PstB and SQD1), molecular chaperones (Gro-EL, FKBP-type peptidylprolyl isomerase), and antioxidative defense enzymes (SOD-A, catalase). Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 harboring proteins largely from the third group qualified as a late accumulator and A. doliolum housing majority of proteins from the fourth group emerged as the most sensitive species. Thus early up-accumulation of transporter and signaling category proteins and drastic reduction of nitrogen assimilation proteins could be taken as a vital indicator of cadmium toxicity in Anabaena spp. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteomics in India.

  7. Virtual displays for 360-degree video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, Stephen; Boonsuk, Wutthigrai; Kelly, Jonathan W.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper we describe a novel approach for comparing users' spatial cognition when using different depictions of 360- degree video on a traditional 2D display. By using virtual cameras within a game engine and texture mapping of these camera feeds to an arbitrary shape, we were able to offer users a 360-degree interface composed of four 90-degree views, two 180-degree views, or one 360-degree view of the same interactive environment. An example experiment is described using these interfaces. This technique for creating alternative displays of wide-angle video facilitates the exploration of how compressed or fish-eye distortions affect spatial perception of the environment and can benefit the creation of interfaces for surveillance and remote system teleoperation.

  8. Accumulation of Paprika Carotenoids in Human Plasma and Erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Nishino, Azusa; Ichihara, Takashi; Takaha, Takeshi; Kuriki, Takashi; Nihei, Hideko; Kawamoto, Kazuhisa; Yasui, Hiroyuki; Maoka, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation (incorporation) of paprika carotenoid in human plasma and erythrocytes was investigated. A paprika carotenoid supplement (14 mg/day) was ingested for 4 weeks by 5 young healthy volunteers (3 men and 2 women). After 2 weeks of carotenoid ingestion, the carotenoid levels in plasma and erythrocytes increased by 1.2-fold and 2.2-fold, respectively. Characteristic carotenoids found in paprika (capsanthin, cucurbitaxanthin A, and cryptocapsin) were detected in both plasma and erythrocytes. An oxidative metabolite of capsanthin (capsanthone) was also found in both plasma and erythrocytes.

  9. STS-88 Day 11 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On this eleventh day of the STS-88 mission, the flight crew, Commander Robert D. Cabana, Pilot Frederick W. Sturckow, and Mission Specialists Nancy J. Currie, James H. Newman, Jerry L. Ross, and Sergei Krikalev are awakened with the song "Goodnight, Sweetheart, Goodnight". Pilot Rick Sturckow undocks Endeavour from the station and backs the shuttle away to a distance of 450 feet above the station before beginning a nose-forward fly-around. Later Cabana, Sturckow and Ross deploy the SAC-A satellite from Endeavour's payload bay. SAC-A is a small, self-contained, non-recoverable satellite built by the Argentinean National Commission of Space Activities. The cube-shaped, 590-pound satellite will test and characterize the performance of new equipment and technologies that may be used in future scientific or operational missions. The payload includes a differential global positioning system, a magnetometer, silicon solar cells, a charge-coupled device Earth camera and a whale tracker experiment.

  10. Color enhanced version of 360-degree panorama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This is a 'geometrically improved, color enhanced' version of the 360-degree panorama heretofore known as the 'Gallery Pan', the first contiguous, uniform panorama taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) over the course of Sols 8, 9, and 10. Different regions were imaged at different times over the three Martian days to acquire consistent lighting and shadow conditions for all areas of the panorama.

    The IMP is a stereo imaging system that, in its fully deployed configuration, stands 1.8 meters above the Martian surface, and has a resolution of two millimeters at a range of two meters. In this geometrically improved version of the panorama, distortion due to a 2.5 degree tilt in the IMP camera mast has been removed, effectively flattening the horizon.

    The IMP has color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.' Its red, green, and blue filters were used to take this image. The color was digitally balanced according to the color transmittance capability of a high-resolution TV at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and is dependent on that device. In this color enhanced version of the panorama, detail in surface features are brought out via changes to saturation and intensity, holding the original hue constant. A threshold was applied to avoid changes to the sky.

    At left is a Lander petal and a metallic mast which is a portion of the low-gain antenna. Misregistration in the antenna and other Lander features is due to parallax in the extreme foreground. On the horizon the double 'Twin Peaks' are visible, about 1-2 kilometers away. The rock 'Couch' is the dark, curved rock at right of Twin Peaks. Another Lander petal is at left-center, showing the fully deployed forward ramp at far left, and rear ramp at right, which rover Sojourner used to descend to the surface of Mars on July 5. Immediately to the left of the rear ramp is the rock 'Barnacle Bill', which scientists found to be andesitic, possibly indicating that it is a

  11. Improved MPF 360-degree Color Panorama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This is a more recent 'geometrically improved, color enhanced' version of the 360-degree 'Gallery Pan', the first contiguous, uniform panorama taken by the Imager for Mars (IMP) over the course of Sols 8, 9, and 10. Different regions were imaged at different times over the three Martian days to acquire consistent lighting and shadow conditions for all areas of the panorama. In this version of the panorama, much of the discontinuity that was due to parallax has been corrected, particularly along the lower tiers of the mosaic containing the Lander features. Distortion due to a 2.5 degree tilt in the IMP camera mast has been removed.

    The IMP is a stereo imaging system that, in its fully deployed configuration, stands 1.8 meters above the Martian surface, and has a resolution of two millimeters at a range of two meters. The IMP has color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye'. Its red, green, and blue filters were used to take this panorama.

    The three color images were first digitally balanced according to the transmittance capabilities of a specific high-definition TV device at JPL, and then enhanced via changes to saturation and intensity while retaining the hue. A threshold was applied to avoid changes to the sky. An MTF filter was applied to sharpen feature edges.

    At left is a Lander petal and a metallic mast which is a portion of the low-gain antenna. On the horizon the double 'Twin Peaks' are visible, about 1-2 kilometers away. The rock 'Couch' is the dark, curved rock at right of Twin Peaks. Another Lander petal is at left-center, showing the fully deployed forward ramp at far left, and rear ramp at right, which rover Sojourner used to descend to the surface of Mars on July 5. Immediately to the left of the rear ramp is the rock 'Barnacle Bill', which scientists found be andesitic, possibly indicating that it is a volcanic rock (a true andesite) or a physical mixture of particles. Just beyond Barnacle Bill, rover tracks

  12. Second-Degree Atrioventricular Block Occurring After Tooth Extraction.

    PubMed

    Kamatani, Takaaki; Akizuki, Ayako; Kondo, Seiji; Shirota, Tatsuo

    2016-01-01

    Although cardiac arrhythmias are occasionally associated with dental extractions and dental anesthesia, atrioventricular block is rarely seen during dental procedures. We report a rare case of type I second-degree atrioventricular block (Wenckebach phenomenon) occurring after bilateral extraction of impacted mandibular third molars under general anesthesia in a 16-year-old Japanese girl. Under consultation with a cardiovascular physician, we carefully monitored the patient's vital signs postoperatively, including blood pressure, oxygen saturation, and electrocardiogram, using a bedside monitor. Her postoperative course was uneventful. A 12-lead electrocardiogram the following day revealed no abnormality. In this case, we hypothesize that extubation of the nasotracheal tube or oral/pharyngeal suction might have triggered a vagal reflex that caused type I second-degree atrioventricular block. Our experience indicates that standard cardiovascular monitoring should be used for patients undergoing dental treatment under general anesthesia, even for young, healthy patients, to prevent and detect cardiovascular emergencies. PMID:27585419

  13. Second-Degree Atrioventricular Block Occurring After Tooth Extraction.

    PubMed

    Kamatani, Takaaki; Akizuki, Ayako; Kondo, Seiji; Shirota, Tatsuo

    2016-01-01

    Although cardiac arrhythmias are occasionally associated with dental extractions and dental anesthesia, atrioventricular block is rarely seen during dental procedures. We report a rare case of type I second-degree atrioventricular block (Wenckebach phenomenon) occurring after bilateral extraction of impacted mandibular third molars under general anesthesia in a 16-year-old Japanese girl. Under consultation with a cardiovascular physician, we carefully monitored the patient's vital signs postoperatively, including blood pressure, oxygen saturation, and electrocardiogram, using a bedside monitor. Her postoperative course was uneventful. A 12-lead electrocardiogram the following day revealed no abnormality. In this case, we hypothesize that extubation of the nasotracheal tube or oral/pharyngeal suction might have triggered a vagal reflex that caused type I second-degree atrioventricular block. Our experience indicates that standard cardiovascular monitoring should be used for patients undergoing dental treatment under general anesthesia, even for young, healthy patients, to prevent and detect cardiovascular emergencies.

  14. Uptake, accumulation and metabolization of the antidepressant fluoxetine by Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    PubMed

    Silva, Liliana J G; Martins, Margarida C; Pereira, André M P T; Meisel, Leonor M; Gonzalez-Rey, Maria; Bebianno, Maria João; Lino, Celeste M; Pena, Angelina

    2016-06-01

    Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant, is among the most prescribed pharmaceutical active substances worldwide. This study aimed to assess its accumulation and metabolization in the mussel Mytillus galloprovincialis, considered an excellent sentinel species for traditional and emerging pollutants. Mussels were collected from Ria Formosa Lagoon, Portugal, and exposed to a nominal concentration of fluoxetine (75 ng L(-1)) for 15 days. Approximately 1 g of whole mussel soft tissues was extracted with acetonitrile:formic acid, loaded into an Oasis MCX cartridge, and fluoxetine analysed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MSn). After 3 days of exposure, fluoxetine was accumulated in 70% of the samples, with a mean of 2.53 ng g(-1) dry weight (d.w.) and norfluoxetine was only detected in one sample (10%), at 3.06 ng g(-1) d.w. After 7 days of exposure, the accumulation of fluoxetine and norfluoxetine increased up to 80 and 50% respectively, and their mean accumulated levels in mussel tissues were up to 4.43 and 2.85 ng g(-1) d.w., respectively. By the end of the exposure period (15 days), both compounds were detected in 100% of the samples (mean of 9.31 and 11.65 ng g(-1) d.w., respectively). Statistical analysis revealed significant accumulation differences between the 3rd and 15th day of exposure for fluoxetine, and between the 3rd and 7th against the 15th day of exposure for norfluoxetine. These results suggest that the fluoxetine accumulated in mussel tissues is likely to be metabolised into norfluoxetine with the increase of the time of exposure, giving evidence that at these realistic environmental concentrations, toxic effects of fluoxetine in mussel tissues may occur.

  15. Differences in STEM degree attainment by region, ethnicity, and degree type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koledoye, Kimberly A.

    Purpose One purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which a difference was present in the STEM degree attainment of all students and particularly of URMs between the 2001 and the 2009 academic year. The second purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which a difference was present in the attainment of STEM associate degrees and bachelor degrees of all students and particularly of URMs awarded between the 2001 and the 2009 academic year. Another purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which a difference existed in STEM associate degree and STEM bachelor degree attainment among geographic regions between the 2001 and the 2009 academic years. The extent to which a difference existed in the STEM bachelor degree and associate degree attainment of URMs among geographic regions between the 2001 to the 2009 academic year was ascertained. The final purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which a difference was present in STEM associate degree and bachelor degree attainment of all students and particularly URMs as a function of degree type between the 2001 academic year and the 2009 academic year. Methodology Archival data from the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System were utilized to compare STEM degree attainment for regions, regions for URMs, STEM degree attainment overall and for URMs, STEM degree attainment classified by associate degrees and bachelor degrees for all students and URMs, and STEM degree attainment of associate degrees and bachelor degrees for all students and URMs by specific degree type between 2001 and 2009. Findings In this non-experimental causal comparative investigation, statistically significant differences were revealed in 95 of the 165 comparisons. Declining associate degree attainment was concerning, particularly in the computer and information sciences and engineering and engineering technologies. Moderate increases were determined in bachelor degree attainment with statistically

  16. Thermophilic (55-65 degrees C) and extreme thermophilic (70-80 degrees C) sulfate reduction in methanol and formate-fed UASB reactors.

    PubMed

    Vallero, Marcus V G; Camarero, Eva; Lettinga, Gatze; Lens, Piet N L

    2004-01-01

    The feasibility of thermophilic (55-65 degrees C) and extreme thermophilic (70-80 degrees C) sulfate-reducing processes was investigated in three lab-scale upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactors fed with either methanol or formate as the sole substrates and inoculated with mesophilic granular sludge previously not exposed to high temperatures. Full methanol and formate degradation at temperatures up to, respectively, 70 and 75 degrees C, were achieved when operating UASB reactors fed with sulfate rich (COD/SO4(2-)=0.5) synthetic wastewater. Methane-producing archaea (MPA) outcompeted sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in the formate-fed UASB reactor at all temperatures tested (65-75 degrees C). In contrast, SRB outcompeted MPA in methanol-fed UASB reactors at temperatures equal to or exceeding 65 degrees C, whereas strong competition between SRB and MPA was observed in these reactors at 55 degrees C. A short-term (5 days) temperature increase from 55 to 65 degrees C was an effective strategy to suppress methanogenesis in methanol-fed sulfidogenic UASB reactors operated at 55 degrees C. Methanol was found to be a suitable electron donor for sulfate-reducing processes at a maximal temperature of 70 degrees C, with sulfide as the sole mineralization product of methanol degradation at that temperature.

  17. 360 Degree Panorama Mars Pathfinder Landing Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This is the first contiguous, uniform 360-degree color panorama taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) over the course of sols 8, 9, and 10 (Martian days). Different regions were imaged at different times over the three Martian days to acquire consistent lighting and shadow conditions for all areas of the panorama. At left is a lander petal and a metallic mast which is a portion of the low-gain antenna. On the horizon the double 'Twin Peaks' are visible, about 1-2 kilometers away. The rock 'Couch' is the dark, curved rock at right of Twin Peaks. Another lander petal is at left-center, showing the fully deployed forward ramp at far left, and rear ramp at right, which rover Sojourner used to descend to the surface of Mars on July 5. Immediately to the left of the rear ramp is the rock Barnacle Bill, which scientists found to be andesitic, possibly indicating that it is a volcanic rock (a true andesite) or a physical mixture of particles. Just beyond Barnacle Bill, rover tracks lead to Sojourner, shown using its Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) instrument to study the large rock Yogi. Yogi, low in quartz content, appears to be more primitive than Barnacle Bill, and appeared more like the common basalts found on Earth. The tracks and circular pattern in the soil leading up to Yogi were part of Sojourner's soil mechanics experiments, in which varying amounts of pressure were applied to the wheels in order to determine physical properties of the soil. During its traverse to Yogi the rover stirred the soil and exposed material from several centimeters in depth. During one of the turns to deploy Sojourner's Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer, the wheels dug particularly deeply and exposed white material. Spectra of this white material show it is virtually identical to the rock Scooby Doo, and such white material may underlie much of the site. Deflated airbags are visible at the perimeter of all three lander petals. The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color

  18. Spatial pattern of heavy metals accumulation risk in urban soils of Beijing and its influencing factors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Wang, Meie; Chen, Weiping; Peng, Chi

    2016-03-01

    Accumulations of heavy metals in urban soils are highly spatial heterogeneity and affected by multiple factors including soil properties, land use and pattern, population and climatic conditions. We studied accumulation risks of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in unban soils of Beijing and their influencing based on the regression tree analysis and a GIS-based overlay model. Result shows that Zinc causes the most extensive soil pollution and Cu result in the most acute soil pollution. The soil's organic carbon content and CEC and population growth are the most significant factors affecting heavy metal accumulation. Other influence factors in land use pattern, urban landscape, and wind speed also contributed, but less pronounced. The soils in areas with higher degree of urbanization and surrounded by intense vehicular traffics have higher accumulation risk of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn. PMID:26716731

  19. Heart rate, thermoregulatory and humoral responses during a 9-day cycle race in a hot and humid climate.

    PubMed

    Hue, O; Voltaire, B; Hertogh, C; Blonc, S

    2006-09-01

    Seven acclimated elite road cyclists were recruited from among the participants in the Tour de Guadeloupe, a 9-day cycle race (D1-D9) held in hot/humid climate (approximately 31 degrees C dry temperature and 76 % relative humidity). Each day of the competition, heart rate (HR) was recorded every 15 s, tympanic temperature (Ttym) was recorded before exercise and immediately at the end of each stage, and body mass loss (BML) was measured by changes in nude body mass at rest and after each stage. Blood lactate concentration [La] was measured at rest and 5 min after each stage. Venous blood samples were collected before the competition and on the 4 th and 8 th days (D4, D8) for hematological and serum determinations and biochemical analyses. No significant differences were found in cardiac, thermoregulatory, or [La] parameters at rest over the 9 days. The subjects spent 31 +/- 6 % of their time below the lactate threshold (LT), 52 +/- 8 % between LT and the onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA), and 18 +/- 6 % above OBLA. The increase in Ttym at D3 (0.48 +/- 0.3 degrees C) was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than at D1, D4, D5, and D6. No difference was found for BML between the different stages. Significant increases (p < 0.05) were observed in monocytes at D8 vs. D4 and pre-race values (D0) and in serum Cl-concentration at D4 vs. D0 and D8 (p < 0.05). A significant reduction was observed in mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) at D8 and D4 vs. D0 (p < 0.01). No difference was found in other blood parameters at D0, D4, or D8. Taken together, these results suggest that a consecutive 9-day cycle competition in hot/humid climate did not alter homeostasis at rest in acclimated well-trained cyclists. No major effect of repeated cycling stages on thermoregulatory and blood parameters was observed during the Tour de Guadeloupe. Further research is needed to compare the cardiac adaptations of natives to tropical climate and un-acclimated subjects during long

  20. Spirit 360-Degree View on Sol 409 (polar)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 360-degree view of the rover's surroundings on Spirit's 409th martian day, or sol (Feb. 26, 2005). Spirit had driven 2 meters (7 feet) on this sol to get in position on 'Cumberland Ridge' for looking into 'Tennessee Valley' to the east. This location is catalogued as Spirit's Site 108. Rover-wheel tracks from climbing the ridge are visible on the right. The summit of 'Husband Hill' is at the center, to the south. This view is presented in a polar projection with geometric and brightness seam correction.